Science.gov

Sample records for adult pineal gland

  1. Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland of adults.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Heffernan, José A; Bárcena, Carmen; Agra, Carolina; Asunción, Alfonso

    2015-08-01

    It is well known that the histology of normal pineal gland may resemble not only pineal tumors but also gliomas, owing to its cellularity which is much greater than that of normal white or gray matter. Our recent experience with a case in which part of a normal gland was submitted for intraoperative consultation, together with the scarcity of cytologic descriptions, led us to perform a cyto-histologic correlation study. In addition to the intraoperative case, we collected five pineal glands from consecutive adult autopsies. During the squash procedure, we often noted the presence of calcified grains. Smears were hypercellular, distributed in tissue fibrillary fragments and as numerous single cells, with crystalline structures. Pineal gland cells (pineocytes) were large, round, epithelioid with ill-defined cytoplasms and moderate nuclear pleomorphism. Spindle cells with greater fibrillary quality were less common. One of the most remarkable findings seen in all cases was the presence of cytoplasmic pigment. Histological evaluation and immunohistochemical staining confirmed that the tissue was normal pineal gland. The histology showed a characteristic lobular aspect and frequent corpora arenacea. The pigment seen cytologically was also encountered in histology and corresponded to lipofuscin. Cytologic features of the pineal gland are peculiar when compared to other normal structures of the central nervous system. These features correlate closely with what is seen on histology. In an adequate clinical context, and in combination with frozen sections, cytology allows a specific recognition of the pineal gland during intraoperative pathologic consultations.

  2. Neuropeptide Y in the adult and fetal human pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Møller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Badiu, Corin

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passage and primarily located in a perifollicular position with some fibers entering the pineal parenchyma inside the follicle. The distance from the immunoreactive terminals to the pinealocytes indicates a modulatory function of neuropeptide Y for pineal physiology. Some of the immunoreactive fibers might originate from neurons located in the brain and be a part of the central innervation of the pineal gland. In a series of human fetuses, neuropeptide Y-containing nerve fibers was present and could be detected as early as in the pineal of four- to five-month-old fetuses. This early innervation of the human pineal is different from most rodents, where the innervation starts postnatally.

  3. The photoreceptive cells of the pineal gland in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Laurà, Rosaria; Magnoli, Domenico; Zichichi, Rosalia; Guerrera, Maria Cristina; De Carlos, Felix; Suárez, Alberto Álvarez; Abbate, Francesco; Ciriaco, Emilia; Vega, Jose Antonio; Germanà, Antonino

    2012-03-01

    The zebrafish pineal gland plays a fundamental role in the regulation of the circadian rhythm through the melatonin secretion. The pinealocytes, also called photoreceptive cells, are considered the morphofunctional unit of pineal gland. In literature, the anatomical features, the cellular characteristics, and the pinealocytes morphology of zebrafish pineal gland have not been previously described in detail. Therefore, this study was undertaken to analyze the structure and ultrastructure, as well as the immunohistochemical profile of the zebrafish pineal gland with particular reference to the pinealocytes. Here, we demonstrated, using RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy, the expression of the mRNA for rhodopsin in the pineal gland of zebrafish, as well as its cellular localization exclusively in the pinealocytes of adult zebrafish. Moreover, the ultrastructural observations demonstrated that the pinealocytes were constituted by an outer segment with numerous lamellar membranes, an inner segment with many mitochondria, and a basal pole with the synapses. Our results taken together demonstrated a central role of zebrafish pinealocytes in the control of pineal gland functions.

  4. Rhodopsin expression in the zebrafish pineal gland from larval to adult stage.

    PubMed

    Magnoli, Domenico; Zichichi, Rosalia; Laurà, Rosaria; Guerrera, Maria Cristina; Campo, Salvatore; de Carlos, Felix; Suárez, Alberto Álvarez; Abbate, Francesco; Ciriaco, Emilia; Vega, Jose Antonio; Germanà, Antonino

    2012-03-09

    The zebrafish pineal gland plays an important role in different physiological functions including the regulation of the circadian clock. In the fish pineal gland the pinealocytes are made up of different segments: outer segment, inner segment and basal pole. Particularly, in the outer segment the rhodopsin participates in the external environment light reception that represents the first biochemical step in the melatonin production. It is well known that the rhodopsin in the adult zebrafish is well expressed in the pineal gland but both the expression and the cellular localization of this protein during development remain still unclear. In this study using qRT-PCR, sequencing and immunohistochemistry the expression as well as the protein localization of the rhodopsin in the zebrafish from larval (10 dpf) to adult stage (90 dpf) were demonstrated. The rhodopsin mRNA expression presents a peak of expression at 10 dpf, a further reduction to 50 dpf before increasing again in the adult stage. Moreover, the cellular localization of the rhodopsin-like protein was always localized in the pinealocyte at all ages examined. Our results demonstrated the involvement of the rhodopsin in the zebrafish pineal gland physiology particularly in the light capture during the zebrafish lifespan.

  5. Expression of the Otx2 homeobox gene in the developing mammalian brain: embryonic and adult expression in the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Rath, Martin F; Muñoz, Estela; Ganguly, Surajit; Morin, Fabrice; Shi, Qiong; Klein, David C; Møller, Morten

    2006-04-01

    Otx2 is a vertebrate homeobox gene, which has been found to be essential for the development of rostral brain regions and appears to play a role in the development of retinal photoreceptor cells and pinealocytes. In this study, the temporal expression pattern of Otx2 was revealed in the rat brain, with special emphasis on the pineal gland throughout late embryonic and postnatal stages. Widespread high expression of Otx2 in the embryonic brain becomes progressively restricted in the adult to the pineal gland. Crx (cone-rod homeobox), a downstream target gene of Otx2, showed a pineal expression pattern similar to that of Otx2, although there was a distinct lag in time of onset. Otx2 protein was identified in pineal extracts and found to be localized in pinealocytes. Total pineal Otx2 mRNA did not show day-night variation, nor was it influenced by removal of the sympathetic input, indicating that the level of Otx2 mRNA appears to be independent of the photoneural input to the gland. Our results are consistent with the view that pineal expression of Otx2 is required for development and we hypothesize that it plays a role in the adult in controlling the expression of the cluster of genes associated with phototransduction and melatonin synthesis.

  6. Pineal gland cysts--an overview.

    PubMed

    Bosnjak, Jelena; Budisić, Mislav; Azman, Drazen; Strineka, Maja; Crnjaković, Miljenko; Demarin, Vida

    2009-09-01

    Pineal cysts occur in all ages, predominantly in adults in the fourth decade of life. In series of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, the prevalence of pineal cysts ranged between 1.3% and 4.3% of patients examined for various neurologic reasons and up to 10.8% of asymptomatic healthy volunteers. The diagnosis of pineal cyst is usually established by MRI with defined radiological criteria to distinguish benign pineal cyst from tumors of this area. A recent study demonstrated the findings obtained by transcranial sonography to correspond to those obtained by MRI in the detection of both pineal gland cyst and pineal gland itself, and could be used in the future mainly as follow up examination. Pineal cysts usually have no clinical implications and remain asymptomatic for years. The most common symptoms include headache, vertigo, visual and oculomotor disturbances, and obstructive hydrocephalus. Less frequently, patients present with ataxia, motor and sensory impairment, mental and emotional disturbances, epilepsy, circadian rhythm disturbances, hypothalamic dysfunction of precocious puberty, and recently described occurrence of secondary parkinsonism. Symptomatic cysts vary in size from 7 mm to 45 mm, whereas asymptomatic cysts are usually less than 10 mm in diameter, although a relationship between the cyst size and the onset of symptoms has been proved to be irrelevant in many cases. There is agreement that surgical intervention should be undertaken in patients presenting with hydrocephalus, progression of neurologic symptoms, or cyst enlargement. Tissue sample of the pineal lesion can be obtained by open surgery, stereotaxy and neuroendoscopy.

  7. Expression of Bcl-2 and Bax protein in normal pineal gland in children and young adult.

    PubMed

    Marcol, Wiesław; Kotulska, Katarzyna; Larysz-Brysz, Magdalena; Malinowska-Kołodziej, Izabela; Mandera, Marek; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna

    2006-01-01

    The Bcl family contains both pro and antiapoptotic proteins participating in the regulation of neuronal cell death in several pathological conditions. However, very little is known about physiological profiles of Bcl-2/Bax expression in normal brain. In this study, we examined expression profile of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins in normal pineal gland in children. The material for analysis was obtained by biopsy of pineal parenchyma during surgery of pineal cysts. All specimens were labeled immunohistochemically and analyzed by means of confocal laser scanning microscope. We found only few Bcl-2 expressing (0.7%) and no Bax-immunopositive (0.0%) pinealocytes. Bcl-2-positive cells were mature neurons, neither young ones nor glia.

  8. Characterization of human pineal gland proteome.

    PubMed

    Yelamanchi, Soujanya D; Kumar, Manish; Madugundu, Anil K; Gopalakrishnan, Lathika; Dey, Gourav; Chavan, Sandip; Sathe, Gajanan; Mathur, Premendu P; Gowda, Harsha; Mahadevan, Anita; Shankar, Susarla K; Prasad, T S Keshava

    2016-11-15

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland located at the center of the brain. It is known to regulate various physiological functions in the body through secretion of the neurohormone melatonin. Comprehensive characterization of the human pineal gland proteome has not been undertaken to date. We employed a high-resolution mass spectrometry-based approach to characterize the proteome of the human pineal gland. A total of 5874 proteins were identified from the human pineal gland in this study. Of these, 5820 proteins were identified from the human pineal gland for the first time. Interestingly, 1136 proteins from the human pineal gland were found to contain a signal peptide domain, which indicates the secretory nature of these proteins. An unbiased global proteomic profile of this biomedically important organ should benefit molecular research to unravel the role of the pineal gland in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland on squash preparations.

    PubMed

    Murro, Diana; Alsadi, Alaa; Nag, Sukriti; Arvanitis, Leonidas; Gattuso, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    As primary pineal lesions are extremely rare, many surgical pathologists are unfamiliar with normal pineal cytologic features. We describe cytologic features of the normal pineal gland in patients of varying ages and identify common diagnostic pitfalls. We performed a retrospective review of pineal gland biopsies performed at our institution, where approximately 30,000 surgical specimens are accessioned yearly, for the last 23 years. Only two pineal gland biopsies were found. Although both cases were initially diagnosed as low-grade gliomas on frozen section, the final diagnosis was benign pineal tissue based on light microscopy and immunohistochemistry results. Additionally, we performed squash preparations of five normal pineal gland autopsy specimens with Papanicolaou and Diff-Quik® (Dade Behring, Newark, DE) stains. Infant preparations were highly cellular smears composed of numerous, uniform, single cells with indistinct cytoplasm, small round-to-oval nuclei, fine chromatin, and absent nucleoli and calcifications. The vague microfollicular pattern mimicked a pineocytoma and the fine fibrillary background mimicked a glial neoplasm. Young adult smears were similar; however, microcalcifications were present with fewer background single cells. Older patients had much less cellular smears composed of small clusters of cells with fusiform-to-spindle nuclei, a fine chromatin pattern, and indistinct cytoplasmic borders. There were fewer background single cells and more microcalcifications. The cytologic features of the native pineal gland vary with age. Normal pineal tissue can be confused with a pineocytoma or low-grade glioma. Familiarity with normal pineal gland cytological features will help to avoid a potential misdiagnosis.

  10. A new identified complication of intracystic hemorrhage in a large pineal gland cyst.

    PubMed

    Mehrzad, Raman; Mishra, Suprav; Feinstein, Alexander; Ho, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Pineal gland cysts are typically asymptomatic, benign cysts most commonly found incidentally in adults. In rare cases, a large pineal gland cyst can be complicated by intracystic hemorrhage, which could then manifest with neurological symptoms. We report a new complication of intracystic hemorrhage in a large pineal gland cyst in a 40-year-old man with new onset seizures.

  11. Lymphopoiesis in the chicken pineal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Cogburn, L.A.; Glick, B.

    1981-10-01

    Pineal lymphoid development was studied in two breeds of chickens from hatching until sexual maturity. No lymphocytes were found in the pineal prior to 9 days of age (da). Lymphocytes migrate through the endothelium of venules into the pineal stroma. Lymphoid tissue reached its maximal accumulation in 32-da pineal glands of both breeds. At this age, the New Hampshire (NH) breed had a larger proportion of lymphoid volume to total pineal volume (32%) than did pineal glands from White Leghorn (WL) chickens (18%).

  12. Circadian regulation of pineal gland rhythmicity.

    PubMed

    Borjigin, Jimo; Zhang, L Samantha; Calinescu, Anda-Alexandra

    2012-02-05

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine organ of the brain. Its main task is to synthesize and secrete melatonin, a nocturnal hormone with diverse physiological functions. This review will focus on the central and pineal mechanisms in generation of mammalian pineal rhythmicity including melatonin production. In particular, this review covers the following topics: (1) local control of serotonin and melatonin rhythms; (2) neurotransmitters involved in central control of melatonin; (3) plasticity of the neural circuit controlling melatonin production; (4) role of clock genes in melatonin formation; (5) phase control of pineal rhythmicity; (6) impact of light at night on pineal rhythms; and (7) physiological function of the pineal rhythmicity.

  13. Expression and cellular localization of the transcription factor NeuroD1 in the developing and adult rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Castro, Analía E; Benitez, Sergio G; Farias Altamirano, Luz E; Savastano, Luis E; Patterson, Sean I; Muñoz, Estela M

    2015-05-01

    Circadian rhythms govern many aspects of mammalian physiology. The daily pattern of melatonin synthesis and secretion is one of the classic examples of circadian oscillations. It is mediated by a class of neuroendocrine cells known as pinealocytes which are not yet fully defined. An established method to evaluate functional and cytological characters is through the expression of lineage-specific transcriptional regulators. NeuroD1 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor involved in the specification and maintenance of both endocrine and neuronal phenotypes. We have previously described developmental and adult regulation of NeuroD1 mRNA in the rodent pineal gland. However, the transcript levels were not influenced by the elimination of sympathetic input, suggesting that any rhythmicity of NeuroD1 might be found downstream of transcription. Here, we describe NeuroD1 protein expression and cellular localization in the rat pineal gland during development and the daily cycle. In embryonic and perinatal stages, protein expression follows the mRNA pattern and is predominantly nuclear. Thereafter, NeuroD1 is mostly found in pinealocyte nuclei in the early part of the night and in cytoplasm during the day, a rhythm maintained into adulthood. Additionally, nocturnal nuclear NeuroD1 levels are reduced after sympathetic disruption, an effect mimicked by the in vivo administration of α- and β-adrenoceptor blockers. NeuroD1 phosphorylation at two sites, Ser(274) and Ser(336) , associates with nuclear localization in pinealocytes. These data suggest that NeuroD1 influences pineal phenotype both during development and adulthood, in an autonomic and phosphorylation-dependent manner.

  14. [MRI of the pineal gland].

    PubMed

    Langevad, Line; Madsen, Camilla Gøbel; Siebner, Hartwig; Garde, Ellen

    2014-11-10

    The pineal gland (CP) is located centrally in the brain and produces melatonin. Cysts and concrements are frequent findings on MRI but their significance is still unclear. The visualization of CP is difficult due to its location and surrounding structures and so far, no standardized method exists. New studies suggest a correlation between CP-morphology and melatonin secretion as well as a connection between melatonin, disturbed circadian rhythm, and the development of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, underlining the need for a standardized approach to CP on MRI.

  15. Nitric oxide synthase in the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    López-Figueroa, M O; Møller, M

    1996-10-01

    The recent discovery of nitric oxide (NO) as a biological messenger molecule with unique characteristics has opened a new field in pineal research. This free radical gas is synthesized by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) from L-arginine. The activation of adrenoreceptors in the membrane of the pinealocytes mediates the increase in NO through a mechanism that involves G proteins. In the pinealocyte, NO stimulates guanylyl cyclase resulting in an increased intracellular content of cGMP. The role of cGMP in pineal metabolism, however, is still enigmatic. Using enzyme histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, the presence of NOS has been confirmed in the pineal gland of some species. In the rat and especially in the sheep, NOS is located in nerve fibres innervating the gland. These nerve fibres also contain the neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI), and are probably of parasympathetic origin. In cell cultures and tissue sections NOS immunoreactivity has been shown to be present in pinealocytes of the rat and bovine but not in the sheep. Finally, NOS is also present in the endothelial cells of the blood vessels of the pineal gland. Accordingly, in the mammalian pineal gland, NO is synthesized in both presynaptic nerve fibers and pinealocytes, as well as in blood vessels. However, the anatomical location of NO synthesis varies considerably among species. NO released in the pineal gland, might influence both the pineal metabolism and the blood flow of the gland.

  16. [Morphofunctional and molecular bases of pineal gland aging].

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V Kh; Lin'kova, N S

    2012-01-01

    The review analyzed morphology, molecular and functional aspects of pineal gland aging and methods of it correction. The pineal gland is central organ, which regulates activity of neuroimmunoendocrine, antioxidant and other organisms systems. Functional activity of pineal gland is discreased at aging, which is the reason of melatonin level changing. The molecular and morphology research demonstrated, that pineal gland hadn't strongly pronounced atrophy at aging. Long-term experience showed, that peptides extract of pineal gland epithalamin and synthetic tetrapeptide on it base epithalon restored melatonin secretion in pineal gland and had strong regulatory activity at neuroimmunoendocrine and antioxidant organism systems.

  17. The pineal gland from development to function.

    PubMed

    Sapède, Dora; Cau, Elise

    2013-01-01

    The pineal gland is a small neuroendocrine organ whose main and most conserved function is the nighttime secretion of melatonin. In lower vertebrates, the pineal gland is directly photosensitive. In contrast, in higher vertebrates, the direct photosensitivity of the pineal gland had been lost. Rather, the action of this gland as a relay between environmental light conditions and body functions involves reception of light information by the retina. In parallel to this sensory regression, the pineal gland (and its accessory organs) appears to have lost several functions in relation to light and temperature, which are important in lower vertebrate species. In humans, the functions of the pineal gland overlap with the functions of melatonin. They are extremely widespread and include general effects both on cell protection and on more precise functions, such as sleep and immunity. Recently, the role of melatonin has received a considerable amount of attention due to increased cancer risk in shift workers and the discovery that patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases, autism, or depression exhibit abnormal melatonin rhythms.

  18. [Characteristics of the pineal gland and thymus relationship in aging].

    PubMed

    Lin'kova, N S; Poliakova, V O; Kvetnoĭ, I M; Trofimov, A V; Sevost'ianova, N N

    2011-01-01

    The review presents the interference between thymus and pineal gland during their involution. The research data of thymus peptides influence on pineal gland and pineal peptides on thymus are summarized. Analysis of these data showed that pineal peptides (Epithalamin, Epitalon) had more effective geroprotective effect on thymus involution in comparison with geroprotective effect of thymic peptides (Thymalin, Thymogen) on involution of pineal gland. The key mechanisms of pineal peptides effect on thymus dystrophy is immunoendocrine cooperation, which is realized as transcription's activation of various proteins.

  19. Expression of luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Masanori T; Hosaka, Takeshi; Takahashi, Noriyuki; Ishizuka, Bunpei

    2006-08-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) influences the secretion of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) from the pineal gland. The present study examined the possible presence of LH/chorionic gonadotropin (CG) receptor in the pineal gland of adult female rats. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated that LH/CG receptor mRNA is expressed in the pineal gland. Western blotting showed that the pineal gland, like the ovary, contains an 80 kDa receptor protein. Immunohistochemistry revealed that LH/CG receptor, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (a regulatory enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis) and serotonin (a melatonin precursor) are localized primarily to the same cells of the pineal gland. We further found that the levels of pineal LH/CG receptor protein in normal cycling female rats change significantly during the estrous cycle, being lowest at early metestrus. These results demonstrate that LH/CG receptor is expressed in the pineal gland, primarily in melatonin-synthesizing cells, namely pinealocytes. Furthermore, it is suggested that LH influences pineal melatonin secretion through binding to this receptor. In addition, LH/CG receptor levels in the pineal gland are regulated during the estrous cycle under normal physiological conditions.

  20. The Lhx9 homeobox gene controls pineal gland development and prevents postnatal hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi; Møller, Morten; Fu, Cong; Clokie, Samuel J; Zykovich, Artem; Coon, Steven L; Klein, David C; Rath, Martin F

    2015-01-01

    Lhx9 is a member of the LIM homeobox gene family. It is expressed during mammalian embryogenesis in the brain including the pineal gland. Deletion of Lhx9 results in sterility due to failure of gonadal development. The current study was initiated to investigate Lhx9 biology in the pineal gland. Lhx9 is highly expressed in the developing pineal gland of the rat with transcript abundance peaking early in development; transcript levels decrease postnatally to nearly undetectable levels in the adult, a temporal pattern that is generally similar to that reported for Lhx9 expression in other brain regions. Studies with C57BL/6J Lhx9(-/-) mutant mice revealed marked alterations in brain and pineal development. Specifically, the superficial pineal gland is hypoplastic, being reduced to a small cluster of pinealocytes surrounded by meningeal and vascular tissue. The deep pineal gland and the pineal stalk are also reduced in size. Although the brains of neonatal Lhx9(-/-) mutant mice appear normal, severe hydrocephalus develops in about 70% of the Lhx9(-/-) mice at 5-8 weeks of age; these observations are the first to document that deletion of Lhx9 results in hydrocephalus and as such indicate that Lhx9 contributes to the maintenance of normal brain structure. Whereas hydrocephalus is absent in neonatal Lhx9(-/-)mutant mice, the neonatal pineal gland in these animals is hypoplastic. Accordingly, it appears that Lhx9 is essential for early development of the mammalian pineal gland and that this effect is not secondary to hydrocephalus.

  1. Pineal gland cyst evaluated by transcranial sonography.

    PubMed

    Budisic, M; Bosnjak, J; Lovrencic-Huzjan, A; Mikula, I; Bedek, D; Demarin, V

    2008-03-01

    Transcranial sonography (TCS) has never been used in the evaluation of morphology of pineal gland. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of TCS to distinguish normal from cystic pineal gland and to correlate its size with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the first examination and during follow-up. Sixty patients with previously made MRI of the brain were evaluated by two independent observers using TCS, blinded to the results of the MRI. Inappropriate bone window limited TCS examination in seven patients. All 14 pineal gland cysts (PGC) seen on MRI were detected by both observers using TCS. Control group consisted of 39 healthy examinees. No statistically significant difference has been found between: PGC size measured by first and second observer by TCS (P = 0.425), PGC size measured by TCS and MRI (first observer, P = 0.353; second observer, P = 0.425), size of the pineal gland measured by TCS and MRI in control group (first observer, P = 0.497; second observer, P = 0.370) or interobserver variability in control group (P = 0.373). The MRI and TCS follow-up of ten patients after six months did not show any difference in size of PGC. TCS can be used as a method in detection, measurement and follow-up of PGC.

  2. Cellular Basis of Pineal Gland Development: Emerging Role of Microglia as Phenotype Regulator.

    PubMed

    Ibañez Rodriguez, María P; Noctor, Stephen C; Muñoz, Estela M

    2016-01-01

    The adult pineal gland is composed of pinealocytes, astrocytes, microglia, and other interstitial cells that have been described in detail. However, factors that contribute to pineal development have not been fully elucidated, nor have pineal cell lineages been well characterized. We applied systematic double, triple and quadruple labeling of cell-specific markers on prenatal, postnatal and mature rat pineal gland tissue combined with confocal microscopy to provide a comprehensive view of the cellular dynamics and cell lineages that contribute to pineal gland development. The pineal gland begins as an evagination of neuroepithelium in the roof of the third ventricle. The pineal primordium initially consists of radially aligned Pax6+ precursor cells that express vimentin and divide at the ventricular lumen. After the tubular neuroepithelium fuses, the distribution of Pax6+ cells transitions to include rosette-like structures and later, dispersed cells. In the developing gland all dividing cells express Pax6, indicating that Pax6+ precursor cells generate pinealocytes and some interstitial cells. The density of Pax6+ cells decreases across pineal development as a result of cellular differentiation and microglial phagocytosis, but Pax6+ cells remain in the adult gland as a distinct population. Microglial colonization begins after pineal recess formation. Microglial phagocytosis of Pax6+ cells is not common at early stages but increases as microglia colonize the gland. In the postnatal gland microglia affiliate with Tuj1+ nerve fibers, IB4+ blood vessels, and Pax6+ cells. We demonstrate that microglia engulf Pax6+ cells, nerve fibers, and blood vessel-related elements, but not pinealocytes. We conclude that microglia play a role in pineal gland formation and homeostasis by regulating the precursor cell population, remodeling blood vessels and pruning sympathetic nerve fibers.

  3. Cellular Basis of Pineal Gland Development: Emerging Role of Microglia as Phenotype Regulator

    PubMed Central

    Ibañez Rodriguez, María P.

    2016-01-01

    The adult pineal gland is composed of pinealocytes, astrocytes, microglia, and other interstitial cells that have been described in detail. However, factors that contribute to pineal development have not been fully elucidated, nor have pineal cell lineages been well characterized. We applied systematic double, triple and quadruple labeling of cell-specific markers on prenatal, postnatal and mature rat pineal gland tissue combined with confocal microscopy to provide a comprehensive view of the cellular dynamics and cell lineages that contribute to pineal gland development. The pineal gland begins as an evagination of neuroepithelium in the roof of the third ventricle. The pineal primordium initially consists of radially aligned Pax6+ precursor cells that express vimentin and divide at the ventricular lumen. After the tubular neuroepithelium fuses, the distribution of Pax6+ cells transitions to include rosette-like structures and later, dispersed cells. In the developing gland all dividing cells express Pax6, indicating that Pax6+ precursor cells generate pinealocytes and some interstitial cells. The density of Pax6+ cells decreases across pineal development as a result of cellular differentiation and microglial phagocytosis, but Pax6+ cells remain in the adult gland as a distinct population. Microglial colonization begins after pineal recess formation. Microglial phagocytosis of Pax6+ cells is not common at early stages but increases as microglia colonize the gland. In the postnatal gland microglia affiliate with Tuj1+ nerve fibers, IB4+ blood vessels, and Pax6+ cells. We demonstrate that microglia engulf Pax6+ cells, nerve fibers, and blood vessel-related elements, but not pinealocytes. We conclude that microglia play a role in pineal gland formation and homeostasis by regulating the precursor cell population, remodeling blood vessels and pruning sympathetic nerve fibers. PMID:27861587

  4. Unique Case Report of Pineal Gland Metastasis From Bladder Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Bin

    2016-05-01

    Pineal metastasis is uncommon and most metastatic pineal lesions are asymptomatic. To our knowledge the herein reported case is the first in which the pineal gland was confirmed as the metastatic site of a bladder carcinoma.The patient reported in this case is a 59-year-old man who suffered from headache and delirium for 4 days after surgical treatment for removal of a bladder carcinoma 1 year ago. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a solid tumor involving the pineal gland with significant enhancement.The patient underwent surgical treatment for removal of the neoplastic lesion in the pineal gland. Histopathological examination confirmed invasion of the pineal gland by metastatic urothelial carcinoma.This case highlighted that the presence of pineal lesions in patient with known malignancy should raise suspicion of metastatic involvement.

  5. Pineal Gland Lymphoma: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Akshya; Johnson, Mahlon; Hussain, Ali

    2015-01-01

    A 65-year-old male presented to our institution with acute-onset headache. Imaging studies demonstrated a mass in the region of the pineal gland, with subsequent histopathology findings being consistent with large B cell lymphoma. The patient was treated with methotrexate, but ultimately did not survive. Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma rarely involves the pineal gland, but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pineal gland tumors in the appropriate clinical setting.

  6. Homeobox genes in the rodent pineal gland: roles in development and phenotype maintenance.

    PubMed

    Rath, Martin F; Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C; Møller, Morten

    2013-06-01

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland responsible for nocturnal synthesis of melatonin. During early development of the rodent pineal gland from the roof of the diencephalon, homeobox genes of the orthodenticle homeobox (Otx)- and paired box (Pax)-families are expressed and are essential for normal pineal development consistent with the well-established role that homeobox genes play in developmental processes. However, the pineal gland appears to be unusual because strong homeobox gene expression persists in the pineal gland of the adult brain. Accordingly, in addition to developmental functions, homeobox genes appear to be key regulators in postnatal phenotype maintenance in this tissue. In this paper, we review ontogenetic and phylogenetic aspects of pineal development and recent progress in understanding the involvement of homebox genes in rodent pineal development and adult function. A working model is proposed for understanding the sequential action of homeobox genes in controlling development and mature circadian function of the mammalian pinealocyte based on knowledge from detailed developmental and daily gene expression analyses in rats, the pineal phenotypes of homebox gene-deficient mice and studies on development of the retinal photoreceptor; the pinealocyte and retinal photoreceptor share features not seen in other tissues and are likely to have evolved from the same ancestral photodetector cell.

  7. GABAergic signaling in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haijie; Benitez, Sergio G; Jung, Seung-Ryoung; Farias Altamirano, Luz E; Kruse, Martin; Seo, Jong Bae; Koh, Duk-Su; Muñoz, Estela M; Hille, Bertil

    2016-08-01

    Pinealocytes secrete melatonin at night in response to norepinephrine released from sympathetic nerve terminals in the pineal gland. The gland also contains many other neurotransmitters whose cellular disposition, activity, and relevance to pineal function are not understood. Here, we clarify sources and demonstrate cellular actions of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry of the gland and electrical recording from pinealocytes. GABAergic cells and nerve fibers, defined as containing GABA and the synthetic GAD67, were identified. The cells represent a subset of interstitial cells while the nerve fibers were distinct from the sympathetic innervation. The GABAA receptor subunit α1 was visualized in close proximity of both GABAergic and sympathetic nerve fibers as well as fine extensions among pinealocytes and blood vessels. The GABAB 1 receptor subunit was localized in the interstitial compartment but not in pinealocytes. Electrophysiology of isolated pinealocytes revealed that GABA and muscimol elicit strong inward chloride currents sensitive to bicuculline and picrotoxin, clear evidence for functional GABAA receptors on the surface membrane. Applications of elevated potassium solution or the neurotransmitter acetylcholine depolarized the pinealocyte membrane potential enough to open voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels leading to intracellular calcium elevations. GABA repolarized the membrane and shut off such calcium rises. In 48-72-h cultured intact glands, GABA application neither triggered melatonin secretion by itself nor affected norepinephrine-induced secretion. Thus, strong elements of GABA signaling are present in pineal glands that make large electrical responses in pinealocytes, but physiological roles need to be found.

  8. Descartes and the pineal gland in animals: a frequent misinterpretation.

    PubMed

    Finger, S

    1995-01-01

    René Descartes presented a number of reasons for his choice of the pineal gland as a logical place for the soul to interact with the physical machinery of the body. It is often stated that one of his reasons was that he believed animals do not have pineal glands, whereas humans alone possess a soul and this small structure. This is a misinterpretation of Descartes. The philosopher knew that barnyard and other animals possess pineal glands, having seen this with his own eyes. His point was that the pineal is unique in humans only because of a special function - acting as the seat for the rational soul.

  9. The effect of the transplanted pineal gland on the sympathetic innervation of the rat sublingual gland.

    PubMed

    Chanthaphavong, R S; Murphy, S M; Anderson, C R

    2004-08-01

    We investigated the effect of the pineal on sympathetic neurons that normally innervate the sublingual gland of the rat. When the pineal gland was transplanted into the sublingual gland, it remained as a distinct mass that was innervated by sympathetic axons. Injection of the retrograde tracer, Fast Blue, into the sublingual gland labelled sympathetic neurons in the ipsilateral superior cervical ganglion (SCG). Thirty per cent of all neurons labelled retrogradely by Fast Blue injection into transplanted pineal glands were immunoreactive for both neuropeptide Y (NPY) and calbindin. This combination is characteristic of sympathetic neurons innervating the pineal gland in its normal location, but not the sympathetic vasoconstrictor neurons normally innervating the sublingual gland. This, and our previous study in which the pineal gland was shown to similarly influence the phenotype of salivary secretomotor neurons, suggests that a range of different functional classes of sympathetic neuron are able to change their phenotype in response to signals released by the pineal gland.

  10. Homeobox genes and melatonin synthesis: regulatory roles of the cone-rod homeobox transcription factor in the rodent pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Kristian; Møller, Morten; Rath, Martin Fredensborg

    2014-01-01

    Nocturnal synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland is controlled by a circadian rhythm in arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) enzyme activity. In the rodent, Aanat gene expression displays a marked circadian rhythm; release of norepinephrine in the gland at night causes a cAMP-based induction of Aanat transcription. However, additional transcriptional control mechanisms exist. Homeobox genes, which are generally known to encode transcription factors controlling developmental processes, are also expressed in the mature rodent pineal gland. Among these, the cone-rod homeobox (CRX) transcription factor is believed to control pineal-specific Aanat expression. Based on recent advances in our understanding of Crx in the rodent pineal gland, we here suggest that homeobox genes play a role in adult pineal physiology both by ensuring pineal-specific Aanat expression and by facilitating cAMP response element-based circadian melatonin production.

  11. [Participation of pineal gland in antistressor activity of adaptogenic drugs].

    PubMed

    Arushanian, É B; Beĭer, É V

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress produces some morphological changes in rats, including thymus weight reduction, adrenal hypertrophy, and peptic ulcers in stomach. Repeated administration of phytoadaptogenic drugs (ginseng and bilobil) decreased these stress-induced disorders. The antistressor activity of drugs was attenuated upon by removal of the pineal gland. Histochemical and morphometric investigation of pineal tissues in stressed animals showed that that the pharmacological effect was accompanied by increasing functional activity of the pineal gland. It is suggested that pineal mobilization may participate in antistressor activity of phytoadaptogenic drugs.

  12. Asymptomatic and symptomatic glial cysts of the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Taraszewska, Anna; Matyja, Ewa; Koszewski, Waldemar; Zaczyński, Artur; Bardadin, Krzysztof; Czernicki, Zbigniew

    2008-01-01

    Glial cysts of the pineal gland are benign and mostly asymptomatic incidental lesions found in the brain MRI or at autopsy examinations. In rare cases pineal cysts become symptomatic and require surgical intervention. Symptomatic glial cysts may be clinically and radiologically indistinguishable from cystic neoplasms of the pineal region; therefore, histopathological diagnosis is critical for further prognosis and therapy in operated patients. In this paper we present detailed histopathological characteristics of symptomatic glial cysts in 2 surgical cases and of asymptomatic cysts of the pineal gland found at random in 3 autopsy cases. Both surgical patients, a 19-year-old girl and a 17-year-old boy, presented with severe headaches, associated with syncope in one case and insomnia in the second one. Preoperative MR imaging suggested tumour of the pineal gland in case no. 2. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination of the specimens from both surgical and all autopsy cases revealed a characteristic pattern of cystic structures within the pineal gland, surrounded by layers of a dense fibrillar glial tissue and pineal parenchyma, consistent with non-neoplastic glial cysts. Although histopathological findings in asymptomatic and symptomatic cysts are essentially the same, the cyst in surgical case 1 was unilocular and partly lined with ependymal cells, whereas the cysts in other cases were multilocular, comprising cavities of various size, formed in the central part of gliotic tissue or directly within the pineal parenchyma, and lacked ependymal lining. Possible pathophysiological and clinicopathological significance of some morphological variants of pineal glial cysts is discussed.

  13. [Age-dependent morphology of human pineal gland: supravital study].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, S V

    2007-01-01

    On the base of analysis of 5784 events of diagnostic magnetic-resonance tomography studies of the head of patients in radio diagnosis departments the database is formed. Only events (n=411) without cerebral, oncology, endocrine and other pathology are taken in database. The material was grouped to time and date of the study, sex and age in accordance with generally accepted categorization. Maximum linear sizes of pineal gland and hypophysis cerebri in sagittal, axial and coronar projection were measured in all events; volumes of the organs were calculated on the formula of a ball. It is defined that the volume of pineal gland increases from birth till 17-21 year age, gradually falls till the second mature age and is getting stable in old age. The normative factors of the volume of pineal gland and hypophysis cerebri for 8 age groups are determined. "Brain sand" and false cysts in pineal gland can be observed in all age groups. The petrification degree of pineal gland, as of computer tomography, varies from 30 to 277 ed. HV. For the factor of pineal gland volume and factor of cysts frequency in pineal gland a puberty "collapse" is typical, mainly in men.

  14. [Magnetic resonance study of the pineal region. Normal pineal gland and simple cysts].

    PubMed

    Caldas, J G; Doyon, D; Lederman, H; Carlier, R

    1998-06-01

    A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of the normal pineal gland and pineal simple cysts was performed in 762 cases. A fine section technique (maximum 3 millimeters) enabled most of the times the identifying of a normal pineal in addition to demonstrating that a pineal without any cyst shows an isointense signal in T1 and T2 which, in turn, is enhanced following gadolinium. The measure of the normal pineal was of about 6.1 millimeters in its diameter length. Pineal simple cysts were observed in a 2.6% frequency in relation to the whole series (762 cases); however reaches 6.1% when only the visualized pineals were considered (329 cases). Also, it was found out that simple cysts were not correlated to age or gender. Simple cysts characteristics are: dimension less or equal to 20 millimeters; absence of expansive effect; similar signal to that of the cerebrospinal fluid; absence of cyst growth.

  15. Midline and off-midline infratentorial supracerebellar approaches to the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Satoshi; Baydin, Serhat; Güngör, Abuzer; Miki, Koichi; Komune, Noritaka; Kurogi, Ryota; Iihara, Koji; Rhoton, Albert L

    2016-10-07

    OBJECTIVE A common approach to lesions of the pineal region is along the midline below the torcula. However, reports of how shifting the approach off midline affects the surgical exposure and relationships between the tributaries of the vein of Galen are limited. The purpose of this study is to examine the microsurgical and endoscopic anatomy of the pineal region as seen through the supracerebellar infratentorial approaches, including midline, paramedian, lateral, and far-lateral routes. METHODS The quadrigeminal cisterns of 8 formalin-fixed adult cadaveric heads were dissected and examined with the aid of a surgical microscope and straight endoscope. Twenty CT angiograms were examined to measure the depth of the pineal gland, slope of the tentorial surface of the cerebellum, and angle of approach to the pineal gland in each approach. RESULTS The midline supracerebellar route is the shortest and provides direct exposure of the pineal gland, although the culmen and inferior and superior vermian tributaries of the vein of Galen frequently block this exposure. The off-midline routes provide a surgical exposure that, although slightly deeper, may reduce the need for venous sacrifice at both the level of the veins from the superior cerebellar surface entering the tentorial sinuses and at the level of the tributaries of the vein of Galen in the quadrigeminal cistern, and require less cerebellar retraction. Shifting from midline to off-midline exposure also provides a better view of the cerebellomesencephalic fissure, collicular plate, and trochlear nerve than the midline approaches. Endoscopic assistance may aid exposure of the pineal gland while preserving the bridging veins. CONCLUSIONS Understanding the characteristics of different infratentorial routes to the pineal gland will aid in gaining a better view of the pineal gland and cerebellomesencephalic fissure and may reduce the need for venous sacrifice at the level of the tentorial sinuses draining the upper

  16. Postnatal neurogenesis in the cow pineal gland: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Gómez Esteban, M B; Muñoz Mosqueira, M I; Arroyo, A A; Muñoz Barragán, L

    2013-03-01

    In the pineal gland of cows and rats structures designated rosettes have been described both during embryonic development and in adult animals. In order to investigate the possible nature of the cells comprising such structures, in the present work we studied the pineal glands from 10 cows of one- or four-years-old using conventional immunocytochemical and confocal microscopy techniques. As markers of glial cells, we used anti-vimentin (Vim) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and anti-S-100 sera, and the pinealocytes were labelled with β-III tubulin. As a marker of stem cells, we used an antinestin serum, while an anti-PCNA serum was employed to label proliferating cells. To explore the neuronal nature of some cells of the rosettes, we used an anti-SRIF serum. The rosettes were seen to be present throughout the glandular parenchyma and displayed a central cavity surrounded by cells, most of which expressed all or just some of the above glial labels and nestin, although there were also some rosettes with cells that expressed β-III tubulin and other cells that expressed SRIF. Likewise, in the cells of the rosettes the cell nucleus showed strong expression of PCNA. Confocal microscopy revealed that the walls of the rosettes contained cells that coexpressed Vim/S-100, Vim/GFAP and Vim/nestin. The number of rosettes was significantly greater in the animals of one year of age with respect to the four-year-old cows. The present findings allow us to suggest that rosettes are evolving structures and that most of the cells present in their walls should be considered stem cells, and hence responsible for the postnatal neurogenesis occurring in the pineal gland of cows.

  17. The originality of Descartes' theory about the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Lokhorst, G J; Kaitaro, T T

    2001-03-01

    René Descartes thought that the pineal gland is the part of the body with which the soul is most immediately associated. Several prominent historians (such as Soury, Thorndike and Sherrington) have claimed that this idea was not very original. We re-examine the evidence and conclude that their assessment was wrong. We pay special attention to the thesis about the pineal gland which Jean Cousin defended in January, 1641.

  18. Rax : developmental and daily expression patterns in the rat pineal gland and retina.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C; Møller, Morten; Rath, Martin F

    2011-09-01

    Retina and anterior neural fold homeobox (Rax) gene encodes a transcription factor essential for vertebrate eye development. Recent microarray studies indicate that Rax is expressed in the adult rat pineal gland and retina. The present study reveals that Rax expression levels in the rat change significantly during retinal development with a peak occurring at embryonic day 18, whereas Rax expression in the pineal is relatively delayed and not detectable until embryonic day 20. In both tissues, Rax is expressed throughout postnatal development into adulthood. In the mature rat pineal gland, the abundance of Rax transcripts increases 2-fold during the light period with a peak occurring at dusk. These findings are consistent with the evidence that Rax is of functional importance in eye development and suggest a role of Rax in the developing pineal gland. In addition, it would appear possible that Rax contributes to phenotype maintenance in the mature retina and pineal gland and may facilitate 24-h changes in the pineal transcriptome.

  19. An historical view of the pineal gland and mental disorders.

    PubMed

    López-Muñoz, F; Molina, J D; Rubio, G; Alamo, C

    2011-08-01

    Since Classical Antiquity numerous authors have linked the origin of some mental disorders to physical and functional changes in the pineal gland because of its attributed role in humans as the connection between the material and the spiritual world. The pineal organ was seen as a valve-like structure that regulated the flow of animal spirits through the ventricular system, a hypothesis that took on more vigour during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The framework for this theory was "the three cells of the brain", in which the pineal gland was even called the "appendix of thought". The pineal gland could also be associated with the boom, during this period, of certain legends about the "stone of folly". But the most relevant psychopathological role of this organ arrived with Descartes, who proposed that it was the seat of the human soul and controlled communications between the physical body and its surroundings, including emotions. After a period of decline during which it was considered as a mere vestigial remnant of evolution, the link between the pineal gland and psychiatric disorders was definitively highlighted in the 20th century, first with the use of glandular extracts in patients with mental deficiency, and finally with the discovery of melatonin in 1958. The physiological properties of melatonin reawakened interest in the relationship between the pineal gland and mental disorders, fundamentally the affective and sleep disorders, which culminated in the development of new pharmacological agents acting through melatonergic receptors (ramelteon and agomelatine).

  20. The rat pineal gland comprises an endocannabinoid system.

    PubMed

    Koch, Marco; Habazettl, Iris; Dehghani, Faramarz; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2008-11-01

    In the mammalian pineal gland, the rhythm in melatonin biosynthesis depends on the norepinephrine (NE)-driven regulation of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT), the penultimate enzyme of melatonin biosynthesis. A recent study showed that phytocannabinoids like tetrahydrocannabinol reduce AANAT activity and attenuate NE-induced melatonin biosynthesis in rat pineal glands, raising the possibility that an endocannabinoid system is present in the pineal gland. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed cannabinoid (CB) receptors and specific enzymes for endocannabinoid biosynthesis or catabolism in rat pineal glands and cultured pinealocytes. Immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses revealed the presence of CB1 and CB2 receptor proteins, of N-acyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine hydrolyzing phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD), an enzyme catalyzing endocannabinoid biosynthesis and of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an endocannabinoid catabolizing enzyme, in pinealocytes, and in pineal sympathetic nerve fibers identified by double immunofluorescence with an antibody against tyrosine hydroxylase. The immunosignals for the CB2 receptor, NAPE-PLD, and FAAH found in pinealocytes did not vary under a 12 hr light:12 hr dark cycle. The CB1 receptor immunoreaction in pinealocytes was significantly reduced at the end of the light phase [zeitgeber time (ZT) 12]. The immunosignal for NAPE-PLD found in pineal sympathetic nerve fibers was reduced in the middle of the dark phase (ZT 18). Stimulation of cultured pinealocytes with NE affected neither the subcellular distribution nor the intensity of the immunosignals for the investigated CB receptors and enzymes. In summary, the pineal gland comprises indispensable compounds of the endocannabinoid system indicating that endocannabinoids may be involved in the control of pineal physiology.

  1. [Single mechanism of remodelling extracellular matrix in thymus and pineal gland at aging].

    PubMed

    Lin'kova, N S; Poliakova, V O; Kvetnoĭ, I M

    2011-01-01

    The expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 in thymus and pineal gland has been verified. These data demonstrate single mechanism of remodelling extracellular matrix in thymus and pineal gland at aging.

  2. Rhythmic control of endocannabinoids in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Koch, Marco; Ferreirós, Nerea; Geisslinger, Gerd; Dehghani, Faramarz; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2015-01-01

    Endocannabinoids modulate neuroendocrine networks by directly targeting cannabinoid receptors. The time-hormone melatonin synchronizes these networks with external light condition and guarantees time-sensitive and ecologically well-adapted behaviors. Here, the endocannabinoid arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA) showed rhythmic changes in rat pineal glands with higher levels during the light-period and reduced amounts at the onset of darkness. Norepinephrine, the essential stimulus for nocturnal melatonin biosynthesis, acutely down-regulated AEA and other endocannabinoids in cultured pineal glands. These temporal dynamics suggest that AEA exerts time-dependent autocrine and/or paracrine functions within the pineal. Moreover, endocananbinoids may be released from the pineal into the CSF or blood stream.

  3. How important is stimulation of alpha-adrenoceptors for melatonin production in rat pineal glands?

    PubMed

    Tobin, V A; McCance, I; Coleman, H A; Parkington, H C

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the role of alpha-adrenoceptors in melatonin production by rat pineal gland. Pineal glands were isolated from adult male rats and maintained in organ baths. The perfusate was sampled every 5 min, stored, and later assayed for melatonin. Exposure to norepinephrine (10 microM) or the beta-adrenoceptor agonist orciprenaline (2-10 microM) increased the glands' production of melatonin. The time courses of melatonin production in response to these agonists were unaffected by the rats' pretreatment in vivo with the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (2 mg/kg i.p., three times). Rats that had had their superior cervical ganglia removed were primed with either orciprenaline (2 mg/kg i.p) or both orciprenaline and phenylephrine (1 mg/kg i.p) 1 hr before decapitation. Exposure of the pineal glands from these rats to orciprenaline evoked melatonin release that was similar in each group. These results lend weight to the suggestion that the marked potentiation by alpha-adrenoceptor agonists of the stimulation of cAMP and N-acetyltransferase (NAT) by beta-adrenoceptor agonists, demonstrated most readily in cultured glands or dispersed rat pinealocytes, does not carry over into significant augmentation of melatonin production in intact pineal glands.

  4. NeuroD1: developmental expression and regulated genes in the rodent pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Estela M; Bailey, Michael J; Rath, Martin F; Shi, Qiong; Morin, Fabrice; Coon, Steven L; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C

    2007-08-01

    NeuroD1/BETA2, a member of the bHLH transcription factor family, is known to influence the fate of specific neuronal, endocrine and retinal cells. We report here that NeuroD1 mRNA is highly abundant in the developing and adult rat pineal gland. Pineal expression begins in the 17-day embryo at which time it is also detectable in other brain regions. Expression in the pineal gland increases during the embryonic period and is maintained thereafter at levels equivalent to those found in the cerebellum and retina. In contrast, NeuroD1 mRNA decreases markedly in non-cerebellar brain regions during development. Pineal NeuroD1 levels are similar during the day and night, and do not appear to be influenced by sympathetic neural input. Gene expression analysis of the pineal glands from neonatal NeuroD1 knockout mice identifies 127 transcripts that are down-regulated (>twofold, p < 0.05) and 16 that are up-regulated (>twofold, p < 0.05). According to quantitative RT-PCR, the most dramatically down-regulated gene is kinesin family member 5C ( approximately 100-fold) and the most dramatically up-regulated gene is glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 ( approximately fourfold). Other impacted transcripts encode proteins involved in differentiation, development, signal transduction and trafficking. These findings represent the first step toward elucidating the role of NeuroD1 in the rodent pinealocyte.

  5. [Influence of peptides from pineal gland on thymus function at aging].

    PubMed

    Lin'kova, N S; Poliakova, V O; Trofimov, A V; Sevost'ianova, N N; Kvetnoĭ, I M

    2010-01-01

    The interference between thymus and pineal gland during their involution is considered in this review. The research data about influence of thymus peptides on pineal gland and pineal peptides on thymus is summarized. Analysis of these data showed that pineal peptides (epithalamin, epitalon) had more effective geroprotective effect on thymus involution in comparison with geroprotective effect of thymic peptides (thymalin, thymogen) on involution of pineal gland. The key mechanisms of pineal peptides effect on thymus dystrophy is immunoendocrine cooperation, which is realized as transcription's activation of various proteins.

  6. Increased vascular permeability and nitric oxide production in response to hypoxia in the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Kaur, C; Sivakumar, V; Lu, J; Ling, E A

    2007-04-01

    This study examined the factors that may be involved in altering the function of pineal gland in hypoxic conditions. Adult Wistar rats were subjected to hypoxia and the pineal gland was examined for the mRNA and protein expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial, neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, nNOS, iNOS) at 3 hr-14 days after hypoxic exposure by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Upregulated mRNA and protein expression of HIF-1alpha, VEGF, eNOS, nNOS and iNOS was observed in response to hypoxia. VEGF concentrations as determined by enzyme immunoassay and nitric oxide (NO) production measured by colorimetric assay were significantly higher after hypoxic exposure when compared with the controls. Melatonin content of the pineal gland, as determined by ELISA, was significantly reduced after the hypoxic exposure. Dilated blood vessels expressing eNOS were observed in hypoxic rats. Cells immunoreactive for VEGF were identified as the astrocytes whereas those immunoreactive for iNOS were pinealocytes and macrophages. Our findings indicate that excess production of VEGF and NO in pineal gland in response to hypoxia may be involved in increased vascular permeability as evidenced by an enhanced leakage of rhodamine isothiocyanate (RhIC). The increased vascular permeability may allow free access of serum-derived substances in the pineal gland that may affect the secretory function of the pinealocytes. Administration of exogenous melatonin may be beneficial as it reduced VEGF concentration and NO production significantly in hypoxic rats, and leakage of RhIC was concomitantly reduced.

  7. Structure of the ovine pineal gland during prenatal development.

    PubMed

    Regodón, S; Franco, A; Masot, J; Redondo, E

    1998-12-01

    The structure of the pineal gland of 32 clinically healthy ovine embryos at different stages of development was studied. Embryos were arranged in four age groups, each containing eight embryos (four males and four females), defined in terms of the most relevant histological features: group 1 (27 to 69 days of prenatal development), group 2 (70 to 97 days), group 3 (98 to 116 days), and group 4 (117 to 150 days). At around 30 days of prenatal life, according to topographic criteria, the pineal outline begins to differentiate into a dorsal evagination of the diencephalic medium line, close to the anterior and posterior commissures. The growth of the pineal is biphasic. The ontogenic-proliferative phase begins at 30 days and includes the invasion of ependymal cells and the proliferation of the pineal parenchyma cells. The hypertrophic-differentiation phase includes the volume increment of the pinealoblasts and their differentiation into pinealocytes; this occurs at around 118 days. At around 98 days, the gland acquires its definitive compact appearance due to 1) glandular growth in constant volume and 2) the obliteration of pineal recess. The glandular structure displays a parenchyma made up of pinealoblasts, interstitial cells, and cells containing pigment. The pineal stroma is structured in pseudolobes formed by reticular and collagen fiber septae, which constitute together the interstitial cell prolongation net, which is the support structure of the whole glandular cytology. Capillaries are detected all over the glandular surface, being more abundant in the medullary zone. At around 98 days of prenatal development, VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide) positive fibers, distributed around blood vessels and among pinealoblasts were detected.

  8. Expression of tranferrin receptors in the pineal gland of postnatal and adult rats and its alteration in hypoxia and melatonin treatment.

    PubMed

    Kaur, C; Sivakumar, V; Ling, E A

    2007-02-01

    Transferrin receptors (Tfrc) are membrane bound glycoproteins which function to mediate cellular uptake of iron from transferrin. We examined expression of Tfrc in the pineal gland of rats of different ages from 1 day to 12 weeks. The mRNA and protein expression of Tfrc increased up to 6 weeks of age and decreased in 12 week rats. Tfrc immunoreactivity was observed on pinealocytes and macrophages/microglia. By immunoelectron microscopy, the immunoreaction in pinealocytes was observed in the cytosol, on mitochondria and plasma membrane whereas in macrophages/microglia it was localized on the plasma membrane in 1-day to 2-week old rats. In older rats, the immunoreaction product in pinealocytes was associated with the plasma membrane and mitochondria only. Iron localization was observed in pinealocytes as well as macrophages/microglia. It is suggested that Tfrc are required for uptake of iron for cell proliferation and maturation in the pineal gland upto 6 weeks of age. The significance of Tfrc expression on mitochondria is speculative. They may be involved in iron transport to the mitochondria or for regulation of the secretory activity of pinealocytes. The TfrcmRNA and protein expression increased significantly in response to hypoxia in 12-week rats and this coincided with intense iron staining of the pinealocytes and macrophages/microglia. It is concluded that increased expression of Tfrc in response to hypoxia leads to excess cellular uptake of iron which may be damaging to the cells. Melatonin administration in hypoxic rats may prove to be beneficial as it reduced the Tfrc expression.

  9. Sympathetic neuroaxonal dystrophy in the aged rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Robert E; Dorsey, Denise A; Parvin, Curtis A; Beaudet, Lucie N

    2006-10-01

    Dysfunction of circadian melatonin production by the pineal gland in aged humans and rats is thought to reflect the functional loss of its sympathetic innervation. Our ultrastructural neuropathologic studies of the sympathetic innervation of the pineal gland of aged (24 months old) Fischer-344 and Sprague-Dawley rats showed loss of nerve terminals as well as the development of neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD), an ultrastructurally distinctive distal axonopathy, far in excess of that in young control rats. Immunolocalization of tyrosine hydroxylase confirmed the age-related loss of normal noradrenergic innervation and development of NAD. NAD was more frequent in aged female rats compared to males and was particularly severe in aged female Sprague-Dawley rats compared to Fischer-344 rats. Pineal NGF content was significantly increased or unchanged in female and male aged Fischer-344 rats, respectively, compared to young controls. The rat pineal is a sensitive experimental model for the quantitative ultrastructural examination of age-related neuropathological changes in nerve terminals of postganglionic noradrenergic sympathetic axons, changes which may reflect similar changes in the diffusely distributed sympathetic innervation of other targeted endorgans.

  10. Comparison of three methods for the estimation of pineal gland volume using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Acer, Niyazi; Ilıca, Ahmet Turan; Turgut, Ahmet Tuncay; Ozçelik, Ozlem; Yıldırım, Birdal; Turgut, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Pineal gland is a very important neuroendocrine organ with many physiological functions such as regulating circadian rhythm. Radiologically, the pineal gland volume is clinically important because it is usually difficult to distinguish small pineal tumors via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although many studies have estimated the pineal gland volume using different techniques, to the best of our knowledge, there has so far been no stereological work done on this subject. The objective of the current paper was to determine the pineal gland volume using stereological methods and by the region of interest (ROI) on MRI. In this paper, the pineal gland volumes were calculated in a total of 62 subjects (36 females, 26 males) who were free of any pineal lesions or tumors. The mean ± SD pineal gland volumes of the point-counting, planimetry, and ROI groups were 99.55 ± 51.34, 102.69 ± 40.39, and 104.33 ± 40.45 mm(3), respectively. No significant difference was found among the methods of calculating pineal gland volume (P > 0.05). From these results, it can be concluded that each technique is an unbiased, efficient, and reliable method, ideally suitable for in vivo examination of MRI data for pineal gland volume estimation.

  11. Classification of the venous architecture of the pineal gland by 7T MRI.

    PubMed

    Cho, Zang-Hee; Choi, Sang-Han; Chi, Je-Gun; Kim, Young-Bo

    2011-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 7.0 Tesla (7T) can show many details of anatomical structures with unprecedented resolution and contrast. In this report, we describe for the first time the unexpected wide variation in pineal gland structure, as visualized by MR images obtained with 7T in a group of healthy young volunteers. A total of 34 volunteers (22 men and 12 women) were enrolled in the study. Their 7T MR images revealed such wide variations in pineal gland shape that it led us to attempt to classify the patterns seen in these pineal glands. Indeed, they were successfully correlated with a previous human cadaver study of venous structures by Tamaki et al., who classified the venous structures of the pineal gland into three categories. This is the first human in vivo pineal vein imaging study using 7T MRI. Pineal venous imaging may permit the early diagnosis of a pineal tumor.

  12. The pineal gland - Its possible roles in human reproduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brzezinski, Amnon; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper discusses the role of the pineal gland in controlling mammalian reproduction, with particular attention given to the role of melatonin in polyestrus mammals, like humans and laboratory rodents. Evidence is cited indicating the influence of melatonin production and blood content on the age of puberty, the timing of the ovulatory cycle, gonadal steriodogenesis, and patterns of reproductive behavior. It is suggested that abnormal patterns of melatonin might be associated with amenorrhea, anovulation, unexplained infertility, premature menopause, and habitual abortions.

  13. The function of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Catalá, Angel

    2010-02-01

    The mammalian pineal gland is a prominent secretory organ with a high metabolic activity. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), the main secretory product of the pineal gland, efficiently scavenges both the hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals counteracting lipid peroxidation in biological membranes. Approximately 25% of the total fatty acids present in the rat pineal lipids are represented by arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3). These very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids play important roles in the pineal gland. In addition to the production of melatonin, the mammalian pineal gland is able of convert these polyunsaturated fatty acids into bioactive lipid mediators. Lipoxygenation is the principal lipoxygenase (LOX) activity observed in the rat pineal gland. Lipoxygenation in the pineal gland is exceptional because no other brain regions express significant LOX activities under normal physiological conditions. The rat pineal gland expresses both 12- and 15-lipoxygenase (LOX) activities, producing 12- and 15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12- and 15-HpETE) from arachidonic acid and 14- and 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (14- and 17-HdoHE) from docosahexaenoic acid, respectively. The rat pineal also produces hepoxilins via LOX pathways. The hepoxilins are bioactive epoxy-hydroxy products of the arachidonic acid metabolism via the 12S-lipoxygenase (12S-LOX) pathway. The two key pineal biochemical functions, lipoxygenation and melatonin synthesis, may be synergistically regulated by the status of n-3 essential fatty acids.

  14. Significant anti-tumor effect of bevacizumab in treatment of pineal gland glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Joshua; Fields, Braxton; Macomson, Samuel; Rixe, Olivier

    2014-12-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive subtype of malignant gliomas. Current standard treatment for GBM involves a combination of cytoreduction through surgical resection, followed by radiation with concomitant and adjuvant chemotherapy (temozolomide). The role of bevacizumab in the treatment of GBM continues to be a topic of ongoing research and debate. Despite aggressive treatment, these tumors remain undoubtedly fatal, especially in the elderly. Furthermore, tumors present in the pineal gland are extremely rare, accounting for only 0.1-0.4 % of all adult brain tumors, with this location adding to the complexity of treatment. We present a case of GBM, at the rare location of pineal gland, in an elderly patient who was refractory to initial standard of care treatment with radiation and concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide, but who developed a significant response to anti-angiogenic therapy using bevacizumab.

  15. Regulation of glycogen content in rat pineal gland by norepinephrine.

    PubMed

    Eugenín, E A; Sáez, C G; Garcés, G; Sáez, J C

    1997-06-20

    In the rat pineal gland the glycogen stores were cytochemically localized in astrocytes and pinealocytes. Moreover, it was found that norepinephrine (NE) induced a time- and concentration-dependent reduction in pineal glycogen content and yielded lactic acid. The NE effect was prevented by blocking alpha1- but not alpha2 or beta-adrenoceptors. Activation of alpha2-adrenoceptors induced a small decrease in glycogen levels that could have pre- and postsynaptic components. Activation of beta-adrenoceptors with 10(-12)-10(-3) M isoproterenol (ISO) induced a bell shape concentration-response curve, presumably due to desensitization, since the response induced by 10(-4) M ISO was greater with shorter period of stimulation. On the other hand, activation of alpha1-adrenoceptors with 10(-12)-10(-3) M phenylephrine (PHN) induced a hyperbolic concentration-response curve with a maximum at concentrations above 10(-8) M. Moreover, treatment with ISO drastically reduced the response induced by PHN concentrations lower but not higher than 10(-6) M, favoring a concentration-dependent response between 10(-6) and 10(-4) M PHN, similar to that induced by equimolar NE concentrations. Thus, the NE-induced reduction in glycogen content of the rat pineal gland is mainly mediated by alpha1-adrenoceptors and modulated by intracellular mechanisms activated by beta-adrenoceptors.

  16. The Syrian Hamster Pineal Gland Responds to Isoproterenol in Vivo at Night

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    pineal gland transmitter. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA protect against acute stress-induced 70:2411 increase in N-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.5.) activity ...Society Printed in U.S.A. A THE SYRIAN HAMSTER PINEAL GLAND RESPONDS TO ISOPROTERENOL IN VIVO AT NIGHT George M. Vaughan 1 and Russel J. Reiter 2 1US...then kept in light for 2 h, pineal melatonin was equally low 0 • after ISO or vehicle injection. The Syrian hamster pineal gland can respond in vivo

  17. A rhythmic change of vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 2 expression in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Sachine; Hira, Yoshiki; Ehara, Ayuka; Mimura-Yamamoto, Yuka; Kawano, Michihiro; Shutoh, Fumihiro; Nogami, Haruo; Hisano, Setsuji

    2012-01-01

    The pineal gland secretes melatonin under circadian control via nocturnal noradrenergic stimulation, and expresses vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 1, VGLUT2 and a VGLUT1 splice variant (VGLUT1v). Although we previously reported that VGLUT2 mRNA level of rat pineal gland at postnatal day 21 is higher in the nighttime than in daytime, questions remained as to the time of postnatal onset of this phenomenon and a 24-h change in the mRNA or protein level at postnatal days. The day-night difference in VGLUT2 mRNA level was evident 14 days after birth. In the adult, VGLUT2 mRNA and protein levels increased in the dark phase, with the protein level showing a 6-h delay. The nocturnal elevation in VGLUT2 mRNA level diminished under the constant light condition but persisted under the constant dark condition. The present data suggest that VGLUT2 in the rat pineal gland is involved in some nocturnal glutamatergic function.

  18. A method for extirpation of the pineal gland in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Arav, V I; Slesarev, S M; Slesareva, E V

    2008-09-01

    A method for extirpation of the pineal gland in albino rats and other rodents (e. g., ground squirrels) is proposed. Epiphysectomy is carried out by resection of a fragment of the bone with the underlying pineal gland. Using this method, many animals can be operated within a short period; the method is reliable and simple, which recommends it for chronobiological studies.

  19. TLR4 and CD14 receptors expressed in rat pineal gland trigger NFKB pathway.

    PubMed

    da Silveira Cruz-Machado, Sanseray; Carvalho-Sousa, Claudia Emanuele; Tamura, Eduardo Koji; Pinato, Luciana; Cecon, Erika; Fernandes, Pedro Augusto Carlos Magno; de Avellar, Maria Christina Werneck; Ferreira, Zulma Silva; Markus, Regina Pekelmann

    2010-09-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NFKB), a pivotal player in inflammatory responses, is constitutively expressed in the pineal gland. Corticosterone inhibits pineal NFKB leading to an enhancement of melatonin production, while tumor necrosis factor (TNF) leads to inhibition of Aa-nat transcription and the production of N-acetylserotonin in cultured glands. The reduction in nocturnal melatonin surge favors the mounting of the inflammatory response. Despite these data, there is no clear evidence of the ability of the pineal gland to recognize molecules that signal infection. This study investigated whether the rat pineal gland expresses receptors for lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the endotoxin from the membranes of Gram-negative bacteria, and to establish the mechanism of action of LPS. Here, we show that pineal glands possess both CD14 and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), membrane proteins that bind LPS and trigger the NFKB pathway. LPS induced the nuclear translocation of p50/p50 and p50/RELA dimers and the synthesis of TNF. The maximal expression of TNF in cultured glands coincides with an increase in the expression of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) in isolated pinealocytes. In addition, LPS inhibited the synthesis of N-acetylserotonin and melatonin. Therefore, the pineal gland transduces Gram-negative endotoxin stimulation by producing TNF and inhibiting melatonin synthesis. Here, we provide evidence to reinforce the idea of an immune-pineal axis, showing that the pineal gland is a constitutive player in the innate immune response.

  20. The immune-pineal axis: stress as a modulator of pineal gland function.

    PubMed

    Couto-Moraes, Renato; Palermo-Neto, João; Markus, Regina Pekelmann

    2009-02-01

    The temporal organization of mammals presents a daily adjustment to the environmental light/dark cycle. The environmental light detected by the retina adjusts the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, which innervate the pineal gland through a polysynaptic pathway. During the night, this gland produces and releases the nocturnal hormone melatonin, which circulates throughout the whole body and adjusts several bodily functions according to the existence and duration of darkness. We have previously shown that during the time frame of an inflammatory response, pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, inhibit while anti-inflammatory mediators, such as glucocorticoids, enhance the synthesis of melatonin, interfering in the daily adjustment of the light/dark cycle. Therefore, injury disconnects the organism from environmental cycling, while recovery restores the light/dark information to the whole organism. Here, we extend these observations by evaluating the effect of a mild restraint stress, which did not induce macroscopic gastric lesions. After 2 h of restraint, there was an increase in circulating corticosterone, indicating activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In parallel, an increase in melatonin production was observed. Taking into account the data obtained with models of inflammation and stress, we reinforce the hypothesis that the activity of the pineal gland is modulated by the state of the immune system and the HPA axis, implicating the darkness hormone melatonin as a modulator of defense responses.

  1. Post-natal growth in the rat pineal gland: a stereological study.

    PubMed

    Erbagci, H; Kizilkan, N; Ozbag, D; Erkilic, S; Kervancioglu, P; Canan, S; Gumusburun, E

    2012-10-01

    The purpose was to observe the changes in a rat pineal gland using stereological techniques during lactation and post-weaning periods. Thirty Wistar albino rats were studied during different post-natal periods using light microscopy. Pineal gland volume was estimated using the Cavalieri Method. Additionally, the total number of pinealocytes was estimated using the optical fractionator technique. Pineal gland volume displayed statistically significant changes between lactation and after weaning periods. A significant increase in pineal gland volume was observed from post-natal day 10 to post-natal day 90. The numerical density of pinealocytes became stabilized during lactation and decreased rapidly after weaning. However, the total number of pinealocytes continuously increased during post-natal life of all rats in the study. However, this increment was not statistically significant when comparing the lactation and after weaning periods. The increase in post-natal pineal gland volume may depend on increment of immunoreactive fibres, capsule thickness or new synaptic bodies.

  2. Morphology of pineal glands in human foetuses and infants with brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Laure-Kamionowska, Milena; Maślińska, Danuta; Deregowski, Krzysztof; Czichos, Elzbieta; Raczkowska, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    The pineal gland is an organ involved in regulation of homeostasis and body rhythms. It plays an important role in the growth foetuses and adaptation of newborns to new environmental conditions. The requirements of foetuses and newborns progressively change during development. The purpose of the study was to evaluate morphological changes of pineal glands in foetuses and infants with brain lesions. The results of our study showed that parenchyma of developing pineal glands was susceptible to injury in most autopsied foetal and infantile cases. Morphological changes in pineal glands were found in 90% of autopsied brains but 100% of the cases had infections. The lesions in the pineal included mainly haemorrhagic, necrotic and cystic changes. In our autopsied foetuses and children, morphological changes in pineal glands were concomitant with various lesions of brain parenchyma. All results of our study lead to the conclusion that the pineal gland during its development is very susceptible to injury. The failure of normal pineal gland development and subsequent impaired production of melatonin decrease resistance of newborns and children to various environmental harmful agents.

  3. Leptin modulates norepinephrine-mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Peliciari-Garcia, Rodrigo Antonio; Andrade-Silva, Jéssica; Cipolla-Neto, José; Carvalho, Carla Roberta de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Pineal melatonin synthesis can be modulated by many peptides, including insulin. Because melatonin appears to alter leptin synthesis, in this work we aimed to investigate whether leptin would have a role on norepinephrine- (NE-)mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal glands. According to our data, cultured rat pineal glands express leptin receptor isoform b (Ob-Rb). Pineal expression of Ob-Rb mRNA was also observed in vivo. Administration of leptin (1 nM) associated with NE ( 1 µM) reduced melatonin content as well as arylalkylamine-N-acetyl transferase (AANAT) activity and expression in cultured pineal glands. Leptin treatment per se induced the expression of STAT3 in cultured pineal glands, but STAT3 does not participate in the leptin modulation of NE-mediated pineal melatonin synthesis. In addition, the expression of inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) was further induced by leptin challenge when associated with NE. In conclusion, leptin inhibition of pineal melatonin synthesis appears to be mediated by a reduction in AANAT activity and expression as well as by increased expression of Icer mRNA. Peptidergic signaling within the pineal gland appears to be one of the most important signals which modulates melatonin synthesis; leptin, as a member of this system, is not an exception.

  4. The phototransduction cascade in the isolated chick pineal gland revisited.

    PubMed

    Holthues, Heike; Vollrath, Lutz

    2004-03-05

    It is well established that the isolated chick pineal gland is directly light sensitive and that melatonin synthesis of the gland can be inhibited by exposing the gland to light during scotophase. Since not all the steps of the phototransduction cascade have been clarified to the same extent as in the retina, we have treated isolated chick pineal glands with 90 min of light during scotophase and with drugs that affect key-components of vertebrate phototransduction, i.e., cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) phosphodiesterase 6 (PDE6), cGMP levels and cGMP-gated calcium channels. The endpoint measured was the activity of the rate-limiting enzyme of melatonin synthesis, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT), which is inhibited by light. The effects on AA-NAT activity of light were negated by addition of dipyridamol and zaprinast, either of which inhibits the light-induced activation of PDE6. The effect of light was also counteracted by the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside and C-type natriuretic peptide, both of which increase cGMP levels, and by the calcium channel agonist Bay K 8644, which prevents the cGMP-decrease-induced closure of cGMP-gated calcium channels. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine did not influence the inhibitory effect of light, suggesting that the NOS pathway does not play a role. Since the light effect on AA-NAT activity involves both cGMP and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) hydrolysis, we have also studied whether the cGMP-inhibited cAMP phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) is involved. As the specific PDE3 inhibitor cilostamide is without effect, we assume that the light-induced decrease of cAMP levels does not involve PDE3. These results taken together strongly suggest that the investigated steps of the phototransduction cascade in the isolated chick pineal gland are basically similar to those in the retina.

  5. Modulation of Aanat gene transcription in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Ho, Anthony K; Chik, Constance L

    2010-01-01

    The main function of the rat pineal gland is to transform the circadian rhythm generated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus into a rhythmic signal of circulating melatonin characterized by a large nocturnal increase that closely reflects the duration of night period. This is achieved through the tight coupling between environmental lighting and the expression of arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase, the rhythm-controlling enzyme in melatonin synthesis. The initiation of Aanat transcription at night is controlled largely by the norepinephrine-stimulated phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein by protein kinase A. However, to accurately reflect the duration of darkness, additional signaling mechanisms also participate to fine-tune the temporal profile of adrenergic-induced Aanat transcription. Here, we reviewed some of these signaling mechanisms, with emphasis on the more recent findings. These signaling mechanisms can be divided into two groups: those involving modification of constitutively expressed proteins and those requiring synthesis of new proteins. This review highlights the pineal gland as an excellent model system for studying neurotransmitter-regulated rhythmic gene expression.

  6. The morphology of the pineal gland of the yellow-toothed cavy (Galea Spixii Wagler, 1831) and red-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta leporina linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Câmara, Felipe Venceslau; Lopes, Igor Renno Guimarães; de Oliveira, Gleidson Benevides; Bezerra, Ferdinando Vinicius Fernandes; de Oliveira, Radan Elvis Matias; Oliveira Júnior, Carlos Magno; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Moacir Franco

    2015-08-01

    The pineal gland is an endocrine gland found in all mammals. This article describes the morphology of this important gland in two species of Caviideae, namely the yellow-toothed cavy and the red-rumped agouti. Ten adult animals of the two species used in current analysis were retrieved from the Center for the Multiplication of Wild Animals (CEMAS/UFERSA) and euthanized. The glands were removed and photographed in situ and ex situ. They were fixed in a paraformaldehyde solution 4% or glutaraldehyde 2.5% solution and submitted to routine histological techniques respectively for light and scanning electron microscopy. Macroscopically, the pineal gland with its elongated structure may be found between the cerebral hemispheres facing the rostral colliculi. Microscopically, pinealocytes and some glia cells were predominant. Contrastingly, to the cavy's pineal gland, a capsule covered the organ in the agouti, with the emission of incomplete septa to the interior, which divided it into two lobules. Light and scanning electron microscopes failed to show calcareous concretions in the pineal gland. Based on the topography of the cavy's and agouti's pineal gland, it may be classified as supra-callosum and ABC type.

  7. An autopsy case of sudden unexpected death due to a glial cyst of the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Na, Joo-Young; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Park, Jong-Tae

    2014-09-01

    Pineal cysts are usually asymptomatic; however, they may rarely cause symptoms such as chronic headache, paroxysmal headache with gaze paresis, postural syncope, loss of consciousness, and sudden death. A 30-year-old woman with no specific medical history except chronic headache was found collapsed in a public toilet per se. Postmortem examination revealed no external injuries or internal diseases except a cystic lesion of the pineal gland. Histologic examination showed an internal cyst surrounded by glial tissues and pineal parenchyma that was diagnosed as a glial cyst of the pineal gland. Although the pineal cyst cannot be confirmed as the cause of death, it was considered, as no other cause was evident. Herein, we report a pineal cyst considered as an assumed cause of death.

  8. Developmental and diurnal dynamics of Pax4 expression in the mammalian pineal gland: nocturnal down-regulation is mediated by adrenergic-cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate signaling.

    PubMed

    Rath, Martin F; Bailey, Michael J; Kim, Jong-So; Ho, Anthony K; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Coon, Steven L; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C

    2009-02-01

    Pax4 is a homeobox gene that is known to be involved in embryonic development of the endocrine pancreas. In this tissue, Pax4 counters the effects of the related protein, Pax6. Pax6 is essential for development of the pineal gland. In this study we report that Pax4 is strongly expressed in the pineal gland and retina of the rat. Pineal Pax4 transcripts are low in the fetus and increase postnatally; Pax6 exhibits an inverse pattern of expression, being more strongly expressed in the fetus. In the adult the abundance of Pax4 mRNA exhibits a diurnal rhythm in the pineal gland with maximal levels occurring late during the light period. Sympathetic denervation of the pineal gland by superior cervical ganglionectomy prevents the nocturnal decrease in pineal Pax4 mRNA. At night the pineal gland is adrenergically stimulated by release of norepinephrine from the sympathetic innervation; here, we found that treatment with adrenergic agonists suppresses pineal Pax4 expression in vivo and in vitro. This suppression appears to be mediated by cAMP, a second messenger of norepinephrine in the pineal gland, based on the observation that treatment with a cAMP mimic reduces pineal Pax4 mRNA levels. These findings suggest that the nocturnal decrease in pineal Pax4 mRNA is controlled by the sympathetic neural pathway that controls pineal function acting via an adrenergic-cAMP mechanism. The daily changes in Pax4 expression may influence gene expression in the pineal gland.

  9. [Expression of AIF and CGRP markers in pineal gland and thymus during aging].

    PubMed

    Lin'kova, N S; Katanugina, A S; Khavinson, V Kh

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the expression of AIF (apoptotic inducing factor) and CGRP (calcitonin gene related peptide) at autopsy material of pineal gland and thymus of people after 60 years old. The expression of AIF and CGRP was identified in both organs, but it did not change with age, which demonstrates the probable safety of functional activity of neuroimmunoendocrine system at aging. We found correlation between expression AIF and CGRP at pineal gland, but the correlation at thymus wasn't found. It is possible that pineal gland can express unidentified signal molecule controlling the expression of AIF and CGRP.

  10. Restricted feeding restores rhythmicity in the pineal gland of arrhythmic suprachiasmatic-lesioned rats.

    PubMed

    Feillet, Céline A; Mendoza, Jorge; Pévet, Paul; Challet, Etienne

    2008-12-01

    In mammals, the rhythmic synthesis of melatonin by the pineal gland is tightly controlled by the master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). In behaviourally arrhythmic SCN-lesioned rats, we investigated the effects of daily restricted feeding (RF) on pineal melatonin synthesis. RF restored not only a rhythmic transcription of the rate-limiting enzyme for melatonin biosynthesis [arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT)] and a rhythmic expression of c-FOS but also a rhythmic synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland. In control rats without functional SCN and fed ad libitum, a daily immobilization stress did not restore any rhythmicity in the pineal gland. Interestingly, a combination of RF and daily stress prior to the time of food access did not markedly impair AaNat mRNA and c-FOS rhythmicity but did abolish the restoration of rhythmic pineal melatonin. These data indicate that the synchronizing effects of RF on the pineal rhythmicity are not due to, and cannot be mimicked by, high levels of circulating glucocorticoids. In keeping with the multi-oscillatory nature of the circadian system, the rhythmicity of pineal melatonin in mammals, until now an exclusive output of the SCN, can also be controlled by daily feeding cues when the SCN clock is lacking. Thus, the present study demonstrates that daily RF in SCN-lesioned rats provides, probably via sympathetic fibres, synchronizing stimuli strong enough to drive rhythmicity in the pineal gland.

  11. Pineal gland function is required for colon antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Frajacomo, F T T; de Paula Garcia, W; Fernandes, C R; Garcia, S B; Kannen, V

    2015-10-01

    Light-at-night exposure enhances the risk of cancer. Colon cancer is among the most dangerous tumors affecting humankind. Physical exercise has shown positive effects against colon cancer. Here, we investigated whether pineal gland modulates antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in the colon. Surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments were performed to clarify the relationship between the pineal gland activity and manifestation of colonic preneoplastic lesions. Next, a progressive swimming training was applied in rats exposed or not to either non-surgical pineal impairment or carcinogen treatment for 10 weeks. Both surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments increased the development of colon preneoplasia. It was further found that impairing the pineal gland function, higher rates of DNA damage were induced in colonic epithelial and enteric glial cells. Physical exercise acted positively against preneoplasia, whereas impairing the pineal function with constant light exposure disrupts its positive effects on the development of preneoplastic lesions in the colon. This was yet related to increased DNA damage in glial cells and enteric neuronal activation aside from serum melatonin levels. Our findings suggest that protective effects of physical exercise against colon cancer are dependent on the pineal gland activity.

  12. Daily variation of constitutively activated nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB) in rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Cecon, Erika; Fernandes, Pedro A; Pinato, Luciana; Ferreira, Zulma S; Markus, Regina P

    2010-01-01

    In mammals, the production of melatonin by the pineal gland is mainly controlled by the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the master clock of the circadian system. We have previously shown that agents involved in inflammatory responses, such as cytokines and corticosterone, modulate pineal melatonin synthesis. The nuclear transcription factor NFKB, detected by our group in the rat pineal gland, modulates this effect. Here, we evaluated a putative constitutive role for the pineal gland NFKB pathway. Male rats were kept under 12 h:12 h light-dark (LD) cycle or under constant darkness (DD) condition. Nuclear NFKB was quantified by electrophoretic mobility shift assay on pineal glands obtained from animals killed throughout the day at different times. Nuclear content of NFKB presented a daily rhythm only in LD-entrained animals. During the light phase, the amount of NFKB increased continuously, and a sharp drop occurred when lights were turned off. Animals maintained in a constant light environment until ZT 18 showed diurnal levels of nuclear NFKB at ZT15 and ZT18. Propranolol (20 mg/kg, i.p., ZT 11) treatment, which inhibits nocturnal sympathetic input, impaired nocturnal decrease of NFKB only at ZT18. A similar effect was observed in free-running animals, which secreted less nocturnal melatonin. Because melatonin reduces constitutive NFKB activation in cultured pineal glands, we propose that this indolamine regulates this transcription factor pathway in the rat pineal gland, but not at the LD transition. The controversial results regarding the inhibition of pineal function by constant light or blocking sympathetic neurotransmission are discussed according to the hypothesis that the prompt effect of lights-off is not mediated by noradrenaline, which otherwise contributes to maintaining low levels of nuclear NFKB at night. In summary, we report here a novel transcription factor in the pineal gland, which exhibits a constitutive rhythm dependent on environmental photic

  13. Morphofunctional and signaling molecules overlap of the pineal gland and thymus: role and significance in aging.

    PubMed

    Paltsev, Michael A; Polyakova, Victoria O; Kvetnoy, Igor M; Anderson, George; Kvetnaia, Tatiana V; Linkova, Natalia S; Paltseva, Ekaterina M; Rubino, Rosa; De Cosmo, Salvatore; De Cata, Angelo; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2016-03-15

    Deficits in neuroendocrine-immune system functioning, including alterations in pineal and thymic glands, contribute to aging-associated diseases. This study looks at ageing-associated alterations in pineal and thymic gland functioning evaluating common signaling molecules present in both human and animal pinealocytes and thymocytes: endocrine cell markers (melatonin, serotonin, pCREB, AANAT, CGRP, VIP, chromogranin А); cell renovation markers (p53, AIF, Ki67), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP2, MMP9) and lymphocytes markers (CD4, CD5, CD8, CD20). Pineal melatonin is decreased, as is one of the melatonin pathway synthesis enzymes in the thymic gland. A further similarity is the increased MMPs levels evident over age in both glands. Significant differences are evident in cell renovation processes, which deteriorate more quickly in the aged thymus versus the pineal gland. Decreases in the number of pineal B-cells and thymic T-cells were also observed over aging. Collected data indicate that cellular involution of the pineal gland and thymus show many commonalities, but also significant changes in aging-associated proteins. It is proposed that such ageing-associated alterations in these two glands provide novel pharmaceutical targets for the wide array of medical conditions that are more likely to emerge over the course of ageing.

  14. Morphofunctional and signaling molecules overlap of the pineal gland and thymus: role and significance in aging

    PubMed Central

    Paltsev, Michael A.; Polyakova, Victoria O.; Kvetnoy, Igor M.; Anderson, George; Kvetnaia, Tatiana V.; Linkova, Natalia S.; Paltseva, Ekaterina M.; Rubino, Rosa; De Cosmo, Salvatore; De Cata, Angelo; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in neuroendocrine-immune system functioning, including alterations in pineal and thymic glands, contribute to aging-associated diseases. This study looks at ageing-associated alterations in pineal and thymic gland functioning evaluating common signaling molecules present in both human and animal pinealocytes and thymocytes: endocrine cell markers (melatonin, serotonin, pCREB, AANAT, CGRP, VIP, chromogranin A); cell renovation markers (p53, AIF, Ki67), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP2, MMP9) and lymphocytes markers (CD4, CD5, CD8, CD20). Pineal melatonin is decreased, as is one of the melatonin pathway synthesis enzymes in the thymic gland. A further similarity is the increased MMPs levels evident over age in both glands. Significant differences are evident in cell renovation processes, which deteriorate more quickly in the aged thymus versus the pineal gland. Decreases in the number of pineal B-cells and thymic T-cells were also observed over aging. Collected data indicate that cellular involution of the pineal gland and thymus show many commonalities, but also significant changes in aging-associated proteins. It is proposed that such ageing-associated alterations in these two glands provide novel pharmaceutical targets for the wide array of medical conditions that are more likely to emerge over the course of ageing. PMID:26943046

  15. Functional unity of the thymus and pineal gland and study of the mechanisms of aging.

    PubMed

    Polyakova, V O; Linkova, N S; Kvetnoy, I M; Khavinson, V Kh

    2011-09-01

    The data on the morphology and functions of the thymus and pineal gland in individuals of different age are analyzed and common mechanisms of involution of these organs during aging and the consequencies of this process are discussed. Based on the data on the molecular changes in the thymus and pineal gland during aging, the authors hypothesize the functional unity of these organs and their mutual complementarity in the maintenance of normal immune and endocrine status during aging.

  16. Rhodopsin Kinase Activity in the Mammalian Pineal Gland and Other Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somers, Robert L.; Klein, David C.

    1984-10-01

    Rhodopsin kinase, an enzyme involved in photochemical transduction in the retina, has been found in the mammalian pineal gland in amounts equal to those in the retina; other tissues had 7 percent of this amount, or less. This finding suggests that, in mammals, rhodopsin kinase functions in the pineal gland and other tissues to phosphorylate rhodopsin-like integral membrane receptors and is thereby involved in signal transduction.

  17. Effect of calcium on melatonin secretion in chick pineal gland I.

    PubMed

    Pablos, M I; Agapito, M T; Gutierrez-Baraja, R; Reiter, R J; Recio, J M

    1996-10-18

    Melatonin is the neurohormone which is synthesized by the pineal gland and secreted rhythmically. The role of calcium in the activation of melatonin production remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that calcium input participates in the regulation of chick pineal gland. Pineal glands from Gallus domesticus were perifuse with Krebs medium (controls) or with Krebs medium plus drugs (ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) or calcium ionophore A23187). When EGTA was added to the perifusion medium, free extracellular calcium concentrations were dramatically decreased and melatonin synthesis was decreased. On the other hand, when the calcium ionophore A23187 was added to the perifusion medium, chick pineal glands exhibited a marked increase in secretion of melatonin. No effects were observed when chick pineal glands were treated with drugs during or after the time of the natural peak levels. We propose that calcium input from extracellular medium and output from intracellular calcium reserves are primary mechanisms in the activation of melatonin synthesis in the chick pineal gland.

  18. Pineal Gland Volume Assessed by MRI and Its Correlation with 6-Sulfatoxymelatonin Levels among Older Men.

    PubMed

    Sigurdardottir, Lara G; Markt, Sarah C; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Aspelund, Thor; Fall, Katja; Schernhammer, Eva; Rider, Jennifer R; Launer, Lenore; Harris, Tamara; Stampfer, Meir J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Czeisler, Charles A; Lockley, Steven W; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A; Mucci, Lorelei A

    2016-10-01

    The pineal gland produces the hormone melatonin, and its volume may influence melatonin levels. We describe an innovative method for estimating pineal volume in humans and present the association of pineal parenchyma volume with levels of the primary melatonin metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin. We selected a random sample of 122 older Icelandic men nested within the AGES-Reykjavik cohort and measured their total pineal volume, their parenchyma volume, and the extent of calcification and cysts. For volume estimations we used manual segmentation of magnetic resonance images in the axial plane with simultaneous side-by-side view of the sagittal and coronal plane. We used multivariable adjusted linear regression models to estimate the association of pineal parenchyma volume and baseline characteristics, including 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels. We used logistic regression to test for differences in first morning urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels among men with or without cystic or calcified glands. The pineal glands varied in volume, shape, and composition. Cysts were present in 59% of the glands and calcifications in 21%. The mean total pineal volume measured 207 mm(3) (range 65-536 mm(3)) and parenchyma volume 178 mm(3) (range 65-503 mm(3)). In multivariable-adjusted models, pineal parenchyma volume was positively correlated with 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels (β = 0.52, p < 0.001). Levels of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin did not differ significantly by presence of cysts or calcification. By using an innovative method for pineal assessment, we found pineal parenchyma volume to be positively correlated with 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels, in line with other recent studies.

  19. Evidence of Pineal Gland Calcification on CBCT is Not Insignificant: What Else You Might Discover about Your Patient.

    PubMed

    Fore, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    The use of CBCT technology in the dental office is increasing rapidly. These scans provide information on anatomy not previously evaluated with traditional 2D films. One structure often mentioned in a CBCT radiology report is the pineal gland. The pineal gland will show evidence of calcification, but this calcification is often dismissed as a normal aging process. This review of the function and influence of the pineal gland may influence the doctor to complete further evaluation of the patient.

  20. Neuroendocrine mediated effects of electromagnetic-field exposure: Possible role of the pineal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.B.; Stevens, R.G.; Anderson, L.E. )

    1989-01-01

    Reports from recent epidemiological studies have suggested a possible association between extremely low frequently (ELF; including 50- or 60-Hz) electric- and magnetic-field exposure, and increased risk of certain cancers, depression, and miscarriage. ELF field-induced pineal gland dysfunction is a possible etiological factor in these effects. Work in our laboratory and elsewhere has shown that ELF electromagnetic-field exposure can alter the normal circadian rhythm of melatonin synthesis and release in the pineal gland. Consequences of reduced or inappropriately timed melatonin release on the endocrine, neuronal, and immune systems are discussed. Laboratory data linking ELF field exposure to changes in pineal circadian rhythms in both animal and humans are reviewed. The authors suggest that the pineal gland, in addition to being a convenient locus for measuring dyschronogenic effects of ELF field exposure, may play a central role in biological response to these fields via alterations in the melatonin signal.

  1. Biochemical and hormonal evaluation of pineal glands exposed in vitro to magnetic fields. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.E.; Leung, F.C.; Miller, D.L.

    1998-11-01

    It has been reported that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields can significantly alter pineal melatonin metabolism in vivo. However, whether such changes are due to direct or indirect effects of field exposure has not been clearly demonstrated. The objective of this research project was to examine the effects of magnetic fields on melatonin metabolism in pineal glands in vitro. Chicken pineal glands were cultured in a modified incubator encircled by a magnetic field exposure system. The incubator, that was remote from but attached to a standard laboratory incubator, contained a regulated light source for modulation of the light/dark cycle (12:12 L/D). Pineal glands from 4--6 week old chickens were maintained under 95% O{sub 2}, 5% CO{sub 2} in a static culture system. Because of problems due to contamination and loss of viability of such a system, a perfusion system was developed for EMF studies. Both single and multiple chicken pineal glands were used in the perfusion studies and were kept viable in the perfusion chamber by a continuous flow of medium at 39 C for up to 8 days. Perfusate samples were collected into a fraction collector and were subsequently kept frozen at {minus} 20 C until assays were performed. Melatonin secreted by the cultured pineal glands and released into the medium was measured by a melatonin double antibody radioimmunoassay (RIA) using {sup 125}I-melatonin as the label.

  2. Histamine-stimulated cyclic AMP formation in the chick pineal gland: role of protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Zawilska, J B; Woldan-Tambor, A; Nowak, J Z

    1997-08-15

    The role of protein kinase C (PKC) in histamine (HA)-stimulated cyclic AMP formation in intact chick pineal glands was investigated. In the pineal gland of chick HA, 2-methylHA, 4-methylHA, and N alpha, N alpha-dimethylHA potently increased cyclic AMP accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment of intact glands with PKC inhibitors, i.e. chelerythrine and stautosporine, reduced the stimulatory effect of the HA-ergic compounds on cyclic AMP formation. HA, 2-methylHA, 4-methylHA, and N alpha, N alpha-dimethylHA significantly increased inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) levels in intact chick pineal glands, indicating their activities on phospholipase C and 1,2-diacylglycerol formation. The stimulatory effect of HA on IP3 levels was antagonized by aminopotentidine, a potent blocker of H2-like HA receptors in avian pineal gland. Preincubation of chick pineal glands with a PKC activator, 4 beta-phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (4 beta-PDB), enhanced the accumulation of cyclic AMP elicited by HA, 2-methylHA, 4-methylHA, and N alpha, N alpha-dimethylHA. On the other hand, 4 beta-phorbol, inactive on the PKC, was ineffective. Our results point to the possibility that PKC is involved in the regulation by HA of cyclic AMP synthesis in the pineal gland of chick. Furthermore, the cyclic AMP response to pineal HA receptor stimulation can be positively modulated by a concomitant activation of the PKC pathway.

  3. Occurrence of Pineal Gland Tumors in Combined Chronic Toxicity/Carcinogenicity Studies in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Treumann, Silke; Buesen, Roland; Gröters, Sibylle; Eichler, Jens-Olaf; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2015-08-01

    Pineal gland tumors are very rare brain lesions in rats as well as in other species including humans. A total of 8 (out of 1,360 examined) Wistar rats from 3 different combined chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity or mere carcinogenicity studies revealed pineal gland tumors. The tumors were regarded to be spontaneous and unrelated to treatment. The morphology and immunohistochemical evaluation led to the diagnosis malignant pinealoma. The main characteristics that were variably developed within the tumors were the following: cellular atypia, high mitotic index, giant cells, necrosis, Homer Wright rosettes, Flexner-Wintersteiner rosettes and pseudorosettes, positive immunohistochemical reaction for synaptophysin, and neuron-specific enolase. The pineal gland is not a protocol organ for histopathological examination in carcinogenicity studies. Nevertheless, the pineal gland can occasionally be encountered on the routine brain section or if it is the origin of a tumor protruding into the brain, the finding will be recorded. Therefore, although known to be a rare tumor in rats, pineal neoplasms should be included in the list of possible differential diagnoses for brain tumors, especially when the tumor is located in the region of the pineal body.

  4. [Symptomatic glial cysts of the pineal gland: report of two cases and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Vajtai, I; Bodosi, M; Varga, Z; Ormos, J; Vörös, E

    1995-08-27

    Referring to two individual cases, the authors review clinical, radiological and histological features of benign glial cysts of the pineal gland. Both patients were young females with aggravating headaches and with convulsions in one case. Symptoms were referable to a space-occupying cystic mass of the pineal gland. On histology, both lesions proved to be non neoplastic cysts without an epithelial lining. Their histogenesis and low growth potential were reinforced by immunohistochemical analysis of pineal antigens and proliferation markers. Glial cysts of the pineal gland are not infrequent, but symptomatic occurrences are exceptional. Most glial cysts are of dysontogenic or degenerative origin. Sometimes, however, the role of hormonal influences or paraneoplastic factors must be considered. Symptoms caused by glial cysts of the pineal gland are non-specific and radiologic imaging technics may contribute little to etiologic diagnosis. Pineal cysts are curable by surgical resection or stereotactic decompression. Whatever the diagnostic approach, emphasis must be laid on the histologic examination in order to avoid unnecessarily aggressive treatment.

  5. Circadian changes in long noncoding RNAs in the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Coon, Steven L; Munson, Peter J; Cherukuri, Praveen F; Sugden, David; Rath, Martin F; Møller, Morten; Clokie, Samuel J H; Fu, Cong; Olanich, Mary E; Rangel, Zoila; Werner, Thomas; Mullikin, James C; Klein, David C

    2012-08-14

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a broad range of biological roles, including regulation of expression of genes and chromosomes. Here, we present evidence that lncRNAs are involved in vertebrate circadian biology. Differential night/day expression of 112 lncRNAs (0.3 to >50 kb) occurs in the rat pineal gland, which is the source of melatonin, the hormone of the night. Approximately one-half of these changes reflect nocturnal increases. Studies of eight lncRNAs with 2- to >100-fold daily rhythms indicate that, in most cases, the change results from neural stimulation from the central circadian oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (doubling time = 0.5-1.3 h). Light exposure at night rapidly reverses (halving time = 9-32 min) levels of some of these lncRNAs. Organ culture studies indicate that expression of these lncRNAs is regulated by norepinephrine acting through cAMP. These findings point to a dynamic role of lncRNAs in the circadian system.

  6. Pineal gland volume in primary insomnia and healthy controls: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Bumb, Jan M; Schilling, Claudia; Enning, Frank; Haddad, Leila; Paul, Franc; Lederbogen, Florian; Deuschle, Michael; Schredl, Michael; Nolte, Ingo

    2014-06-01

    Little is known about the relation between pineal volume and insomnia. Melatonin promotes sleep processes and, administered as a drug, it is suitable to improve primary and secondary sleep disorders in humans. Recent magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that human plasma and saliva melatonin levels are partially determined by the pineal gland volume. This study compares the pineal volume in a group of patients with primary insomnia to a group of healthy people without sleep disturbance. Pineal gland volume (PGV) was measured on the basis of high-resolution 3 Tesla MRI (T1-magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo) in 23 patients and 27 controls, matched for age, gender and educational status. Volume measurements were performed conventionally by manual delineation of the pineal borders in multi-planar reconstructed images. Pineal gland volume was significantly smaller (P < 0.001) in patients (48.9 ± 26.6 mm(3) ) than in controls (79 ± 30.2 mm(3) ). In patients PGV correlated negatively with age (r = -0.532; P = 0.026). Adjusting for the effect of age, PGV and rapid eye movement (REM) latency showed a significant positive correlation (rS  = 0.711, P < 0.001) in patients. Pineal volume appears to be reduced in patients with primary insomnia compared to healthy controls. Further studies are needed to clarify whether low pineal volume is the basis or the consequence of functional sleep changes to elucidate the molecular pathology for the pineal volume loss in primary insomnia.

  7. Effect of L-NAME-induced hypertension on melatonin receptors and melatonin levels in the pineal gland and the peripheral organs of rats.

    PubMed

    Benova, Miroslava; Herichova, Iveta; Stebelova, Katarina; Paulis, Ludovit; Krajcirovicova, Kristina; Simko, Fedor; Zeman, Michal

    2009-04-01

    Melatonin plays a role in blood pressure (BP) control. The aim of this study was to determine whether melatonin concentrations and melatonin receptor levels are altered in L-NAME-treated, NO-deficient hypertensive rats. Two groups of male adult Wistar rats were investigated: rats (n=36) treated with NO-synthase inhibitor L-NAME (40 mg kg(-1)) and age-matched controls (n=36). BP was measured weekly by tail-cuff plethysmography. After 4 weeks, L-NAME administration increased BP (178+/-1 vs. control 118+/-1 mm Hg). At the end of treatment, rats were killed in regular 4 h intervals over a 24-h period. Melatonin concentrations in the plasma, pineal gland, heart and kidney and melatonin receptor (MT(1)) density in the aorta were determined. A significant daily rhythm of melatonin concentrations was found in the blood, pineal gland, kidney and heart of both control and hypertensive rats. Peak nighttime pineal melatonin concentrations were higher in L-NAME-treated rats than in controls (3.38+/-0.48 vs. 1.75+/-0.33 ng per pineal gland). No differences between both groups were found in melatonin concentrations in blood, kidney and heart or in the MT(1) receptor density in the aorta. Our results suggest that L-NAME treatment enhances melatonin production in the pineal gland, potentially by decreasing an inhibitory effect of NO on melatonin production in the pineal gland. However, the enhanced pineal melatonin formation was insufficient to increase melatonin concentrations in circulation, heart and kidney of L-NAME-treated rats, indicating an increased use of melatonin in hypertensive animals.

  8. [Morphometric data on pineal gland of loir (Glis glis) and lerot (Elioyms quercinus) during the annual cycle].

    PubMed

    Legait, H; Roux, M; Dussart, G; Richoux, J P; Contet-Audonneau, J L

    1975-01-01

    The important involution of the pineal gland of Glis glis and Eliomys quercinus during the months of july and august belongs to a polyglandular involution (anterior lobe of the hypophysis, male and female genital glands) characteristic of estivation.

  9. Daytime pineal gland activation in rats with colon tumors induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine(3).

    PubMed

    Sibarov, Dmitrii A.; Kovalenko, Rimma I.; Anisimov, Vladimir N.; Nozdrachev, Alexander D.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Intact rats and rats with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced tumors of large intestine were used in experiments. Previously, blood melatonin concentration in these tumor-bearing rats was shown to increase at night, but not in the daytime. METHODS: The extracellular microelectrode registration of rat daytime pineal gland activity was performed. RESULTS: The existence of different types of pinealocytes in the pineal gland was confirmed. Tumor-bearing rats, in comparison to intact, demonstrated higher spike frequency due to cells switching from regular to pattern (4-6 times gain) activity and appearance of "fast" cells (>5Hz frequency). CONSLUSIONS: The literature about pinealocytes points to the correlation between electrical and secretory processes in pinealocytes; thus we suppose the groups of interacting cells, detected in tumor-bearing rats, to reflect cascade cells activation while pineal gland secretion increases. The results indicate, that in the daytime pinealocytes are secreting substances (not melatonin) in dependence with hormonal background.

  10. Stimulatory effect of bombesin on phosphoinositide metabolism in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Novotná, R; Novotný, I

    1997-10-03

    The pineal gland is under complex peptidergic nervous control originating from hypothalamic nuclei. The daily rhythm of bombesin-like peptide in the hypothalamus suggests that this neuropeptide, similarly as other neuropeptides, might be involved in modulation of the physiological activity of the pineal gland. In our experiments we studied the mechanism of signal transduction of bombesin in the isolated pineal glands of rats. The phosphoinositide signalling system was examined by measuring 32P-labelling of phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2), which reflects phosphoinositide cycle activation. Bombesin induced a significant increase in 32P-labelling of PI, PIP and PIP2. The antagonist of this neuropeptide, (D-Phe12-Leu14)-bombesin, suppressed the increase in 32P-labelling of all phosphoinositides. Bombesin was without effect on cAMP dependent protein phosphorylation. The data indicate that bombesin activates the PI signalling system via specific receptors.

  11. Photoperiodic inhibition of testicular development is mediated by the pineal gland in white-footed mice

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, P.G.; Boshes, M.; Zucker, I.

    1982-05-01

    White-footed mice were maintained in short or long photoperiods from birth to 60 days of age (10 h vs. 14 h of light per day). Testes weights and spermatogenesis were substantially reduced in short daylengths. Pinealectomy at 5-7 days of age eliminated the suppressive effect of photoperiod on the reproductive system. However, testicular development was not retarded in intact males kept from 25 to 60 days of age in short daylengths. Exposure to short daylengths prior to 25 days of age contributes to photoperiodic inhibition of testicular development. Removal of the pineal gland did not consistently affect gonadal maturation in long photoperiods. The pineal gland transduces the effects of short daylengths on reproductive development. Some effects of long daylengths on the neuroendocrine axis of white-footed mice may also be mediated by the pineal gland.

  12. Arterial vascularization of the pineal gland in the fetus of Zavot-bred cattle.

    PubMed

    Aslan, K; Ozcan, S; Aksoy, G; Kurtul, I; Dursun, N

    2003-04-01

    This study aimed at revealing arterial vascularization of the pineal gland of the Zavot-bred foetus. Twenty foetuses, regardless of their sex, at the age of 2-7 months were used. Coloured-latex was injected by way of both the right and left common carotid arteries. Then, dissection was performed and vessels nourishing the pineal gland were documented. The pineal gland is vascularized by a number of 2-5 central rami. A small vessel arising from each of the central rami in two foetuses (10%) was shown anastomosing with a branch of the cranial cerebral artery, which advances in cranio-caudal direction in the callosal groove. Hence, anastomoses were observed between several sub-branches of each caudal cerebral and cranial cerebellar arteries.

  13. 68Ga-DOTATATE uptake in pineal gland, a rare physiological variant: case series.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Saima; Syed, Rizwan; Skoura, Evangelia; Alshammari, Alshaima; Gaze, Mark; Sajjan, Rakesh; Halsey, Richard; Bomanji, Jamshed

    2015-11-01

    (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET-CT is widely used for the evaluation of neuroendocrine tumours. Knowledge of the physiological distribution of the radiotracer is of critical importance in characterizing focal areas of uptake. In this case series, we report three paediatric cases (average age 4.7 years ± 0.6 SD) with diagnosed advanced stage IV Neuroblastoma. Two had (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET-CT scans and one underwent (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET-MRI scan to assess for suitability of molecular therapy. Focal increased tracer uptake in the pineal gland was noted in all cases with no morphological abnormality on the corresponding CT and MRI scans. The uptake within the gland was thought to be a physiological variant rather than metastases owing to the heterogeneity of somatostatin receptors expression. The pineal gland has been reported to express somatostatin receptors. The physiological distribution of (68)Ga-DOTATATE uptake in the pineal gland is not routinely seen. Furthermore, the possibility of pineal meningioma is very unlikely as pineal meningiomas are very rare and there was no convincing morphological evidence of meningiomas on CT/MRI scan.

  14. [Pineal gland glutathione peroxidase activity in rats and its age-associated change].

    PubMed

    Razygraev, A V

    2010-01-01

    Glutathione peroxidase activity has been studied in the pineal gland (epiphysis) of young and aging female Wistar rats (2-4 and 17-19 month old). For comparison the same activity was studied in the pyramids of medulla oblongata and in the olfactory tubercle. These two brain structures represent white and gray matter respectively. The determination of the activity was performed with H2O2 as a substrate and with 5,5'-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) for estimation of the decrease of restored form of glutathione concentration. The glutathione peroxidase activity was higher in the pineal gland than in the brain structures used. Pineal glutathione peroxidase activities (micromole of GSH per minute per milligram of protein, M +/- m) in young and old rats were 1,52 +/- 0,07 and 1,27 +/- 0,06 respectively (p<0,05). The potential reason for the declined enzymatic activity found in the aged rats is the age-associated decrease of the selenium content in the pineal gland. The decline found may be one of the reflections of the pineal gland functional involution.

  15. Distribution of components of basal lamina and dystrophin-dystroglycan complex in the rat pineal gland: differences from the brain tissue and between the subdivisions of the gland.

    PubMed

    Bagyura, Zsolt; Pócsai, Károly; Kálmán, Mihály

    2010-01-01

    The pineal gland is an evagination of the brain tissue, a circumventricular neuroendocrine organ. Our immunohistochemical study investigates basal lamina components (laminin, agrin, perlecan, fibronectin), their receptor, the dystrophin-dystroglycan complex (beta-dystroglycan, dystrophin utrophin), aquaporins (-4,-9) and cellular markers (S100, neurofilament, GFAP, glutamine synthetase) in the adult rat corpus pineale. The aim was to compare the immunohistochemical features of the cerebral and pineal vessels and their environment, and to compare their features in the distal and proximal subdivisions of the so-called 'superficial pineal gland'. In contrast to the cerebral vessels, pineal vessels proved to be immunonegative to alpha1-dystrobrevin, but immunoreactive to laminin. An inner, dense, and an outer, loose layer of laminin as two basal laminae were present. The gap between them contained agrin and perlecan. Basal lamina components enmeshed the pinealocytes, too. Components of dystrophin-dystroglycan complex were also distributed along the vessels. Dystrophin, utrophin and agrin gave a 'patchy' distribution rather than a continuous one. The vessels were interconnected by wing-like structures, composed of basal lamina-components: a delicate network forming nests for cells. Cells immunostained with glutamine synthetase, S100-protein or neurofilament protein contacted the vessels, as well as GFAP- or aquaporin-immunostained astrocytes. Within the body a smaller, proximal, GFAP-and aquaporin-containing subdivision, and a larger, distal, GFAP-and aquaporin-free subdivision could be distinguished. The vascular localization of agrin and utrophin, as well as dystrophin, delineated vessels unequally, preferring the proximal or distal end of the body, respectively.

  16. RGS2 is a feedback inhibitor of melatonin production in the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Masahiro; Coon, Steven L; Klein, David C

    2013-05-02

    The 24-h rhythmic production of melatonin by the pineal gland is essential for coordinating circadian physiology. Melatonin production increases at night in response to the release of norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve processes which innervate the pineal gland. This signal is transduced through G-protein-coupled adrenergic receptors. Here, we found that the abundance of regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2) increases at night, that expression is increased by norepinephrine and that this protein has a negative feedback effect on melatonin production. These data are consistent with the conclusion that RGS2 functions on a daily basis to negatively modulate melatonin production.

  17. Aicardi syndrome: an unusual case associated with pineal gland cyst and ventricular septal defect.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Fatih Mehmet; Akin, Ridvan; Uysal, Yusuf; Unay, Bulent; Altinsoy, H Ibrahim; Bayraktar, M Zeki

    2006-12-01

    Aicardi syndrome is a cerebroretinal disorder consisting of a heterogeneous spectrum of clinical findings that includes the triad of infantile spasms, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and chorioretinal lacunae. This report describes a 6-month-old girl who has all of the essential features suggestive of Aicardi syndrome, as well as a pineal gland cyst and ventricular septal defect. Although the characteristic features of Aicardi syndrome have been described, its association with pineal gland cyst and ventricular septal defect has not been reported in the literature.

  18. Pineal gland expression of the transcription factor Egr-1 is restricted to a population of glia that are distinct from nestin-immunoreactive cells.

    PubMed

    Man, Pui-Sin; Carter, David A

    2008-02-01

    Egr-1 is a plasticity-related transcription factor that has been implicated in circadian regulation of the pineal gland. In the present study we have investigated the cellular expression pattern of Egr-1 in the adult rat pineal. Egr-1 protein is restricted to the nucleus of a sub-population of cells. These cells were characterised using a new transgenic rat model (egr-1-d2EGFP) in which green fluorescent protein is driven by the egr-1 promoter. Cellular filling by GFP revealed that Egr-1-positive cells exhibited processes, indicating a glial cell-type morphology. This was confirmed by co-localizing the GFP-filled processes with vimentin and S-100beta. However, GFP/Egr-1 is expressed in only a tiny minority of the previously identified Id-1/vimentin-positive glial cells and therefore represents a novel sub-set of this (GFAP-negative) glial population. We have also demonstrated for the first time an extensive network of nestin-positive cells throughout the adult pineal gland, however these cells do not co-express Egr-1. Our studies have therefore broadened our understanding of the cell populations that constitute the adult pineal. Cellular localization of Egr-1 has revealed that this factor does not appear to be directly involved in pinealocyte production of melatonin but is required in a sub-set of pineal glia.

  19. Characterization of the Expression of Basigin Gene Products Within the Pineal Gland of Mice.

    PubMed

    Tokar, Derek; van Ekeris, Leslie; Linser, Paul J; Ochrietor, Judith D

    2016-11-04

    The expression of Basigin gene products and monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT1) has been investigated within the mammalian neural retina and suggests a role for these proteins in cellular metabolism within that tissue. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the expression of these same proteins in the pineal gland of the mouse brain. Mouse pineal gland and neural retina RNA and protein were subjected to quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting analyses. In addition, paraffin-embedded sections of each tissue were analyzed for expression of Basigin gene products and MCT1 via immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that MCT1 and Basigin variant-2, but not Basigin variant-1, are expressed within the mouse pineal gland. The expression of Basigin variant-2 and MCT1 was localized to the capsule surrounding the gland. The position and relative amounts of the gene products suggest that they play a much less prominent role within the pineal gland than in the neural retina.

  20. The pineal gland: A model for adrenergic modulation of ubiquitin ligases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenjun; Reiter, Russel J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A recent study of the pineal gland of the rat found that the expression of more than 3000 genes showed significant day/night variations (The Hartley dataset). The investigators of this report made available a supplemental table in which they tabulated the expression of many genes that they did not discuss, including those coding for components of the ubiquitin proteasome system. Herein we identify the genes of the ubiquitin proteasome system whose expression were significantly influenced by environmental lighting in the Hartley dataset, those that were stimulated by DBcAMP in pineal glands in culture, and those that were stimulated by norepinephrine. Purpose Using the Ubiquitin and Ubiquitin-like Conjugation Database (UUCA) we identified ubiquitin ligases and conjugases, and deubiquitinases in the Hartley dataset for the purpose of determining whether expression of genes of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway were significantly influenced by day/night variations and if these variations were regulated by autonomic innervation of the pineal gland from the superior cervical ganglia. Methods In the Hartley experiments pineal glands groups of rats sacrificed during the day and groups sacrificed during the night were examined for gene expression. Additional groups of rats had their superior cervical ganglia removed surgically or surgically decentralized and the pineal glands likewise examined for gene expression. Results The genes with at least a 2-fold day/night significant difference in expression included genes for 5 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes, genes for 58 ubiquitin E3 ligases and genes for 6 deubiquitinases. A 35-fold day/night difference was noted in the expression of the gene Sik1, which codes for a protein containing both an ubiquitin binding domain (UBD) and an ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain. Most of the significant differences in these genes were prevented by surgical removal, or disconnection, of the superior cervical ganglia, and most were

  1. Developmental and diurnal expression of the synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (Snap25) in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Anna S; Rath, Martin F; Rohde, Kristian; Toft, Trine; Møller, Morten

    2013-06-01

    Snap25 (synaptosomal-associated protein) is a 25 kDa protein, belonging to the SNARE-family (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) of proteins, essential for synaptic and secretory vesicle exocytosis. Snap25 has by immunohistochemistry been demonstrated in the rat pineal gland but the biological importance of this is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate a high expression of mRNA encoding Snap25 in all parts of the rat pineal complex, the superficial-, and deep-pineal gland, as well as in the pineal stalk. Snap25 showed a low pineal expression during embryonic stages with a strong increase in expression levels just after birth. The expression showed no day/night variations. Neither removal of the sympathetic input to the pineal gland by superior cervical ganglionectomy nor bilateral decentralization of the superior cervical ganglia significantly affected the expression of Snap25 in the gland. The pineal expression levels of Snap25 were not changed following intraperitoneal injection of isoproterenol. The strong expression of Snap25 in the pineal gland suggests the presence of secretory granules and microvesicles in the rat pinealocyte supporting the concept of a vesicular release. At the transcriptional level, this Snap25-based release mechanism does not exhibit any diurnal rhythmicity and is regulated independently of the sympathetic nervous input to the gland.

  2. A noradrenergic sensitive endogenous clock is present in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Wongchitrat, Prapimpun; Felder-Schmittbuhl, Marie-Paule; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Simonneaux, Valérie

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence of endogenous oscillations of Per1, Per2, Bmal1 and Rev-erbα genes in rat pineal explants and to investigate their regulation by adrenergic ligands. Our results show a significant and sustained rhythm of Per2,Bmal1 and Rev-erbα gene expression for up to 48 h in cultured pineal gland with a pattern similar to that observed in vivo. By contrast, the rhythms of Per1 and Aa-nat, the rate-limiting enzyme for melatonin synthesis, were strongly attenuated after 24 h in culture. Addition of the exogenous adrenergic agonist isoproterenol on cultured pineal glands induced a short-term increase in mRNA levels of Per1 and Aa-nat, but not those of Per2,Bmal1 and Rev-erbα. This study demonstrates that the rat pineal gland hosts a circadian oscillator as evidenced by the sustained, noradrenergic-independent, endogenous oscillations of Per2, Bmal1 and Rev-erbα mRNA levels in cultured tissues. Only expression of Per1 was stimulated by adrenergic ligands suggesting that, in vivo, the adrenergic input could synchronize the pineal clock by acting selectively on Per1.

  3. Pineal gland hormone and idiopathic scoliosis: possible effect of melatonin on sleep-related postural mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pompeiano, O; Manzoni, D; Miele, F

    2002-04-01

    regulation of posture during the animal states indicated above. This hypothesis is supported by the facts that: 1) the dorsal pRF may contain specific binding sites for M; 2) this structure is particularly sensitive to M in adolescents, as well as in adult subjects affected by narcoleptic disturbances leading to cataplexy; 3) M increases the release of serotonin (5-HT), a neurotransmitter which enhances the postural tone by acting on the dorsal pRF: on the other hand, deficits in M levels may lower the activity of the serotoninergic raphe system, thus leading to a decrease or suppression of postural activity similar to that occurring either during REM sleep or during the cataplectic episodes typical of narcoleptic patients; 4) IS patients may show episodes of sleep apnea, a phenomenon which has been attibuted to a reduced tonic contraction of primary and accessory respiratory muscles during REM, resulting from a reduced release of 5-HT at dorsal pontine level. It has been postulated that, if the reduced M and 5-HT levels are subliminal to produce a complete suppression of posture under the conditions reported above, the reduced postural tone, which results from this condition may lead to the development of IS, due to hypotonia which affects the axial musculature. M secretion could be regulated not only by the activity of the serotoninergic raphe neurons projecting to the pineal gland, but probably also by the activity of noradrenergic LC neurons. It is likely that the development of IS, which results from a reduced level of M and 5-HT, may occur provided that the noradrenergic LC inhibition of the pontine structures is impaired. Such impairment could depend upon genetic factors, similar to those postulated to play a role in narcolepsy. In conclusion, the possibility exists that an impaired activity of brain monoaminergic systems may lead to disfunction in the production of M, which is apparently an important factor in the etiopathogenesis of IS.

  4. Daily rhythm and regulation of clock gene expression in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Simonneaux, V; Poirel, V-J; Garidou, M-L; Nguyen, D; Diaz-Rodriguez, E; Pévet, P

    2004-01-05

    Rhythms in pineal melatonin synthesis are controlled by the biological clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei. The endogenous clock oscillations rely upon genetic mechanisms involving clock genes coding for transcription factors working in negative and positive feedback loops. Most of these clock genes are expressed rhythmically in other tissues. Because of the peculiar role of the pineal gland in the photoneuroendocrine axis regulating biological rhythms, we studied whether clock genes are expressed in the rat pineal gland and how their expression is regulated.Per1, Per3, Cry2 and Cry1 clock genes are expressed in the pineal gland and their transcription is increased during the night. Analysis of the regulation of these pineal clock genes indicates that they may be categorized into two groups. Expression of Per1 and Cry2 genes shows the following features: (1) the 24 h rhythm persists, although damped, in constant darkness; (2) the nocturnal increase is abolished following light exposure or injection with a beta-adrenergic antagonist; and (3) the expression during daytime is stimulated by an injection with a beta-adrenergic agonist. In contrast, Per3 and Cry1 day and night mRNA levels are not responsive to adrenergic ligands (as previously reported for Per2) and daily expression of Per3 and Cry1 appears strongly damped or abolished in constant darkness. These data show that the expression of Per1 and Cry2 in the rat pineal gland is regulated by the clock-driven changes in norepinephrine, in a similar manner to the melatonin rhythm-generating enzyme arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase. The expression of Per3 and Cry1 displays a daily rhythm not regulated by norepinephrine, suggesting the involvement of another day/night regulated transmitter(s).

  5. Insulin modulates norepinephrine-mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Rodrigo Antonio Peliciari; Afeche, Solange Castro; Scialfa, Julieta Helena; do Amaral, Fernanda Gaspar; dos Santos, Sabrina Heloísa José; Lima, Fabio Bessa; Young, Martin Elliot; Cipolla-Neto, José

    2008-01-02

    The mammalian pineal gland synthesizes melatonin in a circadian manner, peaking during the dark phase. This synthesis is primarily regulated by sympathetic innervations via noradrenergic fibers, but is also modulated by many peptidergic and hormonal systems. A growing number of studies reveal a complex role for melatonin in influencing various physiological processes, including modulation of insulin secretion and action. In contrast, a role for insulin as a modulator of melatonin synthesis has not been investigated previously. The aim of the current study was to determine whether insulin modulates norepinephrine (NE)-mediated melatonin synthesis. The results demonstrate that insulin (10(- 8)M) potentiated norepinephrine-mediated melatonin synthesis and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPOH) activity in ex vivo incubated pineal glands. When ex vivo incubated pineal glands were synchronized (12h NE-stimulation, followed by 12h incubation in the absence of NE), insulin potentiated NE-mediated melatonin synthesis and arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) activity. Insulin did not affect the activity of hydroxyindole-O-methyltranferase (HIOMT), nor the gene expression of tpoh, aanat, or hiomt, under any of the conditions investigated. We conclude that insulin potentiates NE-mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal gland, potentially through post-transcriptional events.

  6. Proteomic analysis of day-night variations in protein levels in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Møller, Morten; Sparre, Thomas; Bache, Nicolai; Roepstorff, Peter; Vorum, Henrik

    2007-06-01

    The pineal gland secretes the hormone melatonin. This secretion exhibits a circadian rhythm with a zenith during night and a nadir during day. We have performed proteome analysis of the superficial pineal gland in rats during daytime and nighttime. The proteins were extracted and subjected to 2-DE. Of 1747 protein spots revealed by electrophoresis, densitometric analysis showed the up-regulation of 25 proteins during nighttime and of 35 proteins during daytime. Thirty-seven of the proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The proteins up-regulated during the night are involved in the Krebs cycle, energy transduction, calcium binding, and intracellular transport. During the daytime, enzymes involved in glycolysis, electron transport, and also the Krebs cycle were up-regulated as well as proteins taking part in RNA binding and RNA processing. Our data show a prominent day-night variation of the protein levels in the rat pineal gland. Some proteins are up-regulated during the night concomitant with the melatonin secretion of the gland. Other proteins are up-regulated during the day indicating a pineal metabolism not related to the melatonin synthesis.

  7. Tryptophan hydroxylase is modulated by L-type calcium channels in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Roseli; Scialfa, Julieta Helena; Terra, Ilza Mingarini; Cipolla-Neto, José; Simonneaux, Valérie; Afeche, Solange Castro

    2008-02-27

    Calcium is an important second messenger in the rat pineal gland, as well as cAMP. They both contribute to melatonin synthesis mediated by the three main enzymes of the melatonin synthesis pathway: tryptophan hydroxylase, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase. The cytosolic calcium is elevated in pinealocytes following alpha(1)-adrenergic stimulation, through IP(3)-and membrane calcium channels activation. Nifedipine, an L-type calcium channel blocker, reduces melatonin synthesis in rat pineal glands in vitro. With the purpose of investigating the mechanisms involved in melatonin synthesis regulation by the L-type calcium channel, we studied the effects of nifedipine on noradrenergic stimulated cultured rat pineal glands. Tryptophan hydroxylase, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase activities were quantified by radiometric assays and 5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin, N-acetylserotonin and melatonin contents were quantified by HPLC with electrochemical detection. The data showed that calcium influx blockaded by nifedipine caused a decrease in tryptophan hydroxylase activity, but did not change either arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase or hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase activities. Moreover, there was a reduction of 5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin, N-acetylserotonin and melatonin intracellular content, as well as a reduction of serotonin and melatonin secretion. Thus, it seems that the calcium influx through L-type high voltage-activated calcium channels is essential for the full activation of tryptophan hydroxylase leading to melatonin synthesis in the pineal gland.

  8. Melatonin and pineal gland peptides are able to correct the impairment of reproductive cycles in rats.

    PubMed

    Arutjunyan, Alexander; Kozina, Ljudmila; Milyutina, Yulia; Korenevsky, Andrew; Stepanov, Michael; Arutyunov, Vladimir

    2012-12-01

    Catecholamines play an important role in the hypothalamic regulation of the synthesis and secretion of gonadotropin- releasing hormone, or gonadoliberin. We have shown that melatonin and the pineal gland peptides (epithalamine and epitalon) exert a correcting influence on the diurnal dynamics of norepinephrine (NE) in the medial preoptic area (MPA) and of dopamine (DA) in the median eminence with arcuate nuclei (ME-Arc) disturbed by single administration of the neurotoxic xenobiotic 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in female rats. It has been found that experiments with DMH administration can be used as an animal model of female reproductive system premature aging. The investigation of epithalamine (a polypeptide preparation from the bovine pineal gland) effect on circadian rhythms disturbed by the neurotoxic compound DMH has shown a recovery of the diurnal dynamics of NE in MPA. In addition, NE was found to decrease from 9:30 till 11 o'clock, Circadian Time (CT), which was typical of control animals. Epitalon (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly) proved to be more effective in ME-Arc. This peptide prevents the xenobiotic caused disturbance of DA diurnal rhythm, keeping this metabolite low at 5 o'clock (CT) with it having increased by 11 o'clock (CT). The data obtained suggest that the pineal gland is important for the circadian signal normalization needed for gonadoliberin surge on the day of proestrus. Melatonin and peptides of the pineal gland can be considered as effective protectors of female reproductive system from xenobiotics and premature aging.

  9. Insulin modulates norepinephrine-mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal gland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mammalian pineal gland synthesizes melatonin in a circadian manner, peaking during the dark phase. This synthesis is primarily regulated by sympathetic innervations via noradrenergic fibers, but is also modulated by many peptidergic and hormonal systems. A growing number of studies reveal a comp...

  10. Association of mast cells with calcification in the human pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Maślińska, Danuta; Laure-Kamionowska, Milena; Deręgowski, Krzysztof; Maśliński, Sławomir

    2010-01-01

    Increased pineal calcifications and decreased pineal melatonin biosynthesis, both age related, support the notion of a pineal bio-organic timing mechanism. The role of calcification in the pathogenesis of pineal gland dysfunction remains unknown but the available data document that calcification is an organized, regulated process, rather than a passive aging phenomenon. The cellular biology and micro-environmental conditions required for calcification remain poorly understood but most studies have demonstrated evidence that mast cells are strongly implicated in this process. The aim of the present study was to examine the phenotype of mast cells associated with early stages and with the progressive development of calcification in the human pineal gland. The study was performed on pineal samples of 170 fetuses and children whose brains were autopsied and diagnosed during 1998-2002. The representative cerebral and pineal specimens were stained with haematoxylin and eosin or the von Kossa staining technique and for the distribution of mast cell tryptase, mast cell chymase, histamine H4 receptor and vascular network using biotinylated Ulex europaeus agglutinin. Tryptase mast cells were found in all stages of pineal gland development independently of the presence of local tissue lesions. All of them were always localized in the close vicinity of the blood vessels and expressed immunoreactivity to histamine H4 receptor antibody. Immunolocalization of mast cells by chymase antibody (and following dual immunostaining with both chymase and tryptase antibodies) demonstrated that these cells were few in number and were located in the subcapsular region of the gland. In our study, all functional mast cells that underwent activation and were co-localized with deposits of calcium did not contain chymase. All of them were stained with tryptase and represent the MC-T phenotype. Tryptase mast cells and extracellular tryptase were often associated with areas of early and more

  11. Control of the Rat Pineal Gland by Light Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Cardinali, Daniel P.; Larin, Frances; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1972-01-01

    Control of pineal hydroxyindole-O-methyl transferase (S-adenosylmethionine:N-acetylserotonin-O-methyl transferase; EC 2.1.1.4) by light spectra was determined by placing groups of rats previously housed in continuous darkness under one of seven light sources for 96 hr; rats were exposed to the same intensity of irradiation. Activity of the enzyme was lowest in rats maintained under green light (λ peak = 530 nm); blue and yellow light were somewhat less effective; red and ultraviolet light did not significantly lower the enzyme activity. The suppression of pineal hydroxyindole-O-methyl transferase by full-spectrum light sources could be correlated with the proportions of their spectral outputs in the blue-green-yellow range. These observations suggest that the retinal photopigment that mediates pineal responses to light in rats is rhodopsin or another compound with similar absorption properties. PMID:4506068

  12. The pineal gland of the Indian palm squirrel, Funambulus pennanti (Wroughton).

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, K S; Katti, S R; Sathyanesan, A G

    In the adult palm squirrel, F. pennanti the pineal is a club shaped, elongated structure with a connective tissue capsule. It consists of various types of pinealocytes, glial cells, neurons, nerve fibres, blood vessels and connective tissue. Two types of pinealocytes could be identified by light microscopy. They are large rounded with centrally placed nucleus, and small rounded pinealocytes. They have medium sized processes stainable with Alcian blue, periodic acid Schiff and Nissl methods. The pinealocytes are not stainable with bromophenol blue. However, they are moderately stainable with PAS, Sudan black and Baker's acid hematin. Neurons are seen either singly or in groups with axonal processes. Cystic cavities often lined by cells are a normal feature of adult squirrel pineal, and the lining cells are both pinealocytes and glial cells. Often neuronal endings are seen terminating on these lining cells. PAS positive globules were also seen inside the cysts. In some squirrel pineals, fibrous cysts with an inner core of cells are also seen. Occasionally groups of lymphocytes were also encountered in the pineal. In the fetal pineal, the cells are both larger and smaller ones and arranged in a cortex and medulla pattern and no cystic cavities are seen. The third ventricle enters the base of the pineal as pineal recess.

  13. Scanning electron microscopy of the superficial pineal gland of the 15-day-old rat (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Ortiz, G G; García, J J; Feria-Velasco, A; Rosales-Corral, S A; Reiter, R J

    2004-06-01

    The presence of a cortex and medulla in the superficial pineal gland has been a controversial point in the morphology of this structure in mammals. The published reports indicate contradictory data especially in rodents. In this study the pineal gland of 15-day-old male rats (Rattus norvegicus) were studied, using scanning electron microscopy, in an attempt to determine whether or not a cortex and medulla are apparent in the pineal gland of young rats. The superficial pineal gland of the 15-day-old rat exhibited both a cortex and a medulla; these areas exhibited different structural organizations. The cortex had a thickness of 40-80 microm and the cells did not show a particular arrangement. The center of the gland was composed of a medulla, which had a width of 1000-1200 microm, and consisted of cells arranged in cords; its morphology was distinctly different from that of the cortex.

  14. The nicotinic receptor in the rat pineal gland is an alpha3beta4 subtype.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Susan C; Vicini, Stefano; Xiao, Yingxian; Dávila-García, Martha I; Yasuda, Robert P; Wolfe, Barry B; Kellar, Kenneth J

    2004-10-01

    The rat pineal gland contains a high density of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We characterized the pharmacology of the binding sites and function of these receptors, measured the nAChR subunit mRNA, and used subunit-specific antibodies to establish the receptor subtype as defined by subunit composition. In ligand binding studies, [3H]epibatidine ([3H]EB) binds with an affinity of approximately 100 pM to nAChRs in the pineal gland, and the density of these sites is approximately 5 times that in rat cerebral cortex. The affinities of nicotinic drugs for binding sites in the pineal gland are similar to those at alpha3beta4 nAChRs heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. In functional studies, the potencies and efficacies of nicotinic drugs to activate or block whole-cell currents in dissociated pinealocytes match closely their potencies and efficacies to activate or block 86Rb+ efflux in the cells expressing heterologous alpha3beta4 nAChRs. Measurements of mRNA indicated the presence of transcripts for alpha3, beta2, and beta4 nAChR subunits but not those for alpha2, alpha4, alpha5, alpha6, alpha7, or beta3 subunits. Immunoprecipitation with subunit-specific antibodies showed that virtually all [3H]EB-labeled nAChRs contained alpha3 and beta4 subunits associated in one complex. The beta2 subunit was not associated with this complex. Taken together, these results indicate that virtually all of the nAChRs in the rat pineal gland are the alpha3beta4 nAChR subtype and that the pineal gland can therefore serve as an excellent and convenient model in which to study the pharmacology and function of these receptors in a native tissue.

  15. Effects of 60-Hz electric fields on serotonin metabolism in the rat pineal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.E.; Hilton, D.I.; Phillips, R.D.; Wilson, B.W.; Chess, E.K.

    1982-06-01

    Serotonin and two of its metabolites, melatonin and 5-methoxytryptophol, exhibit circadian rhythmicity in the pineal gland. We recently reported a marked reduction in the normal night-time increase in melatonin concentration in the pineal glands of rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Concomitant with the apparent abolition of melatonin rhythmicity, serotonin-N-acetyl transferase (SNAT) activity was suppressed. We have now conducted studies to determine if abolition of the rhythm in melatonin production in electric-field-exposed rats arises solely from interference in SNAT activity, or if the availability of pineal serotonin is a factor that is affected by exposure. Pineal serotonin concentrations were compared in rats that were either exposed or sham exposed to 65 kV/m for 30 days. Sham-exposed animals exhibited normal diurnal rhythmicity for pineal concentrations of both melatonin and serotonin; melatonin levels increased markedly during the dark phase with a concurrent decrease in serotonin levels. In the exposed animals, however, normal serotonin rhythmicity was abolished; serotonin levels in these animals did not increase during the light period. The conclusion that electric field exposure results in a biochemical alteration in SNAT enzyme activity can be inferred from the loss of both serotonin and melatonin rhythmicity, as well as by direct measurement of SNAT activity itself. 35 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  16. Posttranslational regulation of TPH1 is responsible for the nightly surge of 5-HT output in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zheping; Liu, Tiecheng; Chattoraj, Asamanja; Ahmed, Samreen; Wang, Michael M; Deng, Jie; Sun, Xing; Borjigin, Jimo

    2008-11-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), a precursor for melatonin production, is produced abundantly in the pineal gland of all vertebrate animals. The synthesis of 5-HT in the pineal gland is rate limited by tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) whose activity displays a twofold increase at night. Earlier studies from our laboratory demonstrate that pineal 5-HT secretion exhibits dynamic circadian rhythms with elevated levels during the early night, and that the increase is controlled by adrenergic signaling at night. In this study, we report that (a) 5-HT total output from the pineal gland and TPH1 protein levels both display diurnal rhythms with a twofold increase at night; (b) stimulation of cAMP signaling elevates 5-HT output in vivo; (c) 5-HT total output and TPH1 protein content in rat pineal gland are both acutely inhibited by light exposure at night. Consistent with these findings, molecular analysis of TPH1 protein revealed that (a) TPH1 is phosphorylated at the serine 58 in vitro and in the night pineal gland; and (b) phosphorylation of TPH1 at this residue is required for cAMP-enhanced TPH1 protein stability. These data support the model that increased nocturnal 5-HT synthesis in the pineal gland is mediated by the phosphorylation of TPH1 at the serine 58, which elevates the TPH1 protein content and activity at night.

  17. The effect of light on melatonin secretion in the cultured pineal glands of Anolis lizards.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ashli F; Menaker, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Melatonin, a hormone produced by the pineal gland, is important for regulating circadian rhythms in many animals. Light at night causes an acute suppression of melatonin in nearly all vertebrate species. A previous study found that light failed to suppress melatonin in the lizard Anolis carolinensis. This is a surprising result given that the Anolis pineal gland is intrinsically photosensitive, is a key pacemaker controlling locomotor activity, and can be directly entrained to a light-dark cycle. To find out if the lack of photic suppression is widespread in the Anolis genus, we investigated the acute effects of light on melatonin secretion in five different species of Anolis using flow-through tissue culture. We administered a two-hour pulse of bright light to isolated pineal glands during the night. The results show photic suppression of melatonin in all five Anolis species, but the suppression is weak relative to that seen in other vertebrates. Moreover, Anolis species differ in the magnitude of the effect. These findings are discussed in the context of vertebrate pineal evolution and the ecology of Anolis lizards. Given their extensive phylogenetic and ecological divergence, Anolis lizards provide a promising system for investigating the ecology and evolution of circadian organization.

  18. Influence of sleep deprivation coupled with administration of melatonin on the ultrastructure of rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Lan, C T; Hsu, J C; Ling, E A

    2001-08-10

    The effects of sleep deprivation with or without melatonin treatment on the pineal morphology in rats were studied. Five days after sleep deprivation and using electron microscopy, many of the pinealocytes exhibited structural alterations including dilation of the cisternae of the rough/smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi saccules and mitochondria, and an increase in the numbers of lipid droplets, vacuoles and dense-core vesicles. These features were considered as morphological evidence of increased synthesis or secretion by the pineal gland. In addition, numerous membranous profiles, considered to be degraded cellular organelles, were observed in some pinealocytes and sympathetic nerve terminals. It is suggested that the occurrence of degenerating organelles had resulted from the deleterious effect of sleep deprivation. This may be attributed to an overload of secretory activity of the pineal gland during stress elicited by the long-term sleep deprivation, leading to functional exhaustion and irreversible damage of the oxidation-related organelles. In sleep-deprived rats receiving a single injection of melatonin (10 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days, the above features indicative of pinealocytic activation were attenuated. In fact, all signs of degeneration of cellular organelles were rarely found. These results suggest that the pineal gland is itself a target for exogenously administered melatonin. Thus, melatonin when administered systemically may be used as a potential neuroprotective drug against neuronal damage induced by sleep deprivation.

  19. Prolonged treatment with glucocorticoid dexamethasone suppresses melatonin production by the chick pineal gland and retina.

    PubMed

    Zawilska, Jolanta B; Sadowska, Magdalena

    2002-01-01

    The chick pineal gland and retina synthesize melatonin in a circadian rhythm with high levels during the night. The rhythmic changes in the hormone production result predominantly from the fluctuation in the activity of serotonin N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT), a penultimate and key regulatory enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of an acute and prolonged in vivo treatment with a glucocorticoid dexamethasone (4 mg/kg, ip) on the nocturnal increase in AA-NAT activity in chick pineal gland and retina. In acute experiments, dexamethasone (single dose)-injected chicks were killed after 2 h, while in prolonged experiments the glucocorticoid was given once daily for 7 days and the animals were killed 26-32 h after the last injection. Acute administration of dexamethasone did not affect AA-NAT activity in the chick pineal gland and retina. In the pineal glands and retinas of chicks that were treated with dexamethasone for one week and then killed at the end of the light phase of the 12:12 h light-dark cycle, AA-NAT activity was significantly higher than the enzyme activity found in tissues isolated from the vehicle-treated (control) animals. In addition to that, the nocturnal increase in pineal and, to a lower extent, retinal AA-NAT activity was significantly lower in dexamethasone-treated birds when compared with the respective control groups. It is suggested that prolonged treatment of animals with dexamethasone reduces the amplitude of the rhythmic melatonin production, a phenomenon which may affect chronobiological processes being under control of this hormone.

  20. Histone H3 phosphorylation in the rat pineal gland: adrenergic regulation and diurnal variation.

    PubMed

    Chik, C L; Arnason, T G; Dukewich, W G; Price, D M; Ranger, A; Ho, A K

    2007-04-01

    In this study, we investigated phosphorylation of Ser10 in histone H3 by norepinephrine (NE) in the rat pineal gland. In whole-animal studies, we demonstrated a marked increase in histone H3 phosphorylation in the rat pineal gland during the first half of the dark period. Exposure to light during this period caused a rapid decline in histone H3 phosphorylation with an estimated t1/2 of less than 15 min, indicating a high level of dephosphorylation activity. Corresponding studies in cultured pineal cells revealed that treatment with NE produced an increase in histone H3 phosphorylation that peaked between 2 and 3 h and declined rapidly by 4 h. The NE-induced histone H3 phosphorylation was blocked by cotreatment with propranolol or KT5720, a protein kinase A inhibitor, but not by prazosin or other kinase inhibitors. Moreover, only treatment with dibutyryl cAMP but not other kinase activators mimicked the effect of NE on histone H3 phosphorylation. The NE-stimulated H3 phosphorylation was markedly increased by cotreatment with a serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor, tautomycin or okadaic acid, supporting a high level of ongoing histone H3 dephosphorylation activity. Together, our results indicate that histone H3 phosphorylation is a naturally occurring event at night in the rat pineal gland that is driven almost exclusively by a NE-->beta-adrenergic-->cAMP/protein kinase A signaling mechanism. This transient histone H3 phosphorylation probably reflects the nocturnal activation of multiple adrenergic-regulated genes in the rat pineal gland.

  1. Tectal pineal cyst in a 1-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Plowey, Edward D; Vogel, Hannes; Yeom, Kristen W; Jung, Henry; Chao, Kevin; Edwards, Michael S B

    2014-03-01

    Glial cysts of the pineal gland can frequently be found in adults and children, but only rarely do they enlarge to become clinically relevant. We report a unique presentation of a pineal cyst in the midbrain tectum of a 16-month-old girl who initially presented with ptosis and strabismus. Preoperative imaging studies and intraoperative findings revealed no continuity between the tectal cyst and the pineal gland proper. We surmise that this tectal pineal cyst may have arisen from duplicated pineal gland tissue.

  2. Lack of effect of ghrelin treatment on melatonin production in rat pineal and Harderian glands.

    PubMed

    Djeridane, Yasmina; Touitou, Yvan

    2005-04-01

    The effects of ghrelin, a peptide hormone secreted from the stomach, on melatonin remain unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate possible ghrelin-melatonin interactions by studying the effect of ghrelin treatment on melatonin production in rat pineal and Harderian glands. Young (9 weeks) and old (20 months) male Wistar rats, maintained under a light:dark cycle regimen of 12:12, were assigned randomly to either a single subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of saline or ghrelin (1 microg/rat or 15 microg/rat) 1 h before sacrifice in the middle of the dark phase, or repeated s.c. saline or ghrelin injections (15 microg/rat), 3, 2 and 1 h before sacrificed in the middle of the dark phase. Neither ghrelin doses (1 microg/rat or 15 microg/rat) nor type of treatment (acute or repeated) influenced melatonin levels or the melatonin synthesizing enzymes N-acetyltransferase and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase activities, either in pineal gland or in Harderian glands. At the concentrations used, ghrelin does not influence melatonin production in rat pineal and Harderian glands, and therefore is not involved in the regulation of melatonin secretion, at least under our experimental conditions.

  3. Enantioselective micro-2D-HPLC determination of aspartic acid in the pineal glands of rodents with various melatonin contents.

    PubMed

    Han, Hai; Miyoshi, Yurika; Oyama, Tsubasa; Konishi, Ryoko; Mita, Masashi; Hamase, Kenji

    2011-10-01

    Enantioselective determination of aspartic acid (Asp) in the pineal gland of rodents with various melatonin contents was performed using a highly sensitive and selective two-dimensional HPLC system. After derivatization of the amino group with 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-F), NBD-Asp was separated using a capillary monolithic ODS column in the first dimension. The fraction of NBD-Asp was automatically collected and transferred to the second dimension, and the D- and L-Asp were separated and determined using a narrowbore enantioselective column. Large amounts of D-Asp were observed in the pineal gland of the rats and specific strains of mice (C3H and CBA) possessing a high concentration of melatonin in their pineal gland. On the other hand, the amounts of D-Asp were small in the pineal gland of mice possessing a trace or no melatonin in their pineal gland (ddY, ICR, C57BL and BALB/c). In other tissues and physiological fluids, no significant strain-dependent changes of the D-Asp amounts were observed. These results indicate that large amounts of D-Asp are present only in the pineal gland containing large amounts of melatonin, and special care should be taken when selecting mouse strains for the investigation of D-Asp.

  4. Increased plasma ACTH in rats exposed to the elevated plus-maze is independent of the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Appenrodt, E; Kröning, G; Schwarzberg, H

    1999-11-01

    The involvement of the pineal gland in activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis evoked by a stressful stimulus (exposure to the elevated plus-maze) was investigated. Plasma ACTH levels were measured in pinealectomized and pineal-intact rats (sham-operated and non-operated) immediately after a 5 min placement into a plus-maze. A statistically significant elevation in plasma ACTH was measured within all groups; however, no statistical differences between pinealectomized and pineal-intact rats were observed. Similarly, comparison of the plasma ACTH basal values obtained from animals only kept in their home cages did not reveal any statistical differences between pinealectomized and pineal-intact rats. From these results it can be concluded that the pineal gland is not involved in anxiety-related behavior and ACTH response.

  5. Interleukin-1 β Modulates Melatonin Secretion in Ovine Pineal Gland: Ex Vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Herman, A P; Bochenek, J; Skipor, J; Król, K; Krawczyńska, A; Antushevich, H; Pawlina, B; Marciniak, E; Tomaszewska-Zaremba, D

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the effect of proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin- (IL-) 1β, on melatonin release and expression enzymes essential for this hormone synthesis: arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) in ovine pineal gland, taking into account the immune status of animals before sacrificing. Ewes were injected by lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 400 ng/kg) or saline, two hours after sunset during short day period (December). Animals were euthanized three hours after the injection. Next, the pineal glands were collected and divided into four explants. The explants were incubated with (1) medium 199 (control explants), (2) norepinephrine (NE; 10 µM), (3) IL-1β (75 pg/mL), or (4) NE + IL-1β. It was found that IL-1β abolished (P < 0.05) NE-induced increase in melatonin release. Treatment with IL-1β also reduced (P < 0.05) expression of AA-NAT enzyme compared to NE-treated explants. There was no effect of NE or IL-1β treatment on gene expression of HIOMT; however, the pineal fragments isolated from LPS-treated animals were characterized by elevated (P < 0.05) expression of HIOMT mRNA and protein compared to the explants from saline-treated ewes. Our study proves that IL-1β suppresses melatonin secretion and its action seems to be targeted on the reduction of pineal AA-NAT protein expression.

  6. Redox capacity of the pineal gland in rats. Effect of castration.

    PubMed

    Ianăs, O; Olinescu, R; Bădescu, I

    1993-01-01

    The day/night cycle-induced effects, and the effect of castration on pineal oxidative potential in rats, were studied herein. Experiments were made in adult and castrated Wistar rats kept under normal light conditions during winter (on December and January). Castration was performed 72 hrs before sacrification. Groups of 6 intact or castrated animals were sacrificed at 4 hr-intervals during 24 hrs (the day/night cycle). Blood and pineal were then taken. Peroxides and total pineal antioxidants in plasma and pineal homogenate were assessed by chemiluminescence. The results obtained prove that photoperiod is involved in the organism oxidative potential, and that pineal is involved in the diurnal rhythm of this potential. Pineal peroxide and antioxidative concentrations show circadian variations with minimum and maximal values during the day or the night, which are also reflected at the plasma level. In the first half of the morning are registered increased peroxide and decreased antioxidative levels while at night the diagrams are reversed. As compared to the intact group, in the castrated one antioxidants and peroxides maintain their biorhythms but their concentrations are significantly changed. The diagram of pineal peroxides in the castrated group is situated above that of the intact one, with statistically significant differences only at midday (12:00). Taking into account the antioxidative characteristics of melatonin, one can suppose that maximum pineal antioxidative levels during the night might be due to maximum concentrations of nocturnal melatonin. The significant increase in peroxide concentration and the decrease in antioxidants after castration would partly explain the physiologic status of the elderly with decreased melatonin production and increased oxidative processes.

  7. Adrenergic and cholinergic regulation of in vitro melatonin release during ontogeny in the pineal gland of Long Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Wagner, G; Brandstätter, R; Hermann, A

    2000-09-01

    Melatonin, produced by the pineal gland, plays an important role in a great variety of neuroendocrine functions. The rhythmic release of melatonin by the mammalian pineal gland is regulated by norepinephrine (NE) acting via alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors utilizing distinct signal transduction pathways. Acetylcholine has been demonstrated to exert various effects in the mammalian pineal gland, including an inhibitory action on the NE-induced stimulation of melatonin production. However, data obtained by different laboratories on the interaction of adrenergic receptors are not consistent and whether muscarinic and/or nicotinic receptors participate in the various effects of acetylcholine is still contradictory. To investigate noradrenergic as well as cholinergic mechanisms during ontogeny, we have investigated in vitro melatonin release from isolated pineal glands of Long Evans rats of different ages. NE as well as the beta-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol (ISO) significantly elevated the melatonin release in pineal glands from postnatal week 2 on. In pineal glands originating from 2- to 4-week-old rats, simultaneous activation of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors by ISO and the alpha-adrenergic receptor agonist methoxamine (MET) or NE resulted in significantly weaker stimulation of melatonin production than beta-receptor activation alone. Acetylcholine evoked a significant increase in melatonin release in pineal glands from 2- to 4-week-old rats. In pineal glands from 8- to 20-week-old animals, ISO, ISO + MET or NE stimulated pineal melatonin release to comparable maxima, whereas acetylcholine was without effect. Our data indicate (1) that the adrenergic stimulation of pineal melatonin production in Long Evans rats is dominated by a beta-adrenergic mechanism, (2) that additional alpha-adrenergic receptor activation is inhibitory and (3) dependent on the developmental status of the animal, and (4) that acetylcholine acting via muscarinic receptors

  8. The ontogenic expressions of multiple vesicular glutamate transporters during postnatal development of rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, S; Ina, A; Konno, J; Wu, T; Shutoh, F; Nogami, H; Hisano, S

    2008-03-18

    The pineal gland expresses vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 (VGLUT1 and VGLUT2), which are thought to transport glutamate into synaptic-like microvesicles in the pinealocytes. Recently, we reported that the rat pineal gland also expresses VGLUT1v which is a novel variant of VGLUT1 during the perinatal period. To explore the biological significance of these VGLUT expressions in pineal development, we studied the ontogeny of VGLUT in this gland by in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using rats. Histological analysis revealed that intensities of VGLUT1 hybridization signal and immunostaining drastically increase by postnatal day (P) 7, whereas VGLUT2 expression exhibits high levels of mRNA and protein at birth and decreases gradually from P7 onward. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis supported these histological observations, showing that expressions of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 exhibit opposite patterns to each other. Coinciding with VGLUT1-upregulation, RT-PCR data showed that expressions of dynamin 1 and endophilin 1, which are factors predictably involved in the endocytotic recovery of VGLUT1-associated vesicle, are also increased by P7. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of VGLUT1v demonstrated that its mRNA expression is upregulated by P7, kept at the same level until P14, and apparently decreased at P21, suggesting its functional property required for a certain developmental event. Moreover, a comparison of mRNA expressions at daytime and nighttime revealed that neither VGLUT1 nor VGLUT1v shows any difference in both P7 and P21 glands, whereas VGLUT2 is significantly lower at daytime than at nighttime at P21 but not P7, the time point at which the melatonin rhythm is not yet generated. The present study shows that expressions of these VGLUT types are differentially regulated during postnatal pineal development, each presumably participating in physiologically distinct glutamatergic functions.

  9. Macrophages/microglia as 'sensors' of injury in the pineal gland of rats following a non-penetrative blast.

    PubMed

    Kaur, C; Singh, J; Lim, M K; Ng, B L; Ling, E A

    1997-04-01

    The pineal gland of adult rats was examined immunohistochemically and electron microscopically following exposure of the animals to a single blast equivalent to 110 kg TNT explosive. The most dramatic feature in rats killed at 7, 14 and 21 days after the blast was the upsurge of a large number of macrophages/microglia intensely immunostained with OX-42, OX-18, OX-6 and ED1 antibodies. These antibodies recognise the complement type three (CR3) receptors, major histocompatibility complex class I and class II (MHC I and MHC II) antigens and monocyte/macrophage antigens. Cell counts in OX-42 immunostained sections showed a two-fold increase at these intervals but returned to normal values at 28 days. The immunolabelled cells appeared extremely hypertrophic after the blast when compared with those in normal rats. In the latter and in rats killed at 28 days after the blast, immunoreactive cells were sparsely distributed. Ultrastructural study confirmed a wider occurrence of perivascular macrophages/microglia after the blast and the cells were laden with massive amounts of phagosomes resembling degenerating pinealocyte processes. It is concluded that the seemingly quiescent macrophages/microglia present normally in pineal gland were activated by the external blast force. The induced changes including the increase in cell numbers and endocytosis, however, were reversible in longer surviving animals.

  10. Melatonin formation in pineal gland from rats with hexachlorobenzene experimental porphyria.

    PubMed

    Llambías, Elena B C; Mazzetti, Marta B; Lelli, Sandra M; Aldonatti, Carmen; San Martín de Viale, Leonor C

    2007-01-01

    Hexachlorobenzene produces an experimental hepatic porphyria in rats, which is similar to human porphyria cutanea tarda, with hyperpigmentation as one of its characteristic features. Alterations in tryptophan metabolism have been previously observed in this chronic porphyria. Melatonin formation from tryptophan via serotonin shows diurnal rhythmicity in the pineal gland, and higher values are observed during the dark phase of an imposed light-dark cycle. The purpose of this study was to determine the contents of tryptophan and its metabolites in pineal gland of normal and hexachlorobenzene-treated rats in order to find alterations potentially related to porphyria cutanea tarda. Results show that in animals with this experimental porphyria some tryptophan metabolite levels (serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid) increase only during the light period, whereas tryptophan content remained equal to the controls. Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase activity also increases by light in pineal gland from hexachlorobenzene-treated rats. On the other hand, tryptophan is converted to melatonin in the dark period, but this route is not exacerbated in hexachlorobenzene porphyria. The relevance of these alterations is discussed in relation to hyperpigmentation, neoplastic and oxidative stress processes associated with this porphyria.

  11. Nocturnal headache associated with melatonin deficiency due to a pineal gland cyst.

    PubMed

    Karadaş, Omer; Ipekdal, Ilker H; Ulaş, Umit H; Odabaşi, Zeki

    2012-02-01

    The cyclic nature of some of headache disorders is closely related to melatonin, which is secreted by the pineal gland. We report a 29-year-old male patient with a 2.5-year history of headaches that woke him in the middle of the night. These headaches were pulsatile and continued until sunrise. During these attacks he also suffered from allodynia over the scalp, bilateral conjunctival hyperemia, and nervousness. His brain MRI showed a 5mm by 4mm neuroepithelial cyst in the pineal gland. The peak plasma melatonin level that was measured at 2 am was 28 pg/mL. The patient underwent oral melatonin treatment (6 mg/day). After 1 month he experienced a 70% reduction in his symptoms. When the melatonin dosage was increased to 10mg/day he became headache-free, and 5 months after the treatment began, had no complaints. His 5-month follow-up plasma melatonin level at 2 am was 61 pg/mL. To our knowledge this is the first report of a patient with nocturnal headache associated with a low level of melatonin due to a neuroepithelial cyst in the pineal gland.

  12. Functional development of the circadian clock in the zebrafish pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Ben-Moshe, Zohar; Foulkes, Nicholas S; Gothilf, Yoav

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish constitutes a powerful model organism with unique advantages for investigating the vertebrate circadian timing system and its regulation by light. In particular, the remarkably early and rapid development of the zebrafish circadian system has facilitated exploring the factors that control the onset of circadian clock function during embryogenesis. Here, we review our understanding of the molecular basis underlying functional development of the central clock in the zebrafish pineal gland. Furthermore, we examine how the directly light-entrainable clocks in zebrafish cell lines have facilitated unravelling the general mechanisms underlying light-induced clock gene expression. Finally, we summarize how analysis of the light-induced transcriptome and miRNome of the zebrafish pineal gland has provided insight into the regulation of the circadian system by light, including the involvement of microRNAs in shaping the kinetics of light- and clock-regulated mRNA expression. The relative contributions of the pineal gland central clock and the distributed peripheral oscillators to the synchronization of circadian rhythms at the whole animal level are a crucial question that still remains to be elucidated in the zebrafish model.

  13. [The morphological response of the pineal gland of old animals on course of melatonin injections].

    PubMed

    Gubina-Vakulik, G I; Bondarenko, L A; Gevorkian, A R

    2009-01-01

    On the old (18-20 months) male rats of Wistar population the influence of the 10 days evening melatonin injections in physiological rang doses on morphological state pineal gland, was studied. It has been shown, that the course of melatonin injections to old rats brings appearance of histological pattern of pineal gland activation: increasing of area of pinealocytes nuclear and density of nuclear and cytoplasm with stein by hallocyanine on total nucleic acid that means stimulation to material both indole, and peptide nature production. Using of melatonin in dose 0.05 mg/kg mass of the body is sparing for pinealocytes of the old rats and slows the apoptosis processes on background of polyploidization. Using of melatonin in dose 0,5 mg/kg mass of the body causes cell's overstrain and induces the forced apoptosis. It's possible to suppose that the geroprotective effect of the evening injections of melatonin is increased due to stimulation of the biosynthesis of neuropeptides in pineal gland.

  14. Adrenergic inducibility of AP-1 binding in the rat pineal gland depends on prior photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Guillaumond, F; Becquet, D; Bosler, O; François-Bellan, A M

    2002-10-01

    The main known function of the pineal gland in mammals is the temporal synchronization of physiological rhythms to seasonal changes of day length (photoperiod). In rat, the transcription factor activating protein-1 (AP-1) displays a circadian rhythm in its DNA binding in the pineal gland, which results from the rhythmic expression of Fra-2. We postulated that, if AP-1 is an important component of pineal gland functioning, then variations in photoperiodic conditions should lead to an adaptation of the AP-1 binding rhythm. Here we show that AP-1 binding patterns adapt to variations in lighting conditions, in the same way as the rhythm of arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) activity. This adaptation appeared to result from photoperiodic adaptation of the rhythmic fra-2 gene expression and was reflected by an adapted delay between the onset of night and the acrophase of the nocturnal peak. We further showed that photoperiodic adaptation of both the AP-1 binding and AA-NAT activity rhythms resulted from adapted changes in adrenergic inducibility of both variables at night onset. We finally provided evidence that AP-1 shared with the CREM gene encoding the transcriptional repressor protein inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) the ability to be hypersensitive or subsensitive to adrenergic stimuli, depending on prior photoperiod.

  15. The pineal volume: a three-dimensional volumetric study in healthy young adults using 3.0 T MR data.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Wang, Dan; Tang, Yuchun; Fan, Lingzhong; Lin, Xiangtao; Yu, Taifei; Qi, Hengtao; Li, Zhenping; Liu, Shuwei

    2009-11-01

    It is usually difficult to distinguish small pineal tumors via routine or enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) scan. The knowledge of normal pineal size is helpful to detect small pineal lesions, while very few true volumetric data of pineal glands have been reported. Therefore, we obtained the accurate reference range of normal pineal volumes in 112 individuals aged 20-30 years recruited randomly from a healthy community sample. Transverse and sagittal 3.0T magnetic resonance data were obtained using three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted FSPGR and T2-weighted SE sequences. True pineal volumes were measured from T1-weighted images, while estimated volumes were calculated using pineal length, width and height. All the glands were divided into three types according to the maximum inner diameter of pineal cysts. The prevalence of asymptomatic pineal cyst is 25.00%, with a slight female predominance. In the whole sample, we found no gender differences of pineal volume, but a significant gender difference of pineal volume index. A significant correlation between pineal volume and asymptomatic cyst was found. After excluding cases with big pineal cysts, there were significant correlations between pineal volume and head circumference, body height and body weight, respectively. This study suggests that asymptomatic pineal cysts may exert an important influence on pineal volume.

  16. Immunocytochemical characterization of Delta-opioid and Mu-opioid receptor protein in the bovine pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Ebadi, Manuchair; Govitrapong, Piyarat

    2006-01-01

    Opioidergic innervation has been identified in the mammalian pineal gland. Recently, opioid receptors in bovine pineal glands have been characterized; the activation of these receptors leads to the stimulation of melatonin synthesis. In this study, the precise localization of opioid receptors in bovine pineal glands was determined by an immunohistochemical technique using antibodies raised against delta-opioid and mu-opioid receptors. Immunoreactivity of these two receptors was present at a moderate level in pinealocytes. A double-labeling study has shown that delta-opioid receptors are localized predominantly with mu-opioid receptors in the same pinealocytes. These immunopositive pinealocytes are often located in a group; however, some of them are dispersed individually. In addition, both types of receptors were found in glial cells and processes. A small number of delta-receptor-immunoreactive nerve fibers were observed in the perivascular space and intraparenchyma of the pineal gland. Mu-opioid receptor immunoreactivity was found in a number of nerve fibers throughout the gland, and in terminal-like dots on pinealocytes. There was immunocolocalization between delta-opioid receptors or mu-opioid receptors and leu-enkephalin in some nerve fibers. The results of this study indicate that the modulatory effect of the opioid system on melatonin secretion in pineal glands might act via opioid receptors on pinealocytes, whereas receptors located on nerve fibers might modulate the release of opioid peptides.

  17. Melatonin synthesis in the bovine pineal gland is regulated by type II cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Maronde, E; Middendorff, R; Telgmann, R; Müller, D; Hemmings, B; Taskén, K; Olcese, J

    1997-02-01

    We investigated the expression of regulatory (R) and catalytic (C) subunits of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAK; ATP:protein phosphotransferase; EC 2.7.1.37) in the bovine pineal gland. In total RNA extracts of bovine pineal glands moderate levels of RI alpha/RII beta and high levels of C alpha and C beta mRNA were found. We were able to detect a strong signal for RII and C subunit at the protein level, whereas RI was apparently absent. Probing sections of the intact bovine pineal gland with RI and RII antibodies stained only RII in pinealocytes. Pairs of cyclic AMP analogues complementing each other in activation of type II cAK, but not cAKI-directed analogue pairs, showed synergistic stimulation of melatonin synthesis. Moreover, melatonin synthesis stimulated by the physiological activator norepinephrine in pineal cell cultures was inhibited by cAK antagonists. Taken together these results show the presence of RII regulatory and both C alpha and C beta catalytic subunits and thus cAKII holoenzyme in the bovine pineal gland. The almost complete inhibition of norepinephrine-mediated melatonin synthesis by the cAK antagonists emphasizes the dominant role of cyclic AMP as the second messenger and cAK as the transducer in bovine pineal signal transduction.

  18. Seasonal postembryonic maturation of the diurnal rhythm of serotonin in the chicken pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Piesiewicz, Aneta; Kedzierska, Urszula; Turkowska, Elzbieta; Adamska, Iwona; Majewski, Pawel M

    2015-02-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated the postembryonic development of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus L.) pineal gland functions expressed as changes in melatonin (MEL) biosynthesis. Pineal concentrations of MEL and its precursor serotonin (5-HT) were shown to increase between the 2nd and 16th day of life. We also found that levels of the mRNAs encoding the enzymes participating in the final two steps of MEL biosynthesis from 5-HT: arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), as well as their enzymatic activities, were raised during postembryonic development. Moreover, the manner of these changes was season-of-hatch dependent, even in animals kept under constant laboratory conditions (L:D 12:12). The most pronounced changes were seen in the concentrations of 5-HT and MEL, as well as in Aanat mRNA level and its enzymatic activity. The high daily variability in 5-HT content suggested that season- and age-dependent changes in the activity of the chicken pineal gland might rely on the availability of 5-HT, i.e. it may be limited by changes in pineal tryptophan (TRP) and/or 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) levels as well as by the activity of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) and aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC): two enzymes participating in the conversion of TRP to 5-HT. The present study was undertaken with the following objectives: (1) to examine whether the pineal concentration of the 5-HT precursors TRP and 5-HTP exhibit age- and season-related changes; (2) to look for season-related differences in the transcription of the Tph1 and Ddc genes encoding enzymes TPH and AADC; (3) to identify the step(s) in postembryonic development in which these season-related variations in pineal gland function are most pronounced. Male Hy-line chickens hatched in the summer or winter, from eggs laid by hens held in L:D 16:8 conditions were kept from the day of hatch in L:D 12:12 conditions. At the age of 2 or 9 days, animals were sacrificed

  19. Analysis of daily and circadian gene expression in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, Chiaki; Tosini, Gianluca

    2008-02-01

    The mammalian pineal gland is an important component of the circadian system. In the present study, we examined the expression of roughly 8000 genes in the rat pineal gland as a function of time of day under light-dark (LD) cycles and in constant dark (DD) using oligo DNA microarray technique. We identified 47 and 13 genes that showed higher levels at night and day, respectively, under LD. The same patterns of expression were also observed in DD. About half of the genes that peaked at night have a known biological function, i.e., transcription factors and proteins that are involved in signaling cascades, whereas 14 are expressed sequence tags and 8 have an unknown biological function. Twelve of the genes that were up-regulated at night were also up-regulated after 1h NE stimulation, thus suggesting that the expression of these genes is controlled by adrenergic mechanisms. Of the 13 genes that were up-regulated in the daytime, 6 coded for proteins that are involved in intracellular signaling pathways. The results obtained with microarray analysis were well correlated with data obtained using real time quantitative RT-PCR. The present results provide new materials to dissect and understand the pineal physiology.

  20. A survey of molecular details in the human pineal gland in the light of phylogeny, structure, function and chronobiological diseases.

    PubMed

    Stehle, Jörg H; Saade, Anastasia; Rawashdeh, Oliver; Ackermann, Katrin; Jilg, Antje; Sebestény, Tamás; Maronde, Erik

    2011-08-01

    The human pineal gland is a neuroendocrine transducer that forms an integral part of the brain. Through the nocturnally elevated synthesis and release of the neurohormone melatonin, the pineal gland encodes and disseminates information on circadian time, thus coupling the outside world to the biochemical and physiological internal demands of the body. Approaches to better understand molecular details behind the rhythmic signalling in the human pineal gland are limited but implicitly warranted, as human chronobiological dysfunctions are often associated with alterations in melatonin synthesis. Current knowledge on melatonin synthesis in the human pineal gland is based on minimally invasive analyses, and by the comparison of signalling events between different vertebrate species, with emphasis put on data acquired in sheep and other primates. Together with investigations using autoptic pineal tissue, a remnant silhouette of premortem dynamics within the hormone's biosynthesis pathway can be constructed. The detected biochemical scenario behind the generation of dynamics in melatonin synthesis positions the human pineal gland surprisingly isolated. In this neuroendocrine brain structure, protein-protein interactions and nucleo-cytoplasmic protein shuttling indicate furthermore a novel twist in the molecular dynamics in the cells of this neuroendocrine brain structure. These findings have to be seen in the light that an impaired melatonin synthesis is observed in elderly and/or demented patients, in individuals affected by Alzheimer's disease, Smith-Magenis syndrome, autism spectrum disorder and sleep phase disorders. Already, recent advances in understanding signalling dynamics in the human pineal gland have significantly helped to counteract chronobiological dysfunctions through a proper restoration of the nocturnal melatonin surge.

  1. (+)-N-allylnormetazocine enhances N-acetyltransferase activity and melatonin synthesis: preliminary evidence for a functional role of sigma receptors in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Steardo, L; Monteleone, P; d'Istria, M; Serino, I; Maj, M; Cuomo, V

    1995-11-01

    In the present study, to evaluate the role that sigma receptors play in the physiology of the pineal gland, we assessed the effects of the sigma receptor ligand (+)-N-allylnormetazocine on the gland activity during either the day or the night. As compared to saline, (+)-N-allylnormetazocine enhanced the physiological increases in both pineal N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity and melatonin content at night, but it did not affect the biosynthetic activity of the gland during the day. Moreover, (+)-N-allylnormetazocine potentiated the enhancement of NAT activity and pineal melatonin content induced by isoproterenol administration during the day. The nocturnal stimulation of pineal NAT activity and melatonin levels by (+)-N-allylnormetazocine was prevented by pretreatment with rimcazole, a specific sigma receptor antagonist. These results demonstrate that sigma receptor activation by (+)-N-allylnormetazocine is not able, by itself, to stimulate pineal melatonin production, whereas it potentiates the biosynthetic activity of the pineal gland when this is stimulated noradrenergically.

  2. The contribution of the pineal gland on daily rhythms and masking in diurnal grass rats, Arvicanthis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Shuboni, Dorela D; Agha, Amna A; Groves, Thomas K H; Gall, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    Melatonin is a hormone rhythmically secreted at night by the pineal gland in vertebrates. In diurnal mammals, melatonin is present during the inactive phase of the rest/activity cycle, and in primates it directly facilitates sleep and decreases body temperature. However, the role of the pineal gland for the promotion of sleep at night has not yet been studied in non-primate diurnal mammalian species. Here, the authors directly examined the hypothesis that the pineal gland contributes to diurnality in Nile grass rats by decreasing activity and increasing sleep at night, and that this could occur via effects on circadian mechanisms or masking, or both. Removing the pineal gland had no effect on the hourly distribution of activity across a 12:12 light-dark (LD) cycle or on the patterns of sleep-like behavior at night. Masking effects of light at night on activity were also not significantly different in pinealectomized and control grass rats, as 1h pulses of light stimulated increases in activity of sham and pinealectomized animals to a similar extent. In addition, the circadian regulation of activity was unaffected by the surgical condition of the animals. Our results suggest that the pineal gland does not contribute to diurnality in the grass rat, thus highlighting the complexity of temporal niche transitions. The current data raise interesting questions about how and why genetic and neural mechanisms linking melatonin to sleep regulatory systems might vary among mammals that reached a diurnal niche via parallel and independent pathways.

  3. The in vitro maintenance of clock genes expression within the rat pineal gland under standard and norepinephrine-synchronized stimulation.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Silva, Jéssica; Cipolla-Neto, José; Peliciari-Garcia, Rodrigo A

    2014-01-01

    Although the norepinephrine (NE) synchronization protocol was proved to be an important procedure for further modulating in vitro pineal melatonin synthesis, the maintenance of clock genes under the same conditions remained to be investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the maintenance of the clock genes expression in pineal gland cultures under standard and NE-synchronized stimulation. The glands were separated into three experimental groups: Control, Standard (acute NE-stimulation), and NE-synchronized. The expression of Bmal1, Per2, Cry2, Rev-erbα, the clock controlled gene Dbp and Arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase were investigated, as well as melatonin content. No oscillations were observed in the expression of the investigated genes from the control group. Under Standard NE stimulation, the clock genes did not exhibit a rhythmic pattern of expression. However, in the NE-synchronized condition, a rhythmic expression pattern was observed in all cases. An enhancement in pineal gland responsiveness to NE stimulation, reflected in an advanced synthesis of melatonin was also observed. Our results reinforce our previous hypothesis that NE synchronization of pineal gland culture mimics the natural rhythmic release of NE in the gland, increasing melatonin synthesis and keeping the pineal circadian clock synchronized, ensuring the fine adjustments that are relied in the clockwork machinery.

  4. Alpha-2 adrenergic activity of bromocriptine and quinpirole in chicken pineal gland. Effects on melatonin synthesis and ( sup 3 H)rauwolscine binding

    SciTech Connect

    Zawilska, J.; Iuvone, P.M. )

    1990-12-01

    In the pineal gland and retina of chickens, serotonin N-acetyl-transferase (NAT) activity and melatonin content are modulated by different receptors, alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in pineal gland and D2-dopamine receptors in retina. The effect of two D2-dopamine receptor agonists, bromocriptine and quinpirole (LY 171555), on melatonin synthesis in these tissues was investigated. Systemic administrations of bromocriptine and quinpirole decreased nocturnal NAT activity and melatonin content of both pineal gland and retina. Bromocriptine was equipotent in the two tissues, whereas quinpirole was approximately 100-fold more potent in retina than in pineal gland. In pineal gland, the suppressive effects of bromocriptine and quinpirole on NAT activity were blocked by yohimbine, a selective alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, but not by spiperone, a D2-dopamine receptor antagonist. In contrast, bromocriptine- and quinpirole-induced decreases of the enzyme activity in retina were antagonized by spiperone, and not affected by yohimbine. The nocturnal increase of NAT activity of pineal glands in vitro was inhibited with an order of potency clonidine greater than bromocriptine greater than quinpirole. Additionally, bromocriptine and quinpirole displaced the specific binding of (3H)rauwolscine, an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, to membranes from chicken pineal gland, with potencies comparable to those observed for inhibition of NAT activity in vitro. It is suggested that bromocriptine and quinpirole, in addition to their D2-dopaminergic activity, can stimulate alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in pineal gland of chicken.

  5. Adenosine triphosphate inhibits melatonin synthesis in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Souza-Teodoro, Luis Henrique; Dargenio-Garcia, Letícia; Petrilli-Lapa, Camila Lopes; Souza, Ewerton da Silva; Fernandes, Pedro A C M; Markus, Regina P; Ferreira, Zulma S

    2016-03-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is released onto the pinealocyte, along with noradrenaline, from sympathetic neurons and triggers P2Y1 receptors that enhance β-adrenergic-induced N-acetylserotonin (NAS) synthesis. Nevertheless, the biotransformation of NAS into melatonin, which occurs due to the subsequent methylation by acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT; EC 2.1.1.4), has not yet been evaluated in the presence of purinergic stimulation. We therefore evaluated the effects of purinergic signaling on melatonin synthesis induced by β-adrenergic stimulation. ATP increased NAS levels, but, surprisingly, inhibited melatonin synthesis in an inverse, concentration-dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that enhanced NAS levels, which depend on phospholipase C (PLC) activity (but not the induction of gene transcription), are a post-translational effect. By contrast, melatonin reduction is related to an ASMT inhibition of expression at both the gene transcription and protein levels. These results were independent of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) translocation. Neither the P2Y1 receptor activation nor the PLC-mediated pathway was involved in the decrease in melatonin, indicating that ATP regulates pineal metabolism through different mechanisms. Taken together, our data demonstrate that purinergic signaling differentially modulates NAS and melatonin synthesis and point to a regulatory role for ATP as a cotransmitter in the control of ASMT, the rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin synthesis. The endogenous production of melatonin regulates defense responses; therefore, understanding the mechanisms involving ASMT regulation might provide novel insights into the development and progression of neurological disorders since melatonin presents anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and neurogenic effects.

  6. Cyclic AMP-inducible genes respond uniformly to seasonal lighting conditions in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Spessert, R; Gupta, B B P; Rohleder, N; Gerhold, S; Engel, L

    2006-12-01

    The encoding of photoperiodic information ensues in terms of the daily profile in the expression of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-inducible genes such as the arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) gene that encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin formation. In the present study, we compared the influence of the photoperiodic history on the cAMP-inducible genes AA-NAT, inducible cyclic AMP early repressor (ICER), fos-related antigen-2 (FRA-2), mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), nerve growth factor inducible gene-A (NGFI-A) and nerve growth factor inducible gene-B (NGFI-B) in the pineal gland of rats. For this purpose, we monitored the daily profiles of each gene in the same pineal gland under a long (light/dark 16:8) and a short (light/dark 8:16) photoperiod by measuring the respective mRNA amounts by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. We found that, for all genes under investigation, the duration of increased nocturnal expression is lengthened and, in relation to light onset, the nocturnal rise is earlier under the long photoperiod (light/dark 16:8). Furthermore, with the exception of ICER, all other cAMP-inducible genes tend to display higher maximum expression under light/dark 8:16 than under light/dark 16:8. Photoperiod-dependent changes persist for all of the cAMP-inducible genes when the rats are kept for two cycles under constant darkness. Therefore, all cAMP-inducible genes are also influenced by the photoperiod of prior entrained cycles. Our study indicates that, despite differences regarding the expressional control and the temporal phasing of the daily profile, cAMP-inducible genes are uniformly influenced by photoperiodic history in the rat pineal gland.

  7. Gliosarcomas arising from the pineal gland region: uncommon localization and rare tumors.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Yasuo; Terasaki, Mizuhiko; Tanigawa, Ken; Ohshima, Koichi; Morioka, Motohiro; Higaki, Koichi; Nakagawa, Setsuko; Shimokawa, Shoko; Nakashima, Susumu

    2016-02-01

    Gliosarcomas are a variant of glioblastomas and present a biphasic pattern, with coexisting glial and mesenchymal components. In this study, two unusual cases are presented. Case 1 is a 52-year-old woman with a headache and memory disturbance for a month. Case 2 is an 18-year-old man with a headache lasting two weeks. In both cases, an MRI revealed enhancing T1-low to iso, T2-iso to high intensity lesions in the pineal gland region. Histologically, in case 1, the tumor showed spindle cell proliferation with disorganized fascicles and cellular pleomorphism. Tumor cells variously exhibited oncocytic transformation. Immunohistochemically, most of the spindle tumor cells were positive for myoglobin and desmin. Some of the tumor cells were positive for GFAP and S-100 protein. On the other hand, all tumor cells were positive for CD133, Musashi1, and SOX-2 which are the markers of neural stem cells. In case 2, the tumor showed monotonous proliferation of short spindle cells with disorganized fascicles and cellular atypism. The morphological distinction between glial and mesenchymal components was not apparent. Immunohistochemically, most of the spindle tumor cells were positive for desmin. Glial tumor cells that were dispersed within the sarcoma as single cells were positive for GFAP. In addition, all tumor cells were positive for CD133, Musashi1 and SOX-2. Based on these microscopic appearances, and immunohistochemical findings, these cases were diagnosed as gliosarcomas arising from the pineal gland region. These results also indicated that pluripotential cancer stem cells differentiated into glial and muscle cell lines at the time of tumor growth. In a survey of previous publications on gliosarcoma arising from the pineal gland, these cases are the second and third reports found in English scientific writings.

  8. Embryonic development of the bovine pineal gland (Bos taurus) during prenatal life (30 to 135 days of gestation).

    PubMed

    Regodón, S; Roncero, V

    2005-10-01

    The ontogenesis of the pineal gland of 30 bovine embryos (Bos taurus) has been analysed from 30 until 135 days of gestation by means of optical microscopy and immunohistochemical techniques. For this study, the specimens were grouped into three stages in accordance with the most relevant histological characteristics: Stage 1 (30 to 64 days of prenatal development); Stage 2 (70 to 90 days) and Stage 3 (106 to 135 days). In the cow, it is from 30 days of gestation that the first glandular outline becomes differentiated from the diencephalic ependyma of the third ventricle. This differentiation includes the phenomena of proliferation and multiplication of the ependymal cells that form the epithelium of the pineal outline in development. At 82 days of intrauterine life, in the interior of the pineal parenchyma, we witnessed some incipient pseudoglandular structures that at 135 days were well differentiated. The pineal parenchyma displays a cytology made up of two cellular types of structurally distinct characteristics: pinealoblasts and interstitial cells. Both cellular types begin differentiation at 70 days of embryonic development, the pinealoblasts being greater in number than the interstitial cells. The glandular stroma is formed from the capsular, trabecular and the perivascular connective tissue, filling the interparenchymal space. A dense network of capillaries, which drive across the trabecular connective tissue towards the central glandular zone where their density increases and their calibre is reduced, complete the glandular structure. GFAP positive cells were observed in the embryonic pineal parenchyma in stage 3. At 135 days of gestation, NPY positive fibers entered the pineal gland through the pineal capsule occupying a perivascular localization. Morphological studies of this nature are vital for future use as parameters, indicative of the functional activity of the bovine pineal gland during embryonic development.

  9. Dynamics in enzymatic protein complexes offer a novel principle for the regulation of melatonin synthesis in the human pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Maronde, Erik; Saade, Anastasia; Ackermann, Katrin; Goubran-Botros, Hany; Pagan, Cecile; Bux, Roman; Bourgeron, Thomas; Dehghani, Faramarz; Stehle, Jörg H

    2011-08-01

    Time of day is communicated to the body through rhythmic cues, including pineal gland melatonin synthesis, which is restricted to nighttime. Whereas in most rodents transcriptional regulation of the arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) gene is essential for rhythmic melatonin synthesis, investigations into nonrodent mammalian species have shown post-transcriptional regulation to be of central importance, with molecular mechanisms still elusive. Therefore, human pineal tissues, taken from routine autopsies were allocated to four time-of-death groups (night/dawn/day/dusk) and analyzed for daytime-dependent changes in phosphorylated AANAT (p31T-AANAT) and in acetyl-serotonin-methyltransferase (ASMT) expression and activity. Protein content, intracellular localization, and colocalization of p31T-AANAT and ASMT were assessed, using immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, and immunoprecipitation techniques. Fresh sheep pineal gland preparations were used for comparative purposes. The amount of p31T-AANAT and ASMT proteins as well as their intracellular localization showed no diurnal variation in autoptic human and fresh sheep pineal glands. Moreover, in human and sheep pineal extracts, AANAT could not be dephosphorylated, which was at variance to data derived from rat pineal extracts. P31T-AANAT and ASMT were often found to colocalize in cellular rod-like structures that were also partly immunoreactive for the pinealocyte process-specific marker S-antigen (arrestin) in both, human and sheep pinealocytes. Protein-protein interaction studies with p31T-AANAT, ASMT, and S-antigen demonstrated a direct association and formation of robust complexes, involving also 14-3-3. This work provides evidence for a regulation principle for AANAT activity in the human pineal gland, which may not be based on a p31T-AANAT phosphorylation/dephosphorylation switch, as described for other mammalian species.

  10. Hypocretin (orexin) in the rat pineal gland: a central transmitter with effects on noradrenaline-induced release of melatonin.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, J D; Hauser, F; deLecea, L; Sutcliffe, J G; Kilduff, T S; Calgari, C; Pévet, P; Simonneaux, V

    2001-08-01

    Hypocretin-1 (HCRT-1) and hypocretin 2 (HCRT-2), also known as orexin-A and orexin-B, are two neuropeptides derived from the same precursor. Hypocretinergic neurons have been found exclusively in the hypothalamic dorsolateral area. These neurons are implicated in sleep and feeding through activation of specific G-protein-coupled orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptor (OR-R1 and OR-R2). The purpose of this study was to determine the existence of the HCRT peptides in the central input of the rat pineal gland. Further, OR-R1 and OR-R2 expression was determined in the pineal gland and the effect of HCRT-2 on melatonin synthesis and secretion was analysed in dissociated rat pinealocytes. A large contingent of HCRT-positive nerve fibres and terminals were observed in the epithalamus, many of which entered into the pineal parenchyma. A significant number of nerve fibres endowed with positive boutons were identified in the pineal stalk, though the number of positive fibres decreased along the extension of the stalk. So far, no positive fibres have been found in the superficial pineal gland. RT-PCR analysis revealed the expression of OR-R2 mRNA, whereas OR-R1-receptor mRNA was not detected. When tested alone, HCRT-2 had no effect on secretion of melatonin from cultured rat pinealocytes. However, HCRT-2 partially inhibited (by a maximum of 30%) the beta-adrenergic-induced melatonin secretion. The same effect was seen on activation of N-acetyltransferase activity. The distribution and the large number of HCRT-positive fibres together with the effect on noradrenaline-mediated melatonin release through specific receptors suggests that these peptides may be significant central transmitters in pineal function, probably mediating homeostatic signals to the pineal gland.

  11. Daily Aa-nat gene expression in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) pineal gland.

    PubMed

    El Allali, Khalid; Sinitskaya, Natalia; Bothorel, Béatrice; Achaaban, Rachid; Pévet, Paul; Simonneaux, Valérie

    2008-09-01

    Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) is the rhythm-generating enzyme for the synthesis of pineal melatonin. Molecular investigations have revealed two biological models for the activation of AA-NAT. In rodent species, Aa-nat gene transcription is turned off during the daytime and markedly activated at night. In primates, sheep, and cows, the Aa-nat gene is constitutively transcripted with no visible daily variations. This inter-species difference in Aa-nat gene regulation leads to different daily profiles in melatonin synthesis and release. Thus, the nighttime onset of the rise in circulating melatonin is delayed and slow in rodents, whereas it is fast and sharp in sheep. In the camel (Camelus dromedarius), we have observed that circulating melatonin rises immediately after sunset, suggesting AA-NAT activity is regulated at the post-transcriptional level. In agreement with this hypothesis, we report herein the amount of Aa-nat mRNA in the camel pineal gland is high, during both the day and night with no daily variations, while melatonin concentration in the same pineal tissue is five times higher during the night than daytime.

  12. Photoperiodism as a modifier of effect of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field on morphological properties of pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Lukac, Tamara; Matavulj, Amela; Matavulj, Milica; Rajković, Vesna; Lazetić, Bogosav

    2006-08-01

    The aim of our study was to determine, using histological and stereological methods, whether photoperiodism has any impact on the effects that chronic (three-month long) exposure to LF-EMF (50Hz) has on morphological characteristics on rat's pineal gland. The experiment was performed on 48 Mill Hill male rats (24 experimental and 24 control). Upon birth, 24 rats were exposed for 7h a day, 5 days a week for 3 months to LF-EMF (50 Hz, 50-500microT, 10V/m). In the winter (short days, long nights), the activity of the pineal gland and neuroendocrine sensitivity is increased. The study was performed both during summer and winter, following the identical protocol. After sacrifice of animals, samples of pineal gland were processed for HE staining and then were analyzed using the methods of stereology. The most significant changes in epiphysis in the first group of animals in wintertime are: altered glandular feature, hyperemia, reduced pinealocytes with pale pink, poor cytoplasm and irregular, stick-form nuclei. In the second group (II) pinealocytes are enlarged, with vacuolated cytoplasm and hyper chromatic, enlarged nucleus. Morphological changes of pineal gland at rats in the summertime were not as intense as in the winter and finding of the gland in the group II is compatible with those from the control group. Stereological results show both in winter and summer in the first group the decrease of volume density of pinealocytes, their cytoplasm and nuclei and in the second group in winter increase the volume density of pinealocytes, cytoplasm and nuclei, while in the second group the results in summertime are equal to those from the control group. Photoperiodism is modifier of effect of LF-EMF on morphological structure of pineal gland, because the gland recovery is incomplete in winter and reversible in summer.

  13. Arginine vasotocin activates phosphoinositide signal transduction system and potentiates N-acetyltransferase activity in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Novotná, R; Jác, M; Hájek, I; Novotný, I

    1999-03-05

    The pineal gland is innervated by pinealopetal peptidergic fibers originating in the hypothalamic nuclei which release arginine vasopressin (AVP) and arginine vasotocin (AVT) from their endings. Since the mechanism of AVT action on the pineal signal transduction and melatonin synthesis has not been determined so far, we examined the effect of AVT on the phosphoinositide signalling system and the N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity in the rat pineal gland. The effect of AVP 4-9 fragment and AVP analogue desmopressin was also tested. The phosphoinositide signalling system was studied by measuring 32P labelling of phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2) which reflects PI cycle activation. AVT (10(-5) and 10(-4) M) induced a significant increase in 32P labelling of PI, PIP and PIP2. The AVT mediated activation of the PI signal cascade was supressed by the vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist. The desmopressin and AVP 4-9 fragment were without the effect on PI signalling. To assess the AVT role in the melatonin synthesis we studied the daily pattern of the pineal NAT activity in rats treated by AVT (10 microg/100 g b.w). AVT application in the dark period of the day significantly increased nocturnal NAT activity. It can be summarized that AVT activates PI signalling system and potentiates NAT activity in the rat pineal gland.

  14. Pineal gland: influence on gonads of male rats treated with androgen 3 days after birth.

    PubMed

    Reiter, R J; Hoffman, J C; Rubin, P H

    1968-04-26

    Either blinding or the injection of 1 milligram of testosterone propionate into male Sprague-Dawley rats, 3 days old, results in testes and accessory organs (seminal vesicles and coagulating glands) that are smaller than normal when the rats are 72 days old. The response to blinding is prevented by removal of the pineal gland, whereas the response to treatment with testosterone is unaffected by pinealectomy. Combination of the two treatments in 3-day- old rats causes testes to be less than one-third their normal size at 72 days of age; pinealectomy in these rats permits the reproductive organs to grow to the same size as those in the androgen-treated animals.

  15. Seasonal variations of gonadotropins and prolactin in the laboratory rat. Role of maternal pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, N; Díaz, E; Fernández, C; Jiménez, V; Esquifino, A; Díaz, B

    2007-01-01

    The laboratory rat, a non-photoperiodic rodent, exhibits seasonal fluctuations of melatonin. Melatonin has been found to be readily transferred from the maternal to the fetal circulation. No data exist on the possible influence of maternal pineal gland upon seasonal variations of the offspring. The aim of the present study was to asses the influence of the maternal melatonin rhythm on the offspring postnatal development of the reproductive hormones LH, FSH and prolactin. Male offspring from control, pinealectomized (PIN-X) and PIN-X + melatonin (PIN-X+MEL) mother Wistar rats were studied at 21, 31, and 60 days of age. Seasonal age-dependent variations were found for all hormones studied in control offspring but PIN-X offspring showed a tendency to have reduced duration or altered seasonal variations. Maternal melatonin treatment to PIN-X mothers partially restored the effect of pinealectomy. The chronological study of LH, FSH, and prolactin in PIN-X offspring also showed an altered pattern as compared to control-offspring. Melatonin treatment to the mothers partially restored the developmental pattern of reproductive hormones. Results of this study indicate that maternal pineal gland of the laboratory rat is involved in the seasonal postnatal development variations of reproductive hormones of the offspring.

  16. Circadian dynamics of the cone-rod homeobox (CRX) transcription factor in the rat pineal gland and its role in regulation of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT).

    PubMed

    Rohde, Kristian; Rovsing, Louise; Ho, Anthony K; Møller, Morten; Rath, Martin F

    2014-08-01

    The cone-rod homeobox (Crx) gene encodes a transcription factor in the retina and pineal gland. Crx deficiency influences the pineal transcriptome, including a reduced expression of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat), a key enzyme in nocturnal pineal melatonin production. However, previous functional studies on pineal Crx have been performed in melatonin-deficient mice. In this study, we have investigated the role of Crx in the melatonin-proficient rat pineal gland. The current study shows that pineal Crx transcript levels exhibit a circadian rhythm with a peak in the middle of the night, which is transferred into daily changes in CRX protein. The study further shows that the sympathetic innervation of the pineal gland controls the Crx rhythm. By use of adenovirus-mediated short hairpin RNA gene knockdown targeting Crx mRNA in primary rat pinealocyte cell culture, we here show that intact levels of Crx mRNA are required to obtain high levels of Aanat expression, whereas overexpression of Crx induces Aanat transcription in vitro. This regulatory function of Crx is further supported by circadian analysis of Aanat in the pineal gland of the Crx-knockout mouse. Our data indicate that the rhythmic nature of pineal CRX protein may directly modulate the daily profile of Aanat expression by inducing nighttime expression of this enzyme, thus facilitating nocturnal melatonin synthesis in addition to its role in ensuring a correct tissue distribution of Aanat expression.

  17. Neuropeptide Y as a presynaptic modulator of norepinephrine release from the sympathetic nerve fibers in the pig pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Ziółkowska, N; Lewczuk, B; Przybylska-Gornowicz, B

    2015-01-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) released from the sympathetic nerve endings is the main neurotransmitter controlling melatonin synthesis in the mammalian pineal gland. Although neuropeptide Y (NPY) co-exists with NE in the pineal sympathetic nerve fibers it also occurs in a population of non-adrenergic nerve fibers located in this gland. The role of NPY in pineal physiology is still enigmatic. The present study characterizes the effect of NPY on the depolarization-evoked 3H-NE release from the pig pineal explants. The explants of the pig pineal gland were loaded with 3H-NE in the presence of pargyline and superfused with Tyrode medium. They were exposed twice to the modified Tyrode medium containing 60 mM of K+ to evoke the 3H-NE release via depolarization. NPY, specific agonists of Y1- and Y2- receptors and pharmacologically active ligands of α2-adrenoceptors were added to the medium before and during the second depolarization. The radioactivity was measured in medium fractions collected every 2 minutes during the superfusion. NPY (0.1-10 μM) significantly decreased the depolarization-induced 3H-NE release. Similar effect was observed after the treatment with Y2-agonist: NPY13-36, but not with Y1-agonist: [Leu31,Pro34]-NPY. The tritium overflow was lower in the explants exposed to the 5 μM NPY and 1 μM rauwolscine than to rauwolscine only. The effects of 5 μM NPY and 0.05 μM UK 14,304 on the depolarization-evoked 3H-NE release were additive. The results show that NPY is involved in the regulation of NE release from the sympathetic terminals in the pig pineal gland, inhibiting this process via Y2-receptors.

  18. 'TRPing' synaptic ribbon function in the rat pineal gland: neuroendocrine regulation involves the capsaicin receptor TRPV1.

    PubMed

    Reuss, Stefan; Disque-Kaiser, Ursula; Binzen, Uta; Greffrath, Wolfgang; Peschke, Elmar

    2010-01-01

    Synaptic ribbons (SRs) are presynaptic structures thought to regulate and facilitate multivesicular release. In the pineal gland, they display a circadian rhythm with higher levels at night paralleling melatonin synthesis. To gain more insight into the processes involved and the possible functions of these structures, a series of experiments were conducted in rodents. We studied the regional distribution of a molecular marker of pineal SRs, the kinesin motor KIF3A in the gland. Respective immunoreactivity was abundant in central regions of the gland where sympathetic fibers were less dense, and vice versa, revealing that intercellular communication between adjacent pinealocytes is enhanced under low sympathetic influence. KIF3A was found to be colocalized to the transient receptor potential channel of the vanilloid receptor family, subtype 1 (TRPV1). The TRPV1 agonist capsaicin increased melatonin secretion from perifused pineals in a dose-dependent manner that was blocked by the competitive TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine. No change in free intracellular calcium was observed in response to TRPV1 ligands applied to pinealocytes responding to norepinephrine, bradykinin and/or depolarization. These data clearly indicate that TRPV1 actively regulates pineal gland function.

  19. Vesicular Glutamate Transporter 2 Expression in the Rat Pineal Gland: Detailed Analysis of Expression Pattern and Regulatory Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Sachine; Hisano, Setsuji

    Melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland, is closely related physiologically to circadian rhythm, sleep and reproduction, and also psychiatrically to mood disorders in humans. Under circadian control, melatonin secretion is modulated via nocturnal autonomic (adrenergic) stimulation to the gland, which expresses vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 1, VGLUT2 and a VGLUT1 splice variant (VGLUT1v), glutamatergic markers. Expression of VGLUT2 gene and protein in the intact gland has been reported to exhibit a rhythmic change during a day. To study VGLUT2 expression is under adrenergic control, we here performed an in vitro experiment using dispersed pineal cells of rats. Stimulation of either β-adrenergic receptor or cAMP production to the pineal cells was shown to increase mRNA level of VGLUT2, but not VGLUT1 and VGLUT1v. Because an ability of glutamate to inhibit melatonin production was previously reported in the cultured gland, it is likely that pineal VGLUT2 transports glutamate engaged in the inhibition of melatonin production.

  20. This pineal gland does not mediate phase shifts in the disc shedding rhythm of the rat retina

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, A.I.

    1982-01-01

    Albino rats were subjected to pinealectomy, superior cervical ganglionectomy, or the appropriate sham preparation and were placed in lighting conditions so that light onset was advanced by 10 hr. After 6 days of this regimen, all animals exhibited a complete shift in their outer segment disc shedding rhythm, indicating that the pineal gland is not a factor in mediating such a shift.

  1. Cartesian theories on the passions, the pineal gland and the pathogenesis of affective disorders: an early forerunner.

    PubMed

    López-Muñoz, F; Alamo, C

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between physical and functional alterations in the pineal gland, the 'passions' (emotions or feelings) and psychopathology has been a constant throughout the history of medicine. One of the most influential authors on this subject was René Descartes, who discussed it in his work The Treatise on the Passions of the Soul (1649). Descartes believed that 'passions' were sensitive movements that the soul, located in the pineal gland, experienced due to its union with the body, by circulating animal spirits. Descartes described sadness as one of the six primitive passions of the soul, which leads to melancholy if not remedied. Cartesian theories had a great deal of influence on the way that mental pathologies were considered throughout the entire 17th century and during much of the 18th century, but the link between the pineal gland and psychiatric disorders it was definitively highlighted in the 20th century, with the discovery of melatonin in 1958. The recent development of a new pharmacological agent acting through melatonergic receptors (agomelatine) has confirmed the close link between the pineal gland and affective disorders.

  2. Daily oscillation of gene expression in the retina is phase-advanced with respect to the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lin; Zimmer, Sybille; Rickes, Oliver; Rohleder, Nils; Holthues, Heike; Engel, Lydia; Leube, Rudolf; Spessert, Rainer

    2008-04-08

    The photoreceptive retina and the non-photoreceptive pineal gland are components of the circadian and the melatonin forming system in mammals. To contribute to our understanding of the functional integrity of the circadian system and the melatonin forming system we have compared the daily oscillation of the two tissues under various seasonal lighting conditions. For this purpose, the 24-h profiles of the expression of the genes coding for arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT), nerve growth factor inducible gene-A (NGFI-A), nerve growth factor inducible gene-B (NGFI-B), retinoic acid related orphan receptor beta (RORbeta), dopamine D4 receptor, and period2 (Per2) have been simultaneously recorded in the retina and the pineal gland of rats under short day (light/dark 8:16) and long day (light/dark 16:8) conditions. We have found that the cyclical patterns of all genes are phase-advanced in the retina, often with a lengthened temporal interval under short day conditions. In both tissues, the AA-NAT gene expression represents an indication of the output of the relevant pacemakers. The temporal phasing in the AA-NAT transcript amount between the retina and the pineal gland is retained under constant darkness suggesting that the intrinsic self-cycling clock of the retina oscillates in a phase-advanced manner with respect to the self-cycling clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which controls the pineal gland. We therefore conclude that daily rhythms in gene expression in the retina are phase-advanced with respect to the pineal gland, and that the same temporal relationship appears to be valid for the self-cycling clocks influencing the tissues.

  3. Cloning, localization and functional properties of a cGMP-gated channel in photoreceptor cells from fish pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Decressac, Sonia; Grechez-Cassiau, Aline; Lenfant, Jacques; Falcón, Jacky; Bois, Patrick

    2002-11-01

    The perception of photic information and its translation into a rhythmic melatonin signal differ considerably among vertebrates. In the fish pineal gland, melatonin biosynthesis is controlled directly by the natural light/dark cycle. There are indications that the mechanisms of phototransduction are similar in the retinal and pineal photoreceptor cells. Here we report the molecular cloning of a novel ionic cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-gated channel from trout pineal photoreceptors. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibits a high sequence homology to cyclic nucleotide-gated-3 (CNG) channels from retinal cones. In situ hybridization with sections of trout pineal gland revealed the expression of CNG channel in photoreceptor cells of the pineal organ. Electrophysiological studies by means of patch-clamp technique indicated that the native channel in photoreceptor cells and the expressed channel in a human cell line (HEK 293 cells) have properties similar to those of cone-CNG (cCNG)-3 channels. They are activated by cGMP, insensitive to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and blocked by intracellular Mg2+ ions at positive voltage values. They have a single-channel conductance close to 42 pS in negative voltage range. In transfected HEK cells loaded with the calcium indicator dye Fura 2, direct activation of CNG channels by 8-Br-cGMP increased fluorescence. The signal was blocked by the addition of Mg2+ ions. From these results, it is suggested that the pineal cyclic nucleotide-gated channel is a good candidate for mediating calcium entry into the pineal photoreceptors. It is most probably a key element in the signalling pathways that control the rhythmic production of melatonin.

  4. MicroRNAs in the pineal gland: miR-483 regulates melatonin synthesis by targeting arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Clokie, Samuel J H; Lau, Pierre; Kim, Hyun Hee; Coon, Steven L; Klein, David C

    2012-07-20

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a broad range of roles in biological regulation. In this study, rat pineal miRNAs were profiled for the first time, and their importance was evaluated by focusing on the main function of the pineal gland, melatonin synthesis. Massively parallel sequencing and related methods revealed the miRNA population is dominated by a small group of miRNAs as follows: ~75% is accounted for by 15 miRNAs; miR-182 represents 28%. In addition to miR-182, miR-183 and miR-96 are also highly enriched in the pineal gland, a distinctive pattern also found in the retina. This effort also identified previously unrecognized miRNAs and other small noncoding RNAs. Pineal miRNAs do not exhibit a marked night/day difference in abundance with few exceptions (e.g. 2-fold night/day differences in the abundance of miR-96 and miR-182); this contrasts sharply with the dynamic 24-h pattern that characterizes the pineal transcriptome. During development, the abundance of most pineal gland-enriched miRNAs increases; however, there is a marked decrease in at least one, miR-483. miR-483 is a likely regulator of melatonin synthesis, based on the following. It inhibits melatonin synthesis by pinealocytes in culture; it acts via predicted binding sites in the 3"-UTR of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) mRNA, the penultimate enzyme in melatonin synthesis, and it exhibits a developmental profile opposite to that of Aanat transcripts. Additionally, a miR-483 targeted antagonist increased melatonin synthesis in neonatal pinealocytes. These observations support the hypothesis that miR-483 suppresses Aanat mRNA levels during development and that the developmental decrease in miR-483 abundance promotes melatonin synthesis.

  5. Role of postsynaptic alpha-adrenergic receptors in the beta-adrenergic stimulation of melatonin production in the Syrian hamster pineal gland in organ culture.

    PubMed

    Santana, C; Guerrero, J M; Reiter, R J; Menendez-Pelaez, A

    1989-01-01

    The role played by postsynaptic alpha-adrenergic receptors in the stimulation of pineal melatonin production was investigated in the Syrian hamster. The studies were conducted using organ cultured pineal glands collected from both anatomically intact and superior cervical ganglionectomized hamsters. Results obtained indicate that phenylephrine, an alpha-adrenergic agonist, by itself has no effect in promoting melatonin production; however, it potentiates the stimulatory effects of isoproterenol, a beta-adrenergic agonist, on pineal melatonin production in nonoperated hamsters. Similar observations were obtained with pineal glands whose presynaptic terminals were removed by prior superior cervical ganglionectomy. However, a longer incubation time was required (4-6 hours vs. 2 hours) with pineal glands taken from ganglionectomized animals. Apparently, beta-adrenergic activation is an absolute requirement to stimulate pineal melatonin production, and an alpha-adrenergic receptor mechanism potentiates beta-adrenergic activation. In addition, the findings obtained with denervated pineal glands suggest that the regulation of pineal melatonin production by both alpha- and beta-adrenergic mechanisms is through receptors located on postsynaptic structures.

  6. Chronic stress decreases the expression of sympathetic markers in the pineal gland and increases plasma melatonin concentration in rats.

    PubMed

    Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies; Orellana, Juan A; Carmona-Fontaine, Carlos; Montiel, Juan; Díaz-Velíz, Gabriela; Serón-Ferré, María; Wyneken, Ursula; Concha, Miguel L; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2006-06-01

    Chronic stress affects brain areas involved in learning and emotional responses. Although most studies have concentrated on the effect of stress on limbic-related brain structures, in this study we investigated whether chronic stress might induce impairments in diencephalic structures associated with limbic components of the stress response. Specifically, we analyzed the effect of chronic immobilization stress on the expression of sympathetic markers in the rat epithalamic pineal gland by immunohistochemistry and western blot, whereas the plasma melatonin concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay. We found that chronic stress decreased the expression of three sympathetic markers in the pineal gland, tyrosine hydroxylase, the p75 neurotrophin receptor and alpha-tubulin, while the same treatment did not affect the expression of the non-specific sympathetic markers Erk1 and Erk2, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Furthermore, these results were correlated with a significant increase in plasma melatonin concentration in stressed rats when compared with control animals. Our findings indicate that stress may impair pineal sympathetic inputs, leading to an abnormal melatonin release that may contribute to environmental maladaptation. In addition, we propose that the pineal gland is a target of glucocorticoid damage during stress.

  7. Age-related Histological Findings in the Pineal Gland of Crl:CD(SD) Rats.

    PubMed

    Tomonari, Yuki; Sato, Junko; Wako, Yumi; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2012-12-01

    To provide background data as the pathologic basis, the pineal glands of 190 male and 193 female Crl:CD(SD) rats at ages of 0-7, 51-58, 70-85 and 111 weeks were examined histologically in this study. Mineralization and fibrosis were common findings in the aged rats, whereas they were rarely found in the young ones; mineralization was present in 7, 44, 67 and 79% of males and in 0, 32, 67 and 79% in females, and fibrosis was present in 0, 29, 48 and 44% of males and 0, 18, 40 and 35% of females at ages of 0-7, 51-58, 70-85 and 111 weeks, respectively. Striated muscle fiber appeared regularly in the fibrosis region from 51-58 weeks of age when fibrosis increased, while the origin of this fiber remained unclear. Vacuolation of pineal cells also increased with age in both sexes, though the total incidence was low. There was a low incidence of lymphocytic infiltration in both sexes, but this was not related to age.

  8. Pharmacological characterization of beta2-adrenoceptor in PGT-beta mouse pineal gland tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Suh, B C; Chae, H D; Chung, J H; Kim, K T

    1999-01-01

    1. The adrenoceptor in a mouse pineal gland tumour cell line (PGT-beta) was identified and characterized using pharmacological and physiological approaches. 2. Adrenaline and noradrenaline, adrenoceptor agonists, stimulated cyclic AMP generation in a concentration-dependent manner, but had no effect on inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production. Adrenaline was a more potent activator of cyclic AMP generation than noradrenaline, with half maximal-effective concentrations (EC50) seen at 175+/-22 nM and 18+/-2 microM for adrenaline and noradrenaline, respectively. 3. The addition of forskolin synergistically stimulated the adrenaline-mediated cyclic AMP generation in a concentration-dependent manner. 4. The pA2 value for the specific beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI-118,551 (8.7+/-0.4) as an antagonist of the adrenaline-stimulated cyclic AMP generation were 3 units higher than the value for the betaI-adrenoceptor antagonist atenolol (5.6+/-0.3). 5. Treatment of the cells with adrenaline and forskolin evoked a 3 fold increase in the activity of serotonin N-acetyltransferase with the peak occurring 6 h after stimulation. 6. These results suggest the presence of beta2-adrenoceptors in mouse pineal cells and a functional relationship between the adenylyl cyclase system and the regulation of N-acetyltransferase expression.

  9. Glutamate Transporter-Mediated Glutamate Secretion in the Mammalian Pineal Gland

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mean-Hwan; Uehara, Shunsuke; Muroyama, Akiko; Hille, Bertil; Moriyama, Yoshinori; Koh, Duk-Su

    2008-01-01

    Glutamate transporters are expressed throughout the central nervous system where their major role is to clear released glutamate from presynaptic terminals. Here we report a novel function of the transporter in rat pinealocytes. This electrogenic transporter conducted inward current in response to L-glutamate and L- or D-aspartate and depolarized the membrane in patch clamp experiments. Ca2+ imaging demonstrated that the transporter-mediated depolarization induced a significant Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. The Ca2+ rise finally evoked glutamate exocytosis as detected by carbon-fiber amperometry and by high-performance liquid chromatography. In pineal slices with densely packed pinealocytes, glutamate released from the cells effectively activated glutamate transporters in neighboring cells. The Ca2+ signal generated by KCl depolarization or acetylcholine propagated through several cell layers by virtue of the regenerative ‘glutamate-induced glutamate release’. Therefore we suggest that glutamate transporters mediate synchronized elevation of L-glutamate and thereby efficiently down-regulate melatonin secretion via previously identified inhibitory metabotropic glutamate receptors in the pineal gland. PMID:18945893

  10. Pineal gland as an endocrine gravitational lunasensor: manifestation of moon-phase dependent morphological changes in mice.

    PubMed

    Gerasimov, A V; Kostyuchenko, V P; Solovieva, A S; Olovnikov, A M

    2014-10-01

    We found that some morphological properties of the pineal gland and submandibular salivary gland of mice are significantly distinct at the new and full moon. We suppose that the differences are initiated by the displacements of the electron-dense concretions in the secretory vesicles of pinealocytes. This presumably occurs under the influence of the gravitational field, which periodically changes during different phases of the moon. It seems that the pinealocyte is both an endocrine and gravisensory cell. A periodic secretion of the pineal gland probably stimulates, in a lunaphasic mode, the neuroendocrine system that, in turn, periodically exerts influence on different organs of the body. The observed effect probably serves, within the lifelong clock of a brain, to control development and aging in time.

  11. L-aspartate-evoked inhibition of melatonin production in rat pineal glands.

    PubMed

    Yamada, H; Yamaguchi, A; Moriyama, Y

    1997-06-06

    Our previous studies in rat indicated that pinealocytes secrete L-glutamate through microvesicle-mediated exocytosis to regulate negatively melatonin production. Recently, we further found that pinealocytes secrete L-aspartate through microvesicle-mediated exocytosis. In the present study, we investigated the role of L-aspartate in the melatonin production in isolated rat pineal glands. It was found that L-aspartate inhibits norepinephrine-stimulated melatonin production as well as serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity reversibly and dose-dependently, the concentrations required for 50% inhibition being 150 and 175 microM, respectively. L-Asparagine and oxaloacetate, metabolites of L-aspartate, had no effect on the melatonin production. These results suggest that pinealocytes use L-aspartate, as well as L-glutamate, as a negative regulator for melatonin production.

  12. The association between melatonin production and electrophysiology of the guinea pig pineal gland.

    PubMed

    McCance, I; Parkington, H C; Coleman, H A

    1996-09-01

    Melatonin production by isolated pineal glands from guinea pigs was examined under conditions that affect membrane potential or the firing of action potential-like spikes. In glands from superior cervical ganglionectomized animals, depolarization resulting from increasing extracellular potassium concentration to 100 mM did not initiate melatonin production, and it delayed the response to the beta-adrenoceptor agonist orciprenaline. In glands from intact animals melatonin production was initiated by exposure to 100 mM potassium with a time-course similar to the response to orciprenaline. A proportion of this response was propanol resistant, suggesting that the normal control of melatonin production may involve a neurotransmitter in addition to norepinephrine. Exposure to verapamil or nifedipine, or removal of extracellular calcium, previously shown to eliminate action potential-like spikes, did not substantially affect the increase in melatonin production induced by orciprenaline. Phenylephrine, which stimulates spiking, produced only a slight increase in melatonin production. It is concluded that the depolarization and the spiking are not closely related to the stimulation of melatonin production, but may relate principally to the secretion of a substance other than melatonin.

  13. Diurnal expression of clock genes in pineal gland and brain and plasma levels of melatonin and cortisol in Atlantic salmon parr and smolts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tien-sheng; Ruoff, Peter; Fjelldal, Per G

    2010-10-01

    In Atlantic salmon, the preadaptation to a marine life, i.e., parr-smolt transformation, and melatonin production in the pineal gland are regulated by the photoperiod. However, the clock genes have never been studied in the pineal gland of this species. The aim of the present study was to describe the diurnal expression of clock genes (Per1-like, Cry2, and Clock) in the pineal gland and brain of Atlantic salmon parr and smolts in freshwater, as well as plasma levels of melatonin and cortisol. By employing an out-of-season smolt production model, the parr-smolt transformation was induced by subjecting triplicate groups of parr to 6 wks (wks 0 to 6) under a 12 h:12 h light-dark (LD) regime followed by 6 wks (wks 6 to 12) of continuous light (LL). The measured clock genes in both pineal gland and brain and the plasma levels of melatonin and cortisol showed significant daily variations in parr under LD in wk 6, whereas these rhythms were abolished in smolts under LL in wk 12. In parr, the pineal Per1-like and Cry2 expression peaked in the dark phase, whereas the pineal Clock expression was elevated during the light phase. Although this study presents novel findings on the clock gene system in the teleost pineal gland, the role of this system in the regulation of smoltification needs to be studied in more detail.

  14. Melatonin Synthesis: Acetylserotonin O-Methyltransferase (ASMT) Is Strongly Expressed in a Subpopulation of Pinealocytes in the Male Rat Pineal Gland.

    PubMed

    Rath, Martin F; Coon, Steven L; Amaral, Fernanda G; Weller, Joan L; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C

    2016-05-01

    The rat pineal gland has been extensively used in studies of melatonin synthesis. However, the cellular localization of melatonin synthesis in this species has not been investigated. Here we focus on the localization of melatonin synthesis using immunohistochemical methods to detect the last enzyme in melatonin synthesis, acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT), and in situ hybridization techniques to study transcripts encoding ASMT and two other enzymes in melatonin synthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH)-1 and aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase. In sections of the rat pineal gland, marked cell-to-cell differences were found in ASMT immunostaining intensity and in the abundance of Tph1, Aanat, and Asmt transcripts. ASMT immunoreactivity was localized to the cytoplasm in pinealocytes in the parenchyma of the superficial pineal gland, and immunopositive pinealocytes were also detected in the pineal stalk and in the deep pineal gland. ASMT was found to inconsistently colocalize with S-antigen, a widely used pinealocyte marker; this colocalization was seen in cells throughout the pineal complex and also in displaced pinealocyte-like cells of the medial habenular nucleus. Inconsistent colocalization between ASMT and TPH protein was also detected in the pineal gland. ASMT protein was not detected in extraepithalamic parts of the central nervous system or in peripheral tissues. The findings in this report are of special interest because they provide reason to suspect that melatonin synthesis varies significantly among individual pinealocytes.

  15. Season-dependent postembryonic maturation of the diurnal rhythm of melatonin biosynthesis in the chicken pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Piesiewicz, A; Kedzierska, U; Podobas, E; Adamska, I; Zuzewicz, K; Majewski, P M

    2012-11-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated that the timing of the nocturnal peak of activity of the pineal arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase - a key enzyme in the melatonin biosynthesis pathway - in 3-wk-old chickens kept from the day of hatch under controlled laboratory conditions (L:D 12:12) varies depending on the season of hatch (summer vs. winter). The present study was undertaken to answer the following questions: (1) are season-related differences seen in the level of transcription of genes encoding enzymes of the melatonin biosynthesis pathway? (2) Does the pineal content of the main precursor (serotonin) and the final product (melatonin) exhibit age- and season-related changes? (3) At which step in postembryonic development are these season-related variations in pineal gland function most pronounced? Male Hy-line chickens hatched in the summer or winter, from eggs laid by hens held on L:D 16:8, were kept from the day of hatch under L:D 12:12 conditions. At the age of 2, 9, or 16 d, chickens were sacrificed every 2 h over a 24-h period and their pineal glands, isolated under dim red light, were processed for the measurement of (i) the level of Aanat and Asmt (acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase) mRNAs encoding the two last enzymes involved in melatonin biosynthesis, (ii) the activity of these enzymes, and (iii) the pineal content of serotonin and melatonin. Circadian rhythmicity of all the measured parameters was evaluated by the cosinor method. The levels of Aanat mRNA, AANAT enzymatic activity, and the pineal melatonin content changed during postembryonic development in a manner that was dependent on the season of hatch. Furthermore, the diurnal profile of Asmt mRNA was elevated during the light phase. In "winter" birds, the pattern and amplitude of the diurnal rhythm of accumulation of this transcript did not change with age, while in "summer" birds it increased in an age-related way. In contrast, the enzymatic activity of hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT

  16. Suppression of melatonin biosynthesis in the chicken pineal gland by retinally perceived light - involvement of D1-dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Zawilska, Jolanta B; Berezińska, Małgorzata; Rosiak, Jolanta; Skene, Debra J; Vivien-Roels, Berthe; Nowak, Jerzy Z

    2004-03-01

    In this study the role of retinal dopamine (DA) receptors in the light-induced suppression of melatonin biosynthesis in the chicken pineal gland was examined. Exposure of dark-adapted chickens to low intensity light (4 lux) at night significantly decreased the activity of serotonin N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT; the penultimate and key regulatory enzyme in melatonin production) and melatonin content in the pineal gland. This suppressive action of light was blocked by intraocular (i.oc.) administration of SCH 23390 (a selective antagonist of D1-DA receptors), but was not affected by sulpiride (a selective antagonist of D2-DA receptors). Injection of DA (i.oc.) to dark-adapted chickens significantly decreased pineal AA-NAT activity and melatonin content in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The action of DA was mimicked by selective agonists of D1-DA receptors, SKF 38393 and SKF 81297, and non-hydrolyzable analogs of cyclic AMP (cAMP), dibutyryl-cAMP and 8-bromo-cAMP. However, i.oc. administration of quinpirole, a selective agonist of D2-DA receptors, did not modify pineal AA-NAT activity. In contrast, quinpirole potently decreased nocturnal AA-NAT activity in the retina. Systemic administration of SCH 23390 to chickens blocked the i.oc. DA-evoked decline in nighttime pineal AA-NAT activity, whereas sulpiride was ineffective. These findings indicate that light activation of retinal dopaminergic neurotransmission, with concomitant stimulation of D1-DA receptors positively coupled to the cAMP generating system, plays an important role in a cascade of events regulating pineal activity.

  17. A direct influence of moonlight intensity on changes in melatonin production by cultured pineal glands of the golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus.

    PubMed

    Takemura, Akihiro; Ueda, Satomi; Hiyakawa, Nanae; Nikaido, Yoshiaki

    2006-04-01

    Rabbitfish are a restricted lunar-synchronized spawner that spawns around a species-specific lunar phase. It is not known how the fish perceive changes in cues from the moon. One possible explanation is that rabbitfish utilize changes in moonlight intensity to establish synchrony. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether or not the pineal gland of the golden rabbitfish can directly perceive changes in moonlight intensity. Isolated pineal glands were statically cultured under natural or artificial light conditions and melatonin secreted into the culture medium was measured using a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. Under an artificial light/dark cycle, melatonin secretion significantly increased during the dark phase. Under continuous light conditions, melatonin secretion was suppressed, while culture under continuous dark conditions seemed to duplicate melatonin secretion corresponding to the light/dark cycle in which the fish were acclimated. When cultured pineal glands were kept under natural light conditions on the dates of the full and the new moon, small amounts of melatonin were secreted at night. Moreover, exposure of cultured pineal glands to artificial and natural light conditions resulted in a significant decrease of melatonin secretion within 2 hr. These results suggest that the isolated pineal gland of golden rabbitfish responds to environmental light cycles and that 'brightness' of the night moon has an influence on melatonin secretion from the isolated pineal gland.

  18. Chronic stress induces upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and integrin alpha5 expression in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies; Zepeda-Carreño, Rodrigo; Díaz-Véliz, Gabriela; Mora, Sergio; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2006-05-01

    Chronic stress affects brain areas involved in learning and emotional responses. These alterations have been related with the development of cognitive deficits in major depression. Moreover, stress induces deleterious actions on the epithalamic pineal organ, a gland involved in a wide range of physiological functions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the stress effects on the pineal gland are related with changes in the expression of neurotrophic factors and cell adhesion molecules. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot, we analyzed the effect of chronic immobilization stress on the BDNF mRNA and integrin alpha5 expression in the rat pineal gland. We found that BDNF is produced in situ in the pineal gland. Chronic immobilization stress induced upregulation of BDNF mRNA and integrin alpha5 expression in the rat pineal gland but did not produce changes in beta-actin mRNA or in GAPDH expression. Stressed animals also evidenced an increase in anxiety-like behavior and acute gastric lesions. These results suggest that BDNF and integrin alpha5 may have a counteracting effect to the deleterious actions of immobilization stress on functionally stimulated pinealocytes. Furthermore, this study proposes that the pineal gland may be a target of glucocorticoid damage during stress.

  19. Historical and cultural aspects of the pineal gland: comparison between the theories provided by Spiritism in the 1940s and the current scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Daher, Jorge C; Iandoli, Decio; Gonçalves, Juliane P B; Lucchetti, Alessandra L G

    2013-01-01

    Significance has been attached to the pineal gland in numerous different cultures and beliefs. One religion that has advanced the role of the pineal gland is Spiritism. The objective of the present study was to compile information on the pineal gland drawing on the books of Francisco Cândido Xavier written through psychography and to carry out a critical analysis of their scientific bases by comparing against evidence in the current scientific literature. A systematic search using the terms "pineal gland" and "epiphysis" was conducted of 12 works allegedly dictated by the spirit "André Luiz". All information on the pineal having potential correlation with the field of medicine and current studies was included. Specialists in the area were recruited to compile the information and draw parallels with the scientific literature. The themes related to the pineal gland were: mental health, reproductive function, endocrinology, relationship with physical activity, spiritual connection, criticism of the theory that the organ exerts no function, and description of a hormone secreted by the gland (reference alluding to melatonin, isolated 13 years later). The historical background for each theme was outlined, together with the theories present in the Spiritist books and in the relevant scientific literature. The present article provides an analysis of the knowledge the scientific community can acquire from the history of humanity and from science itself. The process of formulating hypotheses and scientific theories can benefit by drawing on the cultural aspects of civilization, taking into account so-called non-traditional reports and theories.

  20. Increased melatonin synthesis in pineal glands of rats in streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Peschke, Elmar; Wolgast, Sabine; Bazwinsky, Ivonne; Pönicke, Klaus; Muhlbauer, Eckhard

    2008-11-01

    It is well-documented that melatonin influences insulin secretion. The effects are mediated by specific, high-affinity, pertussis-toxin-sensitive, G protein-coupled membrane receptors (MT(1) as well MT(2)), which are present in both the pancreatic tissue and islets of rats and humans, as well as in rat insulinoma cells (INS1). Via the Gi-protein-adenylatecyclase-3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and, possibly, the guanylatecyclase-cGMP pathways, melatonin decreases insulin secretion, whereas, by activating the Gq-protein-phospholipase C-IP(3) pathway, it has the opposite effect. For further analysis of the interactions between melatonin and insulin, diabetic rats were investigated with respect to melatonin synthesis in the pineal gland and plasma insulin levels. In this context, recent investigations have proven that type 2 diabetic rats and humans display decreased melatonin levels, whereas type 1 diabetic IDDM rats or those with diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ) of the present study show increased plasma melatonin levels and elevated AA-NAT-mRNA. Furthermore, the mRNA of pineal insulin receptors and beta1-adrenoceptors, including the clock genes Per1 and Bmal1 and the clock-controlled output gene Dbp, increases in both young and middle-aged STZ rats. The results therefore indicate that the decreased insulin levels in STZ-induced type 1 diabetes are associated with higher melatonin plasma levels. In good agreement with earlier investigations, it was shown that the elevated insulin levels observed in type 2 diabetes, are associated with decreased melatonin levels. The results thus prove that a melatonin-insulin antagonism exists. Astonishingly, notwithstanding the drastic metabolic disturbances in STZ-diabetic rats, the diurnal rhythms of the parameters investigated are maintained.

  1. Plasma corticosterone elevation inhibits the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB) in the Syrian hamster pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Z S; Bothorel, B; Markus, R P; Simonneaux, V

    2012-05-01

    We evaluated how the mild stress-induced increase in endogenous corticosterone affected the pineal gland in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). The animals were maintained under constant light for 1 day, instead of a cycle of 14:10-h, to increase the circulating corticosterone levels during the daytime. The nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB), which is the pivotal transcription factor for stress and injury, presented a daily rhythm in normal animals. NFKB nuclear content increased linearly from the onset of light [Zeitgeber Time 0 (ZT0)] until ZT11 and decreased after ZT12 when the plasma corticosterone peak was detected in normal animals. However, the 24-h profiles of the two curves were different, and they did not clearly support an exclusive relationship between corticosterone levels and NFKB content. Therefore, we tested the effect of increased endogenous corticosterone through inducing mild stress by maintaining daytime illumination for one night. This stressful condition, which increased daytime corticosterone levels, resulted in a daytime decrease in NFKB nuclear content, and this was inhibited by mifepristone. Overall, this study shows that NFKB has a daily rhythm in Syrian hamster pineal glands and, by increasing endogenous corticosterone with a stressful condition, NFKB activity is regulated. Therefore, this study suggests that the pineal gland in the Syrian hamster is a sensor of stressful conditions.

  2. Sympathetic neural control of indoleamine metabolism in the rat pineal gland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, H. J.; Hsuan, M.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the acceleration in rat pineal biosynthetic activity in response to prolonged exposure to darkness or to immobilization were investigated in animals whose pineals were surgically denervated. Some animals were adrenalectomized to remove one potential source of circulating catecholamines, and some were subjected to a partial chemical sympathectomy accomplished by a series of intravenous injections of 6-hydroxydopamine. Results suggest that N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity can be enhanced either by release of norepinephrine from sympathetic terminals within the pineal or from sympathetic nerve terminals elsewhere. The stress of immobilization stimulates the pineal by increasing circulating catecholamines. Photic control of pineal function requires intact pineal sympathetic innervation, since the onset of darkness apparently does not cause a sufficient rise in circulating catecholamines to stimulate the pineal. The present studies suggest that nonspecific stress triggers increased biosynthesis and secretion of melatonin; it is possible that this hormone may participate in mechanisms of adaptation.

  3. Morphological changes in the pineal gland of rats under conditions of long-term exposure to bright light.

    PubMed

    Gerasimov, A V; Logvinov, S V; Kostyuchenko, V P

    2010-12-01

    Changes in the diurnal light cycle affect the morphofunctional state of the pineal gland. The volume of the nucleus, Golgi apparatus, and mitochondria in pinealocytes decreases after 45-day exposure to bright light. After 90 days, the degree of nuclear polymorphism increased, the specific volume of the Golgi apparatus returned to normal, the volume of the granular endoplasmic reticulum decreased, while the volume of lysosomes, free ribosomes, and polysomes increased. These changes reflect plasticity of pinealocytes and adaptation of the gland to long-term 24-h light exposure.

  4. Immunohistochemical localization of irisin in skin, eye, and thyroid and pineal glands of the crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata).

    PubMed

    Gençer Tarakçı, B; Girgin, A; Timurkaan, S; Yalçın, M H; Gür, F M; Karan, M

    2016-08-01

    Irisin was first identified in muscle cells. We detected irisin immunoreactivity in various organs of the crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata). In the epidermis, irisin immunoreactivity was localized mainly in stratum basale, stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum layers; immunoreactivity was not observed in the stratum corneum. In the dermis, irisin was found in the external and internal root sheath, cortex and medulla of hair follicles, and in sebaceous glands. Irisin immunoreactivity was found in the neural retina and skeletal muscle fibers associated with the eye. The pineal and thyroid glands also exhibited irisin immunoreactivity.

  5. Endogenous rhythmicity of Bmal1 and Rev-erb alpha in the hamster pineal gland is not driven by norepinephrine.

    PubMed

    Wongchitrat, Prapimpun; Felder-Schmittbuhl, Marie-Paule; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Pévet, Paul; Simonneaux, Valérie

    2009-05-01

    Pineal melatonin is synthesized with daily and seasonal rhythms following the hypothalamic clock-driven release of norepinephrine (NE). The pineal gland of rats and mice, like the biological clock, expresses a number of clock genes. However, the role of pineal clock elements in pineal physiology is still unknown. We examined the expression and regulation of several clock genes (Per1, Cry2, Bmal1 and Rev-erb alpha) under different lighting conditions or following adrenergic treatments in the Syrian hamster, a seasonal rodent. We found that Per1 and Cry2 genes were similarly regulated by the nocturnal release of NE: levels of Per1 and Cry2 mRNA displayed a nocturnal increase that was maintained after 2 days in constant darkness (DD) but abolished after 2 days under constant light (LL), a condition that suppresses endogenous NE release, or after an early night administration of the adrenergic antagonist propranolol. In contrast, Bmal1 and Rev-erb alpha exhibited a different pattern of expression and regulation. mRNA levels of both clock genes displayed a marked daily variation, maintained in DD, with higher values at midday for Bmal1 and at day/night transition for Rev-erb alpha. Remarkably, the daily variation of both Bmal1 and Rev-erb alpha mRNA was maintained in LL conditions and was not affected by propranolol. This study confirms the daily regulation of Per1 and Cry2 gene expression by NE in the pineal gland of rodents and shows for the first time that a second set of clock genes, Bmal1 and Rev-erb alpha are expressed with a circadian rhythm independent of the hypothalamic clock-driven noradrenergic signal.

  6. Timing of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Ho, A K; Price, D M; Terriff, D; Chik, C L

    2006-06-27

    Activation of members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family of signaling cascades is a tightly controlled event in rat pinealocytes. Cell culture studies indicate that whereas the NE-->cGMP activation of p42/44MAPK is rapid and transient, the NE-->cAMP activation of p38MAPK is slower and more sustained. The decline in the p42/44MAPK response is in part due to the induction of MAPK phosphatase-1 by NE. In comparison, p38MAPK activation is tightly coupled to the synthesis and degradation of an upstream element in its activation cascade. Whole animal studies confirm activation of p42/44MAPK occurring during the early part of night and precedes p38MAPK activation. Studies with selective MAPK inhibitors reveal a modulating effect of MAPKs on arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferse (AA-NAT) activity, with involvement of p42/44MAPK in the induction of AA-NAT and p38MAPK participating in the amplitude and duration of the AA-NAT response. These effects of p42/44MAPK and p38MAPK on AA-NAT activity match their timing of activation. Taken together, our studies on the timing of MAPK activation and regulation of AA-NAT by MAPKs add to the importance of MAPKs in regulating the circadian biology of the pineal gland.

  7. Regulation of 90-kilodalton ribosomal S6 kinase phosphorylation in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Ho, A K; Mackova, M; Cho, C; Chik, C L

    2003-08-01

    In this study we investigated diurnal changes in the activation state of the 90-kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p90RSK) in the rat pineal gland. In animals housed under a lighting regimen with 12 h of light, we found an increase in phosphorylated p90RSK during the dark phase, and this increase was abolished by treatment with propranolol or continuous exposure to light. To determine the intracellular mechanism involved, rat pinealocytes were treated with norepinephrine. Norepinephrine caused a parallel increase in phosphorylated p42/44 MAPK (p42/44(MAPK)) and p90RSK that was reduced by prazosin or propranolol, indicating involvement of both alpha(1)- and beta-adrenergic receptors. Treatment with dibutyryl cGMP, 4beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, or ionomycin mimicked norepinephrine-stimulated p90RSK phosphorylation, whereas dibutyryl cAMP caused a decrease in p90RSK phosphorylation. Inhibition of p42/44(MAPK) activation by UO126 was effective in reducing norepinephrine-stimulated p90RSK phosphorylation. Moreover, UO126 had an inhibitory effect on norepinephrine-stimulated arylalkyl-N-acetyltransferase activity. These results indicate that the adrenergically regulated nocturnal increase in p90RSK phosphorylation is mainly mediated through a cGMP-->p42/44(MAPK)-dependent mechanism.

  8. BMP signaling orchestrates photoreceptor specification in the zebrafish pineal gland in collaboration with Notch.

    PubMed

    Quillien, Aurélie; Blanco-Sanchez, Bernardo; Halluin, Caroline; Moore, John C; Lawson, Nathan D; Blader, Patrick; Cau, Elise

    2011-06-01

    A variety of signaling pathways have been shown to regulate specification of neuronal subtype identity. However, the mechanisms by which future neurons simultaneously process information from multiple pathways to establish their identity remain poorly understood. The zebrafish pineal gland offers a simple system with which to address questions concerning the integration of signaling pathways during neural specification as it contains only two types of neurons - photoreceptors and projection neurons. We have previously shown that Notch signaling inhibits the projection neuron fate. Here, we show that BMP signaling is both necessary and sufficient to promote the photoreceptor fate. We also demonstrate that crosstalk between BMP and Notch signaling is required for the inhibition of a projection neuron fate in future photoreceptors. In this case, BMP signaling is required as a competence factor for the efficient activation of Notch targets. Our results indicate that both the induction of a photoreceptor fate and the interaction with Notch relies on a canonical BMP/Smad5 pathway. However, the activation of Notch-dependent transcription does not require a canonical Smad5-DNA interaction. Our results provide new insights into how multiple signaling influences are integrated during cell fate specification in the vertebrate CNS.

  9. The pineal gland of nocturnal mammals. I. The pinealocytes of the bat (Nyctalus noctula, Schreber).

    PubMed

    Pevet, P; Kappers, J A; Voûte, A M

    1977-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the pinealocytes of noctule bats, mammals which live most of the time in darkness or very low light intensities, was examined and compared with the pinealocytes of other mammals. Two different populations of pinealocytes (I and II) were observed. They differ in general aspect, in location and especially in their content of cell organelles involved in synthetic processes. Mitochondria, ribosomes, lysosomes and lipid inclusions were present in the perikaryon of pinealocytes of both populations. In the pinealocytes of population I some granular vesicles, of presumed Golgi origin, and some other structures were observed. Pinealocytes of population II are characterized by many glycogen granules, more or less associated with a large vacuolar system. Moreover, some small vacuoles originating from cisterns of the granular endoplasmic reticulum and containing flocculent material of a moderate electron density are described. The possibility is discussed that these small vacuoles are involved in one of the secretory processes of the pineal gland while the granular vesicles of the pinealocyte of the population I are the products of another.

  10. A novel isoform of the orphan nuclear receptor RORbeta is specifically expressed in pineal gland and retina.

    PubMed

    André, E; Gawlas, K; Becker-André, M

    1998-08-31

    RORbeta is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily whose ligand is unknown. Expression of RORbeta is confined to the central nervous system and its pattern suggests that this orphan nuclear receptor is implicated in the processing of sensory information and in circadian timing. In rats, RORbeta mRNA levels oscillate robustly in pineal gland and retina, displaying a 24h rhythm. Here we report the cloning of the cDNA of a novel isoform of RORbeta from rat pineal tissue. Expression of this isoform, called RORbeta2, is confined to pineal gland and retina and strongly increases at night. RORbeta2 shares common DNA- and putative ligand-binding domains with the canonical RORbeta (referred to as RORbeta1), but is characterized by a different amino-terminal domain. This structural difference renders RORbeta2 much more selectively binding to DNA than RORbeta1. Moreover, in contrast to RORbeta1, the novel isoform efficiently activates transcription also in non-neuronal cell lines. Thus, the two RORbeta isoforms are likely to regulate different sets of genes in different physiological contexts. 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  11. Amyloid β peptide directly impairs pineal gland melatonin synthesis and melatonin receptor signaling through the ERK pathway.

    PubMed

    Cecon, Erika; Chen, Min; Marçola, Marina; Fernandes, Pedro A C; Jockers, Ralf; Markus, Regina P

    2015-06-01

    Melatonin is the hormone produced by the pineal gland known to regulate physiologic rhythms and to display immunomodulatory and neuroprotective properties. It has been reported that Alzheimer disease patients show impaired melatonin production and altered expression of the 2 G protein-coupled melatonin receptors (MTRs), MT₁ and MT₂, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. Here we evaluated whether this dysfunction of the melatonergic system is directly caused by amyloid β peptides (Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42)). Aβ treatment of rat pineal glands elicited an inflammatory response within the gland, evidenced by the up-regulation of 52 inflammatory genes, and decreased the production of melatonin up to 75% compared to vehicle-treated glands. Blocking NF-κB activity prevented this effect. Exposure of HEK293 cells stably expressing recombinant MT₁ or MT₂ receptors to Aβ lead to a 40% reduction in [(125)I]iodomelatonin binding to MT₁. ERK1/2 activation triggered by MTRs, but not by the β₂-adrenergic receptor, was markedly impaired by Aβ in HEK293 transfected cells, as well as in primary rat endothelial cells expressing endogenous MTRs. Our data reveal the melatonergic system as a new target of Aβ, opening new perspectives to Alzheimer disease diagnosis and therapeutic intervention.

  12. Characterization of membrane currents in dissociated adult rat pineal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Aguayo, L G; Weight, F F

    1988-01-01

    1. Membrane currents, particularly the outward components, were studied in pineal cells acutely dissociated from adult rats using the whole-cell variant of the patch-clamp technique. 2. In current clamp, outward constant current elicited a transient graded depolarizing response. A sustained membrane rectification developed within 20 ms; this phenomenon was reduced in cells internally dialysed with 120 mM-CsCl. 3. Study of the membrane current revealed the existence of a transient and a delayed outward current. These currents were virtually eliminated when the cell was internally dialysed with CsCl. 4. The delayed outward current, isolated from a holding potential of -50 mV, activated at potentials near -20 mV, reached a steady-state current amplitude within 60 ms and had little or no decay during steps up to 400 ms in duration. This component was reduced by 80% or more with the addition of 5 mM-TEA. 5. From -100 mV, the transient outward current reached a peak within 15 ms and decayed with a single-exponential time course. The mean decay time constant was 66 +/- 10 ms (at -33 mV) and it showed little voltage sensitivity. This current, which activated at potentials positive to -60 mV and displayed half-inactivation at -76 +/- 8 mV, was reduced by 50% with the addition of 5 mM-4-AP (4-amino-pyridine). 6. In the presence of external Ca2+, the current-voltage relationship for the delayed current did not display a region of negative-slope conductance (N-shape). Increasing the intracellular ionized Ca2+ concentration by varying the Ca-EGTA buffer ratio did not alter the dependence of the current on the membrane potential. 7. Block of outward currents with internal Cs+ revealed a small (less than 90 pA) inward Ca2+ current when the external Ca2+ concentration was increased to 10 mM. From a holding potential of -50 mV, it had a threshold at -30 mV and peaked at +5 mV. Evidence for an inward Na+ current was not obtained. 8. We conclude that acutely dissociated pineal cells

  13. Circadian and photic regulation of MAP kinase by Ras- and protein phosphatase-dependent pathways in the chick pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Y; Sanada, K; Fukada, Y

    2001-02-23

    Chick pineal mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) exhibits circadian activation and light-dependent deactivation at nighttime. Here we report that, in the chick pineal gland, levels of active forms of MAPK, MEK, Raf-1 and Ras exhibited synchronous circadian rhythms with peaks during the subjective night, suggesting a sequential activation of components in the classical Ras-MAPK pathway in a circadian manner. In contrast, the light-dependent deactivation of MAPK was not accompanied by any change of MEK activity, but it was attributed to the light-dependent activation of protein phosphatase dephosphorylating MAPK. These results indicate that the photic and clock signals regulate MAPK activity via independent pathways, and suggest a pivotal role of MAPK in photic entrainment and maintenance of the circadian oscillation.

  14. Phosphodiesterase 10A in the rat pineal gland: localization, daily and seasonal regulation of expression and influence on signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Spiwoks-Becker, Isabella; Wolloscheck, Tanja; Rickes, Oliver; Kelleher, Debra K; Rohleder, Nils; Weyer, Veronika; Spessert, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is highly expressed in striatal spiny projection neurons and represents a therapeutic target for the treatment of psychotic symptoms. As reported previously [J Biol Chem 2009; 284:7606-7622], in this study PDE10A was seen to be additionally expressed in the pineal gland where the levels of PDE10A transcript display daily changes. As with the transcript, the amount of PDE10A protein was found to be under daily and seasonal regulation. The observed cyclicity in the amount of PDE10A mRNA persists under constant darkness, is blocked by constant light and is modulated by the lighting regime. It therefore appears to be driven by the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Since adrenergic agonists and dibutyryl-cAMP induce PDE10A mRNA, the in vitro clock-dependent control of Pde10a appears to be mediated via a norepinephrine → β-adrenoceptor → cAMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway. With regard to the physiological role of PDE10A in the pineal gland, the specific PDE10A inhibitor papaverine was seen to enhance the adrenergic stimulation of the second messenger cAMP and cGMP. This indicates that PDE10A downregulates adrenergic cAMP and cGMP signaling by decreasing the half-life of both nucleotides. Consistent with its effect on cAMP, PDE10A inhibition also amplifies adrenergic induction of the cAMP-inducible gene arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) which codes the rate-limiting enzyme in pineal melatonin formation. The findings of this study suggest that Pde10a expression is under circadian and seasonal regulation and plays a modulatory role in pineal signal transduction and gene expression.

  15. Transcription factor dynamics in pineal gland and liver of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) adapts to prevailing photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Maronde, Erik; Pfeffer, Martina; Glass, Yuri; Stehle, Jörg H

    2007-08-01

    The anticipation of day length and duration of darkness is necessary and advantageous for animals to survive and requires a photoperiodic memory. In the Syrian hamster this adaptation to photoperiod is mirrored by seasonal changes in the animal's reproductive state and its liver metabolism. Both events are linked to season-dependent alterations of the nocturnally elevated synthesis of the pineal hormone melatonin. To decipher molecules that are involved in this temporal gating, hamsters were exposed to long photoperiod (16 hr light:8 hr darkness; LP), or short photoperiod (8 hr light:16 hr darkness; SP). Dynamics in gene expression was investigated in the pineal gland [inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER)], and in the liver (ICER; C/EBPdelta; clock genes) using immunochemistry and reverse transcriptase PCR. While in the pineal, ICER rhythms tightly follow the prior duration of light and dark with decreasing levels at the beginning of the dark period in both LP and SP, ICER is not rhythmic in liver. In the liver, clock genes and their protein products reflect differences in photoperiodic history, with enhanced rhythm amplitudes of PER, CRY, CLOCK, and BMAL1 under SP conditions. Thus, in the Syrian hamster transcription factor expression patterns lock onto the prevailing photoperiod in two peripheral oscillators, the pineal gland and the liver, to function as mediators of suprachiasmatic nucleus-derived information on environmental light and dark. This tissue-specific gating in gene transcription represents a strategy to ameliorate consequences of altering environmental lighting conditions on endocrine and metabolic parameters that endow a strong circadian bias.

  16. Scientific research on the pineal gland and melatonin: a bibliometric study for the period 1966-1994.

    PubMed

    López-Muñoz, F; Boya, J; Marín, F; Calvo, J L

    1996-04-01

    By means of teledischarge techniques from the database MEDLINE we selected those documents that contained in their title one or several of the following descriptors: pineal*, epiphys*, or melatonin*, in addition to the descriptor pineal-body in the MESH (Medical Subject Headings) section. A total of 7,617 original documents published between 1966 and 1994 were extracted that dealt with any aspect related with the pineal gland or its main secretary product, melatonin. The main bibliometric laws were applied: Price's Law on the increase in scientific literature, Bradford's Law on the dispersion of the scientific literature, and Lotka's Law on the author's productivity. Furthermore, we have analyzed the participation index (PaI) of the main countries within the global production, the productivity index of the authors (PI), and the number of authors/paper index. Our results demonstrate an exponential increase of the scientific literature on the pineal gland ("r" value = 0.983, in contrast with a "r" value = 0.966 after the linear adjustment). The number of publications on melatonin was less than those on other aspects of pineal research until 1991, when this situation was reversed. The journal with the largest number of original papers is Journal of Pineal Research (1st Bradford's zone) with 533 articles, followed by Journal of Neural Transmission (258) and Neuroendocrinology (221), which constituted the 2nd Bradford's zone. The total number of authors is 9,140, responsible for 23,524 authorships. 3.8% of the authors present a PI > or = 1 (large producers), and 64.9% a PI = 0 (occasional authors). Lotka's Law was widely fulfilled in this material since 10.3% of the authors are responsible of 50.2% of all the papers. The average number of authors per paper has changed from 2.29 in 1966 to 3.85 in 1994. The most productive country (during the interval between 1988-1994) was USA (PaI = 30.6), followed by Japan (7.15), United Kingdom (6.45), Germany (6.37), France (6

  17. [The sexual peculiarities of aging changes in circannual rhythms of pineal gland, hypophysis, adrenal cortex and thymus functions in healthy subjects].

    PubMed

    Labunets, I F

    2013-01-01

    The interrelations of circannual rhythms of the functional state of pineal gland, hypophysis, adrenal cortex, thymus in healthy women and men from 20 to 79 years were studied. Fluctuations of melatonin, ACTH, cortisol and thymic serum factor, which were exchanged in aging (the season peaks of hormones and its acrophase) were found in blood of healthy 20-29 years old people. The changes of rhythmicity of indices were in male earlier (pineal gland and hypophysis over 30 years, thymus and adrenal cortex over 40 years) and more impressive than in women. The aging changes of pineal gland function's rhythm in healthy subjects have important role for changes of interrelations of circannual rhythms hypophysis, adrenal cortex and thymus.

  18. Fluoride concentrations in the pineal gland, brain and bone of goosander (Mergus merganser) and its prey in Odra River estuary in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Bosiacka-Baranowska, Irena; Lanocha, Natalia; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Krolaczyk, Katarzyna; Wilk, Aleksandra; Kavetska, Katarzyna; Budis, Halina; Gutowska, Izabela; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate fluoride concentrations in bone, brain and pineal gland of goosander Mergus merganser wintering in the Odra estuary (Poland) as well as in fish originating from its digestive tract. The fluoride concentrations were determined with potentiometric method. Medians of concentrations in goosander had the highest and the lowest values in pineal gland and brain (>760 and <190 mg/kg, respectively). Fluoride concentration in the pineal gland was significantly greater than in the bone and the brain of the duck. In fish, the fluoride concentration ranged from 37 to 640 mg/kg and significant correlation was revealed between the fluoride concentration and fish weight and length. Based on own results and data of other authors, a daily fluoride intake by the goosander in the Odra estuary was estimated at 15 mg. So high fluoride concentrations like in the duck have not been found in mammal brains.

  19. Genetically Blocking the Zebrafish Pineal Clock Affects Circadian Behavior.

    PubMed

    Ben-Moshe Livne, Zohar; Alon, Shahar; Vallone, Daniela; Bayleyen, Yared; Tovin, Adi; Shainer, Inbal; Nisembaum, Laura G; Aviram, Idit; Smadja-Storz, Sima; Fuentes, Michael; Falcón, Jack; Eisenberg, Eli; Klein, David C; Burgess, Harold A; Foulkes, Nicholas S; Gothilf, Yoav

    2016-11-01

    The master circadian clock in fish has been considered to reside in the pineal gland. This dogma is challenged, however, by the finding that most zebrafish tissues contain molecular clocks that are directly reset by light. To further examine the role of the pineal gland oscillator in the zebrafish circadian system, we generated a transgenic line in which the molecular clock is selectively blocked in the melatonin-producing cells of the pineal gland by a dominant-negative strategy. As a result, clock-controlled rhythms of melatonin production in the adult pineal gland were disrupted. Moreover, transcriptome analysis revealed that the circadian expression pattern of the majority of clock-controlled genes in the adult pineal gland is abolished. Importantly, circadian rhythms of behavior in zebrafish larvae were affected: rhythms of place preference under constant darkness were eliminated, and rhythms of locomotor activity under constant dark and constant dim light conditions were markedly attenuated. On the other hand, global peripheral molecular oscillators, as measured in whole larvae, were unaffected in this model. In conclusion, characterization of this novel transgenic model provides evidence that the molecular clock in the melatonin-producing cells of the pineal gland plays a key role, possibly as part of a multiple pacemaker system, in modulating circadian rhythms of behavior.

  20. Genetically Blocking the Zebrafish Pineal Clock Affects Circadian Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Alon, Shahar; Vallone, Daniela; Tovin, Adi; Shainer, Inbal; Nisembaum, Laura G.; Aviram, Idit; Smadja-Storz, Sima; Fuentes, Michael; Falcón, Jack; Eisenberg, Eli; Klein, David C.; Burgess, Harold A.; Foulkes, Nicholas S.; Gothilf, Yoav

    2016-01-01

    The master circadian clock in fish has been considered to reside in the pineal gland. This dogma is challenged, however, by the finding that most zebrafish tissues contain molecular clocks that are directly reset by light. To further examine the role of the pineal gland oscillator in the zebrafish circadian system, we generated a transgenic line in which the molecular clock is selectively blocked in the melatonin-producing cells of the pineal gland by a dominant-negative strategy. As a result, clock-controlled rhythms of melatonin production in the adult pineal gland were disrupted. Moreover, transcriptome analysis revealed that the circadian expression pattern of the majority of clock-controlled genes in the adult pineal gland is abolished. Importantly, circadian rhythms of behavior in zebrafish larvae were affected: rhythms of place preference under constant darkness were eliminated, and rhythms of locomotor activity under constant dark and constant dim light conditions were markedly attenuated. On the other hand, global peripheral molecular oscillators, as measured in whole larvae, were unaffected in this model. In conclusion, characterization of this novel transgenic model provides evidence that the molecular clock in the melatonin-producing cells of the pineal gland plays a key role, possibly as part of a multiple pacemaker system, in modulating circadian rhythms of behavior. PMID:27870848

  1. CSF generation by pineal gland results in a robust melatonin circadian rhythm in the third ventricle as an unique light/dark signal.

    PubMed

    Tan, Dun-Xian; Manchester, Lucien C; Reiter, Russel J

    2016-01-01

    Pineal gland is an important organ for the regulation of the bio-clock in all vertebrate species. Its major secretory product is melatonin which is considered as the chemical expression of darkness due to its circadian peak exclusively at night. Pineal melatonin can be either released into the blood stream or directly enter into the CSF of the third ventricle via the pineal recess. We have hypothesized that rather than the peripheral circulatory melatonin circadian rhythm serving as the light/dark signal, it is the melatonin rhythm in CSF of the third ventricle that serves this purpose. This is due to the fact that melatonin circadian rhythm in the CSF is more robust in terms of its extremely high concentration and its precise on/off peaks. Thus, extrapineal-generated melatonin or diet-derived melatonin which enters blood would not interfere with the bio-clock function of vertebrates. In addition, based on the relationship of the pineal gland to the CSF and the vascular structure of this gland, we also hypothesize that pineal gland is an essential player for CSF production. We feel it participates in both the formation and reabsorption of CSF. The mechanisms associated with these processes are reviewed and discussed in this brief review.

  2. Adrenergic regulation and diurnal rhythm of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Chik, C L; Mackova, M; Price, D; Ho, A K

    2004-11-01

    In this study, we investigated adrenergic and photoneural regulation of p38MAPK phosphorylation in the rat pineal gland. Norepinephrine (NE), the endogenous neurotransmitter, dose-dependently increased the levels of phosphorylated MAPK kinase 3/6 (MKK3/6) and p38MAPK in rat pinealocytes. Time-course studies showed a gradual increase in MKK3/6 and p38MAPK phosphorylation that peaked between 1 and 2 h and persisted for 4 h post NE stimulation. In cells treated with NE for 2 and 4 h, the inclusion of prazosin or propranolol reduced NE-induced MKK3/6 and p38MAPK phosphorylation, indicating involvement of both alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors for the sustained response. Whereas treatment with dibutyryl cAMP or ionomycin mimicked the NE-induced MKK3/6 and p38MAPK phosphorylation, neither dibutyryl cGMP nor 4beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate had an effect. The NE-induced increase in MKK3/6 and p38MAPK phosphorylation was blocked by KT5720 (a protein kinase A inhibitor) and KN93 (a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase inhibitor), but not by KT5823 (a protein kinase G inhibitor) or calphostin C (a protein kinase C inhibitor). In animals housed under a lighting regimen with 12 h of light, MKK3/6 and p38MAPK phosphorylation increased in the rat pineal gland at zeitgeber time 18. The nocturnal increase in p38MAPK phosphorylation was blocked by exposing the animal to constant light and reduced by treatment with propranolol, a beta-adrenergic blocker. Together, our results indicate that activation of p38MAPK is under photoneural control in the rat pineal gland and that protein kinase A and intracellular Ca(2+) signaling pathways are involved in NE regulation of p38MAPK.

  3. Role of monochromatic light on daily variation of clock gene expression in the pineal gland of chick.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nan; Wang, Zixu; Cao, Jing; Dong, Yulan; Chen, Yaoxing

    2016-11-01

    The avian pineal gland is a master clock that can receive external photic cues and translate them into output rhythms. To clarify whether a shift in light wavelength can influence the circadian expression in chick pineal gland, a total of 240 Arbor Acre male broilers were exposed to white light (WL), red light (RL), green light (GL) or blue light (BL). After 2weeks light illumination, circadian expressions of seven core clock genes in pineal gland and the level of melatonin in plasma were examined. The results showed after illumination with monochromatic light, 24h profiles of all clock gene mRNAs retained circadian oscillation, except that RL tended to disrupt the rhythm of cCry2. Compared to WL, BL advanced the acrophases of the negative elements (cCry1, cCry2, cPer2 and cPer3) by 0.1-1.5h and delayed those of positive elements (cClock, cBmal1 and cBmal2) by 0.2-0.8h. And, RL advanced all clock genes except cClock and cPer2 by 0.3-2.1h, while GL delayed all clock genes by 0.5-1.5h except cBmal2. Meanwhile, GL increased the amplitude and mesor of positive and reduced both parameters of negative clock genes, but RL showed the opposite pattern. Although the acrophase of plasma melatonin was advanced by both GL and RL, the melatonin level was significantly increased in GL and decreased in RL. This tendency was consistent with the variations in the positive clock gene mRNA levels under monochromatic light and contrasted with those of negative clock genes. Therefore, we speculate that GL may enhance positive clock genes expression, leading to melatonin synthesis, whereas RL may enhance negative genes expression, suppressing melatonin synthesis.

  4. [Circadian rhythms and light responses of clock gene and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase gene expressions in the pineal gland of rats].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Qing; Du, Yu-Zhen; Tong, Jian

    2005-02-25

    This study was to investigate the circadian rhythms and light responses of Clock gene and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) gene expressions in the rat pineal gland under the 12 h-light : 12 h-dark cycle condition (LD) and constant darkness (DD). Sprague-Dawley rats housed under the light regime of LD (n=36) for 4 weeks and of DD (n=36) for 8 weeks were sampled for the pineal gland once a group (n=6) every 4 h in a circadian day. The total RNA was extracted from each sample and the semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine the temporal changes in mRNA levels of Clock and NAT genes during different circadian times or zeitgeber times. The data were analysed by the cosine function software, Clock Lab software and the amplitude F test was used to reveal the circadian rhythm. The main results obtained are as follows. (1) In DD or LD condition, both of Clock and NAT genes mRNA levels in the pineal gland showed robust circadian oscillation (P< 0.05) with the peak at the subjective night or at night-time. (2) In comparison with DD regime, the amplitudes and the mRNA levels at peaks of Clock and NAT genes expressions in LD in the pineal gland were significantly reduced (P< 0.05). (3) In DD or LD condition, the circadian expressions of NAT gene were similar in pattern to those of Clock gene in the pineal gland (P> 0.05). These findings suggest that the expressions of Clock and NAT genes in the pineal gland not only show remarkably synchronous endogenous circadian rhythmic changes, but also response to the ambient light signal in a reduced manner.

  5. Daily oscillation and photoresponses of clock gene, Clock, and clock-associated gene, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase gene transcriptions in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Qing; Du, Yu-Zhen; Tong, Jian

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the circadian rhythms and light responses of Clock and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) gene expressions in the rat pineal gland under the environmental conditions of a 12 h light (05:00-17:00 h): 12 h-dark (17:00-05:00 h) cycle (LD) and constant darkness (DD). The pineal gland of Sprague-Dawley rats housed under a LD regime (n=42) for four weeks and of a regime (n=42) for eight weeks were sampled at six different times, every 4 h (n=7 animals per time point), during a 24 h period. Total RNA was extracted from each sample, and the semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine temporal changes in mRNA levels of Clock and NAT genes during different circadian or zeitgeber times. The data and parameters were analyzed by the cosine function software, Clock Lab software, and the amplitude F test was used to reveal the circadian rhythm. In the DD or LD condition, both the Clock and NAT mRNA levels in the pineal gland showed robust circadian oscillation (p<0.05) with the peak at the subjective night or at nighttime. In comparison with the DD regime, the amplitudes and mRNA levels at the peaks of Clock and NAT expressions in LD in the pineal gland were significantly reduced (p<0.05). In the DD or LD condition, the circadian expressions of NAT were similar in pattern to those of Clock in the pineal gland (p>0.05). These findings indicate that the transcriptions of Clock and NAT genes in the pineal gland not only show remarkably synchronous endogenous circadian rhythmic changes, but also respond to the ambient light signal in a reduced manner.

  6. In silico genome wide mining of conserved and novel miRNAs in the brain and pineal gland of Danio rerio using small RNA sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Suyash; Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Srivastava, Prachi; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Kumar, Ravindra; Pandey, Manmohan; Srivastava, Shreya

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNA molecules that bind to the mRNA of the target genes and regulate the expression of the gene at the post-transcriptional level. Zebrafish is an economically important freshwater fish species globally considered as a good predictive model for studying human diseases and development. The present study focused on uncovering known as well as novel miRNAs, target prediction of the novel miRNAs and the differential expression of the known miRNA using the small RNA sequencing data of the brain and pineal gland (dark and light treatments) obtained from NCBI SRA. A total of 165, 151 and 145 known zebrafish miRNAs were found in the brain, pineal gland (dark treatment) and pineal gland (light treatment), respectively. Chromosomes 4 and 5 of zebrafish reference assembly GRCz10 were found to contain maximum number of miR genes. The miR-181a and miR-182 were found to be highly expressed in terms of number of reads in the brain and pineal gland, respectively. Other ncRNAs, such as tRNA, rRNA and snoRNA, were curated against Rfam. Using GRCz10 as reference, the subsequent bioinformatic analyses identified 25, 19 and 9 novel miRNAs from the brain, pineal gland (dark treatment) and pineal gland (light treatment), respectively. Targets of the novel miRNAs were identified, based on sequence complementarity between miRNAs and mRNA, by searching for antisense hits in the 3'-UTR of reference RNA sequences of the zebrafish. The discovery of novel miRNAs and their targets in the zebrafish genome can be a valuable scientific resource for further functional studies not only in zebrafish but also in other economically important fishes.

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for the evaluation of pineal gland calcification

    PubMed Central

    Böker, Sarah M.; Bender, Yvonne Y.; Diederichs, Gerd; Fallenberg, Eva M.; Wagner, Moritz; Hamm, Bernd; Makowski, Marcus R.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine the diagnostic performance of susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (SWMR) for the detection of pineal gland calcifications (PGC) compared to conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences, using computed tomography (CT) as a reference standard. Methods 384 patients who received a 1.5 Tesla MRI scan including SWMR sequences and a CT scan of the brain between January 2014 and October 2016 were retrospectively evaluated. 346 patients were included in the analysis, of which 214 showed PGC on CT scans. To assess correlation between imaging modalities, the maximum calcification diameter was used. Sensitivity and specificity and intra- and interobserver reliability were calculated for SWMR and conventional MRI sequences. Results SWMR reached a sensitivity of 95% (95% CI: 91%-97%) and a specificity of 96% (95% CI: 91%-99%) for the detection of PGC, whereas conventional MRI achieved a sensitivity of 43% (95% CI: 36%-50%) and a specificity of 96% (95% CI: 91%-99%). Detection rates for calcifications in SWMR and conventional MRI differed significantly (95% versus 43%, p<0.001). Diameter measurements between SWMR and CT showed a close correlation (R2 = 0.85, p<0.001) with a slight but not significant overestimation of size (SWMR: 6.5 mm ± 2.5; CT: 5.9 mm ± 2.4, p = 0.02). Interobserver-agreement for diameter measurements was excellent on SWMR (ICC = 0.984, p < 0.0001). Conclusions Combining SWMR magnitude and phase information enables the accurate detection of PGC and offers a better diagnostic performance than conventional MRI with CT as a reference standard. PMID:28278291

  8. Expression of protein gene product 9.5, tyrosine hydroxylase and serotonin in the pineal gland of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Mang-Hung; Wei, I-Hua; Jiang-Shieh, Ya-Fen; Jou, Ming-Jia; Ko, Miau-Hwa; Chen, Hui-Min; Wu, Ching-Hsiang

    2008-03-01

    Hyperglycemia is a well-known factor in reducing nocturnal pineal melatonin production. However, the mechanism underlying diabetes-induced insufficiency of pineal melatonin has remained uncertain. This study was undertaken to examine the structure, innervation and functional activity of the pineal gland in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and image analysis. The number of the pinealocytes and the volume of pineal were also estimated using stereologic quantification including the optical fractionator and Cavalieri's method. It has also shown a progressive reduction of the total area of the pineal gland and the nuclear size of pinealocytes beginning at 4 weeks of induced diabetes. Surprisingly, the immunoreactive intensities and protein amounts of serotonin (5-HT) and protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 in the pineal gland were progressively increased from 4 weeks of diabetes. Meanwhile, nerve fibers immunoreactive for PGP 9.5 had disappeared. Diabetes-induced neuropathy was observed in nerve fibers containing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). The affected nerve fibers appeared swollen and smooth in outline but they showed a distribution pattern, packing density and protein levels comparable to those of the age-matched control animals. Ultrastructural observations have revealed diabetes-induced deformity of Schwann cells and basal lamina, accumulation of synaptic vesicles and deprivation of the dense-core vesicles in the axon terminals and varicosities. The increase in immunoreactivities in 5-HT and PGP 9.5 and shrinkage of pineal gland in the diabetic rats suggest an inefficient enzyme activity of the pinealocytes. This coupled with the occurrence of anomalous TH nerve fibers, may lead to an ineffective sympathetic innervation of the pinealocytes resulting in reduced melatonin production in STZ-induced diabetes.

  9. [Substrates and possible mechanisms of pineal gland moon-sensory function in context of redusome hypothesis of aging and control of biological time in ontogenesis].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, S V

    2008-01-01

    As a result of comparison of the normative factors on human pineal gland volume (8 age groups, n=411) with similar factors obtained in the days of the moon phase extremes (n=49) the following phenomena have been determined. As a rule all the moon phase extremes, in particular the new moon, are accompanied by an appreciable reduce of pineal gland volume, a sort of systole. These changes depend on the age factor. The results of the research advance indirect arguments for the redusome hypothesis of aging.

  10. Associations of pineal volume, chronotype and symptom severity in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Bumb, Jan Malte; Mier, Daniela; Noelte, Ingo; Schredl, Michael; Kirsch, Peter; Hennig, Oliver; Liebrich, Luisa; Fenske, Sabrina; Alm, Barbara; Sauer, Carina; Leweke, Franz Markus; Sobanski, Esther

    2016-07-01

    The pineal gland, as part of the human epithalamus, is the main production site of peripheral melatonin, which promotes the modulation of sleep patterns, circadian rhythms and circadian preferences (morningness vs. eveningness). The present study analyses the pineal gland volume (PGV) and its association with circadian preferences and symptom severity in adult ADHD patients compared to healthy controls. PGV was determined manually using high-resolution 3T MRI (T1-magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo) in medication free adult ADHD patients (N=74) compared to healthy controls (N=86). Moreover, the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), the ADHD Diagnostic Checklist and the Wender-Utah Rating Scale were conducted. PGV differed between both groups (patients: 59.9±33.8mm(3); healthy controls: 71.4±27.2mm(3), P=0.04). In ADHD patients, more eveningness types were revealed (patients: 29%; healthy controls: 17%; P=0.05) and sum scores of the MEQ were lower (patients: 45.8±11.5; healthy controls 67.2±10.1; P<0.001). Multiple regression analyses indicated a positive correlation of PGV and MEQ scores in ADHD (β=0.856, P=0.003) but not in healthy controls (β=0.054, P=0.688). Patients' MEQ scores (β=-0.473, P=0.003) were negatively correlated to ADHD symptoms. The present results suggest a linkage between the PGV and circadian preference in adults with ADHD and an association of the circadian preference to symptom severity. This may facilitate the development of new chronobiological treatment approaches for the add-on treatment in ADHD.

  11. Ultradian oscillation in expression of four melatonin receptor subtype genes in the pineal gland of the grass puffer, a semilunar-synchronized spawner, under constant darkness

    PubMed Central

    Ikegami, Taro; Maruyama, Yusuke; Doi, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Ando, Hironori

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin receptor gene expression as well as melatonin synthesis and secretion activities were examined in the pineal gland of the grass puffer, which exhibits unique lunar/tidal cycle-synchronized mass spawing: spawning occurs before high tide on the day of spring tide during spawing season. Melatonin synthesizing activity was assessed by the abundance of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (AANAT2) mRNA. The amount of aanat2 mRNA was low during light phase and initiated to increase after the light was turned off. The secretion of melatonin from primary pineal organ culture was stimulated after the light was turned off and ceased immediately after the light was turned on. The expression levels of four melatonin receptor subtype genes (mel1a1.4, mel1a1.7, mel1b, and mel1c) showed synchronous variations, and the levels tended to be high during the dark phase under light/dark conditions. These results suggest that the action of melatonin on the pineal gland is highly dependent on light and photoperiod, possibly with stronger action during night time. Under constant darkness, the expression of four melatonin receptor subtype genes showed unique ultradian oscillations with the period of 14.0–15.4 h, suggesting the presence of a circatidal oscillator in the pineal gland. The present results indicate that melatonin may serve local chronobiological functions in the pineal gland. These cyclic expressions of melatonin receptor genes in the pineal gland may be important in the control of the lunar/tidal cycle-synchronized mass spawning in the grass puffer. PMID:25688184

  12. Ultradian oscillation in expression of four melatonin receptor subtype genes in the pineal gland of the grass puffer, a semilunar-synchronized spawner, under constant darkness.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Taro; Maruyama, Yusuke; Doi, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Ando, Hironori

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin receptor gene expression as well as melatonin synthesis and secretion activities were examined in the pineal gland of the grass puffer, which exhibits unique lunar/tidal cycle-synchronized mass spawing: spawning occurs before high tide on the day of spring tide during spawing season. Melatonin synthesizing activity was assessed by the abundance of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (AANAT2) mRNA. The amount of aanat2 mRNA was low during light phase and initiated to increase after the light was turned off. The secretion of melatonin from primary pineal organ culture was stimulated after the light was turned off and ceased immediately after the light was turned on. The expression levels of four melatonin receptor subtype genes (mel 1a 1.4, mel 1a 1.7, mel1b, and mel1c) showed synchronous variations, and the levels tended to be high during the dark phase under light/dark conditions. These results suggest that the action of melatonin on the pineal gland is highly dependent on light and photoperiod, possibly with stronger action during night time. Under constant darkness, the expression of four melatonin receptor subtype genes showed unique ultradian oscillations with the period of 14.0-15.4 h, suggesting the presence of a circatidal oscillator in the pineal gland. The present results indicate that melatonin may serve local chronobiological functions in the pineal gland. These cyclic expressions of melatonin receptor genes in the pineal gland may be important in the control of the lunar/tidal cycle-synchronized mass spawning in the grass puffer.

  13. Vitamin A is a necessary factor for sympathetic-independent rhythmic activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Guillaumond, F; Giraudet, F; Becquet, D; Sage, D; Laforge-Anglade, G; Bosler, O; François-Bellan, A M

    2005-02-01

    The circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) controls day-to-day physiology and behavior by sending timing messages to multiple peripheral oscillators. In the pineal gland, a major SCN target, circadian events are believed to be driven exclusively by the rhythmic release of norepinephrine from superior cervical ganglia (SCG) neurons relaying clock messages through a polysynaptic pathway. Here we show in rat an SCN-driven daily rhythm of pineal MAPK activation that is not dependent on the SCG and whose maintenance requires vitamin A as a blood-borne factor. This finding challenges the dogma that SCG-released norepinephrine is an exclusive mediator of SCN-pineal communication and allows the assumption that humoral mechanisms are involved in pineal integration of temporal messages.

  14. The light-induced transcriptome of the zebrafish pineal gland reveals complex regulation of the circadian clockwork by light

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Moshe, Zohar; Alon, Shahar; Mracek, Philipp; Faigenbloom, Lior; Tovin, Adi; Vatine, Gad D.; Eisenberg, Eli; Foulkes, Nicholas S.; Gothilf, Yoav

    2014-01-01

    Light constitutes a primary signal whereby endogenous circadian clocks are synchronized (‘entrained’) with the day/night cycle. The molecular mechanisms underlying this vital process are known to require gene activation, yet are incompletely understood. Here, the light-induced transcriptome in the zebrafish central clock organ, the pineal gland, was characterized by messenger RNA (mRNA) sequencing (mRNA-seq) and microarray analyses, resulting in the identification of multiple light-induced mRNAs. Interestingly, a considerable portion of the molecular clock (14 genes) is light-induced in the pineal gland. Four of these genes, encoding the transcription factors dec1, reverbb1, e4bp4-5 and e4bp4-6, differentially affected clock- and light-regulated promoter activation, suggesting that light-input is conveyed to the core clock machinery via diverse mechanisms. Moreover, we show that dec1, as well as the core clock gene per2, is essential for light-entrainment of rhythmic locomotor activity in zebrafish larvae. Additionally, we used microRNA (miRNA) sequencing (miR-seq) and identified pineal-enhanced and light-induced miRNAs. One such miRNA, miR-183, is shown to downregulate e4bp4-6 mRNA through a 3′UTR target site, and importantly, to regulate the rhythmic mRNA levels of aanat2, the key enzyme in melatonin synthesis. Together, this genome-wide approach and functional characterization of light-induced factors indicate a multi-level regulation of the circadian clockwork by light. PMID:24423866

  15. The light-induced transcriptome of the zebrafish pineal gland reveals complex regulation of the circadian clockwork by light.

    PubMed

    Ben-Moshe, Zohar; Alon, Shahar; Mracek, Philipp; Faigenbloom, Lior; Tovin, Adi; Vatine, Gad D; Eisenberg, Eli; Foulkes, Nicholas S; Gothilf, Yoav

    2014-04-01

    Light constitutes a primary signal whereby endogenous circadian clocks are synchronized ('entrained') with the day/night cycle. The molecular mechanisms underlying this vital process are known to require gene activation, yet are incompletely understood. Here, the light-induced transcriptome in the zebrafish central clock organ, the pineal gland, was characterized by messenger RNA (mRNA) sequencing (mRNA-seq) and microarray analyses, resulting in the identification of multiple light-induced mRNAs. Interestingly, a considerable portion of the molecular clock (14 genes) is light-induced in the pineal gland. Four of these genes, encoding the transcription factors dec1, reverbb1, e4bp4-5 and e4bp4-6, differentially affected clock- and light-regulated promoter activation, suggesting that light-input is conveyed to the core clock machinery via diverse mechanisms. Moreover, we show that dec1, as well as the core clock gene per2, is essential for light-entrainment of rhythmic locomotor activity in zebrafish larvae. Additionally, we used microRNA (miRNA) sequencing (miR-seq) and identified pineal-enhanced and light-induced miRNAs. One such miRNA, miR-183, is shown to downregulate e4bp4-6 mRNA through a 3'UTR target site, and importantly, to regulate the rhythmic mRNA levels of aanat2, the key enzyme in melatonin synthesis. Together, this genome-wide approach and functional characterization of light-induced factors indicate a multi-level regulation of the circadian clockwork by light.

  16. Circadian-related heteromerization of adrenergic and dopamine D₄ receptors modulates melatonin synthesis and release in the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    González, Sergio; Moreno-Delgado, David; Moreno, Estefanía; Pérez-Capote, Kamil; Franco, Rafael; Mallol, Josefa; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Lluís, Carme; Ortiz, Jordi; Ferré, Sergi; Canela, Enric; McCormick, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    The role of the pineal gland is to translate the rhythmic cycles of night and day encoded by the retina into hormonal signals that are transmitted to the rest of the neuronal system in the form of serotonin and melatonin synthesis and release. Here we describe that the production of both melatonin and serotonin by the pineal gland is regulated by a circadian-related heteromerization of adrenergic and dopamine D₄ receptors. Through α(₁B)-D₄ and β₁-D₄ receptor heteromers dopamine inhibits adrenergic receptor signaling and blocks the synthesis of melatonin induced by adrenergic receptor ligands. This inhibition was not observed at hours of the day when D₄ was not expressed. These data provide a new perspective on dopamine function and constitute the first example of a circadian-controlled receptor heteromer. The unanticipated heteromerization between adrenergic and dopamine D₄ receptors provides a feedback mechanism for the neuronal hormone system in the form of dopamine to control circadian inputs.

  17. LC/MS/MS analysis of the endogenous dimethyltryptamine hallucinogens, their precursors, and major metabolites in rat pineal gland microdialysate.

    PubMed

    Barker, Steven A; Borjigin, Jimo; Lomnicka, Izabela; Strassman, Rick

    2013-12-01

    We report a qualitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for the simultaneous analysis of the three known N,N-dimethyltryptamine endogenous hallucinogens, their precursors and metabolites, as well as melatonin and its metabolic precursors. The method was characterized using artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) as the matrix and was subsequently applied to the analysis of rat brain pineal gland-aCSF microdialysate. The method describes the simultaneous analysis of 23 chemically diverse compounds plus a deuterated internal standard by direct injection, requiring no dilution or extraction of the samples. The results demonstrate that this is a simple, sensitive, specific and direct approach to the qualitative analysis of these compounds in this matrix. The protocol also employs stringent MS confirmatory criteria for the detection and confirmation of the compounds examined, including exact mass measurements. The excellent limits of detection and broad scope make it a valuable research tool for examining the endogenous hallucinogen pathways in the central nervous system. We report here, for the first time, the presence of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in pineal gland microdialysate obtained from the rat.

  18. Effects of ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid, A23187 and calmodulin, calcium activated neutral proteinase antagonists on melatonin secretion in perifused chick pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Agapito, M T; Pablos, M; Reiter, R J; Recio, J M; Gutierrez-Baraja, R

    1998-04-10

    We have recently described, using perifused pineal glands, that calcium influx participates in the activation of chick pineal gland. This study shows that the loss of perifused chick pineal gland activity is a complex process which seems to involve the release of calcium from intracellular stores, calmodulin and calcium-activated neutral protease (CANP). Pineal glands were perifused with Krebs medium (controls) or with Krebs medium plus the drugs ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA; calcium chelator), A23187 (calcium ionophore), EGTA plus A23187 (extra-intra cellular calcium chelation), trifluoperazine and CGS9343B (calmodulin inhibitors), and E-64 (CANP inhibitor) at the time of the natural peak of melatonin release. When EGTA or A23187 were added to the perifusion medium, no effects were observed. On the other hand, when the calcium chelator EGTA plus A23187 (free extra and intracellular calcium levels were dramatically decreased), trifluoperazine, CGS 9343B or E-64 were added to the perifusion medium melatonin synthesis increased significantly and was sustained for 8 h. We propose a prominent role for calcium output from intracellular stores in regulating melatonin production primarily by acting on Ca-calmodulin and calcium-activated neutral protease.

  19. The alpha(2D/A)-adrenergic receptor-linked membrane guanylate cyclase: a new signal transduction system in the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, V; Duda, T; Sharma, R K

    1998-05-01

    In the pineal gland, the membrane guanylate cyclase activity was specifically stimulated by alpha(2D/A)-adrenergic receptor (alpha(2D/A)-AR) agonists. The agonists, however, did not stimulate the cyclase activity in the cell-free membranes. It was possible to stimulate the cyclase in cell-free membranes by the addition of the pineal soluble fraction, but this stimulation was Ca2+-dependent and alpha(2D/A)-agonist-independent. It was also possible to achieve Ca2+-dependent stimulation of the cyclase by the direct addition of CD-GCAP to the isolated pineal membranes. CD-GCAP is a Ca2+-binding protein and is a specific activator of one of the two members of the ROS-GC subfamily of membrane guanylate cyclases, ROS-GC1. The soluble fraction of the pineal gland stimulated recombinant ROS-GC1 in a Ca2+-dependent fashion. The direct presence of both ROS-GC1 and CD-GCAP in the pineal was established by molecular cloning/PCR studies. The findings demonstrate the existence of a novel signal transduction mechanism--the linkage of the alpha(2D/A)-AR signaling system with ROS-GC1 transduction system, occurring through intracellular Ca2+ via CD-GCAP.

  20. CREB phosphorylation and melatonin biosynthesis in the rat pineal gland: involvement of cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase type II.

    PubMed

    Maronde, E; Wicht, H; Taskén, K; Genieser, H G; Dehghani, F; Olcese, J; Korf, H W

    1999-10-01

    Phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) at amino acid serine 133 appears as an important link between the norepinephrine (NE)-induced activation of second messenger systems and the stimulation of melatonin biosynthesis. Here we investigated in the rat pineal gland: 1) the type of protein kinase that mediates CREB phosphorylation: and 2) its impact on melatonin biosynthesis. Immunochemical or immunocytochemical demonstration of serine133-phosphorylated cyclic AMP regulated element binding protein (pCREB) and radioimmunological detection of melatonin revealed that only cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitors suppressed NE-induced CREB phosphorylation and stimulation of melatonin biosynthesis, whereas inhibitors of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, protein kinase C, or calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) were ineffective. Investigations with cyclic AMP-agonist pairs that selectively activate either PKA type I or II link NE-induced CREB phosphorylation and stimulation of melatonin biosynthesis to the activation of PKA type II. Our data suggest that PKA type II plays an important role in the transcriptional control of melatonin biosynthesis in the rat pineal organ.

  1. The role of the pineal gland in the photoperiodic control of bird song frequency and repertoire in the house sparrow, Passer domesticus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Harpole, Clifford E; Paulose, Jiffin; Cassone, Vincent M

    2014-04-01

    Temperate zone birds are highly seasonal in many aspects of their physiology. In mammals, but not in birds, the pineal gland is an important component regulating seasonal patterns of primary gonadal functions. Pineal melatonin in birds instead affects seasonal changes in brain song control structures, suggesting the pineal gland regulates seasonal song behavior. The present study tests the hypothesis that the pineal gland transduces photoperiodic information to the control of seasonal song behavior to synchronize this important behavior to the appropriate phenology. House sparrows, Passer domesticus, expressed a rich array of vocalizations ranging from calls to multisyllabic songs and motifs of songs that varied under a regimen of different photoperiodic conditions that were simulated at different times of year. Control (SHAM) birds exhibited increases in song behavior when they were experimentally transferred from short days, simulating winter, to equinoctial and long days, simulating summer, and decreased vocalization when they were transferred back to short days. When maintained in long days for longer periods, the birds became reproductively photorefractory as measured by the yellowing of the birds' bills; however, song behavior persisted in the SHAM birds, suggesting a dissociation of reproduction from the song functions. Pinealectomized (PINX) birds expressed larger, more rapid increases in daily vocal rate and song repertoire size than did the SHAM birds during the long summer days. These increases gradually declined upon the extension of the long days and did not respond to the transfer to short days as was observed in the SHAM birds, suggesting that the pineal gland conveys photoperiodic information to the vocal control system, which in turn regulates song behavior.

  2. p19 detected in the rat retina and pineal gland is a guanylyl cyclase-activating protein (GCAP).

    PubMed

    Dejda, Agnieszka; Matczak, Izabela; Gorczyca, Wojciech A

    2002-01-01

    The Ca(2+)-dependent activation of retina-specific guanylyl cyclase (retGC) is mediated by guanylyl cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs). Here we report for the first time detection of a 19 kDa protein (p19) with GCAP properties in extracts of rat retina and pineal gland. Both extracts stimulate synthesis of cGMP in rod outer segment (ROS) membranes at low (30 nM) but not at high (1 microM) concentrations of Ca(2+). At low Ca(2+), immunoaffinity purified p19 activates guanylyl cyclase(s) in bovine ROS and rat retinal membranes. Moreover, p19 is recognized by antibodies against bovine GCAP1 and, similarly to other GCAPs, exhibits a Ca(2+)-dependent electrophoretic mobility shift.

  3. Mammary gland: From embryogenesis to adult life.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Aiello, Flavia Concetta; Vecchio, Giada Maria; Salvatorelli, Lucia; Magro, Gaetano; Imbesi, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to focus on the molecular factors that ensure the optimal development and maintenance of the mammary gland thanks to their integration and coordination. The development of the mammary gland is supported, not only by endocrine signals, but also by regulatory molecules, which are able to integrate signals from the surrounding microenvironment. A major role is certainly played by homeotic genes, but their incorrect expression during the spatiotemporal regulation of proliferative, functional and differentiation cycles of the mammary gland, may result in the onset of neoplastic processes. Attention is directed also to the endocrine aspects and sexual dimorphism of mammary gland development, as well as the role played by ovarian steroids and their receptors in adult life.

  4. Rhythmic Melatonin Response of the Syrian Hamster Pineal Gland to Norepinephrine In Vitro and In Vivo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    melatonin production . NE appears to be the neurotransmitter for stimulation of pineal melatonin production in the Syrian hamster. The sensitivity rhythm and...these findings indicate similarity of these three species with regard to sympathetic control of melatonin production as revealed by neural lesions and...of melatonin production in humans. Hamster Melatonin Response to Norepinephrine 237 One purpose of the present study was to re-examine whether the

  5. Adrenoceptor expression and diurnal rhythms of melatonin and its precursors in the pineal gland of type 2 diabetic goto-kakizaki rats.

    PubMed

    Bach, Andreas Gunter; Mühlbauer, Eckhard; Peschke, Elmar

    2010-06-01

    A decrease in the nighttime release of the pineal hormone melatonin is associated with aging and chronic diseases in animals an humans. Melatonin has a protective role in type 2 diabetes; however, its synthesis itself is affected in the disease. The aim of this study was to detect crucially impaired steps in the pineal melatonin synthesis of type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Therefore, plasma melatonin concentrations and the pineal content of melatonin and its precursors (tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin, and N-acetylserotonin) were quantified in GK rats compared with Wistar rats (each group 8 and 50 wk old) in a diurnal manner (four animals per group and per time point). Additionally, the expression of pineal adrenoceptor subtype mRNA was investigated. We found that in diabetic GK rats, 1) inhibitory alpha-2-adrenoceptors are significantly more strongly expressed than in Wistar rats, 2) the formation of 5-hydroxytryptophan is crucially impaired, and 3) the pineal gland protein content is significantly reduced compared with that in Wistar rats. This is the first time that melatonin synthesis is examined in a type 2 diabetic rat model in a diurnal manner. The present data unveil several reasons for a reduced melatonin secretion in diabetic animals and present an important link in the interaction between melatonin and insulin.

  6. The Salivary Glands of Adult Blackflies,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Salivary glands of adult female blackflies of known ages were examined by histological methods. These studies showed that each of the paired...secretory cells when the blackfly takes a blood meal. During the first 24 h after a blood meal the secretory cells again synthesize some PAS-positive

  7. [Cascade of biochemical events triggered by stimulation of adrenergic receptors in the rat pineal gland--from cell membrane to nucleus].

    PubMed

    Zawilska, J B; Rosiak, J; Nowak, J Z

    1999-01-01

    Pineal glands of various vertebrate species synthesize melatonin in a circadian rhythm generated by an endogenous pacemaker. The levels of melatonin and activity of serotonin N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT: a penultimate and key regulatory enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis) are low during the light phase and high during the dark phase of any natural or imposed light-dark illumination cycle. The expression of AA-NAT gene in rat pineal gland is regulated by a photoneural system that acts through the adrenergic-cAMP-related mechanisms in pinealocytes. Concomitant stimulation by noradrenaline of beta 1- and alpha 1-adrenergic receptors, in a mechanism of "AND gate" activation, results in a large, 60-100-fold increase in intrapinealocyte cAMP level. The role of cAMP-dependent transcription factors CREB, ICER and Fra-2 in turning on and off the AA-NAT gene expression is discussed.

  8. Radiometric assay for phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and catechol O-methyltransferase in a single tissue sample: application to rat hypothalamic nuclei, pineal gland, and heart

    SciTech Connect

    Culman, J.; Torda, T.; Weise, V.K.

    1987-08-01

    A simple and highly sensitive method for simultaneous assay of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) and catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) is described. These enzymes are determined in a single tissue homogenate using S-(methyl-/sup 3/H) adenosyl-L-methionine as methyl donor and sequentially incubating with the substrates phenylethanolamine and epinephrine. The radioactive products of the enzymatic reactions, N-methylphenylethanolamine and metanephrine, are extracted and then separated by thin-layer chromatography. The identity of the reaction products has been established chromatographically and the conditions for both enzymatic reactions in the assay procedure have been defined. Measurement of PNMT activity in the rat pineal gland or in minute fragments of other tissues (e.g., brain nuclei) has not been possible using previously described methods. Activities of PNMT and COMT in the rat pineal gland, various hypothalamic nuclei, and the auricular and ventricular myocardia are herein reported.

  9. Microstructural analysis of pineal volume using trueFISP imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bumb, Jan M; Brockmann, Marc A; Groden, Christoph; Nolte, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the spectrum of pineal microstructures (solid/cystic parts) in a large clinical population using a high-resolution 3D-T2-weighted sequence. METHODS: A total of 347 patients enrolled for cranial magnetic resonance imaging were randomly included in this study. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients. The exclusion criteria were artifacts or mass lesions prohibiting evaluation of the pineal gland in any of the sequences. True-FISP-3D-imaging (1.5-T, isotropic voxel 0.9 mm) was performed in 347 adults (55.4 ± 18.1 years). Pineal gland volume (PGV), cystic volume, and parenchyma volume (cysts excluded) were measured manually. RESULTS: Overall, 40.3% of pineal glands were cystic. The median PGV was 54.6 mm3 (78.33 ± 89.0 mm3), the median cystic volume was 5.4 mm3 (15.8 ± 37.2 mm3), and the median parenchyma volume was 53.6 mm3 (71.9 ± 66.7 mm3). In cystic glands, the standard deviation of the PGV was substantially higher than in solid glands (98% vs 58% of the mean). PGV declined with age (r = -0.130, P = 0.016). CONCLUSION: The high interindividual volume variation is mainly related to cysts. Pineal parenchyma volume decreased slightly with age, whereas gender-related effects appear to be negligible. PMID:23671752

  10. [Cellular aspects of aging in the pineal gland of the shrew, Crocidura russula].

    PubMed

    Dekar-Madoui, Aicha; Besseau, Laurence; Magnanou, Elodie; Fons, Roger; Ouali, Saliha; Bendjelloul, Mounira; Falcon, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The Greater White-toothed shrew Crocidura russula is short-lived species and the phase of senescence is greatly elongated in captivity. The loss of rhythmicity of biological functions that accompanies its aging is also well documented. C. russula is thus an excellent model to test the effects of aging on biological clocks. Melatonin is a key hormone in the synchronization of behaviors, metabolisms and physiological regulations with environmental factors. In the present work we want to know if the loss of rhythmicity and the reduced melatonin levels registered by the second year of life in this species could be associated to modified ultrastructural features of the pineal parenchyma, site of melatonin synthesis. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of young (1-4 months) and old (25-28 months) shrew's pineals show that in older individuals, the parenchyma undergoes alterations affecting mainly nucleus, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, with increased numbers of dense bodies and the formation of many concretions as well as a depletion of secretory products. These changes suggest a process of slowing pinealocytes metabolism which could explain the gradual reduction of melatonin levels registered during aging in C. russula.

  11. PLURIVESICULAR SECRETORY PROCESSES AND NERVE ENDINGS IN THE PINEAL GLAND OF THE RAT

    PubMed Central

    De Robertis, Eduardo; de Iraldi, Amanda Pellegrino

    1961-01-01

    The pineal body of white normal rats, 1.5 to 3 months old, was studied under the electron microscope. A single type of parenchymal cell—the pinealocyte—is recognized as the main component of the tissue, and some of the structural characteristics of the nucleus and cytoplasm are described. The main morphological characteristic of the pinealocytes is represented by club-shaped perivascular expansions connected to the cell by thin pedicles. They are found lying in a large, clear space surrounding the blood capillaries. The name plurivesicular secretory processes is proposed, to emphasize the main structural feature and the probable function of these cellular expansions. A tubulofibrillar component is mainly found in the pedicle, and within the expansion there are numerous small mitochondria and densily packed vesicles of about 425 A. Two types of vesicles, one with a homogeneous content and another with a very dense osmium deposit, are described. Between the two types there are intermediary forms. In these processes, mitochondria show profound changes which may lead to complete vacuolization. The significance of this plurivesicular secretory component is discussed in the light of recent work on the biogenic amines of the pineal body and preliminary experiments showing the release of the vesicles containing dense granules after treatment with reserpine. These vesicles are interpreted as the site of storage of some of the biogenic amines. Bundles of unmyelinated nerve fibers and endings on large blood vessels which also contain a plurivesicular content are described and tentatively interpreted as adrenergic nerve terminals. PMID:13720811

  12. The effect of chronic morphine or methadone exposure and withdrawal on clock gene expression in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus and AA-NAT activity in the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Pačesová, D; Novotný, J; Bendová, Z

    2016-07-18

    The circadian rhythms of many behavioral and physiological functions are regulated by the major circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Long-term opiate addiction and drug withdrawal may affect circadian rhythmicity of various hormones or the sleep/activity pattern of many experimental subjects; however, limited research has been done on the long-term effects of sustained opiate administration on the intrinsic rhythmicity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and pineal gland. Here we compared the effects of repeated daily treatment of rats with morphine or methadone and subsequent naloxone-precipitated withdrawal on the expression of the Per1, Per2, and Avp mRNAs in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and on arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in the pineal gland. We revealed that 10-day administration and withdrawal of both these drugs failed to affect clock genes and Avp expression in the SCN. Our results indicate that opioid-induced changes in behavioral and physiological rhythms originate in brain structures downstream of the suprachiasmatic nucleus regulatory output pathway. Furthermore, we observed that acute withdrawal from methadone markedly extended the period of high night AA-NAT activity in the pineal gland. This suggests that withdrawal from methadone, a widely used drug for the treatment of opioid dependence, may have stronger impact on melatonin synthesis than withdrawal from morphine.

  13. Effects of Melatonin on Morphological and Functional Parameters of the Pineal Gland and Organs of Immune System in Rats During Natural Light Cycle and Constant Illumination.

    PubMed

    Litvinenko, G I; Shurlygina, A V; Gritsyk, O B; Mel'nikova, E V; Tenditnik, M V; Avrorov, P A; Trufakin, V A

    2015-10-01

    We studied the response of the pineal gland and organs of the immune system to melatonin treatment in Wistar rats kept under conditions of abnormal illumination regimen. The animals were kept under natural light regimen or continuous illumination for 14 days and then received daily injections of melatonin (once a day in the evening) for 7 days. Administration of melatonin to rats kept at natural light cycle was followed by a decrease in percent ratio of CD4+8+ splenocytes and CD4-8+ thymocytes. In 24-h light with the following melatonin injections were accompanied by an increase in percent rate and absolute amount of CD4+8+ cells in the spleen, and a decrease in percent rate of CD11b/c and CD4-8+ splenocytes. In the thymus amount of CD4-8+ cells increased, and absolute number of CD4+25+ cells reduced. Melatonin significantly decreased lipofuscin concentration in the pineal gland during continuous light. Direction and intensity of effects of melatonin on parameters of cell immunity and state of the pineal gland were different under normal and continuous light conditions. It should be taken into account during using of this hormone for correction of immune and endocrine impairments developing during change in light/dark rhythm.

  14. Dephosphorylation of pCREB by protein serine/threonine phosphatases is involved in inactivation of Aanat gene transcription in rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Koch, Marco; Mauhin, Viviane; Stehle, Jörg H; Schomerus, Christof; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2003-04-01

    The rat pineal gland is a suitable model to investigate neurotransmitter-controlled gene expression, because it is well established that the stimulation of melatonin biosynthesis by norepinephrine (NE) depends on the activation of the gene that encodes arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT), the melatonin rhythm enzyme. The mechanisms responsible for downregulation of Aanat transcription are less clear. In this in vitro study we investigated the role of pCREB dephosphorylation for termination of Aanat gene transcription. Immunosignals for pCREB, strongly induced after NE stimulation, rapidly decreased after withdrawal of NE. The immunoreactivity of the inhibitory transcription factor ICER increased twofold after NE treatment for 6 h, but did not change within 30 min after removal of the stimulus. Application of protein serine/threonine phosphatase (PSP) inhibitors prevented pCREB dephosphorylation and blocked the decreases in Aanat mRNA levels, AANAT protein amount and melatonin biosynthesis all of which occurred rapidly after NE withdrawal. PSPs in the rat pineal gland were characterized by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting. NE-stimulation for 8 h induced accumulation of PSP1-catalytic subunit (CSU) in pinealocyte nuclei, but did not affect the distribution of PSP2A-CSU. The results identify dephosphorylation of pCREB by PSPs as an essential mechanism for downregulation of Aanat transcription in the rat pineal gland.

  15. Effect of TNF-alpha on the melatonin synthetic pathway in the rat pineal gland: basis for a 'feedback' of the immune response on circadian timing.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Pedro A C M; Cecon, Erika; Markus, Regina P; Ferreira, Zulma S

    2006-11-01

    A retino-hypothalamic-sympathetic pathway drives the nocturnal surge of pineal melatonin production that determines the synchronization of pineal function with the environmental light/dark cycle. In many studies, melatonin has been implicated in the modulation of the inflammatory response. However, scant information on the feedback action of molecules present in the blood on the pineal gland during the time course of an inflammatory response is available. Here we analyzed the effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and corticosterone on the transcription of the Aa-nat, hiomt and 14-3-3 protein genes in denervated pineal glands of rats stimulated for 5 hr with norepinephrine, using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The transcription of Aa-nat, a gene encoding the key enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis, together with the synthesis of the melatonin precursor N-acetylserotonin, was inhibited by TNF-alpha. This inhibition was transient, and a preincubation of TNF-alpha for more than 24 hr had no detectable effect. In fact, a protein(s) transcribed, later on, as shown by cycloheximide, was responsible for the reversal of the inhibition of Aa-nat transcription. In addition, corticosterone induced a potentiation of norepinephrine-induced Aa-nat transcription even after 48 hr of incubation. These data support the hypothesis that the nocturnal surge in melatonin is impaired at the beginning of an inflammatory response and restored either during the shutdown of an acute response or in a chronic inflammatory pathology. Here, we introduce a new molecular pathway involved in the feedback of an inflammatory response on pineal activity, and provide a molecular basis for understanding the expression of circadian timing in injured organisms.

  16. Pharmacological, molecular and functional characterization of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptors in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Simonneaux, V; Kienlen-Campard, P; Loeffler, J P; Basille, M; Gonzalez, B J; Vaudry, H; Robberecht, P; Pévet, P

    1998-08-01

    Melatonin secretion from the mammalian pineal gland is strongly stimulated by noradrenaline and also by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP). Three types of receptors for VIP and PACAP have been characterized so far: VIP1/PACAP receptors and VIP2/PACAP receptors, which possess similar high affinities for VIP and PACAP, and PACAP1 receptors which exhibit a 100-1000-fold higher affinity for PACAP. The aim of the present study was to characterize the receptor subtype(s) mediating the stimulatory effects of VIP and PACAP on melatonin synthesis in the rat pineal gland. Autoradiographic studies showed that PACAP and VIP were equally potent in displacing binding of radioiodinated PACAP27 from pineal sections. Amplification of pineal complementary DNAs by polymerase chain reaction using specific primers for the different receptor subtypes revealed that all three receptor messenger RNAs are expressed and that VIP1/PACAP receptor messenger RNA was predominant over VIP2/PACAP receptor messenger RNA. In vitro, VIP and PACAP stimulated melatonin synthesis with similar high potency and the effect of the two peptides were not additive. The selective VIP1/PACAP receptor agonists [R16]chicken secretin (1-25) and [K15, R16, L27]VIP(1-7)/growth hormone releasing factor(8-27) were significantly more potent than the selective VIP2/PACAP receptor agonist RO 25-1553 in stimulating melatonin secretion. The stimulatory effects of VIP and PACAP were similarly inhibited by the VIP1/PACAP antagonist [acetyl-His1, D-Phe2, K15, R16, L27]VIP(3-7)/growth hormone releasing factor(8-27). These data strongly suggest that VIP and PACAP exert a stimulatory effect on melatonin synthesis mainly through activation of a pineal VIP1/PACAP receptor subtype.

  17. Mechanisms regulating the marked seasonal variation in melatonin synthesis in the European hamster pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Garidou, Marie-Laure; Vivien-Roels, Berthe; Pevet, Paul; Miguez, Jesus; Simonneaux, Valerie

    2003-04-01

    Like many wild species, the European hamster (Cricetus cricetus) adapts to the marked seasonal changes in its environment, namely by hibernation and inhibition of sexual activity in winter. These annual functions are driven by the variation in the environmental factors (light, temperature) that are transmitted to the body through large variations in the duration and amplitude of the nocturnal melatonin rhythm. Here we report that the seasonal variation in melatonin synthesis is mainly driven by arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase gene transcription and enzyme activation. This, however, does not exclude participation of hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase, which may relay environmental temperature information. The in vivo experiments show that norepinephrine stimulates melatonin synthesis, this effect being gated at night. The possibility that the variation in pineal metabolism depends on a seasonal change in the suprachiasmatic nuclei clock circadian activity that is transmitted by norepinephrine is discussed.

  18. Cannabinoids attenuate norepinephrine-induced melatonin biosynthesis in the rat pineal gland by reducing arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity without involvement of cannabinoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Koch, Marco; Dehghani, Faramarz; Habazettl, Iris; Schomerus, Christof; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2006-07-01

    Cannabinoids modulate neuronal and neuroendocrine circuits by binding to cannabinoid receptors acting upon cAMP/Ca(2+)-mediated intracellular signaling cascades. The rat pineal represents an established model to investigate intracellular signaling processes because a well defined input, the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, is transformed via cAMP/Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms into an easily detectable output signal, the biosynthesis of melatonin. Here we investigated the impact of cannabinoids on norepinephrine-regulated melatonin biosynthesis in the rat pineal. We demonstrated that treatment of cultured rat pineals with 9-carboxy-11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol or cannabinol significantly reduced norepinephrine-induced arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) activity and melatonin biosynthesis. These effects were not mimicked by the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 and were not blocked by cannabinoid 1 and 2 receptor antagonists. The cannabinoids used did not affect norepinephrine-induced increases in cAMP/Ca(2+) levels. Notably, cannabinoids were found to directly inhibit AANAT activity in lysates of the pineal gland. This effect was specific in so far as cannabinoids did not influence the activity of hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), the last enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that cannabinoids inhibit AANAT activity and attenuate melatonin biosynthesis through intracellular actions without involvement of classical cannabinoid receptor-dependent signaling cascades.

  19. Early development of circadian rhythmicity in the suprachiamatic nuclei and pineal gland of teleost, flounder (Paralichthys olivaeus), embryos.

    PubMed

    Mogi, Makoto; Uji, Susumu; Yokoi, Hayato; Suzuki, Tohru

    2015-08-01

    Circadian rhythms enable organisms to coordinate multiple physiological processes and behaviors with the earth's rotation. In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the sole master circadian pacemaker, has entrainment mechanisms that set the circadian rhythm to a 24-h cycle with photic signals from retina. In contrast, the zebrafish SCN is not a circadian pacemaker, instead the pineal gland (PG) houses the major circadian oscillator. The SCN of flounder larvae, unlike that of zebrafish, however, expresses per2 with a rhythmicity of daytime/ON and nighttime/OFF. Here, we examined whether the rhythm of per2 expression in the flounder SCN represents the molecular clock. We also examined early development of the circadian rhythmicity in the SCN and PG. Our three major findings were as follows. First, rhythmic per2 expression in the SCN was maintained under 24 h dark (DD) conditions, indicating that a molecular clock exists in the flounder SCN. Second, onset of circadian rhythmicity in the SCN preceded that in the PG. Third, both 24 h light (LL) and DD conditions deeply affected the development of circadian rhythmicity in the SCN and PG. This is the first report dealing with the early development of circadian rhythmicity in the SCN in fish.

  20. Reactive changes of interstitial glia and pinealocytes in the rat pineal gland challenged with cell wall components from gram-positive and -negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jiang-Shieh, Ya Fen; Wu, Ching Hsiang; Chien, Hsiung Fei; Wei, I Hua; Chang, Min Lin; Shieh, Jeng Yung; Wen, Chen Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major proinflammatory component of gram-negative bacteria, is well known to induce sepsis and microglial activation in the CNS. On the contrary, the effect of products from gram-positive bacteria especially in areas devoid of blood-brain barrier remains to be explored. In the present study, a panel of antibodies, namely, OX-6, OX-42 and ED-1 was used to study the response of microglia/macrophages in the pineal gland of rats given an intravenous LPS or lipoteichoic acid (LTA). These antibodies recognize MHC class II antigens, complement type 3 receptors and unknown lysosomal proteins in macrophages, respectively. In rats given LPS (50 microg/kg) injection and killed 48 h later, the cell density and immunoexpression of OX-6, OX-42 and ED-1 in pineal microglia/macrophages were markedly increased. In rats receiving a high dose (20 mg/kg) of LTA, OX-42 and OX-6, immunoreactivities in pineal microglia/macrophages were also enhanced, but that of ED-1 was not. In addition, both bacterial toxins induced an increase in astrocytic profiles labelled by glial fibrillary acid protein. An interesting feature following LPS or LTA treatment was the lowering effect on serum melatonin, enhanced serotonin immunolabelling and cellular vacuolation as studied by electron microscopy in pinealocytes. The LPS- or LTA-induced vacuoles appeared to originate from the granular endoplasmic reticulum as well as the Golgi saccules. The present results suggest that LPS and LTA could induce immune responses of microglia/macrophages and astroglial activation in the pineal gland. Furthermore, the metabolic and secretory activity of pinealocytes was modified by products from both gram-positive and -negative bacteria.

  1. Effect of dark exposure in the middle of the day on Period1, Period2, and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase mRNA levels in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus and pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, Chiaki

    2004-11-04

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the mammalian hypothalamus contains a central circadian pacemaker, which adjusts circadian rhythms within the body to environmental light-dark cycles. It has been shown that dark exposure in the day causes phase shifts in circadian rhythms, but it does not induce changes in the melatonin levels in the pineal gland. In this study, we examined the effect of dark exposure on two "circadian clock" genes Period1 and Period2 mRNA levels in the rat SCN, and on Period1, Period2, and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aa-Nat, the rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin synthesis) gene expression in the pineal gland. Period1 and Period2 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in the SCN after 0.5 and 2 h, respectively, therefore suggesting that changes in those mRNA levels may be the part of the mechanisms of dark-induced phase shifts. Period1 and Aa-Nat mRNA levels in the pineal gland were not affected by darkness, but Period2 was moderately affected. Since Period1 and Aa-Nat mRNA levels in the pineal gland did not respond to dark stimulation, we further examined whether the pineal gland itself is capable of responding to adrenergic stimulation at this time of the day. Isoproterenol significantly induced Period1 and Aa-Nat mRNA levels; however, it did not affect Period2. Although previous studies have reported that during the day the SCN "gates" the dark information reaching the pineal, our data demonstrate that dark information may reach the pineal during the daytime.

  2. Papillary tumor of pineal region: A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Meena; Karandikar, Manjiri

    2016-01-01

    Pineal tumors comprise 0.4 – 1.0% of intracranial space-occupying lesions in adults. Papillary tumor of pineal region (PTPR) is a very rare entity. It has been newly described in WHO 2007 classification of brain tumors. Only a few case reports are available in the literature. We report a case of a 60 year-old female presenting with headache, giddiness and reduced vision. Imaging studies showed a pineal mass with areas of hemorrhage. All ventricles were normal. There was a past history of a pineal gland tumor excised 2 years ago. This case is being reported for its rarity and aggressiveness in the form of recurrence. Limited/available immunohistochemistry workup has been done. PMID:27695568

  3. Selective inhibition of beta(2)-adrenergic receptor-mediated cAMP generation by activation of the P2Y(2) receptor in mouse pineal gland tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Suh, B C; Kim, J S; Namgung, U; Han, S; Kim, K T

    2001-06-01

    Rhythmic noradrenergic signaling from the hypothalamic clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus to the pineal gland causes an increase in intracellular cAMP which regulates the circadian fluctuation of melatonin synthesis. The activation of phospholipase C (PLC)-coupled P2Y(2) receptors upon treatment with ATP and UTP exclusively inhibited the isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP production in mouse pineal gland tumor cells. However, the activation of other PLC-coupled receptors including P2Y(1) and bombesin receptors had little or no effect on the isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP production. Also, ATP did not inhibit cAMP production caused by forskolin, prostaglandin E(2), or the adenosine analog NECA. These results suggest a selective coupling between signalings of P2Y(2) and beta(2)-adrenergic receptors. The binding of [(3)H]CGP12177 to beta(2)-adrenergic receptors was not effected by the presence of ATP or UTP. Ionomycin decreased the isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP production, whereas phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate slightly potentiated the isoproterenol response. Chelation of intracellular Ca(2+), however, had little effect on the ATP-induced inhibition of cAMP production, while it completely reversed the ionomycin-induced inhibition. Treatment of cells with pertussis toxin almost completely blocked the inhibitory effect of nucleotides. Pertussis toxin also inhibited the nucleotide-induced increase in intracellular Ca(2+) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production by 30-40%, suggesting that the ATP-mediated inhibition of the cAMP generation and the partial activation of PLC are mediated by pertussis toxin-sensitive G(i)-protein. We conclude that one of the functions of P2Y(2) receptors on the pineal gland is the selective inhibition of beta-adrenergic receptor-mediated signaling pathways via the inhibitory G-proteins.

  4. Rod outer segment membrane guanylate cyclase type 1-linked stimulatory and inhibitory calcium signaling systems in the pineal gland: biochemical, molecular, and immunohistochemical evidence.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, V; Nagele, R; Duda, T; Sharma, R K

    2000-05-23

    Recent evidence indicates the presence of a novel alpha(2D/A)-adrenergic receptor (alpha(2D/A)-AR) linked membrane guanylate cyclase signal transduction system in the pineal gland. This system operates via a Ca(2+)-driven rod outer segment membrane guanylate cyclase (ROS-GC). In the present study, this transduction system has been characterized via molecular, immunohistochemical, and biochemical approaches. The two main components of the system are ROS-GC1 and its Ca(2+) regulator, S100B. Both components coexist in pinealocytes where the signaling component alpha(2D/A)-AR also resides. The presence of ROS-GC2 was not detected in the pineal gland. Thus, transduction components involved in processing alpha(2D/A)-AR-mediated signals are Ca(2+), S100B, and ROS-GC1. During this investigation, an intriguing observation was made. In certain pinealocytes, ROS-GC1 coexisted with its other Ca(2+) modulator, guanylate cyclase activating protein type 1 (GCAP1). In these pinealocytes, S100B was not present. The other GCAP protein, GCAP2, which is also a known modulator of ROS-GC in photoreceptors, was not present in the pineal gland. The results establish the identity of an alpha(2D/A)-AR-linked ROS-GC1 transduction system in pinealocytes. Furthermore, the findings show that ROS-GC1, in a separate subpopulation of pinealocytes, is associated with an opposite Ca(2+) signaling pathway, which is similar to phototransduction in retina. Thus, like photoreceptors, pinealocytes sense both positive and negative Ca(2+) signals, where ROS-GC1 plays a pivotal role; however, unlike photoreceptors, the pinealocyte is devoid of the ROS-GC2/GCAP2 signal transduction system.

  5. Descartes' pineal neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Smith, C U

    1998-02-01

    The year 1996 marked the quattrocentenary of Descartes' birth. This paper reviews his pineal neuropsychology. It demonstrates that Descartes understood the true anatomical position of the pineal. His intraventricular pineal (or glande H) was a theoretical construct which allowed him to describe the operations of his man-like "earthen machine." In the Treatise of Man he shows how all the behaviors of such machines could then be accounted for without the presence of self-consciousness. Infrahuman animals are "conscious automata." In Passions of the Soul he adds, but only for humans, self-consciousness to the machine. In a modern formulation, only humans not only know but know that they know.

  6. Effect of melatonin and 5-methoxytryptamine administration on the testis and pineal gland activity of the fresh-water snake, Natrix piscator.

    PubMed

    Haldar, C; Pandey, R

    1988-01-01

    Effects of melatonin (aMT) and 5-methoxytryptamine (MT) were studied on the testicular activity cycle of the fresh-water snake, Natrix piscator. The subcutaneous implantation and the injections (morning as well as evening) of these two methoxyindoles prevented testicular recrudescence, retarded the testicular active phase, and accelerated the rate of regression of testes, while having no effect on the inactive testes. Contrary to this, these two compounds increased the pineal gland weight during different reproductive phases. These results revealed that both aMT and MT, whether they were continuously released through silastic capsule implants or administered through daily periodic injections, produced inhibitory effects on the testicular function.

  7. Pineal gland involvement in Erdheim-Chester disease detected on (18)F-FDG PET-CT imaging: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Anirban; Dhull, Varun Singh; Karunanithi, Sellam; Sharma, Punit; Durgapal, Prashant; Kumar, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhan's cell histiocytosis affecting multiple organ systems. The most common systemic manifestations are bone lesions, infiltration of the pituitary stalk sometimes leading to diabetes insipidus, pulmonary fibrosis, cardiac failure and exophthalmus. Neurological symptoms as the first clinical manifestations of ECD have been reported in less than one third of cases. We report a rare presentation of a patient of ECD on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography which revealed abnormal (18)F-FDG accumulation in the region of pineal gland, pericardium and bilateral distal tibiae.

  8. Light and electron microscopic immunocytochemical study on the innervation of the pineal gland of the tree shrew (Tupaia glis), with special reference to peptidergic synaptic junctions with pinealocytes.

    PubMed

    Kado, M; Yoshida, A; Hira, Y; Sakai, Y; Matsushima, S

    1999-09-25

    Conventional and immunocytochemical, light- and electron-microscopic studies on the innervation of the pineal gland of the tree shrew (Tupaia glis) were made. Neuropeptide Y (NPY)-immunoreactive fibers, which were abundantly distributed in the gland, disappeared almost completely after superior cervical ganglionectomy, suggesting that these fibers are mostly postganglionic sympathetic fibers. By contrast, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive fibers, which were less numerous than NPY-fibers, remained in considerable numbers in ganglionectomized animals, indicating the innervation of TH-positive fibers from extrasympathetic sources. Bundles of substance P (SP)- or calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive fibers, entering the gland at its distal end, were left intact after ganglionectomy. SP-fibers were numerous, but CGRP-fibers were scarce in the gland. SP-immunoreactive fibers were myelinated and nonmyelinated, and were regarded as peripheral fibers because of the presence of a Schwann cell sheath. NPY- and SP-immunoreactive fibers and endings were mainly localized in the pineal parenchyma. NPY-immunoreactive endings synapsed frequently, and SP-positive ones did less frequently, with the cell bodies of pinealocytes. The results suggest that NPY and SP directly control the activity of pinealocytes. Sections stained for myelin showed that thick and less thick bundles of myelinated fibers entered the gland by way of the habenular and posterior commissures, respectively. Under the electron microscope, the bundles were found to contain also unmyelinated fibers. A considerable number of nerve endings synapsing with the cell bodies of pinealocytes remained in ganglionectomized animals; these endings were not immunoreactive for TH or SP. Such synaptic endings may be the terminals of commissural fibers.

  9. Light-Emitting Diodes and Cool White Fluorescent Light Similarly Suppress Pineal Gland Melatonin and Maintain Retinal Function and Morphology in the Rat. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, Daniel C.; Heeke, D.; Mele, G.

    1999-01-01

    Currently, the light sources most commonly used in animal habitat lighting are cool white fluorescent or incandescent lamps. We evaluated a novel light-emitting diode (LED) light source for use in animal habitat lighting by comparing its effectiveness to cool white fluorescent light (CWF) in suppressing pineal gland melatonin and maintaining normal retinal physiology and morphology in the rat. Results of pineal melatonin suppression experiments showed equal suppression of pineal melatonin concentrations for LED light and CWF light at five different light illuminances (100, 40, 10, 1 and 0.1 lux). There were no significant differences in melatonin suppression between LED and CWF light when compared to unexposed controls. Retinal physiology was evaluated using electroretinography. Results show no differences in a-wave implicit times and amplitudes or b-wave implicit times and amplitudes between 100-lux LED-exposed rats and 100-lux CWF-exposed rats. Results of retinal histology assessment show no differences in retinal thickness rod outer segment length and number of rod nuclei between rats exposed to 100-lux LED and 100-lux CWF for days. Furthermore, the retinal pigmented epithelium and rod outer segments of all eyes observed were in good condition and of normal thickness. This study indicates that LED light does not cause retinal damage and can suppress pineal melatonin at similar intensities as a conventional CWF light source. These data suggest that LED light sources may be suitable replacements for conventional light sources used in the lighting of rodent vivariums while providing many mechanical and economical advantages.

  10. Nocturnal activation of aurora C in rat pineal gland: its role in the norepinephrine-induced phosphorylation of histone H3 and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Price, D M; Kanyo, R; Steinberg, N; Chik, C L; Ho, A K

    2009-05-01

    We have shown previously that Ser10 phosphorylation of histone H3 occurs in rat pinealocytes after stimulation with norepinephrine (NE) and that histone modifications such as acetylation appear to play an important role in pineal gene transcription. Here we report the nocturnal phosphorylation of a Ser10 histone H3 kinase, Aurora C, in the rat pineal gland. The time profile of this phosphorylation parallels the increase in the level of phospho-Ser10 histone H3. Studies with cultured pinealocytes indicate that Aurora C phosphorylation is induced by NE and this induction can be blocked by cotreatment with propranolol or KT5720, a protein kinase A inhibitor. Moreover, only treatment with dibutyryl cAMP, but not other kinase activators, mimics the effect of NE on Aurora C phosphorylation. These results indicate that Aurora C is phosphorylated primarily by a beta-adrenergic/protein kinase A-mediated mechanism. Treatment with an Aurora C inhibitor reduces the NE-induced histone H3 phosphorylation and suppresses the NE-stimulated induction of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT), the rhythm-controlling enzyme of melatonin synthesis, and melatonin production. The effects of Aurora C inhibitors on adrenergic-induced genes in rat pinealocytes are gene specific: inhibitory for Aa-nat and inducible cAMP repressor but stimulatory for c-fos. Together our results support a role for the NE-stimulated phosphorylation of Aurora C and the subsequent remodeling of chromatin in NE-stimulated Aa-nat transcription. This phenomenon suggests that activation of this mitotic kinase can be induced by extracellular signals to participate in the transcriptional induction of a subset of genes in the rat pineal gland.

  11. In vitro seasonal variations of LH, FSH and prolactin secretion of the male rat are dependent on the maternal pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Díaz, E; Vázquez, N; Fernández, C; Jiménez, V; Esquifino, A; Díaz, B

    2012-01-17

    The maternal pineal gland is involved in the seasonal rhythms entrainment. We evaluate the effect of maternal pinealectomy (PIN-X), also melatonin replacement (PIN-X+MEL) during pregnancy on "in vitro" gonadotropins and prolactin seasonal variations. Male offspring from control, PIN-X and PIN-X+MEL mother Wistar rats were studied at 31 and 60 days of age. In vitro LH release from controls was season-dependent during prepubertal and pubertal periods showing reduced values in winter. The mother pineal gland seems to be important in the entrainment of seasonal variations of in vitro pituitary LH release, since altered secretion showing very high values was observed in summer. Melatonin treatment to PIN-X mothers partially restored the LH response. The effect of pinealectomy upon LH secretion disappears at the pubertal phase. A different pattern was observed for FSH release, without seasonal variations at 31 or at 60 days of age in control offspring, but pinealectomy to mothers or melatonin treatment resulted in seasonal variations. Seasonal influence was also observed in the prolactin pituitary release of controls. PIN-X mother offspring showed delayed seasonal variations at 31 and 60 days of age. The effect of maternal melatonin treatment during pregnancy was observed up to 60 days of age.

  12. [Circadian changes of the density of melatonin receptors 1A in the neurons of the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the rat hypothalamus under conditions of diverse functional activiity of the pineal gland].

    PubMed

    Pishak, V P; Bulyk, R Ie

    2008-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study of the density of melatonin receptors 1A in the neurons of the rat suprachiasmatic nuclei with diverse functional activity of the pineal gland has been carried out. The density of melatonin receptors 1A under conditions of the physiological function of the pineal gland was characterized by clear-cut diurnal variations. Simultaneously, a dysfunction of the gland results in their marked disturbance. In case of a hypofunction of the pineal body the density of the structures was reliably lower than in case of hyperfunction. It has been demonstrated that in case of a suppressed activity of the pineal body the maximum number of melatonin receptors 1A in the neurons of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei shifts from 02.00 a.m. to 02.00 p.m. and constitutes 0.35+/-0.012 conventional units (c.u.) of density, whereas a larger index is noticed at 20 hours making up 0.43+/-0.015 c.u. of density when the gland is activated.

  13. Expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) GluR2/3 receptors in the developing rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Kaur, C; Sivakumar, V; Ling, E A

    2005-10-01

    The expression of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) type glutamate (GluR2/3) receptors and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subtype 1 (NMDAR1) was carried out by immunohistochemistry, double immunofluorescence and real-time RT-PCR analysis in the pineal glands of 1-day to 6-wk-old rats in the present study. GluR2/3 immunopositive cells were distributed throughout the pineal gland and showed branching processes in all age groups. The NMDAR1 immunoreactivity, however, was observed in fewer branched cells. A constitutive mRNA expression of NMDAR1, GluR2 and GluR3 was detected in the pineal glands of various ages and showed no significant difference between the age groups studied. Immunohistochemical and double immunofluorescence results showed that the GluR2/3 were mainly expressed and co-localized with OX-42-positive microglia/macrophages and the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes. Co-localization of NMDAR1 with OX-42- and GFAP-positive cells was much less. The expression of these receptors on the glial cells suggests that they may be involved in the development and growth of the pineal gland in the early postnatal period (1 day to 3 wk) and subsequently in the regulation of melatonin synthesis.

  14. Does histamine stimulate cyclic AMP formation in the avian pineal gland via a novel (non-H1, non-H2, non-H3) histamine receptor subtype.

    PubMed

    Nowak, J Z; Sek, B; D'Souza, T; Dryer, S E

    1995-12-01

    The effects of histamine (HA) and selective HA H1-, H2 and H3-receptor agonists on cyclic AMP formation were investigated in intact chick and duck pineal glands HA potently stimulated the pineal cycle AMP formation. The effect of HA was mimicked fully by N alpha-methylated histamines, and partially by several histaminergic drugs: 2-thiazolylethylamine (H1) amthamine (H2) and R alpha-methyl-histamine (H3). Dimaprit, another selective H2-agonist showed marginal activity. Forskolin highly potentiated the action of HA, and only weakly affected the effects of 2-thiazolylethylamine and amthamine. In the chick pineal, the stimulatory effects of HA and the tested histaminergic drugs were not blocked by mepyramine and thioperamide (H1- and H3-blockers, respectively), but they were antagonized by H2-receptor selective compounds ranitidine and aminopotentidine, which, however, acted in a noncompetitive manner. Another H2-selective blocker zolantidine antagonized the HA effect only when used at very high (30-100 microM) concentrations. In the duck pineal, the stimulatory effect of HA on cyclic AMP production was unaffected by mepyramine (H1), thioperamide (H3), and ranitidine (H2), and only partially inhibited by the H2-blocker aminopotentidine. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that HA is capable of evoking inward currents in most of the tested cells acutely isolated from chick pineal gland. The present findings further indicate that the pharmacological profile of the avian pineal HA receptor, whose stimulation leads to activation of cyclic AMP production, is different from any known HA receptor type (H1, H2, H3), and suggest the existence of either an avian-specific HA receptor, or a novel HA receptor subtype. Electrophysiological data suggest that the pineal HA receptor may be somehow linked to activation of an ionic channel.

  15. Pineal melatonin synthesis in Syrian hamsters: A summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollag, M. D.

    1982-12-01

    During the past decade there has been ample documentation of the proposition that the pineal gland mediates photoperiodic influences upon reproductive behavior of hamsters. It is commonly hypothesized that the pineal gland expresses its activity by transformation of photoperiodic information into an hormonal output, that hormone being melatonin. If this hypothesis is correct, there must be some essential diffrence in melatonin's output when hamsters are exposed to different photoperiodic environments. The experiments summarized in this communication analyze pineal melatonin contents in Syrian hamsters maintained in a variety of photoperiodic conditions during different physiological states. The results demonstrate that adult hamsters have a daily surge in pineal melatonin content throughout their lifetime when exposed to simulated annual photoperiodic cycles. There is some fluctuation in the amount of pineal melatonin produced during different physiological states and photoperiodic environments, but these fluctuations seem small when compared to those normally found for other regulatory hormones. When hamsters are exposed to different photoperiodic regimens, the daily melatonin surge maintains a relatively constant phase relationship with respect to the onset of daily activity. There is a concomitant change in its phase relationship with respect to light-dark transitions.

  16. The foetal pig pineal gland is richly innervated by nerve fibres containing catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and C-terminal flanking peptide of NPY, but it does not secrete melatonin.

    PubMed

    Bulc, Michał; Lewczuk, Bogdan; Prusik, Magdalena; Całka, Jarosław

    2013-05-01

    Innervation of the mammalian pineal gland during prenatal development is poorly recognized. Therefore, immunofluorescence studies of the pineals of 70- and 90-day-old foetuses of the domestic pig were performed using antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and C-terminal flanking peptide of NPY (CPON). The investigated glands were supplied by numerous nerve fibres containing TH and DβH. The density of these fibres was higher in the distal and middle parts of the gland than in the proximal one. NPY and CPON were identified in the majority of DβH-positive fibres as well as in a small population of DβH-negative fibres localized mainly in the proximal part of the pineal. The immunoreactive fibres were more numerous in 90-day-old foetuses than in 70-day-old ones. The effect of norepinephrine on melatonin secretion by the foetal pineals in the short-term organ culture was studied to determine the role of DβH-positive fibres during prenatal life. For the same purpose melatonin was measured in the blood in the umbilical cords and in the jugular vein of the mother. The pineals of both groups of foetuses did not secrete melatonin in the organ culture, independently of the presence or absence of norepinephrine in the medium. Melatonin concentrations in the blood in the umbilical cords of foetuses from the same litter and in the jugular vein of their mother were similar. The presence of adrenergic nerve fibres in the pig pineal during gestation does not seem to be associated with the control of melatonin secretion.

  17. The Pineal Gland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrough, T. Daniel; Llewellyn, Gerald C.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a surgical technique for performing pinealectomics, applicable to classroom and laboratory studies, by using a head-holding device for small animals and a flat dissecting tray outfitted with holding straps for larger animals. (CC)

  18. Regulation of cAMP-induced arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, Period1, and MKP-1 gene expression by mitogen-activated protein kinases in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Chansard, Mathieu; Iwahana, Eiko; Liang, Jian; Fukuhara, Chiaki

    2005-10-03

    In rodent pineal glands, sympathetic innervation, which leads to norepinephrine release, is a key process in the circadian regulation of physiology and certain gene expressions. It has been shown that gene expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in the melatonin synthesis arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aa-Nat), circadian clock gene Period1, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphtase-1 (MKP-1), is controlled mainly by a norepinephrine-beta-adrenergic receptor-cAMP signaling cascade in the rat pineal gland. To further dissect the signaling cascades that regulate those gene expressions, we examined whether MAPKs are involved in cAMP-induced gene expression. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses showed that one of the three MAPKs, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), was expressed in the pineal, and was phosphorylated by cAMP analogue stimulation with a peak 20 min after start of the stimulation, in vitro. A specific JNK inhibitor SP600125 (Anthra[1,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one1,9-pyrazoloanthrone), but not its negative control (N1-Methyl-1,9-pyrazoloanthrone), significantly reduced cAMP-stimulated Aa-Nat, Period1, and MKP-1 mRNA levels. Although another MAPK, p38(MAPK), has also been shown to be activated by cAMP stimulation, a p38(MAPK) inhibitor, SB203580 (4-(4-Fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)1H-imidazole, HCl), showed no effect on cAMP-induced Aa-Nat and Period1 mRNA levels; whereas SB203580, but not its negative analogue SB202474 (4-Ethyl-2(p-methoxyphenyl)-5-(4'-pyridyl)-IH-imidazole, DiHCl), significantly reduced cAMP-induced MKP-1 mRNA levels. Taken together, our data suggest that cAMP-induced Aa-Nat and Period1 are likely to be mediated by activation of JNK, whereas MKP-1 may be mediated by both p38(MAPK) and JNK activations.

  19. Circadian rhythms of pineal function in rats.

    PubMed

    Binkley, S A

    1983-01-01

    In pineal glands melatonin is synthesized daily. Melatonin synthesis in rats kept in most light-dark cycles occurs during the subjective night. This rhythm, which persists in constant dark, is a circadian rhythm which may be a consequence of another circadian rhythm in the pineal gland, of N-acetyltransferase activity (NAT). The NAT rhythm has been studied extensively in rats as a possible component of the system timing circadian rhythms. The NAT rhythm is driven by neural signals transmitted to the pineal gland by the sympathetic nervous system. Environmental lighting exerts precise control over the timing of the NAT rhythm. In rats, there is enough data to describe a daily time course of events in the pineal gland and to describe a pineal "life history." Hypothetical schemes for generation of the NAT rhythm and for its control by light are presented.

  20. Sonography of the adrenal glands in the adult.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung Won; Kim, Jeong Kon; Choi, Hyuck Jae; Kim, Mi-hyun; Lee, Jeongjin; Cho, Kyoung-Sik

    2012-01-01

    Although its capability has been overlooked, sonography can be a useful screening tool for adrenal lesion in adults. In this article, we discuss scan technique, patient positioning, and anatomic consideration for adrenal sonography in adults and illustrate sonographic appearance of normal adrenal gland as well as adrenal tumors and tumor-like lesions.

  1. Pineal Photoreceptor Cells Are Required for Maintaining the Circadian Rhythms of Behavioral Visual Sensitivity in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinle; Montgomery, Jake; Cheng, Wesley; Noh, Jung Hyun; Hyde, David R.; Li, Lei

    2012-01-01

    In non-mammalian vertebrates, the pineal gland functions as the central pacemaker that regulates the circadian rhythms of animal behavior and physiology. We generated a transgenic zebrafish line [Tg(Gnat2:gal4-VP16/UAS:nfsB-mCherry)] in which the E. coli nitroreductase is expressed in pineal photoreceptor cells. In developing embryos and young adults, the transgene is expressed in both retinal and pineal photoreceptor cells. During aging, the expression of the transgene in retinal photoreceptor cells gradually diminishes. By 8 months of age, the Gnat2 promoter-driven nitroreductase is no longer expressed in retinal photoreceptor cells, but its expression in pineal photoreceptor cells persists. This provides a tool for selective ablation of pineal photoreceptor cells, i.e., by treatments with metronidazole. In the absence of pineal photoreceptor cells, the behavioral visual sensitivity of the fish remains unchanged; however, the circadian rhythms of rod and cone sensitivity are diminished. Brief light exposures restore the circadian rhythms of behavioral visual sensitivity. Together, the data suggest that retinal photoreceptor cells respond to environmental cues and are capable of entraining the circadian rhythms of visual sensitivity; however, they are insufficient for maintaining the rhythms. Cellular signals from the pineal photoreceptor cells may be required for maintaining the circadian rhythms of visual sensitivity. PMID:22815753

  2. Influence of light/dark, seasonal and lunar cycles on serum melatonin levels and synaptic bodies number of the pineal gland of the rat.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Soriano, F; Ruiz-Torner, A; Armañanzas, E; Valverde-Navarro, A A

    2002-01-01

    Synaptic bodies (SB) are ultrastructural organelles observed in the pinealocytes of mammals. According to its shape, they have been classified into synaptic ribbons (SR), synaptic spherules (SS), and intermediate synaptic bodies (ISB). They have been related to the melatonin regulation and production mechanisms of the pineal gland. Circadian and circannual fluctuations of both melatonin and SB have been reported. The possibility that other external factors, apart from light-dark or seasonal cycles, might influence pineal function has been suggested. We studied the evolution of the number of SB and serum melatonin levels not only during light-dark and seasonal phases but also during lunar cycles. Forty male wistar rats were used. Experiment was first carried out in winter and repeated identically in spring. Each season, one group of animals was killed during the new-moon days and a second group during the full-moon days: half of both groups in the photophase and the other half in the scotophase. The number of SB was measured at electron microscopic level whereas serum melatonin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay techniques. Main results showed that SR number and serum melatonin levels were higher during scotophases, winter and full-moon days. The SS only showed a light predominance during winter, whereas predominance of the ISB was found only during the scotophases. These results support the influence of the photophasic factors on the SR and ISB variations. In the case of the SS the influence of the lunar cycles is always dependent on the other factors. Finally, the serum level of melatonin is clearly influenced by the photophasic rhythms and the seasonal periods but not by the lunar cycles.

  3. Distribution of Tight Junction Proteins in Adult Human Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Ola M.; Kim, Jung-Wan Martin; Gerstenhaber, Jonathan A.; Baum, Bruce J.; Tran, Simon D.

    2008-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are an essential structure of fluid-secreting cells, such as those in salivary glands. Three major families of integral membrane proteins have been identified as components of the TJ: claudins, occludin, and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs), plus the cytosolic protein zonula occludens (ZO). We have been working to develop an orally implantable artificial salivary gland that would be suitable for treating patients lacking salivary parenchymal tissue. To date, little is known about the distribution of TJ proteins in adult human salivary cells and thus what key molecular components might be desirable for the cellular component of an artificial salivary gland device. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the distribution of TJ proteins in human salivary glands. Salivary gland samples were obtained from 10 patients. Frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections were stained using IHC methods. Claudin-1 was expressed in ductal, endothelial, and ∼25% of serous cells. Claudins-2, -3, and -4 and JAM-A were expressed in both ductal and acinar cells, whereas claudin-5 was expressed only in endothelial cells. Occludin and ZO-1 were expressed in acinar, ductal, and endothelial cells. These results provide new information on TJ proteins in two major human salivary glands and should serve as a reference for future studies to assess the presence of appropriate TJ proteins in a tissue-engineered human salivary gland. (J Histochem Cytochem 56:1093–1098, 2008) PMID:18765838

  4. Biosynthesis and biological action of pineal allopregnanolone

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Haraguchi, Shogo

    2014-01-01

    The pineal gland transduces photoperiodic changes to the neuroendocrine system by rhythmic secretion of melatonin. We recently provided new evidence that the pineal gland is a major neurosteroidogenic organ and actively produces a variety of neurosteroids de novo from cholesterol in birds. Notably, allopregnanolone is a major pineal neurosteroid that is far more actively produced in the pineal gland than the brain and secreted by the pineal gland in juvenile birds. Subsequently, we have demonstrated the biological action of pineal allopregnanolone on Purkinje cells in the cerebellum during development in juvenile birds. Pinealectomy (Px) induces apoptosis of Purkinje cells, whereas allopregnanolone administration to Px chicks prevents cell death. Furthermore, Px increases the number of Purkinje cells that express active caspase-3, a crucial mediator of apoptosis, and allopregnanolone administration to Px chicks decreases the number of Purkinje cells expressing active caspase-3. It thus appears that pineal allopregnanolone prevents cell death of Purkinje cells by suppressing the activity of caspase-3 during development. This paper highlights new aspects of the biosynthesis and biological action of pineal allopregnanolone. PMID:24834027

  5. Pineal cyst: a review of clinical and radiological features.

    PubMed

    Choy, Winward; Kim, Won; Spasic, Marko; Voth, Brittany; Yew, Andrew; Yang, Isaac

    2011-07-01

    Pineal cysts (PCs) are benign and often asymptomatic lesions of the pineal region that are typically small and do not change in size over time. PCs appear as small, well circumscribed, unilocular masses that either reside within or completely replace the pineal gland. This article reviews and discusses the characteristic features of PCs-clinical, histological, and identifiable by various imaging modalities-which assist clinicians in narrowing the differential diagnosis for pineal lesions.

  6. [THE CHANGES OF THE INTERRELATIONS OF THE PINEAL GLAND AND THE ORGANS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM IN RATS IN RESPONSE TO MELATONIN ADMINISTRATION IN LIGHT REGIME DISTURBANCES].

    PubMed

    Litvinenko, G I; Gritzyk, O B; Mel'nikova, Ye V; Avrorov, P A; Tenditnik, M V; Shurlygina, A V; Trufakin, V A

    2015-01-01

    In this work the correlation analysis was applied to detect the integrated response of the pineal gland (PG) and immunocompetent organs of male Wistar rats in response to administration of melatonin (MT) in light regime disturbances. Animals were kept for 14 days under natural or continuous light (CL). Then for 7 days they received the injections of either 0.9% solution of sodium chloride or MT, after which the rats were decapitated and the mass of their body, PG, thymus and spleen was determined. The lymphocyte subpopulations of the thymus and spleen were studied by flow cytometry. The amount of lipofuscin in PG was assessed by the intensity of autofluorescence in organ frozen sections in 560-600 nm wavelength range. It was found that under the influence of MT, the number of intraorgan correlations in the immune system increased, regardless of the light regime. In animals on CL treated with MT, the number of interorgan connections was reduced, while negative correlations appeared between PG lipofuscin content and cellular composition of the spleen. The synchronizing and adaptogenic effects of MT were most pronounced under conditions of CL.

  7. Tryptophan hydroxylase mRNA levels are elevated by repeated immobilization stress in rat raphe nuclei but not in pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Chamas, F; Serova, L; Sabban, E L

    1999-06-04

    Repeated stress triggers a wide range of adaptive changes in the central nervous system including the elevation of serotonin (5-HT) metabolism and an increased susceptibility to affective disorders. To begin to examine whether these changes are mediated by alterations in gene expression for tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), the rate-limiting enzyme in 5-HT biosynthesis, we quantitated its mRNA levels by competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Repeated immobilization stress (2 h, 7 days) elicited a six- or ten-fold rise in TPH mRNA in median raphe nucleus (MRN) and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), respectively, without significantly altering TPH mRNA levels in the pineal gland. In contrast, there was little change in mRNA levels for GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH), the rate limiting enzyme in synthesis of the tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), the obligate cofactor for TPH. This is the first study to reveal stress-elicited activation of TPH gene expression.

  8. Involvement of NF-Y and Sp1 in basal and cAMP-stimulated transcriptional activation of the tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH ) gene in the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Côté, F; Schussler, N; Boularand, S; Peirotes, A; Thévenot, E; Mallet, J; Vodjdani, G

    2002-05-01

    The expression of the tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) gene, encoding the rate-limiting enzyme of serotonin biosynthesis, is tightly regulated both at the transcriptional and at the post-transcriptional levels. In the pineal gland, transcription of the gene is activated in response to an intracellular circadian increase of the cAMP concentration. We have previously shown that transcription of a 2.1-kb fragment of the human TPH promoter is induced by cAMP, although it lacks the canonical cAMP responsive element, CRE. The minimal promoter (-73/+29) has only weak transcriptional activity but is responsive to cAMP. It contains an inverted CCAAT box, which was demonstrated to be involved in this response. Here, we have extended our investigation to the functional features of the inverted CCAAT box in the -252/+29 TPH promoter, which has a higher basal activity. We show that an additional cis -acting sequence, the adjacent GC-rich region, cooperates with the inverted CCAAT box for the full activation of basal transcription, and that both elements are essential for the full cAMP response. We also show that in pinealocytes, NF-Y and Sp1 transactivators bind the inverted CCAAT box and GC-rich-region, respectively. These factors participate in a novel pathway for the cAMP-mediated response of the TPH promoter, which is independent of the canonical CRE-mediated response.

  9. [Interrelations of pineal gland morpho-functional indices and immune system organs in rats exposed to natural illumination regime and continuous illumination].

    PubMed

    Litvinenko, G I; Shurlygina, A V; Gritsyk, O B; Mel'nikova, E V; Avrorov, P A; Tendinitnik, M V; Trufakin, V A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the complex response of the pineal gland (PG) and of the organs of the immune system in Wistar rats in response to a violation of the illumination regime in the experiment. Animals were kept under natural light regime and continuous illumination for 14 days. After that rats were sacrificed and the mass of the body, PG, gonads, thymus and spleen was measured. Thymus and spleen cell subpopulations were determined by flow cytometry. The lipofuscin content in PG was determined by measuring an autofluorescence intensity in frozen tissue sections in the wavelength range of 505-545 nm using a confocal laser scanning microscope LSM 510 META (Carl Zeiss). The correlation analysis showed an increase in the amount and the change of sign and direction of relations between the indices of the state of PG and the immune system. This indicates the up-regulation of the intensity of inter-system relationships and the change of migration and differentiation vector of immunocompetent cells.

  10. History of the pineal region tumor.

    PubMed

    Mottolese, C; Szathmari, A

    2015-01-01

    The pineal gland has interested humans from millenniums. In this paper we review back in the history and the evolution of the pineal gland surgery. Originally, this surgery used to carry a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Nowadays the development of the anesthetic, radiological, surgical and intensive care techniques have been responsible of an improvement of the surgical results and better quality of life. It is always interesting to know from where we come.

  11. Differential resetting process of circadian gene expression in rat pineal glands after the reversal of the light/dark cycle via a 24 h light or dark period transition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Dong, Yue; Yang, Zhiqiu; Kato, Hisanori; Ni, Yinhua; Fu, Zhengwei

    2009-07-01

    Although studies involving the circadian response to time-zone transitions indicate that the circadian clock usually takes much longer to phase advance than delay, the discrepancy between the circadian resetting induced by photoperiod alteration via a dark or light period transition has yet to be investigated. In mammals, the pineal gland is an important component in the photoneuroendocrine axis, regulating biological rhythms. However, few studies have systematically examined the resetting process of pineal clock-gene expression to date. We investigated the resetting processes of four clock genes (Bmal1, Cry1, Per1, Dec1) and AANAT in the rat pineal gland after the light-dark (LD) reversal via a 24 h light or dark period transition. The resynchronization of the SCN-driven gene AANAT was nearly complete in three days in both situations, displaying similar resetting rates and processes after the differential LD reversals. The resetting processes of the clock genes were characterized by gene-specific, phase-shift modes and differential phase-shift rates between the two different LD reversal modes. The resetting processes of these clock genes were noticeably lengthened after the LD reversal via the light period transition in comparison to via the dark period transition. In addition, among the four examined clock genes, Per1 adjusted most rapidly after the differential LD reversals, while the rhythmic Cry1 expression adjusted most slowly.

  12. Transcription factors may frame Aa-nat gene expression and melatonin synthesis at night in the Syrian hamster pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Garidou, Marie-Laure; Diaz, Elena; Calgari, Christiane; Pévet, Paul; Simonneaux, Valérie

    2003-06-01

    Pineal melatonin synthesis is stimulated at night following an increase in arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) activity. Depending on the species, two mechanisms of enzyme activation have been described: a cAMP/phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein-dependent stimulation of Aa-nat gene transcription in the rat, presumed to occur in all rodents, or a posttranslational regulation of AA-NAT protein in ongulates. The present data obtained in the Syrian hamster indicate another route of AA-NAT regulation. Elevated nocturnal levels of Aa-nat mRNA were strongly suppressed following light exposure or adrenergic antagonist administration, demonstrating the involvement of norepinephrine in the stimulation of melatonin synthesis. However, administration of adrenergic agonists during the day did not increase Aa-nat mRNA unless a protein synthesis inhibitor was given during the previous night. This indicates that an inhibitory protein, synthesized at night, prevents melatonin synthesis during the day. By contrast, a protein synthesis inhibitor given at the beginning of the night markedly reduced Aa-nat mRNA, suggesting that a stimulatory protein (transcription factor?) is necessary for Aa-nat gene transcription at night. Noteworthy, hamsters raised in long photoperiod were responsive to adrenergic agonist injection only in the first hour after light onset, a response that may be important in this photoperiodic species in which the melatonin peak extends into the morning hours in a short photoperiod.

  13. Chicktacking pineal clock.

    PubMed

    Okano, Toshiyuki; Fukada, Yoshitaka

    2003-12-01

    Many tissues in non-mammalian vertebrates contain both photoreceptors and circadian clock systems. Among these photosensitive clock structures, the chick pineal gland has been characterized in detail from cellular and molecular aspects of the clock oscillation and entrainment. Analyses of the pineal photic-input pathway revealed a phase-shifting mechanism mediated by activation of G11, one of the Gq-type G-proteins. A major photoreceptive molecule, pinopsin, likely triggers this pathway by transmitting the light signal to the circadian oscillator. In the chick pineal oscillator, the transcription/translation-based autoregulatory feedback loop is composed of positive and negative elements (clock gene products) that are homologous to those identified in mammals. In the molecular cycling, a CACGTG E-box located in the promoter region of the negative element genes plays a central role in the transcriptional regulation. The phase of the molecular cycling is modulated by many regulatory components, among which E4BP4 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) are closely associated with the photic entrainment. A light-responsive element was found in the promoter region of the Pinopsin gene, and the element included a CACGTG E-box, suggesting a novel role of the E-box as a point of convergence of light and circadian signals. These observations together point to general and unique features of the chick pineal circadian system among animal clocks.

  14. Primary pineal malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Cedeño Diaz, Oderay Mabel; Leal, Roberto García; La Cruz Pelea, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    Primary pineal malignant melanoma is a rare entity, with only thirteen cases reported in the world literature to date. We report a case of a 70-year-old man, who consulted with gait disturbance of six months duration, associated in the last month with dizziness, visual abnormalities and diplopia. No other additional melanocytic lesions were found elsewhere. The magnetic resonance showed a 25 mm expansive mass in the pineal gland that was associated with hydrocephaly, ventricular and transependimary oedema. The lesion was partially excised by a supracerebellar infratentorial approach. The histological examination revealed a melanoma. The patient received radiation therapy, but died of disease 16 weeks later. We herein review the literature on this rare tumour and comment on its clinical, radiological and histopathological features and differential diagnosis. PMID:24765293

  15. Alternative Isoform Analysis of Ttc8 Expression in the Rat Pineal Gland Using a Multi-Platform Sequencing Approach Reveals Neural Regulation.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Stephen W; Mullikin, James C; Klein, David C; Park, Morgan; Coon, Steven L

    Alternative isoform regulation (AIR) vastly increases transcriptome diversity and plays an important role in numerous biological processes and pathologies. However, the detection and analysis of isoform-level differential regulation is difficult, particularly in the face of complex and incompletely-annotated transcriptomes. Here we have used Illumina short-read/high-throughput RNA-Seq to identify 55 genes that exhibit neurally-regulated AIR in the pineal gland, and then used two other complementary experimental platforms to further study and characterize the Ttc8 gene, which is involved in Bardet-Biedl syndrome and non-syndromic retinitis pigmentosa. Use of the JunctionSeq analysis tool led to the detection of several novel exons and splice junctions in this gene, including two novel alternative transcription start sites which were found to display disproportionately strong neurally-regulated differential expression in several independent experiments. These high-throughput sequencing results were validated and augmented via targeted qPCR and long-read Pacific Biosciences SMRT sequencing. We confirmed the existence of numerous novel splice junctions and the selective upregulation of the two novel start sites. In addition, we identified more than 20 novel isoforms of the Ttc8 gene that are co-expressed in this tissue. By using information from multiple independent platforms we not only greatly reduce the risk of errors, biases, and artifacts influencing our results, we also are able to characterize the regulation and splicing of the Ttc8 gene more deeply and more precisely than would be possible via any single platform. The hybrid method outlined here represents a powerful strategy in the study of the transcriptome.

  16. Alternative Isoform Analysis of Ttc8 Expression in the Rat Pineal Gland Using a Multi-Platform Sequencing Approach Reveals Neural Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Mullikin, James C.; Klein, David C.; Park, Morgan; Coon, Steven L.

    2016-01-01

    Alternative isoform regulation (AIR) vastly increases transcriptome diversity and plays an important role in numerous biological processes and pathologies. However, the detection and analysis of isoform-level differential regulation is difficult, particularly in the face of complex and incompletely-annotated transcriptomes. Here we have used Illumina short-read/high-throughput RNA-Seq to identify 55 genes that exhibit neurally-regulated AIR in the pineal gland, and then used two other complementary experimental platforms to further study and characterize the Ttc8 gene, which is involved in Bardet-Biedl syndrome and non-syndromic retinitis pigmentosa. Use of the JunctionSeq analysis tool led to the detection of several novel exons and splice junctions in this gene, including two novel alternative transcription start sites which were found to display disproportionately strong neurally-regulated differential expression in several independent experiments. These high-throughput sequencing results were validated and augmented via targeted qPCR and long-read Pacific Biosciences SMRT sequencing. We confirmed the existence of numerous novel splice junctions and the selective upregulation of the two novel start sites. In addition, we identified more than 20 novel isoforms of the Ttc8 gene that are co-expressed in this tissue. By using information from multiple independent platforms we not only greatly reduce the risk of errors, biases, and artifacts influencing our results, we also are able to characterize the regulation and splicing of the Ttc8 gene more deeply and more precisely than would be possible via any single platform. The hybrid method outlined here represents a powerful strategy in the study of the transcriptome. PMID:27684375

  17. Comparison of proliferating cells between human adult and fetal eccrine sweat glands.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Hong; Fu, Xiao-Bing; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Gang

    2008-04-01

    Studies of sweat glands had demonstrated that there were degenerating cells and proliferating cells in the eccrine sweat glands. To compare the differences in the proliferating cells between human adult and fetal eccrine sweat glands, immunostaining of proliferating-associated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki67 nuclear antigen (Ki67) was performed, and the location and the percentage of the positive staining cells were analyzed. The results showed that a few cells of the secretory and ductal portion in both the adult and fetal eccrine sweat glands stained positive with Ki67 and PCNA. The labeling index of PCNA in adult eccrine sweat glands was 34.71 +/- 8.37%, while that in the fetal was 62.72 +/- 6.54%. The labeling index of PCNA in fetal eccrine sweat glands was higher than that in adult. Myoepithelial cells were negative staining with anti-PCNA antibody in adult eccrine sweat glands, while in the fetal a few myoepithelial cells were positive staining. Labeling index of Ki67 in adult eccrine sweat glands was similar to that in the fetal, ranging from 0.5 to 4.3%. Myoepithelial cells of the adult and fetal eccrine sweat glands both were negative staining with anti-Ki67 antibody. We concluded that the myoepithelial cells had proliferating ability only in fetal eccrine sweat glands, and that the proliferating ability of fetal eccrine sweat glands was stronger than that of the adult.

  18. Pineal lesions: a multidisciplinary challenge.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Manfred; Emami, Pedram

    2015-01-01

    The pineal region is a complex anatomical compartment, harbouring the pineal gland surrounded by the quadrigeminal plate and the confluents of the internal cerebral veins to form the vein of Galen. The complexity of lesions in that region, however, goes far beyond the pineal parenchyma proper. Originating in the pineal gland, there are not only benign cysts but also numerous different tumour types. In addition, lesions such as tectal gliomas, tentorial meningiomas and choroid plexus papillomas arise from the surrounding structures, occupying that regions. Furthermore, the area has an affinity for metastatic lesions. Vascular lesions complete the spectrum mainly as small tectal arteriovenous malformations or cavernous haemangiomas.Taken together, there is a wide spectrum of lesions, many unique to that region, which call for a multidisciplinary approach. The limited access and anatomical complexity have generated a spectrum of anatomical approaches and raised the interest for neuroendoscopic approaches. Equally complex is the spectrum of treatment modalities such as microsurgery as the main option but stereotactic radiosurgery as an alternative or adjuvant to surgery for selected cases, radiation as for germinoma (see below) and or combinatorial chemotherapy, which may need to precede any other ablative technique as constituents.In this context, we review the current literature and our own series to obtain a snapshot sentiment of how to approach pineal lesions, how to interrelate alternative/competing concepts and review the recent technological advances.

  19. Importance of the pineal gland, endogenous prostaglandins and sensory nerves in the gastroprotective actions of central and peripheral melatonin against stress-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Brzozowski, Tomasz; Konturek, Peter C; Zwirska-Korczala, Krystyna; Konturek, Stanislaw J; Brzozowska, Iwona; Drozdowicz, Danuta; Sliwowski, Zbigniew; Pawlik, Michal; Pawlik, Wieslaw W; Hahn, Eckhart G

    2005-11-01

    Melatonin attenuates acute gastric lesions induced by topical strong irritants because of scavenging of free radicals, but its role in the pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric lesions has been sparingly investigated. In this study we compared the effects of intragastric (i.g.) or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of melatonin and its precursor, L-tryptophan, with or without concurrent treatment with luzindole, a selective antagonist of melatonin MT2 receptors, on gastric lesions induced by water immersion and restraint stress (WRS). The involvement of pineal gland, endogenous prostaglandins (PG) and sensory nerves in gastroprotective action of melatonin and L-tryptophan against WRS was studied in intact or pinealectomized rats or those treated with indomethacin or rofecoxib to suppress cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2, respectively, and with capsaicin to induce functional ablation of the sensory nerves. In addition, the influence of i.c.v. and i.g. melatonin on gastric secretion was tested in a separate group of rats equipped with gastric fistulas. At 3.5 hr after the end of WRS, the number of gastric lesions was counted, the gastric blood flow (GBF) was determined by H2-gas clearance technique and plasma melatonin and gastrin levels were measured by specific radioimmunoassay (RIA). Biopsy mucosal samples were taken for determination of expression of mRNA for COX-1 and COX-2 by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and of the mucosal generation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by RIA. Melatonin applied i.g. (1.25-10 mg/kg) or i.c.v. (1.25-10 microg/kg) dose-dependently inhibited gastric acid secretion and significantly attenuated the WRS-induced gastric damage. This protective effect of melatonin was accompanied by a significant rise in the GBF and plasma melatonin and gastrin levels and in mucosal generation of PGE2. Pinealectomy, which suppressed plasma melatonin levels, aggravated the gastric lesions induced by WRS and these effects

  20. Cavernous hemangioma of the parotid gland in adults

    PubMed Central

    Peral-Cagigal, Beatriz; Madrigal-Rubiales, Beatriz; Verrier-Hernández, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Hemangiomas account for 0.4-0.6% of all tumors of the parotid gland and most of them occur in children, nevertheless in adults hemangiomas are very rare. We report the case of a 62 year old woman with a mass in the parotid right tail associated with fluctuating swelling episodes unrelated to meals and with a slowly progressive growth. The provisional diagnosis was a pleomorphic adenoma, so a right superficial parotidectomy was performed. During surgery, the macroscopic appearance makes suspect a vascular lesion. The histopathological result was a cavernous hemangioma. The classic clinical presentation of a parotid hemangioma is an intraglandular mass associated or not with skin lesions characterized by reddish macules and/or papules, and a vibration or pulsation when palpating the parotid region. In imaging tests, phleboliths could be observed which are very suggestive of a hemangioma or a vascular malformation. In the absence of these signs, the diagnosis could be difficult, particularly in an adult due to its low prevalence, with about 50 cases reported worldwide. However a hemangioma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of parotid tumors in adults. Key words:Cavernous hemangioma, parotid gland, superficial parotidectomy, pleomorphic adenoma. PMID:25674332

  1. Diagnosis and treatment of pineal region tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Neuwelt, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this volume is to review the pertinent literature dealing with pineal tumors and thus aid in the handling of these rather uncommon lesions. After the first, introductory, chapter, three chapters treat the pathology and diagnosis of pineal tumors. There is also one chapter on intracranial germ cell tumors (natural history and pathogenesis) and one on the normal function of the pineal gland. With the exception of the chapter on diagnostic radiology of pineal tumors, which seems somewhat superficial, these five chapters summarize current knowledge about the nature of these complex lesions and their symptomatology very well. The next nine chapters deal with biopsy and surgery of these tumors and how to manage the patient. The first of these gives a historical review of the development of surgical techniques - from the first attempt by Horsley in 1905 to the microsurgical techniques of today. It is followed by a very important and detailed description of the microsurgical anatomy of the pineal region.

  2. A Case of Giant Cowper's Gland Syringocele in an Adult Male Patient

    PubMed Central

    Surana, Santosh; Elshazly, Mohamed; Allam, Adel; Jayappa, Sateesh; AlRefai, Deena

    2015-01-01

    Cowper's gland syringocele is an uncommon, underdiagnosed cystic dilatation of Cowper's gland ducts showing various radiological patterns. Herein we report a rare case of giant Cowper's gland syringocele in an adult male patient, with description of MRI findings and management outcome. PMID:26413368

  3. Can disturbances in the atmospheric electric field created by powerline corona ions disrupt melatonin production in the pineal gland?

    PubMed

    Henshaw, Denis L; Ward, Jonathan P; Matthews, James C

    2008-11-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have reported an increased risk of leukemia in adults and children near overhead high voltage powerlines at distances beyond the measured range of the direct electric and magnetic fields. Corona ions are emitted by powerlines, forming a plume that is carried away from the line by the wind. The plume generates highly variable disturbances in the atmospheric electric field of tens to a few hundred V/m on time scales from seconds to minutes. Such disturbances can be seen up to several hundred meters from powerlines. It is hypothesized that these random disturbances result in the disruption of nocturnal melatonin synthesis and related circadian rhythms, in turn leading to increased risk of a number of adverse health effects including leukemia. In support of the hypothesis, it is noted that melatonin is highly protective of oxidative damage to the human hemopoietic system. A review of electric field studies provides evidence that (i) diurnal variation in the natural atmospheric electric field may itself act as a weak Zeitgeber; (ii) melatonin disruption by electric fields occurs in rats; (iii) in humans, disturbances in circadian rhythms have been observed with artificial fields as low at 2.5 V/m. Specific suggestions are made to test the aspects of the hypothesis.

  4. Cysteamine effects on somatostatin, catecholamines, pineal NAT and melatonin in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, S.M.; Champney, T.H.; Steger, R.W.; Vaughan, M.K.; Reiter, R.J.

    1986-03-01

    The thiol reagent cysteamine was administered to adult male rats with the aim of investigating its effect on different neural and pineal components. As expected, immunoreactive somatostatin decreased in the median eminence (ME) (p less than 0.05) and gastric antrum (p less than 0.05) after cysteamine; however, no significant change was observed in the pineal IRS content after drug treatment. A decrease in norepinephrine was observed in the ME (p less than 0.001), hypothalamus (p less than 0.001) and pineal gland (p less than 0.05), together with a rise in ME (p less than 0.005) and hypothalamic dopamine (p less than 0.005) content; these results are consistent with a dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibiting effect of cysteamine. No effect was observed on hypothalamic serotonin and 5-hydroxyindole-acetic acid content. Pineal N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) after cysteamine than after saline, but no statistically significant effect was observed on pineal melatonin content. The mechanism involved in the NAT rise is presumably not related to the known stimulatory effect of norepinephrine, which fell after cysteamine. It is suggested that cysteamine may act at an intracellular level, inhibiting NAT degradation, an effect demonstrated in vitro and thought to be related to a thiol:disulfide exchange mechanism.

  5. Masses of the pineal region: clinical presentation and radiographic features.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Frank; Jones, Jeremy

    2010-10-01

    The pineal gland is important in structure, function and in the pathology that can affect it. The significance of the pathology of the gland and its adjacent structures is twofold: anatomical location, and biological behaviour of many of the lesions. The gland is in a critical anatomic location, and as the dorsal portions of the midbrain are compressed, patients may present with obstructive hydrocephalus, and/or with focal neurology. Masses and tumours of the pineal region range widely in behaviour, from the completely benign (eg, pineal cyst) to highly malignant (eg, pineoblastoma). Masses in the pineal region may be benign cysts (most common mass), tumours of various sources as well as rare vascular malformations that result in mass effect. Tumours of the pineal region represent a variety of histologies. Germ cell tumours are the most common: germinomas (50%), teratoma (15%), and choricocarcinoma (5%). Primary tumours of the pineal region make up 15% of all pineal tumours and represent a spectrum of aggressiveness. Other less common tumours also occur in the pineal region including metastatic spread and direct invasion from tumours arising in adjacent structures. Accurate diagnosis is essential to plan appropriate management, and early referral for medical imaging is a necessary first step. Although there is significant overlap in the imaging characteristics of some pineal masses, a distinction between aggressive and benign lesions is usually possible, and invaluable preoperative information is obtained in patients who require histological diagnosis.

  6. Ascl3 marks adult progenitor cells of the mouse salivary gland

    PubMed Central

    Rugel-Stahl, Anastasia; Elliot, Marilyn; Ovitt, Catherine E.

    2012-01-01

    The Ascl3 transcription factor marks a subset of salivary gland duct cells present in the three major salivary glands of the mouse. In vivo, these cells generate both duct and secretory acinar cell descendants. Here, we have analyzed whether Ascl3-expressing cells retain this multipotent lineage potential in adult glands. Cells isolated from mouse salivary glands were cultured in vitro as non-adherent spheres. Lineage tracing of the Ascl3-expressing cells within the spheres demonstrates that Ascl3+ cells isolated from adult glands remain multipotent, generating both duct and acinar cell types in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the progenitor cells characterized by Keratin 5 expression are an independent population from Ascl3+ progenitor cells. We conclude that the Ascl3+ cells are intermediate lineage-restricted progenitor cells of the adult salivary glands. PMID:22370009

  7. Age-related incidence of pineal calcification detected by computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.

    1982-03-01

    The age-related incidence of detectable pineal calcification in 725 patients (age range, newborn-20 yrs) suggests that there is a relationship between calcification and the hormonal role played by the pineal gland in the regulation of sexual development. Pineal calcification (demonstrated by computed tomography (CT) on 8-mm-thick sections) in patients less than 6 years old should be looked upon with suspicion, and follow-up CT should be considered to exclude the possible development of a pineal neoplasm.

  8. Pineal region tumors: computed tomographic-pathologic spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Futrell, N.N.; Osborn, A.G.; Cheson. B.D.

    1981-11-01

    While several computed tomographic (CT) studies of posterior third ventricular neoplasms have included descriptions of pineal tumors, few reports have concentrated on these uncommon lesions. Some authors have asserted that the CT appearance of many pineal tumors is virtually pathognomonic. A series of nine biopsy-proved pineal gland and eight other presumed tumors is presented that illustrates their remarkable heterogeneity in both histopathologic and CT appearance. These tumors included germinomas, teratocarcinomas, hamartomas, and other varieties. They had variable margination, attentuation, calcification, and suprasellar extension. Germinomas have the best response to radiation therapy. Biopsy of pineal region tumors is now feasible and is recommended for treatment planning.

  9. Melatonin and cortisol secretion profile in patients with pineal cyst before and after pineal cyst resection.

    PubMed

    Májovský, Martin; Řezáčová, Lenka; Sumová, Alena; Pospíšilová, Lenka; Netuka, David; Bradáč, Ondřej; Beneš, Vladimír

    2017-02-10

    A pineal cyst is a benign affection of the human pineal gland on the borderline between pathology and normality. Only a small percentage of patients present with symptoms and a surgical treatment is indicated in highly selected cases. A melatonin secretion in patients with a pineal cyst before and after a pineal cyst resection has not been studied yet and the effect of surgery on human metabolism is unknown. The present study examined melatonin, cortisol and blood glucose secretion profiles perioperatively in a surgical group of 4 patients. The control group was represented by 3 asymptomatic patients with a pineal cyst. For each patient, 24-h circadian secretion curves of melatonin, cortisol and glycemia were acquired. An analysis of melatonin profiles showed an expected diurnal pattern with the night peak in patients before the surgery and in the control group. In contrast, melatonin levels in patients after the surgery were at their minimum throughout the whole 24-h period. The cortisol secretion was substantially increased in patients after the surgery. Blood glucose sampling showed no statistically significant differences. Clinical results demonstrated statistically significant headache relief measured by Visual Analogue Scale in patients after the surgery. Despite the small number of examined patients, we can conclude that patients with a pineal cyst preserved the physiological secretion of the hormone melatonin while patients who underwent the pineal cyst resection experienced a loss of endogenous pineal melatonin production, which equated with pinealectomy. Surprisingly, cortisol secretion substantially increased in patients after the surgery.

  10. Local corticosterone infusion enhances nocturnal pineal melatonin production in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, P A C M; Bothorel, B; Clesse, D; Monteiro, A W A; Calgari, C; Raison, S; Simonneaux, V; Markus, R P

    2009-02-01

    Melatonin, an important marker of the endogenous rhythmicity in mammals, also plays a role in the body defence against pathogens and injuries. In vitro experiments have shown that either pro- or anti-inflammatory agents, acting directly in the organ, are able to change noradrenaline-induced pineal indoleamine production. Whereas corticosterone potentiates melatonin production, incubation of the gland with tumour necrosis factor-alpha decreases pineal hormonal production. In the present study, we show that nocturnal melatonin production measured by intra-pineal microdialysis is enhanced in pineals perfused with corticosterone at concentrations similar to those measured in inflamed animals. In vitro experiments suggest that this enhancement may be due to an increase in the activity of the two enzymes that convert serotonin to N-acetylserotonin (NAS) and NAS to melatonin. The present results support the hypothesis that the pineal gland is a sensor of inflammation mediators and that it plays a central role in the control of the inflammatory response.

  11. Headaches and pineal cyst: a (more than) coincidental relationship?

    PubMed

    Peres, Mario F P; Zukerman, Eliova; Porto, Pedro P; Brandt, Reynaldo A

    2004-10-01

    Pineal cysts are common findings in neuroimaging studies. The cysts are more frequent in women in their third decade of life. Pineal cysts can be symptomatic, headache is the most common symptom. The pineal gland has important physiological implications in humans, but little is known about the impact of pineal cysts in human physiology. We report 5 headache patients with pineal cyst, 4 women, 1 man, mean age 37.6, mean cyst diameter 10.1 mm. Two patients had migraine without aura, 1 migraine with aura, 1 chronic migraine, and 1 hemicrania continua. Three patients had strictly unilateral headaches. We hypothesize pineal cysts may be not incidental in headache patients, inducing an abnormal melatonin secretion.

  12. Defensive glands in the adult and larval stages of the darkling beetle, Luprops tristis.

    PubMed

    Abhitha, P; Vinod, K V; Sabu, T K

    2010-01-01

    Invasion by large populations of the litter-dwelling darkling beetle Luprops tristis Fabricius (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) following the short spell of summer rains during April, and their extended state of dormancy is a regular event in rubber plantation habitats in south-western India. Strong smelling secretions of the beetle cause blisters on skin of human beings. Such secretions appear defensive because they appear to facilitate their avoidance by other predatory organisms. Defensive glands in the larvae and adults of L. tristis are described, as well as the mode of eversion of the glands. The glands in larvae consist of two pairs of noneversible glands in a conical depression on the 2(nd) and 3(rd) sternites, whereas in adults only one pair occurs between 7(th) and 8(th) sternal segments. These glands may be a major reason for avoidance of larvae and adults by their natural enemies and their very high numbers in the litter of rubber plantations.

  13. Defensive Glands in the Adult and Larval Stages of the Darkling Beetle, Luprops tristis

    PubMed Central

    Abhitha, P.; Vinod, K.V; Sabu, T.K.

    2010-01-01

    Invasion by large populations of the litter-dwelling darkling beetle Luprops tristis Fabricius (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) following the short spell of summer rains during April, and their extended state of dormancy is a regular event in rubber plantation habitats in south-western India. Strong smelling secretions of the beetle cause blisters on skin of human beings. Such secretions appear defensive because they appear to facilitate their avoidance by other predatory organisms. Defensive glands in the larvae and adults of L. tristis are described, as well as the mode of eversion of the glands. The glands in larvae consist of two pairs of noneversible glands in a conical depression on the 2nd and 3rd sternites, whereas in adults only one pair occurs between 7th and 8th sternal segments. These glands may be a major reason for avoidance of larvae and adults by their natural enemies and their very high numbers in the litter of rubber plantations. PMID:20569139

  14. Thyroid gland diseases in adult patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Vondra, K; Vrbikova, J; Dvorakova, K

    2005-12-01

    This review concerns the relation between most frequent thyroid gland diseases and diabetes mellitus in adult patients. Special attention is paid to autoimmune thyroiditis, Graves' disease, thyroid autoimmunity in pregnant diabetic women, and iodine metabolism. We focused on mechanisms leading to coexistence of both endocrine disorders, and on distinctions in the prevalence, diagnosis, clinical course and treatment of thyroid diseases in diabetic patients. The prevalence of thyroid diseases in diabetic patients is 2-3 times higher than in nondiabetic subjects; it raises with age, and is strongly influenced by female gender and autoimmune diabetes. Clinical relevance of thyroid diseases, especially in diabetic patients, significantly increases if it is associated with deteriorated function, which always cause a number problems with metabolic compensation of diabetes. Most serious consequences are increased frequency of hypoglycaemia in hypothyroidism and development of potentially life-threatening ketoacidosis in thyrotoxicosis. In spite of that, little attention is paid to the diagnosis of thyroid diseases in diabetics, as they are diagnosed in only about half of the patients. At the end, we provide recommendations for the thyroid disease screening and diagnosis in patients with diabetes mellitus based on our experience.

  15. Early-life sleep deprivation persistently depresses melatonin production and bio-energetics of the pineal gland: potential implications for the development of metabolic deficiency.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-You; Tiong, Cheng; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Liao, Wen-Chieh; Yang, Shun-Fa; Youn, Su-Chung; Mai, Fu-Der; Chang, Hung-Ming

    2015-03-01

    Early-life sleep deprivation (ESD) is a serious condition with severe metabolic sequelae. The pineal hormone melatonin plays an important role in homeostatic regulation of metabolic function. Considering norepinephrine-mediated Ca(2+) influx and subsequent protein kinase A (PKA) activation is responsible for downstream cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and melatonin biosynthesis, the present study determined whether Ca(2+) expression, together with the molecular machinery participated in melatonin production would significantly alter after ESD. Weaning rats subjected to chronic ESD and maintained naturally (light:dark cycle = 12:12) to adulthood were processed for time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry together with spectrometric assay to detect the Ca(2+) signaling, adrenoreceptors, PKA, phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) as well as the serum level of melatonin, respectively. Pineal bio-energetics and metabolic function were determined by measuring the cytochrome oxidase activity and serum level of glucose, triglyceride, insulin, high- and low-density lipoproteins, respectively. Results indicated that in normal rats, strong Ca(2+) signaling along with intense adrenoreceptors, PKA, and pCREB activities were all detected in pinealocytes. Enhanced Ca(2+) imaging and signaling pathway corresponded well with intact bio-energetics, normal melatonin production and metabolic activity. However, following ESD, not only Ca(2+) but also pineal signaling activities were all significantly decreased. Blood analysis showed reduced melatonin level and impaired metabolic function after ESD. As depressed Ca(2+)-mediated signaling pathway and melatonin biosynthesis are positively correlated with the development of metabolic dysfunction, supplementary use of melatonin in childhood may thus serve as a practical way to prevent or counteract the ESD-induced metabolic deficiency.

  16. Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor of the Pineal Region in a Young Adult Male Patient: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Liebigt, Susan; Florschütz, Axel; Arndt, Nicole; Stock, Karsten; Renner, Christof

    2017-01-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) represents a highly malignant and aggressive embryonal neoplasm of the central nervous system (CNS). Histologically it consists of rhabdoid cells with a varying combination of neuroectodermal, epithelial, and mesenchymal tissue. Histologic features and the poor clinical outcome indicate that this tumor corresponds to World Health Organization grade IV. AT/RT mainly occurs in children < 3 years of age and has only been rarely described in adults. It often arises from the posterior fossa of infants and has the tendency to spread through the subarachnoid space. In contrast to pediatric cases, most of the AT/RTs in adults are located in the cerebral hemispheres; infratentorial appearance or localization in the spinal cord is relatively uncommon. Likewise there are only a few reports of AT/RT in the pineal region. We present another interesting case of this tumor occurring in the pineal region of a 19-year-old man and discuss our case in the context of the current literature. The patient is alive 18 months since his initial diagnosis without any signs of tumor relapse.

  17. Imagery of pineal tumors.

    PubMed

    Deiana, G; Mottolese, C; Hermier, M; Louis-Tisserand, G; Berthezene, Y

    2015-01-01

    Pineal tumors are rare and include a large variety of entities. Germ cell tumors are relatively frequent and often secreting lesions. Pineal parenchymal tumors include pineocytomas, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, pineoblastomas and papillary tumors of the pineal region. Other lesions including astrocytomas and meningiomas as well as congenital malformations i.e. benign cysts, lipomas, epidermoid and dermoid cysts, which can also arise from the pineal region. Imagery is often non-specific but detailed analysis of the images compared with the hormone profile can narrow the spectrum of possible diagnosis.

  18. Pharmacological Stimulation of Edar Signaling in the Adult Enhances Sebaceous Gland Size and Function

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczyk-Quintas, Christine; Schuepbach-Mallepell, Sonia; Willen, Laure; Smith, Terry K.; Huttner, Kenneth; Kirby, Neil; Headon, Denis J.; Schneider, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Impaired Ectodysplasin A (EDA) – EDA receptor (EDAR) signaling affects ectodermally derived structures including teeth, hair follicles and cutaneous glands. X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED), resulting from EDA deficiency, can be rescued with lifelong benefits in animal models by stimulation of ectodermal appendage development with EDAR agonists. Treatments initiated later in the developmental period restore progressively fewer of the affected structures. It is unknown whether EDAR stimulation in adults with XLHED might have beneficial effects. In adult Eda mutant mice treated for several weeks with agonist anti-EDAR antibodies, we find that sebaceous glands size and function can be restored to wild type levels. This effect is maintained upon chronic treatment but reverses slowly upon cessation of treatment. Sebaceous glands in all skin regions respond to treatment, though to varying degrees, and this is accompanied in both Eda mutant and wild type mice by sebum secretion to levels higher than those observed in untreated controls. Edar is expressed at the periphery of the glands, suggesting a direct homeostatic effect of Edar stimulation on the sebaceous gland. Sebaceous gland size and sebum production may serve as biomarkers for EDAR stimulation, and EDAR agonists may improve skin dryness and eczema frequently observed in XLHED. PMID:25207818

  19. Neurotranscriptomics: The Effects of Neonatal Stimulus Deprivation on the Rat Pineal Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Stephen W.; Coon, Steven L.; Savastano, Luis E.; Mullikin, James C.; Fu, Cong; Klein, David C.

    2015-01-01

    The term neurotranscriptomics is used here to describe genome-wide analysis of neural control of transcriptomes. In this report, next-generation RNA sequencing was using to analyze the effects of neonatal (5-days-of-age) surgical stimulus deprivation on the adult rat pineal transcriptome. In intact animals, more than 3000 coding genes were found to exhibit differential expression (adjusted-p < 0.001) on a night/day basis in the pineal gland (70% of these increased at night, 376 genes changed more than 4-fold in either direction). Of these, more than two thousand genes were not previously known to be differentially expressed on a night/day basis. The night/day changes in expression were almost completely eliminated by neonatal removal (SCGX) or decentralization (DCN) of the superior cervical ganglia (SCG), which innervate the pineal gland. Other than the loss of rhythmic variation, surgical stimulus deprivation had little impact on the abundance of most genes; of particular interest, expression levels of the melatonin-synthesis-related genes Tph1, Gch1, and Asmt displayed little change (less than 35%) following DCN or SCGX. However, strong and consistent changes were observed in the expression of a small number of genes including the gene encoding Serpina1, a secreted protease inhibitor that might influence extracellular architecture. Many of the genes that exhibited night/day differential expression in intact animals also exhibited similar changes following in vitro treatment with norepinephrine, a superior cervical ganglia transmitter, or with an analog of cyclic AMP, a norepinephrine second messenger in this tissue. These findings are of significance in that they establish that the pineal-defining transcriptome is established prior to the neonatal period. Further, this work expands our knowledge of the biological process under neural control in this tissue and underlines the value of RNA sequencing in revealing how neurotransmission influences cell biology. PMID

  20. Neurotranscriptomics: The Effects of Neonatal Stimulus Deprivation on the Rat Pineal Transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Stephen W; Coon, Steven L; Savastano, Luis E; Mullikin, James C; Fu, Cong; Klein, David C

    2015-01-01

    The term neurotranscriptomics is used here to describe genome-wide analysis of neural control of transcriptomes. In this report, next-generation RNA sequencing was using to analyze the effects of neonatal (5-days-of-age) surgical stimulus deprivation on the adult rat pineal transcriptome. In intact animals, more than 3000 coding genes were found to exhibit differential expression (adjusted-p < 0.001) on a night/day basis in the pineal gland (70% of these increased at night, 376 genes changed more than 4-fold in either direction). Of these, more than two thousand genes were not previously known to be differentially expressed on a night/day basis. The night/day changes in expression were almost completely eliminated by neonatal removal (SCGX) or decentralization (DCN) of the superior cervical ganglia (SCG), which innervate the pineal gland. Other than the loss of rhythmic variation, surgical stimulus deprivation had little impact on the abundance of most genes; of particular interest, expression levels of the melatonin-synthesis-related genes Tph1, Gch1, and Asmt displayed little change (less than 35%) following DCN or SCGX. However, strong and consistent changes were observed in the expression of a small number of genes including the gene encoding Serpina1, a secreted protease inhibitor that might influence extracellular architecture. Many of the genes that exhibited night/day differential expression in intact animals also exhibited similar changes following in vitro treatment with norepinephrine, a superior cervical ganglia transmitter, or with an analog of cyclic AMP, a norepinephrine second messenger in this tissue. These findings are of significance in that they establish that the pineal-defining transcriptome is established prior to the neonatal period. Further, this work expands our knowledge of the biological process under neural control in this tissue and underlines the value of RNA sequencing in revealing how neurotransmission influences cell biology.

  1. Long-term in vivo pineal microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xing; Liu, Tiecheng; Deng, Jie; Borjigin, Jimo

    2003-09-01

    This study describes the development of a new technique for long-term measurement of daily 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and melatonin contents in the pineal gland of freely moving rats. The technique features a number of novel improvements over previous protocols. It allows visualization of the pineal gland for accurate targeting of the guide cannula, which minimizes bleeding; incurs no direct injury to the surrounding brain tissues; and causes no interference with the sympathetic innervation from the superior cervical ganglia. Robust releases of melatonin and indole precursors were continuously monitored quantitatively and reproducibly for more than 2 wk in the same animal. In addition, effects of pharmacological agents on in vivo pineal circadian rhythms can be studied reproducibly over time, and gene expression profiles can be correlated with physiological consequences in single animals. Using these approaches, it is found that beta-adrenergic activation leads to decreased release of 5-HT, and that increased cAMP signaling in vivo results in activation of N-acetyltransferase gene induction and melatonin production. These studies will enhance the understanding of signaling pathways that regulate pineal 5-HT and melatonin synthesis and secretion.

  2. Isolated Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the sublingual gland in an adult

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shaodong; Chen, Xinming; Zhang, Jiali; Fang, Qiong

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disorder characterized by the proliferation of pathologic Langerhans cells. Its clinical presentation is highly variable, that range from single-system, limited disease to severe, multi-organ disease with high mortality. LCH usually affects children and young adults. The most frequent sites for LCH are the bone, skin, lung, pituitary gland, and lymph nodes. Salivary gland involvement by LCH is extremely rare, and only a few cases of LHC involving the parotid glands have been reported in the English literature. To our knowledge, the involvement of the sublingual gland as a part of single or multisystem LCH has not been previously described. Herein we reported the first case of primary LCH of the sublingual gland. A 40-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of a painless mass on the right sublingual area. Excision of the lesion including the right sublingual gland was performed. Histopathological diagnosis of LCH was rendered. The patient remains free of symptoms 17 months after surgery. PMID:26722591

  3. Isolated Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the sublingual gland in an adult.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaodong; Chen, Xinming; Zhang, Jiali; Fang, Qiong

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disorder characterized by the proliferation of pathologic Langerhans cells. Its clinical presentation is highly variable, that range from single-system, limited disease to severe, multi-organ disease with high mortality. LCH usually affects children and young adults. The most frequent sites for LCH are the bone, skin, lung, pituitary gland, and lymph nodes. Salivary gland involvement by LCH is extremely rare, and only a few cases of LHC involving the parotid glands have been reported in the English literature. To our knowledge, the involvement of the sublingual gland as a part of single or multisystem LCH has not been previously described. Herein we reported the first case of primary LCH of the sublingual gland. A 40-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of a painless mass on the right sublingual area. Excision of the lesion including the right sublingual gland was performed. Histopathological diagnosis of LCH was rendered. The patient remains free of symptoms 17 months after surgery.

  4. Pineal cysts-A benign association with familial retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya Kumar; Jones, Michael; Prelog, Kristina; Bui, John; Zhu, Jacqui; Ng, Anthea; Dalla-Pozza, Luciano

    2016-09-01

    Patients with familial/heritable retinoblastoma (RB) are at increased risk of developing second malignancies throughout life, including a pineoblastoma (trilateral RB [TRB]) in early childhood. Current guidelines recommend regular surveillance brain imaging for those with heritable RB until 5 years of age. The presence of pineal cysts has been reported in patients with RB. Pineal cysts are thought to arise due to focal degeneration of the pineal gland and can be found incidentally. The finding of pineal abnormalities including cysts in children with RB on imaging is disconcerting, as it raises the possibility of an underlying malignancy, specifically a pinealoblastoma. The authors reviewed the imaging findings and clinical significance of pineal cysts in 69 patients diagnosed with RB at our center between December 1999 and November 2015. Twenty-six patients had pineal cysts found on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans performed either at diagnosis or follow-up. Thirty-eight of 69 patients had underlying heritable RB. Nineteen of 38 familial RB patients had a pineal cyst compared with 3 out of 26 with sporadic RB (P = .004). In the majority, the imaging characteristics and size of the cysts remained stable or resolved. In this cohort, pineal cysts were detected at significantly increased frequency in heritable RB. This may be a benign association or may reflect abnormal underlying biology of pineal tissue in individuals highly susceptible to malignancy. Imaging characteristics can be helpful in distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions. The presence of a pineal cyst in patients with unilateral disease may be a useful indicator of underlying heritable RB.

  5. Evidence for differential photic regulation of pineal melatonin synthesis in teleosts.

    PubMed

    Migaud, H; Davie, A; Martinez Chavez, C C; Al-Khamees, S

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the circadian control of melatonin production in teleosts. To do so, the effects of ophthalmectomy on circulating melatonin rhythms were studied along with ex vivo pineal culture in six different teleosts. Results strongly suggested that the circadian control of melatonin production could have dramatically changed with at least three different systems being present in teleosts when one considers the photic regulation of pineal melatonin production. First, salmonids presented a decentralized system in which the pineal gland responds directly to light independently of the eyes. Then, in seabass and cod both the eyes and the pineal gland are required to sustain full night-time melatonin production. Finally, a third type of circadian control of melatonin production is proposed in tilapia and catfish in which the pineal gland would not be light sensitive (or only slightly) and required the eyes to perceive light and inhibit melatonin synthesis. Further studies (anatomical, ultrastructural, retinal projections) are needed to confirm these results. Ex vivo experiments indirectly confirmed these results, as while the pineal gland responded normally to day-night rhythms in salmonids, seabass and cod, only very low levels were obtained at night in tilapia and no melatonin could be measured from isolated pineal glands in catfish. Together, these findings suggest that mechanisms involved in the perception of light and the transduction of this signal through the circadian axis has changed in teleosts possibly as a reflection of the photic environment in which they have evolved in.

  6. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  7. Estradiol, progesterone and prolactin modulate mammary gland morphogenesis in adult female plains vizcacha (Lagostomus maximus).

    PubMed

    Halperin, Julia; Dorfman, Veronica B; Fraunhoffer, Nicolas; Vitullo, Alfredo D

    2013-06-01

    We studied for the first time the mammary gland morphogenesis and its hormonal modulation by immunolocalizing estradiol, progesterone and prolactin receptors (ER, PR and PRLR) in adult females of Lagostomus maximus, a caviomorph rodent which shows a pseudo-ovulatory process at mid-gestation. Mammary ductal system of non-pregnant females lacks expression of both ERα and ERβ. Yet throughout pregnancy, ERα and ERβ levels increase as well as the expression of PR. These increments are concomitant with ductal branching and alveolar differentiation. Even though mammary gland morphology is quite similar to that described for other rodents, alveolar proliferation and differentiation are accelerated towards the second half of pregnancy, once pseudo-ovulation had occurred. Moreover, this exponential growth correlates with an increment of both progesterone and estradiol serum-induced pseudo-ovulation. As expected, PR and PRLR are strongly expressed in the alveolar epithelium during pregnancy and lactation. Strikingly, PRLR is also present in ductal epithelia of cycling glands suggesting that prolactin function may not be restricted to its trophic effect on mammary glands of pregnant and lactating females, but it also regulates other physiological processes in mammary glands of non-pregnant animals. In conclusion, this report suggests that pseudo-ovulation at mid-gestation may be associated to L. maximus mammary gland growth and differentiation. The rise in P and E2-induced pseudo-ovulation as well as the increased expression of their receptors, all events that correlate with the development of a more elaborated and differentiated ductal network, pinpoint a possible relation between this peculiar physiological event and mammary gland morphogenesis.

  8. Transcranial sonography in the evaluation of pineal lesions: two-year follow up study.

    PubMed

    Budisić, Mislav; Bosnjak, Jelena; Lovrencić-Huzjan, Arijana; Strineka, Maja; Bene, Raphael; Azman, Drazen; Bedek, Darko; Trkanjec, Zlatko; Demarin, Vida

    2008-12-01

    We have recently reported that transcranial sonography (TCS) is a method competitive to magnetic resonance neuroimaging (MRI) in the evaluation of pineal gland lesions. The aim of the present is study was to assess the usefulness of TCS in a larger patient sample during a two-year follow up. Twenty patients with incidental pineal gland cyst (PGC) detected by MRI scan of the brain and 40 healthy controls without any previous documented data on a disease related to pineal gland were evaluated by TCS and compared with MRI scans. There were no statistically significant differences in PGC size measured by TCS by two observers (p = 0.475), PGC size measured by TCS and MRI (first observer, p = 0.453; and second observer, p = 0.425), size of the pineal gland measured by TCS and MRI in control group (first observer, p = 0.497; and second observer, p = 0.370), and pineal gland size measured by TCS by two observers in control group (p = 0.473). Study results suggested TCS to be a suitable method in the evaluation of pineal gland lesions. Although its resolution cannot match the MRI resolution, its repeatability and accuracy might add to its practical value. We suggest that the repeat MRI scan of such lesions might be replaced by clinical and TCS follow up.

  9. Distinct effects of the serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors milnacipran and venlafaxine on rat pineal monoamines.

    PubMed

    Muneoka, Katsumasa; Kuwagata, Makiko; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Shioda, Seiji

    2015-06-17

    Monoamine systems are involved in the pathology and therapeutic mechanism of depression. The pineal gland contains large amounts of serotonin as a precursor for melatonin, and its activity is controlled by noradrenergic sympathetic nerves. Pineal diurnal activity and its release of melatonin are relevant to aberrant states observed in depression. We investigated the effects on pineal monoamines of serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, which are widely used antidepressants. Four days of milnacipran treatment led to an increase in noradrenaline and serotonin levels, whereas 4 days of venlafaxine treatment reduced 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels; both agents induced an increase in dopamine levels. Our data suggest that milnacipran increases levels of the precursor for melatonin synthesis by facilitating the noradrenergic regulation of pineal activity and that venlafaxine inhibits serotonin reuptake into noradrenergic terminals on the pineal gland.

  10. Diffusion characteristics of pediatric pineal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Matthew T; Siddiqui, Adeel; Klimo, Paul; Boop, Frederick A

    2015-01-01

    Background Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) has been shown to be helpful in characterizing tumor cellularity, and predicting histology. Several works have evaluated this technique for pineal tumors; however studies to date have not focused on pediatric pineal tumors. Objective We evaluated the diffusion characteristics of pediatric pineal tumors to confirm if patterns seen in studies using mixed pediatric and adult populations remain valid. Materials and methods This retrospective study was performed after Institutional Review Board approval. We retrospectively evaluated all patients 18 years of age and younger with pineal tumors from a single institution where preoperative diffusion weighted imaging as well as histologic characterization was available. Results Twenty patients (13 male, 7 female) with pineal tumors were identified: seven with pineoblastoma, four with Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET), two with other pineal tumors, and seven with germ cell tumors including two germinomas, three teratomas, and one mixed germinoma-teratoma. The mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in pineoblastoma (544 ± 65 × 10–6 mm2/s) and pineoblastoma/PNET (595 ± 144 × 10–6 mm2/s) was lower than that of the germ cell tumors (1284 ± 334 × 10–6 mm2/s; p < 0.0001 vs pineoblastoma). One highly cellular germinoma had an ADC value of 694 × 10–6 mm2/s. Conclusion ADC values can aid in differentiation of pineoblastoma/PNET from germ cell tumors in a population of children with pineal masses. PMID:25963154

  11. Glycoconjugates in the mandibular salivary gland of adult dogs revealed by lectin histochemistry.

    PubMed

    Pedini, V; Ceccarelli, P; Gargiulo, A M

    1994-11-01

    The glycosidic residues in the mandibular glands of five adult dogs were studied by using seven different lectin-horseradish peroxidase conjugates. In some cases a treatment with sialidase preceded the lectin staining. The mucous acinar cells contained oligosaccharides with alpha- and beta-N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglucosamine and fucose residues, whereas the demilunar cells contained glycoconjugates rich in sialic acid linked to the penultimate disaccharide galactosyl-(beta 1-->3) N-acetylgalactosamine.

  12. Chronic exposure to 60-Hz electric fields: effects on pineal function in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B.W.; Anderson, L.E.; Hilton, D.I.; Philips, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    As a component of studies to search for effects of 60-Hz electric field exposure on mammalian endocrine function, concentrations of melatonin, 5-methoxytryptophol, and serotonin-N-acetyl transferase activity were measured in the pineal glands of rats exposed or sham-exposed at 65 kV/m for 30 days.In two replicate experiments there were statistically significant differences between exposed and control rats in that the normal nocturnal increase in pineal melatonin content was depressed in the exposed animals. Concentrations of 5-methoxytryptophol were increased in the pineal glands of the exposed groups when compared to sham-exposed controls. An alteration was also observed in serotonin-N-acetyl transferase activity, with lower levels measured in pineal glands from exposed animals.

  13. Thyroid gland morphology in young adults: normal subjects versus those with prior low-dose neck irradiation in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.A.; Komorowski, R.A.; Cerletty, J.M.; Wilson, S.D.

    1983-12-01

    Thyroid glands obtained at autopsy from young adults were studied to establish more accurately the ''normal'' morphology in the groups 20 to 40 years of age. A total of 56 autopsy specimens (many obtained from trauma victims) were examined in detail by totally embedding and sectioning the thyroid glands. The morphology of these thyroid glands also was compared to that of surgically removed thyroid glands from 47 young adult patients with prior low-dose neck irradiation. The ''normal'' thyroid specimens frequently showed morphologic features, such as thyroid tissue outside the recognizable capsule of the gland (40 of 56 patients) and in the strap muscles of the neck (six of 56 patients), which are conditions commonly considered as evidence for invasive thyroid carcinoma. The thyroid glands from the ''normal'' young adult population were significantly different from those thyroid glands surgically removed from patients who had received irradiation. The irradiated thyroid glands invariably showed multiple nodules of a wide variety of histologic types, extensive lymphocytic infiltrates, and distorting fibrosis as well as a high incidence of malignancy (27 of 47 patients). A single 0.1 cm focus of papillary carcinoma was found in one specimen in the nonirradiated thyroid group. This study suggests that ''occult'' thyroid carcinomas in the group 20 to 40 years of age are rare and are significantly fewer in number than in the older population (P less than 0.02).

  14. Glycoprotein 340 and sialic acid in minor-gland and whole saliva of children, adolescents, and adults.

    PubMed

    Sonesson, Mikael; Ericson, Dan; Kinnby, Bertil; Wickström, Claes

    2011-12-01

    Glycoprotein 340 (gp-340) is a bacterial-binding glycoprotein found in major-gland and minor-gland saliva. Sialic acid, a common terminal structure of salivary glycoproteins, interacts with microorganisms and host ligands, as well as with free radicals. This study investigated the contents of gp-340 and sialic acid in minor-gland saliva and whole saliva of children (3 yr of age), adolescents (14 yr of age), and adults (20-25 yr of age). Labial-gland saliva and buccal-gland saliva were collected on filter paper, and unstimulated whole saliva was collected by draining into a tube. The relative amount of gp-340 and sialic acid was determined by ELISA and by enzyme-linked lectin assay (ELLA), respectively. In minor-gland saliva, no statistically significant differences in gp-340 and sialic acid were seen between the age-groups. Among adults, significantly lower amounts of gp-340 and sialic acid were seen in labial saliva compared with buccal saliva. In whole saliva, the amount of gp-340 was significantly lower among adults compared with children. No differences between genders were seen. Stable content of gp-340 and sialic acid in minor-gland saliva across the age-groups, and a higher content of gp-340 in the whole saliva of the youngest age-group (3-yr-olds) compared with the adult group, may reflect that those components are vital innate factors of immunity in children's saliva.

  15. Hedgehog signaling activation induces stem cell proliferation and hormone release in the adult pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Pyczek, Joanna; Buslei, Rolf; Schult, David; Hölsken, Annett; Buchfelder, Michael; Heß, Ina; Hahn, Heidi; Uhmann, Anja

    2016-04-25

    Hedgehog (HH) signaling is known to be essential during the embryonal development of the pituitary gland but the knowledge about its role in the adult pituitary and in associated tumors is sparse. In this report we investigated the effect of excess Hh signaling activation in murine pituitary explants and analyzed the HH signaling status of human adenopituitary lobes and a large cohort of pituitary adenomas. Our data show that excess Hh signaling led to increased proliferation of Sox2(+) and Sox9(+) adult pituitary stem cells and to elevated expression levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (Acth), growth hormone (Gh) and prolactin (Prl) in the adult gland. Inhibition of the pathway by cyclopamine reversed these effects indicating that active Hh signaling positively regulates proliferative processes of adult pituitary stem cells and hormone production in the anterior pituitary. Since hormone producing cells of the adenohypophysis as well as ACTH-, GH- and PRL-immunopositive adenomas express SHH and its target GLI1, we furthermore propose that excess HH signaling is involved in the development/maintenance of hormone-producing pituitary adenomas. These findings advance the understanding of physiological hormone regulation and may open new treatment options for pituitary tumors.

  16. Hedgehog signaling activation induces stem cell proliferation and hormone release in the adult pituitary gland

    PubMed Central

    Pyczek, Joanna; Buslei, Rolf; Schult, David; Hölsken, Annett; Buchfelder, Michael; Heß, Ina; Hahn, Heidi; Uhmann, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Hedgehog (HH) signaling is known to be essential during the embryonal development of the pituitary gland but the knowledge about its role in the adult pituitary and in associated tumors is sparse. In this report we investigated the effect of excess Hh signaling activation in murine pituitary explants and analyzed the HH signaling status of human adenopituitary lobes and a large cohort of pituitary adenomas. Our data show that excess Hh signaling led to increased proliferation of Sox2+ and Sox9+ adult pituitary stem cells and to elevated expression levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (Acth), growth hormone (Gh) and prolactin (Prl) in the adult gland. Inhibition of the pathway by cyclopamine reversed these effects indicating that active Hh signaling positively regulates proliferative processes of adult pituitary stem cells and hormone production in the anterior pituitary. Since hormone producing cells of the adenohypophysis as well as ACTH-, GH- and PRL-immunopositive adenomas express SHH and its target GLI1, we furthermore propose that excess HH signaling is involved in the development/maintenance of hormone-producing pituitary adenomas. These findings advance the understanding of physiological hormone regulation and may open new treatment options for pituitary tumors. PMID:27109116

  17. Wnt Signaling Regulates Airway Epithelial Stem Cells in Adult Murine Submucosal Glands.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Thomas J; Anderson, Preston J; Xie, Weiliang; Crooke, Adrianne K; Liu, Xiaoming; Tyler, Scott R; Luo, Meihui; Kusner, David M; Zhang, Yulong; Neff, Traci; Burnette, Daniel C; Walters, Katherine S; Goodheart, Michael J; Parekh, Kalpaj R; Engelhardt, John F

    2016-06-24

    Wnt signaling is required for lineage commitment of glandular stem cells (SCs) during tracheal submucosal gland (SMG) morphogenesis from the surface airway epithelium (SAE). Whether similar Wnt-dependent processes coordinate SC expansion in adult SMGs following airway injury remains unknown. We found that two Wnt-reporters in mice (BAT-gal and TCF/Lef:H2B-GFP) are coexpressed in actively cycling SCs of primordial glandular placodes and in a small subset of adult SMG progenitor cells that enter the cell cycle 24 hours following airway injury. At homeostasis, these Wnt reporters showed nonoverlapping cellular patterns of expression in the SAE and SMGs. Following tracheal injury, proliferation was accompanied by dynamic changes in Wnt-reporter activity and the analysis of 56 Wnt-related signaling genes revealed unique temporal changes in expression within proximal (gland-containing) and distal (gland-free) portions of the trachea. Wnt stimulation in vivo and in vitro promoted epithelial proliferation in both SMGs and the SAE. Interestingly, slowly cycling nucleotide label-retaining cells (LRCs) of SMGs were spatially positioned near clusters of BAT-gal positive serous tubules. Isolation and culture of tet-inducible H2B-GFP LRCs demonstrated that SMG LRCs were more proliferative than SAE LRCs and culture expanded SMG-derived progenitor cells outcompeted SAE-derived progenitors in regeneration of tracheal xenograft epithelium using a clonal analysis competition assay. SMG-derived progenitors were also multipotent for cell types in the SAE and formed gland-like structures in xenografts. These studies demonstrate the importance of Wnt signals in modulating SC phenotypes within tracheal niches and provide new insight into phenotypic differences of SMG and SAE SCs. Stem Cells 2016.

  18. Volatile compounds released by disturbed and undisturbed adults of Anchomenus dorsalis (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Platynini) and structure of the pygidial gland

    PubMed Central

    Bonacci, Teresa; Brandmayr, Pietro; Zetto, Tullia; Perrotta, Ida Daniela; Guarino, Salvatore; Peri, Ezio; Colazza, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Volatile compounds produced by adults of Anchomenus dorsalis under undisturbed and disturbed conditions were investigated with an all-glass aeration apparatus. GC-MS analysis of the crude extracts from undisturbed and disturbed adults highlighted four major volatile compounds, undecane, heneicosane, Z-9 tricosene and tricosane, of which significantly more undecane was released by disturbed adults compared to undisturbed beetles. The pygidial glands of adults of Anchomenus dorsalis were investigated using light and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Each gland showed dense aggregates of secretory cells organized into visually distinct lobes; a long collecting canal that drains the secretion towards the reservoir, a bean-shaped double lobed muscular reservoir in which secretion is stored and a short duct (efferent duct) through which the secretion is discharged. The function of the pygidial glands and the possible role played by undecane as a defensive allomone and/or chemical signalling molecule are discussed. PMID:21594158

  19. Pineal melatonin synthesis is altered in Period1 deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Christ, E; Pfeffer, M; Korf, H W; von Gall, C

    2010-12-01

    Melatonin is an important endocrine signal for darkness in mammals. Transcriptional activation of the arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase gene encoding for the penultimate enzyme in melatonin synthesis drives the daily rhythm of the hormone in the pineal gland of rodents. Rhythmic arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase expression is controlled by the cAMP-signal transduction pathway and involves the activation of β-adrenergic receptors and the inducible cAMP early repressor. In addition, the rat arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase promoter contains an E-box element which can interact with clock proteins. Moreover, the pineal gland of mice shows a circadian rhythm in clock proteins such as the transcriptional repressor Period1, which has been shown to control rhythmic gene expression in a variety of tissues. However, the role of Period1 in the regulation of pineal melatonin synthesis is still unknown. Therefore, circadian rhythms in arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase, β-adrenergic receptor, and inducible cAMP early repressor mRNA levels (real time PCR), arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase enzyme activity (radiometric assay) and melatonin concentration radio immuno assay (RIA) were analyzed in the pineal gland of mice with a targeted deletion of the Period1 gene (Per1-/-) and the corresponding wildtype. In Per1-/- the amplitude in arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase expression was significantly elevated as compared to wildtype. In contrast, β-adrenergic receptor and inducible cAMP early repressor mRNA levels were not affected by the Period1-deficiency. This indicates that the molecular clockwork alters the amplitude of arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase expression. In vitro, pineal glands of Per1-/- mice showed a day night difference in arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase expression with high levels at night. This suggests that a deficient in Period1 elicits similar effects as the activation of the cAMP-signal transduction pathway in wildtype mice.

  20. Distribution of epidermal growth factor binding sites in the adult rat anterior pituitary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Chabot, J.G.; Walker, P.; Pelletier, G.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of epidermal growth (EGF) binding sites was studied in the pituitary gland using light and electron microscope autoradiography which was performed at different time intervals (2 to 60 min) after intravenous (IV) injection of (/sup 125/I)EGF into adult rats. At the light microscopic level, the labeling was found over cells of the anterior pituitary gland. The time-course study performed by light microscope autoradiography showed that the maximal values were reached at the 2 min time interval. At this time interval, most silver grains were found at the periphery of the target cells. After, the number of silver grains decreased progressively and the localization of silver grains in the cytoplasm indicated the internalization of (/sup 125/I)EGF. Electron microscope autoradiography showed that labeling was mostly restricted to mammotrophs and somatotrophs. Control experiments indicated that the autoradiographic labeling was due specific interaction of (/sup 125/I)EGF with its binding site. These results indicate that EGF binding sites are present in at least two anterior pituitary cell types and suggest that EGF can exert a physiological role in the pituitary gland.

  1. Melatonin, the Pineal Gland, and Circadian Rhythms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-28

    astrocytes in the chick visual suprachiasmatic nucleus . Trans, Soc. Res. Biol. Rhythms 4:118 4) Brooks, D.S., AJ. Mitchell and...W.S., T.H. Champney and V.M. Cassone ( in press) The suprachiasmatic nucleus controls circadian rhythms of heart-rate via the sympathetic nervous...sparrows. N•,u•.si.LAbs. 19: 1487 2) Warren, W.S., V.M. Cassone (1993) The regulation of multiple circadian outputs by the suprachiasmatic

  2. Melatonin, The Pineal Gland and Circadian Rhythms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-30

    glutamate, GABA , taurine and other common amino acids from extracellular fluids of SCN and surrounding areas. We are also awaiting our body...there was no ligand-receptor down-regulation. To test this idea directly, we hava asked whether in vitr binding of the melatonin agonist , 2

  3. Melatonin, the Pineal Gland, and Circadian Rhythms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-31

    temperature and sleep rhyhms in the rat. Physlol. Behav. 32: 357-368, 1984. 19. Edgar , D. M., and C. A. Fuller. Effect of SCN lesions on sleep in...Reuss, S., R. F. Johnson, L. P. Morin , and R. Y. Moore. Localization of sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord of the goldm hamste. hrin

  4. Thyroid hormone and adrenergic signaling interact to control pineal expression of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (Drd4).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-So; Bailey, Michael J; Weller, Joan L; Sugden, David; Rath, Martin F; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C

    2010-01-15

    Dopamine plays diverse and important roles in vertebrate biology, impacting behavior and physiology through actions mediated by specific G-protein-coupled receptors, one of which is the dopamine receptor D4 (Drd4). Here we present studies on the >100-fold daily rhythm in rat pineal Drd4 expression. Our studies indicate that Drd4 is the dominant dopamine receptor gene expressed in the pineal gland. The gene is expressed in pinealocytes at levels which are approximately 100-fold greater than in other tissues, except the retina, in which transcript levels are similar. Pineal Drd4 expression is circadian in nature and under photoneural control. Whereas most rhythmically expressed genes in the pineal are controlled by adrenergic/cAMP signaling, Drd4 expression also requires thyroid hormone. This advance raises the questions of whether Drd4 expression is regulated by this mechanism in other systems and whether thyroid hormone controls expression of other genes in the pineal gland.

  5. Symptomatic pineal cyst: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Costa, F; Fornari, M; Valla, P; Servello, D

    2008-08-01

    Asymptomatic cysts of the pineal region are common incidental findings in adults. In contrast, symptomatic pineal cysts are rare and their management is not well defined. We present the case of a 39-year-old woman suffering from intracranial hypertension, with visual disturbance and mild papilledema. The MR images showed a voluminous cyst of the pineal region responsible for an obstructive hydrocephalus. Endoscopic treatment with the aid of computerized neuronavigation consisting in third ventriculostomy and fenestration of the cyst was performed. Intracranial hypertension symptoms resolved in 24 hours. The one year follow-up cerebral MR images demonstrated the normalization of ventricular size with patency of the aqueduct of Sylvius. Reviewing the literature demonstrates that the endoscopic approach represents a minimally invasive and safe procedure in the treatment of symptomatic pineal cysts.

  6. Pineal perfusion with calcium channel blockers inhibits differently daytime and nighttime melatonin production in rat.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Z Y; Touitou, Y

    1994-05-01

    In a previous study we have shown that the response of perifused pineal glands to calcium was different according to the circadian stage at which the glands were removed. This difference may be explained by circadian changes in calcium channel function. Therefore in the present study we documented the effects of calcium channel blockers in perifused rat pineal glands removed in the middle of the light and dark spans (7 and 19 HALO (hours after light onset), in a L/D 12:12 regimen). Moreover, we have studied the effect of calcium channel blockers on adrenergically stimulated pineal glands removed 7 HALO. Inorganic (Co2+ and Cd2+) and organic (nifedipine and diltiazem) calcium channel blockers at 10(-4) mol/l all significantly reduced melatonin production and this inhibition was more effective with the glands removed 7 HALO. In a concentration of 10(-)5 mol/l, only Cd2+ and diltiazem reduced melatonin production significantly in pineal glands removed 7 HALO. Verapamil at 10(-4) and 10(-5) mol/l showed no significant effect on melatonin production in glands removed both during the light and dark spans. Mn2+ at 10(-4) mol/l (but not at 10[-5] mol/l) appeared to stimulate melatonin production in glands removed both during the light and the dark (significant increase only with glands removed during the dark). Cobalt showed an immediate short inhibitory effect on both isoproterenol and norepinephrine-stimulated melatonin release, whereas nifedipine showed a significant inhibition only on isoproterenol-stimulated melatonin release. These results strongly suggest a circadian stage dependence of the pineal gland response to some calcium channel blockers and the involvement of calcium in the release of melatonin from pinealocytes.

  7. Electrical stimulation of the hypothalamic nucleus paraventricularis mimics the effects of light on pineal melatonin synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Olcese, J.; Reuss, S.; Steinlechner, S.

    1987-02-02

    In an attempt to clarify further the role of the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei (PVN) in the control of pineal function, the effects of 2 min electrical stimulation of these nuclei were investigated in acutely blinded, adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats. Pineal serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, melatonin content and catecholamine levels were measured by means of radio-enzymatic, radioimmunoassay and high-performance liquid-chromatography methods, respectively. All three pineal parameters underwent significant declines following brief PVN stimulation during the night time. These observations lend credence to the view that the neural pathways transmitting light information to the sympathetic innervation controlling pineal melatonin synthesis. 22 references, 1 figure.

  8. PTEN is required to maintain luminal epithelial homeostasis and integrity in the adult mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Shore, Amy N; Chang, Chi-Hsuan; Kwon, Oh-Joon; Weston, Matthew C; Zhang, Mei; Xin, Li; Rosen, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    In the mammary gland, PTEN loss in luminal and basal epithelial cells results in differentiation defects and enhanced proliferation, leading to the formation of tumors with basal epithelial characteristics. In breast cancer, PTEN loss is associated with a hormone receptor-negative, basal-like subtype that is thought to originate in a luminal epithelial cell. Here, we show that luminal-specific PTEN loss results in distinct effects on epithelial homeostasis and mammary tumor formation. Luminal PTEN loss increased proliferation of hormone receptor-negative cells, thereby decreasing the percentage of hormone receptor-positive cells. Moreover, luminal PTEN loss led to misoriented cell divisions and mislocalization of cells to the intraluminal space of mammary ducts. Despite their elevated levels of activated AKT, Pten-null intraluminal cells showed increased levels of apoptosis. One year after Pten deletion, the ducts had cleared and no palpable mammary tumors were detected. These data establish PTEN as a critical regulator of luminal epithelial homeostasis and integrity in the adult mammary gland, and further show that luminal PTEN loss alone is not sufficient to promote the progression of mammary tumorigenesis.

  9. The pineal complex in Roman high avoidance and Roman low avoidance rats.

    PubMed

    Seidel, A; Sousa Neto, J A; Huesgen, A; Vollrath, L; Manz, B; Gentsch, C; Lichtsteiner, M

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the pineal gland of Roman high avoidance (RHA/Verh) rats is larger than that of Roman low avoidance rats (RLA/Verh). In the present study measurement of enzyme activities (serotonin-N-acetyl-transferase, hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase) revealed that pineals of RHA/Verh rats are twice as active in melatonin production than pineals of RLA/Verh rats. Indoleamine content was also higher in RHA/Verh rats, whereas noradrenaline content was the same in both lines. When values were expressed per mg protein, these differences disappeared except for N-acetyl-serotonin and noradrenaline which were higher or lower in RHA/Verh rats, respectively. Both lines had higher serum levels of melatonin during the dark phase than during the light phase. However, RHA/Verh rats had increased serum levels as compared to RLA/Verh rats during both day and night. Morphometric analysis of the deep and superficial part of the pineal complex revealed, that the volumes of both parts are enlarged in RHA/Verh rats. Electron microscopic studies of pineals collected during day- and nighttime showed higher numbers of synaptic ribbons per unit area in pineals of RHA/Verh rats. In pineals collected during June synaptic ribbons displayed a day/night rhythm in RHA/Verh rats only, whereas in glands of both lines collected during November no daily changes were found. These results show that closely related but divergently selected rat lines may differ in pineal ultrastructure and pineal function.

  10. A model for the neural control of pineal periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira Cruz, Frederico Alan; Soares, Marilia Amavel Gomes; Cortez, Celia Martins

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was verify if a computational model associating the synchronization dynamics of coupling oscillators to a set of synaptic transmission equations would be able to simulate the control of pineal by a complex neural pathway that connects the retina to this gland. Results from the simulations showed that the frequency and temporal firing patterns were in the range of values found in literature.

  11. Effect of bisphenol A on morphology, apoptosis and proliferation in the resting mammary gland of the adult albino rat.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Marwa A A; Elbakry, Reda H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic oestrogen that is extensively used in a wide range of daily used plastic products. This makes it one of the environmental chemicals that may have impact on human health. Due to its oestrogenic effect, BPA might affect the mammary gland. This study aimed to investigate the influence of BPA on the histological structure of the mammary gland of the adult female albino rat and its effect on epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis status, in addition to its possible modulating effect on estrogen receptor expression. Thirty female adult albino rats were divided into control and experimental groups. The rats in the experimental group were gavaged with 5 mg/kg BPA daily for 8 weeks. The mammary glands were dissected and processed for histological and immunohistochemical stains for Ki-67, activated caspase-3 and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α). BPA induced an increase in the number and size of the acini and ducts in the mammary gland of treated rats with hyperplasia of their lining epithelial cells. The collagen fibre content was significantly increased in the connective tissue stroma separating the ducts. Immunohistochemical results showed a significant increase in Ki-67 and caspase-3, but a non-significant increase in ER-α expression. Bisphenol A induced structural changes and affected the proliferation rate of mammary glands, so it might be one of the predisposing factors for breast cancer.

  12. Methionine adenosyltransferase:adrenergic-cAMP mechanism regulates a daily rhythm in pineal expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-So; Coon, Steven L; Blackshaw, Seth; Cepko, Constance L; Møller, Morten; Mukda, Sujira; Zhao, Wan-Qian; Charlton, Clivel G; Klein, David C

    2005-01-07

    (S)-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is a critical element of melatonin synthesis as the methyl donor in the last step of the pathway, the O-methylation of N-acetyl 5-hydroxytryptamine by hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase. The activity of the enzyme that synthesizes SAM, methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT), increases 2.5-fold at night in the pineal gland. In this study, we found that pineal MAT2A mRNA and the protein it encodes, MAT II, also increase at night, suggesting that the increase in MAT activity is caused by an increase in MAT II gene products. The night levels of MAT2A mRNA in the pineal gland were severalfold higher than in other neural and non-neural tissues examined, consistent with the requirement for SAM in melatonin synthesis. Related studies indicate that the nocturnal increase in MAT2A mRNA is caused by activation of a well described neural pathway that mediates photoneural-circadian regulation of the pineal gland. MAT2A mRNA and MAT II protein were increased in organ culture by treatment with norepinephrine (NE), the sympathetic neurotransmitter that stimulates the pineal gland at night. NE is known to markedly elevate pineal cAMP, and here it was found that cAMP agonists elevate MAT2A mRNA levels by increasing MAT2A mRNA synthesis and that drugs that block cAMP activation of cAMP dependent protein kinase block effects of NE. Therefore, the NE-cAMP dependent increase in pineal MAT activity seems to reflect an increase in MAT II protein, which occurs in response to cAMP-->protein kinase-dependent increased MAT2A expression. The existence of this MAT regulatory system underscores the importance that MAT plays in melatonin biogenesis. These studies also point to the possibility that SAM production in other tissues might be regulated through cAMP.

  13. Pineal cysts and other pineal region malignancies: determining factors predictive of hydrocephalus and malignancy.

    PubMed

    Starke, Robert M; Cappuzzo, Justin M; Erickson, Nicholas J; Sherman, Jonathan H

    2016-10-21

    OBJECTIVE Cystic lesions of the pineal gland are most often uncomplicated benign lesions with typical MRI characteristics. The authors aimed to study pineal lesion characteristics on MRI to better distinguish benign pineal cysts from other pineal region malignancies as well as to determine which characteristics were predictive of the latter malignancies. They also aimed to study risk factors predictive of hydrocephalus or malignancy in patients harboring these lesions. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of a prospectively compiled database documenting the outcomes of patients with suspected pineal cysts on MRI who had presented in the period from 1998 to 2004. Inherent patient and lesion characteristics were assessed in a univariate logistic regression analysis to predict the following dependent variables: development of hydrocephalus, biopsy-confirmed malignancy, and intervention. Possible inherent patient and lesion characteristics included age, sex, T1 and T2 MRI signal pattern, contrast enhancement pattern, presence of cyst, presence of blood, complexity of lesion, presence of calcification, and duration of follow-up. Inherent patient and lesion characteristics that were predictive in the univariate analysis (p < 0.15) were included in the multivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS Of the 79 patients with benign-appearing pineal cysts, 26 (33%) were male and 53 (67%) were female, with a median age of 38 years (range 9-86 years). The median cyst radius was 5 mm (range 1-20 mm). Two patients (2.5%) had evidence of calcifications, 7 (9%) had multicystic lesions, and 25 (32%) had some evidence of contrast enhancement. The median follow-up interval was 3 years (range 0.5-13 years). Seven patients (9%) had an increase in the size of their lesion over time. Eight patients (10%) had a hemorrhage, and 11 patients (14%) developed hydrocephalus. Nine (11%) received ventriculoperitoneal shunts for the development of hydrocephalus, and 12 patients

  14. Light-dependent changes in the chick pineal temperature and the expression of cHsp90 alpha gene: a potential contribution of in vivo temperature change to the photic-entrainment of the chick pineal circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Doi, Masao; Nakajima, Yoshito; Okano, Toshiyuki; Fukada, Yoshitaka

    2002-06-01

    The circadian clock is entrained to the diurnal alteration of environmental conditions such as light and temperature, but the molecular mechanism underlying the entrainment is not fully understood. In the present study, we employed a differential display-based screening for a set of genes that are induced by light in the chick pineal gland, a structure of the central clock entrainable to both light and temperature changes. We found that the level of the mRNA encoding chicken heat shock protein 90 alpha (cHSP90 alpha) was rapidly elevated in the pineal gland within a 5-min exposure of chicks to light. Furthermore, the pineal cHsp90 alpha mRNA was expressed rhythmically under both 12-hr light/12-hr dark (LD) cycles and constant dark (DD) conditions. The total amount of the pineal cHSP90 alpha protein was, however, kept at nearly constant levels under LD cycles, and immunohistochemical analyses of the pineal cHSP90 alpha showed invariable localization at the cytoplasm throughout the day. In vivo measurement of the chick pineal temperature demonstrated its light-dependent and time-of-day-dependent change, and the profile was very similar to that of the pineal cHSP90 alpha mRNA level. These observations suggest that the in vivo temperature change regulates the expression of temperature-responsive genes including cHSP 90 alpha in the pineal gland. The temperature change may induce a phase-shift of the pineal clock, thereby facilitating its efficient entrainment to environmental LD cycles.

  15. Clinical and neurophysiological changes in patients with pineal region expansions.

    PubMed

    Hajnsek, Sanja; Paladino, Josip; Gadze, Zeljka Petelin; Nanković, Sibila; Mrak, Goran; Lupret, Velimir

    2013-03-01

    In the last 20 years neurological and neurosurgical follow up of our patients with pineal region expansions (118 patients) pointed to certain clinical and neurophysiological regularities. We performed retrospective study which included 84 patients with pineal region expansions in the period from 1992 to 2009. The study included 55 women and 29 men, mean age 30.08 +/- 13.93 years, with positive brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)--70 patients (83.4%) had simple pineal gland cysts, and 14 patients (16.67%) had expansive process in pineal region with compressive effect. All patients had headache, while 32 patients (38%) had epileptic phenomena--primary generalized seizures. Patients had common electroencephalography (EEG) pattern with paroxysmal discharges of 3Hz (or more than 3 Hz) spike-and-wave complexes. Operation with supracerebellar infratentorial approach was performed in 70 patients. In most of our patients indication for the operation was established based on the size of the cyst (15 mm or more), with the signs of compression on the quadrigeminal plate and compression of the surrounding veins, which could result in seizures and EEG changes verified in our group of patients. Pathohistological analysis revealed pineocytomas in 11 cases (15.71%), pinealoblastomas in 2 cases (2.86%), one case of teratoma (1.43%), while 56 patients had pineal gland cysts (80%). Following surgery clinical condition improved in all patients--patients became seizure-free and headaches significantly decreased. Other symptoms including diplopiae, nausea, vomiting, vertigo as well as blurred vision also disappeared. There were no complications after surgical procedures. This study points to often appearance of seizures that clinically and neurophysiologically present as primary generalized epilepsy in patients with pineal region expansions. Our hypotheses are that mass effect on the surrounding veins that affects normal perfusion, compressive effect on the quadrigeminal plate and the

  16. Is CRX protein a useful marker in differential diagnosis of tumors of the pineal region?

    PubMed

    Manila, Antonelli; Mariangela, Novello; Libero, Lauriola; Francesca, Gianno; Romana, Buttarelli Francesca; Felice, Giangaspero

    2014-01-01

    The cone-rod homeobox (CRX) is a gene that belongs to the member of the orthodenticle homeobox (Otx) family, with important function in development and differentiation of retinal and pineal cells. Moreover, CRX appears to be specifically expressed in pineal tumors and retinoblastomas. We performed an immunohistochemical study on 91 pediatric and adult central nervous system tumors, plus 2 normal brain samples. Our results demonstrated that CRX is expressed not only in pineal parenchymal tumors and retinoblastoma, but also in a some medulloblastomas and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors. None of the glial tumors screened were positive for CRX. In conclusion, CRX could be useful in surgical neuropathology for the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumors, in particular to discriminate pineal tumors from glial tumors.

  17. Stimulatory effect of morphine on rat pineal melatonin synthesis via a cyclic AMP-dependent transcription pathway.

    PubMed

    Chetsawang, Banthit; Govitrapong, Piyarat

    2005-11-25

    The expression of mRNA of opioid receptors and the existence of opioid binding site in the rat pineal gland have been demonstrated previously. A major finding was that morphine enhanced the activity of the rate-limiting enzyme, N-acetyltransferase (NAT) and increased the level of melatonin in rat pineal gland. An attempt has been made in order to clarify the mechanism of this induction. In the present study, the stimulatory effect of morphine on the expression of NAT mRNA in the rat pineal gland has been demonstrated using semi-quantitative RT-PCR technique. The results showed that both acute and chronic morphine treatments significantly increased NAT mRNA expression in rat pineal gland. In addition, the effect of morphine on the phosphorylation of the transcription factors, cyclic AMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) was investigated. Western blot analysis showed that morphine significantly increased phosphorylation of CREB. These results indicate that at least one downstream messenger pathway for the activation of opioidergic system on the induction of melatonin synthesis in the rat pineal gland acts via cyclic AMP-dependent cascade and transcription mechanism.

  18. Sonographic detection and follow up of an atypical pineal cyst: a comparison with magnetic resonance imaging. Case report.

    PubMed

    Harrer, Judith U; Klötzsch, Christof; Oertel, Markus F; Möller-Hartmann, Walter

    2005-09-01

    The incidental ultrasonographic detection of an asymptomatic cystic pineal lesion in a young woman is described and compared with findings on magnetic resonance (MR) images. Follow-up studies obtained using both imaging modalities are presented. The results indicate that transcranial ultrasonography may represent an easy and cost-effective imaging technique for follow up of cystic lesions of the pineal gland, especially in patients unable to undergo MR imaging.

  19. Injury switches melatonin production source from endocrine (pineal) to paracrine (phagocytes) - melatonin in human colostrum and colostrum phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Gerlândia N; Cardoso, Elaine C; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda M S; Markus, Regina P

    2006-09-01

    A large number of data show that melatonin has immunomodulatory properties and is produced by immunocompetent cells; also, some evidence suggests a 'feedback' of the activated immune system on the pineal gland. In this paper, we studied immune-pineal interactions in colostrum obtained from healthy puerperae and mothers with mastitis taking into account that, (a) melatonin levels in milk reflects pineal activity and (b) colostrum quiescent mononuclear and polymorphonuclear phagocytes from healthy mothers in culture are adequate for evaluating the ability of immunocompetent cells to produce melatonin. Here we compared the diurnal and nocturnal melatonin levels in colostrum from healthy puerperae and mothers with mastitis; this is a unique noninvasive model for determining pineal activity in the proinflammatory phase of a defense response. In addition, we determined the 'in vitro' production of melatonin by colostrum immunocompetent cells stimulated by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli or zymosan. Suppression of nocturnal melatonin rise in mothers with mastitis was highly correlated with increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion. This result, interpreted taking into account the presence of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B in pineal gland, suggest that the proinflammatory cytokine can inhibit nocturnal pineal melatonin production. On the other hand, stimulated, but not quiescent, immunocompetent cells secreted in the colostrum produced melatonin in vitro. In addition, this production ceases after bacteria killing. These results suggest that during the response to an injury the production of melatonin can be transiently shifted from an endocrine (pineal) to a paracrine (immunocompetent cells) source.

  20. Ingestion of Bt rice pollen does not reduce the survival or hypopharyngeal gland development of Apis mellifera adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Dai, Pingli; Chen, Xiuping; Romeis, Jörg; Shi, Jianrong; Peng, Yufa; Li, Yunhe

    2016-10-07

    Because of its ecological and economic importance, the honey bee Apis mellifera is commonly used to assess the environmental risk of insect-resistant, genetically modified plants. In the current laboratory study, feeding-exposure experiments were used to determine whether pollen from transgenic rice harms A. mellifera worker bee. In one experiment, the survival and mean acinus diameter of hypopharyngeal glands of adult bees were similar when bees were fed on pollen from Bt rice lines or from a non-Bt rice line, but bee survival was significantly reduced when they received pollen that was mixed with potassium arsenate as a positive control. In a second experiment, bee survival and hypopharyngeal gland development were not reduced when adult bees were fed on non-Bt pollen and a sucrose solution supplemented with Cry2A at 400 µg/g, Cry1C at 50 µg/g, or bovine serum albumin (BSA) at 400 µg/g diet, but bee survival and hypopharyngeal gland development were reduced when the diet was supplemented with soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI) as a positive control. In both experiments, the uptake of Cry proteins by adult bees was confirmed. Overall, the results indicate that the planting of Bt rice lines expressing Cry2A or Cry1C protein poses a negligible risk to A. mellifera worker bees. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemical communication in Chagas disease vectors. Source, identity, and potential function of volatiles released by the metasternal and Brindley's glands of Triatoma infestans adults.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Gabriel; Vitta, Ana C R; Ferreira, Raquel A; Zani, Carlos L; Unelius, C Rikard; Lazzari, Claudio R; Diotaiuti, Lileia; Lorenzo, Marcelo G

    2006-09-01

    Compounds from the metasternal and Brindley's glands of the blood-sucking bug, Triatoma infestans, were identified by solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Volatile compounds released by adult bugs during copulation or after mechanical disturbance were also characterized. Six compounds were identified and found consistently in all samples from metasternal glands. The most abundant were 3-pentanone, 2-methylbutanol, 3-pentanol, and an unidentified compound. The metasternal gland blends did not differ qualitatively between sexes. Compounds found in Brindley's glands were short chain acids, alcohols, esters, and a ketone with no qualitative differences between sexes. Isobutyric acid was the main component of this blend, and two new confirmed compounds were described as products of these glands: 2-butanone and 2-methylbutyric acid. 3-Pentanone was collected from the headspace over 33% of the copulating pairs of T. infestans. Volatiles found in the headspace of disturbed T. infestans adults included short-chain fatty acids, alcohols, esters, and ketones, with no qualitative differences between sexes. Both types of glands apparently discharge their contents after disturbance. However, most of the volatiles released by bugs after disturbance came from Brindley's glands. The locomotor activity of fourth instars increased significantly after stimulation with the odors emitted by disturbed adults, as compared with larvae stimulated by the odor of undisturbed adults or by clean air. We also studied the directional behavioral response of fifth instars to the disturbance scent in a locomotion compensator. Larvae exposed to volatiles released by disturbed adults walked away from the direction of the odor. The results suggest that this blend or part of it functions as an alarm pheromone for T. infestans. We suggest that the metasternal glands of this species are involved both in the sexual and the alarm contexts, and that the Brindley

  2. Circadian regulation of bird song, call, and locomotor behavior by pineal melatonin in the zebra finch.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Harpole, Clifford E; Trivedi, Amit K; Cassone, Vincent M

    2012-04-01

    As both a photoreceptor and pacemaker in the avian circadian clock system, the pineal gland is crucial for maintaining and synchronizing overt circadian rhythms in processes such as locomotor activity and body temperature through its circadian secretion of the pineal hormone melatonin. In addition to receptor presence in circadian and visual system structures, high-affinity melatonin binding and receptor mRNA are present in the song control system of male oscine passeriform birds. The present study explores the role of pineal melatonin in circadian organization of singing and calling behavior in comparison to locomotor activity under different lighting conditions. Similar to locomotor activity, both singing and calling behavior were regulated on a circadian basis by the central clock system through pineal melatonin, since these behaviors free-ran with a circadian period and since pinealectomy abolished them in constant environmental conditions. Further, rhythmic melatonin administration restored their rhythmicity. However, the rates by which these behaviors became arrhythmic and the rates of their entrainment to rhythmic melatonin administration differed among locomotor activity, singing and calling under constant dim light and constant bright light. Overall, the study demonstrates a role for pineal melatonin in regulating circadian oscillations of avian vocalizations in addition to locomotor activity. It is suggested that these behaviors might be controlled by separable circadian clockworks and that pineal melatonin entrains them all through a circadian clock.

  3. Different tumours induced by benzo(a)pyrene and its 7,8-dihydrodiol injected into adult mouse salivary gland.

    PubMed Central

    Wigley, C. B.; Amos, J.; Brookes, P.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison has been made between the carcinogenic activities of benzo(a)pyrene and the proposed proximate carcinogen, benzo(a)pyrene 7,8-dihydrodiol, in the adult C57BL mouse submandibular salivary gland. In preliminary studies using a range of doses, the dihydrodiol was slightly less active than the parent hydrocarbon in this system. There was a difference in the type of tumour induced by the 2 compounds. Benzo(a)pyrene induced tumours of the salivary glands at the site of injection, whereas the dihydrodiol induced malignant lymphosarcomas, particularly of the thymus, which were often metastatic to other orgnas. Possible reasons for the different sites of action of the 2 compounds are discussed. PMID:580763

  4. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hypothalamus Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas Ovaries Parathyroid Pineal Pituitary Testes Thyroid ... adrenocortical hyperplasia Cushing syndrome Pheochromocytoma Pancreas: ... Tetany Renal calculi Excessive loss of minerals from ...

  5. 60-Hz electric-field effects on pineal melatonin rhythms: time course for onset and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B.W.; Chess, E.K.; Anderson, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Rats exposed for 3 weeks to uniform 60-Hz electric fields of 39 kV/m (effective field strength) failed to show normal pineal gland circadian rhythms in serotonin N-acetyl transferase activity and melatonin concentrations. The time required for recovery of the melatonin rhythm after cessation of field exposure was determined to be less than 3 days. The rapid recovery suggests that the overall metabolic competence of the pineal is not permanently compromised by electric-field exposure, and that the circadian rhythm effect may be neuronally mediated.

  6. Salvia officinalis L. induces alveolar bud growing in adult female rat mammary glands

    PubMed Central

    Monsefi, Malihezaman; Abedian, Mehrnaz; Azarbahram, Zahra; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In traditional medicine Salvia officinalis (sage) has been used as menstrual cycle regulator. In the present study the effects of sage extract on breast tissue were examined. Materials and Methods: Fourteen female rats were divided into two groups: 1) Distilled water-treated rats (Con) that were gavaged with 1ml distilled water and 2) Saliva officinalis hydroalcoholic extract (SHE)-treated rats that were gavaged with 30mg/kg/body weight of sage extract for 30 days. The estrus cycle changes were monitored by daily examination of vaginal smear. Whole mounts of right pelvic breast were spread on the slide and stained by carmine. The number of alveolar buds (ABs) type 1 and 2 and lobules of mammary gland were scored. Tissue sections of left pelvic mammary gland were prepared and its histomorphometrical changes were measured. Blood samples were taken from dorsal aorta and estradiol and progesterone concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay. Results: Estrous cycles decreased significantly in SHE-treated animals. The number of alveolar buds and lobules in mammary gland whole mount of SHE-treated group were higher than the Con group. The number and diameter of ducts in histological section of mammary gland in SHE-treated group increased as compared to the Con group. Conclusion: Sage promotes alveologenesis of mammary glands and it can be used as a lactiferous herb. PMID:26693413

  7. Clonal proliferation of multipotent stem/progenitor cells in the neonatal and adult salivary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Kishi, Teruki; Takao, Tukasa; Fujita, Kiyohide; Taniguchi, Hideki . E-mail: rtanigu@med.yokohama-cu.ac.jp

    2006-02-10

    Salivary gland stem/progenitor cells are thought to be present in intercalated ductal cells, but the fact is unclear. In this study, we sought to clarify if stem/progenitor cells are present in submandibular glands using colony assay, which is one of the stem cell assay methods. Using a low-density culture of submandibular gland cells of neonatal rats, we developed a novel culture system that promotes single cell colony formation. Average doubling time for the colony-forming cells was 24.7 (SD = {+-}7.02) h, indicating high proliferative potency. When epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were added to the medium, the number of clonal colonies increased greater than those cultured without growth factors (13.2 {+-} 4.18 vs. 4.5 {+-} 1.73). The RT-PCR and immunostaining demonstrated expressing acinar, ductal, and myoepithelial cell lineage markers. This study demonstrated the presence of the salivary gland stem/progenitor cells that are highly proliferative and multipotent in salivary glands.

  8. Total salivary gland proteins of female Culex pipiens and Aedes caspius (Diptera: Culicidae) and their fractionation during adult development and after blood sucking.

    PubMed

    Soliman, M A; Abdel-Hamid, M E; Mansour, M M; Seif, A I; Kamel, K I; el Hamshary, E M

    1999-08-01

    Salivary glands of Culex pipiens and Aedes caspius were analyzed to determine total protein content and its fractionation during adult female development and after blood sucking. In both species, the molecular weight of proteins ranged between 26.000 and 84.000 Daltons. These proteins were not identical in the two species. In Cx. pipiens, the total protein level increased during the first 3 days of adult development from 4.94 +/- 0.84 to 6.6 +/- 0.37 micrograms/gland. During this period, the salivary gland proteins were separated into 35, 34 and 37 fractions respectively. Cx. pipiens released in the human host 64% of the total proteins while taking a blood meal compared to unfed females. This decrease in protein level was proportional to protein fractions. Over the next 6 days, the protein level increased again to attain values comparable to those obtained prior to blood sucking. In Ae. caspius, the total protein level of the salivary glands did not change during the first 4 days of adult development (range between 3.13 +/- 0.27 and 3.91 +/- 0.36 micrograms gland), but on the fifth day, 2-fold increase was observed. The total salivary gland protein increased during the next 3 days after blood sucking to reach 15.5 +/- 0.98 micrograms/gland. During this period, a tremendous change in protein patterns was observed. After oviposition, on the fourth day, a significant reduction in the total protein level was observed (4.13 +/- 0.56 micrograms/gland), but over the next 3 days the level increased again (range between 4.13 +/- 0.66 and 7.13 +/- 0.66 micrograms/gland).

  9. Increased delta aminolevulinic acid and decreased pineal melatonin production. A common event in acute porphyria studies in the rat.

    PubMed

    Puy, H; Deybach, J C; Bogdan, A; Callebert, J; Baumgartner, M; Voisin, P; Nordmann, Y; Touitou, Y

    1996-01-01

    Tryptophan (TRP) is the precursor of melatonin, the primary secretory product of the pineal gland. Hepatic heme deficiency decreases the activity of liver tryptophan pyrrolase, leading to increased plasma TRP and serotonin. As a paradox, patients with attacks of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), exhibit low nocturnal plasma melatonin levels. This study using a rat experimental model was designed to produce a pattern of TRP and melatonin production similar to that in AIP patients. Pineal melatonin production was measured in response to: (a) a heme synthesis inhibitor, succinylacetone, (b) a heme precursor, delta-aminolevulinic acid (Ala), (c) a structural analogue of Ala, gamma-aminobutyric acid. Studies were performed in intact rats, perifused pineal glands, and pinealocyte cultures. Ala, succinylacetone, and gamma-aminobutyric acid significantly decreased plasma melatonin levels independently of blood TRP concentration. In the pineal gland, the key enzyme activities of melatonin synthesis were unchanged for hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase and decreased for N-acetyltransferase. Our results strongly suggest that Ala overproduced by the liver acts by mimicking the effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid on pineal melatonin in AIP. They also support the view that Ala acts as a toxic element in the pathophysiology of AIP.

  10. Regulation of period 1 expression in cultured rat pineal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukuhara, Chiaki; Dirden, James C.; Tosini, Gianluca

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro expression of Period 1 (Per1), Period 2 (Per2) and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) genes in the rat pineal gland to understand the mechanism(s) regulating the expression of these genes in this organ. Pineals, when maintained in vitro for 5 days, did not show circadian rhythmicity in the expression of any of the three genes monitored. Norepinephrine (NE) induced AA-NAT and Per1, whereas its effect on Per2 was negligible. Contrary to what was observed in other systems, NE stimulation did not induce circadian expression of Per1. The effect of NE on Per1 level was dose- and receptor subtype-dependent, and both cAMP and cGMP induced Per1. Per1 was not induced by repeated NE - or forskolin - stimulation. Protein synthesis was not necessary for NE-induced Per1, but it was for reduction of Per1 following NE stimulation. Per1 transcription in pinealocytes was activated by BMAL1/CLOCK. Our results indicate that important differences are present in the regulation of these genes in the mammalian pineal. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Some questions provoked by a chronic headache (with mixed migraine and cluster headache features) in a woman with a pineal cyst. Answers from a literature review.

    PubMed

    Molina-Martínez, F J; Jiménez-Martínez, M C; Vives-Pastor, B

    2010-09-01

    The main known function of the pineal gland in humans is the production of melatonin. Benign cysts of the gland have been related to headache, although the mechanism of production of this assumed clinical manifestation has not been clearly determined, due to the lack of large prospective studies. The question is complicated by the fact that pineal cysts are frequently found on brain magnetic resonance imaging. Much has been published about the possible role of benign pineal cysts in the pathophisiology of headaches and the potential of melatonin in headache therapy, as well as in other disorders. The aim of this article is to review the current state of the subject. We have tried to place accurately the relation between headache and pineal cysts based on the available evidence, as well as the actual role of melatonin in physiology and pharmacology, more specifically in headache therapy. We include a clinical case to illustrate the subject.

  12. Marked rapid alterations in nocturnal pineal serotonin metabolism in mice and rats exposed to weak intermittent magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Lerchl, A.; Nonaka, K.O.; Stokkan, K.A.; Reiter, R.J. )

    1990-05-31

    Adult AMES mice and male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to an artificial magnetic field, generated by Helmholtz coils. 3.5 hours after the onset of darkness the coils were activated for one hour resulting in an inversion of the horizontal component of the earth's magnetic field. The coils were activated and deactivated at 5 min intervals during the 1 hour exposure period. In both mice and rats, the levels of serotonin in the pineal were markedly increased by the exposure. In rats, an increase of pineal 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid and a decrease of the activity of the pineal enzyme serotonin-N-acetyltransferase also was observed. However, pineal and serum melatonin levels were not altered. The results indicate that the metabolism of serotonin in the pineal is quickly affected by the exposure of animals to a magnetic field.

  13. Salivary Gland Proteome during Adult Development and after Blood Feeding of Female Anopheles dissidens Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Phattanawiboon, Benjarat; Jariyapan, Narissara; Mano, Chonlada; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Paemanee, Atchara; Sor-Suwan, Sriwatapron; Sriwichai, Patchara; Saeung, Atiporn; Bates, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding changes in mosquito salivary proteins during the time that sporozoite maturation occurs and after blood feeding may give information regarding the roles of salivary proteins during the malarial transmission. Anopheles dissidens (formerly Anopheles barbirostris species A1) is a potential vector of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand. In this study, analyses of the proteomic profiles of female An. dissidens salivary glands during adult development and after blood feeding were carried out using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed at least 17 major salivary gland proteins present from day one to day 21 post emergence at 8 different time points sampled. Although there was variation observed, the patterns of protein expression could be placed into one of four groups. Fifteen protein spots showed significant depletion after blood feeding with the percentages of the amount of depletion ranging from 8.5% to 68.11%. The overall results identified various proteins, including a putative mucin-like protein, an anti-platelet protein, a long form D7 salivary protein, a putative gVAG protein precursor, a D7-related 3.2 protein, gSG7 salivary proteins, and a gSG6 protein. These results allow better understanding of the changes of the salivary proteins during the adult mosquito development. They also provide candidate proteins to investigate any possible link or not between sporozoite maturation, or survival of skin stage sporozoites, and salivary proteins. PMID:27669021

  14. The morpho-anatomy and histology of the pineal complex in a major Indian carp, Catla catla: identification of the pineal photoreceptor cells and their responsiveness to constant light and constant darkness during different phases of the annual reproductive cycle.

    PubMed

    Dey, R; Bhattacharya, S; Maitra, S K; Banerji, T K

    2003-11-01

    In contrast to mammals in which the pineal gland is a discrete structure situated dorsally in the brain, the "pineal gland" in teleost fishes is composed of a number of separate but connected constituent parts, collectively described as the "pineal complex." In this paper, we have described the pineal complex in a common Indian carp, Catla catla, which exhibits an annual reproductive cycle. Attempts have been made to (a) provide an in-depth description of the structure of the pineal complex; and (b) identify the photoreceptor cells of the pineal, by exposing the animals to constant light (LL) and constant darkness (DD). Furthermore, we examined any possible influence of the reproductive status of the fish on the responsiveness of the pineal photoreceptor cells in C. catla following exposure to LL and DD. To this end, a total of four experiments were carried out during the four different phases of the annual reproductive cycle that is characteristic of this species. Each of these four experiments was carried out for a period of 30 days after which the fishes were sacrificed, different parts of the pineal complex were dissected out, and processed for histological and karyometric studies. Our results showed that the pineal complex in this species is composed of three separate but connected parts, (a) an end vesicle (EV); (b) a dorsal sac (DS); and (c) a long and thin pineal stalk (PS) that attaches the EV to the DS. Detailed karyometric and histo-morphologic studies following exposure of the animals to DD and LL showed that constant darkness led to a stimulatory effect on the pineal photoreceptor cells of the EV as evident from a significant increase in the nuclear diameter. In contrast, the nuclear diameter of the photoreceptor cells in animals subjected to constant light showed a significant reduction. Furthermore, the observed cellular changes in the EV of fish exposed either to LL or DD were independent of the stage of the gonadal cycle. The apparent lack of any

  15. Photoperiod: Its importance as an impeller of pineal and seasonal reproductive rhythms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, R. J.

    1980-03-01

    A number of long day breeding rodents depend on seasonal changes in photoperiodic length to synchronize their breeding seasons with the appropriate time of the year. These relationships are particularly conspicuous in the Syrian hamster where day length is vitally important in determining periods of sexual activity and inactivity. The organ in the body whose activity is most closely attuned to the photoperiodic environment is the pineal gland. During periods of darkness the biochemical and secretory activity of the pineal is enhanced with the resultant production of antigonadotrophic principles which are strongly suppressive to reproductive physiology. In this manner, decreasing day lengths of the fall are involved with suppressing sexual capability in male and female hamsters. Throughout the winter months darkness (because of the shorter day lengths and the fact that hamsters remain underground in lightless burrows) holds the gonads in an atrophic condition and thereby prevents hamsters from breeding. As spring approaches the neuroendocrine reproductive axis becomes refractory to the inhibitory effects of darkness and the pineal gland and, as a consequence, the gonads recrudesce allowing the animals to successfully reproduce. The long days of the spring and summer serve to interrupt the refractory period so that when winter approaches shortening day lengths will again, by way of the pineal gland, induce gonadalinvolution. In this scheme both light and darkness are critically important in synchronizing the phases of the annual reproductive cycle of the hamster with the appropriate season of the year. Melatonin may be the pineal hormone which mediates the effects of darkness on reproductive physiology.

  16. Adrenal glands

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002219.htm Adrenal glands To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The adrenal glands are two triangle-shaped glands. One gland is ...

  17. Pineal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Concomitant With Pituitary Prolactinoma: Possible Correlation Between 2 Distinguished Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeong-Jin; Kim, Hee Kyung; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Jung, Shin; Noh, Myung-Giun; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Moon, Kyung-Sub

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This is the first reported case of pineal lymphoma with concomitant prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma. A 51-year-old male experienced worsening headaches accompanied by nausea, diplopia, and memory loss for 1 month. Cranial nerve examination revealed bilateral upward gaze limitation with convergence impairment, which is known as Parinaud syndrome. Magnetic resonance images revealed a mass in the pineal gland with a coexisting mass within the enlarged sella fossa. Hormone analysis revealed hyperprolactinemia. The pineal mass was removed without injuring the hypothalamus, brain stem, or any neighboring vessels. Pathology examination confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) involving the pineal gland. After further studies, the pineal lymphoma was determined to be a secondary tumor from a gastric primary tumor. The patient died 6 months after diagnosis due to systemic progression of DLBCL. Although the mechanistic link between hyperprolactinemia and lymphoma progression has not been clarified on a clinical basis, high prolactin levels may contribute to the rapid progression and therapeutic resistance of the lymphoma. PMID:26937937

  18. Pineal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Concomitant With Pituitary Prolactinoma: Possible Correlation Between 2 Distinguished Pathologies: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeong-Jin; Kim, Hee Kyung; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Jung, Shin; Noh, Myung-Giun; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Moon, Kyung-Sub

    2016-02-01

    This is the first reported case of pineal lymphoma with concomitant prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma.A 51-year-old male experienced worsening headaches accompanied by nausea, diplopia, and memory loss for 1 month. Cranial nerve examination revealed bilateral upward gaze limitation with convergence impairment, which is known as Parinaud syndrome. Magnetic resonance images revealed a mass in the pineal gland with a coexisting mass within the enlarged sella fossa. Hormone analysis revealed hyperprolactinemia. The pineal mass was removed without injuring the hypothalamus, brain stem, or any neighboring vessels. Pathology examination confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) involving the pineal gland. After further studies, the pineal lymphoma was determined to be a secondary tumor from a gastric primary tumor. The patient died 6 months after diagnosis due to systemic progression of DLBCL.Although the mechanistic link between hyperprolactinemia and lymphoma progression has not been clarified on a clinical basis, high prolactin levels may contribute to the rapid progression and therapeutic resistance of the lymphoma.

  19. Sunitinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent Malignant Gliomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-29

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma

  20. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the anterior (front part) of the pituitary gland: Prolactin - Prolactin stimulates breast milk production after childbirth. It also affects sex ... Oxytocin – Oxytocin causes milk to flow from the breasts in breastfeeding women, ... disorder is a pituitary gland tumor. These tumors are fairly common in adults. ...

  1. Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Vascular Permeability of Circumventricular Organs in the Adult Rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Mercado, Y. K.; Cañedo-Dorantes, L.; Bañuelos-Pineda, J.; Serrano-Luna, G.; Feria-Velasco, A.

    2008-08-01

    The present work deals with the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on blood vessels permeability to non liposoluble substances of the circumventricular organs (CVO) of adult rats. Male Wistar adult rats were exposed to ELF-EMF and vascular permeability to colloidal carbon was investigated with the use of histological techniques. Results were compared to corresponding data from sham-exposed and control groups of animals. Exposure to ELF-EMF increased the CVO vascular permeability to colloidal carbon intravascularly injected, particularly in the subfornical organ, the median eminence, the pineal gland and the area postrema.

  2. A circannual rhythm in bovine pineal serotonin.

    PubMed

    Philo, R; Reiter, R J

    1980-06-15

    Bovine pineal serotonin (5-HT) was analyzed at the time of the solstices and equinoxes from December, 1975 until June, 1978. The highest values of 5-HT were detected at the winter solstices and lowest values at the summer solstices of each year examined. The peaks in bovine pineal 5-HT correspond with a lessened fertility in cattle reported during the winter months.

  3. Irradiation of juvenile, but not adult, mammary gland increases stem cell self-renewal and estrogen receptor negative tumors.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jonathan; Fernandez-Garcia, Ignacio; Vijayakumar, Sangeetha; Martinez-Ruis, Haydeliz; Illa-Bochaca, Irineu; Nguyen, David H; Mao, Jian-Hua; Costes, Sylvain V; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2014-03-01

    Children exposed to ionizing radiation have a substantially greater breast cancer risk than adults; the mechanism for this strong age dependence is not known. Here we show that pubertal murine mammary glands exposed to sparsely or densely ionizing radiation exhibit enrichment of mammary stem cell and Notch pathways, increased mammary repopulating activity indicative of more stem cells, and propensity to develop estrogen receptor (ER) negative tumors thought to arise from stem cells. We developed a mammary lineage agent-based model (ABM) to evaluate cell inactivation, self-renewal, or dedifferentiation via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as mechanisms by which radiation could increase stem cells. ABM rejected cell inactivation and predicted increased self-renewal would only affect juveniles while dedifferentiation could act in both juveniles and adults. To further test self-renewal versus dedifferentiation, we used the MCF10A human mammary epithelial cell line, which recapitulates ductal morphogenesis in humanized fat pads, undergoes EMT in response to radiation and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and contains rare stem-like cells that are Let-7c negative or express both basal and luminal cytokeratins. ABM simulation of population dynamics of double cytokeratin cells supported increased self-renewal in irradiated MCF10A treated with TGFβ. Radiation-induced Notch concomitant with TGFβ was necessary for increased self-renewal of Let-7c negative MCF10A cells but not for EMT, indicating that these are independent processes. Consistent with these data, irradiating adult mice did not increase mammary repopulating activity or ER-negative tumors. These studies suggest that irradiation during puberty transiently increases stem cell self-renewal, which increases susceptibility to developing ER-negative breast cancer.

  4. Differential responses to salt supplementation in adult male and female rat adrenal glands following intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Bibeau, Karine; Otis, Mélissa; St-Louis, Jean; Gallo-Payet, Nicole; Brochu, Michèle

    2011-04-01

    In low sodium-induced intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) rat, foetal adrenal steroidogenesis as well as the adult renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is altered. The aim of the present study was to determine the expression of cytochrome P450 aldosterone synthase (P450aldo) and of angiotensin II receptor subtypes 1 (AT(1)R) and 2 (AT(2)R) in adult adrenal glands and whether this expression could be influenced by IUGR and by high-salt intake in a sex-specific manner. After 6 weeks of 0.9% NaCl supplementation, plasma renin activity, P450aldo expression and serum aldosterone levels were decreased in all groups. In males, IUGR induced an increase in AT(1)R, AT(2)R, and P450aldo levels, without changes in morphological appearance of the zona glomerulosa (ZG). By contrast, in females, IUGR had no effect on the expression of AT(1)R, but increased AT(2)R mRNA while decreasing protein expression of AT(2)R and P450aldo. In males, salt intake in IUGR rats reduced both AT(1)R mRNA and protein, while for AT(2)R, mRNA levels decreased whereas protein expression increased. In females, salt intake reduced ZG size in IUGR but had no affect on AT(1)R or AT(2)R expression in either group. These results indicate that, in response to IUGR and subsequently to salt intake, P450aldo, AT(1)R, and AT(2)R levels are differentially expressed in males and females. However, despite these adrenal changes, adult IUGR rats display adequate physiological and adrenal responses to high-salt intake, via RAAS inhibition, thus suggesting that extra-adrenal factors likely compensate for ZG alterations induced by IUGR.

  5. Perinatal glucocorticoid treatment produces molecular, functional, and morphological changes in the anterior pituitary gland of the adult male rat.

    PubMed

    Theogaraj, E; John, C D; Christian, H C; Morris, J F; Smith, S F; Buckingham, J C

    2005-11-01

    Stress or glucocorticoid (GC) treatment in perinatal life can induce long-term changes in the sensitivity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis to the feedback actions of GCs and, hence, in GC secretion. These changes have been ascribed largely to changes in the sensitivity of the limbic system, and possibly the hypothalamus, to GCs. Surprisingly, the possibility that early life stress/GC treatment may also exert irreversible effects at the pituitary level has scarcely been addressed. Accordingly, we have examined the effects of pre- and neonatal dexamethasone treatment on the adult male pituitary gland, focusing on the following: 1) the integrity of the acute annexin 1 (ANXA1)-dependent inhibitory actions of GCs on ACTH secretion, a process requiring ANXA1 release from folliculostellate (FS) cells; and 2) the morphology of FS cells and corticotrophs. Dexamethasone was given to pregnant (d 16-19) or lactating (d 1-7 postpartum) rats via the drinking water (1 microg/ml); controls received normal drinking water. Pituitary tissue from the offspring was examined ex vivo at d 90. Both treatment regimens reduced ANXA1 expression, as assessed by Western blotting and quantitative immunogold labeling. In particular, the amount of ANXA1 located on the outer surface of the FS cells was reduced. By contrast, IL-6 expression was increased, particularly by the prenatal treatment. Pituitary tissue from untreated control rats responded to dexamethasone with an increase in cell surface ANXA1 and a reduction in forskolin-induced ACTH release. In contrast, pituitary tissue from rats treated prenatally or neonatally with dexamethasone was unresponsive to the steroid, although, like control tissue, it responded readily to ANXA1, which readily inhibited forskolin-driven ACTH release. Prenatal dexamethasone treatment reduced the size but not the number of FS cells. It also caused a marked reduction in corticotroph number and impaired granule margination without affecting other

  6. Tetrodotoxin administration in the suprachiasmatic nucleus prevents NMDA-induced reductions in pineal melatonin without influencing Per1 and Per2 mRNA levels.

    PubMed

    Paul, Ketema N; Gamble, Karen L; Fukuhara, Chiaki; Novak, Colleen M; Tosini, Gianluca; Albers, H Elliott

    2004-05-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus contains a light-entrainable circadian pacemaker. Neurons in the SCN are part of a circuit that conveys light information from retinal efferents to the pineal gland. Light presented during the night acutely increases mRNA levels of the circadian clock genes Per1 and Per2 in the SCN, and acutely suppresses melatonin levels in the pineal gland. The present study investigated whether the ability of light to increase Per1 and Per2 mRNA levels and suppress pineal melatonin levels requires sodium-dependent action potentials in the SCN. Per1 and Per2 mRNA levels in the SCN and pineal melatonin levels were measured in Syrian hamsters injected with tetrodotoxin (TTX) prior to light exposure or injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). TTX inhibited the ability of light to increase Per1 and Per2 mRNA levels and suppress pineal melatonin levels. TTX did not, however, influence the ability of NMDA to increase Per1 and Per2 mRNA levels, though it did inhibit the ability of NMDA to suppress pineal melatonin levels. These results demonstrate that action potentials in the SCN are not necessary for NMDA receptor activation to increase Per1 and Per2 mRNA levels, but are necessary for NMDA receptor activation to decrease pineal melatonin levels. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that the mechanism through which light information is conveyed to the pacemaker in the SCN is separate from and independent of the mechanism through which light information is conveyed to the SCN cells whose efferents suppress pineal melatonin levels.

  7. Pineal physiology in microgravity - Relation to rat gonadal function aboard Cosmos 1887

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, Daniel C.; Markley, Carol L.; Soliman, Magdi R. I.; Kaddis, Farida; Krasnov, Igor'

    1991-01-01

    Results are reported from an analysis of pineal glands obtained for five male rats flown aboard an orbiting satellite for their melatonin, serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIA), and calcium content. Plasma 5-HT and 5-HIAA were measured. These parameters were compared to indicators of gonadal function: plasma testosterone concentration and spermatogonia development. Plasma melotonin was found to be low at the time of euthanasia and was not different among the experimental groups. Pineal calcium of flight animals was not different from ground controls. Pineal 5-HT and 5-HIAA in the flight group were significantly higher than those in ground controls. These findings suggest a possible increase in pineal 5-HT turnover in flight animals which may result in increased melatonin secretion. It is argued that the alteration of pinal 5-HT turnover and its expected effects on melatonin secretion may partially explain the lower plasma testosterone levels and 4-11 percent fewer spermatogonia cells observed in flight animals.

  8. Precocious puberty associated with a pineal cyst: is it disinhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis?

    PubMed

    Dickerman, Rob D; Stevens, Qualls E; Steide, Jean-Alex; Schneider, Steven J

    2004-06-01

    Accelerated development of secondary sexual characteristics or sexual precocity is a well-known entity. Most authors recognize two groups of patients, those described as having central precocious puberty (CPP) and those with precocious pseudopuberty. CPP results from premature activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and pseudopuberty is caused by lesions that secrete gonadotropin-like substances or hormones. The onset of CPP is usually before age 8 in females and age 9 in males; however, there is contention that the age of onset is much earlier and also differs depending on the patients' race. Previously reported causes of CPP include intracranial neoplasm, infection, trauma, hydrocephalus and Angelman's syndrome. Pineal cysts are usually asymptomatic incidental findings, but have been associated with CPP. We present an interesting case of a patient with CPP and an associated pineal cyst. We review the literature on the pathogenesis of CPP and associated pineal cyst, the neuroendocrine relationship between the pineal gland and puberty and the neurosurgical role in these cases.

  9. /sup 3/H-retinol derived photopigment in chick pineal membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Wallingford, J.; Zatz, M.

    1986-05-01

    Pineal glands display a day-night rhythm in the synthesis and secretion of melatonin. Dispersed chick pinealocytes retain their ability to respond to light in vitro for at least a week. Pinealocytes incubated overnight with /sup 3/H-retinol in the dark incorporate radioactivity predominantly into retinyl esters. To identify the chick pineal photopigment, SDS-PAGE was performed on radiolabelled preparations of pinealocytes and (intraocularly injected) rat retina. When intact cells or membrane preparations of cultured cells were incubated with NaCNBH/sub 3/, in the dark, a single radioactive peak with an apparent molecular weight of 32,000 daltons was observed. Rat retina preparations revealed a major peak at approximately 40,000 daltons. Protease inhibitors were present in the workup, and radioactivity corresponding to the smaller peak from pineal was not observed in retina. There was no radioactive peak when NaCNBH/sub 3/ was omitted. When samples were boiled in SDS the radioactivity shifted to the origin. These data suggest a protein in pinealocyte membranes which binds retinoid via a Schiff's base. Exposure to light of deoxycholate solubilized pineal membranes reduced the radioactivity associated with the protein. These findings raise the possibility that this protein is the pinealocyte's photopigment. Photopigments smaller than those observed in mammals have been reported in invertebrates.

  10. Effects of early exposure to ventral gland odor on physical and behavioral development and adult social behavior in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Blum, S L; Balsiger, D; Ricci, J S; Spiegel, D K

    1975-12-01

    Comparisons were made between male and female gerbils reared by ventral gland-excised and intact patents. Repeated measurements before and after puberty failed to reveal an effect of gland odor exposure on body weight, ventral gland size, open-field defecation, and time of vaginal opening. Exposed animals were more attracted than nonexposed animals to a strange male's gland odor during preference tests involving "marked" and "unmarked" paper strips. Opposite-sex pairs of exposed animals engaged in more social behavior than did nonexposed pairs, but there was no difference in fighting frequency or, during extended cohabiitation, in fecundity. While early exposure to gland odor apparently does not affect physical maturation, it may enhance later responsiveness to stimuli (gland odors) that are useful in locating conspecifics and that facilitate social interactions between previously unacquainted gerbils.

  11. Pineal region masses--imaging findings and surgical approaches.

    PubMed

    Lensing, Forrester D; Abele, Travis A; Sivakumar, Walavan; Taussky, Philipp; Shah, Lubdha M; Salzman, Karen L

    2015-01-01

    The anatomy of the pineal region is complex. Despite advances in surgical techniques since the first reported successful pineal region surgery in the early 20th century, pineal region surgery remains challenging owing to the proximity of deep cerebral veins and dorsal midbrain structures critical for vision. In this article, we review the relevant surgical anatomy of the pineal region and discuss historically important and current surgical approaches. We describe specific imaging features of pineal region masses that may affect surgical planning and review neoplastic and nonneoplastic masses that occur in the pineal region.

  12. [Double suprasellar and pineal germinoma with potomania].

    PubMed

    Schnegg, J F; Burckhardt, P; de Tribolet, N

    1980-06-14

    A case is reported of suprasellar and pineal germinoma in a 16-year-old male initially presenting with potomania without diabetes insipidus. The role of stimulation of the hypothalamus in producing pathological thirst is discussed.

  13. The fine structure of the excretory system in adult Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nematoda) and a suggested function for the 'excretory glands'.

    PubMed

    Lee, D L

    1970-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the excretory system, including the subventral glands, of the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis has been described. The walls of the lateral excretory canals contain canaliculi which open into the lumen of the canal. It is suggested that these canals play a role in osmoregulation and excretion. The sub-ventral glands contain two types of secretory granule and contain non-specific esterase, cholinesterase and aminopeptidase. It is suggested that these glands are not excretory but play an important role in feeding.

  14. [The role of the pineal-thymus system in the regulation of autoimmunity, aging and lifespan].

    PubMed

    Csaba, György

    2016-07-03

    Thymus is an immunoendocrine organ, the hormones of which mainly influence its own lymphatic elements. It has a central role in the immune system, the neonatal removal causes the collapse of immune system and the whole organism. The thymic nurse cells select the bone marrow originated lymphocytes and destroy the autoreactive ones, while thymus originated Treg cells suppress the autoreactive cells in the periphery. The involution of the organ starts after birth, however, this truly happens in the end of puberty only, as before this it is overcompensated by developmental processes. From the end of adolescence the involution allows the life, proliferation and enhanced functioning of some autoreactive cells, which gradually wear down the cells and intercellular materials, causing the aging. The enhanced and mass function of autoreactive cells lead to the autoimmune diseases and natural death. This means that the involution of thymus is not a part of the organismic involution, but an originator of it, which is manifested in the lifespan-pacemaker function. Thus, aging can be conceptualized as a thymus-commanded slow autoimmune process. The neonatal removal of pineal gland leads to the complete destruction of the thymus and the crashing down of the immune system, as well as to wasting disease. The involution of the pineal and thymus runs parallel, because the two organs form a functional unit. It is probable that the pineal gland is responsible for the involution of thymus and also regulates its lifespan determining role. However, the data reviewed here do not prove the exclusive role of the pineal-thymus system in the regulation of aging and lifespan, but only call attention to such possibility.

  15. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 and bone morphogenetic protein receptor expression in the pituitary gland of adult dogs in healthy condition and with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma.

    PubMed

    Sato, A; Ochi, H; Harada, Y; Yogo, T; Kanno, N; Hara, Y

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and its receptors, bone morphogenetic protein receptor I (BMPRI) and BMPRII, in the pituitary gland of healthy adult dogs and in those with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that the BMP4 messenger RNA expression level in the ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma samples was significantly lower than that in the normal pituitary gland samples (P = 0.03). However, there were no statistically significant differences between samples with respect to the messenger RNA expression levels of the receptors BMPRIA, BMPRIB, and BMPRII. Double-immunofluorescence analysis of the normal canine pituitary showed that BMP4 was localized in the thyrotroph (51.3 ± 7.3%) and not the corticotroph cells. By contrast, BMPRII was widely expressed in the thyrotroph (19.9 ± 5.2%) and somatotroph cells (94.7 ± 3.6%) but not in the corticotroph cells (P < 0.001, thyrotroph cells vs somatotroph cells). Similarly, in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma, BMP4 and BMPRII were not expressed in the corticotroph cells. Moreover, the percentage of BMP4-positive cells was also significantly reduced in the thyrotroph cells of the surrounding normal pituitary tissue obtained from the resected ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma (8.3 ± 7.9%) compared with that in normal canine pituitary (P < 0.001). BMP4 has been reported to be expressed in corticotroph cells in the human pituitary gland. Therefore, the results of this study reveal a difference in the cellular pattern of BMP4-positive staining in the pituitary gland between humans and dogs and further revealed the pattern of BMPRII-positive staining in the dog pituitary gland. These species-specific differences regarding BMP4 should be considered when using dogs as an animal model for Cushing's disease.

  16. Transduction of light in the suprachiasmatic nucleus: evidence for two different neurochemical cascades regulating the levels of Per1 mRNA and pineal melatonin.

    PubMed

    Paul, K N; Fukuhara, C; Tosini, G; Albers, H E

    2003-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) contains a circadian clock and regulates melatonin synthesis in the pineal gland. Light exposure during the subjective night acutely increases the mRNA levels of the Period (Per)1 gene in the SCN and acutely suppresses melatonin levels in the pineal gland. Activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the SCN has been demonstrated to phase-shift the circadian clock in a manner similar to light. We tested the hypothesis that activation of excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors in the SCN mediates the acute effects of light on Per1 mRNA levels and pineal melatonin. NMDA, injected into the SCN of Syrian hamsters during the night, acutely suppressed melatonin levels in the pineal gland. Both the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5) and the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazoleproprionic acid (AMPA)/kainate receptor antagonist 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX) inhibited the light-induced increase of Per1 mRNA levels in the SCN. In the same animals, however, these antagonists had no effect on the ability of light to suppress pineal melatonin. These results support the hypothesis that EAA receptor activation in the SCN is necessary for the acute effects of light on Per1 mRNA levels. They also indicate that NMDA receptor activation in the SCN is sufficient but may not be necessary for the acute effects of light on pineal melatonin. These data suggest that there may be at least two different neurochemical cascades that transduce the effects of light in the SCN

  17. Aging and Oxidative Stress Decrease Pineal Elongation Factor 2: In Vivo Protective Effect of Melatonin in Young Rats Treated With Cumene Hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Mario F; Argüelles, Sandro; Cano, Mercedes; Marotta, Francesco; Ayala, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    We studied the alterations of Elongation Factor 2 (eEF2) in the pineal gland of aged rats as well as the possible protective role of exogenous melatonin on these changes in young rats treated with cumene hydroperoxide (CH), a compound that promotes lipid peroxidation and inhibits protein synthesis. The study was performed using male Wistar rats of 3 (control), 12, and 24 months and 3-month-old rats treated with CH, melatonin, and CH plus melatonin. We found that pineal eEF-2 is affected by aging and CH, these changes being prevented by exogenous melatonin in the case of CH-treated rats. The proteomic studies show that many other proteins are affected by aging and oxidative stress in the pineal gland. The results suggest that one of the possible mechanisms underlying pineal gland dysfunction during aging is the effect of lipid peroxidation on eEF-2, which is a key component of protein synthesis machinery. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 182-190, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Evidence of immune system melatonin production by two pineal melatonin deficient mice, C57BL/6 and Swiss strains.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Corvera, Araceli; Cerrillo, Isabel; Molinero, Patrocinio; Naranjo, Maria Carmen; Lardone, Patricia Judith; Sanchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Carrascosa-Salmoral, Maria Pilar; Medrano-Campillo, Pablo; Guerrero, Juan Miguel; Rubio, Amalia

    2009-08-01

    We evaluated two pineal melatonin deficient mice described in the literature, i.e., C57BL/6 and Swiss mice, as animal models for studying the immunomodulatory action of melatonin. Plasma melatonin levels in C57BL/6 and Swiss strains were detectable, but lower than levels in control C3H/HENHSD mice. Since these strains are suppose to be pineal melatonin deficient an extrapineal melatonin synthesis may contribute to plasma levels. Regarding cells and tissues from the immune system, all of them were found to synthesize melatonin although at low levels. N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) mRNA was also amplified in order to analyze the alternative splicing between exons 3-4 described for pineal C57BL/6 mice which generates an inclusion of a pseudoexon of 102 bp. For the pineal gland, both the wild type and the mutant isoforms were present in all mice strains although in different proportions. We observed a predominant wild type AANAT mature RNA in thymus, spleen and bone marrow cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) culture shown an evident AANAT amplification in all strains studied. Although the bands detected were less intense in melatonin deficient mice, the amplification almost reached the control cell intensity after stimulation with phytohemaglutinin (PHA). In summary, melatonin detection and AANAT mRNA expression in inbred and outbred mice clearly indicate that different cells and tissues from the immune system are able to synthesize melatonin. Thus, the pineal defect seems not to be generalized to all tissues, suggesting that other cells may compensate the low pineal melatonin production contributing to the measurable plasma melatonin level.

  19. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, Joseph J.

    1989-01-01

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention.

  20. Split gland

    DOEpatents

    Petranto, J.J.

    1989-09-05

    A split gland having only three parts is described. The gland has substantially the same stability to the relative motion of the constituent half-gland members during the attachment process to a female fitting as have more complicated designs. Ease of manufacture and use result from the reduction in complexity of the present invention. 15 figs.

  1. Pineal organs in deep demersal fish.

    PubMed

    Wagner, H J; Mattheus, U

    2002-01-01

    We studied ten species of demersal fish from depths of 1500-4800 m, i.e. regions of the abyss outside the reach of sunlight. A pineal window in the skin and/or the skull, often found in mesopelagic fish, was never observed in demersal specimens. Nine species had a well-developed pineal organ, with light- and electron-microscopic features, well known in other teleosts living in surface waters, including photoreceptor cells with inner and outer segments, synaptic ribbons, neuronal perikarya, and (radial) glial cells. One species ( Bathypterois dubius) showed signs of regression; it also had reduced eyes. We observed considerable morphological variation in location, size, microscopic structure and ultrastructural organisation, including the frequency of photoreceptor cells, size of outer segments and the number of myelinated and unmyelinated axons. No systematic trend in the sense of an increase of sensitivity with greater depths was observed. Melatonin contents varied between 4 pg and 92 pg per pineal in the grenadier Coryphaenoides ( Nematonurus) armatus and between 2 pg and 70 pg per pineal in the eel Synaphobranchus kaupi. Differences between day and night values and between autumn and spring suggest that pineal melatonin acts as neurochemical signal mediating rhythmic processes and behaviour. The role of an alternative non-solar zeitgeber in the demersal environment is discussed.

  2. Use of EF5 to Measure the Oxygen Level in Tumor Cells of Patients Undergoing Surgery or Biopsy for Newly Diagnosed Supratentorial Malignant Glioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-15

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma

  3. Effect of pineal proteins at different dose level on fluoride-induced changes in plasma biochemicals and blood antioxidants enzymes in rats.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Vijay K; Srivastava, R S

    2011-06-01

    Pineal glands secrets melatonin and various proteins and peptides which has many physiological functions. In keeping with this view, present experiment was conducted to know the effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) pineal proteins (PP) at different dose level on fluoride-induced changes in plasma biochemicals and blood antioxidants enzymes in female rats. For this, we took 30 adult female Wistar rats (133-145 g body weights, BW) and divided into five groups (control, group I; 150 ppm fluoride (F), group II; F+ 50 µg pineal proteins, group III; F+ 100 µg PP, group IV; F+ 200 µg PP, group V). We administered fluoride (150 ppm, drinking water) and F+ pineal proteins at 50, 100, and 200 µg/kg BW, i.p. daily for 21 days. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experiments to estimate plasma glucose, proteins, F, lipid peroxidation (LPO), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activity. Red blood cells (RBCs) were separated for analysis of LPO, AChE, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) in different groups of animals. Total plasma glucose and protein level did not significantly change in F-treated rats. Plasma ALP and F level were significantly (p < 0.05) high in group II as compared with control and groups III, IV, and V. Administration of PP at different dose level significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the F concentration and ALP activity. Plasma and RBCs AChE activity was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in F-treated animals as compared with control rats and significantly (p < 0.05) elevated on exogenous administration of PP (groups III and IV). Plasma and RBCs LPO level was significantly (p < 0.05) high in F-alone-treated rats, and PP caused significant (p < 0.05) reduction of LPO in groups IV and V. However, PP treatment in group IV brought better amelioration of F-induced high LPO than in groups III and V. At no

  4. Pineal attrition, loss of cognitive plasticity, and onset of puberty during the teen years: is it a modern maladaptation exposed by evolutionary displacement?

    PubMed

    Yun, A Joon; Bazar, Kimberly A; Lee, Patrick Y

    2004-01-01

    Cognitive plasticity, a developmental trait that promotes acquisition of complex skills such as language or playing musical instruments, diminishes substantially during puberty. The loss of plasticity has been attributed to surge of sex steroids during adolescence, but the phenomenon remains poorly understood. We hypothesize that pineal involution during puberty may contribute to plasticity decay. The pineal gland produces melatonin, the level of which declines dramatically during onset of puberty. Emerging evidence suggest that melatonin may modulate cognitive plasticity, independent of the effects of sex steroids, and low sex steroids and high melatonin may be simultaneously required to maintain cognitive plasticity. Potential mechanisms by which melatonin may modulate plasticity are examined within the sleep and hippocampal long-term potentiation frameworks. Implications for psychiatric conditions that involve sleep disorders and learning dysfunctions such as schizophrenia and autism are discussed, and the potential adaptive roles of postprandial and postcoital sleep are explored. From the Darwinian perspective, development and reproductive maturity may represent distinct phases that require tailored cognitive strategies to maximize fitness. While cognitive flexibility and susceptibility to new skills may be paramount during development, reduced cognitive flexibility and increased cognitive determinism may enable more efficient responses to stimuli during adulthood. Thus, cognitive plasticity and cognitive determinism may represent trade-off adaptations and different dimensions of intelligence. The decline of plasticity and emergence of puberty during the second decade may be relics of prehistoric times when the human lifespan was short and the environment was relatively simple and static. Today, when the environment is more complex and dynamic, and humans are living far longer, the early obsolescence of plasticity during puberty may represent a Darwinian

  5. Voltage-activated Ca2+ channels and their role in the endocrine function of the pituitary gland in newborn and adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Sedej, Simon; Tsujimoto, Tetsuhiro; Zorec, Robert; Rupnik, Marjan

    2004-01-01

    We have prepared fresh pituitary gland slices from adult and, for the first time, from newborn mice to assess modulation of secretory activity via voltage-activated Ca2+ channels (VACCs). Currents through VACCs and membrane capacitance have been measured with the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Melanotrophs in newborns were significantly larger than in adults. In both newborn and adult melanotrophs activation of VACCs triggered exocytosis. All pharmacologically isolated VACC types contributed equally to the secretory activity. However, the relative proportion of VACCs differed between newborns and adults. In newborn cells L-type channels dominated and, in addition, an exclusive expression of a toxin-resistant R-type-like current was found. The expression of L-type VACCs was up-regulated by the increased oestrogen levels observed in females, and was even more emphasized in the cells of pregnant females and oestrogen-treated adult male mice. We suggest a general mechanism modulating endocrine secretion in the presence of oestrogen and particularly higher sensitivity to treatments with L-type channel blockers during high oestrogen physiological states. PMID:14724188

  6. Oncostatic activity of pineal neuroendocrine treatment with the pineal indoles melatonin and 5-methoxytryptamine in untreatable metastatic cancer patients progressing on melatonin alone.

    PubMed

    Lissoni, Paolo; Rovelli, Franco; Frassineti, Andrea; Fumagalli, Luca; Malysheva, Ola; Conti, Ario; Maestroni, Georges

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The recent advances in psycho-neuro-endocrino-immunology have demonstrated the existence of several endogenous neuroendocrine substances, capable of affecting both tumor growth and host anticancer immune defenses. The pineal gland would represent one of the most important organs releasing antiproliferative and immunostimulating substances, the most known of them is melatonin (MLT). However, MLT would not be the only pineal indole provided by antitumor activity. Other pineal indoles, namely 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MTT), would play antitumor effects, by either inhibiting cancer cell proliferation or stimulating the anticancer immunity. Preliminary data have shown that MLT may deserve antitumor activity in the treatment of human neoplasms, whereas at present there are no clear data about 5-MTT. In an attempt to obtain some preliminary data about the anticancer properties of 5-MTT in humans, we have evaluated the efficacy of MLT plus 5-MTT in untreatable advanced cancer patients progressing on MLT alone. METHODS: The study included 73 untreatable advanced solid tumor patients, who had progressed after two months of MLT therapy alone. According to tumor histotype, patients were randomized to receive MLT alone (20 mg/day orally in the evening) or MLT plus 5-MTT (1 mg at noon orally), every day for at least two months. The clinical response was evaluated according to WHO criteria. RESULTS: A partial response (PR) occurred in two patients treated with MLT + 5-MTT and in none of the patients receiving MLT alone. A stable disease (SD) was achieved in only 2/37 patients on MLT therapy alone, and in 8/36 patients receiving MLT plus 5-MTT. Therefore, the percent of non-progressing patients (SD + PR) obtained with MLT plus 5-MTT was significantly higher than that obtained with MLT alone. Moreover, the relief of asthenia and depressant symptoms was significantly higher in patients concomitantly treated with 5-MTT. DISCUSSION: This preliminary study would suggest that

  7. Endodermal cyst in pineal region: Rare location

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Dolan, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pineal tumors are very uncommon intracranial lesions, and endodermal cysts in this location are extremely rare. Case Description: A 49-year-old right-handed female presented with 3 weeks history of progressive dizziness and imbalance. Imaging studies showed 1.8 cm × 1.7 cm × 1.8 cm pineal lesion with small enhancing mural component displacing ventrally the quadrigeminal plate and narrowing of aqueduct of Sylvius without hydrocephalus. In addition, she was found with small interhemispheric lipoma, and small posterior falx possible meningioma. Cerebrospinal fluid markers obtained by lumbar puncture were all negative. She underwent tumor resection, and final pathology reported endodermal cyst. No new deficits were encountered, and her gait imbalance improved significantly by 3 months follow-up. Conclusions: With evidence of enlargement or symptomatic pineal lesions, surgical consideration is necessary. Among pineal lesions, endodermal cysts are extremely uncommon and although benign pathology, long-term follow-up is advised due to unknown chronic behavior. PMID:27217965

  8. Symptomatic pineal cysts: clinical manifestations and management.

    PubMed

    Michielsen, G; Benoit, Y; Baert, E; Meire, F; Caemaert, J

    2002-03-01

    Between 1991 and 2000, seven patients presented with symptomatic pineal cysts at our hospital (6 females, 1 male). Average age was 22 years (range 4-33 years). Headache was present in 6 patients, who were subsequently operated on. A scotoma and a transient inferior visual field deficit were minor signs in two patients respectively. A Parinaud syndrome with vertical gaze paralysis was found in none. In one child, paroxysmal pupillary dilatations and contractions ('springing pupils') constituted the only signs and a conservative policy was adopted. Four patients presented with hydrocephalus and were treated by an endoscopic resection of their pineal cysts (one stereotactically, three free-hand). Two other patients presented with a prolonged history of symptoms and signs: headache alone in one, headache with discrete neurological deficits in the other. Ventricles in these two patients were not dilated and therefore an open cyst resection by infratentorial supracerebellar approach was performed. Average follow-up in the six "operated" patients was 29 months (range 12-108 months). All four patients treated by endoscopy, are symptom-free at follow-up, whereas the two who were approached by open surgery, are not. Clinical presentation, radiological evaluation and treatment modalities of pineal cysts are discussed and compared with experiences reported in the literature. It is concluded that pineal cysts in the presence of obstructive hydrocephalus are a clear indication for endoscopy with a rigid endoscope.

  9. The impact of electromagnetic field at a frequency of 50 Hz and a magnetic induction of 2.5 mT on viability of pineal cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Koziorowska, A; Pasiud, E; Fila, M; Romerowicz-Misielak, M

    2016-01-01

    The impact of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the pineal gland has been described in numerous studies, but many questions still remain unanswered. The aim of the experiment described in this study was to evaluate the effect of EMF on the viability of the pineal gland cells of pig in vitro. Primary culture of the pineal gland cells has been exposed to the influence of an EMF at a frequency of 50 Hz with 1, 2 or 3 hours and for 3 hours every 2 or 3 days. After the experiment, viability of cells was assessed by MTT assay and compared to a control culture not exposed to electromagnetic fields. We noticed that in respect to the control, exposure of the cells to the EMF induced a significant increase in viability of cells at 2 and 3 hours of exposure. After three days of 3-hour exposure to EMF, we observed a significant decrease in cell viability in relation to the control. The results of these studies suggest that EMF can have a significant biological effect on the cells of the pineal gland in a time-dependent exposure to its action.

  10. Melatonin rhythms in the Australian freshwater crocodile (Crocodylus johnstoni): a reptile lacking a pineal complex?

    PubMed

    Firth, Bruce T; Christian, Keith A; Belan, Ingrid; Kennaway, David J

    2010-01-01

    The vertebrate pineal gland is the primary source of melatonin, the rhythmic secretion of which is influenced by environmental light and temperature, thereby providing animals with information about seasonally changing photoperiod and thermoperiod. Although pineal glands are present in the majority of vertebrate species, a discrete organ is reported to be absent in the Crocodilia. However, if the melatonin rhythm is crucial to the survival of the organism, it would be expected that the rhythm would be present in crocodiles. In the present study, we measured blood plasma melatonin over a 30-h period in aestivating Australian freshwater crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni) in their natural habitat at the end of the dry season (November) and found no discernible melatonin rhythm. However, another group of captive-reared C. johnstoni, maintained under natural light and temperature cycles and sampled in the early dry season (June) showed a clear melatonin rhythm. These results suggest that there is either an extrapineal source of melatonin in this crocodile species or that there is melatonin producing tissue elsewhere which heretofore has not been discovered. Further studies are needed to determine why the melatonin rhythm is intermittently expressed and whether this may be related to seasonal changes in the expression of the rhythm linked to tropical environments.

  11. Proton Beam Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Low Grade Gliomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-14

    Adult Brain Tumor; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Melanocytic Lesion; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  12. Importance of light in temporal organization of photoreceptor proteins and melatonin-producing system in the pineal of carp Catla catla.

    PubMed

    Seth, Mohua; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

    2010-05-01

    The importance of light in the temporal organization of photoreceptor proteins and melatonin-producing system has been investigated for the first time in the pineal of a tropical fish. In this study, an identical experimental paradigm was followed during the four distinct phases of an annual cycle in adult carps (Catla catla) maintained either under natural photoperiod (NP) or continuous illumination (LL) or darkness (DD) for 30 days. At the end of each experiment, the pineal from fish in each experimental group was collected either at 06:00, 12:00, 18:00, or 24:00 in a daily cycle and assessed by Western blot analysis for pineal rod-like opsin, alpha-transducin, and AANAT. The same animals were also used for measurement of serum melatonin levels, and the serum as well as intra-pineal Ca(++) levels at each timepoint. The study revealed a daily rhythmicity with a peak at 12:00 h and nadir at 24:00 h in the band intensity of pineal rod-like opsin and alpha-transducin in NP fish, while the band intensities of these photo-pigment proteins remained high under LL and low under DD, irrespective of clock hour during the 24 h cycle. The band intensity of pineal AANAT, levels of serum melatonin, and both serum Ca(++) and intra-pineal Ca(++) were maximum at 24:00 h and minimum at 12:00h in NP fish, and they were significantly lower under LL and higher under DD at each point of study. The results showed loss of daily rhythm in each studied variable in both LL and DD carps, suggesting that their circadian organization is dependent on the external light-dark conditions, rather than an endogenous circadian oscillator in the pineal.

  13. Comparison of Light Emitting Diodes (LED) and Fluorescent Light on Suppression of Pineal Melatonin in the Rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, Charles M.; Heeke, D. S.; Holley, D. C.; Mele, G.; Brainard, G. C.; Hanifin, J. P.; Rollag, M. D.; Savage, Paul D. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    To validate a novel LED array for use in animal habitat lighting by comparing its effectiveness to cool-white fluorescent (CWF) lighting in suppressing pineal gland melatonin. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, 175-200 g, were maintained under control conditions for 2 weeks (food and water ad lib, 12L: 12D CWF, 18 uW/square cm). Dark adapted animals (animals before lights on) were exposed to 5 min of LED or CWF light of similar spectral power distribution. Two groups of rats (LED vs. CWF) were compared at 5 light intensities (100, 40, 1, 1.0, and 0. 1 lux). A control group was placed into the exposure apparatus but not exposed to light. After exposure, pineal glands were rapidly removed and assayed for melatonin by RIA. Results. The dark-exposed control groups matched with the 5 intensity groups (100, 40, 10, 1.0, and 0.1 lux) showed mean + SEM pineal melatonin values of 1167 +/- 136, 1569 +/- 126, 353 +/- 34, 650 +/- 124, and 464 +/- 85, pg/ml respectively. The corresponding CWF exposure data were 393 1 41, 365 +34, 257 +/- 13, 218 +/- 42, and 239 +/- 71 pg/ml, respectively. Corresponding LED exposure data were 439 +/- 25, 462 +/- 50, 231 +/- 6, 164 +/- 12, and 158 +/- 12 pg/ml, respectively. Rats exposed to both experimental light conditions at all illuminances studied showed significant melatonin suppression (p less than 0.01, ANOVA). In no case was the melatonin suppression induced by LED illuminance significantly different from the melatonin suppression elicited by the same intensity of CWF light. The results show that a novel LED light source can suppress pineal melatonin equal to that of a conventional CWF light source.

  14. The role of miR-182 in regulating pineal CLOCK expression after hypoxia-ischemia brain injury in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xin; Sun, Bin; Huang, Jian; Xu, Lixiao; Pan, Jian; Fang, Chen; Tao, Yanfang; Hu, Shukun; Li, Ronghu; Han, Xing; Miao, Po; Wang, Ying; Yu, Jian; Feng, Xing

    2015-03-30

    Circadian rhythm disorder is a common neurological deficit caused by neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD). However, little is known about its underlying mechanisms. Our previous studies revealed a significant elevation of clock genes at the protein, but not mRNA, levels in the pineal gland after neonatal HIBD. To investigate the mechanisms of post-transcriptional regulation on clock genes, we screened changes of miRNA levels in the pineal gland after neonatal HIBD using high-throughput arrays. Within the miRNAs whose expression was significantly down-regulated, we identified one miRNA (miR182) that targeted the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of Clock, a key component of clock genes, and played a crucial role in regulating CLOCK expression after oxygen-glucose deprivation in primarily cultured pinealocytes. Our findings therefore provide new insight on studies of therapeutic targets for circadian rhythm disturbance after neonatal HIBD.

  15. The prevalence of pineal cyst in patients with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Özmen, Evrim; Derinkuyu, Betül; Samancı, Cesur; Ünlü, Havva Akmaz; Demirkan, Tülin Hakan; Haşıloğlu, Zehra Işık; Kuruoğlu, Sebuh; Adaletli, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Pineal cysts are common incidental findings during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. The etiology of pineal cyst development is still unclear. We aimed to determine whether there is an association between periventricular leukomalacia and pineal cyst prevalence. METHODS Clinical and MRI data of 201 patients with periventricular leukomalacia (110 female, 91 male; mean age, 6 years; range, 2–18 years) and 687 control patients (355 female, 332 male; mean age, 6 years¸ range, 2–18 years) who did not have any evidence of periventricular leukomalacia were independently evaluated by two radiologists for presence or absence of pineal cyst. RESULTS Pineal cysts were detected in 32.3% of the study group (65/201) and 8.4% of the control group (58/687) (P < 0.001). Patients with periventricular leukomalacia were more likely to have a pineal cyst. In terms of pineal cyst detection on MRI, interobserver reliability was high between the two radiologists. CONCLUSION The prevalence of pineal cysts is higher in patients with periventricular leukomalacia. We suggest that an ischemic process may have a role in the etiopathogenesis of pineal cyst development. PMID:25858521

  16. Opposite effects of EGTA and neutral surfactants on the loss of chicken pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Cabello, J C; Arpa, F; Agapito, M T; Recio, J M

    1990-01-01

    The effects of some general purpose drugs on the deactivation and activity measurement of the chicken pineal gland enzyme serotonin N-acetyl transferase (EC 2.3.1.5.) were studied. The drugs used were EGTA and two neutral surfactants, Nonidet P40 and Triton X-100. Enzyme activity showed significant variations ranging from 2.8 +/- 1.3 nmol/gland/h when Nonidet P40 was added to the homogenate buffer, to 31.8 +/- 1.7 nmol/gland/h when EGTA was present. This striking variation seemed to be caused by the ability of these compounds to modify the rate of NAT deactivation acting either as accelerating agents, as in the case of the detergents or as braking agent, as in the case of EGTA.

  17. Erlotinib and Temsirolimus in Treating Patients With Recurrent Malignant Glioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-29

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  18. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and nervous systems work very closely together. The brain continuously sends instructions to the endocrine system, and ... master switchboard because it's the part of the brain that controls the endocrine system. The pituitary gland, ...

  19. Pituitary gland

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... women; stimulates sperm production in men Prolactin - stimulates breast tissue in nursing mothers to produce milk ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) - causes the adrenal glands to produce important substances that have properties similar ...

  20. Decreased angiotensin II binding affinity and binding capacity in the anterior pituitary gland of adult spontaneously hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gutkind, J.S.; Castren, E.; Saavedra, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG) binding sites were quantified in single pituitary glands from 4-week-old and 14-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and age-matched male normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) control rats after incubation with /sup 125/I-(Sar/sup 1/)-ANG, autoradiography with computerized densitometry, and comparison to /sup 125/I-standards. The maximum binding capacity (B/sub max/) decreased while the dissociation constant (K/sub d/) for ANG increased in 14-week-old SHR when compared to age-matched WKY control rats. Conversely, no difference between rat strains was found in 4-week-old animals. Our results suggest that pituitary ANG binding sites may play a role in the pathophysiology of established genetic hypertension.

  1. Histopathology of pineal germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Vasiljevic, A; Szathmari, A; Champier, J; Fèvre-Montange, M; Jouvet, A

    2015-01-01

    Germ cell tumors (GCTs) classically occur in gonads. However, they are the most frequent neoplasms in the pineal region. The pineal location of GCTs may be caused by the neoplastic transformation of a primordial germ cell that has mismigrated. The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes 5 histological types of intracranial GCTs: germinoma and non-germinomatous tumors including embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, choriocarcinoma and mature or immature teratoma. Germinomas and teratomas are frequently encountered as pure tumors whereas the other types are mostly part of mixed GCTs. In this situation, the neuropathologist has to be able to identify each component of a GCT. When diagnosis is difficult, use of recent immunohistochemical markers such as OCT(octamer-binding transcription factor)3/4, Glypican 3, SALL(sal-like protein)4 may be required. OCT3/4 is helpful in the diagnosis of germinomas, Glypican 3 in the diagnosis of yolk sac tumors and SALL4 in the diagnosis of the germ cell nature of an intracranial tumor. When the germ cell nature of a pineal tumor is doubtful, the finding of an isochromosome 12p suggests the diagnosis of GCT. The final pathological report should always be confronted with the clinical data, especially the serum or cerebrospinal fluid levels of β-human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and alpha-fetoprotein.

  2. Salivary gland diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

  3. Analysis of the Composition of Lipid in Human Meibum from Normal Infants, Children, Adolescents, Adults, and Adults with Meibomian Gland Dysfunction Using 1H-NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Rashmi K.; Foulks, Gary N.; Yappert, Marta C.; Milliner, Sarah E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. This study represents a first step toward the evaluation of possible compositional differences in meibum from normal donors (Mn) and donors with meibomian gland dysfunction (Md) by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The results highlight the applicability of 1H-NMR spectroscopy for the quantitative analysis of waxes, cholesteryl esters, and glycerides in meibum lipid (ML). Methods. Meibum was obtained from 41 normal donors and 51 donors with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). 1H-NMR spectroscopy was used to quantify the amount of waxes, glycerides, and cholesteryl esters in human meibum. Results. The relative amount of cholesteryl esters in Mn increased with age and was 40% (P < 0.05) lower in Md. Interestingly, the relative levels of cholesteryl esters in infant meibum were comparable to those in Md. The relative amounts of glycerides were not affected significantly by age or MGD. Conclusions. The changes in cholesteryl ester could be used as a molecular marker for MGD and could potentially be applied to follow the efficacy of drug therapy in the treatment of MGD. The similarity of the levels of cholesteryl esters in infant meibum and Md suggests that the relative amounts of these meibum components alone are unlikely to be responsible for the increased stability of the infant tear film and decreased stability of the tear film with MGD. This study reveals the complexity of human MLs and the changes that occur with age and disease. Understanding the factors that lead to such variations is of utmost relevance in the design of effective therapies. PMID:21849420

  4. Transducin Duplicates in the Zebrafish Retina and Pineal Complex: Differential Specialisation after the Teleost Tetraploidisation

    PubMed Central

    Lagman, David; Callado-Pérez, Amalia; Franzén, Ilkin E.

    2015-01-01

    Gene duplications provide raw materials that can be selected for functional adaptations by evolutionary mechanisms. We describe here the results of 350 million years of evolution of three functionally related gene families: the alpha, beta and gamma subunits of transducins, the G protein involved in vision. Early vertebrate tetraploidisations resulted in separate transducin heterotrimers: gnat1/gnb1/gngt1 for rods, and gnat2/gnb3/gngt2 for cones. The teleost-specific tetraploidisation generated additional duplicates for gnb1, gnb3 and gngt2. We report here that the duplicates have undergone several types of subfunctionalisation or neofunctionalisation in the zebrafish. We have found that gnb1a and gnb1b are co-expressed at different levels in rods; gnb3a and gnb3b have undergone compartmentalisation restricting gnb3b to the dorsal and medial retina, however, gnb3a expression was detected only at very low levels in both larvae and adult retina; gngt2b expression is restricted to the dorsal and medial retina, whereas gngt2a is expressed ventrally. This dorsoventral distinction could be an adaptation to protect the lower part of the retina from intense light damage. The ontogenetic analysis shows earlier onset of expression in the pineal complex than in the retina, in accordance with its earlier maturation. Additionally, gnb1a but not gnb1b is expressed in the pineal complex, and gnb3b and gngt2b are transiently expressed in the pineal during ontogeny, thus showing partial temporal subfunctionalisation. These retina-pineal distinctions presumably reflect their distinct functional roles in vision and circadian rhythmicity. In summary, this study describes several functional differences between transducin gene duplicates resulting from the teleost-specific tetraploidisation. PMID:25806532

  5. Transducin duplicates in the zebrafish retina and pineal complex: differential specialisation after the teleost tetraploidisation.

    PubMed

    Lagman, David; Callado-Pérez, Amalia; Franzén, Ilkin E; Larhammar, Dan; Abalo, Xesús M

    2015-01-01

    Gene duplications provide raw materials that can be selected for functional adaptations by evolutionary mechanisms. We describe here the results of 350 million years of evolution of three functionally related gene families: the alpha, beta and gamma subunits of transducins, the G protein involved in vision. Early vertebrate tetraploidisations resulted in separate transducin heterotrimers: gnat1/gnb1/gngt1 for rods, and gnat2/gnb3/gngt2 for cones. The teleost-specific tetraploidisation generated additional duplicates for gnb1, gnb3 and gngt2. We report here that the duplicates have undergone several types of subfunctionalisation or neofunctionalisation in the zebrafish. We have found that gnb1a and gnb1b are co-expressed at different levels in rods; gnb3a and gnb3b have undergone compartmentalisation restricting gnb3b to the dorsal and medial retina, however, gnb3a expression was detected only at very low levels in both larvae and adult retina; gngt2b expression is restricted to the dorsal and medial retina, whereas gngt2a is expressed ventrally. This dorsoventral distinction could be an adaptation to protect the lower part of the retina from intense light damage. The ontogenetic analysis shows earlier onset of expression in the pineal complex than in the retina, in accordance with its earlier maturation. Additionally, gnb1a but not gnb1b is expressed in the pineal complex, and gnb3b and gngt2b are transiently expressed in the pineal during ontogeny, thus showing partial temporal subfunctionalisation. These retina-pineal distinctions presumably reflect their distinct functional roles in vision and circadian rhythmicity. In summary, this study describes several functional differences between transducin gene duplicates resulting from the teleost-specific tetraploidisation.

  6. Opsin-G11-mediated signaling pathway for photic entrainment of the chicken pineal circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Takaoki; Okano, Toshiyuki; Haga, Tatsuya; Fukada, Yoshitaka

    2002-09-01

    Light is a major environmental signal for entrainment of the circadian clock, but little is known about the intracellular phototransduction pathway triggered by light activation of the photoreceptive molecule(s) responsible for the phase shift of the clock in vertebrates. The chicken pineal gland and retina contain the autonomous circadian oscillators together with the photic entrainment pathway, and hence they represent useful experimental models for the clock system. Here we show the expression of G11alpha, an alpha subunit of heterotrimeric G-protein, in both tissues by cDNA cloning, Northern blot, and Western blot analyses. G11alpha immunoreactivity was colocalized with pinopsin in the chicken pineal cells and also with rhodopsin in the outer segments of retinal photoreceptor cells, suggesting functional coupling of G11alpha with opsins in the clock-containing photosensitive tissues. The physical interaction was examined by coimmunoprecipitation experiments, the results of which provided evidence for light- and GTP-dependent coupling between rhodopsin and G11alpha. To examine whether activation of endogenous G11 leads to a phase shift of the oscillator, Gq/11-coupled m1-type muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) was ectopically expressed in the cultured pineal cells. Subsequent treatment of the cells with carbamylcholine (CCh), an agonist of mAChR, induced phase-dependent phase shifts of the melatonin rhythm in a manner very similar to the effect of light. In contrast, CCh treatment induced no measurable effect on the rhythm of nontransfected (control) cells or cells expressing G(i/o)-coupled m2-type mAChR, indicating selectivity of the G-protein activation. Together, our results demonstrate the existence of a G11-mediated opsin-signaling pathway contributing to the photic entrainment of the circadian clock.

  7. [Endoscopic treatment of a voluminous benign symptomatic cyst of the pineal region responsible for an obstructive hydrocephalus].

    PubMed

    Metellus, Ph; Fuentes, S; Levrier, O; Adetchessi, T; Dufour, H; Donnet, A; Grisoli, F

    2005-09-01

    Asymptomatic non neoplastic cysts of the pineal region are common incidental findings in adults. On the contrary, voluminous and symptomatic cysts of the pineal region are rare and their management are not well defined. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman suffering who suffered from mild intracranial hypertension, gait disturbance and vertigo for one year. The neuroradiological workup showed a voluminous cyst of the pineal region responsible for an obstructive hydrocephalus. An endoscopic etiological treatment was decided. The operation consisted in a marsupialization of the cyst in the third ventricle with a stereotactic guidance system. A frozen section of the cyst wall failed to show tumoral cells. Immediate postoperative course was uneventful. Intracranial hypertension symptoms resolved in 24 hours. Clinical examination and neuropsychological testing were normal at two years postoperatively. The two years follow-up cerebral MRI demonstrated a remnant cystic cavity without mass effect and the patency of the aqueduct of Sylvius. Endoscopic treatment of symptomatic pineal cysts constitutes an interesting therapeutic alternative in the management of this pathology.

  8. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    The adrenal glands are small glands located on top of each kidney. They produce hormones that you can't live ... stress and has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not ...

  9. The harderian gland: a tercentennial review.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, A P

    1994-01-01

    The harderian gland was first described in 1694 by Johann Jacob Harder (1656-1711). It occurs in most terrestrial vertebrates and is located within the orbit where, in some species, it is the largest structure. It may be compound tubular or compound tubuloalveolar, and its secretory duct is usually morphologically distinct only after leaving the substance of the gland to open on the surface of the nictitating membrane. The tubules of the gland are formed of a single layer of columnar epithelial cells surrounded by myoepithelial cells. The chief product(s) of the gland varies between different groups of vertebrates, and epithelial cells possess granules or vacuoles whose contents may be mucous, serous or lipid. In rodents, the gland synthesises lipids, porphyrins and indoles. In the case of lipid vacuoles, the gland is unusual in releasing these by an exocytotic mechanism. It is unclear whether the gland can act both as an exocrine and endocrine organ. There is control of gland structure and synthesis through a variety of humoral agents, including gonadal, thyroid and pituitary hormones; in addition there is a rich autonomic innervation and many neuropeptides have been identified. The proposed functions of the gland are remarkably diverse and include the gland being (1) a source of 'saliva', (2) a site of immune response, (3) a photoprotective organ, (4) part of a retinal-pineal axis, (5) a source of pheromones, (6) a source of thermoregulatory lipids, (7) a site of osmoregulation, and (8) a source of growth factors. The gland is discussed in terms of its embryology and phylogeny, and in relation to ecological variables. Several goals of future research are identified. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 Fig. 25 Fig. 26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 38 Fig. 40 PMID:7559104

  10. Pineal region tumors: analysis of treatment results

    SciTech Connect

    Amendola, B.E.; McClatchey, K.; Amendola, M.A.

    1984-07-01

    This article represents a review of 32 patients with pineal region tumors seen and treated at the University of Michigan Medical Center from January 1950 to December 1980. All patients presented with manifestations of increased intracranial pressure: limitation of the upward gaze (Parinaud's syndrome), hydrocephalus and a mass in the posterior aspect of the third ventricle. The tumor was demonstrated by pneumoencephalography, ventriculography, angiography or CT scans. Ventricular decompression was performed in all patients. Twenty-seven patients received post-operative irradiation. The overall 10 year survival for evaluable patients was 16/24 (67%). Few complications were seen.

  11. Relations of bromine, iron, rubidium, strontium, and zinc content to morphometric parameters in pediatric and nonhyperplastic young adult prostate glands.

    PubMed

    Zaichick, Vladimir; Zaichick, Sofia

    2014-03-01

    The variation with age of the Br, Fe, Rb, Sr, and Zn mass fractions and some histological characteristics of intact prostate glands of 50 subjects aged 0-30 years was investigated by an energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence and a quantitative morphometric analysis. Mean values ± standard error of the mean (M ± SΕΜ) for the mass fractions (in milligrams per kilogram wet-mass basis) of these trace elements in pre-puberty were: Br-10.5 ± 1.3, Fe-28.6 ± 4.1, Rb-3.05 ± 0.27, Sr-0.42 ± 0.08, and Zn-32.9 ± 3.2. During puberty and postpuberty, when there is a significant increase in circulating androgens, the mean values were: Br-5.60 ± 0.57, Fe-19.3 ± 1.6, Rb-3.50 ± 0.28, Sr-0.24 ± 0.03, and Zn-113 ± 10. Mean values (M ± SΕΜ) of percent volumes (%) of the stroma, epithelium, and lumen in the prostate before puberty were 73.4 ± 2.6, 20.4 ± 1.7, and 4.45 ± 0.94, respectively, versus 46.5 ± 2.5, 38.5 ± 1.9, and 14.9 ± 1.2 during puberty and postpuberty. A significant positive correlation between the prostatic Zn and percent volume of both glandular epithelium (r = 0.573, p ≤ 0.001) and glandular lumen (r = 0.725, p ≤ 0.001) was found. For the first time, it has been demonstrated that the glandular lumen is a main pool of Zn accumulation, and that the stroma is a main pool of Br and Fe accumulation in the normal human prostate, for the age range 14 to 30 years. It was concluded that the Zn binds tightly within the prostatic fluid because the volume of glandular lumen reflects the volume of prostatic fluid.

  12. Reduction of the nocturnal rise in pineal melatonin levels in rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields in utero and for 23 days after birth

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, R.J.; Anderson, L.E.; Buschbom, R.I.; Wilson, B.W.

    1988-02-01

    Rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields of either 10, 65, or 130 kV/m from conception to 23 days of age exhibited reduced peak nighttime pineal melatonin contents compared to unexposed controls. As a group, the exposed rats also exhibited a phase delay, estimated at approximately 1.4 hours, in the occurrence of the nocturnal melatonin peak. No clear dose-response relationship was noticed over the range of electric field strengths used as treatments in these experiments. These are the first studies concerned with the effects of electric field exposure on the pineal melatonin rhythm in immature rats and the findings are generally consistent with those obtained using adult rats, where electric field exposure has been shown to abolish the nighttime rhythm in pineal melatonin concentrations. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Reduction of the nocturnal rise in pineal melatonin levels in rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields in utero and for 23 days after birth

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, R.J.; Anderson, L.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Wilson, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    Rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields of either 10, 65, or 130 kV/m from conception to 23 days of age exhibited reduced peak nighttime pineal melatonin contents compared to unexposed controls. As a group, the exposed rats also exhibited a phase delay, estimated at approximately 1.4 hours, in the occurrence of the nocturnal melatonin peak. No clear dose-response relationship was noticed over the range of electric field strengths used as treatments in these experiments. These are the first studies concerned with the effects of electric field exposure on the pineal melatonin rhythm in immature rats. The findings are generally consistent with those obtained using adult rats, where electric field exposure has been shown to abolish the nighttime rhythm in pineal melatonin concentrations.

  14. Pineal cyst apoplexy: report of an unusual case managed conservatively.

    PubMed

    Ayhan, Selim; Bal, Ercan; Palaoglu, Selcuk; Cila, Aysenur

    2011-01-01

    Pineal cyst apoplexy is a very rare entity with previously reported symptoms of severe frontal or occipital headache, gaze paresis and visual field defects, nausea or vomiting, syncope, ataxia, hearing loss and sudden death. The treatment options for symptomatic pineal cysts are observation, shunting, aspiration via stereotactic guidance or endoscopy, third ventriculostomy, ventriculocysternostomy, and/or surgical resection by craniotomy and microsurgery. Here, the authors report an unusual case of a 28-year-old male patient with pineal cyst apoplexy, presenting with headache, insomnia, and sexual dysfunction symptoms who is being managed conservatively and observed for two years by an academic tertiary care unit.

  15. Pineal region tumors: Clinical symptoms and syndromes.

    PubMed

    Rousselle, C; des Portes, V; Berlier, P; Mottolese, C

    2015-01-01

    The present paper investigates the clinical picture and the different clinical signs that reveal pineal region tumors or appear during the course of the follow-up. Biological malignancy and tumor extension determine the semiology and its setting up mode. Typical endocrine signs, dominated by abnormal puberty development, are frequently a part of the clinical scene. Bifocal or ectopic localization in the hypothalamic-pituitary region is accompanied by other endocrine signs such as ante- or post-pituitary insufficiencies which occur several months or even years after the first neurological signs appear. Due to a mass syndrome and obstructive hydrocephalus, intracranial hypertension signs are frequent but unspecific. A careful ophthalmologic examination is essential to search upward gaze paralysis and other signs of the Parinaud's tetrad or pentad. Midbrain dysfunction, including extrinsic aqueduct stenosis, are also prevalent. Except for abnormal pubertal signs, hyper-melatoninemia (secretory tumors) or a-hypo-melatoninemia (tumors destructing pineal) generally remains dormant. Some patients present sleep problems such as narcolepsy or sleepiness during the daytime as well as behavioral problems. This suggests a hypothalamic extension rather than a true consequence of melatonin secretion anomalies. Similarly, some patients may present signs of a "pinealectomized" syndrome, including (cluster) headaches, tiredness, eventually responsive to melatonin.

  16. Clock-Controlled Regulation of the Acute Effects of Norepinephrine on Chick Pineal Melatonin Rhythms.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Cassone, Vincent M

    2015-12-01

    The chicken pineal gland synthesizes and releases melatonin rhythmically in light/dark (LD) cycles, with high melatonin levels during the dark phase, and in constant darkness (DD) for several cycles before it gradually damps to arrhythmicity in DD. Daily administration of norepinephrine (NE) in vivo and in vitro prevents the damping and restores the melatonin rhythm. To investigate the role of the circadian clock on melatonin rhythm damping and of its restoration by NE, the effects of NE administration at different phases of the melatonin cycle revealed a robust rhythm in NE sensitivity in which NE efficacy in increasing melatonin amplitude peaked in late subjective night and early subjective day, suggesting a clock underlying NE sensitivity. However, NE itself had no effect on circadian phase or period of the melatonin rhythms. Transcriptional analyses indicated that even though the rhythm of melatonin output damped to arrhythmicity, messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding clock genes gper2, gper3, gBmal1, gclock, gcry1, and gcry2; enzymes associated with melatonin biosynthesis; and enzymes involved in cyclic nucleotide signaling remained robustly rhythmic. Of these, only gADCY1 (adenylate cyclase 1) and gPDE4D (cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4D) were affected by NE administration at the mRNA levels, and only ADCY1 was affected at the protein level. The data strongly suggest that damping of the melatonin rhythm in the chick pineal gland occurs at the posttranscriptional level and that a major role of the clock is to regulate pinealocytes' sensitivity to neuronal input from the brain.

  17. Pineal epidermoid cyst: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Fahd Derkaoui; Bouchaouch, Abdelali; El Fatemi, Nizare; Gana, Rachid; El Abbadi, Najia; Maaqili, Moulay Rachid

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial epidermoid cysts are one of the rare tumors of all intracranial tumors. They represent 0,2 to 1% of intracranial tumors and 7% of tumors in the cerebellopontine angle. The pineal region is exceptionally subject to such kind of tumor. Cushing was the first to report the pineal localization of the epidermoid cyst in 1928. Up to now, 85 cases of pineal epidermoid cyst were cited in the literature. We report a clinical case concerning a 45 years old man who presented an intracranial hypertension during 18 months. The clinical examination found a hemiparesis with a facial hypoesthesis. The MRI showed a process of the pineal region. The patient underwent a surgery with a large resection. The histological examination confirms the epidermoid cyst. Many approaches were described in the literature. The outcome is related to this localization.

  18. A novel pineal-specific product of the oligopeptide transporter PepT1 gene: circadian expression mediated by cAMP activation of an intronic promoter.

    PubMed

    Gaildrat, Pascaline; Møller, Morten; Mukda, Sujira; Humphries, Ann; Carter, David A; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Klein, David C

    2005-04-29

    The oligopeptide transporter 1, PepT1, is a member of the Slc15 family of 12 membrane-spanning domain transporters; PepT1 has proton/peptide cotransport activity and is selectively expressed in intestinal epithelial cells, where it is responsible for the nutritional absorption of di- and tri-peptides. Here, a novel PepT1 gene product has been identified in the rat pineal gland, termed pgPepT1. It encodes a 150-amino acid protein encompassing the C-terminal 3 membrane-spanning domains of intestinal PepT1 protein, with 3 additional N-terminal residues. Expression of pgPepT1 appears to be restricted to the pineal gland and follows a marked circadian pattern with >100-fold higher levels of mRNA occurring at night; this is accompanied by an accumulation of membrane-associated pgPepT1 protein ( approximately 16 kDa). The daily rhythm in pgPepT1 mRNA is regulated by the well described neural pathway that controls pineal melatonin production. This includes the retina, the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, central structures, and projections from the superior cervical ganglia; activation of this pathway results in the release of norepinephrine. Here it was found that pgPepT1 expression is mediated by a norepinephrine-->cyclic AMP mechanism that activates an alternative promoter located in intron 20 of the gene. pgPepT1 protein was found to have transporter-modulator activity; it could contribute to circadian changes in pineal function through this mechanism.

  19. Salivary gland biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - salivary gland ... You have several pairs of salivary glands that drain into your mouth: A major pair in front of the ears (parotid glands) Another major pair beneath your jaw (submandibular ...

  20. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  1. Relatively high rates of G:C → A:T transitions at CpG sites were observed in certain epithelial tissues including pancreas and submaxillary gland of adult big blue® mice.

    PubMed

    Prtenjaca, Anita; Tarnowski, Heather E; Marr, Alison M; Heney, Melanie A; Creamer, Laura; Sathiamoorthy, Sarmitha; Hill, Kathleen A

    2014-01-01

    With few exceptions, spontaneous mutation frequency and pattern are similar across tissue types and relatively constant in young to middle adulthood in wild type mice. Underrepresented in surveys of spontaneous mutations across murine tissues is the diversity of epithelial tissues. For the first time, spontaneous mutations were detected in pancreas and submaxillary gland and compared with kidney, lung, and male germ cells from five adult male Big Blue® mice. Mutation load was assessed quantitatively through measurement of mutant and mutation frequency and qualitatively through identification of mutations and characterization of recurrent mutations, multiple mutations, mutation pattern, and mutation spectrum. A total of 9.6 million plaque forming units were screened, 226 mutants were collected, and 196 independent mutations were identified. Four novel mutations were discovered. Spontaneous mutation frequency was low in pancreas and high in the submaxillary gland. The submaxillary gland had multiple recurrent mutations in each of the mice and one mutant had two independent mutations. Mutation patterns for epithelial tissues differed from that observed in male germ cells with a striking bias for G:C to A:T transitions at CpG sites. A comprehensive review of lacI spontaneous mutation patterns in young adult mice and rats identified additional examples of this mutational bias. An overarching observation about spontaneous mutation frequency in adult tissues of the mouse remains one of stability. A repeated observation in certain epithelial tissues is a higher rate of G:C to A:T transitions at CpG sites and the underlying mechanisms for this bias are not known.

  2. Synchronization of Indian weaver bird circadian rhythms to food and light zeitgebers: role of pineal.

    PubMed

    Rani, Sangeeta; Singh, Sudhi; Malik, Shalie; Singh, Jyoti; Kumar, Vinod

    2009-05-01

    This study investigates the relative strengths of food and light zeitgebers in synchronization of circadian rhythms of Indian weaver birds and the role of the pineal gland in food-induced synchronization of the circadian activity rhythms. Two experiments were performed. In the first experiment, six birds were concurrently exposed for 10 days to PA 12/12 (12 h food present: 12 h food absent) and LD 12/12 (12 h light: 12 h dark). Then, the PA 12/12 cycle was reversed: food was present during the dark period of the LD 12/12 cycle. After 15 days, birds were released into constant dim light (LL(dim)). During exposure to overlapping light and food availability periods, birds were active only during the daytime. When light and food availability periods were presented in antiphase, two of six birds became night active. However, with the removal of the light zeitgeber (i.e., under LL(dim)), all birds were synchronized with reversed PA 12/12; hence, they were active during the subjective night (i.e., the period corresponding to darkness [ZT12-0] of the preceding LD 12/12). The second experiment examined whether the pineal contributed to the food-induced synchronization. After two weeks of concurrent PA 12/12 and LD 12/12 exposure, six birds were released into LL(dim) for 2.5 weeks. Under LL(dim), five of six birds were synchronized to PA 12/12 with the circadian period (tau, tau) = 24 h. The LD 12/12 was restored, and after seven days, birds were pinealectomized (pinx). After 2.5 weeks, pinx birds were again released into LL(dim) for 2.5 weeks. Under LL(dim), pinx birds did not become arrhythmic; instead, they appeared synchronized to PA 12/12 with tau = 24 h (n = 4) or approximately 24 h (n = 2). We conclude that both food and light act as zeitgebers, although light appears to be the relatively stronger cue when the two are present together, as in the natural environment. We also found that the pineal is not necessary for food-induced synchronization. The findings suggest

  3. Characterization of [125I]ZM 241385 binding to adenosine A2A receptors in the pineal of sheep brain.

    PubMed

    Yan, X; Koos, B J; Kruger, L; Linden, J; Murray, T F

    2006-06-22

    Adenosine is a ubiquitous neuromodulator and homeostatic regulator that exerts its physiologic actions through activation of A(1), A(2A), A(2B) and A(3) adenosine receptor subtypes. In the central nervous system, adenosine's action in neurons is manifested in its modulation of tonic inhibitory control. Adenosine released in the brain during hypoxia has critical depressant effects on breathing in fetal and newborn mammals, an action suggested to be mediated by A(2A) receptors in the posteromedial thalamus. In an effort to more accurately define the spatial distribution of adenosine A(2A) receptors in fetal sheep diencephalon, we have used a receptor autoradiographic technique utilizing an iodinated radioligand [(125)I]ZM 241385, which has greater sensitivity and resolution than the tritiated compound. The distribution of ligand binding sites in the fetal sheep diencephalon indicated that the highest levels of binding were in select thalamic nuclei, including those implicated in hypoxic depression of fetal breathing, and the pineal. Given the high density of labeled A(2A) receptors in the pineal, these sites were characterized more fully in homogenate radioligand binding assays. These data indicate that [(125)I]ZM 241385 binding sites display a pharmacological signature consistent with that of adenosine A(2A) receptors and are expressed at similar levels in fetal, lamb and adult ovine brain. The adenosine A(2A) receptor pharmacologic signature of the [(125)I]ZM 241385 binding site in pineal cell membranes generalized to the site characterized in membranes derived from other portions of the lamb thalamus, including the sector involved in hypoxic inhibition of fetal breathing. These results have important implications for the functional roles of adenosine A(2A) receptors in the thalamus and pineal of sheep brain.

  4. Adrenal gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Berry, Matthew E

    2009-01-01

    Medical imaging of the adrenal glands is an important aspect of the diagnosis of any adrenal gland disorder. This article discusses the normal anatomy and functions of the adrenal glands, as well as specific adrenal gland disorders and how they are diagnosed and treated. Radiologic technologists need to understand the causes, signs, symptoms, diagnosis and management of disorders that prevent the adrenal glands from functioning properly.

  5. Immune-pineal axis: nuclear factor κB (NF-kB) mediates the shift in the melatonin source from pinealocytes to immune competent cells.

    PubMed

    Markus, Regina P; Cecon, Erika; Pires-Lapa, Marco Antonio

    2013-05-24

    Pineal gland melatonin is the darkness hormone, while extra-pineal melatonin produced by the gonads, gut, retina, and immune competent cells acts as a paracrine or autocrine mediator. The well-known immunomodulatory effect of melatonin is observed either as an endocrine, a paracrine or an autocrine response. In mammals, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) blocks noradrenaline-induced melatonin synthesis in pinealocytes, which induces melatonin synthesis in macrophages. In addition, melatonin reduces NF-κB activation in pinealocytes and immune competent cells. Therefore, pathogen- or danger-associated molecular patterns transiently switch the synthesis of melatonin from pinealocytes to immune competent cells, and as the response progresses melatonin inhibition of NF-κB activity leads these cells to a more quiescent state. The opposite effect of NF-κB in pinealocytes and immune competent cells is due to different NF-κB dimers recruited in each phase of the defense response. This coordinated shift of the source of melatonin driven by NF-κB is called the immune-pineal axis. Finally, we discuss how this concept might be relevant to a better understanding of pathological conditions with impaired melatonin rhythms and hope it opens new horizons for the research of side effects of melatonin-based therapies.

  6. Symptomatic intracystic hemorrhage in pineal cysts. Report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Sarikaya-Seiwert, Sevgi; Turowski, Bernd; Hänggi, Daniel; Janssen, Giesela; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Stummer, Walter

    2009-08-01

    Pineal cysts are benign and often asymptomatic intracranial entities. Occasionally they can lead to neurological symptoms through growth or due to intracystic hemorrhage. The purpose of the current report is to describe their clinical characteristics and treatment options. In the current study, the authors illustrate the course of disease in 3 patients who developed neurological symptoms due to hemorrhage into a pineal cyst. Two of their patients had additional cerebral disease, and regular MR imaging examinations were conducted. This circumstance allowed documentation of growth and intracystic hemorrhage. After the occurrence of new neurological symptoms with severe headache, MR images showed a fluid-fluid interface due to intracystic hemorrhage. The third patient presented with acute triventricular hydrocephalus and papilledema due to aqueductal stenosis caused by intracystic hemorrhage. In all 3 cases, excision of the pineal cysts via an infratentorial/supracerebellar approach was performed. Histological examination revealed the characteristic structure of pineal cyst in all cases, with hemorrhagic residues in the form of hemosiderin deposits. All patients recovered fully after surgical removal of the cysts. Furthermore, resolution of occlusive hydrocephalus could be demonstrated in those cases with ventricular enlargement. Pineal cysts without neurological symptoms are often discovered as incidental findings on cranial MR images. In contrast, neurological symptoms such as severe headache, diplopia, or Parinaud syndrome, may occur as a result of pineal apoplexy due to intracystic hemorrhage. The authors' cases confirm that MR imaging can identify intracystic hemorrhage by a characteristic fluid-fluid interface. Their experience suggests that microsurgical resection of cysts may be an effective and curative treatment option.

  7. Unique Gene Expression Profiles in the Mammary Gland of Prepubertal and Adult Female Rats Treated With Estradiol or Soy Protein Isolate (SPI)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns have arisen regarding infertility and increased breast cancer risk in women consuming soy foods, primarily because of the perceived estrogenicity of soy isoflavones such as genistein and daidzein. Two studies were conducted in mammary gland to determine if consumption of soy products induce...

  8. Pineal melatonin and the innate immune response: the TNF-alpha increase after cesarean section suppresses nocturnal melatonin production.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Gerlândia N; Cardoso, Elaine C; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda M S; Markus, Regina P

    2007-11-01

    The nocturnal surge of melatonin is the endocrine expression of the circadian system and is essential for organizing the timing of various endogenous processes. Previous works suggest that, in the beginning of a defense response, the increase in circulating tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) leads to a transient block of nocturnal melatonin production and promotes a disruption of internal time organization. In the present paper, the concentration of melatonin and cytokines [TNF-alpha, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12] in the colostrum (postdelivery day 3) and in the milk (postdelivery days 10, 15, 20 and 30) obtained at midday and midnight from mothers who gave birth by vaginal or cesarean section were compared. The nocturnal melatonin surge observed 3 days after vaginal delivery was absent after cesarean section. IL-12 presented no daily variation in either case, while daily variations in IFN-gamma, IL-10, IL-4 and IL-5 were observed after vaginal delivery and cesarean section. On the other hand, the increase in TNF-alpha after cesarean section resulted in suppression of the nocturnal melatonin surge. Daily variation of IL-2 was only observed after recovery of the nocturnal melatonin surge, 30 days after cesarean section. The present paper supports the hypothesis of a cross-talk between the pineal gland and the immune system, which could represent a putative immune-pineal axis.

  9. Rhythmic melatonin secretion does not correlate with the expression of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, inducible cyclic amp early repressor, period1 or cryptochrome1 mRNA in the sheep pineal.

    PubMed

    Johnston, J D; Bashforth, R; Diack, A; Andersson, H; Lincoln, G A; Hazlerigg, D G

    2004-01-01

    The pineal gland, through nocturnal melatonin, acts as a neuroendocrine transducer of daily and seasonal time. Melatonin synthesis is driven by rhythmic activation of the rate-limiting enzyme, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT). In ungulates, AA-NAT mRNA is constitutively high throughout the 24-h cycle, and melatonin production is primarily controlled through effects on AA-NAT enzyme activity; this is in contrast to dominant transcriptional control in rodents. To determine whether there has been a selective loss of circadian control of AA-NAT mRNA expression in the sheep pineal, we measured the expression of other genes known to be rhythmic in rodents (inducible cAMP early repressor ICER, the circadian clock genes Period1 and Cryptochrome1, as well as AA-NAT). We first assayed gene expression in pineal glands collected from Soay sheep adapted to short days (Light: dark, 8-h: 16-h), and killed at 4-h intervals through 24-h. We found no evidence for rhythmic expression of ICER, AA-NAT or Cryptochrome1 under these conditions, whilst Period1 showed a low amplitude rhythm of expression, with higher values during the dark period. In a second group of animals, lights out was delayed by 8-h during the final 24-h sampling period, a manipulation that causes an immediate shortening of the period of melatonin secretion. This did not significantly affect the expression of ICER, AA-NAT or Cryptochrome1 in the pineal, whilst a slight suppressive effect on overall Per1 levels was observed. The attenuated response to photoperiod change appears to be specific to the ovine pineal, as the first long day induced rapid changes of Period1 and ICER expression in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei and pituitary pars tuberalis, respectively. Overall, our data suggest a general reduction of circadian control of transcript abundance in the ovine pineal gland, consistent with a marked evolutionary divergence in the mechanism regulating melatonin production between terrestrial

  10. Mammary gland tumors in captive African hedgehogs.

    PubMed

    Raymond, J T; Gerner, M

    2000-04-01

    From December 1995 to July 1999, eight mammary gland tumors were diagnosed in eight adult captive female African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris). The tumors presented as single or multiple subcutaneous masses along the cranial or caudal abdomen that varied in size for each hedgehog. Histologically, seven of eight (88%) mammary gland tumors were malignant. Tumors were classified as solid (4 cases), tubular (2 cases), and papillary (2 cases). Seven tumors had infiltrated into the surrounding stroma and three tumors had histologic evidence of neoplastic vascular invasion. Three hedgehogs had concurrent neoplasms. These are believed to be the first reported cases of mammary gland tumors in African hedgehogs.

  11. PG25, a pineal-specific cDNA, cloned by differential display PCR (DDPCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE).

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Brownstein, M J; Young, W S

    1997-05-16

    Synthesis of melatonin in the mammalian pineal gland is regulated by the rhythmic expression of acetyl-CoA: serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) and other unknown factors. To screen for pineal-specific mRNAs potentially involved in melatonin synthesis and/or regulation, differential display PCR (DDPCR) was employed. We used 80 primer pairs and examined 40 bands of interest. One of the pineal specific clones (relative to brain and eye), PG25, was studied further. Hybridization histochemical and Northern analyses confirmed its tissue specificity. The size of the corresponding mRNA is 2.4 kb. A cDNA (2 kb) containing the coding region was obtained using a long-template PCR-based RACE technique. A data base search indicates that PG25 is highly homologous to a recently identified human lung endothelial cell-specific gene, ESM-1. Interestingly, not only the amino acid sequences but also the cDNA sequences, including the long 3' untranslated regions, are highly similar. This suggests that the conserved 3' untranslated region may carry information to regulate its own expression. Northern analysis revealed that PG25 is also expressed in the rat lung, but at a much lower (10%) level compared to the pineal. Finally, our work shows the feasibility of a fast, integrated PCR-based cloning method for obtaining long, potentially full-length cDNAs with restricted expression in anatomically complex regions of the brain. This protocol combining several existing methodologies is suitable for use with limited tissue sources and uses minimal amounts of isotopes.

  12. Pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein mediates the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor inhibition of melatonin release in photoreceptive chick pineal cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, B.L.; Takahashi, J.S.

    1988-07-01

    The avian pineal gland is a photoreceptive organ that has been shown to contain postjunctional alpha 2-adrenoceptors that inhibit melatonin synthesis and/or release upon receptor activation. Physiological response and (32P)ADP ribosylation experiments were performed to investigate whether pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G-proteins) were involved in the transduction of the alpha 2-adrenergic signal. For physiological response studies, the effects of pertussis toxin on melatonin release in dissociated cell cultures exposed to norepinephrine were assessed. Pertussis toxin blocked alpha 2-adrenergic receptor-mediated inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. Pertussis toxin-induced blockade appeared to be noncompetitive. One and 10 ng/ml doses of pertussis toxin partially blocked and a 100 ng/ml dose completely blocked norepinephrine-induced inhibition. Pertussis toxin-catalyzed (32P)ADP ribosylation of G-proteins in chick pineal cell membranes was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Membranes were prepared from cells that had been pretreated with 0, 1, 10, or 100 ng/ml pertussis toxin. In the absence of pertussis toxin pretreatment, two major proteins of 40K and 41K mol wt (Mr) were labeled by (32P)NAD. Pertussis toxin pretreatment of pineal cells abolished (32P) radiolabeling of the 40K Mr G-protein in a dose-dependent manner. The norepinephrine-induced inhibition of both cAMP efflux and melatonin release, as assessed by RIA of medium samples collected before membrane preparation, was also blocked in a dose-dependent manner by pertussis toxin. Collectively, these results suggest that a pertussis toxin-sensitive 40K Mr G-protein labeled by (32P)NAD may be functionally associated with alpha 2-adrenergic signal transduction in chick pineal cells.

  13. [Lectin histochemical studies on the musk gland in the house musk shrew (Suncus murinus)].

    PubMed

    Aoki-Komori, S; Saito, T R; Umeda, M; Sugiyama, M; Takahashi, K W; Taniguchi, K

    1993-07-01

    The musk gland of the adult house musk shrews (Suncus murinus) of both sexes was studied lectin histochemically. The musk gland was a kind of scent gland, consisted of congregation of branched or unbranched simple tubuloalveolar gland holocrine in nature and was attached by an apocrine gland-like structure (sweat gland) in the deeper layer of its periphery. Acinar cells of the musk gland were distinguishable into three type from basal to luminal parts of the acinus; immature cells, mature cells and degenerating cells. There was no histological difference between both sexes. Lectin-binding pattern of the musk gland was examined in comparison with that of the sweat gland and ordinary sebaceous gland by histochemical staining techniques using seven lectins: ConA, RCA I, PNA, SBA, UEA-I, DBA, WGA, WGA and PNA labelled the duct of the musk gland more intense than the acinus. Several lectins showed a tendency to label the cells situated near the luminal surface more intense than those near the basement membrane in both the acinus and duct of the musk gland. In the sweat gland and ordinary sebaceous gland, the lectin-binding pattern was different with each other and from that in the musk gland. These findings suggest that the musk gland, sweat gland, and ordinary sebaceous gland are different to each other in nature of cells and the secretion.

  14. Efficacy of 68Ga-DOTATOC Positron Emission Tomography (PET) CT in Children and Young Adults With Brain Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-07

    Acoustic Schwannoma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Meningeal Melanocytoma; Newly Diagnosed Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood

  15. Pallister-Killian syndrome: case report with pineal tumor.

    PubMed

    Mauceri, L; Sorge, G; Incorpora, G; Pavone, L

    2000-11-06

    Pallister-Killian syndrome, an aneuploidy syndrome, comprises a characteristic facial appearance, mental retardation, and multiple other anomalies. It is caused by mosaicism with a supernumerary isochromosome 12p. This chromosomal abnormality has been reported also in human germ cell tumors. We report on a 15-year-old girl with Pallister-Killian syndrome and pineal tumor.

  16. Evolution of photosensory pineal organs in new light: the fate of neuroendocrine photoreceptors.

    PubMed Central

    Ekström, Peter; Meissl, Hilmar

    2003-01-01

    Pineal evolution is envisaged as a gradual transformation of pinealocytes (a gradual regression of pinealocyte sensory capacity within a particular cell line), the so-called sensory cell line of the pineal organ. In most non-mammals the pineal organ is a directly photosensory organ, while the pineal organ of mammals (epiphysis cerebri) is a non-sensory neuroendocrine organ under photoperiod control. The phylogenetic transformation of the pineal organ is reflected in the morphology and physiology of the main parenchymal cell type, the pinealocyte. In anamniotes, pinealocytes with retinal cone photoreceptor-like characteristics predominate, whereas in sauropsids so-called rudimentary photoreceptors predominate. These have well-developed secretory characteristics, and have been interpreted as intermediaries between the anamniote pineal photoreceptors and the mammalian non-sensory pinealocytes. We have re-examined the original studies on which the gradual transformation hypothesis of pineal evolution is based, and found that the evidence for this model of pineal evolution is ambiguous. In the light of recent advances in the understanding of neural development mechanisms, we propose a new hypothesis of pineal evolution, in which the old notion 'gradual regression within the sensory cell line' should be replaced with 'changes in fate restriction within the neural lineage of the pineal field'. PMID:14561326

  17. Fatty acid composition of Echinostoma trivolvis (Trematoda) rediae and adults and of the digestive gland-gonad complex of Helisoma trivolvis (Gastropoda) infected with the intramolluscan stages of this echinostome.

    PubMed

    Fried, B; Rao, K S; Sherma, J; Huffman, J E

    1993-01-01

    Gas-liquid chromatographic studies were done to determine the fatty acid composition of the digestive gland-gonad (DGG) complex of Helisoma trivolvis snails infected with the intramolluscan stages of Echinostoma trivolvis, of rediae freed from the DGG, of uninfected DGG, and of 41-day-old adult worms grown in golden hamsters. The DGG of infected snails showed significantly higher levels of stearic acid (18:0), hexatrienoic acid (16:3n-4), and docosahexanoic acid (22:6n-3) than that of uninfected snails. However, the DGG of uninfected snails showed significantly higher levels of 20:2 non-methylene-interrupted diene (NMID) and adrenic acid (22:4n-6) than that of infected snails. The profiles of other fatty acids were remarkably similar in both infected and uninfected snails. Adult worms showed significantly higher amounts of numerous saturated fatty acids and dienes as compared with the rediae. However, the rediae showed significantly higher amounts of certain monoenes and trienes as compared with the adults. Fatty acid differences between rediae and adults probably reflect differences in either the available lipid pools in the immediate host sites or the metabolic activity of each stage of this echinostome.

  18. Parathyroid glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The 4 parathyroid glands are located near or attached to the back side of the thyroid gland and produce pararthyroid hormone (PTH). Parathyroid hormone regulates calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium balance within ...

  19. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  20. Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... malignant. Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal What are the Advantages of Laparoscopic Adrenal Gland Removal? In the past, ... of procedure and the patients overall condition. Common advantages are: Less postoperative pain Shorter hospital stay Quicker ...

  1. Salivary gland tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancers Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Dehydration Sarcoidosis Sjögren syndrome The most common type of salivary ... Cancer Cirrhosis Salivary duct stones Salivary gland infections Sarcoidosis Tumor Review Date 10/30/2015 Updated by: ...

  2. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Clinical Trials Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...

  3. Daily rhythm in pineal phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity reflects adrenergic/3',5'-cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate induction of the PDE4B2 variant.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-So; Bailey, Michael J; Ho, Anthony K; Møller, Morten; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Klein, David C

    2007-04-01

    The pineal gland is a photoneuroendocrine transducer that influences circadian and circannual dynamics of many physiological functions via the daily rhythm in melatonin production and release. Melatonin synthesis is stimulated at night by a photoneural system through which pineal adenylate cyclase is adrenergically activated, resulting in an elevation of cAMP. cAMP enhances melatonin synthesis through actions on several elements of the biosynthetic pathway. cAMP degradation also appears to increase at night due to an increase in phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity, which peaks in the middle of the night. Here, it was found that this nocturnal increase in PDE activity results from an increase in the abundance of PDE4B2 mRNA (approximately 5-fold; doubling time, approximately 2 h). The resulting level is notably higher (>6-fold) than in all other tissues examined, none of which exhibit a robust daily rhythm. The increase in PDE4B2 mRNA is followed by increases in PDE4B2 protein and PDE4 enzyme activity. Results from in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that these changes are due to activation of adrenergic receptors and a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A mechanism. Inhibition of PDE4 activity during the late phase of adrenergic stimulation enhances cAMP and melatonin levels. The evidence that PDE4B2 plays a negative feedback role in adrenergic/cAMP signaling in the pineal gland provides the first proof that cAMP control of PDE4B2 is a physiologically relevant control mechanism in cAMP signaling.

  4. Early life adversity and serotonin transporter gene variation interact at the level of the adrenal gland to affect the adult hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    PubMed

    van der Doelen, R H A; Deschamps, W; D'Annibale, C; Peeters, D; Wevers, R A; Zelena, D; Homberg, J R; Kozicz, T

    2014-07-08

    The short allelic variant of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) promoter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with the etiology of major depression by interaction with early life stress (ELS). Furthermore, 5-HTTLPR has been associated with abnormal functioning of the stress-responsive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Here, we examined if, and at what level, the HPA-axis is affected in an animal model for ELS × 5-HTTLPR interactions. Heterozygous and homozygous 5-HTT knockout rats and their wild-type littermates were exposed daily at postnatal days 2-14 to 3 h of maternal separation. When grown to adulthood, plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and the major rat glucocorticoid, corticosterone (CORT), were measured. Furthermore, the gene expression of key HPA-axis players at the level of the hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands was assessed. No 5-HTT genotype × ELS interaction effects on gene expression were observed at the level of the hypothalamus or pituitary. However, we found significant 5-HTT genotype × ELS interaction effects for plasma CORT levels and adrenal mRNA levels of the ACTH receptor, such that 5-HTT deficiency was associated under control conditions with increased, but after ELS with decreased basal HPA-axis activity. With the use of an in vitro adrenal assay, naïve 5-HTT knockout rats were furthermore shown to display increased adrenal ACTH sensitivity. Therefore, we conclude that basal HPA-axis activity is affected by the interaction of 5-HTT genotype and ELS, and is programmed, within the axis itself, predominantly at the level of the adrenal gland. This study therefore emphasizes the importance of the adrenal gland for HPA-related psychiatric disorders.

  5. Novel hypophysiotropic AgRP2 neurons and pineal cells revealed by BAC transgenesis in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Shainer, Inbal; Buchshtab, Adi; Hawkins, Thomas A.; Wilson, Stephen W.; Cone, Roger D.; Gothilf, Yoav

    2017-01-01

    The neuropeptide agouti-related protein (AgRP) is expressed in the arcuate nucleus of the mammalian hypothalamus and plays a key role in regulating food consumption and energy homeostasis. Fish express two agrp genes in the brain: agrp1, considered functionally homologous with the mammalian AgRP, and agrp2. The role of agrp2 and its relationship to agrp1 are not fully understood. Utilizing BAC transgenesis, we generated transgenic zebrafish in which agrp1- and agrp2-expressing cells can be visualized and manipulated. By characterizing these transgenic lines, we showed that agrp1-expressing neurons are located in the ventral periventricular hypothalamus (the equivalent of the mammalian arcuate nucleus), projecting throughout the hypothalamus and towards the preoptic area. The agrp2 gene was expressed in the pineal gland in a previously uncharacterized subgroup of cells. Additionally, agrp2 was expressed in a small group of neurons in the preoptic area that project directly towards the pituitary and form an interface with the pituitary vasculature, suggesting that preoptic AgRP2 neurons are hypophysiotropic. We showed that direct synaptic connection can exist between AgRP1 and AgRP2 neurons in the hypothalamus, suggesting communication and coordination between AgRP1 and AgRP2 neurons and, therefore, probably also between the processes they regulate. PMID:28317906

  6. Autonomic regulation of anti-inflammatory activities from salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Mathison, Ronald D; Davison, Joseph S; St Laurent, Chris D; Befus, A Dean

    2012-01-01

    The cervical sympathetic nerves which innervate the medial basal hypothalamus-hypophyseal complex, primary and secondary lymph organs, and numerous glands, such as the pineal, thyroid, parathyroid and salivary glands form a relevant neuroimmunoendocrine structure that is involved in the regulation of systemic homeostasis. The superior cervical ganglia and the submandibular glands form a 'neuroendocrine axis' called the cervical sympathetic trunk submandibular gland (CST-SMG) axis. The identification of this axis usurps the traditional view of salivary glands as accessory digestive structures and reinforces the view that they are important sources of systemically active immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory factors whose release is intimately controlled by the autonomic nervous system, and in particular the sympathetic branch. An end component of the CST-SMG axis is the synthesis, processing and release of submandibular rat-1 protein (SMR1), a prohormone, that generates several different peptides, one from near its N-terminus called sialorphin and another from its C-terminus called - submandibular gland peptide-T (SGP-T). SGP-T formed the template for tripeptide fragment (FEG) and its metabolically stable D-isomeric peptide feG, which are potent inhibitors of allergy and asthma (IgE-mediated allergic reactions) and several non-IgE-mediated inflammations. The translation from rat genetics and proteomics to humans has yielded structural and functional correlates that hopefully will lead to the development of new medications and therapeutic approaches for difficult to treat disorders. Although the CST-SMG axis has barely been explored in humans recognition of the importance of this axis could facilitate an understanding and improved management of periodontal disease, and other diseases with a more systemic and nervous system basis such as asthma, autoimmunity, graft-versus-host disease and even Parkinson's disease.

  7. Unusual Presentation of Lacrimal Gland Pleomorphic Adenoma.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, S M; Badu, B P; Lavaju, P; Shrestha, B G; Pant, A R; Agarwal, M

    2014-01-01

    The pleomorphic adenoma of lacrimal gland presents as a painless, progressive, slowly growing supero-temporal swelling with variable proptosis. This tumor is usually found in adults and extremely rare in teenage. We report a case of a 15-year-old boy with pleomorphic adenoma of lacrimal gland which mimicked pseudotumor of orbit due to its presentation as an orbital inflammatory disease and the age distribution. Neuroimaging also suggested pseudotumor and oral steroid was started. But, there was no improvement on steroids and ultrasound guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) was performed which suggested Pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland. En-bloc excision of the mass through antero-lateral orbitotomy was done with satisfactory final outcome The histopathological evaluation was consistent with pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland.

  8. A hemorrhagic pineal cyst with a bacterial meningitis-like manifestation and benign outcome.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kanji; Omodaka, Toshikazu; Watanabe, Rie; Kodaira, Minori

    2013-01-01

    Pineal cysts are a common incidental finding in imaging studies, and the majority of such cysts are asymptomatic. However, hemorrhaging pineal cysts, which are considered to be rare, are often associated with severe symptoms. We herein describe the case of a 58-year-old patient with the novel manifestation of a bleeding pineal cyst, who had a benign outcome without any surgical treatment. Although the clinical manifestations resembled those of bacterial meningitis, magnetic resonance images suggested chemical meningitis caused by an intracystic hemorrhage and rupture of the pineal cyst.

  9. Pineal and ectopic pineal tumors: the role of radiation therapy. [X ray; /sup 60/Co

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Y.T.R.; Medini, E.; Haselow, R.E.; Jones, T.K. Jr.; Levitt, S.H.

    1981-08-01

    Seventeen patients with pineal tumors and one ectopic (suprasellar) germinoma were treated with radiation therapy. Surgery was restricted to decompression in 16 patients, and only two patients had resection of the tumor. Thirteen of 18 patients are alive without evidence for disease with a ten-year surrvival rate of 88%. The tumor dose ranged from 4000 rads to 6000 rads. No age or dose dependence in survival was noted, but patients with whole brain irradiation or generous volume to include ventricular system had better survival. No case of spinal metastasis was noted. The possibility of increased incidence of meningeal seeding following surgical intervention is considered. From their data, the authors feel that radiation therapy with or without surgical decompression should be the primary treatment for pinealoma. Surgery can be used for diagnosis and/or treatment of patients who show delayed response to radiation. Recommendation is made for the use of whole brain irradiation to 4000 rads followed by a boost to the tumor area to 5000 rads.

  10. Putative pathway of sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation by expression patterns of genes identified from female pheromone gland and adult antenna of Sesamia inferens (Walker).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Xia, Yi-Han; Zhu, Jia-Yao; Li, Sheng-Yun; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2014-05-01

    The general pathway of biosynthesis and degradation for Type-I sex pheromones in moths is well established, but some genes involved in this pathway remain to be characterized. The purple stem borer, Sesamia inferens, employs a pheromone blend containing components with three different terminal functional groups (Z11-16:OAc, Z11-16:OH, and Z11-16:Ald) of Type-I sex pheromones. Thus, it provides a good model to study the diversity of genes involved in pheromone biosynthesis and degradation pathways. By analyzing previously obtained transcriptomic data of the sex pheromone glands and antennae, we identified 73 novel genes that are possibly related to pheromone biosynthesis (46 genes) or degradation (27 genes). Gene expression patterns and phylogenetic analysis revealed that one desaturase (SinfDes4), one fatty acid reductase (SinfFAR2), and one fatty acid xtransport protein (SinfFATP1) genes were predominantly expressed in pheromone glands, and clustered with genes involved in pheromone synthesis in other moth species. Ten genes including five carboxylesterases (SinfCXE10, 13, 14, 18, and 20), three aldehyde oxidases (SinfAOX1, 2 and 3), and two alcohol dehydrogenases (SinfAD1 and 3) were expressed specifically or predominantly in antennae, and could be candidate genes involved in pheromone degradation. SinfAD1 and 3 are the first reported alcohol dehydrogenase genes with antennae-biased expression. Based on these results we propose a pathway involving these potential enzyme-encoding gene candidates in sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation in S. inferens. This study provides robust background information for further elucidation of the genetic basis of sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation, and ultimately provides potential targets to disrupt sexual communication in S. inferens for control purposes.

  11. Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs): a novel group of insect pathogenic viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs) are a unique, unclassified group of entomopathogenic, double-stranded DNA viruses that have been reported from three genera of Diptera. These viruses replicate in nuclei of salivary gland cells in adult flies, inducing gland enlargement with little obvious ...

  12. Light, neurotransmitters and the suprachiasmatic nucleus control of pineal melatonin production in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kennaway, D J

    1997-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the neuronal pathways involved in the generation and entrainment of circadian rhythms. We have monitored the output of the pineal gland via the urinary metabolite of melatonin, 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT.6S), following drug treatment to provide information on the transmitters mediating the effects of light. As a check on the specificity of the response [suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) versus direct pineal effects] we also monitored in separate experiments c-Fos induction in the SCN in response to the treatments. Administration of the excitatory amino acid (EAA) antagonist MK-801 (3 mg/kg) failed to inhibit either the acute or entraining effects of light on melatonin production and only partially (approximately 30%) prevented the induction of c-Fos in the SCN. These results suggested that EAA are either not important in mediating the effects of light in the rat or that pathways utilising transmitters other than EAA may be involved. When the non-specific serotonin agonist quipazine was administered at CT 18, it mimicked both the acute and phase delaying effects of light on melatonin secretion and induced c-Fos in the SCN with a regional distribution identical to that observed following light treatment. Characterisation of the receptor subtypes involved in this response implicated the 5HT2c receptor on the basis of the response to (+/-)-1-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane HCl (DOI, 0.1-0.5 mg/kg) and the potent antagonism by ritanserin and ketanserin. DOI (0.5 mg/kg) also induced c-Fos in the SCN and the induction was prevented by ritanserin and ketanserin. Despite the potency of 5HT2c agonists in mimicking light effects on melatonin rhythmicity, at the time of preparation we have not been able to block the effects of 2-1x/1-min light pulses on the melatonin rhythm with either metergoline (15 mg/kg), ritanserin (3 mg/kg) or ketanserin (3 mg/kg). Similarly ritanserin (10 mg/kg) failed to block light-induced c-Fos induction in

  13. Stem cells and the developing mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Makarem, Maisam; Spike, Benjamin T; Dravis, Christopher; Kannan, Nagarajan; Wahl, Geoffrey M; Eaves, Connie J

    2013-06-01

    The mammary gland undergoes dynamic changes throughout life. In the mouse, these begin with initial morphogenesis of the gland in the mid-gestation embryo followed by hormonally regulated changes during puberty and later in adulthood. The adult mammary gland contains a hierarchy of cell types with varying potentials for self-maintenance and differentiation. These include cells able to produce complete, functional mammary glands in vivo and that contain daughter cells with the same remarkable regenerative potential, as well as cells with more limited clonogenic activity in vitro. Here we review how applying in vitro and in vivo methods for quantifying these cells in adult mammary tissue to fetal mammary cells has enabled the first cells fulfilling the functional criteria of transplantable, isolated mammary stem cells to be identified a few days before birth. Thereafter, the number of these cells increases rapidly. Populations containing these fetal stem cells display growth and gene expression programs that differ from their adult counterparts but share signatures characteristic of certain types of breast cancer. Such observations reinforce growing evidence of important differences between tissue-specific fetal and adult cells with stem cell properties and emphasize the merits of investigating their molecular basis.

  14. Salivary gland disorders.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Louis

    2014-11-01

    Patients with salivary gland disease present with certain objective and/or subjective signs. An accurate diagnosis for these patients requires a range of techniques that includes the organized integration of information derived from their history, clinical examination, imaging, serology, and histopathology. This article highlights the signs and symptoms of the salivary gland disorders seen in the Salivary Gland Center, and emphasizes the methodology used to achieve a definitive diagnosis and therapy.

  15. Fluorine F 18 Fluorodopa-Labeled PET Scan in Planning Surgery and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed High- or Low-Grade Malignant Glioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-10

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma

  16. Jugulo-sternal-gland tumors in male tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    PubMed

    Brack, M

    1991-12-01

    Adenocarcinomas of the jugulo-sternal glands were observed in seven adult male tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) at biopsy or necrospy. Five of these tumors were classified as carcinomas of the sebaceous gland compartment; one was diagnosed as a papilliform adenoma of apocrine (monoptychic) sweat glands; and one was of a mixed sebaceous gland/apocrine sweat gland structure. Four sebaceous gland carcinomas had histologic evidence of vascular invasion; one had metastasized to the regional lymph nodes and lungs and had also invaded the thoracic muscles.

  17. Endocrine glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Endocrine glands release hormones (chemical messengers) into the bloodstream to be transported to various organs and tissues throughout the body. For instance, the pancreas secretes insulin, which ...

  18. Morphology and protein patterns of honey bee drone accessory glands.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Landim, Carminda da; Dallacqua, Rodrigo Pires

    2005-09-30

    We used light and transmission electron microscopy to examine the morphology of the accessory glands of immature and mature adult males of Apis mellifera L. We also made an electrophoretic analysis of the protein content of the mature gland. The glands of the immature male actively secrete a mucous substance that can be seen in the lumen of the gland of the mature male. This secretion stains with mercury bromophenol blue and with periodic acid-Schiff reaction, which stain glyconjugates. The protein content was higher in the lumen secretion than in the gland wall extracts. The electrophoresis patterns of the wall extracts were different from those of the secretion found in the gland lumen.

  19. Semi-automatic elastic registration on thyroid gland ultrasonic image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xia; Zhong, Yue; Luo, Yan; Li, Deyu; Lin, Jiangli; Wang, Tianfu

    2007-12-01

    Knowledge of in vivo thyroid volume has both diagnostic and therapeutic importance and could lead to a more precise quantification of absolute activity contained in the thyroid gland. However, the shape of thyroid gland is irregular and difficult to calculate. For precise estimation of thyroid volume by ultrasound imaging, this paper presents a novel semiautomatic minutiae matching method in thyroid gland ultrasonic image by means of thin-plate spline model. Registration consists of four basic steps: feature detection, feature matching, mapping function design, and image transformation and resampling. Due to the connectivity of thyroid gland boundary, we choose active contour model as feature detector, and radials from centric points for feature matching. The proposed approach has been used in thyroid gland ultrasound images registration. Registration results of 18 healthy adults' thyroid gland ultrasound images show this method consumes less time and energy with good objectivity than algorithms selecting landmarks manually.

  20. Experiment K-7-19: Pineal Physiology After Spaceflight: Relation to Rat Gonadal Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, D. C.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Krasnov, I.; Asadi, H.

    1994-01-01

    The function of pineal exposed to microgravity and spaceflight is studied. It is found that the spaceflight resulted in a stress response as indicated by adrenal hypertrophy, that gonadal function was compromised, and that the pineal may be linked as part of the mechanisms of the response noted.

  1. [Epidermoid cysts in the pineal region--analysis of four cases and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Laleva, M; Uzunov, K; Gabrovski, N; abrovski, St

    2009-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts represent 0.2-1% of all intracranial tumours. Extremely rare they are found in the pineal region. We present four patients with epidermoid cysts located in the pineal region observed and operated by the senior author (S.G.) during a period of twenty years and review of the literature.

  2. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... continue reading this guide. ‹ Salivary Gland Cancer - Medical Illustrations up Salivary Gland Cancer - Screening › f t k ... Net Guide Salivary Gland Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Screening Symptoms and Signs Diagnosis Subtypes ...

  3. Effects of Pygidial Secretion (Zoopesticide) on Histopathological Changes in the Male Accessory Reproductive Glands of Adult Male Insect Odontopus varicornis in Relation to Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Lousia, M.; Selvisabhanayakam; Mathivanan, V.

    2010-01-01

    Indiscriminate use of pesticides for the eradication of pests causes tremendous changes to the environment and also to other nontarget organisms. To prevent such contamination of the environment and save nontarget species, zoopesticides are increasingly used as they are cost effective, eco-friendly, safe, and sustainable in the field of agriculture. The present study was undertaken to find out the effect of pygidial secretion (zoopesticide) on Odontopus varicornis. The insects were exposed to pygidial secretion for 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours and its sublethal concentration was found to be about 2.8% for 48 hours. When the insects were injected with sublethal concentration 2.8% for 48 hours, the study revealed certain remarkable changes in the histopathology of the male accessory reproductive glands (MARGs) such as disintegration of epithelial cell wall, swollen nucleus, vacuolization of cytoplasm, highly pycnotic and necrotic epithelium, enlargement of epithelial cells, and disorganized tissues. It is suggested that zoopesticide causes several histopathological damages in the MARGs of O. varicornis and affects the reproductive potentiality of O. varicornis. PMID:21042469

  4. Effects of acute ethanol administration on nocturnal pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Creighton, J.A.; Rudeen, P.K.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of acute ethanol administration on pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, norepinephrine and indoleamine content was examined in male rats. When ethanol was administered in two equal doses (2 g/kg body weight) over a 4 hour period during the light phase, the nocturnal rise in NAT activity was delayed by seven hours. The nocturnal pineal norepinephrine content was not altered by ethanol except for a delay in the reduction of NE with the onset of the following light phase. Although ethanol treatment led to a significant reduction in nocturnal levels of pineal serotonin content, there was no significant effect upon pineal content of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The data indicate that ethanol delays the onset of the rise of nocturnal pineal NAT activity.

  5. Multiple epidermoid cysts located in the pineal and extracranial regions treated by neuroendoscopy.

    PubMed

    Kurosaki, Kunikazu; Hayashi, Nakamasa; Hamada, Hideo; Hori, Emiko; Kurimoto, Masanori; Endo, Shunro

    2005-04-01

    A 22-year-old woman presented with a rare case of multiple epidermoid cysts located in the pineal and extracranial regions. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed a lesion in the pineal region as hypointense on the T(1)-weighted image and hyperintense on the T(2)-weighted image, without enhancement. Neuroendoscopic treatment was performed under a diagnosis of pineal cyst. However, the cyst wall was too thick to perforate, although third ventriculostomy was performed. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging demonstrated the lesions in the pineal and extracranial regions as marked hyperintensity. The diagnosis was epidermoid cyst. Subsequently, neuroendoscopic treatment of the pineal epidermoid cyst was performed. Careful preoperative diagnosis of epidermoid cysts based on diffusion-weighted MR imaging is required.

  6. Experiment K-6-19. Pineal physiology in microgravity: Relation to rat gonadal function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, D.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Kaddis, F.; Markley, C.; Krasnov, I.

    1990-01-01

    One of the most interesting concomitants to spaceflight and exposure to microgravity has been the disturbing alteration in calcium metabolism and resulting skeletal effects. It was recognized as early as 1685 (cited in Kitay and Altschule, 1954) that the pineal of humans calcified with age. However, little can be found in the literature relating calcification and pineal function. Given the link between exposure to microgravity and perturbation of calcium metabolism and the fact that the pineal is apparently one of the only soft tissues to calcify, researchers examined pineal calcium content following the spaceflight. Researchers concluded that the spaceflight resulted in a stress response as indicated by adrenal hypertrophy, that gonadal function was compromised, and that the pineal may be linked as part of the mechanism of the responses noted.

  7. Pink spot, white spot: the pineal skylight of the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea Vandelli 1761) skull and its possible role in the phenology of feeding migrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davenport, John; Jones, T. Todd; Work, Thierry M.; Balazs, George H.

    2014-01-01

    Leatherback turtles, Dermochelys coriacea, which have an irregular pink area on the crown of the head known as the pineal or ‘pink spot’, forage upon jellyfish in cool temperate waters along the western and eastern margins of the North Atlantic during the summer. Our study showed that the skeletal structures underlying the pink spot in juvenile and adult turtles are compatible with the idea of a pineal dosimeter function that would support recognition of environmental light stimuli. We interrogated an extensive turtle sightings database to elucidate the phenology of leatherback foraging during summer months around Great Britain and Ireland and compared the sightings with historical data for sea surface temperatures and day lengths to assess whether sea surface temperature or light periodicity/levels were likely abiotic triggers prompting foraging turtles to turn south and leave their feeding grounds at the end of the summer. We found that sea temperature was too variable and slow changing in the study area to be useful as a trigger and suggest that shortening of day lengths as the late summer equilux is approached provides a credible phenological cue, acting via the pineal, for leatherbacks to leave their foraging areas whether they are feeding close to Nova Scotia or Great Britain and Ireland.

  8. Salivary Gland Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  9. Thyroid gland biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and plays a major role in regulating ... sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ...

  10. Rare Parotid Gland Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sanan, Akshay; Cognetti, David M

    2016-04-01

    The differential diagnosis for "rare" parotid gland diseases is broad and encompasses infectious, neoplastic, autoimmune, metabolic, and iatrogenic etiologies. The body of knowledge of parotid gland diseases has grown owing to advances in imaging and pathologic analysis and molecular technology. This article reviews rare parotid diseases, discussing the respective disease's clinical presentation, diagnosis, imaging, pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis.

  11. Salivary Gland Secretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, H. L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes materials and procedures for an experiment utilizing a live dog to demonstrate: (1) physiology of the salivary gland; (2) parasympathetic control of the salivary gland; (3) influence of varying salivary flow rates on sodium and potassium ions, osmolarity and pH; and (4) salivary secretion as an active process. (DS)

  12. Clasper gland morphology and development in Potamotrygon magdalenae (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae).

    PubMed

    Anaya-López, Paola; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2017-03-01

    Clasper gland morphology and development in Potamotrygon magdalenae and its relation with the acquisition of reproductive maturity is described in males of different developmental stages (embryos, neonates, juveniles, and reproductively active and resting adults). The glands are subcutaneous masses in the proximal base of each clasper. They are partially bilobate organs with a ventral groove that bears a row of papillae. Glands tend to be asymmetric, the left gland has a larger size, a trend that has been observed in other organs of elasmobranchs. Glands are formed by radially organized tubular secretory units lined with a simple columnar epithelium with basal nuclei and granular eosinophilic cytoplasm; vascularized loose connective tissue surrounds the gland units. The gland is covered by two layers of striated muscle tissue in circular and longitudinal arrangement. The clasper glands begin to develop in neonates and their secretory activity begins in juveniles. The active secretion of the clasper gland is observed in mature males, it includes glycoproteins and sulfated mucopolysaccharides. The size of the glands has a positive and direct relationship with body size, measured as disc width. Significant differences in clasper gland size were found between mature (active and resting) and immature (neonates and juveniles) males, suggesting that the acquisition of the sexual maturity involves the increase in the size of the gland due to a highly augmented secretory activity. Therefore, clasper glands are clearly associated with the reproductive activity of males and their secretion should have an endocrine control as other sexual secondary organs. J. Morphol. 278:369-379, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Adrenergic activation of melatonin secretion in ovine pineal explants in short-term superfusion culture occurs via protein synthesis independent and dependent phenomena.

    PubMed

    Lewczuk, Bogdan; Ziółkowska, Natalia; Prusik, Magdalena; Przybylska-Gornowicz, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The ovine pineal is generally considered as an interesting model for the study on adrenergic regulation of melatonin secretion due to some functional similarities with this gland in the human. The present investigations, performed in the superfusion culture of pineal explants, demonstrated that the norepinephrine-induced elevation of melatonin secretion in ovine pinealocytes comprised of two subsequent periods: a rapid increase phase and a slow increase phase. The first one included the quick rise in release of N-acetylserotonin and melatonin, occurring parallel to elevation of NE concentration in the medium surrounding explants. This rapid increase phase was not affected by inhibition of translation. The second, slow increase phase began after NE level had reached the maximum concentration in the culture medium and lasted about two hours. It was completely abolished by the treatment with translation inhibitors. The obtained results showed for the first time that the regulation of N-acetylserotonin synthesis in pinealocytes of some species like the sheep involves the on/off mechanism, which is completely independent of protein synthesis and works very fast. They provided strong evidence pointing to the need of revision of the current opinion that arylalkylamines N-acetyltransferase activity in pinealocytes is controlled exclusively by changes in enzyme abundance.

  14. Intracranial physiological calcifications in adults on computed tomography in Tabriz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Daghighi, M H; Rezaei, V; Zarrintan, S; Pourfathi, H

    2007-05-01

    Intracranial physiological calcifications are unaccompanied by any evidence of disease and have no demonstrable pathological cause. They are often due to calcium and sometimes iron deposition in the blood vessels of different structures of the brain. Computed tomography (CT) is the most sensitive means of detection of these calcifications. The aim of this study was the assessment of intracranial physiological calcifications in adults. We studied 1569 cases ranging in age from 15 to 85 in Tabriz Imam Khomeini Hospital, Iran. These patients had a history of head trauma and their CT scan did not show any evidence of pathological findings. The structures evaluated consisted of (A) the pineal gland, (B) the choroid plexus, (C) the habenula, (D) the basal ganglia, (E) the tentorium cerebelli, sagittal sinus and falx cerebri, (F) vessels and (G) lens and other structures which could be calcified. Of the 1569 subjects, 71.0% had pineal calcification, 66.2% had choroid plexus calcification, 20.1% had habenular calcification, 7.3% had tentorium cerebelli, sagittal sinus or falx cerebri calcifications, 6.6% had vascular calcification, 0.8% had basal ganglia calcification and 0.9% had lens and other non-defined calcifications. In general, the frequency of intracranial physiological calcifications was greater in men than in women. All types of calcification increased at older ages except for lens and other non-defined calcifications. We evaluated all the cranial structures and determined percentages for all types of intracranial physiological calcification. These statistics can be used for comparing physiological and pathological intracranial calcifications. Moreover, these statistics may be of interest from the clinical perspective and are potentially of clinical use.

  15. Alisertib and Fractionated Stereotactic Radiosurgery in Treating Patients With Recurrent High Grade Gliomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-19

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  16. Doxorubicin-induced alopecia is associated with sebaceous gland degeneration.

    PubMed

    Selleri, Silvia; Seltmann, Holger; Gariboldi, Silvia; Shirai, Yuri F; Balsari, Andrea; Zouboulis, Christos C; Rumio, Cristiano

    2006-04-01

    Alopecia, accompanied by skin dryness, is one of the distressing side effects often occurring in chemotherapy-treated cancer patients. Little is known of the effects of chemotherapy on sebaceous glands, despite their importance in hair follicle homeostasis. This study investigates sebaceous gland morphology and the response of SZ95 sebaceous gland cell line to doxorubicin (DXR) treatment. The morphology of sebaceous glands during intraperitoneal DXR treatment was investigated by optical and electron microscopy in a 7-day-old rat model and further confirmed in an adult mouse model. Moreover, in vitro studies using the SZ95 sebaceous gland cell line were performed to assess the response of sebocytes to DXR in terms of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and necrosis. DXR treatment induced sebaceous gland regression and occasionally caused their complete disappearance. This observed damage and disappearance preceded DXR-induced hair loss. In vitro experiments using the SZ95 sebaceous gland cell line indicated that DXR treatment induced a differentiation process leading to premature sebocytes apoptosis. Owing to the importance of the sebaceous gland in hair follicle homeostasis, DXR-induced involution of this gland might be related to subsequent hair loss.

  17. Gland With Cantilever Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, Patrick B.

    1989-01-01

    Single-piece gland forms tight seal on probe or tube containing liquid or gas at high pressure. Gland and probe align as assembled by simple torquing procedure. Disconnected easily and reused at same site. Made from any of wide variety of materials so compatible with application. Cantilever ring at top of gland bites into wall of tube or probe, sealing it. Wall of tube or probe must be thick enough to accommodate deformation without rupturing. Maximum deformation designed in coordination with seating and deformation of boss or conical seal.

  18. Adrenal gland and bone.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Rowan; Cooper, Mark S

    2010-11-01

    The adrenal gland synthesizes steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex and catecholamines from the adrenal medulla. Both cortisol and adrenal androgens can have powerful effects on bone. The overproduction of cortisol in Cushing's disease leads to a dramatic reduction in bone density and an increase risk of fracture. Overproduction of adrenal androgens in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) leads to marked changes in bone growth and development with early growth acceleration but ultimately a significant reduction in final adult height. The role of more physiological levels of glucocorticoids and androgens on bone metabolism is less clear. Cortisol levels measured in elderly individuals show a weak correlation with measures of bone density and change in bone density over time with a high cortisol level associated with lower bone density and more rapid bone loss. Cortisol levels and the dynamics of cortisol secretion change with age which could also explain some age related changes in bone physiology. It is also now clear that adrenal steroids can be metabolized within bone tissue itself. Local synthesis of cortisol within bone from its inactive precursor cortisone has been demonstrated and the amount of cortisol produced within osteoblasts appears to increase with age. With regard to adrenal androgens there is a dramatic reduction in levels with aging and several studies have examined the impact that restoration of these levels back to those seen in younger individuals has on bone health. Most of these studies show small positive effects in women, not men, but the skeletal sites where benefits are seen varies from study to study.

  19. Endoscopic surgery for hemorrhagic pineal cyst following antiplatelet therapy: case report.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Yoji; Yamada, Yoshitaka; Tucker, Adam; Ukita, Tohru; Tsuji, Masao; Miyake, Hiroji; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Pineal cysts of the third ventricle presenting with acute obstructive hydrocephalus due to internal cystic hemorrhage are a rare clinical entity. The authors report a case of a 61-year-old man taking antiplatelet medication who suffered from a hemorrhagic pineal cyst and was treated with endoscopic surgery. One month prior to treatment, the patient was diagnosed with a brainstem infarction and received clopidogrel in addition to aspirin. A small incidental pineal cyst was concurrently diagnosed using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging which was intended to be followed conservatively. The patient presented with a sudden onset of headache and diplopia. On admission, the neurological examination revealed clouding of consciousness and Parinaud syndrome. Computerized tomography (CT) scans demonstrated a hemorrhagic mass lesion in the posterior third ventricle. The patient underwent emergency external ventricular drainage with staged endoscopic biopsy and third ventriculostomy using a flexible videoscope. Histological examination revealed pineal tissue with necrotic change and no evidence of tumor cells. One year later MR imaging demonstrated no evidence of cystic lesion and a flow void between third ventricle and prepontine cistern. In patients with asymptomatic pineal cysts who are treated with antiplatelet therapy, it is important to be aware of the risk of pineal apoplexy. Endoscopic management can be effective for treatment of hemorrhagic pineal cyst with obstructive hydrocephalus.

  20. The Harderian gland of the Cheesman's gerbil (Gerbillus cheesmani ) of the Kuwaiti desert.

    PubMed

    Sabry, I; Al-Azemi, M; Al-Ghaith, L

    2000-04-01

    The Harderian gland is a large orbital structure. Several functions have been ascribed to the gland such as lubrication of the eye, a source of pheromones, thermoregulartory lipids and photoprotective secretions and a part of the retinal-pineal axis. In the present study, the Harderian gland of the Cheesman's gerbil, Gerbillus cheesmani, is described for the first time. The gland is located around the posterior portion of the eyeball. The gland is compound tubular, surrounded by a thin connective tissue capsule. Only one secretory epithelial cell type was recognized, characterized by the presence of lipid vacuoles and cytoplasmic slashes in high numbers; the former being more concentrated towards the apical part while the latter being more concentrated towards the central and basal parts. Some of the cytoplasmic slashes contained electron dense filamentous structures. Similar structures were observed in the lipid vacuoles. Thus, a functional relationship between the cytoplasmic slashes and the lipid vacuoles is suggested. A unique structure was observed, termed dome-like cells, located between the epithelial cells and the basement membrane. These cells were characterized by the extensive presence of pleomorphic mitochondria and compact lamellae of granular endoplasmic reticulum (GER) in the form of finger prints. The gland was found to be actively secreting porphyrins as well as lipids. Cellular debris was also seen in the tubular lumina. Myoepithelial cells with their spindle shape and elongated nuclei were evident between the basement membrane and the secretory epithelium. Sparse interstitial tissue was observed in-between the gland tubules of both male and female gerbils. Macrophages, dendritic melanocytes and lymphocytes are the most represented cellular components of the interstitium. Further studies are required to investigate the function of the dome-like cells as well as the role of lymphocytes in the rodents Harderian gland.