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Sample records for adult population methods

  1. The establishment of tocopherol reference intervals for Hungarian adult population using a validated HPLC method.

    PubMed

    Veres, Gábor; Szpisjak, László; Bajtai, Attila; Siska, Andrea; Klivényi, Péter; Ilisz, István; Földesi, Imre; Vécsei, László; Zádori, Dénes

    2017-02-09

    Evidence suggests that decreased α-tocopherol (the most biologically active substance in the vitamin E group) level can cause neurological symptoms, most likely ataxia. The aim of the current study was to first provide reference intervals for serum tocopherols in the adult Hungarian population with appropriate sample size, recruiting healthy control subjects and neurological patients suffering from conditions without symptoms of ataxia, myopathy or cognitive deficiency. A validated HPLC method applying a diode array detector and rac-tocol as internal standard was utilized for that purpose. Furthermore, serum cholesterol levels were determined as well for data normalization. The calculated 2.5-97.5% reference intervals for α-, β/γ- and δ-tocopherols were 24.62-54.67, 0.81-3.69 and 0.29-1.07 μm, respectively, whereas the tocopherol/cholesterol ratios were 5.11-11.27, 0.14-0.72 and 0.06-0.22 μmol/mmol, respectively. The establishment of these reference intervals may improve the diagnostic accuracy of tocopherol measurements in certain neurological conditions with decreased tocopherol levels. Moreover, the current study draws special attention to the possible pitfalls in the complex process of the determination of reference intervals as well, including the selection of study population, the application of internal standard and method validation and the calculation of tocopherol/cholesterol ratios.

  2. Adult Development Researchers' Reflections on Using Multiple Research Methods with ABE/ESOL Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drago-Severson, Eleanor

    A study followed for a year or more the internal experiences of learning and change of 41 adult basic education/English as a second language learners enrolled in these 3 programs: community college, family literacy site, and workplace site. It focused on learners' meanings as the starting point for exploration and used a developmental lens to…

  3. Determining adult type 2 diabetes-related health care needs in an indigenous population from rural Guatemala: a mixed-methods preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Guatemala, diabetes is an emerging public health concern. Guatemala has one of the largest indigenous populations in Latin America, and this population frequently does not access the formal health care system. Therefore, knowledge about the emergence of diabetes in this population is limited. Methods Interview participants (n=23) were recruited from a convenience sample of indigenous adults with type 2 diabetes at one rural diabetes clinic in Guatemala. A structured interview was used to assess knowledge about diabetes and its complications; access to diabetes-related health care and treatment; dietary and lifestyle changes; and family and social supports for individuals living with diabetes. Interviews were supplemented with two group interviews with community leaders and health care providers. Thematic analysis was used to produce insights into diabetes knowledge, attitudes, and practices. In addition, a chart review of the clinic’s electronic medical record identified all adult patients (n=80) presenting in one calendar year for a first-time diabetic consultation. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were extracted and summarized from these records. Results Salient demographic factors in both the structured interview and chart review samples included low educational levels and high indigenous language preference. In the interview sample, major gaps in biomedical knowledge about diabetes included understanding the causes, chronicity, and long-term end-organ complications of diabetes. Medication costs, medical pluralism, and limited social supports for dietary and lifestyles changes were major practical barriers to disease management. Quantitative data from medical records review revealed high rates of poor glycemic control, overweight and obesity, and medication prescription. Conclusions This study provides a preliminary sketch of type 2 diabetes in an indigenous Guatemalan population. Combined qualitative and quantitative data point towards

  4. Adult height, nutrition, and population health

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Jessica M.; Subramanian, S.V.; Davey Smith, George

    2016-01-01

    In this review, the potential causes and consequences of adult height, a measure of cumulative net nutrition, in modern populations are summarized. The mechanisms linking adult height and health are examined, with a focus on the role of potential confounders. Evidence across studies indicates that short adult height (reflecting growth retardation) in low- and middle-income countries is driven by environmental conditions, especially net nutrition during early years. Some of the associations of height with health and social outcomes potentially reflect the association between these environmental factors and such outcomes. These conditions are manifested in the substantial differences in adult height that exist between and within countries and over time. This review suggests that adult height is a useful marker of variation in cumulative net nutrition, biological deprivation, and standard of living between and within populations and should be routinely measured. Linkages between adult height and health, within and across generations, suggest that adult height may be a potential tool for monitoring health conditions and that programs focused on offspring outcomes may consider maternal height as a potentially important influence. PMID:26928678

  5. Adult height, nutrition, and population health.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Jessica M; Subramanian, S V; Davey Smith, George; Özaltin, Emre

    2016-03-01

    In this review, the potential causes and consequences of adult height, a measure of cumulative net nutrition, in modern populations are summarized. The mechanisms linking adult height and health are examined, with a focus on the role of potential confounders. Evidence across studies indicates that short adult height (reflecting growth retardation) in low- and middle-income countries is driven by environmental conditions, especially net nutrition during early years. Some of the associations of height with health and social outcomes potentially reflect the association between these environmental factors and such outcomes. These conditions are manifested in the substantial differences in adult height that exist between and within countries and over time. This review suggests that adult height is a useful marker of variation in cumulative net nutrition, biological deprivation, and standard of living between and within populations and should be routinely measured. Linkages between adult height and health, within and across generations, suggest that adult height may be a potential tool for monitoring health conditions and that programs focused on offspring outcomes may consider maternal height as a potentially important influence.

  6. Population pharmacokinetics of micafungin in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Gumbo, Tawanda; Hiemenz, John; Ma, Lei; Keirns, James J; Buell, Donald N; Drusano, George L

    2008-03-01

    We performed population pharmacokinetic analysis of micafungin in adult patients treated with doses between 12.5 and 200 mg/day. Our analysis identified a breakpoint patient weight of 66.3 kg above which serum clearance increased by approximately 50%. Patients with weight >66.3 kg may need larger doses to achieve similar exposures to those <66.3 kg. However, the clinical implications are still unknown.

  7. Increasing the Success of Adults from Diverse Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheckley, Barry G.; Keeton, Morris T.

    1995-01-01

    The following methods can increase the academic success of adults from diverse populations: focus on how educational circumstances are experienced by individuals, not broad groups; maximize time spent on tasks related to course/degree requirements; and reduce student costs in terms of time, money, frustration, and stress. (SK)

  8. Age and Time Population Differences: Young Adults, Gen Xers, and Millennials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Lauren A.

    2013-01-01

    Age and Time disparities in young adult research populations are common because young adults are defined by varying age spans; members of Generation X and Millennial generations may both be considered young adults; study years vary, affecting populations; and qualitative methods with limited age/year samples are frequently utilized. The current…

  9. Morphometric Evaluation of Adult Acromion Process in North Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Vasudeva, Neelam

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Dimensions of acromion process are important to show linkage to the shoulder girdle pathologies. Also morphometric analysis of acromion process would be helpful for surgeons while performing surgical procedures on the shoulder joint. Aim The purpose of this present study was to observe the detailed morphometric evaluation of adult acromion processes in North Indian population because different morphometric dimensions play an important role in various disorders of the shoulder, particularly sub acromial impingement syndrome. Materials and Methods Two hundred adult dry scapulae from the osteology museum of MAMC, New Delhi, were obtained for evaluation of various measurement of acromion process. The length, width, thickness of acromion, coraco-acromial (C-A) distance and acromio-glenoid (Ac-g) distance were measured. The measurements were compared with other osteological studies performed on different population group. Data was analysed using SPSS version 12.0 and mean values with standard deviation for each dimension were presented. Results The mean values of each measurement were: length: 41.007 mm; width: 21.82 mm; thickness: 6.58 mm; C-A distance: 28.34 mm and Ac-g distance: 26.21 mm. Conclusion It is expected that various dimensions of adult acromion process will serve as a reference base and will assist the surgeon in the approach to be used and precision of the operative technique. So, the study will provide a vital support for planning and executing acromioplasty in the treatment of impingement syndrome. PMID:28273959

  10. Microsimulation methods for population projection.

    PubMed

    Van Imhoff, E; Post, W

    1998-01-01

    The use of microsimulation methods for making population projections is examined. "A particular problem in microsimulation results from the fact that the projections are subject to random variation. Various sources of random variations are examined but the most important is the one we refer to as specification randomness: the more explanatory variables are included in the model, the greater the degree of random variation affecting the output of the model. After a brief survey of the microsimulation models which exist in demography, a number of the essential characteristics of microsimulation are illustrated using the KINSIM model for projecting the future size and structure of kinship networks." (EXCERPT)

  11. Adult survival and population growth rate in Colorado big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Ellison, L.E.; Stanley, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    We studied adult survival and population growth at multiple maternity colonies of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Fort Collins, Colorado. We investigated hypotheses about survival using information-theoretic methods and mark-recapture analyses based on passive detection of adult females tagged with passive integrated transponders. We constructed a 3-stage life-history matrix model to estimate population growth rate (??) and assessed the relative importance of adult survival and other life-history parameters to population growth through elasticity and sensitivity analysis. Annual adult survival at 5 maternity colonies monitored from 2001 to 2005 was estimated at 0.79 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.77-0.82). Adult survival varied by year and roost, with low survival during an extreme drought year, a finding with negative implications for bat populations because of the likelihood of increasing drought in western North America due to global climate change. Adult survival during winter was higher than in summer, and mean life expectancies calculated from survival estimates were lower than maximum longevity records. We modeled adult survival with recruitment parameter estimates from the same population. The study population was growing (?? = 1.096; 95% CI = 1.057-1.135). Adult survival was the most important demographic parameter for population growth. Growth clearly had the highest elasticity to adult survival, followed by juvenile survival and adult fecundity (approximately equivalent in rank). Elasticity was lowest for fecundity of yearlings. The relative importances of the various life-history parameters for population growth rate are similar to those of large mammals. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  12. Life and health satisfaction in the adult population of Iran

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Increasing interest has emerged in the use of subjective well-being as a development indicator and for the evaluation of public policies. The aim of this study was to assess life and health satisfaction and their determinants in the adult population of Iran. METHODS We conducted a survey of a sample of 3,150 adults at least 18 years of age in Tehran, the capital of Iran. The subjects were selected using a stratified random sampling method, and they were interviewed face-to-face at their usual residence by trained interviewers. Life satisfaction was used as a measure of subjective well-being. We used ordinary least square regression models to assess the associations of life and health satisfaction with socio-demographic variables. RESULTS On a 0-10 scale, the mean (standard deviation) scores for life and health satisfaction were 6.93 (2.54) and 7.18 (1.97), respectively. The average score for life satisfaction in females was 0.52 points higher than in males. A U-shaped relationship was found between age and life satisfaction, with respondents 35 to 44 years of age having the lowest average level of life satisfaction. Satisfaction with life and health among divorced respondents was significantly lower than among never-married and married participants. The scores for life satisfaction in respondents who rated their health status as poor were 3.83 points lower than in those who rated their health status as excellent. CONCLUSIONS The majority of the population of Tehran was satisfied with their life and health. Self-rated health status had the greatest impact on life satisfaction. PMID:27809456

  13. Prevalence of Dental Caries in Kosovar Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Begzati, Agim; Kelmendi, Jeta; Ilijazi, Donika; Kqiku, Lumnije

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in the Kosovar adult population. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study in Kosovo was conducted examining 9387 patients, aged 18 upwards, between January 2010 and December 2011. Clinical evaluation was done using WHO criteria for evaluation of dental health status and data collection. Results. The prevalence of caries for the whole study was 72.80%. The mean DMFT index was 9.61 (±5.12) in the 18–34-year age group, 11.6 (±6.42) in the 35–44-year age group, 13.68 (±8.12) among the 45–64-year age group, 17.98 (±9.81) in the 65–74-year age group, and 23.19 (±9.41) in the age group of 75+ years, respectively. A significant difference of mean DMFT and its each component was observed between the ages (P < 0.001). Conclusion. This study comes out with the significant levels of dental caries among young Kosovar population (18–34 years old). PMID:27516774

  14. Novel estimates of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) population size and adult survival based on Wolbachia releases.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Scott A; Montgomery, Brian L; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2013-05-01

    The size of Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquito populations and adult survival rates have proven difficult to estimate because of a lack of consistent quantitative measures to equate sampling methods, such as adult trapping, to actual population size. However, such estimates are critical for devising control methods and for modeling the transmission of dengue and other infectious agents carried by this species. Here we take advantage of recent releases of Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti coupled with the results of ongoing monitoring to estimate the size of adult Ae. aegypti populations around Cairns in far north Queensland, Australia. Based on the association between released adults infected with Wolbachia and data from Biogents Sentinel traps, we show that data from two locations are consistent with population estimates of approximately 5-10 females per house and daily survival rates of 0.7-0.9 for the released Wolbachia-infected females. Moreover, we estimate that networks of Biogents Sentinel traps at a density of one per 15 houses capture around 5-10% of the adult population per week, and provide a rapid estimate of the absolute population size of Ae. aegypti. These data are discussed with respect to release rates and monitoring in future Wolbachia releases and also the levels of suppression required to reduce dengue transmission.

  15. Estimated Full Scale IQ in an Adult Heroin Addict Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chastain, Robert L.; And Others

    The research concerning intellectual functioning in addict populations has not addressed basic questions concerning why and how intelligence quotients (IQ) might be related to drug addiction. A study was undertaken to estimate intellectual functioning based upon a demographic profile for Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) Full…

  16. Genotypic structure of a Drosophila population for adult locomotor activity

    SciTech Connect

    Grechanyi, G.V.; Korzun, V.M.

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of the variation of adult locomotor activity in four samples taken at different times from a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster showed that the total variation of this trait is relatively stable in time and has a substantial genetic component. Genotypic structure of the population for locomotor activity is characterized by the presence of large groups of genotypes with high and low values of this trait. A possible explanation for the presence of such groups in a population is cyclic density-dependent selection.

  17. Population-regulating processes during the adult phase in flatfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijnsdorp, A. D.

    Flatfish support major fisheries and the study of regulatory processes are of paramount importance for evaluating the resilience of the resource to exploitation. This paper reviews the evidence for processes operating during the adult phase that may 1. generate interannual variability in recruitment; 2. contribute to population regulation through density-dependent growth, density-dependent ripening of adults and density-dependent egg production. With regard to (1), there is evidence that in the adult phase processes do occur that may generate recruitment variability through variation in size-specific fecundity, contraction of spawning season, reduction in egg quality, change in sex ratio and size composition of the adult population. However, time series of recruitment do not provide support for this hypothesis. With regard to (2), there is ample evidence that exploitation of flatfish coincides with an increase in growth, although the mechanisms involved are not always clear. The presence of density-dependent growth in the adult phase of unexploited populations appears to be the most likely explanation in some cases. From the early years of exploitation of flatfish stocks inhabiting cold waters, evidence exists that adult fish do not spawn each year. Fecundity schedules show annual variations, but the available information suggests that size-specific fecundity is stable over a broad range of population abundance and may only decrease at high population abundance. The analysis is complicated by the possibility of a trade-off between egg numbers and egg size. Nevertheless, a density-dependent decrease in growth will automatically result in a decrease in absolute fecundity because of the reduced body size. The potential contribution of these regulatory effects on population regulation is explored. Results indicate that density-dependent ripening and absolute fecundity, mediated through density-dependent growth, may control recruitment at high levels of population

  18. Estimating total population size for adult female sea turtles: Accounting for non-nesters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, W.L.; Richardson, J.I.; Rees, Alan F.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of population size and changes therein is important to sea turtle management and population or life history research. Investigators might be interested in testing hypotheses about the effect of current population size or density (number of animals per unit resource) on future population processes. Decision makers might want to determine a level of allowable take of individual turtles of specified life stage. Nevertheless, monitoring most stages of sea turtle life histories is difficult, because obtaining access to individuals is difficult. Although in-water assessments are becoming more common, nesting females and their hatchlings remain the most accessible life stages. In some cases adult females of a given nesting population are sufficiently philopatric that the population itself can be well defined. If a well designed tagging study is conducted on this population, survival, breeding probability, and the size of the nesting population in a given year can be estimated. However, with published statistical methodology the size of the entire breeding population (including those females skipping nesting in that year) cannot be estimated without assuming that each adult female in this population has the same probability of nesting in a given year (even those that had just nested in the previous year). We present a method for estimating the total size of a breeding population (including nesters those skipping nesting) from a tagging study limited to the nesting population, allowing for the probability of nesting in a given year to depend on an individual's nesting status in the previous year (i.e., a Markov process). From this we further develop estimators for rate of growth from year to year in both nesting population and total breeding population, and the proportion of the breeding population that is breeding in a given year. We also discuss assumptions and apply these methods to a breeding population of hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) from

  19. A Morphometric Study of Antral G-Cell Density in a Sample of Adult General Population: Comparison of Three Different Methods and Correlation with Patient Demography, Helicobacter pylori Infection, Histomorphology and Circulating Gastrin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Petersson, Fredrik; Borch, Kurt; Rehfeld, Jens F; Franzén, Lennart E

    2009-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has been linked to hypergastrinemia and either decreased or normal G-cell content in the antral mucosa. To clarify this controversial issue, we quantitatively determined antral G-cell content on the same biopsy specimens with three different methods and examined whether these methods are intercorrelated and the relation of these methods to plasma gastrin concentrations, demography, the occurrence of H. pylori infection and chronic gastritis. Gastric antral mucosal biopsy sections from 273 adults (188 with and 85 without H pylori infection) from a general population sample were examined immunohistochemically for G-cells using cell counting, stereology (point counting) and computerized image analysis. Gastritis was scored according to the updated Sydney system. Basal plasma gastrin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. The three methods for G-cell quantification were poorly correlated and the results showed no correlation with basal plasma gastrin concentrations. The antral G-cell density and scores for H. pylori colonization were positively related to age. Neither the scores for chronic inflammation, nor the scores for inflammatory activity, atrophy or intestinal metaplasia were consistently related to the antral G-cell content. In conclusion, the results of three techniques for G-cell quantification in the gastric antral mucosa were poorly intercorrelated and none of the methods correlated with plasma gastrin concentrations. Age and scores for H pylori colonization seem to be determinants of the G-cell density. That common morphometric techniques correlate poorly is of utmost importance to bear in mind when quantitative morphological studies are planned, compared or interpreted. PMID:19079618

  20. Caregiver Abuse of Chicago Chinese Older Adults in a Community-Dwelling Population

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xin Qi; Li, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine the prevalence and correlates of elder abuse reported by adult children among U.S Chinese populations. Method A community-based participatory research approach was implemented. A total of 548 Chinese adult children aged 21 years and over participated in this study. Elder abuse reported by adult children was assessed using Caregiver Abuse Screen (CASE). Results This study found a prevalence of 59.8%for elder abuse among 548 adult children. Younger age (r = −0.10, p < .05), higher level of education (r = 0.20, p < .001), higher income (r = 0.14, p < .01), more years in the U.S. (r = 0.12, p < .05), not born in Mainland China (r = −0.13, p < .01), and English-speaking (r = 0.16, p < .001) were positively correlated with elder abuse reported by adult children. Discussion Elder abuse by adult children is prevalent among U.S. Chinese populations. It is necessary for researchers, health care providers and policy makers to put more attention on elder abuse by adult children. Longitudinal research is needed to explore the risk factors associated with elder abuse by adult children. Health care providers should improve detection of elder abuse and support at-risk caregivers. Policy makers may consider cultural sensitive approaches to address elder abuse. PMID:27606358

  1. Estimate of intake of sulfites in the Belgian adult population.

    PubMed

    Vandevijvere, S; Temme, E; Andjelkovic, M; De Wil, M; Vinkx, C; Goeyens, L; Van Loco, J

    2010-08-01

    An exposure assessment was performed to estimate the usual daily intake of sulfites in the Belgian adult population. Food consumption data were retrieved from the national food consumption survey. In a first step, individual food consumption data were multiplied with the maximum permitted use levels for sulfites, expressed as sulphur dioxide, per food group (Tier 2). In a second step, on the basis of a literature review of the occurrence of sulfites in different foods, the results of the Tier 2 exposure assessment and available occurrence data from the control programme of the competent authority, a refined list of foods was drafted for the quantification of sulphite. Quantification of sulphite was performed by a high-performance ion chromatography method with eluent conductivity detector in beers and potato products. Individual food consumption data were then multiplied with the actual average concentrations of sulfite per food group, or the maximum permitted levels in case actual levels were not available (partial Tier 3). Usual intakes were calculated using the Nusser method. The mean intake of sulfites was 0.34 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) (Tier 2), corresponding to 49% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and 0.19 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), corresponding to 27% of the ADI (partial Tier 3). The food group contributing most to the intake of sulfites was wines. The results showed that the intake of sulfites is likely to be below the ADI in Belgium. However, there are indications that high consumers of wine have an intake around the ADI.

  2. Mortality Among Adults With Intellectual Disability in England: Comparisons With the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Hosking, Fay J.; Shah, Sunil M.; Harris, Tess; DeWilde, Stephen; Beighton, Carole; Cook, Derek G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To describe mortality among adults with intellectual disability in England in comparison with the general population. Methods. We conducted a cohort study from 2009 to 2013 using data from 343 general practices. Adults with intellectual disability (n = 16 666; 656 deaths) were compared with age-, gender-, and practice-matched controls (n = 113 562; 1358 deaths). Results. Adults with intellectual disability had higher mortality rates than controls (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.3, 3.9). This risk remained high after adjustment for comorbidity, smoking, and deprivation (HR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.7, 3.4); it was even higher among adults with intellectual disability and Down syndrome or epilepsy. A total of 37.0% of all deaths among adults with intellectual disability were classified as being amenable to health care intervention, compared with 22.5% in the general population (HR = 5.9; 95% CI = 5.1, 6.8). Conclusions. Mortality among adults with intellectual disability is markedly elevated in comparison with the general population, with more than a third of deaths potentially amenable to health care interventions. This mortality disparity suggests the need to improve access to, and quality of, health care among people with intellectual disability. PMID:27310347

  3. Correlation of Osteoporosis and Calcium Urolithiasis in Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Bijelic, Radojka; Milicevic, Snjezana; Balaban, Jagoda

    2016-01-01

    , the share of those who do not have normal findings is higher in the elderly population. Conclusion: Our study has just shown that in adult patients with calcium urolithiasis osteoporosis is more prevalent in older patients and more pronounced in patients with calcium urolithiasis in relation to the population without the same. PMID:26980936

  4. The Prevalence of Tooth Wear in the Dutch Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Wetselaar, Peter; Vermaire, Jan H.; Visscher, Corine M.; Lobbezoo, Frank; Schuller, Annemarie A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of tooth wear in different age groups of the Dutch adult population and to determine this tooth wear distribution by gender, socioeconomic class, and type of teeth. Results were compared with the outcomes of a previous study in a comparable population. As part of a comprehensive investigation of the oral health of the general Dutch adult population in 2013, tooth wear was assessed among 1,125 subjects in the city of ‘s-Hertogenbosch. The data collected were subjected to stratified analysis by 5 age groups (25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 years), gender, socioeconomic class, and type of teeth. Tooth wear was assessed using a 5-point ordinal occlusal/incisal grading scale. The number of teeth affected was higher in older age groups. Men showed more tooth wear than women, and subjects with low socioeconomic status (low SES) showed on average higher scores than those with high SES. Tooth wear prevalence found in this study was higher in all age groups than in the previous study. The present study found prevalences of 13% for mild tooth wear and 80% for moderate tooth wear, leading to the conclusion that these are common conditions in the Dutch adult population. Severe tooth wear (prevalence 6%) may however be characterized as rare. A tendency was found for there to be more tooth wear in older age groups, in men as compared with women, in persons with lower SES, and in the present survey as compared with the previous one. PMID:27694757

  5. Nightmares: Risk Factors Among the Finnish General Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Sandman, Nils; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Revonsuo, Antti; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paunio, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify risk factors for experiencing nightmares among the Finnish general adult population. The study aimed to both test whether previously reported correlates of frequent nightmares could be reproduced in a large population sample and to explore previously unreported associations. Design: Two independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study. Setting: Age- and sex-stratified random samples of the Finnish population in 2007 and 2012. Participants: A total of 13,922 participants (6,515 men and 7,407 women) aged 25–74 y. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and results: Nightmare frequency as well as several items related to socioeconomic status, sleep, mental well-being, life satisfaction, alcohol use, medication, and physical well-being were recorded with a questionnaire. In multinomial logistic regression analysis, a depression-related negative attitude toward the self (odds ratio [OR] 1.32 per 1-point increase), insomnia (OR 6.90), and exhaustion and fatigue (OR 6.86) were the strongest risk factors for experiencing frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Sex, age, a self-reported impaired ability to work, low life satisfaction, the use of antidepressants or hypnotics, and frequent heavy use of alcohol were also strongly associated with frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Conclusions: Symptoms of depression and insomnia were the strongest predictors of frequent nightmares in this dataset. Additionally, a wide variety of factors related to psychological and physical well-being were associated with nightmare frequency with modest effect sizes. Hence, nightmare frequency appears to have a strong connection with sleep and mood problems, but is also associated with a variety of measures of psychological and physical well-being. Citation: Sandman N, Valli K, Kronholm E, Revonsuo A, Laatikainen T, Paunio T. Nightmares: risk factors among the finnish general adult population. SLEEP 2015;38(4):507–514. PMID:25325474

  6. Functional significance of mononuclear phagocyte populations generated through adult hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Gutknecht, Michael F.; Bouton, Amy H.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue homeostasis requires a complete repertoire of functional macrophages in peripheral tissues. Recent evidence indicates that many resident tissue macrophages are seeded during embryonic development and persist through adulthood as a consequence of localized proliferation. Mononuclear phagocytes are also produced during adult hematopoiesis; these cells are then recruited to sites throughout the body, where they function in tissue repair and remodeling, resolution of inflammation, maintenance of homeostasis, and disease progression. The focus of this review is on mononuclear phagocytes that comprise the nonresident monocyte/macrophage populations in the body. Key features of monocyte differentiation are presented, focusing primarily on the developmental hierarchy that is established through this process, the markers used to identify discrete cell populations, and novel, functional attributes of these cells. These features are then explored in the context of the tumor microenvironment, where mononuclear phagocytes exhibit extensive plasticity in phenotype and function. PMID:25225678

  7. [Alimentation dependent health disorders among adult population of Bashkortostan Republic and their relation with nutritional traits].

    PubMed

    Takaev, R M; Kondrova, N S; Baĭkina, I M; Larionova, T K

    2008-01-01

    The authors demonstrated relationship between alimentation dependent diseases among adult population of the Republic and nutritional traits of the population, defined major directions of program to optimize nutrition of the population.

  8. Predictors of Septic Arthritis in the Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Borzio, Robert; Mulchandani, Neil; Pivec, Robert; Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Leven, Dante; Harwin, Steven F; Urban, William P

    2016-07-01

    Septic arthritis is a devastating condition; well-established criteria for diagnosis exist in the pediatric population, but not for adults. This study evaluated patient factors and laboratory parameters that may be associated with the diagnosis of septic arthritis in adults. A total of 458 knee aspirates for suspected septic arthritis were evaluated with serum and synovial leukocyte counts and differentials as well as Kocher criteria for pediatric septic arthritis. Twenty-two patients (4.8%) had septic arthritis confirmed by a positive synovial fluid culture. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and serum white blood cell (WBC) counts were not statistically different between the 2 groups, with 64% of septic arthritis patients having a normal serum WBC count and 77% being afebrile. Mean synovial fluid WBC count was 26,758 cells/µL and 70,581 cells/µL in the nonseptic and septic groups, respectively. The likelihood ratio for a synovial fluid WBC count greater than 65,000 cells/µL was 2.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-6.7). Evaluation receiver operating characteristic curves using synovial WBC counts resulted in a significant area under the curve of 0.66 (P=.02). To achieve 90% specificity, a WBC cutoff of 64,000 cells/µL was required with a corresponding sensitivity of 40%. There was no significant difference in the synovial cell differential of 80% vs 90% in diagnosing infection. Synovial fluid WBC count greater than 64,000 cells/µL yielded the optimal combination of sensitivity and specificity. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes, ESR, serum WBC count, fever, and weight-bearing status were not significant predictors of septic arthritis. This study demonstrates the limited utility of Kocher criteria in the adult population and the importance of synovial leukocyte counts. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):e657-e663.].

  9. Noninvasive methods for monitoring bear population trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey began a grizzly bear research project in 2009 in the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem (NCDE) of northwestern Montana. This work uses hair collection and DNA analysis methods similar to those used in the 2004 Northern Divide Grizzly Bear Project. However, instead of producing a snapshot of population size, the objectives of this new work are to estimate population growth rates by collecting hair at natural bear rubs along trails, roads, and fence and power lines. This approach holds promise of providing reliable estimates of population trends in an efficient, cost-effective, and unobtrusive way.

  10. Population-Based Surveillance for Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Homeless Adults in Toronto

    PubMed Central

    Plevneshi, Agron; Svoboda, Tomislav; Armstrong, Irene; Tyrrell, Gregory J.; Miranda, Anna; Green, Karen; Low, Donald; McGeer, Allison

    2009-01-01

    Background Identification of high-risk populations for serious infection due to S. pneumoniae will permit appropriately targeted prevention programs. Methods We conducted prospective, population-based surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease and laboratory confirmed pneumococcal pneumonia in homeless adults in Toronto, a Canadian city with a total population of 2.5 M, from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2006. Results We identified 69 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease and 27 cases of laboratory confirmed pneumococcal pneumonia in an estimated population of 5050 homeless adults. The incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in homeless adults was 273 infections per 100,000 persons per year, compared to 9 per 100,000 persons per year in the general adult population. Homeless persons with invasive pneumococcal disease were younger than other adults (median age 46 years vs 67 years, P<.001), and more likely than other adults to be smokers (95% vs. 31%, P<.001), to abuse alcohol (62% vs 15%, P<.001), and to use intravenous drugs (42% vs 4%, P<.001). Relative to age matched controls, they were more likely to have underlying lung disease (12/69, 17% vs 17/272, 6%, P = .006), but not more likely to be HIV infected (17/69, 25% vs 58/282, 21%, P = .73). The proportion of patients with recurrent disease was five fold higher for homeless than other adults (7/58, 12% vs. 24/943, 2.5%, P<.001). In homeless adults, 28 (32%) of pneumococcal isolates were of serotypes included in the 7-valent conjugate vaccine, 42 (48%) of serotypes included in the 13-valent conjugate vaccine, and 72 (83%) of serotypes included in the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine. Although no outbreaks of disease were identified in shelters, there was evidence of clustering of serotypes suggestive of transmission of pathogenic strains within the homeless population. Conclusions Homeless persons are at high risk of serious pneumococcal infection. Vaccination, physical structure changes or

  11. Young adults' trajectories of Ecstasy use: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Andrew; Najman, Jake M; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Plotnikova, Maria; Wells, Helene; Legosz, Margot; Kemp, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Young adults' Ecstasy use trajectories have important implications for individual and population-level consequences of Ecstasy use, but little relevant research has been conducted. This study prospectively examines Ecstasy trajectories in a population-based sample. Data are from the Natural History Study of Drug Use, a retrospective/prospective cohort study conducted in Australia. Population screening identified a probability sample of Ecstasy users aged 19-23 years. Complete data for 30 months of follow-up, comprising 4 time intervals, were available for 297 participants (88.4% of sample). Trajectories were derived using cluster analysis based on recent Ecstasy use at each interval. Trajectory predictors were examined using a generalized ordered logit model and included Ecstasy dependence (World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Instrument), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale), aggression (Young Adult Self Report) and contextual factors (e.g. attendance at electronic/dance music events). Three Ecstasy trajectories were identified (low, intermediate and high use). At its peak, the high-use trajectory involved 1-2 days Ecstasy use per week. Decreasing frequency of use was observed for intermediate and high-use trajectories from 12 months, independently of market factors. Intermediate and high-use trajectory membership was predicted by past Ecstasy consumption (>70 pills) and attendance at electronic/dance music events. High-use trajectory members were unlikely to have used Ecstasy for more than 3 years and tended to report consistently positive subjective effects at baseline. Given the social context and temporal course of Ecstasy use, Ecstasy trajectories might be better understood in terms of instrumental rather than addictive drug use patterns.

  12. Long-term sedative use among community-dwelling adults: a population-based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Weymann, Deirdre; Gladstone, Emilie J.; Smolina, Kate; Morgan, Steven G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chronic use of benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-like sedatives (z-drugs) presents substantial risks to people of all ages. We sought to assess trends in long-term sedative use among community-dwelling adults in British Columbia. Methods: Using population-based linked administrative databases, we examined longitudinal trends in age-standardized rates of sedative use among different age groups of community-dwelling adults (age ≥ 18 yr), from 2004 to 2013. For each calendar year, we classified adults as nonusers, short-term users, or long-term users of sedatives based on their patterns of sedative dispensation. For calendar year 2013, we applied cross-sectional analysis and estimated logistic regression models to identify health and socioeconomic risk factors associated with long-term sedative use. Results: More than half (53.4%) of long-term users of sedatives in British Columbia are between ages 18 and 64 years (young and middle-aged adults). From 2004 to 2013, long-term sedative use remained stable among adults more than 65 years of age (older adults) and increased slightly among young and middle-aged adults. Although the use of benzodiazepines decreased during the study period, the trend was offset by equal or greater increases in long-term use of z-drugs. Being an older adult, sick, poor and single were associated with increased odds of long-term sedative use. Interpretation: Despite efforts to stem such patterns of medication use, long-term use of sedatives increased in British Columbia between 2004 and 2013. This increase was driven largely by increased use among middle-aged adults. Future deprescribing efforts that target adults of all ages may help curb this trend.

  13. [Theory and methods in China's population policy].

    PubMed

    Qian, X

    1983-11-29

    Before 1949, China's population development was noted for its high birth rate, high death rate, and low natural growth rate. After 1949, the death rate showed a large-scale decline, the birth rate was maintained at a high level, and natural growth rate also remained high. Between 1949 and 1973, the natural growth rate was kept above a 2% annual rate. Since then, the need for population control has become increasingly obvious. The theory and methods of China's population policy can be summarized in the following points: (1) material production has to keep up with the pace of population growth, and that means the quantity and quality of the population have to match athe production of materials needed for life and consumption; (2) in a Socialist society, material production and population growth have to develop with well-designed plans; (3) the population question has a direct impact on social and economic development; (4) through enforcement of a national policy, cooperation from different individuals, and ideological education, family planning will gradually be accepted by the general public for the well-being of the country.

  14. Associations among depressive symptoms, childhood abuse, neuroticism, and adult stressful life events in the general adult population

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Kotaro; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Nakai, Yukiei; Shimura, Akiyoshi; Ono, Yasuyuki; Murakoshi, Akiko; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Tanabe, Hajime; Kusumi, Ichiro; Inoue, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that the interactions among several factors affect the onset, progression, and prognosis of major depressive disorder. This study investigated how childhood abuse, neuroticism, and adult stressful life events interact with one another and affect depressive symptoms in the general adult population. Subjects and methods A total of 413 participants from the nonclinical general adult population completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, the neuroticism subscale of the shortened Eysenck Personality Questionnaire – Revised, and the Life Experiences Survey, which are self-report scales. Structural equation modeling (Mplus version 7.3) and single and multiple regressions were used to analyze the data. Results Childhood abuse, neuroticism, and negative evaluation of life events increased the severity of the depressive symptoms directly. Childhood abuse also indirectly increased the negative appraisal of life events and the severity of the depressive symptoms through enhanced neuroticism in the structural equation modeling. Limitations There was recall bias in this study. The causal relationship was not clear because this study was conducted using a cross-sectional design. Conclusion This study suggested that neuroticism is the mediating factor for the two effects of childhood abuse on adulthood depressive symptoms and negative evaluation of life events. Childhood abuse directly and indirectly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms. PMID:28243100

  15. Modified transmitter attachment method for adult ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, P.J.; Brandt, D.A.; Krapu, G.L.; Buhl, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The value of radio telemetry for waterfowl research depends on the availability of suitable methods of attaching transmitters. In previous studies, external transmitters attached to adult Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) with sutures and glue did not stay on birds reliably. In an attempt to improve transmitter retention, a method of attachment was tested in which 4-g transmitters were attached mid-dorsally with sutures and with a stainless steel anchor-shaped wire inserted subcutaneously (anchor transmitters). Field tests indicated that all of 26 female Mallards and 63 of 65 female Gadwalls (Anas strepera) retained their anchor transmitters during 4369 bird-days of monitoring during nesting and brood rearing. Survival rates of females with anchor transmitters compared favorably with those reported from other studies. In this study, females with and without anchor transmitters did not differ with respect to survival rates of their ducklings. The anchor transmitter may be suitable for a variety of field studies on numerous species.

  16. Acculturation stress, anxiety disorders, and alcohol dependence in a select population of young adult Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Gilder, David A.; Criado, Jose R.; Caetano, Raul

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Mexican Americans comprise one of the most rapidly growing populations in the U.S. and within this population the process of acculturation has been suggested to be associated with some mental health problems. This study sought to ascertain quantitative information indexing acculturation stress and its association with mental health disorders in a select community sample of Mexican Americans. Methods Demographic information, DSM-III-R diagnoses, and information on cultural identity and acculturation stress were obtained from 240 Mexican American young adults that were recruited by fliers and were residing in selected areas of San Diego. Results No associations were found between measures of cultural identification and lifetime diagnoses of drug or alcohol dependence, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders or antisocial personality disorder/conduct disorder in this sample of Mexican American young adults. However, lifetime diagnoses of alcohol dependence, substance dependence, and anxiety disorders were associated with elevations in acculturation stress. Conclusion Quantitative measures of acculturation stress, but not cultural identity per se, were found to be significantly associated with substance dependence and anxiety disorders in this select population of Mexican American young adults. These data may be helpful in designing prevention and intervention programs for this high risk population. PMID:20161543

  17. A New Method for Mapping Population Distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleeter, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Human population counts are collected and commonly displayed uniformly across areas, such as U.S. Census Bureau block-groups and tracts. The limitation inherent in this type of representation is the assumption that people are evenly distributed across each areal unit, when in actuality many areas such as parks, open spaces, and industrial zones are uninhabited. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a geospatial tool that uses a 'dasymetric' mapping method to redistribute census population values to homogenous, inhabited, zones, enhancing visualization and accuracy.

  18. Links between Childhood and Adult Social Circumstances and Obesity and Hypertension in the Mexican Population

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Crimmins, Eileen M.; Teruel, Graciela M.; Thomas, Duncan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study examines links between early life circumstances and adult socioeconomic status and obesity and hypertension in the adult Mexican population. Methods We use data from the Mexican Family Life Survey (MxFLS) collected in 2002 for people aged 20 or older (N=14, 280). Results We found that men with low education and women with more education have significantly lower obesity. Women with higher education also have significantly less hypertension. Obesity triples the likelihood of hypertension among both men and women. Better childhood experiences are associated with less hypertension among women, but more hypertension among men in rural areas. Discussion Recent changes in income, nutrition, and infection in Mexico may be responsible for the observed high prevalence of overweight and obesity and the extremely high odds of hypertension among obese young adults. PMID:21948773

  19. Airway responsiveness to sulfur dioxide in an adult population sample.

    PubMed

    Nowak, D; Jörres, R; Berger, J; Claussen, M; Magnussen, H

    1997-10-01

    We determined the prevalence of airway hyperresponsiveness to sulfur dioxide (SO2) in an adult population sample of 790 subjects 20 to 44 yr of age. Subjects were drawn randomly from the population of Hamburg, Northern Germany, within the framework of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. In addition, we analyzed the relationship between SO2 responsiveness and a number of risk factors, such as a history of respiratory symptoms, methacholine responsiveness, and atopy derived from skin-prick test results. SO2 inhalation challenges were performed during isocapnic hyperventilation at constant rate (40 L x min(-1), for 3 min) with doubling concentrations of SO2 up to a maximum concentration of 2.0 ppm. If subjects achieved a 20% decrease in FEV1 from baseline during the challenge, they were considered to be hyperresponsive to SO2. The raw prevalence of SO2 hyperresponsiveness within the population sample studied was 3.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3 to 5.0%). Adjustment for nonparticipation led to an estimated prevalence of SO2 hyperresponsiveness of 5.4%. Among subjects with hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, 22.4% (95% CI: 20.1 to 25.3) demonstrated hyperresponsiveness to SO2. There was no significant correlation between the degrees of hyperresponsiveness to methacholine and SO2. Predictors of a positive SO2 response were hyperresponsiveness to methacholine (p < 0.0001), a positive history of respiratory symptoms (p < 0.05), and a positive skin-prick test to at least one common allergen (p < 0.05). We conclude from these data that airway hyperresponsiveness to SO2 can be found in about 20 to 25% of subjects within the 20- to 44-yr age range who are hyperresponsive to methacholine.

  20. Prevalence of self-medication in the adult population of Brazil: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Paulo Henrique Faria; Galvão, Taís Freire; de Andrade, Keitty Regina Cordeiro; de Sá, Pedro Terra Teles; Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Pereira, Mauricio Gomes

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of self-medication in Brazil’s adult population. METHODS Systematic review of cross-sectional population-based studies. The following databases were used: Medline, Embase, Scopus, ISI, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, CRD, Lilacs, SciELO, the Banco de teses brasileiras (Brazilian theses database) (Capes) and files from the Portal Domínio Público (Brazilian Public Domain). In addition, the reference lists from relevant studies were examined to identify potentially eligible articles. There were no applied restrictions in terms of the publication date, language or publication status. Data related to publication, population, methods and prevalence of self-medication were extracted by three independent researchers. Methodological quality was assessed following eight criteria related to sampling, measurement and presentation of results. The prevalences were measured from participants who used at least one medication during the recall period of the studies. RESULTS The literature screening identified 2,778 records, from which 12 were included for analysis. Most studies were conducted in the Southeastern region of Brazil, after 2000 and with a 15-day recall period. Only five studies achieved high methodological quality, of which one study had a 7-day recall period, in which the prevalence of self-medication was 22.9% (95%CI 14.6;33.9). The prevalence of self-medication in three studies of high methodological quality with a 15-day recall period was 35.0% (95%CI 29.0;40.0, I2 = 83.9%) in the adult Brazilian population. CONCLUSIONS Despite differences in the methodologies of the included studies, the results of this systematic review indicate that a significant proportion of the adult Brazilian population self-medicates. It is suggested that future research projects that assess self-medication in Brazil standardize their methods. PMID:26083944

  1. Population Pharmacokinetics of Benznidazole in Adult Patients with Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aldasoro, E.; Guerrero, L.; Posada, E.; Serret, N.; Mejía, T.; Urbina, J. A.; Gascón, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to build a population pharmacokinetic (popPK) model to characterize benznidazole (BNZ) pharmacokinetics in adults with chronic Chagas disease. This study was a prospective, open-label, single-center clinical trial approved by the local ethics committee. Patients received BNZ at 2.5 mg/kg of body weight/12 h (Abarax, Elea Laboratory, Argentina) for 60 days. Plasma BNZ samples were taken several times during the study and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-visible detection (HPLC-UV). The popPK analysis was done with NONMEMv.7.3. Demographic and biological data were tested as covariates. Intraindividual, interoccasion, and residual variabilities were modeled. Internal and external validations were completed to assess the robustness of the model. Later on, simulations were performed to generate BNZ concentration-time course profiles for different dosage regimens. A total of 358 plasma BNZ concentrations from 39 patients were included in the analysis. A one-compartment PK model characterized by clearance (CL/F) and the apparent volume of distribution (V/F), with first-order absorption (Ka) and elimination, adequately described the data (CL/F, 1.73 liters/h; V/F, 89.6 liters; and Ka, 1.15 h−1). No covariates were found to be significant for CL/F and V/F. Internal and external validations of the final model showed adequate results. Data from simulations revealed that a dose of 2.5 mg/kg/12 h might lead to overexposure in most patients. A lower dose (2.5 mg/kg/24 h) was able to achieve trough BNZ plasma concentrations within the accepted therapeutic range of 3 to 6 mg/liter. In summary, we developed a population PK model for BNZ in adults with chronic Chagas disease. Dosing simulations showed that a BNZ dose of 2.5 mg/kg/24 h will adequately keep BNZ trough plasma concentrations within the recommended target range for the majority of patients. (This study has been registered at EudraCT under number 2011

  2. Respiratory pattern in an adult population of dystrophic patients.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, M G; Romei, M; Lo Mauro, A; Marchi, E; Gandossini, S; Bonato, S; Comi, G P; Magri, F; Turconi, A C; Pedotti, A; Bresolin, N; Aliverti, A

    2011-07-15

    We studied respiratory function and Chest Wall kinematics in a large population of adult patients affected by slow course muscular dystrophies such as Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy (LGMD, n=38), Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD, n=20) and Facio-Scapulo Humeral Dystrophy (FSHD, n=30), through standard spirometry and through the Optoelectronic Plethysmography, to measure the thoraco-abdominal motion during Quiet Breathing and Slow Vital Capacity maneuvers. Within the restrictive pulmonary syndrome characterizing LGMD and FSHD, several different thoraco-abdominal patterns compared to those of healthy subjects were present in the more advanced stages of the disease. These differences were present in the seated position, during the execution of a maximal maneuver such as Slow Vital Capacity. A global respiratory (both inspiratory and expiratory) muscle involvement was more pronounced in the LGMD and FSHD than in the BMD patients, and a significant reduction of abdominal contribution in wheelchair bound patients was observed. In conclusion, OEP technique is able to reveal mild initial modifications in the respiratory muscles in FSHD and LGMD patients, which could be helpful for functional and new therapeutic strategy evaluation.

  3. Perceived stress and mortality in a Taiwanese older adult population.

    PubMed

    Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Glei, Dana A; Weinstein, Maxine; Goldman, Noreen

    2013-11-01

    Perceived stress is associated with poor health outcomes including negative affect, increased susceptibility to the common cold and cardiovascular disease; the consequences of perceived stress for mortality, however, have received less attention. This study characterizes the relationship between perceived stress and 11-year mortality in a population of Taiwanese adults aged 53+ years. Using the Survey of Health and Living Status of the Near Elderly and Elderly of Taiwan, we calculated a composite measure of perceived stress based on six items pertaining to the health, financial situation, and occupation of the respondents and their families. Proportional hazard models were used to determine whether perceived stress predicted mortality. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors only, we found that a one standard deviation increase in perceived stress was associated with a 19% increase in all-cause mortality risk during the 11-year follow-up period (hazard ratio, HR = 1.19, 95% confidence interval, CI 1.13-1.26). The relationship was greatly attenuated when perceptions of stress regarding health were excluded, and was not significant after adjusting for medical conditions, mobility limitations and depressive symptoms. We conclude that the association between perceived stress and mortality is explained by an individual's current health; however, our data do not allow us to distinguish between two possible interpretations of this conclusion: (a) the relationship between perceived stress and mortality is spurious, or (b) poor health acts as the mediator.

  4. Levels of Engagement and Barriers to Physical Activity in a Population of Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Andrew; Look, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This study examined levels of, and barriers to, physical activity in a population of 19 adults with learning disabilities living in community supported accommodation, using diary records and semi-structured interviews with staff. The levels of physical activity were higher in the sample population than previous figures for adults with learning…

  5. Crisis Model for Older Adults: Special Considerations for an Aging Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungers, Christin M.; Slagel, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    As the U.S. population ages, counselors must begin structuring their interactions to meet the unique needs of older adults, especially in the area of crisis intervention. The purposes of this article are to draw attention to the rapidly growing, often disregarded older population and to introduce the Crisis Model for Older Adults (CM-OA), an…

  6. Levels of Health Literacy in a Community-Dwelling Population of Chinese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Dong, XinQi

    2014-01-01

    Background. Lower levels of health literacy have been associated with adverse health outcomes, especially for older adults. However, limited research has been conducted to understand health literacy levels among Chinese American older adults. Methods. The PINE study is an epidemiological cohort of 3,159 community-dwelling Chinese older adults, 95% of whom do not speak or read English. Chinese older adults’ health literacy levels were examined using the Chinese version of the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, Revised (REALM-R) test. Kruskal–Wallis test and chi-square statistics were used to identify significant differences by sociodemographic and self-reported health characteristics. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to examine correlations between personal characteristics and health literacy level. Results. The mean age among this sample of Chinese older adults was 72.8 years (SD = 8.3, range = 60–105) and the mean REALM-R test score was 6.9 [SD = 2.3, range (0–8)]. Health literacy was positively associated with education, marriage status, and number of people living with. Older age, being female, greater number of children, years in the United States, and preference for speaking Cantonese or Taishanese were negatively associated with health literacy. Health literary was not associated with self-reported health status or quality of life. Conclusions. In this Chicago Chinese population, older adults had reasonable levels of health literacy in Chinese. Future longitudinal research is needed to understand risk/protective factors associated with health literacy level in Chinese older adults. PMID:25378449

  7. Anatomical variation of posterior slope of tibial plateau in adult Eastern Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Medda, Shyamalendu; Kundu, Rajib; Sengupta, Sohini; Pal, Ananda Kisor

    2017-01-01

    Background: Upper surface of the proximal tibial end, tibial plateau, has a slope directed posteroinferiorly relative to the long axis of the middle of the shaft. It has important consideration in surgeries such as knee arthroplasty, high tibial osteotomy, and medical imaging of the knee joint. The aim of the present study was to estimate the tibial plateau angle (TPA) by plain radiograph in the adult Eastern Indian population as during literature review, we were unable to find any study, except one (without specific reference axis), on this variable among the Indian population. Materials and Methods: A sample was taken from adult patients attending the outpatient department of orthopedics of the institute with minor knee problems. Measurement of the TPA was done in the true lateral radiographs of the knee joints of the selected subjects by a standardized method. Results: TPA varied widely from 6° to 24°, with the mean ± standard deviation value 13.6° ±3.5°. Student's unpaired t-test revealed no significant difference of TPA between left and right knees, both in male (P = 0.748) and female (P = 0.917) separately and in the entire study population irrespective of gender (P = 0.768). Comparison of TPA between male (13.3° ± 3.3°) and female (13.9° ± 3.4°) by Student's unpaired t-test showed no sexual dimorphism (P = 0.248). There were poor correlations of TPA with age and body mass index. Conclusion: The present study described the variations of the TPA in the adult Eastern Indian population (range 6°–24°, mean ± SD 13.6° ± 3.5°, no laterality, no sexual dimorphism, poor correlation with age and BMI). Knowledge of this study could be used in different orthopedic surgeries and imaging technique in or around the knee joint. PMID:28216753

  8. In Which Neighborhoods Are Older Adult Populations Expanding? Sociodemographic and Built Environment Characteristics Across Neighborhood Trajectory Classes of Older Adult Populations in Four U.S. Cities Over 30 Years

    PubMed Central

    Rummo, Pasquale E.; Hirsch, Jana A.; Howard, Annie Green; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We sought to examine characteristics of neighborhoods with changing older adult populations. Method: We used 30 years (1980-2011) of data from four U.S. cities (n = 392 neighborhoods; Birmingham, Alabama; Chicago, Illinois; Minneapolis, Minnesota; Oakland, California) and finite mixture modeling to identify trajectory classes: neighborhoods with “stable,” declining, or increasing older adult populations (≥65 years). We then compared mean baseline and change in their characteristics. Results: Neighborhoods with an increasing (vs. “stable”) percentage of older adult populations had lower initial poverty and greater increases in education and income, with lower increases in road connectivity, population density, and housing prices/debt over time. The same was true for neighborhoods with declining older adult populations, with the exception of having higher increases in housing prices/debt. We observed few significant differences in neighborhood amenities or parks across classes. Conclusion: Our results emphasize the need to consider built and social environments when planning communities for older adults. PMID:27774501

  9. A method for estimating fall adult sex ratios from production and survival data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wight, H.M.; Heath, R.G.; Geis, A.D.

    1965-01-01

    This paper presents a method of utilizing data relating to the production and survival of a bird population to estimate a basic fall adult sex ratio. This basic adult sex ratio is an average value derived from average production and survival rates. It is an estimate of the average sex ratio about which the fall adult ratios will fluctuate according to annual variations in production and survival. The basic fall adult sex ratio has been calculated as an asymptotic value which is the limit of an infinite series wherein average population characteristics are used as constants. Graphs are provided that allow the determination of basic sex ratios from production and survival data of a population. Where the respective asymptote has been determined, it may be possible to estimate various production and survival rates by use of variations of the formula for estimating the asymptote.

  10. An Efficient Method for Transferring Adult Mosquitoes during Field Tests,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CULICIDAE, *COLLECTING METHODS, REPRINTS, BLOOD SUCKING INSECTS, FIELD TESTS, HAND HELD, EFFICIENCY, LABORATORY EQUIPMENT, MORTALITY RATES , ADULTS, AEDES, ASPIRATORS, CULICIDAE, TEST AND EVALUATION, REPRINTS

  11. Adult Vampire Bats Produce Contact Calls When Isolated: Acoustic Variation by Species, Population, Colony, and Individual

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Gerald G.; Logsdon, Ryane; Arnold, Bryan D.; Menchaca, Angelica; Medellin, Rodrigo A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bat pups produce individually distinct isolation calls to facilitate maternal recognition. Increasing evidence suggests that, in group-living bat species, adults often use similar calls to maintain contact. We investigated if isolated adults from all three species of the highly cooperative vampire bats (Phyllostomidae: Desmodontinae) would produce vocally distinct contact calls when physically isolated. Methods/Principal Findings We assessed variation in contact calls recorded from isolated captive and wild-caught adult common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus), white-winged vampire bats (Diaemus youngi) and hairy-legged vampire bats (Diphylla ecaudata). We compared species-typical contact call structure, and used information theory and permuted discriminate function analyses to examine call structure variation, and to determine if the individuality of contact calls is encoded by different call features across species and populations. We found that isolated adult vampire bats produce contact calls that vary by species, population, colony, and individual. However, much variation occurred within a single context and individual. We estimated signature information for captive Diaemus (same colony), captive Desmodus (same colony), and wild Desmodus (different colonies) at 3.21, 3.26, and 3.88 bits, respectively. Contact calls from a captive colony of Desmodus were less individually distinct than calls from wild-caught Desmodus from different colonies. Both the degree of individuality and parameters encoding individuality differed between the bats from a single captive colony and the wild-caught individuals from different groups. This result is consistent with, but not sufficient evidence of, vocal convergence in groups. Conclusion Our results show that adult vampire bats of all three species produce highly variable contact calls when isolated. Contact calls contain sufficient information for vocal discrimination, but also possess more intra-individual variation

  12. Population structure among octocoral adults and recruits identifies scale dependent patterns of population isolation in The Bahamas

    PubMed Central

    Porto-Hannes, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of dispersal and connectivity of the Caribbean gorgonian Antillogorgia elisabethae in The Bahamas were assessed in both adults and recently settled recruits from 13 sites using microsatellite loci. Adult populations along the Little Bahama Bank (LBB) exhibited a clear pattern of isolation by distance (IBD) which described 86% of the variance in pairwise genetic distances. Estimates of dispersal based on the IBD model suggested dispersal distances along the LBB on the order of 100 m. Increasing the spatial scale to include sites separated by open ocean generated an apparent IBD signal but the relationship had a greater slope and explained less of the variance. This relationship with distance reflected both stepping stone based IBD and regional differentiation probably created by ocean currents and barriers to dispersal that are correlated with geographic distance. Analysis of recruits from 4 sites on the LBB from up to 6 years did not detect differences between years nor differences with adult populations. The result suggests that neither selection on recruits nor inter-annual variation in dispersal affected adult population structure. Assignment tests of recruits indicated the most likely sources of the recruits were the local or adjacent populations. Most of the patterning in population structure in the northern Bahamas can be explained by geographic distance and oceanographic connectivity. Recognition of these complex patterns is important in developing management plans for A. elisabethae and in understanding the effects of disturbance to adult populations of A. elisabethae and similar species with limited dispersal. PMID:26157606

  13. Demographic Demise: The Declining Young Adult Population in New England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittell, Ross

    2007-01-01

    Young adult workers provide businesses with the dynamic labor force and fresh ideas they need to innovate and grow. With their contributions to cultural, intellectual and social life, young adults also make New England a vibrant and interesting place to live. Young families support local schools and demand a strong educational system. Yet New…

  14. Mixed Methods Research of Adult Family Care Home Residents and Informal Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeanty, Guy C.; Hibel, James

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a mixed methods approach used to explore the experiences of adult family care home (AFCH) residents and informal caregivers (IC). A rationale is presented for using a mixed methods approach employing the sequential exploratory design with this poorly researched population. The unique challenges attendant to the sampling…

  15. Factors and Mechanisms for Pharmacokinetic Differences between Pediatric Population and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Eva; Perez, Raul; Hernandez, Alfredo; Tejada, Pilar; Arteta, Marta; Ramos, Jose T.

    2011-01-01

    Many physiologic differences between children and adults may result in age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Factors such as gastric pH and emptying time, intestinal transit time, immaturity of secretion and activity of bile and pancreatic fluid among other factors determine the oral bioavailability of pediatric and adult populations. Anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics in children also affect the bioavailability of other routes of administration. Key factors explaining differences in drug distribution between the pediatric population and adults are membrane permeability, plasma protein binding and total body water. As far as drug metabolism is concerned, important differences have been found in the pediatric population compared with adults both for phase I and phase II metabolic enzymes. Immaturity of glomerular filtration, renal tubular secretion and tubular reabsorption at birth and their maturation determine the different excretion of drugs in the pediatric population compared to adults. PMID:24310425

  16. Bronchodilator Responsiveness and Reported Respiratory Symptoms in an Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wan C.; Bourbeau, Jean; Hernandez, Paul; Chapman, Kenneth R.; Cowie, Robert; FitzGerald, J. Mark; Aaron, Shawn; Marciniuk, Darcy D.; Maltais, Francois; Buist, A. Sonia; O’Donnell, Denis E.; Sin, Don D.

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between patient-reported symptoms and objective measures of lung function is poorly understood. Aim To determine the association between responsiveness to bronchodilator and respiratory symptoms in random population samples. Methods 4669 people aged 40 years and older from 8 sites in Canada completed interviewer-administered respiratory questionnaires and performed spirometry before and after administration of 200 ug of inhaled salbutamol. The effect of anthropometric variables, smoking exposure and doctor-diagnosed asthma (DDA) on bronchodilator responsiveness in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and in forced vital capacity (FVC) were evaluated. Multiple logistic regression was used to test for association between quintiles of increasing changes in FEV1 and in FVC after bronchodilator and several respiratory symptoms. Results Determinants of bronchodilator change in FEV1 and FVC included age, DDA, smoking, respiratory drug use and female gender [p<0.005 to p<0.0001 ]. In subjects without doctor-diagnosed asthma or COPD, bronchodilator response in FEV1 was associated with wheezing [p for trend<0.0001], while bronchodilator response for FVC was associated with breathlessness. [p for trend <0.0001]. Conclusions Bronchodilator responsiveness in FEV1 or FVC are associated with different respiratory symptoms in the community. Both flow and volume bronchodilator responses are useful parameters which together can be predictive of both wheezing and breathlessness in the general population. PMID:23554960

  17. Does covering of farm-associated Culicoides larval habitat reduce adult populations in the United Kingdom?

    PubMed

    Harrup, L E; Gubbins, S; Barber, J; Denison, E; Mellor, P S; Purse, B V; Carpenter, S

    2014-03-17

    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are the biological vectors of a range of internationally important arboviruses of livestock, including bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently emerging Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Culicoides species in the subgenus Avaritia (in the UK: Culicoides obsoletus Meigen, Culicoides scoticus Downes & Kettle, Culicoides dewulfi Goetghebuer and Culicoides chiopterus Meigen) have been implicated in BTV transmission in northern Europe and to a varying degree utilise cattle dung as a larval development substrate. The collection of cattle dung into heaps on farms provides a localised source of Culicoides emergence in close proximity to livestock. This study assesses the impact of covering dung heaps prior to the onset of adult Culicoides activity with the aim of reducing recruitment to the local adult populations at four livestock farms in England. Light suction trap catches of adult Culicoides from these farms were compared with those from four untreated control farms from a wide geographic range across the UK. It was demonstrated that implementing control of emergence from dung heaps did not have a significant impact upon the local adult subgenus Avaritia abundance at the treated farm holdings and that the onset of Culicoides activity was similarly unaffected. Use of this method in isolation is unlikely to have an effect in reducing the risk of BTV and SBV transmission. The implications of these results for control of farm-associated Culicoides in Europe are discussed.

  18. A national cross-sectional survey of dental anxiety in the French adult population

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Emmanuel; Collado, Valérie; Faulks, Denise; Bullier, Brigitte; Hennequin, Martine

    2007-01-01

    Background Dental anxiety is a public health problem but no epidemiological study has been undertaken in France to evaluate its prevalence. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence, severity and associations of dental anxiety in a sample of the French adult population. Methods A convenience sample of 2725 adults (mean age = 47 years, SD16, minimum = 16, maximum = 101 years), representative of the French population with regard to age and urban distribution, completed a French version of the Corah Dental Anxiety scale (DAS) and a questionnaire relating to their dental appointments. Results Moderate dental anxiety (14≥DAS≥13) was revealed for 172 persons (6.2%), while 195 (7.3%) had severe dental anxiety (DAS≥15), giving an overall prevalence of dental anxiety of 13.5%. Prevalence was lower proportionally with age (P < 0.001) and was higher in French overseas territories and in the countryside (P < 0.01). Farmers and low skilled workers were significantly more anxious than executives and shopkeepers (P < 0.001). Anxiety was associated with avoidance of care (p < 0.001) and lack of regular dental appointments (p < 0.001). Conclusion Dental anxiety in France appears to concern a similar proportion of the population as in other industrialised European, Australasian or North American countries. Recommendations for prevention and management of dental anxiety are made with reference to dental education and health care services in France. PMID:17927808

  19. In vivo cell tracking and quantification method in adult zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Alt, Clemens; Li, Pulin; White, Richard M.; Zon, Leonard I.; Wei, Xunbin; Lin, Charles P.

    2012-03-01

    Zebrafish have become a powerful vertebrate model organism for drug discovery, cancer and stem cell research. A recently developed transparent adult zebrafish using double pigmentation mutant, called casper, provide unparalleled imaging power in in vivo longitudinal analysis of biological processes at an anatomic resolution not readily achievable in murine or other systems. In this paper we introduce an optical method for simultaneous visualization and cell quantification, which combines the laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and the in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC). The system is designed specifically for non-invasive tracking of both stationary and circulating cells in adult zebrafish casper, under physiological conditions in the same fish over time. The confocal imaging part in this system serves the dual purposes of imaging fish tissue microstructure and a 3D navigation tool to locate a suitable vessel for circulating cell counting. The multi-color, multi-channel instrument allows the detection of multiple cell populations or different tissues or organs simultaneously. We demonstrate initial testing of this novel instrument by imaging vasculature and tracking circulating cells in CD41: GFP/Gata1: DsRed transgenic casper fish whose thrombocytes/erythrocytes express the green and red fluorescent proteins. Circulating fluorescent cell incidents were recorded and counted repeatedly over time and in different types of vessels. Great application opportunities in cancer and stem cell researches are discussed.

  20. Multidimensional Clinical Phenotyping of an Adult Cystic Fibrosis Patient Population

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Douglas J.; Bailey, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a multi-systemic disease resulting from mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR) gene and has major manifestations in the sino-pulmonary, and gastro-intestinal tracts. Clinical phenotypes were generated using 26 common clinical variables to generate classes that overlapped quantiles of lung function and were based on multiple aspects of CF systemic disease. Methods The variables included age, gender, CFTR mutations, FEV1% predicted, FVC% predicted, height, weight, Brasfield chest xray score, pancreatic sufficiency status and clinical microbiology results. Complete datasets were compiled on 211 subjects. Phenotypes were identified using a proximity matrix generated by the unsupervised Random Forests algorithm and subsequent clustering by the Partitioning around Medoids (PAM) algorithm. The final phenotypic classes were then characterized and compared to a similar dataset obtained three years earlier. Findings Clinical phenotypes were identified using a clustering strategy that generated four and five phenotypes. Each strategy identified 1) a low lung health scores phenotype, 2) a younger, well-nourished, male-dominated class, 3) various high lung health score phenotypes that varied in terms of age, gender and nutritional status. This multidimensional clinical phenotyping strategy identified classes with expected microbiology results and low risk clinical phenotypes with pancreatic sufficiency. Interpretation This study demonstrated regional adult CF clinical phenotypes using non-parametric, continuous, ordinal and categorical data with a minimal amount of subjective data to identify clinically relevant phenotypes. These studies identified the relative stability of the phenotypes, demonstrated specific phenotypes consistent with published findings and identified others needing further study. PMID:25822311

  1. Geographic coupling of juvenile and adult habitat shapes spatial population dynamics of a coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Huijbers, Chantal M; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Debrot, Adolphe O; Jongejans, Eelke

    2013-08-01

    Marine spatial population dynamics are often addressed with a focus on larval dispersal, without taking into account movement behavior of individuals in later life stages. Processes occurring during demersal life stages may also drive spatial population dynamics if habitat quality is perceived differently by animals belonging to different life stages. In this study, we used a dual approach to understand how stage-structured habitat use and dispersal ability of adults shape the population of a marine fish species. Our study area and focal species provided us with the unique opportunity to study a closed island population. A spatial simulation model was used to estimate dispersal distances along a coral reef that surrounds the island, while contributions of different nursery bays were determined based on otolith stable isotope signatures of adult reef fish. The model showed that adult dispersal away from reef areas near nursery bays is limited. The results further show that different bays contributed unequally to the adult population on the coral reef, with productivity of juveniles in bay nursery habitat determining the degree of mixing among local populations on the reef and with one highly productive area contributing most to the island's reef fish population. The contribution of the coral reef as a nursery habitat was minimal, even though it had a much larger surface area. These findings indicate that the geographic distribution of nursery areas and their productivity are important drivers for the spatial distribution patterns of adults on coral reefs. We suggest that limited dispersal of adults on reefs can lead to a source-sink structure in the adult stage, where reefs close to nurseries replenish more isolated reef areas. Understanding these spatial population dynamics of the demersal phase of marine animals is of major importance for the design and placement of marine reserves, as nursery areas contribute differently to maintain adult populations.

  2. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in the US Adult Low Back Pain Population

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Pamela Jo; Evans, Roni L.; Kreitzer, Mary Jo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many people suffering from low back pain (LBP) have found conventional medical treatments to be ineffective for managing their LBP and are increasingly turning to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to find pain relief. A comprehensive picture of CAM use in the LBP population, including all of the most commonly used modalities, is needed. Study Objective: To examine prevalence and perceived benefit of CAM use within the US LBP population by limiting vs nonlimiting LBP and to evaluate the odds of past year CAM use within the LBP population Methods: Data are from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey, Alternative Health Supplement. We examined a nationally representative sample of US adults with LBP (N=9665 unweighted). Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of past year CAM use. Results: In all, 41.2% of the LBP population used CAM in the past year, with higher use reported among those with limiting LBP. The most popular therapies used in the LBP population included herbal supplements, chiropractic manipulation, and massage. The majority of the LBP population used CAM specifically to treat back pain, and 58.1% of those who used CAM for their back pain perceived a great deal of benefit. Conclusion: The results are indicative of CAM becoming an increasingly important component of care for people with LBP. Additional understanding of patterns of CAM use among the LBP population will help health professionals make more informed care decisions and guide investigators in development of future back pain–related CAM research. PMID:26937316

  3. Prevalence of Chronic Medical Conditions in Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison with the General Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapell, Deborah; Nightingale, Beryle; Rodriguez, Ana; Lee, Joseph H.; Zigman, Warren B.; Schupf, Nicole

    1998-01-01

    A study interviewed caregivers and reviewed medical records of 278 adults with mental retardation with and without Down syndrome. The adults with mental retardation had age-related disorders comparable to those in the general population, but there was an increased frequency of thyroid disorders, nonischemic heart disorders, and sensory impairment.…

  4. The National Blueprint for Promoting Physical Activity in the Mid-Life and Older Adult Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek; Sheppard, Lisa; Senior, Jane; Park, Chae-Hee; Mockenhaupt, Robin; Bazzarre, Terry

    2005-01-01

    The National Blueprint: Increasing Physical Activity Among Adults Age 50 and Older was designed to develop a national strategy for the promotion of physically active lifestyles among the mid-life and older adult population. The Blueprint identifies barriers to physical activity in the areas of research, home and community programs, medical…

  5. Methods Needed to Curb Rising Pet Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Discusses socioeconomic problems of pet population explosion and recommends the conduct of educational programs and the implementation of surgical sterilization as a short-term answer to dog and cat control. Also considered are problems of using chemical contraceptives in human population control. (CC)

  6. Visual Function and Visual Acuity in an Urban Adult Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, J.; Tielsch, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 6,850 adults age 40 or over concerning the effects of poor vision found that difficulties with reading or other near-vision activities were the most common complaint. One-fourth reported limitations in activities because of poor vision. Factors associated with loss of visual function were general health status, educational level, and…

  7. Coexisting Psychiatric Problems and Stressful Life Events in Adults with Symptoms of ADHD--A Large Swedish Population-Based Study of Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrichs, Bettina; Igl, Wilmar; Larsson, Henrik; Larsson, Jan-Olov

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the associations of subtypes of adult ADHD with other psychiatric problems, stressful life events, and sex differences. Method: Odds ratios were calculated using information from 17,899 participants from a population-based survey of adult twins born in Sweden between 1959 and 1985. Results: Symptoms of attention deficit…

  8. Association between Polyphenol Intake and Hypertension in Adults and Older Adults: A Population-Based Study in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Andreia Machado; Steluti, Josiane; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Marchioni, Dirce Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and diet has been identified as a modifiable factor for preventing and controlling hypertension. Besides, epidemiological studies have suggested an inverse association between polyphenol intake and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the intake of polyphenols and hypertension in a general population of Sao Paulo. Methods Data came from the ‘Health Survey of Sao Paulo (ISA-Capital)’ among 550 adults and older adults in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Diet was assessed by two 24-hour dietary recalls (24HR). Usual intakes were calculated using the Multiple Source Method. Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching food consumption data from the 24HR with the Phenol-Explorer database. The associations between the hypertension and tertiles of the total and classes of polyphenols intake were tested by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results After multivariate adjustment for potential confounding factors the findings showed an inverse and linearly association between the hypertension and highest tertiles of tyrosols (OR = 0.33; 95%CI 0.18, 0.64), alkylphenols (OR = 0.45; 95%CI 0.23, 0.87), lignans (OR = 0.49; 95%CI 0.25, 0.98), as well as stilbenes (OR = 0.60; 95%CI 0.36, 0.98), and other polyphenols (OR = 0.33; 95%CI 0.14, 0.74). However, total polyphenol intake, and phenolic acids were significantly associated only in the middle tertile with hypertension and flavonoids were not significant associated. Conclusion There is an inverse and linearly association between the highest tertile of some classes of polyphenols, such as, tyrosols, alkylphenols, lignans, stilbenes, other polyphenols and hypertension. PMID:27792767

  9. Dental prosthetic status and treatment needs of adult population in Jizan, Saudi Arabia: A survey report

    PubMed Central

    Peeran, Syed Ali; Al Sanabani, Fuad; AL-Makramani, Bandar M. A.; Elamin, Elfatih Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate and compare the dental prosthetic status and treatment needs of adult population in Jizan, Saudi Arabia, in relation to the age. Materials and Methods: A total of 1779 people aged 35–74 years from 4 survey areas (Hay al matar, Mahata khams, Dara ut tawhid, and Suq ad dakhili) selected through convenient sampling, around Jizan University, were surveyed, using the WHO survey criteria, 1997. Statistical Analysis: Number and percentages were calculated, and univariate analysis was performed using Chi-square test at 5% level of significance. Results: Different forms of prosthesis were present among patients in the upper (19.9%) and lower (19%) arches, respectively. Prosthetic treatment need was recognized in subjects, 56.4% for the upper and 57.2% for the lower arches, respectively. The prosthetic status and treatment needs differed statistically with respect to age. Conclusion: More than half of the surveyed adult populations were in need of some or the other forms of prosthesis. This study provides data for an oral health-care provider program for Jizan. PMID:28042258

  10. Well-Being in an Adult Swedish Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Anna; Hilleras, Pernilla; Forsell, Yvonne

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to see if earlier findings about factors associated with well-being could be replicated in a large population-based sample in Sweden. To the best of our knowledge, no research on well-being has been conducted on such a large population in a country, which by most standards is regarded as one of the most…

  11. Method for spatially distributing a population

    DOEpatents

    Bright, Edward A [Knoxville, TN; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [Knoxville, TN; Coleman, Phillip R [Knoxville, TN; Dobson, Jerome E [Lawrence, KS

    2007-07-24

    A process for spatially distributing a population count within a geographically defined area can include the steps of logically correlating land usages apparent from a geographically defined area to geospatial features in the geographically defined area and allocating portions of the population count to regions of the geographically defined area having the land usages, according to the logical correlation. The process can also include weighing the logical correlation for determining the allocation of portions of the population count and storing the allocated portions within a searchable data store. The logically correlating step can include the step of logically correlating time-based land usages to geospatial features of the geographically defined area. The process can also include obtaining a population count for the geographically defined area, organizing the geographically defined area into a plurality of sectors, and verifying the allocated portions according to direct observation.

  12. Dissociative Symptoms and Mother's Marital Status in Young Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Bob, Petr; Selesova, Petra; Raboch, Jiri; Kukla, Lubomir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Current findings suggest that mother's marital status indicating father's absence or conflicting relationship to father may be specifically related to dissociation and other stress-related symptoms. We have assessed relationships of mother's marital status, dissociative symptoms, and other psychopathological manifestations in a sample of 19 years’ old young adults (N = 364) participating in European longitudinal study (European Longitudinal Study of Parenthood and Childhood). The results show clinically significant manifestations of dissociative symptoms in young adult men whose mothers were fatherless and in women whose mothers were re-married. Other psychopathological symptoms did not reach clinically significant manifestations. The results suggest that significant factor related to high level of dissociative symptoms in men growing in fatherless families might be linked with disturbed and conflicting attachment to a father's figure and pathological dependent attachment to mother. In women dissociative symptoms likely are linked to conflicting relationship between mother and daughter associated with stepfather’ presence in the family. PMID:25590849

  13. Grammatical Class Effects Across Impaired Child and Adult Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kambanaros, Maria; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study are to compare quantitative and qualitative differences for noun/verb retrieval across language-impaired groups, examine naming errors with reference to psycholinguistic models of word processing, and shed light on the nature of the naming deficit as well as determine relevant group commonalities and differences. This includes an attempt to establish whether error types differentiate language-impaired children from adults, to determine effects of psycholinguistic variables on naming accuracies, and to link the results to genetic mechanisms and/or neural circuitry in the brain. A total of 89 (language-)impaired participants took part in this report: 24 adults with acquired aphasia, 20 adults with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder, 31 adults with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and 14 children with specific language impairment. The results of simultaneous multiple regression analyses for the errors in verb naming compared to the psycholinguistic variables for all language-impaired groups are reported and discussed in relation to models of lexical processing. This discussion will lead to considerations of genetic and/or neurobiological underpinnings: Presence of the noun–verb dissociation in focal and non-focal brain impairment make localization theories redundant, but support for wider neural network involvement.The patterns reported cannot be reduced to any one level of language processing, suggesting multiple interactions at different levels (e.g., receptive vs. expressive language abilities).Semantic-conceptual properties constrain syntactic properties with implications for phonological word form retrieval.Competition needs to be resolved at both conceptual and phonological levels of representation. Moreover, this study may provide a cross-pathological baseline that can be probed further with respect to recent suggestions concerning a reconsideration of open- vs. closed-class items, according to which verbs may actually fall into the

  14. Clustering and combining pattern of metabolic syndrome components in a rural Brazilian adult population.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Adriano Marçal; Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana Santos; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Metabolic syndrome is characterized by clustering of cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance and arterial hypertension. The aim of this study was to estimate the probability of clustering and the combination pattern of three or more metabolic syndrome components in a rural Brazilian adult population. DESIGN AND SETTING This was a cross-sectional study conducted in two rural communities located in the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS The sample was composed of 534 adults (both sexes). Waist circumference, blood pressure and demographic, lifestyle and biochemical characteristics were assessed. The prevalences of metabolic syndrome and its components were estimated using the definitions of the National Cholesterol Education Program - Adult Treatment Panel III. A binomial distribution equation was used to evaluate the probability of clustering of metabolic syndrome components. The statistical significance level was set at 5% (P < 0.05). RESULTS Metabolic syndrome was more frequent among women (23.3%) than among men (6.5%). Clustering of three or more metabolic syndrome components was greater than expected by chance. The commonest combinations of three metabolic syndrome components were: hypertriglyceridemia + low levels of HDL-c + arterial hypertension and abdominal obesity + low levels of HDL-c + arterial hypertension; and of four metabolic syndrome components: abdominal obesity + hypertriglyceridemia + low levels of HDL-c + arterial hypertension. CONCLUSION The population studied presented high prevalence of metabolic syndrome among women and clustering of its components greater than expected by chance, suggesting that the combination pattern was non-random.

  15. Estimates and Projections of the Limited English Proficient Adult Population in Need of Employment Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willette, JoAnne; And Others

    A study estimated the size of the population of adults and out-of-school youth with limited English proficiency (LEP) who need vocational education and related employment services and projected the size of this population from the time of the study to the year 2000. Research procedures included a literature review, an analysis of 1980 U.S. census…

  16. Survivorship of Hip and Knee Implants in Pediatric and Young Adult Populations

    PubMed Central

    Sedrakyan, Art; Romero, Lucas; Graves, Stephen; Davidson, David; de Steiger, Richard; Lewis, Peter; Solomon, Michael; Vial, Robyn; Lorimer, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Background: One of the least researched areas in orthopaedic pediatrics is the safety and effectiveness of joint replacement, in part because it is uncommon and is undertaken for a wide range of conditions not common for adult joint replacement. This study used data from the AOANJRR (Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry) to analyze the use of total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the pediatric population and to provide preliminary data on the outcome of these procedures. Methods: The AOANJRR, which is part of the ICOR (International Consortium of Orthopaedic Registries), provided information on pediatric procedures reported to the registry by hospitals undertaking arthroplasty procedures in Australia. All THA and TKA procedures reported to the registry from 1999 to 2012 were included. The cumulative percent revision and the hazard ratio from Cox proportional-hazards models were used for analysis. All tests were two-tailed, with a 5% level of significance. Additionally, an overview of the literature is presented to provide a point of reference. Results: Primary conventional THA was performed in 297 patients twenty years of age or younger; the cumulative percent revision at five years was 4.5%. Primary conventional THA was performed in 975 young adults twenty-one to thirty years of age; the cumulative percent revision at five years was 5.4%. Primary THA was performed in 105 patients twenty years of age or younger; the cumulative percent revision at five years was 4.6%. Primary TKA was performed in 159 young adults twenty-one to thirty years of age; the cumulative percent revision at five years was 10.3%. Conclusions: Compared with older adults, pediatric patients and young adults undergoing THA and TKA have very different diagnoses, including a high prevalence of tumor. Although the reported rate of revision surgery is currently similar to that for older patients, the number of reported procedures and the

  17. Adult Celiac Disease: Patients Are Shorter Compared with Their Peers in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilzadeh, Abbas; Ganji, Azita; Goshayeshi, Ladan; Ghafarzadegan, Kamran; Afzal Aghayee, Mehdi; Mosanen Mozafari, Homan; Saadatniya, Hassan; Hayatbakhs, Abdolrasol; Ghavami Ghanbarabadi, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Delay in diagnosis of celiac disease (CD) occurs frequently, although its consequences are mostly not known. One of the presented symptoms in pediatric patients with CD is the short stature. However, far too little attention has been paid to physical features including height of adult patients with CD. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether patients suffering from CD are shorter in comparison with the general population without CD. As well, we evaluated probable correlations between demographic and physical features, main complains, serum anti tTG level, and intestinal pathology damage between short (lower quartile) versus tall stature (upper quartile) patients with CD. METHODS This was a retrospective cross-sectional study on 219 adult patients diagnosed as having CD in the Celiac Disease Center, between June 2008 and June 2014 in Mashhad, Iran. The exclusion criteria were ages less than 18 and more than 60 years. Height was compared with a group of 657 age- and sex matched control cases from the healthy population. The probable influencing factors on height such as intestinal pathology, serum level of anti-tissue transglutaminase(anti-tTG), serum vitamin D, and hemoglobin level at the time of diagnosis were assessed and were compared in short (lower quartile) versus tall stature (upper quartile) patients with CD. RESULTS Both male (n=65) and female (n=154) patients with CD were shorter than their counterpart in the general population (males: 168.5±8.6 to 171.3±7.2cm, p <0.01 and females: 154.8±10.58 to 157.8±7.2 cm, p <0.01). Spearman linear correlation showed height in patient with CD was correlated with serum hemoglobin (p <0.001, r=0.285) and bone mineral density (p<0.001) and not with serum vitamin D levels (p =0.024, r=0.237), but was not correlated with anti-tTG serum levels (p=0.97). CD patients with upper and lower quartile of height in men and women had no significant difference in the anti-tTG level and degree of duodenal pathology

  18. Lack of access and continuity of adult health care: a national population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Dilélio, Alitéia Santiago; Tomasi, Elaine; Thumé, Elaine; da Silveira, Denise Silva; Siqueira, Fernando Carlos Vinholes; Piccini, Roberto Xavier; Silva, Suele Manjourany; Nunes, Bruno Pereira; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the lack of access and continuity of health care in adults. METHODS A cross-sectional population-based study was performed on a sample of 12,402 adults aged 20 to 59 years in urban areas of 100 municipalities of 23 states in the five Brazilian geopolitical regions. Barriers to the access and continuity of health care and were investigated based on receiving, needing and seeking health care (hospitalization and accident/emergency care in the last 12 months; care provided by a doctor, by other health professional or home care in the last three months). Based on the results obtained by the description of the sample, a projection is provided for adults living in Brazilian urban areas. RESULTS The highest prevalence of lack of access to health services and to provision of care by health professionals was for hospitalization (3.0%), whilst the lowest prevalence was for care provided by a doctor (1.1%). The lack of access to care provided by other health professionals was 2.0%; to accident and emergency services, 2.1%; and to home care, 2.9%. As for prevalences, the greatest absolute lack of access occurred in emergency care (more than 360,000 adults). The main reasons were structural and organizational problems, such as unavailability of hospital beds, of health professionals, of appointments for the type of care needed and charges made for care. CONCLUSIONS The universal right to health care in Brazil has not yet been achieved. These projections can help health care management in scaling the efforts needed to overcome this problem, such as expanding the infrastructure of health services and the workforce. PMID:26061454

  19. Reduced productivity in adult yellowfever mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) populations

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, P.H.; Hamm, W.J.; Garcia, F.; Garcia, M.; Schirf, V.

    1989-04-01

    Male and female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes of the laboratory strain ROCK were irradiated with 130 mw of argon 514.5 nm laser microbeams for 0.04, 0.25, 0.4, and 0.5 s, respectively. Egg production, percentage hatch, and productivity (average number of adults surviving after 3 wk) were used to assess mutagenic effects. Mortality was high for males in all laser radiation groups and increased with time of exposure. Except for the group treated for 0.25 s, significant reductions in total F1 progeny also were demonstrated for all other experimentals when male parents were exposed to laser radiation. Females showed a high mortality when subjected to 0.4- and 0.5-s laser radiation. No F1 progeny were produced when parental females were exposed for 0.25, 0.4, and 0.5 s. Numbers of F1 progeny from females exposed to 0.04 s of laser radiation were significantly reduced. A comparison of weekly mean number of progeny showed that the important differences in productivity occurred during the first and second week, respectively, when either male or female adult parents were subjected to laser radiation.

  20. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in natural populations of mammals.

    PubMed

    Amrein, Irmgard

    2015-05-01

    This review will discuss adult hippocampal neurogenesis in wild mammals of different taxa and outline similarities with and differences from laboratory animals. It begins with a review of evidence for hippocampal neurogenesis in various mammals, and shows the similar patterns of age-dependent decline in cell proliferation in wild and domesticated mammals. In contrast, the pool of immature neurons that originate from proliferative activity varies between species, implying a selective advantage for mammals that can make use of a large number of these functionally special neurons. Furthermore, rapid adaptation of hippocampal neurogenesis to experimental challenges appears to be a characteristic of laboratory rodents. Wild mammals show species-specific, rather stable hippocampal neurogenesis, which appears related to demands that characterize the niche exploited by a species rather than to acute events in the life of its members. Studies that investigate adult neurogenesis in wild mammals are not numerous, but the findings of neurogenesis under natural conditions can provide new insights, and thereby also address the question to which cognitive demands neurogenesis may respond during selection.

  1. Dynamics of a neutral delay equation for an insect population with long larval and short adult phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourley, Stephen A.; Kuang, Yang

    We present a global study on the stability of the equilibria in a nonlinear autonomous neutral delay differential population model formulated by Bocharov and Hadeler. This model may be suitable for describing the intriguing dynamics of an insect population with long larval and short adult phases such as the periodical cicada. We circumvent the usual difficulties associated with the study of the stability of a nonlinear neutral delay differential model by transforming it to an appropriate non-neutral nonautonomous delay differential equation with unbounded delay. In the case that no juveniles give birth, we establish the positivity and boundedness of solutions by ad hoc methods and global stability of the extinction and positive equilibria by the method of iteration. We also show that if the time adjusted instantaneous birth rate at the time of maturation is greater than 1, then the population will grow without bound, regardless of the population death process.

  2. Does cannibalism of larvae by adults affect settlement and connectivity of mussel populations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porri, Francesca; Jordaan, Tembisa; McQuaid, Christopher D.

    2008-09-01

    Intertidal population dynamics are driven by a complex series of processes, including larval supply and the possibility of larval predation by benthic animals such as filter-feeders. We hypothesised that cannibalism by adults could play a major role in the population connectivity of mussel populations by removing larvae as they attempt to settle in the adult habitat. Specifically, we tested hypotheses that consumption of mussel larvae by adults removes a significant proportion of potential settlers and is influenced by both settlement intensity and tidal state (flooding or ebbing). Predation of mussel larvae by adult mussels was investigated on incoming and ebbing tides during four spring tides by analysing the gut contents of adult Perna perna and Mytilus galloprovincialis collected from the low intertidal mussel zone between October 2005 and January 2006. Consumption rates were then compared with estimates of successful settler densities on natural beds. The results showed that mortality of competent mussel larvae through adult ingestion removes up to 77% a of potential settlers. Rates of larval consumption were highest during months of intense settlement, suggesting that mussels feed opportunistically, filtering a relatively fixed volume of water and removing particles, including larvae, in proportion to their densities in the water. Rates of larviphagy were also higher during receding than incoming tides. We suggest that this is due to changes in larval density or, more probably, in adult filtration efficiency that are related to the state of the tide. Despite significant effects of both tidal state and settlement intensity on rates of larval ingestion, neither had a significant effect on the proportion of potential settlers removed. During settlement more than half of all potential settlers are lost through cannibalism, with potentially serious consequences for population maintenance. The results highlight the paradoxical nature of the evolution of settlement

  3. Evolution of increased adult longevity in Drosophila melanogaster populations selected for adaptation to larval crowding.

    PubMed

    Shenoi, V N; Ali, S Z; Prasad, N G

    2016-02-01

    In holometabolous animals such as Drosophila melanogaster, larval crowding can affect a wide range of larval and adult traits. Adults emerging from high larval density cultures have smaller body size and increased mean life span compared to flies emerging from low larval density cultures. Therefore, adaptation to larval crowding could potentially affect adult longevity as a correlated response. We addressed this issue by studying a set of large, outbred populations of D. melanogaster, experimentally evolved for adaptation to larval crowding for 83 generations. We assayed longevity of adult flies from both selected (MCUs) and control populations (MBs) after growing them at different larval densities. We found that MCUs have evolved increased mean longevity compared to MBs at all larval densities. The interaction between selection regime and larval density was not significant, indicating that the density dependence of mean longevity had not evolved in the MCU populations. The increase in longevity in MCUs can be partially attributed to their lower rates of ageing. It is also noteworthy that reaction norm of dry body weight, a trait probably under direct selection in our populations, has indeed evolved in MCU populations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the evolution of adult longevity as a correlated response of adaptation to larval crowding.

  4. Temperament profiles in personality disorders among a young adult population.

    PubMed

    Kantojärvi, Liisa; Miettunen, Jouko; Veijola, Juha; Läksy, Kristian; Karvonen, Juha T; Ekelund, Jesper; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Lichtermann, Dirk; Joukamaa, Matti

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the temperament dimension profiles assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) among young adults with the DSM-III-R personality disorder (PD). Our hypothesis was that PD clusters and separate PDs can be distinguished from one another by their specific temperament profiles. As a part of the 31-year follow-up survey of the prospective Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort, the cohort members living in the city of Oulu at the age of 31 years (n=1609) were invited to participate in a two-phase field study. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R for PDs (SCID-II) was used as diagnostic instrument. The final study sample consisted of the 1311 subjects who had completed the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25 questionnaire for screening and had given a written informed consent. Of the 321 SCID interviewed subjects, 74 met the criteria for at least one PD and had completed the TCI. The mean TCI scores of subjects with PD and control subjects without PD (n=910) were compared. Low Novelty Seeking, high Harm Avoidance and low Reward Dependence characterized cluster A and C PDs. Subjects with a cluster B PD did not differ from controls, except for Novelty Seeking, which was high. The temperament dimensions could not distinguish different PDs very well, with the only exception of persons with obsessive-compulsive PD. PD clusters were associated with different profiles of temperament, lending some support for Cloninger's typology.

  5. Prevalence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis in a Saudi adult population

    PubMed Central

    Idrees, Majdy M.; Azzeghaiby, Saleh N.; Hammad, Mohammad M.; Kujan, Omar B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis among a Saudi adult population in Riyadh region. Methods: Three hundred and eighty-five eligible participants in this cross-sectional study were recruited from routine dental patients attending the oral diagnosis clinic at Al-Farabi College in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from June 2013 to December 2013. A clinical examination was performed by 2 dentists to measure the gingival and plaque indices of Löe and Silness for each participant. Results: The prevalence of gingivitis was 100% among adult subjects aged between 18-40 years old. Moreover, the mean gingival index was 1.68±0.31, which indicates a moderate gingival inflammation. In fact, males showed more severe signs of gingival inflammation compared with females (p=0.001). In addition, the mean plaque index was 0.875±0.49, which indicates a good plaque status of the participants. Interestingly, the age was not related either to the gingival inflammation (p=0.13), or to the amount of plaque accumulation (p=0.17). However, males were more affected than females (p=0.005). Conclusion: The results of this study show that plaque accumulation is strongly associated with high prevalence of moderate to severe gingivitis among Saudi subjects. PMID:25399215

  6. The association between childhood trauma and lipid levels in an adult low income, minority population

    PubMed Central

    Spann, Sarah J.; Gillespie, Charles F.; Davis, Jennifer S.; Brown, Angelo; Schwartz, Ann; Wingo, Aliza; Habib, Leah; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to investigate the association between childhood trauma and lipid profiles in adults from a highly traumatized population at-risk for cardiovascular disease. Method We recruited 452 participants, primarily African American, low socioeconomic status from general medical clinics in a large urban hospital. We performed direct comparisons, univariate ANOVA and regression analyses together and separated by sex, examining the associations of child abuse, BMI, lipid lowering drug use, blood pressure, age, and substance use to HDL levels and HDL/LDL ratios. Results A history of moderate to severe levels of childhood trauma and abuse was associated with a significant decrease in HDL levels (p≤0.01) and HDL/LDL ratios (p≤0.001) relative to males with low levels of abuse. This relationship held when the status of lipid-lowering drugs was considered. When controlling for age, substance abuse, tobacco use, and adult trauma, the effects of childhood trauma remained significant. We found a significant child abuse by sex interaction on HDL/LDL ratios (F(1, 369)=13.0, p≤0.0005) consistent with a differential effect of trauma on dyslipidemia in male but not female subjects Conclusions Our data suggest that childhood trauma exposure, obtained with self-report measures, may contribute to increased risk of cardiovascular disease by way of stress-mediated alterations of lipid concentration and composition in male, but not female, subjects. PMID:24315076

  7. What Is the Prevalence of Adult ADHD? Results of a Population Screen of 966 Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    To provide a better estimate of the prevalence of ADHD in adulthood, the authors complete a telephone survey of 966 randomly selected adults. They compute two diagnoses from the survey data. Participants meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for both childhood and adulthood are defined as narrow ADHD.…

  8. Using the Keyword Mnemonics Method among Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos, Alfredo; Camino, Estefania; Perez-Fabello, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of word image vividness on the immediate and long-term recall (one-day interval) of words using either the rote repetition learning method or the keyword mnemonics method in a sample of adults aged 55 to 70 years. Subjects learned a list of concrete and abstract words using either rote…

  9. Validation of the Regicor Short Physical Activity Questionnaire for the Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Luis; Sarmiento, Manuel; Peñafiel, Judith; Donaire, David; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Gomez, Miquel; Ble, Mireia; Ruiz, Sonia; Frances, Albert; Schröder, Helmut; Marrugat, Jaume; Elosua, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate a short questionnaire to estimate physical activity (PA) practice and sedentary behavior for the adult population. Methods The short questionnaire was developed using data from a cross-sectional population-based survey (n = 6352) that included the Minnesota leisure-time PA questionnaire. Activities that explained a significant proportion of the variability of population PA practice were identified. Validation of the short questionnaire included a cross-sectional component to assess validity with respect to the data collected by accelerometers and a longitudinal component to assess reliability and sensitivity to detect changes (n = 114, aged 35 to 74 years). Results Six types of activities that accounted for 87% of population variability in PA estimated with the Minnesota questionnaire were selected. The short questionnaire estimates energy expenditure in total PA and by intensity (light, moderate, vigorous), and includes 2 questions about sedentary behavior and a question about occupational PA. The short questionnaire showed high reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging between 0.79 to 0.95. The Spearman correlation coefficients between estimated energy expenditure obtained with the questionnaire and the number of steps detected by the accelerometer were as follows: 0.36 for total PA, 0.40 for moderate intensity, and 0.26 for vigorous intensity. The questionnaire was sensitive to detect changes in moderate and vigorous PA (correlation coefficients ranging from 0.26 to 0.34). Conclusion The REGICOR short questionnaire is reliable, valid, and sensitive to detect changes in moderate and vigorous PA. This questionnaire could be used in daily clinical practice and epidemiological studies. PMID:28085886

  10. High-frequency audiometric assessment of a young adult population.

    PubMed

    Green, D M; Kidd, G; Stevens, K N

    1987-02-01

    The hearing thresholds of 37 young adults (18-26 years) were measured at 13 frequencies (8, 9,10,...,20 kHz) using a newly developed high-frequency audiometer. All subjects were screened at 15 dB HL at the low audiometric frequencies, had tympanometry within normal limits, and had no history of significant hearing problems. The audiometer delivers sound from a driver unit to the ear canal through a lossy tube and earpiece providing a source impedance essentially equal to the characteristic impedance of the tube. A small microphone located within the earpiece is used to measure the response of the ear canal when an impulse is applied at the driver unit. From this response, a gain function is calculated relating the equivalent sound-pressure level of the source to the SPL at the medial end of the ear canal. For the subjects tested, this gain function showed a gradual increase from 2 to 12 dB over the frequency range. The standard deviation of the gain function was about 2.5 dB across subjects in the lower frequency region (8-14 kHz) and about 4 dB at the higher frequencies. Cross modes and poor fit of the earpiece to the ear canal prevented accurate calibration for some subjects at the highest frequencies. The average SPL at threshold was 23 dB at 8 kHz, 30 dB at 12 kHz, and 87 dB at 18 kHz. Despite the homogeneous nature of the sample, the younger subjects in the sample had reliably better thresholds than the older subjects. Repeated measurements of threshold over an interval as long as 1 month showed a standard deviation of 2.5 dB at the lower frequencies (8-14 kHz) and 4.5 dB at the higher frequencies.

  11. Network social capital, social participation, and physical inactivity in an urban adult population.

    PubMed

    Legh-Jones, Hannah; Moore, Spencer

    2012-05-01

    Research on individual social capital and physical activity has tended to focus on the association among physical activity, generalized trust, and social participation. Less is known about the association between network social capital, i.e., the resources accessed through one's social connections, and physical inactivity. Using formal network measures of social capital, this study examined which specific dimension of network capital (i.e. diversity, reach and range) was associated with physical inactivity, and whether network social capital mediated the association between physical inactivity and social participation. Data came from the 2008 Montreal (Canada) Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging survey, in which 2707 adults 25 years and older in 300 Montreal neighbourhoods were surveyed. Physical activity was self-reported using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). IPAQ guidelines provided the basis for the physical inactivity cutoff. Network social capital was measured with a position generator instrument. Multilevel logistic methods were used to examine the association between physical inactivity and individual social capital dimensions, while adjusting for socio-demographic and -economic factors. Higher network diversity was associated with a decreased likelihood of physical inactivity. Consistent with previous findings, individuals who did not participate in any formal associations were more likely to be physically inactive compared to those with high levels of participation. Network diversity mediated the association between physical inactivity and participation. Generalized trust and the network components of reach and range were not shown associated with physical inactivity. Findings highlight the importance of social participation and network social capital and the added value of network measures in the study of social capital and physical inactivity. Population-based programs targeting physical inactivity among adults might

  12. Stages of change for physical activity in adults from Southern Brazil: a population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Dumith, Samuel C; Gigante, Denise P; Domingues, Marlos R

    2007-01-01

    Background There is evidence that physical activity (PA) interventions tailored to individual's stages of change (SoC) are more effective in promote behavior change than "one-size-fits-all" interventions. However, only a few researches have investigated these stages towards PA behavior in representative samples of the population. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with the SoC for PA in a probabilistic sample of adults aged 20 years or over. Methods A population-based survey was undertaken in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 2005. An algorithm was applied to evaluate the SoC for PA, and PA was defined as being engaged in moderate-to-vigorous PA for at least 20 minutes on three times per week. The covariates collected in the questionnaire were: sex, age, skin color, marital status, education level, economic status, family income, smoking, body mass index (BMI) and self-reported health status. Data analyses were performed through Poisson and multinomial regression, taking the sampling design into account. Results Face-to-face interviews were applied to 3136 individuals, corresponding to a response rate of 93.5%. The prevalence across the stages was as follows: 38.3% in precontemplation, 13.0% in contemplation, 19.5% in preparation, 5.2% in action and 24.0% in maintenance. The elderly, married, smokers, and those with lower socioeconomic status were less likely to adopt, initiate and maintain regular PA. Conclusion Despite the all benefits of PA, a high proportion of adults from Southern Brazil are physically inactive and do not present intention to engage in regular PA. The profile of those who are inactive but intend to do PA resembles those who are physically active. The findings of the present study can contribute to improve health behaviors and to plan health promotion strategies aimed at increasing the level of PA in the community. PMID:17555603

  13. [Efficacy of the keyword mnemonic method in adults].

    PubMed

    Campos, Alfredo; Pérez-Fabello, María José; Camino, Estefanía

    2010-11-01

    Two experiments were used to assess the efficacy of the keyword mnemonic method in adults. In Experiment 1, immediate and delayed recall (at a one-day interval) were assessed by comparing the results obtained by a group of adults using the keyword mnemonic method in contrast to a group using the repetition method. The mean age of the sample under study was 59.35 years. Subjects were required to learn a list of 16 words translated from Latin into Spanish. Participants who used keyword mnemonics that had been devised by other experimental participants of the same characteristics, obtained significantly higher immediate and delayed recall scores than participants in the repetition method. In Experiment 2, other participants had to learn a list of 24 Latin words translated into Spanish by using the keyword mnemonic method reinforced with pictures. Immediate and delayed recall were significantly greater in the keyword mnemonic method group than in the repetition method group.

  14. Population of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Segars, W. P.; Bond, Jason; Frush, Jack; Hon, Sylvia; Eckersley, Chris; Samei, E.; Williams, Cameron H.; Frush, D.; Feng Jianqiao; Tward, Daniel J.; Ratnanather, J. T.; Miller, M. I.

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: The authors previously developed the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom for multimodality imaging research. The XCAT consisted of highly detailed whole-body models for the standard male and female adult, including the cardiac and respiratory motions. In this work, the authors extend the XCAT beyond these reference anatomies by developing a series of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research, the first library of 4D computational phantoms. Methods: The initial anatomy of each phantom was based on chest-abdomen-pelvis computed tomography data from normal patients obtained from the Duke University database. The major organs and structures for each phantom were segmented from the corresponding data and defined using nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces. To complete the body, the authors manually added on the head, arms, and legs using the original XCAT adult male and female anatomies. The structures were scaled to best match the age and anatomy of the patient. A multichannel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm was then used to calculate the transform from the template XCAT phantom (male or female) to the target patient model. The transform was applied to the template XCAT to fill in any unsegmented structures within the target phantom and to implement the 4D cardiac and respiratory models in the new anatomy. Each new phantom was refined by checking for anatomical accuracy via inspection of the models. Results: Using these methods, the authors created a series of computerized phantoms with thousands of anatomical structures and modeling cardiac and respiratory motions. The database consists of 58 (35 male and 23 female) anatomically variable phantoms in total. Like the original XCAT, these phantoms can be combined with existing simulation packages to simulate realistic imaging data. Each new phantom contains parameterized models for the anatomy and the cardiac and respiratory motions and can, therefore, serve

  15. Gait speed correlates in a multiracial population of community-dwelling older adults living in Brazil: a cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gait speed is a strong predictor of a wide range of adverse health outcomes in older adults. Mean values for gait speed in community-dwelling older adults vary substantially depending on population characteristics, suggesting that social, biological, or health factors might explain why certain groups tend to self-select their gait speed in different patterns. The vast majority of studies reported in the literature present data from North American and European populations. There are few population-based studies from other regions with a different ethnicity and/or social and health conditions. To address this, the present study identified the mean usual and fast gait speeds in a representative multiracial population of community-dwelling older adults living in a developing country, and explored their association with sociodemographic, mental and physical health characteristics. Methods This was a cross-sectional population-based study of a sample of 137 men and 248 women, aged 65 years and over. Usual gait speed and fast gait speed were measured on a 4.6 m path. Participants were classified into slow, intermediate, and faster groups by cluster analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the independent effect of each factor on the odds of presenting with a slower usual and slower fast gait speeds. Results Participants had a mean (SD) usual gait speed of 1.11 (0.27) m/s and a mean fast gait speed of 1.39 (0.34) m/s. We did not observe an independent association between gait speed and race/ethnicity, educational level, or income. The main contributors to present a slower usual gait speed were low physical activity level, stroke, diabetes, urinary incontinence, high concern about falling, and old age. A slower fast gait speed was associated with old age, low physical activity, urinary incontinence and high concern about falling. Conclusion A multiracial population of older adults living in a developing country showed a similar mean gait speed

  16. Components of the metabolic syndrome differ between young and old adults in the US population.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Andrew D; Sardi, Gabriel L; Reed, James F

    2012-08-01

    Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is high in the United States and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The authors examined whether the prevalence of the MetS and its components differs across age groups. Data were analyzed from 4 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys between the years 1999 and 2006. Prevalence of MetS as defined by the Third Report of the Adult Treatment Panel criteria and prevalence of associated cardiac risk factors were determined in 41,474 participants aged 18 years and older without a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). All estimates were weighted. Prevalence of MetS among asymptomatic adults without CVD was 20.5% and remained stable for the total population during survey periods. Prevalence of MetS increased with age: 6.6% in young adults (age 18-29 years) and 34.6% in older adults (70 and older). Components of MetS differed between young and old adults. Young adults had lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, less glucose intolerance, and less hypertension. This study provides an estimate of MetS prevalence in asymptomatic adults in the United States during an 8-year period revealing that MetS affects a large number of Americans. Components of MetS differ between young and old adults and may have important implications in their clinical management.

  17. Periodontal status in an urban adult population in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Söder, P O; Jin, L J; Söder, B; Wikner, S

    1994-04-01

    The purpose was to describe the current periodontal status in a Swedish urban population aged 31-40 yr. 1681 individuals, 840 men and 841 women, participated in the study. 68.5% of the subjects had low amount of plaque, 82.8% low level of calculus and 28.9% healthy gingiva or mild gingivitis. 82.8% of the subjects had no pockets with probing depth (PD) > or = 5 mm. 4.9% of the subjects had one tooth with PD > or = 5 mm, 6.7% 2-5 teeth, 2.4% 6-9 teeth and 3.2% > or = 10 teeth with pockets. 55.8% of the subjects had no missing teeth, third molars excluded. 16.5% had one tooth missing, 23.8% 2-5 teeth, 2.7% 6-9 teeth and 1.2% > or = 10 teeth. 8.6% of the subjects had at least one front tooth missing, 28.7% one premolar and 24.1% one molar missing. Men had significantly higher scores than women for plaque (DI-S), calculus (CI-S), gingivitis (GI-M), and number and percent of remaining teeth with PD > or = 5 mm. Smokers had significantly higher scores than non-smokers for DI-S, CI-S, GI-M, number and percent of remaining teeth with PD > or = 5 mm, and number of missing teeth. The individuals who visited the dentist every year had better oral hygiene and gingival status than those who attended for > 3 yr. The multiple regression analysis showed that calculus (P = 0.0001) smoking (P = 0.001), and dental visits (P = 0.0284) were significantly correlated to the number of teeth with PD > or = 5 mm.

  18. The Temporal Spectrum of Adult Mosquito Population Fluctuations: Conceptual and Modeling Implications

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Yun; Silvestri, Sonia; Brown, Jeff; Hickman, Rick; Marani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    An improved understanding of mosquito population dynamics under natural environmental forcing requires adequate field observations spanning the full range of temporal scales over which mosquito abundance fluctuates in natural conditions. Here we analyze a 9-year daily time series of uninterrupted observations of adult mosquito abundance for multiple mosquito species in North Carolina to identify characteristic scales of temporal variability, the processes generating them, and the representativeness of observations at different sampling resolutions. We focus in particular on Aedes vexans and Culiseta melanura and, using a combination of spectral analysis and modeling, we find significant population fluctuations with characteristic periodicity between 2 days and several years. Population dynamical modelling suggests that the observed fast fluctuations scales (2 days-weeks) are importantly affected by a varying mosquito activity in response to rapid changes in meteorological conditions, a process neglected in most representations of mosquito population dynamics. We further suggest that the range of time scales over which adult mosquito population variability takes place can be divided into three main parts. At small time scales (indicatively 2 days-1 month) observed population fluctuations are mainly driven by behavioral responses to rapid changes in weather conditions. At intermediate scales (1 to several month) environmentally-forced fluctuations in generation times, mortality rates, and density dependence determine the population characteristic response times. At longer scales (annual to multi-annual) mosquito populations follow seasonal and inter-annual environmental changes. We conclude that observations of adult mosquito populations should be based on a sub-weekly sampling frequency and that predictive models of mosquito abundance must include behavioral dynamics to separate the effects of a varying mosquito activity from actual changes in the abundance of the

  19. The temporal spectrum of adult mosquito population fluctuations: conceptual and modeling implications.

    PubMed

    Jian, Yun; Silvestri, Sonia; Brown, Jeff; Hickman, Rick; Marani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    An improved understanding of mosquito population dynamics under natural environmental forcing requires adequate field observations spanning the full range of temporal scales over which mosquito abundance fluctuates in natural conditions. Here we analyze a 9-year daily time series of uninterrupted observations of adult mosquito abundance for multiple mosquito species in North Carolina to identify characteristic scales of temporal variability, the processes generating them, and the representativeness of observations at different sampling resolutions. We focus in particular on Aedes vexans and Culiseta melanura and, using a combination of spectral analysis and modeling, we find significant population fluctuations with characteristic periodicity between 2 days and several years. Population dynamical modelling suggests that the observed fast fluctuations scales (2 days-weeks) are importantly affected by a varying mosquito activity in response to rapid changes in meteorological conditions, a process neglected in most representations of mosquito population dynamics. We further suggest that the range of time scales over which adult mosquito population variability takes place can be divided into three main parts. At small time scales (indicatively 2 days-1 month) observed population fluctuations are mainly driven by behavioral responses to rapid changes in weather conditions. At intermediate scales (1 to several month) environmentally-forced fluctuations in generation times, mortality rates, and density dependence determine the population characteristic response times. At longer scales (annual to multi-annual) mosquito populations follow seasonal and inter-annual environmental changes. We conclude that observations of adult mosquito populations should be based on a sub-weekly sampling frequency and that predictive models of mosquito abundance must include behavioral dynamics to separate the effects of a varying mosquito activity from actual changes in the abundance of the

  20. Breeding durations as estimators of adult sex ratios and population size.

    PubMed

    Payne, Nicholas Leslie; Gillanders, Bronwyn May; Semmens, Jayson

    2011-02-01

    Adult sex ratios (ASRs) and population size are two of the most fundamental parameters in population biology, as they are the main determinants of genetic and demographic viability, and vulnerability of a population to stochastic events. Underpinning the application of population viability analysis for predicting the extinction risk of populations is the need to accurately estimate parameters that determine the viability of populations (i.e. the ASR and population size). Here we demonstrate that a lack of temporal information can confound estimation of both parameters. Using acoustic telemetry, we compared differences in breeding durations of both sexes for a giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama breeding aggregation to the strongly male-biased operational sex ratio (4:1), in order to estimate the population ASR. The ratio of breeding durations between sexes was equal to the operational sex ratio, suggesting that the ASR is not strongly male-biased, but balanced. Furthermore, the short residence times of individuals at the breeding aggregation suggests that previous density-based abundance estimates have significantly underestimated population size. With the current wide application of population viability analysis for predicting the extinction risk of populations, tools to improve the accuracy of such predictions are vital. Here we provide a new approach to estimating the fundamental ASR parameter, and call for temporal considerations when estimating population size.

  1. Sexual Behaviors and HIV Status: A Population-Based Study Among Older Adults in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Olivé, Francesc X.; Rohr, Julia K.; Houle, Brian C.; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W.; Wagner, Ryan G.; Salomon, Joshua A.; Kahn, Kathleen; Berkman, Lisa F.; Tollman, Stephen M.; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To identify the unmet needs for HIV prevention among older adults in rural South Africa. Methods: We analyzed data from a population-based sample of 5059 men and women aged 40 years and older from the study Health and Aging in Africa: Longitudinal Studies of INDEPTH Communities (HAALSI), which was carried out in the Agincourt health and sociodemographic surveillance system in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. We estimated the prevalence of HIV (laboratory-confirmed and self-reported) and key sexual behaviors by age and sex. We compared sexual behavior profiles across HIV status categories with and without age–sex standardization. Results: HIV prevalence was very high among HAALSI participants (23%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 21 to 24), with no sex differences. Recent sexual activity was common (56%, 95% CI: 55 to 58) across all HIV status categories. Condom use was low among HIV-negative adults (15%, 95% CI: 14 to 17), higher among HIV-positive adults who were unaware of their HIV status (27%, 95% CI: 22 to 33), and dramatically higher among HIV-positive adults who were aware of their status (75%, 95% CI: 70 to 80). Casual sex and multiple partnerships were reported at moderate levels, with slightly higher estimates among HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative adults. Differences by HIV status remained after age–sex standardization. Conclusions: Older HIV-positive adults in an HIV hyperendemic community of rural South Africa report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV transmission risk. Older HIV-negative adults report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV acquisition risk. Prevention initiatives tailored to the particular prevention needs of older adults are urgently needed to reduce HIV risk in this and similar communities in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27926667

  2. A new method for the relief of adult phimosis.

    PubMed

    Ohjimi, H; Ogata, K; Ohjimi, T

    1995-05-01

    Infantile circumcision is not ordinarily performed in Japan. Adult circumcision causes esthetic problems with scarring and color change, especially in Asian patients. We report our experience with 10 adults who underwent a new method of surgery for correction of phimosis via a longitudinal incision of the prepuce along the constricted area ventrally to release constriction, followed by transverse closure of the wound; removal of excess skin by pinching at the dorsal root of the penis, incising circumferentially except for 2 cm. of ventral skin, and closing the dorsal wound. Functional results in all cases were satisfactory and preputial constriction was fully relieved. Cosmetic results were superior to those of conventional circumcision and dorsal slit methods of adult circumcision because contrasting coloration was obscured behind pubic hair and scarring was coincidental with or beneath the pubic hairline.

  3. HIV/AIDS Misconceptions among Latinos: Findings from a Population-Based Survey of California Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritieni, Assunta; Moskowitz, Joel; Tholandi, Maya

    2008-01-01

    Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS among Latino adults (N=454) in California were examined using data from a population-based telephone survey conducted in 2000. Common misconceptions concerning modes of HIV transmission included transmission via mosquito or animal bite (64.1%), public facilities (48.3%), or kissing someone on the cheek (24.8%). A…

  4. Eysenck Personality Inventory: A Normative Study on an Adult Industrial Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Reid K.; Brown, William R.

    1980-01-01

    Developed norms for an adult industrial population for the Eysenck Personality Inventory. An analysis of scale scores by age, sex, marital status, and occupational category revealed significant differences in extraversion scale scores by age and sex. Norm tables are presented by sex. (Author)

  5. The Contributions of Phonological and Morphological Awareness to Literacy Skills in the Adult Basic Education Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fracasso, Lucille E.; Bangs, Kathryn; Binder, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    The Adult Basic Education (ABE) population consists of a wide range of abilities with needs that may be unique to this set of learners. The purpose of this study was to better understand the relative contributions of phonological decoding and morphological awareness to spelling, vocabulary, and comprehension across a sample of ABE students. In…

  6. "Subtypes" in the Presentation of Autistic Traits in the General Adult Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Colin J.; Paton, Bryan; Enticott, Peter G.; Hohwy, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the presentation of autistic traits in a large adult population sample (n = 2,343). Cluster analysis indicated two subgroups with clearly distinguishable trait profiles. One group (n = 1,059) reported greater social difficulties and lower detail orientation, while the second group (n = 1,284) reported lesser social…

  7. A Meta-Analysis of Dunn and Dunn Model Correlational Research with Adult Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangino, Christine

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to conduct a quantitative synthesis of correlational research that focused on the Dunn and Dunn Learning-Style Model and was concerned with adult populations. A total of 8,661 participants from the 47 original investigations provided 386 individual effect sizes for this meta-analysis. The mean effect size was…

  8. Meeting the Needs of Older Adult Refugee Populations With Home Health Services.

    PubMed

    Miner, Sarah M; Liebel, Dianne; Wilde, Mary H; Carroll, Jennifer K; Zicari, Elizabeth; Chalupa, Stephanie

    2015-12-27

    The United States resettles close to 70,000 refugees each year more than any other country in the world. Adult refugees are at risk for negative health outcomes and inefficient health resource use, and meeting the multiple health needs of this vulnerable population is a challenge. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a home health care (HHC) pilot project on meeting the needs of older adult refugee patients. A retrospective chart review of 40 refugee adult patients who participated in an HHC pilot was done to analyze their health outcomes using OASIS-C data. Participants' pain level, anxiety level, medication management, and activities of daily living management all significantly improved over the course of their HHC episode. Results of this study indicate that HHC has great potential to improve the health of vulnerable refugee populations and assist the families involved in their care.

  9. Life-history traits and effective population size in species with overlapping generations revisited: the importance of adult mortality.

    PubMed

    Waples, R S

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between life-history traits and the key eco-evolutionary parameters effective population size (Ne) and Ne/N is revisited for iteroparous species with overlapping generations, with a focus on the annual rate of adult mortality (d). Analytical methods based on populations with arbitrarily long adult lifespans are used to evaluate the influence of d on Ne, Ne/N and the factors that determine these parameters: adult abundance (N), generation length (T), age at maturity (α), the ratio of variance to mean reproductive success in one season by individuals of the same age (φ) and lifetime variance in reproductive success of individuals in a cohort (Vk•). Although the resulting estimators of N, T and Vk• are upwardly biased for species with short adult lifespans, the estimate of Ne/N is largely unbiased because biases in T are compensated for by biases in Vk• and N. For the first time, the contrasting effects of T and Vk• on Ne and Ne/N are jointly considered with respect to d and φ. A simple function of d and α based on the assumption of constant vital rates is shown to be a robust predictor (R(2)=0.78) of Ne/N in an empirical data set of life tables for 63 animal and plant species with diverse life histories. Results presented here should provide important context for interpreting the surge of genetically based estimates of Ne that has been fueled by the genomics revolution.

  10. Prevalence of malocclusion traits and orthodontic treatment in a Finnish adult population.

    PubMed

    Krooks, Laura; Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Kanavakis, Georgios; Lähdesmäki, Raija

    2016-07-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of malocclusion traits and the extent of orthodontic treatment in a Finnish adult population. Materials and methods The study population comprised subjects (n = 1964) from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 living in the city of Oulu and within 100 km of it. A clinical oral and dental examination with registration of occlusion was carried out in 2012 in connection with a 46-year follow-up survey. Data on previous orthodontic treatment were collected based on a questionnaire. Results In the clinical examination, 39.5% of the subjects had at least one malocclusion trait. The most common malocclusion traits were lateral crossbite (17.9%), overbite ≥ 6 mm (11.7%) and overjet ≥ 6 mm (9.7%). Crossbite on the left premolars, negative overjet and increased overbite were found more frequently in men. The prevalence of malocclusion traits was at the same level in treated and untreated groups. Overall, 18.6% of the subjects had undergone orthodontic treatment. Women showed a significantly higher prevalence of orthodontic treatment. Conclusions The most common malocclusion trait in the present study was lateral crossbite. Significant male dominance in the prevalence of malocclusion was observed, which has not been reported earlier in Finland. Orthodontic treatment of malocclusion traits was more common among females in Northern Finland. This study indicates that orthodontic treatment provided in childhood was, on average, adequate in reducing malocclusion traits to the level observed in the general population.

  11. Capture-recapture and removal methods for sampling closed populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Gary C.; Anderson, David R.; Burnham, Kenneth P.; Otis, David L.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of estimating animal abundance is common in wildlife management and environmental impact asessment. Capture-recapture and removal methods are often used to estimate population size. Statistical Inference From Capture Data On Closed Animal Populations, a monograph by Otis et al. (1978), provides a comprehensive synthesis of much of the wildlife and statistical literature on the methods, as well as some extensions of the general theory. In our primer, we focus on capture-recapture and removal methods for trapping studies in which a population is assumed to be closed and do not treat open-population models, such as the Jolly-Seber model, or catch-effort methods in any detail. The primer, written for students interested in population estimation, is intended for use with the more theoretical monograph.

  12. Perceived weight discrimination in England: a population-based study of adults aged ⩾50 years

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, S E; Steptoe, A; Beeken, R J; Croker, H; Wardle, J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite a wealth of experimental studies on weight bias, little is known about weight discrimination at the population level. This study examined the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of perceived weight discrimination in a large population-based sample of older adults. Methods: Data were from 5307 adults in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; a population-based cohort of men and women aged ⩾50 years. Weight discrimination was reported for five domains (less respect/courtesy; treated as less clever; poorer treatment in medical settings; poorer service in restaurants/stores; threatened/harassed) at wave 5 (2010–2011). Height and weight were measured at wave 4 (2008–2009). We used logistic regression to test the odds of weight discrimination in relation to weight status, age, sex, wealth, education and marital status. Results: Perceived weight discrimination in any domain was reported by 4.6% of participants, ranging from 0.8% in the normal-weight participants through 0.9, 6.7, 24.2 and 35.1% in individuals who were overweight or met criteria for class I, II and III obesity. Overall, and in each situation, odds of perceived weight discrimination were higher in younger and less wealthy individuals. There was no interaction between weight status and any socio-demographic variable. Relative to normal-weight participants, odds ratios for any perceived weight discrimination were 1.13 (95% confidence interval 0.53–2.40) in those who were overweight, 8.86 (4.65–16.88) in those with class I obesity, 35.06 (18.30–67.16) in class II obese and 56.43 (27.72–114.87) in class III obese. Conclusions: Our results indicate that rates of perceived weight discrimination are comparatively low in individuals who are overweight or have class I obesity, but for those with class II/III obesity, >10% had experienced discrimination in each domain, and >20% had been treated with less respect or courtesy. These findings have implications for public

  13. Smoking and Hand Dermatitis in the United States Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yi Chun

    2016-01-01

    Background Hand dermatitis is a common chronic relapsing skin disease resulting from a variety of causes, including endogenous predisposition and environmental exposures to irritants and allergens. Lifestyle factors such as smoking have been implicated in hand dermatitis. Objective To evaluate the association between tobacco exposure and hand dermatitis using the 2003~2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database. Methods Data were retrieved and analyzed from 1,301 participants, aged 20~59 years, from the 2003~2004 NHANES questionnaire study who completed health examination and blood tests. Diagnosis of hand dermatitis was based on standardized photographs of the dorsal and palmar views of the hands read by two dermatologists. Results There were 38 diagnosed cases of active hand dermatitis out of the 1,301 study participants (2.9%). Heavy smokers (>15 g tobacco daily) were 5.11 times more likely to have active hand dermatitis (odds ratio [OR], 5.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39~18.88; p=0.014). Those with serum cotinine >3 ng/ml were also more likely to have active hand dermatitis, compared with those with serum cotinine ≤3 ng/ml (OR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.26~4.95; p=0.007). After adjusting for confounding factors such as age, atopic diathesis, occupational groups, and physical activity, the association between tobacco exposure and active hand dermatitis remained significant. Conclusion Smoking has a significant association with the presence of active hand dermatitis. It is important to consider smoking cessation as part of management of hand dermatitis. PMID:27081262

  14. Evolution of disease phenotype in adult and pediatric onset Crohn’s disease in a population-based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lovasz, Barbara Dorottya; Lakatos, Laszlo; Horvath, Agnes; Szita, Istvan; Pandur, Tunde; Mandel, Michael; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Golovics, Petra Anna; Mester, Gabor; Balogh, Mihaly; Molnar, Csaba; Komaromi, Erzsebet; Kiss, Lajos Sandor; Lakatos, Peter Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the evolution of disease phenotype in adult and pediatric onset Crohn’s disease (CD) populations, diagnosed between 1977 and 2008. METHODS: Data of 506 incident CD patients were analyzed (age at diagnosis: 28.5 years, interquartile range: 22-38 years). Both in- and outpatient records were collected prospectively with a complete clinical follow-up and comprehensively reviewed in the population-based Veszprem province database, which included incident patients diagnosed between January 1, 1977 and December 31, 2008 in adult and pediatric onset CD populations. Disease phenotype according to the Montreal classification and long-term disease course was analysed according to the age at onset in time-dependent univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Among this population-based cohort, seventy-four (12.8%) pediatric-onset CD patients were identified (diagnosed ≤ 17 years of age). There was no significant difference in the distribution of disease behavior between pediatric (B1: 62%, B2: 15%, B3: 23%) and adult-onset CD patients (B1: 56%, B2: 21%, B3: 23%) at diagnosis, or during follow-up. Overall, the probability of developing complicated disease behaviour was 49.7% and 61.3% in the pediatric and 55.1% and 62.4% in the adult onset patients after 5- and 10-years of follow-up. Similarly, time to change in disease behaviour from non stricturing, non penetrating (B1) to complicated, stricturing or penetrating (B2/B3) disease was not significantly different between pediatric and adult onset CD in a Kaplan-Meier analysis. Calendar year of diagnosis (P = 0.04), ileal location (P < 0.001), perianal disease (P < 0.001), smoking (P = 0.038) and need for steroids (P < 0.001) were associated with presence of, or progression to, complicated disease behavior at diagnosis and during follow-up. A change in disease location was observed in 8.9% of patients and it was associated with smoking status (P = 0.01), but not with age at diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Long

  15. Methods for the survey and genetic analysis of populations

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, Matthew

    2003-09-02

    The present invention relates to methods for performing surveys of the genetic diversity of a population. The invention also relates to methods for performing genetic analyses of a population. The invention further relates to methods for the creation of databases comprising the survey information and the databases created by these methods. The invention also relates to methods for analyzing the information to correlate the presence of nucleic acid markers with desired parameters in a sample. These methods have application in the fields of geochemical exploration, agriculture, bioremediation, environmental analysis, clinical microbiology, forensic science and medicine.

  16. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Mental Health of Adult Population: Serbian National Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Santric-Milicevic, Milena; Jankovic, Janko; Trajkovic, Goran; Terzic-Supic, Zorica; Babic, Uros; Petrovic, Marija

    2016-01-01

    Background: The global burden of mental disorders is rising. In Serbia, anxiety is the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years. Serbia has no mental health survey at the population level. The information on prevalence of mental disorders and related socioeconomic inequalities are valuable for mental care improvement. Aims: To explore the prevalence of mental health disorders and socioeconomic inequalities in mental health of adult Serbian population, and to explore whether age years and employment status interact with mental health in urban and rural settlements. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: This study is an additional analysis of Serbian Health Survey 2006 that was carried out with standardized household questionnaires at the representative sample of 7673 randomly selected households – 15563 adults. The response rate was 93%. A multivariate logistic regression modeling highlighted the predictors of the 5 item Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5), and of chronic anxiety or depression within eight independent variables (age, gender, type of settlement, marital status and self-perceived health, education, employment status and Wealth Index). The significance level in descriptive statistics, chi square analysis and bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions was set at p<0.05. Results: Chronic anxiety or depression was seen in 4.9% of the respondents, and poor MHI-5 in 47% of respondents. Low education (Odds Ratios 1.32; 95% confidence intervals=1.16–1.51), unemployment (1.36; 1.18–1.56), single status (1.34; 1.23–1.45), and Wealth Index middle class (1.20; 1.08–1.32) or poor (1.33; 1.21–1.47) were significantly related with poor MHI-5. Unemployed persons in urban settlements had higher odds for poormMHI-5 than unemployed in rural areas (0.73; 0.59–0.89). Single (1.50; 1.26–1.78), unemployed (1.39; 1.07–1.80) and inactive respondents (1.42; 1.10–1.83) had a higher odds of chronic anxiety or depression than married

  17. Body Mass Index in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Distribution, Associations and Service Implications--A Population-Based Prevalence Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhaumik, S.; Watson, J. M.; Thorp, C. F.; Tyrer, F.; McGrother, C. W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of weight problems in adults with intellectual disability (ID) have generally been small or selective and given conflicting results. The objectives of our large-scale study were to identify inequalities in weight problems between adults with ID and the general adult population, and to investigate factors associated…

  18. Survivorship services for adult cancer populations: a pan-Canadian guideline

    PubMed Central

    Howell, D.; Hack, T.F.; Oliver, T.K.; Chulak, T.; Mayo, S.; Aubin, M.; Chasen, M.; Earle, C.C.; Friedman, A.J.; Green, E.; Jones, G.W.; Jones, J.M.; Parkinson, M.; Payeur, N.; Sabiston, C.M.; Sinclair, S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Our goal was to develop evidence-based recommendations for the organization and structure of cancer survivorship services, and best-care practices to optimize the health and well-being of post–primary treatment survivors. This review sought to determine the optimal organization and care delivery structure for cancer survivorship services, and the specific clinical practices and interventions that would improve or maximize the psychosocial health and overall well-being of adult cancer survivors. Data Sources We conducted a systematic search of the Inventory of Cancer Guidelines at the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer, the U.S. National Guideline Clearinghouse, the Canadian Medical Association InfoBase, medline (ovid: 1999 through November 2009), embase (ovid: 1999 through November 2009), Psychinfo (ovid: 1999 through November 2009), the Cochrane Library (ovid; Issue 1, 2009), and cinahl (ebsco: 1999 through December 2009). Reference lists of related papers and recent review articles were scanned for additional citations. Methods Articles were selected for inclusion as evidence in the systematic review if they reported on organizational system components for survivors of cancer, or on psychosocial or supportive care interventions HOWELL et al. designed for survivors of cancer. Articles were excluded from the systematic review if they focused only on pediatric cancer survivor populations or on populations that transitioned from pediatric cancer to adult services; if they addressed only pharmacologic interventions or diagnostic testing and follow-up of cancer survivors; if they were systematic reviews with inadequately described methods; if they were qualitative or descriptive studies; and if they were opinion papers, letters, or editorials. Data Extraction and Synthesis Evidence was selected and reviewed by three members of the Cancer Journey Survivorship Expert Panel (SM, TC, TKO). The resulting summary of the evidence was guided further and reviewed

  19. Normative data and discriminant validity of Rey's Verbal Learning Test for the Greek adult population.

    PubMed

    Messinis, Lambros; Tsakona, Ioanna; Malefaki, Sonia; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2007-08-01

    The present study sought to establish normative and discriminant validity data for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test [Rey, A. (1964). L 'examen clinique en psychologie [Clinical tests in psychology]. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France; Schmidt, M. (1996). Rey auditory verbal learning test: A handbook. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services] using newly adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. Applying the procedure suggested by Geffen et al. [Geffen, G., Moar, K. J., O'Hanlon, A. P., Clark, C. R., & Geffen, L. N. (1990). Performance measures of 16-86-year-old males and females on the auditory verbal learning test. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 4, 45-63] we administered the test to 205 healthy participants, aged 18-78 years and two adult patient groups (long-term cannabis users and HIV symptomatic patients). Stepwise linear regression analyses showed that the variables age, education and gender contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT. Performance decreased in an age-dependent manner from young adulthood. Women, young adults and higher educated participants outperformed men, older adults and less educated individuals. The test appears to discriminate adequately between the performance of long-term heavy cannabis users and HIV seropositive symptomatic patients and matched healthy controls, as both patient groups performed more poorly than their respective control group. Normative data stratified by age, gender and education for the Greek adult population is presented for use in research and clinical settings.

  20. Are Older Adults Physically Active Enough – A Matter of Assessment Method? The Generation 100 Study

    PubMed Central

    Zisko, Nina; Ingebrigtsen, Jan Erik; Wisløff, Ulrik; Stensvold, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity (PA) is beneficial for general health. As a result, adults around the world are recommended to undertake regular PA of either absolute or relative intensity. Traditionally, adherence to PA recommendation is assessed by accelerometers that record absolute intensity thresholds. Since ageing often results in a decrease in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), older adults (aged > 65 years) might be more susceptible to not meeting the PA recommendation when measured in absolute terms. The aim of the present study was to compare the adherence to the PA recommendation using both absolute and relative thresholds. Additionally, we aimed to report the reference values for overall PA in a large sample of Norwegian older adults. Methods PA was assessed for 7 days using the Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer in 1219 older adults (624 females) aged 70–77 years. Overall PA was measured as counts per minute (CPM) and steps. Absolute and relative moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) thresholds were applied to quantify adherence to PA recommendation. The relative MVPA thresholds were developed specifically for the Generation 100 population sample. CRF was directly measured as peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). Results Proportions meeting PA recommendation were 29% and 71% when utilizing absolute and relative MVPA, respectively. More females met the relative PA recommendation compared to males. Overall PA was higher among the youngest age group. Older adults with medium- and high levels of CRF were more physically active, compared to those with the lowest levels of CRF. Conclusion This is the first study to compare adherence to PA recommendation, using absolute and relative intensity thresholds among older adults. The present study clearly illustrates the consequences of using different methodological approaches to surveillance of PA across age, gender and CRF in a population of older adults. PMID:27893785

  1. Statin Safety in Chinese: A Population-Based Study of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Li, Daniel Q.; Kim, Richard B.; McArthur, Eric; Fleet, Jamie L.; Hegele, Robert A.; Shah, Baiju R.; Weir, Matthew A.; Molnar, Amber O.; Dixon, Stephanie; Tu, Jack V.; Anand, Sonia; Garg, Amit X.

    2016-01-01

    Background Compared to Caucasians, Chinese achieve a higher blood concentration of statin for a given dose. It remains unknown whether this translates to increased risk of serious statin-associated adverse events amongst Chinese patients. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of older adults (mean age, 74 years) newly prescribed a statin in Ontario, Canada between 2002 and 2013, where 19,033 Chinese (assessed through a validated surname algorithm) were matched (1:3) by propensity score to 57,099 non-Chinese. This study used linked healthcare databases. Findings The follow-up observation period (mean 1.1, maximum 10.8 years) was similar between groups, as were the reasons for censoring the observation period (end of follow-up, death, or statin discontinuation). Forty-seven percent (47%) of Chinese were initiated on a higher than recommended statin dose. Compared to non-Chinese, Chinese ethnicity did not associate with any of the four serious statin-associated adverse events assessed in this study [rhabdomyolysis hazard ratio (HR) 0.61 (95% CI 0.28 to 1.34), incident diabetes HR 1.02 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.30), acute kidney injury HR 0.90 (95% CI 0.72 to 1.13), or all-cause mortality HR 0.88 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.05)]. Similar results were observed in subgroups defined by statin type and dose. Conclusions We observed no higher risk of serious statin toxicity in Chinese than matched non-Chinese older adults with similar indicators of baseline health. Regulatory agencies should review available data, including findings from our study, to decide if a change in their statin dosing recommendations for people of Chinese ethnicity is warranted. PMID:26954681

  2. Population Based National Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey among Adults (>15 Years) in Pakistan, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Qadeer, Ejaz; Fatima, Razia; Yaqoob, Aashifa; Tahseen, Sabira; Ul Haq, Mahboob; Ghafoor, Abdul; Asif, Muhammad; Straetemans, Masja; Tiemersma, Edine W.

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) amongst the adult population in 2010–2011 in Pakistan. Method A nationwide cross-sectional survey with multistage cluster sampling was conducted among adults (≥15 years) in 95 clusters in 2010–2011. All consenting participants were screened for cough and by chest X-ray. Participants with presumptive TB submitted two sputum samples for smear microscopy, culture, and molecular testing if needed. The TB prevalence estimates were adjusted for missing data and the cluster design. Result Of 131,329 eligible individuals, 105,913 (81%) participated in the survey, of whom 10,471 (9.9%) were eligible for sputum examination. We found 341 bacteriologically positive TB cases of whom 233 had sputum smear-positive TB. The adjusted prevalence estimates for smear and bacteriologically positive TB were 270/100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI) 217–323), and 398/100,000 (95% CI 333–463), respectively. Only 61% of the diagnosed TB cases screened positive on symptoms (cough >2wks), whereas the other TB cases were detected based on X-ray abnormalities. The TB prevalence increased with age and was 1.8 times higher among men than women. The prevalence-to-notification ratio of smear-positive TB was 3.1 (95% CI 2.5–3.7), was higher among men than women, and increased with age. Conclusion Our data suggest that there is under-detection and/or -notification of TB, especially among men and elderly. TB control should be strengthened specifically in these risk groups. X-ray examination should be combined with symptom screening to enhance case detection. PMID:26863617

  3. Mortality in Adults with Moderate to Profound Intellectual Disability: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrer, F.; Smith, L. K.; McGrother, C. W.

    2007-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disability (ID) experience a variety of health inequalities compared with the general population including higher mortality rates. This is the first UK population-based study to measure the extent of excess mortality in people with ID compared with the general population. Method: Indirectly standardized…

  4. How many steps/day are enough? For older adults and special populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Older adults and special populations (living with disability and/or chronic illness that may limit mobility and/or physical endurance) can benefit from practicing a more physically active lifestyle, typically by increasing ambulatory activity. Step counting devices (accelerometers and pedometers) offer an opportunity to monitor daily ambulatory activity; however, an appropriate translation of public health guidelines in terms of steps/day is unknown. Therefore this review was conducted to translate public health recommendations in terms of steps/day. Normative data indicates that 1) healthy older adults average 2,000-9,000 steps/day, and 2) special populations average 1,200-8,800 steps/day. Pedometer-based interventions in older adults and special populations elicit a weighted increase of approximately 775 steps/day (or an effect size of 0.26) and 2,215 steps/day (or an effect size of 0.67), respectively. There is no evidence to inform a moderate intensity cadence (i.e., steps/minute) in older adults at this time. However, using the adult cadence of 100 steps/minute to demark the lower end of an absolutely-defined moderate intensity (i.e., 3 METs), and multiplying this by 30 minutes produces a reasonable heuristic (i.e., guiding) value of 3,000 steps. However, this cadence may be unattainable in some frail/diseased populations. Regardless, to truly translate public health guidelines, these steps should be taken over and above activities performed in the course of daily living, be of at least moderate intensity accumulated in minimally 10 minute bouts, and add up to at least 150 minutes over the week. Considering a daily background of 5,000 steps/day (which may actually be too high for some older adults and/or special populations), a computed translation approximates 8,000 steps on days that include a target of achieving 30 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and approximately 7,100 steps/day if averaged over a week. Measured directly and

  5. Health and wellbeing of Victorian adults with intellectual disability compared to the general Victorian population.

    PubMed

    Haider, Syed Imran; Ansari, Zahid; Vaughan, Loretta; Matters, Helen; Emerson, Eric

    2013-11-01

    Multiple measures of health and wellbeing of people with intellectual disability (ID) and the general Victorian population were compared using representative population level data. The sample consisted of adults with ID (N=897) and the general Victorian population (N=34,168) living in the state of Victoria in Australia. Proxy respondents were interviewed on behalf of people with ID, while respondents from the general Victorian population were interviewed directly. The data were weighted to reflect the age/sex/geographic distribution of the population. Results revealed that adults with ID reported higher prevalence of poor social determinants of health, behavioural risk factors, depression, diabetes, poor or fair health. A higher proportion of people with ID reported blood pressure and blood glucose checks, while a lower proportion reported cervical and breast cancer screening, compared with the general Victorian population. The survey identified areas where targeted approaches may be undertaken to improve the health outcomes of people with ID and provide an important understanding of the health and wellbeing of these Victorians.

  6. [Obesity in adults: a population based study in a small town in South of Brazil, 2005].

    PubMed

    Sarturi, Juliana Barbosa; das Neves, Janaina; Peres, Karen Glazer

    2010-01-01

    Changes in nutritional pattern in Brazilian population have been observed mainly in relation to obesity increase. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of obesity and associated factors in adult population in Santo Angelo, Rio Grande do Sul State, 2005. A cross sectional study was carried out involving adult subjects from 20 to 59 years old (n=434), of both sexes. People with Body Mass Index equal to or higher than 30 kg/m(2) were considered obese. A questionnaire was applied to collect data related to socioeconomic, demographic, and behavioral conditions. The multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the associated factors. The response rate was 95.0% and the prevalence of obesity was equal to 16.6% (CI 95% 13.120.1). Presence of obesity was positively associated with lack of physical activity, none feeding habits care, and some individuals that mentioned current health problems regardless of sex. The prevalence of obesity found was similar to other Brazilian population based studies. The results may support planning and implementing prevention actions as well as obesity control in adult population taking into account the relevant details of a small size town.

  7. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome-related disorders in a large adult population in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Sanisoglu, S Yavuz; Oktenli, Cagatay; Hasimi, Adnan; Yokusoglu, Mehmet; Ugurlu, Mehmet

    2006-01-01

    Background There are few existing large population studies on the epidemiology of metabolic syndrome-related disorders of Turkey. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome-related disorders in the Turkish adult population, to address sex, age, educational and geographical differences, and to examine blood pressure, body mass index, fasting blood glucose and serum lipids in Turkey. Methods This study was executed under the population study "The Healthy Nutrition for Healthy Heart Study" conducted between December 2000 and December 2002 by the Health Ministry of Turkey. Overall, 15,468 Caucasian inhabitants aged over 30 were recruited in 14 centers in the seven main different regions of Turkey. The data were analyzed with the Students' t, ANOVA or Chi-Square tests. Results Overall, more than one-third (35.08 %) of the participants was obese. The hypertensive people ratio in the population was 13.66 %, while these ratios for DM and metabolic syndrome were 4.16 % and 17.91 %, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, metabolic syndrome and obesity were higher in females than males, whereas diabetes mellitus was higher in males than females. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and related disorders were found to be significantly different across educational attainments for both men and women. The prevalence of hypertension increased with age, while it was remarkable that in the age group of 60–69 years, prevalence of diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome reached a peak value and than decreased. For obesity, the peak prevalence occurred in the 50–59 year old group. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and related disorders were found to be significantly different according to geographical region. Conclusion In conclusion, high prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome, particularly among women, is one of the major public health problems in Turkey. Interestingly, obesity prevalence is relatively high, but the prevalence of

  8. Ten-year trends in overweight and obesity in the adult Portuguese population, 1995 to 2005

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is little information regarding the trends in body mass index (BMI) and obesity in the overall Portuguese population, namely if these trends are similar according to educational level. In this study, we assessed the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Portuguese population, overall and by educational level. Methods Cross-sectional national health interview surveys conducted in 1995-6 (n = 38,504), 1998-9 (n = 38,688) and 2005-6 (n = 25,348). Data were derived from the population and housing census of 1991 and two geographically-based strata were defined. The sampling unit was the house, and all subjects living in the sampling unit were surveyed. Height and weight were self-reported; the effects of gender, age group and educational level were also assessed by self-reported structured questionnaires. Bivariate comparisons were performed using Chi-square or analysis of variance (ANOVA). Trends in BMI levels were assessed by linear regression analysis, while trends in the prevalence of obesity were assessed by logistic regression. Results Mean (±standard deviation) BMI increased from 25.2 ± 4.0 in 1995-6 to 25.7 ± 4.5 kg/m2 in 2005-6. Prevalence of overweight remained stable (36.1% in 1995-6 and 36.4% in 2005) while prevalence of obesity increased (11.5% in 1995-6 and 15.1% in 2005-6). Similar findings were observed according to age group. Mean age-adjusted BMI increase (expressed in kg/m2/year and 95% confidence interval) was 0.073 (0.062, 0.084), 0.016 (0.000, 0.031) and 0.073 (0.049, 0.098) in men with primary, secondary and university levels, respectively; the corresponding values in women were 0.085 (0.073, 0.097), 0.052 (0.035, 0.069) and 0.062 (0.038, 0.084). Relative to 1995-6, obesity rates increased by 48%, 41% and 59% in men and by 40%, 75% and 177% in women with primary, secondary and university levels, respectively. The corresponding values for overweight were 6%, 1% and 23% in men and 5%, 7% and 65% in women

  9. "The solution needs to be complex." Obese adults' attitudes about the effectiveness of individual and population based interventions for obesity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies of public perceptions of obesity interventions have been quantitative and based on general population surveys. This study aims to explore the opinions and attitudes of obese individuals towards population and individual interventions for obesity in Australia. Methods Qualitative methods using in-depth semi-structured telephone interviews with a community sample of obese adults (Body Mass Index ≥30). Theoretical, purposive and strategic recruitment techniques were used to ensure a broad sample of obese individuals with different types of experiences with their obesity. Participants were asked about their attitudes towards three population based interventions (regulation, media campaigns, and public health initiatives) and three individual interventions (tailored fitness programs, commercial dieting, and gastric banding surgery), and the effectiveness of these interventions. Results One hundred and forty two individuals (19-75 years) were interviewed. Participants strongly supported non-commercial interventions that were focused on encouraging individuals to make healthy lifestyle changes (regulation, physical activity programs, and public health initiatives). There was less support for interventions perceived to be invasive or high risk (gastric band surgery), stigmatising (media campaigns), or commercially motivated and promoting weight loss techniques (commercial diets and gastric banding surgery). Conclusion Obese adults support non-commercial, non-stigmatising interventions which are designed to improve lifestyles, rather than promote weight loss. PMID:20633250

  10. The International ADHD in Substance Use Disorders Prevalence (IASP) study: background, methods and study population

    PubMed Central

    Van De Glind, Geurt; Van Emmerik-Van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Carpentier, Pieter Jan; Levin, Frances R.; Koeter, Maarten W.J.; Barta, Csaba; Kaye, Sharlene; Skutle, Arvid; Franck, Johan; Konstenius, Maija; Bu, Eli-Torild; Moggi, Franz; Dom, Geert; Demetrovics, Zolt; Fatséas, Mélina; Schillinger, Arild; Kapitány-Fövény, Máté; Verspreet, Sofie; Seitz, Andrea; Johnson, Brian; Faraone, Stephen V.; Ramos-Quiroga, J. Antoni; Allsop, Steve; Carruthers, Susan; Schoevers, Robert A.; Van Den Brink, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an increasingly recognized comorbid condition in subjects with substance use disorders (SUDs). This paper describes the methods and study population of the International ADHD in Substance Use Disorders Prevalence (IASP) study. Objectives of the IASP are to determine the prevalence of ADHD in adult treatment seeking patients with SUD in different countries and SUD populations, determine the reliability and validity of the Adult ADHD Self-report Scale V 1.1 (ASRS) as ADHD screening instrument in SUD populations, investigate the comorbidity profile of SUD patients with and without ADHD, compare risk factors and protective factors in SUD patients with and without a comorbid diagnosis of ADHD, and increase our knowledge about the relationship between ADHD and the onset and course of SUD. In this cross-sectional, multi-centre two stage study, subjects were screened for ADHD with the ASRS, diagnosed with the Conner’s Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV (CAADID), and evaluated for SUD, major depression, bipolar disorder, anti social personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. Three thousand five hundred and fifty-eight subjects from 10 countries were included. Of these 40.9% screened positive for ADHD. This is the largest international study on this population evaluating ADHD and comorbid disorders. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24022983

  11. Mental-Physical Comorbidity in Korean Adults: Results from a Nationwide General Population Survey in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Byung-Soo; Cho, Maeng Je

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of mental-physical comorbidity and health-threatening risk factors in subjects with mental disorders, and the risks of mental disorders in those with physical diseases for the last 12 months in the general Korean population. Methods Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study replication (KECA-R) was conducted for 6,510 adults between August 2006 and April 2007. The Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (K-CIDI) was used in the survey. Prevalence of mental and physical disorders, and risk factors for physical health were calculated, and their associations were evaluated with adjustment for age and sex. Results Subjects with any mental disorder showed significantly higher prevalence of chronic physical conditions (adjusted odds ratio, AOR=1.5 to 2.8, p<0.001) and medical risk factors including smoking, heavy drinking, overweight, and hypertension (AOR=1.5 to 4.0, p<0.001). Of those with chronic physical conditions, 21.6% had one or more comorbid mental disorder compared with 10.5% of the subjects without chronic physical disorders (AOR=2.6, p<0.001). Contrary to expectations, depressive disorders did not show significant association with hypertension and prevalence of obesity was not influenced by presence of mental disorders. Further studies should assess these findings. Conclusion This is the first identification of significant mental-physical comorbidity in the general Korean population. Clinicians and health care officials should keep in mind of its potential adverse effects on treatment outcome and aggravated disease-related socioeconomic burden. PMID:27757127

  12. Assessing the association of taurodontism with numeric dentition anomalies in an adult central Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Puttalingaiah, Vinuth Dundanahalli; Agarwal, Poonam; Miglani, Rohit; Gupta, Puneet; Sankaran, Abilash; Dube, Gunjan

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To study the association between taurodontism and numeric anomalies in adult population. Materials and Methods: Out of 1,012; 946 panoramic radiographs and dental records were retrospectively assessed to determine the presence of dental agenesis and supernumerary and taurodont teeth. Results: Taurodontism of one or more teeth was observed in 164 cases (97 females and 67 males). Hypodontia was observed in 148 patients (84 females and 64 males) with 62 patients having associated taurodontism (38 females, 24 males), oligodontia in 12 patients (five females and seven males) of whom nine patients also had taurodontism of one or more teeth (five females and four males). Forty-five patients (32 females and 13 males) presented with 57 supernumerary teeth (ST) with 12 patients having simultaneous presence of taurodontic tooth (seven females and five males). Conclusion: Our study suggests a preferential association between tooth agenesis and taurodontism; however, such association was not observed in individuals with hyperdontia. Understanding the nature of this preferential association may be of importance in determining the etiology of both conditions. This association may also define a subphenotype for future genetic studies on dental development. Further molecular studies are necessary to verify the etiology and mechanism of taurodontism associated with tooth agenesis. PMID:25097429

  13. Factors Affecting Tooth Retention among Adult Population of Dharwad District, India

    PubMed Central

    Inamdar, Nurul Ameen; Prasad, K V V

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral health in relation to general health is influen-ced by the retention of teeth. Understanding factors affecting tooth retention will help health and social policy-makers to translate the knowledge on tooth retention into action programs for improving oral health of the people and hence enhance tooth retention. Aim The aim of the present study was to determine the factors affecting tooth retention among adult population of Dharwad district, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1100 subjects (616 urban and 484 rural) residing in Dharwad district, Karnataka, India, was conducted. Self-designed questionnaire was prepared and data were collected on socio-demographic factors, oral hygiene practices, diet practices, adverse oral habits and frequency of dental visits by the interview method and clinical examination. Statistical analysis was carried out by applying one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), unpaired t-test and backward stepwise multiple regression. Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to test the correlation between the two quantitative variables. Results A total of 66.72% subjects retained all 28 teeth and mean number of teeth retained by the study subjects were 25.33 (90.46%). There was gradual reduction in tooth retention with increase in age. Males (95.8%) compared to females (94.07%), unmarried (98.8%) than married subjects (93.3%) and subjects with intermediate or post high school diploma (97.5%) than those who were illiterate (89.5%) and other low educational level study subjects retained more teeth. Further mean values of tooth retention for other socio demographic factors i.e., occupation, income and family size were not statistically significant (p≤0.05). In addition, subjects using tooth brush (96.6%) and tooth paste (96.6%) for cleaning the teeth, subjects practicing mixed diet (96.6%) and subjects who never visited the dentist (96.5%) in their lifetime showed statistically significant greater tooth

  14. Challenges in application of bioanalytical method on different populations and effect of population on PK.

    PubMed

    Kale, Prashant; Shukla, Manoj; Soni, Gunjan; Patel, Ronak; Gupta, Shailendra

    2014-01-01

    Prashant Kale has 22 years of immense experience in the analytical and bioanalytical domain. He is Senior Vice President, Bioequivalence Operations of Lambda Therapeutic Research, India which includes Bioanalytical, Clinics, Clinical data management, Pharmacokinetics and Biostatistics, Protocol writing, Clinical lab and Quality Assurance departments. He has been with Lambda for over 14 years. By qualification he is a M.Sc. and an MBA. Mr. Kale is responsible for the management, technical and administrative functions of the BE unit located at Ahmedabad and Mumbai, India. He is also responsible for leading the process of integration between bioanalytical laboratories and services offered by Lambda at global locations (India and Canada). Mr. Kale has faced several regulatory audits and inspections from leading regulatory bodies including but not limited to DCGI, USFDA, ANVISA, Health Canada, UK MHRA, Turkey MoH, WHO. There are many challenges involved in the application of bioanalytical method on different populations. This includes difference in equipment, material and environment across laboratories, variations in the matrix characteristics in different populations, differences in techniques between analysts such as sample processing and handling and others. Additionally, there is variability in the PK of a drug in different populations. This article shows the effect of different populations on validated bioanalytical method and on the PK of a drug. Hence, the bioanalytical method developed and validated for a specific population may need required modification when applied to another population. Critical consideration of all such aspects is the key to successful implementation of a validated method on different populations.

  15. Intentional genetic introgression influences survival of adults and subadults in a small, inbred felid population.

    PubMed

    Benson, John F; Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Onorato, David P; Johnson, Warren E; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Jansen, Deborah; Oli, Madan K

    2011-09-01

    1. Inbreeding and low genetic diversity can cause reductions in individual fitness and increase extinction risk in animal populations. Intentional introgression, achieved by releasing genetically diverse individuals into inbred populations, has been used as a conservation tool to improve demographic performance in endangered populations. 2. By the 1980s, Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi) had been reduced to a small, inbred population that appeared to be on the brink of extinction. In 1995, female pumas from Texas (P. c. stanleyana) were released in occupied panther range as part of an intentional introgression programme to restore genetic variability and improve demographic performance of panthers. 3. We used 25 years (1981-2006) of continuous radiotelemetry and genetic data to estimate and model subadult and adult panther survival and cause-specific mortality to provide rigorous sex and age class-specific survival estimates and evaluate the effect of the introgression programme on these parameters. 4. Genetic ancestry influenced annual survival of subadults and adults after introgression, as F(1) generation admixed panthers ( = 0·98) survived better than pre-introgression type panthers ( = 0·77) and other admixed individuals ( = 0·82). Furthermore, heterozygosity was higher for admixed panthers relative to pre-introgression type panthers and positively influenced survival. 5. Our results are consistent with hybrid vigour; however, extrinsic factors such as low density of males in some areas of panther range may also have contributed to higher survival of F(1) panthers. Regardless, improved survival of F(1) subadults and adults likely contributed to the numerical increase in panthers following introgression, and our results indicate that intentional admixture, achieved here by releasing individuals from another population, appears to have been successful in improving demographic performance in this highly endangered population.

  16. Differences in absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of xenobiotics between the paediatric and adult populations.

    PubMed

    Strolin Benedetti, M; Whomsley, R; Baltes, E L

    2005-10-01

    In children, the therapeutic benefits and potential risks associated with drug treatment may be different from those in adults and will depend on the exposure, receptor sensitivity and relationship between effect and exposure. In this paper, key factors undergoing maturational changes accounting for differences in drug metabolism and disposition in the paediatric population compared with adults are reviewed. Gastric and duodenal pH, gastric emptying time, intestinal transit time, secretion and activity of bile and pancreatic fluid, bacterial colonisation and transporters, such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), are important factors for drug absorption, whereas key factors explaining differences in drug distribution between the paediatric population and adults are organ size, membrane permeability, plasma protein concentration and characteristics, endogenous substances in plasma, total body and extracellular water, fat content, regional blood flow and transporters such as P-gp, which is present not only in the gut, but also in liver, kidney, brain and other tissues. As far as drug metabolism is concerned, important differences have been found in the paediatric population compared with adults both for phase I enzymes (oxidative [e.g., cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A2, and CYP3A7 versus -3A4], reductive and hydrolytic enzymes) and phase II enzymes (e.g., N-methyltransferases and glucuronosyltransferases). Generally, the major enzyme differences observed in comparison with the adult age are in newborn infants, although for some enzymes (e.g., glucuronosyltransferases and other phase II enzymes) important differences still exist between infants and toddlers and adults. Finally, key factors undergoing maturational changes accounting for differences in renal excretion in the paediatric population compared with adults are glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. The ranking of the key factors varies according to the chemical structure and physicochemical properties of the drug

  17. A juvenile-adult population model: climate change, cannibalism, reproductive synchrony, and strong Allee effects.

    PubMed

    Veprauskas, Amy; Cushing, J M

    2017-03-01

    We study a discrete time, structured population dynamic model that is motivated by recent field observations concerning certain life history strategies of colonial-nesting gulls, specifically the glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens). The model focuses on mechanisms hypothesized to play key roles in a population's response to degraded environment resources, namely, increased cannibalism and adjustments in reproductive timing. We explore the dynamic consequences of these mechanics using a juvenile-adult structure model. Mathematically, the model is unusual in that it involves a high co-dimension bifurcation at [Formula: see text] which, in turn, leads to a dynamic dichotomy between equilibrium states and synchronized oscillatory states. We give diagnostic criteria that determine which dynamic is stable. We also explore strong Allee effects caused by positive feedback mechanisms in the model and the possible consequence that a cannibalistic population can survive when a non-cannibalistic population cannot.

  18. Seroepidemiology of dengue virus infection in the adult population in tropical Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ang, L W; Cutter, J; James, L; Goh, K T

    2015-06-01

    To assess the impact of past dengue epidemics in Singapore, we undertook a national seroepidemiological study to determine the prevalence of past dengue virus (DENV) infection in the adult population in 2010 and make comparisons with the seroprevalence in 2004. The study involved residual sera from 3293 adults aged 18-79 years who participated in a national health survey in 2010. The overall prevalence of anti-DENV IgG antibodies was 56·8% (95% confidence interval 55·1-58·5) in 2010. The seroprevalence increased significantly with age. Males had significantly higher seroprevalence than females (61·5% vs. 53·2%). Among the three major ethnic groups, Malays had the lowest seroprevalence (50·2%) compared to Chinese (57·0%) and Indians (62·0%). The age-standardized seroprevalence in adults was significantly lower in 2010 (54·4%) compared to 2004 (63·1%). Older age, male gender, Indian ethnicity, permanent residency and being home-bound were independent risk factors significantly associated with seropositivity. About 43% of the Singapore adult resident population remain susceptible to DENV infection as a result of the successful implementation of a comprehensive nationwide Aedes surveillance and control programme since the 1970s. Vector suppression and concerted efforts of all stakeholders in the community remain the key strategy in the prevention and control of dengue.

  19. Amplifying diffusion of health information in low-literate populations through adult education health literacy classes.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Ariela M; Miner, Kathleen R; Echt, Katharina V; Parker, Ruth; Cooper, Hannah L F

    2011-01-01

    Over the next decade, as literacy rates are predicted to decline, the health care sector faces increasing challenges to effective communication with low-literate groups. Considering the rising costs of health care and the forthcoming changes in the American health care system, it is imperative to find nontraditional avenues through which to impart health knowledge and functional skills. This article draws on classroom observations and qualitative interviews with 21 students and 3 teachers in an adult education health literacy class to explore the efficacy of using adult education courses to teach functional health literacy skills to low-literate populations. Data were analyzed using a combination of thematic and content analyses. Results describe the motivation of students to share information within the classroom and with friends and family outside the classroom. This article also provides several recommendations to help ensure accuracy of diffused information both within and outside of the classroom. Ultimately, this study suggests that the adult education system is in a prime position to impart functional health literacy skills to low-literate populations in the classroom. Significantly, this study demonstrates that adult education students themselves may be a powerful vehicle for health communication beyond the walls of the classroom.

  20. Increased reports of measles in a low endemic region during a rubella outbreak in adult populations.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Takako; Kanbayashi, Daiki; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Komano, Jun; Kase, Tetsuo; Takahashi, Kazuo

    2015-06-01

    In 2013, a rubella outbreak was observed in Japan, Romania, and Poland. The outbreak in Japan was accompanied by an increase of measles reports, especially from a region where measles is highly controlled. This was attributed to the adult populations affected by this rubella outbreak, similarity of clinical signs between rubella and measles, sufficiently small impact of measles outbreaks from neighboring nations, and elimination levels of measles endemicity. Current and future concerns for measles control are discussed.

  1. Human growth hormone (GH1) gene polymorphism map in a normal-statured adult population

    PubMed Central

    Esteban, Cristina; Audí, Laura; Carrascosa, Antonio; Fernández-Cancio, Mónica; Pérez-Arroyo, Annalisa; Ulied, Angels; Andaluz, Pilar; Arjona, Rosa; Albisu, Marian; Clemente, María; Gussinyé, Miquel; Yeste, Diego

    2007-01-01

    Objective GH1 gene presents a complex map of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the entire promoter, coding and noncoding regions. The aim of the study was to establish the complete map of GH1 gene SNPs in our control normal population and to analyse its association with adult height. Design, subjects and measurements A systematic GH1 gene analysis was designed in a control population of 307 adults of both sexes with height normally distributed within normal range for the same population: −2 standard deviation scores (SDS) to +2 SDS. An analysis was performed on individual and combined genotype associations with adult height. Results Twenty-five SNPs presented a frequency over 1%: 11 in the promoter (P1 to P11), three in the 5′UTR region (P12 to P14), one in exon 1 (P15), three in intron 1 (P16 to P18), two in intron 2 (P19 and P20), two in exon 4 (P21 and P22) and three in intron 4 (P23 to P25). Twenty-nine additional changes with frequencies under 1% were found in 29 subjects. P8, P19, P20 and P25 had not been previously described. P6, P12, P17 and P25 accounted for 6·2% of the variation in adult height (P = 0·0007) in this population with genotypes A/G at P6, G/G at P6 and A/G at P12 decreasing height SDS (−0·063 ± 0·031, −0·693 ± 0·350 and −0·489 ± 0·265, Mean ± SE) and genotypes A/T at P17 and T/G at P25 increasing height SDS (+1·094 ± 0·456 and +1·184 ± 0·432). Conclusions This study established the GH1 gene sequence variation map in a normal adult height control population confirming the high density of SNPs in a relatively small gene. Our study shows that the more frequent SNPs did not significantly contribute to height determination, while only one promoter and two intronic SNPs contributed significantly to it. Studies in larger populations will have to confirm the associations and in vitro functional studies will elucidate the mechanisms involved. Systematic GH1 gene analysis in patients with growth delay and suspected

  2. A D-Optimal designed population pharmacokinetic study of oral itraconazole in adult cystic fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Stefanie; Waterhouse, Timothy H; Bell, Scott C; France, Megan; Wainwright, Claire E; Miller, Hugh; Charles, Bruce G; Duffull, Stephen B

    2007-01-01

    What is already known about this subject • Itraconazole is a triazole antifungal used in the treatment of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). • The pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of this drug and its active metabolite have been described before, mostly in healthy volunteers. • However, only sparse information from case reports were available of the PK properties of this drug in CF patients at the start of our study. What this study adds • This study reports for the first time the population pharmacokinetic properties of itraconazole and a known active metabolite, hydroxy-itraconazole in adult patients with CF. • As a result, this study offers new dosing approaches and their pharmacoeconomic impact as well as a PK model for therapeutic drug monitoring of this drug in this patient group. • Furthermore, it is an example of a successful d-optimal design application in a clinical setting. Aim The primary objective of the study was to estimate the population pharmacokinetic parameters for itraconazole and hydroxy-itraconazole, in particular, the relative oral bioavailability of the capsule compared with solution in adult cystic fibrosis patients, in order to develop new dosing guidelines. A secondary objective was to evaluate the performance of a population optimal design. Methods The blood sampling times for the population study were optimized previously using POPT v.2.0. The design was based on the administration of solution and capsules to 30 patients in a cross-over study. Prior information suggested that itraconazole is generally well described by a two-compartment disposition model with either linear or saturable elimination. The pharmacokinetics of itraconazole and the metabolite were modelled simultaneously using NONMEM. Dosing schedules were simulated to assess their ability to achieve a trough target concentration of 0.5 mg ml−1. Results Out of 241 blood samples, 94% were taken within the defined optimal

  3. The Effect of HIFA Waiver Expansions on Uninsurance Rates in Adult Populations

    PubMed Central

    Atherly, Adam; Dowd, Bryan E; Coulam, Robert F; Guy, Gery

    2012-01-01

    Research Objective To evaluate the effect of the Health Insurance Flexibility and Accountability (HIFA) demonstrations on the rate of uninsured. The policy purpose of the HIFA demonstrations is to encourage “new comprehensive state approaches” that will increase the number of insured. HIFA interventions include changes in benefit packages, eligibility rules for public programs, and state subsidization of private health insurance premiums. Some states emphasized private insurance (premium assistance), whereas others placed greater emphasis on expanded eligibility for public insurance. Data Sources/Study Setting Data were drawn from the Current Population Survey from 2000 to 2007. The target populations for the HIFA waiver demonstrations consisted of individuals who were eligible for the HIFA waiver demonstrations in demonstration states. Study Design The estimation approach was a probit model using a difference-in-differences approach. Principal Findings In states that fully implemented their HIFA waiver, HIFA increased the rate of insurance coverage by 6.4 percentage points on average in the targeted adult population, suggesting that approximately 118,848 adults gained health insurance due to HIFA. Total HIFA adult enrollment in the six states studied was 280,739. The effect size varied by state, with Maine having the largest effect and Illinois the smallest. The results were robust to different specifications of the control group. Conclusions Our findings suggest that public insurance initiatives that provide states with flexibility regarding eligibility and plan design are a viable policy approach to reducing uninsurance rates. PMID:22299673

  4. Does covering of farm-associated Culicoides larval habitat reduce adult populations in the United Kingdom?☆

    PubMed Central

    Harrup, L.E.; Gubbins, S.; Barber, J.; Denison, E.; Mellor, P.S.; Purse, B.V.; Carpenter, S.

    2014-01-01

    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are the biological vectors of a range of internationally important arboviruses of livestock, including bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently emerging Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Culicoides species in the subgenus Avaritia (in the UK: Culicoides obsoletus Meigen, Culicoides scoticus Downes & Kettle, Culicoides dewulfi Goetghebuer and Culicoides chiopterus Meigen) have been implicated in BTV transmission in northern Europe and to a varying degree utilise cattle dung as a larval development substrate. The collection of cattle dung into heaps on farms provides a localised source of Culicoides emergence in close proximity to livestock. This study assesses the impact of covering dung heaps prior to the onset of adult Culicoides activity with the aim of reducing recruitment to the local adult populations at four livestock farms in England. Light suction trap catches of adult Culicoides from these farms were compared with those from four untreated control farms from a wide geographic range across the UK. It was demonstrated that implementing control of emergence from dung heaps did not have a significant impact upon the local adult subgenus Avaritia abundance at the treated farm holdings and that the onset of Culicoides activity was similarly unaffected. Use of this method in isolation is unlikely to have an effect in reducing the risk of BTV and SBV transmission. The implications of these results for control of farm-associated Culicoides in Europe are discussed. PMID:24472769

  5. Numerical integration of population models satisfying conservation laws: NSFD methods.

    PubMed

    Mickens, Ronald E

    2007-10-01

    Population models arising in ecology, epidemiology and mathematical biology may involve a conservation law, i.e. the total population is constant. In addition to these cases, other situations may occur for which the total population, asymptotically in time, approach a constant value. Since it is rarely the situation that the equations of motion can be analytically solved to obtain exact solutions, it follows that numerical techniques are needed to provide solutions. However, numerical procedures are only valid if they can reproduce fundamental properties of the differential equations modeling the phenomena of interest. We show that for population models, involving a dynamical conservation law the use of nonstandard finite difference (NSFD) methods allows the construction of discretization schemes such that they are dynamically consistent (DC) with the original differential equations. The paper will briefly discuss the NSFD methodology, the concept of DC, and illustrate their application to specific problems for population models.

  6. Perception and Negative Effect of Loneliness in a Chicago Chinese Population of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dong, XinQi; Chang, E-Shien; Wong, Esther; Simon, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study aims to investigate the cultural understandings of loneliness, identify the contexts of loneliness, and to examine its effect on the health and well-being of U.S. Chinese older adults. Despite loneliness is one of the main indicators of well-being, little attention has been paid to understanding loneliness among immigrant older adults. This study utilizes both survey questionnaires and semi-structured focus group methods to investigate the feelings of loneliness among U.S. Chinese older adults. Based on interviews with 78 community-dwelling Chinese older adults in Chicago Chinatown, this community-based participatory research study (CBPR) shows loneliness is common among U.S. Chinese older adults. It was frequently identified through emotional isolation and social isolation. Social, psychological and physical health factors could contribute to the experience of loneliness. In addition, the health of older adults with loneliness may be associated with worsening overall health, elder mistreatment, health behavior changes and increased health care utilizations. This study has implications for healthcare professionals, social services agencies and policy makers. Our findings point to the needs for healthcare professionals to be more alert of the association of loneliness and adverse health outcomes. Communities and social services agencies should collectively take a lead in reducing social isolation, improving intergenerational relationships, and increasing social networks and companionship for this group of vulnerable older adults. PMID:21621865

  7. Perception and negative effect of loneliness in a Chicago Chinese population of older adults.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xinqi; Chang, E-Shien; Wong, Esther; Simon, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study aims to investigate the cultural understandings of loneliness, identify the contexts of loneliness, and to examine its effect on the health and well-being of U.S. Chinese older adults. Despite loneliness is one of the main indicators of well-being, little attention has been paid to understanding loneliness among immigrant older adults. This study utilizes both survey questionnaires and semi-structured focus group methods to investigate the feelings of loneliness among U.S. Chinese older adults. Based on interviews with 78 community-dwelling Chinese older adults in Chicago Chinatown, this community-based participatory research study (CBPR) shows loneliness is common among U.S. Chinese older adults. It was frequently identified through emotional isolation and social isolation. Social, psychological and physical health factors could contribute to the experience of loneliness. In addition, the health of older adults with loneliness may be associated with worsening overall health, elder mistreatment, health behavior changes and increased healthcare utilizations. This study has implications for healthcare professionals, social services agencies and policy makers. Our findings point to the needs for healthcare professionals to be more alert of the association of loneliness and adverse health outcomes. Communities and social services agencies should collectively take a lead in reducing social isolation, improving intergenerational relationships, and increasing social networks and companionship for this group of vulnerable older adults.

  8. Diffusely adherent Escherichia coli strains isolated from children and adults constitute two different populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diffusely adherent Escherichia coli (DAEC) have been considered a diarrheagenic category of E. coli for which several potential virulence factors have been described in the last few years. Despite this, epidemiological studies involving DAEC have shown inconsistent results. In this work, two different collections of DAEC possessing Afa/Dr genes, from children and adults, were studied regarding characteristics potentially associated to virulence. Results DAEC strains were recovered in similar frequencies from diarrheic and asymptomatic children, and more frequently from adults with diarrhea (P < 0.01) than from asymptomatic adults. Association with diarrhea (P < 0.05) was found for SAT-positive strains recovered from children and for curli-positive strains recovered from adults. Mixed biofilms involving DAEC and a Citrobacter freundii strain have shown an improved ability to form biofilms in relation to the monocultures. Control strains have shown a greater diversity of Afa/Dr adhesins and higher frequencies of cellulose, TTSS, biofilm formation and induction of IL-8 secretion than strains from cases of diarrhea in children. Conclusions DAEC strains possessing Afa/Dr genes isolated from children and adults represent two different bacterial populations. DAEC strains carrying genes associated to virulence can be found as part of the normal microbiota present in asymptomatic children. PMID:23374248

  9. Adult mortality in a low-density tree population using high-resolution remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Kellner, James R; Hubbell, Stephen P

    2017-04-04

    We developed a statistical framework to quantify mortality rates in canopy trees observed using time series from high-resolution remote sensing. By timing the acquisition of remote sensing data with synchronous annual flowering in the canopy tree species Handroanthus guayacan, we made 2,596 unique detections of 1,006 individual adult trees within 18,883 observation attempts on Barro Colorado Island, Panama (BCI) during an 11-year period. There were 1,057 observation attempts that resulted in missing data due to cloud cover or incomplete spatial coverage. Using the fraction of 123 individuals from an independent field sample that were detected by satellite data (109 individuals, 88.6%), we estimate that the adult population for this species on BCI was 1,135 individuals. We used a Bayesian state-space model that explicitly accounted for the probability of tree detection and missing observations to compute an annual adult mortality rate of 0.2% · yr(-1) (SE = 0.1, 95% CI = 0.06 - 0.45). An independent estimate of the adult mortality rate from 260 field-checked trees closely matched the landscape-scale estimate (0.33% · yr(-1) , SE = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.12 - 0.74). Our proof-of-concept study shows that one can remotely estimate adult mortality rates for canopy tree species precisely in the presence of variable detection and missing observations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Periodontal Diseases among the Adult Population of Georgia and the Impact of Socio-behavioral Factors on Their Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    TSITAISHVILI, Lela; KALANDADZE, Manana; MARGVELASHVILI, Vladimer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Georgia is a country with a Human Development Index (HDI) score of 0.733. Significant deterioration in socio-economic conditions in the 1990s caused serious health problems in the population including oral health. Since then, there has not been an epidemiological survey of dental diseases among the adult population in Georgia. Methods: The pathfinder survey- cluster- stratified method derived by WHO was used for sampling. Overall, 2370 adults including 1289 women and 1081 men in nine regions of Georgia including the residents of a city, town and village in each region and the capital, Tbilisi, were examined. Four age groups were investigated including: I- (20–34), II-(35–44), III-(45–64), IV- (65–74). Results: Unhealthy periodontal tissues were observed in 66.9% of men and in 57.5% of women. Bleeding on probing occurred in 44.9% of men and 37.2% of women, with periodontal pockets in 46.8% of men and 40.6% of women. Inflammation was seen in 61.2% of men and 54.8% of women. Healthy periodontal tissues were most common (59.2%) in the first age group (20–34); periodontal pockets (0–3mm) were least common (9.8%) at this age. Pockets of ≥4–5mm depth were observed mostly in the 3rd (9.4%) and 4th (10%) age groups. Conclusion: The high prevalence of periodontal diseases in the adult population of Georgia is explained by a low socio-economic status and low medical education background with a negative attitude towards oral hygiene skills and low levels of dental service accessibility. PMID:25905053

  11. Validity of body composition methods across ethnic population groups.

    PubMed

    Deurenberg, P; Deurenberg-Yap, M

    2003-10-01

    Most in vivo body composition methods rely on assumptions that may vary among different population groups as well as within the same population group. The assumptions are based on in vitro body composition (carcass) analyses. The majority of body composition studies were performed on Caucasians and much of the information on validity methods and assumptions were available only for this ethnic group. It is assumed that these assumptions are also valid for other ethnic groups. However, if apparent differences across ethnic groups in body composition 'constants' and body composition 'rules' are not taken into account, biased information on body composition will be the result. This in turn may lead to misclassification of obesity or underweight at an individual as well as a population level. There is a need for more cross-ethnic population studies on body composition. Those studies should be carried out carefully, with adequate methodology and standardization for the obtained information to be valuable.

  12. A review of population-based prevalence studies of physical activity in adults in the Asia-Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) surveillance is an important component of non-communicable disease risk factor monitoring, and occurs through national and international surveillance systems. This review identifies population PA estimates for adults in the Asia-Pacific region, and examines variation in trends and prevalence rates obtained using different PA measures. Methods Data were obtained from a MEDLINE search; World Health Organization's Global Health Infobase; Government websites and reference lists of relevant papers. Inclusion criteria included: national studies or those reporting large scale population-level data; data published from 2000 to 2010 and trend data prior; sample sizes over n = 1000, or fewer subjects in small nations. Results In total, 56 population surveys from 29 Asia-Pacific countries were identified. Data on 'sufficient physical activity' amongst adults were available from 45 studies (80%), with estimates ranging from 7% to 93% (median 62%, inter-quartile range 40%-85%). For 14 countries, estimates of 'sufficient activity' were documented in multiple surveys using different methods, with the largest variation from 18% to 92% in Nepal. Median or mean MET-minutes/day, reported in 20 studies, ranged from 6 to 1356. Serial trend data were available for 11 countries (22%), for periods spanning 2-10 years. Of these, five countries demonstrated increases in physical activity over time, four demonstrated decreases and three showed no changes. Conclusions Many countries in the Asia-Pacific region collect population-level PA data. This review highlights differences in estimates within and between countries. Some differences may be real, others due to variation in the PA questions asked and survey methods used. Use of standardized protocols and measures, and combined reporting of data are essential goals of improved international PA surveillance. PMID:22251660

  13. Unbiased methods for population-based association studies.

    PubMed

    Devlin, B; Roeder, K; Bacanu, S A

    2001-12-01

    Large, population-based samples and large-scale genotyping are being used to evaluate disease/gene associations. A substantial drawback to such samples is the fact that population substructure can induce spurious associations between genes and disease. We review two methods, called genomic control (GC) and structured association (SA), that obviate many of the concerns about population substructure by using the features of the genomes present in the sample to correct for stratification. The GC approach exploits the fact that population substructure generates "over dispersion" of statistics used to assess association. By testing multiple polymorphisms throughout the genome, only some of which are pertinent to the disease of interest, the degree of overdispersion generated by population substructure can be estimated and taken into account. The SA approach assumes that the sampled population, although heterogeneous, is composed of subpopulations that are themselves homogeneous. By using multiple polymorphisms throughout the genome, this "latent class method" estimates the probability sampled individuals derive from each of these latent subpopulations. GC has the advantage of robustness, simplicity, and wide applicability, even to experimental designs such as DNA pooling. SA is a bit more complicated but has the advantage of greater power in some realistic settings, such as admixed populations or when association varies widely across subpopulations. It, too, is widely applicable. Both also have weaknesses, as elaborated in our review.

  14. Space-use, movement and dispersal of sub-adult cougars in a geographically isolated population

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Mark S.; Nielsen, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Cougar (Puma concolor) observations have increased in Midwest North America, with breeding populations re-establishing in several regions east of their contemporary range. The Cypress Hills Uplands, located in southwest Saskatchewan and southeast Alberta, was recently re-colonized by cougars and now supports the easternmost confirmed breeding population of cougars in Canada. A number of factors contribute to this cougar range expansion, but it is dispersal that provides the mechanism for re-colonization of historic range. We used GPS-collar data to examine space-use and movement behavior of sub-adult cougars, the age class associated with dispersal, in the Cypress Hills. Conditional logistic regression and a two-stage modeling approach were used to estimate resource selection functions (RSF) of sub-adult cougars during two distinct ranging behaviors: transient movements (i.e., dispersal and exploratory forays) and localizing movements (i.e., temporary home ranges). Linear regression was used to model movement rates, measured as the distance between consecutive 3-h GPS-relocations, of sub-adult cougars relative to different habitats, times of day and between transient and localizing behavior. All individual sub-adult cougars displayed bouts of transient and localizing behavior. All male cougars dispersed from their natal ranges and travelled considerably farther distances than female cougars. One male dispersed over 750 km eastward through the agricultural belt of northern Montana and southern Saskatchewan. Males occupied temporary home ranges in more open habitats on the fringes of the insular Cypress Hills, while females appeared to be recruited into the adult population, occupying treed habitat that provided more suitable cover. During both ranging behaviors, sub-adult cougars selected for rugged terrain and proximity to hydrological features (likely supporting riparian habitats) and avoided open cover types. Differences in habitat selection between ranging

  15. Space-use, movement and dispersal of sub-adult cougars in a geographically isolated population.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Carl D; Boyce, Mark S; Nielsen, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    Cougar (Puma concolor) observations have increased in Midwest North America, with breeding populations re-establishing in several regions east of their contemporary range. The Cypress Hills Uplands, located in southwest Saskatchewan and southeast Alberta, was recently re-colonized by cougars and now supports the easternmost confirmed breeding population of cougars in Canada. A number of factors contribute to this cougar range expansion, but it is dispersal that provides the mechanism for re-colonization of historic range. We used GPS-collar data to examine space-use and movement behavior of sub-adult cougars, the age class associated with dispersal, in the Cypress Hills. Conditional logistic regression and a two-stage modeling approach were used to estimate resource selection functions (RSF) of sub-adult cougars during two distinct ranging behaviors: transient movements (i.e., dispersal and exploratory forays) and localizing movements (i.e., temporary home ranges). Linear regression was used to model movement rates, measured as the distance between consecutive 3-h GPS-relocations, of sub-adult cougars relative to different habitats, times of day and between transient and localizing behavior. All individual sub-adult cougars displayed bouts of transient and localizing behavior. All male cougars dispersed from their natal ranges and travelled considerably farther distances than female cougars. One male dispersed over 750 km eastward through the agricultural belt of northern Montana and southern Saskatchewan. Males occupied temporary home ranges in more open habitats on the fringes of the insular Cypress Hills, while females appeared to be recruited into the adult population, occupying treed habitat that provided more suitable cover. During both ranging behaviors, sub-adult cougars selected for rugged terrain and proximity to hydrological features (likely supporting riparian habitats) and avoided open cover types. Differences in habitat selection between ranging

  16. Description and validation of a method for simultaneous estimation of effective population size and mutation rate from human population data.

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, R; Neel, J V

    1989-01-01

    A method is presented for utilizing population data on electrophoretic variants of proteins to estimate simultaneously the effective sizes (Ne values) of the populations in question and the rate of mutation resulting in electromorphs at the loci whose products were surveyed. The method is applied to data from 12 relatively unacculturated Amerindian tribes for whom census data and independent estimates of the number of different electrophoretic variants at 27 loci are available. Because of tribal demographic structure, Ne should be less than the current number of reproductive-aged adults. In fact, it is substantially greater for 7 tribes, most likely due to intertribal migration and a recent decrease in tribal size. Estimates of locus mutation rates for the 27 loci vary by more than a factor of 20, with an average of 1.1 x 10(-5) per locus per generation. This latter estimate is in satisfactory agreement with the results of other indirect approaches to the estimation of mutation rates in these tribes but about two times higher than the results of direct estimates based on these same loci in studies on civilized populations. This discrepancy could be due to the above-hypothesized migration and to decreases in tribal size. PMID:2594777

  17. A method of studying wild bird populations by mist-netting and banding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamm, D.D.; Davis, D.E.; Robbins, C.S.

    1960-01-01

    1. Progress is reported toward development of a method of bird-population study based on mist-netting and banding. A definite pattern of arrangement and schedule of operation are presented. 2. Nets were operated for a total of 4200 net-hours during which 966 captures were made (23.0 birds per 100 net-hours). A total of 431 adult breeding birds were banded and 38 per cent of them were recaptured. 3. A breeding bird census was made simultaneously in the same area by the Williams spot-mapping technique. 4. Estimates of population by recapture agreed closely with the spot-mappmg census. 5. Some birds are demonstrated to have overlapping home-ranges much larger than their singing territories. 6. Recruitment and net-shyness distort recapture estimates of population .but the method allows detection and assessment of their influence in the population dealt with here. 7. The method produced integrated information on population density and dynamics, movement and behavior. 8. The procedure is especially well adapted to studies of disease agents in bird populations. 9. A simple scheme for description of the habitat in terms of relative abundance and frequency of occurrence of tree species was used.

  18. The influence of childhood abuse, adult life events, and affective temperaments on the well-being of the general, nonclinical adult population

    PubMed Central

    Kanai, Yoshiaki; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Nakai, Yukiei; Ichiki, Masahiko; Sato, Mitsuhiko; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Ishikawa, Jun; Ono, Yasuyuki; Murakoshi, Akiko; Tanabe, Hajime; Kusumi, Ichiro; Inoue, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown the effects of childhood abuse, life events, and temperaments on well-being (positive affect) and ill-being (negative affect). We hypothesized that childhood abuse, affective temperaments, and adult life events interact with one another and influence positive and negative affects in the general adult population and tested this hypothesis using structural equation modeling. Methods A total of 415 participants from the general, nonclinical adult population were studied using the following self-administered questionnaires: the Subjective Well-Being Inventory (SUBI); Life Experiences Survey (LES); Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A); and the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS). The data were analyzed with single and multiple regression analyses and structural equation modeling (Mplus). Results Childhood abuse indirectly predicted the worsening of positive and negative affects through cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable temperaments as measured by the TEMPS-A in the structural equation model. The cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable temperaments directly worsened the positive and negative affects and the negative appraisal of life events that occurred during the past year, while the hyperthymic temperament had the opposite effects. Limitations The subjects of this study were nonclinical volunteers. The findings might not be generalizable to psychiatric patients. Conclusion This study demonstrated that childhood abuse, particularly neglect, indirectly worsened the well-being of individuals through cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable affective temperaments. An important “mediator” role of affective temperaments in the effect of childhood abuse on well-being was suggested. PMID:27110116

  19. Prevalence of smoking and incidence of initiation in the Latin American adult population: the PLATINO study

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Ana M; Lopez, Maria V; Hallal, Pedro C; Muiño, Adriana; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Jardim, José R; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Pertuzé, Julio; de Oca, Maria M; Tálamo, Carlos; Victora, Cesar G

    2009-01-01

    Background The PLATINO project was launched in 2002 in order to study the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Latin America. Because smoking is the main risk factor for COPD, detailed data on it were obtained. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the prevalence of smoking and incidence of initiation among middle-aged and older adults (40 years or older). Special emphasis was given to the association between smoking and schooling. Methods PLATINO is a multicenter study comprising five cross-sectional population-based surveys of approximately 1,000 individuals per site in Sao Paulo (Brazil), Santiago (Chile), Mexico City (Mexico), Montevideo (Uruguay) and Caracas (Venezuela). The outcome variable was smoking status (never, former or current). Current smokers were those who reported to smoke within the previous 30 days. Former smokers were those who reported to quit smoking more than 30 days before the survey. Using information on year of birth and age of smoking onset and quitting, a retrospective cohort analysis was carried out. Smoking prevalence at each period was defined as the number of subjects who started to smoke during the period plus those who were already smokers at the beginning of the period, divided by the total number of subjects. Incidence of smoking initiation was calculated as the number of subjects who started to smoke during the period divided by the number of non-smokers at its beginning. The independent variables included were sex, age and schooling. Results Non-response rates ranged from 11.1% to 26.8%. The prevalence of smoking ranged from 23.9% (95%CI 21.3; 26.6) in Sao Paulo to 38.5% (95%CI 35.7; 41.2) in Santiago. Males and middle-aged adults were more likely to smoke in all sites. After adjustment for age, schooling was not associated with smoking. Using retrospective cohort analysis, it was possible to detect that the highest prevalence of smoking is found between 20–29 years, while the highest incidence is

  20. The reproductive hormone cycle of adult female American alligators from a barrier island population.

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Heather J; Lowers, Russell H; Kohno, Satomi; Mitsui-Watanabe, Naoko; Amano, Haruna; Hara, Akihiko; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Iguchi, Taisen; Guillette, Louis J

    2014-06-01

    Comparatively, little data are available detailing the geographic variation that exists in the reproductive endocrinology of adult alligators, especially those living in barrier islands. The Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MI) is a unique barrier island environment and home to the Kennedy Space Center (FL, USA). Seasonal patterns of sex steroids were assessed in adult female American alligators from MI monthly from 2008 to 2009, with additional samples collected at more random intervals in 2006, 2007, and 2010. Plasma 17β-estradiol and vitellogenin concentrations peaked in April, coincident with courtship and mating, and showed patterns similar to those observed in adult female alligators in other regions. Plasma concentrations of progesterone, however, showed patterns distinctly different than those reported for alligator populations in other regions and remained relatively constant throughout the year. Plasma DHEA peaked in July around the time of oviposition, decreased in August, and then remained constant for the remaining months, except for a moderate increase in October. Circulating concentrations of DHEA have not been previously assessed in a female crocodilian, and plasma concentrations coincident with reproductive activity suggest a reproductive and/or behavioral role. Interestingly, plasma testosterone concentrations peaked in May of 2008, as has been shown in female alligator populations in other regions, but showed no peak in 2009, demonstrating dramatic variability from year to year. Surveys showed 2009 to be particularly depauperate of alligator nests in MI, and it is possible that testosterone could serve as a strong indicator of breeding success.

  1. Impact of population aging on trends in diabetes prevalence: A meta-regression analysis of 160,000 Japanese adults

    PubMed Central

    Charvat, Hadrien; Goto, Atsushi; Goto, Maki; Inoue, Machiko; Heianza, Yoriko; Arase, Yasuji; Sone, Hirohito; Nakagami, Tomoko; Song, Xin; Qiao, Qing; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Inoue, Manami

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction To provide age- and sex-specific trends, age-standardized trends, and projections of diabetes prevalence through the year 2030 in the Japanese adult population. Materials and Methods In the present meta-regression analysis, we included 161,087 adults from six studies and nine national health surveys carried out between 1988 and 2011 in Japan. We assessed the prevalence of diabetes using a recorded history of diabetes or, for the population of individuals without known diabetes, either a glycated hemoglobin level of ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol) or the 1999 World Health Organization criteria (i.e., a fasting plasma glucose level of ≥126 mg/dL and/or 2-h glucose level of ≥200 mg/dL in the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test). Results For both sexes, prevalence appeared to remain unchanged over the years in all age categories except for men aged 70 years or older, in whom a significant increase in prevalence with time was observed. Age-standardized diabetes prevalence estimates based on the Japanese population of the corresponding year showed marked increasing trends: diabetes prevalence was 6.1% among women (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.5–6.7), 9.9% (95% CI 9.2–10.6) among men, and 7.9% (95% CI 7.5–8.4) among the total population in 2010, and was expected to rise by 2030 to 6.7% (95% CI 5.2–9.2), 13.1% (95% CI 10.9–16.7) and 9.8% (95% CI 8.5–12.0), respectively. In contrast, the age-standardized diabetes prevalence using a fixed population appeared to remain unchanged. Conclusions This large-scale meta-regression analysis shows that a substantial increase in diabetes prevalence is expected in Japan during the next few decades, mainly as a result of the aging of the adult population. PMID:26417410

  2. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Mchiza, Zandile J; Steyn, Nelia P; Hill, Jillian; Kruger, Annamarie; Schönfeldt, Hettie; Nel, Johanna; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss

    2015-09-23

    One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups.

  3. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Mchiza, Zandile J.; Steyn, Nelia P.; Hill, Jillian; Kruger, Annamarie; Schönfeldt, Hettie; Nel, Johanna; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss

    2015-01-01

    One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups. PMID:26404371

  4. Genetic architecture differences between pediatric and adult-onset inflammatory bowel diseases in the Polish population

    PubMed Central

    Ostrowski, Jerzy; Paziewska, Agnieszka; Lazowska, Izabella; Ambrozkiewicz, Filip; Goryca, Krzysztof; Kulecka, Maria; Rawa, Tomasz; Karczmarski, Jakub; Dabrowska, Michalina; Zeber-Lubecka, Natalia; Tomecki, Roman; Kluska, Anna; Balabas, Aneta; Piatkowska, Magdalena; Paczkowska, Katarzyna; Kierkus, Jaroslaw; Socha, Piotr; Lodyga, Michal; Rydzewska, Grazyna; Klopocka, Maria; Mierzwa, Grazyna; Iwanczak, Barbara; Krzesiek, Elzbieta; Bak-Drabik, Katarzyna; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw; Klincewicz, Beata; Radwan, Piotr; Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk, Urszula; Landowski, Piotr; Jankowska, Agnieszka; Korczowski, Bartosz; Starzynska, Teresa; Albrecht, Piotr; Mikula, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Most inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are classic complex disorders represented by common alleles. Here we aimed to define the genetic architecture of pediatric and adult-onset IBDs for the Polish population. A total of 1495 patients were recruited, including 761 patients with Crohn’s disease (CD; 424 pediatric), 734 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC; 390 pediatric), and 934 healthy controls. Allelotyping employed a pooled-DNA genome-wide association study (GWAS) and was validated by individual genotyping. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed on 44 IBD patients diagnosed before 6 years of age, 45 patients diagnosed after 40 years of age, and 18 healthy controls. Altogether, out of 88 selected SNPs, 31 SNPs were replicated for association with IBD. A novel BRD2 (rs1049526) association reached significance of P = 5.2 × 10−11 and odds ratio (OR) = 2.43. Twenty SNPs were shared between pediatric and adult patients; 1 and 7 were unique to adult-onset and pediatric-onset IBD, respectively. WES identified numerous rare and potentially deleterious variants in IBD-associated or innate immunity-associated genes. Deleterious alleles in both groups were over-represented among rare variants in affected children. Our GWAS revealed differences in the polygenic architecture of pediatric- and adult-onset IBD. A significant accumulation of rare and deleterious variants in affected children suggests a contribution by yet unexplained genetic components. PMID:28008999

  5. Population Pharmacokinetic Study of Benznidazole in Pediatric Chagas Disease Suggests Efficacy despite Lower Plasma Concentrations than in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Altcheh, Jaime; Moscatelli, Guillermo; Mastrantonio, Guido; Moroni, Samanta; Giglio, Norberto; Marson, Maria Elena; Ballering, Griselda; Bisio, Margarita; Koren, Gideon; García-Bournissen, Facundo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, can lead to long term cardiac morbidity. Treatment of children with benznidazole is effective, but no pediatric pharmacokinetics data are available and clinical pharmacology information on the drug is scarce. Patients and Methods Prospective population pharmacokinetic (PK) cohort study in children 2–12 years old with Chagas disease treated with oral benznidazole 5–8 mg/kg/day BID for 60 days. (clinicaltrials.gov #NCT00699387). Results Forty children were enrolled in the study. Mean age was 7.3 years. A total of 117 samples were obtained from 38 patients for PK analysis. A one compartment model best fit the data. Weight-corrected clearance rate (CL/F) showed a good correlation with age, with younger patients having a significantly higher CL/F than older children and adults. Simulated median steady-state benznidazole concentrations, based on model parameters, were lower for children in our study than for adults and lowest for children under 7 years of age. Treatment was efficacious in the 37 patients who completed the treatment course, and well tolerated, with few, and mild, adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Discussion Observed benznidazole plasma concentrations in children were markedly lower than those previously reported in adults (treated with comparable mg/kg doses), possibly due to a higher CL/F in smaller children. These lower blood concentrations were nevertheless associated to a high therapeutic response in our cohort. Unlike adults, children have few adverse reactions to the drug, suggesting that there may be a direct correlation between drug concentrations and incidence of ADRs. Our results suggest that studies with lower doses in adults may be warranted. Trial Registration ClinicalTrails.gov NCT00699387 PMID:24853169

  6. A novel accelerometer-based method to describe day-to-day exposure to potentially osteogenic vertical impacts in older adults: findings from a multi-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hannam, K; Deere, K C; Hartley, A; Clark, E M; Coulson, J; Ireland, A; Moss, C; Edwards, M H; Dennison, E; Gaysin, T; Cooper, R; Wong, A; McPhee, J S; Cooper, C; Kuh, D; Tobias, J H

    2017-03-01

    This observational study assessed vertical impacts experienced in older adults as part of their day-to-day physical activity using accelerometry and questionnaire data. Population-based older adults experienced very limited high-impact activity. The accelerometry method utilised appeared to be valid based on comparisons between different cohorts and with self-reported activity.

  7. Clinical value of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in health screening of general adult population

    PubMed Central

    Tarnoki, David Laszlo; Tarnoki, Adam Domonkos; Richter, Antje; Karlinger, Kinga; Berczi, Viktor; Pickuth, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Background Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) and angiography (WB-MRA) has become increasingly popular in population-based research. We evaluated retrospectively the frequency of potentially relevant incidental findings throughout the body. Materials and methods 22 highly health-conscious managers (18 men, mean age 47±9 years) underwent WB-MRI and WB-MRA between March 2012 and September 2013 on a Discovery MR750w wide bore 3 Tesla device (GE Healthcare) using T1 weighted, short tau inversion recovery (STIR) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) acquisitions according to a standardized protocol. Results A suspicious (pararectal) malignancy was detected in one patient which was confirmed by an endorectal sonography. Incidental findings were described in 20 subjects, including hydrocele (11 patients), benign bony lesion (7 patients) and non-specific lymph nodes (5 patients). Further investigations were recommended in 68% (ultrasound: 36%, computed tomography: 28%, mammography: 9%, additional MRI: 9%). WB-MRA were negative in 16 subjects. Vascular normal variations were reported in 23%, and a 40% left proximal common carotid artery stenosis were described in one subject. Conclusions WB-MRI and MRA lead to the detection of clinically relevant diseases and unexpected findings in a cohort of healthy adults that require further imaging or surveillance in 68%. WB-MR imaging may play a paramount role in health screening, especially in the future generation of (epi)genetic based screening of malignant and atherosclerotic disorders. Our study is the first which involved a highly selected patient group using a high field 3-T wide bore magnet system with T1, STIR, MRA and whole-body DWI acquisitions as well. PMID:25810696

  8. Use of Public Oral Health Services by the Adult Population: A Multilevel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background It is important to assess context to explain inequalities in oral health, particularly with regard to the type of service used; thus, this study aimed to identify the social determinants of public dental service use by adults and to assess whether, beyond the level individual, existing inequalities are also expressed in the context in which individuals are embedded. Methods A multilevel analysis with three levels of aggregation of variables was performed. The individual variables were derived from the database of the SB Minas Gerais project—a survey of oral health status of the population of Minas Gerais, a state of the Brazilian Southeast region. The variable at the neighborhood level came from the Census of 2010. The variables at the municipal level were obtained from available public databases relating to oral health services. At the municipal level, the Human Development Index (HDI) variable was chosen to represent quality of life in the municipalities. Results In the final model, the following individual variables were associated with greater use of public dental services: lower income (PR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.53; 2.58), higher number of residents at home (PR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.11; 1.68) and higher number of teeth requiring treatment (PR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.20; 1.84). With regard to context variables, a poorer infrastructure (PR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.40; 0.96) leads to a lower use of public services. Conclusion The use of public services is associated with family income, how this income is divided in households, the need for treatment presented by the individual and the organization of the existing oral health service infrastructure in the municipality. PMID:26730714

  9. Self-perception of oral health in older adults from an urban population in Lisbon, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Catarina; Manso, Ana Cristina; Escoval, Ana; Salvado, Francisco; Nunes, Carla

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if the self-perception of oral health in the urban context is associated with sociodemographic factors that interfere in the life quality of oral health. METHODS Cross-sectional study with convenience sample of older individuals (65 years old or more) enrolled in the Agrupamento de Centros de Saúde de Lisboa Norte (ACES Lisboa Norte – Health Centers Groupings North Lisbon). The self-perception of oral health and associated life quality was evaluated by the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index and the individuals were classified according to sociodemographic characteristics. The internal consistency of the questionnaire was evaluated by Cronbach’s alpha (α). Later, we used binary logistic regression models to characterize the factors associated with the self-perception of oral health, considering the sociodemographic variables and the older adults’ clinical conditions of oral health and establishing the crude and adjusted (to age) odds ratios and their 90% confidence intervals. RESULTS A total of 369 older adults participated in this study, with an average age of 74.2 years (SD = 6.75); 62.9% were female. On average, the index was moderated, with tendency to be high: 32.9 (SD = 3.6; 12-36 interval). The Cronbach’s alpha was high: 0.805. Age, marital status, and the last dental appointment were the factors significantly associated with self-perception of oral health. CONCLUSIONS The study shows that these individuals have a moderate, with tendency to high, self-perception of oral health. The self-perception of oral health assessment allowed us to identify the main associated sociodemographic factors. This instrument can help guiding planning strategies and oral health promotion directed toward a better life quality for this population group. PMID:27556967

  10. The Disease Burden of Childhood Adversities in Adults: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuijpers, Pim; Smit, Filip; Unger, Froukje; Stikkelbroek, Yvonne; ten Have, Margreet; de Graaf, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: There is much evidence showing that childhood adversities have considerable effects on the mental and physical health of adults. It could be assumed therefore, that the disease burden of childhood adversities is high. It has not yet been examined, however, whether this is true. Method: We used data of a large representative sample (N =…

  11. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension among Saudi Adult Population: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Abdalla A.; Al-Hamdan, Nasser A.; Bahnassy, Ahmed A.; Abdalla, Abdelshakour M.; Abbas, Mostafa A. F.; Abuzaid, Lamiaa Z.

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed at estimating prevalence, awareness, treatment, control, and predictors of hypertension among Saudi adult population. Multistage stratified sampling was used to select 4758 adult participants. Three blood pressure measurements using an automatic sphygmomanometer, sociodemographics, and antihypertensive modalities were obtained. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 25.5%. Only 44.7% of hypertensives were aware, 71.8% of them received pharmacotherapy, and only 37.0% were controlled. Awareness was significantly associated with gender, age, geographical location, occupation, and comorbidity. Applying drug treatment was significantly more among older patients, but control was significantly higher among younger patients and patients with higher level of physical activity. Significant predictors of hypertension included male gender, urbanization, low education, low physical activity, obesity, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. In conclusion prevalence is high, but awareness, treatment, and control levels are low indicating a need to develop a national program for prevention, early detection, and control of hypertension. PMID:21912737

  12. Sexual Behaviors among Adults in Puerto Rico: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Suárez, Erick; Santos-Ortiz, María del Carmen; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Pérez, Cynthia M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Given changes in sexual behaviors and norms in the United States, there is a need for current and representative data on sexual behaviors with particular interest in gender, age, and racial/ethnic group differences. Aim Given the limited data for Hispanics and for Puerto Rico (PR), we described patterns of sexual behaviors and characteristics among a sexually active sample (n = 1,575) of adults aged 21–64 years in PR. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measures for this study are sexual behaviors including age at sexual initiation, number of sexual partners, vaginal and anal intercourse, and oral sex, among others. Methods Data from a population-based cross-sectional study in PR (2005–2008) was analyzed. The prevalence of sexual behaviors and characteristics was described by age-group and gender during the lifetime and in the past 12 months. Results Overall, 96.8%, 81.6%, and 60.9% of participants had ever engaged in vaginal, oral and anal sex, respectively, whereas 23.7% were seropositive to any of the sexually transmitted infections under study. Sexual initiation ≤15 years was reported by 37.8% of men and 21.4% of women; whereas 47.9% of men and 13.2% of women reported to have had ≥7 sexual partners in their lifetime. Approximately, 3% of women and 6% of men reported same-sex sexual practices, while history of forced sexual relations was reported by 9.6% of women and 2.5% of men. Sexual initiation ≤15 years was more common among individuals aged 21–34 years (41.4% men and 33.6% women) as compared with older cohorts. Although having had ≥7 sexual partners over a lifetime among men was similar across age groups, this behavior decreased in older women cohorts. In both genders, the prevalence of oral and anal sex was also lower in the older age cohorts. Conclusion This study provides essential information than can help health professionals understand the sexual practices and needs of the population of PR. PMID:21676177

  13. Taxonomic Separation of Hippocampal Networks: Principal Cell Populations and Adult Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, R. Maarten; Huang, Shih-Hui; Slomianka, Lutz; Amrein, Irmgard

    2016-01-01

    While many differences in hippocampal anatomy have been described between species, it is typically not clear if they are specific to a particular species and related to functional requirements or if they are shared by species of larger taxonomic units. Without such information, it is difficult to infer how anatomical differences may impact on hippocampal function, because multiple taxonomic levels need to be considered to associate behavioral and anatomical changes. To provide information on anatomical changes within and across taxonomic ranks, we present a quantitative assessment of hippocampal principal cell populations in 20 species or strain groups, with emphasis on rodents, the taxonomic group that provides most animals used in laboratory research. Of special interest is the importance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) in species-specific adaptations relative to other cell populations. Correspondence analysis of cell numbers shows that across taxonomic units, phylogenetically related species cluster together, sharing similar proportions of principal cell populations. CA3 and hilus are strong separators that place rodent species into a tight cluster based on their relatively large CA3 and small hilus while non-rodent species (including humans and non-human primates) are placed on the opposite side of the spectrum. Hilus and CA3 are also separators within rodents, with a very large CA3 and rather small hilar cell populations separating mole-rats from other rodents that, in turn, are separated from each other by smaller changes in the proportions of CA1 and granule cells. When adult neurogenesis is included, the relatively small populations of young neurons, proliferating cells and hilar neurons become main drivers of taxonomic separation within rodents. The observations provide challenges to the computational modeling of hippocampal function, suggest differences in the organization of hippocampal information streams in rodent and non-rodent species, and

  14. Contents of cesium, iodine, strontium, thorium, and uranium in selected human organs of adult asian population.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, G V; Kawamura, H; Dang, H S; Parr, R M; Wang, J W; Cho, S Y; Natera, E S

    2004-08-01

    Contents of cesium, iodine, strontium, thorium, and uranium in some selected human organs were estimated for adult Asian population using data obtained in four Asian countries: China, India, Philippines, and Republic of Korea, as part of a Coordinated Research Program of the International Atomic Energy Agency on "Ingestion and Organ contents of elements of importance in radiation protection." These countries together represent more than 40% of the world population. Highly sensitive analytical techniques were employed to measure cesium in skeletal muscle, iodine in thyroid, strontium in skeleton, thorium and uranium in skeleton, liver, kidneys, and lungs where, in comparison to other organs, these elements are present in higher concentrations. The organ contents for adult Asian population, when compared with the corresponding data proposed for Reference Man by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), showed about 40 times lower kidneys content and about 10 times lower skeleton content of uranium. The content of thorium in skeleton for Asian population was also half of the ICRP Reference Man value. Interestingly, organ contents for the other elements such as iodine in thyroid, cesium in skeletal muscle, and strontium in skeleton were comparable for Asian and the Caucasian population (represented by ICRP Reference Man). Organ contents for these elements were also calculated by applying the new ICRP models of these elements to their daily intakes. The comparison of the calculated and measured organ contents showed that despite uncertainties in the organ content values arising due to the inter-country variations in daily dietary intakes, the contents were within a factor of two to three. This observation is significant since human data both on organ contents and ingestion were obtained at environmental level of intakes. The study suggests that currently available ICRP models for these elements are quite realistic.

  15. Population Size Estimation of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Tbilisi, Georgia; Multiple Methods and Triangulation of Findings

    PubMed Central

    Sulaberidze, Lela; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Chikovani, Ivdity; Shengelia, Natia; Tsereteli, Nino; Gotsadze, George

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An accurate estimation of the population size of men who have sex with men (MSM) is critical to the success of HIV program planning and to monitoring of the response to epidemic as a whole, but is quite often missing. In this study, our aim was to estimate the population size of MSM in Tbilisi, Georgia and compare it with other estimates in the region. Methods In the absence of a gold standard for estimating the population size of MSM, this study reports a range of methods, including network scale-up, mobile/web apps multiplier, service and unique object multiplier, network-based capture-recapture, Handcock RDS-based and Wisdom of Crowds methods. To apply all these methods, two surveys were conducted: first, a household survey among 1,015 adults from the general population, and second, a respondent driven sample of 210 MSM. We also conducted a literature review of MSM size estimation in Eastern European and Central Asian countries. Results The median population size of MSM generated from all previously mentioned methods was estimated to be 5,100 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 3,243 ~ 9,088). This corresponds to 1.42% (95%CI: 0.9% ~ 2.53%) of the adult male population in Tbilisi. Conclusion Our size estimates of the MSM population (1.42% (95%CI: 0.9% ~ 2.53%) of the adult male population in Tbilisi) fall within ranges reported in other Eastern European and Central Asian countries. These estimates can provide valuable information for country level HIV prevention program planning and evaluation. Furthermore, we believe, that our results will narrow the gap in data availability on the estimates of the population size of MSM in the region. PMID:26828366

  16. Measuring population sodium intake: a review of methods.

    PubMed

    McLean, Rachael M

    2014-10-28

    Reduction of population sodium intake has been identified as a key initiative for reduction of Non-Communicable Disease. Monitoring of population sodium intake must accompany public health initiatives aimed at sodium reduction. A number of different methods for estimating dietary sodium intake are currently in use. Dietary assessment is time consuming and often under-estimates intake due to under-reporting and difficulties quantifying sodium concentration in recipes, and discretionary salt. Twenty-four hour urinary collection (widely considered to be the most accurate method) is also burdensome and is limited by under-collection and lack of suitable methodology to accurately identify incomplete samples. Spot urine sampling has recently been identified as a convenient and affordable alternative, but remains highly controversial as a means of monitoring population intake. Studies suggest that while spot urinary sodium is a poor predictor of 24-h excretion in individuals, it may provide population estimates adequate for monitoring. Further research is needed into the accuracy and suitability of spot urine collection in different populations as a means of monitoring sodium intake.

  17. TSH levels are associated with vitamin D status and seasonality in an adult population of euthyroid adults.

    PubMed

    Barchetta, I; Baroni, M G; Leonetti, F; De Bernardinis, M; Bertoccini, L; Fontana, M; Mazzei, E; Fraioli, A; Cavallo, M G

    2015-08-01

    A circannual periodicity in thyrotropin (TSH) secretion has been reported but the causes of these phenomenon are still undefined. Vitamin D exerts a direct influence on pituitary axes including the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. Aims of the present study were to investigate the presence of a seasonal variability of TSH secretion and to study the association between vitamin D status and TSH levels in a population of euthyroid adults. For this purpose, we recruited 294 euthyroid adults (M/F 133/161, 48.5 ± 12.4 years). Study participants underwent clinical examination and routine biochemistry assessment. Vitamin D deficiency was diagnosed for serum 25(OH) vitamin D <25 nmol/l. Significantly higher TSH levels were found in subjects who underwent blood sampling during the Autumn-Winter compared with individuals evaluated in Spring-Summer (2.3 ± 1.3 vs. 1.8 ± 1.1 μIU/ml, p = 0.03). Vitamin D deficiency was strongly associated with higher TSH levels (p = 0.01) after adjusting for sex, age, and sample's season. Although vitamin D deficiency was also associated with metabolic syndrome and its components, the association between TSH levels and vitamin D status persisted also considering these confounders. These data reveal the occurrence of seasonal variability of serum TSH concentration in euthyroid subjects and provide evidence for the first time that an association exists between vitamin D status and serum TSH levels.

  18. Road-Traffic Noise: Annoyance, Risk Perception, and Noise Sensitivity in the Finnish Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Enembe Oku; Turunen, Anu W.; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Vartiainen, Anna-Kaisa; Tiittanen, Pekka; Lanki, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to road-traffic noise commonly engenders annoyance, the extent of which is determined by factors not fully understood. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of road-traffic noise annoyance and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population, while comparing the perceptions of road-traffic noise to exhausts as environmental health problems. Using a questionnaire that yielded responses from 1112 randomly selected adult Finnish respondents, we estimated road-traffic noise- and exhausts-related perceived exposures, health-risk perceptions, and self-reported annoyance on five-point scales, while noise sensitivity estimates were based on four questions. Determinants of noise annoyance and sensitivity were investigated using multivariate binary logistic regression and linear regression models, respectively. High or extreme noise annoyance was reported by 17% of respondents. Noise sensitivity scores approximated a Gaussian distribution. Road-traffic noise and exhausts were, respectively, considered high or extreme population-health risks by 22% and 27% of respondents. Knowledge of health risks from traffic noise, OR: 2.04 (1.09–3.82) and noise sensitivity, OR: 1.07 (1.00–1.14) were positively associated with annoyance. Knowledge of health risks (p < 0.045) and positive environmental attitudes (p < 000) were associated with higher noise sensitivity. Age and sex were associated with annoyance and sensitivity only in bivariate models. A considerable proportion of Finnish adults are highly annoyed by road-traffic noise, and perceive it to be a significant health risk, almost comparable to traffic exhausts. There is no distinct noise-sensitive population subgroup. Knowledge of health risks of road-traffic noise, and attitudinal variables are associated with noise annoyance and sensitivity. PMID:26016432

  19. Road-traffic noise: annoyance, risk perception, and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population.

    PubMed

    Okokon, Enembe Oku; Turunen, Anu W; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Vartiainen, Anna-Kaisa; Tiittanen, Pekka; Lanki, Timo

    2015-05-26

    Exposure to road-traffic noise commonly engenders annoyance, the extent of which is determined by factors not fully understood. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of road-traffic noise annoyance and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population, while comparing the perceptions of road-traffic noise to exhausts as environmental health problems. Using a questionnaire that yielded responses from 1112 randomly selected adult Finnish respondents, we estimated road-traffic noise- and exhausts-related perceived exposures, health-risk perceptions, and self-reported annoyance on five-point scales, while noise sensitivity estimates were based on four questions. Determinants of noise annoyance and sensitivity were investigated using multivariate binary logistic regression and linear regression models, respectively. High or extreme noise annoyance was reported by 17% of respondents. Noise sensitivity scores approximated a Gaussian distribution. Road-traffic noise and exhausts were, respectively, considered high or extreme population-health risks by 22% and 27% of respondents. Knowledge of health risks from traffic noise, OR: 2.04 (1.09-3.82) and noise sensitivity, OR: 1.07 (1.00-1.14) were positively associated with annoyance. Knowledge of health risks (p<0.045) and positive environmental attitudes (p<000) were associated with higher noise sensitivity. Age and sex were associated with annoyance and sensitivity only in bivariate models. A considerable proportion of Finnish adults are highly annoyed by road-traffic noise, and perceive it to be a significant health risk, almost comparable to traffic exhausts. There is no distinct noise-sensitive population subgroup. Knowledge of health risks of road-traffic noise, and attitudinal variables are associated with noise annoyance and sensitivity.

  20. Correlation of the Body Mass Index and Calcium Nephrolithiasis in Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Milicevic, Snjezana; Bijelic, Radojka; Krivokuca, Vladimir; Bojic, Mirjana; Popovic-Pejicic, Snjezana; Bojanic, Nebojsa

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Prevalence of the kidney stones (renal calculi) increase in several countries in parallel with the increase of overweight, diabetes (type 2 diabetes) and hypertension. Goal: The goal of our research was to evaluate the connection between the calcium nephrolithiasis and overweight, as quantified using the Body Mass Index (BMI) of the adult population, with a particular reflection on the age groups within it. Material and methods: The research was prospective and it was implemented at the Clinical Center of Banja Luka, at the Urology Clinic in the period from 1st April 2012 to 1st January 2013. The trial encompassed 120 patients with calcium nephrolithiasis of the upper part of the urinary tract and 120 patients without nephrolithiasis. A group of patients with the calcium nephrolithiasis presented a working group, while a group of patients without nephrolithiasis presented a control group. The BMI obtained on the basis of bodily weight and height of the patient, where the age and sex of specific reference values of the BMI were developed by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were not used in the calculation of the BMI. Results: Analyzing the values of the BMI in relation to age groups, where there was a statistically significant difference in the working group, whereas in the control group there was a statistically high significant difference, testing of statistical significance of the average value of the BMI was done by observed age groups of working and control group, as well as to the total sample of work and control group using the Chi-Square test and T-test for independent samples. Having observed the age group of 20-40 years, statistically significant differences have been noted at the level of risk of 10%, which confirms that there is a connection between the categories of the BMI and the group, which the patient comes from (Chi-Square test p-0.05), that is, T-test has shown that the values are different at the level

  1. The Contributions of Phonological and Morphological Awareness to Literacy Skills In the Adult Basic Education Population

    PubMed Central

    Fracasso, Lucille E.; Bangs, Kathryn; Binder, Katherine S.

    2014-01-01

    The Adult Basic Education (ABE) population consists of a wide range of abilities with needs that may be unique to this set of learners. The purpose of this study was to better understand the relative contributions of phonological decoding and morphological awareness to spelling, vocabulary, and comprehension across a sample of ABE students. In this study, phonological decoding was a unique predictor of spelling ability, listening comprehension and reading comprehension. We also found that morphological awareness was a unique predictor of spelling ability, vocabulary, and listening comprehension. Morphological awareness indirectly contributed to reading comprehension through vocabulary. These findings suggest the need for morphological interventions for this group of learners. PMID:24935886

  2. Noncommunicable diseases and risk factors in adult populations of several Pacific Islands: results from the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Jeanie; Girin, Natalie; Roth, Adam; Vivili, Paula; Williams, Gail; Hoy, Damian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide an overview of the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and their risk factors in several Pacific island countries and territories (PICTs), in accordance with global NCD targets. Methods: For six risk factors, data for adults (aged 25–64 years) from published reports of the World Health Organization STEPwise approach to NCD surveillance, or methodologically similar surveys, were collated, age standardised and compared across fifteen PICTs. Results: In the majority of PICT populations, more than half of male current drinkers drank heavily and more than 40% of men and 20% of women were current smokers. In 10 populations, about 50% or more of women were insufficiently physically active. Prevalence of hypertension and diabetes exceeded 20% and 25%, respectively, in several populations. Near or more than half of men and women in all populations were overweight; in most, more than one‐third of both sexes were obese. Conclusions: The prevalence of NCDs and risk factors varies widely between PICTs and by sex. The evidence shows the high and alarming present and future burden of NCDs in the region. Implications: Strengthened political commitment and increased investment are urgently required to tackle the NCD crisis, successfully achieve targets and ensure continuing sustainable development in the Pacific islands. PMID:26095921

  3. The Risk for Stroke and Myocardial Infarction After Herpes Zoster in Older Adults in a US Community Population

    PubMed Central

    Yawn, Barbara P.; Wollan, Peter; Nagel, Maria A.; Gilden, Don

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess risk of stroke and MI after zoster in a U.S. community population of older adults. DESIGN A community cohort study (1986–2011) comparing risk for stroke and MI in adults ≥50 with and without zoster. Odds ratios are presented for MI and stroke at 3, 6, 12 and 36 months after index zoster plus hazard ratios for long-term risk (up to 28.6 years). SETTING Olmsted County, Minnesota. PARTICIPANTS All adult residents of Olmsted County, aged ≥50 at the time of medical record confirmed zoster (n = 4,862) and 19,433 sex and age matched individuals with no history of zoster. EXPOSURE Zoster. MAIN OUTCOMES Incident MI and stroke. RESULTS Overall, individuals with zoster had more risk or confounding factors for MI and stroke, suggesting that they had worse health status overall. When controlling for the multiple risk factors, those with zoster were at increased for stroke at 3 months post zoster compared to those without a history of zoster (OR 1.53 (95% confidence interval (CI95) 1.10–2.33, P = .04. The association between zoster and MI at 3 months was not robust across analytic methods. Zoster was not associated with an increased risk for either stroke or MI at any point beyond 3 months. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Zoster was associated with only a short- term increased risk of stroke which may be preventable with prevention of zoster. PMID:26704438

  4. Population-specific consequences of fisheries-related stressors on adult sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, M R; Hinch, S G; Raby, G D; Patterson, D A; Farrell, A P; Cooke, S J

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether fisheries-related stressors differently influence two populations of adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) with shared migration timing and location but where one population (i.e., Harrison) spawns 1 mo after the other (i.e., Weaver). Four stressor treatments were used following beach seine capture: (1) immediate release, (2) release after 10-15 min in the beach seine, (3) an additional 3-min gill net entanglement and 1-min air exposure, and (4) an additional 3-min tangle net simulation and 1-min air exposure. A comprehensive acoustic telemetry array and manual tracking revealed that survival was low overall, with more Weaver fish (34.2% of 38 tagged) reaching spawning areas compared to Harrison fish (17.8% of 78 tagged). For the Harrison population but not the Weaver, the gill net treatment influenced immediate (i.e., survived treatment) and short-term (i.e., 5-d postrelease) survival as well as survival to reach spawning areas. Harrison fish were more likely to be injured by the treatment, and reflex impairment predicted their short-term and long-term survival. Physiological condition did not differ between populations at the time of release, although both populations showed signs of severe physiological disturbances from the gill and tangle net simulations. These results suggest that even short durations of gill or tangle net entanglement can result in profound population-specific physiological disturbances and mortality. The notion that there can be population-specific variation in response to fisheries encounters adds complexity to management and provides further evidence for intraspecific differences in migration success.

  5. The Effects of an Instructional Method on Adult Learners' Perceptions of Self-Efficacy: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croasmun, James T.

    2010-01-01

    The adult student undergraduate population is growing at the fastest rate on campuses in the United States and many undergraduates are still developing adult learning characteristics. Historically, college courses are generally not designed to meet the needs of adult learner or foster adult learning characteristics in developing adult learners. Is…

  6. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Diet Quality in a Working Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, Sandra B.; Higgins, Melinda; Dai, Jun; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Frediani, Jennifer K.; Reilly, Carolyn; Brigham, Kenneth L.

    2014-01-01

    The associations between specific intra- and inter-personal psychosocial factors and dietary patterns were explored in a healthy, working adult population. Participants (N= 640) were enrolled in a prospective predictive health study and characterized by a mean age of 48(SD = 11) years, 67% women, and 30% minority. Baseline psychosocial measures of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, social support, and family functioning were examined for their relationships with three diet quality indices - AHEI, DASH, and the Mediterranean. Dietary intake was of moderate quality in this high income, well-educated, psychosocially healthy population. Social support was positively associated with better diet quality for all three indices (p< .01). Further research should focus on socio-environmental factors associated with diet quality. PMID:23408456

  7. Unipotent, Atoh1+ progenitors maintain the Merkel cell population in embryonic and adult mice.

    PubMed

    Wright, Margaret C; Reed-Geaghan, Erin G; Bolock, Alexa M; Fujiyama, Tomoyuki; Hoshino, Mikio; Maricich, Stephen M

    2015-02-02

    Resident progenitor cells in mammalian skin generate new cells as a part of tissue homeostasis. We sought to identify the progenitors of Merkel cells, a unique skin cell type that plays critical roles in mechanosensation. We found that some Atoh1-expressing cells in the hairy skin and whisker follicles are mitotically active at embryonic and postnatal ages. Genetic fate-mapping revealed that these Atoh1-expressing cells give rise solely to Merkel cells. Furthermore, selective ablation of Atoh1(+) skin cells in adult mice led to a permanent reduction in Merkel cell numbers, demonstrating that other stem cell populations are incapable of producing Merkel cells. These data identify a novel, unipotent progenitor population in the skin that gives rise to Merkel cells both during development and adulthood.

  8. Spatiotemporal investigation of adult mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) populations in an eastern Iowa county, USA.

    PubMed

    DeGroote, John; Mercer, David R; Fisher, Jeffrey; Sugumaran, Ramanathan

    2007-11-01

    Landscape and climatic factors regulate distributions of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) over time and space. The anthropogenic control of mosquito populations is often carried out at a local administrative scale, and it is applied based on the relevant agency's experiential knowledge rather than systematic analysis of spatial and temporal data. To address this shortcoming, a spatial and temporal analysis of landscape and climatic parameters in relation to mosquito populations in Black Hawk County, IA, USA, has been carried out. Adult mosquito sampling took place using CDC light traps from May to August 2003 in representative landscapes. Mosquitoes were identified to species level with Aedes trivittatus (Coquillet) and Aedes vexans (Meigen) dominating the collection totals. The best publicly available spatial data on landscape and demographic attributes were collated and included land cover, human census, soils, floodplain, elevation, wetlands, hydrography, roads, and vegetation indices derived from satellite imagery. Spatial processing was carried out to organize landscape attributes for statistical comparison with abundance data from the potentially important West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) vector species Ae. vexans and Ae. trivittatus. Landscape parameters shown to be significantly correlated with mosquito counts included soil hydrological properties, presence in floodplain, wetland areas, and deciduous and bottomland forest cover. Data on temperature and precipitation were used to investigate the climatic influence on the temporal occurrence of mosquito population abundances. Late spring rain provided ample moisture for mosquito development, but low temperatures delayed widespread emergence of Ae. trivittatus and Ae. vexans until June 2003. Landscape and climatic impacts on adult mosquito population distributions were demonstrated, and these results could form the basis for the development of a spatiotemporal modeling framework that

  9. Population control methods in stochastic extinction and outbreak scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Juan; Franco, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive limiter control (ALC) and adaptive threshold harvesting (ATH) are two related control methods that have been shown to stabilize fluctuating populations. Large variations in population abundance can threaten the constancy and the persistence stability of ecological populations, which may impede the success and efficiency of managing natural resources. Here, we consider population models that include biological mechanisms characteristic for causing extinctions on the one hand and pest outbreaks on the other hand. These models include Allee effects and the impact of natural enemies (as is typical of forest defoliating insects). We study the impacts of noise and different levels of biological parameters in three extinction and two outbreak scenarios. Our results show that ALC and ATH have an effect on extinction and outbreak risks only for sufficiently large control intensities. Moreover, there is a clear disparity between the two control methods: in the extinction scenarios, ALC can be effective and ATH can be counterproductive, whereas in the outbreak scenarios the situation is reversed, with ATH being effective and ALC being potentially counterproductive. PMID:28151983

  10. Long-Term Quality of Life in Adult Patients with Strabismus after Corrective Surgery Compared to the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Meiping; Yu, Huanyun; Chen, Yuanyuan; Xu, Jinling; Zheng, Jingwei; Yu, Xinping

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the status of and factors associated with long-term health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adult patients with strabismus following corrective surgery. Methods Prospective cross-sectional study. A total of 122 adults who underwent corrective surgery and were followed up for at least 1 year were recruited. Pre- and post-operative HRQOL were evaluated using the Chinese version of the Adult Strabismus 20 (AS-20). Demographics and clinical characteristics were recorded. Eighty-nine age-matched, normal individuals without a history of strabismus were recruited as a control group. Results AS-20 scores improved significantly in the psychosocial subscale and total scale after surgery for all122 patients, but not in the function subscale. HRQOL was better in the successful cases than in the non-successful cases (p<0.005). Subjects who recovered stereo function had better HRQOL than those who did not (p<0.01). Compared to the control population, the patients had poorer HRQOL post-operatively, with only approximately 30% of the subjects having scores within the normal threshold scores. The self-sense of a lack of ocular deviation and a successful surgical outcome were significant factors associated with post-operative HRQOL status. Conclusions HRQOL, as evaluated by AS-20 scores, improved in the patients after surgery but was worse than that in the general population. Successful surgical outcomes and a sense of good alignment were the main factors that correlated with increased post-operative HRQOL. Positive assessments of surgical results by patients may benefit post-operative HRQOL. PMID:27846304

  11. Acrolein and Asthma Attack Prevalence in a Representative Sample of the United States Adult Population 2000 – 2009

    PubMed Central

    deCastro, B. Rey

    2014-01-01

    Background Acrolein is an air toxic and highly potent respiratory irritant. There is little epidemiology available, but US EPA estimates that outdoor acrolein is responsible for about 75 percent of non-cancer respiratory health effects attributable to air toxics in the United States, based on the Agency's 2005 NATA (National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment) and acrolein's comparatively potent inhalation reference concentration of 0.02 µg/m3. Objectives Assess the association between estimated outdoor acrolein exposure and asthma attack reported by a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. Methods NATA 2005 chronic outdoor acrolein exposure estimates at the census tract were linked with residences oif adults (≥18 years old) in the NHIS (National Health Interview Survey) 2000 – 2009 (n = 271,348 subjects). A sample-weighted logistic regression model characterized the association between the prevalence of reporting at least one asthma attack in the 12 months prior to survey interview and quintiles of exposure to outdoor acrolein, controlling for potential confounders. Results In the highest quintile of outdoor acrolein exposure (0.05 – 0.46 µg/m3), there was a marginally significant increase in the asthma attack pOR (prevalence-odds ratio [95% CI]  = 1.08 [0.98∶1.19]) relative to the lowest quintile. The highest quintile was also associated with a marginally significant increase in prevalence-odds (1.13 [0.98∶1.29]) in a model limited to never smokers (n = 153,820). Conclusions Chronic exposure to outdoor acrolein of 0.05 – 0.46 µg/m3 appears to increase the prevalence-odds of having at least one asthma attack in the previous year by 8 percent in a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. PMID:24816802

  12. Suppressor T-cell population induced by Junin virus in adult mice.

    PubMed Central

    Campetella, O E; Barrios, H A; Galassi, N V

    1988-01-01

    Intracerebral (i.c.) Junin virus (JV) infection of adult BALB/c mice is characterized by the absence of morbidity and a low mortality (barely 8-10%). In contrast, the suckling mouse model exhibits almost 100% mortality following central nervous system (CNS) alterations consistent with a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH)-like immune response. Besides, JV infection of adult (resistant) mice leads to immunosuppression of DTH to unrelated antigens. Here we present evidence demonstrating that such suppression is mediated by JV-induced cells present in spleen from 24 hr to 24 days post-infection, bearing the Thy-1+, Ly-1+2- phenotype and reactive to an unrelated antigen such as sheep red blood cells (SRBC). No evidence of suppressor factors was found. A relatively low number of total splenic cells (5 x 10(6) cells/mouse) was enough to transfer suppression. Therefore, this cell population may be involved in adult mouse survival to JV infection. PMID:2970429

  13. A Population Pharmacokinetic Approach to Describe Cephalexin Disposition in Adult and Aged Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Prados, Ana Paula; Kreil, Verónica; Monfrinotti, Agustina; Quaine, Pamela; Tarragona, Lisa; Hallu, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to characterize the pharmacokinetics of orally administered cephalexin to healthy adult and aged dogs, using a population pharmacokinetic approach. Two hundred and eighty-six cephalexin plasma concentrations obtained from previous pharmacokinetic studies were used. Sex, age, pharmaceutical formulation, and breed were evaluated as covariates. A one-compartment model with an absorption lag-time (Tlag) best described the data. The final model included age (adult; aged) on apparent volume of distribution (Vd/F), apparent elimination rate (ke/F), and Tlag; sex (female; male) on ke/F, and breed (Beagle; mixed-breed) on Vd/F. Addition of the covariates to the model explained 78% of the interindividal variability (IIV) in Vd/F, 36% in ke/F, and 24% in Tlag, respectively. Formulation did not affect the variability of any of the pharmacokinetic parameters. Tlag was longer, whereas Vd/F and ke/F were lower in aged compared to adult animals; in female aged dogs ke/F was lower than in male aged dogs; however, the differences were of low magnitude. Different disposition of cephalexin may be expected in aged dogs. PMID:25431741

  14. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies.

    PubMed

    Chi, Michael W; Griffith, Leslie C; Vecsey, Christopher G

    2014-08-11

    Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of population densities throughout larval development, kept them isolated during early adulthood, and then tested their sleep patterns. Our findings reveal that flies that had been isolated as larvae had more fragmented sleep than those that had been raised at higher population densities. This effect was more prominent in females than in males. Larval population density did not affect sleep in female flies that were mutant for amnesiac, which has been shown to be required for normal memory consolidation, adult sleep regulation, and brain development. In contrast, larval population density effects on sleep persisted in female flies lacking the olfactory receptor or83b, suggesting that olfactory signals are not required for the effects of larval population density on adult sleep. These findings show that population density during early development can alter sleep behavior in adulthood, suggesting that genetic and/or structural changes are induced by this developmental manipulation that persist through metamorphosis.

  15. The Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA): A Diagnostic Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Wheelwright, Sally; Robinson, Janine; Woodbury-Smith, Marc

    2005-01-01

    At the present time there are a large number of adults who have "suspected" Asperger syndrome (AS). In this paper we describe a new instrument, the Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA), developed in our clinic for adults with AS. The need for a new instrument relevant to the diagnosis of AS in adulthood arises because existing instruments are designed…

  16. Adult Learning Methods: A Guide for Effective Instruction. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Michael W., Ed.

    This book contains 21 papers devoted to understanding and facilitating adult learning. After "Foreword to the Second Edition" (Malcolm S. Knowles) and other introductory materials, the papers are: "Becoming an Effective Teacher of Adults" (Michael W. Galbraith); "Understanding Adult Learners" (Huey B. Long); "Identifying Your Philosophical…

  17. Exposure to traffic and lung function in adults: a general population cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Carlsen, Hanne Krage; Modig, Lars; Levinsson, Anna; Kim, Jeong-Lim; Toren, Kjell; Nyberg, Fredrik; Olin, Anna-Carin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between living near dense traffic and lung function in a cohort of adults from a single urban region. Design Cross-sectional results from a cohort study. Setting The adult-onset asthma and exhaled nitric oxide (ADONIX) cohort, sampled during 2001–2008 in Gothenburg, Sweden. Exposure was expressed as the distance from participants’ residential address to the nearest road with dense traffic (>10 000 vehicles per day) or very dense traffic (>30 000 vehicles per day). The exposure categories were: low (>500 m; reference), medium (75–500 m) or high (<75 m). Participants The source population was a population-based cohort of adults (n=6153). The study population included 5441 participants of European descent with good quality spirometry and information about all outcomes and covariates. Outcome measures Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) were measured at a clinical examination. The association with exposure was examined using linear regression adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, smoking status and education in all participants and stratified by sex, smoking status and respiratory health status. Results We identified a significant dose–response trend between exposure category and FEV1 (p=0.03) and borderline significant trend for FVC (p=0.06) after adjusting for covariates. High exposure was associated with lower FEV1 (−1.0%, 95% CI −2.5% to 0.5%) and lower FVC (−0.9%, 95% CI −2.2% to 0.4%). The effect appeared to be stronger in women. In highly exposed individuals with current asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, FVC was lower (−4.5%, 95% CI −8.8% to −0.1%). Conclusions High traffic exposure at the residential address was associated with lower than predicted FEV1 and FVC lung function compared with living further away in a large general population cohort. There were particular effects on women and individuals with obstructive disease. PMID

  18. Burden of vaccine-preventable disease in adult Medicaid and commercially insured populations

    PubMed Central

    Krishnarajah, Girishanthy; Carroll, Charlotte; Priest, Julie; Arondekar, Bhakti; Burstin, Stuart; Levin, Myron

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination rates among United States (US) adults are suboptimal, resulting in morbidity, mortality, and financial burden attributable to potentially vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). Unadjusted annual incidence proportions of VPDs were estimated for Medicaid and commercially insured adults aged 19–64 years using 2006–2010 claims, along with age/gender-adjusted incidence proportions for 2010. In 2010, 1.6 million Medicaid adults (mean age 34 ± 12 years; 73.4% female) and 33 million commercially insured (mean age 42 ± 13 years; 52.2% female) were included. Age/gender-adjusted incidence proportions (per 100 000) in 2010 among Medicaid vs commercially insured adults for meningococcal disease were 26.2 (95% CI 22.9–29.8) vs 2.0 (1.9–2.2) (P < 0.001); hepatitis B 88.9 (82.6–95.6) vs 17.5 (17.0–17.9) (P < 0.001); pneumococcal disease 98.2 (91.7–105.1) vs 21.1 (20.7–21.6) (P < 0.001); hepatitis A 19.8 (16.9–23.1) vs 4.5 (4.3–4.7) (P < 0.001); mumps 2.1 (1.3–3.3) vs 1.4 (1.3–1.6) (P = 0.14); measles 0.3 (0.1–1.0) vs 0.3 (0.2–0.3) (P = 0.38); herpes zoster (60- to 64-year-olds only) 459 (408–515) vs 473 (466–481) (P = 0.35); varicella (19- to 39-year-olds only) 6.5 (4.8–8.5) vs 8.0 (7.5–8.5) (P = 0.12); influenza 586 (573–598) vs 633 (631–636) (P < 0.001); and pertussis 1.8 (1.1–2.8) vs 3.2 (3.0–3.4) (P < 0.001). Research is needed to fully understand the causes of the disparity of the coded incidence of some VPDs in adult Medicaid population than commercially insured adults in the US. PMID:25424956

  19. Self-reported Prevalence and Risk Factors of Non-communicable Diseases in the Albanian Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Kraja, Fatjona; Kraja, Bledar; Mone, Iris; Harizi, Ilda; Babameto, Adriana; Burazeri, Genc

    2016-01-01

    Aim: There is growing evidence that non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a major health problem in developing and transitional countries. The prevalence of NCDs and associated factors are under-researched in Albania. We aimed to assess the prevalence and socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates of NCDs in the Albanian adult population. Methods: The study was carried out in the framework of Albania Living Standard Measurement Survey (LSMS), a national population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2012 including 12,554 men and women aged ≥35 years. All participants reported on the presence of at least one chronic condition, which in the analysis was dichotomized into “yes” vs. “no”. Information on socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender, education, employment status, residence) and lifestyle factors (smoking and alcohol consumption) was also collected. Logistic regression was used to assess socio-demographic and behavioral correlates of NCDs. Results: Overall, the prevalence of chronic diseases in this population-based sample of Albanian adults was 2864/12554=22.8%. Upon multivariable adjustment for all covariates, positive correlates of chronic conditions were older age (OR=6.0, 95%CI=5.3-6.8), female gender (OR=1.2, 95%CI=1.1-1.4), residence in coastal areas of Albania (OR=2.0, 95%CI=1.7-2.5), unemployment (OR=1.8, 95%CI=1.6-2.0), low education (OR=1.6, OR=1.3-1.9) and current smoking (OR=1.2, 95%CI=1.1-1.5). Conversely, there was an inverse association with poverty (OR=0.8, 95%CI=0.7-1.0). Conclusions: This study provides evidence on self-reported NCDs and its determinants in transitional Albania. These baseline data may be useful for assessment of future NCD trends in Albania and cross-comparisons with the neighboring countries. PMID:27594748

  20. Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Tribendimidine Metabolites in Opisthorchis viverrini-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Penny, Melissa A.; Duthaler, Urs; Odermatt, Peter; Sayasone, Somphou; Keiser, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    There is a pressing need for alternative treatments against the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini. Oral tribendimidine is a promising candidate, but its population pharmacokinetic properties are unknown. Two phase IIa trials were conducted in Laos in O. viverrini-infected adults receiving single oral doses of 25 to 600 mg tribendimidine administered as different formulations in each study (study 1 used 200-mg tablets, and study 2 used 50-mg tablets). Venous whole blood, plasma, and capillary dried blood spots were sampled frequently from 68 adults, and concentrations of the tribendimidine metabolites dADT (deacetylated amidantel) and adADT (acetylated dADT) were measured. Population pharmacokinetics were assessed by using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. The relationship between drug exposure and cure (assessed at 21 days posttreatment) was evaluated by using univariable logistic regression. A six-transit compartment absorption model with a one-disposition compartment for each metabolite described the data well. Compared to the 50-mg formulation (study 2), the 200-mg formulation (study 1) had a 40.1% higher mean transit absorption time, a 113% higher dADT volume of distribution, and a 364% higher adADT volume of distribution. Each 10-year increase in age was associated with a 12.7% lower dADT clearance and a 21.2% lower adADT clearance. The highest cure rates (≥55%) were observed with doses of ≥100 mg. Higher dADT, but not adADT, peak concentrations and exposures were associated with cure (P = 0.004 and 0.003, respectively). For the first time, population pharmacokinetics of tribendimidine have been described. Known differences in the 200-mg versus 50-mg formulations were captured by covariate modeling. Further studies are needed to validate the structural model and confirm covariate relationships. (This study has been registered with the ISRCTN Registry under no. ISRCTN96948551.) PMID:27431233

  1. Rehabilitation needs for older adults with stroke living at home: perceptions of four populations

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Claude; Deaudelin, Isabelle; Robichaud, Line; Rousseau, Jacqueline; Viscogliosi, Chantal; Talbot, Lise R; Desrosiers, Johanne

    2007-01-01

    Background Many people who have suffered a stroke require rehabilitation to help them resume their previous activities and roles in their own environment, but only some of them receive inpatient or even outpatient rehabilitation services. Partial and unmet rehabilitation needs may ultimately lead to a loss of functional autonomy, which increases utilization of health services, number of hospitalizations and early institutionalization, leading to a significant psychological and financial burden on the patients, their families and the health care system. The aim of this study was to explore partially met and unmet rehabilitation needs of older adults who had suffered a stroke and who live in the community. The emphasis was put on needs that act as obstacles to social participation in terms of personal factors, environmental factors and life habits, from the point of view of four target populations. Methods Using the focus group technique, we met four types of experts living in three geographic areas of the province of Québec (Canada): older people with stroke, caregivers, health professionals and health care managers, for a total of 12 groups and 72 participants. The audio recordings of the meetings were transcribed and NVivo software was used to manage the data. The process of reducing, categorizing and analyzing the data was conducted using themes from the Disability Creation Process model. Results Rehabilitation needs persist for nine capabilities (e.g. related to behaviour or motor activities), nine factors related to the environment (e.g. type of teaching, adaptation and rehabilitation) and 11 life habits (e.g. nutrition, interpersonal relationships). The caregivers and health professionals identified more unmet needs and insisted on an individualized rehabilitation. Older people with stroke and the health care managers had a more global view of rehabilitation needs and emphasized the availability of resources. Conclusion Better knowledge of partially met or

  2. The use of teledermoscopy in the accurate identification of cancerous skin lesions in the adult population: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Amy F; Mallow, Jennifer A; Theeke, Laurie A

    2017-01-01

    Background The use of teledermoscopy in the diagnostic management of pre-cancerous and cancerous skin lesions involves digital dermoscopic images transmitted over telecommunication networks via email or web applications. Teledermoscopy may improve the accuracy in clinical diagnoses of melanoma skin cancer if integrated into electronic medical records and made available to rural communities, potentially leading to decreased morbidity and mortality. Objective and method The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic review of evidence on the use of teledermoscopy to improve the accuracy of skin lesion identification in adult populations. The PRISMA method guided the development of this systematic review. A total of seven scholarly databases were searched for articles published between the years of 2000 and 2015. All studies were critically appraised using the Rosswurm and Larrabee critique worksheet, placed in a matrix for comparison evaluating internal and external validity and inspected for homogeneity of findings. Results Sixteen articles met inclusion criteria for this review. A majority of the studies were cross-sectional and non-experimental. Ten of the 16 focused on interobserver concordance and diagnostic agreement between teledermoscopy and another comparator. Instrumentation in conducting the studies showed inconsistency with reported results. Discussion Higher level evidence is needed to support clinical application of teledermoscopy for accuracy of diagnostic measurement in the treatment of pre-cancerous and cancerous skin lesions in adults. Future research is needed to develop a standardized, reliable and valid measurement tool for implementation in clinical practice.

  3. A two-compartment population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model of digoxin in adults, with implications for dosage.

    PubMed

    Jelliffe, Roger W; Milman, Mark; Schumitzky, Alan; Bayard, David; Van Guilder, Michael

    2014-06-01

    A population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model of digoxin in adult subjects was originally developed by Reuning et al in 1973. They clearly described the 2-compartment behavior of digoxin, the lack of correlation of effect with serum concentrations, and the close correlation of the observed inotropic effect of digoxin with the calculated amount of drug present in the peripheral nonserum compartment. Their model seemed most attractive for clinical use. However, to make it more applicable for maximally precise dosage, its model parameter values (means and SD's) were converted into discrete model parameter distributions using a computer program developed especially for this purpose using the method of maximum entropy. In this way, the parameter distributions became discrete rather than continuous, suitable for use in developing maximally precise digoxin dosage regimens, individualized to an adult patient's age, gender, body weight, and renal function, to achieve desired specific target goals either in the central (serum) compartment or in the peripheral (effect) compartment using the method of multiple model dosage design. Some illustrative clinical applications of this model are presented and discussed. This model with a peripheral compartment reflecting clinical effect has contributed significantly to an improved understanding of the clinical behavior of digoxin in patients than is possible with models having only a single compartment, and to the improved management of digoxin therapy for more than 20 years.

  4. Methods of predicting visceral fat in Brazilian adults and older adults: a comparison between anthropometry and computerized tomography.

    PubMed

    Roriz, Anna Karla Carneiro; de Oliveira, Carolina Cunha; Moreira, Pricilla Almeida; Eickemberg, Michaela; Medeiros, Jairza Maria Barreto; Sampaio, Lílian Ramos

    2011-03-01

    Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is linked with the metabolic consequences of obesity, being necessary the use alternative methods of predicting this type of fat, like anthropometry. The objective of this study was assess the performance of anthropometry in predicting visceral fat measured with computerized tomography in adults and older adults. Study transversal with 197 individuals underwent computerized tomography (CT) and anthropometry. The variables analized were: visceral adipose tissue area by CT, Sagittal Abdominal Diameter (SAD), Waist Circumference (WC) and Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR). A descriptive analysis, Pearson correlation and ROC curve were carried out. We observed Correlations higher than 0.7 (p = 0.000) between the SAD, WC and the VAT area were found in adult men and older men and in adult women. WHR displayed the least correlations. The most sensitive and specific SAD cut-off points were equal for all the men (Adults: 20.2 cm/Older adults: 20.2 cm) but different for the women (Adults: 21.0 cm; sens.: 83.3; spec.: 79.1/Older adults: 19.9 cm; sens.: 81.0; spec.:79.3). The WC cutoff points that identified a VAT area = 130 cm2 were 90.2 cm and 92.2 cm for men (adult men--sens.: 86.7; spec.: 86.1--and older men-sens.: 79.3; spec.: 77.8 -respectively), while for women the recorded values were 92.3 cm (adult women--sens.: 83.3; spec: 81.4) and 88.2 cm (older women--sens.:76.2; spec.: 69.0). This study showed that WC and SAD achieved the best performance in the identification of visceral fat considered at risk for the development of cardiometabolic diseases in adults and older adults.

  5. Levels of selected trace metals in hair of urban and rural adult male population of Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Ashraf, W.; Jaffar, M.; Mohammad, D.

    1995-02-01

    Human scalp hair as a biopsy material may well serve the purpose of estimating the degree of human exposure to environmental contaminants, especially trace metals. To this effect, the levels of trace metals in hair of various groups of population living in areas with varying extent of environmental exposure are generally compared together. Such comparative evaluations are important since they are unique for each group of population and probably reflect not only a number of factors of genetical, nutritional and environmental origin, but also indicate relationship with factors such as food, ambient air, drinking water, occupational exposure, age, race, sex and metabolic condition etc. Also there are some elements which are selectively deposited in hair and may thus provide clinical information on the level of exposure and toxication. The aim of the present study was two-fold: to collect base-line trace metal data on hair and to evaluate the metal levels as measure of the nutritional status of the relevant groups of urban and rural population in terms of industrial, agricultural and occupation exposure. For this purpose, scalp hair samples were obtained from donors belonging to urban adult male population from the city of Peshawer and a rural town, Jamrood and were investigated for three essential metals (Na, K and Zn) and four non-essential metals (Co, Hg, As and Ag) by AAS technique. The impact of urban and rural environments, including the food habits of individuals, on trace metal distribution in scalp hair of the two classes of population is then reviewed with reference to the literature data available from other parts of the world. 16 refs., 5 tabs.

  6. Population Dynamics of the Stationary Phase Utilizing the ARGOS Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algarni, S.; Charest, A. J.; Iannacchione, G. S.

    2015-03-01

    The Area Recorded Generalized Optical Scattering (ARGOS) approach to light scattering employs large image capture array allowing for a well-defined geometry in which images may be manipulated to extract structure with intensity at a specific scattering wave vector (I(q)) and dynamics with intensity at a specific scattering wave vector over time (I (q,t)). The ARGOS method provides morphological dynamics noninvasively over a long time period and allows for a variety of aqueous conditions. This is important because traditional growth models do not provide for conditions similar to the natural environment. The present study found that the population dynamics of bacteria do not follow a traditional growth model and that the ARGOS method allowed for the observation of bacterial changes in terms of individual particles and population dynamics in real time. The observations of relative total intensity suggest that there is no stationary phase and that the bacterial population demonstrates sinusoidal type patterns consistently subsequent to the log phase growth. These observation were compared to shape changes by modeling fractal dimension and size changes by modeling effective radius.

  7. Juvenile dispersal affects straying behaviors of adults in a migratory population.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Ellen J; Kennedy, Brian P

    2012-04-01

    The resilience of organisms to large-scale environmental and climatic change depends, in part, upon the ability to colonize and occupy new habitats. While previous efforts to describe homing, or natal site fidelity, of migratory organisms have been hindered by the confounding effects of fragmented landscapes and management practices, realistic conservation efforts must include considerations of the behavioral diversity represented by animal movements and dispersal. Herein, we quantify straying away from natal origins by adult chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in a wild population that inhabits a pristine wilderness basin. Using natural isotopic signatures (7Sr/86Sr) to reconstruct the migratory behaviors of unhandled individuals over their entire life cycle, we identified ecological and behavioral factors influencing the propensity to stray. Our results indicate that natal site fidelity is scale dependent, ranging from 55% at -1-km distances to 87% at longer (> 10-km scale) distances, and juvenile dispersal and sex highly influence straying occurrence. These findings lend support for the conservation of behavioral diversity for population persistence, and we propose straying as a mechanism for maintaining genetic diversity at low population densities.

  8. Prevalence and characteristics of reported penicillin allergy in an urban outpatient adult population.

    PubMed

    Albin, Stephanie; Agarwal, Shradha

    2014-01-01

    Penicillin allergy remains the most common drug allergy, with a reported prevalence of 10% in the United States. Epidemiology of penicillin allergy in outpatient populations is relatively scarce. This study sought to determine the prevalence and characteristics of reported penicillin allergy in an urban outpatient population and to identify trends in clinical evaluation and management from a tertiary center serving a large inner-city population. A retrospective review of electronic medical records was performed of adult patients seen in the Internal Medicine Associates Clinic of Mount Sinai Hospital between January 31, 2012, and July 31, 2012. Medical records were selected based on the documentation of penicillin in patient's allergy section. Of the 11,761 patients seen in the clinic, 1348 patients (11.5%) reported a history of penicillin allergy. The most common allergic reactions were rash (37%), unknown/undocumented (20.2%), hives (18.9%), swelling/angioedema (11.8%), and anaphylaxis (6.8%). There was an increased prevalence of penicillin allergy in female patients compared with male patients (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.60, 2.08; p < 0.0001), and there were significantly fewer Asians with penicillin allergy compared with Caucasians (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.32, 0.83; p = 0.007). However, only 78 (6%) of the patients reporting penicillin allergy had a referral to an allergy specialist. Overall, improved referral to an allergist will help to identify patients who have penicillin allergy requiring avoidance.

  9. Assessing the oral health of an ageing population: methods, challenges and predictors of survey participation

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Debora C; Brillant, Martha G S; Clovis, Joanne B; McNally, Mary E; Filiaggi, Mark J; Kotzer, Robert D; Lawrence, Herenia P

    2012-01-01

    Assessing the oral health of an ageing population: methods, challenges and predictors of survey participation Objectives To examine predictors of participation and to describe the methodological considerations of conducting a two-stage population-based oral health survey. Methods An observational, cross-sectional survey (telephone interview and clinical oral examination) of community-dwelling adults aged 45–64 and ≥65 living in Nova Scotia, Canada was conducted. Results The survey response rate was 21% for the interview and 13.5% for the examination. A total of 1141 participants completed one or both components of the survey. Both age groups had higher levels of education than the target population; the age 45–64 sample also had a higher proportion of females and lower levels of employment than the target population. Completers (participants who completed interview and examination) were compared with partial completers (who completed only the interview), and stepwise logistic regression was performed to examine predictors of completion. Identified predictors were as follows: not working, post-secondary education and frequent dental visits. Conclusion Recruitment, communications and logistics present challenges in conducting a province-wide survey. Identification of employment, education and dental visit frequency as predictors of survey participation provide insight into possible non-response bias and suggest potential for underestimation of oral disease prevalence in this and similar surveys. This potential must be considered in analysis and in future recruitment strategies. PMID:21916953

  10. Inter-class competition in stage-structured populations: effects of adult density on life-history traits of adult and juvenile common lizards.

    PubMed

    San-Jose, Luis M; Peñalver-Alcázar, Miguel; Huyghe, Katleen; Breedveld, Merel C; Fitze, Patrick S

    2016-12-01

    Ecological and evolutionary processes in natural populations are largely influenced by the population's stage-structure. Commonly, different classes have different competitive abilities, e.g., due to differences in body size, suggesting that inter-class competition may be important and largely asymmetric. However, experimental evidence states that inter-class competition, which is important, is rare and restricted to marine fish. Here, we manipulated the adult density in six semi-natural populations of the European common lizard, Zootoca vivipara, while holding juvenile density constant. Adult density affected juveniles, but not adults, in line with inter-class competition. High adult density led to lower juvenile survival and growth before hibernation. In contrast, juvenile survival after hibernation was higher in populations with high adult density, pointing to relaxed inter-class competition. As a result, annual survival was not affected by adult density, showing that differences in pre- and post-hibernation survival balanced each other out. The intensity of inter-class competition affected reproduction, performance, and body size in juveniles. Path analyses unravelled direct treatment effects on early growth (pre-hibernation) and no direct treatment effects on the parameters measured after hibernation. This points to allometry of treatment-induced differences in early growth, and it suggests that inter-class competition mainly affects the early growth of the competitively inferior class and thereby their future performance and reproduction. These results are in contrast with previous findings and, together with results in marine fish, suggest that the strength and direction of density dependence may depend on the degree of inter-class competition, and thus on the availability of resources used by the competing classes.

  11. A test of the revised auricular surface aging method on a modern European population.

    PubMed

    Moraitis, Konstantinos; Zorba, Eleni; Eliopoulos, Constantine; Fox, Sherry C

    2014-01-01

    The accurate age estimation of adults is an important step in the construction of the biological profile of skeletonized remains. The auricular surface of the ilium as it was developed in 1985 by Lovejoy et al., is one of the methods employed for age estimation. This study presents the results of a blind test of the revised auricular surface aging method developed by Buckberry and Chamberlain. A sample of 120 individuals from the Athens Collection was used to test this revised aging technique. Almost all features and composite score were positively correlated with known age-at-death. The calculation of bias demonstrated no obvious trend for either overestimation or underestimation of age when all individuals were pooled together. Inaccuracy showed that absolute errors of estimated ages against known ages are substantial. The data generated from this study suggest that the revised method can be reliable for age estimation on a modern European population.

  12. Impact of identification of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis from throat cultures in an adult population.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Amanda T; Clarridge, Jill E

    2013-05-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE) are isolated from the throat of patients with pharyngitis, although the clinical significance remains debated. We sought to determine the incidence and association with pharyngitis of SDSE in an adult veteran population. Organisms were phenotypically identified to subspecies and Lancefield group, with selective 16S rRNA gene sequencing. From 833 throat cultures, the overall frequency of SDSE was 3.4% (64% group C and 36% group G) as compared to 8.6% for S. pyogenes (GAS). SDSE was described as a large colony in only 29% of the original culture evaluations by bench technologists, and clinical symptoms were similar for GAS and SDSE. Laboratory algorithms that are limited to identification of only GAS or are based on Lancefield group or visual identification of "large-colony type" β hemolytic Lancefield group C and G streptococci may be missing or misidentifying SDSE along with Anginosus group streptococci.

  13. Meteorological effects on adult mosquito (Culex) populations in metropolitan New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Degaetano, Arthur T

    2005-05-01

    For two metropolitan New Jersey counties, monthly average adult mosquito (Culex) catch from New Jersey light trap data sets covering multiple decades is related to a number of meteorological factors. From June through August climatological conditions accounted for between 40% and 50% of the variation in average catch. In general, high monthly precipitation totals both in the month corresponding to the catch and the previous month were associated with increased trap catch. However, individual heavy rainfall events tended to reduce catch. Warm temperatures exerted a positive influence on mosquito abundance in June, but were associated with a low catch in August. Linear meteorological relationships explained only a small percentage of the variations in mosquito catch during May and September. During July, and particularly August, antecedent monthly catch also explained a significant portion of the variance in the contemporaneous catch. Over 60% of the variability in August catch could be attributed to the July population.

  14. A Population Pharmacokinetic Model for Vancomycin in Adult Patients Receiving Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Healy, JR; Thoma, BN; Peahota, MM; Ahamadi, M; Schmidt, L; Cavarocchi, NC; Kraft, WK

    2016-01-01

    The literature on the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy is sparse. A population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for vancomycin in ECMO patients was developed using a nonlinear mixed effects modeling on the concentration–time profiles of 14 ECMO patients who received intravenous vancomycin. Model selection was based on log‐likelihood criterion, goodness of fit plots, and scientific plausibility. Identification of covariates was done using a full covariate model approach. The pharmacokinetics of vancomycin was adequately described with a two‐compartment model. Parameters included clearance of 2.83 L/hr, limited central volume of distribution 24.2 L, and low residual variability 0.67%. Findings from the analysis suggest that standard dosing recommendations for vancomycin in non‐ECMO patients are adequate to achieve therapeutic trough concentrations in ECMO patients. This further shows that ECMO minimally affects the PK of vancomycin in adults including in higher‐weight patients. PMID:27639260

  15. Factor structure of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire in the Japanese general adult population.

    PubMed

    Doi, Yuriko; Minowa, Masumi

    2003-08-01

    The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) has been extensively used in a variety of settings across countries. The main aim of the present study was to assess the factor structure of the GHQ-12 for the Japanese general adult population. Data came from a sample of 1808 Japanese aged 20 years or older who were randomly selected based on the 1995 census (897 men and 911 women). Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.83 for men and 0.85 for women. Overall, the corrected item-total correlation coefficients were >0.20 for both genders. The GHQ-12 yielded a two-factor solution of psychological distress (items 2, 5, 6, 9, 10 and 11) and social dysfunction (items 1, 3, 4, 7 and 8), which jointly accounted for 49.1% of the total variance, for women. Item 12 on happiness was not discernable. For men, item 12 was separated from a social dysfunction factor and yielded the third factor with item 3 on social role, and the three factors jointly accounted for 57.6%. The results of the present study suggest that the GHQ-12 can be used as an internally reliable and homogeneous scale that produces mainly the factors of psychological distress and social dysfunction. Item 12 may be structurally different in the case of Japanese adults.

  16. The Relationship Between Pedometer-Determined Ambulatory Activity and Balance Variables Within an Older Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Candice; Kress, Jeff; Schroeder, Jan; Donlin, Ayla; Rozenek, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the differences between gender, physical activity level, and balance in an older adult population. A secondary purpose was to examine the relationship between pedometer-determined ambulatory activity and balance. Forty-six older adults aged 73.7 ± 6.2 years participated in the study. Participants completed the Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) Scale and completed a 2-week daily step recording to determine average steps taken per day. Low-level activity participants (<5,000 steps/day) were significantly different from the high-level activity participants (>7,500 steps/day) in weight, age, and the number of medications reported. Males performed better than females on the two-footed jump test and reactive postural test FAB assessments. High-level activity participants performed significantly better than low-level activity participants on all FAB assessments except stand with feet together and eyes closed, reach forward to object, and walk with head turns. PMID:28138503

  17. A parametric ribcage geometry model accounting for variations among the adult population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yulong; Cao, Libo; Bai, Zhonghao; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D; Hoff, Carrie N; Hu, Jingwen

    2016-09-06

    The objective of this study is to develop a parametric ribcage model that can account for morphological variations among the adult population. Ribcage geometries, including 12 pair of ribs, sternum, and thoracic spine, were collected from CT scans of 101 adult subjects through image segmentation, landmark identification (1016 for each subject), symmetry adjustment, and template mesh mapping (26,180 elements for each subject). Generalized procrustes analysis (GPA), principal component analysis (PCA), and regression analysis were used to develop a parametric ribcage model, which can predict nodal locations of the template mesh according to age, sex, height, and body mass index (BMI). Two regression models, a quadratic model for estimating the ribcage size and a linear model for estimating the ribcage shape, were developed. The results showed that the ribcage size was dominated by the height (p=0.000) and age-sex-interaction (p=0.007) and the ribcage shape was significantly affected by the age (p=0.0005), sex (p=0.0002), height (p=0.0064) and BMI (p=0.0000). Along with proper assignment of cortical bone thickness, material properties and failure properties, this parametric ribcage model can directly serve as the mesh of finite element ribcage models for quantifying effects of human characteristics on thoracic injury risks.

  18. Abcg2-Labeled Cells Contribute to Different Cell Populations in the Embryonic and Adult Heart.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Michelle J; Maher, Travis J; Li, Qinglu; Garry, Mary G; Sorrentino, Brian P; Martin, Cindy M

    2016-02-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily G member 2 (Abcg2)-expressing cardiac-side population cells have been identified in the developing and adult heart, although the role they play in mammalian heart growth and regeneration remains unclear. In this study, we use genetic lineage tracing to follow the cell fate of Abcg2-expressing cells in the embryonic and adult heart. During cardiac embryogenesis, the Abcg2 lineage gives rise to multiple cardiovascular cell types, including cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells. This capacity for Abcg2-expressing cells to contribute to cardiomyocytes decreases rapidly during the postnatal period. We further tested the role of the Abcg2 lineage following myocardial injury. One month following ischemia reperfusion injury, Abcg2-expressing cells contributed significantly to the endothelial cell lineage, however, there was no contribution to regenerated cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, consistent with previous results showing that Abcg2 plays an important cytoprotective role during oxidative stress, we show an increase in Abcg2 labeling of the vasculature, a decrease in the scar area, and a moderate improvement in cardiac function following myocardial injury. We have uncovered a difference in the capacity of Abcg2-expressing cells to generate the cardiovascular lineages during embryogenesis, postnatal growth, and cardiac regeneration.

  19. Balancing Sodium and Potassium: Estimates of Intake in a New Zealand Adult Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Rachael; Edmonds, Julia; Williams, Sheila; Mann, Jim; Skeaff, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    Dietary intakes of sodium and potassium are important determinants of blood pressure. We assessed sodium and potassium intake in a cross-sectional survey which included a random sample of New Zealand Adults aged 18 to 64 years from two New Zealand cities: Dunedin and Wellington. Participants completed a short questionnaire, had height, weight and blood pressure measured, and collected a 24 h urine sample. Mean 24 h sodium excretion was 3386 mg/day (95% CI 3221, 3551): 3865 mg/day for men and for 2934 mg/day women. Mean 24 h potassium excretion was 2738 mg/day (95% CI 2623, 2855): 3031 mg/day for men and 2436 mg/day for women. Mean sodium:potassium ratio was 1.32 (95% CI 1.26, 1.39); 1.39 for men and 1.26 for women. Sodium intake was higher among younger people, men, those with a higher BMI and higher potassium excretion. Potassium excretion was higher among older people, men and those with a higher sodium excretion. New Zealand adults have high sodium intakes and low potassium intakes compared to recommended levels. This is likely to adversely affect population blood pressure levels as well as incidence of cardiovascular disease. A comprehensive public health programme to reduce dietary sodium intake and increase intake of fruit and vegetables is warranted. PMID:26516912

  20. Balancing Sodium and Potassium: Estimates of Intake in a New Zealand Adult Population Sample.

    PubMed

    McLean, Rachael; Edmonds, Julia; Williams, Sheila; Mann, Jim; Skeaff, Sheila

    2015-10-28

    Dietary intakes of sodium and potassium are important determinants of blood pressure. We assessed sodium and potassium intake in a cross-sectional survey which included a random sample of New Zealand Adults aged 18 to 64 years from two New Zealand cities: Dunedin and Wellington. Participants completed a short questionnaire, had height, weight and blood pressure measured, and collected a 24 h urine sample. Mean 24 h sodium excretion was 3386 mg/day (95% CI 3221, 3551): 3865 mg/day for men and for 2934 mg/day women. Mean 24 h potassium excretion was 2738 mg/day (95% CI 2623, 2855): 3031 mg/day for men and 2436 mg/day for women. Mean sodium:potassium ratio was 1.32 (95% CI 1.26, 1.39); 1.39 for men and 1.26 for women. Sodium intake was higher among younger people, men, those with a higher BMI and higher potassium excretion. Potassium excretion was higher among older people, men and those with a higher sodium excretion. New Zealand adults have high sodium intakes and low potassium intakes compared to recommended levels. This is likely to adversely affect population blood pressure levels as well as incidence of cardiovascular disease. A comprehensive public health programme to reduce dietary sodium intake and increase intake of fruit and vegetables is warranted.

  1. Annual survival rates of adult and immature eastern population tundra swans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Bart, J.; Limpert, R.J.; Sladen, William J. L.; Hines, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus ) of the eastern population were neckbanded in Maryland, North Carolina, and Alaska from 1966 through 1990. These swans were resighted and recaptured during autumn, winter, and spring, 1966-1990. Although the original motivation for this study involved swan movements, we wanted to use the resulting data to test hypotheses about sources of variation in swan survival rates. Recaptures of legbanded and neckbanded swans permitted us to estimate neckband loss rates, which were found to vary with age and sex of swans, and number of years since initial application. Estimates of annual neckband retention rate ranged from about 0.50 for adult male swans greater than or equal to 2 years after initial neckbanding to > 0.96 for immature swans and adult females the first year following neckbanding. This variation in neckband loss rates prevented the simple correction of survival estimates to account for such loss. Consequently, we developed a series of multinomial models parameterized with survival, sighting, and neckband retention probabilities for use with the recapture and resighting data.

  2. Obesity-related eating behaviours in the adult population of Spain, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Mesas, A E; León-Muñoz, L M; Guallar-Castillón, P; Graciani, A; Gutiérrez-Fisac, J L; López-García, E; Aguilera, M T; Banegas, J R; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F

    2012-10-01

    Knowledge of the socio-demographic distribution of eating behaviours can aid our understanding of their contribution to the obesity epidemic and help to address healthy eating interventions to those who can benefit most. This cross-sectional study assessed the frequency of self-reported eating behaviours among 11,603 individuals representative of the non-institutionalized Spanish population aged ≥ 18 years in the period 2008-2010. In the adult population of Spain, 24.3% had lunch and 18.2% had dinner away from home >3 times per month. About three-fourths of adults did not plan the amount of food to be eaten, and did not choose light foods and/or skim dairy products. Also, 26% did not trim visible fat from meat, and 74.7% usually ate while watching television. Compared with individuals with primary or less education, those with university studies were more likely to remove fat from meat (age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.44), and to choose light food and/or skim dairy (aOR 1.50; 95% CI 1.30-1.77), and less likely to eat while watching television (aOR 0.54; 95% CI 0.47-0.63). In conclusion, the prevalence of several obesity-related eating behaviours is high in Spain, which indicates a deficient implementation of dietary guidelines. Socioeconomic inequalities in eating behaviours should also be addressed.

  3. Examining Contextual Influences on Fall-Related Injuries Among Older Adults for Population Health Management

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Hector P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The objectives were to assess the associations between fall-related injuries (FRIs) treated in the emergency department (ED) among older adults in California and contextual county-level physical, social, and economic characteristics, and to assess how county-level economic conditions are associated with FRIs when controlling for other county-level factors. Data from 2008 California ED discharge, Medicare Impact File, and County Health Rankings were used. Random effects logistic regression models estimated contextual associations between county-level factors representing economic conditions, the built environment, community safety, access to care, and obesity with patient-level FRI treatment among 1,712,409 older adults, controlling for patient-level and hospital-level characteristics. Patient-level predictors of FRI treatment were consistent with previous studies not accounting for contextual associations. Larger and rural hospitals had higher odds of FRI treatment, while teaching and safety net hospitals had lower odds. Better county economic conditions were associated with greater odds (ß=0.73, P=0.001) and higher county-level obesity were associated with lower odds (ß=−0.37, P=0.004), but safer built environments (ß=−0.31, P=0.38) were not associated with FRI treatment. The magnitude of association between county-level economic conditions and FRI treatment attenuated with the inclusion of county-level obesity rates. FRI treatment was most strongly and consistently related to more favorable county economic conditions, suggesting differences in treatment or preferences for treatment for FRIs among older individuals in communities of varying resource levels. Using population health data on FRIs, policy makers may be able to remove barriers unique to local contexts when implementing falls prevention educational programs and built environment modifications. (Population Health Management 2015;18:437–448) PMID:25919228

  4. Lifestyle and genetic determinants of folate and vitamin B12 levels in a general adult population.

    PubMed

    Thuesen, Betina H; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Ovesen, Lars; Jørgensen, Torben; Fenger, Mogens; Linneberg, Allan

    2010-04-01

    Danish legislation regarding food fortification has been very restrictive resulting in few fortified food items on the Danish market. Folate and vitamin B12 deficiency is thought to be common due to inadequate intakes but little is known about the actual prevalence of low serum folate and vitamin B12 in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the folate and vitamin B12 status of Danish adults and to investigate associations between vitamin status and distinct lifestyle and genetic factors. The study included a random sample of 6784 individuals aged 30-60 years. Information on lifestyle factors was obtained by questionnaires and blood samples were analysed for serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations and several genetic polymorphisms. The overall prevalence of low serum folate ( < 6.8 nmol/l) was 31.4 %. Low serum folate was more common among men than women and the prevalence was lower with increasing age. Low serum folate was associated with smoking, low alcohol intake, high coffee intake, unhealthy diet, and the TT genotype of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR)-C677T polymorphism. The overall prevalence of low serum vitamin B12 ( < 148 pmol/l) was 4.7 %. Low serum vitamin B12 was significantly associated with female sex, high coffee intake, low folate status, and the TT genotype of the MTHFR-C677T polymorphism. In conclusion, low serum folate was present in almost a third of the adult population in the present study and was associated with several lifestyle factors whereas low serum concentrations of vitamin B12 were less common and only found to be associated with a few lifestyle factors.

  5. Childhood infectious diseases and risk of leukaemia in an adult population.

    PubMed

    Parodi, Stefano; Crosignani, Paolo; Miligi, Lucia; Nanni, Oriana; Ramazzotti, Valerio; Rodella, Stefania; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Tumino, Rosario; Vindigni, Carla; Vineis, Paolo; Stagnaro, Emanuele

    2013-10-15

    Our study is aimed at investigating the association between common childhood infectious diseases (measles, chickenpox, rubella, mumps and pertussis) and the risk of developing leukaemia in an adult population. A reanalysis of a large population-based case-control study was carried out. Original data included 1,771 controls and 649 leukaemia cases from 11 Italian areas. To contain recall bias, the analysis was restricted to subjects directly interviewed and with a good quality interview (1,165 controls and 312 cases). Odds ratios (ORs) and their related 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated by unconditional polychotomous logistic regression model adjusting for age, gender and occupational and lifestyle exposures. A protective effect of at least one infection (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.45-0.97), measles (OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.39-0.82) and pertussis (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.45-0.98) was observed for chronic lymphoid leukaemia (CLL). The number of infections was strongly inversely associated with the risk of CLL (p = 0.002, test for trend). With regard to the other types of leukaemia, only a protective effect of pertussis was observed for AML (OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.32-0.87). Our results pointed out a protective role of childhood infectious diseases on the risk of CLL in adults. Although a specific antioncogenic effect of some infectious disease, especially measles, cannot be ruled out, the observed decrease of risk with increasing number of infections suggests that a more general "hygiene hypothesis" could be the most likely explanation of the detected association. The protective role of pertussis remains to be elucidated.

  6. Prevalence of multimorbidity in the Brazilian adult population according to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Januse Nogueira de; Roncalli, Ângelo Giuseppe; Cancela, Marianna de Camargo; Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra de

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge on the occurrence of multimorbidity is important from the viewpoint of public policies, as this condition increases the consumption of medicines as well as the utilization and expenses of health services, affecting life quality of the population. The objective of this study was to estimate prevalence of self-reported multimorbidity in Brazilian adults (≥18 years old) according to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. A descriptive study is presented herein, based on data from the National Health Survey, which was a household-based survey carried out in Brazil in 2013. Data on 60,202 adult participants over the age of 18 were included. Prevalences and its respective confidence intervals (95%) were estimated according to sex, age, education level, marital status, self-reported skin color, area of residence, occupation and federative units (states). Poisson regression models univariate and multivariate were used to evaluate the association between socioeconomic and demographic variables with multimorbidity. To observe the combinations of chronic conditions the most common groups in pairs, trios, quartets and quintets of chronic diseases were observed. The prevalence of multimorbidity was 23.6% and was higher among women, in individuals over 60 years of age, people with low educational levels, people living with partner, in urban areas and among unemployed persons. The states of the South and Southeast regions presented higher prevalence. The most common groups of chronic diseases were metabolic and musculoskeletal diseases. The results demonstrated high prevalence of multimorbidity in Brazil. The study also revealed that a considerable share of the economically active population presented two or more chronic diseases. Data of this research indicated that socioeconomic and demographic aspects must be considered during the planning of health services and development of prevention and treatment strategies for chronic diseases, and consequently

  7. A Distinct Population of Microglia Supports Adult Neurogenesis in the Subventricular Zone

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro Xavier, Anna L.; Kress, Benjamin T.; Goldman, Steven A.; Lacerda de Menezes, João R.

    2015-01-01

    Microglia are involved in synaptic pruning both in development and in the mature CNS. In this study, we investigated whether microglia might further contribute to circuit plasticity by modulating neuronal recruitment from the neurogenic subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult mouse striatum. We found that microglia residing in the SVZ and adjacent rostral migratory stream (RMS) comprise a morphologically and antigenically distinct phenotype of immune effectors. Whereas exhibiting characteristics of alternatively activated microglia, the SVZ/RMS microglia were clearly distinguished by their low expression of purinoceptors and lack of ATP-elicitable chemotaxis. Furthermore, the in vivo depletion of these microglia hampered the survival and migration of newly generated neuroblasts through the RMS to the olfactory bulb. SVZ and RMS microglia thus appear to comprise a functionally distinct class that is selectively adapted to the support and direction of neuronal integration into the olfactory circuitry. Therefore, this unique microglial subpopulation may serve as a novel target with which to modulate cellular addition from endogenous neural stem and progenitor cells of the adult brain. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Microglial cells are a specialized population of macrophages in the CNS, playing key roles as immune mediators. As integral components in the CNS, the microglia stand out for using the same mechanisms, phagocytosis and cytochemokine release, to promote homeostasis, synaptic pruning, and neural circuitry sculpture. Here, we addressed microglial functions in the subventricular zone (SVZ), the major postnatal neurogenic niche. Our results depict microglia as a conspicuous component of SVZ and its anterior extension, the rostral migratory stream, a pathway used by neuroblasts during their transit toward olfactory bulb layers. In addition to other unique populations residing in the SVZ niche, microglia display distinct morphofunctional properties that boost neuronal

  8. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of voriconazole and anidulafungin in adult patients with invasive aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Mould, Diane R

    2014-08-01

    To assess the pharmacokinetics (PK) of voriconazole and anidulafungin in patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA) in comparison with other populations, sparse PK data were obtained for 305 adults from a prospective phase 3 study comparing voriconazole and anidulafungin in combination versus voriconazole monotherapy (voriconazole, 6 mg/kg intravenously [IV] every 12 h [q12h] for 24 h followed by 4 mg/kg IV q12h, switched to 300 mg orally q12h as appropriate; with placebo or anidulafungin IV, a 200-mg loading dose followed by 100 mg q24h). Voriconazole PK was described by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption and mixed linear and time-dependent nonlinear (Michaelis-Menten) elimination; anidulafungin PK was described by a two-compartment model with first-order elimination. For voriconazole, the normal inverse Wishart prior approach was implemented to stabilize the model. Compared to previous models, no new covariates were identified for voriconazole or anidulafungin. PK parameter estimates of voriconazole and anidulafungin are in agreement with those reported previously except for voriconazole clearance (the nonlinear clearance component became minimal). At a 4-mg/kg IV dose, voriconazole exposure tended to increase slightly as age, weight, or body mass index increased, but the difference was not considered clinically relevant. Estimated voriconazole exposures in IA patients at 4 mg/kg IV were higher than those reported for healthy adults (e.g., the average area under the curve over a 12-hour dosing interval [AUC0-12] at steady state was 46% higher); while it is not definitive, age and concomitant medications may impact this difference. Estimated anidulafungin exposures in IA patients were comparable to those reported for the general patient population. This study was approved by the appropriate institutional review boards or ethics committees and registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00531479).

  9. Incidence, risk, and associated factors of depression in adults with physical and sensory disabilities: A nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Szu-Ching; Huang, Kuang-Hua; Kung, Pei-Tseng; Chiu, Li-Ting

    2017-01-01

    Background Physical disability has been associated with the risk of depression. We examined the incidence, risk, and associated factors of depression in Taiwanese adults with physical/sensory disabilities. Methods Two national databases were used to retrospectively analyze 749,491 ≥20-year-old Taiwanese with physical/sensory disabilities in 2002–2008. The incidence of depression was analyzed by univariate Poisson regression. Risk factors of depression were followed up through 2014 and examined with a Cox proportional hazards model. Results Among the study subjects, the incidence of depression was 6.29 per 1000 person-years, with 1.83 per 1000 person-years corresponding to major depression. The subjects’ depression risk was affected by disability type, disability severity, gender, age, education, marital status, aboriginal status, monthly salary, residence urbanization level, and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). Subjects with rare diseases, mild disability, female gender, age 35–44 years, a high school education level, divorced/widowed status, non-aboriginal status, a NT$22,801–28,800 monthly salary, a highly urbanized residence area, or a CCI≥3 were at higher risk for depression. Conclusions and implications Adults with physical/sensory disabilities have a 3.7-fold higher incidence of depression than the general population. Social services departments and family members should take extra measures toward preventing and treating depression in this subpopulation. PMID:28362849

  10. Measuring Adult Mortality Using Sibling Survival: A New Analytical Method and New Results for 44 Countries, 1974–2006

    PubMed Central

    Obermeyer, Ziad; Rajaratnam, Julie Knoll; Park, Chang H.; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Hogan, Margaret C.; Lopez, Alan D.; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2010-01-01

    Background For several decades, global public health efforts have focused on the development and application of disease control programs to improve child survival in developing populations. The need to reliably monitor the impact of such intervention programs in countries has led to significant advances in demographic methods and data sources, particularly with large-scale, cross-national survey programs such as the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). Although no comparable effort has been undertaken for adult mortality, the availability of large datasets with information on adult survival from censuses and household surveys offers an important opportunity to dramatically improve our knowledge about levels and trends in adult mortality in countries without good vital registration. To date, attempts to measure adult mortality from questions in censuses and surveys have generally led to implausibly low levels of adult mortality owing to biases inherent in survey data such as survival and recall bias. Recent methodological developments and the increasing availability of large surveys with information on sibling survival suggest that it may well be timely to reassess the pessimism that has prevailed around the use of sibling histories to measure adult mortality. Methods and Findings We present the Corrected Sibling Survival (CSS) method, which addresses both the survival and recall biases that have plagued the use of survey data to estimate adult mortality. Using logistic regression, our method directly estimates the probability of dying in a given country, by age, sex, and time period from sibling history data. The logistic regression framework borrows strength across surveys and time periods for the estimation of the age patterns of mortality, and facilitates the implementation of solutions for the underrepresentation of high-mortality families and recall bias. We apply the method to generate estimates of and trends in adult mortality, using the summary measure 45q

  11. The long arm of parental addictions: the association with adult children's depression in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; B Katz, Robyn; T Phan, Vi; P M Liddycoat, Jessica; Brennenstuhl, Sarah

    2013-11-30

    Parental addictions have been associated with adult children's depression in several clinical and population-based studies. However, these studies have not examined if gender differences exist nor have they controlled for a range of potential explanatory factors. Using a regionally representative sample of 6268 adults from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey (response rate=83%), we investigated the association between parental addictions and adulthood depression controlling for four clusters of variables: adverse childhood experiences, adult health behaviors, adult socioeconomic status and other stressors. After controlling for all factors, adults exposed to parental addiction had 69% higher odds of depression compared to their peers with non-addicted parents (OR=1.69; 95% CI, 1.25-2.28). The relationship between parental addictions and depression did not vary by gender. These findings underscore the intergenerational consequences of drug and alcohol addiction and reinforce the need to develop interventions that support healthy childhood development.

  12. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) among selected populations of children and Adults in California

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiangmei (May); Bennett, Deborah H.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Kato, Kayoko; Strynar, Mark; Andersen, Erik; Moran, Rebecca E.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Tulve, Nicolle S.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC serum concentrations using factors extracted from questionnaire responses and indirect measurements, and whether a single serum measurement can be used to classify an individual’s exposure over a one-year period. The study population included three demographic groups: young children (2–8 years old) (N=67), parents of young children (<55 years old) (N=90), and older adults (>55 years old) (N=59). PFC serum concentrations, house dust concentrations, and questionnaires were collected. The geometric mean of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was highest for the older adults. In contrast, the geometric mean of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was highest for children. Serum concentrations of the parent and the child from the same family were moderately correlated (Spearman correlation (r)=0.26–0.79, p<0.05), indicating common sources within a family. For adults, age, having occupational exposure or having used fire extinguisher, frequencies of consuming butter/margarine, pork, canned meat entrées, tuna and white fish, freshwater fish, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of individual PFCs. For children, residential dust concentrations, frequency of wearing waterproof clothes, frequency of having canned fish, hotdogs, chicken nuggets, French fries, and chips, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significant positive predictors of individual PFC serum concentrations. In addition, the serum concentrations collected in a subset of young children (N=20) and the parents (N=42) one year later were strongly correlated (r=0.68–0.98, p<0.001) with the levels measured at the first visits, but showed a decreasing trend

  13. Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter (PM) on healthy, young-adult population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaughnessy, William J.; Venigalla, Mohan M.; Trump, David

    2015-12-01

    There is an absence of studies that define the relationship between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and adverse health outcomes among the young and healthy adult sub-group. In this research, the relationship between exposures to ambient levels of PM in the 10 micron (PM10) and 2.5 micron (PM2.5) size fractions and health outcomes in members of the healthy, young-adult subgroup who are 18-39 years of age was examined. Active duty military personnel populations at three strategically selected military bases in the United States were used as a surrogate to the control group. Health outcome data, which consists of the number of diagnoses for each of nine International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) categories related to respiratory illness, were derived from outpatient visits at each of the three military bases. Data on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, were obtained for these sites. The health outcome data were correlated and regressed with the PM10 and PM2.5 data, and other air quality and weather-related data on a daily and weekly basis for the period 1998 to 2004. Results indicate that at Fort Bliss, which is a US Environmental Protection Agency designated non-attainment area for PM10, a statistically significant association exists between the weekly-averaged number of adverse health effects in the young and healthy adult population and the corresponding weekly-average ambient PM10 concentration. A least squares regression analysis was performed on the Fort Bliss data sets indicated that the health outcome data is related to several environmental parameters in addition to PM10. Overall, the analysis estimates a .6% increase in the weekly rate of emergency room visits for upper respiratory infections for every 10 μg/m3 increase in the weekly-averaged PM10 concentration above the mean. The findings support the development of policy and guidance opportunities that can be developed to mitigate exposures

  14. Assessment of the risk factors for hearing loss in adult Nigerian population

    PubMed Central

    Sogebi, Olusola Ayodele

    2013-01-01

    Background: A reduction in hearing sensitivity is common in adults and was previously considered to be normal as age increases. However, other health variables may play a role in the sensory changes. This prospective, comparative, hospital-based study assessed the risk factors (RFs) associated with sensorineural hearing losses (SNHL) in adult patients in a specialized tertiary hospital clinic in South-western Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Patients with clinical diagnosis of hearing impairment (bilateral SNHL) were the test subjects and age and sex-matched comparable group without SNHL were the Controls. Using a structured questionnaire, variables assessed included current and past medical history, family and social history, use of medications including ototoxic drugs, and prolonged medications. Results: One hundred and twenty-seven patients participated in the study comprising of 76 test subjects with SNHL (including 14 with suspected ARHL) and 51 controls. 59.8% of the participants were males. Univariate analysis revealed statistically-significant differences in family history, alcohol consumption, smoking, exposure to noise, previous ear discharge, previous head injury, hypertension, diabetes, osteoarthritis, ototoxic drugs usage, prolonged medication and obesity between the two categories of subjects. Logistic regression analysis revealed family history, smoking, noise exposure, head injury, hypertension had significantly increased odds of developing SNHL. Conclusion: It was concluded that the RFs for SNHL in adult Nigerians were multifactorial while some of the RFs may be amenable to primary prevention. Legislation and public health education could facilitate reduction of SNHL in our community. PMID:24249950

  15. Health Disparities Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Older Adults: Results From a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Barkan, Susan E.; Muraco, Anna; Hoy-Ellis, Charles P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated health disparities among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults aged 50 years and older. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2003–2010 Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (n = 96 992) on health outcomes, chronic conditions, access to care, behaviors, and screening by gender and sexual orientation with adjusted logistic regressions. Results. LGB older adults had higher risk of disability, poor mental health, smoking, and excessive drinking than did heterosexuals. Lesbians and bisexual women had higher risk of cardiovascular disease and obesity, and gay and bisexual men had higher risk of poor physical health and living alone than did heterosexuals. Lesbians reported a higher rate of excessive drinking than did bisexual women; bisexual men reported a higher rate of diabetes and a lower rate of being tested for HIV than did gay men. Conclusions. Tailored interventions are needed to address the health disparities and unique health needs of LGB older adults. Research across the life course is needed to better understand health disparities by sexual orientation and age, and to assess subgroup differences within these communities. PMID:23763391

  16. Gender-dependent associations between socioeconomic status and metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study in the adult Saudi population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the gender-dependent association of socio-economic status variables with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the adult Saudi population. Methods A total of 9164 adult Saudis (aged 18–70 years) were included in this cross-sectional study. Marital status, income, education, and occupation were used as socio-economic indicators while behavioral factor like physical exercise was also taken into account. MetS was defined using the criteria based from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III). Results In males, the odds ratio (OR) of harboring MetS was higher in married [OR1.6 (Confidence Interval (CI) 1.1, 2.4); p < 0.03], and high income class [OR 2.3(CI 1.5, 3.5); p < 0.001] and lowest in retired and unemployed individuals [1.4(1.0, 1.9); p < 0.04, 0.61(0.45, 0.82); p < 0.001] respectively. In females, MetS was inversely related to high income [OR 0.70 (CI 0.46, 1.1); p < 0.09] and education level [OR 0.38 (CI 0.26, 0.56); p < 0.001], and was significantly higher in the unemployed class [OR 1.6 (CI 1.2, 2.2); p < 0.004]. Conclusions The prevalence of MetS is significantly high among retired, married and high-earning Saudi males while in females, high earners and high education seem to confer a protective effect against MetS. PMID:24735007

  17. Antipsychotic polypharmacy prescribing patterns and costs in the Florida adult and child Medicaid populations.

    PubMed

    Becker, Edmund R; Constantine, Robert J; McPherson, Marie A; Jones, Mary Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The rapid growth in the use of antipsychotic medications and their related costs have resulted in states developing programs to measure, monitor, and insure their beneficial relevance to public program populations. One such program developed in the state of Florida has adopted an evidence-based approach to identify prescribers with unusual psychotherapeutic prescription patterns and track their utilization and costs among Florida Medicaid patients. This study reports on the prescriber prescription and cost patterns for adults and children using three measures of unusual antipsychotic prescribing patterns: (1) two antipsychotics for 60 days (2AP60), (2) three antipsychotics for 60 days (3AP60), and (2) two antipsychotics for 90 or more days (2AP90). We find that over the four-year study period there were substantial increases in several aspects of the Florida Medicaid behavioral drug program. Overall, for adults and children, patient participation increased by 29 percent, the number of prescriptions grew by 30 percent, and the number of prescribers that wrote at least one prescription grew 48.5 percent, while Medicaid costs for behavioral drugs increased by 32 percent. But the results are highly skewed. We find that a relatively small number of prescribers account for a disproportionately large share of prescriptions and costs of the unusual antipsychotic prescriptions. In general, the top 350 Medicaid prescribers accounted for more than 70 percent of the unusual antipsychotic prescriptions, and we find that this disparity in unusual prescribing patterns appears to be substantially more pronounced in adults than in children prescribers. For just the top 13 adult and children prescribers, their practice patterns accounted for 11 percent to 21 percent of the unusual prescribing activity and, overall, these 13 top prescribers accounted for 13 percent of the total spent on antipsychotics by the Florida Medicaid program and 9.3 percent of the total expenditure by the

  18. The PACE study: lifetime and past-year prevalence of headache in Parma's adult general population.

    PubMed

    Taga, Arens; Russo, Marco; Manzoni, Gian Camillo; Torelli, Paola

    2017-02-17

    Headache is a widespread disorder and therefore it has a strong impact on quality of life. In the present work we focused on lifetime and past-year prevalence of headache in general and by gender, in a population-based sample in Parma. A total of 904 subjects representative of Parma's adult general population were interviewed face-to-face by a physician from the Parma Headache Centre, using a validated questionnaire. The lifetime prevalence of headache was 69.1%, i.e. 75.8% in women and 60.6% in men; the crude past-year prevalence of headache was 42.8%, i.e. 52.0% in women and 31.1% in men. Both lifetime and past-year prevalence rates were significantly higher in females than in males (odds ratio, respectively, 2.0 and 2.4). In our study, past-year prevalence decreased after age 50 in both genders. Most people suffer from one headache subtype. In over 80% of cases, headache starts before age 40 and therefore people were not very likely to develop headache after 50 years. The past-year and lifetime prevalence rate of headache in general that we found in our study falls within the lower range of values for headache prevalence in European countries. Further researches need to be set in the Italian epidemiological background.

  19. Spain: promoting the welfare of older adults in the context of population aging.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Juan P; Latorre, José M; Gatz, Margaret

    2014-10-01

    Spain is one of the European countries with the most significant societal changes in the 21st century contributing to an aging population, in particular, high life expectancy coupled with low fertility, which will result in a doubling of the old-age dependency ratio. Demographic aging implies important challenges that affect the lives of people, families, the economy, public finances, and the reorganization of the health and social systems. Currently, the older population has become particularly vulnerable due to the economic crisis taking place in Spain, which has brought about the need for new policies and systems to protect older persons. The pension system is under the greatest threat in conjunction with possible changes in the national health care system. This report presents a general view of the main factors that surround and affect older adults in Spain, as well as policies developed by the government in response to the current and future situation. We highlight demographic predictions for the coming decades, quality-of-life indicators, situations of dependency, active aging policies, and the main research programs related to gerontology in Spain.

  20. A reappraisal of adult thoracic and abdominal surface anatomy via CT scan in Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin-Hua; Su, Bai-Yan; Liu, Jing-Juan; Zhang, Gu-Muyang; Xue, Hua-Dan; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Mirjalili, S Ali; Ma, Chao

    2016-03-01

    Accurate surface anatomy is essential for safe clinical practice. There are numerous inconsistencies in clinically important surface markings among and within contemporary anatomical reference texts. The aim of this study was to investigate key thoracic and abdominal surface anatomy landmarks in living Chinese adults using computed tomography (CT). A total of 100 thoracic and 100 abdominal CT scans were examined. Our results indicated that the following key surface landmarks differed from current commonly-accepted descriptions: the positions of the tracheal bifurcation, azygos vein termination, and pulmonary trunk bifurcation (all below the plane of the sternal angle at vertebral level T5-T6 in most individuals); the superior vena cava formation and junction with the right atrium (most often behind the 1st and 4th intercostal spaces, respectively); and the level at which the inferior vena cava and esophagus traverse the diaphragm (T10 and T11, respectively). The renal arteries were most commonly at L1; the midpoint of the renal hila was most frequently at L2; the 11th rib was posterior to the left kidney in only 29% of scans; and the spleen was most frequently located between the 10th and 12th ribs. A number of significant sex- and age-related differences were noted. The Chinese population was also compared with western populations on the basis of published reports. Reappraisal of surface anatomy using modern imaging tools in vivo will provide both quantitative and qualitative evidence to facilitate the clinical application of these key surface landmarks.

  1. Prevalence and incidence of systemic lupus erythematosus in the adult population of Estonia.

    PubMed

    Otsa, K; Talli, S; Harding, P; Parsik, E; Esko, M; Teepere, A; Tammaru, M

    2017-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated considerable variability in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) incidence and prevalence estimates. Lack of reliable epidemiological data may hinder evidence-based health care planning. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence and incidence of SLE in the Estonian adult population. The SLE billing cases were extracted from the Estonian Health Insurance Fund database 2006-2010 and verified using health care providers' databases. The patients' life status data for January 1, 2011, were retrieved from the Estonian Population Register. The calculations for the estimates' lower limits were based on verified cases only; the upper limits calculations also accounted for the billing cases for which clinical data were unavailable. The period prevalence of SLE was between 39 and 48 per 100,000 and incidence rate between 1.5 and 1.8 per 100,000 person-years. The point prevalence on January 1, 2011, was between 37 and 40 per 100,000. The estimates are comparable with internationally published figures and can be used to enhance evidence-based health care planning. The high percentage of billing cases that could not be verified using clinical data supports the argument that epidemiological studies based solely on administrative databases are usually of low reliability.

  2. Spain: Promoting the Welfare of Older Adults in the Context of Population Aging

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Juan P.; Latorre, José M.; Gatz, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Spain is one of the European countries with the most significant societal changes in the 21st century contributing to an aging population, in particular, high life expectancy coupled with low fertility, which will result in a doubling of the old-age dependency ratio. Demographic aging implies important challenges that affect the lives of people, families, the economy, public finances, and the reorganization of the health and social systems. Currently, the older population has become particularly vulnerable due to the economic crisis taking place in Spain, which has brought about the need for new policies and systems to protect older persons. The pension system is under the greatest threat in conjunction with possible changes in the national health care system. This report presents a general view of the main factors that surround and affect older adults in Spain, as well as policies developed by the government in response to the current and future situation. We highlight demographic predictions for the coming decades, quality-of-life indicators, situations of dependency, active aging policies, and the main research programs related to gerontology in Spain. PMID:24632624

  3. Correlation between diet and gut bacteria in a population of young adults.

    PubMed

    Mayorga Reyes, Lino; González Vázquez, Raquel; Cruz Arroyo, Schahrasad M; Melendez Avalos, Araceli; Reyes Castillo, Pedro A; Chavaro Pérez, David A; Ramos Terrones, Idalia; Ramos Ibáñez, Norma; Rodríguez Magallanes, Magdalena M; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez Humarán, Luis; Azaola Espinosa, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    Dietary habits strongly influence gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to compare and correlated the abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla, some representative bacteria of these phyla such as Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Prevotella, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Clostridium leptum and Bifidobacterium longum as a member of Actinobacteria phylum in young adults with their food intake. Faecal samples used came from lean subjects (BMI = 19.83 ± 0.94 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI = 27.17 ± 0.51 kg/m(2)) and obese (BMI = 41.33 ± 5.25 kg/m(2)). There were significant differences in total studied gut microbiota between the overweight and lean groups. Members of the Firmicutes phylum, and Bifidobacterium longum, were more abundant in the lean group. The results suggest that diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids and fibre promote an abundant population of beneficial bacteria such as B. longum and Bacteroidetes. However, it has been considered that the results may be biased due to the size of the individuals studied; therefore the results could be only valid for the studied population.

  4. [The analysis of disability of adult population of the Perm kray owing to stroke].

    PubMed

    Plotnikova, O A; Mavlikayeva, Yu A

    2014-01-01

    The study of general contingent of disabled persons owing to stroke in adult population of the Perm kray during five-year period was carried out. The materials of digital data base of the chief bureau of medical social expertise were used. The evaluation of demand in measures of complex rehabilitation is provided. The applied analysis demonstrated that every tenth out of persons primary recognized as disabled and every fifteenth out of persons secondary recognized as disabled is a disabled person owing to stroke. The level of disability has a tendency to decrease except primary disability in rural population and patients who underwent hemorrhagic stroke and disabled persons of group I as well. Predominantly, in more than half of all cases the severe disability of group I and II is determined without indication of date of reexamination. Under this pathology, urban males are more often recognized as disabled persons. The primary determination of disability is more often concerned persons of retirement age. The secondary determination of disability is more often concerned the able-bodied contingents. Among persons disabled owing to stroke, a higher demand in different types of rehabilitation is established. This need is to be taken into account in development of infrastructure of rehabilitation services in health and social care institutions.

  5. Monitoring gray wolf populations using multiple survey methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ausband, David E.; Rich, Lindsey N.; Glenn, Elizabeth M.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Zager, Pete; Miller, David A.W.; Waits, Lisette P.; Ackerman, Bruce B.; Mack, Curt M.

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral patterns and large territories of large carnivores make them challenging to monitor. Occupancy modeling provides a framework for monitoring population dynamics and distribution of territorial carnivores. We combined data from hunter surveys, howling and sign surveys conducted at predicted wolf rendezvous sites, and locations of radiocollared wolves to model occupancy and estimate the number of gray wolf (Canis lupus) packs and individuals in Idaho during 2009 and 2010. We explicitly accounted for potential misidentification of occupied cells (i.e., false positives) using an extension of the multi-state occupancy framework. We found agreement between model predictions and distribution and estimates of number of wolf packs and individual wolves reported by Idaho Department of Fish and Game and Nez Perce Tribe from intensive radiotelemetry-based monitoring. Estimates of individual wolves from occupancy models that excluded data from radiocollared wolves were within an average of 12.0% (SD = 6.0) of existing statewide minimum counts. Models using only hunter survey data generally estimated the lowest abundance, whereas models using all data generally provided the highest estimates of abundance, although only marginally higher. Precision across approaches ranged from 14% to 28% of mean estimates and models that used all data streams generally provided the most precise estimates. We demonstrated that an occupancy model based on different survey methods can yield estimates of the number and distribution of wolf packs and individual wolf abundance with reasonable measures of precision. Assumptions of the approach including that average territory size is known, average pack size is known, and territories do not overlap, must be evaluated periodically using independent field data to ensure occupancy estimates remain reliable. Use of multiple survey methods helps to ensure that occupancy estimates are robust to weaknesses or changes in any 1 survey method

  6. Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Adult Population of Isfahan City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hovsepian, Silva; Amini, Massoud; Amini, Peyvand; Iraj, Bijan

    2011-01-01

    Determination of vitamin D status in different age-groups in a community and in different climates of a country is necessary and has important implications for general health. The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among the adult population of Isfahan, a centrally-located city in Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 1,111 healthy people—243 men and 868 women—aged 41.4 (mean 14 and range 20-80) years, who attended a single-consultation outpatient clinic, were selected. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD), parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium and phosphorus concentrations were measured. Mild, moderate and severe vitamin D deficiencies were defined as 25-OHD values of 20-30 ng/mL, 10-20 ng/mL, and <10 ng/mL respectively. The median (range) concentrations of 25-OHD were 21 (4.0-105.0) ng/mL in males and 18 (1.5-117) ng/mL in females (p=0.05). The prevalence of mild, moderate and severe vitamin D deficiencies among the adult population was 19.6%, 23.9%, and 26.9% respectively. Vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent among women (p=0.001) and younger age-group (p=0.001). Medians of 25-OHD in spring-summer and autumn-winter were 21 ng/mL and 18 ng/mL respectively (p=0.005). The prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency was higher in autumn-winter than in spring-summer (odds ratio=1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.2-2.2, p=0.001). The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was high in a sunny city—Isfahan— especially among women and younger population. The high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in this city emphasizes the necessity of vitamin D supplementation as more exposure to sun is limited due to the type of clothing required by current law. PMID:21608424

  7. Association of malocclusion and functional occlusion with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in adults: a systematic review of population-based studies.

    PubMed

    Gesch, Dietmar; Bernhardt, Olaf; Kirbschus, Antje

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this systematic review of population-based studies was to establish whether or not associations exist between different types of malocclusions, as well as factors of functional occlusion (eg, occlusal interferences, nonworking-side occlusal contacts) and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in adults 20 years or older. Defined criteria were employed in the search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, as well as in a manual search. Finally, using inclusion criteria (eg, random sampling from residents' registration office files or census lists, adequate response rates), out of 22 preselected studies, four relevant population-based studies on this subject were found. Eighteen studies were excluded because of insufficient description of material and methods (eg, lack or unclear description of sample method, randomization, age distribution), mixed under- and over-20-year-old study population, or different outcome of interest (eg, tooth loss, dentures). The methodologic quality of the selected studies was established with a quality assessment list. The average total methodologic score achieved was 43 out of a possible 100 points. Few associations were reported between malocclusion and parameters of functional occlusion and clinical as well as subjective TMD, and these associations were not uniform. No particular morphologic or functional occlusal factor became apparent. Additionally, the occlusal factors found were partly protective for TMD, ie, subjects with these occlusal parameters showed fewer signs and symptoms of TMD (angle Class II malocclusion, deep bite, anterior crossbite). A positive relationship was only described in two cases-between the number of rotated lateral teeth and subjective symptoms of dysfunction, and between excessive abrasions and clinical dysfunction. In neither case, however, was the strength of the correlation given. In summary, few associations were established between malocclusion or functional occlusion and signs and symptoms of TMD. In

  8. Polypharmacy in older adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection compared with the general population

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno-Gracia, Mercedes; Crusells-Canales, María José; Armesto-Gómez, Francisco Javier; Compaired-Turlán, Vicente; Rabanaque-Hernández, María José

    2016-01-01

    Background The percentage of older HIV-positive patients is growing, with an increase in age-related comorbidities and concomitant medication. Objectives To quantify polypharmacy and profile types of non-antiretroviral drugs collected at community pharmacies in 2014 by HIV-positive individuals on antiretroviral therapy and to compare these findings with those of the general population. Methods HIV-positive patients (n=199) were compared with a group of patients from the general population (n=8,172), aged between 50 and 64 years. The factors compared were prevalence of polypharmacy (≥5 comedications with cumulative defined daily dose [DDD] per drug over 180), percentage of patients who collected each therapeutic class of drug, and median duration for each drug class (based on DDD). Results were stratified by sex. Results Polypharmacy was more common in HIV-positive males than in the male general population (8.9% vs 4.4%, P=0.010). Polypharmacy was also higher in HIV-positive females than in the female general population (11.3% vs 3.4%, P=0.002). Percentage of HIV-positive patients receiving analgesics, anti-infectives, gastrointestinal drugs, central nervous system (CNS) agents, and respiratory drugs was higher than in the general population, with significant differences between male populations. No differences were observed in proportion of patients receiving cardiovascular drugs. The estimated number of treatment days (median DDDs) were higher in HIV-positive males than in males from the general population for anti-infectives (32.2 vs 20.0, P<0.001) and CNS agents (238.7 vs 120.0, P=0.002). A higher percentage of HIV-positive males than males from the general population received sulfonamides (17.1% vs 1.5%, P<0.001), macrolides (37.1% vs 24.9%, P=0.020), and quinolones (34.3% vs 21.2%, P=0.009). Conclusion Polypharmacy is more common in HIV-positive older males and females than in similarly aged members of the general population. HIV-positive patients received

  9. Computer Scoring of Emotional Awareness in a Nonclinical Population of Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Barchard, Kimberly A; Picker, Caleb J

    2017-03-13

    The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS; Lane, Quinlan, Schwartz, Walker, & Zeitlin, 1990 ) is an open-ended measure of the ability to describe emotional reactions. Scoring the LEAS by hand is complex and time consuming (Barchard, Bajgar, Leaf, & Lane, 2010 ). Therefore, Program for Open-Ended Scoring (POES; Leaf & Barchard, 2010 ) was designed to score the LEAS quickly and easily. Using 268 undergraduates, this article compares traditional LEAS hand scoring to 6 POES methods, 2 of which are holistic methods that have never before been examined. Based on split-half reliability, correlations with measures of emotional and social intelligence, and partial correlations once response length and vocabulary were partialed out, we recommend 3 of the POES methods when testing nonclinical samples of young adults. Because POES scoring is fast and efficient, it allows more researchers and clinicians to use the LEAS, thus moving away from self-report measures of emotional awareness.

  10. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) cut-off values and the metabolic syndrome in a general adult population: effect of gender and age: EPIRCE cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance has been associated with metabolic and hemodynamic alterations and higher cardio metabolic risk. There is great variability in the threshold homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels to define insulin resistance. The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of age and gender in the estimation of HOMA-IR optimal cut-off values to identify subjects with higher cardio metabolic risk in a general adult population. Methods It included 2459 adults (range 20–92 years, 58.4% women) in a random Spanish population sample. As an accurate indicator of cardio metabolic risk, Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), both by International Diabetes Federation criteria and by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, were used. The effect of age was analyzed in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus separately. ROC regression methodology was used to evaluate the effect of age on HOMA-IR performance in classifying cardio metabolic risk. Results In Spanish population the threshold value of HOMA-IR drops from 3.46 using 90th percentile criteria to 2.05 taking into account of MetS components. In non-diabetic women, but no in men, we found a significant non-linear effect of age on the accuracy of HOMA-IR. In non-diabetic men, the cut-off values were 1.85. All values are between 70th-75th percentiles of HOMA-IR levels in adult Spanish population. Conclusions The consideration of the cardio metabolic risk to establish the cut-off points of HOMA-IR, to define insulin resistance instead of using a percentile of the population distribution, would increase its clinical utility in identifying those patients in whom the presence of multiple metabolic risk factors imparts an increased metabolic and cardiovascular risk. The threshold levels must be modified by age in non-diabetic women. PMID:24131857

  11. Organ dose conversion coefficients for tube current modulated CT protocols for an adult population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wanyi; Tian, Xiaoyu; Sahbaee, Pooyan; Zhang, Yakun; Segars, William Paul; Samei, Ehsan

    2016-03-01

    In computed tomography (CT), patient-specific organ dose can be estimated using pre-calculated organ dose conversion coefficients (organ dose normalized by CTDIvol, h factor) database, taking into account patient size and scan coverage. The conversion coefficients have been previously estimated for routine body protocol classes, grouped by scan coverage, across an adult population for fixed tube current modulated CT. The coefficients, however, do not include the widely utilized tube current (mA) modulation scheme, which significantly impacts organ dose. This study aims to extend the h factors and the corresponding dose length product (DLP) to create effective dose conversion coefficients (k factor) database incorporating various tube current modulation strengths. Fifty-eight extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantoms were included in this study representing population anatomy variation in clinical practice. Four mA profiles, representing weak to strong mA dependency on body attenuation, were generated for each phantom and protocol class. A validated Monte Carlo program was used to simulate the organ dose. The organ dose and effective dose was further normalized by CTDIvol and DLP to derive the h factors and k factors, respectively. The h factors and k factors were summarized in an exponential regression model as a function of body size. Such a population-based mathematical model can provide a comprehensive organ dose estimation given body size and CTDIvol. The model was integrated into an iPhone app XCATdose version 2, enhancing the 1st version based upon fixed tube current modulation. With the organ dose calculator, physicists, physicians, and patients can conveniently estimate organ dose.

  12. Revisiting thoracic surface anatomy in an adult population: A computed tomography evaluation of vertebral level.

    PubMed

    Badshah, Masroor; Soames, Roger; Khan, Muhammad Jaffar; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Khan, Adnan

    2017-03-01

    To compare key thoracic anatomical surface landmarks between healthy and patient adult populations using Computed Tomography (CT). Sixteen slice CT images of 250 age and gender matched healthy individuals and 99 patients with lung parenchymal disease were analyzed to determine the relationship of 17 thoracic structures and their vertebral levels using a 32-bit Radiant DICOM viewer. The structures studied were: aortic hiatus, azygos vein, brachiocephalic artery, gastroesophageal junction (GEJ), left and right common carotid arteries, left and right subclavian arteries, pulmonary trunk bifurcation, superior vena cava junction with the right atrium, carina, cardiac apex, manubriosternal junction, xiphisternal joint, inferior vena cava (IVC) crossing the diaphragm, aortic arch and junction of brachiocephalic veins. The surface anatomy of all structures varied among individuals with no significant effect of age. Binary logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between individual health status and vertebral level for brachiocephalic artery (P = 0.049), GEJ (P = 0.020), right common carotid (P = 0.009) and subclavian arteries (P = 0.009), pulmonary trunk bifurcation (P = 0.049), carina (P = 0.004), and IVC crossing the diaphragm (P = 0.025). These observations differ from those reported in a healthy white Caucasian population and from the vertebral levels of the IVC, esophagus, and aorta crossing the diaphragm in an Iranian population. The differences observed in this study provide insight into the effect of lung pathology on specific thoracic structures and their vertebral levels. Further studies are needed to determine whether these are general changes or pathology-specific. Clin. Anat. 30:227-236, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Inspiratory Flow Limitation in a Normal Population of Adults in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Palombini, Luciana O.; Tufik, Sergio; Rapoport, David M.; Ayappa, Indu A.; Guilleminault, Christian; de Godoy, Luciana B. M.; Castro, Laura S.; Bittencourt, Lia

    2013-01-01

    . Inspiratory flow limitation in a normal population of adults in São Paulo, Brazil. SLEEP 2013;36(11):1663-1668. PMID:24179299

  14. Physical activity of Polish adolescents and young adults according to IPAQ: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Bergier, Józef; Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Biliński, Przemysław; Paprzycki, Piotr; Wojtyła, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The alarming problem of a decline in physical activity among children and adolescents and its detrimental effects on public health has been well recognised worldwide. Low physical activity is responsible for 6% of deaths worldwide and 5-10% of deaths in the countries of the WHO European Region, according to country. Within the last decade, many initiatives have been launched to counteract this phenomenon. The objective of presented study was analysis of the level of physical activity among adolescents and young adults in Poland, according to the IPAQ questionnaire. The study group covered 7,716 adolescents: 5,086 children attending high school and secondary schools and 2,630 university students. Low physical activity was noted among 57% of schoolchildren and 20.84% of students. Analysis of the level of physical activity according to the IPAQ indicated that it was lower among girls, compared to boys. An additional analysis, with the consideration of the place of residence, showed that the highest percentage of the population with low physical activity was noted in the rural areas (29.30%), while among the urban inhabitants of cities with a population above 100,000 it was on the level of 23.69% and 20.57%. Median for weekly physical activity by respondents" gender was on the level of 1,554.00 MET*min. weekly among females, and 2,611.00 MET*min. weekly among males (p<0.000). The highest weekly physical activity expressed in MET*min. was observed among the inhabitants of towns with a population less than 100,000, whereas among the rural population and inhabitants of large cities with a population of over 100,000 the weekly physical activity was on a similar level (1,830.50 and 1,962.00 respectively). An extended analysis of respondents' physical activity showed that during the day students spend significantly more time in a sedentary position, compared to schoolchildren. The presented results of studies indicate the necessity to continue and intensify actions to

  15. Variations in adult body mass in roe deer: the effects of population density at birth and of habitat quality.

    PubMed

    Pettorelli, Nathalie; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Van Laere, Guy; Duncan, Patrick; Kjellander, Petter; Liberg, Olof; Delorme, Daniel; Maillard, Daniel

    2002-04-07

    Body mass is a key determinant of fitness components in many organisms, and adult mass varies considerably among individuals within populations. These variations have several causes, involve temporal and spatial factors, and are not yet well understood. We use long-term data from 20 roe deer cohorts (1977-96) in a 2600 ha study area (Chizé, western France) with two habitats contrasting in quality (rich oak forest in the North versus poor beech forest in the South) to analyse the effects of both cohort and habitat quality on adult mass (i.e. median body mass between 4 and 10 years of age) of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Cohort strongly influenced the adult body mass of roe deer in both sexes: males born in 1994 were 5.2 kg heavier when aged between 4 and 10 years old than males born in 1986, while females born in 1995 were 4.7 kg heavier between 4 and 10 years old than females born in 1982. For a given cohort, adult males were, on average, 0.9 kg heavier in the rich oak forest than in the poor beech forest. A similar trend occurred for adult females (0.5 kg heavier in the oak forest). The effects of cohort and habitat were additive and accounted for ca. 40% of the variation observed in the adult mass of roe deer at Chizé (males: 41.2%; females: 40.2%). Population density during the spring of the birth accounted for about 35% of cohort variation, whereas rainfall in May-June had no effect. Such delayed effects of density at birth on adult body mass probably affect population dynamics, and might constitute a mechanism by which delayed density-dependence occurs in ungulate populations.

  16. Discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for solving population density functions of cortical pyramidal and thalamic neuronal populations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Hsu; Lin, Chou-Ching K; Ju, Ming-Shaung

    2015-02-01

    Compared with the Monte Carlo method, the population density method is efficient for modeling collective dynamics of neuronal populations in human brain. In this method, a population density function describes the probabilistic distribution of states of all neurons in the population and it is governed by a hyperbolic partial differential equation. In the past, the problem was mainly solved by using the finite difference method. In a previous study, a continuous Galerkin finite element method was found better than the finite difference method for solving the hyperbolic partial differential equation; however, the population density function often has discontinuity and both methods suffer from a numerical stability problem. The goal of this study is to improve the numerical stability of the solution using discontinuous Galerkin finite element method. To test the performance of the new approach, interaction of a population of cortical pyramidal neurons and a population of thalamic neurons was simulated. The numerical results showed good agreement between results of discontinuous Galerkin finite element and Monte Carlo methods. The convergence and accuracy of the solutions are excellent. The numerical stability problem could be resolved using the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method which has total-variation-diminishing property. The efficient approach will be employed to simulate the electroencephalogram or dynamics of thalamocortical network which involves three populations, namely, thalamic reticular neurons, thalamocortical neurons and cortical pyramidal neurons.

  17. Estimation of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) population size and adult male survival in an urban area in Panama.

    PubMed

    Neira, Marco; Lacroix, Renaud; Cáceres, Lorenzo; Kaiser, Paul E; Young, Josue; Pineda, Lleysa; Black, Isaac; Sosa, Nestor; Nimmo, Derric; Alphey, Luke; McKemey, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Traditional mosquito control strategies rely heavily on the use of chemical insecticides. However, concerns about the efficiency of traditional control methods, environmental impact and emerging pesticide resistance have highlighted the necessity for developing innovative tools for mosquito control. Some novel strategies, including release of insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL®), rely on the sustained release of modified male mosquitoes and therefore benefit from a thorough understanding of the biology of the male of the species. In this report we present the results of a mark-release-recapture study aimed at: (i) establishing the survival in the field of laboratory-reared, wild-type male Aedes aegypti and (b) estimating the size of the local adult Ae. aegypti population. The study took place in Panama, a country where recent increases in the incidence and severity of dengue cases have prompted health authorities to evaluate alternative strategies for vector control. Results suggest a life expectancy of 2.3 days for released male mosquitoes (confidence interval: 1.78-2.86). Overall, the male mosquito population was estimated at 58 males/ha (range 12-81 males/ha), which can be extrapolated to an average of 0.64 pupae/person for the study area. The practical implications of these results are discussed.

  18. Estimation of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) population size and adult male survival in an urban area in Panama

    PubMed Central

    Neira, Marco; Lacroix, Renaud; Cáceres, Lorenzo; Kaiser, Paul E; Young, Josue; Pineda, Lleysa; Black, Isaac; Sosa, Nestor; Nimmo, Derric; Alphey, Luke; McKemey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Traditional mosquito control strategies rely heavily on the use of chemical insecticides. However, concerns about the efficiency of traditional control methods, environmental impact and emerging pesticide resistance have highlighted the necessity for developing innovative tools for mosquito control. Some novel strategies, including release of insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL®), rely on the sustained release of modified male mosquitoes and therefore benefit from a thorough understanding of the biology of the male of the species. In this report we present the results of a mark-release-recapture study aimed at: (i) establishing the survival in the field of laboratory-reared, wild-type male Aedes aegypti and (b) estimating the size of the local adult Ae. aegypti population. The study took place in Panama, a country where recent increases in the incidence and severity of dengue cases have prompted health authorities to evaluate alternative strategies for vector control. Results suggest a life expectancy of 2.3 days for released male mosquitoes (confidence interval: 1.78-2.86). Overall, the male mosquito population was estimated at 58 males/ha (range 12-81 males/ha), which can be extrapolated to an average of 0.64 pupae/person for the study area. The practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25410991

  19. Impact of Different Policies on Unhealthy Dietary Behaviors in an Urban Adult Population: An Agent-Based Simulation Model

    PubMed Central

    Giabbanelli, Philippe J.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Zimmerman, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Unhealthy eating is a complex-system problem. We used agent-based modeling to examine the effects of different policies on unhealthy eating behaviors. Methods. We developed an agent-based simulation model to represent a synthetic population of adults in Pasadena, CA, and how they make dietary decisions. Data from the 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey and other empirical studies were used to calibrate the parameters of the model. Simulations were performed to contrast the potential effects of various policies on the evolution of dietary decisions. Results. Our model showed that a 20% increase in taxes on fast foods would lower the probability of fast-food consumption by 3 percentage points, whereas improving the visibility of positive social norms by 10%, either through community-based or mass-media campaigns, could improve the consumption of fruits and vegetables by 7 percentage points and lower fast-food consumption by 6 percentage points. Zoning policies had no significant impact. Conclusions. Interventions emphasizing healthy eating norms may be more effective than directly targeting food prices or regulating local food outlets. Agent-based modeling may be a useful tool for testing the population-level effects of various policies within complex systems. PMID:24832414

  20. Stage-specific biomass overcompensation by juveniles in response to increased adult mortality in a wild fish population.

    PubMed

    Ohlberger, Jan; Langangen, Øystein; Edeline, Eric; Claessen, David; Winfield, Ian J; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn

    2011-12-01

    Recently developed theoretical models of stage-structured consumer-resource systems have shown that stage-specific biomass overcompensation can arise in response to increased mortality rates. We parameterized a stage-structured population model to simulate the effects of increased adult mortality caused by a pathogen outbreak in the perch (Perca fluviatilis) population of Windermere (UK) in 1976. The model predicts biomass overcompensation by juveniles in response to increased adult mortality due to a shift in food-dependent growth and reproduction rates. Considering cannibalism between life stages in the model reinforces this compensatory response due to the release from predation on juveniles at high mortality rates. These model predictions are matched by our analysis of a 60-year time series of scientific monitoring of Windermere perch, which shows that the pathogen outbreak induced a strong decrease in adult biomass and a corresponding increase in juvenile biomass. Age-specific adult fecundity and size at age were higher after than before the disease outbreak, suggesting that the pathogen-induced mortality released adult perch from competition, thereby increasing somatic and reproductive growth. Higher juvenile survival after the pathogen outbreak due to a release from cannibalism likely contributed to the observed biomass overcompensation. Our findings have general implications for predicting population- and community-level responses to increased size-selective mortality caused by exploitation or disease outbreaks.

  1. Childhood maltreatment, the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene and adult depression in the general population.

    PubMed

    Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Schwahn, Christian; Appel, Katja; Mahler, Jessie; Schulz, Andrea; Spitzer, Carsten; Fenske, Kristin; Barnow, Sven; Lucht, Michael; Freyberger, Harald Jürgen; John, Ulrich; Teumer, Alexander; Wallaschofski, Henri; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry

    2010-12-05

    Dysregulations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have been implicated in the pathogenesis of depressive disorders and the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) was found to modulate emotional memory consolidation. Recently, two studies have reported an interaction between childhood abuse and the TAT-haplotype of the CRH-Receptor Gene (CRHR1) connecting childhood adversities and genetic susceptibility to adult depression. We tested the hypothesis of an interaction of childhood maltreatment with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes of the CRHR1 gene not previously investigated. Caucasian subjects (n = 1,638) from the German general population (Study of Health in Pomerania, SHIP) were analyzed. As in the previous studies, childhood abuse and neglect were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and depression with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-2). The CRHR1-SNPs were genotyped on the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 platform. We identified an interaction between the TAT-haplotype and childhood physical neglect. The interaction with physical neglect showed significant (P < 0.05) results in 23 of the 28 SNPs, with rs17689882 (P = 0.0013) reaching "gene-wide" significance. Although we did not replicate the specific interaction of abuse and the TAT-haplotype of the CRHR1 gene we confirmed the relevance of an interplay between variants within the CRHR1 gene and childhood adversities in the modulation of depression in adults. The largest effect was found for rs17689882, a SNP previously not analyzed. Relevant sample differences between this and prior studies like lower BDI-2 scores, less childhood maltreatment and higher psychosocial functioning may account for the differences in gene-environment interaction findings. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Urban residential road traffic noise and hypertension: a cross-sectional study of adult population.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Dibyendu; Das, Partha P; Fouzdar, Anjan

    2014-12-01

    Results from studies involving exposure to road traffic noise and risk of hypertension are diverse and have seldom reached statistical significance. This study was designed with the aim of investigating whether there is any association between road traffic noise and prevalence of hypertension in an urban adult population. Similar studies have never been reported from India. A cross-sectional study was performed on 909 adults (533 female and 376 male) aged 18-80 years residing in close proximity to roadways in Asansol City. Time-weighted equivalent noise level (L den) was estimated using a standard modeling platform. Odds for hypertension in relation to traffic noise exposure were estimated by univariate and multifactorial logistic regression. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for self-reported hypertension was 1.99 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.66-2.39) per 5 dB(A) increase of L den (range 55.1-77.9). A gender-related risk difference was observed among the male (OR 1.81 (1.42-2.31)) and female (OR 2.18 (1.66-2.88)) respondents. For increase in 9 years of age, the odds of hypertension risk increased by 60 % (OR 1.66 (1.43-1.91) among those exposed above L den 60 dB(A). Vulnerable subgroups were female aged 35-54 years and male aged 45-54 years. The study suggests that a threshold exposure to road traffic noise at L den > 65 dB(A) for men and L den > 60 dB(A) in women may be associated with the occurrence of hypertension.

  3. Adolescent cannabis exposure alters opiate intake and opioid limbic neuronal populations in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ellgren, Maria; Spano, Sabrina M; Hurd, Yasmin L

    2007-03-01

    Cannabis use is a hypothesized gateway to subsequent abuse of other drugs such as heroin. We currently assessed whether Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure during adolescence modulates opiate reinforcement and opioid neural systems in adulthood. Long-Evan male rats received THC (1.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.)) or vehicle every third day during postnatal days (PNDs) 28-49. Heroin self-administration behavior (fixed ratio-1; 3-h sessions) was studied from young adulthood (PND 57) into full adults (PND 102). THC-pretreated rats showed an upward shift throughout the heroin self-administration acquisition (30 microg/kg/infusion) phase, whereas control animals maintained the same pattern once stable intake was obtained. Heightened opiate sensitivity in THC animals was also evidenced by higher heroin consumption during the maintenance phase (30 and 60 microg/kg/infusion) and greater responding for moderate-low heroin doses (dose-response curve: 7.5, 15, 30, 60, and 100 microg/kg/injection). Specific disturbance of the endogenous opioid system was also apparent in the brain of adults with adolescent THC exposure. Striatal preproenkephalin mRNA expression was exclusively increased in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell; the relative elevation of preproenkephalin mRNA in the THC rats was maintained even after heroin self-administration. Moreover, mu opioid receptor (muOR) GTP-coupling was potentiated in mesolimbic and nigrostriatal brainstem regions in THC-pretreated animals. muOR function in the NAc shell was specifically correlated to heroin intake. The current findings support the gateway hypothesis demonstrating that adolescence cannabis exposure has an enduring impact on hedonic processing resulting in enhanced opiate intake, possibly as a consequence of alterations in limbic opioid neuronal populations.

  4. Dietary exposure to mycotoxins of the Hong Kong adult population from a Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Yau, Arthur Tin-Chung; Chen, Melva Yung-Yung; Lam, Chi-Ho; Ho, Yuk-Yin; Xiao, Ying; Chung, Stephen Wai-Cheung

    2016-06-01

    Dietary exposure of Hong Kong adults to mycotoxins and their metabolites including aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisins (FNs), deoxynivalenol (DON), acetyldeoxynivalenols (AcDONs) and zearalenone (ZEA) was estimated using the Total Diet Study (TDS) approach to assess the associated health risk to the local people. Sixty commonly consumed food items, collected in four seasons, were sampled and prepared as consumed. These mycotoxins were primarily found at low levels. The highest mean levels (upper bound) were: AFs, 1.50 µg kg(-)(1) in legumes, nuts and seed; OTA, 0.22 µg kg(-)(1) in sugars and confectionery; FNs, 9.76 µg kg(-)(1) in cereals and their products; DON and AcDONs, 33.1 µg kg(-)(1) in cereals and their products; and ZEA, 53.8 µg kg(-)(1) in fats and oils. The estimated dietary exposures of Hong Kong adults to the mycotoxins analysed were well below the respective health-based guidance values, where available. For AFs, the upper-bound exposure for high consumers is 0.0049 µg kg bw(-)(1) day(-)(1), which was estimated to contribute to about 7.7 (< 1%) of liver cancer cases when compared with 1222 liver cancer cases per year in Hong Kong. The percentage contributions of the estimated 95th percentile dietary exposures (lower and upper bound) to the health-based guidance values of individual mycotoxins were: ochratoxin A, 3.6-9.2%; fumonisins, 0.04-8.5%; deoxynivalenol and acetyldeoxynivalenols, 21.7-28.2%; and zearalenone 3.3-34.5%. The findings indicate that dietary exposures to all the mycotoxins analysed in this study were unlikely to pose an unacceptable health risk to the Hong Kong population.

  5. Practical Methods for Locating Abandoned Wells in Populated Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Veloski, G.A.; Hammack, R.W.; Lynn, R.J.

    2007-09-01

    An estimated 12 million wells have been drilled during the 150 years of oil and gas production in the United States. Many old oil and gas fields are now populated areas where the presence of improperly plugged wells may constitute a hazard to residents. Natural gas emissions from wells have forced people from their houses and businesses and have caused explosions that injured or killed people and destroyed property. To mitigate this hazard, wells must be located and properly plugged, a task made more difficult by the presence of houses, businesses, and associated utilities. This paper describes well finding methods conducted by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) that were effective at two small towns in Wyoming and in a suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

  6. A Pilot Study Using Mixed GPS/Narrative Interview Methods to Understand Geospatial Behavior in Homeless Populations.

    PubMed

    North, Carol S; Wohlford, Sarah E; Dean, Denis J; Black, Melissa; Balfour, Margaret E; Petrovich, James C; Downs, Dana L; Pollio, David E

    2016-11-03

    Tracking the movements of homeless populations presents methodological difficulties, but understanding their movements in space and time is needed to inform optimal placement of services. This pilot study developed, tested, and refined methods to apply global positioning systems (GPS) technology paired with individual narratives to chronicle the movements of homeless populations. Detail of methods development and difficulties encountered and addressed, and geospatial findings are provided. A pilot sample of 29 adults was recruited from a low-demand homeless shelter in the downtown area of Fort Worth, Texas. Pre- and post-deployment interviews provided participant characteristics and planned and retrospectively-reported travels. Only one of the first eight deployments returned with sufficient usable data. Ultimately 19 participants returned the GPS device with >20 h of usable data. Protocol adjustments addressing methodological difficulties achieved 81 % of subsequent participants returning with sufficient usable data. This study established methods and demonstrated feasibility for tracking homeless population travels.

  7. Prevalence of Autism in an Urban Population of Adults with Severe Intellectual Disabilities--A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saemundsen, Evald; Juliusson, H.; Hjaltested, S.; Gunnarsdottir, T.; Halldorsdottir, T.; Hreidarsson, S.; Magnusson, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Research on the prevalence of autism in Iceland has indicated that one possible explanation of fewer autism cases in older age groups was due to an underestimation of autism in individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs). The present study systematically searched for autism cases in the adult population of individuals with severe…

  8. The Role of Supportive Adults in Promoting Positive Development in Middle Childhood: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Guhn, Martin; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Hertzman, Clyde

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine the role of supportive adults to emotional well-being in a population of Grade 4 students attending public schools in Vancouver, Canada. Reflecting the ecology of middle childhood, we examined the extent to which perceived family, school, and neighborhood support relate to young people's self-reported…

  9. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition Short Form for Index and IQ Scores in a Psychiatric Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Bruce K.; Girard, Todd A.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2007-01-01

    An eight-subtest short form (SF8) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition (WAIS-III), maintaining equal representation of each index factor, was developed for use with psychiatric populations. Data were collected from a mixed inpatient/outpatient sample (99 men and 101 women) referred for neuropsychological assessment. Psychometric…

  10. Depression as Measured by the DSM-III and the Beck Depression Inventory in an Unselected Adult Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, J. M.; Simmons, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relation between diagnosis of depression made by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) derived from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) in an unselected adult population (N=298). Results indicated similar rates of depression with DSM-III and BDI criteria. (LLL)

  11. Sixteen-Year Change in Acoustic-Admittance Measures among Older Adults: Data from a Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nondahl, David M.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Wiley, Terry L.; Tweed, Ted S.; Dalton, Dayna S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to measure the 16-year change in peak compensated static acoustic admittance (Peak Y[subscript tm]) in a population-based cohort of older adults, and to determine whether age was associated with any observed change in Peak Y[subscript tm]. Other tympanometric measures also were taken and analyzed.…

  12. Effective population size of natural populations of Drosophila buzzatii, with a comparative evaluation of nine methods of estimation.

    PubMed

    Barker, J S F

    2011-11-01

    Allozyme and microsatellite data from numerous populations of Drosophila buzzatii have been used (i) to determine to what degree N(e) varies among generations within populations, and among populations, and (ii) to evaluate the congruence of four temporal and five single-sample estimators of N(e) . Effective size of different populations varied over two orders of magnitude, most populations are not temporally stable in genetic composition, and N(e) showed large variation over generations in some populations. Short-term N(e) estimates from the temporal methods were highly correlated, but the smallest estimates were the most precise for all four methods, and the most consistent across methods. Except for one population, N(e) estimates were lower when assuming gene flow than when assuming populations that were closed. However, attempts to jointly estimate N(e) and immigration rate were of little value because the source of migrants was unknown. Correlations among the estimates from the single-sample methods generally were not significant although, as for the temporal methods, estimates were most consistent when they were small. These single-sample estimates of current N(e) are generally smaller than the short-term temporal estimates. Nevertheless, population genetic variation is not being depleted, presumably because of past or ongoing migration. A clearer picture of current and short-term effective population sizes will only follow with better knowledge of migration rates between populations. Different methods are not necessarily estimating the same N(e) , they are subject to different bias, and the biology, demography and history of the population(s) may affect different estimators differently.

  13. Sexting Leads to "Risky" Sex? An Analysis of Sexting Behaviors in a Nonuniversity-Based, Older Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Currin, Joseph M; Hubach, Randolph D; Sanders, Carissa; Hammer, Tonya R

    2016-10-12

    Since few researchers have analyzed sexting behaviors in nonuniversity-based adult samples, we sought to determine if sexting is associated with negative psychological correlates and risky sexual behaviors in this population. Analysis of individuals who indicated having vaginal or anal sex in the past 12 months and who identified as single (n = 377) showed that condomless sex is independent of sexting behaviors. Results for those in committed relationships (n = 374) and having had vaginal or anal sex in the past 12 months also demonstrated condomless sex and sexting behaviors were not related. Furthermore, alcohol consumption and relational health were predictive of sexting behaviors in adults in committed relationships. These findings demonstrate that while risky sexual behavior and negative psychological correlates are associated with sexting and younger populations, the same might not be true for a nonuniversity-based, older adult sample.

  14. Conceptual evaluation of population health surveillance programs: method and example.

    PubMed

    El Allaki, Farouk; Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Ravel, André

    2013-03-01

    Veterinary and public health surveillance programs can be evaluated to assess and improve the planning, implementation and effectiveness of these programs. Guidelines, protocols and methods have been developed for such evaluation. In general, they focus on a limited set of attributes (e.g., sensitivity and simplicity), that are assessed quantitatively whenever possible, otherwise qualitatively. Despite efforts at standardization, replication by different evaluators is difficult, making evaluation outcomes open to interpretation. This ultimately limits the usefulness of surveillance evaluations. At the same time, the growing demand to prove freedom from disease or pathogen, and the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement and the International Health Regulations require stronger surveillance programs. We developed a method for evaluating veterinary and public health surveillance programs that is detailed, structured, transparent and based on surveillance concepts that are part of all types of surveillance programs. The proposed conceptual evaluation method comprises four steps: (1) text analysis, (2) extraction of the surveillance conceptual model, (3) comparison of the extracted surveillance conceptual model to a theoretical standard, and (4) validation interview with a surveillance program designer. This conceptual evaluation method was applied in 2005 to C-EnterNet, a new Canadian zoonotic disease surveillance program that encompasses laboratory based surveillance of enteric diseases in humans and active surveillance of the pathogens in food, water, and livestock. The theoretical standard used for evaluating C-EnterNet was a relevant existing structure called the "Population Health Surveillance Theory". Five out of 152 surveillance concepts were absent in the design of C-EnterNet. However, all of the surveillance concept relationships found in C-EnterNet were valid. The proposed method can be used to improve the design and documentation of surveillance programs. It

  15. Point prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of chronic cough in the general adult population

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Won, Ha-Kyeong; Sohn, Kyoung-Hee; Kang, Sung-Yoon; Jo, Eun-Jung; Kim, Min-Hye; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Heon; Park, Heung-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Lee, Byung-Jae; Morice, Alyn H.; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Cough is frequently self-limiting, but may persist longer in certain individuals. Most of previous studies on the epidemiology of chronic cough have only measured period prevalence, and thus have afforded limited information on the burden and natural course. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology of chronic cough by using a point prevalence measure in a large-scale general population. We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from 18,071 adults who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012. Presence and duration of current cough was ascertained by structured questionnaires, and cough was classified into acute (<3 weeks), subacute (3–8 weeks), or chronic cough (≥8 weeks). Demographic and clinical parameters were examined in relation to chronic cough. The point prevalences of acute, subacute, and chronic cough were 2.5 ± 0.2%, 0.8 ± 0.1% and 2.6 ± 0.2%, respectively. The proportion of current cough showed a steep decrease after 1 week of duration. However, 2 peaks in the prevalence of current cough were revealed; cough durations of less than 1 week and longer than 1 year were most common (31.1% and 27.7% of current cough, respectively). Subacute and chronic cough were more prevalent in the elderly (≥65 years); the positive associations with older age were independent of other confounders, including current smoking and comorbidities. This is the first report on the epidemiology of cough using a point prevalence measure in a nationally representative population sample. Our findings indicate a high burden of chronic cough among adults with current cough in the community. The dual-peak of cough duration suggested that the pathophysiology of acute and chronic cough may differ. The preponderance of elderly people in the prevalence of chronic cough warrants further investigation. In addition, more sophistication and validation of tools to define chronic cough will help our understanding of the

  16. Overuse of Antidepressants in a Nationally Representative Adult Patient Population in 2005

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Rena; Busch, Alisa B.; Cutler, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Concerns have been raised that antidepressants may be overused. This study aimed to provide an estimate of antidepressant overuse in a more recent, nationally representative sample of adults and with a more contemporary set of antidepressants than has been covered in prior studies. Methods The data set included adult (weighted N=23,026,608) respondents who self-reported antidepressant treatment in the household and prescription drug components of the 2005 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Overuse was defined as off-label antide-pressant prescribing with limited or no scientific support for use as a treatment for the diagnosis, according to the Physicians’ Desk Reference, the United States Pharmacopeia–National Formulary, and the Micromedex DrugDx data system. Stratification and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine clinical and socioeconomic predictors of overuse. Results Overuse was estimated at 20%, with the majority concentrated in newer-generation antidepressants (74% of overuse). Another 30%–40% of overuse was associated with documented diagnoses that may represent a reasonable clinical rationale for antidepressant use or suggest underdiagnosis of possible depressive and anxiety syndromes. Older age (odds ratio [OR]=.95, p=.03) and self-report of poor mental health (OR=.80, p=.02) were negatively associated with overuse. Conclusions Antidepressant overuse among adults is less common than previously reported. Our results suggest that the actual extent of overuse may be lower than 20%. To improve treatment quality and the efficiency of the U.S. health care system, nationally representative data collection efforts on prescription drug use should aim to include enhanced measures of need in order to further refine future estimates of antidepressant overuse. PMID:21724783

  17. Adult and adolescent exposure to tobacco and alcohol content in contemporary YouTube music videos in Great Britain: a population estimate

    PubMed Central

    Cranwell, Jo; Opazo-Breton, Magdalena; Britton, John

    2016-01-01

    Background We estimate exposure of British adults and adolescents to tobacco and alcohol content from a sample of popular YouTube music videos. Methods British viewing figures were generated from 2 representative online national surveys of adult and adolescent viewing of the 32 most popular videos containing content. 2068 adolescents aged 11–18 years (1010 boys, 1058 girls), and 2232 adults aged 19+years (1052 male, 1180 female) completed the surveys. We used the number of 10 s intervals in the 32 most popular videos containing content to estimate the number of impressions. We extrapolated gross and per capita impressions for the British population from census data and estimated numbers of adults and adolescents who had ever watched the sampled videos. Results From video release to the point of survey, the videos delivered an estimated 1006 million gross impressions of alcohol (95% CI 748 to 1264 million), and 203 million of tobacco (95% CI 151 to 255 million), to the British population. Per capita exposure was around 5 times higher for alcohol than for tobacco, and nearly 4 times higher in adolescents, who were exposed to an average of 52.1 (95% CI 43.4 to 60.9) and 10.5 (95% CI 8.8 to 12.3) alcohol and tobacco impressions, respectively, than in adults (14.1 (95% CI 10.2 to 18.1) and 2.9 (95% CI 2.1 to 3.6)). Exposure rates were higher in girls than in boys. Conclusions YouTube music videos deliver millions of gross impressions of alcohol and tobacco content. Adolescents are exposed much more than adults. Music videos are a major global medium of exposure to such content. PMID:26767404

  18. Substance-related and addictive disorders among adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD): an Ontario population cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Elizabeth; Balogh, Robert; McGarry, Caitlin; Selick, Avra; Dobranowski, Kristin; Wilton, Andrew S; Lunsky, Yona

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Describe the prevalence of substance-related and addictive disorders (SRAD) in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and compare the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of adults with IDD and SRAD to those with IDD or SRAD only. Design Population-based cohort study (the Health Care Access Research and Development Disabilities (H-CARDD) cohort). Setting All legal residents of Ontario, Canada. Participants 66 484 adults, aged 18–64, with IDD identified through linked provincial health and disability income benefits administrative data from fiscal year 2009. 96 589 adults, aged 18–64, with SRAD but without IDD drawn from the provincial health administrative data. Main outcome measures Sociodemographic (age group, sex, neighbourhood income quintile, rurality) and clinical (psychiatric and chronic disease diagnoses, morbidity) characteristics. Results The prevalence of SRAD among adults with IDD was 6.4%, considerably higher than many previous reports and also higher than found for adults without IDD in Ontario (3.5%). Among those with both IDD and SRAD, the rate of psychiatric comorbidity was 78.8%, and the proportion with high or very high overall morbidity was 59.5%. The most common psychiatric comorbidities were anxiety disorders (67.6%), followed by affective (44.6%), psychotic (35.8%) and personality disorders (23.5%). These adults also tended to be younger and more likely to live in the poorest neighbourhoods compared with adults with IDD but no SRAD and adults with SRAD but no IDD. Conclusions SRAD is a significant concern for adults with IDD. It is associated with high rates of psychiatric and other comorbidities, indicating that care coordination and system navigation may be important concerns. Attention should be paid to increasing the recognition of SRAD among individuals with IDD by both healthcare and social service providers and to improving staff skills in successfully engaging those with both IDD and

  19. Risk prediction of pulmonary tuberculosis using genetic and conventional risk factors in adult Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Eun Pyo; Go, Min Jin; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2017-01-01

    A complex interplay among host, pathogen, and environmental factors is believed to contribute to the risk of developing pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). The lack of replication of published genome-wide association study (GWAS) findings limits the clinical utility of reported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We conducted a GWAS using 467 PTB cases and 1,313 healthy controls obtained from two community-based cohorts in Korea. We evaluated the performance of PTB risk models based on different combinations of genetic and nongenetic factors and validated the results in an independent Korean population comprised of 179 PTB cases and 500 healthy controls. We demonstrated the polygenic nature of PTB and nongenetic factors such as age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) were strongly associated with PTB risk. None of the SNPs achieved genome-wide significance; instead, we were able to replicate the associations between PTB and ten SNPs near or in the genes, CDCA7, GBE1, GADL1, SPATA16, C6orf118, KIAA1432, DMRT2, CTR9, CCDC67, and CDH13, which may play roles in the immune and inflammatory pathways. Among the replicated SNPs, an intergenic SNP, rs9365798, located downstream of the C6orf118 gene showed the most significant association under the dominant model (OR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.32–1.92, P = 2.1×10−6). The performance of a risk model combining the effects of ten replicated SNPs and six nongenetic factors (i.e., age, sex, BMI, cigarette smoking, systolic blood pressure, and hemoglobin) were validated in the replication set (AUC = 0.80, 95% CI 0.76–0.84). The strategy of combining genetic and nongenetic risk factors ultimately resulted in better risk prediction for PTB in the adult Korean population. PMID:28355295

  20. Awareness level of kidney functions and diseases among adults in a Nigerian population

    PubMed Central

    Okwuonu, C. G.; Chukwuonye, I. I.; Ogah, S. O.; Abali, C.; Adejumo, O. A.; Oviasu, E.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney diseases is on the increase in Nigeria. The cost of its management is far beyond the reach of an average patient. Prevention is thus of paramount importance and awareness of kidney diseases will help in its prevention. The aim of this study is to assess the level of awareness of kidney functions and diseases among adults in a Nigerian population. A semi-structured, researcher – administered questionnaire was the tool for data collection. Four hundred and thirty-five questionnaires were analyzed. There were 160 males (36.8%) and 275 females (63.2%). The mean age was 42.8 ± 14 years with a range of 18–78 years. Among these, 82.1% were aware of the kidneys' involvement in waste removal from the body through urine while 36% and 29% were aware of kidneys' role in blood pressure regulation and blood production, respectively. Only 26.6% correctly identified at least two basic functions of the kidneys. Also, 32.6% of the respondents were aware of at least three common causes of kidney diseases in our environment. Majority of the respondents (70.7%) did not know that kidney diseases could be inherited. Furthermore, belief in alternative therapy for kidney disease was documented in 83.2%, while unawareness of dialysis as a treatment modality was recorded in 68% of the respondents. The awareness of kidney functions and diseases among the population is poor. Measures are needed to improve this to stem the rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Nigeria. PMID:26060365

  1. Alcohol policy changes and 22-year trends in individual alcohol consumption in a Swiss adult population: a 1993–2014 cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Shireen; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Favrod-Coune, Thierry; Theler, Jean-Marc; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Broers, Barbara; Guessous, Idris

    2017-01-01

    Objective Evidence on the impact of legislative changes on individual alcohol consumption is limited. Using an observational study design, we assessed trends in individual alcohol consumption of a Swiss adult population following the public policy changes that took place between 1993 and 2014, while considering individual characteristics and secular trends. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Swiss general adult population. Participants Data from 18 963 participants were collected between 1993 and 2014 (aged 18–75 years). Outcome measures We used data from the ‘Bus Santé’ study, an annual health survey conducted in random samples of the adult population in the State of Geneva, Switzerland. Individual alcohol intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Individual characteristics including education were self-reported. 7 policy changes (6 about alcohol and 1 about tobacco) that occurred between 1993 and 2014 defined 6 different periods. We predicted alcohol intake using quantile regression with multivariate analysis for each period adjusting for participants' characteristics and tested significance periods. Sensitivity analysis was performed including drinkers only, the 10th centile of highest drinkers and smoker's status. Results Between 1993 and 2014, participants' individual alcohol intake decreased from 7.1 to 5.4 g/day (24% reduction, p<0.001). Men decreased their alcohol intake by 34% compared with 22% for women (p<0.001). The decrease in alcohol intake remained significant when considering drinkers only (28% decrease, p<0.001) and the 10th centile highest drinkers (24% decrease, p<0.001). Consumption of all alcoholic beverages decreased between 1993 and 2014 except for the moderate consumption of beer, which increased. After adjustment for participants' characteristics and secular trends, no independent association between alcohol legislative changes and individual alcohol intake was found. Conclusions Between 1993 and

  2. Inter-annual variability in spring abundance of adult Calanus finmarchicus from the overwintering population in the southeastern Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, Nicolas; Bagøien, Espen; Melle, Webjørn

    2017-03-01

    Calanus finmarchicus is the dominant copepod species in the Norwegian Sea, where it plays a key role in the ecosystem by transferring energy from primary producers to higher trophic levels. This paper analyses a 17-year time series, 1996-2012, on C. finmarchicus collected within the Atlantic Water mass along the Svinøy transect in the southeastern Norwegian Sea. We use the spring abundance of adult as a proxy for the size of C. finmarchicus' overwintered population. The inter-annual trend in spring abundance of adult C. finmarchicus in the 200-0 m depth-stratum is assessed while accounting for spring population development to the adult stage represented by day of year for sampling, inter-annual changes in timing of population development, and spatial differences. For the most oceanic stations, a significant inter-annual trend in spring abundance of adult C. finmarchicus was revealed using generalized additive models (GAM). This trend primarily consists in an increase prior to year 2000 and a decrease between years 2000 and ca. 2011. For the stations closer to the coast, the identified inter-annual trend is a decrease during a longer period from the late 90s until ca. 2011. From 2000 to 2011, our estimates suggest a 50% decrease for the most oceanic stations, and as much as an 81% decrease for the stations closer to the coast. In addition the results suggest a consistent change in phenology over the years and the stations. The predicted spring peak of overwintered adult population abundance is suggested to become shorter by 3 days, and the predicted maximum of abundance to take place 4 days earlier over the 17 years of the time-series. The results highlight significant changes in intensity and timing of the overwintered population of a key zooplankton species in the Norwegian Sea that may have important implications on the scale of an entire ecosystem.

  3. T cell ontogeny. Organ location of maturing populations as defined by surface antigen markers is similar in neonates and adults

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    Earlier studies have suggested that splenic T cell populations in nursling mice (less than 18 d of age) have Lyt cell surface antigens that identify them as less mature than their adult counterparts. Studies presented here, however, demonstrate that the expression of the Thy-1, Lyt-1, Lyt-2, and Lyt-3 T cell antigens is virtually identical in 14-d-old and adult T cell populations even though at 14 d, T cells constitute less than 10% of the total spleen cell population. Because the expression of these antigens on the immature (cortical) thymocyte population differs substantially from their expression on peripheral T cells, the maturity of splenic T cells as judged by these criteria is similar in nurslings and adults. Very few cells in the neonatal thymus 4 h after birth correspond, in terms of antigen expression, to the more mature (medullary) thymocyte population of adults, but such cells develop rapidly during the first few days of life. They are present, therefore, sufficiently early to serve as the immediate source of peripheral T cells, as they apparently do in the adult. This then suggests that the locations for the major T cell maturational events are established within the first 2 wk of life of the mouse and maintained as such thereafter. The use of monoclonal antibodies and quantitative immunofluorescence analysis in our studies probably explains the differences between our findings and those reported previously, which relied on cytotoxic depletion by alloantisera and complement to estimate the frequencies of cells carrying the Lyt differentiation antigens in nurslings. PMID:6972987

  4. T cell ontogeny. Organ location of maturing populations as defined by surface antigen markers is similar in neonates and adults.

    PubMed

    Haaijman, J J; Micklem, H S; Ledbetter, J A; Dangl, J L; Herzenberg, L A; Herzenberg, L A

    1981-03-01

    Earlier studies have suggested that splenic T cell populations in nursling mice (less than 18 d of age) have Lyt cell surface antigens that identify them as less mature than their adult counterparts. Studies presented here, however, demonstrate that the expression of the Thy-1, Lyt-1, Lyt-2, and Lyt-3 T cell antigens is virtually identical in 14-d-old and adult T cell populations even though at 14 d, T cells constitute less than 10% of the total spleen cell population. Because the expression of these antigens on the immature (cortical) thymocyte population differs substantially from their expression on peripheral T cells, the maturity of splenic T cells as judged by these criteria is similar in nurslings and adults. Very few cells in the neonatal thymus 4 h after birth correspond, in terms of antigen expression, to the more mature (medullary) thymocyte population of adults, but such cells develop rapidly during the first few days of life. They are present, therefore, sufficiently early to serve as the immediate source of peripheral T cells, as they apparently do in the adult. This then suggests that the locations for the major T cell maturational events are established within the first 2 wk of life of the mouse and maintained as such thereafter. The use of monoclonal antibodies and quantitative immunofluorescence analysis in our studies probably explains the differences between our findings and those reported previously, which relied on cytotoxic depletion by alloantisera and complement to estimate the frequencies of cells carrying the Lyt differentiation antigens in nurslings.

  5. The epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in older adults from 2007 to 2014 in Ontario, Canada: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Shalini; Policarpio, Michelle E.; Wong, Kenney; Gubbay, Jonathan; Fediurek, Jill; Deeks, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Ontario, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been sequentially introduced into the publicly funded childhood vaccination program since 2005. A 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23) has been routinely recommended for adults aged 65 years and older since 1996. To determine the effect of herd immunity, we examined the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in adults aged 65 years and older. Methods: Invasive pneumococcal disease is a provincially reportable disease. We were therefore able to conduct a descriptive epidemiologic analysis that included assessing time trends for patients aged 65 years and older using surveillance data from 2007 to 2014. Using serotype information within the surveillance data, cases were grouped into categories according to vaccine type and periods and then compared using Poisson regression. Results: A total of 3825 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease were reported among adults aged 65 years and older, for an overall annualized incidence of 25.4 cases per 100 000 population. There was a decrease in incidence due to serotypes included in 7-valent PCV (3.0 to 0.7 cases per 100 000 population) (p < 0.001). For 13-valent PCV serotypes, there was a decrease in incidence between 2011 and 2014 (9.8 to 5.3 cases per 100 000 population (p < 0.001)). Serotypes unique to PPV23 and those not included in a vaccine increased from 2.3 to 5.8 and from 2.4 to 7.2 cases per 100 000 population, respectively (p < 0.001). Interpretation: In older adults, among serotypes contained in PCVs, we have shown a decrease in incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease. This is likely due to herd immunity from the childhood program. A burden of illness due to unique PPV23 serotypes and those that are not covered by a vaccine exists and has increased over time. PMID:27730119

  6. Thorsellia anophelis is the dominant bacterium in a Kenyan population of adult Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Briones, Aurelio M; Shililu, Josephat; Githure, John; Novak, Robert; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2008-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes are not known to harbor endosymbiotic bacteria. Here we show, using nucleic acid-based methods, that 16S rRNA gene sequences specific to a recently described mosquito midgut bacterium, Thorsellia anophelis, is predominant in the midgut of adult An. gambiae s.l. mosquitoes captured in residences in central Kenya, and also occurs in the aquatic rice paddy environment nearby. PCR consistently detected T. anophelis in the surface microlayer of rice paddies, which is also consistent with the surface-feeding behavior of A. gambiae s.l. larvae. Phylogenetic analysis of cloned environmental 16S rRNA genes identified four major Thorsellia lineages, which are closely affiliated to an insect endosymbiont of the genus Arsenophonus. Physiological characterizations support the hypothesis that T. anophelis is well adapted to the female anopheline midgut by utilizing blood and tolerating the alkaline conditions in this environment. The results suggest that aquatically derived bacteria such as T. anophelis can persist through mosquito metamorphosis and become well-established in the adult mosquito midgut.

  7. The Usability of Electronic Personal Health Record Systems for an Underserved Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Czaja, Sara J.; Zarcadoolas, Christina; Vaughon, Wendy L.; Lee, Chin Chin; Rockoff, Maxine L.; Levy, Joslyn

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goals of this study were to identify the demands associated with using electronic personal health records (PHRs) and to evaluate the ability of adults of lower socioeconomic status and low health literacy to use PHRs to perform health management activities. Background PHRs are proliferating in clinical practices and health care organizations. These systems offer the potential of increasing the active involvement of patients in health self-management. However, little is known about the actual usability of these tools for health consumers. Method We used task analysis and health literacy load analysis to identify the cognitive and literacy demands inherent in the use of PHRs and evaluated the usability of three currently available PHR systems with a sample of 54 adults. Participants used the systems to perform tasks related to medication management, interpretation of lab/test results, and health maintenance. Data were also gathered on the participants’ perception of the potential value of using a PHR. Results The results indicated that a majority of the participants had difficulty completing the tasks and needed assistance. There was some variability according to task and PHR system. However, most participants perceived the use of PHRs as valuable. Conclusions Although considered a valuable tool by consumers, the use of PHR systems may be challenging for many people. Strategies are needed to enhance the usability of these systems, especially for people with low literacy, low health literacy, or limited technology skills. Application The data from this study have implications for the design of PHRs. PMID:25875437

  8. Perceived neighborhood problems: multilevel analysis to evaluate psychometric properties in a Southern adult Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical attributes of the places in which people live, as well as their perceptions of them, may be important health determinants. The perception of place in which people dwell may impact on individual health and may be a more telling indicator for individual health than objective neighborhood characteristics. This paper aims to evaluate psychometric and ecometric properties of a scale on the perceptions of neighborhood problems in adults from Florianopolis, Southern Brazil. Methods Individual, census tract level (per capita monthly familiar income) and neighborhood problems perception (physical and social disorders) variables were investigated. Multilevel models (items nested within persons, persons nested within neighborhoods) were run to assess ecometric properties of variables assessing neighborhood problems. Results The response rate was 85.3%, (1,720 adults). Participants were distributed in 63 census tracts. Two scales were identified using 16 items: Physical Problems and Social Disorder. The ecometric properties of the scales satisfactory: 0.24 to 0.28 for the intra-class correlation and 0.94 to 0.96 for reliability. Higher values on the scales of problems in the physical and social domains were associated with younger age, more length of time residing in the same neighborhood and lower census tract income level. Conclusions The findings support the usefulness of these scales to measure physical and social disorder problems in neighborhoods. PMID:24256619

  9. Environmental noise and annoyance in adult population of Skopje: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ristovska, Gordana; Gjorgjev, Dragan; Polozhani, Aziz; Kocubovski, Mihail; Kendrovski, Vladimir

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify noise exposure indicators during day and night in the city of Skopje and to see if there is an association between these noise exposure indicators and annoyance. We have performed noise measurements and interviewed 510 adult subjects, using a questionnaire, prepared according to the ISO/TS-15666 standard. Average noise level over the day (Lday) was (62+/-6.45) dB(A) and over night (Lnight) (56+/-6.52) dB(A). Thirteen percent of subjects reported a high level, and 33.5% moderate level of annoyance. The most annoying noise sources were construction activities (34% of the subjects), road traffic (24%), and leisure/entertainment activities (18%). We found a significant association between exposure to Lday in the range 61 dB(A) to 65 dB(A) and annoyance in the exposed population (chi-square = 86.14; p<0.001; Spearman's R=0.45; p<0.05). During the night time annoyance was reported with exposure to Lnight above 46 dB(A). Levels of annoyance in Macedonia are similar to levels in developed European countries. Differences are in the source of noise. This study has shown that environmental noise is a significant hazard in urban environments, and assessment of annoyance may prove a useful tool for town planners and public health policy makers.

  10. [Immune status of adult population of the Bryansk region living in territory polluted by radionuclides].

    PubMed

    Oradovskaia, I V; Fadeeva, I D; Ul'ianova, N V; Nikonova, M F; Litvina, M M; Lavdovskaia, M V; Chernetsova, L F; Khoroshilova, N V

    1995-01-01

    Clinical and immunological investigation with immune status evaluation of three groups of adult population of Bryansk Region was performed. The first group included 165 persons living in Vyshkov (settlement of town type in Bryansk Region) contaminated with radionuclides as a result of Chernobyl accident. The second group included 68 persons living in Vyshkov, immunological monitoring of those was performed. The third group consisted of 114 persons living on the "clean" area of Pochep (Bryansk Region). On both areas (contaminated Vyshkov and "clean" Pochep) the large percent of persons (three quarters of all investigated ones) had clinical manifestations of immune deficiency. The immune status of Vyshkov inhabitants was characterized by T-helper/inductor activation. That was expressed in significant increase of CD4+, CD4+/CD8+ in comparison of control group of primary donors and to "clean" Pochep inhabitants and in stable decrease of average values of serum IgG in comparison to control group, IgG and IgM in comparison to Pochep group. Maximum high values of T-helpers under lowest T-suppressor/killer values were observed at clinical symptoms which may be stipulated by radiation factor (loss of hair and teeth, surplus weight, predisposition to bleedings) and in persons working in cattle-breeding.

  11. Determinants of blood lead levels in an adult population from a mining area in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos Paoliello, M. M.; Mello de Capitani, E.; Gonçalves da Cunha, F.; Carvalho, M. De Fatima; Matsuo, T.; Sakuma, A.; Ribeiro Figueiredo, B.

    2003-05-01

    During the last fifty year the Ribeira river valley, Brazil, had been under the influence of the full activity of a huge lead refinery and mining along the riverside. The plant completely stopped all kind of industrial activities at the end of 1995, and part of the worker population and their families still remain living nearby in smal communities. The objective of the present study was to assess the deterninants of blood lead levels (BLL) in these nining areas, where residual environmental contamination from the past industrial activity still remains. Blood samples of 350 adults aged 15 to 70, residing in areas around the mine and the refinery were collected. A questionnaire was given in order to gather information on food habits, current and former residential places occupationnal activities, among other variables. Blood lead concentrations were analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using Zeeman background correction. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the independent contribution of selected variables in predicting BLL in those subjects. The following variables showed significant association with high BLL: residential area close to the lead refinery, former dwelling at the refinery village, male gender, smoking habits, and consume of fruits from home back yard.

  12. An atypical anxious-impulsive pattern of social anxiety disorder in an adult clinical population.

    PubMed

    Mörtberg, Ewa; Tillfors, Maria; van Zalk, Nejra; Kerr, Margaret

    2014-08-01

    An atypical subgroup of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) with impulsive rather than inhibited traits has recently been reported. The current study examined whether such an atypical subgroup could be identified in a clinical population of 84 adults with SAD. The temperament dimensions harm avoidance and novelty seeking of the Temperament and Character Inventory, and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale were used in cluster analyses. The identified clusters were compared on depressive symptoms, the character dimension self-directedness, and treatment outcome. Among the six identified clusters, 24% of the sample had atypical characteristics, demonstrating mainly generalized SAD in combination with coexisting traits of inhibition and impulsivity. As additional signs of severity, this group showed low self-directedness and high levels of depressive symptoms. We also identified a typically inhibited subgroup comprising generalized SAD with high levels of harm avoidance and low levels of novelty seeking, with a similar clinical severity as the atypical subgroup. Thus, higher levels of harm avoidance and social anxiety in combination with higher or lower levels of novelty seeking and low self-directedness seem to contribute to a more severe clinical picture. Post hoc examination of the treatment outcome in these subgroups showed that only 20 to 30% achieved clinically significant change.

  13. Occupational exposures and asthma in 14,000 adults from the general population.

    PubMed

    Le Moual, Nicole; Kennedy, Susan M; Kauffmann, Francine

    2004-12-01

    The association of asthma with occupational exposures was studied in 14,151 adults, aged 25-59 years, from the general population of the 1975 French Pollution Atmospherique et Affections Respiratoires Chroniques (PAARC) Survey. Associations of asthma with specific jobs, such as personal care workers, waiters, and stock clerks, were observed, with age-, sex-, and smoking-adjusted odds ratios between 1.5 and 1.7. Exposures to 18 asthmagenic agents (low and high molecular weight and mixed environment) were estimated by an asthma-specific job exposure matrix. Risks associated with asthma increased when subjects with imprecise estimates of exposure were excluded. Risks increased further with increasing specificity of the definition of asthma when considering jobs or specific agents, such as industrial cleaning agents, latex, flour, highly reactive chemicals, and textiles. For example, for industrial cleaning agents, odds ratios increased from 1.55 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 2.23) for "ever asthma," to 2.17 (95% CI: 1.41, 3.34) for asthma onset after age 14 years, to 2.35 (95% CI: 1.38, 4.00) for asthma onset after beginning current job, and to 2.51 (95% CI: 1.33, 4.75) for asthma with airflow limitation. Results underlined the importance of the specificity of exposure and asthma definitions and indicated a deleterious role of occupational exposure on asthma, especially for cleaning agents.

  14. Occupational exposures and asthma in 14,000 adults from the general population

    PubMed Central

    Le Moual, Nicole; Kennedy, Susan M.; Kauffmann, Francine

    2004-01-01

    The association of occupational exposures and asthma were studied in 14151 adults, aged 25–59 years, from the general population of the French PAARC (Pollution Atmospherique et Affections Respiratoires Chroniques, 1975) Survey. Associations of asthma to specific jobs such as personal care workers, waiters, stock clerks were observed, with age, sex, smoking adjusted odds ratios between 1.5 and 1.7. Exposures to 18 asthmagenic agents (low, high molecular weight and mixed environment) were estimated by an asthma-specific job exposure matrix. Risks associated with asthma increased when excluding subjects with imprecise estimates of exposure. Risks further increased when increasing specificity of the definition of asthma considering jobs or specific agents such as industrial cleaning agents, latex, flour, highly reactive chemicals, and textiles. For example, for industrial cleaning agents, odds ratios increased from 1.55 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.23) for ever asthma, to 2.51 (95% CI: 1.33, 4.75) for asthma with airflow limitation, to 2.17 (95% CI: 1.41, 3.34) for asthma onset after age 14, and to 2.35 (95% CI: 1.38, 4.00) for asthma onset after beginning of current job. Results underlined the importance of the specificity of exposure and asthma definitions and indicated a deleterious role of occupational exposure on asthma, especially for cleaning agents. PMID:15561990

  15. Study on Fungal Flora in the Midgut of the Larva and Adult of the Different Populations of the Malaria Vector Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Tajedin, L; Hashemi, J; Abaei, MR; Hosseinpour, L; Rafei, F; Basseri, HR

    2009-01-01

    Background Many microorganisms in midgut of mosquito challenge with their host and also other pathogens present in midgut. The aim of this study was presence of non-pathogens microorganisms like fungal flora which may be crucial on interaction between vectors and pathogens. Methods: Different populations of Anopheles stephensi were reared in insectary and objected to determine fungal flora in their midguts. The midgut paunch of mosquito adults and larvae as well as breading water and larval food samples transferred on Subaru-dextrose agar, in order to detect the environment fungus. Results: Although four fungi, Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Geotrichum and Sacharomyces were found in the food and water, but only Aspiragilus observed in the midgut of larvae. No fungus was found in the midgut of adults. This is the first report on fungal flora in the midgut of the adults and larvae of An. stephensi and possible stadial transmission of fungi from immature stages to adults. Conclusion: The midgut environment of adults is not compatible for survivorship of fungi but the larval midgut may contain few fungi as a host or even pathogen. PMID:22808370

  16. Appreciating the Predicament of Housebound Older Adults with Arthritis: Portrait of a Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nour, Kareen; Laforest, Sophie; Gignac, Monique; Gauvin, Lise

    2005-01-01

    This paper draws a socio-demographic, physical, psychosocial, and behavioural profile of housebound older adults with arthritis and compares older adults with rheumatoid arthritis to those with osteoarthritis. Data from 125 housebound older adults with osteoarthritis (65%) or rheumatoid arthritis (35%) were compared to published samples and to…

  17. A mixed methods evaluation of televised health promotion advertisements targeted at older adults.

    PubMed

    Berry, Tanya R; Spence, John C; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Bauman, Adrian; McCargar, Linda; Witcher, Chad; Clark, Marianne; Stolp, Sean

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate television advertisements targeted at 55-70-year olds that promoted physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption. Awareness of the campaign, perceived credibility of the source, intentions to visit a promoted website, and intentions to perform the healthy behaviors were evaluated using mixed methods research. Results from a population level survey (n=1600) showed low unprompted and prompted awareness of the campaign and no differences in intentions or behaviors among those who were aware of the campaign. Unprompted recall resulted in a very wide range of responses including the citation of many commercial advertisers. Qualitative themes that emerged from the focus groups included neutral, positive, and negative comments about the advertisements, source credibility, website considerations specific to seniors, and suggestions about appropriate advertising for older adults. This research showed that the increased attention paid to the advertisements was due in a large part to negative reactions to the character used in the advertisements. Another important finding was the government was not considered to be a credible source of health information. Finally, health promoters should be cautious about websites as the primary source of information, particularly for older adults.

  18. Adult Education in Development. Methods and Approaches from Changing Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGivney, Veronica; Murray, Frances

    The case studies described in this book provide examples of initiatives illustrating the role of adult education in development and its contribution to the process of change in developing countries. The book is organized in five sections. Case studies in Part 1, "Health Education," illustrate the links between primary health care and…

  19. Listeriosis Prevention for Older Adults: Effective Messages and Delivery Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Sheryl C.; Kosa, Katherine M.; Moore, Christina M.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Ten Eyck, Toby A.; Cowen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Individuals aged 60 years and older are at an increased risk for listeriosis and other foodborne illnesses. They can reduce their risk by following recommended food safety practices. A total of 8 focus groups were conducted to characterize older adults' food safety knowledge and practices, their impressions of educational materials on listeriosis…

  20. Illicit Drug Use, Hypertension, and Chronic Kidney Disease in the U.S. Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Akkina, Sanjeev K.; Ricardo, Ana C.; Patel, Amishi; Das, Arjun; Bazzano, Lydia A.; Brecklin, Carolyn; Fischer, Michael J.; Lash, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Illicit drug use has been associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in select populations but it is unknown if the same association exists in the general population. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 5,861 adults who were questioned about illicit drug use including cocaine, methamphetamines, or heroin during their lifetime. The primary outcome was CKD as defined by an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≤60mL/min/1.73m2 using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation or by microalbuminuria. We also examined the association between illicit drug use and blood pressure (BP) ≥120/80, ≥130/85, and ≥140/90. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between illicit drug use and CKD and BP. Mean eGFR was similar between illicit drug users and non-users (100.7 vs. 101.4mL/min/1.73m2, p=0.4) as was albuminuria (5.7 vs. 6.0mg/g creatinine, p=0.5). Accordingly, illicit drug use was not significantly associated with CKD in logistic regression models (odds ratio [OR] 0.98, confidence interval [CI] 0.75-1.27) after adjusting for other important factors. However, illicit drug users had higher systolic (120 vs. 118mmHg, p=0.04) and diastolic BP (73 vs. 71mmHg, p=0.0003) compared to non-users. Also, cocaine use was independently associated with BP≥130/85 (OR 1.24, CI 1.00-1.54), especially when used more during a lifetime (6-49 times, OR 1.42, CI 1.06-1.91). In a representative sample of the U.S. population, illicit drug use was not associated with CKD but cocaine users were more likely to have elevated blood pressures. PMID:22735028

  1. The use of non‐adult vertebral dimensions as indicators of growth disruption and non‐specific health stress in skeletal populations

    PubMed Central

    Gowland, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Traditional methods of detecting growth disruption have focused on deficiencies in the diaphyseal length of the long bones. This study proposes the implementation of vertebral measurements (body height and transverse diameter of the neural canal) from non‐adults (0–17 years) as a new methodology for the identification of growth disruption. Methods Measurements of vertebral body height and transverse diameter were taken from 96 non‐adult skeletons and 40 adult skeletons from two post‐medieval sites in England (Bow Baptist, London and Coronation Street, South Shields). Non‐adult measurements were plotted against dental age to construct vertebral growth profiles through which inter‐population comparisons could be made. Results Results demonstrated that both sites experienced some growth retardation in infancy, evident as deficiencies in transverse diameter. However, analysis of vertebral body height revealed different chronologies of growth disruption between the sites, with a later age of attainment of skeletal maturity recorded in the Bow Baptist sample. Discussion These vertebral dimensions undergo cessation of growth at different ages, with transverse diameter being “locked‐in” by ∼1–2 years of age, while vertebral body height may continue to grow into early adulthood. These measurements can therefore provide complementary information regarding the timing of growth disruption within archaeological populations. Non‐adult vertebral measurements can increase our osteobiographical understanding of the timings of episodes of health stress, and allow for the analysis of growth when other skeletal elements are fragmentary. Am J Phys Anthropol 158:155–164, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26118898

  2. Understanding exoplanet populations with simulation-based methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morehead, Robert Charles

    The Kepler candidate catalog represents an unprecedented sample of exoplanet host stars. This dataset is ideal for probing the populations of exoplanet systems and exploring their architectures. Confirming transiting exoplanets candidates through traditional follow-up methods is challenging, especially for faint host stars. Most of Kepler's validated planets relied on statistical methods to separate true planets from false-positives. Multiple transiting planet systems (MTPS) have been previously shown to have low false-positive rates and over 850 planets in MTPSs have been statistically validated so far. We show that the period-normalized transit duration ratio (xi) offers additional information that can be used to establish the planetary nature of these systems. We briefly discuss the observed distribution of xi for the Q1-Q17 Kepler Candidate Search. We also use xi to develop a Bayesian statistical framework combined with Monte Carlo methods to determine which pairs of planet candidates in an MTPS are consistent with the planet hypothesis for a sample of 862 MTPSs that include candidate planets, confirmed planets, and known false-positives. This analysis proves to be efficient and advantageous in that it only requires catalog-level bulk candidate properties and galactic population modeling to compute the probabilities of a myriad of feasible scenarios composed of background and companion stellar blends in the photometric aperture, without needing additional observational follow-up. Our results agree with the previous results of a low false-positive rate in the Kepler MTPSs. This implies, independently of any other estimates, that most of the MTPSs detected by Kepler are planetary in nature, but that a substantial fraction could be orbiting stars other than then the putative target star, and therefore may be subject to significant error in the inferred planet parameters resulting from unknown or mismeasured stellar host attributes. We also apply approximate

  3. Chronic diseases and life events accounted for 2-18 % population attributable risks for adult hearing loss: UK Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-01-01

    Links between chronic diseases and hearing loss in adults have emerged. However, previous investigations were not complete, and the role of life events was unclear. Therefore, it was aimed to examine the relationships of common chronic diseases and life events and adult hearing loss in a country-wide and population-based study. Data were retrieved from UK Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007, being cross-sectional, including demographics, self-reported prior health conditions and hearing loss (ever and in the last 12 months), and several major life events. Analyses included Chi square test, t test, logistic regression model, and population attributable risk estimation. People who had prior health conditions including cancer, migraine, dementia, depression, cataracts, chronic bronchitis, allergy, bowel problem, bladder problem, arthritis, muscle problem or skin problem tended to report hearing loss than their counterparts. People who have experienced major life events including post-traumatic stress disorder, serious illness of close relatives, death of family, serious problems with friends, major financial crisis, valuables stolen, being bullied, violence at home, sexual abuse or running away from home were also more likely to experience ever hearing loss problem or that in the last 12 months. 2.0-13.1 % adult hearing loss could be delayed or prevented by managing chronic diseases while 4.1-18.1 % might be delayed or prevented by minimizing the negative effects of life events. Chronic diseases and life events were associated with hearing loss in adults. Better managing lifestyle to minimize detrimental impacts in future health and nursing programs would be suggested.

  4. Levels of Acculturation of Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area - The Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Dong, XinQi; Bergren, Stephanie M; Chang, E-Shien

    2015-09-01

    Acculturation is a difficult process for minority older adults for a variety of reasons, including access and exposure to mainstream culture, competing ethnic identities, and linguistic ability and preference. There is a paucity of research regarding overall level of acculturation for Chinese older adults in the United States. This study aimed to provide an overall estimate of level of acculturation of Chinese older adults in the United States and to examine correlations between sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health measures, and level of acculturation. Data were collected through the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE) study. This community-based participatory research study surveyed 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 and older. The PINE Study Acculturation Scale was used to assess level of acculturation in three dimensions: language preference, media use, and ethnic social relations. Mean acculturation level for all items was 15.3 ± 5.1, indicating low levels of acculturation. Older age, more offspring, lower income, fewer years living in the United States, lower overall health status, and lower quality of life were associated with lower levels of acculturation. Level of acculturation was low in Chinese older adults, and certain subsets of the population were more likely to have a lower level of acculturation. Future research should investigate causality and effects of level of acculturation.

  5. Early life exposures and the occurrence and timing of heart disease among the older adult Puerto Rican population.

    PubMed

    McEnry, Mry; Palloni, Alberto

    2010-02-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of early life conditions on the timing of the onset of heart disease. We use the remarkable example of a representative sample of the population of older Puerto Ricans aged 60-74 who lived in the countryside during childhood (n = 1,438) to examine the effects ofseasonal exposures to poor nutrition and infectious diseases during late gestation on the timing of the onset and the probability of ever experiencing adult heart disease. Cox and log logistic hazard models controlling for childhood conditions (self-reported childhood health status and socioeconomic status [SES], rheumatic fever, and knee height) and adult risk factors (adult SES, obesity, smoking, exercise, and self-reported diabetes) showed that the risk of onset of heart disease was 65% higher among those born during high-exposure periods compared with unexposed individuals. However, there were no significant differences in median time of onset for those ever experiencing heart disease. As a comparison, we found that there were no significant seasonality effects for those who lived in urban areas during childhood. We conclude that early exposures in utero have important ramifications for adult heart disease among the older Puerto Rican population. We show, however, that while exposure is associated with the probability of ever experiencing adult heart disease, it is not associated with the timing of onset among those who do experience it.

  6. Gingival recession and associated factors in a homogeneous Mexican adult male population: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Minaya-Sánchez, Mirna; Medina-Solís, Carlo E.; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana A.; Marquez-Corona, Maria L.; Pontigo-Loyola, América P.; Islas-Granillo, Horacio; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diverse variables are implicated in the pathogenesis of gingival recession; more detailed knowledge about the relationship between the clinical presentation of gingival recession and assorted risk indicators may lead to improved patient monitoring, early intervention, and subsequent prevention. The objective was to evaluate clinically gingival recession in a homogeneous Mexican adult male population and to determine the strength of association with related factors. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a largely homogeneous group in terms of ethnic background, socioeconomic status, gender, occupation, and medical/dental insurance, in Campeche, Mexico. Periodontal examinations were undertaken to determine diverse clinical dental variables. All periodontal clinical examinations were assessed using the Florida Probe System, a dental chair and one examiner. Questionnaires were used to collect diverse risk indicators. Statistical analyses were undertaken with negative binomial regression models. Results: The mean number of sites with gingival recession per subject was 6.73±5.81; the prevalence was 87.6%. In the negative binomial regression model we observed that for (i) each year of age, and (ii) each percentage unit of increase in sites with plaque, and (iii) with suppuration, mean sites with gingival recession increased 2.9%, 1.0% and 13.0%, respectively. Having a spouse was associated with gingival recession. Conclusions: We observed association between gingival recession, and sociodemographic and clinical parameters. Patients need to be educated about risk indicators for gingival recession as well as the preventive maneuvers that may be implemented to minimize its occurrence. The potential of improved oral self-care to prevent a largely benign condition such as gingival recession is important, given the associated disorders that may ensue root exposure, such as root caries and root hypersensitivity. Key words:Oral health, periodontal health

  7. Relationships between social isolation, neighborhood poverty, and cancer mortality in a population-based study of US adults

    PubMed Central

    Illescas, Alex H.; Hohl, Bernadette C.; Llanos, Adana A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Social isolation is an important determinant of all-cause mortality, with evidence suggesting an association with cancer-specific mortality as well. In this study, we examined the associations between social isolation and neighborhood poverty (independently and jointly) on cancer mortality in a population-based sample of US adults. Methods Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III; 1988–1994), NHANES III Linked Mortality File (through 2011) and 1990 Census, we estimated the relationship between social isolation and high neighborhood poverty and time-to-cancer death using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. We examined the associations of each factor independently and explored the multiplicative and additive interaction effects on cancer mortality risk and also analyzed these associations by sex. Results Among 16 044 US adults with 17–23 years of follow-up, there were 1133 cancer deaths. Social isolation (HR 1.25, 95% CI: 1.01–1.54) and high neighborhood poverty (HR 1.31, 95% CI: 1.08–1.60) were associated with increased risk of cancer mortality adjusting for age, sex, and race/ethnicity; in sex-specific estimates this increase in risk was evident among females only (HR 1.39, 95% CI: 1.04–1.86). These associations were attenuated upon further adjustment for socioeconomic status. There was no evidence of joint effects of social isolation and high neighborhood poverty on cancer mortality overall or in the sex-stratified models. Conclusions These findings suggest that social isolation and higher neighborhood poverty are independently associated with increased risk of cancer mortality, although there is no evidence to support our a priori hypothesis of a joint effect. PMID:28273125

  8. Serum Concentrations of IgG4 in the Spanish Adult Population: Relationship with Age, Gender, and Atopy

    PubMed Central

    Carballo, Iago; Alvela, Lucía; Pérez, Luis-Fernando; Gude, Francisco; Vidal, Carmen; Alonso, Manuela; Sopeña, Bernardo; Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Serum IgG4 concentrations are commonly measured in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate serum IgG4 concentrations in adults and their potential relationship with demographic, lifestyle, metabolic, and allergy-related factors. Methods Serum IgG4 concentrations were measured with a commercial assay in 413 individuals (median age 55 years, 45% males) who were randomly selected from a general adult population. Results Median IgG4 concentration was 26.8 mg/dL. Five out of the 413 individuals (1.2%) exhibited IgG4 concentrations >135 mg/dL, and 17 out of 411 (4.1%) exhibited an IgG4/total IgG ratio >8%. Serum IgG4 concentrations were significantly higher in males than in females and decreased with age. After adjusting for age and sex, serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly influenced by alcohol consumption, smoking or common metabolic abnormalities (obesity and the related metabolic syndrome). Serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly correlated with serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammation markers. Serum IgG4 concentrations were significantly correlated with IgE concentrations. Serum IgG4 concentrations tended to be higher in atopics (individuals with IgE-mediated sensitization to aeroallergens) than in non-atopics, particularly among atopics without respiratory symptoms. Serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly correlated with total eosinophil blood count. Cases of IgG4-related disease were neither present at baseline nor detected after a median of 11 years of follow-up. Conclusions Studies aimed at defining reference IgG4 values should consider partitioning by age and sex. Further studies are needed to confirm the potential influence of atopy status on serum IgG4 concentrations. PMID:26910567

  9. Predictive Factors for Pressure Ulcers in an Older Adult Population Hospitalized for Hip Fractures: A Prognostic Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Older adult patients with fragility hip fractures constitute a population at high risk for complications, in particular pressure ulcers. The aim was to evaluate the incidence of pressure ulcers and potential predictive factors. Methods and Findings A prospective multicentric prognostic cohort study in orthopedic wards in three Italian public hospitals. Participants were all consecutive patients 65 years of age or older diagnosed with a fragility hip fracture. Outcomes were incidence of pressure ulcers. The exposure variables were grouped into three macro areas in order to facilitate reading: “intrinsic” variables, “extrinsic” variables and variables linked to the organization of patient care. One thousand eighty-three older adult patients with fragility hip fractures were enrolled from October 1st, 2013 to January 31st, 2015, and pressure ulcers developed in 22.7%. At multivariate analysis, the following were found to be risk factors: age> 80 years (odds ratio (OR) 1.03; p = 0.015), the length of time a urinary catheter was used (OR 1.013; p<0.001), the length of time pain was present (OR 1.008; p = 0.008), the absence of side rails on the bed (OR 1.668; p = 0.026) and the use of a foam position valve (OR 1.025; p<0.001). Instead, the protective factors were the presence of a caregiver for at least half a day daily (OR 0.994; p = 0.012) and the number of positionings during the postoperative period (OR 0.897; p = 0.008). Conclusions The study allowed the identification of the patients most at risk for developing pressure ulcers, and the construction of a pragmatic predictive model using significant risk or protective factors in order to reduce the number of pressure ulcers. PMID:28068425

  10. Population aging in local areas and subjective well-being of older adults: Findings from two studies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tami; Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Harada, Ken; Kai, Ichiro

    2016-05-23

    Subjective well-being (SWB) of older adults could be affected by both individual and community characteristics. However, the effect of community characteristics, such as population aging in local areas, remains unclear. This study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the area-level population aging and SWB of older individuals from two distinct surveys. Those analyzed were 572 respondents aged 75 years and older for a cross-sectional survey in a metropolitan area in Tokyo, Japan (Study 1) and 1,257 and 859 respondents for a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis, respectively, for a 2-year longitudinal survey project in urban and rural areas of Fukui Prefecture (Study 2). Area-level population aging was assessed by the number of people aged 65 years or older per 100 residents. SWB was assessed with the Life Satisfaction Index-A (LSIA). Multilevel analysis was performed to examine unconditional and conditional associations between the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents and the individual-level LSIA scores. The area-level number of older adults per 100 residents was significantly and positively associated with the LSIA scores in Study 1 (p = 0.042), even after controlling for the area- and individual-level covariates. In Study 2, we also found a significant effect of the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents on LSIA scores in the longitudinal multivariate analysis (p = 0.049). Findings from two survey projects suggested cross-validity in the positive effect of area-level population aging on older adults' SWB. Policymakers should consider older citizens' SWB in the recent urban-to-rural migration governmental policy as well as in urban renovation planning.

  11. A general method for modeling population dynamics and its applications.

    PubMed

    Shestopaloff, Yuri K

    2013-12-01

    Studying populations, be it a microbe colony or mankind, is important for understanding how complex systems evolve and exist. Such knowledge also often provides insights into evolution, history and different aspects of human life. By and large, populations' prosperity and decline is about transformation of certain resources into quantity and other characteristics of populations through growth, replication, expansion and acquisition of resources. We introduce a general model of population change, applicable to different types of populations, which interconnects numerous factors influencing population dynamics, such as nutrient influx and nutrient consumption, reproduction period, reproduction rate, etc. It is also possible to take into account specific growth features of individual organisms. We considered two recently discovered distinct growth scenarios: first, when organisms do not change their grown mass regardless of nutrients availability, and the second when organisms can reduce their grown mass by several times in a nutritionally poor environment. We found that nutrient supply and reproduction period are two major factors influencing the shape of population growth curves. There is also a difference in population dynamics between these two groups. Organisms belonging to the second group are significantly more adaptive to reduction of nutrients and far more resistant to extinction. Also, such organisms have substantially more frequent and lesser in amplitude fluctuations of population quantity for the same periodic nutrient supply (compared to the first group). Proposed model allows adequately describing virtually any possible growth scenario, including complex ones with periodic and irregular nutrient supply and other changing parameters, which present approaches cannot do.

  12. Hair concentration of essential trace elements in adult non-exposed Russian population.

    PubMed

    Skalny, Anatoly V; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Tinkov, Alexey A; Serebryansky, Eugeny P; Demidov, Vasily A; Lobanova, Yulia N; Grabeklis, Andrei R; Berezkina, Elena S; Gryazeva, Irina V; Skalny, Andrey A; Skalnaya, Oksana A; Zhivaev, Nikolay G; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2015-11-01

    Appropriate reference values of hair trace element content are required for correct interpretation of biomonitoring data. The primary objective of the current study was to estimate the reference values of selected essential trace elements in hair of adult Russian population. Involved in current investigation were 7256 occupationally non-exposed adults aged from 20 to 60 years and living in the European part of Russia. Occipital hair essential metal and metalloid (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, V, Zn) content was estimated using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The reference ranges were calculated in accordance with the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) recommendations. Women were characterized by 55, 18, 58, and 7% higher values of hair Co, Cu, Mn, and Zn content as compared to the values observed in men. At the same time, hair Cr, Fe, Se, and V concentration in men significantly exceeded the respective female values by 65, 13, 20, and 56%. Consequently, the reference ranges of essential hair trace elements content should be separately calculated for both men and women. The obtained reference ranges for hair Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, V, and Zn in men were 0.11-0.67, 0.007-0.045, 10.4-22.6, 11.1-40.5, 0.24-1.05, 0.089-0.480, 0.014-0.083, and 125.7-262.8 μg/g, respectively. The respective values estimated for women were 0.06-0.40, 0.011-0.085, 12.1-44.5, 8.9-25.6, 0.32-2.05, 0.094-0.504, 0.010-0.056, and 140.0-315.1 μg/g. The reference ranges for hair Co (0.07-0.50), Cr (0.009-0.073), Cu (11.8-29.2), Fe (9.6-31.5), Mn (0.29-1.76), Se (0.093-0.482), V (0.011-0.069), and Zn (134.7-301.9) content (μg/g) in the general cohort were also calculated.

  13. Acceptability and Feasibility of Physical Activity Assessment Methods for an Appalachian Population.

    PubMed

    Tarasenko, Yelena N; Howell, Britteny M; Studts, Christina R; Strath, Scott J; Schoenberg, Nancy E

    2015-08-01

    Nowhere is improving understanding and accurate assessment of physical activity more important for disease prevention and health promotion than among health disparities populations such as those residing in rural and Appalachian regions. To enhance accurate assessment of physical activity and potentially improve intervention capacity, we conducted a mixed-methods study examining the acceptability and feasibility of self-report physical activity questionnaires, pedometers, and accelerometers among rural Appalachian children, adolescents, and adults. Most participants reported positive experiences with all three physical activity assessment tools. Several acceptability ratings differed by age group and by sex within each age group. With very few exceptions, no significant differences in acceptability were found by race, education, employment status, health status, BMI categories, income levels, or insurance status within age groups or overall. Several factors may impact the choice of the physical activity assessment method, including target population age, equipment cost, researcher burden, and potential influence on physical activity levels. Children and adolescents appear to have more constraints on when they can wear pedometers and accelerometers. While pedometers are inexpensive and convenient, they may influence physical activity levels, rather than simply measure them. Accelerometers, while less influential on behavior, consume extensive resources, including high purchase costs and researcher burden.

  14. Stochastic weighted particle methods for population balance equations

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Robert I.A.; Wagner, Wolfgang; Kraft, Markus

    2011-08-10

    Highlights: {yields} Weight transfer functions for Monte Carlo simulation of coagulation. {yields} Efficient support for single-particle growth processes. {yields} Comparisons to analytic solutions and soot formation problems. {yields} Better numerical accuracy for less common particles. - Abstract: A class of coagulation weight transfer functions is constructed, each member of which leads to a stochastic particle algorithm for the numerical treatment of population balance equations. These algorithms are based on systems of weighted computational particles and the weight transfer functions are constructed such that the number of computational particles does not change during coagulation events. The algorithms also facilitate the simulation of physical processes that change single particles, such as growth, or other surface reactions. Four members of the algorithm family have been numerically validated by comparison to analytic solutions to simple problems. Numerical experiments have been performed for complex laminar premixed flame systems in which members of the class of stochastic weighted particle methods were compared to each other and to a direct simulation algorithm. Two of the weighted algorithms have been shown to offer performance advantages over the direct simulation algorithm in situations where interest is focused on the larger particles in a system. The extent of this advantage depends on the particular system and on the quantities of interest.

  15. Pilates Method for Lung Function and Functional Capacity in Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Niehues, Janaina Rocha; Gonzáles, Inês; Lemos, Robson Rodrigues; Haas, Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is defined as the condition in which the body mass index (BMI) is ≥ 30 kg/m2 and is responsible for decreased quality of life and functional limitations. The harmful effects on ventilatory function include reduced lung capacity and volume; diaphragmatic muscle weakness; decreased lung compliance and stiffness; and weakness of the abdominal muscles, among others. Pilates is a method of resistance training that works with low-impact muscle exercises and is based on isometric exercises. The current article is a review of the literature that aims to investigate the hypothesis that the Pilates method, as a complementary method of training, might be beneficial to pulmonary function and functional capacity in obese adults. The intent of the review was to evaluate the use of Pilates as an innovative intervention in the respiratory dysfunctions of obese adults. In studies with other populations, it has been observed that Pilates can be effective in improving chest capacity and expansion and lung volume. That finding is due to the fact that Pilates works through the center of force, made ​​up of the abdominal muscles and gluteus muscles lumbar, which are responsible for the stabilization of the static and dynamic body that is associated with breath control. It has been observed that different Pilates exercises increase the activation and recruitment of the abdominal muscles. Those muscles are important in respiration, both in expiration and inspiration, through the facilitation of diaphragmatic action. In that way, strengthening the abdominal muscles can help improve respiratory function, leading to improvements in lung volume and capacity. The results found in the current literature review support the authors' observations that Pilates promotes the strengthening of the abdominal muscles and that improvements in diaphragmatic function may result in positive outcomes in respiratory function, thereby improving functional capacity. However, the authors did not

  16. Substance Use, Health, and Functioning Characteristics of Medical Marijuana Program Participants Compared to the General Adult Population in Ontario (Canada).

    PubMed

    Fischer, Benedikt; Ialomiteanu, Anca R; Aeby, Samantha; Rudzinski, Katherine; Kurdyak, Paul; Rehm, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Existent profiles of Medical Marijuana Program (MMP) participants indicate common and co-morbid chronic diseases, yet evidence on disability or functioning as well as comparisons with general populations are largely lacking. This study compared health, substance use, and functioning status among formally approved MMP participants with the general adult population in Ontario (Canada). A community-recruited sample (n = 53) of MMP participants was compared to a sub-sample (n = 510) of the representative Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) Monitor (2015 cycle) survey of Ontario general population adults (ages 18+) based on identical telephone-based interviews regarding substance use, health, and functioning measures. Means and standard deviations for all indicators were computed by sex, controlled for age and education, and compared by regression techniques. MMP participants were more likely to be male, younger, and less socio-economically integrated; they indicated more common psychoactive substance (e.g., tobacco, daily cannabis) and psychotropic medication use, as well as overall worse physical and mental health and functioning status. Marked differences between MMP participants and general population adults were observed. MMPs appear to attract individuals with complex chronic health problems; however, little is known about the impact of MMP participation on these.

  17. Insecticide Rotation Programs with Entomopathogenic Organisms for Suppression of Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Adult Populations under Greenhouse Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kivett, Jessica M; Cloyd, Raymond A; Bello, Nora M

    2015-08-01

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is one of the most destructive insect pests of greenhouse production systems with the ability to develop resistance to a wide variety of insecticides. A common resistance management strategy is rotating insecticides with different modes of action. By incorporating entomopathogenic organisms (fungi and bacteria), which have discrete modes of action compared to standard insecticides, greenhouse producers may preserve the effectiveness of insecticides used for suppression of western flower thrips populations. The objective of this study was to determine how different rotation programs that include entomopathogenic organisms (Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosoroseus, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Chromobacterium subtsugae) and commonly used standard insecticides (spinosad, chlorfenapyr, abamectin, and pyridalyl) may impact the population dynamics of western flower thrips adult populations by means of suppression. Eight-week rotation programs were applied to chrysanthemum, Dendranthema x morifolium plants and weekly counts of western flower thrips adults captured on yellow sticky cards were recorded as a means to evaluate the impact of the rotation programs. A final quality assessment of damage caused by western flower thrips feeding on foliage and flowers was also recorded. Furthermore, a cost comparison of each rotation program was conducted. Overall, insecticide rotation programs that incorporated entomopathogenic organisms were not significantly different than the standard insecticide rotation programs without entomopathogenic organisms in suppressing western flower thrips adult populations. However, there were no significant differences among any of the rotation programs compared to the water control. Moreover, there was no differential effect of the rotation programs on foliage and flower quality. Cost savings of up to 34% (in US dollars) are possible when including entomopathogenic organisms in the

  18. Executive Cognitive Functioning and Cardiovascular Autonomic Regulation in a Population-Based Sample of Working Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stenfors, Cecilia U. D.; Hanson, Linda M.; Theorell, Töres; Osika, Walter S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Executive cognitive functioning is essential in private and working life and is sensitive to stress and aging. Cardiovascular (CV) health factors are related to cognitive decline and dementia, but there is relatively few studies of the role of CV autonomic regulation, a key component in stress responses and risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and executive processes. An emerging pattern of results from previous studies suggest that different executive processes may be differentially associated with CV autonomic regulation. The aim was thus to study the associations between multiple measures of CV autonomic regulation and measures of different executive cognitive processes. Method: Participants were 119 healthy working adults (79% women), from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. Electrocardiogram was sampled for analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) measures, including the Standard Deviation of NN, here heart beats (SDNN), root of the mean squares of successive differences (RMSSD), high frequency (HF) power band from spectral analyses, and QT variability index (QTVI), a measure of myocardial repolarization patterns. Executive cognitive functioning was measured by seven neuropsychological tests. The relationships between CV autonomic regulation measures and executive cognitive measures were tested with bivariate and partial correlational analyses, controlling for demographic variables, and mental health symptoms. Results: Higher SDNN and RMSSD and lower QTVI were significantly associated with better performance on cognitive tests tapping inhibition, updating, shifting, and psychomotor speed. After adjustments for demographic factors however (age being the greatest confounder), only QTVI was clearly associated with these executive tests. No such associations were seen for working memory capacity. Conclusion: Poorer CV autonomic regulation in terms of lower SDNN and RMSSD and higher QTVI was associated with poorer executive

  19. Executive Cognitive Functioning and Cardiovascular Autonomic Regulation in a Population-Based Sample of Working Adults.

    PubMed

    Stenfors, Cecilia U D; Hanson, Linda M; Theorell, Töres; Osika, Walter S

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Executive cognitive functioning is essential in private and working life and is sensitive to stress and aging. Cardiovascular (CV) health factors are related to cognitive decline and dementia, but there is relatively few studies of the role of CV autonomic regulation, a key component in stress responses and risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and executive processes. An emerging pattern of results from previous studies suggest that different executive processes may be differentially associated with CV autonomic regulation. The aim was thus to study the associations between multiple measures of CV autonomic regulation and measures of different executive cognitive processes. Method: Participants were 119 healthy working adults (79% women), from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. Electrocardiogram was sampled for analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) measures, including the Standard Deviation of NN, here heart beats (SDNN), root of the mean squares of successive differences (RMSSD), high frequency (HF) power band from spectral analyses, and QT variability index (QTVI), a measure of myocardial repolarization patterns. Executive cognitive functioning was measured by seven neuropsychological tests. The relationships between CV autonomic regulation measures and executive cognitive measures were tested with bivariate and partial correlational analyses, controlling for demographic variables, and mental health symptoms. Results: Higher SDNN and RMSSD and lower QTVI were significantly associated with better performance on cognitive tests tapping inhibition, updating, shifting, and psychomotor speed. After adjustments for demographic factors however (age being the greatest confounder), only QTVI was clearly associated with these executive tests. No such associations were seen for working memory capacity. Conclusion: Poorer CV autonomic regulation in terms of lower SDNN and RMSSD and higher QTVI was associated with poorer executive

  20. Characteristics of and risk factors for colorectal neoplasms in young adults in a screening population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Eun; Jo, Hee Bum; Kwack, Won Gun; Jeong, Yun Jin; Yoon, Yeo-Jin; Kang, Hyoun Woo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate prevalence and risk factors for colorectal neoplasms in adults aged < 50 years, for whom screening is not recommended. METHODS: This cross-sectional study compared prevalence and characteristics of colorectal and advanced adenomas in patients aged < 50 years who underwent colonoscopy screening with subjects aged ≥ 50 years. To evaluate risk factors for colorectal and advanced adenoma in young adults, we used multivariable logistic regression models. Colorectal neoplasm characteristics were evaluated and compared with those in older patients. RESULTS: Among 2819 patients included, prevalences of colorectal adenoma and advanced adenoma were 19.7% and 1.5%, respectively. As patient age increased, so did the prevalence of colorectal neoplasm. However, prevalence of advanced adenoma did not differ between age-groups 45-49 years and ≥ 50 years (OR = 0.43, 95%CI: 0.17-1.07, P = 0.070). In younger age-group (< 50 years), colorectal adenoma was significantly associated with older age, waist circumference (OR = 1.72, 95%CI: 1.15-2.55, P = 0.008), and current smoking (OR = 1.60, 95%CI: 1.07-2.41, P = 0.023). Alcohol consumption was an independent risk factor for colorectal advanced adenoma (OR = 3.69, 95%CI: 1.08-12.54, P = 0.037). Multiple neoplasms and large neoplasms (≥ 1 cm) were more prevalent in subjects ≥ 50 years. CONCLUSION: Current screening strategies for colorectal cancer may need to be amended to account for patient age, especially in young subjects with abdominal obesity, current smoking and alcohol consumption. PMID:26973394

  1. B-cell populations discriminate between pediatric- and adult-onset multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Alexander; Balint, Bettina; Korporal-Kuhnke, Mirjam; Jarius, Sven; von Engelhardt, Kathrin; Fürwentsches, Alexandra; Bussmann, Cornelia; Ebinger, Friedrich; Haas, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To comparatively assess the B-cell composition in blood and CSF of patients with pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (pedMS) and adult-onset multiple sclerosis (adMS). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we obtained blood and CSF samples from 25 patients with pedMS (8–18 years) and 40 patients with adMS (23–65 years) and blood specimens from 66 controls (1–55 years). By using multicolor flow cytometry, we identified naive, transitional, isotype class-switched memory, nonswitched memory, and double-negative memory B-cell subsets as well as plasmablasts (PB) and terminally differentiated plasma cells (PC). Flow cytometric data were compared to concentrations of B-cell-specific cytokines in serum and CSF as determined by ELISA. Results: Frequencies of circulating naive B-cells decreased with higher age in controls but not in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). B-cell patterns in CSF differed between pedMS and adMS with an acute relapse: in pedMS-derived CSF samples, high frequencies of nonswitched memory B cells and PB were present, whereas class-switched memory B cells and PC dominated in the CSF of patients with adMS. In pedMS, PB were also elevated in the periphery. Accumulation of PB in the CSF correlated with high intrathecal CXCL-13 levels and augmented intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M. Conclusions: We demonstrate distinct changes in intrathecal B-cell homeostasis in patients with pedMS during active disease, which differ from those in adults by an expansion of plasmablasts in blood and CSF and similarly occur in prototypic autoantibody-driven autoimmune disorders. This emphasizes the particular importance of activated B-lymphocyte subsets for disease progression in the earliest clinical stages of MS. PMID:28053999

  2. Depression, Sex and Gender Roles in Older Adult Populations: The International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS)

    PubMed Central

    Vafaei, Afshin; Ahmed, Tamer; Freire, Aline do N. Falcão; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Guerra, Ricardo O.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the associations between gender roles and depression in older men and women and whether gender roles are independent risk factors for depression. Methods International cross-sectional study of adults between 65 and 74 years old (n = 1,967). Depression was defined by a score of 16 or over in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). A validated 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) was used to classify participants in gender roles (Masculine, Feminine, Androgynous, and Undifferentiated) using research site medians of femininity and masculinity as cut-off points. Poisson regressions were fitted to estimate the prevalence ratios (PR) of depression for each gender role compared to the masculine role, adjusting for sex, sufficiency of income, education, marital status, self-rated health, and chronic conditions. Results Among men, 31.2% were androgynous, 26% were masculine, 14.4% were feminine, and 28.4% were undifferentiated; among women, the corresponding percentages were 32.7%, 14.9%, 27%, and 25.4%. Both in men and in women, depressive symptoms (CES-D≥16) were more prevalent in those endorsing the undifferentiated type, compared to masculine, feminine or androgynous groups. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, compared to the masculine group only those endorsing the androgynous role were 28% less likely to suffer from depression: PR of 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55–0.93). In fully adjusted models, prevalence rates of depression were not different from masculine participants in the two other gender groups of feminine and undifferentiated. Conclusions Androgynous roles were associated with lower rates of depression in older adults, independently of being a man or a woman. PMID:26771828

  3. Distribution of intraocular pressure and its determinants in an Iranian adult population

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Shariati, Mohammad; Yekta, Abbasali; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) and its determinants in an Iranian population. METHODS In a cross-sectional survey, random cluster sampling was conducted from the 40-64 years old population of Shahroud, in the north of Iran. All participants had optometry and ophthalmic exams. IOP was determined using the Goldmann tonometry method and biometric components were measured. RESULTS Of the 6311 people selected for the study, 5190 (82.2%) participated. The mean age of the participants was 50.9±6.2y and 58.7% of them were female. Mean IOP was 12.87±2.27 mm Hg. In this study 0.3% of the participants had an IOP higher than 21 mm Hg. The multiple linear regression model revealed that sex (Coef=-0.30; 95% CI: -0.43 to -0.17), diabetes (Coef=0.43; 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.67), high systolic blood pressure (Coef=0.02; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.02), high body mass index (BMI) (Coef=0.03; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.04), higher education (Coef=0.02, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.04), thicker central corneal thickness (Coef=0.01; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.02), and myopic shift in spherical equivalent (Coef=-0.14; 95% CI: -0.18 to -0.10) significantly correlated with high IOP. CONCLUSION The IOP in this 40-64 years old population is low overall. In the north of Iran, average IOP is statistically significantly correlated with female sex, diabetes, higher BMI, systolic blood pressure, higher education, thicker cornea, and myopic refractive error. PMID:27588277

  4. Dietary cellulose, fructooligosaccharides, and pectin modify fecal protein catabolites and microbial populations in adult cats.

    PubMed

    Barry, K A; Wojcicki, B J; Middelbos, I S; Vester, B M; Swanson, K S; Fahey, G C

    2010-09-01

    Twelve young adult (1.7 +/- 0.1 yr) male cats were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design to determine the effects of fiber type on nutrient digestibility, fermentative end products, and fecal microbial populations. Three diets containing 4% cellulose, fructooligosaccharides (FOS), or pectin were evaluated. Feces were scored based on the 5-point system: 1 being hard, dry pellets, and 5 being watery liquid that can be poured. No differences were observed (P > 0.100) in intake of DM, OM, CP, or acid-hydrolyzed fat; DM or OM digestibility; or fecal pH, DM%, output on an as-is or DM basis, or concentrations of histamine or phenylalanine. Crude protein and fat digestibility decreased (P = 0.079 and 0.001, respectively) in response to supplementation with pectin compared with cellulose. Both FOS and pectin supplementation resulted in increased fecal scores (P < 0.001) and concentrations of ammonia (P = 0.003) and 4-methyl phenol (P = 0.003). Fecal indole concentrations increased (P = 0.049) when cats were supplemented with FOS. Fecal acetate (P = 0.030), propionate (P = 0.035), and total short-chain fatty acid (P = 0.016) concentrations increased in pectin-supplemented cats. Fecal butyrate (P = 0.010), isobutyrate (P = 0.011), isovalerate (P = 0.012), valerate (P = 0.026), and total branched-chain fatty acids + valerate (P = 0.008) concentrations increased with supplementation of FOS and pectin. Fecal cadaverine (P < 0.001) and tryptamine (P < 0.001) concentrations increased with supplementation of FOS and pectin. Fecal tyramine concentrations decreased (P = 0.039) in FOS-supplemented cats, whereas spermidine concentrations increased (P < 0.001) in pectin-supplemented cats. Whereas fecal concentrations of putrescine (P < 0.001) and total biogenic amines (P < 0.001) increased with FOS and pectin, the concentrations of these compounds were increased (P < 0.001) in cats supplemented with pectin. Fecal Bifidobacterium spp. concentrations increased (P = 0.006) and

  5. Elevated serum complement C3 levels are associated with prehypertension in an adult population.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xue; Meng, Ge; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Wu, Hongmei; Du, Huanmin; Shi, Hongbin; Xia, Yang; Guo, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xing; Han, Peipei; Dong, Renwei; Wang, Xiuyang; Li, Chunlei; Su, Qian; Gu, Yeqing; Fang, Liyun; Yu, Fei; Yang, Huijun; Kang, Li; Ma, Yixuan; Yu, Bin; Ma, Xinyu; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Guo, Qi; Song, Kun; Wang, GuoLin; Huang, Guowei; Niu, Kaijun

    2017-01-01

    Prehypertension is a public health epidemic associated with various adverse outcomes, but can be reversed by timely intervention. However, little attention has been paid to prehypertension. Complement C3 is a central hub of complement-related immune system. We examined the association between C3 and prehypertension in an adult population for the first time, aiming to investigate whether pro-inflammatory immune response is involved in the prehypertensive state. About 7820 Tianjin residents without hypertension were categorized into sex-specific quintiles based on their serum concentration of complement C3. Adjusted logistic regression models were used separately by gender to assess the association between C3 quintiles and the prevalence of prehypertension. After multiple adjustment, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for prehypertension across increasing quintiles of C3 were 1.00 (reference), 1.02 (0.84, 1.25), 1.15 (0.94, 1.42), 1.25 (1.01, 1.54), and 1.71 (1.35, 2.17) (p for trend < 0.0001) among men and were 1.00 (reference), 1.17 (0.92, 1.49), 1.13 (0.88, 1.44), 1.15 (0.89, 1.48), and 1.40 (1.07, 1.84) (p for trend = 0.03) among women. The findings suggested that elevated serum C3 levels are associated with prehypertension. Reducing inflammation may be a potential therapeutic strategy for prehypertension and hypertension that is worthy of further studies and discussion.

  6. Socioeconomic status and obesity in adult populations of developing countries: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Carlos A.; Moura, Erly C.; Conde, Wolney L.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2004-01-01

    A landmark review of studies published prior to 1989 on socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity supported the view that obesity in the developing world would be essentially a disease of the socioeconomic elite. The present review, on studies conducted in adult populations from developing countries, published between 1989 and 2003, shows a different scenario for the relationship between SES and obesity. Although more studies are necessary to clarify the exact nature of this relationship, particularly among men, three main conclusions emerge from the studies reviewed: 1. Obesity in the developing world can no longer be considered solely a disease of groups with higher SES. 2. The burden of obesity in each developing country tends to shift towards the groups with lower SES as the country's gross national product (GNP) increases. 3. The shift of obesity towards women with low SES apparently occurs at an earlier stage of economic development than it does for men. The crossover to higher rates of obesity among women of low SES is found at a GNP per capita of about US$ 2500, the mid-point value for lower-middle-income economies. The results of this review reinforce the urgent need to: include obesity prevention as a relevant topic on the public health agenda in developing countries; improve the access of all social classes in these countries to reliable information on the determinants and consequences of obesity; and design and implement consistent public actions on the physical, economic, and sociocultural environment that make healthier choices concerning diet and physical activity feasible for all. A significant step in this direction was taken with the approval of the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health by the World Health Assembly in May 2004. PMID:15654409

  7. Knowledge and attitude towards organ donation among adult population in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Sandeep; Binsaleem, Saud; Al-Homrani, Mohammed; Al-Juhayim, Abdullaziz; Al-Harbi, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Organ transplantation is a lifesaving treatment for patients with end-stage organ failure. Despite the advanced medical science and technology, shortage of organs had led to a growing gap between the demand for organs and the number of donors. With a limited number of studies on the subject and based on those findings, the public knowledge and attitudes must be assessed to understand more clearly that why many people are opposing donating their organs in Saudi Arabia. The objective of our study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of the adult population toward organ donation in Saudi Arabia. This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study where the information was collected using a self-administered questionnaire in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was distributed in both King Khalid Hospital and Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University Hospital, and data gathered analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0). There were a total of 403 respondents. Nearly 35.6% did not have the knowledge that organ donation is legal in the KSA. Almost 97% did not know where to go if they want to become donors. All of who were willing to donate, the most common reason was to save someone's life (92.7%). Body distortion (39%) and fear of health complications (35%) were the most common causes people opposed donation. It was suggested that, in order to increase the awareness for organ donation, the important role of health workers and hospital displays should be immediately addressed and public lectures should be held on regular basis. Information regarding organ donation should be incorporated with clear messages in various mass media.

  8. Population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis of voriconazole and anidulafungin in adult patients with invasive aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Mould, Diane R

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the exposure-response relationships for efficacy and safety of voriconazole and anidulafungin in adult patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA), a population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) analysis was performed with data from a phase 3, prospective, double-blind, comparative study evaluating voriconazole and anidulafungin combination therapy versus voriconazole (and placebo) monotherapy. Anidulafungin/placebo treatment duration was 2 to 4 weeks, and voriconazole treatment duration was 6 weeks. Efficacy (6-week all-causality mortality and 6-week global response [n = 176]) and safety (hepatic [n = 238], visual [n = 199], and psychiatric [n = 183] adverse events [AEs]) endpoints were analyzed separately using a binary logistic regression model. In IA patients receiving voriconazole monotherapy, no positive associations between voriconazole exposure and efficacy or safety were identified. In IA patients receiving combination therapy, no positive associations between voriconazole or anidulafungin exposures and efficacy were identified. The 6-week survival rate tended to increase as anidulafungin treatment duration increased; this finding should be considered with caution. Additionally, in IA patients receiving combination therapy, a positive association between voriconazole and anidulafungin exposures (area under the curve [AUC] and trough concentration [C(min)]) and hepatic AEs was established; a weak positive association between voriconazole exposure (AUC and C(min)) and psychiatric AEs was also established, but no association between voriconazole exposure and visual AEs was identified. Besides the drug exposures, no other covariates (i.e., CYP2C19 genotype status, age, weight, body mass index, sex, race, or neutropenia status) were identified as significant predictors of the efficacy and safety endpoints in IA patients. This study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00531479).

  9. Reliability of the Suchey-Brooks method for a French contemporary population.

    PubMed

    Savall, Frédéric; Rérolle, Camille; Hérin, Fabrice; Dédouit, Fabrice; Rougé, Daniel; Telmon, Norbert; Saint-Martin, Pauline

    2016-09-01

    The Suchey-Brooks method is commonly used for pubic symphyseal aging in forensic cases. However, inter-population variability is a problem affected by several factors such as geographical location and secular trends. The aim of our study was to test the reliability of the Suchey-Brooks method on a virtual sample of contemporary French males. We carried out a retrospective study of 680 pubic symphysis from adult males undergoing clinical Multislice Computed Tomography in two hospitals between January 2013 and July 2014 (Toulouse and Tours, France). The reliability of the Suchey-Brooks method was tested by the calculation of inaccuracy and bias between real and estimated ages, and the mean age for each stage and the mean stage for each 10-years age interval were compared. The degree of inaccuracy and bias increased with age and inaccuracy exceeded 20 years for individuals over 65 years of age. The results are consistent with an overestimation of the real age for stages I and II and an underestimation of the real age for stages IV, V and VI. Furthermore, the mean stages of the reference sample were significantly lower for the 14-25 age group and significantly higher for individuals over 35 years old. Age estimation is potentially limited by differential inter-population error rates between geographical locations. Furthermore, the effects of secular trends are also supported by research in European countries showing a reduction in the age of attainment of indicators of biological maturity during the past few decades. The results suggest that the Suchey-Brooks method should be used with caution in France. Our study supports previous findings and in the future, the Suchey-Brooks method could benefit from re-evaluation of the aging standards by the establishment of new virtual reference samples.

  10. Prevalence of Risk Factors for Chronic Non-communicable Diseases Using WHO Steps Approach in an Adult Population in Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Ankur; Anand, Tanu; Sharma, Urvi; Kishore, Jugal; Chakraborty, Mantosh; Ray, Prakash Chandra; Ingle, Gopal Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing worldwide largely due to prevalence of various risk factors, which can be controlled. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to measure the prevalence of major preventable risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi, using STEPS approach. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study, that included a random sample of 200 adults, was conducted. A study tool based on the WHO STEPS questionnaire for assessing non-communicable diseases and their risk factors was used. Fasting venous blood sample was collected to assess the lipid profile and fasting blood sugar. Anthropometric measurements of the participants were also taken. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: Out of the 200 participants, 26% (n = 52) were consuming alcohol and 17% (n = 34) were smoking. Majority (77.5%) had a raised waist circumference, and more than two-thirds were either overweight or obese. Fasting blood sugar levels were found to be raised in 18% of the study population. More than third participants had raised systolic and diastolic blood pressures and abnormal lipid profiles. More males were found to be overweight in comparison to females (P < 0.01), but in contrast, obesity (P < 0.05) and raised waist circumference (P < 0.001) were more common in females. Tobacco use was more common in lower class (P < 0.05), whereas obesity was commoner in the upper socio-economic class (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Study showed a high burden of risk factors for NCDs in the study population, pointing towards changing disease epidemiology of non-communicable diseases in India. PMID:25161966

  11. Association of HbA1c and cardiovascular and renal disease in an adult Mediterranean population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence suggests a mechanistic link between the glycemic environment and renal and cardiovascular events, even below the threshold for diabetes. We aimed to assess the association between HbA1c and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods A cross-sectional study involving a random representative sample of 2270 adults from southern Spain (Malaga) was undertaken. We measured HbA1c, serum creatinine and albuminuria in fasting blood and urine samples. Results Individuals without diabetes in the upper HbA1c tertile had an unfavorable cardiovascular and renal profile and shared certain clinical characteristics with the patients with diabetes. Overall, a higher HbA1c concentration was strongly associated with CKD or CVD after adjustment for traditional risk factors. The patients with known diabetes had a 2-fold higher odds of CKD or CVD. However, when both parameters were introduced in the same model, the HbA1c concentration was only significantly associated with clinical endpoints (OR: 1.4, 95% CI, 1.1-1.6, P = 0.002). An increase in HbA1c of one percentage point was associated with a 30% to 40% increase in the rate of CKD or CVD. This relationship was apparent in persons with and without known diabetes. ROC curves illustrated that a HbA1c of 37 mmol/mol (5.5%) was the optimal value in terms of sensitivity and specificity for predicting endpoints in this population. Conclusion HbA1c levels were associated with a higher prevalence of CKD and CVD cross-sectionally, regardless of diabetes status. These data support the value of HbA1c as a marker of cardiovascular and renal disease in the general population. PMID:23865389

  12. Connecting Generations: Developing Co-Design Methods for Older Adults and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Bo; Druin, Allison; Fails, Jerry; Massey, Sheri; Golub, Evan; Franckel, Sonia; Schneider, Kiki

    2012-01-01

    As new technologies emerge that can bring older adults together with children, little has been discussed by researchers concerning the design methods used to create these new technologies. Giving both children and older adults a voice in a shared design process comes with many challenges. This paper details an exploratory study focusing on…

  13. Comparison of adult HIV prevalence from national population-based surveys and antenatal clinic surveillance in countries with generalised epidemics: implications for calibrating surveillance data

    PubMed Central

    Gouws, E; Mishra, V; Fowler, T B

    2008-01-01

    Background: Estimates of the impact of HIV in countries with generalised epidemics are generally based on antenatal clinic surveillance data collected over time. In an attempt to obtain geographically more representative estimates of HIV prevalence, many countries are now also conducting national population-based surveys in which HIV testing is included. We compare adult HIV prevalence estimates from antenatal clinic surveillance to those from national population-based surveys to assess the implications for calibrating surveillance data. Methods: HIV prevalence estimates derived from fitting prevalence curves to antenatal clinic surveillance data are statistically compared to prevalence from national population-based surveys using data from 26 countries with generalised epidemics for the year in which the survey was conducted. Appropriate transformations are applied to inform the correction factors needed to adjust prevalence in countries where population-based surveys have not been conducted. Results: HIV prevalence derived from antenatal clinic surveillance data generally overestimate population-based survey prevalence by about 20% (95% confidence interval: 10% to 30%) in both urban and rural areas. Conclusions: In countries where national population-based HIV surveys have been conducted, survey estimates of HIV prevalence (adjusted for potential survey biases as appropriate) can be used directly to calibrate antenatal clinic surveillance data. In countries where national HIV surveys have not been conducted, HIV prevalence derived from antenatal clinic surveillance data should be multiplied by about 0.8 to adjust for overestimation. PMID:18647861

  14. Measuring autistic traits in the general population: a systematic review of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in a nonclinical population sample of 6,900 typical adult males and females.

    PubMed

    Ruzich, Emily; Allison, Carrie; Smith, Paula; Watson, Peter; Auyeung, Bonnie; Ring, Howard; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) is a self-report measure of autistic traits. It is frequently cited in diverse fields and has been administered to adults of at least average intelligence with autism and to nonclinical controls, as well as to clinical control groups such as those with schizophrenia, prosopagnosia, anorexia, and depression. However, there has been no empirical systematic review of the AQ since its inception in 2001. The present study reports a comprehensive systematic review of the literature to estimate a reliable mean AQ score in individuals without a diagnosis of an autism spectrum condition (ASC), in order to establish a reference norm for future studies. A systematic search of computerized databases was performed to identify studies that administered the AQ to nonclinical participant samples representing the adult male and female general population. Inclusion was based on a set of formalized criteria that evaluated the quality of the study, the usage of the AQ, and the population being assessed. After selection, 73 articles, detailing 6,934 nonclinical participants, as well as 1,963 matched clinical cases of ASC (from available cohorts within each individual study), were analyzed. Mean AQ score for the nonclinical population was 16.94 (95% CI 11.6, 20.0), while mean AQ score for the clinical population with ASC was found to be 35.19 (95% CI 27.6, 41.1). In addition, in the nonclinical population, a sex difference in autistic traits was found, although no sex difference in AQ score was seen in the clinical ASC population. These findings have implications for the study of autistic traits in the general population. Here, we confirm previous norms with more rigorous data and for the first time establish average AQ scores based on a systematic review, for populations of adult males and females with and without ASC. Finally, we advise future researchers to avoid risk of bias by carefully considering the recruitment strategy for both clinical and

  15. Sex education and contraceptive methods: knowledge and sources of information among the Estonian population.

    PubMed

    Kalda, R; Sarapuu, H; Pikk, A; Lember, M

    1998-06-01

    A survey on sex education and contraceptive methods was carried out within a monthly EMOR Omnibus Survey. By using a questionnaire, knowledge and attitudes, as well as the main sources of information on contraceptive methods and sex education, among the Estonian adult population (n = 618) was investigated. Of the respondents, 68% were female and 32% were males: the mean age was 34 years. Almost all respondents expressed the opinion that sex education should start at school and that education on contraceptive methods would reduce the number of abortions. The majority of the respondents believed that it would be more convenient to visit a family doctor than a gynecologist for family planning. Main sources of information on contraception were: literature, doctors and journals, as rated by females; and literature, partners and television, as rated by males. The roles of the school nurse, father and siblings were rated as comparatively small. The level of respondents' knowledge of contraceptive methods was not too high. It is concluded that the prerequisites for changing sexual behavior and knowledge over a short time are wider use of mass media and better sex education at schools. Also, it is necessary to prepare family doctors to offer family planning services to their patients.

  16. Quantifying the distribution of inhalation exposure in human populations: Distribution of minute volumes in adults and children

    SciTech Connect

    Beals, J.A.J.; Funk, L.M.; Fountain, R.; Sedman, R.

    1996-09-01

    Assessments of inhalation exposure to environmental agents necessitate quantitative estimates of pulmonary ventilation rates. Estimating a range of exposures in a given population requires an understanding of the variability of ventilation rates in the population. Distribution of ventilation rates (Ve) were described based on the results of a large study where Ve were measured while subjects performed a variety of physical tasks. Three distinct ventilation levels were identified using cluster analyses of the mean Ve and then various activities were assigned to the three levels using a k-means procedure. Separate distributions were identified for the three Ve levels for adult males, adult females, and children. The variability of Ve was consistent with a lognormal distribution for all groups. An aggregate daily inhalation rate can be estimated based on the distributions of Ve. 41 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  17. The influence of body size on adult skeletal age estimation methods.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Catherine E

    2015-01-01

    Accurate age estimations are essential to archaeological and forensic analyses. However, reliability for adult skeletal age estimations is poor, especially for individuals over the age of 40 years. This is the first study to show that body size influences skeletal age estimation. The İşcan et al., Lovejoy et al., Buckberry and Chamberlain, and Suchey-Brooks age methods were tested on 764 adult skeletons from the Hamann-Todd and William Bass Collections. Statures ranged from 1.30 to 1.93 m and body masses ranged from 24.0 to 99.8 kg. Transition analysis was used to evaluate the differences in the age estimations. For all four methods, the smallest individuals have the lowest ages at transition and the largest individuals have the highest ages at transition. Short and light individuals are consistently underaged, while tall and heavy individuals are consistently overaged. When femoral length and femoral head diameter are compared with the log-age model, results show the same trend as the known stature and body mass measurements. The skeletal remains of underweight individuals have fewer age markers while those of obese individuals have increased surface degeneration and osteophytic lipping. Tissue type and mechanical loading have been shown to affect bone turnover rates, and may explain the differing patterns of skeletal aging. From an archaeological perspective, the underaging of light, short individuals suggests the need to revisit the current research consensus on the young mortality rates of past populations. From a forensic perspective, understanding the influence of body size will impact efforts to identify victims of mass disasters, genocides, and homicides.

  18. Evaluation of VOC measurments in the EXPOLIS study. Air Pollution Exposure Distributions within Adult Urban Urban Populations in Europe.

    PubMed

    Jurvelin, J; Edwards, R; Saarela, K; Laine-Ylijoki, J; De Bortoli, M; Oglesby, L; Schläpfer, K; Georgoulis, L; Tischerova, E; Hänninen, O; Jantunen, M

    2001-02-01

    Personal exposures and microenvironment concentrations of 30 target VOCs were measured for 401 participants living in five European cities as a part of the EXPOLIS (Air Pollution Exposure Distributions within Adult Urban Populations in Europe) study. Measurements in Basel used an active charcoal (Carbotech) adsorbent as opposed to the Tenax TA used in the other study centres. In addition, within each centre, personal and microenvironment VOC sampling required different sampling pumps and, because of different sampling durations, different sampling flow rates. Thus, careful testing of the sampling and analysis procedures was required to ensure accuracy and comparability of collected data. Monitor comparison tests using Tenax TA showed a mean VOC concentration ratio of 0.95 between the personal and microenvironment monitors. The LODs for the target VOCs using Tenax TA ranged from 0.7 to 5.2 microg m(-3). The LODs for the 14 target compounds quantifiable using Carbotech ranged from 0.9 to 3.2 microg m(-3). Tenax TA field blanks showed no remarkable contamination with the target VOCs, except benzaldehyde, a known artefact with this adsorbent. Thus, the diffusion barrier system used prevented contamination of Tenax TA samples by passive diffusion during non-sampling periods. Duplicate and parallel evaluations of the Tenax TA and Carbotech showed an average difference of < 17% in VOC concentrations within the sampling methods, but a systematic difference between the methods (Tenax TA: Carbotech concentration ratio = 1.18-2.36). These field evaluations and quality assurance tests showed that interpretation and comparison of the results in any VOC monitoring exercise should be done on a compound by compound basis. It is also apparent that carefully planned and realised QA and QC (QA/QC) procedures are needed in multi-centre studies, where a common sampling method and laboratory analysis technique are not used, to strengthen and simplify the interpretation of observed VOC

  19. Transitioning issues in adolescent to young adult hemophilia patients with inhibitors: an approach for a growing population.

    PubMed

    Young, Guy

    2010-09-01

    The major adverse effect of factor replacement therapy in patients with hemophilia is the development of neutralizing antibodies termed inhibitors. This complication renders standard factor replacement therapy ineffective resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Until recently, the population of adults with inhibitors was relatively small due to the death of many of the patients from HIV that they contracted from contaminated factor in the early 1980s. With the advent of factor products with reduced risks for deadly infections in the mid-1980s to early 1990s, a cohort of inhibitor patients is now beginning to enter adulthood thus raising the issues regarding the transition of these patients into adulthood. It is, therefore, expected that adult hematologists will be seeing more inhibitor patients and that pediatric hematologists will be faced with managing this transition process, which may not necessarily include transition to an adult facility or adult hematologist. This review will discuss the various issues ranging from choice of medical provider to a discussion of psychosocial and financial issues facing this specific patient population.

  20. Reaching a Culturally Diverse Immigrant Population of Adult English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Joan; Owen, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Culturally Responsive Teaching (CRT) is a framework to help adult English as a second language (ESL) educators renovate their practices into effective, culturally responsive programs, readily accessible to adult learners. Four CRT strategies that can be used include (a) validation through caring, (b) valuing cultural experiences, (c) creating a…

  1. Tracking an Elusive Population: Family Carers of Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Romandy (Switzerland)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jecker-Parvex, Maurice; Breitenbach, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Despite a long-standing tradition of institutional placement in Switzerland, many older adults with intellectual disabilities continue to be supported by aging parents and siblings. For various reasons, these carers and the adults concerned have been overlooked up to now. To find out how many such families are providing housing and care of this…

  2. The Oral Status of Adult Population in the Croatian Town of Knin: a Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Marić, Robert; Ivanišević, Ana Malčić; Matijević, Jurica

    2015-01-01

    The aim Epidemiologic studies in many countries show uneven distribution of oral diseases (primarily caries) within the population. This is why more studies are oriented towards specific regions or subpopulations instead of large scale national surveys. The major purpose of this cross sectional study was to obtain relevant data about the oral status of the population of Knin and its surroundings according to the WHO criteria. Subjects and methods The study included 414 participants aged between 18 and 65. The recorded variables included general anamnestic data, extraoral status, oral mucosa status, temporomandibular joint status, dental, periodontal and prosthetic status, and the need for dental restoration. The comparison between different groups regarding age, gender, educational level and origin was made. Results DMFT index was 17.3 – with on average 1.7 caries, 6.2 fillings, and 9.4 teeth extracted. SiC index equaled 26.4. The difference was significant regarding the level of education and age (p<0.001). The percentages of individuals with the highest CPI scores from 0-4 were 27.3, 16.9, 36.5, 16.4 and 2.9%, respectively. The difference between the age groups in CPI scores was statistically significant, while the differences according to the gender and origin were not significant (p=0.001). Conclusion The population of Knin and the surrounding area exhibited very bad oral status which can be attributed to the consequences of the war in the 1990-ies, the economic transition, and the lack of national program for oral health promotion. PMID:27688391

  3. Attract-and-Kill and other pheromone-based methods to suppress populations of the Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Campos, Manuel; Phillips, Thomas W

    2014-02-01

    Three attract-and-kill formulations, a gel, a wax panel, and a plastic cylinder were tested in simulated warehouses at three densities of devices and at three densities of moths, Plodia interpunctella Hübner, per room. Wax panels and the cylinder formulations suppressed all the densities of moths with only one device per room. Two field experiments were then conducted during 2005 and 2006 in replicated commercial pet food and grocery stores that harbored natural populations of P. interpunctella. In the summer of 2005, the wax panel formulation suppressed adult male response to monitoring traps and also reduced the numbers of larvae in food bait oviposition cups after the first month of being established. This suppression was maintained until the third month. The second field experiment in 2006 compared three pheromone-based methods of moth suppression in buildings with moth populations in untreated buildings. The mass-trapping treatment showed the lowest adult moth capture after the first month of the experiment until the end of the third month. However, this treatment was similar statistically to use of attract-and-kill panels, mating disruption, and untreated control establishments in most of the weeks. Monitoring of larvae in food cups revealed the pheromone-based methods were not significantly different from each other, but that they suppressed moth populations in most of the weeks when compared with untreated control buildings. This research shows potential for successful pheromone-based suppression methods for Indianmeal moths in commercial applications.

  4. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hum Na, Yong; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2010-07-01

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms—modeled entirely in mesh surfaces—of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte

  5. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms.

    PubMed

    Na, Yong Hum; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F; Xu, X George

    2010-07-07

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms--modeled entirely in mesh surfaces--of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte Carlo

  6. How far cardio metabolic and psychological factors affect salt sensitivity in normotensive adult population?

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Pourmoghaddas, Masoud; Behnamfar, Omid; Pourmoghaddas, Zahra; Heidari, Ebrahim; Mahjoor, Zahra; Mousavi, Mehdi; Bahonar, Ahmad; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the prevalence of salt sensitivity and the impact of cardiometabolic and psychological characteristics on salt sensitivity in normotensive population. METHODS Of all participants, anthropometric measurements and fasting venous blood samples were collected, and study questionnaires were completed. Salt Sensitivity was defined based on the difference in mean arterial pressure with infusion of 2 L of normal saline followed by a low sodium diet and administration of three doses of oral furosemide the day after. RESULTS Of 131 participants, 56 (42.7%) were diagnosed with salt sensitivity. Crude and age and sex adjusted regression analysis showed that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and depression were positively associated with salt sensitivity (OR = 1.02, 95%CI: 1.01-1.04 and OR = 1.15, 95%CI: 1.00-1.34, respectively). CONCLUSION The high prevalence of salt sensitivity and its significant relation with prevalent risk factors necessitates considering its reduction actions at the population level and the need for further research. PMID:28163836

  7. Hyalomma scupense (Acari, Ixodidae) in northeast Tunisia: seasonal population dynamics of nymphs and adults on field cattle

    PubMed Central

    Gharbi, Mohamed; Hayouni, Mohamed Ettaïeb; Sassi, Limam; Dridi, Walid; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Hyalomma scupense is a two-host tick infesting mainly cattle representing in North Africa the vector of tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection), a major tick-borne disease affecting cattle. Any effective control programme of ticks requires a good knowledge of the biology of the target species. In the present study, three cattle farms in northeast Tunisia were surveyed during the activity seasons for adult and nymphs of Hyalomma scupense. Several indicators were studied, including chronological indicators, infestation prevalence, infestation intensity and feeding predilection sites of the ticks. The adult ticks were present from mid-June to late November. Nymphs were observed on animals from early September to late November. A large proportion of the ticks were attached in the posterior udder quarters: 41% and 64% of adult ticks and nymphs, respectively. The animals that were heavily infested by adult ticks were also heavily infested by nymphs. Moreover, 17% of adult ticks and 53% of nymphs were present on only 5% of cattle population. These data are important for the success of targeted acaricide application leading to a dramatic decrease of acaricide quantity needed for the treatment. When the preferential sites of attachment are known, the effectiveness of manual removal of ticks can be improved. The presence of highly infested animals is to be considered when any control programme is implemented, since these animals harbour a high proportion of the ticks. PMID:23547915

  8. Surprising SES Gradients in Mortality, Health, and Biomarkers in a Latin American Population of Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dow, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Background To determine socioeconomic status (SES) gradients in the different dimensions of health among elderly Costa Ricans. Hypothesis: SES disparities in adult health are minimal in Costa Rican society. Methods Data from the Costa Rican Study on Longevity and Healthy Aging study: 8,000 elderly Costa Ricans to determine mortality in the period 2000–2007 and a subsample of 3,000 to determine prevalence of several health conditions and biomarkers from anthropometry and blood and urine specimens. Results The ultimate health indicator, mortality, as well as the metabolic syndrome, reveals that better educated and wealthier individuals are worse off. In contrast, quality of life–related measures such as functional and cognitive disabilities, physical frailty, and depression all clearly worsen with lower SES. Overall self-reported health (SRH) also shows a strong positive SES gradient. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes and cholesterol are not significantly related to SES, but hypertension and obesity are worse among high-SES individuals. Reflecting mixed SES gradients in behaviors, smoking and lack of exercise are more common among low SES, but high calorie diets are more common among high SES. Conclusions Negative modern behaviors among high-SES groups may be reversing cardiovascular risks across SES groups, hence reversing mortality risks. But negative SES gradients in healthy years of life persist. PMID:19196695

  9. Exploring Gender Difference in Sleep Quality of Young Adults: Findings from a Large Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Yaqoot; Doi, Suhail A.R.; Najman, Jake M.; Mamun, Abdullah Al

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore if gender difference in sleep quality is due to higher prevalence of depression in females, and whether socio-demographic and lifestyle factors have a differential effect on sleep quality in males and females. Methods Youth self-reports and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were used to assess sleep quality and associated risk factors. Logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the association between various risk factors and poor sleep quality. Results Reports from 3,778 young adults (20.6±0.86 years) indicate a higher prevalence of poor sleep quality in females than males (65.1% vs. 49.8%). It seems that gender difference in poor sleep is independent of depression, socio-demographics, and lifestyle factors, since the higher odds of poor sleep quality in females was robust to adjust for depression, socio-demographics, and lifestyle factors (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.23–1.90). Lifestyle factors (eg, smoking) (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.05–3.46) were associated with sleep quality in only males. Conclusion Our findings indicate that female vulnerability to poor sleep quality should be explored beyond psycho-social disparities. Perhaps, exploring if the female predisposition to poor sleep quality originates at the biological level could lead to the answer. PMID:28188139

  10. Comparison of ultrasonography-guided central venous catheterization between adult and pediatric populations.

    PubMed

    Tercan, Fahri; Oguzkurt, Levent; Ozkan, Ugur; Eker, Hatice Evren

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the technical success and complication rates of ultrasonography-guided central venous catheterization between adult and pediatric patients which have not been reported previously. In a 4-year period, 859 ultrasonography-guided central vein catheterizations in 688 adult patients and 247 catheterizations in 156 pediatric patients were retrospectively evaluated. Mean age was 56.3 years (range, 18 to 95 years) for adults and 3.3 years (range, 0.1 to 16.3 years) for children. The preferred catheterization site was internal jugular vein in 97% of adults and 85% of children. The technical success rate, mean number of punctures, and rate of single wall puncture were 99.4%, 1.04 (range, 1-3), and 83% for adults and 90.3%, 1.25 (range, 1-5), and 49% for children, respectively. All the differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Complication rates were 2.3% and 2.4% for adults and children, respectively (p > 0.05). Major complications such as pneumothorax and hemothorax were not seen in any group. In conclusion, ultrasonography-guided central venous catheterization has a high technical success rate, lower puncture attempt rate, and higher single wall puncture rate in adults compared to children. Complication rates are comparable in the two groups.

  11. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): a proposal for standardization of the classical method in adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Correa, C. H.; Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    The accuracy of BIA measurements is limited by different sources of error such as physical model, cross sectional area, ethnicity, body hydration, age and level of body fat among other variables. Equation for each population is required as they can produce overestimation when manufacturer's equations are used. The classical measurements hand to foot has shown better correlation against hydrodensitometry than foot to foot or hand to hand. However there is a lack for an accepted standard of BIA procedures. This is compounded when there is not a good report of the BIA study's methodology; hence the comparability between the results is poor and reduces the reliability of the method. Perhaps, standardization of methods would be the first step for BIA studies to move forward and subsequently improve its accuracy. Standardized procedures could also minimize the impact of these variables on studies results. The aim of this study was to propose a protocol as a checklist to standardize BIA procedures and produce comparable results from future studies performed with the classic hand-foot configuration in adults.

  12. Bayesian Population Forecasting: Extending the Lee-Carter Method.

    PubMed

    Wiśniowski, Arkadiusz; Smith, Peter W F; Bijak, Jakub; Raymer, James; Forster, Jonathan J

    2015-06-01

    In this article, we develop a fully integrated and dynamic Bayesian approach to forecast populations by age and sex. The approach embeds the Lee-Carter type models for forecasting the age patterns, with associated measures of uncertainty, of fertility, mortality, immigration, and emigration within a cohort projection model. The methodology may be adapted to handle different data types and sources of information. To illustrate, we analyze time series data for the United Kingdom and forecast the components of population change to the year 2024. We also compare the results obtained from different forecast models for age-specific fertility, mortality, and migration. In doing so, we demonstrate the flexibility and advantages of adopting the Bayesian approach for population forecasting and highlight areas where this work could be extended.

  13. Adult Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Reference Ranges in a Zimbabwean Population

    PubMed Central

    Mandozana, Gibson; Tinago, Willard; Nhando, Nehemiah; Mgodi, Nyaradzo M.; Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Mutsawashe F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Laboratory reference ranges used for clinical care and clinical trials in various laboratories in Zimbabwe were derived from textbooks and research studies conducted more than ten years ago. Periodic verification of these ranges is essential to track changes over time. The purpose of this study was to establish hematology and chemistry laboratory reference ranges using more rigorous methods. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Harare, Chitungwiza, and Mutoko. A multistage sampling technique was used. Samples were transported from the field for analysis at the ISO15189 certified University of Zimbabwe-University of California San Francisco Central Research Laboratory. Hematology and clinical chemistry reference ranges lower and upper reference limits were estimated at the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles respectively. Results A total of 769 adults (54% males) aged 18 to 55 years were included in the analysis. Median age was 28 [IQR: 23–35] years. Males had significantly higher red cell counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin compared to females. Females had higher white cell counts, platelets, absolute neutrophil counts, and absolute lymphocyte counts compared to males. There were no gender differences in eosinophils, monocytes, and absolute basophil count. Males had significantly higher levels of urea, sodium, potassium, calcium, creatinine, amylase, total protein, albumin and liver enzymes levels compared to females. Females had higher cholesterol and lipase compared with males. There are notable differences in the white cell counts, neutrophils, cholesterol, and creatinine kinase when compared with the currently used reference ranges. Conclusion Data from this study provides new country specific reference ranges which should be immediately adopted for routine clinical care and accurate monitoring of adverse events in research studies. PMID:27812172

  14. Optimal control methods for controlling bacterial populations with persister dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogan, N. G.

    2016-06-01

    Bacterial tolerance to antibiotics is a well-known phenomena; however, only recent studies of bacterial biofilms have shown how multifaceted tolerance really is. By joining into a structured community and offering shared protection and gene transfer, bacterial populations can protect themselves genotypically, phenotypically and physically. In this study, we collect a line of research that focuses on phenotypic (or plastic) tolerance. The dynamics of persister formation are becoming better understood, even though there are major questions that remain. The thrust of our results indicate that even without detailed description of the biological mechanisms, theoretical studies can offer strategies that can eradicate bacterial populations with existing drugs.

  15. Urinary arsenic levels in the French adult population: the French National Nutrition and Health Study, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Saoudi, Abdessattar; Zeghnoun, Abdelkrim; Bidondo, Marie-Laure; Garnier, Robert; Cirimele, Vincent; Persoons, Renaud; Fréry, Nadine

    2012-09-01

    The French Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNS) was conducted to describe dietary intakes, nutritional status, physical activity, and levels of various biomarkers for environmental chemicals (heavy metals and pesticides) in the French population (adults aged 18-74 years and children aged 3-17 years living in continental France in 2006-2007). The aim of this paper was to describe the distributions of total arsenic and the sum of iAs+MMA+DMA in the general adult population, and to present their main risk factors. In the arsenic study, 1500 and 1515 adults (requested to avoid seafood intake in the previous 3 days preceding urine collection) were included respectively for the analysis of the sum of inorganic arsenic (iAs) and its two metabolites, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and for the total arsenic. Results were presented as geometric means and selected percentiles of urinary arsenic concentrations (μg/L) and creatinine-adjusted urinary arsenic (μg/g of creatinine) for total arsenic, and the sum of inorganic arsenic and metabolites (iAs+MMA+DMA). The geometric mean concentration of the sum of iAs+MMA+DMA in the adult population living in France was 3.34 μg/g of creatinine [3.23-3.45] (3.75 μg/L [3.61-3.90]) with a 95th percentile of 8.9 μg/g of creatinine (10.68 μg/L). The geometric mean concentration of total arsenic was 11.96 μg/g of creatinine [11.41-12.53] (13.42 μg/L [12.77-14.09]) with a 95th percentile of 61.29 μg/g of creatinine (72.75 μg/L). Urinary concentrations of total arsenic and iAS+MMA+DMA were influenced by sociodemographic and economic factors, and by risk factors such as consumption of seafood products and of wine. In our study, covariate-adjusted geometric means demonstrated several slight differences, due to consumption of fish, shellfish/crustaceans or wine. This study provides the first reference value for arsenic in a representative sample of the French population not particularly exposed to high levels

  16. Comparison of the predictive performance of the BIG, TRISS, and PS09 score in an adult trauma population derived from multiple international trauma registries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The BIG score (Admission base deficit (B), International normalized ratio (I), and Glasgow Coma Scale (G)) has been shown to predict mortality on admission in pediatric trauma patients. The objective of this study was to assess its performance in predicting mortality in an adult trauma population, and to compare it with the existing Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) and probability of survival (PS09) score. Materials and methods A retrospective analysis using data collected between 2005 and 2010 from seven trauma centers and registries in Europe and the United States of America was performed. We compared the BIG score with TRISS and PS09 scores in a population of blunt and penetrating trauma patients. We then assessed the discrimination ability of all scores via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and compared the expected mortality rate (precision) of all scores with the observed mortality rate. Results In total, 12,206 datasets were retrieved to validate the BIG score. The mean ISS was 15 ± 11, and the mean 30-day mortality rate was 4.8%. With an AUROC of 0.892 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.879 to 0.906), the BIG score performed well in an adult population. TRISS had an area under ROC (AUROC) of 0.922 (0.913 to 0.932) and the PS09 score of 0.825 (0.915 to 0.934). On a penetrating-trauma population, the BIG score had an AUROC result of 0.920 (0.898 to 0.942) compared with the PS09 score (AUROC of 0.921; 0.902 to 0.939) and TRISS (0.929; 0.912 to 0.947). Conclusions The BIG score is a good predictor of mortality in the adult trauma population. It performed well compared with TRISS and the PS09 score, although it has significantly less discriminative ability. In a penetrating-trauma population, the BIG score performed better than in a population with blunt trauma. The BIG score has the advantage of being available shortly after admission and may be used to predict clinical prognosis or as a research tool to risk stratify trauma

  17. Assessing Methods for Generalizing Experimental Impact Estimates to Target Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Holger L.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Hill, Jennifer; Green, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    Randomized experiments are considered the gold standard for causal inference because they can provide unbiased estimates of treatment effects for the experimental participants. However, researchers and policymakers are often interested in using a specific experiment to inform decisions about other target populations. In education research,…

  18. Choroid plexus papilloma-A case highlighting the challenges of extrapolating pediatric chemotherapy regimens to adult populations.

    PubMed

    Barman, Stephen L; Jean, Gary W; Dinsfriend, William M; Gerber, David E

    2016-02-01

    The treatment of adults who present with rare pediatric tumors is not characterized well in the literature. We report an instance of a 40-year-old African American woman with a diagnosis of choroid plexus carcinoma admitted to the intensive care unit for severe sepsis seven days after receiving chemotherapy consisting of carboplatin (350 mg/m(2) on Days 1 and 2 plus etoposide 100 mg/m(2) on Days 1-5). Her laboratory results were significant for an absolute neutrophil count of 0/µL and blood cultures positive for Capnocytophagia species. She was supported with broad spectrum antibiotics and myeloid growth factors. She eventually recovered and was discharged in stable condition. The management of adults with malignancies most commonly seen in pediatric populations presents substantial challenges. There are multiple age-specific differences in renal and hepatic function that explain the need for higher dosing in pediatric patients without increasing the risk of toxicity. Furthermore, differences in pharmacokinetic parameters such as absorption, distribution, and clearance are present but are less likely to affect patients. It is expected that the pediatric population will have more bone marrow reserve and, therefore, less susceptible to myelosuppression. The extrapolation of pediatric dosing to an adult presents a problematic situation in treating adults with malignancies that primarily effect pediatric patients. We recommend extrapolating from adult treatment regimens with similar agents rather than extrapolating from pediatric treatment regimens to reduce the risk of toxicity. We also recommend the consideration of adding myeloid growth factors. If the treatment is tolerated without significant toxicity, dose escalation can be considered.

  19. [Prevalence of depressive symptoms and associated factors among southern Brazilian adults: cross-sectional population-based study].

    PubMed

    Rombaldi, Airton José; da Silva, Marcelo Cozzensa; Gazalle, Fernando Kratz; Azevedo, Mario Renato; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2010-12-01

    To identify the prevalence of depressive symptoms and examine associated factors in a Southern Brazilian adult population, a cross-sectional population-based study was carried out, including 972 subjects, men and women, aged 20 to 69 years, living in the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. The sampling strategy relied on the census tracts of the city as primary sampling units and households as the secondary units. The questionnaire included socio-demographic, behavioral and nutritional variables. The prevalence of sadness, anxiety, loss of energy, lack of will to do things, thinking about the past, and wishing to stay at home were 29.4%, 57.6%, 37.4%, 40.4%, 33.8%, and 54.3%, respectively. Female gender, older ages, smokers and obese individuals showed association with depressive symptoms. Population-based studies using longitudinal designs may help to clarify the relationship between biopsychosocial variables and depressive symptoms.

  20. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding gemstone therapeutics in a selected adult population in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ishaque, Sidra; Saleem, Taimur; Qidwai, Waris

    2009-01-01

    Background Gemstones have been in use as part of alternative and complementary medicine for years. However, our understanding of the perceived healing powers of gemstones is limited. An extensive literature search revealed that there is a dearth of validated information on this subject. This study was therefore undertaken to explore the various aspects of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the public towards gemstone therapeutics. Methods A survey was performed in the Community Health Centre of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Pakistan. Data collection was done via a face-to-face interview based on a structured, pre-tested questionnaire. Participants included all willing persons between 18–75 years of age approached prior to their appointments at the Community Health Centre. Results The survey response rate was 86% (400/465). More than half (63%) of the study population was aware of the use of gemstone therapy. One hundred fifty-six individuals believed that gemstone use impacts health. Of this group, 39% believed that gemstone use increases physical strength. 62% believed that gemstone use is based on superstitious beliefs, whereas 28% opined that it is based on religious beliefs. 38% had used gemstones therapeutics formerly, while 24% were current users. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age status and education status were significant (p < 0.05) independent predictors for both awareness of gemstone therapy and the belief that gemstone use impacts health. The elderly (aged 51–61) were 5.9-times more likely to believe that gemstones had an impact on health than the younger population (aged 18–28 years). (Adjusted Odd's Ratio = 5.9 [95% Confidence Interval = 2.9–11.9]). Conclusion More than half of our sample population is aware of the use of the gemstones for their various effects. Willingness to use gemstones is associated with the beliefs about the impact of gemstone therapy on health. Friends and family seem to be the major

  1. Population pharmacokinetics of daptomycin in adult patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaoying; Khadzhynov, Dmytro; Peters, Harm; Chaves, Ricardo L.; Levi, Micha; Corti, Natascia

    2016-01-01

    Aim The objective of this population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis was to provide guidance for the dosing interval of daptomycin in patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Methods A previously published population PK model for daptomycin was updated with data from patients undergoing continuous veno‐venous haemodialysis (CVVHD; n = 9) and continuous veno‐venous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF; n = 8). Model‐based simulations were performed to compare the 24 h AUC, C max and C min of daptomycin following various dosing regimens (4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 mg kg−1 every [Q] 24 h and Q48 h), with the safety and efficacy exposure references for Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia/right‐sided infective endocarditis. Results The previously developed daptomycin structural population PK model could reasonably describe data from the patients on CRRT. The clearance in patients undergoing CVVHDF and CVVHD was estimated at 0.53 and 0.94 l h−1, respectively, as compared with 0.75 l h−1 in patients with creatinine clearance (CrCl) ≥ 30 ml min−1. Daptomycin Q24 h dosing in patients undergoing CRRT resulted in optimal exposure for efficacy, with AUC comparable to that in patients with CrCl ≥ 30 ml min−1. In contrast, Q48 h dosing was associated with considerably lower AUC24–48h in all patients for doses up to 12 mg kg−1 and is therefore inappropriate. Conclusions Q24 h dosing of daptomycin up to 12 mg kg−1 provides comparable drug exposure in patients on CVVHD and in those with CrCl ≥ 30 ml min−1. Daily daptomycin use up to 8 mg kg−1 doses are appropriate for patients on CVVHDF, but higher doses may increase the risk of toxicity. PMID:27628437

  2. Dyslipidemia, obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors in the adult population in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Doupa, Dominique; Seck, Sidy Mohamed; Dia, Charles Abdou; Diallo, Fatou Agne; Kane, Modou Oumy; Kane, Adama; Gueye, Pape Madieye; Mbaye, Maimouna Ndour; Gueye, Lamine; Jobe, Modou

    2014-01-01

    Introduction According to the WHO, 50% of deaths worldwide (40.1% in developing countries) are due to chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Of these chronic NCDs, cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of death and disability in developed countries. The Framingham study has shown the importance of hypercholesterolemia as a primary risk factor. In Senegal, the epidemiology of dyslipidemia and obesity are still poorly understood due to the lack of comprehensive studies on their impact on the general population. This motivated this study to look into the key epidemiologic and socio-demographic determinants of these risk factors. Methods It was a cross-sectional descriptive epidemiological survey which included 1037 individuals selected by cluster sampling. Data were collected using a questionnaire following the WHO STEPwise approach. Socio-demographic, health and biomedical variables were collected. P value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The average age was 48 years with a female predominance (M: F of 0.6). The literacy rate was 65.2% and 44.7% of participants were from rural areas. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hyperLDLemia, hypoHDLemia, hypertriglyceridemia and mixed hyperlipidemia were 56%, 22.5%, 12.4%, 7.11% and 1.9% respectively. One in four was obese (BMI> 30kg/m2) and 34.8% had abdominal obesity. The main factors significantly associated with dyslipidemia were obesity, urban dwelling, physical inactivity and a family history of dyslipidemia. Conclusion The prevalence of dyslipidemia, obesity and other risk factors in the population was high needing immediate care for those affected and implementation of prevention strategies. PMID:25815102

  3. Busulfan in infants to adult hematopoietic cell transplant recipients: A population pharmacokinetic model for initial and Bayesian dose personalization

    PubMed Central

    McCune, Jeannine S.; Bemer, Meagan J.; Barrett, Jeffrey S.; Baker, K. Scott; Gamis, Alan S.; Holford, Nicholas H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Personalizing intravenous (IV) busulfan doses to a target plasma concentration at steady state (Css) is an essential component of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We sought to develop a population pharmacokinetic model to predict IV busulfan doses over a wide age spectrum (0.1 – 66 years) that accounts for differences in age and body size. Experimental design A population pharmacokinetic model based on normal fat mass and maturation based on post-menstrual age was built from 12,380 busulfan concentration-time points obtained after IV busulfan administration in 1,610 HCT recipients. Subsequently, simulation results of the initial dose necessary to achieve a target Css with this model were compared with pediatric-only models. Results A two-compartment model with first-order elimination best fit the data. The population busulfan clearance was 12.4 L/h for an adult male with 62kg normal fat mass (equivalent to 70kg total body weight). Busulfan clearance, scaled to body size – specifically normal fat mass, is predicted to be 95% of the adult clearance at 2.5 years post-natal age. With a target Css of 770 ng/mL, a higher proportion of initial doses achieved the therapeutic window with this age- and size-dependent model (72%) compared to dosing recommended by the Food and Drug Administration (57%) or the European Medicines Agency (70%). Conclusion This is the first population pharmacokinetic model developed to predict initial IV busulfan doses and personalize to a target Css over a wide age spectrum, ranging from infants to adults. PMID:24218510

  4. Cross-sectional study of HPV-16 infection in a population-based subsample of Hispanic adults

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, A P; Unger, E R; Muñoz, C; Panicker, G; Tortolero-Luna, G; Soto-Salgado, M; Otero, Y; Suárez, E; Pérez, C M

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and correlates of seropositivity to human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 in a subsample of adults who participated in the parent study Epidemiology of Hepatitis C in the adult population of Puerto Rico (PR). Setting The parent study was a population-based household survey aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of hepatitis C and other viral infections (hepatitis A, hepatitis B, HIV, and herpes simplex type 2) in PR (n=1654) between 2005 and 2008. Participants A subsample of the last 450 consecutive adults aged 21–64 years, recruited between February 2007 and January 2008, who participated in the parent study and agreed to participate in HPV testing. Primary and secondary outcome measures The samples were tested by ELISA for HPV-16 viral-like particle-specific immunoglobulin G. Information on sociodemographic, health, and lifestyle characteristics was collected. Logistic regression modelling was used to estimate the prevalence odds ratio (POR) to assess factors associated to HPV-16 seropositivity. Results Prevalence of seropositivity to HPV-16 was 11.3%. Seroprevalence was higher in women (15.8%) than men (5.6%; p=0.001). After adjusting for age and sex, ever smokers (POR 2.06, 95% CI 1.08 to 3.92) and participants with at least five lifetime sexual partners (POR 2.91, 95% CI 1.24 to 6.81) were more likely to be HPV-16 seropositive. Conclusions HPV-16 seropositivity is similar to that reported in the USA (10.4%) for NHANES 2003–2004 participants, although different assays were used in these studies. While future studies should evaluate HPV seroprevalence using a larger population-based sample, our results highlight the need to further understand the burden of HPV infection and HPV-related malignancies in PR, population with a low vaccine uptake. PMID:24496698

  5. Factors influencing serum concentrations of IgD in the adult population: an observational study in Spain.

    PubMed

    Carballo, Iago; Rabuñal, Noelia; Alvela, Lucía; Pérez, Luis-Fernando; Vidal, Carmen; Alonso, Manuela; Sopeña, Bernardo; Gude, Francisco; Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo

    2017-01-27

    Immunoglobulin D (IgD) is the least studied of immunoglobulin classes. This study sought to investigate the potential relationship between demographic, metabolic, lifestyle and immunologic factors, and serum IgD concentrations in a general adult population. We measured serum IgD concentrations by means of a commercial turbidimetric assay in 413 individuals (median age, 55 years; 45% males), randomly selected from the adult population of a Spanish municipality. Serum IgD concentrations displayed considerable variation in the population, ranging from undetectable (<6.7 mg/L) to 878 mg/L. Serum IgD concentrations were undetectable in 78 cases (18.9%) and greater than 100 mg/L in 39 cases (9.4%). Median IgD was 21.9 mg/L. Serum IgD concentrations were negatively associated with age and positively associated with smoking, after adjustment for potential confounders. Overweight individuals and showed lower concentrations of IgD than did normal-weight individuals. Atopy (positivity of skin tests to aeroallergens) was not significantly associated with IgD concentrations, though non-symptomatic atopics showed higher IgD concentrations. No consistent association was observed between serum IgD concentrations and gender, metabolic syndrome, or alcohol consumption. No significant association was found between baseline IgD concentrations and development of either allergic or immune disease after a median 11.4 years of follow-up. In conclusion, serum IgD concentrations in adults show a wide variation in the population and may be influenced by common factors, particularly age and smoking habit. These factors should be taken into account when defining reference ranges for serum IgD concentrations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Transition to Sarcopenia and Determinants of Transitions in Older Adults: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Edward H.; Zhang, Qiang; Boudreau, Robert M.; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Newman, Anne B.; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Visser, Marjolein; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Harris, Tamara B.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia from appendicular lean mass (ALM), strength, and performance have been proposed, but little is known regarding the progression of sarcopenia. We examined the time course of sarcopenia and determinants of transitioning toward and away from sarcopenia. Methods. ALM, gait speed, and grip strength were assessed seven times over 9 years in 2,928 initially well-functioning adults aged 70–79. Low ALM was defined as less than 7.95 kg/m2 (men) or less than 6.24 kg/m2 (women), low performance as gait speed less than 1.0 m/s, low strength as grip strength less than 30 kg (men) or less than 20 kg (women). Presarcopenia was defined as low ALM and sarcopenia as low ALM with low performance or low strength. Hidden Markov modeling was used to characterize states of ALM, strength, and performance and model transitions leading to sarcopenia and death. Determinants of transitioning toward and away from sarcopenia were examined with logistic regression. Results. Initially, 54% of participants had normal ALM, strength, and performance; 21% had presarcopenia; 5% had sarcopenia; and 20% had intermediate characteristics. Of participants with normal ALM, strength, and performance, 1% transitioned to presarcopenia and none transitioned to sarcopenia. The greatest transition to sarcopenia (7%) was in presarcopenic individuals. Low-functioning and sarcopenia states were more likely to lead to death (12% and 13%). Higher body mass index (p < .001) and pain (p = .05) predicted transition toward sarcopenia, whereas moderate activity predicted transition from presarcopenia to more normal states (p = .02). Conclusions. Pain, physical activity, and body mass index, potentially modifiable factors, are determinants of transitions. Promotion of health approaching old age is important as few individuals transition away from their initial state. PMID:24013673

  7. Determinants of Utilization of Eye Care Services in a Rural Adult Population of a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Olusanya, Bolutife A.; Ashaye, Adeyinka O.; Owoaje, Eme T.; Baiyeroju, Aderonke M.; Ajayi, Benedictus G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the factors that determine the utilization of eye care services in a rural community in South-Western Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey using a multistage sampling technique was conducted. The main outcome measure was self-reported previous consultation of an orthodox medical facility for eye care. Results: The study sample included 643 participants. Only 122 (19%) respondents had previously visited orthodox facilities in search of eye care and 24% of those with presenting visual acuity <6/18 had sought eye care. Characteristics associated with previous utilization of eye care services were age of =70 years (odds ratio [OR] ≥ 1.7, P = 0.02); male gender (OR = 1.5, P = 0.04); literacy (OR = 1.7, P = 0.007); and residing close to an eye care facility (OR = 2.8, P < 0.001). Blind respondents were three times more likely to seek eye care (P < 0.001). Regression analysis revealed that factors associated with increased likelihood of utilization of eye care services included age ≥70 years; literacy; residence close to an eye facility; being diabetic or hypertensive; history of ocular symptoms, and blindness. Conclusions: These findings suggest that a significant proportion (75%) of adults in the study area are not utilizing eye care services and that blindness is an important determinant of utilization of eye care services. Health education and awareness campaigns about the importance and benefits of seeking eye care early, and the provision of community-based eye care programs are essential to boost the uptake of eye care services in this community as well as other rural areas of West Africa. PMID:26957847

  8. Juvenile Resilience and Adult Longevity Explain Residual Populations of the Andean Wax Palm Ceroxylon quindiuense after Deforestation

    PubMed Central

    Sanín, María José; Anthelme, Fabien; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe; Galeano, Gloria; Bernal, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Wax palms are an important element of the cloud forests in the tropical Andes. Despite heavy deforestation, the density of adults seems to be similar in deforested pastures as in forests. We aimed to infer the mechanisms responsible for this apparent resilience in pastures and we tested two hypotheses to explain it: 1) adult palms survived in pastures because they were spared from logging, and 2) adults occurred in pastures through the resilience of large juvenile rosettes, which survived through subterranean meristems and later developed into adults. For this purpose, we characterized the demographic structure of C. quindiuense in a total of 122 plots of 400 m2 in forests and pastures at two sites with contrasted land use histories in Colombia and Peru. Additionally, we implemented growth models that allowed us to estimate the age of individuals at four sites. These data were combined with information collected from local land managers in order to complete our knowledge on the land use history at each site. At two sites, the presence of old individuals up to 169 years and a wide age range evidenced that, at least, a portion of current adults in pastures were spared from logging at the time of deforestation. However, at the two other sites, the absence of older adults in pastures and the narrow age range of the populations indicated that individuals came exclusively from rosette resilience. These interpretations were consistent with the land use history of sites. In consequence, the combination of the two hypotheses (spared individuals and rosette resilience) explained patterns of C. quindiuense in pastures on a regional scale. Regeneration through subterranean meristems in palms is an important, yet overlooked mechanism of resilience, which occurs in a number of palm species and deserves being integrated in the conceptual framework of disturbance ecology. PMID:24194823

  9. Sightability adjustment methods for aerial surveys of wildlife populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinhorst, R.K.; Samuel, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    Aerial surveys are routinely conducted to estimate the abundance of wildlife species and the rate of population change. However, sightability of animal groups is acknowledged as a significant source of bias in these estimates. Recent research has focused on the development of sightability models to predict the probability of sighting groups under various conditions. Given such models, we show how sightability can be incorporated into the estimator of population size as a probability of response using standard results from sample surveys. We develop formulas for the cases where the sighting probability must be estimated. An example, using data from a helicopter survey of moose in Alberta (Jacobson, Alberta Oil Sands Research Project Report, 1976), is given to illustrate the technique.

  10. An alternative method for assessing early mortality in contemporary populations.

    PubMed

    Wiley, A S; Pike, I L

    1998-11-01

    Biological anthropologists are interested in a population's early mortality rates for a variety of reasons. Early mortality (infant or juvenile) is of obvious importance to those interested in demography, but early mortality statistics are useful for life history analysis, paleodemography, and human adaptability studies, among others. In general, the form of mortality statistics is derived from demography, where chronological age is the gold standard for statistical calculation and comparison. However, there are numerous problems associated with the collection, analysis, and interpretation of early mortality statistics based on age, particularly for anthropological research, which is often conducted in small or non-calendrical-age numerate populations. The infant mortality rate (IMR), for example, is notoriously difficult to determine in populations where accurate accounting of age is not routine, and yet it is widely used in demography, public health, medicine, and social science research. Here we offer an alternative to age-based early mortality statistics that makes use of human biologists' interest in, and skill at, assessing human growth and development. Our proposal is to use developmental stages of juveniles instead of relying exclusively on age as the basis for mortality statistics. Death or survival according to a developmental stage (such as crawling or weaning) may provide more accurate data that are also more closely related to the cause of death. Developmental stages have the added advantage of putting infants and children back at the center of the discussion of early mortality by focusing on their activities in relation to their environment. A case study from the Turkana population of Kenya illustrates the use of developmental stages in describing early mortality.

  11. An estimate of the historic population size of adult pallid sturgeon in the upper Missouri river basin, Montana and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Lott, R.D.; Jordan, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus raised in hatcheries and stocked in the wild are used to augment critically imperiled populations of this federally endangered species in the United States. For pallid sturgeon in recovery priority management area 2 (RPMA 2) of the Missouri River and lower Yellowstone River where natural recruitment has not occurred for decades, restoration programs aim to stock an annual minimum of 9000 juvenile pallid sturgeon for 20 years to re-establish a minimum population of 1700 adults. However, establishment of this target was based on general guidelines for maintaining the genetic integrity of populations rather than pallid sturgeon-specific demographic information because data on the historical population size was lacking. In this study, information from a recent population estimate (158 wild adults in 2004, 95% confidence interval 129-193 adults) and an empirically derived adult mortality rate (5%) was used in a cohort population model to back-estimate the historic abundance of adult pallid sturgeon in RPMA 2. Three back-estimation age models were developed, and assumed that adults alive during 2004 were 30-, 40-, or 50-years old. Based on these age assumptions, population sizes [??95% confidence intervals; (CI)] were back-estimated to 1989, 1979, and 1969 to approximate size of the population when individuals would have been sexually mature (15 years old) and capable of spawning. Back-estimations yielded predictions of 344 adults in 1989 (95% CI 281-420), 577 adults in 1979 (95% CI 471-704), and 968 adults in 1969 (95% CI 790-1182) for the 30-, 40-, and 50-year age models, respectively. Although several assumptions are inherent in the back-estimation models, results suggest the juvenile stocking program for pallid sturgeon will likely re-establish an adult population that equals in the short-term and exceeds in the long-term the predicted population numbers that occurred during past decades in RPMA 2. However, re

  12. The Role of Neighborhood Environment in Promoting Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease among Young Adults: Data from Middle to High Income Population in an Asian Megacity

    PubMed Central

    Baig, Mirza Zain; Noor, Arish; Aqil, Amash; Bham, Nida Shahab; Khan, Mohammad Ali; Hassan, Irfan Nazir; Kadir, M. Masood

    2015-01-01

    Background Modifiable risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have their triggers in the neighborhood environments of communities. Studying the environmental triggers for CVD risk factors is important to understand the situation in a broader perspective. Young adults are influenced the most by the environment profile around them hence it is important to study this subset of the population. Methods This was a descriptive study conducted using the EPOCH research tool designed by the authors of the PURE study. The study population consisted of young adults aged 18-25 in two areas of Karachi. The study setting was busy shopping malls frequented by young adults in the particular community being studied. Results Our total sample size was 120 individuals, who consented to be interviewed by our interviewers. Less than 50% of the population recognized some form of restriction regarding smoking in their communities. The largest contributor to tobacco advertising was actors smoking in movies and TV shows with 89% responses from both communities. Only 11.9% of the individuals disapproved of smoking cigarettes among men with wide acceptance of ‘sheesha’ across all age groups. Advertising for smoking and junk food was more frequent as compared to smoking cessation, healthy diet and exercise in both the areas. Unhealthy food items were more easily available in contrast to healthier options. The cost of healthy snack food options including vegetables and fruits was higher than sugary drinks and foods. Conclusion This assessment showed that both communities were exposed to environments that promote risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25946006

  13. PCSK1 rs6232 Is Associated with Childhood and Adult Class III Obesity in the Mexican Population

    PubMed Central

    Villalobos-Comparán, Marisela; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Larrieta-Carrasco, Elena; León-Mimila, Paola; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Liceaga-Fuentes, Adriana E.; Campos-Pérez, Francisco J.; López-Contreras, Blanca E.; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; del Río-Navarro, Blanca E.; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Background Common variants rs6232 and rs6235 in the PCSK1 gene have been associated with obesity in European populations. We aimed to evaluate the contribution of these variants to obesity and related traits in Mexican children and adults. Methodology/Principal Findings Rs6232 and rs6235 were genotyped in 2382 individuals, 1206 children and 1176 adults. Minor allele frequencies were 0.78% for rs6232 and 19.99% for rs6235. Rs6232 was significantly associated with childhood obesity and adult class III obesity (OR = 3.01 95%CI 1.64–5.53; P = 4×10−4 in the combined analysis). In addition, this SNP was significantly associated with lower fasting glucose levels (P = 0.01) and with increased insulin levels and HOMA-B (P = 0.05 and 0.01, respectively) only in non-obese children. In contrast, rs6235 showed no significant association with obesity or with glucose homeostasis parameters in any group. Conclusion/Significance Although rs6232 is rare in the Mexican population, it should be considered as an important risk factor for extreme forms of obesity. PMID:22737226

  14. Trends in Suicide Methods and Rates among Older Adults in South Korea: A Comparison with Japan

    PubMed Central

    Park, Subin; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; Lee, Su Yeon; Lee, Go Eun; Ahn, Myung Hee; Yi, Ki Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Objective Lethality of the chosen method during a suicide attempt is a strong risk factor for completion of suicide. We examined whether annual changes in the pattern of suicide methods is related to annual changes in suicide rates among older adults in South Korea and Japan. Methods We analyzed annual the World Health Organization data on rates and methods of suicide from 2000 to 2011 in South Korea and Japan. Results For Korean older adults, there was a significant positive correlation between suicide rate and the rate of hanging or the rate of jumping, and a significant negative correlation between suicide rate and the rate of poisoning. Among older adults in Japan, annual changes in the suicide rate and the pattern of suicide methods were less conspicuous, and no correlation was found between them. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that the increasing use of lethal suicide methods has contributed to the rise in suicide rates among older adults in South Korea. Targeted efforts to reduce the social acceptability and accessibility of lethal suicide methods might lead to lower suicide rate among older adults in South Korea. PMID:27081378

  15. Seasonal androgen cycles in adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from a barrier island population.

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Heather J; Lowers, Russell H; Guillette, Louis J

    2011-12-01

    The seasonal patterns of two primary plasma androgens, testosterone (T) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), were assessed in adult male alligators from the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, a unique barrier island environment and home to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Samples were collected monthly from 2008 to 2009, with additional samples collected at more random intervals in 2007 and 2010. Plasma T concentrations peaked in April, coincident with breeding and courtship, and declined rapidly throughout the summer. Seasonal plasma T patterns in smaller though reproductively active adult males differed from those in their larger counterparts during the breeding season. Both size classes showed significant increases in plasma T concentration from February to March, at the beginning of the breeding season. However, smaller adults did not experience the peak in plasma T concentrations in April that were observed in larger adults, and their concentrations were significantly lower than those of larger males for the remainder of the breeding season. Plasma DHEA concentrations peaked in May and were significantly reduced by June. This is the first study to demonstrate the presence of DHEA in a crocodilian, and the high plasma DHEA concentrations that paralleled the animals' reproductive activity suggest a reproductive and/or behavioral role in adult male alligators. Similar to androgen variations in some birds, plasma DHEA concentrations in the alligators were considerably higher than T concentrations during the nonbreeding season, suggesting a potential role in maintaining nonbreeding seasonal aggression.

  16. Association of Perceived Stress with Atopic Dermatitis in Adults: A Population-Based Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyejin; Kim, Kisok

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a widely prevalent skin disease that affects both children and adults. The aim of the study was to assess the association of perceived stress (single-item, self-reported) with AD (self-reported) in a sample of Korean adults using a cross-sectional research design. A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from 33,018 adults aged 20 years and older collected in the 2007–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES). An increased level of self-reported stress was positively associated with an increased prevalence of AD in Korean adults (p for trend <0.001). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratios (ORs) of AD among participants reporting high and very high levels of stress were 1.81 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22, 2.67) and 2.17 (95% CI: 1.38, 3.42), respectively, compared with those who reported low levels of stress. This study found a statistically significant association between perceived stress and AD among Korean adults. PMID:27472355

  17. Evaluation of an automatic brain segmentation method developed for neonates on adult MR brain images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeskops, Pim; Viergever, Max A.; Benders, Manon J. N. L.; Išgum, Ivana

    2015-03-01

    Automatic brain tissue segmentation is of clinical relevance in images acquired at all ages. The literature presents a clear distinction between methods developed for MR images of infants, and methods developed for images of adults. The aim of this work is to evaluate a method developed for neonatal images in the segmentation of adult images. The evaluated method employs supervised voxel classification in subsequent stages, exploiting spatial and intensity information. Evaluation was performed using images available within the MRBrainS13 challenge. The obtained average Dice coefficients were 85.77% for grey matter, 88.66% for white matter, 81.08% for cerebrospinal fluid, 95.65% for cerebrum, and 96.92% for intracranial cavity, currently resulting in the best overall ranking. The possibility of applying the same method to neonatal as well as adult images can be of great value in cross-sectional studies that include a wide age range.

  18. Construct Validity of the eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) Among Two Adult Populations: A Rasch Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moorhouse, Michael; Curbow, Barbara; Christie, Juliette; Walsh-Childers, Kim; Islam, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Background The Internet has become a ubiquitous venue for information seeking, especially for health information. Public health practitioners have noticed the promise and potential of the Internet, however, little is known about individuals' skills of their eHealth literacy. The eHealth Literacy Scale, eHEALS, was designed to measure perceptions of individuals' eHealth literacy skills. Objective The objective of the study was to examine the psychometric validity and reliability of the eHEALS with two adult populations using the Rasch Model. Methods A college-aged sample and an Internet-based sample (Amazon's MTurk) were recruited to complete the eHEALS, demographic questions, and a health literacy scale. Using WINSTEPS and SPSS, unidimensionality, item fit, rating scale, item hierarchy, person ability-item match, and reliability were analyzed, compared, and contrasted against each sample and to other samples found in the literature. Results An exploratory factor analysis supported unidimensionality in both samples. More than 90% of respondents from both samples fit the model. No items were outright misfitting. Both samples separated into three distinct groups. Conclusions Based on the results, the eHEALS is a reliable and consistent measurement tool for a college sample and an Internet-based sample. As these individuals are most likely to use the Internet as a health resource, it is necessary to learn and know their skills versus perceiving that they can critically and successfully navigate the Internet. Further analyses are necessary to ensure that the eHEALS can serve as a standard eHealth literacy measure for public health. PMID:27244771

  19. Association between Periodontal Status, Oral Hygiene Status and Tooth Wear among Adult Male Population in Benin City, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Umoh, AO; Azodo, CC

    2013-01-01

    Background: The association between periodontal status, oral hygiene status and severity of tooth wear lesion varies from community to community and also from occupation to occupation. Aim: To determine the association between periodontal status, oral hygiene status and tooth wear among the adult male population in Benin City, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted among 65 male drivers, aged 25-64 years, with a mean age of 48.6 (9.1) years in an organized private motor park in Benin City between November 2011 and January 2012. The data collected through interview and clinical oral examination were age, educational status, driving experience, oral hygiene status, periodontal status and severity of tooth wear. Results: In this study, 13.8% (9/65) and 1.5% (1/65) of the participants had 4-5 mm and ≥6 mm periodontal pockets, respectively. A total of 15.4% (10/65) of the participants had poor oral hygiene status and 58.5% (38/65) of the participants had tooth wear lesion, with 15.8% (9/65) being severe tooth wear lesions (score 3). Participants with poorer oral hygiene and more severe tooth wear lesions significantly exhibited poorer periodontal status. There also existed a significant association between oral hygiene status and the severity of tooth wear lesion among the participants in this study. Conclusion: Data from this study revealed a statistically significant association between periodontal status, oral hygiene status and severity of tooth wear lesion among the participants. PMID:23919180

  20. The 2012 AASM Respiratory Event Criteria Increase the Incidence of Hypopneas in an Adult Sleep Center Population

    PubMed Central

    Duce, Brett; Milosavljevic, Jasmina; Hukins, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the effect of the 2012 American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) respiratory event criteria on severity and prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) relative to previous respiratory event criteria. Methods: A retrospective, randomized comparison was conducted in an Australian clinical sleep laboratory in a tertiary hospital. The polysomnograms (PSG) of 112 consecutive patients undertaking polysomnography (PSG) for suspected OSA were re-scored for respiratory events using either 2007 AASM recommended (AASM2007Rec), 2007 AASM alternate (AASM2007Alt), Chicago criteria (AASM1999), or 2012 AASM recommended (AASM2012) respiratory event criteria. Results: The median AHI using AASM2012 was approximately 90% greater than the AASM2007Rec AHI, approximately 25% greater than the AASM2007Alt AHI, and approximately 15% lower than the AASM1999 AHI. These changes increased OSA diagnoses by approximately 20% and 5% for AASM2007Rec and AASM2007Alt, respectively. Minimal changes in OSA diagnoses were observed between AASM1999 and AASM2012 criteria. To achieve the same OSA prevalence as AASM2012, the threshold for previous criteria would have to shift to 2.6/h, 3.6/h, and 7.3/h for AASM2007Rec, AASM2007Alt, and AASM1999, respectively. Differences between the AASM2007Rec and AASM2012 hypopnea indices (HI) were predominantly due to the change in desaturation levels required. Alterations to respiratory event duration rules had no effect on the HI. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that implementation of the 2012 AASM respiratory event criteria will increase the AHI in patients undergoing PSG, and more patients are likely to be diagnosed with OSA. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1357. Citation: Duce B, Milosavljevic J, Hukins C. The 2012 AASM respiratory event criteria increase the incidence of hypopneas in an adult sleep center population. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(12):1425–1431. PMID:26285111

  1. Population correlates of circulating mercury levels in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies focused on bioaccumulation of mercury (Hg) and on large, long-lived fish species as the major environmental source of Hg, but little is known about consumption of small-sized fish or about non-dietary determinants of circulating Hg levels. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whole blood mercury concentration (WBHg) and its major dietary and non-dietary correlates in Korean adults. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 3,972 (male = 1,994; female = 1,978) participants who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV, 2008 to 2009. Relevant factors included diet, geographic location of residence, demographics, and lifestyle. WBHg concentration was measured using cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Multivariable linear models assessed independent correlates of dietary and non-dietary factors for WBHg levels. Results Median levels of WBHg were 5.1 μg/L in men and 3.7 μg/L in women. Higher levels of fish/shellfish intake were associated with higher levels of WBHg. Higher consumption of small-sized fish was linked to higher levels of WBHg. Non-dietary predictors of higher WBHg were being male, greater alcohol consumption, higher income and education, overweight/obesity, increasing age, and living in the southeast region. Conclusions Both dietary and non-dietary factors were associated with WBHg levels in the Korean population. There is significant geographic variation in WBHg levels; residents living in the mid-south have higher WBHg levels. We speculate that uncontrolled geographic characteristics, such as local soil/water content and specific dietary habits are involved. PMID:24884916

  2. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Pat; Landahl, John

    This pamphlet has been prepared in response to a new problem, a rapidly increasing population, and a new need, population education. It is designed to help teachers provide their students with some basic population concepts with stress placed on the elements of decision making. In the first section of the pamphlet, some of the basic concepts of…

  3. [Population].

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    Data on the population of Venezuela between 1975 and 1977 are presented in descriptive tables and graphs. Information is included on the employed population according to category, sex, and type of economic activity, and by sex, age, and area on the employment rate and the total, the economically active, and the unemployed population.

  4. Evaluation of Adult Chronic Chagas' Heart Disease Diagnosis by Molecular and Serological Methods

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Juan David; Guhl, Felipe; Umezawa, Eufrosina Setsu; Morillo, Carlos A.; Rosas, Fernando; Marin-Neto, Jose A.; Restrepo, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    Chagas' disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi is endemic in Latin America. T. cruzi presents heterogeneous populations and comprises two main genetic lineages, named T. cruzi I and T. cruzi II. Diagnosis in the chronic phase is based on conventional serological tests, including indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and diagnosis in the acute phase based on parasitological methods, including hemoculture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic procedures of Chagas' disease in adult patients in the chronic phase by using a PCR assay and conventional serological tests, including TESA-blot as the gold standard. Samples were obtained from 240 clinical chronic chagasic patients. The sensitivities, compared to that of TESA-blot, were 70% for PCR using the kinetoplast region, 75% for PCR using the nuclear repetitive region, 99% for IIF, and 95% for ELISA. According to the serological tests results, we recommend that researchers assess the reliability and sensitivity of the commercial kit Chagatest ELISA recombinant, version 3.0 (Chagatest Rec v3.0; Wiener Lab, Rosario, Argentina), due to the lack of sensitivity. Based on our analysis, we concluded that PCR cannot be validated as a conventional diagnostic technique for Chagas' disease. These data have been corroborated by low levels of concordance with serology test results. It is recommended that PCR be used only for alternative diagnostic support. Using the nuclear repetitive region of T. cruzi, PCR could also be applicable for monitoring patients receiving etiologic treatment. PMID:19846646

  5. Determination of Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi IgG in Adult Population Living in Trabzon

    PubMed Central

    Cora, Merve; Kaklıkkaya, Neşe; Topbaş, Murat; Çan, Gamze; Yavuzyılmaz, Asuman; Tosun, İlknur; Aydın, Faruk

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lyme borreliosis is a tick-borne, multi-systemic infectious disease that is thought to be wide spread in Turkey even though studies on its seroprevalence are limited. Aims: To determine the seroprevalence of Lyme borreliosis in part of north-eastern Tur-key (in the city of Trabzon), and to identify possible relationships between seropositivity and various factors such as location, gender, age group, occupation, income, and educational level. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: A total of 884 blood samples collected from provincial and district health centers serving a population of about 800,000 were included in this study. ELISA was used to determine the anti-Borrelia IgG antibody levels in the samples. Samples that yielded positive results by ELISA were further subjected to western blot (WB). Results: IgG antibodies were found in 128 samples (14.5%). Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between age groups and educational levels in terms of the incidence of seropositivity, whereas location, gender, occupational group and income level had no effect (p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.948, p=0.645, p=0.131, p=0.080 respectively). Conclusions: The risk of contracting Lyme borreliosis in Trabzon is high, and necessary measures need to be taken to avoid the spread of disease. PMID:28251023

  6. Adult Prevalence of Epilepsy in Spain: EPIBERIA, a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Castro, Pedro J.; Mauri-Llerda, Jose Angel; Hernández-Ramos, Francisco José; Sánchez-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Parejo-Carbonell, Beatriz; Quiroga-Subirana, Pablo; Vázquez-Gutierrez, Fernando; Santos-Lasaosa, Sonia; Mendez-Lucena, Carolina; Redondo-Verge, Luis; Tejero-Juste, Carlos; Morandeira-Rivas, Clara; Sancho-Rieger, Jerónimo; Matías-Guiu, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study assesses the lifetime and active prevalence of epilepsy in Spain in people older than 18 years. Methods. EPIBERIA is a population-based epidemiological study of epilepsy prevalence using data from three representative Spanish regions (health districts in Zaragoza, Almería, and Seville) between 2012 and 2013. The study consisted of two phases: screening and confirmation. Participants completed a previously validated questionnaire (EPIBERIA questionnaire) over the telephone. Results. A total of 1741 valid questionnaires were obtained, including 261 (14.99%) raising a suspicion of epilepsy. Of these suspected cases, 216 (82.75%) agreed to participate in phase 2. Of the phase 2 participants, 22 met the International League Against Epilepsy's diagnostic criteria for epilepsy. The estimated lifetime prevalence, adjusted by age and sex per 1,000 people, was 14.87 (95% CI: 9.8–21.9). Active prevalence was 5.79 (95% CI: 2.8–10.6). No significant age, sex, or regional differences in prevalence were detected. Conclusions. EPIBERIA provides the most accurate estimate of epilepsy prevalence in the Mediterranean region based on its original methodology and its adherence to ILAE recommendations. We highlight that the lifetime prevalence and inactive epilepsy prevalence figures observed here were compared to other epidemiological studies. PMID:26783554

  7. Prevalence and factors associated with the presence of non alcoholic fatty liver disease in an apparently healthy adult population in primary care units

    PubMed Central

    Caballería, Llorenç; Auladell, Ma Antonia; Torán, Pere; Miranda, Dolores; Aznar, Jesús; Pera, Guillem; Gil, Dolors; Muñoz, Laura; Planas, Jaume; Canut, Santiago; Bernad, Jesús; Aubà, Josep; Pizarro, Gregorio; Aizpurua, Miren Maite; Altaba, Anna; Tibau, Albert

    2007-01-01

    Background Fatty liver disease is characterized by the accumulation of fat vacuoles inside of the hepatocytes. Non alcoholic fatty liver is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipemia, the intake of certain drugs and with the so-called metabolic syndrome. However, there is little information on the clinical relevance of this disorder as a healthcare problem in the general population, since the studies published generally include a limited number of patients and the diagnosis is established on the basis of clear biochemical alterations and liver biopsy. Methods/Design The aim of the study is the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a general adult population by hepatic ultrasonography. A population-based, descriptive, transversal, multicentre study. Eighteen primary care centres of the north of Barcelona and the Maresme Areas of Healthcare Management attending an urban and semi-urban population of 360.000 inhabitants. A randomized sample of 786 subjects of 15 years or older were selected from the population and assigned to the participating centres according to the Primary Care Information System (SIAP): This population is practically the same as the general population of the area. The following determinations will be carried out in all the participants: hepatic ultrasonography to detect fatty liver, a questionnaire concerning liver diseases, alcohol intake, smoking and drug use, physical examination including abdominal perimeter and body mass index and biochemical analysis including liver function tests and parameters related to the metabolic syndrome and the HAIR score. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of fatty liver will be made according to established criteria (American Gastroenterology Association) and diagnosis of metabolic syndrome according to the criteria of the European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance. Discussion This study will attempt to determine the prevalence of non alcoholic fatty liver disease, as well as, the factors

  8. Thoracic spine pain in the general population: Prevalence, incidence and associated factors in children, adolescents and adults. A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Andrew M; Smith, Anne J; Straker, Leon M; Bragge, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background Thoracic spine pain (TSP) is experienced across the lifespan by healthy individuals and is a common presentation in primary healthcare clinical practice. However, the epidemiological characteristics of TSP are not well documented compared to neck and low back pain. A rigorous evaluation of the prevalence, incidence, correlates and risk factors needs to be undertaken in order for epidemiologic data to be meaningfully used to develop evidence-based prevention and treatment recommendations for TSP. Methods A systematic review method was followed to report the evidence describing prevalence, incidence, associated factors and risk factors for TSP among the general population. Nine electronic databases were systematically searched to identify studies that reported either prevalence, incidence, associated factors (cross-sectional study) or risk factors (prospective study) for TSP in healthy children, adolescents or adults. Studies were evaluated for level of evidence and method quality. Results Of the 1389 studies identified in the literature, 33 met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The mean (SD) quality score (out of 15) for the included studies was 10.5 (2.0). TSP prevalence data ranged from 4.0–72.0% (point), 0.5–51.4% (7-day), 1.4–34.8% (1-month), 4.8–7.0% (3-month), 3.5–34.8% (1-year) and 15.6–19.5% (lifetime). TSP prevalence varied according to the operational definition of TSP. Prevalence for any TSP ranged from 0.5–23.0%, 15.8–34.8%, 15.0–27.5% and 12.0–31.2% for 7-day, 1-month, 1-year and lifetime periods, respectively. TSP associated with backpack use varied from 6.0–72.0% and 22.9–51.4% for point and 7-day periods, respectively. TSP interfering with school or leisure ranged from 3.5–9.7% for 1-year prevalence. Generally, studies reported a higher prevalence for TSP in child and adolescent populations, and particularly for females. The 1 month, 6 month, 1 year and 25 year incidences were 0–0.9%, 10.3%, 3

  9. Molecular taxonomic analysis of the plant associations of adult pollen beetles (Nitidulidae: Meligethinae), and the population structure of Brassicogethes aeneus.

    PubMed

    Ouvrard, Pierre; Hicks, Damien M; Mouland, Molly; Nicholls, James A; Baldock, Katherine C R; Goddard, Mark A; Kunin, William E; Potts, Simon G; Thieme, Thomas; Veromann, Eve; Stone, Graham N

    2016-12-01

    Pollen beetles (Nitidulidae: Meligethinae) are among the most abundant flower-visiting insects in Europe. While some species damage millions of hectares of crops annually, the biology of many species is little known. We assessed the utility of a 797 base pair fragment of the cytochrome oxidase 1 gene to resolve molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) in 750 adult pollen beetles sampled from flowers of 63 plant species sampled across the UK and continental Europe. We used the same locus to analyse region-scale patterns in population structure and demography in an economically important pest, Brassicogethes aeneus. We identified 44 Meligethinae at ∼2% divergence, 35 of which contained published sequences. A few specimens could not be identified because the MOTUs containing them included published sequences for multiple Linnaean species, suggesting either retention of ancestral haplotype polymorphism or identification errors in published sequences. Over 90% of UK specimens were identifiable as B. aeneus. Plant associations of adult B. aeneus were found to be far wider taxonomically than for their larvae. UK B. aeneus populations showed contrasting affiliations between the north (most similar to Scandinavia and the Baltic) and south (most similar to western continental Europe), with strong signatures of population growth in the south.

  10. Association between carotid atherosclerosis and different subtypes of hypertension in adult populations: A multiethnic study in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Adi, Dilare; Yang, Yi-Ning; Xie, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Mei; Ma, Xiang; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Huang, Ying; Chen, Bang-Dang; Shan, Chun-Fang; Ma, Yi-Tong

    2017-01-01

    Background Ethnic differences in non-invasive measurements of carotid atherosclerosis are being increasingly reported, but the association between carotid atherosclerosis and different subtypes of hypertension in adult populations is not fully understood in different ethnicities. We aimed to investigate the association of carotid atherosclerosis with different subtypes of hypertension in different ethnicities in Xinjiang, a northwestern province in China. Methods A total of 14,618 participants (5,757 Hans, 4,767 Uygurs, and 4,094 Kazakhs) from 26 villages of seven cities in Xinjiang were randomly selected from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey conducted during 2007 and 2010. A standard questionnaire, a physical examination and biochemical tests were employed. Results The mean common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) for the 14,618 participants was 0.86±0.003 mm. The CIMT gradually increased with age. Men (0.92±0.005 mm) had a higher CIMT than women (0.81±0.004 mm). The Uygur participants (0.82±0.006 mm) had a lower CIMT than the Han (0.88±0.005 mm) and Kazakh participants (0.88±0.005 mm). The overall prevalences of carotid intimal thickening and carotid plaques were 12.4% and 9.7%, respectively. The prevalence of CIMT varied for the different subtypes of hypertension. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed different risk factors for abnormal CIMT in different ethnicities. The associations between abnormal CIMT and the different subtypes of hypertension within different ethnic backgrounds were also different. The risk factors for abnormal CIMT included systolic-diastolic hypertension (SDH) in Han participants (OR: 1.323, 95% CI: 1.100–1.590), SDH (OR: 1.426, 95% CI: 1.160–1.753) and isolated-systolic hypertension (ISH) (OR: 1.844, 95% CI: 1.470–2.313) in Uygur participants, and isolated-diastolic hypertension (IDH) (OR: 1.536, 95% CI: 1.170–2.016) in Kazakh participants. Conclusion There was an ethnic difference in the prevalence of abnormal

  11. Assessment of mycotoxin exposure in the Belgian population using biomarkers: aim, design and methods of the BIOMYCO study.

    PubMed

    Heyndrickx, Ellen; Sioen, Isabelle; Bellemans, Mia; De Maeyer, Mieke; Callebaut, Alfons; De Henauw, Stefaan; De Saeger, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins are harmful food contaminants. Currently, human exposure assessment to these toxins is often based on calculations combining mycotoxin occurrence data in food with population data on food consumption. Because of limitations inherent to that approach, biomarkers have been proposed as a suitable alternative whereby a more accurate assessment of exposure at the individual level can be performed. The BIOMYCO study is designed to assess human mycotoxin exposure using urinary biomarkers of exposure. Over the different seasons of 2013 and 2014, morning urine is gathered in a representative part of the Belgian population according to a designed study protocol, whereby 140 children (3-12 years old) and 278 adults (19-65 years old) are selected based on random cluster sampling stratified for sex, age and geographical areas. Every participant completes a food frequency questionnaire to assess the consumption of relevant foodstuffs (n = 43) of both the day before the urine collection and the previous month. Validated multi-toxin LC-MS/MS methods are used to analyse aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes, zearalenone and their metabolites in morning urine. The study protocol is approved by the ethical committee of the Ghent University Hospital. Within this paper, study design and methods are described. The BIOMYCO study is the first study whereby a multi-toxin approach is applied for mycotoxin exposure assessment in adults and children on a large scale. Moreover, it is the first study that will describe the exposure to an elaborated set of mycotoxins in the Belgian population. In first instance, descriptive analysis will be performed, describing the exposure to mycotoxins for the child and adult group. Exposure of different subgroups will be compared. Furthermore, correlations between the mycotoxin concentrations measured and the food consumption reported will be estimated to explore whether the mycotoxin exposure could be explained by the consumption

  12. Evaluation of a Stable Isotope Method to Mark Naturally-Breeding Larval Mosquitoes for Adult Dispersal Studies

    PubMed Central

    HAMER, GABRIEL L.; DONOVAN, DANIELLE J.; HOOD-NOWOTNY, REBECCA; KAUFMAN, MICHAEL G.; GOLDBERG, TONY L.; WALKER, EDWARD D.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding mosquito dispersal is critically important for vector-borne disease control and prevention. Mark–release–recapture methods using various marking techniques have made substantial contributions to the study of mosquito biology. However, the ability to mark naturally breeding mosquitoes noninvasively and with life-long retention has remained problematic. Here, we describe a method to mark naturally breeding mosquitoes with stable isotopes. Culexpipiens f. molestus mosquitoes were provisioned as larvae in laboratory experiments with 15N-labeled potassium nitrate and 13C-labeled glucose. Larval enrichment was sufficient to differentiate marked adult mosquitoes from unmarked control mosquitoes and the natural source population from Chicago Illinois, using either δ15N or δ13C. Isotopic retention lasted for at least 55 d for adult male and females mosquitoes. There were no consistent effects of isotopic enrichment on immature mosquito survival or adult mosquito body size. We then applied this marking technique to naturally breeding Culex pipiens mosquitoes in suburban Chicago, IL, and for the first time, report successful isotopic enrichment of mosquitoes in the field. This stable isotope marking technique will facilitate studies of mosquito dispersal. PMID:22308772

  13. Identification of various testicular cell populations in pubertal and adult cockerels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precise identification of the male germinal stem cell population is important for their practical use in programs dedicated to the integration of exogenous genetic material in testicular tissues. In the present study, our aim was to identify germinal cell populations in the testes of pubertal and ad...

  14. Association between hyperuricemia, prediabetes, and prehypertension in the Croatian adult population - a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between hyperuricemia, hypertension, and diabetes has been proved to have strong association with the risk for cardiovascular diseases, but it is not clear whether hyperuricemia is related to the early stages of hypertension and diabetes. Therefore, in this study we investigated the association between hyperuricemia, prediabetes, and prehypertension in Croatian adults, as well as that between purine-rich diet and hyperuricemia, prediabetes, or prehypertension. Methods A stratified random representative sample of 64 general practitioners (GP) was selected. Each GP systematically chose participants aged ≥ 40 year (up to 55 subjects) . Recruitment occurred between May and September 2008. The medical history, anthropometric, and laboratory measures were obtained for each participant. Results 59 physicians agreed to participate and recruited 2485 subjects (response rate 77%; average age (± standard deviation) 59.2 ±10.6; 61.9% women. In bivariate analysis we found a positive association between hyperuricemia and prediabetes (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.09–2.53), but not for prehypertension (OR 1.68, 95% CI 0.76–3.72). After controlling for known confounders for cardiovascular disease (age, gender, body mass index, alcohol intake, diet, physical activity, waist to hip ratio, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, and triglycerides), in multivariate analysis HU ceased to be an independent predictor(OR 1.33, CI 0.98–1.82, p = 0.069) for PreDM. An association between purine-rich food and hyperuricemia was found (p<0.001) and also for prediabetes (p=0.002), but not for prehypertension (p=0.41). The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 10.7% (15.4% male, 7.8% female), 32.5% for prediabetes (35.4% male, 30.8% female), and 26.6% for prehypertension (27.2% male, 26.2% female). Conclusion Hyperuricemia seems to be associated with prediabetes but not with prehypertension. Both, hyperuricemia and prediabetes were associated with

  15. Deconstructing the Alcohol Harm Paradox: A Population Based Survey of Adults in England

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Emma; Brown, Jamie; West, Robert; Angus, Colin; Brennan, Alan; Holmes, John; Kaner, Eileen; Meier, Petra; Michie, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background The Alcohol Harm Paradox refers to observations that lower socioeconomic status (SES) groups consume less alcohol but experience more alcohol-related problems. However, SES is a complex concept and its observed relationship to social problems often depends on how it is measured and the demographic groups studied. Thus this study assessed socioeconomic patterning of alcohol consumption and related harm using multiple measures of SES and examined moderation of this patterning by gender and age. Method Data were used from the Alcohol Toolkit Study between March and September 2015 on 31,878 adults (16+) living in England. Participants completed the AUDIT which includes alcohol consumption, harm and dependence modules. SES was measured via qualifications, employment, home and car ownership, income and social-grade, plus a composite of these measures. The composite score was coded such that higher scores reflected greater social-disadvantage. Results We observed the Alcohol Harm Paradox for the composite SES measure, with a linear negative relationship between SES and AUDIT-Consumption scores (β = -0.036, p<0.001) and a positive relationship between lower SES and AUDIT-Harm (β = 0.022, p<0.001) and AUDIT-Dependence (β = 0.024, p<0.001) scores. Individual measures of SES displayed different, and non-linear, relationships with AUDIT modules. For example, social-grade and income had a u-shaped relationship with AUDIT-Consumption scores while education had an inverse u-shaped relationship. Almost all measures displayed an exponential relationship with AUDIT-Dependence and AUDIT-Harm scores. We identified moderating effects from age and gender, with AUDIT-Dependence scores increasing more steeply with lower SES in men and both AUDIT-Harm and AUDIT-Dependence scores increasing more steeply with lower SES in younger age groups. Conclusion Different SES measures appear to influence whether the Alcohol Harm Paradox is observed as a linear trend across SES groups or

  16. Recommendations for a Core Outcome Set for Measuring Standing Balance in Adult Populations: A Consensus-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Kathryn M.; Howe, Tracey; Lamb, Sarah E.; Lord, Stephen R.; Maki, Brian E.; Rose, Debra J.; Scott, Vicky; Stathokostas, Liza; Straus, Sharon E.; Jaglal, Susan B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Standing balance is imperative for mobility and avoiding falls. Use of an excessive number of standing balance measures has limited the synthesis of balance intervention data and hampered consistent clinical practice. Objective To develop recommendations for a core outcome set (COS) of standing balance measures for research and practice among adults. Methodology A combination of scoping reviews, literature appraisal, anonymous voting and face-to-face meetings with fourteen invited experts from a range of disciplines with international recognition in balance measurement and falls prevention. Consensus was sought over three rounds using pre-established criteria. Data sources The scoping review identified 56 existing standing balance measures validated in adult populations with evidence of use in the past five years, and these were considered for inclusion in the COS. Results Fifteen measures were excluded after the first round of scoring and a further 36 after round two. Five measures were considered in round three. Two measures reached consensus for recommendation, and the expert panel recommended that at a minimum, either the Berg Balance Scale or Mini Balance Evaluation Systems Test be used when measuring standing balance in adult populations. Limitations Inclusion of two measures in the COS may increase the feasibility of potential uptake, but poses challenges for data synthesis. Adoption of the standing balance COS does not constitute a comprehensive balance assessment for any population, and users should include additional validated measures as appropriate. Conclusions The absence of a gold standard for measuring standing balance has contributed to the proliferation of outcome measures. These recommendations represent an important first step towards greater standardization in the assessment and measurement of this critical skill and will inform clinical research and practice internationally. PMID:25768435

  17. Bayesian data analysis in population ecology: motivations, methods, and benefits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorazio, Robert

    2016-01-01

    During the 20th century ecologists largely relied on the frequentist system of inference for the analysis of their data. However, in the past few decades ecologists have become increasingly interested in the use of Bayesian methods of data analysis. In this article I provide guidance to ecologists who would like to decide whether Bayesian methods can be used to improve their conclusions and predictions. I begin by providing a concise summary of Bayesian methods of analysis, including a comparison of differences between Bayesian and frequentist approaches to inference when using hierarchical models. Next I provide a list of problems where Bayesian methods of analysis may arguably be preferred over frequentist methods. These problems are usually encountered in analyses based on hierarchical models of data. I describe the essentials required for applying modern methods of Bayesian computation, and I use real-world examples to illustrate these methods. I conclude by summarizing what I perceive to be the main strengths and weaknesses of using Bayesian methods to solve ecological inference problems.

  18. Low Prevalence of Clostridium septicum Fecal Carriage in an Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Kopliku, Fatos; Schubert, Alyxandria M.; Mogle, Jill; Schloss, Patrick D.; Young, Vincent B.; Aronoff, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium septicum is an uncommon cause of severe infection. Real-time PCR against the C. septicum-specific alpha-toxin gene (csa) was used to estimate the prevalence of this microbe in human stool from 161 asymptomatic community-dwelling adults and 192 hospitalized patients with diarrhea. All samples were negative, suggesting a low prevalence. PMID:25481351

  19. The Prevalence of a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse in an Acute Adult Inpatient Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurr, Catherine J.; Partridge, Ian M.

    1996-01-01

    In a survey of 120 inpatients admitted to a United Kingdom acute psychiatric ward, 46% reported a history of childhood sexual abuse. Only 14%, however, had disclosed the abuse previously to psychiatrists. The patterns of abuse were found to correspond with those causing problems with adjustment in adult life. (CR)

  20. A new method for identifying rapid decline dynamics in wild vertebrate populations

    PubMed Central

    Fonzo, Martina Di; Collen, Ben; Mace, Georgina M

    2013-01-01

    Tracking trends in the abundance of wildlife populations is a sensitive method for assessing biodiversity change due to the short time-lag between human pressures and corresponding shifts in population trends. This study tests for proposed associations between different types of human pressures and wildlife population abundance decline-curves and introduces a method to distinguish decline trajectories from natural fluctuations in population time-series. First, we simulated typical mammalian population time-series under different human pressure types and intensities and identified significant distinctions in population dynamics. Based on the concavity of the smoothed population trend and the algebraic function which was the closest fit to the data, we determined those differences in decline dynamics that were consistently attributable to each pressure type. We examined the robustness of the attribution of pressure type to population decline dynamics under more realistic conditions by simulating populations under different levels of environmental stochasticity and time-series data quality. Finally, we applied our newly developed method to 124 wildlife population time-series and investigated how those threat types diagnosed by our method compare to the specific threatening processes reported for those populations. We show how wildlife population decline curves can be used to discern between broad categories of pressure or threat types, but do not work for detailed threat attributions. More usefully, we find that differences in population decline curves can reliably identify populations where pressure is increasing over time, even when data quality is poor, and propose this method as a cost-effective technique for prioritizing conservation actions between populations. PMID:23919177

  1. Humoral Immunity to Primary Smallpox Vaccination: Impact of Childhood versus Adult Immunization on Vaccinia Vector Vaccine Development in Military Populations.

    PubMed

    Slike, Bonnie M; Creegan, Matthew; Marovich, Mary; Ngauy, Viseth

    2017-01-01

    Modified Vaccinia virus has been shown to be a safe and immunogenic vector platform for delivery of HIV vaccines. Use of this vector is of particular importance to the military, with the implementation of a large scale smallpox vaccination campaign in 2002 in active duty and key civilian personnel in response to potential bioterrorist activities. Humoral immunity to smallpox vaccination was previously shown to be long lasting (up to 75 years) and protective. However, using vaccinia-vectored vaccine delivery for other diseases on a background of anti-vector antibodies (i.e. pre-existing immunity) may limit their use as a vaccine platform, especially in the military. In this pilot study, we examined the durability of vaccinia antibody responses in adult primary vaccinees in a healthy military population using a standard ELISA assay and a novel dendritic cell neutralization assay. We found binding and neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses to vaccinia waned after 5-10 years in a group of 475 active duty military, born after 1972, who were vaccinated as adults with Dryvax®. These responses decreased from a geometric mean titer (GMT) of 250 to baseline (<20) after 10-20 years post vaccination. This contrasted with a comparator group of adults, ages 35-49, who were vaccinated with Dryvax® as children. In the childhood vaccinees, titers persisted for >30 years with a GMT of 210 (range 112-3234). This data suggests limited durability of antibody responses in adult vaccinees compared to those vaccinated in childhood and further that adult vaccinia recipients may benefit similarly from receipt of a vaccinia based vaccine as those who are vaccinia naïve. Our findings may have implications for the smallpox vaccination schedule and support the ongoing development of this promising viral vector in a military vaccination program.

  2. Humoral Immunity to Primary Smallpox Vaccination: Impact of Childhood versus Adult Immunization on Vaccinia Vector Vaccine Development in Military Populations

    PubMed Central

    Slike, Bonnie M.; Creegan, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Modified Vaccinia virus has been shown to be a safe and immunogenic vector platform for delivery of HIV vaccines. Use of this vector is of particular importance to the military, with the implementation of a large scale smallpox vaccination campaign in 2002 in active duty and key civilian personnel in response to potential bioterrorist activities. Humoral immunity to smallpox vaccination was previously shown to be long lasting (up to 75 years) and protective. However, using vaccinia-vectored vaccine delivery for other diseases on a background of anti-vector antibodies (i.e. pre-existing immunity) may limit their use as a vaccine platform, especially in the military. In this pilot study, we examined the durability of vaccinia antibody responses in adult primary vaccinees in a healthy military population using a standard ELISA assay and a novel dendritic cell neutralization assay. We found binding and neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses to vaccinia waned after 5–10 years in a group of 475 active duty military, born after 1972, who were vaccinated as adults with Dryvax®. These responses decreased from a geometric mean titer (GMT) of 250 to baseline (<20) after 10–20 years post vaccination. This contrasted with a comparator group of adults, ages 35–49, who were vaccinated with Dryvax® as children. In the childhood vaccinees, titers persisted for >30 years with a GMT of 210 (range 112–3234). This data suggests limited durability of antibody responses in adult vaccinees compared to those vaccinated in childhood and further that adult vaccinia recipients may benefit similarly from receipt of a vaccinia based vaccine as those who are vaccinia naïve. Our findings may have implications for the smallpox vaccination schedule and support the ongoing development of this promising viral vector in a military vaccination program. PMID:28046039

  3. Childhood growth and adult hypertension in a population of high birth weight.

    PubMed

    Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Aspelund, Thor; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2011-07-01

    Low birth weight has consistently been associated with increased adult blood pressure. The relative importance of childhood growth is, however, less well established. This study examined sex-specific associations between childhood growth and adult blood pressure in 2120 subjects born from 1921 to 1935 in Reykjavik who were recruited into a longitudinal study in 1967-1991. Size at birth and growth at regular intervals between 8 and 13 years were collected from national archives. Hypertensive males did not differ from normotensive males at birth but were increasingly taller and of higher body mass index between 8 and 13 years. No differences in adult height were observed between hypertensive and normotensive males. For boys, growth-velocity (change in growth per year) for body mass index and height between 8 to 13 years was positively associated (P<0.05) with adult blood pressure. The association for body mass index-velocity was fully accounted for by concurrent body size, whereas height-velocity was independent of birth weight and concurrent body size. Males in the highest compared with the lowest tertile in the height-velocity distribution had 66% increased risks of hypertension (95% CI: 15% to 139% increased risks of hypertension) corresponding with 5.0 mm Hg increase (95% CI: 1.5 to 8.5 mm Hg increase) and 3.1 mm Hg increase (95% CI: 1.1 to 5.0 mm Hg increase) in systolic and diastolic blood pressures, respectively. Hypertensive females weighed less at birth but did not differ markedly from normotensive girls between 8 and 13 years, and no association was observed for growth-velocity. In conclusion, rapid linear growth between 8 and 13 years predicts elevated adult blood pressure in boys. This association is likely to reflect relatively early onset of puberty among hypertensive males.

  4. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Adult Population towards Blood Donation in Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Melku, Mulugeta; Terefe, Betelihem; Asrie, Fikir; Enawgaw, Bamlaku; Melak, Tadele; Tsegay, Yakob Gebregziabher; Areba, Mohamedamin; Shiferaw, Elias

    2016-01-01

    Background. Though World Health Organization recommends 100% voluntary blood donation, the percentage of blood collected from voluntary blood donors and the average annual blood collection rate are extremely low in Ethiopia. The role of adults is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. Thus, this study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of adult population towards blood donation in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Method. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 768 adults. Multistage sampling technique together with simple random and systematic random sampling technique was employed. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis and bivariate correlation analysis were done. Result. About 436 (56.8%), 630 (82%), and 141 (18.4%) study participants had adequate knowledge, good attitude, and experience of blood donation, respectively. Secondary and higher educational statuses were significantly associated with adequate knowledge towards blood donation. Participants who were protestant by religion were more likely to have good attitude towards blood donation. Age, self-perceived health status, and religion were significantly associated with blood donation practice. Conclusion. Knowledge and attitude towards blood donation are high. However, the level of practice is low. District and national blood banks and transfusion agency should design strategies that promote and motivate the communities to donate blood.

  5. Prevalence, awareness and risk factors of hypertension in a large cohort of Iranian adult population

    PubMed Central

    MALEKZADEH, Masoud M.; ETEMADI, Arash; KAMANGAR, Farin; KHADEMI, Hooman; GOLOZAR, Asieh; ISLAMI, Farhad; POURSHAMS, Akram; POUSTCHI, Hossein; NAVABAKHSH, Behrouz; NAEMI, Mohammad; PHAROAH, Paul D.; ABNET, Christian C.; BRENNAN, Paul; BOFFETTA, Paolo; DAWSEY, Sanford M.; ESTEGHAMATI, Alireza; MALEKZADEH, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background There is considerable variation in hypertension prevalence and awareness, and their correlates, across different geographic locations and ethnic groups. We performed this cross-sectional analysis on data from the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS). Methods Enrollment in this study occurred in 2004–2008, and included 50,045 healthy subjects from Golestan Province in northeastern Iran. Hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140, a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90, a prior diagnosis of hypertension, or the use of antihypertensive drugs. Potential correlates of hypertension and its awareness were analyzed by logistic regression adjusted for sex, age, BMI, place of residence, literacy, ethnicity, physical activity, smoking, black and green tea consumption and wealth score. Results Of the total cohort participants, 21,350 (42.7%) were hypertensive. Age-standardized prevalence of hypertension, using the 2001 WHO standard world population, was 41.8% (95%CI: 38.3%–45.2%). Hypertension was directly associated with female sex, increased BMI, Turkmen ethnicity, and lack of physical activity, and inversely associated with drinking black tea and wealth score. Among hypertensive subjects, 46.2% were aware of their disease, 17.6% were receiving antihypertensive medication, and 32.1% of the treated subjects had controlled hypertension. Hypertension awareness was greater among women, the elderly, overweight and obese subjects, and those with a higher wealth score. Conclusions Hypertension is highly prevalent in rural Iran, many of the affected individuals are unaware of their disease, and the rate of control by antihypertensive medications is low. Increasing hypertension awareness and access to health services, especially among less privileged residents are recommended. PMID:23673348

  6. Validation of transition analysis as a method of adult age estimation in a modern South African sample.

    PubMed

    Jooste, N; L'Abbé, E N; Pretorius, S; Steyn, M

    2016-09-01

    The use of advanced statistical methods, such as transition analysis, has transformed adult age estimation into a systematically and statistically appropriate practice. The method developed by Boldsen and colleagues (2002) uses 36 features from the cranial sutures, pubic symphysis and auricular surface to calculate maximum likelihood point estimates and 95% confidence intervals, using the ADBOU computer software. However, when using the method in a geographically and contextually distinct sample, such as South Africa, accuracy and precision is of concern. This study aimed to test the repeatability, accuracy and precision of the transition analysis method, using the ADBOU computer software, on a South African sample. Age estimations were generated, for 149 black individuals from the Pretoria Bone Collection, using three individual components as well as different combinations of components and prior distributions (uniform and informative). The informative prior distributions represented both an archaeological and a forensic context. Cohen's kappa statistic uncovered some failings in the scoring procedure. While the accuracy compared favourably with existing methods, the method lacked satisfactory precision. Although combining the components improved accuracy and precision, removing the cranium from the combination was beneficial in some instances. The influence of population variation was observed in the scoring procedure, reference sample and the prior distributions. Validity may be improved for a South African sample by adding age-related components that have been developed on a relevant population. A prior distribution based on South African mortality rates might also be beneficial.

  7. Characterization of nonmalignant and malignant prostatic stem/progenitor cells by Hoechst side population method.

    PubMed

    Mimeault, Murielle; Batra, Surinder K

    2009-01-01

    Recent technical progress in the field of cancer stem/progenitor cell research revealed that these malignant cells may provide critical roles for primary tumor growth, metastases at distant tissues and organs, treatment resistance, and disease relapse. The precise molecular oncogenic events that frequently occur in cancer stem/progenitor cells and their early progenies during the early and late stages of cancer progression as well as their contribution to the treatment resistance and disease recurrence remain poorly defined. This lack of information on the deregulated gene products that may be involved in the malignant transformation of tissue-resident adult stem/progenitor cells into highly tumorigenic and/or migrating cancer stem/progenitor cells emphasizes the urgent need to perform future investigations. Toward this direction, we describe in this book chapter the characterization of nonmalignant and malignant prostatic stem/progenitor cells from well-established cell lines by Hoechst side population method. This novel approach should help to establish novel in vitro and in vivo models of human cancer stem/progenitor cell mimicking more closely the genetic and phenotypic changes occurring during the different stages of prostate carcinogenesis and disease progression in clinical settings. Of therapeutic interest, the identification of new biomarkers and molecular targets specific to these prostatic cancer-initiating cells should also help to develop more effective diagnostic and prognostic tests and chemopreventive and therapeutic treatments for the patients diagnosed at early and late stages of disease progression.

  8. Regional heritability mapping method helps explain missing heritability of blood lipid traits in isolated populations.

    PubMed

    Shirali, M; Pong-Wong, R; Navarro, P; Knott, S; Hayward, C; Vitart, V; Rudan, I; Campbell, H; Hastie, N D; Wright, A F; Haley, C S

    2016-03-01

    Single single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genome-wide association studies (SSGWAS) may fail to identify loci with modest effects on a trait. The recently developed regional heritability mapping (RHM) method can potentially identify such loci. In this study, RHM was compared with the SSGWAS for blood lipid traits (high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG)). Data comprised 2246 adults from isolated populations genotyped using ∼300 000 SNP arrays. The results were compared with large meta-analyses of these traits for validation. Using RHM, two significant regions affecting HDL on chromosomes 15 and 16 and one affecting LDL on chromosome 19 were identified. These regions covered the most significant SNPs associated with HDL and LDL from the meta-analysis. The chromosome 19 region was identified in our data despite the fact that the most significant SNP in the meta-analysis (or any SNP tagging it) was not genotyped in our SNP array. The SSGWAS identified one SNP associated with HDL on chromosome 16 (the top meta-analysis SNP) and one on chromosome 10 (not reported by RHM or in the meta-analysis and hence possibly a false positive association). The results further confirm that RHM can have better power than SSGWAS in detecting causal regions including regions containing crucial ungenotyped variants. This study suggests that RHM can be a useful tool to explain some of the 'missing heritability' of complex trait variation.

  9. Regional heritability mapping method helps explain missing heritability of blood lipid traits in isolated populations

    PubMed Central

    Shirali, M; Pong-Wong, R; Navarro, P; Knott, S; Hayward, C; Vitart, V; Rudan, I; Campbell, H; Hastie, N D; Wright, A F; Haley, C S

    2016-01-01

    Single single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genome-wide association studies (SSGWAS) may fail to identify loci with modest effects on a trait. The recently developed regional heritability mapping (RHM) method can potentially identify such loci. In this study, RHM was compared with the SSGWAS for blood lipid traits (high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG)). Data comprised 2246 adults from isolated populations genotyped using ∼300 000 SNP arrays. The results were compared with large meta-analyses of these traits for validation. Using RHM, two significant regions affecting HDL on chromosomes 15 and 16 and one affecting LDL on chromosome 19 were identified. These regions covered the most significant SNPs associated with HDL and LDL from the meta-analysis. The chromosome 19 region was identified in our data despite the fact that the most significant SNP in the meta-analysis (or any SNP tagging it) was not genotyped in our SNP array. The SSGWAS identified one SNP associated with HDL on chromosome 16 (the top meta-analysis SNP) and one on chromosome 10 (not reported by RHM or in the meta-analysis and hence possibly a false positive association). The results further confirm that RHM can have better power than SSGWAS in detecting causal regions including regions containing crucial ungenotyped variants. This study suggests that RHM can be a useful tool to explain some of the ‘missing heritability' of complex trait variation. PMID:26696135

  10. Scalp hair length. II. Estimating the percentages of adults in the USA and larger populations by hair length.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Clarence; Robbins, Marjorie Gene

    2003-01-01

    Scalp hair length assessments by anatomical site, previously made in Florida theme parks on adults, are related to anatomical measurements to obtain estimates of free-hanging hair lengths in centimeters. A plot of the natural logarithm of the percent population versus these hair lengths provides a straight line and an equation that permits the estimation of the numbers of persons in the USA and larger populations with hair lengths up to 183 cm (just beyond ankle-length). Data were also collected via a literature search for even longer hair lengths (ankle-length or longer) to provide an equation to estimate the numbers of persons with exceptionally long hair. A comparative plot of these two equations suggests that "normal" anagen periods may be considerably longer than current estimates in the literature.

  11. Effect of a Mobile Phone Intervention on Quitting Smoking in a Young Adult Population of Smokers: Randomized Controlled Trial Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Struik, Laura Louise; Hammond, David; Guindon, G Emmanuel; Norman, Cameron D; Whittaker, Robyn; Burns, Catherine M; Grindrod, Kelly A; Brown, K Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Background Tobacco use remains the number one cause of preventable chronic disease and death in developed countries worldwide. In North America, smoking rates are highest among young adults. Despite that the majority of young adult smokers indicate wanting to quit, smoking rates among this age demographic have yet to decline. Helping young adults quit smoking continues to be a public health priority. Digital mobile technology presents a promising medium for reaching this population with smoking cessation interventions, especially because young adults are the heaviest users of this technology. Objective The primary aim of this trial is to determine the effectiveness of an evidence-informed mobile phone app for smoking cessation, Crush the Crave, on reducing smoking prevalence among young adult smokers. Methods A parallel randomized controlled trial (RCT) with two arms will be conducted in Canada to evaluate Crush the Crave. In total, 1354 young adult smokers (19 to 29 years old) will be randomized to receive the evidence-informed mobile phone app, Crush the Crave, or an evidence-based self-help guide known as “On the Road to Quitting” (control) for a period of 6 months. The primary outcome measure is a 30-day point prevalence of abstinence at the 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes include a 7-day point prevalence of abstinence, number of quit attempts, reduction in consumption of cigarettes, self-efficacy, satisfaction, app utilization metrics, and use of smoking cessation services. A cost-effectiveness analysis is included. Results This trial is currently open for recruitment. The anticipated completion date for the study is April 2016. Conclusions This randomized controlled trial will provide the evidence to move forward on decision making regarding the inclusion of technology-based mobile phone interventions as part of existing smoking cessation efforts made by health care providers. Evidence from the trial will also inform the development of future apps

  12. INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY OF ADULTS FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENT EXPOSURE TO NEUROTOXICANTS: ANOTHER SUSCEPTIBLE POPULATION?

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is considerable public and regulatory interest in the adverse outcomes of developmental exposure to toxicants. The 1996 Food Quality Protection Act spurred research on understanding potential neurotoxic, immunotoxic, and endocrine outcomes in susceptible populations, parti...

  13. A Pediatric Tumor Found Frequently in the Adult Population: A Case of Anaplastic Astroblastoma in an Elderly Patient and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Batouli, Ali; Stabingas, Kristen; Alcindor, Dunbar; Abdel Aziz, Khaled; Pu, Cunfeng; Williams, Robert; Yu, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Astroblastomas are rare, potentially curable primary brain tumors which can be difficult to diagnose. We present the case of astroblastoma in a 73-year-old male, an atypical age for this tumor, more classically found in pediatric and young adult populations. Through our case and review of the literature, we note that this tumor is frequently reported in adult populations and the presentation of this tumor in the elderly is well described. This tumor is an important consideration in the differential diagnosis when managing both pediatric and adult patients of any age who present with the imaging findings characteristic of this rare tumor. PMID:28239500

  14. Vitamin D in the General Population of Young Adults with Autism in the Faroe Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocovská, Eva; Andorsdóttir, Guðrið; Weihe, Pál; Halling, Jónrit; Fernell, Elisabeth; Stóra, Tormóður; Biskupstø, Rannvá; Gillberg, I. Carina; Shea, Robyn; Billstedt, Eva; Bourgeron, Thomas; Minnis, Helen; Gillberg, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been proposed as a possible risk factor for developing autism spectrum disorder (ASD). 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) levels were examined in a cross-sectional population-based study in the Faroe Islands. The case group consisting of a total population cohort of 40 individuals with ASD (aged 15-24 years) had significantly…

  15. Age-at-death estimation based on radiological and image analysis methods in clavicle in a current Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Benito, María; Sánchez, José Antonio; Codinha, Sónia

    2014-05-01

    Age-at-death estimation in adult individuals is one of the most challenging issues in forensic anthropology, namely, due to the large age intervals provided by the current methods, which demand the development of more reliable investigations. The clavicle has been studied as an age-at-death indicator in many researches for its accessibility, low biomechanical implication in locomotion and accuracy to predict age at death when other age indicators are not available. The present study was developed on a sample of 332 clavicles from adult individuals of known sex and age from the current Spanish population. They were x-rayed and digitalized, in a standardized way, using a Sedecal X-ray generator, model SHF 415. Three indices were calculated at the mid-diaphysis point (anterior index, posterior index, and total index) which relate the cortical thickness and the total clavicle thickness to age at death. The average grey level was also calculated in a 0.5-cm(2) area of the sternal and acromial ends (sternal grey average, acromial grey average), using Image J software. The data were subjected to a statistical analysis, using SPSS, version 15.0. The results show that average grey level has a weaker correlation with age than the variables which are based on the cortical thickness. On the other hand, the regression equations, which were calculated combining all the variables, provided smaller age-at-death intervals, demonstrating the usefulness of this method for adult age-at-death estimation in forensic anthropology.

  16. [Bolsa-Família Program: diet quality of adult population in Curitiba, Paraná].

    PubMed

    Lima, Flávia Emília Leite de; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Uchimura, Kátia Yumi; Picheth, Telma

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the quality of diet of the population receiving the Bolsa Familia Program in Curitiba, state of Parana, Brazil. It was a population-based cross-sectional study, conducted from July 2006 to July 2007. 747 beneficiaries were interviewed from 19 years of age, of both genders. A 24 hour-recall was implemented in order to assess the quality of the diet and the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was used as a parameter for the classification of the group in consumption levels. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the diet quality of the studied population. Wald test and ANOVA test were performed to compare the means of the index according to the socio-economic variables, considering a significance level of 5%. The sample comprised 91.4% of women and 8.6% of men. The average age of the population was 36.4 ± 13.3 years, with 75% having completed elementary school. The mean HEI was 51 points, which features a diet that needs improvement. The population has a monotonous diet with an adequate intake of legumes, but low for fruits, vegetables and dairy products. Comparing the categories of diet quality of individuals, all components, except sodium, showed statistically different median score (p < 0.01). Studies that evaluate the quality of the diet are essential to support the implementation of nutrition education programs targeted to the core of the problem in the populations studied.

  17. Perceptions of Direct-to-Consumer Advertising and the Older Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Trista Askins; Fenney, Megan

    2016-04-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) has become a prominent feature of our society and reaches many consumers through their televisions, radios, and computer screens. In 2004, the average United States citizen was exposed to more than 16 hours of DTCA per year, and the number of hours has steadily increased. Drug advertising is a multi-billion dollar business for pharmaceutical manufacturers and affects public perception of medications, both prescription and over-the counter. Studies have shown advertisements can have both positive and negative effects, including educating consumers, but can harm the patient-physician relationship. This article addresses the perceptions older adults have toward DTCA and discusses how pharmacists can play a role in helping older adults understand and effectively use DTCA.

  18. Health and population effects of rare gene knockouts in adult humans with related parents.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Vagheesh M; Hunt, Karen A; Mason, Dan; Baker, Christopher L; Karczewski, Konrad J; Barnes, Michael R; Barnett, Anthony H; Bates, Chris; Bellary, Srikanth; Bockett, Nicholas A; Giorda, Kristina; Griffiths, Christopher J; Hemingway, Harry; Jia, Zhilong; Kelly, M Ann; Khawaja, Hajrah A; Lek, Monkol; McCarthy, Shane; McEachan, Rosie; O'Donnell-Luria, Anne; Paigen, Kenneth; Parisinos, Constantinos A; Sheridan, Eamonn; Southgate, Laura; Tee, Louise; Thomas, Mark; Xue, Yali; Schnall-Levin, Michael; Petkov, Petko M; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Maher, Eamonn R; Trembath, Richard C; MacArthur, Daniel G; Wright, John; Durbin, Richard; van Heel, David A

    2016-04-22

    Examining complete gene knockouts within a viable organism can inform on gene function. We sequenced the exomes of 3222 British adults of Pakistani heritage with high parental relatedness, discovering 1111 rare-variant homozygous genotypes with predicted loss of function (knockouts) in 781 genes. We observed 13.7% fewer homozygous knockout genotypes than we expected, implying an average load of 1.6 recessive-lethal-equivalent loss-of-function (LOF) variants per adult. When genetic data were linked to the individuals' lifelong health records, we observed no significant relationship between gene knockouts and clinical consultation or prescription rate. In this data set, we identified a healthy PRDM9-knockout mother and performed phased genome sequencing on her, her child, and control individuals. Our results show that meiotic recombination sites are localized away from PRDM9-dependent hotspots. Thus, natural LOF variants inform on essential genetic loci and demonstrate PRDM9 redundancy in humans.

  19. Health and population effects of rare gene knockouts in adult humans with related parents

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Vagheesh M.; Hunt, Karen A.; Mason, Dan; Baker, Christopher L.; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Barnes, Michael R.; Barnett, Anthony H.; Bates, Chris; Bellary, Srikanth; Bockett, Nicholas A.; Giorda, Kristina; Griffiths, Christopher J.; Hemingway, Harry; Jia, Zhilong; Kelly, M. Ann; Khawaja, Hajrah A.; Lek, Monkol; McCarthy, Shane; McEachan, Rosie; O’Donnell-Luria, Anne; Paigen, Kenneth; Parisinos, Constantinos A.; Sheridan, Eamonn; Southgate, Laura; Tee, Louise; Thomas, Mark; Xue, Yali; Schnall-Levin, Michael; Petkov, Petko M.; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Maher, Eamonn R.; Trembath, Richard C.; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Wright, John; Durbin, Richard; van Heel, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Examining complete gene knockouts within a viable organism can inform on gene function. We sequenced the exomes of 3,222 British Pakistani-heritage adults with high parental relatedness, discovering 1,111 rare-variant homozygous genotypes with predicted loss of gene function (knockouts) in 781 genes. We observed 13.7% fewer than expected homozygous knockout genotypes, implying an average load of 1.6 recessive-lethal-equivalent LOF variants per adult. Linking genetic data to lifelong health records, knockouts were not associated with clinical consultation or prescription rate. In this dataset we identified a healthy PRDM9 knockout mother, and performed phased genome sequencing on her, her child and controls, which showed meiotic recombination sites localised away from PRDM9-dependent hotspots. Thus, natural LOF variants inform upon essential genetic loci, and demonstrate PRDM9 redundancy in humans. PMID:26940866

  20. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    In an effort to help meet the growing interest and concern about the problems created by the rapid growth of population, The International Planned Parenthood Federation has prepared this booklet with the aim of assisting the study of the history and future trends of population growth and its impact on individual and family welfare, national,…

  1. 50 CFR 31.2 - Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. 31.2 Section 31.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Surplus Wildlife § 31.2 Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. Upon a...

  2. 50 CFR 31.2 - Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. 31.2 Section 31.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Surplus Wildlife § 31.2 Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. Upon a...

  3. 50 CFR 31.2 - Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. 31.2 Section 31.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Surplus Wildlife § 31.2 Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. Upon a...

  4. 50 CFR 31.2 - Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. 31.2 Section 31.2 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Surplus Wildlife § 31.2 Methods of surplus wildlife population control and disposal. Upon a...

  5. Integral structural-functional method for characterizing microbial populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakushev, A. V.

    2015-04-01

    An original integral structural-functional method has been proposed for characterizing microbial communities. The novelty of the approach is the in situ study of microorganisms based on the growth kinetics of microbial associations in liquid nutrient broth media under selective conditions rather than on the level of taxa or large functional groups. The method involves the analysis of the integral growth model of a periodic culture. The kinetic parameters of such associations reflect their capacity of growing on different media, i.e., their physiological diversity, and the metabolic capacity of the microorganisms for growth on a nutrient medium. Therefore, the obtained parameters are determined by the features of the microbial ecological strategies. The inoculation of a dense medium from the original inoculate allows characterizing the taxonomic composition of the dominants in the soil community. The inoculation from the associations developed on selective media characterizes the composition of syntrophic groups, which fulfill a specific function in nature. This method is of greater information value than the classical methods of inoculation on selective media.

  6. Disease screening of three breeding populations of adult exhibition budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in New Zealand reveals a high prevalence of a novel polyomavirus and avian malaria infection.

    PubMed

    Baron, Hamish R; Howe, Laryssa; Varsani, Arvind; Doneley, Robert J T

    2014-03-01

    Disease surveillance is vital to the management of New Zealand's endemic and threatened avian species. Three infectious agents that are potential threats to New Zealand's endemic birds include avian polyomavirus (APV), beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), and avian malaria. All three agents have been reported in New Zealand; however, possible reservoir populations have not been identified. In this communication, we report the first study of APV, BFDV, and avian malaria in introduced adult exhibition budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in New Zealand. Blood samples were collected from 90 living adult budgerigars from three breeding locations in the North Island of New Zealand. An overall APV prevalence of 22% was determined using a broad-spectrum nested PCR that amplified the major capsid protein VP1 gene of polyomavirus. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene revealed a unique isolate of APV, which had a sequence divergence of 32% to previously reported budgerigar fledgling disease strains and 33% to the recently reported New Zealand finch isolate. All of the budgerigars sampled were found to be PCR negative for BFDV, and an overall prevalence of 30% was detected by PCR for avian malaria. Sequencing revealed the presence of ubiquitous malarial strains and also the potentially destructive Plasmodium relictum strain. The results of this study suggest that both APV and avian malaria are present in New Zealand adult budgerigars, and our study highlights the need for further studies to determine whether these pathogens in captive bird populations may be a threat or spill over into New Zealand's endemic and threatened avifauna and whether prevention and control methods need to be implemented.

  7. Population structure and uropathogenic virulence-associated genes of faecal Escherichia coli from healthy young and elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Vollmerhausen, Tara L; Ramos, Nubia L; Gündogdu, Aycan; Robinson, Wayne; Brauner, Annelie; Katouli, Mohammad

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the population structures of faecal Escherichia coli in 30 healthy young adults (13 males and 17 females) aged between 20 and 45 years and 29 elderly adults (14 females and 15 males) aged between 65 and 77 years. In all, 1566 strains were typed with the PhPlate system and grouped into biochemical phenotypes (BPTs). Strains with shared BPTs were further typed using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Forty-four per cent of the strains were shared between two or more age and gender groups. Elders had a significantly higher (P<0.001) number of BPTs (mean±standard error 3.3±0.27) than younger groups (1.82±0.27). Phylogenetic affiliation and virulence-associated genes (VAGs) of the strains showed that more than 80 % of the strains belonging to dominant types belonged to phylogroups B2 and D. Amongst dominant BPTs, phylogenetic group A was significantly associated with females (P<0.0001), and elders were more likely to carry group D (P<0.0124). Elderly males had a higher prevalence of VAGs than young males (P<0.0001) and young females (P<0.0005). We conclude that there is a lower prevalence of E. coli with uropathogenic properties in healthy young adults than in elders.

  8. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Adult Asperger Assessment: the association of symptom domains within a clinical population.

    PubMed

    Kuenssberg, Renate; McKenzie, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a behaviourally defined disorder characterised by impairments in three domains of social interaction, communication, and repetitive, stereotyped behaviours and activities. Proposed changes to diagnostic criteria suggest that the diagnostic triad may no longer fit as the best way to conceptualise ASD, and that social and communication impairments should be considered as a single domain. The aim of this study was to examine the structure of symptom domains within the Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA; Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Robinson, & Woodbury-Smith, 2005), a diagnostic tool for high functioning adults. As theoretical models already exist, confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine data from a clinical population of adults (n = 153) diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and High Functioning Autism (HFA). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to fit different models based on the structure proposed by the authors of the AAA, the traditional triad and the newly proposed diagnostic dyad. Analysis suggested that none of the tested models were a good fit on the AAA dataset. However, it did highlight very high correlations between social and communication factors (r > 0.9) within unmodified models. The results of the analysis provide tentative support for the move towards considering ASD as a dyad of 'social-communication' impairments and repetitive/restricted interests behaviours and activities, rather than the traditional triad.

  9. Sleep paralysis and trauma, psychiatric symptoms and disorders in an adult African American population attending primary medical care.

    PubMed

    Mellman, Thomas A; Aigbogun, Notalelomwan; Graves, Ruth Elaine; Lawson, William B; Alim, Tanya N

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of sleep paralysis (SP) absent narcolepsy appears to not be uncommon in African Americans and probably other non-European groups. Prior research has linked SP to trauma and psychiatric disorders and suggested a specific relationship to panic disorder in African Americans. The objective of our study was to evaluate relationships of SP with trauma, concurrent psychiatric symptoms and lifetime psychiatric diagnoses in an adult African American population recruited from primary care. Cross sectional study with surveys and diagnostic interviews; Patients attending primary care clinics filled out a survey that determined the 6 month prevalence and associated features of SP, a panic disorder screen, the self-rated Hamilton Depression Scale, and an inventory of trauma exposure. A subset of trauma-exposed participants (N = 142) received comprehensive diagnostic interviews that incorporated the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Clinician Assessed PTSD Scale. Four hundred and forty-one adults participated (mean age-40.0 SD = 13.3, 68% female, 95% African American). Fourteen percent endorsed recent SP. In approximately 1/3 of those with SP, episodes also featured panic symptoms. SP was strongly associated with trauma history, and concurrent anxiety and mood symptoms. SP was not associated with specific psychiatric disorders other than lifetime (but not current) alcohol or substance use disorders. Our findings suggest that SP is not uncommon in adult African Americans and is associated with trauma and concurrent distress but not with a specific psychiatric diagnosis.

  10. Oral Alimentation in Neonatal and Adult Populations Requiring High-Flow Oxygen via Nasal Cannula.

    PubMed

    Leder, Steven B; Siner, Jonathan M; Bizzarro, Matthew J; McGinley, Brian M; Lefton-Greif, Maureen A

    2016-04-01

    Use of high-flow oxygen via nasal cannula (HFO2-NC) is increasingly common in intensive care unit (ICU) settings. Despite the critical interface between respiration and swallowing, and the high acuity of patients in ICUs, the impact of HFO2-NC on feeding and swallowing is unknown. The present prospective, single-center, cohort study investigated the impact of HFO2-NC use on oral alimentation in neonatal and adult ICU patients. Oral alimentation status was evaluated in 100 consecutive ICU inpatients (50 neonatal and 50 adult) requiring HFO2-NC. Participant characteristics, respiratory support, successful initiation of oral feeding in neonates, and successful resumption of oral feeding in adults were recorded. Seventeen of 50 (34 %) neonates requiring HFO2-NC were deemed developmentally and medically appropriate by the neonatologist and nursing to begin oral alimentation. All 17 (100 %) were successful with initiation of oral feedings. Thirty-three of 50 (66 %) continued nil per os due to prematurity or medical conditions precluding oral alimentation at time of data collection. Thirty-nine of 50 (78 %) adults requiring HFO2-NC were deemed medically appropriate by the intensivist and nursing to resume oral alimentation (n = 34) or with a functional swallow without aspiration on FEES (n = 5). All 39 (100 %) resumed oral alimentation successfully. Eleven of 50 (22 %) continued nil per os due to severe respiratory issues precluding both swallow testing and oral alimentation at time of data collection. All developmentally and medically appropriate neonatal and adult patients requiring HFO2-NC were successful with either the introduction or resumption of oral alimentation. Patients requiring HFO2-NC who are identified as having feeding or swallowing issues should be referred for swallowing evaluations using the same criteria as patients who do not require HFO2-NC, as it is not the use of HFO2-NC but rather patient-specific determinants of feeding and swallowing

  11. Prevalence of Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy in the Adult Population of Bologna and Modena, Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Vignatelli, Luca; Bisulli, Francesca; Giovannini, Giada; Licchetta, Laura; Naldi, Ilaria; Mostacci, Barbara; Rubboli, Guido; Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo; Meletti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) in the adults of two areas of the Emilia-Romagna region (northeast Italy) and to describe the clinical features from a population-based perspective. Design: Population-based retrospective cohort study including adults with NFLE. Setting: Two areas of the Emilia-Romagna region: the city of Bologna (330,901 adult residents) and five districts of the province of Modena (424,007). Prevalence day: December 31, 2010. Participants: Patients with NFLE collected from multiple databases of neurologic hub centers of the districts involved. Diagnostic criteria: clinical history of sleep related bizarre motor attacks and videopolysomnographic recording confirming the typical features of NFLE. Inclusion criteria for prevalence calculation: residence in one of the two geographic areas on the prevalence day and an “active” or “in remission with treatment” form of NFLE. Measurements and Results: Six subjects from Bologna and eight from Modena were included. Crude prevalence (per 100,000 residents) was 1.8 (95% confidence interval 0.7–4.0) in Bologna and 1.9 (0.8–3.7) in Modena. Similarly, the main clinical features were consistent: onset during adolescence (median age 11–13 y), mainly hyperkinetic seizures, nonlesional form in more than two-thirds of cases, an active form of epilepsy in more than two-thirds of cases. A family history of epilepsy was reported only for two patients. Conclusions: This epidemiologic study establishes that nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy is a rare epileptic condition, fulfilling the definition for rare disease. Because of methodological limitations of our case ascertainment, the estimates we disclose must be considered the minimum prevalence. Citation: Vignatelli L, Bisulli F, Giovannini G, Licchetta L, Naldi I, Mostacci B, Rubboli G, Provini F, Tinuper P, Meletti S. Prevalence of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy in the adult population of Bologna and

  12. Cheese consumption and prevalence of overweight and obesity in a Basque adult population: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Alegría-Lertxundi, Iker; Rocandio Pablo, Ana; Arroyo-Izaga, Marta

    2014-02-01

    Studies have reported a negative association between dairy product consumption and weight status. However, not as much research has focused on cheese; therefore, the aim of this study was to study the association between cheese intake and overweight and obesity in a representative Basque adult population. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was obtained from a random sample of 1081 adults (530 males and 551 females, 17-96 years old). Cheese consumption data were expressed as g/1000 kcal/day. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was higher in men (55.1%) than in women (35.4%) (p < 0.001). Participants with low or moderate intake of fresh and processed cheese demonstrated a higher prevalence of excess weight, compared with those with higher consumption. The confounding variables selected in multivariate analysis were: occupational status and age in both genders; and place of residence in men. In conclusion, negative associations were found between consumption of some types of cheese and overweight and obesity in this population.

  13. Prevalence, symptoms and chronicity of ciguatera in New Caledonia: results from an adult population survey conducted in Noumea during 2005.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Francine; Bourrat, Marie-Blanche; Pauillac, Serge

    2010-10-01

    Ciguatera is a widespread ichthyosarcotoxism which causes gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. Investigations conducted by ORSTOM in 1992 highlighted a prevalence of 25% in the adult population of Noumea, New Caledonia. The main objective of our study was to estimate the prevalence of ciguatera and the persistence of symptoms by sex and by ethnicity among adult patients of a nurse clinic in Noumea in 2005. Investigations were conducted from 1st January to 15th June 2005. During this period, 559 patients were included: 165 males and 394 females. Among them, 37.8% were poisoned at least once in their life. This rate was independent of gender and ethnicity, but was significantly higher in age groups above 40 years. Neurological signs were more frequent (>80%) than gastrointestinal (<50%) and cardiac signs (<15%). Symptoms presented no difference between ethnic or gender groups, even for subjective signs. Most of poisonings were due to carnivorous fishes, but quite all species living in the lagoon were quoted. Symptoms persisted more than one year for 34% of the population, in both Melanesians and Caucasians. This study shows a significant increase of ciguatera prevalence, and its chronicity for 1/5 of European cases.

  14. Association between obesity and suicide in woman, but not in man: a population-based study of young adults.

    PubMed

    Branco, Jerônimo Costa; Motta, Janaína; Wiener, Carolina; Oses, Jean Pierre; Pedrotti Moreira, Fernanda; Spessato, Barbara; Dias, Luciano; da Silva, Ricardo

    2017-03-01

    The relationship between obesity and suicide risk is still unclear with controversial research results. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between obesity and suicide risk for men and women in a population-based study of young adults. This is a cross-sectional population-based study that identified young adults between 18 and 35 years of age. Suicide risk was investigated through the structured clinical interview Mini. Weight and height were assessed, and participants were classified as normal-weight body mass index (BMI < 30) or obese (BMI > 30). The prevalence of obesity was of 19.9% of the total sample (n = 1953). Obesity was more prevalent among women and participants between 27 and 35 years of age. Suicide risk was present in 13.0% of the sample and more prevalent among women. In our study we found an association between obesity and suicide risk for women, but not for men. Obesity was associated with a higher prevalence of suicide risk in women. Given the strength of the relationship between BMI and suicide, identifying the mechanisms associated with obesity, especially for women, can lead to new insights into the prevention of suicide risk.

  15. Prevalence of general and abdominal obesity in the adult population of Spain, 2008-2010: the ENRICA study.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Fisac, J L; Guallar-Castillón, P; León-Muñoz, L M; Graciani, A; Banegas, J R; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F

    2012-04-01

    This is the first study to report the prevalence of general obesity and abdominal obesity (AO) in the adult population of Spain based on measurements of weight, height and waist circumference. The data are taken from the ENRICA study, a cross-sectional study carried out between June 2008 and October 2010 in 12,883 individuals representative of the non-institutionalized population on Spain aged 18 years and older. Anthropometry was performed under standardized conditions in the households by trained interviewers. Overweight was considered as body mass index (BMI) 25-29.9 kg m(-2) , and obesity as BMI ≥ 30 kg m(-2) . AO was defined as waist circumference >102 cm in men and >88 cm in women. The prevalence of obesity was 22.9% (24.4% in men and 21.4% in women). About 36% of adults had AO (32% of men and 39% of women). The frequency of obesity and of AO increased with age and affected, respectively, 35 and 62% of persons aged 65 and over. The frequency of obesity and AO decreased with increasing educational level. For example, 29% of women with primary education or less had obesity vs. only 11% of those with university studies. The prevalence of obesity was very high in the Canary Islands and in the south of Spain.

  16. The population effect of crime and neighbourhood on physical activity: an analysis of 15,461 adults.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Roger A; Gemmell, Islay; Heller, Richard F

    2007-01-01

    Area-based interventions offer the potential to increase physical activity for many sedentary people in countries such as the UK. Evidence on the effect of individual and area/neighbourhood influences on physical activity is in its infancy, and despite its value to policy makers a population focus is rarely used. Data from a population-based health and lifestyle survey of adults in northwest England were used to analyse associations between individual and neighbourhood perceptions and physical activity. The population effect of eliminating a risk factor was expressed as a likely effect on population levels of physical activity. Of the 15,461 responders, 21,923 (27.1%) were physically active. Neighbourhood perceptions of leisure facilities were associated with physical activity, but no association was found for sense of belonging, public transport or shopping facilities. People who felt safe in their neighbourhood were more likely to be physically active, but no associations were found for vandalism, assaults, muggings or experience of crime. The number of physically active people would increase by 3290 if feelings of "unsafe" during the day were removed, and by 11,237 if feelings of "unsafe" during the night were removed. An additional 8342 people would be physically active if everyone believed that they were "very well placed for leisure facilities". Feeling safe had the potential largest effect on population levels of physical activity. Strategies to increase physical activity in the population need to consider the wider determinants of health-related behaviour, including fear of crime and safety.

  17. Anthropometric measurements of the human distal femur: a study of the adult Malay population.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Fitdriyah; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Zulkifly, Ahmad Hafiz; Sa'at, Azlin; Aziz, Azian Abd; Hossain, Golam; Kamarul, T; Syahrom, Ardiyansyah

    2013-01-01

    The distal femurs of 100 subjects (50 men, 50 women) from the Malay population aged between 19 and 38 years were scanned to measure the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) width. The mean AP values were 64.02 ± 3.38 mm and 57.33 ± 3.26 mm for men and women, respectively, and the mean ML values were 74.91 ± 3.52 mm and 64.53 ± 3.07 mm. We compared our data to that published previously for the Chinese and Indian populations. It was found that the Malay population had smaller distal femur than that of the Chinese but was larger than that of the Indian population (P < 0.05). In conclusion, although it is well established that Asians have a smaller distal femur size than that of the Western population, the variations in different Asian ethnicities may need to be considered when designing the appropriate knee implant.

  18. Estimating Small-area Populations by Age and Sex Using Spatial Interpolation and Statistical Inference Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Qai, Qiang; Rushton, Gerald; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Bright, Eddie A; Coleman, Phil R

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research is to compute population estimates by age and sex for small areas whose boundaries are different from those for which the population counts were made. In our approach, population surfaces and age-sex proportion surfaces are separately estimated. Age-sex population estimates for small areas and their confidence intervals are then computed using a binomial model with the two surfaces as inputs. The approach was implemented for Iowa using a 90 m resolution population grid (LandScan USA) and U.S. Census 2000 population. Three spatial interpolation methods, the areal weighting (AW) method, the ordinary kriging (OK) method, and a modification of the pycnophylactic method, were used on Census Tract populations to estimate the age-sex proportion surfaces. To verify the model, age-sex population estimates were computed for paired Block Groups that straddled Census Tracts and therefore were spatially misaligned with them. The pycnophylactic method and the OK method were more accurate than the AW method. The approach is general and can be used to estimate subgroup-count types of variables from information in existing administrative areas for custom-defined areas used as the spatial basis of support in other applications.

  19. Delayed Effects of Obese and Overweight Population Conditions on All-Cause Adult Mortality Rate in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Okunade, Albert A.; Rubin, Rose M.; Okunade, Adeyinka K.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are few studies separating the linkage of pathological obese and overweight body mass in