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Sample records for adult population results

  1. Season of birth and population schizotypy: Results from a large sample of the adult general population.

    PubMed

    Konrath, Lisa; Beckius, Danièle; Tran, Ulrich S

    2016-08-30

    Although the last years have seen an increasing interest in schizotypy and its pathogenesis, there exist only a handful of studies examining the possible interaction between season of birth (SOB) and schizotypic personality structure. Available research used differing screening instruments, rendering comparisons between studies difficult, and sample sizes in adult populations may have been too small to detect a mild effect. The current study examined the association between SOB and psychometric schizotypy in the so far single-largest sample from the adult general population (N=8114), balanced for men and women, and utilizing a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of schizotypy. Using the 12 most informative items of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire Brief, we obtained evidence of a small, but significant, effect of late winter and early spring births (February/March) on psychometric schizotypy. The effect was not constrained to women, but affected men and women alike. The observed association between SOB and schizotypy appears compatible with seasonal variations of temperature and influenza prevalence, and with recent evidence on seasonal variability in the activity of the human immune system. Our findings lend support to the continuum hypothesis of schizotypy and schizophrenia, for which SOB effects have been previously established. PMID:27310922

  2. Mouthwash Use in General Population: Results from Adult Dental Health Survey in Grampian, Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Kawecki, Michal M.; Cunningham, Claudia; Bovaird, Iain; Morgan, Rochelle; Rhodes, Kirstin; Watkins, Ray

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of mouthwash use and to investigate the associated factors in general population. Material and Methods An Adult Dental Health Survey was conducted on 3,022 residents of Grampian region of Scotland (adjusted participation rate 58.2%). Participants received a questionnaire consisting of questions on oral health and behavioural factors. Results The majority of participants (38.1%) have never used mouthwash, 17.5% used mouthwash less than once a month, 19.4% used mouthwash once every few days and 25.1% used mouthwash daily. Prevalence of use decreased with age (P < 0.001). Woman were more likely to use mouthwash than men (P = 0.004). Mouthwash use decreased with decrease in the level of deprivation (P < 0.001). Never-smokers were less likely to use mouthwash (40.3%) compared to smokers (53.1%) or those who stopped smoking (46.5%) (P < 0.001). Mouthwash was used by smaller proportion of people drinking alcohol on daily basis (36.6%), than by abstainers (42.2%) (P = 0.012). There was a positive relationship between flossing or brushing pattern and mouthwash use (P < 0.001). There was statistically significant relationship between mouthwash use and reasons for the last dental visit (P = 0.009). When compared to healthy individuals, mouthwash was used by higher proportion of people reporting that they had gum disease (P = 0.001), ulcers (P = 0.001), oral infections or swelling (P = 0.002) or other problems (P = 0.025). Conclusions Mouthwash use in general population is associated with socio-demographic, health and behavioural factors. PMID:24421979

  3. Noncommunicable diseases and risk factors in adult populations of several Pacific Islands: results from the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Jeanie; Girin, Natalie; Roth, Adam; Vivili, Paula; Williams, Gail; Hoy, Damian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide an overview of the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and their risk factors in several Pacific island countries and territories (PICTs), in accordance with global NCD targets. Methods: For six risk factors, data for adults (aged 25–64 years) from published reports of the World Health Organization STEPwise approach to NCD surveillance, or methodologically similar surveys, were collated, age standardised and compared across fifteen PICTs. Results: In the majority of PICT populations, more than half of male current drinkers drank heavily and more than 40% of men and 20% of women were current smokers. In 10 populations, about 50% or more of women were insufficiently physically active. Prevalence of hypertension and diabetes exceeded 20% and 25%, respectively, in several populations. Near or more than half of men and women in all populations were overweight; in most, more than one‐third of both sexes were obese. Conclusions: The prevalence of NCDs and risk factors varies widely between PICTs and by sex. The evidence shows the high and alarming present and future burden of NCDs in the region. Implications: Strengthened political commitment and increased investment are urgently required to tackle the NCD crisis, successfully achieve targets and ensure continuing sustainable development in the Pacific islands. PMID:26095921

  4. Engagement in HIV Care Among Kenyan Adults and Adolescents: Results From a National Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wafula, Rose; Masyuko, Sarah; Ng’ang’a, Lucy; Kim, Andrea A.; Gichangi, Anthony; Mukui, Irene; Batuka, James; Ngugi, Evelyn W.; Maina, William K.; Schwarcz, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing access to care and treatment for HIV-infected persons is a goal in Kenya’s response to the HIV epidemic. Using data from the second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012), we describe coverage of services received among adults and adolescents who were enrolled in HIV care. Methods KAIS 2012 was a population-based survey that collected information from persons aged 15–64 years that included self-reported HIV status, and for persons reporting HIV infection, use of HIV care and antiretroviral therapy (ART). Blood specimens were collected and tested for HIV. HIV-positive specimens were tested for CD4 counts and viral load. Results Among 363 persons who reported HIV infection, 93.4% [95% confidence interval (CI): 87.2 to 99.6] had ever received HIV care. Among those receiving HIV care, 96.3% (95% CI: 94.1 to 98.4) were using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, and 74.6% (95% CI: 69.0 to 80.2) were receiving ART. A lower proportion of persons in care and not on ART reported using cotrimoxazole (89.5%, 95% CI: 82.5 to 96.5 compared with 98.6%, 95% CI: 97.1 to 100) and had a CD4 count measurement done (72.9%, 95% CI: 64.0 to 81.9 compared with 90.0%, 95% CI: 82.8 to 97.3) than persons in care and on ART, respectively. Among persons in care and not on ART, 23.2% (95% CI: 6.8 to 39.7) had CD4 counts ≤350 cells per microliter. Viral suppression was observed in 75.3% (95% CI: 68.7 to 81.9) of persons on ART. Conclusions Linkage and retention in care are high among persons with known HIV infection. However, improvements in care for the pre-ART population are needed. Viral suppression rates were comparable to developed settings. PMID:24732825

  5. Dietary intake of metals by the young adult population of Eastern Poland: Results from a market basket study.

    PubMed

    Koch, Wojciech; Karim, Md Rezaul; Marzec, Zbigniew; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2016-05-01

    Dietary intake of macro-, trace and toxic elements was determined among the young adult population of Eastern Poland. The study was performed in 2011-2013 and involved 583 participants living in Lublin and its province. Dietary intakes of metals were determined using a 24h dietary recall technique and a market basket method. The analytical quantification of As, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn was performed using ICP-MS technique, whereas the content of mercury was determined using the Mercury Analyzer. Performed investigations revealed that daily dietary intakes of the majority of the study elements (macro- and trace) and toxic elements such as As, Pb or Hg are within the range of reference values. However, high consumption of Na and improper Na/K ratio combined with low intake of Mg may be harmful to the health of the population. Moreover, obtained data suggest that the risk of developing diseases among population in Eastern Poland related to high exposure to Ni and Cd absorbed from foodstuffs was high. PMID:27049125

  6. The Adult Student Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Fred A.; Blocker, Clyde E.

    This study is concerned with the following topics on adult student attendance at Harrisburg Area Community College (HACC) during the 1969-70 academic year: student background, reason for attendance, enrollment in programs or courses, academic success, evidence of personal and occupational development. The report is based on the useable…

  7. Axillary and thoracic skin temperatures poorly comparable to core body temperature circadian rhythm: results from 2 adult populations.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Karen A; Burr, Robert; Wang, Shu-Yuann; Lentz, Martha J; Shaver, Joan

    2004-01-01

    Data from 2 separate studies were used to examine the relationships of axillary or thoracic skin temperature to rectal temperature and to determine the phase relationships of the circadian rhythms of these temperatures. In study 1, axillary skin and rectal temperatures were recorded in 19 healthy women, 21 to 36 years of age. In study 2, thoracic skin and rectal temperatures were recorded in 74 healthy women, 39 to 59 years of age. In both studies, temperatures were recorded continuously for 24 h while subjects carried out normal activities. Axillary and thoracic probes were insulated purposely to prevent ambient effects. Cosinor analysis was employed to estimate circadian rhythm mesor, amplitude, and acrophase. In addition, correlations between temperatures at various measurement sites were calculated and agreement determined. The circadian timing of axillary and skin temperature did not closely approximate that of rectal temperature: the mean acrophase (clock time) for study 1 was 18:57 h for axillary temperature and 16:12 h for rectal; for study 2, it was 03:05 h for thoracic and 15:05 h for rectal. Across individual subjects, the correlations of axillary or thoracic temperatures with rectal temperatures were variable. Results do not support the use of either axillary or skin temperature as a substitute for rectal temperature in circadian rhythm research related to adult women. PMID:14737919

  8. Is religiosity a barrier to sexual and reproductive health? Results from a population-based study of young Croatian adults.

    PubMed

    Puzek, Ivan; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Božičević, Ivana

    2012-12-01

    Following the demise of socialism in 1989, religious identification substantially increased in most countries of Central, East, and Southeast Europe. Considering that there is evidence that religiosity is associated with reduced sexual risk taking among young people, this study explored associations between religiosity--assessed at three different levels (religious upbringing, personal religiosity, and social network religiosity)--and sexual risks among young Croatian adults. In addition, we examined whether religiosity predicted chlamydial infection among women and men aged 18-25. The data were collected in a national probability survey carried out in 2010 (n = 1,005). Overall, the effects of religiosity were sporadic, present primarily among women, and of small size. This lack of a sizeable impact of religiosity on young adults' sexuality was likely related to a particular type of religiosity, characterized by individualized morality, found among young people in the country. Although Croatia seems to be one of the most religious countries in Europe, our findings suggest that promoting religious morality--as recently attempted by an abstinence-based educational program--may not be an efficient tool in reducing sexual risks. PMID:22441770

  9. Habitat selection and adult-recruit interactions in Pectinaria koreni (Malmgren) (Annelida: Polychaeta) post-larval populations: Results of flume experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, Frédéric; Desroy, Nicolas; Retière, Christian

    1996-12-01

    The fate of recently settled populations of soft-bottom invertebrates depends not only on dispersal of pelagic larvae by tidal currents but also on other physical ( e. g. resuspension) and biological mechanisms ( e.g. habitat selection and adult-recruit interactions) acting at the water-substratum interface. To assess the relative importance of such processes under megatidal conditions in the Abra alba community of the eastern Baie de Seine (English Channel), flume experiments were conducted on post-larvae of the dominant polychaete species, Pectinaria koreni. Habitat selection by post-larvae of P. koreni was determined in a first set of experiments, where individuals were sowed either on a suitable or on an unsuitable substratum. Once resuspended, post-larvae were given a choice between two highly contrasting treatments with a natural organic-rich muddy sand and a bare flat PVC surface. P. koreni post-larvae were able to leave an unfavourable substratum into which they had initially burrowed and reach a more suitable substrate by drifting (induced by the secretion of mucus) before final settlement. The influence of adults on habitat selection and survival of P. koreni post-larvae was analysed in a second set of experiments, where individuals were sowed onto a suitable sediment with adults (test treatment) or without (control treatment). The presence of conspecific adults induced a high resuspension rate of the post-larvae. Drifting occurred mainly just after the introduction of the current and affected the whole experimental population, regardless of size. Such a response seems to be related to the intense bioturbation caused by the sub-surface deposit-feeding habit of the adults, which alters the boundary-layer flow. In contrast, the presence of adults of Owenia fusiformis, another dominant polychaete of the Abra alba community, led to an enhanced recruitment by a reduction in post-larvae resuspension. In fact, at low shear velocities, dense aggregates of tubes

  10. Results of a 2-year randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial: Effects on diet, activity and sleep behaviors in an at-risk young adult population.

    PubMed

    Laska, Melissa N; Lytle, Leslie A; Nanney, Marilyn S; Moe, Stacey G; Linde, Jennifer A; Hannan, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Excess weight gain tends to occur in young adulthood. However, research examining effective weight-related interventions for this age group has been limited. As one of seven trials in the EARLY Trials consortium (Early Adult Reduction of weight through LifestYle intervention), the CHOICES Study (Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings) tested effects of a technology-integrated, young adult weight gain prevention intervention. It was a randomized controlled trial with assessments at baseline (2011) and 4-, 12- and 24-months post-intervention initiation and included 441 participants (ages 18-35) who were students at three Minnesota community colleges. The 24-month intervention included a 1-credit academic course and social networking and support online intervention. This analysis examined effects on 12 secondary behavioral outcomes across three domains: diet (fast food, sugary beverages, breakfast, at-home meal preparation), physical activity/screen time (minutes and energy expenditure in leisure time physical activity, television viewing, leisure time computer use) and sleep (hours of sleep, time required to fall asleep, days not getting enough rest, difficulty staying awake). The intervention resulted in significant reductions in fast food (p=0.007) but increases in difficulty staying awake (p=0.015). There was limited evidence of other behavior changes at 4months (0.05results (p=0.005). Additional research is needed to understand effective obesity prevention among young adults, particularly when addressing multiple weight-related outcomes. PMID:27283096

  11. The Association Between Blood Mercury Levels and Risk for Overweight in a General Adult Population: Results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghyun; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Won, Jong-Uk; Lee, Wanhyung; Lee, June-Hee; Seok, Hongdeok; Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Roh, Jaehoon

    2016-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the association between blood mercury levels and overweight in Korean adults. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 9228 participants (4283 men and 4945 women) who completed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2007-2013. The population was divided into two groups according to the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Blood mercury levels were analyzed using a gold amalgam method with a DMA-80 instrument, categorized into quartiles, and stratified by sex. After adjusting for all covariates, blood mercury was significantly associated with overweight in all subjects. According to the BMI criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.75 (95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.53-2.01) overall, 2.09 (95 % CI, 1.71-2.55) in men, and 1.58 (95 % CI, 1.32-1.89) in women. According to the WC criteria, the adjusted odds ratio of being in the highest blood mercury quartile was 1.85 (95 % CI, 1.49-2.30) in men and 1.96 (95 % CI, 1.62-2.36) in women compared to the lowest quartile. Additionally, a trend in overweight across increasing blood mercury levels was observed by the p for trend test in the multiple diagnostic criteria. PMID:26458904

  12. Mapping the Misunderstood Population of Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashburn, Elyse

    2007-01-01

    Adult students are not well documented, are frequently left out of discussions of higher-education policy, and are not fully understood by the colleges they attend, says a report ("Returning to Learning: Adults' Success in College is Key to America's Future") released this week by the Lumina Foundation for Education. As a result, those students…

  13. White blood cell count, sex and age are major determinants of heterogeneity of platelet indices in an adult general population: results from the MOLI-SANI project

    PubMed Central

    Santimone, Iolanda; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; De Curtis, Amalia; Spinelli, Maria; Cugino, Daniela; Gianfagna, Francesco; Zito, Francesco; Donati, Maria Benedetta; Cerletti, Chiara; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

    2011-01-01

    Background The understanding of non-genetic regulation of platelet indices - platelet count, plateletcrit, mean platelet volume, and platelet distribution width - is limited. The association of these platelet indices with a number of biochemical, environmental and clinical variables was studied in a large cohort of the general population. Design and Methods Men and women (n=18,097, 52% women, 56±12 years) were randomly recruited from various villages in Molise (Italy) in the framework of the population-based cohort study “Moli-sani”. Hemochromocytometric analyses were performed using an automatic analyzer (Beckman Coulter, IL, Milan, Italy). Associations of platelet indices with dependent variables were investigated by multivariable linear regression analysis. Results Full models including age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure, smoking, menopause, white and red blood cell counts, mean corpuscular volume, D-dimers, C-reactive protein, high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, triglycerides, glucose, and drug use explained 16%, 21%, 1.9% and 4.7% of platelet count, plateletcrit, mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width variability, respectively; variables that appeared to be most strongly associated were white blood cell count, age, and sex. Platelet count, mean platelet volume and plateletcrit were positively associated with white blood cell count, while platelet distribution width was negatively associated with white blood cell count. Platelet count and plateletcrit were also positively associated with C-reactive protein and D-dimers (P<0.0001). Each of the other variables, although associated with platelet indices in a statistically significant manner, only explained less than 0.5% of their variability. Platelet indices varied across Molise villages, independently of any other platelet count determinant or characteristics of the villages. Conclusions The association of platelet indices with white blood cell count, C-reactive protein

  14. Oral health status and chewing ability is related to mini-nutritional assessment results in an older adult population in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Samnieng, Patcharaphol; Ueno, Masayuki; Shinada, Kayoko; Zaitsu, Takashi; Wright, Fredrick Allan Clive; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, we investigated the relationship of Mini-Nutrition Assessment (MNA) results with chewing ability tests and oral examinations (number of teeth present and functional tooth units (FTUs)). The participants were 612 older people (Mean [SD] age: 68.8 [5.9]). According to the MNA score, 25.1% of participants were categorized as having normal nutrition, 67.2% were categorized as at risk of malnourishment, and 7.7% were categorized as having malnutrition. The mean numbers of teeth present and FTUs were [15.5] and [8.9], respectively. The ANCOVA analyses adjusted for age and gender showed that participants with malnutrition had lower numbers of teeth present (8.8), FTUs (8.4), and chewing ability (6.8) than those with normal nutrition (13.3, 10.4 and 7.8) (p < 0.05). Nutritional status was associated with mean numbers of teeth present, FTUs, and chewing ability. Therefore, it was concluded that retention of natural teeth with appropriate numbers of FTUs by replacing missing teeth with dentures and improving chewing ability will help the reduce risk of malnutrition in older adults. PMID:21846244

  15. Low Literacy Decision Aid Enhances Knowledge and Reduces Decisional Conflict among Diverse Population of Adults with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results of a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Jennifer L.; Trupin, Laura; Schillinger, Dean; Evans-Young, Gina; Imboden, John; Montori, Victor M.; Yelin, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Objective Despite innovations in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), adherence is poor and disparities persist. Shared decision making (SDM) promotes patient engagement and enhances adherence, however few tools support SDM in RA. Our objective was to pilot a low literacy medication guide and decision aid to facilitate patient-clinician conversations about RA medications. Methods RA patients were consecutively enrolled into one of three arms: (1) control, patients received existing medication guide prior to clinic visit; (2) adapted guide prior to visit; (3) adapted guide prior plus decision aid during visit. Outcomes were collected immediately post-visit, at 1-week, 3- and 6-month interviews. Eligible adults had to have failed at least one DMARD and fulfill one of the following: age >65, immigrant, non-English speaker, < high school education, limited health literacy, racial/ethnic minority. Primary outcomes were knowledge of RA medications, decisional conflict, and acceptability of interventions. Results Majority of 166 patients were immigrants (66%), non-English speakers (54%), and had limited health literacy (71%). Adequate RA knowledge post visit in arm 3 was higher (78%) than arm 1 (53%, adjusted OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2–6.1). Among patients with a medication change, there was lower (better) mean decisional conflict in arms 2 and 3 (p=0.03). No significant differences in acceptability. Conclusion A low literacy medication guide and decision aid was acceptable, improved knowledge, and reduced decisional conflict among vulnerable RA patients. Enhancing knowledge and patient engagement with decision support tools may lead to medication choices better aligned with patient values and preferences in RA. PMID:26605752

  16. Anaphylaxis in the young adult population.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ruchi S

    2014-01-01

    It is critical that clinicians treating young adults understand the presentation and management of anaphylaxis. The most common trigger for anaphylaxis in this population is food. The prevalence of food allergy is growing, with 8% of US children and adolescents affected. All patients at risk for anaphylaxis should be prescribed epinephrine autoinjectors, as epinephrine is the only life-saving medication for a severe anaphylactic reaction. The presentation of anaphylaxis can involve multiple organ systems (eg, mucocutaneous, respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal) and, as such, patient education is needed to assist in prompt recognition. Appropriate training of patients and caregivers about how to identify anaphylaxis and what to do in an emergency is critical. Training of school and college staff also is essential, as 1 in 4 first-time reactions occurs outside the home. Additional counseling for adolescents at risk for anaphylactic reactions should address increased risk-taking behavior, decreased adult supervision, dating, and the transition of disease management from an adult to the patient. PMID:24384134

  17. Seeking health- and nutrition-related information on the Internet in a large population of French adults: results of the NutriNet-Santé study.

    PubMed

    Fassier, Philippine; Chhim, Anne-Sophie; Andreeva, Valentina A; Hercberg, Serge; Latino-Martel, Paule; Pouchieu, Camille; Touvier, Mathilde

    2016-06-01

    The Internet has become a major source of health and nutrition information. Little is known about the type of consulted websites (institutional v. non-institutional) and the tendency to discuss with a healthcare professional (HCP) the information found on the Internet. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate health- and nutrition-related Internet use in a large French population-based study. Data were collected in 2013 using self-administered, web-based questionnaires from 42 113 participants of the NutriNet-Santé study (mean age=51·2 years, 76 % women). Unconditional multivariate logistic regression analyses and χ 2 tests were used for comparisons. In total, 85·1 % of the subjects used the Internet to search for health and/or nutrition information, and 23·6 % used the Internet to read or post messages on health/nutrition forums. Only 16·0 % discussed with a HCP the information found online. This proportion was lower in subjects with lower educational level (OR 0·77; 95 % CI 0·72, 0·82) and lower computer skills (OR 0·70; 95 % CI 0·65, 0·76). In total, 8038 health/nutrition websites were cited, with institutional websites representing only 12·9 % of that number. Only one institutional website was present in the top 10. Older subjects (OR 1·49; 95 % CI 1·28-1·74), those with lower educational level (OR 2·08; 95 % CI 1·75, 2·50) and lower nutritional knowledge (OR 1·33; 1·12, 1·59) were more likely to cite non-institutional websites. This large population-based study showed that institutional websites were infrequently accessed and that a few participants discussed the information found online with their HCP. This particular trend was especially visible among individuals who were more vulnerable regarding misleading information. This supports the need to increase awareness of high-quality websites providing reliable health/nutrition information. PMID:27081008

  18. Parents' supportive reactions to sexual orientation disclosure associated with better health: results from a population-based survey of LGB adults in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Emily F; Sullivan, Mairead; Keyes, Susan; Boehmer, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated associations between coming out to parents, experiences of parental support, and self-reported health behaviors and conditions among a population-based sample of LGB individuals using data collected via the 2002 Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS; N = 177). We explored the following two hypotheses: 1) Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals who had never disclosed their sexual orientation to a parent would report higher levels of risk behaviors and poorer health conditions than those who had come out; and 2) among LGB respondents who had come out to their parents, the individuals whose parents had reacted unsupportively would report higher levels of risk behaviors and poorer health conditions than those who had come out to parents who were supportive. Approximately two thirds of gay and bisexual (GB) males and lesbian and bisexual (LB) females reported receiving adequate social and emotional support from the parent to whom they first disclosed their sexual orientation. Among LB females, no disclosure of sexual orientation to a parent was associated with significantly elevated levels of past-month illicit drug use (AOR 12.16, 95% CI 2.87-51.54), fair or poor self-reported health status (AOR 5.71, 95% CI 1.45-22.51), and >15 days of depression in the past month (AOR 5.95, 95% CI 1.78-19.90), controlling for potential confounders. However, nondisclosure to a parent by GB males was not associated with greater odds of any of the health indicators assessed. Among GB males, those with unsupportive parents were significantly more likely to report current binge drinking (AOR 6.94, 95% CI 1.70-28.35) and >15 days depression in the past month (AOR 6.08, 95% CI 1.15-32.15), and among LB females, those with unsupportive parents were significantly more likely to report lifetime illicit drug use (AOR 11.43, 95% CI 2.50-52.30), and >15 days depression in the past month (AOR 5.51, 95% CI 1.36-22.36). We conclude that coming

  19. Effect of Health Comparisons on Functional Health and Depressive Symptoms - Results of a Population-Based Longitudinal Study of Older Adults in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of health comparisons on functional health and depressive symptoms in a longitudinal approach. Gender differences were examined. Methods The German Ageing Survey (DEAS) is a nationwide, representative longitudinal study of community dwelling individuals living in Germany aged 40 and older. The surveys in 2008 and 2011 were used, with n = 3,983 respondents taking part in both waves. Health comparisons were quantified by the question “How would you rate your health compared with other people your age” (Much better; somewhat better; the same; somewhat worse, much worse). Functional health was assessed by the subscale “physical functioning” of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and depressive symptoms were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Results Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, self-assessed health, social network, self-efficacy and optimism, and morbidity, fixed effects regressions revealed that functional health decreased significantly and considerably with negative health comparisons in the total sample (transitions from ‘the same’ to ‘much worse’: β = -11.8), predominantly in men. The effects of negative health comparisons (transitions from ‘the same’ to ‘much worse’: β = 4.8) on depressive symptoms were comparable (in terms of significance) to the effects on functional health, with stronger effects in women. Positive comparisons did not affect functional health and depressive symptoms. Conclusion Our findings underline the relevance of negative health comparisons on functional health (men) and depressive symptoms (women). Comparison effects are asymmetric and mostly upwards. PMID:27213731

  20. Human paraoxonase polymorphism: Hungarian population studies in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Szabó, I; Róna, K; Czinner, A; Gachályi, B

    1991-06-01

    The paraoxonase phenotype distribution pattern was studied in a Hungarian population of 102 children and 100 adults. All the subjects were of Caucasian origin and are not related. The adult population showed the trimodality in phenotype distribution similar to other European population data. The gene frequencies obtained were statistically not significantly different either. There was no correlation between the activity of serum paraoxonase and activity of cholinesterase, sex, age and body weight. The phenotype distribution was trimodal in the children's population too. There was a significant difference in gene frequency, however, compared to data from adult population. PMID:1651288

  1. Successful Up-Scaled Population Interventions to Reduce Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Disease in Adults: Results from the International Community Interventions for Health (CIH) Project in China, India and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Pamela A.; Anthony, Denis; Fenton, Brenda; Stevens, Denise E.; Champagne, Beatriz; Li, Li-Ming; Lv, Jun; Ramírez Hernández, Jorge; Thankappan, K. R.; Matthews, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-communicable disease (NCD) is increasing rapidly in low and middle-income countries (LMIC), and is associated with tobacco use, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. There is little evidence for up-scaled interventions at the population level to reduce risk in LMIC. Methods The Community Interventions for Health (CIH) program was a population-scale community intervention study with comparator population group undertaken in communities in China, India, and Mexico, each with populations between 150,000-250,000. Culturally appropriate interventions were delivered over 18-24 months. Two independent cross-sectional surveys of a stratified sample of adults aged 18-64 years were conducted at baseline and follow-up. Results A total of 6,194 adults completed surveys at baseline, and 6,022 at follow-up. The proportion meeting physical activity recommendations decreased significantly in the control group (C) (44.1 to 30.2%), but not in the intervention group (I) (38.0 to 36.1%), p<0.001. Those eating ≥5 portions of fruit and vegetables daily decreased significantly in C (19.2 to 17.2%), but did not change in I (20.0 to 19.6%,), p=0.013. The proportion adding salt to food was unchanged in C (24.9 to 25.3%) and decreased in I (25.9 to 19.6%), p<0.001. Prevalence of obesity increased in C (8.3 to 11.2%), with no change in I (8.6 to 9.7%,) p=0.092. Concerning tobacco, for men the difference-in-difference analysis showed that the reduction in use was significantly greater in I compared to C (p=0.014) Conclusions Up-scaling known health promoting interventions designed to reduce the incidence of NCD in whole communities in LMIC is feasible, and has measurable beneficial outcomes on risk factors for NCD, namely tobacco use, diet, and physical inactivity. PMID:25875825

  2. Chronic Disease in a General Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Lohr, Kathleen N.; Kamberg, Caren J.; Goldberg, George A.; Brook, Robert H.; Keeler, Emmett B.; Calabro, Thomas A.

    1986-01-01

    Using questionnaire and physical screening examination data for a general population of 4,962 adults aged 18 to 61 years enrolled in the Rand Health Insurance Experiment, we calculated the prevalence of 13 chronic illnesses and assessed disease impact. Low-income men had a significantly higher prevalence of anemia, chronic airway disease and hearing impairment than their high-income counterparts, low-income women a higher prevalence of congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hearing impairment and vision impairment. Of our sample, 30% had one chronic condition and 16% had two or more. Several significant pairs or “clusters” of chronic illnesses were found. With few exceptions (diabetes, hypertension), the use of physician care in the previous year for a specific condition tended to be low. Disease impact (worry, activity restriction) was widespread but mild. Persons with angina, congestive heart failure, mild chronic joint disorders and peptic ulcer disease reported a greater impact than persons with other illnesses. PMID:3788141

  3. [Study on preferred food of adult Mylabris phalerata in different geographical populations].

    PubMed

    Mo, Rang-yu; Sun, Nian-xi; Peng, Rui

    2014-11-01

    With the deterioration of environment, and the excessive collection of wild resources, the wild populations of Myla- bris phalerata Pallas are less and less, almost extincted in many traditional distribution areas. It is necessary to breed M. phalerata artificially for sustainable utilization. Food preference of adult M. phalerata is the key to its provenance screening and domestication in the artificial breeding. In this paper, the food preference of 3 geographical populations of M. phalerata was studied. The results showed that the food preferences of adult M. phalerata in different geographical populations were different. The adult M. phalerata in Wuming preferred cucumber flowers, gourd flowers and melon flowers. The adult M. phalerata in Tianlin preferred cowpea flowers. And the adult M. phalerata in Guangzhou preferred cowpea flowers and gourd flowers. Gourd flowers were the most attractive food for the adult M. phalerata of 3 geographical populations of M. phalerata. PMID:25850255

  4. Components of Adult Class III Malocclusion in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Koodaryan, Roodabeh; Rafighi, Ali; Hafezeqoran, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims Class III malocclusions are considered complex and difficult orthodontic problems to diagnose and treat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphologic characteristics of the craniofacial complex of adults with Class III malocclusion in an Iranian population. Materials and methods Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 50 patients with Class III malocclusion (20 males and 30 females; age range of 18-27 years) were selected on the basis of molar relationship, concave profile and an overjet of ≤ 0 mm. The standard values of 19 soft tissue measurements were determined using McNamara, Burstone and Viazis methods. Results Adults with Class III malocclusion exhibited distinct craniofacial morphologic characteristics manifested by a com-bination of retrusion of maxilla and protrusion of mandible. Conclusion The most prevalent component was mandibular prognathism, normal maxilla and LAFH on the basis of the component analysis. PMID:23230476

  5. Nightmares: Risk Factors Among the Finnish General Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Sandman, Nils; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Revonsuo, Antti; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paunio, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify risk factors for experiencing nightmares among the Finnish general adult population. The study aimed to both test whether previously reported correlates of frequent nightmares could be reproduced in a large population sample and to explore previously unreported associations. Design: Two independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study. Setting: Age- and sex-stratified random samples of the Finnish population in 2007 and 2012. Participants: A total of 13,922 participants (6,515 men and 7,407 women) aged 25–74 y. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and results: Nightmare frequency as well as several items related to socioeconomic status, sleep, mental well-being, life satisfaction, alcohol use, medication, and physical well-being were recorded with a questionnaire. In multinomial logistic regression analysis, a depression-related negative attitude toward the self (odds ratio [OR] 1.32 per 1-point increase), insomnia (OR 6.90), and exhaustion and fatigue (OR 6.86) were the strongest risk factors for experiencing frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Sex, age, a self-reported impaired ability to work, low life satisfaction, the use of antidepressants or hypnotics, and frequent heavy use of alcohol were also strongly associated with frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Conclusions: Symptoms of depression and insomnia were the strongest predictors of frequent nightmares in this dataset. Additionally, a wide variety of factors related to psychological and physical well-being were associated with nightmare frequency with modest effect sizes. Hence, nightmare frequency appears to have a strong connection with sleep and mood problems, but is also associated with a variety of measures of psychological and physical well-being. Citation: Sandman N, Valli K, Kronholm E, Revonsuo A, Laatikainen T, Paunio T. Nightmares: risk factors among the finnish general adult population. SLEEP 2015;38(4):507–514. PMID:25325474

  6. Ciprofloxacin-induced phototoxicity in an adult cystic fibrosis population.

    PubMed

    Tolland, Julia P; Murphy, Bryan P; Boyle, Julie; Hall, Valerie; McKenna, Kevin E; Elborn, J Stuart

    2012-10-01

    The incidence of phototoxicity as a side effect of ciprofloxacin appears to be increased in patients with cystic fibrosis compared to the general population (approximately 2.4%). We used an interview-based questionnaire to determine the incidence of such phototoxic skin reactions in cystic fibrosis patients. Results from 105 respondents revealed the incidence of ciprofloxacin-induced phototoxicity in the adult cystic fibrosis population in Northern Ireland to be 48.4% with only 66% of the patients recalling being given sun care information beforehand. We concluded that the incidence of phototoxicity is increased in patients with cystic fibrosis and that it is important for all to receive good sun care information prior to taking ciprofloxacin given the high risk of developing phototoxic rash. PMID:22971191

  7. Utility of telephone assessments in an older adult population.

    PubMed

    Senior, Ashley C; Kunik, Mark E; Rhoades, Howard M; Novy, Diane M; Wilson, Nancy L; Stanley, Melinda A

    2007-06-01

    Telephone assessments are commonly used in mental health research and may be especially beneficial in older populations. The current study assessed the psychometric properties of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (T. J. Meyer, M. L. Miller, R. L. Metzger, & T. D. Borkovec, 1990) and the Beck Depression Inventory--II (A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, & G. K. Brown, 1996), when administered over the telephone in an older adult population. Results indicate no differences in mean symptom level or internal consistency across two modes of administration. Correlations between the in-person and telephone-administered measures and diagnostic categories suggest adequate validity of the telephone-administered measures. With this demonstrated evidence, the telephone assessment method can be applied in a variety of research and clinical settings. PMID:17563195

  8. Factors and Mechanisms for Pharmacokinetic Differences between Pediatric Population and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Eva; Perez, Raul; Hernandez, Alfredo; Tejada, Pilar; Arteta, Marta; Ramos, Jose T.

    2011-01-01

    Many physiologic differences between children and adults may result in age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Factors such as gastric pH and emptying time, intestinal transit time, immaturity of secretion and activity of bile and pancreatic fluid among other factors determine the oral bioavailability of pediatric and adult populations. Anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics in children also affect the bioavailability of other routes of administration. Key factors explaining differences in drug distribution between the pediatric population and adults are membrane permeability, plasma protein binding and total body water. As far as drug metabolism is concerned, important differences have been found in the pediatric population compared with adults both for phase I and phase II metabolic enzymes. Immaturity of glomerular filtration, renal tubular secretion and tubular reabsorption at birth and their maturation determine the different excretion of drugs in the pediatric population compared to adults. PMID:24310425

  9. Clinical Presentation and Alternative Diagnoses in the Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Batzdorf, Ulrich

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the presentation of tussive headaches in the adult population. Posterior headaches can also occur in patients with basilar invagination, and they may require occipital cervical fusion. Lower cranial nerve dysfunction is another common presenting symptom in adult Chiari patients. Almost 25% of symptomatic adult Chiari patients had a recent episode of trauma. Syringomyelia is not present in all Chiari patients possibly because of the involution of the central canal. Adults must also be evaluated for other causes of acquired Chiari malformations such as pseudotumor cerebri. PMID:26408060

  10. Trends in diet quality among adolescents, adults and older adults: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Samantha Caesar de; Previdelli, Ágatha Nogueira; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to monitor diet quality and associated factors in adolescents, adults and older adults from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study involving 2376 individuals surveyed in 2003, and 1662 individuals in 2008 (Health Survey of São Paulo, ISA-Capital). Participants were of both sexes and aged 12 to 19 years old (adolescents), 20 to 59 years old (adults) and 60 years old or over (older adults). Food intake was assessed using the 24-h dietary recall method while diet quality was determined by the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R). The prevalence of descriptive variables for 2003 and 2008 was compared adopting a confidence interval of 95%. The means of total BHEI-R score and its components for 2003 and 2008 were compared for each age group. Associations between the BHEI-R and independent variables were evaluated for each survey year using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the mean BHEI-R increased (54.9 vs. 56.4 points) over the five-year period. However, the age group evaluation showed a deterioration in diet quality of adolescents, influenced by a decrease in scores for dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, total grains, oils and SoFAAS (solid fat, alcohol and added sugar) components. In the 2008 survey, adults had a higher BHEI-R score, by 6.1 points on average, compared to adolescents. Compared to older adults, this difference was 10.7 points. The diet quality remains a concern, especially among adolescents, that had the worst results compared to the other age groups. PMID:27547722

  11. Population structure among octocoral adults and recruits identifies scale dependent patterns of population isolation in The Bahamas.

    PubMed

    Lasker, Howard R; Porto-Hannes, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of dispersal and connectivity of the Caribbean gorgonian Antillogorgia elisabethae in The Bahamas were assessed in both adults and recently settled recruits from 13 sites using microsatellite loci. Adult populations along the Little Bahama Bank (LBB) exhibited a clear pattern of isolation by distance (IBD) which described 86% of the variance in pairwise genetic distances. Estimates of dispersal based on the IBD model suggested dispersal distances along the LBB on the order of 100 m. Increasing the spatial scale to include sites separated by open ocean generated an apparent IBD signal but the relationship had a greater slope and explained less of the variance. This relationship with distance reflected both stepping stone based IBD and regional differentiation probably created by ocean currents and barriers to dispersal that are correlated with geographic distance. Analysis of recruits from 4 sites on the LBB from up to 6 years did not detect differences between years nor differences with adult populations. The result suggests that neither selection on recruits nor inter-annual variation in dispersal affected adult population structure. Assignment tests of recruits indicated the most likely sources of the recruits were the local or adjacent populations. Most of the patterning in population structure in the northern Bahamas can be explained by geographic distance and oceanographic connectivity. Recognition of these complex patterns is important in developing management plans for A. elisabethae and in understanding the effects of disturbance to adult populations of A. elisabethae and similar species with limited dispersal. PMID:26157606

  12. Population structure among octocoral adults and recruits identifies scale dependent patterns of population isolation in The Bahamas

    PubMed Central

    Porto-Hannes, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of dispersal and connectivity of the Caribbean gorgonian Antillogorgia elisabethae in The Bahamas were assessed in both adults and recently settled recruits from 13 sites using microsatellite loci. Adult populations along the Little Bahama Bank (LBB) exhibited a clear pattern of isolation by distance (IBD) which described 86% of the variance in pairwise genetic distances. Estimates of dispersal based on the IBD model suggested dispersal distances along the LBB on the order of 100 m. Increasing the spatial scale to include sites separated by open ocean generated an apparent IBD signal but the relationship had a greater slope and explained less of the variance. This relationship with distance reflected both stepping stone based IBD and regional differentiation probably created by ocean currents and barriers to dispersal that are correlated with geographic distance. Analysis of recruits from 4 sites on the LBB from up to 6 years did not detect differences between years nor differences with adult populations. The result suggests that neither selection on recruits nor inter-annual variation in dispersal affected adult population structure. Assignment tests of recruits indicated the most likely sources of the recruits were the local or adjacent populations. Most of the patterning in population structure in the northern Bahamas can be explained by geographic distance and oceanographic connectivity. Recognition of these complex patterns is important in developing management plans for A. elisabethae and in understanding the effects of disturbance to adult populations of A. elisabethae and similar species with limited dispersal. PMID:26157606

  13. Spatial Stability of Adult Aedes aegypti Populations

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Vector control programs could be more efficient by identifying the location of highly productive sites of Aedes aegypti. This study explored if the number of female adults of Ae. aegypti in BG-Sentinel traps was clustered and if their spatial distribution changed in time in two neighborhoods in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Traps were uniformly distributed across each neighborhood (130 m from each other), and samples were taken every 3 weeks. Global and local spatial autocorrelations were explored. Spatial stability existed if the rank order of trap captures was kept in time. There was lack of global autocorrelation in both neighborhoods, precluding their stratification for control purposes. Hot and cold spots were identified, revealing the highly focal nature of Ae. aegypti. There was significant spatial stability throughout the study in both locations. The consistency in trap productivity in time could be used to increase the effectiveness of vector and dengue control programs. PMID:22144449

  14. India: population: shocking results; monetary incentives.

    PubMed

    Addressing a conference of Parliament members on population and development in New Delhi, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was reported to have informed the gathering that results of India's latest census "shocked us." The census counted a total national population of 683 million. It was 11 million more than officially anticipated. In her speech, Mrs. Gandhi was also reported to have reiterated that her government is totally committed to "voluntary family planning" and "firmly against compulsion." J.R.D. Tata, chairman of the Family Planning Foundation of India, proposed that the government raise monetary incentives for citizens voluntarily opting for vasectomy and tubectomy. He suggested that the present Rs. 200 for vasectomy and tubectomy be upped to Rs. 5000. He made the proposal in a call to the government to increase its outlay for the family planning program. PMID:12337557

  15. The emerging adult population with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Williams, William G.; Webb, Gary D.

    2000-01-01

    The successes in managing infants and children with congenital heart disease have led to an emerging population of adult patients. As we enter this new century, the majority of patients with congenital heart disease will be adults, not children. It is important to maintain our commitment for continuing care to the emerging adult population. Psycho-social issues, including employment and pregnancy counseling, are required as well as the ongoing need for medical and occasionally surgical intervention. The health care system needs to develop supra-regional tertiary referral centers for care of these patients and provide information sharing and support for community-based physicians interested in the welfare of the adult with congenital heart disease. Copyright 2000 by W.B. Saunders Company PMID:11486200

  16. Anthropometric data of adult wheelchair users for Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Lucero-Duarte, Karla; de la Vega-Bustillos, Enrique; López-Millán, Francisco; Soto-Félix, Selene

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain anthropometric data of adult wheelchair users at Mexico. This study count with 108 disabled people (56 men and 52 women) using the wheelchair and having the upper extremities sufficiently efficient to perform professional activities. The subjects were aged 18-60. From the measurements obtained, it can be said that in each of these measures was observed that men have larger dimensions than women, except for body depth, in which women had a slightly greater difference. When comparing the data in this study against other studies it shows that there is a significant difference between the averages of these studies. Similar results were obtained when comparing our data against data of standard population. Anthropometric data obtained through this study appear to be the only of this kind in Mexico and showed significant differences between measures of disabled persons and standard persons. the use of these data may be helpful for the proper design of workstations designed for use by adults who use. PMID:22317567

  17. Estimated Full Scale IQ in an Adult Heroin Addict Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chastain, Robert L.; And Others

    The research concerning intellectual functioning in addict populations has not addressed basic questions concerning why and how intelligence quotients (IQ) might be related to drug addiction. A study was undertaken to estimate intellectual functioning based upon a demographic profile for Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) Full…

  18. Genotypic structure of a Drosophila population for adult locomotor activity

    SciTech Connect

    Grechanyi, G.V.; Korzun, V.M.

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of the variation of adult locomotor activity in four samples taken at different times from a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster showed that the total variation of this trait is relatively stable in time and has a substantial genetic component. Genotypic structure of the population for locomotor activity is characterized by the presence of large groups of genotypes with high and low values of this trait. A possible explanation for the presence of such groups in a population is cyclic density-dependent selection.

  19. Prevalence of Dental Caries in Kosovar Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Begzati, Agim; Kelmendi, Jeta; Ilijazi, Donika; Kqiku, Lumnije

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in the Kosovar adult population. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study in Kosovo was conducted examining 9387 patients, aged 18 upwards, between January 2010 and December 2011. Clinical evaluation was done using WHO criteria for evaluation of dental health status and data collection. Results. The prevalence of caries for the whole study was 72.80%. The mean DMFT index was 9.61 (±5.12) in the 18–34-year age group, 11.6 (±6.42) in the 35–44-year age group, 13.68 (±8.12) among the 45–64-year age group, 17.98 (±9.81) in the 65–74-year age group, and 23.19 (±9.41) in the age group of 75+ years, respectively. A significant difference of mean DMFT and its each component was observed between the ages (P < 0.001). Conclusion. This study comes out with the significant levels of dental caries among young Kosovar population (18–34 years old). PMID:27516774

  20. Body Mass Index in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Distribution, Associations and Service Implications--A Population-Based Prevalence Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhaumik, S.; Watson, J. M.; Thorp, C. F.; Tyrer, F.; McGrother, C. W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of weight problems in adults with intellectual disability (ID) have generally been small or selective and given conflicting results. The objectives of our large-scale study were to identify inequalities in weight problems between adults with ID and the general adult population, and to investigate factors associated…

  1. Novel estimates of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) population size and adult survival based on Wolbachia releases.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Scott A; Montgomery, Brian L; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2013-05-01

    The size of Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquito populations and adult survival rates have proven difficult to estimate because of a lack of consistent quantitative measures to equate sampling methods, such as adult trapping, to actual population size. However, such estimates are critical for devising control methods and for modeling the transmission of dengue and other infectious agents carried by this species. Here we take advantage of recent releases of Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti coupled with the results of ongoing monitoring to estimate the size of adult Ae. aegypti populations around Cairns in far north Queensland, Australia. Based on the association between released adults infected with Wolbachia and data from Biogents Sentinel traps, we show that data from two locations are consistent with population estimates of approximately 5-10 females per house and daily survival rates of 0.7-0.9 for the released Wolbachia-infected females. Moreover, we estimate that networks of Biogents Sentinel traps at a density of one per 15 houses capture around 5-10% of the adult population per week, and provide a rapid estimate of the absolute population size of Ae. aegypti. These data are discussed with respect to release rates and monitoring in future Wolbachia releases and also the levels of suppression required to reduce dengue transmission. PMID:23802459

  2. Does cannibalism of larvae by adults affect settlement and connectivity of mussel populations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porri, Francesca; Jordaan, Tembisa; McQuaid, Christopher D.

    2008-09-01

    Intertidal population dynamics are driven by a complex series of processes, including larval supply and the possibility of larval predation by benthic animals such as filter-feeders. We hypothesised that cannibalism by adults could play a major role in the population connectivity of mussel populations by removing larvae as they attempt to settle in the adult habitat. Specifically, we tested hypotheses that consumption of mussel larvae by adults removes a significant proportion of potential settlers and is influenced by both settlement intensity and tidal state (flooding or ebbing). Predation of mussel larvae by adult mussels was investigated on incoming and ebbing tides during four spring tides by analysing the gut contents of adult Perna perna and Mytilus galloprovincialis collected from the low intertidal mussel zone between October 2005 and January 2006. Consumption rates were then compared with estimates of successful settler densities on natural beds. The results showed that mortality of competent mussel larvae through adult ingestion removes up to 77% a of potential settlers. Rates of larval consumption were highest during months of intense settlement, suggesting that mussels feed opportunistically, filtering a relatively fixed volume of water and removing particles, including larvae, in proportion to their densities in the water. Rates of larviphagy were also higher during receding than incoming tides. We suggest that this is due to changes in larval density or, more probably, in adult filtration efficiency that are related to the state of the tide. Despite significant effects of both tidal state and settlement intensity on rates of larval ingestion, neither had a significant effect on the proportion of potential settlers removed. During settlement more than half of all potential settlers are lost through cannibalism, with potentially serious consequences for population maintenance. The results highlight the paradoxical nature of the evolution of settlement

  3. Sensation seeking and psychological reactance as health risk predictors for an emerging adult population.

    PubMed

    Miller, Claude H; Quick, Brian L

    2010-04-01

    Two personality traits, sensation seeking (SS) and psychological reactance (PR), were examined as predictors of health risk behaviors within an emerging adult population. Results using items from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS) survey developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicate both personality traits are predictive of risky substance use behaviors, but only PR was found to be predictive of risky sexual activity. Furthermore, a significant interaction involving PR and sex emerged concerning alcohol use. Results emphasize the importance of considering SS and PR as critical personality variables when designing and evaluating health risk messages and campaigns targeting adolescent and emerging adult populations. PMID:20461612

  4. [Prevalence of experience of physical and psychological violence in the general population in the past 12 months. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Lange, Cornelia; Starker, Anne; von der Lippe, Elena; Hölling, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Experiences of violence may have considerable psychosocial and health implications. A violence screening tool was implemented in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) to depict the perpetrators' and victims' point of view. The study participants were between 18 and 64 years old (n = 5939). The aim of this article is to assess the percentage of people who experienced physical and psychological violence in the last 12 months or who suffered negative effects on their quality of life as a consequence or who were perpetrators of multiple acts of violence. The characteristics of victims, offenders, and their conflict partners are described. Furthermore, specific constellations of violence experience with regard to health-related quality of life are described. Finally, the association between being a victim of violence and different factors is estimated. In total, 2.7% of women and 4.3% of men reported multiple experiences of physical violence in the last 12 months or having their lives negatively impacted as a consequence of violence. Experience of psychological violence was reported by 18.9% of women and 15.4% of men. Women are more likely than men to be both perpetrator and victim within the family. Men are more likely than women to be both the perpetrator and victim outside of the family environment. Regardless of whether they are the victim or perpetrator of violence, the psychological well-being is significantly worse than those of people who did not experience violence. Experience of violence in childhood and adolescence increases the risk of becoming victim or perpetrator of violence later on in life. The findings presented here describe the psychological and physical experience of violence as one part of violence committed in the whole population. Some prevention advice is also presented. PMID:26525854

  5. Population Pharmacokinetics of Benznidazole in Adult Patients with Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aldasoro, E.; Guerrero, L.; Posada, E.; Serret, N.; Mejía, T.; Urbina, J. A.; Gascón, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to build a population pharmacokinetic (popPK) model to characterize benznidazole (BNZ) pharmacokinetics in adults with chronic Chagas disease. This study was a prospective, open-label, single-center clinical trial approved by the local ethics committee. Patients received BNZ at 2.5 mg/kg of body weight/12 h (Abarax, Elea Laboratory, Argentina) for 60 days. Plasma BNZ samples were taken several times during the study and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-visible detection (HPLC-UV). The popPK analysis was done with NONMEMv.7.3. Demographic and biological data were tested as covariates. Intraindividual, interoccasion, and residual variabilities were modeled. Internal and external validations were completed to assess the robustness of the model. Later on, simulations were performed to generate BNZ concentration-time course profiles for different dosage regimens. A total of 358 plasma BNZ concentrations from 39 patients were included in the analysis. A one-compartment PK model characterized by clearance (CL/F) and the apparent volume of distribution (V/F), with first-order absorption (Ka) and elimination, adequately described the data (CL/F, 1.73 liters/h; V/F, 89.6 liters; and Ka, 1.15 h−1). No covariates were found to be significant for CL/F and V/F. Internal and external validations of the final model showed adequate results. Data from simulations revealed that a dose of 2.5 mg/kg/12 h might lead to overexposure in most patients. A lower dose (2.5 mg/kg/24 h) was able to achieve trough BNZ plasma concentrations within the accepted therapeutic range of 3 to 6 mg/liter. In summary, we developed a population PK model for BNZ in adults with chronic Chagas disease. Dosing simulations showed that a BNZ dose of 2.5 mg/kg/24 h will adequately keep BNZ trough plasma concentrations within the recommended target range for the majority of patients. (This study has been registered at EudraCT under number 2011

  6. Caregiver Abuse of Chicago Chinese Older Adults in a Community-Dwelling Population

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xin Qi; Li, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine the prevalence and correlates of elder abuse reported by adult children among U.S Chinese populations. Method A community-based participatory research approach was implemented. A total of 548 Chinese adult children aged 21 years and over participated in this study. Elder abuse reported by adult children was assessed using Caregiver Abuse Screen (CASE). Results This study found a prevalence of 59.8%for elder abuse among 548 adult children. Younger age (r = −0.10, p < .05), higher level of education (r = 0.20, p < .001), higher income (r = 0.14, p < .01), more years in the U.S. (r = 0.12, p < .05), not born in Mainland China (r = −0.13, p < .01), and English-speaking (r = 0.16, p < .001) were positively correlated with elder abuse reported by adult children. Discussion Elder abuse by adult children is prevalent among U.S. Chinese populations. It is necessary for researchers, health care providers and policy makers to put more attention on elder abuse by adult children. Longitudinal research is needed to explore the risk factors associated with elder abuse by adult children. Health care providers should improve detection of elder abuse and support at-risk caregivers. Policy makers may consider cultural sensitive approaches to address elder abuse.

  7. Mortality Among Adults With Intellectual Disability in England: Comparisons With the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Hosking, Fay J.; Shah, Sunil M.; Harris, Tess; DeWilde, Stephen; Beighton, Carole; Cook, Derek G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To describe mortality among adults with intellectual disability in England in comparison with the general population. Methods. We conducted a cohort study from 2009 to 2013 using data from 343 general practices. Adults with intellectual disability (n = 16 666; 656 deaths) were compared with age-, gender-, and practice-matched controls (n = 113 562; 1358 deaths). Results. Adults with intellectual disability had higher mortality rates than controls (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.3, 3.9). This risk remained high after adjustment for comorbidity, smoking, and deprivation (HR = 3.1; 95% CI = 2.7, 3.4); it was even higher among adults with intellectual disability and Down syndrome or epilepsy. A total of 37.0% of all deaths among adults with intellectual disability were classified as being amenable to health care intervention, compared with 22.5% in the general population (HR = 5.9; 95% CI = 5.1, 6.8). Conclusions. Mortality among adults with intellectual disability is markedly elevated in comparison with the general population, with more than a third of deaths potentially amenable to health care interventions. This mortality disparity suggests the need to improve access to, and quality of, health care among people with intellectual disability. PMID:27310347

  8. Estimate of intake of sulfites in the Belgian adult population.

    PubMed

    Vandevijvere, S; Temme, E; Andjelkovic, M; De Wil, M; Vinkx, C; Goeyens, L; Van Loco, J

    2010-08-01

    An exposure assessment was performed to estimate the usual daily intake of sulfites in the Belgian adult population. Food consumption data were retrieved from the national food consumption survey. In a first step, individual food consumption data were multiplied with the maximum permitted use levels for sulfites, expressed as sulphur dioxide, per food group (Tier 2). In a second step, on the basis of a literature review of the occurrence of sulfites in different foods, the results of the Tier 2 exposure assessment and available occurrence data from the control programme of the competent authority, a refined list of foods was drafted for the quantification of sulphite. Quantification of sulphite was performed by a high-performance ion chromatography method with eluent conductivity detector in beers and potato products. Individual food consumption data were then multiplied with the actual average concentrations of sulfite per food group, or the maximum permitted levels in case actual levels were not available (partial Tier 3). Usual intakes were calculated using the Nusser method. The mean intake of sulfites was 0.34 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) (Tier 2), corresponding to 49% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and 0.19 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), corresponding to 27% of the ADI (partial Tier 3). The food group contributing most to the intake of sulfites was wines. The results showed that the intake of sulfites is likely to be below the ADI in Belgium. However, there are indications that high consumers of wine have an intake around the ADI. PMID:20503127

  9. Polypharmacy in the HIV-infected older adult population

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Lauren J; Luque, Amneris E; Shah, Krupa

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among people older than 50 years is increasing. Older HIV-infected patients are particularly at risk for polypharmacy because they often have multiple comorbidities that require pharmacotherapy. Overall, there is not much known with respect to both the impact of aging on medication use in HIV-infected individuals, and the potential for interactions with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and coadministered medications and its clinical consequences. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of polypharmacy with a focus on its impact on the HIV-infected older adult population and to also provide some clinical considerations in this high-risk population. PMID:23818773

  10. Molecular Diversity Subdivides the Adult Forebrain Neural Stem Cell Population

    PubMed Central

    Giachino, Claudio; Basak, Onur; Lugert, Sebastian; Knuckles, Philip; Obernier, Kirsten; Fiorelli, Roberto; Frank, Stephan; Raineteau, Olivier; Alvarez–Buylla, Arturo; Taylor, Verdon

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the ventricular domain of the subventricular zone (V-SVZ) of rodents produce neurons throughout life while those in humans become largely inactive or may be lost during infancy. Most adult NSCs are quiescent, express glial markers, and depend on Notch signaling for their self-renewal and the generation of neurons. Using genetic markers and lineage tracing, we identified subpopulations of adult V-SVZ NSCs (type 1, 2, and 3) indicating a striking heterogeneity including activated, brain lipid binding protein (BLBP, FABP7) expressing stem cells. BLBP+ NSCs are mitotically active components of pinwheel structures in the lateral ventricle walls and persistently generate neurons in adulthood. BLBP+ NSCs express epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, proliferate in response to EGF, and are a major clonogenic population in the SVZ. We also find BLBP expressed by proliferative ventricular and sub-ventricular progenitors in the fetal and postnatal human brain. Loss of BLBP+ stem/progenitor cells correlates with reduced neurogenesis in aging rodents and postnatal humans. These findings of molecular heterogeneity and proliferative differences subdivide the NSC population and have implications for neurogenesis in the forebrain of mammals during aging. PMID:23964022

  11. Use of different mouthrinses in an adult Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Särner, Barbro; Sundin, Erik; Abdulrahman, Sazan; Birkhed, Dowen; Lingström, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of mouthrinse products in a Swedish adult population and the factors that influence their use. A questionnaire, comprising semi-closed questions focusing on mouthrinses for oral health, was distributed to randomly selected 700 individuals aged 17-94 years (final response rate of 60%). The data revealed that 47% of the individuals use a mouthrinse product on a regular basis and that it does not differ significantly due to age. Women use such products to a greater extent than men. Individuals who brush their teeth and who use approximal cleaning aids frequently appear to use mouthrinse products to a greater degree. Rinsing is primarily performed once a day or more (45%), in the evening (57%) and after brushing (87%). Those individuals that have been recommended to use the products by dentists and dental hygienists use them to a greater degree (78%) than those who have not received any recommendations (27%). Apart from dental personnel, advertising also plays a significant role in product selection. Of the different products available on the market, pure fluoride products constitute 46%. To summarise, this study indicates that a Swedish adult population, especially women, uses mouthrinse products to a relatively large extent, mainly as a supplement to other oral hygiene procedures such as brushing with a fluoride toothpaste twice daily. To select the most suitable product, the dental personnell should play a more active role in recommendations to the patients who need or want to use mouthrinses. PMID:22611905

  12. Prevalence and predictors of adult hypertension in an urban eastern Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, D S; Kabir, Zubair; Dash, Ashok K; Das, B C

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of hypertension and to identify predictors of adult hypertension specifically in an underdeveloped urban region of eastern India. Study design Population-based cross-sectional study, with multi-stage random sampling technique. Settings A main urban city located in South Orissa in eastern India. Participants 1178 adults 20–80 years of age randomly selected from 37 electoral wards of an urban locale. Statistical methods Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results The prevalence of hypertension was 36%. Significant predictors of hypertension were age, central obesity, inadequate fruit intake, diabetes, low high-density lipoprotein level and physical inactivity. Conclusions One-third of the adults in this urban population of eastern India are reported to be hypertensive and the classical risk factors have been found to contribute to the increased burden, which reinforces the importance of preventive cardiovascular interventions in tackling this burden.

  13. Young adults' trajectories of Ecstasy use: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Andrew; Najman, Jake M; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Plotnikova, Maria; Wells, Helene; Legosz, Margot; Kemp, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Young adults' Ecstasy use trajectories have important implications for individual and population-level consequences of Ecstasy use, but little relevant research has been conducted. This study prospectively examines Ecstasy trajectories in a population-based sample. Data are from the Natural History Study of Drug Use, a retrospective/prospective cohort study conducted in Australia. Population screening identified a probability sample of Ecstasy users aged 19-23 years. Complete data for 30 months of follow-up, comprising 4 time intervals, were available for 297 participants (88.4% of sample). Trajectories were derived using cluster analysis based on recent Ecstasy use at each interval. Trajectory predictors were examined using a generalized ordered logit model and included Ecstasy dependence (World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Instrument), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale), aggression (Young Adult Self Report) and contextual factors (e.g. attendance at electronic/dance music events). Three Ecstasy trajectories were identified (low, intermediate and high use). At its peak, the high-use trajectory involved 1-2 days Ecstasy use per week. Decreasing frequency of use was observed for intermediate and high-use trajectories from 12 months, independently of market factors. Intermediate and high-use trajectory membership was predicted by past Ecstasy consumption (>70 pills) and attendance at electronic/dance music events. High-use trajectory members were unlikely to have used Ecstasy for more than 3 years and tended to report consistently positive subjective effects at baseline. Given the social context and temporal course of Ecstasy use, Ecstasy trajectories might be better understood in terms of instrumental rather than addictive drug use patterns. PMID:23899430

  14. Age and Time Population Differences: Young Adults, Gen Xers, and Millennials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Lauren A.

    2013-01-01

    Age and Time disparities in young adult research populations are common because young adults are defined by varying age spans; members of Generation X and Millennial generations may both be considered young adults; study years vary, affecting populations; and qualitative methods with limited age/year samples are frequently utilized. The current…

  15. Dissociative Symptoms and Mother's Marital Status in Young Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Bob, Petr; Selesova, Petra; Raboch, Jiri; Kukla, Lubomir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Current findings suggest that mother's marital status indicating father's absence or conflicting relationship to father may be specifically related to dissociation and other stress-related symptoms. We have assessed relationships of mother's marital status, dissociative symptoms, and other psychopathological manifestations in a sample of 19 years’ old young adults (N = 364) participating in European longitudinal study (European Longitudinal Study of Parenthood and Childhood). The results show clinically significant manifestations of dissociative symptoms in young adult men whose mothers were fatherless and in women whose mothers were re-married. Other psychopathological symptoms did not reach clinically significant manifestations. The results suggest that significant factor related to high level of dissociative symptoms in men growing in fatherless families might be linked with disturbed and conflicting attachment to a father's figure and pathological dependent attachment to mother. In women dissociative symptoms likely are linked to conflicting relationship between mother and daughter associated with stepfather’ presence in the family. PMID:25590849

  16. Surface anatomy and anatomical planes in the adult turkish population.

    PubMed

    Uzun, C; Atman, E D; Ustuner, E; Mirjalili, S A; Oztuna, D; Esmer, T S

    2016-03-01

    Surface anatomy and anatomical planes are widely used in education and clinical practice. The planes are largely derived from cadaveric studies and their projections on the skin show discrepancies between and within anatomical reference textbooks. In this study, we reassessed the accuracy of common thoracic and abdominopelvic anatomical planes using computed tomography (CT) imaging in the live adult Turkish population. After patients with distorting pathologies had been excluded, CT images of 150 supine patients at the end tidal inspiration were analyzed. Sternal angle, transpyloric, subcostal, supracristal and pubic crest planes and their relationships to anatomical structures were established by dual consensus. The tracheal bifurcation, azygos vein/superior vena cava (SVC) junction and pulmonary bifurcation were usually below the sternal angle while the concavity of the aortic arch was generally within the plane. The tip of the tenth rib, the superior mesenteric artery and the portal vein were usually within the transpyloric plane while the renal hila and the fundus of the gallbladder were below it. The inferior mesenteric artery was below the subcostal plane and the aortic bifurcation was below the supracristal plane in most adults. Projectional surface anatomy is fundamental to medical education and clinical practice. Modern cross-sectional imaging techniques allow large groups of live patients to be examined. Classic textbook information regarding anatomy needs to be reviewed and updated using the data gathered from these recent studies, taking ethnic differences into consideration. Clin. Anat. 29:183-190, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26403267

  17. [Indications and results of small bowel transplantation in adults].

    PubMed

    Joly, Francisca; Panis, Yves

    2012-02-01

    Optimised home parenteral nutrition is still, after 35 years of progress, the "gold standard "for benign but chronic intestinal failure. better recognition of chronic intestinal failure, in its multiple facets, is needed to improve Home Parenteral Nutrition by adding associated treatments such as intestinal trophic factors, rehabilitative surgery (reestablishment of colonic continuity, reverse jejunal segment in severe short gut type II) and/or reconstructive surgery (intestinal transplantation for end-stage intestinal failure). Intestinal transplantation is now a mature therapy with formal indications, especially in case of failure of Home Parenteral Nutrition (mainly Home Parenteral Nutrition-associated severe liver disease), where combined Liver-intestine transplantation is indicated before end-stage liver failure occurs. For high-risk patients, 'preemptive' intestinal transplantation alone should be discussed before home parenteral nutrition-related complications occur. Even, if the results in terms of patient survival have improved over the past 20 years, the 5-year survival rate still does not exceed 50%. Thus, each case should be discussed in a dedicated tertiary center. The ESPEN Home Artificial Nutrition Working Group conducted a survey in 2004 to assess potential candidates for intestinal transplantation in France, among the adult population of patients with home parenteral nutrition. The prevalence of potential candidates for intestinal transplantation was estimated at about 20% (about 40 new adult cases per year). Even though surgical techniques for isolated intestine, liver-intestine, and multivisceral transplantation were developed in the 1960s, very few patients were transplanted before 1990, because of inadequate initial immunosuppressive regimens. most patients died within days or months after Intestine transplantation. The discouraging results of the first clinical trials were due to technical complications, sepsis, and the failure of conventional

  18. Self-reported utilization of mental health services in the adult German population--evidence for unmet needs? Results of the DEGS1-Mental Health Module (DEGS1-MH).

    PubMed

    Mack, Simon; Jacobi, Frank; Gerschler, Anja; Strehle, Jens; Höfler, Michael; Busch, Markus A; Maske, Ulrike E; Hapke, Ulfert; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Zielasek, Jürgen; Maier, Wolfgang; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    This paper provides up-to-date data on service use for mental health problems and disorders among adults aged 18-79 years in Germany derived from the Mental Health Module of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1-MH; N=4483). Data are based exclusively on self-report. Respondents were examined by clinically trained interviewers with a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview DIA-X/M-CIDI to assess diagnoses according to the criteria of DSM-IV-TR. Service use, i.e. contact to mental health care services, due to mental health problems was assessed for the past 12 months and lifetime, by type of sector and type of institution. Among respondents with a 12-month diagnosis of a mental disorder, 23.5% of the women and 11.6% of the men reported any service use in the past 12 months. Service use depends on type of diagnosis, comorbidity and socio-demographic characteristics. Lowest 12-month utilization rates were found for substance use disorders (15.6%; lifetime use 37.3%), highest for psychotic disorders (40.5%; lifetime 72.1%). Further, a considerable time lap was found between disorder onset and subsequent service use among the majority of cases with anxiety and mood disorders. This paper provides self-reported epidemiological data on mental health service use in Germany, complementing administrative statistics and the predecessor mental health module of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (GHS-MHS) from 1998. Despite considerable changes in the mental health field in Germany and the existence of a comprehensive mental health care system without major financial barriers, we find no indications of substantially higher utilization rates for mental disorders as compared to other comparable European countries. Further, no indications of major overall changes in utilization rates are apparent. To pinpoint areas with unmet needs, more detailed analyses of the data are needed taking into account type

  19. Grammatical Class Effects Across Impaired Child and Adult Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kambanaros, Maria; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study are to compare quantitative and qualitative differences for noun/verb retrieval across language-impaired groups, examine naming errors with reference to psycholinguistic models of word processing, and shed light on the nature of the naming deficit as well as determine relevant group commonalities and differences. This includes an attempt to establish whether error types differentiate language-impaired children from adults, to determine effects of psycholinguistic variables on naming accuracies, and to link the results to genetic mechanisms and/or neural circuitry in the brain. A total of 89 (language-)impaired participants took part in this report: 24 adults with acquired aphasia, 20 adults with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder, 31 adults with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and 14 children with specific language impairment. The results of simultaneous multiple regression analyses for the errors in verb naming compared to the psycholinguistic variables for all language-impaired groups are reported and discussed in relation to models of lexical processing. This discussion will lead to considerations of genetic and/or neurobiological underpinnings: Presence of the noun–verb dissociation in focal and non-focal brain impairment make localization theories redundant, but support for wider neural network involvement.The patterns reported cannot be reduced to any one level of language processing, suggesting multiple interactions at different levels (e.g., receptive vs. expressive language abilities).Semantic-conceptual properties constrain syntactic properties with implications for phonological word form retrieval.Competition needs to be resolved at both conceptual and phonological levels of representation. Moreover, this study may provide a cross-pathological baseline that can be probed further with respect to recent suggestions concerning a reconsideration of open- vs. closed-class items, according to which verbs may actually fall into the

  20. Diabetes mellitus and its correlates in an Iranian adult population.

    PubMed

    Golozar, Asieh; Khademi, Hooman; Kamangar, Farin; Poutschi, Hossein; Islami, Farhad; Abnet, Christian C; Freedman, Neal D; Taylor, Philip R; Pharoah, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul J; Dawsey, Sanford M; Malekzadeh, Reza; Etemadi, Arash

    2011-01-01

    The rising epidemic of diabetes imposes a substantial economic burden on the Middle East. Using baseline data from a population based cohort study, we aimed to identify the correlates of diabetes mellitus (DM) in a mainly rural population from Iran. Between 2004 and 2007, 50044 adults between 30 and 87 years old from Golestan Province located in Northeast Iran were enrolled in the Golestan Cohort Study. Demographic and health-related information was collected using questionnaires. Individuals' body sizes at ages 15 and 30 were assessed by validated pictograms ranging from 1 (very lean) to 7 in men and 9 in women. DM diagnosis was based on the self-report of a physician's diagnosis. The accuracy of self-reported DM was evaluated in a subcohort of 3811 individuals using fasting plasma glucose level and medical records. Poisson regression with robust variance estimator was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR's). The prevalence of self-reported DM standardized to the national and world population was 5.7% and 6.2%, respectively. Self-reported DM had 61.5% sensitivity and 97.6% specificity. Socioeconomic status was inversely associated with DM prevalence. Green tea and opium consumption increased the prevalence of DM. Obesity at all ages and extreme leanness in childhood increased diabetes prevalence. Being obese throughout life doubled DM prevalence in women (PR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.8, 2.4). These findings emphasize the importance of improving DM awareness, improving general living conditions, and early lifestyle modifications in diabetes prevention. PMID:22053206

  1. Optimising inhaled mannitol for cystic fibrosis in an adult population

    PubMed Central

    Flume, Patrick A.; Aitken, Moira L.; Agent, Penny; Charlton, Brett; Forster, Emma; Fox, Howard G.; Hebestreit, Helge; Kolbe, John; Zuckerman, Jonathan B; Button, Brenda M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There has been remarkable progress in the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients over the past 20 years. However, limitations of standard therapies have highlighted the need for a convenient alternative treatment to effectively target the pathophysiologic basis of CF-related disease by improving mucociliary clearance of airway secretions and consequently improve lung function and reduce respiratory exacerbations. Mannitol is an osmotic agent available as a dry powder, dispensed in a convenient disposable inhaler device for the treatment of adult patients with CF. Inhalation of mannitol as a dry powder is thought to change the viscoelastic properties of airway secretions, increase the hydration of the airway surface liquid and contribute to increased mucociliary and cough clearance of retained secretions. In two large phase 3 studies [1, 2], long-term use of inhaled mannitol resulted in a significant and clinically meaningful improvement in lung function relative to control in adult CF subjects and had an acceptable safety profile. Clinical experience with inhaled mannitol confirms that it is safe and effective. A minority of patients are unable to tolerate the medication. However, through training in proper inhaler technique and setting clear expectations regarding therapeutic effects, both the tolerance and adherence necessary for long term efficacy can be positively influenced. Educational aims To discuss the importance of airway clearance treatments in the management of cystic fibrosis. To describe the clinical data that supports the use of mannitol in adult patients with cystic fibrosis. To highlight the role of mannitol tolerance testing in screening for hyperresponsiveness. To provide practical considerations for patient education in use of mannitol inhaler. Key points Inhaled mannitol is a safe and effective option in adult patients with cystic fibrosis. Mannitol tolerance testing effectively screens for hyperresponsiveness prior to initiation

  2. Intentional genetic introgression influences survival of adults and subadults in a small, inbred felid population.

    PubMed

    Benson, John F; Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Onorato, David P; Johnson, Warren E; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Jansen, Deborah; Oli, Madan K

    2011-09-01

    1. Inbreeding and low genetic diversity can cause reductions in individual fitness and increase extinction risk in animal populations. Intentional introgression, achieved by releasing genetically diverse individuals into inbred populations, has been used as a conservation tool to improve demographic performance in endangered populations. 2. By the 1980s, Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi) had been reduced to a small, inbred population that appeared to be on the brink of extinction. In 1995, female pumas from Texas (P. c. stanleyana) were released in occupied panther range as part of an intentional introgression programme to restore genetic variability and improve demographic performance of panthers. 3. We used 25 years (1981-2006) of continuous radiotelemetry and genetic data to estimate and model subadult and adult panther survival and cause-specific mortality to provide rigorous sex and age class-specific survival estimates and evaluate the effect of the introgression programme on these parameters. 4. Genetic ancestry influenced annual survival of subadults and adults after introgression, as F(1) generation admixed panthers ( = 0·98) survived better than pre-introgression type panthers ( = 0·77) and other admixed individuals ( = 0·82). Furthermore, heterozygosity was higher for admixed panthers relative to pre-introgression type panthers and positively influenced survival. 5. Our results are consistent with hybrid vigour; however, extrinsic factors such as low density of males in some areas of panther range may also have contributed to higher survival of F(1) panthers. Regardless, improved survival of F(1) subadults and adults likely contributed to the numerical increase in panthers following introgression, and our results indicate that intentional admixture, achieved here by releasing individuals from another population, appears to have been successful in improving demographic performance in this highly endangered population. PMID:21338353

  3. Possible Secondary Population-Level Effects of Selective Harvest of Adult Male Muskoxen

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Joshua H.; Gorn, Tony S.

    2013-01-01

    Selective harvest regimes are often focused on males resulting in skewed sex-ratios, and for many ungulate species this strategy is sustainable. However, muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) are very social and mature bulls (≥4 years old), particularly prime-age bulls (6–10 years old), play important roles in predator defense and recruitment. A year-round social structure incorporating large males into mixed-sex groups could make this species more susceptible to the effects of selective harvest if population composition and sex-ratios influence overall survival and reproductive success. Using detailed data collected on the muskox population occupying the Seward Peninsula, Alaska during 2002–2012, we formulated the hypothesis that the selective harvest of mature bulls may be related to documented changes in population composition and growth rates in this species. In addition, we reviewed existing published information from two other populations in Alaska, the Cape Thompson and Northeastern populations, to compare population growth rates among the three areas under differential harvest rates relative to our hypothesis. We found that on the Seward Peninsula, mature bull:adult cow ratios declined 4–12%/year and short-yearling:adult cow ratios (i.e., recruitment) declined 8–9%/year in the most heavily harvested areas. Growth rates in all 3 populations decreased disproportionately after increases in the number of bulls harvested, and calf:cow ratios declined in the Northeastern population as harvest increased. While lack of appropriate data prevented us from excluding other potential causes such as density dependent effects and changes in predator densities, our results did align with our hypothesis, suggesting that in the interest of conservation, harvest of mature males should be restricted until causal factors can be more definitively identified. If confirmed by additional research, our findings would have important implications for harvest management and

  4. Prevalence of self-medication in the adult population of Brazil: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Paulo Henrique Faria; Galvão, Taís Freire; de Andrade, Keitty Regina Cordeiro; de Sá, Pedro Terra Teles; Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Pereira, Mauricio Gomes

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of self-medication in Brazil’s adult population. METHODS Systematic review of cross-sectional population-based studies. The following databases were used: Medline, Embase, Scopus, ISI, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, CRD, Lilacs, SciELO, the Banco de teses brasileiras (Brazilian theses database) (Capes) and files from the Portal Domínio Público (Brazilian Public Domain). In addition, the reference lists from relevant studies were examined to identify potentially eligible articles. There were no applied restrictions in terms of the publication date, language or publication status. Data related to publication, population, methods and prevalence of self-medication were extracted by three independent researchers. Methodological quality was assessed following eight criteria related to sampling, measurement and presentation of results. The prevalences were measured from participants who used at least one medication during the recall period of the studies. RESULTS The literature screening identified 2,778 records, from which 12 were included for analysis. Most studies were conducted in the Southeastern region of Brazil, after 2000 and with a 15-day recall period. Only five studies achieved high methodological quality, of which one study had a 7-day recall period, in which the prevalence of self-medication was 22.9% (95%CI 14.6;33.9). The prevalence of self-medication in three studies of high methodological quality with a 15-day recall period was 35.0% (95%CI 29.0;40.0, I2 = 83.9%) in the adult Brazilian population. CONCLUSIONS Despite differences in the methodologies of the included studies, the results of this systematic review indicate that a significant proportion of the adult Brazilian population self-medicates. It is suggested that future research projects that assess self-medication in Brazil standardize their methods. PMID:26083944

  5. Sodium recommendations for special populations and the resulting implications.

    PubMed

    Cotugna, Nancy; Wolpert, Sara

    2011-10-01

    Based on the most recent Dietary Guidelines for Americans, sodium recommendations are set at 2,300 mg for the general population and 1,500 mg for special populations. However, sodium intake among adults has been shown to be much higher than this; on average 3,436 mg. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention notes that special populations (those with hypertension, African Americans, and those 40 years of age and older) make up 70% of adults in the United States. Excess sodium in the diet has been shown to contribute to problems such as blood pressure abnormalities, kidney function problems, and congestive heart failure, which account for a large sum of health care costs in the United States. The purpose of this review and accompanying three case studies was to explore if adherence to the sodium recommendations for special populations is feasible. Current literature shows that while a food industry-wide sodium reduction would help reduce overall sodium intake, adherence to low-sodium diets is difficult for the majority of individuals. Three case studies were completed which looked at subjects with a sodium recommendation of 1,500 mg. None of the participants met the recommendation, were aware of their daily sodium intake or knew how much they should be consuming. The snapshot provided by these case studies suggests further research is warranted. Because of the current state of sodium in the American diet, a combination of personal interventions coupled with widespread industry sodium reduction would be the most beneficial way to reduce dietary sodium for most individuals. PMID:21327502

  6. Characteristics of Interventions Targeting Multiple Lifestyle Risk Behaviours in Adult Populations: A Systematic Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    King, Kristel; Meader, Nick; Wright, Kath; Graham, Hilary; Power, Christine; Petticrew, Mark; White, Martin; Sowden, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Modifiable lifestyle risk behaviours such as smoking, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and alcohol misuse are the leading causes of major, non-communicable diseases worldwide. It is increasingly being recognised that interventions which target more than one risk behaviour may be an effective and efficient way of improving people’s lifestyles. To date, there has been no attempt to summarise the global evidence base for interventions targeting multiple risk behaviours. Objective To identify and map the characteristics of studies evaluating multiple risk behaviour change interventions targeted at adult populations in any country. Methods Seven bibliographic databases were searched between January, 1990, and January/ May, 2013. Authors of protocols, conference abstracts, and other relevant articles were contacted. Study characteristics were extracted and inputted into Eppi-Reviewer 4. Results In total, 220 studies were included in the scoping review. Most were randomised controlled trials (62%) conducted in the United States (49%), and targeted diet and physical activity (56%) in people from general populations (14%) or subgroups of general populations (45%). Very few studies had been conducted in the Middle East (2%), Africa (0.5%), or South America (0.5%). There was also a scarcity of studies conducted among young adults (1%), or racial and minority ethnic populations (4%) worldwide. Conclusions Research is required to investigate the interrelationships of lifestyle risk behaviours in varying cultural contexts around the world. Cross-cultural development and evaluation of multiple risk behaviour change interventions is also needed, particularly in populations of young adults and racial and minority ethnic populations. PMID:25617783

  7. Levels of Engagement and Barriers to Physical Activity in a Population of Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Andrew; Look, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This study examined levels of, and barriers to, physical activity in a population of 19 adults with learning disabilities living in community supported accommodation, using diary records and semi-structured interviews with staff. The levels of physical activity were higher in the sample population than previous figures for adults with learning…

  8. Seroepidemiology of dengue virus infection in the adult population in tropical Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ang, L W; Cutter, J; James, L; Goh, K T

    2015-06-01

    To assess the impact of past dengue epidemics in Singapore, we undertook a national seroepidemiological study to determine the prevalence of past dengue virus (DENV) infection in the adult population in 2010 and make comparisons with the seroprevalence in 2004. The study involved residual sera from 3293 adults aged 18-79 years who participated in a national health survey in 2010. The overall prevalence of anti-DENV IgG antibodies was 56·8% (95% confidence interval 55·1-58·5) in 2010. The seroprevalence increased significantly with age. Males had significantly higher seroprevalence than females (61·5% vs. 53·2%). Among the three major ethnic groups, Malays had the lowest seroprevalence (50·2%) compared to Chinese (57·0%) and Indians (62·0%). The age-standardized seroprevalence in adults was significantly lower in 2010 (54·4%) compared to 2004 (63·1%). Older age, male gender, Indian ethnicity, permanent residency and being home-bound were independent risk factors significantly associated with seropositivity. About 43% of the Singapore adult resident population remain susceptible to DENV infection as a result of the successful implementation of a comprehensive nationwide Aedes surveillance and control programme since the 1970s. Vector suppression and concerted efforts of all stakeholders in the community remain the key strategy in the prevention and control of dengue. PMID:25245094

  9. Suppression of adult neurogenesis impairs population coding of similar contexts in hippocampal CA3 region

    PubMed Central

    Niibori, Yosuke; Yu, Tzong-Shiue; Epp, Jonathan R.; Akers, Katherine G.; Josselyn, Sheena A.; Frankland, Paul W.

    2016-01-01

    Different places may share common features, but are coded by distinct populations of CA3 neurons in the hippocampus. Here we show that chemical or genetic suppression of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus impairs this population-based coding of similar (but not dissimilar) contexts. These data provide a neural basis for impaired spatial discrimination following ablation of adult neurogenesis, and support the proposal that adult neurogenesis regulates the efficiency of a pattern separation process in the hippocampus. PMID:23212382

  10. Sunbathing habits and sunscreen use among white adults: results of a national survey.

    PubMed Central

    Koh, H K; Bak, S M; Geller, A C; Mangione, T W; Hingson, R W; Levenson, S M; Miller, D R; Lew, R A; Howland, J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed current levels of sunbathing and sunscreen use in the United States. METHODS: From a general-population telephone survey of aquatic activities among adults in 3042 US households, we examined responses by the 2459 Whites. RESULTS: Most adults (59%) reported sunbathing during the past year, and 25% reported frequent sunbathing. Of the subsample who reported sunbathing during the month before the interview, 47% routinely used sunscreen. Of these individuals, almost half did not use sunscreens with a solar protection factor of 15 or higher. CONCLUSIONS: About a quarter of US White adults report frequent sunbathing, and only about a quarter of sunbathers use sunscreens at recommended levels. These results should help focus future sun protection educational efforts. PMID:9240117

  11. Levels of Health Literacy in a Community-Dwelling Population of Chinese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Dong, XinQi

    2014-01-01

    Background. Lower levels of health literacy have been associated with adverse health outcomes, especially for older adults. However, limited research has been conducted to understand health literacy levels among Chinese American older adults. Methods. The PINE study is an epidemiological cohort of 3,159 community-dwelling Chinese older adults, 95% of whom do not speak or read English. Chinese older adults’ health literacy levels were examined using the Chinese version of the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, Revised (REALM-R) test. Kruskal–Wallis test and chi-square statistics were used to identify significant differences by sociodemographic and self-reported health characteristics. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were used to examine correlations between personal characteristics and health literacy level. Results. The mean age among this sample of Chinese older adults was 72.8 years (SD = 8.3, range = 60–105) and the mean REALM-R test score was 6.9 [SD = 2.3, range (0–8)]. Health literacy was positively associated with education, marriage status, and number of people living with. Older age, being female, greater number of children, years in the United States, and preference for speaking Cantonese or Taishanese were negatively associated with health literacy. Health literary was not associated with self-reported health status or quality of life. Conclusions. In this Chicago Chinese population, older adults had reasonable levels of health literacy in Chinese. Future longitudinal research is needed to understand risk/protective factors associated with health literacy level in Chinese older adults. PMID:25378449

  12. Brazilian Adults' Sedentary Behaviors by Life Domain: Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, Grégore I.; da Silva, Inácio C. M.; Owen, Neville; Hallal, Pedro C.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is rapidly-emerging evidence on the harmful health effects of sedentary behaviors. The aim of this paper was to quantify time in sedentary behaviors and document socio-demographic variations in different life domains among adults. Methods A population-based survey was carried out in 2012 through face-to-face interviews with Brazilian adults aged 20+ years (N = 2,927). Information about time spent sedentary in a typical weekday was collected for five different domains (workplace, commuting, school/university, watching TV, and computer use at home). Descriptive and bivariate analyses examined variations in overall and domain-specific sedentary time by gender, age, educational attainment and socioeconomic position. Results On average, participants reported spending 5.8 (SD 4.5) hours per day sitting. The median value was 4.5 (interquartile range: 2.5–8) hours. Men, younger adults, those with higher schooling and from the wealthiest socioeconomic groups had higher overall sedentary scores. TV time was higher in women, older adults and among those with low schooling and socioeconomic position. Sedentary time in transport was higher in men, younger adults, and participants with high schooling and high socioeconomic position. Computer use at home was more frequent among young adults and those from high socioeconomic groups. Sitting at work was higher in those with higher schooling and from the wealthiest socioeconomic groups. Sedentary behavior at school was related inversely to age and directly to schooling. Conclusion Patterns of sedentary behavior are different by life domains. Initiatives to reduce prolonged sitting among Brazilian adults will be required on multiple levels for different life domains. PMID:24619086

  13. Adult Vampire Bats Produce Contact Calls When Isolated: Acoustic Variation by Species, Population, Colony, and Individual

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Gerald G.; Logsdon, Ryane; Arnold, Bryan D.; Menchaca, Angelica; Medellin, Rodrigo A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bat pups produce individually distinct isolation calls to facilitate maternal recognition. Increasing evidence suggests that, in group-living bat species, adults often use similar calls to maintain contact. We investigated if isolated adults from all three species of the highly cooperative vampire bats (Phyllostomidae: Desmodontinae) would produce vocally distinct contact calls when physically isolated. Methods/Principal Findings We assessed variation in contact calls recorded from isolated captive and wild-caught adult common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus), white-winged vampire bats (Diaemus youngi) and hairy-legged vampire bats (Diphylla ecaudata). We compared species-typical contact call structure, and used information theory and permuted discriminate function analyses to examine call structure variation, and to determine if the individuality of contact calls is encoded by different call features across species and populations. We found that isolated adult vampire bats produce contact calls that vary by species, population, colony, and individual. However, much variation occurred within a single context and individual. We estimated signature information for captive Diaemus (same colony), captive Desmodus (same colony), and wild Desmodus (different colonies) at 3.21, 3.26, and 3.88 bits, respectively. Contact calls from a captive colony of Desmodus were less individually distinct than calls from wild-caught Desmodus from different colonies. Both the degree of individuality and parameters encoding individuality differed between the bats from a single captive colony and the wild-caught individuals from different groups. This result is consistent with, but not sufficient evidence of, vocal convergence in groups. Conclusion Our results show that adult vampire bats of all three species produce highly variable contact calls when isolated. Contact calls contain sufficient information for vocal discrimination, but also possess more intra-individual variation

  14. An analysis of mercury exposures among the adult population in New York State.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Alicia M; Gelberg, Kitty H

    2013-06-01

    The extent of methylmercury exposures among adults in New York State (NYS) has not been well characterized. Over the past few years, the NYS Heavy Metals Registry (HMR) has seen an increase in both blood mercury tests being reported, and nonoccupational exposures to mercury, which appear primarily due to fish consumption. This study will, (1) Characterize the adults who are tested for blood mercury in NYS; (2) Examine the circumstances for blood mercury testing; and (3) Characterize this population in terms of exposure history, specifically those individuals who are non-occupationally exposed through a diet of seafood consumption in reference to blood mercury levels. Data available from HMR laboratory results, including basic demographics and test results, were combined with data from telephone interviews. The interview contains information on the reasons for testing, possible sources of exposure, and the individual's work and home environment. Approximately 99 % of adults reported to the HMR, with identifiable exposures to mercury, had non-occupational exposures resulting from seafood consumption. Common types of fish consumed include salmon, tuna, and swordfish, with 90 % of adults eating seafood a few times or more per week. Information will be provided on the reasons for being tested and the range of blood mercury levels in relation to their seafood consumption. NYS residents who frequently eat fish should be aware of what types of fish contain mercury and avoid or reduce consumption of fish with high mercury levels. PMID:23264151

  15. Demographic Demise: The Declining Young Adult Population in New England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittell, Ross

    2007-01-01

    Young adult workers provide businesses with the dynamic labor force and fresh ideas they need to innovate and grow. With their contributions to cultural, intellectual and social life, young adults also make New England a vibrant and interesting place to live. Young families support local schools and demand a strong educational system. Yet New…

  16. Results from the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT)

    PubMed Central

    Bader, James D.; Vollmer, William M.; Shugars, Daniel A.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Amaechi, Bennett T.; Brown, John P.; Laws, Reesa L.; Funkhouser, Kimberly A.; Makhija, Sonia K.; Ritter, André V.; Leo, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although caries is prevalent in adults, few preventive therapies have been tested in adult populations. This randomized clinical trial evaluated the effectiveness of xylitol lozenges in preventing caries in elevated caries-risk adults. Methods X-ACT was a three-site placebo-controlled randomized trial. Participants (n=691) ages 21–80 consumed five 1.0 g xylitol or placebo lozenges daily for 33 months. Clinical examinations occurred at baseline, 12, 24 and 33 months. Results Xylitol lozenges reduced the caries increment 11%. This reduction, which represented less than one-third of a surface per year, was not statistically significant. There was no indication of a dose-response effect. Conclusions Daily use of xylitol lozenges did not result in a statistically or clinically significant reduction in 33-month caries increment among elevated caries-risk adults. Clinical Implications These results suggest that xylitol used as a supplement in adults does not significantly reduce their caries experience. PMID:23283923

  17. Adult survival and population growth rate in Colorado big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Ellison, L.E.; Stanley, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    We studied adult survival and population growth at multiple maternity colonies of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Fort Collins, Colorado. We investigated hypotheses about survival using information-theoretic methods and mark-recapture analyses based on passive detection of adult females tagged with passive integrated transponders. We constructed a 3-stage life-history matrix model to estimate population growth rate (??) and assessed the relative importance of adult survival and other life-history parameters to population growth through elasticity and sensitivity analysis. Annual adult survival at 5 maternity colonies monitored from 2001 to 2005 was estimated at 0.79 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.77-0.82). Adult survival varied by year and roost, with low survival during an extreme drought year, a finding with negative implications for bat populations because of the likelihood of increasing drought in western North America due to global climate change. Adult survival during winter was higher than in summer, and mean life expectancies calculated from survival estimates were lower than maximum longevity records. We modeled adult survival with recruitment parameter estimates from the same population. The study population was growing (?? = 1.096; 95% CI = 1.057-1.135). Adult survival was the most important demographic parameter for population growth. Growth clearly had the highest elasticity to adult survival, followed by juvenile survival and adult fecundity (approximately equivalent in rank). Elasticity was lowest for fecundity of yearlings. The relative importances of the various life-history parameters for population growth rate are similar to those of large mammals. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  18. Population estimate of the preantral follicles and frequency of multioocyte follicles in prepubertal and adult bitches.

    PubMed

    Lunardon, N T; Silva-Santos, K C; Justino, R C; Dessunti, G T; Seneda, M M; Martins, M I M

    2015-04-01

    groups on the basis of comparisons of the number of preantral follicles in the left ovaries (P > 0.05). The prevalence of primordial MOF was higher in prepubertal bitches (47% vs. 28%), whereas adult bitches had a higher frequency of secondary MOF (49% vs. 25%; P < 0.05). We conclude that medium-size prepubertal bitches had the highest population of preantral follicles compared with small and medium-size adult bitches, and the use of only one ovary per bitch implied contrasting result. The presence of primordial MOF was higher in prepubertal bitches and at the secondary stage in adult bitches. PMID:25572648

  19. Estimated daily intake of benzoic acid through food additives in adult population of South East Serbia.

    PubMed

    Lazarević, Konstansa; Stojanović, Dusica; Rancić, Natasa

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate dietary intake of benzoic acid and its salts through food additives in adult population of South East Serbia. Information on dietary intake among 620 adults (aged 18-65) was collected using a food frequency questionnaire, and 748 food samples were analyzed. The mean estimated intake of benzoic acid -0.32 mg/kg of body weight (bw) per day was below acceptable daily intake (ADI). Dietary exposure to benzoic acid (0.36 mg/kg of bw/day; 7.2% ADI) (consumer only), also did not exceed ADI. The main contributors of benzoic acid to dietary intake were non alcoholic beverages (43.1%), ketchup and tomato products (36.1%), and domestic pickled vegetables (19.4%). The results of this study indicate that dietary exposure to benzoic acid and its salts through food preservatives does not represent a public health risk for the adult population of South East Serbia. PMID:22432399

  20. Nutrition information sources vary with education level in a population of older adults.

    PubMed

    McKay, Diane L; Houser, Robert F; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Goldberg, Jeanne P

    2006-07-01

    Education level, more than any other socioeconomic factor, can predict disease risk, health behavior patterns, and diet quality. It has been suggested that one reason higher education promotes more healthful diets is that better-educated people may get better nutrition information. We present data from a survey examining specific sources of nutrition information among an older adult population (age >50 years, n=176), and compare the difference in sources associated with extent of education. Reliance on doctors, television, and neighbors was significantly higher among those with less education (P<0.05). Our results also show that less-educated older adults rely more upon different specific sources for their nutrition information than those who have attained a higher level of education. Strategies to improve and/or ensure the quality of the specific nutrition information sources this vulnerable group relies on may be needed. PMID:16815128

  1. Multidimensional Clinical Phenotyping of an Adult Cystic Fibrosis Patient Population

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Douglas J.; Bailey, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a multi-systemic disease resulting from mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR) gene and has major manifestations in the sino-pulmonary, and gastro-intestinal tracts. Clinical phenotypes were generated using 26 common clinical variables to generate classes that overlapped quantiles of lung function and were based on multiple aspects of CF systemic disease. Methods The variables included age, gender, CFTR mutations, FEV1% predicted, FVC% predicted, height, weight, Brasfield chest xray score, pancreatic sufficiency status and clinical microbiology results. Complete datasets were compiled on 211 subjects. Phenotypes were identified using a proximity matrix generated by the unsupervised Random Forests algorithm and subsequent clustering by the Partitioning around Medoids (PAM) algorithm. The final phenotypic classes were then characterized and compared to a similar dataset obtained three years earlier. Findings Clinical phenotypes were identified using a clustering strategy that generated four and five phenotypes. Each strategy identified 1) a low lung health scores phenotype, 2) a younger, well-nourished, male-dominated class, 3) various high lung health score phenotypes that varied in terms of age, gender and nutritional status. This multidimensional clinical phenotyping strategy identified classes with expected microbiology results and low risk clinical phenotypes with pancreatic sufficiency. Interpretation This study demonstrated regional adult CF clinical phenotypes using non-parametric, continuous, ordinal and categorical data with a minimal amount of subjective data to identify clinically relevant phenotypes. These studies identified the relative stability of the phenotypes, demonstrated specific phenotypes consistent with published findings and identified others needing further study. PMID:25822311

  2. Recruiting young adults into a weight loss trial: report of protocol development and recruitment results.

    PubMed

    Corsino, Leonor; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Batch, Bryan C; Intille, Stephen; Grambow, Steven C; Bosworth, Hayden B; Bennett, Gary G; Tyson, Crystal; Svetkey, Laura P; Voils, Corrine I

    2013-07-01

    Obesity has spread to all segments of the U.S. population. Young adults, aged 18-35 years, are rarely represented in clinical weight loss trials. We conducted a qualitative study to identify factors that may facilitate recruitment of young adults into a weight loss intervention trial. Participants were 33 adults aged 18-35 years with BMI ≥25 kg/m(2). Six group discussions were conducted using the nominal group technique. Health, social image, and "self" factors such as emotions, self-esteem, and confidence were reported as reasons to pursue weight loss. Physical activity, dietary intake, social support, medical intervention, and taking control (e.g. being motivated) were perceived as the best weight loss strategies. Incentives, positive outcomes, education, convenience, and social support were endorsed as reasons young adults would consider participating in a weight loss study. Incentives, advertisement, emphasizing benefits, and convenience were endorsed as ways to recruit young adults. These results informed the Cellphone Intervention for You (CITY) marketing and advertising, including message framing and advertising avenues. Implications for recruitment methods are discussed. PMID:23591327

  3. A national cross-sectional survey of dental anxiety in the French adult population

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Emmanuel; Collado, Valérie; Faulks, Denise; Bullier, Brigitte; Hennequin, Martine

    2007-01-01

    Background Dental anxiety is a public health problem but no epidemiological study has been undertaken in France to evaluate its prevalence. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence, severity and associations of dental anxiety in a sample of the French adult population. Methods A convenience sample of 2725 adults (mean age = 47 years, SD16, minimum = 16, maximum = 101 years), representative of the French population with regard to age and urban distribution, completed a French version of the Corah Dental Anxiety scale (DAS) and a questionnaire relating to their dental appointments. Results Moderate dental anxiety (14≥DAS≥13) was revealed for 172 persons (6.2%), while 195 (7.3%) had severe dental anxiety (DAS≥15), giving an overall prevalence of dental anxiety of 13.5%. Prevalence was lower proportionally with age (P < 0.001) and was higher in French overseas territories and in the countryside (P < 0.01). Farmers and low skilled workers were significantly more anxious than executives and shopkeepers (P < 0.001). Anxiety was associated with avoidance of care (p < 0.001) and lack of regular dental appointments (p < 0.001). Conclusion Dental anxiety in France appears to concern a similar proportion of the population as in other industrialised European, Australasian or North American countries. Recommendations for prevention and management of dental anxiety are made with reference to dental education and health care services in France. PMID:17927808

  4. Association Between Adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Obesity in the US Population

    PubMed Central

    Pagoto, S. L.; Curtin, C.; Lemon, S. C.; Bandini, L. G.; Schneider, K. L.; Bodenlos, J. S.; Ma, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disorder that affects approximately 2.9%–4.7% of US adults. Studies have revealed high rates of ADHD (26 – 61%) in patients seeking weight loss treatment suggesting an association between ADHD and obesity. The objective of the present study was to test the association between ADHD and overweight and obesity in the US population. Cross-sectional data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys were used. Participants were 6,735 U.S. residents (63.9% Caucasian; 51.6% female) aged 18 to 44. A retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD and a self-report assessment of adult ADHD were administered. Diagnosis was defined by three categories: never met diagnostic criteria, met full childhood criteria with no current symptoms, and met full childhood criteria with current symptoms. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 33.9% and 29.4%, respectively, among adults with ADHD, and 28.8% and 21.6%, respectively, among persons with no history of ADHD. Adult ADHD was associated with greater likelihood of overweight, [odds ratio (OR)=1.58; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.05, 2.38] and obesity (OR=1.81; 95% CI=1.14, 2.64). Results were similar when adjusting for demographic characteristics and depression. Mediation analyses suggest that binge eating disorder, but not depression, partially mediates the associations between ADHD and both overweight and obesity. Results suggest that adult ADHD is associated with overweight and obesity. PMID:19131944

  5. Prevalence of Chronic Medical Conditions in Adults with Mental Retardation: Comparison with the General Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapell, Deborah; Nightingale, Beryle; Rodriguez, Ana; Lee, Joseph H.; Zigman, Warren B.; Schupf, Nicole

    1998-01-01

    A study interviewed caregivers and reviewed medical records of 278 adults with mental retardation with and without Down syndrome. The adults with mental retardation had age-related disorders comparable to those in the general population, but there was an increased frequency of thyroid disorders, nonischemic heart disorders, and sensory impairment.…

  6. The National Blueprint for Promoting Physical Activity in the Mid-Life and Older Adult Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek; Sheppard, Lisa; Senior, Jane; Park, Chae-Hee; Mockenhaupt, Robin; Bazzarre, Terry

    2005-01-01

    The National Blueprint: Increasing Physical Activity Among Adults Age 50 and Older was designed to develop a national strategy for the promotion of physically active lifestyles among the mid-life and older adult population. The Blueprint identifies barriers to physical activity in the areas of research, home and community programs, medical…

  7. Toothache and associated factors in Brazilian adults: a cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Kuhnen, Mirian; Peres, Marco A; Masiero, Anelise V; Peres, Karen G

    2009-01-01

    Background Toothache is a dental public health problem and one of the predictors of dental attendance and it is strongly associated with the life quality of individuals. In spite of this, there are few population-based epidemiological studies on this theme. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of toothache and associated factors in adults of Lages, Southern Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out in a sample of 2,022 adults aged 20 to 59 years living in the urban area of a medium sized city in Southern Brazil. A questionnaire including socioeconomic, demographic, smoking, alcohol, and use of dental service variables was applied at adults household. Toothache occurred six months previous of the interview was considered the outcome. Poisson regression analyses were performed following a theoretical hierarchical framework. All analysis was adjusted by the sample design effect. Results The response rate was 98.6%. The prevalence of toothache was 18.0% (95% CI 16.0; 20.1). The following variables were associated with toothache after adjustment: female (PR = 1.3 95% CI 1.3; 2.0), black skin colour vs. whites (PR = 1.5 95% CI 1.1, 1.9), low per capita income (PR = 1.7 95% CI 1.2, 2.3), smokers (PR = 1.5 95% CI 1.2, 1.9) and those who reported alcohol problems (PR = 1.4 95% CI 1.1; 1.9). To be 40 years of age (PR = 0.5 95% CI 0.4, 0.7) and use dental service in the last year (RR = 0.5 95% CI 0.4, 0.6) were protective factors for toothache. Conclusion The prevalence of toothache in adults of Lages can be considered a major problem of dental public health. PMID:19243630

  8. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in the US Adult Low Back Pain Population

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Pamela Jo; Evans, Roni L.; Kreitzer, Mary Jo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many people suffering from low back pain (LBP) have found conventional medical treatments to be ineffective for managing their LBP and are increasingly turning to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to find pain relief. A comprehensive picture of CAM use in the LBP population, including all of the most commonly used modalities, is needed. Study Objective: To examine prevalence and perceived benefit of CAM use within the US LBP population by limiting vs nonlimiting LBP and to evaluate the odds of past year CAM use within the LBP population Methods: Data are from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey, Alternative Health Supplement. We examined a nationally representative sample of US adults with LBP (N=9665 unweighted). Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of past year CAM use. Results: In all, 41.2% of the LBP population used CAM in the past year, with higher use reported among those with limiting LBP. The most popular therapies used in the LBP population included herbal supplements, chiropractic manipulation, and massage. The majority of the LBP population used CAM specifically to treat back pain, and 58.1% of those who used CAM for their back pain perceived a great deal of benefit. Conclusion: The results are indicative of CAM becoming an increasingly important component of care for people with LBP. Additional understanding of patterns of CAM use among the LBP population will help health professionals make more informed care decisions and guide investigators in development of future back pain–related CAM research. PMID:26937316

  9. A comparison of the spatial dependence of body mass index among adults and children in a Swiss general population

    PubMed Central

    Guessous, I; Joost, S; Jeannot, E; Theler, J-M; Mahler, P; Gaspoz, J-M; Cantoreggi, Nicola; Chételat, Joël; Simos, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) may cluster in space among adults and be spatially dependent. Whether BMI clusters among children and how age-specific BMI clusters are related remains unknown. We aimed to identify and compare the spatial dependence of BMI in adults and children in a Swiss general population, taking into account the area's income level. Methods: Geo-referenced data from the Bus Santé study (adults, n=6663) and Geneva School Health Service (children, n=3601) were used. We implemented global (Moran's I) and local (local indicators of spatial association (LISA)) indices of spatial autocorrelation to investigate the spatial dependence of BMI in adults (35–74 years) and children (6–7 years). Weight and height were measured using standardized procedures. Five spatial autocorrelation classes (LISA clusters) were defined including the high–high BMI class (high BMI participant's BMI value correlated with high BMI-neighbors' mean BMI values). The spatial distributions of clusters were compared between adults and children with and without adjustment for area's income level. Results: In both adults and children, BMI was clearly not distributed at random across the State of Geneva. Both adults' and children's BMIs were associated with the mean BMI of their neighborhood. We found that the clusters of higher BMI in adults and children are located in close, yet different, areas of the state. Significant clusters of high versus low BMIs were clearly identified in both adults and children. Area's income level was associated with children's BMI clusters. Conclusions: BMI clusters show a specific spatial dependence in adults and children from the general population. Using a fine-scale spatial analytic approach, we identified life course-specific clusters that could guide tailored interventions. PMID:24614662

  10. Abdominal Obesity, Race and Chronic Kidney Disease in Young Adults: Results from NHANES 1999-2010

    PubMed Central

    Sarathy, Harini; Henriquez, Gabriela; Abramowitz, Matthew K.; Kramer, Holly; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Johns, Tanya; Kumar, Juhi; Skversky, Amy; Kaskel, Frederick; Melamed, Michal L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Kidney dysfunction in obesity may be independent of and may precede the development of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. We aimed to examine if abdominal obesity is associated with early markers of CKD in a young healthy population and whether these associations differ by race and/or ethnicity. Methods We analyzed data from the NHANES 1999–2010 for 6918 young adults ages 20–40 years. Abdominal obesity was defined by gender criteria of waist circumference. CKD markers included estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria ≥30 mg/g. Race stratified analyses were done overall and in subgroups with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin sensitivity. Awareness of CKD was assessed in participants with albuminuria. Results Abdominal obesity was present in over one-third of all young adults and was more prevalent among non-Hispanic blacks (45.4%) versus Mexican-Americans (40.6%) or non-Hispanic whites (37.4%) (P-value = 0.004). Mexican-American young adults with abdominal obesity had a higher odds of albuminuria even among those with normal blood pressure, normal glucose, and normal insulin sensitivity [adjusted odds ratio 4.5; 95% confidence interval (1.6–12.2), p = 0.004]. Less than 5% of young adults with albuminuria of all races and ethnicities had been told they had kidney disease. Conclusion Abdominal obesity in young adults, especially in Mexican-Americans, is independently associated with albuminuria even with normal blood pressures, normoglycemia and normal insulin levels. Greater awareness of CKD is needed to protect this young population from long-standing exposure to abdominal obesity and early progressive renal disease. PMID:27224643

  11. Well-Being in an Adult Swedish Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Anna; Hilleras, Pernilla; Forsell, Yvonne

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to see if earlier findings about factors associated with well-being could be replicated in a large population-based sample in Sweden. To the best of our knowledge, no research on well-being has been conducted on such a large population in a country, which by most standards is regarded as one of the most…

  12. Nightmares: Prevalence among the Finnish General Adult Population and War Veterans during 1972-2007

    PubMed Central

    Sandman, Nils; Valli, Katja; Kronholm, Erkki; Ollila, Hanna M.; Revonsuo, Antti; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paunio, Tiina

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of nightmares among the Finnish general adult population during 1972-2007 and the association between nightmare prevalence and symptoms of insomnia, depression, and anxiety in World War II veterans. Design: Eight independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study conducted in Finland in 1972, 1977, 1982, 1987, 1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007. Setting: Epidemiologic. Participants: A total of 69,813 people (33,811 men and 36,002 women) age 25-74 years. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The investigation of nightmare prevalence and insomnia, depression, and anxiety symptoms was based on questionnaires completed by the participants. Among the whole sample, 3.5% of the men and 4.8% of the women reported frequent nightmares (P < 0.0001 for sex difference), but the prevalence was affected by the age of participants and the year of the survey. Nightmare prevalence increased with age, particularly among the men. The number of people reporting occasional nightmares increased roughly by 20% for both sexes from 1972 to 2007 (P < 0.0001). Participants with war experiences reported more frequent nightmares and symptoms of insomnia, depression, and anxiety than participants without such experiences (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Prevalence of nightmares was affected by the sex and age of the participants, and occasional nightmares have become more common in Finland. Exposure to war elevates nightmare prevalence as well as insomnia, depression, and anxiety symptoms even decades after the war; large numbers of war veterans can affect nightmare prevalence on population level. Citation: Sandman N; Valli K; Kronholm E; Ollila HM; Revonsuo A; Laatikainen T; Paunio T. Nightmares: prevalence among the Finnish general adult population and war veterans during 1972-2007. SLEEP 2013;36(7):1041-1050. PMID:23814341

  13. Safety from Crime and Physical Activity among Older Adults: A Population-Based Study in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Weber Corseuil, Maruí; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Xavier Corseuil, Herton; Jayce Ceola Schneider, Ione; d'Orsi, Eleonora

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the association between safety from crime and physical activity among older adults. Methods. A population-based survey including 1,656 older adults (60+ years) took place in Florianopolis, Brazil, in 2009-2010. Commuting and leisure time physical activity were assessed through the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Perception of safety from crime was assessed using the Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale. Results. Perceiving the neighbourhood as safe during the day was related to a 25% increased likelihood of being active in leisure time (95% CI 1.02–1.53); general perception of safety was also associated with a 25% increase in the likelihood of being active in leisure time (95% CI 1.01–1.54). Street lighting was related to higher levels of commuting physical activity (prevalence ratio: 1.89; 95% CI 1.28–2.80). Conclusions. Safety investments are essential for promoting physical activity among older adults in Brazil. PMID:22291723

  14. A Comparison of Dietary Habits between Recreational Runners and a Randomly Selected Adult Population in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    ŠKOF, Branko; ROTOVNIK KOZJEK, Nada

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to compare the dietary habits of recreational runners with those of a random sample of the general population. We also wanted to determine the influence of gender, age and sports performance of recreational runners on their basic diet and compliance with recommendations in sports nutrition. Methods The study population consisted of 1,212 adult Slovenian recreational runners and 774 randomly selected residents of Slovenia between the ages of 18 and 65 years. The data on the dietary habits of our subjects was gathered by means of two questionnaires. The following parameters were evaluated: the type of diet, a food pattern, and the frequency of consumption of individual food groups, the use of dietary supplements, fluid intake, and alcohol consumption. Results Recreational runners had better compliance with recommendations for healthy nutrition than the general population. This pattern increased with the runner’s age and performance level. Compared to male runners, female runners ate more regularly and had a more frequent consumption of food groups associated with a healthy diet (fruit, vegetables, whole grain foods, and low-fat dairy products). The consumption of simple sugars and use of nutritional supplements by well-trained runners was inadequate with values recommended for physically active individuals. Conclusion Recreational runners are an exemplary population group that actively seeks to adopt a healthier lifestyle.

  15. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of oxaliplatin in adults and children identifies important covariates for dosing

    PubMed Central

    Nikanjam, Mina; Stewart, Clinton F.; Takimoto, Chris H.; Synold, Timothy W.; Beaty, Orren; Fouladi, Maryam; Capparelli, Edmund V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the determinants of variability for oxaliplatin pharmacokinetics including age, renal function, and hepatic function in children and adults. Methods Oxaliplatin pharmacokinetic data were combined from phase I and II clinical trials: 3 pediatric trials (Peds1–3) and 2 adult NCI organ dysfunction studies (Hepatic, Renal). A population pharmacokinetic model was developed utilizing platinum ultrafiltrate concentrations to characterize changes in oxaliplatin disposition with age and organ dysfunction along with other potential sources of oxaliplatin pharmacokinetic variability. Results A total of 1508 concentrations from 186 children and adults were used in the study. The data were well described by a three-compartment model. Serum creatinine was an independent predictor of clearance while age was an independent predictor of volume of distribution. While age was a significant covariate on clearance in the univariate analysis, age effects on clearance were entirely accounted for by serum creatinine. Gender, hepatic function, and race had no effect on clearance or volume of distribution. Median clearance values were 0.58 (Hepatic), 0.34 (Renal), 0.78 (Peds1), 0.74 (Peds2), and 0.81 (Peds3) (L/hr/kg0.75). Monte Carlo simulations of the final model with 130 mg/m2 yielded median AUC values of: 14.2 (2–6 yr), 16.8 (6–12 yr), 16.5 (12–18 yr), and 17.3 (>18 yr) (μg*hr/mL). Conclusions Renal function had the greatest effect on clearance with a small age effect seen on the distribution of oxaliplatin. Young pediatric patients had higher clearance values than adults as a result of better renal function. PMID:25557868

  16. Lack of access and continuity of adult health care: a national population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Dilélio, Alitéia Santiago; Tomasi, Elaine; Thumé, Elaine; da Silveira, Denise Silva; Siqueira, Fernando Carlos Vinholes; Piccini, Roberto Xavier; Silva, Suele Manjourany; Nunes, Bruno Pereira; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the lack of access and continuity of health care in adults. METHODS A cross-sectional population-based study was performed on a sample of 12,402 adults aged 20 to 59 years in urban areas of 100 municipalities of 23 states in the five Brazilian geopolitical regions. Barriers to the access and continuity of health care and were investigated based on receiving, needing and seeking health care (hospitalization and accident/emergency care in the last 12 months; care provided by a doctor, by other health professional or home care in the last three months). Based on the results obtained by the description of the sample, a projection is provided for adults living in Brazilian urban areas. RESULTS The highest prevalence of lack of access to health services and to provision of care by health professionals was for hospitalization (3.0%), whilst the lowest prevalence was for care provided by a doctor (1.1%). The lack of access to care provided by other health professionals was 2.0%; to accident and emergency services, 2.1%; and to home care, 2.9%. As for prevalences, the greatest absolute lack of access occurred in emergency care (more than 360,000 adults). The main reasons were structural and organizational problems, such as unavailability of hospital beds, of health professionals, of appointments for the type of care needed and charges made for care. CONCLUSIONS The universal right to health care in Brazil has not yet been achieved. These projections can help health care management in scaling the efforts needed to overcome this problem, such as expanding the infrastructure of health services and the workforce. PMID:26061454

  17. Lack of access and continuity of adult health care: a national population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Dilélio, Alitéia Santiago; Tomasi, Elaine; Thumé, Elaine; Silveira, Denise Silva da; Siqueira, Fernando Carlos Vinholes; Piccini, Roberto Xavier; Silva, Suele Manjourany; Nunes, Bruno Pereira; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the lack of access and continuity of health care in adults. METHODS A cross-sectional population-based study was performed on a sample of 12,402 adults aged 20 to 59 years in urban areas of 100 municipalities of 23 states in the five Brazilian geopolitical regions. Barriers to the access and continuity of health care and were investigated based on receiving, needing and seeking health care (hospitalization and accident/emergency care in the last 12 months; care provided by a doctor, by other health professional or home care in the last three months). Based on the results obtained by the description of the sample, a projection is provided for adults living in Brazilian urban areas. RESULTS The highest prevalence of lack of access to health services and to provision of care by health professionals was for hospitalization (3.0%), whilst the lowest prevalence was for care provided by a doctor (1.1%). The lack of access to care provided by other health professionals was 2.0%; to accident and emergency services, 2.1%; and to home care, 2.9%. As for prevalences, the greatest absolute lack of access occurred in emergency care (more than 360,000 adults). The main reasons were structural and organizational problems, such as unavailability of hospital beds, of health professionals, of appointments for the type of care needed and charges made for care. CONCLUSIONS The universal right to health care in Brazil has not yet been achieved. These projections can help health care management in scaling the efforts needed to overcome this problem, such as expanding the infrastructure of health services and the workforce. PMID:26061454

  18. Population sinks resulting from degraded habitats of an obligate life-history pathway.

    PubMed

    Hickford, Michael J H; Schiel, David R

    2011-05-01

    Many species traverse multiple habitats across ecosystems to complete their life histories. Degradation of critical, life stage-specific habitats can therefore lead to population bottlenecks and demographic deficits in sub-populations. The riparian zone of waterways is one of the most impacted areas of the coastal zone because of urbanisation, deforestation, farming and livestock grazing. We hypothesised that sink populations can result from alterations of habitats critical to the early life stages of diadromous fish that use this zone, and tested this with field-based sampling and experiments. We found that for Galaxias maculatus, one of the most widely distributed fishes of the southern hemisphere, obligate riparian spawning habitat was very limited and highly vulnerable to disturbance across 14 rivers in New Zealand. Eggs were laid only during spring tides, in the highest tidally influenced vegetation of waterways. Egg survival increased to >90% when laid in three riparian plant species and where stem densities were great enough to prevent desiccation, compared to no survival where vegetation was comprised of other species or was less dense. Experimental exclusion of livestock, one of the major sources of riparian degradation in rural waterways, resulted in quick regeneration, a tenfold increase in egg laying by fish and a threefold increase in survival, compared to adjacent controls. Overall, there was an inverse relationship between river size and egg production. Some of the largest rivers had little or no spawning habitat and very little egg production, effectively becoming sink populations despite supporting large adult populations, whereas some of the smallest pristine streams produced millions of eggs. We demonstrate that even a wide-ranging species with many robust adult populations can be compromised if a stage-specific habitat required to complete a life history is degraded by localised or more diffuse impacts. PMID:21076966

  19. Population spatiotemporal dynamics of spinal intermediate zone interneurons during air-stepping in adult spinal cats

    PubMed Central

    AuYong, Nicholas; Ollivier-Lanvin, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The lumbar spinal cord circuitry can autonomously generate locomotion, but it remains to be determined which types of neurons constitute the locomotor generator and how their population activity is organized spatially in the mammalian spinal cord. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal dynamics of the spinal interneuronal population activity in the intermediate zone of the adult mammalian cord. Segmental interneuronal population activity was examined via multiunit activity (MUA) during air-stepping initiated by perineal stimulation in subchronic spinal cats. In contrast to single-unit activity, MUA provides a continuous measure of neuronal activity within a ∼100-μm volume around the recording electrode. MUA was recorded during air-stepping, along with hindlimb muscle activity, from segments L3 to L7 with two multichannel electrode arrays placed into the left and right hemicord intermediate zones (lamina V–VII). The phasic modulation and spatial organization of MUA dynamics were examined in relation to the locomotor cycle. Our results show that segmental population activity is modulated with respect to the ipsilateral step cycle during air-stepping, with maximal activity occurring near the ipsilateral swing to stance transition period. The phase difference between the population activity within the left and right hemicords was also found to correlate to the left-right alternation of the step cycle. Furthermore, examination of MUA throughout the rostrocaudal extent showed no differences in population dynamics between segmental levels, suggesting that the spinal interneurons targeted in this study may operate as part of a distributed “clock” mechanism rather than a rostrocaudal oscillation as seen with motoneuronal activity. PMID:21775722

  20. [Transfer of cardiac catheterisation from a paediatric to an adult cardiological centre: results at 3 years].

    PubMed

    Agnoletti, G; Boudjemline, Y; Ladouceur, M; Iserin, L

    2007-05-01

    The advances of surgical and interventional treatment of congenital heart diseases have allowed a large number of patients with congenital heart disease to reach adult age. This population involves almost 0.3/1000 of total population in West Europe and North America and can be estimated around 200000 patients in France. Patients with operated Tetralogy of Fallot, benign forms of pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, simple or complex transposition of the great arteries usually survive beyond childhood. These patients can need repeated interventions to treat lesions of native or reconstructed pulmonary arteries and/or aortic arch, to occlude residual shunts, to treat pulmonary incompetence. More complex heart diseases such as single ventricle, rarely allow survival until the adult age. The majority of these patients undergo heart transplant, often made difficult by multiple cardiac surgeries, anomalies of pulmonary arteries, chronic cyanosis, aorto-pulmonary shunts. Patients with relatively simple or complex congenital heart diseases need to be followed-up in specialized units, like those created more than twenty years ago in the United States, Canada, and United Kingdom. Interventional cardiac catheterisation play a major role in the management of this population. The results of 3 years of activity in a new centre treating GUCH patients are illustrated. PMID:17646764

  1. Coexisting Psychiatric Problems and Stressful Life Events in Adults with Symptoms of ADHD--A Large Swedish Population-Based Study of Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrichs, Bettina; Igl, Wilmar; Larsson, Henrik; Larsson, Jan-Olov

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the associations of subtypes of adult ADHD with other psychiatric problems, stressful life events, and sex differences. Method: Odds ratios were calculated using information from 17,899 participants from a population-based survey of adult twins born in Sweden between 1959 and 1985. Results: Symptoms of attention deficit…

  2. Unique multipotent cells in adult human mesenchymal cell populations

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Yasumasa; Kitada, Masaaki; Wakao, Shohei; Nishikawa, Kouki; Tanimura, Yukihiro; Makinoshima, Hideki; Goda, Makoto; Akashi, Hideo; Inutsuka, Ayumu; Niwa, Akira; Shigemoto, Taeko; Nabeshima, Yoko; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Nabeshima, Yo-ichi; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Dezawa, Mari

    2010-01-01

    We found adult human stem cells that can generate, from a single cell, cells with the characteristics of the three germ layers. The cells are stress-tolerant and can be isolated from cultured skin fibroblasts or bone marrow stromal cells, or directly from bone marrow aspirates. These cells can self-renew; form characteristic cell clusters in suspension culture that express a set of genes associated with pluripotency; and can differentiate into endodermal, ectodermal, and mesodermal cells both in vitro and in vivo. When transplanted into immunodeficient mice by local or i.v. injection, the cells integrated into damaged skin, muscle, or liver and differentiated into cytokeratin 14-, dystrophin-, or albumin-positive cells in the respective tissues. Furthermore, they can be efficiently isolated as SSEA-3(+) cells. Unlike authentic ES cells, their proliferation activity is not very high and they do not form teratomas in immunodeficient mouse testes. Thus, nontumorigenic stem cells with the ability to generate the multiple cell types of the three germ layers can be obtained through easily accessible adult human mesenchymal cells without introducing exogenous genes. These unique cells will be beneficial for cell-based therapy and biomedical research. PMID:20421459

  3. Reduced productivity in adult yellowfever mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) populations

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, P.H.; Hamm, W.J.; Garcia, F.; Garcia, M.; Schirf, V.

    1989-04-01

    Male and female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes of the laboratory strain ROCK were irradiated with 130 mw of argon 514.5 nm laser microbeams for 0.04, 0.25, 0.4, and 0.5 s, respectively. Egg production, percentage hatch, and productivity (average number of adults surviving after 3 wk) were used to assess mutagenic effects. Mortality was high for males in all laser radiation groups and increased with time of exposure. Except for the group treated for 0.25 s, significant reductions in total F1 progeny also were demonstrated for all other experimentals when male parents were exposed to laser radiation. Females showed a high mortality when subjected to 0.4- and 0.5-s laser radiation. No F1 progeny were produced when parental females were exposed for 0.25, 0.4, and 0.5 s. Numbers of F1 progeny from females exposed to 0.04 s of laser radiation were significantly reduced. A comparison of weekly mean number of progeny showed that the important differences in productivity occurred during the first and second week, respectively, when either male or female adult parents were subjected to laser radiation.

  4. DIETARY PATTERNS RELATED TO CARIES IN A LOW-INCOME ADULT POPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Brian A.; Kolker, Justine L.; Sandretto, Anita M.; Yuan, Ying; Sohn, Woosung; Ismail, Amid I.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between dietary patterns and caries experience in a representative group of low-income African-American adults. Participants were residents of Detroit, Michigan, with household incomes below 250% of the federally-established poverty level (n = 1,021). Dietary histories were obtained by trained interviewers in face-to-face interviews with the adult participants, using the Block 98.2® food frequency questionnaire developed by Block Dietary Systems, Berkeley, CA. Caries was measured by the ICDAS criteria (International Caries Detection and Assessment System). There were 200 dietary records whose data were judged to be invalid; these participants were omitted from the dietary analyses to leave n = 821. Analyses were conducted using software from SAS and SUDAAN. Factor analysis identified patterns of liquid and solid food consumption, and the resulting factor scores were used as covariates in multivariable linear regression. Caries was extensive, with 82.3% of the 1,021 participants (n=839) having at least one cavitated lesion. Nearly three-quarters of the adult participants were overweight or obese. This population has severe caries, poor oral hygiene, and diets that are high in sugars and fats and low in fruits and vegetables. Apart from tapwater, the most frequently consumed food item by adults of all ages was soft drinks; 19% of all energy from sugar came from soft drinks alone. In both the bivariate analyses and in the regression model, frequency of soft drink consumption and the presence of gingival plaque deposits were significantly associated with caries. Interventions to promote oral health are unlikely to be successful without improvements in the social and physical environment. PMID:17063017

  5. Premature adult mortality in urban Zambia: a repeated population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Timæus, Ian M; Banda, Richard; Thankian, Kusanthan; Banda, Andrew; Lemba, Musonda; Stringer, Jeffrey S A; Chi, Benjamin H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To measure the sex-specific and community-specific mortality rates for adults in Lusaka, Zambia, and to identify potential individual-level, household-level and community-level correlates of premature mortality. We conducted 12 survey rounds of a population-based cross-sectional study between 2004 and 2011, and collected data via a structured interview with a household head. Setting Households in Lusaka District, Zambia, 2004–2011. Participants 43 064 household heads (88% female) who enumerated 123 807 adult household members aged between 15 and 60 years. Primary outcome Premature adult mortality. Results The overall mortality rate was 16.2/1000 person-years for men and 12.3/1000 person-years for women. The conditional probability of dying between age 15 and 60 (45q15) was 0.626 for men and 0.537 for women. The top three causes of death for men and women were infectious in origin (ie, tuberculosis, HIV and malaria). We observed an over twofold variation of mortality rates between communities. The mortality rate was 1.98 times higher (95% CI 1.57 to 2.51) in households where a family member required nursing care, 1.44 times higher (95% CI 1.22 to 1.71) during the cool dry season, and 1.28 times higher (95% CI 1.06 to 1.54) in communities with low-cost housing. Conclusions To meet Zambia's development goals, further investigation is needed into the factors associated with adult mortality. Mortality can potentially be reduced through focus on high-need households and communities, and improved infectious disease prevention and treatment services. PMID:26940113

  6. Evolution of increased adult longevity in Drosophila melanogaster populations selected for adaptation to larval crowding.

    PubMed

    Shenoi, V N; Ali, S Z; Prasad, N G

    2016-02-01

    In holometabolous animals such as Drosophila melanogaster, larval crowding can affect a wide range of larval and adult traits. Adults emerging from high larval density cultures have smaller body size and increased mean life span compared to flies emerging from low larval density cultures. Therefore, adaptation to larval crowding could potentially affect adult longevity as a correlated response. We addressed this issue by studying a set of large, outbred populations of D. melanogaster, experimentally evolved for adaptation to larval crowding for 83 generations. We assayed longevity of adult flies from both selected (MCUs) and control populations (MBs) after growing them at different larval densities. We found that MCUs have evolved increased mean longevity compared to MBs at all larval densities. The interaction between selection regime and larval density was not significant, indicating that the density dependence of mean longevity had not evolved in the MCU populations. The increase in longevity in MCUs can be partially attributed to their lower rates of ageing. It is also noteworthy that reaction norm of dry body weight, a trait probably under direct selection in our populations, has indeed evolved in MCU populations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the evolution of adult longevity as a correlated response of adaptation to larval crowding. PMID:26575793

  7. Estimating total population size for adult female sea turtles: Accounting for non-nesters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, W.L.; Richardson, J.I.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of population size and changes therein is important to sea turtle management and population or life history research. Investigators might be interested in testing hypotheses about the effect of current population size or density (number of animals per unit resource) on future population processes. Decision makers might want to determine a level of allowable take of individual turtles of specified life stage. Nevertheless, monitoring most stages of sea turtle life histories is difficult, because obtaining access to individuals is difficult. Although in-water assessments are becoming more common, nesting females and their hatchlings remain the most accessible life stages. In some cases adult females of a given nesting population are sufficiently philopatric that the population itself can be well defined. If a well designed tagging study is conducted on this population, survival, breeding probability, and the size of the nesting population in a given year can be estimated. However, with published statistical methodology the size of the entire breeding population (including those females skipping nesting in that year) cannot be estimated without assuming that each adult female in this population has the same probability of nesting in a given year (even those that had just nested in the previous year). We present a method for estimating the total size of a breeding population (including nesters those skipping nesting) from a tagging study limited to the nesting population, allowing for the probability of nesting in a given year to depend on an individual's nesting status in the previous year (i.e., a Markov process). From this we further develop estimators for rate of growth from year to year in both nesting population and total breeding population, and the proportion of the breeding population that is breeding in a given year. We also discuss assumptions and apply these methods to a breeding population of hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) from

  8. Association between socioeconomic status and obesity in a Chinese adult population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Existing studies which regarding to the association between individual socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity are still scarce in developing countries. The major aim of this study is to estimate such association in an adult population which was drawn from an economically prosperous province of China. Methods Study population was determined by multilevel randomized sampling. Education and income were chosen as indicators of individual SES, general obesity and abdominal obesity were measured by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Descriptive statistical methods were used to depict overall and factor-specific distributions of general and abdominal obesity among 16,013 respondents. Two-step logistic regression models were fitted on gender basis. Results The age-and-sex adjusted rates of general overweight, general obesity, abdominal overweight and abdominal obesity in study population were 28.9% (95%CI: 27.9%-29.9%), 7.5% (95%CI: 7.0%-8.1%), 32.2% (95%CI: 31.2%-33.3%) and 12.3% (95%CI: 11.6%-13.1%), respectively. Based on model fitting results, a significant inverse association between education and obesity only existed in women, while in men, income rather than education was positively related to obesity. Conclusions The atypical SES-obesity relationship we found reflected the on-going social economy transformation in affluent regions of China. High-income men and poorly-educated women were at higher risk of obesity in Zhejiang province, thus merit intense focuses. PMID:23590682

  9. Burden of vaccine-preventable disease in adult Medicaid and commercially insured populations

    PubMed Central

    Krishnarajah, Girishanthy; Carroll, Charlotte; Priest, Julie; Arondekar, Bhakti; Burstin, Stuart; Levin, Myron

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination rates among United States (US) adults are suboptimal, resulting in morbidity, mortality, and financial burden attributable to potentially vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). Unadjusted annual incidence proportions of VPDs were estimated for Medicaid and commercially insured adults aged 19–64 years using 2006–2010 claims, along with age/gender-adjusted incidence proportions for 2010. In 2010, 1.6 million Medicaid adults (mean age 34 ± 12 years; 73.4% female) and 33 million commercially insured (mean age 42 ± 13 years; 52.2% female) were included. Age/gender-adjusted incidence proportions (per 100 000) in 2010 among Medicaid vs commercially insured adults for meningococcal disease were 26.2 (95% CI 22.9–29.8) vs 2.0 (1.9–2.2) (P < 0.001); hepatitis B 88.9 (82.6–95.6) vs 17.5 (17.0–17.9) (P < 0.001); pneumococcal disease 98.2 (91.7–105.1) vs 21.1 (20.7–21.6) (P < 0.001); hepatitis A 19.8 (16.9–23.1) vs 4.5 (4.3–4.7) (P < 0.001); mumps 2.1 (1.3–3.3) vs 1.4 (1.3–1.6) (P = 0.14); measles 0.3 (0.1–1.0) vs 0.3 (0.2–0.3) (P = 0.38); herpes zoster (60- to 64-year-olds only) 459 (408–515) vs 473 (466–481) (P = 0.35); varicella (19- to 39-year-olds only) 6.5 (4.8–8.5) vs 8.0 (7.5–8.5) (P = 0.12); influenza 586 (573–598) vs 633 (631–636) (P < 0.001); and pertussis 1.8 (1.1–2.8) vs 3.2 (3.0–3.4) (P < 0.001). Research is needed to fully understand the causes of the disparity of the coded incidence of some VPDs in adult Medicaid population than commercially insured adults in the US. PMID:25424956

  10. Levels and predictors of persistent organic pollutants in an adult population from four Spanish regions.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rodríguez, M; Arrebola, J P; Artacho-Cordón, F; Amaya, E; Aragones, N; Llorca, J; Perez-Gomez, B; Ardanaz, E; Kogevinas, M; Castano-Vinyals, G; Pollan, M; Olea, N

    2015-12-15

    This research aimed to assess serum concentrations of a group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a sample of adults recruited in four different regions from Spain and to assess socio-demographic, dietary, and lifestyle predictors of the exposure. The study population comprised 312 healthy adults selected from among controls recruited in the MCC-Spain multicase-control study. Study variables were collected using standardized questionnaires, and pollutants were analyzed by means of gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Multivariable analyses were performed to identify predictors of log-transformed pollutant concentrations, using combined backward and forward stepwise multiple linear regression models. Detection rates ranged from 89.1% (hexachlorobenzene, HCB) to 93.6% (Polychlorinated biphenyl-153 [PCB-153]); p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) showed the highest median concentrations (1.04ng/ml), while HCB showed the lowest (0.24ng/ml). In the multivariable models, age was positively associated with HCB, p,p'-DDE, and PCB-180. BMI was associated positively with p,p'-DDE but negatively with PCB-138. Total accumulated time residing in an urban area was positively associated with PCB-153 concentrations. The women showed higher HCB and lower p,p'-DDE concentrations versus the men. Notably, POP exposure in our study population was inversely associated with the breastfeeding received by participants and with the number of pregnancies of their mothers but was not related to the participants' history of breastfeeding their children or parity. Smoking was negatively associated with HCB and PCB-153 concentrations. Consumption of fatty foods, including blue fish, was in general positively associated with POP levels. Although POP environmental levels are declining worldwide, there is a need for the continuous monitoring of human exposure in the general population. The results of the present study confirm previous findings and point to novel

  11. Knowledge, Awareness and Practices Regarding Dengue Fever among the Adult Population of Dengue Hit Cosmopolitan

    PubMed Central

    Itrat, Ahmed; Khan, Abdullah; Javaid, Sunniya; Kamal, Mahwash; Khan, Hassan; Javed, Sannia; Kalia, Saira; Khan, Adil Haleem; Sethi, Muhammad Imran; Jehan, Imtiaz

    2008-01-01

    Background The World health Organization (WHO) declares dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever to be endemic in South Asia. Despite the magnitude of problem, no documented evidence exists in Pakistan which reveals the awareness and practices of the country's adult population regarding dengue fever, its spread, symptoms, treatment and prevention. This study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding dengue fever in people visiting tertiary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional pilot study was conducted among people visiting tertiary care hospitals in Karachi. Through convenience sampling, a pre-tested and structured questionnaire was administered through a face-to-face unprompted interview with 447 visitors. Knowledge was recorded on a scale of 1–3. Results About 89.9% of individuals interviewed had heard of dengue fever. Sufficient knowledge about dengue was found to be in 38.5% of the sample, with 66% of these in Aga Khan University Hospital and 33% in Civil Hospital Karachi. Literate individuals were relatively more well-informed about dengue fever as compared to the illiterate people (p<0.001). Knowledge based upon preventive measures was found to be predominantly focused towards prevention of mosquito bites (78.3%) rather than eradication of mosquito population (17.3%). Use of anti- mosquito spray was the most prevalent (48.1%) preventive measure. Television was considered as the most important and useful source of information on the disease. Conclusion Adult population of Karachi has adequate knowledge related to the disease ‘dengue’ on isolated aspects, but the overall prevalence of ‘sufficient knowledge’ based on our criteria is poor. We demonstrated adequate prevalence of preventive practices against the disease. Further studies correlating the association between knowledge and its effectiveness against dengue will be helpful in demonstrating the implications of awareness campaigns. PMID

  12. Adult Literacy in America: A First Look at the Results of the National Adult Literacy Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsch, Irwin S.; And Others

    The National Adult Literacy Survey profiled the literacy of U.S. adults based on their performance on tasks reflecting materials and demands of daily life. Data were gathered through interviews with a random sample of 13,600 people over 16, a survey of 1,000 adults in each of 12 states, and interviews with 1,100 prison inmates, making a total of…

  13. Genetic disorders in children and young adults: a population study.

    PubMed Central

    Baird, P A; Anderson, T W; Newcombe, H B; Lowry, R B

    1988-01-01

    The data base of an ongoing population-based registry with multiple sources of ascertainment was used to estimate the present population load from genetic disease in more than 1 million consecutive live births. It was found that, before approximately age 25 years, greater than or equal to 53/1,000 live-born individuals can be expected to have diseases with an important genetic component. This total was composed of single-gene disorders (3.6/1,000), consisting of autosomal dominant (1.4/1,000), autosomal recessive (1.7/1,000), and X-linked recessive disorders (0.5/1,000). Chromosomal anomalies accounted for 1.8/1,000, multifactorial disorders (including those present at birth and those of onset before age 25 years) accounted for 46.4/1,000, and cases of genetic etiology in which the precise mechanism was not identified accounted for 1.2/1,000. Previous studies have usually considered all congenital anomalies (ICD 740-759) as part of the genetic load, but only those judged to fit into one of the above categories were included in the present study. Data for congenital anomalies are therefore also presented separately, to facilitate comparison with earlier studies. If all congenital anomalies are considered as part of the genetic load, then greater than or equal to 79/1,000 live-born individuals have been identified as having one or other genetic disorder before approximately age 25 years. These new data represent a better estimate of the genetic load in the population than do previous studies. PMID:3358420

  14. Embryonic oxidative stress results in reproductive impairment for adult zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Trent A.C.; Carleton, Catherine R.; Leeke, Bryony; Hampton, Mark B.; Horsfield, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to environmental stressors during embryo development can have long-term effects on the adult organism. This study used the thioredoxin reductase inhibitor auranofin to investigate the consequences of oxidative stress during zebrafish development. Auranofin at low doses triggered upregulation of the antioxidant genes gstp1 and prdx1. As the dose was increased, acute developmental abnormalities, including cerebral hemorrhaging and jaw malformation, were observed. To determine whether transient disruption of redox homeostasis during development could have long-term consequences, zebrafish embryos were exposed to a low dose of auranofin from 6–24 hours post fertilization, and then raised to adulthood. The adult fish were outwardly normal in their appearance with no gross physical differences compared to the control group. However, these adult fish had reduced odds of breeding and a lower incidence of egg fertilization. This study shows that a suboptimal early life environment can reduce the chances of reproductive success in adulthood. PMID:26584358

  15. Juvenile dispersal affects straying behaviors of adults in a migratory population.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Ellen J; Kennedy, Brian P

    2012-04-01

    The resilience of organisms to large-scale environmental and climatic change depends, in part, upon the ability to colonize and occupy new habitats. While previous efforts to describe homing, or natal site fidelity, of migratory organisms have been hindered by the confounding effects of fragmented landscapes and management practices, realistic conservation efforts must include considerations of the behavioral diversity represented by animal movements and dispersal. Herein, we quantify straying away from natal origins by adult chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in a wild population that inhabits a pristine wilderness basin. Using natural isotopic signatures (7Sr/86Sr) to reconstruct the migratory behaviors of unhandled individuals over their entire life cycle, we identified ecological and behavioral factors influencing the propensity to stray. Our results indicate that natal site fidelity is scale dependent, ranging from 55% at -1-km distances to 87% at longer (> 10-km scale) distances, and juvenile dispersal and sex highly influence straying occurrence. These findings lend support for the conservation of behavioral diversity for population persistence, and we propose straying as a mechanism for maintaining genetic diversity at low population densities. PMID:22690624

  16. HIV-associated adult mortality in a rural Tanzanian population.

    PubMed

    Todd, J; Balira, R; Grosskurth, H; Mayaud, P; Mosha, F; ka-Gina, G; Klokke, A; Gabone, R; Gavyole, A; Mabey, D; Hayes, R

    1997-05-01

    A cohort of 12,501 adults aged 15-54 years was randomly selected from 12 rural communities in Mwanza region, Tanzania, in 1991-92 and followed for 2 years to assess the contribution of HIV/AIDS to mortality in the region. HIV seroprevalence in the sample was 4% at baseline. 73 of the 196 deaths recorded over the period occurred among HIV-positive individuals. Mortality rates per 1000 person-years were 6.0 among the HIV-seronegative and 93.5 among the HIV-seropositive. The age-adjusted mortality rate ratio was 15.68 overall. 35% of overall mortality was attributed to HIV infection, 53% among those age 20-29 years. Verbal autopsies administered for each death reported showed that HIV-positive deaths were significantly associated with fever, rash, weight loss, anemia, cough, chest pain, abdominal pain, and headache. The specificity of individual symptoms, however, was low. The World Health Organization clinical case definition of AIDS was satisfied for only 13 deaths, of which seven were HIV-positive at baseline. HIV/AIDS was mentioned during the verbal autopsy interview by only seven respondents as being associated with a given death. PMID:9143613

  17. The Relationship between Health Survey and Medical Chart Review Results in a Rural Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voaklander, Donald C.; Thommasen, Harvey V.; Michalos, Alex C.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the relationship between health survey and medical chart based information. The study population consisted of adult patients (17 years of age and older) attending the Bella Coola Medical Clinic who also completed a detailed Health and Quality of Life Survey. A total of 674 adults completed the Health…

  18. Peripheral intravenous therapy-related phlebitis rates in an adult population.

    PubMed

    White, S A

    2001-01-01

    To determine the incidence of peripheral intravenous therapy-related phlebitis in an adult population, 305 peripheral i.v. catheter sites were observed from the time of admission of the patient (or initiation of the first peripheral i.v. catheter) to the time of the participant's discharge from the facility (or 48 hours after the removal of the final catheter). Parameters monitored included patient demographics, diagnosis, i.v. fluids and medications, type of peripheral catheter, dwell time, and dressing integrity. Results showed that of the 10 cases of phlebitis found in nine study subjects, all were associated with catheters indwelling less than 72 hours. In three cases, although the catheter site was clear at the time of catheter removal, postinfusion phlebitis developed within 24 hours. Catheter site locations, diagnoses, medications, and i.v. fluids in these cases were varied. PMID:11836840

  19. An estimate of the historic population size of adult pallid sturgeon in the upper Missouri river basin, Montana and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Lott, R.D.; Jordan, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus raised in hatcheries and stocked in the wild are used to augment critically imperiled populations of this federally endangered species in the United States. For pallid sturgeon in recovery priority management area 2 (RPMA 2) of the Missouri River and lower Yellowstone River where natural recruitment has not occurred for decades, restoration programs aim to stock an annual minimum of 9000 juvenile pallid sturgeon for 20 years to re-establish a minimum population of 1700 adults. However, establishment of this target was based on general guidelines for maintaining the genetic integrity of populations rather than pallid sturgeon-specific demographic information because data on the historical population size was lacking. In this study, information from a recent population estimate (158 wild adults in 2004, 95% confidence interval 129-193 adults) and an empirically derived adult mortality rate (5%) was used in a cohort population model to back-estimate the historic abundance of adult pallid sturgeon in RPMA 2. Three back-estimation age models were developed, and assumed that adults alive during 2004 were 30-, 40-, or 50-years old. Based on these age assumptions, population sizes [??95% confidence intervals; (CI)] were back-estimated to 1989, 1979, and 1969 to approximate size of the population when individuals would have been sexually mature (15 years old) and capable of spawning. Back-estimations yielded predictions of 344 adults in 1989 (95% CI 281-420), 577 adults in 1979 (95% CI 471-704), and 968 adults in 1969 (95% CI 790-1182) for the 30-, 40-, and 50-year age models, respectively. Although several assumptions are inherent in the back-estimation models, results suggest the juvenile stocking program for pallid sturgeon will likely re-establish an adult population that equals in the short-term and exceeds in the long-term the predicted population numbers that occurred during past decades in RPMA 2. However, re

  20. Dental Caries Prevalence and Tooth Loss in Chilean Adult Population: First National Dental Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Urzua, I.; Mendoza, C.; Arteaga, O.; Rodríguez, G.; Cabello, R.; Faleiros, S.; Carvajal, P.; Muñoz, A.; Espinoza, I.; Aranda, W.; Gamonal, J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries, tooth loss, and risk factors among adult population of Chile. Furthermore, age, gender, and behavioural specific differences in caries prevalence and tooth loss were examined. A national stratified multistage probabilistic sample design in two-age cohorts was applied to the Chilean population. A sample of 1553 adults, comprising 1088 individuals aged 35–44 and 465 senior individuals aged 65–74, were examined. The DMFT was evaluated following WHO recommendations using diagnostic criteria of caries lesions into dentin. The data were analyzed by univariate and multivariate models using logistic regression analyses. Results showed a mean DMFT of 15.06 in the 35–44-year-old group and of 21.57 in the 65–74 group. Factors related to tooth loss in the 35–44 group through univariate logistic regression were depression (OR 1.9 CI 95% 1.26–2.85), education level <12 years (OR 2.24 CI 95% 1.31–3.73), personal income (OR 1.51 CI 95% 1.04–2.19), and familiar income (OR 2.05 CI 95% 1.34–3.13), and through multivariate logistic regression in the same age group were depression (OR 1.93 CI 95% 1.24–3.0), education level <12 years (OR 1.94 CI 95% 1.2–3.14), and familiar income (OR 1.71 CI 95% 1.09–2.68). Factors related to tooth loss in the 65–74-year-old group through univariate logistic regression were education level <12 years (OR 2.54 CI 95% 1.3–4.96) and personal income (OR 1.66 CI 95% 1.05–2.63), and for multivariate logistic regression in the same age group, it was education level <12 years (OR 2.51 CI 95% 1.21–5.18). In conclusion, adult population in Chile showed a high prevalence of dental caries and tooth loss, as age, education level, personal and familiar incomes, and depression are being the main risk factors. PMID:23316234

  1. Correlation between diet and gut bacteria in a population of young adults.

    PubMed

    Mayorga Reyes, Lino; González Vázquez, Raquel; Cruz Arroyo, Schahrasad M; Melendez Avalos, Araceli; Reyes Castillo, Pedro A; Chavaro Pérez, David A; Ramos Terrones, Idalia; Ramos Ibáñez, Norma; Rodríguez Magallanes, Magdalena M; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez Humarán, Luis; Azaola Espinosa, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    Dietary habits strongly influence gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to compare and correlated the abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla, some representative bacteria of these phyla such as Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Prevotella, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Clostridium leptum and Bifidobacterium longum as a member of Actinobacteria phylum in young adults with their food intake. Faecal samples used came from lean subjects (BMI = 19.83 ± 0.94 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI = 27.17 ± 0.51 kg/m(2)) and obese (BMI = 41.33 ± 5.25 kg/m(2)). There were significant differences in total studied gut microbiota between the overweight and lean groups. Members of the Firmicutes phylum, and Bifidobacterium longum, were more abundant in the lean group. The results suggest that diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids and fibre promote an abundant population of beneficial bacteria such as B. longum and Bacteroidetes. However, it has been considered that the results may be biased due to the size of the individuals studied; therefore the results could be only valid for the studied population. PMID:27018166

  2. Adaptively resizing populations: Algorithm, analysis, and first results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Robert E.; Smuda, Ellen

    1993-01-01

    Deciding on an appropriate population size for a given Genetic Algorithm (GA) application can often be critical to the algorithm's success. Too small, and the GA can fall victim to sampling error, affecting the efficacy of its search. Too large, and the GA wastes computational resources. Although advice exists for sizing GA populations, much of this advice involves theoretical aspects that are not accessible to the novice user. An algorithm for adaptively resizing GA populations is suggested. This algorithm is based on recent theoretical developments that relate population size to schema fitness variance. The suggested algorithm is developed theoretically, and simulated with expected value equations. The algorithm is then tested on a problem where population sizing can mislead the GA. The work presented suggests that the population sizing algorithm may be a viable way to eliminate the population sizing decision from the application of GA's.

  3. [Regional characteristics of arterial hypertension in adult population of Croatia].

    PubMed

    Erceg, Marijan; Hrabak-Zerjavić, Vlasta; Ivicević Uhernik, Ana

    2007-06-01

    Data collected in the Croatian Health Survey launched in 2003 by the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare were analyzed. The survey included a regionally stratified random sample. Using the method of structured questionnaire and anthropometric measurements (blood pressure, height and weight), data were collected on 9,070 subjects aged >18. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure was calculated from two measurements. Inclusion criteria in the group of subjects with elevated blood pressure were the subject's reporting taking antihypertensive medication and/or mean systolic blood pressure > or =140 mm Hg, and/or mean diastolic blood pressure > or =90 mm Hg. Descriptive analysis was done on figures yielded by use of the SPSS software. Subjects with elevated blood pressure accounted for 44.2% (95%CI=42.61-45.85) of study population, with a h gher rate in male (45.6%; 95%= 43.14-48.06) and lower in female subjects (43.0%; 95%CI=41.46-44.55). Croatia was estimated to have 1,538,982 inhabitants with high blood pressure (748,072 males and 790,910 females). The proportion of individuals with elevated blood pressure was highest (78.9%; 95%CI=76.9-81.0; CV=1.32) in the 65 age group, followed by 35-64 age group 46.9% (95% CI=44.8-41.0; CV=2.3), and lowest rate (13.8%; 95%CI=11.1-16.6; CV=10.2) in the 18-34 age group. Regional distribution of high blood pressure was as follows: central Croatia 46.4% (95%CI=42.9-49.9; CV= 3.8), south 45.3% (95%CI= 40.9-49.7; CV=. 5.0), City of Zagreb 44.7% (95%CI= 40.9-48.5; CV= 4.3), east 44.2% (95%CI=40.5-47.8; CV=4.2), north 43.0% (95%CI=40.9-49.7; CV= 5.0), and west 40.5% (95%CI= 36.0-45.0; CV= 5.7). In the female group aged 35-64, regional distribution was as follows: east 52.3% (95%CI=46.0-58.7; CV=6.2), central Croatia 45.4% (95%CI=40.3-50.5; CV=5.7), City of Zagreb 43.5 (95%CI=38.1-48.9; CV=6.4), south 40.7% (95%CI=37.4-44, 0; CV=4.1), north 39.3% (95% CI=33.7-44.8; CV=7.2), and west 35.1% (95%CI=26.1-44.2; CV= 13.1). Differences

  4. The Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short Version in a general population sample of emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Colins, Olivier F; Andershed, Henrik

    2016-05-01

    Prior studies with children and adolescents have shown that Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short Version (YPI-S) scores are internally consistent and manifest expected relations with external variables of interest. In the present study, the factor structure and the internal consistency of YPI-S scores, and the convergent validity of the interpretation of YPI-S scores were tested in a sample of 2,500 emerging adults from the general population in Sweden (aged 20-24 years; 52.6% women). Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses support a 3-factor structure among both men and women that is similar to prior YPI-S studies conducted with children and adolescents. The YPI-S total score and the 3 factor scores were internally consistent. Correlations with external variables, including aggression and delinquency, support the convergent validity of the interpretation of YPI-S scores. Finally, the strength of these zero-order and partial correlations, overall, was not significantly different across gender. In conclusion, this study provides initial evidence that the YPI-S may hold promise as a brief and time-effective self-report tool for assessing psychopathic traits in emerging adults. The present findings also suggest that the YPI-S performs in a consistent manner across gender. Recommendations for future research with the YPI-S are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26302107

  5. Annual survival rates of adult and immature eastern population tundra swans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Bart, J.; Limpert, R.J.; Sladen, William J. L.; Hines, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus ) of the eastern population were neckbanded in Maryland, North Carolina, and Alaska from 1966 through 1990. These swans were resighted and recaptured during autumn, winter, and spring, 1966-1990. Although the original motivation for this study involved swan movements, we wanted to use the resulting data to test hypotheses about sources of variation in swan survival rates. Recaptures of legbanded and neckbanded swans permitted us to estimate neckband loss rates, which were found to vary with age and sex of swans, and number of years since initial application. Estimates of annual neckband retention rate ranged from about 0.50 for adult male swans greater than or equal to 2 years after initial neckbanding to > 0.96 for immature swans and adult females the first year following neckbanding. This variation in neckband loss rates prevented the simple correction of survival estimates to account for such loss. Consequently, we developed a series of multinomial models parameterized with survival, sighting, and neckband retention probabilities for use with the recapture and resighting data.

  6. The Temporal Spectrum of Adult Mosquito Population Fluctuations: Conceptual and Modeling Implications

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Yun; Silvestri, Sonia; Brown, Jeff; Hickman, Rick; Marani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    An improved understanding of mosquito population dynamics under natural environmental forcing requires adequate field observations spanning the full range of temporal scales over which mosquito abundance fluctuates in natural conditions. Here we analyze a 9-year daily time series of uninterrupted observations of adult mosquito abundance for multiple mosquito species in North Carolina to identify characteristic scales of temporal variability, the processes generating them, and the representativeness of observations at different sampling resolutions. We focus in particular on Aedes vexans and Culiseta melanura and, using a combination of spectral analysis and modeling, we find significant population fluctuations with characteristic periodicity between 2 days and several years. Population dynamical modelling suggests that the observed fast fluctuations scales (2 days-weeks) are importantly affected by a varying mosquito activity in response to rapid changes in meteorological conditions, a process neglected in most representations of mosquito population dynamics. We further suggest that the range of time scales over which adult mosquito population variability takes place can be divided into three main parts. At small time scales (indicatively 2 days-1 month) observed population fluctuations are mainly driven by behavioral responses to rapid changes in weather conditions. At intermediate scales (1 to several month) environmentally-forced fluctuations in generation times, mortality rates, and density dependence determine the population characteristic response times. At longer scales (annual to multi-annual) mosquito populations follow seasonal and inter-annual environmental changes. We conclude that observations of adult mosquito populations should be based on a sub-weekly sampling frequency and that predictive models of mosquito abundance must include behavioral dynamics to separate the effects of a varying mosquito activity from actual changes in the abundance of the

  7. Gait speed correlates in a multiracial population of community-dwelling older adults living in Brazil: a cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gait speed is a strong predictor of a wide range of adverse health outcomes in older adults. Mean values for gait speed in community-dwelling older adults vary substantially depending on population characteristics, suggesting that social, biological, or health factors might explain why certain groups tend to self-select their gait speed in different patterns. The vast majority of studies reported in the literature present data from North American and European populations. There are few population-based studies from other regions with a different ethnicity and/or social and health conditions. To address this, the present study identified the mean usual and fast gait speeds in a representative multiracial population of community-dwelling older adults living in a developing country, and explored their association with sociodemographic, mental and physical health characteristics. Methods This was a cross-sectional population-based study of a sample of 137 men and 248 women, aged 65 years and over. Usual gait speed and fast gait speed were measured on a 4.6 m path. Participants were classified into slow, intermediate, and faster groups by cluster analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the independent effect of each factor on the odds of presenting with a slower usual and slower fast gait speeds. Results Participants had a mean (SD) usual gait speed of 1.11 (0.27) m/s and a mean fast gait speed of 1.39 (0.34) m/s. We did not observe an independent association between gait speed and race/ethnicity, educational level, or income. The main contributors to present a slower usual gait speed were low physical activity level, stroke, diabetes, urinary incontinence, high concern about falling, and old age. A slower fast gait speed was associated with old age, low physical activity, urinary incontinence and high concern about falling. Conclusion A multiracial population of older adults living in a developing country showed a similar mean gait speed

  8. The risk of pancreatitis with sitagliptin therapy in older adults: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Eric; Fleet, Jamie L.; Hramiak, Irene; Garg, Amit X.

    2015-01-01

    Background The risk of pancreatitis with sitagliptin use in routine care remains to be established in older patients. We aimed to determine this risk in older adults who were newly prescribed sitagliptin versus an alternative hypoglycemic agent in the outpatient setting. Methods In a population-based retrospective cohort study in Ontario from 2010 until 2012 involving adults aged 66 years and older, we studied those who were newly prescribed sitagliptin or an alternative hypoglycemic agent. Our primary outcome of interest was a hospital encounter (emergency department visit or hospital admission) with acute pancreatitis within 90 days. We used inverse probability of treatment weighting to balance the 2 groups and logistic regression with a robust variance estimate to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results A total of 57 689 patients (mean age 74 yr) were newly prescribed sitagliptin, and 83 405 patients (mean age 75 yr) were given an alternative hypoglycemic agent (metformin, glyburide, gliclazide or insulin) during the study period. After weighting, there were no significant differences in measured baseline characteristics between groups. In the weighted sample, sitagliptin was not associated with an increased risk of a hospital encounter with pancreatitis compared with alternative hypoglycemic agents (weighted total 46 of 57 689 patients taking sitagliptin [0.08%] v. 48 of 55 705 patients taking alternative hypoglycemic agents [0.09%], absolute risk difference –0.01% [95% CI –0.05% to 0.02%], OR 0.92 [95% CI 0.55 to 1.55]). Interpretation Older adults newly prescribed sitagliptin in routine care were not at a substantially higher risk of pancreatitis than those prescribed alternative hypoglycemic agents. These findings are reassuring for those who use or prescribe sitagliptin in the management of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26389095

  9. Recognising falls risk in older adult mental health patients and acknowledging the difference from the general older adult population.

    PubMed

    Wynaden, Dianne; Tohotoa, Jenny; Heslop, Karen; Al Omari, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Older adults admitted to inpatient mental health units present with complex mental health care needs which are often compounded by the challenges of living with physical co-morbidities. They are a mobile population and a high risk group for falling during hospitalisation. To address quality and safety concerns around the increased risk for falls, a qualitative research study was completed to obtain an improved understanding of the factors that increase the risk of falling in this patient cohort. Focus groups were conducted with mental health professionals working across older adult mental health services in metropolitan Western Australia. Data were analysed using content analysis and three themes emerged that were significant concepts relevant to falls risk in this patient group. These themes were (1) limitations of using generic falls risk assessment and management tools, (2) assessment of falls risk not currently captured on standardised tools, and (3) population specific causes of falls. The findings demonstrate that older adult mental health patients are a highly mobile group that experience frequent changes in cognition, behaviour and mental state. The mix of patients with organic or functional psychiatric disorders within the same environment also presents complex and unique care challenges and multi-disciplinary collaboration is central to reduce the risk of falls. As this group of patients are also frequently admitted to both general inpatient and aged care settings, the findings are relevant to the assessment and management of falls risk across all health care settings. PMID:27188045

  10. Smoking and mental illness: results from population surveys in Australia and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    Background Smoking has been associated with a range of mental disorders including schizophrenia, anxiety disorders and depression. People with mental illness have high rates of morbidity and mortality from smoking related illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, respiratory diseases and cancer. As many people who meet diagnostic criteria for mental disorders do not seek treatment for these conditions, we sought to investigate the relationship between mental illness and smoking in recent population-wide surveys. Methods Survey data from the US National Comorbidity Survey-Replication conducted in 2001–2003, the 2007 Australian Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing, and the 2007 US National Health Interview Survey were used to investigate the relationship between current smoking, ICD-10 mental disorders and non-specific psychological distress. Population weighted estimates of smoking rates by disorder, and mental disorder rates by smoking status were calculated. Results In both the US and Australia, adults who met ICD-10 criteria for mental disorders in the 12 months prior to the survey smoked at almost twice the rate of adults without mental disorders. While approximately 20% of the adult population had 12-month mental disorders, among adult smokers approximately one-third had a 12-month mental disorder – 31.7% in the US (95% CI: 29.5%–33.8%) and 32.4% in Australia (95% CI: 29.5%–35.3%). Female smokers had higher rates of mental disorders than male smokers, and younger smokers had considerably higher rates than older smokers. The majority of mentally ill smokers were not in contact with mental health services, but their rate of smoking was not different from that of mentally ill smokers who had accessed services for their mental health problem. Smokers with high levels of psychological distress smoked a higher average number of cigarettes per day. Conclusion Mental illness is associated with both higher rates of smoking and higher levels of smoking among

  11. A population-based profile of adult Canadians living with participation and activity limitations

    PubMed Central

    Goodridge, Donna; Lawson, Josh; Marciniuk, Darcy; Rennie, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Background: Currently, one out of every seven Canadians is affected by limitations to their participation and activity. This study describes the self-reported main causes of these limitations in a national sample. Methods: The 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey was a two-phase stratified survey based on filter questions posed in the 2006 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada. Respondents to the survey represent 5 185 980 Canadian adults with activity and participation limitations. We used these data to develop a profile of our population of interest: adult Canadians with activity and participation limitations. Associations between demographic variables and self-reported causes of activity and participation limitations were assessed using multiple logistic regression. Results: One quarter of participants did not attribute their disability to any medical cause. The most prevalent medical conditions to which disabilities were attributed were musculoskeletal (46.1%), cardio/cerebrovascular (12.3%), mental health (8.4%), neurologic (6.0%), endocrine (6.0%) and respiratory (4.5%) conditions. Significant associations were noted between sociodemographic variables and participants’ attributions of medical conditions as cause of disability. Multiple logistic regression with bootstrapping showed that people who reported a medical cause for their limitation were more likely (p < 0.05) to be female, widowed, 40 years of age or older, born in Canada or white and were less likely (p < 0.05) to be in the highest income category or to be employed (i.e., to work more than 0 h/w). Interpretation: Most people living with activity and participation limitations report having a musculoskeletal disorder. However, a significant proportion of respondants did not attribute their limitations to a medical cause. PMID:21825051

  12. A Distinct Population of Microglia Supports Adult Neurogenesis in the Subventricular Zone

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro Xavier, Anna L.; Kress, Benjamin T.; Goldman, Steven A.; Lacerda de Menezes, João R.

    2015-01-01

    Microglia are involved in synaptic pruning both in development and in the mature CNS. In this study, we investigated whether microglia might further contribute to circuit plasticity by modulating neuronal recruitment from the neurogenic subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult mouse striatum. We found that microglia residing in the SVZ and adjacent rostral migratory stream (RMS) comprise a morphologically and antigenically distinct phenotype of immune effectors. Whereas exhibiting characteristics of alternatively activated microglia, the SVZ/RMS microglia were clearly distinguished by their low expression of purinoceptors and lack of ATP-elicitable chemotaxis. Furthermore, the in vivo depletion of these microglia hampered the survival and migration of newly generated neuroblasts through the RMS to the olfactory bulb. SVZ and RMS microglia thus appear to comprise a functionally distinct class that is selectively adapted to the support and direction of neuronal integration into the olfactory circuitry. Therefore, this unique microglial subpopulation may serve as a novel target with which to modulate cellular addition from endogenous neural stem and progenitor cells of the adult brain. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Microglial cells are a specialized population of macrophages in the CNS, playing key roles as immune mediators. As integral components in the CNS, the microglia stand out for using the same mechanisms, phagocytosis and cytochemokine release, to promote homeostasis, synaptic pruning, and neural circuitry sculpture. Here, we addressed microglial functions in the subventricular zone (SVZ), the major postnatal neurogenic niche. Our results depict microglia as a conspicuous component of SVZ and its anterior extension, the rostral migratory stream, a pathway used by neuroblasts during their transit toward olfactory bulb layers. In addition to other unique populations residing in the SVZ niche, microglia display distinct morphofunctional properties that boost neuronal

  13. Knowledge of Results after Good Trials Enhances Learning in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; Wally, Raquel; Borges, Thiago

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, some researchers have examined motor learning in older adults. Some of these studies have specifically looked at the effectiveness of different manipulations of extrinsic feedback, or knowledge of results (KR). Given that many motor tasks may already be more challenging for older adults compared to younger adults, making KR more…

  14. Prevalence of apical periodontitis and endodontic treatment in a Kosovar adult population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite numerous studies on the prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP) and endodontic treatment in diverse geographical populations, there are currently no data on the prevalence of these conditions in populations of adults native to Kosovo. Therefore, little is known about how widespread these conditions are, and whether there is any correlation between root canal treatment and AP. The purpose of our research was to address this anomaly by investigating AP and endodontic treatment in an adult Kosovar population based on radiographic examination. Methods The sample used for this study consisted of randomly selected individuals referred to the University Dentistry Clinical Center of Kosovo in the years 2006-2007. Orthopantomographs of 193 patients were evaluated. The periapical status of all teeth (with the exception of third molars) was examined according to Ørstavik's Periapical Index. The quality of the root canal filling was rated as 'adequate' or 'inadequate' based on whether all canals were filled, the depth of fill relative to the radiographic apex and the quality of compaction (absence/presence of voids). Data were analyzed statistically using the Chi-square test and calculation of odds ratios. Results Out of 4131 examined teeth, the prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP) and endodontic treatment was 12.3% and 2.3%, respectively. Of 95 endodontically-treated teeth, 46.3% were associated with AP. The prevalence of AP increased with age. The prevalence in subjects aged over 60 years old (20.2%) was higher than in other age groups. A statistically significant difference was found for the frequency of endodontically-treated teeth associated with AP in the 40-49 year age group (P < 0.001). Of some concern was the discovery that only 30.5% of the endodontically-treated teeth examined met the criteria of an acceptable root canal filling. Inadequately root-filled teeth were associated with an increased AP risk. Conclusions The prevalence of AP and the

  15. Results from a sixteen year study on the effects of oiling from the Exxon Valdez on adult pink salmon returns.

    PubMed

    Brannon, Ernest L; Maki, Alan W; Moulton, Lawrence L; Parker, Keith R

    2006-08-01

    For sixteen years following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill adult returns of pink salmon in Prince William Sound, Alaska were monitored to assess spill effects on survival. No evidence of spill effects was detected for either intertidal or whole-stream spawning fish. From 1989 through 2004 mean densities for oiled and reference streams tracked each other, illustrating similar responses of oiled and reference stream adult populations to naturally changing oceanographic and climactic conditions. Hatchery fish strayed into the study streams, but similar incursions occurred in oiled and reference streams, and their presence was compensated for to eliminate their influence on determining the success of the returning natural populations. These results, showing no detectable effects of oiling on pink salmon spawning populations, are supported by published field studies on pink salmon incubation success in oiled streams. PMID:16487548

  16. Depression in Multiple Sclerosis: A Review of Assessment and Treatment Approaches in Adult and Pediatric Populations

    PubMed Central

    Skokou, Maria; Soubasi, Evanthia; Gourzis, Philippos

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinating disease affecting one million people worldwide, with a significant burden of psychiatric comorbidity. Depression is the commonest psychiatric manifestation but still remains largely underdiagnosed and undertreated. The present work reviews current knowledge on diagnosis, assessment, and somatic and psychotherapeutic treatment interventions for depression in adult and pediatric populations of patients with multiple sclerosis. PMID:23097716

  17. Further Validation of a U.S. Adult Social Self-Efficacy Inventory in Chinese Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Jinyan; Meng, Hui; Zhao, Bihua; Patel, Trishna

    2012-01-01

    The authors report further validity evidence for the Chinese version of a U.S. adult social self-efficacy inventory, the "Perceived Social Self-Efficacy" (PSSE) scale in Chinese populations. Study 1 participants were 323 new graduate students enrolled at a large university in an east coast city of the People's Republic of China. Differential item…

  18. HIV/AIDS Misconceptions among Latinos: Findings from a Population-Based Survey of California Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritieni, Assunta; Moskowitz, Joel; Tholandi, Maya

    2008-01-01

    Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS among Latino adults (N=454) in California were examined using data from a population-based telephone survey conducted in 2000. Common misconceptions concerning modes of HIV transmission included transmission via mosquito or animal bite (64.1%), public facilities (48.3%), or kissing someone on the cheek (24.8%). A…

  19. The Contributions of Phonological and Morphological Awareness to Literacy Skills in the Adult Basic Education Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fracasso, Lucille E.; Bangs, Kathryn; Binder, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    The Adult Basic Education (ABE) population consists of a wide range of abilities with needs that may be unique to this set of learners. The purpose of this study was to better understand the relative contributions of phonological decoding and morphological awareness to spelling, vocabulary, and comprehension across a sample of ABE students. In…

  20. Participation in Adult Education: Current Population Survey, May 1984 [machine-readable data file].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Washington, DC. Data User Services Div.

    The "Participation in Adult Education" machine-readable data file (MRDF) is prepared triennially for the Center for Education Statistics (CES) by the Bureau of the Census, as a supplement to its regular "Current Population Survey" (sponsored by the Bureau of Labor Statistics). Previous specialized surveys in this series have been conducted in…

  1. A Meta-Analysis of Dunn and Dunn Model Correlational Research with Adult Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangino, Christine

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to conduct a quantitative synthesis of correlational research that focused on the Dunn and Dunn Learning-Style Model and was concerned with adult populations. A total of 8,661 participants from the 47 original investigations provided 386 individual effect sizes for this meta-analysis. The mean effect size was…

  2. "Subtypes" in the Presentation of Autistic Traits in the General Adult Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Colin J.; Paton, Bryan; Enticott, Peter G.; Hohwy, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the presentation of autistic traits in a large adult population sample (n = 2,343). Cluster analysis indicated two subgroups with clearly distinguishable trait profiles. One group (n = 1,059) reported greater social difficulties and lower detail orientation, while the second group (n = 1,284) reported lesser social…

  3. Populations at Increased Risk for HIV Infection in Kenya: Results From a National Population-Based Household Survey, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Githuka, George; Hladik, Wolfgang; Mwalili, Samuel; Cherutich, Peter; Muthui, Mercy; Gitonga, Joshua; Maina, William K.; Kim, Andrea A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Populations with higher risks for HIV exposure contribute to the HIV epidemic in Kenya. We present data from the second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey to estimate the size and HIV prevalence of populations with high-risk characteristics. Methods The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012 was a national survey of Kenyans aged 18 months to 64 years which linked demographic and behavioral information with HIV results. Data were weighted to account for sampling probability. This analysis was restricted to adults aged 18 years and older. Results Of 5088 men and 6745 women, 0.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03 to 0.14] were persons who inject drugs (PWID). Among men, 0.6% (CI: 0.3 to 0.8) had ever had sex with other men, and 3.1% (CI: 2.4 to 3.7) were males who had ever engaged in transactional sex work (MTSW). Among women, 1.9% (CI: 1.3 to 2.5) had ever had anal sex, and 4.1% (CI: 3.5 to 4.8) were women who had ever engaged in transactional sex work (FTSW). Among men, 17.6% (CI: 15.7 to 19.6) had been male clients of transactional sex workers (TSW). HIV prevalence was 0% among men who have sex with men, 6.3% (CI: 0 to 18.1) among persons who injected drugs, 7.1% (CI: 4.8 to 9.4) among male clients of TSW, 7.6% (CI: 1.8 to 13.4) among MTSW, 12.1% (CI: 7.1 to 17.1) among FTSW, and 12.1% (CI: 5.0 to 19.2) among females who ever had engaged in anal sex. Conclusions Population-based data on high-risk populations can be used to set realistic targets for HIV prevention, care, and treatment for these groups. These data should inform priorities for high-risk populations in the upcoming Kenyan strategic plan on HIV/AIDS. PMID:24732821

  4. Homeopathy Use by US Adults: Results of a National Survey.

    PubMed

    Dossett, Michelle L; Davis, Roger B; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Yeh, Gloria Y

    2016-04-01

    We used the 2012 National Health Interview Survey to compare homeopathy users with supplement users and those using other forms of complementary and integrative medicine. Among US adults, 2.1% used homeopathy within the past 12 months. Respiratory and otorhinolaryngology complaints were most commonly treated (18.5%). Homeopathy users were more likely to use multiple complementary and integrative medicine therapies and to perceive the therapy as helpful than were supplement users. US homeopathy use remains uncommon; however, users perceive it as helpful. PMID:26890179

  5. Age-Related Effects of Alcohol from Adolescent, Adult, and Aged Populations Using Human and Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Squeglia, Lindsay M.; Boissoneault, Jeff; Van Skike, Candice E.; Nixon, Sara Jo; Matthews, Douglas B.

    2014-01-01

    Background This review incorporates current research examining alcohol's differential effects on adolescents, adults, and aged populations in both animal and clinical models. Methods The studies presented range from cognitive, behavioral, molecular, and neuroimaging techniques, leading to a more comprehensive understanding of how acute and chronic alcohol use affects the brain throughout the life span. Results Age of life is a significant factor in determining the effect of alcohol on brain functioning. Adolescents and aged populations may be more negatively affected by heavy alcohol use when compared to adults. Conclusions Investigations limiting alcohol effects to a single age group constrains understanding of differential trajectories and outcomes following acute and chronic use. To meaningfully address the sequencing and interaction effects of alcohol and age, the field must incorporate collaborative and integrated research efforts focused on interdisciplinary questions facilitated by engaging basic and applied scientists with expertise in a range of disciplines including alcohol, neurodevelopment, and aging. PMID:25156779

  6. Quantifying the distribution of inhalation exposure in human populations: distribution of minute volumes in adults and children.

    PubMed Central

    Beals, J A; Funk, L M; Fountain, R; Sedman, R

    1996-01-01

    Assessments of inhalation exposure to environmental agents necessitate quantitative estimates of pulmonary ventilation rates. Estimating a range of exposures in a given population requires an understanding of the variability of ventilation rates in the population. Distributions of ventilation rates (Ve) were described based on the results of a large study where Ve were measured while subjects performed a variety of physical tasks. Three distinct ventilation levels were identified using cluster analyses of the mean Ve and then various activities were assigned to the three levels using a k-means procedure. Separate distributions were identified for the three Ve levels for adult males, adult females, and children. The variability of Ve was consistent with a lognormal distribution for all groups. An aggregate daily inhalation rate can be estimated based on the distributions of Ve. Images Figure 1. Figure 1. Figure 1. PMID:8899377

  7. Spain: Promoting the Welfare of Older Adults in the Context of Population Aging

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Juan P.; Latorre, José M.; Gatz, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Spain is one of the European countries with the most significant societal changes in the 21st century contributing to an aging population, in particular, high life expectancy coupled with low fertility, which will result in a doubling of the old-age dependency ratio. Demographic aging implies important challenges that affect the lives of people, families, the economy, public finances, and the reorganization of the health and social systems. Currently, the older population has become particularly vulnerable due to the economic crisis taking place in Spain, which has brought about the need for new policies and systems to protect older persons. The pension system is under the greatest threat in conjunction with possible changes in the national health care system. This report presents a general view of the main factors that surround and affect older adults in Spain, as well as policies developed by the government in response to the current and future situation. We highlight demographic predictions for the coming decades, quality-of-life indicators, situations of dependency, active aging policies, and the main research programs related to gerontology in Spain. PMID:24632624

  8. Case aggregation in young adult Hodgkin's disease. Etiologic evidence from a population experience.

    PubMed

    Davis, S

    1986-04-15

    There is evidence to suggest that young adult Hodgkin's Disease (HD) may be initiated by an infectious process and that age at exposure to the etiologic infection is an important modifier of risk. There is little evidence, however, to suggest that HD is transmissible through interpersonal contact. To evaluate this hypothesis, a population-based case-control study was conducted with 103 HD cases diagnosed between January 1, 1974 and June 30, 1979 in King County, Washington. Its purpose was to determine whether cases aggregate before clinical disease through interpersonal contact in either school or employment settings to a greater degree than would be expected in the general population. One control was randomly selected for each case of the same sex, approximate age, and general socioeconomic level. Results showed no indication of case aggregation in employment settings (observed/expected = 0.77; P = 0.77). Case contact was greater than would be expected in schools (observed/expected = 1.2; P = 0.07), particularly in grade schools (observed/expected = 1.94; P = 0.009). This finding is consistent with the possibility that HD is dependent on age at exposure, has an infectious origin, and can be transmitted horizontally in select circumstances. Additional research possibilities are recommended as suggested by these data. PMID:3948131

  9. Clustering of health behaviours in adult survivors of childhood cancer and the general population

    PubMed Central

    Rebholz, C E; Rueegg, C S; Michel, G; Ammann, R A; von der Weid, N X; Kuehni, C E; Spycher, B D

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little is known about engagement in multiple health behaviours in childhood cancer survivors. Methods: Using latent class analysis, we identified health behaviour patterns in 835 adult survivors of childhood cancer (age 20–35 years) and 1670 age- and sex-matched controls from the general population. Behaviour groups were determined from replies to questions on smoking, drinking, cannabis use, sporting activities, diet, sun protection and skin examination. Results: The model identified four health behaviour patterns: ‘risk-avoidance', with a generally healthy behaviour; ‘moderate drinking', with higher levels of sporting activities, but moderate alcohol-consumption; ‘risk-taking', engaging in several risk behaviours; and ‘smoking', smoking but not drinking. Similar proportions of survivors and controls fell into the ‘risk-avoiding' (42% vs 44%) and the ‘risk-taking' cluster (14% vs 12%), but more survivors were in the ‘moderate drinking' (39% vs 28%) and fewer in the ‘smoking' cluster (5% vs 16%). Determinants of health behaviour clusters were gender, migration background, income and therapy. Conclusion: A comparable proportion of childhood cancer survivors as in the general population engage in multiple health-compromising behaviours. Because of increased vulnerability of survivors, multiple risk behaviours should be addressed in targeted health interventions. PMID:22722311

  10. Perceived weight discrimination in England: a population-based study of adults aged ⩾50 years

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, S E; Steptoe, A; Beeken, R J; Croker, H; Wardle, J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite a wealth of experimental studies on weight bias, little is known about weight discrimination at the population level. This study examined the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of perceived weight discrimination in a large population-based sample of older adults. Methods: Data were from 5307 adults in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing; a population-based cohort of men and women aged ⩾50 years. Weight discrimination was reported for five domains (less respect/courtesy; treated as less clever; poorer treatment in medical settings; poorer service in restaurants/stores; threatened/harassed) at wave 5 (2010–2011). Height and weight were measured at wave 4 (2008–2009). We used logistic regression to test the odds of weight discrimination in relation to weight status, age, sex, wealth, education and marital status. Results: Perceived weight discrimination in any domain was reported by 4.6% of participants, ranging from 0.8% in the normal-weight participants through 0.9, 6.7, 24.2 and 35.1% in individuals who were overweight or met criteria for class I, II and III obesity. Overall, and in each situation, odds of perceived weight discrimination were higher in younger and less wealthy individuals. There was no interaction between weight status and any socio-demographic variable. Relative to normal-weight participants, odds ratios for any perceived weight discrimination were 1.13 (95% confidence interval 0.53–2.40) in those who were overweight, 8.86 (4.65–16.88) in those with class I obesity, 35.06 (18.30–67.16) in class II obese and 56.43 (27.72–114.87) in class III obese. Conclusions: Our results indicate that rates of perceived weight discrimination are comparatively low in individuals who are overweight or have class I obesity, but for those with class II/III obesity, >10% had experienced discrimination in each domain, and >20% had been treated with less respect or courtesy. These findings have implications for public

  11. Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter (PM) on healthy, young-adult population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaughnessy, William J.; Venigalla, Mohan M.; Trump, David

    2015-12-01

    There is an absence of studies that define the relationship between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and adverse health outcomes among the young and healthy adult sub-group. In this research, the relationship between exposures to ambient levels of PM in the 10 micron (PM10) and 2.5 micron (PM2.5) size fractions and health outcomes in members of the healthy, young-adult subgroup who are 18-39 years of age was examined. Active duty military personnel populations at three strategically selected military bases in the United States were used as a surrogate to the control group. Health outcome data, which consists of the number of diagnoses for each of nine International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) categories related to respiratory illness, were derived from outpatient visits at each of the three military bases. Data on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, were obtained for these sites. The health outcome data were correlated and regressed with the PM10 and PM2.5 data, and other air quality and weather-related data on a daily and weekly basis for the period 1998 to 2004. Results indicate that at Fort Bliss, which is a US Environmental Protection Agency designated non-attainment area for PM10, a statistically significant association exists between the weekly-averaged number of adverse health effects in the young and healthy adult population and the corresponding weekly-average ambient PM10 concentration. A least squares regression analysis was performed on the Fort Bliss data sets indicated that the health outcome data is related to several environmental parameters in addition to PM10. Overall, the analysis estimates a .6% increase in the weekly rate of emergency room visits for upper respiratory infections for every 10 μg/m3 increase in the weekly-averaged PM10 concentration above the mean. The findings support the development of policy and guidance opportunities that can be developed to mitigate

  12. Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter (PM) on healthy, young-adult population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaughnessy, William J.; Venigalla, Mohan M.; Trump, David

    2015-12-01

    There is an absence of studies that define the relationship between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and adverse health outcomes among the young and healthy adult sub-group. In this research, the relationship between exposures to ambient levels of PM in the 10 micron (PM10) and 2.5 micron (PM2.5) size fractions and health outcomes in members of the healthy, young-adult subgroup who are 18-39 years of age was examined. Active duty military personnel populations at three strategically selected military bases in the United States were used as a surrogate to the control group. Health outcome data, which consists of the number of diagnoses for each of nine International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) categories related to respiratory illness, were derived from outpatient visits at each of the three military bases. Data on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, were obtained for these sites. The health outcome data were correlated and regressed with the PM10 and PM2.5 data, and other air quality and weather-related data on a daily and weekly basis for the period 1998 to 2004. Results indicate that at Fort Bliss, which is a US Environmental Protection Agency designated non-attainment area for PM10, a statistically significant association exists between the weekly-averaged number of adverse health effects in the young and healthy adult population and the corresponding weekly-average ambient PM10 concentration. A least squares regression analysis was performed on the Fort Bliss data sets indicated that the health outcome data is related to several environmental parameters in addition to PM10. Overall, the analysis estimates a .6% increase in the weekly rate of emergency room visits for upper respiratory infections for every 10 μg/m3 increase in the weekly-averaged PM10 concentration above the mean. The findings support the development of policy and guidance opportunities that can be developed to mitigate exposures

  13. Smoking and Hand Dermatitis in the United States Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yi Chun

    2016-01-01

    Background Hand dermatitis is a common chronic relapsing skin disease resulting from a variety of causes, including endogenous predisposition and environmental exposures to irritants and allergens. Lifestyle factors such as smoking have been implicated in hand dermatitis. Objective To evaluate the association between tobacco exposure and hand dermatitis using the 2003~2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database. Methods Data were retrieved and analyzed from 1,301 participants, aged 20~59 years, from the 2003~2004 NHANES questionnaire study who completed health examination and blood tests. Diagnosis of hand dermatitis was based on standardized photographs of the dorsal and palmar views of the hands read by two dermatologists. Results There were 38 diagnosed cases of active hand dermatitis out of the 1,301 study participants (2.9%). Heavy smokers (>15 g tobacco daily) were 5.11 times more likely to have active hand dermatitis (odds ratio [OR], 5.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39~18.88; p=0.014). Those with serum cotinine >3 ng/ml were also more likely to have active hand dermatitis, compared with those with serum cotinine ≤3 ng/ml (OR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.26~4.95; p=0.007). After adjusting for confounding factors such as age, atopic diathesis, occupational groups, and physical activity, the association between tobacco exposure and active hand dermatitis remained significant. Conclusion Smoking has a significant association with the presence of active hand dermatitis. It is important to consider smoking cessation as part of management of hand dermatitis. PMID:27081262

  14. Population of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research and optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Segars, W. P.; Bond, Jason; Frush, Jack; Hon, Sylvia; Eckersley, Chris; Samei, E.; Williams, Cameron H.; Frush, D.; Feng Jianqiao; Tward, Daniel J.; Ratnanather, J. T.; Miller, M. I.

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: The authors previously developed the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom for multimodality imaging research. The XCAT consisted of highly detailed whole-body models for the standard male and female adult, including the cardiac and respiratory motions. In this work, the authors extend the XCAT beyond these reference anatomies by developing a series of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research, the first library of 4D computational phantoms. Methods: The initial anatomy of each phantom was based on chest-abdomen-pelvis computed tomography data from normal patients obtained from the Duke University database. The major organs and structures for each phantom were segmented from the corresponding data and defined using nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces. To complete the body, the authors manually added on the head, arms, and legs using the original XCAT adult male and female anatomies. The structures were scaled to best match the age and anatomy of the patient. A multichannel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm was then used to calculate the transform from the template XCAT phantom (male or female) to the target patient model. The transform was applied to the template XCAT to fill in any unsegmented structures within the target phantom and to implement the 4D cardiac and respiratory models in the new anatomy. Each new phantom was refined by checking for anatomical accuracy via inspection of the models. Results: Using these methods, the authors created a series of computerized phantoms with thousands of anatomical structures and modeling cardiac and respiratory motions. The database consists of 58 (35 male and 23 female) anatomically variable phantoms in total. Like the original XCAT, these phantoms can be combined with existing simulation packages to simulate realistic imaging data. Each new phantom contains parameterized models for the anatomy and the cardiac and respiratory motions and can, therefore, serve

  15. Population of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research and optimization

    PubMed Central

    Segars, W. P.; Bond, Jason; Frush, Jack; Hon, Sylvia; Eckersley, Chris; Williams, Cameron H.; Feng, Jianqiao; Tward, Daniel J.; Ratnanather, J. T.; Miller, M. I.; Frush, D.; Samei, E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors previously developed the 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom for multimodality imaging research. The XCAT consisted of highly detailed whole-body models for the standard male and female adult, including the cardiac and respiratory motions. In this work, the authors extend the XCAT beyond these reference anatomies by developing a series of anatomically variable 4D XCAT adult phantoms for imaging research, the first library of 4D computational phantoms. Methods: The initial anatomy of each phantom was based on chest–abdomen–pelvis computed tomography data from normal patients obtained from the Duke University database. The major organs and structures for each phantom were segmented from the corresponding data and defined using nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces. To complete the body, the authors manually added on the head, arms, and legs using the original XCAT adult male and female anatomies. The structures were scaled to best match the age and anatomy of the patient. A multichannel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm was then used to calculate the transform from the template XCAT phantom (male or female) to the target patient model. The transform was applied to the template XCAT to fill in any unsegmented structures within the target phantom and to implement the 4D cardiac and respiratory models in the new anatomy. Each new phantom was refined by checking for anatomical accuracy via inspection of the models. Results: Using these methods, the authors created a series of computerized phantoms with thousands of anatomical structures and modeling cardiac and respiratory motions. The database consists of 58 (35 male and 23 female) anatomically variable phantoms in total. Like the original XCAT, these phantoms can be combined with existing simulation packages to simulate realistic imaging data. Each new phantom contains parameterized models for the anatomy and the cardiac and respiratory motions and can, therefore

  16. Only a small population of adult Sertoli cells actively proliferates in culture.

    PubMed

    Kulibin, Andrey Yu; Malolina, Ekaterina A

    2016-10-01

    Adult mammalian Sertoli cells (SCs) have been considered to be quiescent terminal differentiated cells for many years, but recently, proliferation of adult SCs was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo We further examined mouse SC behavior in culture and found that there are two populations of adult SCs. The first population is SCs from seminiferous tubules that hardly proliferate in vitro The second population is small and consists of SCs with atypical nuclear morphology from the terminal segments of seminiferous tubules, a transitional zone (TZ). TZ SCs multiply in culture and form colonies, display mixture of mature and immature SC characteristics, and generate cord-like structures in a collagen matrix. The specific features of TZ SCs are ACTA2 expression in vitro and DMRT1 low levels in vivo and in vitro Although the in vivo function of TZ SCs still remains unclear, this finding has significant implications for our understanding of SC differentiation and functioning in adult mammals. PMID:27512121

  17. Prevalence and determinants of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Greek adult population.

    PubMed

    Tsirona, Sofia; Katsaros, Fotis; Bargiota, Alexandra; Polyzos, Stergios A; Arapoglou, George; Koukoulis, George N

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasing worldwide reaching epidemic proportions. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of DM in Thessaly, a large region of Central Greece, and to extrapolate our results to the population of the entire country. A random sample of 805 adults (421 females and 384 men) living in Thessaly, aged 18-80 years, was surveyed. After completing a questionnaire about health status and a thorough physical examination, a blood sample was obtained from each participant for biochemical analysis. Participants with fasting glucose levels between 100-125 mg/dl underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). A second survey was also conducted, via telephone call-interviews, in a randomly selected sample age- and sex-stratified to the country's adult population in order to extrapolate the DM data from Thessaly to the whole country. The frequency of DM based on patient history and fasting blood glucose levels was 6.96%, comparable to that observed in the telephone-based nationwide survey (7.38%, p=0.669). However, after the OGTT an additional 3.72% of the population had undiagnosed DM, increasing DM prevalence to 10.68% (age adjusted 11.77%). The prevalence of pre-diabetes was 8.70%, with impaired fasting glucose at 5.84% and impaired glucose tolerance at 2.86%. The prevalence of DM was significantly higher in men (14.58%) than in women (7.13%, p<0.001), increased with age in both sexes and was more prevalent in hypertensive (p<0.001) and obese subjects (p=0.001) and in those living in rural areas (p=0.003). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, significant predictors of pre-diabetes and DM together were age, homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), alcohol consumption and educational status, whereas those of DM alone were age, HOMA-IR and triglycerides. Extrapolating our data to the whole country, the age-adjusted prevalence of DM was estimated at 11.97% (men 13.98%, women 9

  18. Inspiratory Flow Limitation in a Normal Population of Adults in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Palombini, Luciana O.; Tufik, Sergio; Rapoport, David M.; Ayappa, Indu A.; Guilleminault, Christian; de Godoy, Luciana B. M.; Castro, Laura S.; Bittencourt, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Inspiratory flow limitation (IFL) during sleep occurs when airflow remains constant despite an increase in respiratory effort. This respiratory event has been recognized as an important parameter for identifying sleep breathing disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate how much IFL normal individuals can present during sleep. Design: Cross-sectional study derived from a general population sample. Setting: A “normal” asymptomatic sample derived from the epidemiological cohort of São Paulo. Patients and Participants: This study was derived from a general population study involving questionnaires and nocturnal polysomnography of 1,042 individuals. A subgroup defined as a nonsymptomatic healthy group was used as the normal group. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: All participants answered several questionnaires and underwent full nocturnal polysomnography. IFL was manually scored, and the percentage of IFL of total sleep time was considered for final analysis. The distribution of the percentage of IFL was analyzed, and associated factors (age, sex, and body mass index) were calculated. There were 95% of normal individuals who exhibited IFL during less than 30% of the total sleep time. Body mass index was positively associated with IFL. Conclusions: Inspiratory flow limitation can be observed in the polysomnography of normal individuals, with an influence of body weight on percentage of inspiratory flow limitation. However, only 5% of asymptomatic individuals will have more than 30% of total sleep time with inspiratory flow limitation. This suggests that only levels of inspiratory flow limitation > 30% be considered in the process of diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea in the absence of an apnea-hypopnea index > 5 and that < 30% of inspiratory flow limitation may be a normal finding in many patients. Citation: Palombini LO; Tufik S; Rapoport DM; Ayappa IA; Guilleminault C; de Godoy LBM; Castro LS; Bittencourt L

  19. Prevalence of malocclusion traits and orthodontic treatment in a Finnish adult population.

    PubMed

    Krooks, Laura; Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Kanavakis, Georgios; Lähdesmäki, Raija

    2016-07-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of malocclusion traits and the extent of orthodontic treatment in a Finnish adult population. Materials and methods The study population comprised subjects (n = 1964) from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 living in the city of Oulu and within 100 km of it. A clinical oral and dental examination with registration of occlusion was carried out in 2012 in connection with a 46-year follow-up survey. Data on previous orthodontic treatment were collected based on a questionnaire. Results In the clinical examination, 39.5% of the subjects had at least one malocclusion trait. The most common malocclusion traits were lateral crossbite (17.9%), overbite ≥ 6 mm (11.7%) and overjet ≥ 6 mm (9.7%). Crossbite on the left premolars, negative overjet and increased overbite were found more frequently in men. The prevalence of malocclusion traits was at the same level in treated and untreated groups. Overall, 18.6% of the subjects had undergone orthodontic treatment. Women showed a significantly higher prevalence of orthodontic treatment. Conclusions The most common malocclusion trait in the present study was lateral crossbite. Significant male dominance in the prevalence of malocclusion was observed, which has not been reported earlier in Finland. Orthodontic treatment of malocclusion traits was more common among females in Northern Finland. This study indicates that orthodontic treatment provided in childhood was, on average, adequate in reducing malocclusion traits to the level observed in the general population. PMID:26940248

  20. Evolution of disease phenotype in adult and pediatric onset Crohn’s disease in a population-based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lovasz, Barbara Dorottya; Lakatos, Laszlo; Horvath, Agnes; Szita, Istvan; Pandur, Tunde; Mandel, Michael; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Golovics, Petra Anna; Mester, Gabor; Balogh, Mihaly; Molnar, Csaba; Komaromi, Erzsebet; Kiss, Lajos Sandor; Lakatos, Peter Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the evolution of disease phenotype in adult and pediatric onset Crohn’s disease (CD) populations, diagnosed between 1977 and 2008. METHODS: Data of 506 incident CD patients were analyzed (age at diagnosis: 28.5 years, interquartile range: 22-38 years). Both in- and outpatient records were collected prospectively with a complete clinical follow-up and comprehensively reviewed in the population-based Veszprem province database, which included incident patients diagnosed between January 1, 1977 and December 31, 2008 in adult and pediatric onset CD populations. Disease phenotype according to the Montreal classification and long-term disease course was analysed according to the age at onset in time-dependent univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Among this population-based cohort, seventy-four (12.8%) pediatric-onset CD patients were identified (diagnosed ≤ 17 years of age). There was no significant difference in the distribution of disease behavior between pediatric (B1: 62%, B2: 15%, B3: 23%) and adult-onset CD patients (B1: 56%, B2: 21%, B3: 23%) at diagnosis, or during follow-up. Overall, the probability of developing complicated disease behaviour was 49.7% and 61.3% in the pediatric and 55.1% and 62.4% in the adult onset patients after 5- and 10-years of follow-up. Similarly, time to change in disease behaviour from non stricturing, non penetrating (B1) to complicated, stricturing or penetrating (B2/B3) disease was not significantly different between pediatric and adult onset CD in a Kaplan-Meier analysis. Calendar year of diagnosis (P = 0.04), ileal location (P < 0.001), perianal disease (P < 0.001), smoking (P = 0.038) and need for steroids (P < 0.001) were associated with presence of, or progression to, complicated disease behavior at diagnosis and during follow-up. A change in disease location was observed in 8.9% of patients and it was associated with smoking status (P = 0.01), but not with age at diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Long

  1. Concise Review: Different Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cell Populations Reside in the Adult Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Stefania; Chiabotto, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    During fetal life, mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) surround glomeruli and tubules and contribute to the development of the renal interstitium by secretion of growth factors that drive nephron differentiation. In the adult, an MSC-like population has been demonstrated in different compartments of human and murine nephrons. After injury, these cells might provide support for kidney regeneration by recapitulating the role they have in embryonic life. In this short review, we discuss the evidence of an MSC presence within the adult kidney and their potential contribution to the turnover of renal cells and injury repair. PMID:25355731

  2. School Performance and the Risk of Suicidal Thoughts in Young Adults: Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Kosidou, Kyriaki; Dalman, Christina; Fredlund, Peeter; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Although low school performance is related to attempted and completed suicide, its relationship with suicidal thoughts has been less clear. We conducted a population-based study including 10081 individuals aged 18–29 years in Stockholm, Sweden, and found a clear positive gradient in the risk of lifetime suicidal thoughts with decreasing levels of compulsory school leaving grades. This relationship was somewhat attenuated but remained significant in multivariate models accounting for family background, severe adult psychopathology and adult socioeconomic conditions. School failure is associated with an increased risk of experiencing suicidal thoughts and may also increase the tendency of acting upon them. PMID:25347404

  3. Ocular biometry in the adult population in rural central China: a population-based, cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ting; Song, Yin-Wei; Chen, Zhi-Qi; He, Jun-Wen; Qiao, Kun; Sun, Xu-Fang; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Jun-Ming

    2015-01-01

    AIM To describe the distribution and determinants of ocular biometric parameters and to ascertain the relative importance of these determinants in a large population of adults in rural central China. METHODS A population-based, cross-sectional study performed in rural central China included 1721 participants aged 40 or more years. Ocular biometrical parameters including axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), radius of corneal curvature (K) and horizontal corneal diameter [white-to-white (WTW) distance] were measured using non-contact partial coherence interferometry [intraocular lens (IOL)-Master]. RESULTS Ocular biometric data on 1721 participants with a average age of 57.0±8.7y were analyzed at last. The general mean AL, ACD, mean corneal curvature radius (MCR), WTW were 22.80±1.12, 2.96±0.36, 7.56±0.26 and 11.75±0.40 mm, respectively. The mean values of each parameter in 40 to 49, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, and 70 to 91 years age groups were as follows: AL, 22.77±0.87, 22.76±1.06, 22.89±1.41, 22.92±0.80 mm; ACD, 3.10±0.32, 2.98±0.34, 2.86±0.36, 2.77±0.35 mm; MCR, 7.58±0.25, 7.54±0.26, 7.55±0.26, 7.49±0.28 mm; WTW, 11.79±0.38, 11.75±0.40, 11.72±0.41, 11.67±0.41 mm. The AL, ACD, MCR and WTW were correlated with age and the AL was correlated with height and weight. CONCLUSION Our findings can serve as an important normative reference for multiple purposes and may help to improve the quality of rural eye care. PMID:26309884

  4. How many steps/day are enough? For older adults and special populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Older adults and special populations (living with disability and/or chronic illness that may limit mobility and/or physical endurance) can benefit from practicing a more physically active lifestyle, typically by increasing ambulatory activity. Step counting devices (accelerometers and pedometers) offer an opportunity to monitor daily ambulatory activity; however, an appropriate translation of public health guidelines in terms of steps/day is unknown. Therefore this review was conducted to translate public health recommendations in terms of steps/day. Normative data indicates that 1) healthy older adults average 2,000-9,000 steps/day, and 2) special populations average 1,200-8,800 steps/day. Pedometer-based interventions in older adults and special populations elicit a weighted increase of approximately 775 steps/day (or an effect size of 0.26) and 2,215 steps/day (or an effect size of 0.67), respectively. There is no evidence to inform a moderate intensity cadence (i.e., steps/minute) in older adults at this time. However, using the adult cadence of 100 steps/minute to demark the lower end of an absolutely-defined moderate intensity (i.e., 3 METs), and multiplying this by 30 minutes produces a reasonable heuristic (i.e., guiding) value of 3,000 steps. However, this cadence may be unattainable in some frail/diseased populations. Regardless, to truly translate public health guidelines, these steps should be taken over and above activities performed in the course of daily living, be of at least moderate intensity accumulated in minimally 10 minute bouts, and add up to at least 150 minutes over the week. Considering a daily background of 5,000 steps/day (which may actually be too high for some older adults and/or special populations), a computed translation approximates 8,000 steps on days that include a target of achieving 30 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and approximately 7,100 steps/day if averaged over a week. Measured directly and

  5. Morphometric Study of Clavicular Facet of Coracoclavicular Joint in Adult Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Anita; Vasudeva, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Anthropologists have used Coracoclavicular Joint (CCJ), a non-metric anatomical variant in population, as a marker for population migration from prehistoric times to present. Aim The aim of this osteological study was to determine the incidence and morphometry of articular facet of CCJ on conoid tubercle of clavicle in Indian population, as Indian studies are scanty and incomplete. Materials and Methods The study was done on 144 adult human clavicles (76 right and 68 left; 93 males and 51 females) collected from osteology museum in Department of Anatomy, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India. The presence of articular facet on the conoid tubercle was determined and Maximum Antero-Posterior (MAPD) and maximum transverse diameter (MTD) was measured by digital vernier calliper. The incidence was compared on the basis of sex, side and with other osteological studies in the world. Statistical analysis was done using the Chi-Square test for nominal categorical data and student’s t-test for normally distributed continuous variables in Microsoft Excel 2007 to assess the relationship between the examined variables. Results Articular facet on conoid tubercle was found in 8 cases (5.6%). Seven (9.2%) were present on the right side and one (1.5%) on the left side. Seven cases (7.5%) were present in males and one case (2%) was found in females. The facets were generally oval, with MAPD and MTD of 12.28 and 17.17 mm respectively. A significant side variation was present with right sided facet being more common. The left sided facet was more transversely elongated than right. In males, the facets were more elongated antero-posteriorly than in females. Conclusion The Indian population showed an incidence of 5.6%, which was comparable to other ethnic groups in world population. The morphometric and side differences could be attributed to the occupational factors and range of movements associated with the CCJ. The CCJ should be borne in mind as a differential

  6. Physical activity of Polish adolescents and young adults according to IPAQ: a population based study.

    PubMed

    Bergier, Józef; Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Biliński, Przemysław; Paprzycki, Piotr; Wojtyła, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The alarming problem of a decline in physical activity among children and adolescents and its detrimental effects on public health has been well recognised worldwide. Low physical activity is responsible for 6% of deaths worldwide and 5-10% of deaths in the countries of the WHO European Region, according to country. Within the last decade, many initiatives have been launched to counteract this phenomenon. The objective of presented study was analysis of the level of physical activity among adolescents and young adults in Poland, according to the IPAQ questionnaire. The study group covered 7,716 adolescents: 5,086 children attending high school and secondary schools and 2,630 university students. Low physical activity was noted among 57% of schoolchildren and 20.84% of students. Analysis of the level of physical activity according to the IPAQ indicated that it was lower among girls, compared to boys. An additional analysis, with the consideration of the place of residence, showed that the highest percentage of the population with low physical activity was noted in the rural areas (29.30%), while among the urban inhabitants of cities with a population above 100,000 it was on the level of 23.69% and 20.57%. Median for weekly physical activity by respondents" gender was on the level of 1,554.00 MET*min. weekly among females, and 2,611.00 MET*min. weekly among males (p<0.000). The highest weekly physical activity expressed in MET*min. was observed among the inhabitants of towns with a population less than 100,000, whereas among the rural population and inhabitants of large cities with a population of over 100,000 the weekly physical activity was on a similar level (1,830.50 and 1,962.00 respectively). An extended analysis of respondents' physical activity showed that during the day students spend significantly more time in a sedentary position, compared to schoolchildren. The presented results of studies indicate the necessity to continue and intensify actions to

  7. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Mental Health of Adult Population: Serbian National Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Santric-Milicevic, Milena; Jankovic, Janko; Trajkovic, Goran; Terzic-Supic, Zorica; Babic, Uros; Petrovic, Marija

    2016-01-01

    Background: The global burden of mental disorders is rising. In Serbia, anxiety is the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years. Serbia has no mental health survey at the population level. The information on prevalence of mental disorders and related socioeconomic inequalities are valuable for mental care improvement. Aims: To explore the prevalence of mental health disorders and socioeconomic inequalities in mental health of adult Serbian population, and to explore whether age years and employment status interact with mental health in urban and rural settlements. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: This study is an additional analysis of Serbian Health Survey 2006 that was carried out with standardized household questionnaires at the representative sample of 7673 randomly selected households – 15563 adults. The response rate was 93%. A multivariate logistic regression modeling highlighted the predictors of the 5 item Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5), and of chronic anxiety or depression within eight independent variables (age, gender, type of settlement, marital status and self-perceived health, education, employment status and Wealth Index). The significance level in descriptive statistics, chi square analysis and bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions was set at p<0.05. Results: Chronic anxiety or depression was seen in 4.9% of the respondents, and poor MHI-5 in 47% of respondents. Low education (Odds Ratios 1.32; 95% confidence intervals=1.16–1.51), unemployment (1.36; 1.18–1.56), single status (1.34; 1.23–1.45), and Wealth Index middle class (1.20; 1.08–1.32) or poor (1.33; 1.21–1.47) were significantly related with poor MHI-5. Unemployed persons in urban settlements had higher odds for poormMHI-5 than unemployed in rural areas (0.73; 0.59–0.89). Single (1.50; 1.26–1.78), unemployed (1.39; 1.07–1.80) and inactive respondents (1.42; 1.10–1.83) had a higher odds of chronic anxiety or depression than married

  8. Recovery potential of a western lowland gorilla population following a major Ebola outbreak: results from a ten year study.

    PubMed

    Genton, Céline; Cristescu, Romane; Gatti, Sylvain; Levréro, Florence; Bigot, Elodie; Caillaud, Damien; Pierre, Jean-Sébastien; Ménard, Nelly

    2012-01-01

    Investigating the recovery capacity of wildlife populations following demographic crashes is of great interest to ecologists and conservationists. Opportunities to study these aspects are rare due to the difficulty of monitoring populations both before and after a demographic crash. Ebola outbreaks in central Africa have killed up to 95% of the individuals in affected western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) populations. Assessing whether and how fast affected populations recover is essential for the conservation of this critically endangered taxon. The gorilla population visiting Lokoué forest clearing, Odzala-Kokoua National Park, Republic of the Congo, has been monitored before, two years after and six years after Ebola affected it in 2004. This allowed us to describe Ebola's short-term and long-term impacts on the structure of the population. The size of the population, which included around 380 gorillas before the Ebola outbreak, dropped to less than 40 individuals after the outbreak. It then remained stable for six years after the outbreak. However, the demographic structure of this small population has significantly changed. Although several solitary males have disappeared, the immigration of adult females, the formation of new breeding groups, and several birth events suggest that the population is showing potential to recover. During the outbreak, surviving adult and subadult females joined old solitary silverbacks. Those females were subsequently observed joining young silverbacks, forming new breeding groups where they later gave birth. Interestingly, some females were observed joining silverbacks that were unlikely to have sired their infant, but no infanticide was observed. The consequences of the Ebola outbreak on the population structure were different two years and six years after the outbreak. Therefore, our results could be used as demographic indicators to detect and date outbreaks that have happened in other, non-monitored gorilla

  9. Recovery Potential of a Western Lowland Gorilla Population following a Major Ebola Outbreak: Results from a Ten Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Gatti, Sylvain; Levréro, Florence; Bigot, Elodie; Caillaud, Damien; Pierre, Jean-Sébastien; Ménard, Nelly

    2012-01-01

    Investigating the recovery capacity of wildlife populations following demographic crashes is of great interest to ecologists and conservationists. Opportunities to study these aspects are rare due to the difficulty of monitoring populations both before and after a demographic crash. Ebola outbreaks in central Africa have killed up to 95% of the individuals in affected western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) populations. Assessing whether and how fast affected populations recover is essential for the conservation of this critically endangered taxon. The gorilla population visiting Lokoué forest clearing, Odzala-Kokoua National Park, Republic of the Congo, has been monitored before, two years after and six years after Ebola affected it in 2004. This allowed us to describe Ebola's short-term and long-term impacts on the structure of the population. The size of the population, which included around 380 gorillas before the Ebola outbreak, dropped to less than 40 individuals after the outbreak. It then remained stable for six years after the outbreak. However, the demographic structure of this small population has significantly changed. Although several solitary males have disappeared, the immigration of adult females, the formation of new breeding groups, and several birth events suggest that the population is showing potential to recover. During the outbreak, surviving adult and subadult females joined old solitary silverbacks. Those females were subsequently observed joining young silverbacks, forming new breeding groups where they later gave birth. Interestingly, some females were observed joining silverbacks that were unlikely to have sired their infant, but no infanticide was observed. The consequences of the Ebola outbreak on the population structure were different two years and six years after the outbreak. Therefore, our results could be used as demographic indicators to detect and date outbreaks that have happened in other, non-monitored gorilla

  10. Dietary intake and food contributors of polyphenols in adults and elderly adults of Sao Paulo: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Miranda, A M; Steluti, J; Fisberg, R M; Marchioni, D M

    2016-03-28

    A comprehensive estimation of polyphenol intake is needed to gain a better understanding of the association between polyphenol-rich food intake and the potential effects of this intake on chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to estimate the intake of polyphenols and the major dietary contributors in the population of Sao Paulo. Data were obtained from the Health Survey-São Paulo (ISA-Capital 2008) and were reported for 1103 adults and elderly adults. Food intake was estimated by one 24-h dietary recall (24HR). Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching food consumption data from the 24HR with the polyphenol content in foods listed in the Phenol-Explorer database. The mean total intake of polyphenols was 377·5 (se 15·3) mg/d. The main polyphenol classes were phenolic acids (284·8 (se 15·9) mg/d) and flavonoids (54·6 (se 3·5) mg/d). Intakes were higher in the elderly adults than in other adults (P<0·001) and higher in individuals with lower educational level (P=0·01) and current smokers (P=0·02). The main dietary contributors for total polyphenols were coffee (70·5 %), citrus fruits (4·6 %) and tropical fruits (3·4 %). Coffee was the major source of polyphenols, providing 266·2 (se 16·5) mg/d, and contributed 92·3 % of the phenolic acids and 93·1 % of the alkylmethoxyphenols. These findings will be useful for assessing the potential role on health of polyphenols and specific polyphenol-rich foods, such as coffee, and enable a comparison with people from other countries. PMID:26810764

  11. Pathways to Homelessness among Older Homeless Adults: Results from the HOPE HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rebecca T.; Goodman, Leah; Guzman, David; Tieu, Lina; Ponath, Claudia; Kushel, Margot B.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about pathways to homelessness among older adults. We identified life course experiences associated with earlier versus later onset of homelessness in older homeless adults and examined current health and functional status by age at first homelessness. We interviewed 350 homeless adults, aged 50 and older, recruited via population-based sampling. Participants reported age at first episode of adult homelessness and their life experiences during 3 time periods: childhood (<18 years), young adulthood (ages 18–25), and middle adulthood (ages 26–49). We used a structured modeling approach to identify experiences associated with first adult homelessness before age 50 versus at age 50 or older. Participants reported current health and functional status, including recent mental health and substance use problems. Older homeless adults who first became homeless before 50 had more adverse life experiences (i.e., mental health and substance use problems, imprisonment) and lower attainment of adult milestones (i.e., marriage, full-time employment) compared to individuals with later onset. After multivariable adjustment, adverse experiences were independently associated with experiencing a first episode of homelessness before age 50. Individuals who first became homeless before age 50 had higher prevalence of recent mental health and substance use problems and more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living. Life course experiences and current vulnerabilities of older homeless adults with first homelessness before age 50 differed from those with later onset of homelessness. Prevention and service interventions should be adapted to meet different needs. PMID:27163478

  12. Visual function and vision-related quality of life in presbyopic adult population of Northwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Nasiru; Alhassan, Mahmoud B.; Umar, Murtala M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact of uncorrected presbyopia on vision-related quality of life (QoL) and visual function (VF) among adults 40 years and older in Bungudu local government area (LGA) of Zamfara State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study in Bungudu LGA of Zamfara State Nigeria was conducted in 2012. Six-hundred and fifty persons at least 40 years of age were examined using a two-stage cluster random sampling-based on probability proportional to size. Presbyopia was defined as the inability to read N8 at 40 cm in an indoor illumination using LogMAR E-chart. Demographic information comprising of age, sex, occupation, and educational level among others was obtained from a pilot tested VF-14 and modified vision-related QoL questionnaire by trained interviewer. Results: Out Of the 650 subjects enumerated 635 were examined given a response rate of 97.7%. The mean age of participants was 53.59 years (95% confidence interval:52.75%-54.43%). The crude prevalence of presbyopia was 30.4%, (95% CI: 26.8%-34.1%). The mean VF score of persons with presbyopia was 85.09, (95% CI: 83.09%-87.09%) and being female was strongly associated with high VF scores (P = 0.003). The VFs most impaired were the ability to read, write, use mobile phones, and thread needles. The higher the degree of presbyopia the lower the mean VF score (P = 0.00). Conclusion: Uncorrected presbyopia is associated with functional visual impairment and reduce QoL especially in the ability to read, write, and usage of mobile cell phones among adults 40 years and older in Bungudu District. PMID:26778881

  13. Statin Safety in Chinese: A Population-Based Study of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Li, Daniel Q.; Kim, Richard B.; McArthur, Eric; Fleet, Jamie L.; Hegele, Robert A.; Shah, Baiju R.; Weir, Matthew A.; Molnar, Amber O.; Dixon, Stephanie; Tu, Jack V.; Anand, Sonia; Garg, Amit X.

    2016-01-01

    Background Compared to Caucasians, Chinese achieve a higher blood concentration of statin for a given dose. It remains unknown whether this translates to increased risk of serious statin-associated adverse events amongst Chinese patients. Methods We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of older adults (mean age, 74 years) newly prescribed a statin in Ontario, Canada between 2002 and 2013, where 19,033 Chinese (assessed through a validated surname algorithm) were matched (1:3) by propensity score to 57,099 non-Chinese. This study used linked healthcare databases. Findings The follow-up observation period (mean 1.1, maximum 10.8 years) was similar between groups, as were the reasons for censoring the observation period (end of follow-up, death, or statin discontinuation). Forty-seven percent (47%) of Chinese were initiated on a higher than recommended statin dose. Compared to non-Chinese, Chinese ethnicity did not associate with any of the four serious statin-associated adverse events assessed in this study [rhabdomyolysis hazard ratio (HR) 0.61 (95% CI 0.28 to 1.34), incident diabetes HR 1.02 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.30), acute kidney injury HR 0.90 (95% CI 0.72 to 1.13), or all-cause mortality HR 0.88 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.05)]. Similar results were observed in subgroups defined by statin type and dose. Conclusions We observed no higher risk of serious statin toxicity in Chinese than matched non-Chinese older adults with similar indicators of baseline health. Regulatory agencies should review available data, including findings from our study, to decide if a change in their statin dosing recommendations for people of Chinese ethnicity is warranted. PMID:26954681

  14. Population Based National Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey among Adults (>15 Years) in Pakistan, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Qadeer, Ejaz; Fatima, Razia; Yaqoob, Aashifa; Tahseen, Sabira; Ul Haq, Mahboob; Ghafoor, Abdul; Asif, Muhammad; Straetemans, Masja; Tiemersma, Edine W.

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) amongst the adult population in 2010–2011 in Pakistan. Method A nationwide cross-sectional survey with multistage cluster sampling was conducted among adults (≥15 years) in 95 clusters in 2010–2011. All consenting participants were screened for cough and by chest X-ray. Participants with presumptive TB submitted two sputum samples for smear microscopy, culture, and molecular testing if needed. The TB prevalence estimates were adjusted for missing data and the cluster design. Result Of 131,329 eligible individuals, 105,913 (81%) participated in the survey, of whom 10,471 (9.9%) were eligible for sputum examination. We found 341 bacteriologically positive TB cases of whom 233 had sputum smear-positive TB. The adjusted prevalence estimates for smear and bacteriologically positive TB were 270/100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI) 217–323), and 398/100,000 (95% CI 333–463), respectively. Only 61% of the diagnosed TB cases screened positive on symptoms (cough >2wks), whereas the other TB cases were detected based on X-ray abnormalities. The TB prevalence increased with age and was 1.8 times higher among men than women. The prevalence-to-notification ratio of smear-positive TB was 3.1 (95% CI 2.5–3.7), was higher among men than women, and increased with age. Conclusion Our data suggest that there is under-detection and/or -notification of TB, especially among men and elderly. TB control should be strengthened specifically in these risk groups. X-ray examination should be combined with symptom screening to enhance case detection. PMID:26863617

  15. Urban residential road traffic noise and hypertension: a cross-sectional study of adult population.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Dibyendu; Das, Partha P; Fouzdar, Anjan

    2014-12-01

    Results from studies involving exposure to road traffic noise and risk of hypertension are diverse and have seldom reached statistical significance. This study was designed with the aim of investigating whether there is any association between road traffic noise and prevalence of hypertension in an urban adult population. Similar studies have never been reported from India. A cross-sectional study was performed on 909 adults (533 female and 376 male) aged 18-80 years residing in close proximity to roadways in Asansol City. Time-weighted equivalent noise level (L den) was estimated using a standard modeling platform. Odds for hypertension in relation to traffic noise exposure were estimated by univariate and multifactorial logistic regression. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for self-reported hypertension was 1.99 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.66-2.39) per 5 dB(A) increase of L den (range 55.1-77.9). A gender-related risk difference was observed among the male (OR 1.81 (1.42-2.31)) and female (OR 2.18 (1.66-2.88)) respondents. For increase in 9 years of age, the odds of hypertension risk increased by 60 % (OR 1.66 (1.43-1.91) among those exposed above L den 60 dB(A). Vulnerable subgroups were female aged 35-54 years and male aged 45-54 years. The study suggests that a threshold exposure to road traffic noise at L den > 65 dB(A) for men and L den > 60 dB(A) in women may be associated with the occurrence of hypertension. PMID:25354710

  16. U.S. population estimates and correlates of sexual abuse of community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Cannell, Michael B; Manini, Todd; Spence-Almaguer, Emily; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred; Andresen, Elena M

    2014-01-01

    We describe the annual prevalence of sexual abuse among community-dwelling older adults in the United States. We also describe factors associated with experiencing sexual abuse. We used data from 24,343 older adults from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System pooled across 18 states. We estimated prevalence of sexual abuse, bivariate distributions, and odds ratio associations across demographic, health, and contextual factors. Our results show that 0.9% of older adults reported experiencing sexual abuse in the previous year. This represents approximately 90,289 community-dwelling older adults. We also report on factors associated with experiencing recent sexual abuse. There was a significant gender by binge drinking interaction, with a stronger association among women. There is a need for health promotion efforts targeted specifically toward older adults, encouraging them to seek services, if possible, after exposure to sexual abuse. PMID:24410194

  17. Tobacco-related Foetal Origin of Adult Diseases Hypothesis--population studies in Poland.

    PubMed

    Wojtyła, Andrzej; Goździewska, Małgorzata; Paprzycki, Piotr; Biliński, Przemysław

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies in Poland show that tobacco smoking by adolescents at reproductive age is still frequently observed. This concerns both boys and girls. The study was based on all-Polish population studies of health behaviours of adolescents aged 14-24 (Youth Behavioural Polish Survey--YBPS) conducted in 2011, and the Pregnancy-related Assessment Monitoring Survey (PrAMS). More than 12% of pregnant women do not discontinue smoking in association with becoming pregnant and expose the foetus to tobacco smoke, despite being aware of the hazardous effect of smoking on the health of the mother and child. Smoking in pregnancy is mainly observed among mothers with a low education level and those aged under 23. According to the Baker's Foetal Origins of Adult Health and Diseases Hypothesis, exposure of the foetus to the components of tobacco smoke results in many perturbations in the form of a lower birth weight, prematurity, worse state of neonates after birth, and higher susceptibility to contacting civilization diseases at the age of adulthood. The results of studies confirm some observations. Polish studies clearly confirmed a lower birth weight of babies delivered by mothers who smoke; however, earlier termination of pregnancy and worse status of neonates after birth were not observed. According to the Baker's hypothesis, a lower birth weight of babies delivered by smoking mothers during the further life cycle exposes the offspring to the risk of contracting civilization diseases. The efforts undertaken by public health authorities should be biased towards education of the population at reproductive age about the hazardous effect of smoking on the health of the foetus and the offspring born. Women at reproductive age should be encouraged to discontinue smoking in association with the planning of pregnancy and in pregnancy. PMID:22462456

  18. Population pharmacokinetics of total and unbound plasma cisplatin in adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Urien, Sail; Lokiec, François

    2004-01-01

    Aims To investigate the pharmacokinetics of unbound (ultrafilterable) and total plasma platinum using a population approach and to identify patient characteristics that may influence the disposition of the drug. Methods Pharmacokinetic and demographic data were collected from adult patients treated with 30-min daily infusions of cisplatin for various malignancies. Unbound and total platinum concentration-time data were analysed using a nonlinear mixed effects model. Results Data from 43 patients were available for analysis. A linear two-compartment model best described total and unbound platinum plasma concentration-time data. The mean population estimates for total and unbound drug were, respectively, 0.68 and 35.5 l h−1 for clearance and 21.1 and 23.4 l for central distribution volume (V1). Unbound clearance (CL) was dependent on body surface area (BSA) and creatinine clearance, and V1 was dependent on BSA. The elimination rate constant for plasma-bound platinum (modelled as metabolite formation) was 0.014 h−1. The pharmacokinetic parameter, fm/Vm, a measure of the clearance of unbound platinum due to irreversible plasma binding, was related to serum protein concentration and to the inverse of dose per m2. The covariate modelling of CL, V1 and fm/Vm improved the intersubject variabilities associated with these parameters. The final pharmacokinetic models were validated using 200 bootstrap samples from the original datasets. Conclusions The results support the conventional dose adjustment of cisplatin based on BSA. They also support the need for a dose reduction in case of renal insufficiency. PMID:15151521

  19. Phthalate Exposure and Allergy in the U.S. Population: Results from NHANES 2005–2006

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Renee; London, Stephanie J.; Bertelsen, Randi J.; Salo, Päivi M.; Sandler, Dale P.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Environmental exposures to phthalates, particularly high-molecular-weight (HMW) phthalates, are suspected to contribute to allergy. Objective: We assessed whether phthalate metabolites are associated with allergic symptoms and sensitization in a large nationally representative sample. Methods: We used data on urinary phthalate metabolites and allergic symptoms (hay fever, rhinitis, allergy, wheeze, asthma) and sensitization from participants ≥ 6 years of age in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2006. Allergen sensitization was defined as a positive response to at least one of 19 specific IgE antigens (≥ 0.35 kU/L). Odds ratios (ORs) per one log10 unit change in phthalate concentration were estimated using logistic regression adjusting for age, race, body mass index, gender, creatinine, and cotinine. Separate analyses were conducted for children (6–17 years of age) and adults. Results: The HMW phthalate metabolite monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) was the only metabolite positively associated with current allergic symptoms in adults (wheeze, asthma, hay fever, and rhinitis). Mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate and the sum of diethylhexyl phthalate metabolites (both representing HMW phthalate exposures) were positively associated with allergic sensitization in adults. Conversely, in children, HMW phthalate metabolites were inversely associated with asthma and hay fever. Of the low-molecular-weight phthalate metabolites, monoethyl phthalate was inversely associated with allergic sensitization in adults (OR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.90). Conclusion: In this cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample, HMW phthalate metabolites, particularly MBzP, were positively associated with allergic symptoms and sensitization in adults, but there was no strong evidence for associations between phthalates and allergy in children 6–17 years of age. Citation: Hoppin JA, Jaramillo R, London SJ, Bertelsen RJ, Salo PM

  20. Low Physical Fitness Levels in Older Adults with ID: Results of the HA-ID Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Physical fitness is as important to aging adults with ID as in the general population, but to date, the physical fitness levels of this group are unknown. Comfortable walking speed, muscle strength (grip strength), muscle endurance (30 s Chair stand) and cardiorespiratory endurance (10 m incremental shuttle walking test) were tested in a sample of…

  1. Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII) Pumps for Type 1 and Type 2 Adult Diabetic Populations

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    glargine) in MDI regimens result in less of a difference between MDI and CSII compared to differences between MDI and CSII in which older insulins are used. There is conflicting evidence regarding both mild and severe hypoglycemic events in this population when using CSII pumps as compared to MDI. These findings are based on very low-quality evidence. There is an improved quality of life for patients using CSII pumps as compared to MDI however, limitations exist with this evidence. Significant limitations of the literature exist specifically: All studies sponsored by insulin pump manufacturers All studies used crossover design Prior treatment regimens varied Types of insulins used in study varied (NPH vs. glargine) Generalizability of studies in question as populations were highly motivated and half of studies used insulin pens as the mode of delivery for MDI One short-term study concluded that pumps are cost-effective, although this was based on limited data and longer term models are required to estimate the long-term costs and effects of pumps compared to MDI in adults with type 1 diabetes. Part B: Type 2 Diabetic Adults Research Questions Are CSII pumps more effective than MDI for improving glycemic control in adults (≥19 years) with type 2 diabetes? Are CSII pumps more effective than MDI for improving other outcomes related to diabetes such as quality of life? Literature Search Inclusion Criteria Randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, meta-analysis and/or health technology assessments from MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) Any person with type 2 diabetes requiring insulin treatment intensive Published between January 1, 2000 – August 2008 Exclusion Criteria Studies with <10 patients Studies <5 weeks in duration CSII applied only at night time and not 24 hours/day Mixed group of diabetes patients (children, adults, type 1, type 2) Pregnancy studies Outcomes of Interest The primary

  2. Protection Provided by Hepatitis B Vaccine in Adult Population of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Imani, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hepatitis B vaccination has been integrated into National Expanded Program on Immunization in Iran since the year 1993 and young adult national vaccination project was done in 2008. So we have three subpopulations with vaccination coverage for hepatitis B and different antibody levels. Consisting of Subpopulation 1 born after 1993, subpopulation 2 born between 1989 and 1993 and receiving vaccination under adult national project, and subpopulation 3 born prior to the year 1989. Aim The present study was conducted to investigate community protection by hepatitis B vaccine in adult population in an accessible population in Iran and compare vaccination coverage, HBs Ab level, and its effective titration among the three above-mentioned subpopulations. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was done on a 3000-individual adult population from all seven counties of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province enrolled by clustering. After obtaining written consent and filling out a questionnaire of demographic data and history of hepatitis B vaccination by trained interviewers, necessary blood sample was taken and HBs Ab titration was checked. The data were analysed by chi-square in SPSS 19. The level of significance was considered as 0.05 and effective Ab titration as ≥ 10. Results The mean age of the participants was 38.4±16.3 years. Of the participants 48.2% had effective titration. For vaccination coverage, 77.4% were unvaccinated, 20% completely vaccinated, and 2.6% incompletely vaccinated with a significant association with effective titration (p<0.001). Eighty six percent of the subpopulation 1 and 79% of the subpopulation 2 were completely vaccinated, with a significant difference in effective titration between them (p<0.001). Vaccination coverage was higher in men and the single but equal in cities and villages. The effective titration was significantly associated with being married and residence place (p=0.003). There was a significant association

  3. Busulfan in infants to adult hematopoietic cell transplant recipients: A population pharmacokinetic model for initial and Bayesian dose personalization

    PubMed Central

    McCune, Jeannine S.; Bemer, Meagan J.; Barrett, Jeffrey S.; Baker, K. Scott; Gamis, Alan S.; Holford, Nicholas H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Personalizing intravenous (IV) busulfan doses to a target plasma concentration at steady state (Css) is an essential component of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We sought to develop a population pharmacokinetic model to predict IV busulfan doses over a wide age spectrum (0.1 – 66 years) that accounts for differences in age and body size. Experimental design A population pharmacokinetic model based on normal fat mass and maturation based on post-menstrual age was built from 12,380 busulfan concentration-time points obtained after IV busulfan administration in 1,610 HCT recipients. Subsequently, simulation results of the initial dose necessary to achieve a target Css with this model were compared with pediatric-only models. Results A two-compartment model with first-order elimination best fit the data. The population busulfan clearance was 12.4 L/h for an adult male with 62kg normal fat mass (equivalent to 70kg total body weight). Busulfan clearance, scaled to body size – specifically normal fat mass, is predicted to be 95% of the adult clearance at 2.5 years post-natal age. With a target Css of 770 ng/mL, a higher proportion of initial doses achieved the therapeutic window with this age- and size-dependent model (72%) compared to dosing recommended by the Food and Drug Administration (57%) or the European Medicines Agency (70%). Conclusion This is the first population pharmacokinetic model developed to predict initial IV busulfan doses and personalize to a target Css over a wide age spectrum, ranging from infants to adults. PMID:24218510

  4. Survey of abdominal obesities in an adult urban population of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Kasiam Lasi On’kin, JB; Longo-Mbenza, B; Okwe, A Nge; Kabangu, N Kangola

    2007-01-01

    Summary Background The prevalence of overweight/obesity, which is an important cardiovascular risk factor, is rapidly increasing worldwide. Abdominal obesity, a fundamental component of the metabolic syndrome, is not defined by appropriate cutoff points for sub-Saharan Africa. Objective To provide baseline and reference data on the anthropometry/body composition and the prevalence rates of obesity types and levels in the adult urban population of Kinshasa, DRC, Central Africa. Methods During this cross-sectional study carried out within a random sample of adults in Kinshasa town, body mass index, waist circumference and fatty mass were measured using standard methods. Their reference and local thresholds (cut-off points) were compared with those of WHO, NCEP and IFD to define the types and levels of obesity in the population. Results From this sample of 11 511 subjects (5 676 men and 5 835 women), the men presented with similar body mass index and fatty mass values to those of the women, but higher waist measurements. The international thresholds overestimated the prevalence of denutrition, but underscored that of general and abdominal obesity. The two types of obesity were more prevalent among women than men when using both international and local thresholds. Body mass index was negatively associated with age; but abdominal obesity was more frequent before 20 years of age and between 40 and 60 years old. Local thresholds of body mass index (≥ 23, ≥ 27 and ≥ 30 kg/m2) and waist measurement (≥ 80, ≥ 90 and ≥ 94 cm) defined epidemic rates of overweight/general obesity (52%) and abdominal obesity (40.9%). The threshold of waist circumference ≥ 94 cm (90th percentile) corresponding to the threshold of the body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 (90th percentile) was proposed as the specific threshold of definition of the metabolic syndrome, without reference to gender, for the cities of sub-Saharan Africa. Conclusion Further studies are required to define the

  5. Dietary sodium intake and the risk of airway hyperreactivity in a random adult population.

    PubMed Central

    Britton, J.; Pavord, I.; Richards, K.; Knox, A.; Wisniewski, A.; Weiss, S.; Tattersfield, A.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--High dietary sodium intake has been identified as a potential cause of asthma and airway hyperreactivity. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that dietary sodium intake is an independent determinant of the risk of hyperreactivity in the general population, and to assess the role of atopy in the association between these factors. METHODS--Airway reactivity to methacholine, atopy, 24 hour urinary sodium excretion, and self-reported smoking and symptom history were measured in a random sample of 1702 adults aged 18-70 from an administrative district of Nottingham. Hyperreactivity was defined as a PD20FEV1 of 12.25 mumol or less, and atopy was defined quantitatively as the mean allergen skin weal response to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cat fur, and grass pollen, and categorically as the occurrence of any allergen response 1 mm or greater than the saline control. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the independent relative odds of hyperreactivity, atopy, or symptoms in relation to sodium excretion in all 1702 subjects, and multiple linear regression to assess the independent relation between sodium excretion and mean allergen skin weal diameter, and the PD20 value amongst hyperreactive subjects. RESULTS--There was no relation between the relative odds of hyperreactivity to methacholine and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion, either before or after adjustment for age, smoking, allergen skin weal diameter, and sex, and similarly no relation if the analysis was restricted to men or women only. The relative odds of having at least one allergen skin test response 1 mm greater than the saline control were increased in relation to sodium excretion after adjustment for age, sex, and smoking by a ratio of 2.08 (95% CI 1.04 to 4.15) per log10 unit increase in sodium excretion, but there was no evidence of an association between sodium excretion and the occurrence of self-reported wheeze, hay fever, eczema, or asthma. There was no

  6. Survivorship services for adult cancer populations: a pan-Canadian guideline

    PubMed Central

    Howell, D.; Hack, T.F.; Oliver, T.K.; Chulak, T.; Mayo, S.; Aubin, M.; Chasen, M.; Earle, C.C.; Friedman, A.J.; Green, E.; Jones, G.W.; Jones, J.M.; Parkinson, M.; Payeur, N.; Sabiston, C.M.; Sinclair, S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Our goal was to develop evidence-based recommendations for the organization and structure of cancer survivorship services, and best-care practices to optimize the health and well-being of post–primary treatment survivors. This review sought to determine the optimal organization and care delivery structure for cancer survivorship services, and the specific clinical practices and interventions that would improve or maximize the psychosocial health and overall well-being of adult cancer survivors. Data Sources We conducted a systematic search of the Inventory of Cancer Guidelines at the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer, the U.S. National Guideline Clearinghouse, the Canadian Medical Association InfoBase, medline (ovid: 1999 through November 2009), embase (ovid: 1999 through November 2009), Psychinfo (ovid: 1999 through November 2009), the Cochrane Library (ovid; Issue 1, 2009), and cinahl (ebsco: 1999 through December 2009). Reference lists of related papers and recent review articles were scanned for additional citations. Methods Articles were selected for inclusion as evidence in the systematic review if they reported on organizational system components for survivors of cancer, or on psychosocial or supportive care interventions HOWELL et al. designed for survivors of cancer. Articles were excluded from the systematic review if they focused only on pediatric cancer survivor populations or on populations that transitioned from pediatric cancer to adult services; if they addressed only pharmacologic interventions or diagnostic testing and follow-up of cancer survivors; if they were systematic reviews with inadequately described methods; if they were qualitative or descriptive studies; and if they were opinion papers, letters, or editorials. Data Extraction and Synthesis Evidence was selected and reviewed by three members of the Cancer Journey Survivorship Expert Panel (SM, TC, TKO). The resulting summary of the evidence was guided further and reviewed

  7. Population-level prevalence estimate and characteristics of psychiatric disability among Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Chen, Gong; Du, Wei; Song, Xinming; Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2011-11-01

    Psychiatric disability is a population health problem, and understanding its magnitude is essential to informing population health policies. This paper aims to describe the prevalence rates, causes, and severity of psychiatric disability in Chinese adults, and to explore daily activities and social functions for people with psychiatric disability. We used the second China National Sample Survey on Disability, comprising 2,526,145 persons from 771,797 households. Identification and classification for psychiatric disability was based on consensus manuals. We used standard weighting procedures to construct sample weights considering the multistage stratified cluster sampling survey scheme. Population weighted prevalence and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were evaluated. An estimate of 8 million adults with psychiatric disability was identified. The weighted prevalence rate of psychiatric disability was 8.14 per 1000 people (95% CI, 7.95-8.33). More rural residents suffered from psychiatric disability than their urban counterparts, and more females had psychiatric disability than males. Schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders accounted for more than half of the psychiatric disability in Chinese adults. People with psychiatric disability had more severe difficulties in most daily activities and social functions than in people with other disabilities. This study demonstrates psychiatric disability causes social burden to the Chinese communities. Strategies including case identification, treatment, and rehabilitation should be developed and countermeasures are warranted for females and rural residents to reduce the burden caused by psychiatric disability. PMID:21794875

  8. A D-Optimal designed population pharmacokinetic study of oral itraconazole in adult cystic fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Stefanie; Waterhouse, Timothy H; Bell, Scott C; France, Megan; Wainwright, Claire E; Miller, Hugh; Charles, Bruce G; Duffull, Stephen B

    2007-01-01

    What is already known about this subject • Itraconazole is a triazole antifungal used in the treatment of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). • The pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of this drug and its active metabolite have been described before, mostly in healthy volunteers. • However, only sparse information from case reports were available of the PK properties of this drug in CF patients at the start of our study. What this study adds • This study reports for the first time the population pharmacokinetic properties of itraconazole and a known active metabolite, hydroxy-itraconazole in adult patients with CF. • As a result, this study offers new dosing approaches and their pharmacoeconomic impact as well as a PK model for therapeutic drug monitoring of this drug in this patient group. • Furthermore, it is an example of a successful d-optimal design application in a clinical setting. Aim The primary objective of the study was to estimate the population pharmacokinetic parameters for itraconazole and hydroxy-itraconazole, in particular, the relative oral bioavailability of the capsule compared with solution in adult cystic fibrosis patients, in order to develop new dosing guidelines. A secondary objective was to evaluate the performance of a population optimal design. Methods The blood sampling times for the population study were optimized previously using POPT v.2.0. The design was based on the administration of solution and capsules to 30 patients in a cross-over study. Prior information suggested that itraconazole is generally well described by a two-compartment disposition model with either linear or saturable elimination. The pharmacokinetics of itraconazole and the metabolite were modelled simultaneously using NONMEM. Dosing schedules were simulated to assess their ability to achieve a trough target concentration of 0.5 mg ml−1. Results Out of 241 blood samples, 94% were taken within the defined optimal

  9. Identification of a Bipotent Epithelial Progenitor Population in the Adult Thymus

    PubMed Central

    Ulyanchenko, Svetlana; O’Neill, Kathy E.; Medley, Tanya; Farley, Alison M.; Vaidya, Harsh J.; Cook, Alistair M.; Blair, Natalie F.; Blackburn, C. Clare

    2016-01-01

    Summary Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are critically required for T cell development, but the cellular mechanisms that maintain adult TECs are poorly understood. Here, we show that a previously unidentified subpopulation, EpCam+UEA1−Ly-51+PLET1+MHC class IIhi, which comprises <0.5% of adult TECs, contains bipotent TEC progenitors that can efficiently generate both cortical (c) TECs and medullary (m) TECs. No other adult TEC population tested in this study contains this activity. We demonstrate persistence of PLET1+Ly-51+ TEC-derived cells for 9 months in vivo, suggesting the presence of thymic epithelial stem cells. Additionally, we identify cTEC-restricted short-term progenitor activity but fail to detect high efficiency mTEC-restricted progenitors in the adult thymus. Our data provide a phenotypically defined adult thymic epithelial progenitor/stem cell that is able to generate both cTECs and mTECs, opening avenues for improving thymus function in patients. PMID:26997270

  10. Identification of a Bipotent Epithelial Progenitor Population in the Adult Thymus.

    PubMed

    Ulyanchenko, Svetlana; O'Neill, Kathy E; Medley, Tanya; Farley, Alison M; Vaidya, Harsh J; Cook, Alistair M; Blair, Natalie F; Blackburn, C Clare

    2016-03-29

    Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are critically required for T cell development, but the cellular mechanisms that maintain adult TECs are poorly understood. Here, we show that a previously unidentified subpopulation, EpCam(+)UEA1(-)Ly-51(+)PLET1(+)MHC class II(hi), which comprises <0.5% of adult TECs, contains bipotent TEC progenitors that can efficiently generate both cortical (c) TECs and medullary (m) TECs. No other adult TEC population tested in this study contains this activity. We demonstrate persistence of PLET1(+)Ly-51(+) TEC-derived cells for 9 months in vivo, suggesting the presence of thymic epithelial stem cells. Additionally, we identify cTEC-restricted short-term progenitor activity but fail to detect high efficiency mTEC-restricted progenitors in the adult thymus. Our data provide a phenotypically defined adult thymic epithelial progenitor/stem cell that is able to generate both cTECs and mTECs, opening avenues for improving thymus function in patients. PMID:26997270

  11. A reappraisal of adult thoracic and abdominal surface anatomy via CT scan in Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin-Hua; Su, Bai-Yan; Liu, Jing-Juan; Zhang, Gu-Muyang; Xue, Hua-Dan; Jin, Zheng-Yu; Mirjalili, S Ali; Ma, Chao

    2016-03-01

    Accurate surface anatomy is essential for safe clinical practice. There are numerous inconsistencies in clinically important surface markings among and within contemporary anatomical reference texts. The aim of this study was to investigate key thoracic and abdominal surface anatomy landmarks in living Chinese adults using computed tomography (CT). A total of 100 thoracic and 100 abdominal CT scans were examined. Our results indicated that the following key surface landmarks differed from current commonly-accepted descriptions: the positions of the tracheal bifurcation, azygos vein termination, and pulmonary trunk bifurcation (all below the plane of the sternal angle at vertebral level T5-T6 in most individuals); the superior vena cava formation and junction with the right atrium (most often behind the 1st and 4th intercostal spaces, respectively); and the level at which the inferior vena cava and esophagus traverse the diaphragm (T10 and T11, respectively). The renal arteries were most commonly at L1; the midpoint of the renal hila was most frequently at L2; the 11th rib was posterior to the left kidney in only 29% of scans; and the spleen was most frequently located between the 10th and 12th ribs. A number of significant sex- and age-related differences were noted. The Chinese population was also compared with western populations on the basis of published reports. Reappraisal of surface anatomy using modern imaging tools in vivo will provide both quantitative and qualitative evidence to facilitate the clinical application of these key surface landmarks. Clin. Anat. 29:165-174, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26032163

  12. Factors influencing the population pharmacokinetic parameters of phenytoin in adult epileptic patients in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Valodia, P; Seymour, M A; Miller, R; McFadyen, M L; Folb, P I

    1999-02-01

    The influence of various covariates (including weight, race, smoking, gender, age, mild-to-moderate alcohol intake, and body surface area) on the population pharmacokinetic parameters of phenytoin in adult epileptic patients in South Africa was investigated. The parameters were the maximum metabolic rate (Vm) and the Michaelis-Menten (MM) constant (Km) of phenytoin. The study population comprised 332 black and colored epileptic patients (note: "black" refers to indigenous people of South Africa, who speak one of the Bantu languages as their native language; "colored" refers to people considered to be of mixed race, classified as such by the apartheid former government of South Africa). The influence of covariates on Vm and Km estimates was determined using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM). Parameter models describing the factors that could potentially influence Vm and Km were tested using the Michaelis-Menten parallel MM and first-order elimination models, to which 853 steady state dose-to-serum concentration pairs were fitted. The results indicated that body weight, smoking, race, and age (65 years or older), in descending order of importance, significantly influenced Vm (p < 0.05). Although a significant difference (p = 0.03) in Km was found between black and colored patients, incorporating the influence of race in Km in the final regression model did not improve the fit of the model to the data, which indicated that the variability in Km was accounted for by Vm. The scaling factors for smoking, colored patients and age (65 years or older) in Vm were 1.16, 1.10, and 0.88, respectively. These factors should be taken into account when adjusting phenytoin dose. PMID:10051055

  13. Space-use, movement and dispersal of sub-adult cougars in a geographically isolated population.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Carl D; Boyce, Mark S; Nielsen, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    Cougar (Puma concolor) observations have increased in Midwest North America, with breeding populations re-establishing in several regions east of their contemporary range. The Cypress Hills Uplands, located in southwest Saskatchewan and southeast Alberta, was recently re-colonized by cougars and now supports the easternmost confirmed breeding population of cougars in Canada. A number of factors contribute to this cougar range expansion, but it is dispersal that provides the mechanism for re-colonization of historic range. We used GPS-collar data to examine space-use and movement behavior of sub-adult cougars, the age class associated with dispersal, in the Cypress Hills. Conditional logistic regression and a two-stage modeling approach were used to estimate resource selection functions (RSF) of sub-adult cougars during two distinct ranging behaviors: transient movements (i.e., dispersal and exploratory forays) and localizing movements (i.e., temporary home ranges). Linear regression was used to model movement rates, measured as the distance between consecutive 3-h GPS-relocations, of sub-adult cougars relative to different habitats, times of day and between transient and localizing behavior. All individual sub-adult cougars displayed bouts of transient and localizing behavior. All male cougars dispersed from their natal ranges and travelled considerably farther distances than female cougars. One male dispersed over 750 km eastward through the agricultural belt of northern Montana and southern Saskatchewan. Males occupied temporary home ranges in more open habitats on the fringes of the insular Cypress Hills, while females appeared to be recruited into the adult population, occupying treed habitat that provided more suitable cover. During both ranging behaviors, sub-adult cougars selected for rugged terrain and proximity to hydrological features (likely supporting riparian habitats) and avoided open cover types. Differences in habitat selection between ranging

  14. Space-use, movement and dispersal of sub-adult cougars in a geographically isolated population

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Mark S.; Nielsen, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Cougar (Puma concolor) observations have increased in Midwest North America, with breeding populations re-establishing in several regions east of their contemporary range. The Cypress Hills Uplands, located in southwest Saskatchewan and southeast Alberta, was recently re-colonized by cougars and now supports the easternmost confirmed breeding population of cougars in Canada. A number of factors contribute to this cougar range expansion, but it is dispersal that provides the mechanism for re-colonization of historic range. We used GPS-collar data to examine space-use and movement behavior of sub-adult cougars, the age class associated with dispersal, in the Cypress Hills. Conditional logistic regression and a two-stage modeling approach were used to estimate resource selection functions (RSF) of sub-adult cougars during two distinct ranging behaviors: transient movements (i.e., dispersal and exploratory forays) and localizing movements (i.e., temporary home ranges). Linear regression was used to model movement rates, measured as the distance between consecutive 3-h GPS-relocations, of sub-adult cougars relative to different habitats, times of day and between transient and localizing behavior. All individual sub-adult cougars displayed bouts of transient and localizing behavior. All male cougars dispersed from their natal ranges and travelled considerably farther distances than female cougars. One male dispersed over 750 km eastward through the agricultural belt of northern Montana and southern Saskatchewan. Males occupied temporary home ranges in more open habitats on the fringes of the insular Cypress Hills, while females appeared to be recruited into the adult population, occupying treed habitat that provided more suitable cover. During both ranging behaviors, sub-adult cougars selected for rugged terrain and proximity to hydrological features (likely supporting riparian habitats) and avoided open cover types. Differences in habitat selection between ranging

  15. Measuring Adult Mortality Using Sibling Survival: A New Analytical Method and New Results for 44 Countries, 1974–2006

    PubMed Central

    Obermeyer, Ziad; Rajaratnam, Julie Knoll; Park, Chang H.; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Hogan, Margaret C.; Lopez, Alan D.; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2010-01-01

    15—the probability of a 15-y old dying before his or her 60th birthday—for 44 countries with DHS sibling survival data. Our findings suggest that levels of adult mortality prevailing in many developing countries are substantially higher than previously suggested by other analyses of sibling history data. Generally, our estimates show the risk of adult death between ages 15 and 60 y to be about 20%–35% for females and 25%–45% for males in sub-Saharan African populations largely unaffected by HIV. In countries of Southern Africa, where the HIV epidemic has been most pronounced, as many as eight out of ten men alive at age 15 y will be dead by age 60, as will six out of ten women. Adult mortality levels in populations of Asia and Latin America are generally lower than in Africa, particularly for women. The exceptions are Haiti and Cambodia, where mortality risks are comparable to many countries in Africa. In all other countries with data, the probability of dying between ages 15 and 60 y was typically around 10% for women and 20% for men, not much higher than the levels prevailing in several more developed countries. Conclusions Our results represent an expansion of direct knowledge of levels and trends in adult mortality in the developing world. The CSS method provides grounds for renewed optimism in collecting sibling survival data. We suggest that all nationally representative survey programs with adequate sample size ought to implement this critical module for tracking adult mortality in order to more reliably understand the levels and patterns of adult mortality, and how they are changing. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:20405004

  16. Axis II disorders and cigarette smoking among adults from the general population.

    PubMed

    Becoña, Elisardo; Fernández del Río, Elena; López-Durán, Ana; Piñeiro, Bárbara; Martínez, Úrsula

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined whether personality disorders (PDs) are associated with cigarette smoking, and the possible influence of nicotine dependence, sociodemographic variables, and the presence of any lifetime Axis I mental disorder in these relationships. The sample was made up of 1,081 adult participants from the Spanish general population and was stratified by smoking status (519 smokers and 562 nonsmokers). PDs were assessed by means of the International Personality Disorder Examination Questionnaire, Module DSM-IV. Results indicated that participants with a paranoid, a narcissistic, a borderline, an antisocial, or an obsessive-compulsive PD had a higher probability for being smokers and for being nicotine-dependent. The only exception was the schizoid PD, because participants with this Axis II disorder had a lower probability for being nicotine-dependent smokers. The association between PDs and smoking was maintained even after adjusting for all covariates. Findings are discussed in relation to the influence of Axis II disorders on smoking cessation interventions. PMID:22928853

  17. Cognitive impairment in an adult Mexican population non-occupationally exposed to manganese.

    PubMed

    Solís-Vivanco, Rodolfo; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Yaneth; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Ríos, Camilo; Rosas, Irma; Montes, Sergio

    2009-09-01

    We examined the association between non-occupational exposure to Mn and cognitive functions. The study was carried out in a mining district located in Hidalgo State, Mexico, with 288 adults. Air and blood Mn concentrations were determined, and neuropsychological tests were administered to explore cognitive functions and depression. Blood Mn mean was 9.5 ± 4.14 μg/L. A total of 73% of the study group were in contact with air Mn levels that surpassed the EPA recommended guideline level for non-occupational environments (0.05 μg/m(3)). Air Mn concentration was associated as a risk factor for attention impairment (OR=1.75, 95% CI: 1.01-3.06). Blood Mn levels were not associated to any of the measured outcomes. The main finding of this study is the presence of attention impairments associated to high levels of air Mn exposure. These results confirm previous studies, in which cognitive impairment is reported for exposed population. PMID:21784000

  18. Exposure to domestic violence associated with adult smoking in India: a population based study

    PubMed Central

    Ackerson, Leland K; Kawachi, Ichiro; Barbeau, Elizabeth M; Subramanian, S V

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relation between domestic violence and tobacco use among adults in India. Design Multilevel cross sectional analyses of a nationally representative population based sample from the 1998–9 Indian national family health survey. Participants 278 977 individuals aged 15 or older; and 89 092 ever married women aged 15–49. Main outcome Dichotomous variables for smoking and chewing tobacco. Results Women who reported being abused more than one year ago and those who reported being abused in the past year were more likely to smoke and chew tobacco than women who have never experienced domestic violence. Compared to individuals who lived in homes where no abuse was reported, those who lived in homes where a woman reported experiencing domestic violence were more likely to smoke and chew tobacco. Conclusion Domestic violence is associated with higher odds of smoking and chewing tobacco in India. Efforts to control tobacco use need to consider the larger psychosocial circumstances within which individuals who practise such harmful health behaviours reside. PMID:18048613

  19. Stellar populations of stellar halos: Results from the Illustris simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, B. A.; Conroy, C.; Pillepich, A.; Hernquist, L.

    2016-08-01

    The influence of both major and minor mergers is expected to significantly affect gradients of stellar ages and metallicities in the outskirts of galaxies. Measurements of observed gradients are beginning to reach large radii in galaxies, but a theoretical framework for connecting the findings to a picture of galactic build-up is still in its infancy. We analyze stellar populations of a statistically representative sample of quiescent galaxies over a wide mass range from the Illustris simulation. We measure metallicity and age profiles in the stellar halos of quiescent Illustris galaxies ranging in stellar mass from 1010 to 1012 M ⊙, accounting for observational projection and luminosity-weighting effects. We find wide variance in stellar population gradients between galaxies of similar mass, with typical gradients agreeing with observed galaxies. We show that, at fixed mass, the fraction of stars born in-situ within galaxies is correlated with the metallicity gradient in the halo, confirming that stellar halos contain unique information about the build-up and merger histories of galaxies.

  20. WISE/NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF THE HILDA POPULATION: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Blauvelt, E.; DeBaun, E.; Elsbury, D.; Gautier, T.; Gomillion, S.; Hand, E.; Wilkins, A.; Spahr, T.; McMillan, R. S.; Walker, R.; Cutri, R.; Wright, E.

    2012-01-10

    We present the preliminary analysis of 1023 known asteroids in the Hilda region of the solar system observed by the NEOWISE component of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The sizes of the Hildas observed range from {approx}3 to 200 km. We find no size-albedo dependency as reported by other projects. The albedos of our sample are low, with a weighted mean value of p{sub V} = 0.055 {+-} 0.018, for all sizes sampled by the NEOWISE survey. We observed a significant fraction of the objects in the two known collisional families in the Hilda population. It is found that the Hilda collisional family is brighter, with a weighted mean albedo of p{sub V} = 0.061 {+-} 0.011, than the general population and dominated by D-type asteroids, while the Schubart collisional family is darker, with a weighted mean albedo of p{sub V} = 0.039 {+-} 0.013. Using the reflected sunlight in the two shortest WISE bandpasses, we are able to derive a method for taxonomic classification of {approx}10% of the Hildas detected in the NEOWISE survey. For the Hildas with diameter larger than 30 km, there are 67{sup +7}{sub -15}% D-type asteroids and 26{sup +17}{sub -5%} C-/P-type asteroids (with the majority of these being P-types).

  1. The effects of adult sex ratio on mating competition in male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in two wild populations.

    PubMed

    Chuard, Pierre J C; Brown, Grant E; Grant, James W A

    2016-08-01

    When competing for mates, males typically exhibit higher rates of intrasexual aggression and courtship than females. Operational sex ratio, represented here by adult sex ratio (ASR) as a proxy, is likely the best predictor of this competition, which typically increases between members of one sex as members of the opposite sex become rarer. Moreover, in populations subject to high predation, males often decrease mating competitive behaviour due to predation risk. We explored the combined effects of ASR and population of origin (low vs. high ambient predation risk) on mating competition in male and female wild-caught Trinidadian guppies. Both male and female aggression rates increased with ASR, but the increase for males was only significant in the low-predation population. In regard to male mating tactics, courtship propensity was unaffected by ASR, while the propensity to sneak increased at male-biased ASRs. Guppies from a high predation population had lower aggression rates than their low predation counterpart, but male courtship and sneaking attempts did not differ between populations. Surprisingly, females were just as aggressive as males when competing for mates. These results highlight the trade-offs between antipredator and agonistic behaviour, which may affect sexual selection pressures in wild populations. PMID:27208810

  2. Prevalence of tension-type headache in adult general population: the PACE study and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, T; Manzoni, G C; Russo, M; Camarda, C; Taga, A; Veronesi, L; Pasquarella, C; Sansebastiano, G; Torelli, P

    2013-05-01

    The mean global prevalence of tension-type headache (TTH) in adult is 42 %. To date, there have been no Italian studies on TTH prevalence in the adult general population. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study, called PACE (PArma CEfalea, or "Headache in Parma"), aimed at detecting the prevalence and clinical features of primary headaches in the city of Parma's adult general population. Crude past-year prevalence for definite TTH was 19.4 % (95 % CI 16.8-21.9), namely 9.0 % (95 % CI 7.1-10.8) for infrequent TTH, 9.8 % (95 % CI 7.9-11.8) for frequent TTH, and 0.6 % (95 % CI 0.1-1) for chronic TTH. Crude prevalence for probable TTH was 2.3 % (95 % CI 1.3-3.3). Our study results indicate a TTH prevalence rate (19.4 %) at the lower limit of data ranges currently available for Western countries, and prevalence rates for infrequent forms (9 %) do not appear much different from those of frequent forms (9.8 %). PMID:23695063

  3. EVALUATION OF EDENTULISM, PROSTHETIC STATUS AND PROSTHODONTICS TREATMENT NEEDS AMONG THE ADULT POPULATION OF GEORGIA.

    PubMed

    Makhviladze, G; Tsitaishvili, L; Kalandadze, M; Margvelashvili, V

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to identify the level of edentulism among the adult population of Georgia, to assess the prosthodontics status and normative needs for prosthetic treatment. Cluster- stratified method was used for sampling. Overall, 2370 adults including 1289 women and 1081 men and four age groups I - 20-34, II - 35-44, III - 45-64, IV - 65-74 in nine regions of Georgia and the capital, Tbilisi, were examined. The loss of teeth due to caries or periodontitis was observed to differing extents throughout the population. One (8.3%) or more bridges (7.6%) and removable dentures (3.2-4.7%) were more frequently observed than implants (0.1%). Metal-ceramic (12.4%) and metal crowns (6.3%) were more commonly detected than zirconia ceramic crowns (0.1%). Statistical analysis of the data demonstrates a rather high normative prosthetic need of implants and bridges and less needs for removable dentures among the population due to less severity of periodontitis and not too high values of missing teeth due to caries (despite the high caries prevalence (99%) throughout the Georgian population). Edentulism is a public problem in Georgia and needs serious attention from government or healthcare centers to prevent the complications . PMID:27249431

  4. Analyzing variation in egg-to-adult viability in experimental populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Wallace, B

    1989-03-01

    Selective culling in populations of most organisms is rank-order: individuals of low rank on a scale of potential fitnesses tend to be eliminated during early development, whereas surviving adults (whose number reflects the carrying capacity of the environment) are generally drawn from the distribution's upper end. Haldane pointed out [Haldane, J.B.S. (1932) The Causes of Evolution (Harper & Row, New York)] that selection which favors individuals in the upper tail of a composite distribution curve tends to favor members of the more variable of two populations, rather than members of a less variable one, even though the latter may possess the higher mean. In addition to reviewing earlier observations bearing on Haldane's argument, the present report describes an analysis of the comparative egg-to-adult viabilities of flies (Drosophila melanogaster) carrying combinations of second chromosomes obtained from one or another of eight experimental populations. Overall, the viabilities of flies carrying combinations of chromosomes one of which is shared (i/j vs. j/k) are as different as those of flies carrying combinations of independently sampled chromosomes (i/j vs. k/l). Episodes seemingly occurred within the populations during which flies carrying combinations that shared a chromosome differed more in their viabilities than flies carrying unrelated combinations. Such episodes could reflect the occurrence of selection of the sort described by Haldane. PMID:2494660

  5. Markers of Resilience and Risk: Adult Lives in a Vulnerable Population

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Stuart T.; Stott, Cori; Billings, Rebecca L.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2006-01-01

    In this report, we drew on data from an ongoing longitudinal study that began in 1978 (Hauser, Powers, Noam, Jacobson, Weiss, & Folansbee, 1984). Focusing on late, young-adult life among individuals who were psychiatrically hospitalized during adolescence, we examined markers of resilience empirically defined in terms of adult success and well-being. The study includes a demographically similar group recruited from a public high school. Major goals were to (a) develop preliminary models of adaptive functioning among adults in their 30s, (b) examine the extent to which adults with histories of serious mental disorders can be characterized by these models, and (c) explore predictors of successful adult lives from indicators of individuals' psychosocial adjustment at age 25. Results showed significant cohort effects on indexes of adaptive functioning, especially for men. Findings suggest that social relations as well as self-views of competence and relatedness play important roles in characterizing adjustment during the adult years. In addition, indexes of psychosocial adjustment as well as symptoms of psychiatric distress and hard drug use at age 25 made a difference in adult social functioning and well-being, providing hints of possible mechanisms likely to facilitate the ability to “bounce back” after a difficult adolescence. PMID:16951709

  6. [Adult vaccination coverage: surveys in four populations - Isère (France), 2002-2003].

    PubMed

    Goirand, Laurence; Charrel, Martine; Dell'accio, Pierre; Stahl, Jean-Paul; Da Silva, Eric; Billette de Villemeur, Agathe

    2012-01-01

    In order to assess their vaccination policy, the public health authorities in Isère (France) conducted several surveys to determine the vaccination coverage rate among adults. In France, the current state of knowledge in this area is limited. Four separate surveys were conducted in 2002-2003: (1) a telephone survey of 976 adults, 18% of whom had vaccination certificates; (2) a survey of 44 general practitioners (805 patients); (3) a survey of occupational health centers (82 practitioners and 1,119 employees); and (4) a survey of 1,214 patients vaccinated at the international vaccination center in Grenoble (France). The same data were recorded in all four surveys (last vaccination date, either declared by the patient or proven by a vaccination certificate). Based on certified evidence, vaccination coverage for tetanus, diphtheria, and poliomyelitis ranged from 31.6% to 83.9%, from 24.1% to 44.0%, and from 25.9% to 71.9%, respectively. Compared to general practitioners, vaccination coverage was higher among staff working at the occupational health center and lower in the general population. The four surveys covered only part of the adult population and provided only an estimate of vaccination coverage. The study found that tetanus vaccination coverage was the highest, but was still below expected levels. For the other vaccines, vaccination coverage among adults appears to be inadequate. The findings suggest that all health professionals involved in adult vaccination (occupational health doctors, general practitioners, hospital doctors, etc.) should be invited to participate in working groups on vaccination. PMID:23043739

  7. Literacy for Life: Further Results from the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Literacy for Life is the second report from the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey. It presents additional results on the nature and magnitude of the literacy gaps faced by OECD countries and how these gaps have evolved over the medium term. It offers new insights into the factors that influence the formation of adult skills in various…

  8. OECD Skills Outlook 2013: First Results from the Survey of Adult Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This first "OECD Skills Outlook" presents the initial results of the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC), which evaluates the skills of adults in 22 OECD member countries and two partner countries. The PIAAC survey was designed to provide insights into the availability of some key skills and how they are used at work and at home through the…

  9. Aetiology and Severity of Gingival Recession in an Adult Population Sample in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Chrysanthakopoulos, Nikolaos Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Gingival recession is the most common and undesirable condition of the gingiva. The aim of study was to investigate the aetiology and severity of gingival recession in a Greek adult population sample. Methods: The study was performed on 165 males and 179 females, 18-68 years old who sought dental treatment in a private dental practice and showed gingival recession. All subjects were clinically examined and answered questions regarding their oral hygiene habits such as the type of toothbrush, frequency of brushing and method of brushing. The association between gingival recession and the following parameters was assessed: plaque score, gingival score and tooth position. Statistical analysis of the results was accomplished using chi-square test (α = 0.05). Results: The majority (79.4%) of the patients showed grade I gingival recession and 15.3% showed grade II gingival recession. The maxillary 1st and 2nd molars (35.3%) and the mandibular 1st and 2nd molars (28.7%) were the teeth most frequently affected by root surface exposure. Patients with sub-gingival calculus, bacterial plaque and gingival inflammation (P <60; 0.05), malpositioned teeth (P <60; 0.001), horizontal brushing method, medium type of toothbrush (P <60; 0.001) and brushing once daily (P <60; 0.001) appeared to be the most common precipitating aetiological factor for gingival recession. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, gingival recession was the result of more than one factor acting together. Horizontal brushing method, usage of medium type toothbrush and tooth brushing once daily were found to be more associated with gingival recession. PMID:22013465

  10. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in the Iranian Adult Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Amirkalali, Bahareh; Fakhrzadeh, Hossein; Sharifi, Farshad; Kelishadi, Roya; Zamani, Farhad; Asayesh, Hamid; Safiri, Saeid; Samavat, Tahereh; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Context: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases the risk of most non-communicable diseases; gathering information about its prevalence can be very effective in formulating preventive strategies for metabolic diseases. There are many different studies about the prevalence of MetS in Iran, but the results and the study populations of these studies are very different; therefore, it is very important to have an overall estimation of its prevalence in Iran. Objectives: This study systematically reviewed the findings of all available studies on MetS in the adult Iranian population and estimated the overall prevalence of MetS in this population. Data Sources: International databases (Scopus, ISI Web of Science, and PubMed) were searched for papers published from January, 2000 to December, 2013 using medical subject headings (MeSH), Emtree, and related keywords (metabolic syndrome, dysmetabolic syndrome, cardiovascular syndrome, and insulin resistance syndrome) combined with the words “prevalence” and “Iran.” The Farsi equivalent of these terms and all probable combinations were used to search Persian national databases (IranMedex, Magiran, SID, and Irandoc). Study Selection: All population-based studies and national surveys that reported the prevalence of MetS in healthy Iranian adults were included. Data Extraction: After quality assessment, data were extracted according to a standard protocol. Because of between-study heterogeneity, data were analyzed by the random effect method. Results: We recruited the data of 27 local studies and one national study. The overall estimation of MetS prevalence was 36.9% (95% CI: 32.7 - 41.2%) based on the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria, 34.6% (95% CI: 31.7 - 37.6%) according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and 41.5% (95% CI: 29.8 - 53.2%) based on the Joint Interim Societies (JIS) criteria. The prevalence of MetS determined by JIS was significantly higher than those determined by ATP III and IDF. The

  11. Does covering of farm-associated Culicoides larval habitat reduce adult populations in the United Kingdom?☆

    PubMed Central

    Harrup, L.E.; Gubbins, S.; Barber, J.; Denison, E.; Mellor, P.S.; Purse, B.V.; Carpenter, S.

    2014-01-01

    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are the biological vectors of a range of internationally important arboviruses of livestock, including bluetongue virus (BTV) and the recently emerging Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Culicoides species in the subgenus Avaritia (in the UK: Culicoides obsoletus Meigen, Culicoides scoticus Downes & Kettle, Culicoides dewulfi Goetghebuer and Culicoides chiopterus Meigen) have been implicated in BTV transmission in northern Europe and to a varying degree utilise cattle dung as a larval development substrate. The collection of cattle dung into heaps on farms provides a localised source of Culicoides emergence in close proximity to livestock. This study assesses the impact of covering dung heaps prior to the onset of adult Culicoides activity with the aim of reducing recruitment to the local adult populations at four livestock farms in England. Light suction trap catches of adult Culicoides from these farms were compared with those from four untreated control farms from a wide geographic range across the UK. It was demonstrated that implementing control of emergence from dung heaps did not have a significant impact upon the local adult subgenus Avaritia abundance at the treated farm holdings and that the onset of Culicoides activity was similarly unaffected. Use of this method in isolation is unlikely to have an effect in reducing the risk of BTV and SBV transmission. The implications of these results for control of farm-associated Culicoides in Europe are discussed. PMID:24472769

  12. Status and trends of adult Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose (Chasmistes brevirostris) sucker populations in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hewitt, David A.; Janney, Eric C.; Hayes, Brian S.; Harris, Alta C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite relatively high survival in most years, we conclude that both species have experienced substantial decreases in the abundance of spawning adults because losses from mortality have not been balanced by recruitment of new individuals. Although capture-recapture data indicate substantial recruitment of new individuals into the spawning populations for SNS and river spawning LRS in some years, size data do not corroborate these estimates. As a result, the status of the endangered sucker populations in Upper Klamath Lake remains worrisome, especially for shortnose suckers. Our monitoring program provides a robust platform for estimating vital population parameters, evaluating the status of the populations, and assessing the effectiveness of conservation and recovery efforts.

  13. Altered self-perception in adult survivors treated for a CNS tumor in childhood or adolescence: population-based outcomes compared with the general population

    PubMed Central

    Hörnquist, Lina; Rickardsson, Jenny; Lannering, Birgitta; Gustafsson, Göran; Boman, Krister K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Survivors of pediatric CNS tumors are at risk for persistent tumor/treatment-related morbidity, physical disability and social consequences that may alter self-perception, vital for self-identity, mental health and quality of survival. We studied the long-term impact of childhood CNS tumors and their treatment on the self-perception of adult survivors and compared outcomes with those of the general population. Methods The cohort included 697 Swedish survivors diagnosed with a primary CNS tumor during 1982–2001. Comparison data were randomly collected from a stratified general population sample. Survivors and general population individuals were compared as regards self-perception in 5 domains: body image, sports/physical activities, peers, work, and family, and with a global self-esteem index. Within the survivor group, determinants of impact on self-perception were identified. Results The final analyzed sample included 528 survivors, 75.8% of the entire national cohort. The control sample consisted of 995, 41% of 2500 addressed. Survivors had significantly poorer self-perception outcomes in domains of peers, work, body image, and sports/physical activities, and in the global self-perception measure, compared with those of the general population (all P < .001). Within the survivor group, female gender and persistent visible physical sequelae predicted poorer outcomes in several of the studied domains. Tumor type and a history of cranial radiation therapy were associated with outcomes. Conclusion An altered self-perception is a potential late effect in adult survivors of pediatric CNS tumors. Self-perception and self-esteem are significant elements of identity, mental health and quality of survival. Therefore, care and psychosocial follow-up of survivors should include measures for identifying disturbances and for assessing the need for psychosocial intervention. PMID:25332406

  14. Male and Female Adult Population Health Status in China: A Cross-Sectional National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jing; Liu, Meina; Zhang, Qiuju; Lu, Mingshan; Quan, Hude

    2008-01-01

    Background With rapid economic growth and globalization, lifestyle in China has been changing dramatically. This study aimed to describe the male and female adult Chinese population health status. Methods The Chinese Third National Health Services Survey was conducted in 2003 to collect information about health status and quality of life from randomly selected residents. Of the 193,689 respondents to the survey (response rate 77.8%), 139,831 (69,748 male and 70,083 female) respondents who were 18 years of age or older were analyzed. Results Among the respondents, fewer males than females rated their overall wellbeing as being poor or very poor (4.8% versus 6.2%), reported illness in the last 2 weeks (14.1% versus 17.4%), presence of physician diagnosed chronic disease (15.0% versus 17.7%) and at least one functional problem in seven items of the quality of life (26.9% versus 32.8%). More males than females were currently smoking (52.4% versus 3.4%) and drank alcohol more than three times per week (16.5% versus 1.1%). Physically inactive rate was similar between males and females (85.8% versus 87.0%). Fewer rural respondents reported chronic disease than urban respondents (13.0% versus 19.9% for males and 15.5% versus 22.8% for females). In all seven items of the quality of life measured, rural respondents reported less problems than urban respondents (26.2% versus 28.7% for males and 32.0% versus 34.7% for females). Conclusion Males had better health status than females in terms of self-perceived wellbeing, presence of illness, chronic disease, and quality of life. However, smoking and frequent alcohol drinking was more prevalent among males than that among females. In contrast with the social-economic gradient in health commonly found in the literature, the wealthier urban population in China was not found to be healthier than the rural population in terms of physician diagnosed chronic disease. PMID:18681978

  15. Population Distributions of Thymic Function in Adults: Variation by Sociodemographic Characteristics and Health Status.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Lydia; Ferrando-Martínez, Sara; Leal, Manuel; Zhou, Xuan; Sempowski, Gregory D; Wildman, Derek E; Uddin, Monica; Aiello, Allison E

    2016-01-01

    The thymus is critical for mounting an effective immune response and maintaining health. However, epidemiologic studies characterizing thymic function in the population setting are lacking. Using data from 263 adults in the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study, we examined thymic function as measured by the number of signal joint T-cell receptor excision circles (sjTREC) and assessed associations with established indicators of physiological health. Overall, increasing age and male gender were significantly associated with reduced thymic function. Adjusting for covariates, individuals with elevated levels of the pro-inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein (β: -0.50 [95% CI: -0.82, -0.18] for moderate elevation, β: -0.29 [95% CI: -0.59, 0.00] for high elevation) and interleukin-6 (β: -0.60 [95% CI: -0.92, -0.28] for moderate elevation, β: -0.43 [95% CI: -0.77, -0.08] for severe elevation) also had lower thymic function. Compared to individuals with a BMI < 25, individuals who were overweight (β: 0.36 [95% CI: 0.07, 0.64]) or obese (β: 0.27 [95% CI: -0.03, 0.56]) had higher thymic function. Differences by self-rated health were not statistically significant. Our findings underscore demographic- and health-related gradients in thymic function among adult residents of Detroit, suggesting thymic function may be an important biomarker of health status in adults at the population level. PMID:27337555

  16. The influence of childhood abuse, adult life events, and affective temperaments on the well-being of the general, nonclinical adult population

    PubMed Central

    Kanai, Yoshiaki; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Nakai, Yukiei; Ichiki, Masahiko; Sato, Mitsuhiko; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Ishikawa, Jun; Ono, Yasuyuki; Murakoshi, Akiko; Tanabe, Hajime; Kusumi, Ichiro; Inoue, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown the effects of childhood abuse, life events, and temperaments on well-being (positive affect) and ill-being (negative affect). We hypothesized that childhood abuse, affective temperaments, and adult life events interact with one another and influence positive and negative affects in the general adult population and tested this hypothesis using structural equation modeling. Methods A total of 415 participants from the general, nonclinical adult population were studied using the following self-administered questionnaires: the Subjective Well-Being Inventory (SUBI); Life Experiences Survey (LES); Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A); and the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS). The data were analyzed with single and multiple regression analyses and structural equation modeling (Mplus). Results Childhood abuse indirectly predicted the worsening of positive and negative affects through cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable temperaments as measured by the TEMPS-A in the structural equation model. The cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable temperaments directly worsened the positive and negative affects and the negative appraisal of life events that occurred during the past year, while the hyperthymic temperament had the opposite effects. Limitations The subjects of this study were nonclinical volunteers. The findings might not be generalizable to psychiatric patients. Conclusion This study demonstrated that childhood abuse, particularly neglect, indirectly worsened the well-being of individuals through cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable affective temperaments. An important “mediator” role of affective temperaments in the effect of childhood abuse on well-being was suggested. PMID:27110116

  17. Fatty acids intake in the Mexican population. Results of the National Nutrition Survey 2006

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence that quality, rather that quantity of fat is the determinant of cardiovascular risk. The objective of the study is to describe quantitatively the intake and adequacy of fatty acid classes among the Mexican population aged 5-90 years from a probabilistic survey. Methods Dietary intake of individual and classes of fatty acids was computed from the dataset of the 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT2006), collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Adequacy was calculated in reference to authoritative recommendations. Results The mean intake of total fatty acids (TFA ≈ 25%E) fell within WHO recommendations; the intakes of saturated fatty acids (SFA) among all age-groups (45-60%) and of trans fatty acids (TrFA) in 30% of school-age children and adolescents and 20% of adults exceeded international recommendations. The mean intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and particularly of n6 and n3 PUFAS, was inadequately insufficient in 50% of the sample. Conclusions The main public health concerns are the high intake of SFA and the suboptimal intake of PUFA in Mexican population. The TrFA intake represents a low public health risk. PMID:21651771

  18. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Mchiza, Zandile J; Steyn, Nelia P; Hill, Jillian; Kruger, Annamarie; Schönfeldt, Hettie; Nel, Johanna; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss

    2015-09-01

    One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups. PMID:26404371

  19. A Review of Dietary Surveys in the Adult South African Population from 2000 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Mchiza, Zandile J.; Steyn, Nelia P.; Hill, Jillian; Kruger, Annamarie; Schönfeldt, Hettie; Nel, Johanna; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss

    2015-01-01

    One serious concern of health policymakers in South Africa is the fact that there is no national data on the dietary intake of adult South Africans. The only national dietary study was done in children in 1999. Hence, it becomes difficult to plan intervention and strategies to combat malnutrition without national data on adults. The current review consequently assessed all dietary studies in adults from 2000 to June 2015 in an attempt to portray typical adult dietary intakes and to assess possible dietary deficiencies. Notable findings were that, in South Africa micronutrient deficiencies are still highly prevalent and energy intakes varied between very low intakes in informal settlements to very high intakes in urban centers. The most commonly deficient food groups observed are fruit and vegetables, and dairy. This has been attributed to high prices and lack of availability of these food groups in poorer urban areas and townships. In rural areas, access to healthy foods also remains a problem. A national nutrition monitoring system is recommended in order to identify dietary deficiencies in specific population groups. PMID:26404371

  20. Characteristics of acute care utilization of a Delaware adult sickle cell disease patient population.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nina; Bellot, Jennifer; Senu-Oke, Oluseyi; Ballas, Samir K

    2014-02-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder that is chronic in nature and manifests itself through many facets of the patient's life. Comprehensive specialty centers have the potential to reduce health care costs and improve the quality of care for patients who have chronic medical conditions such as heart failure and SCD. The purpose of this practice inquiry was to analyze de-identified data for acute care episodes involving SCD in order to create a detailed picture of acute care utilization for adult patients in Delaware with SCD from 2007 to 2009. Gaining a better understanding of acute care utilization for adults with SCD may provide evidence to improve access to high-quality health care services for this vulnerable patient population in the state of Delaware. PMID:23965046

  1. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Sleep Disturbance in a Large HIV-Infected Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Allavena, C; Guimard, T; Billaud, E; De la Tullaye, S; Reliquet, V; Pineau, S; Hüe, H; Supiot, C; Chennebault, J-M; Michau, C; Hitoto, H; Vatan, R; Raffi, F

    2016-02-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluates the prevalence and factors associated with sleep disturbances in French adult HIV-infected outpatients. Patients fullfilled a self-administered questionnaire on their health behavior, sleep attitudes (Pittsburgh sleep quality index, PSQI), quality of life and depression; 1354 patients were enrolled. Median sleeping time was 7 h. Poor sleep quality was observed in 47 % of the patients, and moderate to serious depressive symptoms in 19.7 %. Factors significantly associated with sleep disturbances were depression, male gender, active employment, living single, tobacco-smoking, duration of HIV infection, nevirapine or efavirenz-including regimen. Prevalence of poor sleepers is high in this HIV adult outpatient population. Associated factors seem poorly specific to HIV infection and more related to social and psychological status. Taking care of these disturbances may prove to be an effective health management strategy. PMID:26271816

  2. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension among Saudi Adult Population: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Abdalla A.; Al-Hamdan, Nasser A.; Bahnassy, Ahmed A.; Abdalla, Abdelshakour M.; Abbas, Mostafa A. F.; Abuzaid, Lamiaa Z.

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed at estimating prevalence, awareness, treatment, control, and predictors of hypertension among Saudi adult population. Multistage stratified sampling was used to select 4758 adult participants. Three blood pressure measurements using an automatic sphygmomanometer, sociodemographics, and antihypertensive modalities were obtained. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 25.5%. Only 44.7% of hypertensives were aware, 71.8% of them received pharmacotherapy, and only 37.0% were controlled. Awareness was significantly associated with gender, age, geographical location, occupation, and comorbidity. Applying drug treatment was significantly more among older patients, but control was significantly higher among younger patients and patients with higher level of physical activity. Significant predictors of hypertension included male gender, urbanization, low education, low physical activity, obesity, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. In conclusion prevalence is high, but awareness, treatment, and control levels are low indicating a need to develop a national program for prevention, early detection, and control of hypertension. PMID:21912737

  3. Taxonomic Separation of Hippocampal Networks: Principal Cell Populations and Adult Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, R Maarten; Huang, Shih-Hui; Slomianka, Lutz; Amrein, Irmgard

    2016-01-01

    While many differences in hippocampal anatomy have been described between species, it is typically not clear if they are specific to a particular species and related to functional requirements or if they are shared by species of larger taxonomic units. Without such information, it is difficult to infer how anatomical differences may impact on hippocampal function, because multiple taxonomic levels need to be considered to associate behavioral and anatomical changes. To provide information on anatomical changes within and across taxonomic ranks, we present a quantitative assessment of hippocampal principal cell populations in 20 species or strain groups, with emphasis on rodents, the taxonomic group that provides most animals used in laboratory research. Of special interest is the importance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) in species-specific adaptations relative to other cell populations. Correspondence analysis of cell numbers shows that across taxonomic units, phylogenetically related species cluster together, sharing similar proportions of principal cell populations. CA3 and hilus are strong separators that place rodent species into a tight cluster based on their relatively large CA3 and small hilus while non-rodent species (including humans and non-human primates) are placed on the opposite side of the spectrum. Hilus and CA3 are also separators within rodents, with a very large CA3 and rather small hilar cell populations separating mole-rats from other rodents that, in turn, are separated from each other by smaller changes in the proportions of CA1 and granule cells. When adult neurogenesis is included, the relatively small populations of young neurons, proliferating cells and hilar neurons become main drivers of taxonomic separation within rodents. The observations provide challenges to the computational modeling of hippocampal function, suggest differences in the organization of hippocampal information streams in rodent and non-rodent species, and

  4. Taxonomic Separation of Hippocampal Networks: Principal Cell Populations and Adult Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, R. Maarten; Huang, Shih-Hui; Slomianka, Lutz; Amrein, Irmgard

    2016-01-01

    While many differences in hippocampal anatomy have been described between species, it is typically not clear if they are specific to a particular species and related to functional requirements or if they are shared by species of larger taxonomic units. Without such information, it is difficult to infer how anatomical differences may impact on hippocampal function, because multiple taxonomic levels need to be considered to associate behavioral and anatomical changes. To provide information on anatomical changes within and across taxonomic ranks, we present a quantitative assessment of hippocampal principal cell populations in 20 species or strain groups, with emphasis on rodents, the taxonomic group that provides most animals used in laboratory research. Of special interest is the importance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) in species-specific adaptations relative to other cell populations. Correspondence analysis of cell numbers shows that across taxonomic units, phylogenetically related species cluster together, sharing similar proportions of principal cell populations. CA3 and hilus are strong separators that place rodent species into a tight cluster based on their relatively large CA3 and small hilus while non-rodent species (including humans and non-human primates) are placed on the opposite side of the spectrum. Hilus and CA3 are also separators within rodents, with a very large CA3 and rather small hilar cell populations separating mole-rats from other rodents that, in turn, are separated from each other by smaller changes in the proportions of CA1 and granule cells. When adult neurogenesis is included, the relatively small populations of young neurons, proliferating cells and hilar neurons become main drivers of taxonomic separation within rodents. The observations provide challenges to the computational modeling of hippocampal function, suggest differences in the organization of hippocampal information streams in rodent and non-rodent species, and

  5. TSH levels are associated with vitamin D status and seasonality in an adult population of euthyroid adults.

    PubMed

    Barchetta, I; Baroni, M G; Leonetti, F; De Bernardinis, M; Bertoccini, L; Fontana, M; Mazzei, E; Fraioli, A; Cavallo, M G

    2015-08-01

    A circannual periodicity in thyrotropin (TSH) secretion has been reported but the causes of these phenomenon are still undefined. Vitamin D exerts a direct influence on pituitary axes including the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. Aims of the present study were to investigate the presence of a seasonal variability of TSH secretion and to study the association between vitamin D status and TSH levels in a population of euthyroid adults. For this purpose, we recruited 294 euthyroid adults (M/F 133/161, 48.5 ± 12.4 years). Study participants underwent clinical examination and routine biochemistry assessment. Vitamin D deficiency was diagnosed for serum 25(OH) vitamin D <25 nmol/l. Significantly higher TSH levels were found in subjects who underwent blood sampling during the Autumn-Winter compared with individuals evaluated in Spring-Summer (2.3 ± 1.3 vs. 1.8 ± 1.1 μIU/ml, p = 0.03). Vitamin D deficiency was strongly associated with higher TSH levels (p = 0.01) after adjusting for sex, age, and sample's season. Although vitamin D deficiency was also associated with metabolic syndrome and its components, the association between TSH levels and vitamin D status persisted also considering these confounders. These data reveal the occurrence of seasonal variability of serum TSH concentration in euthyroid subjects and provide evidence for the first time that an association exists between vitamin D status and serum TSH levels. PMID:24925636

  6. Recommendations for a Core Outcome Set for Measuring Standing Balance in Adult Populations: A Consensus-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Kathryn M.; Howe, Tracey; Lamb, Sarah E.; Lord, Stephen R.; Maki, Brian E.; Rose, Debra J.; Scott, Vicky; Stathokostas, Liza; Straus, Sharon E.; Jaglal, Susan B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Standing balance is imperative for mobility and avoiding falls. Use of an excessive number of standing balance measures has limited the synthesis of balance intervention data and hampered consistent clinical practice. Objective To develop recommendations for a core outcome set (COS) of standing balance measures for research and practice among adults. Methodology A combination of scoping reviews, literature appraisal, anonymous voting and face-to-face meetings with fourteen invited experts from a range of disciplines with international recognition in balance measurement and falls prevention. Consensus was sought over three rounds using pre-established criteria. Data sources The scoping review identified 56 existing standing balance measures validated in adult populations with evidence of use in the past five years, and these were considered for inclusion in the COS. Results Fifteen measures were excluded after the first round of scoring and a further 36 after round two. Five measures were considered in round three. Two measures reached consensus for recommendation, and the expert panel recommended that at a minimum, either the Berg Balance Scale or Mini Balance Evaluation Systems Test be used when measuring standing balance in adult populations. Limitations Inclusion of two measures in the COS may increase the feasibility of potential uptake, but poses challenges for data synthesis. Adoption of the standing balance COS does not constitute a comprehensive balance assessment for any population, and users should include additional validated measures as appropriate. Conclusions The absence of a gold standard for measuring standing balance has contributed to the proliferation of outcome measures. These recommendations represent an important first step towards greater standardization in the assessment and measurement of this critical skill and will inform clinical research and practice internationally. PMID:25768435

  7. Periodontal Diseases among the Adult Population of Georgia and the Impact of Socio-behavioral Factors on Their Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    TSITAISHVILI, Lela; KALANDADZE, Manana; MARGVELASHVILI, Vladimer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Georgia is a country with a Human Development Index (HDI) score of 0.733. Significant deterioration in socio-economic conditions in the 1990s caused serious health problems in the population including oral health. Since then, there has not been an epidemiological survey of dental diseases among the adult population in Georgia. Methods: The pathfinder survey- cluster- stratified method derived by WHO was used for sampling. Overall, 2370 adults including 1289 women and 1081 men in nine regions of Georgia including the residents of a city, town and village in each region and the capital, Tbilisi, were examined. Four age groups were investigated including: I- (20–34), II-(35–44), III-(45–64), IV- (65–74). Results: Unhealthy periodontal tissues were observed in 66.9% of men and in 57.5% of women. Bleeding on probing occurred in 44.9% of men and 37.2% of women, with periodontal pockets in 46.8% of men and 40.6% of women. Inflammation was seen in 61.2% of men and 54.8% of women. Healthy periodontal tissues were most common (59.2%) in the first age group (20–34); periodontal pockets (0–3mm) were least common (9.8%) at this age. Pockets of ≥4–5mm depth were observed mostly in the 3rd (9.4%) and 4th (10%) age groups. Conclusion: The high prevalence of periodontal diseases in the adult population of Georgia is explained by a low socio-economic status and low medical education background with a negative attitude towards oral hygiene skills and low levels of dental service accessibility. PMID:25905053

  8. Road-Traffic Noise: Annoyance, Risk Perception, and Noise Sensitivity in the Finnish Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Enembe Oku; Turunen, Anu W.; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Vartiainen, Anna-Kaisa; Tiittanen, Pekka; Lanki, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to road-traffic noise commonly engenders annoyance, the extent of which is determined by factors not fully understood. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of road-traffic noise annoyance and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population, while comparing the perceptions of road-traffic noise to exhausts as environmental health problems. Using a questionnaire that yielded responses from 1112 randomly selected adult Finnish respondents, we estimated road-traffic noise- and exhausts-related perceived exposures, health-risk perceptions, and self-reported annoyance on five-point scales, while noise sensitivity estimates were based on four questions. Determinants of noise annoyance and sensitivity were investigated using multivariate binary logistic regression and linear regression models, respectively. High or extreme noise annoyance was reported by 17% of respondents. Noise sensitivity scores approximated a Gaussian distribution. Road-traffic noise and exhausts were, respectively, considered high or extreme population-health risks by 22% and 27% of respondents. Knowledge of health risks from traffic noise, OR: 2.04 (1.09–3.82) and noise sensitivity, OR: 1.07 (1.00–1.14) were positively associated with annoyance. Knowledge of health risks (p < 0.045) and positive environmental attitudes (p < 000) were associated with higher noise sensitivity. Age and sex were associated with annoyance and sensitivity only in bivariate models. A considerable proportion of Finnish adults are highly annoyed by road-traffic noise, and perceive it to be a significant health risk, almost comparable to traffic exhausts. There is no distinct noise-sensitive population subgroup. Knowledge of health risks of road-traffic noise, and attitudinal variables are associated with noise annoyance and sensitivity. PMID:26016432

  9. Road-traffic noise: annoyance, risk perception, and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population.

    PubMed

    Okokon, Enembe Oku; Turunen, Anu W; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Vartiainen, Anna-Kaisa; Tiittanen, Pekka; Lanki, Timo

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to road-traffic noise commonly engenders annoyance, the extent of which is determined by factors not fully understood. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of road-traffic noise annoyance and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population, while comparing the perceptions of road-traffic noise to exhausts as environmental health problems. Using a questionnaire that yielded responses from 1112 randomly selected adult Finnish respondents, we estimated road-traffic noise- and exhausts-related perceived exposures, health-risk perceptions, and self-reported annoyance on five-point scales, while noise sensitivity estimates were based on four questions. Determinants of noise annoyance and sensitivity were investigated using multivariate binary logistic regression and linear regression models, respectively. High or extreme noise annoyance was reported by 17% of respondents. Noise sensitivity scores approximated a Gaussian distribution. Road-traffic noise and exhausts were, respectively, considered high or extreme population-health risks by 22% and 27% of respondents. Knowledge of health risks from traffic noise, OR: 2.04 (1.09-3.82) and noise sensitivity, OR: 1.07 (1.00-1.14) were positively associated with annoyance. Knowledge of health risks (p<0.045) and positive environmental attitudes (p<000) were associated with higher noise sensitivity. Age and sex were associated with annoyance and sensitivity only in bivariate models. A considerable proportion of Finnish adults are highly annoyed by road-traffic noise, and perceive it to be a significant health risk, almost comparable to traffic exhausts. There is no distinct noise-sensitive population subgroup. Knowledge of health risks of road-traffic noise, and attitudinal variables are associated with noise annoyance and sensitivity. PMID:26016432

  10. The Contributions of Phonological and Morphological Awareness to Literacy Skills in the Adult Basic Education Population.

    PubMed

    Fracasso, Lucille E; Bangs, Kathryn; Binder, Katherine S

    2016-01-01

    The Adult Basic Education (ABE) population consists of a wide range of abilities with needs that may be unique to this set of learners. The purpose of this study was to better understand the relative contributions of phonological decoding and morphological awareness to spelling, vocabulary, and comprehension across a sample of ABE students. In this study, phonological decoding was a unique predictor of spelling ability, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension. We also found that morphological awareness was a unique predictor of spelling ability, vocabulary, and listening comprehension. Morphological awareness indirectly contributed to reading comprehension through vocabulary. These findings suggest the need for morphological interventions for this group of learners. PMID:24935886

  11. Knowledge, attitudes and practices survey on organ donation among a selected adult population of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Taimur; Ishaque, Sidra; Habib, Nida; Hussain, Syedda Saadia; Jawed, Areeba; Khan, Aamir Ali; Ahmad, Muhammad Imran; Iftikhar, Mian Omer; Mughal, Hamza Pervez; Jehan, Imtiaz

    2009-01-01

    Background To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding organ donation in a selected adult population in Pakistan. Methods Convenience sampling was used to generate a sample of 440; 408 interviews were successfully completed and used for analysis. Data collection was carried out via a face to face interview based on a pre-tested questionnaire in selected public areas of Karachi, Pakistan. Data was analyzed using SPSS v.15 and associations were tested using the Pearson's Chi square test. Multiple logistic regression was used to find independent predictors of knowledge status and motivation of organ donation. Results Knowledge about organ donation was significantly associated with education (p = 0.000) and socioeconomic status (p = 0.038). 70/198 (35.3%) people expressed a high motivation to donate. Allowance of organ donation in religion was significantly associated with the motivation to donate (p = 0.000). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher level of education and higher socioeconomic status were significant (p < 0.05) independent predictors of knowledge status of organ donation. For motivation, multiple logistic regression revealed that higher socioeconomic status, adequate knowledge score and belief that organ donation is allowed in religion were significant (p < 0.05) independent predictors. Television emerged as the major source of information. Only 3.5% had themselves donated an organ; with only one person being an actual kidney donor. Conclusion Better knowledge may ultimately translate into the act of donation. Effective measures should be taken to educate people with relevant information with the involvement of media, doctors and religious scholars. PMID:19534793

  12. Socioeconomic status and obesity in adult populations of developing countries: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Carlos A.; Moura, Erly C.; Conde, Wolney L.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2004-01-01

    A landmark review of studies published prior to 1989 on socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity supported the view that obesity in the developing world would be essentially a disease of the socioeconomic elite. The present review, on studies conducted in adult populations from developing countries, published between 1989 and 2003, shows a different scenario for the relationship between SES and obesity. Although more studies are necessary to clarify the exact nature of this relationship, particularly among men, three main conclusions emerge from the studies reviewed: 1. Obesity in the developing world can no longer be considered solely a disease of groups with higher SES. 2. The burden of obesity in each developing country tends to shift towards the groups with lower SES as the country's gross national product (GNP) increases. 3. The shift of obesity towards women with low SES apparently occurs at an earlier stage of economic development than it does for men. The crossover to higher rates of obesity among women of low SES is found at a GNP per capita of about US$ 2500, the mid-point value for lower-middle-income economies. The results of this review reinforce the urgent need to: include obesity prevention as a relevant topic on the public health agenda in developing countries; improve the access of all social classes in these countries to reliable information on the determinants and consequences of obesity; and design and implement consistent public actions on the physical, economic, and sociocultural environment that make healthier choices concerning diet and physical activity feasible for all. A significant step in this direction was taken with the approval of the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health by the World Health Assembly in May 2004. PMID:15654409

  13. Dietary Choline and Betaine Intakes Vary in an Adult Multiethnic Population123

    PubMed Central

    Yonemori, Kim M.; Lim, Unhee; Koga, Karin R.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Au, Donna; Boushey, Carol J.; Le Marchand, Loïc; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Murphy, Suzanne P.

    2013-01-01

    Choline and betaine are important nutrients for human health, but reference food composition databases for these nutrients became available only recently. We tested the feasibility of using these databases to estimate dietary choline and betaine intakes among ethnically diverse adults who participated in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) Study. Of the food items (n = 965) used to quantify intakes for the MEC FFQ, 189 items were exactly matched with items in the USDA Database for the Choline Content of Common Foods for total choline, choline-containing compounds, and betaine, and 547 items were matched to the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference for total choline (n = 547) and 148 for betaine. When a match was not found, choline and betaine values were imputed based on the same food with a different form (124 food items for choline, 300 for choline compounds, 236 for betaine), a similar food (n = 98, 284, and 227, respectively) or the closest item in the same food category (n = 6, 191, and 157, respectively), or the values were assumed to be zero (n = 1, 1, and 8, respectively). The resulting mean intake estimates for choline and betaine among 188,147 MEC participants (aged 45–75) varied by sex (372 and 154 mg/d in men, 304 and 128 mg/d in women, respectively; P-heterogeneity < 0.0001) and by race/ethnicity among Caucasians, African Americans, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and Native Hawaiians (P-heterogeneity < 0.0001), largely due to the variation in energy intake. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of assessing choline and betaine intake and characterize the variation in intake that exists in a multiethnic population. PMID:23616508

  14. Population attributable fraction of type 2 diabetes due to physical inactivity in adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is a global pandemic. The population attributable fraction (PAF) of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) associated with physical inactivity ranges from 3% to 40%. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the best estimate of PAF for T2DM attributable to physical inactivity and absence of sport participation or exercise for men and women. Methods We conducted a systematic review that included a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, SportDiscus, and CINAHL (1946 to April 30 2013) limited by the terms adults and English. Two reviewers screened studies, extracted PAF related data and assessed the quality of the selected studies. We reconstructed 95% CIs for studies missing these data using a substitution method. Results Of the eight studies reporting PAF in T2DM, two studies included prospective cohort studies (3 total) and six were reviews. There were distinct variations in quality of defining and measuring physical inactivity, T2DM and adjusting for confounders. In the US, PAFs for absence of playing sport ranged from 13% (95% CI: 3, 22) in men and 29% (95% CI: 17, 41) in women. In Finland, PAFs for absence of exercise ranged from 3% (95% CI: -11, 16) in men to 7% (95% CI: -9, 20) in women. Conclusions The PAF of physical inactivity due to T2DM is substantial. Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for T2DM. The contribution of physical inactivity to T2DM differs by sex; PAF also differs if physical inactivity is defined as the absence of ‘sport’ or absence of ‘exercise’. PMID:24885278

  15. Use of Public Oral Health Services by the Adult Population: A Multilevel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background It is important to assess context to explain inequalities in oral health, particularly with regard to the type of service used; thus, this study aimed to identify the social determinants of public dental service use by adults and to assess whether, beyond the level individual, existing inequalities are also expressed in the context in which individuals are embedded. Methods A multilevel analysis with three levels of aggregation of variables was performed. The individual variables were derived from the database of the SB Minas Gerais project—a survey of oral health status of the population of Minas Gerais, a state of the Brazilian Southeast region. The variable at the neighborhood level came from the Census of 2010. The variables at the municipal level were obtained from available public databases relating to oral health services. At the municipal level, the Human Development Index (HDI) variable was chosen to represent quality of life in the municipalities. Results In the final model, the following individual variables were associated with greater use of public dental services: lower income (PR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.53; 2.58), higher number of residents at home (PR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.11; 1.68) and higher number of teeth requiring treatment (PR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.20; 1.84). With regard to context variables, a poorer infrastructure (PR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.40; 0.96) leads to a lower use of public services. Conclusion The use of public services is associated with family income, how this income is divided in households, the need for treatment presented by the individual and the organization of the existing oral health service infrastructure in the municipality. PMID:26730714

  16. Quetiapine use in adults in the community: a population-based study in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Diane; Cooke, Lara; Symonds, Chris; Gardner, David; Pringsheim, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate trends in prescribing of the second-generation antipsychotic medication quetiapine to adults in the province of Alberta from 2008 to 2013 through examination of dispensed prescriptions, and diagnoses associated with users of quetiapine in 2013. Methods We analysed administrative data from Alberta Health; the Alberta Pharmaceutical Information Network (PIN) Dispenses health data set, the Practitioner Payments (Fee-For-Service claims) health data set and the Population Registry health data set. These data sets allowed us to identify discrete quetiapine recipients for each calendar year from 2008 to 2013. To evaluate diagnoses associated with users of quetiapine, we evaluated diagnostic codes used by physicians in billings claims in 2013. Results Quetiapine use increased over the 6-year time period studied. In 2008, there were 16 087 unique quetiapine recipients in Alberta (7.2 per 1000). By 2013, there were 35 314 unique quetiapine recipients (13.3 per 1000). Use by women was higher than men at all time points. Depression was most common diagnosis associated with quetiapine recipients, which was present in 56% of users of quetiapine. Other common diagnoses associated with quetiapine use included neurotic disorders, bipolar disorder and sleep disturbances. Conclusions The current study of quetiapine use in the province of Alberta provides confirmatory data of the increasing use of quetiapine for the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. Safe and rational prescribing practices must be encouraged in light of the modest advantages of quetiapine over no treatment as an adjunctive treatment of major depression, and the known harms of this medication. PMID:27000788

  17. Self-perception of oral health in older adults from an urban population in Lisbon, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Catarina; Manso, Ana Cristina; Escoval, Ana; Salvado, Francisco; Nunes, Carla

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if the self-perception of oral health in the urban context is associated with sociodemographic factors that interfere in the life quality of oral health. METHODS Cross-sectional study with convenience sample of older individuals (65 years old or more) enrolled in the Agrupamento de Centros de Saúde de Lisboa Norte (ACES Lisboa Norte – Health Centers Groupings North Lisbon). The self-perception of oral health and associated life quality was evaluated by the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index and the individuals were classified according to sociodemographic characteristics. The internal consistency of the questionnaire was evaluated by Cronbach’s alpha (α). Later, we used binary logistic regression models to characterize the factors associated with the self-perception of oral health, considering the sociodemographic variables and the older adults’ clinical conditions of oral health and establishing the crude and adjusted (to age) odds ratios and their 90% confidence intervals. RESULTS A total of 369 older adults participated in this study, with an average age of 74.2 years (SD = 6.75); 62.9% were female. On average, the index was moderated, with tendency to be high: 32.9 (SD = 3.6; 12-36 interval). The Cronbach’s alpha was high: 0.805. Age, marital status, and the last dental appointment were the factors significantly associated with self-perception of oral health. CONCLUSIONS The study shows that these individuals have a moderate, with tendency to high, self-perception of oral health. The self-perception of oral health assessment allowed us to identify the main associated sociodemographic factors. This instrument can help guiding planning strategies and oral health promotion directed toward a better life quality for this population group. PMID:27556967

  18. Anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies in an adult healthy population: serosurvey and risk factors in Southeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Elaine Cristina; Santarém, Vamilton Alvares; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Giuffrida, Rogério

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the frequency of anti-Toxocara spp. antibodies in an adult healthy population. Methods The study was performed by interviewing 253 blood donors, from 19 to 65 years of age, in a hematological centre in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, southeast Brazil. A survey was applied to blood donors in order to evaluate the possible factors associated to the presence of antibodies, including individual (gender and age), socioeconomic (scholarship, familial income and sanitary facilities) and habit information (contact with soil, geophagy, onycophagy and intake of raw/undercooked meat) as well as the presence of dogs or cats in the household. ELISA test was run for detection of the anti-Toxocara spp. IgG antibodies. Bivariate analysis followed by logistic regression was performed to evaluate the potential risk factors associated to seropositivity. Results The overall prevalence observed in this study was 8.7% (22/253). Contact with soil was the unique risk factor associated with the presence of antibodies (P=0.017 8; OR=3.52; 95% CI=1.244-9.995). Conclusions The results of this study reinforce the necessity in promoting preventive public health measures, even for healthy adult individual, particularly those related to the deworming of pets to avoid the soil contamination, and hygiene education of the population. PMID:23620840

  19. Persistence of an extreme male-biased adult sex ratio in a natural population of polyandrous bird.

    PubMed

    Kosztolányi, A; Barta, Z; Küpper, C; Székely, T

    2011-08-01

    In a number of insects, fishes and birds, the conventional sex roles are reversed: males are the main care provider, whereas females focus on matings. The reversal of typical sex roles is an evolutionary puzzle, because it challenges the foundations of sex roles, sexual selection and parental investment theory. Recent theoretical models predict that biased parental care may be a response to biased adult sex ratios (ASRs). However, estimating ASR is challenging in natural populations, because males and females often have different detectabilities. Here, we use demographic modelling with field data from 2101 individuals, including 579 molecularly sexed offspring, to provide evidence that ASR is strongly male biased in a polyandrous bird with male-biased care. The model predicts 6.1 times more adult males than females (ASR=0.860, proportion of males) in the Kentish plover Charadrius alexandrinus. The extreme male bias is consistent between years and concordant with experimental results showing strongly biased mating opportunity towards females. Based on these results, we conjecture that parental sex-role reversal may occur in populations that exhibit extreme male-biased ASR. PMID:21749544

  20. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results From the National Young Adult Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method We examined risk perception responses among a nationally representative sample of young adults (age 18-34 years; n = 2,871, including tobacco and non-tobacco users) from the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey. Results Most (57.8%) respondents believed that e-cigarettes were less risky than cigarettes. Respondents were more likely to rate combustible products hookah (24.5%) and cigars (13.9%) as being less risky compared to noncombustible snus (10%) and other smokeless tobacco (SLT) products (7.1%) relative to cigarettes. Few (2.5%) rated menthol cigarettes as less risky. For e-cigarettes, hookah, and SLT, less risky beliefs were significantly higher among ever or current versus never product users. Between 22% and 33% of all respondents believed that SLT, snus, menthol cigarettes, and cigars were more risky than cigarettes, but differences in this belief between current and nonusers of these products were small and insignificant. Younger young adults were more likely to rate e-cigarettes and hookah as being "less risky" and rate cigars and SLT as being "more risky" than older young adults. Conclusion The public's views of comparative tobacco risk perceptions vary widely by tobacco product type and age-group. While "less risky" perceptions may be associated with product use, perceptions that products are "more risky" than cigarettes may not necessarily dissuade people from their use. PMID:26304709

  1. Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative Approaches for Motivating Activity in Sedentary Adults: Results of Project STRIDE

    PubMed Central

    Sevick, Mary Ann; Napolitano, Melissa A.; Papandonatos, George D.; Gordon, Adam J.; Reiser, Lorraine M.; Marcus, Bess H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of non face-to-face interventions for increasing physical activity in sedentary adults. The study took place in Providence, Rhode Island between the years 2000 and 2004. Methods 239 participants were randomized to: Phone, Print, or a contact control. Phone and Print groups were mailed regular surveys regarding their level of physical activity, motivational readiness and self-efficacy. Surveys were scanned by a computer expert system to generate feedback reports. Phone group participants received feedback by telephone. Print group participants received feedback by mail. The contact control group received mailings unrelated to physical activity. Intervention costs were assessed prospectively, from a payer perspective. Physical activity was measured using the Physical Activity Recall. Ambulatory health service use was assessed via monthly surveys. Results The Print intervention was more economically efficient than the Phone intervention in engaging participants in a more active lifestyle. Conclusion The Print intervention provides an efficient approach to increasing physical activity. Research is needed to determine the cost-effectiveness of the intervention in a more diverse population, within the context of the health service delivery system, and over a longer period of time. PMID:17573103

  2. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in the older population: results from the multiple national studies on ageing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Qian, Dongfu; Hu, Dan

    2016-02-01

    The international comparisons that provided useful epidemiologic information of hypertension in the elderly people is still sparse; we aim to provide the latest international estimates on the burden of hypertension. These sampling methods of the selection of surveys mainly used multistage population registry; this cross-national study of 63,014 adults aged ≥50 years was from in four high-income countries, four upper-middle-income countries (UMICs), and three low-middle-income countries (LMICs). Overall, the age-standardized prevalence of hypertension among the adult population aged ≥50 years was 53.2% (51.9% of men and 54.3% of women). The high-income countries and UMICs had more or less twice the prevalence of hypertension compare with LMICs. The rates of awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension were 55.6%, 44.1%, and 17.1%, respectively, and awareness and control of hypertension were lowest in UMICs and treatment of hypertension was lowest in LMICs. Among this multiple national study population, hypertension was very common among elderly population. Even more worrisome is that the rates of awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension were relatively low in UMICs and IMICs. These results indicate that improving the ability to control and prevention of hypertension in resource-limited settings is needed. PMID:26778770

  3. Utility of telephone survey methods in population-based health studies of older adults: an example from the Alberta Older Adult Health Behavior (ALERT) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Random digit dialing is often used in public health research initiatives to accrue and establish a study sample; however few studies have fully described the utility of this approach. The primary objective of this paper was to describe the implementation and utility of using random digit dialing and Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) for sampling, recruitment and data collection in a large population-based study of older adults [Alberta Older Adult Health Behavior (ALERT) study]. Methods Using random digit dialing, older adults (> = 55 years) completed health behavior and outcome and demographic measures via CATI. After completing the CATI, participants were invited to receive a step pedometer and waist circumference tape measure via mail to gather objectively derived ambulatory activity and waist circumference assessments. Results Overall, 36,000 telephone numbers were called of which 7,013 were deemed eligible for the study. Of those, 4,913 (70.1%) refused to participate in the study and 804 (11.4%) participants were not included due to a variety of call dispositions (e.g., difficult to reach, full quota for region). A total of 1,296 participants completed telephone interviews (18.5% of those eligible and 3.6% of all individuals approached). Overall, 22.8% of households did not have an age 55+ resident and 13.6% of individuals refused to participate, Average age was 66.5 years, and 43% were male. A total of 1,081 participants (83.4%) also submitted self-measured ambulatory activity (i.e., via step pedometer) and anthropometric data (i.e., waist circumference). With the exception of income (18.7%), the rate of missing data for demographics, health behaviors, and health measures was minimal (<1%). Conclusions Older adults are willing to participate in telephone-based health surveys when randomly contacted. Researchers can use this information to evaluate the feasibility and the logistics of planned studies using a similar population

  4. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Michael W.; Griffith, Leslie C.; Vecsey, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of population densities throughout larval development, kept them isolated during early adulthood, and then tested their sleep patterns. Our findings reveal that flies that had been isolated as larvae had more fragmented sleep than those that had been raised at higher population densities. This effect was more prominent in females than in males. Larval population density did not affect sleep in female flies that were mutant for amnesiac, which has been shown to be required for normal memory consolidation, adult sleep regulation, and brain development. In contrast, larval population density effects on sleep persisted in female flies lacking the olfactory receptor or83b, suggesting that olfactory signals are not required for the effects of larval population density on adult sleep. These findings show that population density during early development can alter sleep behavior in adulthood, suggesting that genetic and/or structural changes are induced by this developmental manipulation that persist through metamorphosis. PMID:25116571

  5. Melanoma in children, adolescents, and young adults: a clinical pathological study in a Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Paula C F; Noda, Aliene Y I; Franco, Dilcilea D G S; Lourenço, Silvia V; Sangueza, Martin; Neto, Cyro F

    2014-08-01

    Malignant melanoma in children, adolescents, and young adults is unusual, especially before puberty. In children (age, 0-14 years), most primary lesions are thick and atypical (amelanotic, simulating pyogenic granuloma). In the population of adolescents and young adults (age, 15-39 years), melanoma is the third most common cancer, only behind lymphoma and breast cancer. Our study investigated the records of 89 patients diagnosed with cutaneous melanoma at age 0-39 years at Hospital das Clínicas, Medical School, University of São Paulo between 1992 and 2002. They were divided into group A (0-14 years of age) and group B (15-39 years of age). The histopathology of all cases was reexamined. Statistical analysis of the data presented was performed, and the obtained data were compared with the literature. The frequency of melanoma in the group aged 15-39 years was higher in women, and the most affected site was the trunk. Additionally, melanomas were more frequent at an earlier age in patients with family history of melanoma (P = 0.014). Most cases were diagnosed, at histopathology, as superficial spreading melanoma. Thick nodular melanomas with Breslow values higher than 2 mm were associated with lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). Our study revealed that melanoma in children, adolescents, and young adults may present peculiar behavior and outcome, which might reflect the genetic and yet not fully unraveled pathogenesis of this complex disease. PMID:25051040

  6. A population pharmacokinetic approach to describe cephalexin disposition in adult and aged dogs.

    PubMed

    Prados, Ana Paula; Schaiquevich, Paula; Kreil, Verónica; Monfrinotti, Agustina; Quaine, Pamela; Tarragona, Lisa; Hallu, Ruben; Rebuelto, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to characterize the pharmacokinetics of orally administered cephalexin to healthy adult and aged dogs, using a population pharmacokinetic approach. Two hundred and eighty-six cephalexin plasma concentrations obtained from previous pharmacokinetic studies were used. Sex, age, pharmaceutical formulation, and breed were evaluated as covariates. A one-compartment model with an absorption lag-time (Tlag) best described the data. The final model included age (adult; aged) on apparent volume of distribution (Vd/F), apparent elimination rate (ke/F), and Tlag; sex (female; male) on ke/F, and breed (Beagle; mixed-breed) on Vd/F. Addition of the covariates to the model explained 78% of the interindividal variability (IIV) in Vd/F, 36% in ke/F, and 24% in Tlag, respectively. Formulation did not affect the variability of any of the pharmacokinetic parameters. Tlag was longer, whereas Vd/F and ke/F were lower in aged compared to adult animals; in female aged dogs ke/F was lower than in male aged dogs; however, the differences were of low magnitude. Different disposition of cephalexin may be expected in aged dogs. PMID:25431741

  7. A Population Pharmacokinetic Approach to Describe Cephalexin Disposition in Adult and Aged Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Prados, Ana Paula; Kreil, Verónica; Monfrinotti, Agustina; Quaine, Pamela; Tarragona, Lisa; Hallu, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to characterize the pharmacokinetics of orally administered cephalexin to healthy adult and aged dogs, using a population pharmacokinetic approach. Two hundred and eighty-six cephalexin plasma concentrations obtained from previous pharmacokinetic studies were used. Sex, age, pharmaceutical formulation, and breed were evaluated as covariates. A one-compartment model with an absorption lag-time (Tlag) best described the data. The final model included age (adult; aged) on apparent volume of distribution (Vd/F), apparent elimination rate (ke/F), and Tlag; sex (female; male) on ke/F, and breed (Beagle; mixed-breed) on Vd/F. Addition of the covariates to the model explained 78% of the interindividal variability (IIV) in Vd/F, 36% in ke/F, and 24% in Tlag, respectively. Formulation did not affect the variability of any of the pharmacokinetic parameters. Tlag was longer, whereas Vd/F and ke/F were lower in aged compared to adult animals; in female aged dogs ke/F was lower than in male aged dogs; however, the differences were of low magnitude. Different disposition of cephalexin may be expected in aged dogs. PMID:25431741

  8. Obesity, metabolic health, and mortality in adults: a nationwide population-based study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hae Kyung; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Park, Yong-Moon; Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Kang, Moo-Il; Cha, Bong-Yun; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    BMI, metabolic health status, and their interactions should be considered for estimating mortality risk; however, the data are controversial and unknown in Asians. We aimed to investigate this issue in Korean population. Total 323175 adults were followed-up for 96 (60-120) (median [5-95%]) months in a nationwide population-based cohort study. Participants were classified as "obese" (O) or "non-obese" (NO) using a BMI cut-off of 25 kg/m(2). People who developed ≥1 metabolic disease component (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia) in the index year were considered "metabolically unhealthy" (MU), while those with none were considered "metabolically healthy" (MH). The MUNO group had a significantly higher risk of all-cause (hazard ratio, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.21-1.35]) and cardiovascular (1.88 [1.63-2.16]) mortality, whereas the MHO group had a lower mortality risk (all-cause: 0.81 [0.74-0.88]), cardiovascular: 0.73 [0.57-0.95]), compared to the MHNO group. A similar pattern was noted for cancer and other-cause mortality. Metabolically unhealthy status was associated with higher risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality regardless of BMI levels, and there was a dose-response relationship between the number of incident metabolic diseases and mortality risk. In conclusion, poor metabolic health status contributed more to mortality than high BMI did, in Korean adults. PMID:27445194

  9. Sex-Ratio and Gender Differences in Depression in an Unselected Adult Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgart, E. P.; Oliver, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    Neither sex-ratio nor gender differences in depression were found in adult sample, similar to pattern found among university students. No demographic variable was correlated significantly with depression. Suggests results may be due to the elimination of face-to-face interviews, which expose males to greater negative repercussions for exhibiting…

  10. Adult Cancer Risk Behaviors Associated with Adverse Childhood Experiences in a Low Income Population in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Mouton, Charles P.; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Liu, Jianguo; Fadeyi, Saudat; Blot, William J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) can affect health in adulthood. We investigate the relationship between childhood experiences and adult cancer risk and screening behaviors in a racially diverse, low income population. Methods Nearly 22,000 adults 40 years and older in the Southern Community Cohort Study were administered the ACE questionnaire. We estimated odds ratios (OR) for the prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI and five cancer screening methods in relation to the ACE score. Results Over half reported at least one ACE, with percentages higher for women (61%) than men (53%). Higher ACE scores were related to increased prevalence of smoking (ORs 1.25 (1.05–1.50) to 2.33 (1.96–2.77). Little association was seen between rising ACE score and alcohol consumption or BMI, except for a modest trend in morbid obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2). Mammography and cervical cancer screening decreased with rising ACE scores, but no trends were seen with prostate or colorectal cancer screening. Conclusions Adverse childhood experiences are strong predictors of adult cancer risk behaviors, particularly increased likelihood of smoking, and among women, lower mammography and Pap screening rates. PMID:27168716

  11. Prevalence of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Coinfections in an Adult HIV Centre Population in Gaborone, Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Premal; Davis, Stephanie; Tolle, Michael; Mabikwa, Vincent; Anabwani, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C coinfections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -infected adults at an HIV center in Gaborone, Botswana. A retrospective review was performed of charts of currently active HIV-infected adult patients in the Family Model Clinic (FMC) of the Botswana-Baylor Children's Clinical Center of Excellence (BCOE) in Gaborone, Botswana, for the results of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antihepatitis C IgG tests performed between January 1, 2005 and December 15, 2009. Of 308 active FMC patients, 266 underwent HBsAg serology testing within the period of study. The HBsAg coinfection prevalence was 5.3% (14/266); 2 of 252 patients had at least one positive antihepatitis C IgG serology, a 0.8% prevalence. Hepatitis B coinfection is relatively common in HIV-infected adults at our center in Botswana, whereas hepatitis C coinfection is rare. In this setting, where the diagnosis of hepatitis B coinfection with HIV has implications for choice of first-line antiretroviral therapy and prevention of perinatal hepatitis B transmission, broader sampling to establish the true population prevalence of hepatitis B coinfection and the desirability of adding screening to HIV management should be considered. These findings provide little justification for adding hepatitis C coinfection screening to the management of HIV infection in Botswana. PMID:21813864

  12. Prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C coinfections in an adult HIV centre population in Gaborone, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Patel, Premal; Davis, Stephanie; Tolle, Michael; Mabikwa, Vincent; Anabwani, Gabriel

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C coinfections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -infected adults at an HIV center in Gaborone, Botswana. A retrospective review was performed of charts of currently active HIV-infected adult patients in the Family Model Clinic (FMC) of the Botswana-Baylor Children's Clinical Center of Excellence (BCOE) in Gaborone, Botswana, for the results of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antihepatitis C IgG tests performed between January 1, 2005 and December 15, 2009. Of 308 active FMC patients, 266 underwent HBsAg serology testing within the period of study. The HBsAg coinfection prevalence was 5.3% (14/266); 2 of 252 patients had at least one positive antihepatitis C IgG serology, a 0.8% prevalence. Hepatitis B coinfection is relatively common in HIV-infected adults at our center in Botswana, whereas hepatitis C coinfection is rare. In this setting, where the diagnosis of hepatitis B coinfection with HIV has implications for choice of first-line antiretroviral therapy and prevention of perinatal hepatitis B transmission, broader sampling to establish the true population prevalence of hepatitis B coinfection and the desirability of adding screening to HIV management should be considered. These findings provide little justification for adding hepatitis C coinfection screening to the management of HIV infection in Botswana. PMID:21813864

  13. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Adult Asperger Assessment: the association of symptom domains within a clinical population.

    PubMed

    Kuenssberg, Renate; McKenzie, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a behaviourally defined disorder characterised by impairments in three domains of social interaction, communication, and repetitive, stereotyped behaviours and activities. Proposed changes to diagnostic criteria suggest that the diagnostic triad may no longer fit as the best way to conceptualise ASD, and that social and communication impairments should be considered as a single domain. The aim of this study was to examine the structure of symptom domains within the Adult Asperger Assessment (AAA; Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Robinson, & Woodbury-Smith, 2005), a diagnostic tool for high functioning adults. As theoretical models already exist, confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine data from a clinical population of adults (n = 153) diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and High Functioning Autism (HFA). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to fit different models based on the structure proposed by the authors of the AAA, the traditional triad and the newly proposed diagnostic dyad. Analysis suggested that none of the tested models were a good fit on the AAA dataset. However, it did highlight very high correlations between social and communication factors (r > 0.9) within unmodified models. The results of the analysis provide tentative support for the move towards considering ASD as a dyad of 'social-communication' impairments and repetitive/restricted interests behaviours and activities, rather than the traditional triad. PMID:21831593

  14. Mortality Resulting From Congenital Heart Disease Among Children and Adults in the United States, 1999 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Salemi, Jason L.; Nembhard, Wendy N.; Fixler, David E.; Correa, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous reports suggest that mortality resulting from congenital heart disease (CHD) among infants and young children has been decreasing. There is little population-based information on CHD mortality trends and patterns among older children and adults. Methods and Results We used data from death certificates filed in the United States from 1999 to 2006 to calculate annual CHD mortality by age at death, race-ethnicity, and sex. To calculate mortality rates for individuals ≥1 year of age, population counts from the US Census were used in the denominator; for infant mortality, live birth counts were used. From 1999 to 2006, there were 41 494 CHD-related deaths and 27 960 deaths resulting from CHD (age-standardized mortality rates, 1.78 and 1.20 per 100 000, respectively). During this period, mortality resulting from CHD declined 24.1% overall. Mortality resulting from CHD significantly declined among all race-ethnicities studied. However, disparities persisted; overall and among infants, mortality resulting from CHD was consistently higher among non-Hispanic blacks compared with non-Hispanic whites. Infant mortality accounted for 48.1% of all mortality resulting from CHD; among those who survived the first year of life, 76.1% of deaths occurred during adulthood (≥18 years of age). Conclusions CHD mortality continued to decline among both children and adults; however, differences between race-ethnicities persisted. A large proportion of CHD-related mortality occurred during infancy, although significant CHD mortality occurred during adulthood, indicating the need for adult CHD specialty management. PMID:21098447

  15. Prevalence of Serum Celiac Antibodies in a Multiracial Asian Population-A First Study in the Young Asian Adult Population of Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Theresa Wan-Chen; Chan, Weng-Kai; Leow, Alex Hwong-Ruey; Azmi, Ahmad Najib; Loke, Mun-Fai; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2015-01-01

    Background Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disorder induced by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible persons. The prevalence of CD in Malaysia is unknown. We aim to determine the seroprevalence of CD antibodies and also investigate the correlation between H. pylori infection and CD in the young and healthy multiracial Malaysian population. Methods Healthy young adult volunteers between the ages of 18–30 years were consecutively recruited from June 2012 to May 2014 at the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur. Serum samples from all the participants were tested for anti-gliadin antibody immunoglobulin A/immunoglobulin G (IgA/IgG) and anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody (tTG) IgA/IgG. Samples positive for both anti-gliadin and anti-tTG were further validated for anti-human endomysial IgA antibodies (EmA). Serological diagnosis of CD was made when anti-gliadin, anti-tTG and anti-EmA were positive. Results 562 qualified participants with mean age 24 ± 2.4 years old were recruited into our study. CD was found in 7 participants where most of them were asymptomatic and unaware of their CD status. The median of anti-gliadin and anti-tTG IgA/IgG value was 38.2 U/ml (interquartile range, 28.3–60.4 U/ml) and 49.2 U/ml (interquartile range, 41.1–65.9 U/ml), respectively. Seroprevalence of CD antibodies was 1.9% (6 out of 324) in female while only 0.4% (1 out of 238) in male. Seroprevalence among Malay was 0.8% (2 of 236), Chinese was 1.7% (3 of 177) and Indian was 1.3% (2 of 149). Overall, seroprevalence of CD antibodies in healthy asymptomatic adults in the Malaysian population was 1.25% (95% CI, 0.78%-1.72%). No significant relationship was discovered between CD and H. pylori infection. Conclusions The seroprevalence of CD antibodies in healthy young adults in the Malaysian population was 1.25% (1 in 100). CD is underdiagnosed and it could be a much greater problem in Malaysia than previously thought. PMID:25799401

  16. Retinal Microvasculature Is Associated With Long-Term Survival in the General Adult Dutch Population.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Unal; Ikram, M Kamran; Wolters, Frank J; Hofman, Albert; Klaver, Caroline C W; Ikram, M Arfan

    2016-02-01

    Retinal vascular diameters are associated with (sub)clinical cardiovascular disease and short-term cardiovascular mortality, but their association with long-term mortality is uncertain. We studied the association of retinal vascular diameters with cause-specific mortality in the general adult Dutch population during 25 years of follow-up. From 1990 to 1993, arteriolar and venular diameters were measured semiautomatically on digitized images in 5674 persons (mean age 68.0 years, 59% women) from the population-based Rotterdam study. Follow-up for mortality was complete till March 2015. Associations between vascular diameters and mortality were examined using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, and the fellow vessel diameter. During 85 770 person-years (mean±SD: 15.1±6.67), 3794 (66.8%) persons died, of whom 1034 due to cardiovascular causes. We found that narrower arterioles and wider venules were associated with higher risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] per SD decrease 1.04 [1.00-1.08] and increase 1.07 [1.03-1.12], respectively). For arterioles, these associations were strongest for cardiovascular mortality, whereas venules showed consistent associations for cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality. Importantly, these associations remained unchanged after excluding the first 10 years of follow-up as immortal person-time. We found evidence for effect modification with stronger associations in persons <70 years (venules only) and smokers (P value for interaction<0.01). We replicated our findings in another independent cohort from the Rotterdam Study of 3106 persons with 19 880 person-years of follow-up and 144 deaths (hazard ratio for venules 1.22 [1.00-1.49]). Markers of retinal microvasculature are associated with long-term mortality in the general adult Dutch population. PMID:26628677

  17. Comparing Two Questionnaires for Eliciting CAM Use in a Multi-Ethnic US Population of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Ip, Edward H.; Saldana, Santiago; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The NAFKAM International CAM Questionnaire (I-CAM-Q) was designed to facilitate cross-study comparisons of CAM usage. This research presents the first empirical study of the I-CAM-Q’s performance. Materials and Methods Data were collected in two studies in a multi-ethnic (African American, American Indian, and white) population of older adults in the US. In 2010, 564 adults 60+ years were recruited. The I-CAM-Q was interviewer-administered. Data were compared to those collected in 2002 from a random sample of 701 Medicare recipients 65+ years. The 2002 survey included an extensive inventory of specific CAM therapies derived from local ethnographic research. Comparisons of the responses for 14 CAM modalities common to the two studies used logistic regression adjusted for demographics. Results There were no significant differences between the 2002 and 2010 surveys in the proportions reporting 10 modalities, including use of chiropractors, homeopaths, acupuncturists, herbalists, spiritual healers, vitamins, minerals, homeopathic remedies, Qigong, visualization, and prayer for health. Significantly less use of physicians and more use of relaxation techniques were reported in 2010. Herb use and garlic, as a specific herb, were reported significantly less in 2010. Conclusions Overall, the I-CAM-Q obtained results similar to those produced by a population-specific questionnaire. Those differences observed appear to reflect differences in the studies’ inclusion criteria or secular trends in CAM. This study supports the intention of the I-CAM-Q to substitute for local and regional surveys in order to allow cross-study comparisons of CAM use. Further tests, preferably through contemporaneous data collection are needed in other populations. PMID:22792131

  18. Acrolein and Asthma Attack Prevalence in a Representative Sample of the United States Adult Population 2000 – 2009

    PubMed Central

    deCastro, B. Rey

    2014-01-01

    Background Acrolein is an air toxic and highly potent respiratory irritant. There is little epidemiology available, but US EPA estimates that outdoor acrolein is responsible for about 75 percent of non-cancer respiratory health effects attributable to air toxics in the United States, based on the Agency's 2005 NATA (National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment) and acrolein's comparatively potent inhalation reference concentration of 0.02 µg/m3. Objectives Assess the association between estimated outdoor acrolein exposure and asthma attack reported by a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. Methods NATA 2005 chronic outdoor acrolein exposure estimates at the census tract were linked with residences oif adults (≥18 years old) in the NHIS (National Health Interview Survey) 2000 – 2009 (n = 271,348 subjects). A sample-weighted logistic regression model characterized the association between the prevalence of reporting at least one asthma attack in the 12 months prior to survey interview and quintiles of exposure to outdoor acrolein, controlling for potential confounders. Results In the highest quintile of outdoor acrolein exposure (0.05 – 0.46 µg/m3), there was a marginally significant increase in the asthma attack pOR (prevalence-odds ratio [95% CI]  = 1.08 [0.98∶1.19]) relative to the lowest quintile. The highest quintile was also associated with a marginally significant increase in prevalence-odds (1.13 [0.98∶1.29]) in a model limited to never smokers (n = 153,820). Conclusions Chronic exposure to outdoor acrolein of 0.05 – 0.46 µg/m3 appears to increase the prevalence-odds of having at least one asthma attack in the previous year by 8 percent in a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. PMID:24816802

  19. Urinary Dialkyl Phosphate Concentrations and Lung Function Parameters in Adolescents and Adults: Results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between lung function parameters and organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposures in agricultural occupations, but to our knowledge associations have not been evaluated in general populations. Objectives: We examined associations between OP metabolite dialkyl phosphates (DAPs) and lung function using data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Cycle 1. Methods: Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FEF25%–75%) were measured for 4,446 CHMS participants. Urinary concentrations of six DAP metabolites (DMP, DMTP, DMDTP, DEP, DETP, and DEDTP), smoking status, and other predictors of lung function were also measured in the CHMS-Cycle 1. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between total DAP concentrations (ΣDAPs) and lung function in adolescents (12–19 years) and adults (20–79 years). Results: In adults, estimates from multiple regression analyses suggested that a 1-unit increase on natural logarithmic scale (171% increase on the original scale) in the creatinine-corrected urinary concentration (nanomoles per gram creatinine) of ΣDAP was associated with a 32.6-mL (95% CI: –57.2, –8.1) reduction in FVC, 32.6-mL (95% CI: –59.0, –6.3) reduction in FEV1, 0.2% (95% CI: –0.6, 0.2) reduction in FEV1/FVC ratio, and 53.1-mL/sec (95% CI: –113.9, 7.7) reduction in FEF25%–75%. In adolescents, associations between ΣDAP and FEV1 were closer to the null and positive for FVC, whereas associations with FEV1/FVC and FEF25%–75% were negative, as in adults. However, none of the associations were significant in adolescents. Conclusions: The negative association between ΣDAP and lung function in adult participants suggests a detrimental effect of OP pesticides on lung function in the adult general population. Further studies using prospective designs are

  20. Treatment of chronic hepatitis C in a Canadian Aboriginal population: Results from the PRAIRIE study

    PubMed Central

    Minuk, Gerald Yosel; O’Brien, Meaghan; Hawkins, Kim; Emokpare, Didi; McHattie, James; Harris, Paul; Worobetz, Lawrence; Doucette, Karen; Kaita, Kelly; Wong, Stephen; Pinette, Gilles; Uhanova, Julia

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Aboriginal population of Canada is at increased risk of exposure to the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Previous data indicate that spontaneous clearance of HCV occurs more often in Aboriginals than Caucasians. Whether this enhanced response extends to antiviral therapy for chronic HCV remains to be determined. OBJECTIVES: To document and compare the biochemical and virological responses to antiviral therapy in HCV-infected Canadian Aboriginals and Caucasians. METHODS: A total of 101 treatment-naive adult patients (46 Aboriginal, 55 Caucasian) with chronic HCV genotype 1 infections were prospectively treated with pegylated-interferon and ribavirin and followed as per national guidelines. RESULTS: Aboriginals had higher HCV-RNA loads at baseline (6.42log10 versus 5.98log10; P<0.03). Although normalization of serum aminotransferase levels, decreases in viral loads, and rapid, early and end-of-treatment virological responses were similar in the two cohorts, sustained virological responses were significantly lower in Aboriginals (35% versus 55%; P=0.047). Premature discontinuation of treatment and/or loss of patients to follow-up was common (Aboriginals 37%, Caucasians 27%). Treatment-related side effects were similar in the two cohorts. CONCLUSION: Despite higher rates of spontaneous HCV clearance, the response to antiviral therapy was similar, if not lower, in Aboriginals compared with Caucasians with chronic HCV genotype 1 infections. Compliance with treatment is an issue that needs to be addressed in the management of these patients. PMID:24340315

  1. Oscillometric measure of blood pressure detects association between orthostatic hypotension and depression in population based study of older adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background White matter hyperintensities may contribute to depression by disrupting neural connections among brain regions that regulate mood. Orthostatic hypotension (OH) may be a risk factor for white matter hyperintensities and accumulating evidence, although limited suggests it may play a role in the development of late-life depression. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between an oscillometric measure of orthostatic hypotension and depression in population based sample of older adults. Methods We analysed data on adults aged 60 and over from the first wave of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). Depression was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression (CES–D) scale and OH was assessed by a sit-to-stand orthostatic stress test; two seated blood pressure measurements were followed by a single standing blood pressure measurement. Participants self reported whether they felt dizzy, light-headed or unsteady on standing. Results Participants with symptomatic OH (SOH, n=20) had the highest mean CES-D score (mean 8.6, SE 1.6) when compared to participants with asymptomatic OH (AOH) (mean 5.6, SE .48) and participants with no OH (mean 5.2, SE .14) and this difference was significant for both comparisons (p<0.001). Linear regression analysis adjusted for socio-demographic and clinical characteristics showed that SOH was associated with higher CES-D scores (unstandardised B coefficient = 2.24; 95% CI .301 - 4.79; p =0.05) compared to participants without OH. AOH was not associated with higher CES-D scores (unstandardised B coefficient =.162; 95% CI -.681, 1.00; p= 0.70). Conclusions Symptomatic orthostatic hypotension is associated with depression in older adults and needs to be considered in studies examining the relationship between vascular disease and depression in older adults. PMID:24138959

  2. Human biomonitoring of multiple mycotoxins in the Belgian population: Results of the BIOMYCO study.

    PubMed

    Heyndrickx, Ellen; Sioen, Isabelle; Huybrechts, Bart; Callebaut, Alfons; De Henauw, Stefaan; De Saeger, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    Mycotoxins are important food contaminants responsible for health effects such as cancer, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity or immunosuppression. The assessment of mycotoxin exposure is often based on calculations combining mycotoxin occurrence data in food with population data on food consumption. Because of limitations inherent to that approach, the direct measurement of biomarkers of exposure in biological fluids has been proposed as a suitable alternative to perform an accurate mycotoxin exposure assessment at individual level. For this reason, the BIOMYCO study was designed to assess mycotoxin exposure in Belgian adults and children using urinary biomarkers of exposure. Morning urine was gathered in a representative part of the Belgian population according to a standardised study protocol, whereby 155 children (3-12 years old) and 239 adults (19-65 years old) were selected based on random cluster sampling. These urine samples were analysed for the presence of 33 potential biomarkers with focus on aflatoxins, citrinin (CIT), fumonisins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone and their metabolites using two validated LC-MS/MS methods. Nine out of the 33 analysed mycotoxins were detected whereby deoxynivalenol (DON), OTA, CIT and their metabolites were the most frequently detected. Deoxynivalenol-15-glucuronide was the main urinary DON biomarker and was found in all urine samples in the ng/mL range. Furthermore deoxynivalenol-3-glucuronide was quantified in 91% of the urine samples collected from children and in 77% of the samples collected from adults. Deoxynivalenol was detected in 70% and 37% of the samples of children and adults respectively. For the first time deepoxy-deoxynivalenol-glucuronide was detected in children's urine (17%). In the samples collected by adults, the prevalence was 22%. Whereas all these mycotoxins contaminated the urine samples in the ng/mL range, CIT and OTA were present in much lower concentrations (pg/mL). OTA contaminated 51

  3. Lack of association between COMT and working memory in a population-based cohort of healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Wardle, Margaret C; de Wit, Harriet; Penton-Voak, Ian; Lewis, Glyn; Munafò, Marcus R

    2013-06-01

    The Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is an important regulator of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex, an area critical to working memory. Working memory deficits are present in several psychiatric disorders, and there is wide variation in working memory capacity in the normal population. Association studies of COMT and working memory in healthy volunteers have yielded inconsistent results, possibly because of small sample sizes. Here we examine COMT in relation to N-Back working memory task performance in a large population-based cohort of young adults. We predicted individuals with one or two copies of the Met allele would perform better, and that this relationship would be more evident in males than females. Participants (N=1857-2659) tested at 18 years of age, were enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). We used multiple regression to examine effects of sex and COMT genotype on N-Back hits, false positives, discriminability (d'), and reaction time while controlling for important covariates. COMT genotype did not predict hits or d'. There was a nominally significant interaction between COMT and sex on false positives, but this was not in the predicted direction, and was not significant after controlling for covariates. COMT genotype was not related to working memory in this large population-based cohort. It is possible COMT is not meaningfully associated with working memory in healthy young adults, or that COMT effects are detectable only in assessments reflecting neural processes underlying cognition, such as fMRI, rather than in behavioral performance. PMID:23337869

  4. Self-reported Prevalence and Risk Factors of Non-communicable Diseases in the Albanian Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Kraja, Fatjona; Kraja, Bledar; Mone, Iris; Harizi, Ilda; Babameto, Adriana; Burazeri, Genc

    2016-01-01

    Aim: There is growing evidence that non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a major health problem in developing and transitional countries. The prevalence of NCDs and associated factors are under-researched in Albania. We aimed to assess the prevalence and socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates of NCDs in the Albanian adult population. Methods: The study was carried out in the framework of Albania Living Standard Measurement Survey (LSMS), a national population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2012 including 12,554 men and women aged ≥35 years. All participants reported on the presence of at least one chronic condition, which in the analysis was dichotomized into “yes” vs. “no”. Information on socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender, education, employment status, residence) and lifestyle factors (smoking and alcohol consumption) was also collected. Logistic regression was used to assess socio-demographic and behavioral correlates of NCDs. Results: Overall, the prevalence of chronic diseases in this population-based sample of Albanian adults was 2864/12554=22.8%. Upon multivariable adjustment for all covariates, positive correlates of chronic conditions were older age (OR=6.0, 95%CI=5.3-6.8), female gender (OR=1.2, 95%CI=1.1-1.4), residence in coastal areas of Albania (OR=2.0, 95%CI=1.7-2.5), unemployment (OR=1.8, 95%CI=1.6-2.0), low education (OR=1.6, OR=1.3-1.9) and current smoking (OR=1.2, 95%CI=1.1-1.5). Conversely, there was an inverse association with poverty (OR=0.8, 95%CI=0.7-1.0). Conclusions: This study provides evidence on self-reported NCDs and its determinants in transitional Albania. These baseline data may be useful for assessment of future NCD trends in Albania and cross-comparisons with the neighboring countries. PMID:27594748

  5. Long-term musculoskeletal morbidity after adult burn injury: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Sean M; Fear, Mark W; Wood, Fiona M; Rea, Suzanne; Boyd, James H; Duke, Janine M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate if adults who are hospitalised for a burn injury have increased long-term hospital use for musculoskeletal diseases. Design A population-based retrospective cohort study using linked administrative health data from the Western Australian Data Linkage System. Subjects Records of 17 753 persons aged at least 20 years when hospitalised for a first burn injury in Western Australia during the period 1980–2012, and 70 758 persons who were age and gender-frequency matched with no injury admissions randomly selected from Western Australia's electoral roll. Main outcome measures Admission rates and cumulative length of stay for musculoskeletal diseases. Negative binomial and Cox proportional hazards regression modelling were used to generate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and HRs with 95% CIs, respectively. Results After adjustment for pre-existing health status and demographic characteristics, the burn cohort had almost twice the hospitalisation rate for a musculoskeletal condition (IRR, 95% CI 1.98, 1.86 to 2.10), and spent 3.70 times as long in hospital with a musculoskeletal diagnosis (95% CI 3.10 to 4.42) over the 33-year period, than the uninjured comparison cohort. Adjusted survival analyses of incident post-burn musculoskeletal disease admissions found significant increases for the 15-year post burn discharge period (0–6 months: HR, 95% CI 2.51, 2.04 to 3.11; 6 months–2 years: HR, 95% CI 1.77, 1.53 to 2.05; 2–15 years: HR, 95% CI 1.32, 1.23 to 1.42). Incident admission rates were significantly elevated for 20 years post-burn for minor and severe burn injury for a range of musculoskeletal diseases that included arthropathies, dorsopathies, osteopathies and soft tissue disorders. Conclusions Minor and severe burn injuries were associated with significantly increased post-burn incident admission rates, long-term hospital use and prolonged length of stay for a range of musculoskeletal diseases. Further research is required

  6. Rehabilitation needs for older adults with stroke living at home: perceptions of four populations

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Claude; Deaudelin, Isabelle; Robichaud, Line; Rousseau, Jacqueline; Viscogliosi, Chantal; Talbot, Lise R; Desrosiers, Johanne

    2007-01-01

    Background Many people who have suffered a stroke require rehabilitation to help them resume their previous activities and roles in their own environment, but only some of them receive inpatient or even outpatient rehabilitation services. Partial and unmet rehabilitation needs may ultimately lead to a loss of functional autonomy, which increases utilization of health services, number of hospitalizations and early institutionalization, leading to a significant psychological and financial burden on the patients, their families and the health care system. The aim of this study was to explore partially met and unmet rehabilitation needs of older adults who had suffered a stroke and who live in the community. The emphasis was put on needs that act as obstacles to social participation in terms of personal factors, environmental factors and life habits, from the point of view of four target populations. Methods Using the focus group technique, we met four types of experts living in three geographic areas of the province of Québec (Canada): older people with stroke, caregivers, health professionals and health care managers, for a total of 12 groups and 72 participants. The audio recordings of the meetings were transcribed and NVivo software was used to manage the data. The process of reducing, categorizing and analyzing the data was conducted using themes from the Disability Creation Process model. Results Rehabilitation needs persist for nine capabilities (e.g. related to behaviour or motor activities), nine factors related to the environment (e.g. type of teaching, adaptation and rehabilitation) and 11 life habits (e.g. nutrition, interpersonal relationships). The caregivers and health professionals identified more unmet needs and insisted on an individualized rehabilitation. Older people with stroke and the health care managers had a more global view of rehabilitation needs and emphasized the availability of resources. Conclusion Better knowledge of partially met or

  7. Decrease in Vitamin D Status in the Greenlandic Adult Population from 1987–2010

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Nina O.; Jørgensen, Marit E.; Friis, Henrik; Melbye, Mads; Soborg, Bolette; Jeppesen, Charlotte; Lundqvist, Marika; Cohen, Arieh; Hougaard, David M.; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Low vitamin D status may be pronounced in Arctic populations due to limited sun exposure and decreasing intake of traditional food. Objective To investigate serum 25(OH)D3 as a measure of vitamin D status among adult Inuit in Greenland, predictors of low serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations and the trend from 1987 to 2005–2010. Design A total of 2877 randomly selected Inuit (≥18 years) from the Inuit Health in Transition study were included. A sub-sample (n = 330) donated a blood sample in 1987 which allowed assessment of time trends in vitamin D status. Results The geometric mean serum 25(OH)D3 (25[OH]D2 concentrations were negligible and not reported) in 2005–2010 was lowest among the 18–29 year old individuals (30.7 nmol/L; 95% CI: 29.7; 31.7) and increased with age. In all age-groups it decreased from 1987 to 2005–2010 (32%–58%). Low 25(OH)D3 concentrations (<50 nmol/L) were present in 77% of the 18–29 year old and decreased with age. A characteristic seasonal variation in 25(OH)D3 concentrations was observed (range 33.2–57.1 nmol/L, p<0.001), with the highest concentrations in August to October. Age (2.0% per year increase; CI: 1.7, 2.2), female gender (7.1%; CI: 2.0; 12.5), alcohol intake (0.2% per increase in drinks/week; 0.0; 0.4), and traditional diet (10.0% per 100 g/d increase; CI: 7.9; 12.1) were associated with increased serum 25(OH)D3, whereas smoking (−11.6%; CI: −16.2; −6.9), BMI (−0.6%; CI: −1.1; −0.2) and latitude (−0.7% per degree increase; CI: −1.3; −0.2) were associated with decreased concentrations. Conclusion We identified a remarkable decrease in vitamin D status from 1987 to 2005–2010 and a presently low vitamin D status among Inuit in Greenland. A change away from a traditional diet may well explain the observed decline. The study argues for the need of increased dietary intake of vitamin D and supplementation might be considered. PMID:25461952

  8. Estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population of North India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Establishing personal identity is one of the main concerns in forensic investigations. Estimation of stature forms a basic domain of the investigation process in unknown and co-mingled human remains in forensic anthropology case work. The objective of the present study was to set up standards for estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population. Methods The sample for the study constituted 149 young females from the Northern part of India. The participants were aged between 13 and 18 years. Besides stature, seven anthropometric measurements that included length of the foot from each toe (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 respectively), foot breadth at ball (BBAL) and foot breadth at heel (BHEL) were measured on both feet in each participant using standard methods and techniques. Results The results indicated that statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between left and right feet occur in both the foot breadth measurements (BBAL and BHEL). Foot length measurements (T1 to T5 lengths) did not show any statistically significant bilateral asymmetry. The correlation between stature and all the foot measurements was found to be positive and statistically significant (p-value < 0.001). Linear regression models and multiple regression models were derived for estimation of stature from the measurements of the foot. The present study indicates that anthropometric measurements of foot and its segments are valuable in the estimation of stature. Foot length measurements estimate stature with greater accuracy when compared to foot breadth measurements. Conclusions The present study concluded that foot measurements have a strong relationship with stature in the sub-adult female population of North India. Hence, the stature of an individual can be successfully estimated from the foot and its segments using different regression models derived in the study. The regression models derived in the study may be applied successfully for the

  9. Meteorological effects on adult mosquito (Culex) populations in metropolitan New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degaetano, Arthur T.

    2005-05-01

    For two metropolitan New Jersey counties, monthly average adult mosquito (Culex) catch from New Jersey light trap data sets covering multiple decades is related to a number of meteorological factors. From June through August climatological conditions accounted for between 40% and 50% of the variation in average catch. In general, high monthly precipitation totals both in the month corresponding to the catch and the previous month were associated with increased trap catch. However, individual heavy rainfall events tended to reduce catch. Warm temperatures exerted a positive influence on mosquito abundance in June, but were associated with a low catch in August. Linear meteorological relationships explained only a small percentage of the variations in mosquito catch during May and September. During July, and particularly August, antecedent monthly catch also explained a significant portion of the variance in the contemporaneous catch. Over 60% of the variability in August catch could be attributed to the July population.

  10. Modelling vitamin D status due to oral intake and sun exposure in an adult British population.

    PubMed

    Diffey, Brian L

    2013-08-28

    A mathematical model is described for estimating changes in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels throughout the year as a consequence of varying the oral intake of vitamin D and the behaviour outdoors of white British adults resident in different regions of the UK. The model yields seasonal and geographical patterns of 25(OH)D concentrations that agree closely with observational studies. Use of the model allows estimates to be easily made of the sun exposure and oral intake necessary to avoid vitamin D deficiency in defined proportions of the population, as well as strategies that would lead to vitamin D sufficiency throughout the year. The analysis demonstrates that addressing concerns about insufficient vitamin D levels, especially during the winter, may be achieved by modifying oral vitamin D intake over the winter, increasing summer sun exposure or a combination of both. PMID:23339973

  11. Echocardiographic Assessment of Right Atrial Pressure in a Pediatric and Young Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Arya, Bhawna; Kerstein, Diane; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Hayes, Denise; Zuckerman, Warren A; Krishnan, Usha; Lai, Wyman W

    2016-03-01

    Right atrial pressure (RAP) reflects right-sided cardiac hemodynamics and is useful in management of patients with cardiac and systemic disease. Studies in older adults demonstrated that inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter, IVC collapsibility index, hepatic vein systolic filling fraction (SFF), and right atrial volume (RAV) correlated with mean RAP at catheterization. This study aimed to assess the utility of echocardiographic parameters for assessment of RAP in children and young adults. Patients with pulmonary hypertension or heart transplantation undergoing right heart catheterization were recruited for this prospective observational pilot study. Transthoracic echocardiographic assessment of RAP was performed simultaneously with catheterization. For each parameter, three consecutive cardiac cycles were recorded. Long- and short-axis images of the IVC were obtained. RAV was assessed by area-length and biplane methods. IVC diameters and RAV were indexed to body surface area (BSA)(0.5) and (BSA)(1.4), respectively. Relationships between echocardiographic parameters and mean RAP were correlated using "Pearson's r." Fifty subjects aged 0.3-23 years (median 13, mean 12.3 ± 7 years) were enrolled. Mean RAP correlated modestly with RAV (r = 0.51, p < 0.001). Long-axis IVCmax (r = 0.30, p < 0.05) and tricuspid E wave velocity (r = 0.36, p < 0.01) also correlated with mean RAP. RV free wall tissue Doppler velocities, IVC collapsibility index, and hepatic vein SFF had no relation to mean RAP. In a pediatric and young adult population with pulmonary hypertension or heart transplantation, echocardiographic assessment of RAV and long-axis IVCmax provided a reasonable estimate of mean RAP. IVC collapsibility index and hepatic vein SFF demonstrated no association with mean RAP. PMID:26667961

  12. Alternate protein kinase A activity identifies a unique population of stromal cells in adult bone.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Kit Man; Starost, Matthew F; Nesterova, Maria; Boikos, Sosipatros A; Watkins, Tonya; Almeida, Madson Q; Harran, Michelle; Li, Andrew; Collins, Michael T; Cheadle, Christopher; Mertz, Edward L; Leikin, Sergey; Kirschner, Lawrence S; Robey, Pamela; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-05-11

    A population of stromal cells that retains osteogenic capacity in adult bone (adult bone stromal cells or aBSCs) exists and is under intense investigation. Mice heterozygous for a null allele of prkar1a (Prkar1a(+/-)), the primary receptor for cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and regulator of protein kinase A (PKA) activity, developed bone lesions that were derived from cAMP-responsive osteogenic cells and resembled fibrous dysplasia (FD). Prkar1a(+/-) mice were crossed with mice that were heterozygous for catalytic subunit Calpha (Prkaca(+/-)), the main PKA activity-mediating molecule, to generate a mouse model with double heterozygosity for prkar1a and prkaca (Prkar1a(+/-)Prkaca(+/-)). Unexpectedly, Prkar1a(+/-)Prkaca(+/-) mice developed a greater number of osseous lesions starting at 3 months of age that varied from the rare chondromas in the long bones and the ubiquitous osteochondrodysplasia of vertebral bodies to the occasional sarcoma in older animals. Cells from these lesions originated from an area proximal to the growth plate, expressed osteogenic cell markers, and showed higher PKA activity that was mostly type II (PKA-II) mediated by an alternate pattern of catalytic subunit expression. Gene expression profiling confirmed a preosteoblastic nature for these cells but also showed a signature that was indicative of mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition and increased Wnt signaling. These studies show that a specific subpopulation of aBSCs can be stimulated in adult bone by alternate PKA and catalytic subunit activity; abnormal proliferation of these cells leads to skeletal lesions that have similarities to human FD and bone tumors. PMID:20421483

  13. Dental age estimation in a Brazilian adult population using Cameriere's method.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Alana de Cássia Silva; Alves, Nathalia Zanini; Michel-Crosato, Edgard; Rocha, Marcos; Cameriere, Roberto; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a specific formula to estimate age in a Brazilian adult population and to compare the original formula from Cameriere to this Brazilian formula. The sample comprised 1,772 periapical radiographs from 443 subjects (219 men, 224 women) that were organized into 12 groups according to sex (men or women) and age (20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70 years and older). The films were analyzed using the criteria described by Cameriere et al. (2004) and Adobe Photoshop®. We obtained a mean error of 8.56 (SD = 5.80) years for tooth 13, 7.99 (SD = 5.78) years for tooth 23, 8.38 (SD = 6.26) years for tooth 33, and 8.20 (SD = 6.54) years for tooth 43. When teeth were combined in the analysis, we observed lower mean errors. The Brazilian formula developed from this sample group was more accurate than Cameriere's formula. However, other factors must be considered to improve age estimates in adults. PMID:25590504

  14. Stereological Study of Amygdala Glial Populations in Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, John T.; Barger, Nicole; Amaral, David G.; Schumann, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    The amygdala undergoes aberrant development in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We previously found that there are reduced neuron numbers in the adult postmortem amygdala from individuals with ASD compared to typically developing controls. The current study is a comprehensive stereological examination of four non-neuronal cell populations: microglia, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and endothelial cells, in the same brains studied previously. We provide a detailed neuroanatomical protocol for defining each cell type that may be applied to other studies of the amygdala in neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. We then assess whether cell numbers and average volumes differ between ASD and typically developing brains. We hypothesized that a reduction in neuron numbers in ASD might relate to altered immune function and/or aberrant microglial activation, as indicated by increased microglial number and cell body volume. Overall, average non-neuronal cell numbers and volumes did not differ between ASD and typically developing brains. However, there was evident heterogeneity within the ASD cohort. Two of the eight ASD brains displayed strong microglial activation. Contrary to our original hypothesis, there was a trend toward a positive correlation between neuronal and microglial numbers in both ASD and control cases. There were fewer oligodendrocytes in the amygdala of adult individuals with ASD ages 20 and older compared to typically developing controls. This finding may provide a possible sign of altered connectivity or impaired neuronal communication that may change across the lifespan in ASD. PMID:25330013

  15. Balancing Sodium and Potassium: Estimates of Intake in a New Zealand Adult Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Rachael; Edmonds, Julia; Williams, Sheila; Mann, Jim; Skeaff, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    Dietary intakes of sodium and potassium are important determinants of blood pressure. We assessed sodium and potassium intake in a cross-sectional survey which included a random sample of New Zealand Adults aged 18 to 64 years from two New Zealand cities: Dunedin and Wellington. Participants completed a short questionnaire, had height, weight and blood pressure measured, and collected a 24 h urine sample. Mean 24 h sodium excretion was 3386 mg/day (95% CI 3221, 3551): 3865 mg/day for men and for 2934 mg/day women. Mean 24 h potassium excretion was 2738 mg/day (95% CI 2623, 2855): 3031 mg/day for men and 2436 mg/day for women. Mean sodium:potassium ratio was 1.32 (95% CI 1.26, 1.39); 1.39 for men and 1.26 for women. Sodium intake was higher among younger people, men, those with a higher BMI and higher potassium excretion. Potassium excretion was higher among older people, men and those with a higher sodium excretion. New Zealand adults have high sodium intakes and low potassium intakes compared to recommended levels. This is likely to adversely affect population blood pressure levels as well as incidence of cardiovascular disease. A comprehensive public health programme to reduce dietary sodium intake and increase intake of fruit and vegetables is warranted. PMID:26516912

  16. Balancing Sodium and Potassium: Estimates of Intake in a New Zealand Adult Population Sample.

    PubMed

    McLean, Rachael; Edmonds, Julia; Williams, Sheila; Mann, Jim; Skeaff, Sheila

    2015-11-01

    Dietary intakes of sodium and potassium are important determinants of blood pressure. We assessed sodium and potassium intake in a cross-sectional survey which included a random sample of New Zealand Adults aged 18 to 64 years from two New Zealand cities: Dunedin and Wellington. Participants completed a short questionnaire, had height, weight and blood pressure measured, and collected a 24 h urine sample. Mean 24 h sodium excretion was 3386 mg/day (95% CI 3221, 3551): 3865 mg/day for men and for 2934 mg/day women. Mean 24 h potassium excretion was 2738 mg/day (95% CI 2623, 2855): 3031 mg/day for men and 2436 mg/day for women. Mean sodium:potassium ratio was 1.32 (95% CI 1.26, 1.39); 1.39 for men and 1.26 for women. Sodium intake was higher among younger people, men, those with a higher BMI and higher potassium excretion. Potassium excretion was higher among older people, men and those with a higher sodium excretion. New Zealand adults have high sodium intakes and low potassium intakes compared to recommended levels. This is likely to adversely affect population blood pressure levels as well as incidence of cardiovascular disease. A comprehensive public health programme to reduce dietary sodium intake and increase intake of fruit and vegetables is warranted. PMID:26516912

  17. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Na, Yong Hum; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F; Xu, X George

    2012-01-01

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals’ size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms—modeled entirely in mesh surfaces—of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte

  18. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms.

    PubMed

    Na, Yong Hum; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F; Xu, X George

    2010-07-01

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms--modeled entirely in mesh surfaces--of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte Carlo

  19. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hum Na, Yong; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2010-07-01

    Computational phantoms representing workers and patients are essential in estimating organ doses from various occupational radiation exposures and medical procedures. Nearly all existing phantoms, however, were purposely designed to match internal and external anatomical features of the Reference Man as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). To reduce uncertainty in dose calculations caused by anatomical variations, a new generation of phantoms of varying organ and body sizes is needed. This paper presents detailed anatomical data in tables and graphs that are used to design such size-adjustable phantoms representing a range of adult individuals in terms of the body height, body weight and internal organ volume/mass. Two different sets of information are used to derive the phantom sets: (1) individual internal organ size and volume/mass distribution data derived from the recommendations of the ICRP in Publications 23 and 89 and (2) whole-body height and weight percentile data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2002). The NHANES height and weight data for 19 year old males and females are used to estimate the distributions of individuals' size, which is unknown, that corresponds to the ICRP organ and tissue distributions. This paper then demonstrates the usage of these anthropometric data in the development of deformable anatomical phantoms. A pair of phantoms—modeled entirely in mesh surfaces—of the adult male and female, RPI-adult male (AM) and RPI-adult female (AF) are used as the base for size-adjustable phantoms. To create percentile-specific phantoms from these two base phantoms, organ surface boundaries are carefully altered according to the tabulated anthropometric data. Software algorithms are developed to automatically match the organ volumes and masses with desired values. Finally, these mesh-based, percentile-specific phantoms are converted into voxel-based phantoms for Monte

  20. Obesity, metabolic health, and mortality in adults: a nationwide population-based study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hae Kyung; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Park, Yong-Moon; Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Kang, Moo-Il; Cha, Bong-Yun; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    BMI, metabolic health status, and their interactions should be considered for estimating mortality risk; however, the data are controversial and unknown in Asians. We aimed to investigate this issue in Korean population. Total 323175 adults were followed-up for 96 (60–120) (median [5–95%]) months in a nationwide population-based cohort study. Participants were classified as “obese” (O) or “non-obese” (NO) using a BMI cut-off of 25 kg/m2. People who developed ≥1 metabolic disease component (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia) in the index year were considered “metabolically unhealthy” (MU), while those with none were considered “metabolically healthy” (MH). The MUNO group had a significantly higher risk of all-cause (hazard ratio, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.21–1.35]) and cardiovascular (1.88 [1.63–2.16]) mortality, whereas the MHO group had a lower mortality risk (all-cause: 0.81 [0.74–0.88]), cardiovascular: 0.73 [0.57–0.95]), compared to the MHNO group. A similar pattern was noted for cancer and other-cause mortality. Metabolically unhealthy status was associated with higher risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality regardless of BMI levels, and there was a dose-response relationship between the number of incident metabolic diseases and mortality risk. In conclusion, poor metabolic health status contributed more to mortality than high BMI did, in Korean adults. PMID:27445194

  1. Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Voriconazole and Anidulafungin in Adult Patients with Invasive Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Mould, Diane R.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the pharmacokinetics (PK) of voriconazole and anidulafungin in patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA) in comparison with other populations, sparse PK data were obtained for 305 adults from a prospective phase 3 study comparing voriconazole and anidulafungin in combination versus voriconazole monotherapy (voriconazole, 6 mg/kg intravenously [IV] every 12 h [q12h] for 24 h followed by 4 mg/kg IV q12h, switched to 300 mg orally q12h as appropriate; with placebo or anidulafungin IV, a 200-mg loading dose followed by 100 mg q24h). Voriconazole PK was described by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption and mixed linear and time-dependent nonlinear (Michaelis-Menten) elimination; anidulafungin PK was described by a two-compartment model with first-order elimination. For voriconazole, the normal inverse Wishart prior approach was implemented to stabilize the model. Compared to previous models, no new covariates were identified for voriconazole or anidulafungin. PK parameter estimates of voriconazole and anidulafungin are in agreement with those reported previously except for voriconazole clearance (the nonlinear clearance component became minimal). At a 4-mg/kg IV dose, voriconazole exposure tended to increase slightly as age, weight, or body mass index increased, but the difference was not considered clinically relevant. Estimated voriconazole exposures in IA patients at 4 mg/kg IV were higher than those reported for healthy adults (e.g., the average area under the curve over a 12-hour dosing interval [AUC0–12] at steady state was 46% higher); while it is not definitive, age and concomitant medications may impact this difference. Estimated anidulafungin exposures in IA patients were comparable to those reported for the general patient population. This study was approved by the appropriate institutional review boards or ethics committees and registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00531479). PMID:24913161

  2. Cadmium levels in a representative sample of the Spanish adult population: The BIOAMBIENT.ES project.

    PubMed

    López-Herranz, Ana; Cutanda, Francisco; Esteban, Marta; Pollán, Marina; Calvo, Eva; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Victoria Cortes, Maria; Castaño, Argelia

    2016-09-01

    Urinary cadmium levels (U-Cd) were measured in 1770 adults (aged 18-65 years) as a representative sample of the Spanish workforce. The geometric mean (GM) was 0.28 μg/l with 95% CI: 0.27-0.32 μg/l (GM: 0.20 μg/g 95% CI: 0.18-022 μg/g creatinine). The 95% percentile was 1.03 μg/l. U-Cd increased with age, with women showing higher U-Cd than men (p<0.001; 0.24 μg/g vs 0.17 μg/g). A multivariate analysis confirmed that sex, age and smoking habit significantly influence U-Cd. Smoking habit increases U-Cd by ∼90% per 10 years of age, almost twice the increase observed for non-smoking. Female smokers had 85% higher U-Cd than non-smokers, whereas the corresponding value for male smokers and non-smokers was 45%. No regional differences were observed with respect to the national reference level. The Spanish population studied here exhibits similar urinary cadmium levels to its European counterparts in Germany and slightly lower levels than in France, the Czech Republic, Italy and the United Kingdom. This paper provides the first baseline information concerning cadmium exposure in the Spanish adult population on a national scale. As such, these findings will help us to establish reference levels, follow temporal trends and identify high-exposure groups, thereby enabling comparisons with other countries and contributing to the improvement of public health and environmental quality. PMID:25899448

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of posterior vitreous detachment in a Chinese adult population: the Handan eye study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To describe the prevalence and associations of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) in a rural adult Chinese population. Methods All eligible subjects were requested to carry out a comprehensive eye examination; PVD was a pre-specified outcome variable and was determined via biomicroscopical examination (slit-lamp biomicroscopy) with a +90-D preset lens after mydriasis. Prevalence was standardized to China population census (2000). Results 5890 (86.2%) subjects completed the examination of slit-lamp biomicroscopy with a +90-D lens. PVD was present in 160 participants (2.7%); the standardized prevalence was 2.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-2.3%). PVD developed increasingly with age (P for trend < 0.001) for both men and women. Using a multivariate regression model, older people were found to run a higher risk of developing PVD than younger people, and women were found to have a higher risk than men (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.5-5.9). Diabetes, hypertension, smoking, drinking, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were not significantly associated with PVD. Conclusions About one in fifty people is found to have PVD in this population-based study. Age and female are independently associated with PVD occurrence. PMID:23855829

  4. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic patterns of chronic non-communicable disease among the older adult population in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Minicuci, Nadia; Biritwum, Richard B.; Mensah, George; Yawson, Alfred E.; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background In Ghana, the older adult population is projected to increase from 5.3% of the total population in 2015 to 8.9% by 2050. National and local governments will need information about non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in this population in order to allocate health system resources and respond to the health needs of older adults. Design The 2007/08 Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 in Ghana used face-to-face interviews in a nationally representative sample of persons aged 50-plus years. Individual respondents were asked about their overall health, diagnosis of 10 chronic non-communicable conditions, and common health risk factors. A number of anthropometric and health measurements were also taken in all respondents, including height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, and blood pressure (BP). Results This paper includes 4,724 adults aged 50-plus years. The highest prevalence of self-reported chronic conditions was for hypertension [14.2% (95% CI 12.8–15.6)] and osteoarthritis [13.8%, (95% CI 11.7–15.9)]. The figure for hypertension reached 51.1% (95% CI 48.9–53.4) when based on BP measurement. The prevalence of current smokers was 8.1% (95% CI 7.0–9.2), while 2.0 (95% CI 1.5–2.5) were infrequent/frequent heavy drinkers, 67.9% (95% CI 65.2–70.5) consume insufficient fruits and vegetables, and 25.7% (95% CI 23.1–28.3) had a low level of physical activity. Almost 10% (95% CI 8.3–11.1) of adults were obese and 77.6% (95% CI 76.0–79.2) had a high-risk waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Risks from tobacco and alcohol consumption continued into older age, while insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, low physical activity and obesity increased with increasing age. The patterns of risk factors varied by income quintile, with higher prevalence of obesity and low physical activity in wealthier respondents, and higher prevalence of insufficient fruit and vegetable intake and smoking in lower-income respondents. The multivariate analysis

  5. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) among selected populations of children and Adults in California

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiangmei (May); Bennett, Deborah H.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Kato, Kayoko; Strynar, Mark; Andersen, Erik; Moran, Rebecca E.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Tulve, Nicolle S.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC serum concentrations using factors extracted from questionnaire responses and indirect measurements, and whether a single serum measurement can be used to classify an individual’s exposure over a one-year period. The study population included three demographic groups: young children (2–8 years old) (N=67), parents of young children (<55 years old) (N=90), and older adults (>55 years old) (N=59). PFC serum concentrations, house dust concentrations, and questionnaires were collected. The geometric mean of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was highest for the older adults. In contrast, the geometric mean of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was highest for children. Serum concentrations of the parent and the child from the same family were moderately correlated (Spearman correlation (r)=0.26–0.79, p<0.05), indicating common sources within a family. For adults, age, having occupational exposure or having used fire extinguisher, frequencies of consuming butter/margarine, pork, canned meat entrées, tuna and white fish, freshwater fish, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of individual PFCs. For children, residential dust concentrations, frequency of wearing waterproof clothes, frequency of having canned fish, hotdogs, chicken nuggets, French fries, and chips, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significant positive predictors of individual PFC serum concentrations. In addition, the serum concentrations collected in a subset of young children (N=20) and the parents (N=42) one year later were strongly correlated (r=0.68–0.98, p<0.001) with the levels measured at the first visits, but showed a decreasing trend

  6. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) among selected populations of children and adults in California.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangmei May; Bennett, Deborah H; Calafat, Antonia M; Kato, Kayoko; Strynar, Mark; Andersen, Erik; Moran, Rebecca E; Tancredi, Daniel J; Tulve, Nicolle S; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC serum concentrations using factors extracted from questionnaire responses and indirect measurements, and whether a single serum measurement can be used to classify an individual's exposure over a one-year period. The study population included three demographic groups: young children (2-8 years old) (N=67), parents of young children (<55 years old) (N=90), and older adults (>55 years old) (N=59). PFC serum concentrations, house dust concentrations, and questionnaires were collected. The geometric mean of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was highest for the older adults. In contrast, the geometric mean of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was highest for children. Serum concentrations of the parent and the child from the same family were moderately correlated (Spearman correlation (r)=0.26-0.79, p<0.05), indicating common sources within a family. For adults, age, having occupational exposure or having used fire extinguisher, frequencies of consuming butter/margarine, pork, canned meat entrées, tuna and white fish, freshwater fish, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of individual PFCs. For children, residential dust concentrations, frequency of wearing waterproof clothes, frequency of having canned fish, hotdogs, chicken nuggets, French fries, and chips, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significant positive predictors of individual PFC serum concentrations. In addition, the serum concentrations collected in a subset of young children (N=20) and the parents (N=42) one year later were strongly correlated (r=0.68-0.98, p<0.001) with the levels measured at the first visits, but showed a decreasing trend. Children had

  7. Health and population effects of rare gene knockouts in adult humans with related parents.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Vagheesh M; Hunt, Karen A; Mason, Dan; Baker, Christopher L; Karczewski, Konrad J; Barnes, Michael R; Barnett, Anthony H; Bates, Chris; Bellary, Srikanth; Bockett, Nicholas A; Giorda, Kristina; Griffiths, Christopher J; Hemingway, Harry; Jia, Zhilong; Kelly, M Ann; Khawaja, Hajrah A; Lek, Monkol; McCarthy, Shane; McEachan, Rosie; O'Donnell-Luria, Anne; Paigen, Kenneth; Parisinos, Constantinos A; Sheridan, Eamonn; Southgate, Laura; Tee, Louise; Thomas, Mark; Xue, Yali; Schnall-Levin, Michael; Petkov, Petko M; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Maher, Eamonn R; Trembath, Richard C; MacArthur, Daniel G; Wright, John; Durbin, Richard; van Heel, David A

    2016-04-22

    Examining complete gene knockouts within a viable organism can inform on gene function. We sequenced the exomes of 3222 British adults of Pakistani heritage with high parental relatedness, discovering 1111 rare-variant homozygous genotypes with predicted loss of function (knockouts) in 781 genes. We observed 13.7% fewer homozygous knockout genotypes than we expected, implying an average load of 1.6 recessive-lethal-equivalent loss-of-function (LOF) variants per adult. When genetic data were linked to the individuals' lifelong health records, we observed no significant relationship between gene knockouts and clinical consultation or prescription rate. In this data set, we identified a healthy PRDM9-knockout mother and performed phased genome sequencing on her, her child, and control individuals. Our results show that meiotic recombination sites are localized away from PRDM9-dependent hotspots. Thus, natural LOF variants inform on essential genetic loci and demonstrate PRDM9 redundancy in humans. PMID:26940866

  8. Household Food Insecurity and Sleep Patterns Among Mexican Adults: Results from ENSANUT-2012.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Monica L; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Desai, Mayur M; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2016-10-01

    To examine the independent association of household food insecurity with sleep duration and quality in a nationally representative survey of adults in Mexico. The Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale was used to categorize households as secure, mild (43.7 %), moderate (19.0 %), or severe (11.8 %). We assessed the association between household food insecurity and self-reported sleep duration and quality among 11,356 adults using weighted multinomial and binomial logistic regression. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant association was found between severe household food insecurity and getting less than the recommended 7-8 h of sleep [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =1.83, 95 % confidence interval (CI) =1.37-2.43]. Compared with food-secure households, odds of poor sleep quality increased with level of severity (AOR = 1.27, 95 % CI 1.04-1.56 for mild; AOR = 1.71, 95 % CI 1.36-2.14 for moderate; and AOR = 1.89, 95 % CI 1.45-2.45 for severe household food insecurity). Household food insecurity is associated with inadequate sleep duration and poor sleep quality among Mexican adults. This study underscores the adverse effects of household food insecurity on the well-being of vulnerable populations. PMID:26163336

  9. Estimate of dietary exposure to sulphites in child and adult populations in the Basque Country.

    PubMed

    Urtiaga, Carmen; Amiano, Pilar; Azpiri, Mikel; Alonso, Ana; Dorronsoro, Miren

    2013-01-01

    Sulphites are widely used as a preservative and antioxidant additive in food. The aim of this study was to assess dietary sulphite intake in adults aged 35-65 years and in children aged 4-18 years living in the Basque Country, northern Spain. We determined sulphite concentrations in 909 samples covering 16 food types. The maximum permitted levels were exceeded in 17% of samples. Making recommended assumptions for non-quantifiable results, estimates of mean lower and upper bounds were calculated for sulphite concentrations in each food type. These sulphite data were combined with consumption data derived from 8417 adults from the European Prospective Investigation in Cancer and Nutrition cohort in Gipuzkoa, recruited in 1992-1995 using a diet history method, and 1055 children from the Basque Country Nutrition Children Survey, conducted in 2004-2005 using two 24-h recall questionnaires to assess diet. The results were compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) proposed by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The mean dietary exposure to sulphites was 0.08 mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹, only 11% of the ADI in the overall group of children (4-18 years old), but the acceptable intake was exceeded by 4% of 4-6 year olds. For the adults (35-65 years old), the mean dietary exposure was 0.31 mg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹, 45% of the ADI, but the acceptable intake was exceeded in 14.6% of cases. The major contributing foods were minced meat and other meat products for children and wine for adults. PMID:24138563

  10. Estimation of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) population size and adult male survival in an urban area in Panama

    PubMed Central

    Neira, Marco; Lacroix, Renaud; Cáceres, Lorenzo; Kaiser, Paul E; Young, Josue; Pineda, Lleysa; Black, Isaac; Sosa, Nestor; Nimmo, Derric; Alphey, Luke; McKemey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Traditional mosquito control strategies rely heavily on the use of chemical insecticides. However, concerns about the efficiency of traditional control methods, environmental impact and emerging pesticide resistance have highlighted the necessity for developing innovative tools for mosquito control. Some novel strategies, including release of insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL®), rely on the sustained release of modified male mosquitoes and therefore benefit from a thorough understanding of the biology of the male of the species. In this report we present the results of a mark-release-recapture study aimed at: (i) establishing the survival in the field of laboratory-reared, wild-type male Aedes aegypti and (b) estimating the size of the local adult Ae. aegypti population. The study took place in Panama, a country where recent increases in the incidence and severity of dengue cases have prompted health authorities to evaluate alternative strategies for vector control. Results suggest a life expectancy of 2.3 days for released male mosquitoes (confidence interval: 1.78-2.86). Overall, the male mosquito population was estimated at 58 males/ha (range 12-81 males/ha), which can be extrapolated to an average of 0.64 pupae/person for the study area. The practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25410991

  11. Estimation of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) population size and adult male survival in an urban area in Panama.

    PubMed

    Neira, Marco; Lacroix, Renaud; Cáceres, Lorenzo; Kaiser, Paul E; Young, Josue; Pineda, Lleysa; Black, Isaac; Sosa, Nestor; Nimmo, Derric; Alphey, Luke; McKemey, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Traditional mosquito control strategies rely heavily on the use of chemical insecticides. However, concerns about the efficiency of traditional control methods, environmental impact and emerging pesticide resistance have highlighted the necessity for developing innovative tools for mosquito control. Some novel strategies, including release of insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL®), rely on the sustained release of modified male mosquitoes and therefore benefit from a thorough understanding of the biology of the male of the species. In this report we present the results of a mark-release-recapture study aimed at: (i) establishing the survival in the field of laboratory-reared, wild-type male Aedes aegypti and (b) estimating the size of the local adult Ae. aegypti population. The study took place in Panama, a country where recent increases in the incidence and severity of dengue cases have prompted health authorities to evaluate alternative strategies for vector control. Results suggest a life expectancy of 2.3 days for released male mosquitoes (confidence interval: 1.78-2.86). Overall, the male mosquito population was estimated at 58 males/ha (range 12-81 males/ha), which can be extrapolated to an average of 0.64 pupae/person for the study area. The practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25410991

  12. Estimation of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) population size and adult male survival in an urban area in Panama.

    PubMed

    Neira, Marco; Lacroix, Renaud; Cáceres, Lorenzo; Kaiser, Paul E; Young, Josue; Pineda, Lleysa; Black, Isaac; Sosa, Nestor; Nimmo, Derric; Alphey, Luke; McKemey, Andrew

    2014-08-22

    Traditional mosquito control strategies rely heavily on the use of chemical insecticides. However, concerns about the efficiency of traditional control methods, environmental impact and emerging pesticide resistance have highlighted the necessity for developing innovative tools for mosquito control. Some novel strategies, including release of insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL®), rely on the sustained release of modified male mosquitoes and therefore benefit from a thorough understanding of the biology of the male of the species. In this report we present the results of a mark-release-recapture study aimed at: (i) establishing the survival in the field of laboratory-reared, wild-type male Aedes aegypti and (b) estimating the size of the local adult Ae. aegypti population. The study took place in Panama, a country where recent increases in the incidence and severity of dengue cases have prompted health authorities to evaluate alternative strategies for vector control. Results suggest a life expectancy of 2.3 days for released male mosquitoes (confidence interval: 1.78-2.86). Overall, the male mosquito population was estimated at 58 males/ha (range 12-81 males/ha), which can be extrapolated to an average of 0.64 pupae/person for the study area. The practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25165979

  13. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Thai population: results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey.

    PubMed

    Jitnarin, N; Kosulwat, V; Rojroongwasinkul, N; Boonpraderm, A; Haddock, C K; Poston, W S C

    2011-12-01

    Overweight and obesity are considered a serious health problem in Thailand. This study examined the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a nationally representative sample of Thai children and adults based on international standards. A cross-sectional population survey of 16,596 Thais aged 3 years and over was conducted. Heights and weights were obtained using standardized methods. Estimates of the overweight and obesity prevalence in children, adolescents, and adults were computed. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents aged 3 to 18 years was 7.6% and 9.0%, respectively, and was higher among boys than girls. Among adults, using the the Regional Office for the Western Pacific (WPRO) standard, 17.1% of adults were classified as overweight [body mass index (BMI) 23.0-24.9 kg/m²], 19.0% as class I obesity (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m²), and 4.8% as class II obesity (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m²). Using the World Health Organization (WHO) definition, 19.0% were overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m²), 4.0% class I obesity (BMI 30.0-34.9 kg/m²), 0.8% class II obesity (BMI 35.0-39.9 kg/m²), and 0.1% class III obesity (BMI ≥ 40.0 kg/m²). There was a vast difference in obesity prevalence between the WHO and the WPRO criteria. Obesity prevalence when using the WPRO definition (23.8%) was almost five times greater than when defined with the WHO standard (4.9%). The present study found a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in nationally representative sample of the Thai population. Higher rates of overweight and obesity prevalence were computed using the WPRO standard when compared to the WHO standard. PMID:22526130

  14. Engaging older adults in burn prevention education: results of a community-based urban initiative.

    PubMed

    Leahy, Nicole E; Sessler, Kelly A; Baggott, Kaitlin; Laverde, Louisa; Rabbitts, Angela; Yurt, Roger W

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study is to educate New York City seniors aged 60 years and older about fire safety and burn prevention through the use of a community-based, culturally sensitive delivery platform. The ultimate goal is to reduce burn injury morbidity and mortality among this at-risk population. Programming was developed and provided to older adults attending community-based senior centers. Topics included etiology of injury, factors contributing to burn injuries, methods of prevention, emergency preparedness, and home safety. Attendees completed a postpresentation survey. Of the 234 senior centers invited to participate in the program, 64 (27%) centers requested presentations, and all received the educational programming, reaching 2196 seniors. An additional 2590 seniors received education during community-based health fairs. A majority reported learning new information, found the presentation helpful, and intended to apply this knowledge to daily routines. Data confirm that many opportunities exist to deliver culturally sensitive burn prevention programming to the older adult population of this large metropolitan area in settings that are part of their daily lives. A majority of respondents welcomed the information, perceived it as helpful, and reported that they were likely to integrate the information into their lives. PMID:22561308

  15. Prevalence and characteristics of reported penicillin allergy in an urban outpatient adult population

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shradha

    2014-01-01

    Penicillin allergy remains the most common drug allergy, with a reported prevalence of 10% in the United States. Epidemiology of penicillin allergy in outpatient populations is relatively scarce. This study sought to determine the prevalence and characteristics of reported penicillin allergy in an urban outpatient population and to identify trends in clinical evaluation and management from a tertiary center serving a large inner-city population. A retrospective review of electronic medical records was performed of adult patients seen in the Internal Medicine Associates Clinic of Mount Sinai Hospital between January 31, 2012, and July 31, 2012. Medical records were selected based on the documentation of penicillin in patient's allergy section. Of the 11,761 patients seen in the clinic, 1348 patients (11.5%) reported a history of penicillin allergy. The most common allergic reactions were rash (37%), unknown/undocumented (20.2%), hives (18.9%), swelling/angioedema (11.8%), and anaphylaxis (6.8%). There was an increased prevalence of penicillin allergy in female patients compared with male patients (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.60, 2.08; p < 0.0001), and there were significantly fewer Asians with penicillin allergy compared with Caucasians (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.32, 0.83; p = 0.007). However, only 78 (6%) of the patients reporting penicillin allergy had a referral to an allergy specialist. Overall, improved referral to an allergist will help to identify patients who have penicillin allergy requiring avoidance. PMID:25584917

  16. Organ dose conversion coefficients for tube current modulated CT protocols for an adult population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wanyi; Tian, Xiaoyu; Sahbaee, Pooyan; Zhang, Yakun; Segars, William Paul; Samei, Ehsan

    2016-03-01

    In computed tomography (CT), patient-specific organ dose can be estimated using pre-calculated organ dose conversion coefficients (organ dose normalized by CTDIvol, h factor) database, taking into account patient size and scan coverage. The conversion coefficients have been previously estimated for routine body protocol classes, grouped by scan coverage, across an adult population for fixed tube current modulated CT. The coefficients, however, do not include the widely utilized tube current (mA) modulation scheme, which significantly impacts organ dose. This study aims to extend the h factors and the corresponding dose length product (DLP) to create effective dose conversion coefficients (k factor) database incorporating various tube current modulation strengths. Fifty-eight extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantoms were included in this study representing population anatomy variation in clinical practice. Four mA profiles, representing weak to strong mA dependency on body attenuation, were generated for each phantom and protocol class. A validated Monte Carlo program was used to simulate the organ dose. The organ dose and effective dose was further normalized by CTDIvol and DLP to derive the h factors and k factors, respectively. The h factors and k factors were summarized in an exponential regression model as a function of body size. Such a population-based mathematical model can provide a comprehensive organ dose estimation given body size and CTDIvol. The model was integrated into an iPhone app XCATdose version 2, enhancing the 1st version based upon fixed tube current modulation. With the organ dose calculator, physicists, physicians, and patients can conveniently estimate organ dose.

  17. Clinical and histopathological results of the adult patients with unilateral cryptorchidism

    PubMed Central

    Ateş, Ferhat; Soydan, Hasan; Okçelik, Sezgin; Çırakoğlu, Abdullah; Yılmaz, İsmail; Malkoç, Ercan; Karademir, Kenan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical and histopathological results of adult unilateral cryptorchidism patients. Material and methods Data from adult unilateral cryptorchidism patients that underwent orchiectomy in our clinic between between January 2004 and March 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were divided into three groups as intra-abdominal, inguinal canal and superficial inguinal region according to the location of the undescended testes. Patients were also grouped according to their testicular volume (<4 cc, 4.1–12 cc, and >12 cc). Histopathology results of orchiectomy specimens were classified as follows: 1. Sertoli cells only, testicular atrophy and vanished testis (anorchia) 2. Hypospermatogenesis, and 3. Maturation arrest. Patients were grouped as normospermia, azoospermia and oligo/astheno/teratospermia groups according to semen analysis results. Correlations between testicular localization, testicular size, semen analysis and pathology results were evaluated. Incidental tumor detection rates were also calculated. Results Two hundred and forty-four adult unilateral cryptorchidism patients underwent orchiectomy in our clinic. There was no a significant relationship between location of the testis and testicular pathology results (p=0.707). Most common semen analysis results was normospermia in patients with high testicular volume group however azoospermia and oligoasthenospermia observed commonly in patients with low testicular volume group. There was a significant relationship between testicular volume and semen analysis results (p=0.023). No significant relationship was observed between semen analysis and pathological results (p=0.929). After an evaluation of all factors with possible effects on the semen analysis results, only testicular volume (p=0.036) was found to have a significant impact. Only one case (0.4%) was incidentally diagnosed seminoma after a review of 233 patients with available histopathological results on record

  18. Polypharmacy in older adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection compared with the general population

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno-Gracia, Mercedes; Crusells-Canales, María José; Armesto-Gómez, Francisco Javier; Compaired-Turlán, Vicente; Rabanaque-Hernández, María José

    2016-01-01

    Background The percentage of older HIV-positive patients is growing, with an increase in age-related comorbidities and concomitant medication. Objectives To quantify polypharmacy and profile types of non-antiretroviral drugs collected at community pharmacies in 2014 by HIV-positive individuals on antiretroviral therapy and to compare these findings with those of the general population. Methods HIV-positive patients (n=199) were compared with a group of patients from the general population (n=8,172), aged between 50 and 64 years. The factors compared were prevalence of polypharmacy (≥5 comedications with cumulative defined daily dose [DDD] per drug over 180), percentage of patients who collected each therapeutic class of drug, and median duration for each drug class (based on DDD). Results were stratified by sex. Results Polypharmacy was more common in HIV-positive males than in the male general population (8.9% vs 4.4%, P=0.010). Polypharmacy was also higher in HIV-positive females than in the female general population (11.3% vs 3.4%, P=0.002). Percentage of HIV-positive patients receiving analgesics, anti-infectives, gastrointestinal drugs, central nervous system (CNS) agents, and respiratory drugs was higher than in the general population, with significant differences between male populations. No differences were observed in proportion of patients receiving cardiovascular drugs. The estimated number of treatment days (median DDDs) were higher in HIV-positive males than in males from the general population for anti-infectives (32.2 vs 20.0, P<0.001) and CNS agents (238.7 vs 120.0, P=0.002). A higher percentage of HIV-positive males than males from the general population received sulfonamides (17.1% vs 1.5%, P<0.001), macrolides (37.1% vs 24.9%, P=0.020), and quinolones (34.3% vs 21.2%, P=0.009). Conclusion Polypharmacy is more common in HIV-positive older males and females than in similarly aged members of the general population. HIV-positive patients received

  19. Hyperopia and Lens Power in an Adult Population: The Shahroud Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Iribarren, Rafael; Hashemi, Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Morgan, Ian G.; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Shariati, Mohammad; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the relationship between lens power and refractive error in older adults following age-related hyperopic shifts. Methods: From the Shahroud Eye Cohort Study, subjects aged 55-64 years without clinically significant cataracts (with nuclear opacity of grade 0 to 1) were included to maximize the proportion of subjects with age-related hyperopic shifts that normally occur between 40 to 60 years of age, before interference from the myopic shift due to nuclear cataracts. Mean axial length (AL) values, corneal power, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and lens power were analyzed and compared among three refractive groups (myopes, emmetropes, and hyperopes). Results: A total of 1,006 subjects including 496 (49.63%) male subjects were studied. Corneal power was similar in all refractive groups. Hyperopes had + 1.69 diopters higher mean spherical equivalent refractive error and − 0.50 mm shorter AL than emmetropes. Myopes had 0.67 mm longer AL than emmetropes. Hyperopes had significantly increased lens thickness as compared to emmetropes (4.42 vs. 4.39 mm respectively). In this adult sample, the hyperopic group had lower lens power (+22.29 diopters vs. +22.54 diopters in emmetropes, P = 0.132). Myopes had similar lens power as emmetropes. Conclusion: Axial length is the principal determinant of refractive errors. Lens power may have importance in determining hyperopia in adults free of cataract. PMID:27051484

  20. A psychotherapeutic approach to treatment of a population at high risk for alcoholism: adult children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Eve, S I

    1989-01-01

    It is estimated that there are between 25 and 28 million children of alcoholic parent(s) in the United States today. These individuals are at high risk for development of intrapsychic, interpersonal, and behavioural disorder, ie, developing alcoholism (40-60 per cent), becoming involved with an alcoholic (co-alcoholism), feeling a consistent sense of personal inadequacy or an inability to develop satisfying mutually supportive relationships. Major cognitive and emotional deficits appear to exist. Adult children of alcoholics who often experience many years of less-than-fruitful therapy report better results when alcoholic family issues have been adequately addressed. Developmental, existential and systems approaches may be well utilized, as well as non-verbal modalities, in treatment of adult children of alcoholics. Assessment, diagnosis and treatment issues particular to this population will be discussed as well as methods of working with specific barriers exhibited by children of alcoholics in the therapy setting. Implications of treatment will be discussed in relation to primary alcoholism prevention, relapse prevention and the effectiveness of alcoholism treatment programme staff. PMID:2509840

  1. The use of simplified verbal autopsy in identifying causes of adult death in a predominantly rural population in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Lulu, Kidest; Berhane, Yemane

    2005-01-01

    Background Information on adult mortality is essentially non-existent in Ethiopia particularly from rural areas where access to health services is limited and most deaths occur at home. This study was conducted with the aim of identifying causes of adult death in a rural population of Ethiopia using a simplified verbal autopsy instrument. Methods All deaths in the age-group 15–49 years during the period of 1995–99 were taken from computerized demographic surveillance database maintained by the Butajira Rural Health Program. Data on the causes of death were collected from close relatives of the deceased persons by lay interviewers. Causes of death were diagnosed using "expert algorithm" programmed onto a computer. Results The major causes of death were acute febrile illnesses (25.2%), liver diseases (11.3%), diarrheal diseases (11.1%), tuberculosis (9.7%) and HIV/AIDS (7.4%). Overall communicable diseases accounted for 60.8% of the deaths. The high levels of mortality from communicable diseases reflect the poor socioeconomic development of the country, and the general poor coverage of health and education services in rural Ethiopia. The tools used in this study can easily be added-on to the numerous health surveys conducted in the country. Conclusion The simplified approach to verbal autopsy diagnosis can produce useful data that can effectively guide priority health interventions in rural areas where routine information system is either very weak or non-existent. PMID:15935096

  2. Physical inactivity prevalence and trends among Mexican adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) 2006 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lifestyles such as unhealthy diets and the lack of physical activity have been contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In 2012, the world health organization published the first global recommendation for physical activity and health. People who do not meet at least 150 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are considered to be physically inactive. The prevalence of physical inactivity worldwide is 31%, however there is insufficient data from prevalence and trends of physical inactivity in Mexican population. The purposes of this study are to describe the physical inactivity prevalence and recent trends in Mexican adults and to examine the association between physical inactivity with biologic and sociodemographic characteristics. Methods Representative samples of 17,183 and 10,729 adults (aged 20 to 69 years) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2006 and 2012, respectively. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed using the short form version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), which was administered in face-to-face interviews. Self-reported IPAQ MVPA levels were adjusted using an equation derived from a previous validation study. Participants were considered inactive if they engaged in <150-minutes/week of moderate physical activity or <75 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity according to WHO classification criteria. Results The prevalence of physical inactivity was significantly higher in 2012 (19.4%, 95% CI: 18.1, 20.7) than in 2006 (13.4%, 95% CI: 12.5, 14.5). Adults in the obese category, 60–69 age group, and those in the highest socioeconomic status tertile were more likely to be physically inactive. Conclusions The proportion of the Mexican adult population who do not meet the minimum WHO physical activity criteria has increased by 6% points between 2006 and 2012. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, the aging of the population

  3. Projecting demographic responses to climate change: adult and juvenile survival respond differently to direct and indirect effects of weather in a passerine population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dybala, Kristen E.; Eadie, John M.; Gardali, Thomas; Seavy, Nathaniel E.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have quantitatively projected changes in demography in response to climate change, yet doing so can provide important insights into the processes that may lead to population declines and changes in species distributions. Using a long-term mark-recapture data set, we examined the influence of multiple direct and indirect effects of weather on adult and juvenile survival for a population of Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) in California. We found evidence for a positive, direct effect of winter temperature on adult survival, and a positive, indirect effect of prior rainy season precipitation on juvenile survival, which was consistent with an effect of precipitation on food availability during the breeding season. We used these relationships, and climate projections of significantly warmer and slightly drier winter weather by the year 2100, to project a significant increase in mean adult survival (12-17%) and a slight decrease in mean juvenile survival (4-6%) under the B1 and A2 climate change scenarios. Together with results from previous studies on seasonal fecundity and postfledging survival in this population, we integrated these results in a population model and projected increases in the population growth rate under both climate change scenarios. Our results underscore the importance of considering multiple, direct, and indirect effects of weather throughout the annual cycle, as well as differences in the responses of each life stage to climate change. Projecting demographic responses to climate change can identify not only how populations will be affected by climate change but also indicate the demographic process(es) and specific mechanisms that may be responsible. This information can, in turn, inform climate change adaptation plans, help prioritize future research, and identify where limited conservation resources will be most effectively and efficiently spent.

  4. Associations between a History of Traumatic Brain Injuries and Current Cigarette Smoking, Substance Use, and Elevated Psychological Distress in a Population Sample of Canadian Adults.

    PubMed

    Ilie, Gabriela; Adlaf, Edward M; Mann, Robert E; Ialomiteanu, Anca; Hamilton, Hayley; Rehm, Jürgen; Asbridge, Mark; Cusimano, Michael D

    2015-07-15

    This study describes the prevalence of reported history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its association with reports of current substance use, cigarette smoking, and psychological distress among Canadian adults in a population sample. A cross-sectional sample of 1999 Ontario adults 18-93 years of age were surveyed by telephone in 2011 as part of the Center for Addiction and Mental Health's ongoing representative survey of adult mental health and substance use in Ontario, Canada. Loss of consciousness for at least 5 min or at least one overnight hospitalization resulting from symptoms associated with the TBI injury represented minimum criteria for TBI. An estimated 16.8% (95% confidence interval, 14.8, 19.0) of adults reported a TBI in their lifetime. Men had higher prevalence of TBI than women. Adults who reported a history of TBI had higher odds of reported past-year daily smoking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.15), using cannabis (AOR = 2.80) and nonmedical opioids (AOR = 2.90), as well as screened significantly for recent elevated psychological distress (AOR = 1.97) in the past few weeks, compared to adults without a history of TBI. Co-occurrence of a history of TBI with current elevated psychological distress and substance use warrants vigilance among medical practitioners to assess the possibility of a history of TBI during reviews of the history leading to the occurrence of these conditions. PMID:25496189

  5. A Relationship between REM Sleep Measures and the Duration of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a Young Adult Urban Minority Population

    PubMed Central

    Mellman, Thomas A.; Kobayashi, Ihori; Lavela, Joseph; Wilson, Bryonna; Hall Brown, Tyish S.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: To determine relationships of polysomnographic (PSG) measures with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a young adult, urban African American population. Design: Cross-sectional, clinical and laboratory evaluation. Setting: Community recruitment, evaluation in the clinical research unit of an urban University hospital. Participants: Participants (n = 145) were Black, 59.3% female, with a mean age of 23.1 y (SD = 4.8). One hundred twenty-one participants (83.4%) met criteria for trauma exposure, the most common being nonsexual violence. Thirty-nine participants (26.9%) met full (n = 19) or subthreshold criteria (n = 20) for current PTSD, 41 (28.3%) had met lifetime PTSD criteria and were recovered, and 65 (45%) were negative for PTSD. Measurements and Results: Evaluations included the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and 2 consecutive nights of overnight PSG. Analysis of variance did not reveal differences in measures of sleep duration and maintenance, percentage of sleep stages, and the latency to and duration of uninterrupted segments of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep by study group. There were significant relationships between the duration of PTSD and REM sleep percentage (r = 0.53, P = 0.001), REM segment length (r = 0.43, P = 0.006), and REM sleep latency (r = -0.34, P < 0.03) among those with current PTSD that persisted when removing cases with, or controlling for, depression. Conclusions: The findings are consistent with observations in the literature of fragmented and reduced REM sleep with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) relatively proximate to trauma exposure and nondisrupted or increased REM sleep with chronic PTSD. Citation: Mellman TA, Kobayashi I, Lavela J, Wilson B, Hall Brown TS. A relationship between REM sleep measures and the duration of posttraumatic stress disorder in a young adult urban minority population. SLEEP 2014;37(8):1321-1326. PMID:25083012

  6. An Empirical Investigation of Group Treatment for a Clinical Population of Adult Female Incest Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxe, Brenda J.; Johnson, Susan M.

    1999-01-01

    Empirically assesses the effectiveness of a group treatment program on intrapersonal symptomatology and interpersonal difficulties in a clinical population of women with a history of incest. Results indicate that a time-limited group, which focuses on the original trauma, is effective in reducing intrapersonal symptomatology for women with a…

  7. The Association between Sleep Problems, Sleep Medication Use, and Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Results from the Health and Retirement Study 2010

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Very few studies have assessed the impact of poor sleep and sleep medication use on the risk of falls among community-dwelling older adults. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between sleep problems, sleep medication use, and falls in community-dwelling older adults. Methods. The study population comprised a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized older adults participating in the 2010 Health and Retirement Study. Proportion of adults reporting sleep problems, sleep medication use, and fall was calculated. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to examine the impact of sleep problems and sleep medication use on the risk of falls after controlling for covariates. Results. Among 9,843 community-dwelling older adults, 35.8% had reported a fall and 40.8% had reported sleep problems in the past two years. Sleep medication use was reported by 20.9% of the participants. Older adults who do have sleep problems and take sleep medications had a significant high risk of falls, compared to older adults who do not have sleep problems and do not take sleep medications. The other two groups also had significantly greater risk for falls. Conclusion. Sleep problems added to sleep medication use increase the risk of falls. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these observed findings. PMID:27547452

  8. Health supplement consumption behavior in the older adult population: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Tse, Mimi; Chan, Ka Long; Wong, Anthony; Tam, Eric; Fan, Elaine; Yip, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Health supplement consumption behavior is important to maintain health status. The purpose of the study was to explore the spending pattern on health supplement consumption behavior in Hong Kong older adults population. The present study was a cross-sectional survey study; and was collected from via a street-intercept interview. Participants were approached and invited to response to a questionnaire. The location for data collection was evenly distributed in Hong Kong, Kowloon, and New Territories. The questionnaire included demographic data and source of income source, spending habits on health supplement products, and whether they performed regular health check. There were 982 participants interviewed; and 46% was male and 54% was female. The participants are divided into young-old (age 50-69) and old-old group (age 70 or above). The mean age is 67.93 ± 10.386. Most of the participants have regular body check; the major reason is to maintain health. Less than half of the participants spent money on health supplement products; the major reason for such purchase was to maintain health; while for not buying is, they did not think that would have any effect in their health. Also, more young-old participants have regular body check and spend more money on health supplement products; while old-old group participants were less likely to concern their health, and they were less likely to perform regular body check and purchase health supplement products. The present research reveals the pattern of the health supplement consumption behavior of young-old and old-old. Young-old group and old-old group have difference pattern according to their difference age-related health condition and the amount of spare money. Different educational program concern health consciousness and promotion strategy of regular body check and health supplement products need be tailor-made for older adults, and for young-old and old-old groups. PMID:24575397

  9. Dietary magnesium, lung function, wheezing, and airway hyperreactivity in a random adult population sample.

    PubMed

    Britton, J; Pavord, I; Richards, K; Wisniewski, A; Knox, A; Lewis, S; Tattersfield, A; Weiss, S

    1994-08-01

    Magnesium is involved in a wide range of biological activities, including some that may protect against the development of asthma and chronic airflow obstruction. We tested the hypothesis that high dietary magnesium intake is associated with better lung function, and a reduced risk of airway hyper-reactivity and wheezing in a random sample of adults. In 2633 adults aged 18-70 sampled from the electoral register of an administrative area of Nottingham, UK, we measured dietary magnesium intake by semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire, lung function as the 1-sec forced expiratory volume (FEV1), and atopy as the mean skin-prick test response to three common environmental allergens. We measured airway reactivity to methacholine in 2415 individuals, defining hyper-reactivity as a 20% fall in FEV1 after a cumulative dose of 12.25 mumol or less. Mean (SD) daily intake of magnesium was 380 (114) mg/day. After adjusting for age, sex, and height, and for the effects of atopy and smoking, a 100 mg/day higher magnesium intake was associated with a 27.7 (95% CI, 11.9-43.5) mL higher FEV1, and a reduction in the relative odds of hyper-reactivity by a ratio of 0.82 (0.72-0.93). The same incremental difference in magnesium intake was also associated with a reduction in the odds of self-reported wheeze within the past 12 months, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, atopy, and kilojoule intake, by a ratio of 0.85 (0.76-0.95). Dietary magnesium intake is independently related to lung function and the occurrence of airway hyper-reactivity and self-reported wheezing in the general population. Low magnesium intake may therefore be involved in the aetiology of asthma and chronic obstructive airways disease. PMID:7914305

  10. Dietary exposure to mycotoxins of the Hong Kong adult population from a Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Yau, Arthur Tin-Chung; Chen, Melva Yung-Yung; Lam, Chi-Ho; Ho, Yuk-Yin; Xiao, Ying; Chung, Stephen Wai-Cheung

    2016-06-01

    Dietary exposure of Hong Kong adults to mycotoxins and their metabolites including aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisins (FNs), deoxynivalenol (DON), acetyldeoxynivalenols (AcDONs) and zearalenone (ZEA) was estimated using the Total Diet Study (TDS) approach to assess the associated health risk to the local people. Sixty commonly consumed food items, collected in four seasons, were sampled and prepared as consumed. These mycotoxins were primarily found at low levels. The highest mean levels (upper bound) were: AFs, 1.50 µg kg(-)(1) in legumes, nuts and seed; OTA, 0.22 µg kg(-)(1) in sugars and confectionery; FNs, 9.76 µg kg(-)(1) in cereals and their products; DON and AcDONs, 33.1 µg kg(-)(1) in cereals and their products; and ZEA, 53.8 µg kg(-)(1) in fats and oils. The estimated dietary exposures of Hong Kong adults to the mycotoxins analysed were well below the respective health-based guidance values, where available. For AFs, the upper-bound exposure for high consumers is 0.0049 µg kg bw(-)(1) day(-)(1), which was estimated to contribute to about 7.7 (< 1%) of liver cancer cases when compared with 1222 liver cancer cases per year in Hong Kong. The percentage contributions of the estimated 95th percentile dietary exposures (lower and upper bound) to the health-based guidance values of individual mycotoxins were: ochratoxin A, 3.6-9.2%; fumonisins, 0.04-8.5%; deoxynivalenol and acetyldeoxynivalenols, 21.7-28.2%; and zearalenone 3.3-34.5%. The findings indicate that dietary exposures to all the mycotoxins analysed in this study were unlikely to pose an unacceptable health risk to the Hong Kong population. PMID:27144988

  11. Health Supplement Consumption Behavior in the Older Adult Population: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Mimi; Chan, Ka Long; Wong, Anthony; Tam, Eric; Fan, Elaine; Yip, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Health supplement consumption behavior is important to maintain health status. The purpose of the study was to explore the spending pattern on health supplement consumption behavior in Hong Kong older adults population. The present study was a cross-sectional survey study; and was collected from via a street-intercept interview. Participants were approached and invited to response to a questionnaire. The location for data collection was evenly distributed in Hong Kong, Kowloon, and New Territories. The questionnaire included demographic data and source of income source, spending habits on health supplement products, and whether they performed regular health check. There were 982 participants interviewed; and 46% was male and 54% was female. The participants are divided into young–old (age 50–69) and old–old group (age 70 or above). The mean age is 67.93 ± 10.386. Most of the participants have regular body check; the major reason is to maintain health. Less than half of the participants spent money on health supplement products; the major reason for such purchase was to maintain health; while for not buying is, they did not think that would have any effect in their health. Also, more young–old participants have regular body check and spend more money on health supplement products; while old–old group participants were less likely to concern their health, and they were less likely to perform regular body check and purchase health supplement products. The present research reveals the pattern of the health supplement consumption behavior of young–old and old–old. Young–old group and old–old group have difference pattern according to their difference age-related health condition and the amount of spare money. Different educational program concern health consciousness and promotion strategy of regular body check and health supplement products need be tailor-made for older adults, and for young–old and old–old groups. PMID:24575397

  12. Examining Contextual Influences on Fall-Related Injuries Among Older Adults for Population Health Management.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Geoffrey J; Rodriguez, Hector P

    2015-12-01

    The objectives were to assess the associations between fall-related injuries (FRIs) treated in the emergency department (ED) among older adults in California and contextual county-level physical, social, and economic characteristics, and to assess how county-level economic conditions are associated with FRIs when controlling for other county-level factors. Data from 2008 California ED discharge, Medicare Impact File, and County Health Rankings were used. Random effects logistic regression models estimated contextual associations between county-level factors representing economic conditions, the built environment, community safety, access to care, and obesity with patient-level FRI treatment among 1,712,409 older adults, controlling for patient-level and hospital-level characteristics. Patient-level predictors of FRI treatment were consistent with previous studies not accounting for contextual associations. Larger and rural hospitals had higher odds of FRI treatment, while teaching and safety net hospitals had lower odds. Better county economic conditions were associated with greater odds (ß=0.73, P=0.001) and higher county-level obesity were associated with lower odds (ß=-0.37, P=0.004), but safer built environments (ß=-0.31, P=0.38) were not associated with FRI treatment. The magnitude of association between county-level economic conditions and FRI treatment attenuated with the inclusion of county-level obesity rates. FRI treatment was most strongly and consistently related to more favorable county economic conditions, suggesting differences in treatment or preferences for treatment for FRIs among older individuals in communities of varying resource levels. Using population health data on FRIs, policy makers may be able to remove barriers unique to local contexts when implementing falls prevention educational programs and built environment modifications. PMID:25919228

  13. Statistical distribution of foveal transverse chromatic aberration, pupil centration, and angle psi in a population of young adult eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rynders, Maurice; Lidkea, Bruce; Chisholm, William; Thibos, Larry N.

    1995-10-01

    Subjective transverse chromatic aberration (sTCA) manifest at the fovea was determined for a population of 85 young adults (19-38 years old) by means of a two-dimensional, two-color, vernier alignment technique. The statistical distribution of sTCA was well fitted by a bivariate Gaussian function with mean values that were not significantly different from zero in either the horizontal or the vertical direction. We conclude from this result that a hypothetical, average eye representing the population mean of human eyes with medium-sized pupils is free of foveal sTCA. However, the absolute magnitude of sTCA for any given individual was often significantly greater than zero and ranged from 0.05 to 2.67 arcmin for the red and the blue lights of a computer monitor (mean wavelengths, 605 and 497 nm, respectively). The statistical distribution of the absolute magnitude of sTCA was well described by a Rayleigh probability distribution with a mean of 0.8 arcmin. A simple device useful for population screening in a clinical setting was also tested and gave concordant results. Assuming that sTCA at the fovea is due to decentering of the pupil with respect to the visual axis, we infer from these results that the pupil is, on average, well centered in human eyes. The average magnitude of pupil decentration in individual eyes is less than 0.5 mm, which corresponds to psi =3 deg for the angle between the achromatic and the visual axes of the eye.

  14. Sixteen-Year Change in Acoustic-Admittance Measures among Older Adults: Data from a Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nondahl, David M.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Wiley, Terry L.; Tweed, Ted S.; Dalton, Dayna S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to measure the 16-year change in peak compensated static acoustic admittance (Peak Y[subscript tm]) in a population-based cohort of older adults, and to determine whether age was associated with any observed change in Peak Y[subscript tm]. Other tympanometric measures also were taken and analyzed.…

  15. The Impact of Multi-Dimensional Behavioral Interventions in Student Conduct Processes: Achieving Increased Learning Outcomes in Adult Student Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braddix, D'Andre Cortez

    2012-01-01

    As adult students constitute nearly half of all undergraduates in the United States, college practitioners need to identify effective disciplinary strategies for this population when violations of institutional rules and regulations occur. The purpose of this quasi-experimental, action research study was to modify the student conduct process for…

  16. Prevalence of Autism in an Urban Population of Adults with Severe Intellectual Disabilities--A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saemundsen, Evald; Juliusson, H.; Hjaltested, S.; Gunnarsdottir, T.; Halldorsdottir, T.; Hreidarsson, S.; Magnusson, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Research on the prevalence of autism in Iceland has indicated that one possible explanation of fewer autism cases in older age groups was due to an underestimation of autism in individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs). The present study systematically searched for autism cases in the adult population of individuals with severe…

  17. Comparisons of Pollen Substitute Diets for Honey bees: Consumprion Rates by Colonies and Effects on Brood and Adult Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercially available pollen substitute diets for honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) were evaluated for consumption and colony growth (brood and adult populations) and compared with pollen cake and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Two trials were conducted; the first for 4 months during the fall and wi...

  18. Comparisons of pollen substitute diets for honey bees: consumption rates by colonies and effects on brood and adult populations.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercially available pollen substitute diets for honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) were evaluated for consumption and colony growth (brood and adult populations) and compared with pollen cake and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Two trials were conducted; the first for 3 months during the fall and w...

  19. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition Short Form for Index and IQ Scores in a Psychiatric Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Bruce K.; Girard, Todd A.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2007-01-01

    An eight-subtest short form (SF8) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition (WAIS-III), maintaining equal representation of each index factor, was developed for use with psychiatric populations. Data were collected from a mixed inpatient/outpatient sample (99 men and 101 women) referred for neuropsychological assessment. Psychometric…

  20. The Role of Supportive Adults in Promoting Positive Development in Middle Childhood: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Guhn, Martin; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Hertzman, Clyde

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine the role of supportive adults to emotional well-being in a population of Grade 4 students attending public schools in Vancouver, Canada. Reflecting the ecology of middle childhood, we examined the extent to which perceived family, school, and neighborhood support relate to young people's self-reported…

  1. Population Pharmacokinetic Study of Amikacin Administered Once or Twice Daily to Febrile, Severely Neutropenic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tod, Michel; Lortholary, Olivier; Seytre, Delphine; Semaoun, Rémi; Uzzan, Bernard; Guillevin, Loïc; Casassus, Philippe; Petitjean, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Once-daily (o.d.) administration of 20 mg of amikacin per kg of body weight to neutropenic patients has been validated by clinical studies, but amikacin pharmacokinetics have been documented only for the 7.5-mg/kg twice-daily (b.i.d.) regimen in this population. In order to determine in neutropenic patients (i) the influence of the dosing regimen on the kinetics of amikacin, (ii) the linearity of kinetics of amikacin in the range of 7.5 to 20 mg/kg, and (iii) the influence of patient characteristics on the disposition of amikacin and (iv) to provide a rationale for dosing recommendations, we evaluated the population pharmacokinetics of amikacin administered to 57 febrile neutropenic adults (neutrophil count, <500/mm3) being treated for a hematological disorder and receiving amikacin at 7.5 mg/kg b.i.d. (n = 29) or 20 mg/kg o.d. (n = 28) and administered intravenously over 0.5 h. A total of 278 blood samples were obtained (1 to 14 samples per patient) during one or several administration intervals (1 to 47). Serum amikacin levels were measured by the enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique. A mixed-effect modeling approach was used to fit a bicompartmental model to the data (NONMEM software). The influences of the dosing regimen and the demographic and biological indices on the pharmacokinetic parameters of amikacin were evaluated by the maximum-likelihood ratio test on the population model. The dosing regimen had no influence on amikacin pharmacokinetic parameters, i.e., the kinetics of amikacin were linear over the range of 7.5 to 20 mg/kg. Amikacin elimination clearance (CL) was only correlated with creatinine clearance or its covariates, namely, sex, age, body weight, and serum creatinine level. The interindividual variability of CL was 21%, while those of the central volume of distribution, the distribution clearance, and the tissue volume of distribution were 15, 30, and 25%, respectively. On the basis of the expected distribution of amikacin concentrations in

  2. Fitting a Structured Juvenile-Adult Model for Green Tree Frogs to Population Estimates from Capture-Mark-Recapture Field Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackleh, A.S.; Carter, J.; Deng, K.; Huang, Q.; Pal, N.; Yang, X.

    2012-01-01

    We derive point and interval estimates for an urban population of green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) from capture-mark-recapture field data obtained during the years 2006-2009. We present an infinite-dimensional least-squares approach which compares a mathematical population model to the statistical population estimates obtained from the field data. The model is composed of nonlinear first-order hyperbolic equations describing the dynamics of the amphibian population where individuals are divided into juveniles (tadpoles) and adults (frogs). To solve the least-squares problem, an explicit finite difference approximation is developed. Convergence results for the computed parameters are presented. Parameter estimates for the vital rates of juveniles and adults are obtained, and standard deviations for these estimates are computed. Numerical results for the model sensitivity with respect to these parameters are given. Finally, the above-mentioned parameter estimates are used to illustrate the long-time behavior of the population under investigation. ?? 2011 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  3. Robert Feulgen Prize Lecture. Grenzgänger: adult bone marrow cells populate the brain.

    PubMed

    Priller, Josef

    2003-08-01

    While the brain has traditionally been considered a rather secluded site, recent studies suggest that adult bone marrow (BM)-derived stem cells can generate glia and neurons in rodents and humans. Macrophages and microglia are the first to appear in the murine brain after transplantation of genetically marked BM cells. Within weeks after transplantation, some authors have found astrocytes and cells expressing neuronal antigens. We detected cerebellar Purkinje neurons and interneurons, such as basket cells, expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) 10-15 months after transplantation of GFP-labeled BM cells. The results push the boundaries of our classic view of lineage restriction. PMID:12898276

  4. Characteristics of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who Use Adult Developmental Disability Services: Results from 25 US States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Amy S.; Stancliffe, Roger J.; Sirek, Annie Johnson; Hall-Lande, Jennifer; Taub, Sarah; Engler, Joshua; Bershadsky, Julie; Fortune, Jon; Moseley, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    There is a significant increase in the prevalence of autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in children with estimates now reaching 1 in 110 children in the United States. Families report difficulties in finding services for their young and adult children. Many adults with ASD receive services and supports through state intellectual and…

  5. The Usability of Electronic Personal Health Record Systems for an Underserved Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Czaja, Sara J.; Zarcadoolas, Christina; Vaughon, Wendy L.; Lee, Chin Chin; Rockoff, Maxine L.; Levy, Joslyn

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goals of this study were to identify the demands associated with using electronic personal health records (PHRs) and to evaluate the ability of adults of lower socioeconomic status and low health literacy to use PHRs to perform health management activities. Background PHRs are proliferating in clinical practices and health care organizations. These systems offer the potential of increasing the active involvement of patients in health self-management. However, little is known about the actual usability of these tools for health consumers. Method We used task analysis and health literacy load analysis to identify the cognitive and literacy demands inherent in the use of PHRs and evaluated the usability of three currently available PHR systems with a sample of 54 adults. Participants used the systems to perform tasks related to medication management, interpretation of lab/test results, and health maintenance. Data were also gathered on the participants’ perception of the potential value of using a PHR. Results The results indicated that a majority of the participants had difficulty completing the tasks and needed assistance. There was some variability according to task and PHR system. However, most participants perceived the use of PHRs as valuable. Conclusions Although considered a valuable tool by consumers, the use of PHR systems may be challenging for many people. Strategies are needed to enhance the usability of these systems, especially for people with low literacy, low health literacy, or limited technology skills. Application The data from this study have implications for the design of PHRs. PMID:25875437

  6. Influenza Vaccination: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices among the Lebanese Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    El Khoury, Ghada; Salameh, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    Background: Influenza is a common preventable infectious disease associated with high mortality and morbidity. Vaccination is the most cost-effective measure to prevent influenza, yet the vaccine uptake is known to be low. No previous studies have assessed the rate of seasonal influenza vaccination use among the Lebanese population, nor examined the knowledge and attitudes towards the influenza vaccine. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was performed in 30 pharmacies randomly selected across Lebanon. A 19-item questionnaire was used to record influenza vaccination status, knowledge and attitudes towards the influenza vaccine among the Lebanese general population. Results: The survey response rate was 93%. Among the 640 study participants, the overall 2014-2015 seasonal influenza vaccination rate was 27.6%. The majority of participants (72.4%) reported irregular uptake of the vaccine. Results of the multivariate analysis revealed that elderly people (OR = 2.25, CI = 1.08–4.71), with higher education (OR = 1.42, CI = 1.09–1.84), higher physical activity (OR significantly higher than 1 for all categories), and chronic respiratory disease (OR = 3.24, CI = 1.58–6.62) were more regularly vaccinated, while those who visit the doctor “only when needed” (OR = 0.55, CI = 0.34–0.88) and those who consume more than seven drinks/week (OR = 0.24, CI = 0.09–0.65) were less regularly vaccinated. When introducing knowledge and attitude variables to the model, “thinking that the vaccine was not needed” was the only correlate that demonstrated a significant inverse association with regular influenza vaccination (OR = 0.15; p = 0.017). Conclusions: Suboptimal vaccination rates exist among the Lebanese ambulatory adult population. Clear misinformation on the importance of regular influenza immunization is also highlighted. This evidence underscores a compelling need to raise public awareness regarding the efficacy of the influenza vaccine. PMID:26690189

  7. Impact of Different Policies on Unhealthy Dietary Behaviors in an Urban Adult Population: An Agent-Based Simulation Model

    PubMed Central

    Giabbanelli, Philippe J.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Zimmerman, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Unhealthy eating is a complex-system problem. We used agent-based modeling to examine the effects of different policies on unhealthy eating behaviors. Methods. We developed an agent-based simulation model to represent a synthetic population of adults in Pasadena, CA, and how they make dietary decisions. Data from the 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey and other empirical studies were used to calibrate the parameters of the model. Simulations were performed to contrast the potential effects of various policies on the evolution of dietary decisions. Results. Our model showed that a 20% increase in taxes on fast foods would lower the probability of fast-food consumption by 3 percentage points, whereas improving the visibility of positive social norms by 10%, either through community-based or mass-media campaigns, could improve the consumption of fruits and vegetables by 7 percentage points and lower fast-food consumption by 6 percentage points. Zoning policies had no significant impact. Conclusions. Interventions emphasizing healthy eating norms may be more effective than directly targeting food prices or regulating local food outlets. Agent-based modeling may be a useful tool for testing the population-level effects of various policies within complex systems. PMID:24832414

  8. Awareness level of kidney functions and diseases among adults in a Nigerian population

    PubMed Central

    Okwuonu, C. G.; Chukwuonye, I. I.; Ogah, S. O.; Abali, C.; Adejumo, O. A.; Oviasu, E.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney diseases is on the increase in Nigeria. The cost of its management is far beyond the reach of an average patient. Prevention is thus of paramount importance and awareness of kidney diseases will help in its prevention. The aim of this study is to assess the level of awareness of kidney functions and diseases among adults in a Nigerian population. A semi-structured, researcher – administered questionnaire was the tool for data collection. Four hundred and thirty-five questionnaires were analyzed. There were 160 males (36.8%) and 275 females (63.2%). The mean age was 42.8 ± 14 years with a range of 18–78 years. Among these, 82.1% were aware of the kidneys' involvement in waste removal from the body through urine while 36% and 29% were aware of kidneys' role in blood pressure regulation and blood production, respectively. Only 26.6% correctly identified at least two basic functions of the kidneys. Also, 32.6% of the respondents were aware of at least three common causes of kidney diseases in our environment. Majority of the respondents (70.7%) did not know that kidney diseases could be inherited. Furthermore, belief in alternative therapy for kidney disease was documented in 83.2%, while unawareness of dialysis as a treatment modality was recorded in 68% of the respondents. The awareness of kidney functions and diseases among the population is poor. Measures are needed to improve this to stem the rising prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Nigeria. PMID:26060365

  9. Appreciating the Predicament of Housebound Older Adults with Arthritis: Portrait of a Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nour, Kareen; Laforest, Sophie; Gignac, Monique; Gauvin, Lise

    2005-01-01

    This paper draws a socio-demographic, physical, psychosocial, and behavioural profile of housebound older adults with arthritis and compares older adults with rheumatoid arthritis to those with osteoarthritis. Data from 125 housebound older adults with osteoarthritis (65%) or rheumatoid arthritis (35%) were compared to published samples and to…

  10. Determinants of blood lead levels in an adult population from a mining area in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos Paoliello, M. M.; Mello de Capitani, E.; Gonçalves da Cunha, F.; Carvalho, M. De Fatima; Matsuo, T.; Sakuma, A.; Ribeiro Figueiredo, B.

    2003-05-01

    During the last fifty year the Ribeira river valley, Brazil, had been under the influence of the full activity of a huge lead refinery and mining along the riverside. The plant completely stopped all kind of industrial activities at the end of 1995, and part of the worker population and their families still remain living nearby in smal communities. The objective of the present study was to assess the deterninants of blood lead levels (BLL) in these nining areas, where residual environmental contamination from the past industrial activity still remains. Blood samples of 350 adults aged 15 to 70, residing in areas around the mine and the refinery were collected. A questionnaire was given in order to gather information on food habits, current and former residential places occupationnal activities, among other variables. Blood lead concentrations were analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using Zeeman background correction. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the independent contribution of selected variables in predicting BLL in those subjects. The following variables showed significant association with high BLL: residential area close to the lead refinery, former dwelling at the refinery village, male gender, smoking habits, and consume of fruits from home back yard.

  11. Dietary patterns in Swedish adults; results from a national dietary survey.

    PubMed

    Ax, Erika; Warensjö Lemming, Eva; Becker, Wulf; Andersson, Agneta; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Cederholm, Tommy; Sjögren, Per; Fung, Teresa T

    2016-01-14

    Dietary patterns derived by statistical procedures is a way to identify overall dietary habits in specific populations. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise dietary patterns in Swedish adults using data from the national dietary survey Riksmaten adults 2010-11 (952 women, 788 men). Principal component analyses were used and two patterns were identified in both sexes: a healthy pattern loading positively on vegetables, fruits, fish and seafood, and vegetable oils, and negatively on refined bread and fast food, and a Swedish traditional pattern loading positively on potatoes, meat and processed meat, full-fat milk products, sweet bakery products, sweet condiments and margarine. In addition, a light-meal pattern was identified in women with positive loadings on fibre-rich bread, cheese, rice, pasta and food grain dishes, substitute products for meat and dairy products, candies and tea. The healthy pattern was positively correlated to dietary fibre (r 0·51-0·58) and n-3 (r 0·25-0·31) (all P<0·0001), and had a higher nutrient density of folate, vitamin D and Se. The Swedish traditional and the light-meal pattern were positively correlated to added sugar (r 0·20-0·25) and the Swedish traditional also to SFA (r 0·13-0·21) (all P<0·0001); both patterns were in general negatively correlated to micronutrients. Dietary pattern scores were associated with, for example, age, physical activity, education and income. In conclusion, we identified three major dietary patterns among Swedish adults. The patterns can be further used for examining the association between whole diet and health outcomes. PMID:26490112

  12. Predictors of Falls in a Multiethnic Population of Older Rural Adults With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Bell, Ronny A.; Smith, Shannon L.; Snively, Beverly M.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2006-01-01

    Background Falls are a recognized danger for older adults with diabetes. Persons in rural communities with diabetes may face additional risks from falling due to environmental and activity differences. Methods Data were obtained in a cross-sectional survey of a stratified random sample of 691 community-dwelling adults (42.7% white, 31.4% African American, and 25.9% Native American) at least 65 years old with two or more Medicare claims for diabetes in 1998–2000, living in two rural counties in North Carolina. Falls data were self-reported for the previous year. Demographic data, foot-related symptoms, diabetes medications, and other health characteristics were reported. Results Three hundred two persons (43.7%) reported falling at least once, including 171 (26.2%) who experienced two or more (frequent) falls. Frequent fallers were more likely to be male (odds ratio [OR] = 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.17, 2.66), report tingling or numbness in feet (OR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.13, 2.70), have had a stroke (OR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.19, 2.76), have longer duration of diabetes (OR = 1.21; 95% CI = 1.00, 1.47), have lower physical functioning (OR = 0.97; 95% CI = 0.96, 0.99) and mobility (OR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.82, 0.96), and take a greater number of prescription medications (OR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.13). Conclusions For rural older adults with diabetes, falls history should be screened to identify those at risk. Further research should investigate unique environmental factors contributing to falls for rural elderly persons. PMID:16611707

  13. A systematic review of hospitalization resulting from medicine-related problems in adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Al Hamid, Abdullah; Ghaleb, Maisoon; Aljadhey, Hisham; Aslanpour, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    Aims Medicine-related problems (MRPs) represent a major issue leading to hospitalization, especially in adult and elderly patients. The aims of this review are to investigate the prevalence, causes and major risk factors for MRPs leading to hospitalization in adult patients and to identify the main medicine classes involved. Methods Studies were identified through electronic searches of Medline, Embase, Scopus and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts between January 2000 and May 2013. A systematic review was conducted of both retrospective and prospective studies. Studies included were those involving hospitalization resulting from MRPs in adults (≥18 years old), whereas studies excluded were those investigating drug misuse and abuse and studies investigating MRPs in hospitalized patients. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 20. Results Forty-five studies were identified, including 21 that investigated hospitalization resulting from adverse drug reactions, six studies that investigated hospitalization due to adverse drug events and 18 studies that investigated hospitalization due to MRPs. The median prevalence rates of hospitalization resulting from adverse drug reactions, adverse drug events and MRPs were 7% (interquartile range, 2.4–14.9%), 4.6% (interquartile range, 2.85–16.6%) and 12.1% (interquartile range, 6.43–22.2%), respectively. The major causes contributing to MRPs were adverse drug reactions and noncompliance. In addition, the major risk factors associated with MRPs were old age, polypharmacy and comorbidities. Moreover, the main classes of medicines implicated were medicines used to treat cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Conclusions Hospitalization due to MRPs had a high prevalence, in the range of 4.6–12.1%. Most MRPs encountered were prevalent among adult patients taking medicines for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. PMID:24283967

  14. Chronic diseases and life events accounted for 2-18 % population attributable risks for adult hearing loss: UK Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-01-01

    Links between chronic diseases and hearing loss in adults have emerged. However, previous investigations were not complete, and the role of life events was unclear. Therefore, it was aimed to examine the relationships of common chronic diseases and life events and adult hearing loss in a country-wide and population-based study. Data were retrieved from UK Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007, being cross-sectional, including demographics, self-reported prior health conditions and hearing loss (ever and in the last 12 months), and several major life events. Analyses included Chi square test, t test, logistic regression model, and population attributable risk estimation. People who had prior health conditions including cancer, migraine, dementia, depression, cataracts, chronic bronchitis, allergy, bowel problem, bladder problem, arthritis, muscle problem or skin problem tended to report hearing loss than their counterparts. People who have experienced major life events including post-traumatic stress disorder, serious illness of close relatives, death of family, serious problems with friends, major financial crisis, valuables stolen, being bullied, violence at home, sexual abuse or running away from home were also more likely to experience ever hearing loss problem or that in the last 12 months. 2.0-13.1 % adult hearing loss could be delayed or prevented by managing chronic diseases while 4.1-18.1 % might be delayed or prevented by minimizing the negative effects of life events. Chronic diseases and life events were associated with hearing loss in adults. Better managing lifestyle to minimize detrimental impacts in future health and nursing programs would be suggested. PMID:25575844

  15. The Impact of Stressful Life Events and Social Support on Drinking among Older Adults: A General Population Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennison, Karen M.

    1992-01-01

    Analyzed stressful life events, buffering hypothesis, and alcohol use in 1,418 older adults. Results indicated that older adults who experienced stressful losses were significantly more likely to drink excessively than those who had not experienced such losses or who had experienced them to lesser extent. Supportive resources appeared to have…

  16. Levels of Acculturation of Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area - The Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Dong, XinQi; Bergren, Stephanie M; Chang, E-Shien

    2015-09-01

    Acculturation is a difficult process for minority older adults for a variety of reasons, including access and exposure to mainstream culture, competing ethnic identities, and linguistic ability and preference. There is a paucity of research regarding overall level of acculturation for Chinese older adults in the United States. This study aimed to provide an overall estimate of level of acculturation of Chinese older adults in the United States and to examine correlations between sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health measures, and level of acculturation. Data were collected through the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE) study. This community-based participatory research study surveyed 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 and older. The PINE Study Acculturation Scale was used to assess level of acculturation in three dimensions: language preference, media use, and ethnic social relations. Mean acculturation level for all items was 15.3 ± 5.1, indicating low levels of acculturation. Older age, more offspring, lower income, fewer years living in the United States, lower overall health status, and lower quality of life were associated with lower levels of acculturation. Level of acculturation was low in Chinese older adults, and certain subsets of the population were more likely to have a lower level of acculturation. Future research should investigate causality and effects of level of acculturation. PMID:26313023

  17. Adult and adolescent exposure to tobacco and alcohol content in contemporary YouTube music videos in Great Britain: a population estimate

    PubMed Central

    Cranwell, Jo; Opazo-Breton, Magdalena; Britton, John

    2016-01-01

    Background We estimate exposure of British adults and adolescents to tobacco and alcohol content from a sample of popular YouTube music videos. Methods British viewing figures were generated from 2 representative online national surveys of adult and adolescent viewing of the 32 most popular videos containing content. 2068 adolescents aged 11–18 years (1010 boys, 1058 girls), and 2232 adults aged 19+years (1052 male, 1180 female) completed the surveys. We used the number of 10 s intervals in the 32 most popular videos containing content to estimate the number of impressions. We extrapolated gross and per capita impressions for the British population from census data and estimated numbers of adults and adolescents who had ever watched the sampled videos. Results From video release to the point of survey, the videos delivered an estimated 1006 million gross impressions of alcohol (95% CI 748 to 1264 million), and 203 million of tobacco (95% CI 151 to 255 million), to the British population. Per capita exposure was around 5 times higher for alcohol than for tobacco, and nearly 4 times higher in adolescents, who were exposed to an average of 52.1 (95% CI 43.4 to 60.9) and 10.5 (95% CI 8.8 to 12.3) alcohol and tobacco impressions, respectively, than in adults (14.1 (95% CI 10.2 to 18.1) and 2.9 (95% CI 2.1 to 3.6)). Exposure rates were higher in girls than in boys. Conclusions YouTube music videos deliver millions of gross impressions of alcohol and tobacco content. Adolescents are exposed much more than adults. Music videos are a major global medium of exposure to such content. PMID:26767404

  18. Economic Impact of Adverse Drug Events – A Retrospective Population-Based Cohort Study of 4970 Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gyllensten, Hanna; Hakkarainen, Katja M.; Hägg, Staffan; Carlsten, Anders; Petzold, Max; Rehnberg, Clas; Jönsson, Anna K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim was to estimate the direct costs caused by ADEs, including costs for dispensed drugs, primary care, other outpatient care, and inpatient care, and to relate the direct costs caused by ADEs to the societal COI (direct and indirect costs), for patients with ADEs and for the entire study population. Methods We conducted a population-based observational retrospective cohort study of ADEs identified from medical records. From a random sample of 5025 adults in a Swedish county council, 4970 were included in the analyses. During a three-month study period in 2008, direct and indirect costs were estimated from resource use identified in the medical records and from register data on costs for resource use. Results Among 596 patients with ADEs, the average direct costs per patient caused by ADEs were USD 444.9 [95% CI: 264.4 to 625.3], corresponding to USD 21 million per 100 000 adult inhabitants per year. Inpatient care accounted for 53.9% of all direct costs caused by ADEs. For patients with ADEs, the average societal cost of illness was USD 6235.0 [5442.8 to 7027.2], of which direct costs were USD 2830.1 [2260.7 to 3399.4] (45%), and indirect costs USD 3404.9 [2899.3 to 3910.4] (55%). The societal cost of illness was higher for patients with ADEs compared to other patients. ADEs caused 9.5% of all direct healthcare costs in the study population. Conclusions Healthcare costs for patients with ADEs are substantial across different settings; in primary care, other outpatient care and inpatient care. Hence the economic impact of ADEs will be underestimated in studies focusing on inpatient ADEs alone. Moreover, the high proportion of indirect costs in the societal COI for patients with ADEs suggests that the observed costs caused by ADEs would be even higher if including indirect costs. Additional studies are needed to identify interventions to prevent and manage ADEs. PMID:24637879

  19. Anthropometric measurements and prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in adult Malawians: nationwide population based NCD STEPS survey

    PubMed Central

    Msyamboza, Kelias P; Kathyola, Damson; Dzowela, Titha

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Overweight and obesity are significant causes of increased morbidity and premature mortality from non-communicable diseases, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, although local high quality population-based data to inform policies and strategies are lacking. Methods Using the WHO STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance, population-based nationwide survey was conducted on participants aged 25-64 years in Malawi. A multi-stage cluster sample design and weighting were used to produce a national representative data for that age range. Results A total of 4845 participants (65.7% females, 87.6% from rural areas) had complete anthropometric data and included in this analysis. Overall (both sexes) population-based mean body weight, height, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose and cholesterol were estimated at 58.7 kg, 159.9 cm, 133.4 mmHg, 79.5 mmHg, 4.3 mmol/L, 4.4 mmol/L respectively. Prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity, overweight and/ or obesity and central adiposity were 6.5%, 17.3%, 4.6%, 21.9% and 28.8% respectively. Overweight, obesity, overweight and/ or obesity and central adiposity were more frequent in females than males (20.7% vs 14.1%, 7.4% vs 2.0%, 28.1% vs 16.1% and 52.8% vs 5.6%), in urban than rural areas (23.2% vs 16.6%, 12.0% vs 3.7%, 35.2% vs 20.2%) respectively. Conclusion This study demonstrated that overweight and/ or obesity is the major public health problem affecting at least one in five adults in Malawi. The problem is more frequent in females than males and urban than rural. Implementation of primary health care approaches such as WHO package for essential non-communicable diseases could reduce the problem. PMID:24244794

  20. Serum PCB levels in a representative sample of the Spanish adult population: the BIOAMBIENT.ES project.

    PubMed

    Huetos, O; Bartolomé, M; Aragonés, N; Cervantes-Amat, M; Esteban, M; Ruiz-Moraga, M; Pérez-Gómez, B; Calvo, E; Vila, M; Castaño, A

    2014-09-15

    This manuscript presents the levels of six indicator polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180) in the serum of 1880 individuals from a representative sample of the Spanish working population recruited between March 2009 and July 2010. Three out of the six PCBs studied (180, 153 and 138) were quantified in more than 99% of participants. PCB 180 was the highest contributor, followed by PCBs 153 and 138, with relative abundances of 42.6%, 33.2% and 24.2%, respectively. In contrast, PCBs 28 and 52 were detected in only 1% of samples, whereas PCB 101 was detectable in 6% of samples. The geometric mean (GM) for ΣPCBs138/153/180 was 135.4 ng/g lipid (95% CI: 121.3-151.2 ng/g lipid) and the 95th percentile was 482.2 ng/g lipid. Men had higher PCB blood concentrations than women (GMs 138.9 and 129.9 ng/g lipid respectively). As expected, serum PCB levels increased with age and frequency of fish consumption, particularly in those participants younger than 30 years of age. The highest levels we found were for participants from the Basque Country, whereas the lowest concentrations were found for those from the Canary Islands. The Spanish population studied herein had similar levels to those found previously in Greece and southern Italy, lower levels than those in France and central Europe, and higher PCB levels than those in the USA, Canada and New Zealand. This paper provides the first baseline information regarding PCB exposure in the Spanish adult population on a national scale. The results will allow us to establish reference levels, follow temporal trends and identify high-exposure groups, as well as monitor implementation of the Stockholm Convention in Spain. PMID:25000579

  1. Population aging in local areas and subjective well-being of older adults: Findings from two studies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tami; Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Harada, Ken; Kai, Ichiro

    2016-05-23

    Subjective well-being (SWB) of older adults could be affected by both individual and community characteristics. However, the effect of community characteristics, such as population aging in local areas, remains unclear. This study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the area-level population aging and SWB of older individuals from two distinct surveys. Those analyzed were 572 respondents aged 75 years and older for a cross-sectional survey in a metropolitan area in Tokyo, Japan (Study 1) and 1,257 and 859 respondents for a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis, respectively, for a 2-year longitudinal survey project in urban and rural areas of Fukui Prefecture (Study 2). Area-level population aging was assessed by the number of people aged 65 years or older per 100 residents. SWB was assessed with the Life Satisfaction Index-A (LSIA). Multilevel analysis was performed to examine unconditional and conditional associations between the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents and the individual-level LSIA scores. The area-level number of older adults per 100 residents was significantly and positively associated with the LSIA scores in Study 1 (p = 0.042), even after controlling for the area- and individual-level covariates. In Study 2, we also found a significant effect of the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents on LSIA scores in the longitudinal multivariate analysis (p = 0.049). Findings from two survey projects suggested cross-validity in the positive effect of area-level population aging on older adults' SWB. Policymakers should consider older citizens' SWB in the recent urban-to-rural migration governmental policy as well as in urban renovation planning. PMID:26983399

  2. The Population Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of Statins for Primary Prevention in Adults 75 and Older in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Odden, Michelle C.; Pletcher, Mark J.; Coxson, Pamela G.; Thekkethala, Divya; Guzman, David; Heller, David; Goldman, Lee; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Over 40% of adults 75 and older are taking statins, yet there is little evidence to guide primary prevention in this population. OBJECTIVE To project the population impact and cost-effectiveness of statin therapy in adults aged 75 years and older. DESIGN Forecasting study using the Cardiovascular Disease Policy Model, a Markov model. DATA SOURCE Trial, cohort, and nationally-representative data sources. TARGET POPULATION U.S. adults aged 75–94 years. TIME HORIZON 10 years. PERSPECTIVE Health care system. INTERVENTION Statins for primary prevention based on: 1) Low density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥4.91 mmol/L (190 mg/dL), 2) ≥4.14 mmol/L (160 mg/dL), 3) ≥3.36 mmol/L (130 mg/dL), 4) diabetes, 5) 10-year risk score ≥7.5% (treat all). OUTCOME MEASURES Myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CHD) death, disability adjusted life years, costs RESULT OF BASE-CASE ANALYSIS All adults aged 75 and older in NHANES have a 10-year risk score >7.5%. If statins have no effect on functional limitation or cognitive impairment, all primary prevention strategies would prevent MIs and CHD deaths and be cost effective. The broadest strategy, treatment of all adults aged 75–94 years would result in 8 million additional users, and prevent 105,000 (4.3%) incident MIs and 68,000 (2.3%) CHD deaths at an incremental cost per disability adjusted life year of $25,200. RESULT OF SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS An increased relative risk of functional limitation or mild cognitive impairment in the range of 1.10 to 1.30 could offset the cardiovascular benefits. LIMITATIONS Limited trial evidence targeting primary prevention in adults 75 and older. CONCLUSIONS At effectiveness similar to trial findings, statins are projected to be cost-effective for primary prevention in adults age 75–94 years; however, even a small increase in geriatric specific side effects could offset the cardiovascular benefit. Improved data on the potential benefits and harms of statins are needed to

  3. Changing patterns of forest malaria among the mobile adult male population in Chumkiri District, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Dysoley, Lek; Kaneko, Akira; Eto, Hideaki; Mita, Toshihiro; Socheat, Doung; Börkman, Anders; Kobayakawa, Takatoshi

    2008-06-01

    Forest malaria remains a major problem in many parts of Southeast Asia and South America. In Cambodia, where a significant reduction of malaria morbidity and mortality has been observed in the last 20 years, the forest malaria situation was studied in Chumkiri District by analysing the available passive case detection data and conducting malariometric (n=1018) and questionnaire surveys (n=374) in four forest-fringe villages. There has been a decreasing trend of malaria incidence from 2001. Plasmodium falciparum was highly predominant and P. vivax was rare. The nearby-forest villages showed significantly higher parasite rates than the far-from-forest villages (9.0% vs. 1.2%, p<0.01). Malaria was highly restricted to the male adults but was nearly non-existent in other accompanying family members, including small children and females. Low income and working in forests were strongly associated with the malaria risk. Our results suggest that transmission has greatly reduced in forest-fringe villages, but remains active in forests, which is primarily maintained between the forest vector Anopheles dirus and ethnic minority inhabitants. Specific interventions directed to these previously neglected in-forest inhabitants to protect themselves and male adult villagers during their forest activities are necessary to achieve an ultimate goal of malaria elimination from Cambodia. PMID:18471797

  4. Abdominal Obesity Indicators: Waist Circumference or Waist-to-hip Ratio in Malaysian Adults Population

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Norfazilah; Adam, Samia Ibrahim Mohamed; Nawi, Azmawati Mohammed; Hassan, Mohd Rohaizat; Ghazi, Hasanain Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Waist circumference (WC) is an accurate and simple measure of abdominal obesity as compared to waist–hip ratio (WHR). The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between body mass index (BMI) with WC and WHR and suggest cutoff points for WC among Rural Malaysian adults. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 669 respondents from three villages in Tanjung Karang, located in the district of Kuala Selangor. Data collection was carried out by guided questionnaires and anthropometric measures. Results: The prevalence of abdominal obesity for BMI was almost similar for both gender across Caucasian and Asian BMI cutoff points. Based on Caucasian cutoff points, the prevalence of abdominal obesity for WC was 23.8% (male) and 66.4% (female) while for WHR was 6.2% (male) and 54.2% (female). Asian cutoff points gave higher prevalence of abdominal obesity compared to that of WC among male respondents and WHR for both genders. WC showed strong and positive correlation with BMI compared to WHR (in male WC r = 0.78, WHR r = 0.24 and in female WC r = 0.72, WHR r = 0.19; P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis suggested WC cutoff points of 92.5 cm in men and 85.5 cm in women is the optimal number for detection of abdominal obesity. Conclusions: WC is the best indicator as compared with WHR for abdominal obesity for Malaysian adults. PMID:27330688

  5. Perceived neighborhood problems: multilevel analysis to evaluate psychometric properties in a Southern adult Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical attributes of the places in which people live, as well as their perceptions of them, may be important health determinants. The perception of place in which people dwell may impact on individual health and may be a more telling indicator for individual health than objective neighborhood characteristics. This paper aims to evaluate psychometric and ecometric properties of a scale on the perceptions of neighborhood problems in adults from Florianopolis, Southern Brazil. Methods Individual, census tract level (per capita monthly familiar income) and neighborhood problems perception (physical and social disorders) variables were investigated. Multilevel models (items nested within persons, persons nested within neighborhoods) were run to assess ecometric properties of variables assessing neighborhood problems. Results The response rate was 85.3%, (1,720 adults). Participants were distributed in 63 census tracts. Two scales were identified using 16 items: Physical Problems and Social Disorder. The ecometric properties of the scales satisfactory: 0.24 to 0.28 for the intra-class correlation and 0.94 to 0.96 for reliability. Higher values on the scales of problems in the physical and social domains were associated with younger age, more length of time residing in the same neighborhood and lower census tract income level. Conclusions The findings support the usefulness of these scales to measure physical and social disorder problems in neighborhoods. PMID:24256619

  6. Prevalence of alternative forms of tobacco use in a population of young adult military recruits⋆

    PubMed Central

    Vander Weg, Mark W.; Peterson, Alan L.; Ebbert, Jon O.; DeBon, Margaret; Klesges, Robert C.; Haddock, C. Keith

    2007-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the popularity of certain alternative forms of tobacco may be increasing in adolescents. Little is known, however, about the use of these products among young adults. This study examined the use of alternative tobacco products including bidis, cigars, kreteks (clove cigarettes), pipes, and smokeless tobacco in a large sample of young adult military recruits (N=31107). Overall, 18.5% of participants were using some form of alternative tobacco product prior to entry into Basic Military Training. Results revealed a relatively high prevalence of cigar (12.3%) and smokeless tobacco use (6.7%). Use of other products was less common, including 1.1% for pipes, 2.0% for bidis, and 3.0% for kreteks. With the exception of kreteks, which did not differ by gender, the prevalence of use of alternative tobacco products was greater for males than for females ( p<.001). Patterns of use also differed according to other demographic characteristics including race, ethnicity, age, and income. Implications for surveillance and tobacco control efforts are discussed. PMID:17706889

  7. Lithium treatment and risk for dementia in adults with bipolar disorder: population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gerhard, Tobias; Devanand, D P; Huang, Cecilia; Crystal, Stephen; Olfson, Mark

    2015-07-01

    BackgroundLithium inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3, an enzyme implicated in the pathogenesis of dementia.AimsTo examine the association of lithium and dementia risk in a large claims-based US cohort of publicly insured older adults with bipolar disorder.MethodThe cohort included individuals ≥50 years diagnosed with bipolar disorder who did not receive dementia-related services during the prior year. Each follow-up day was classified by past-year cumulative duration of lithium use (0, 1-60, 61-300 and 301-365 days). Dementia diagnosis was the study outcome. Anticonvulsants commonly used as mood stabilisers served as a negative control.ResultsCompared with non-use, 301-365 days of lithium exposure was associated with significantly reduced dementia risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.77, 95% CI 0.60-0.99). No corresponding association was observed for shorter lithium exposures (HR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.83-1.31 for 61-300 days; HR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.67-1.71 for 1-60 days) or for any exposure to anticonvulsants.ConclusionsContinuous lithium treatment may reduce dementia risk in older adults with bipolar disorder. PMID:25614530

  8. Application of PACE Principles for Population Health Management of Frail Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Stefanacci, Richard G; Reich, Shelley; Casiano, Alex

    2015-10-01

    To determine which practices would have the most impact on reducing hospital and emergency department admissions and nursing home placement among older adults with multiple comorbid conditions, a literature search and survey were conducted to identify and prioritize comprehensive care principles as practiced in the Program of All-inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE). PACE medical directors and members of the PACE interdisciplinary team (IDT) were surveyed to gain their insights on the most impactful practices, which were identified as: End-of-Life Management, Caregiver Support, Management of Red Flags, Medication Management, Participant and Caregiver Health Care System Literacy, and Care Coordination. In addition, this research evaluated measures that could be used to assess an organization's level of success with regard to each of the 6 PACE practices identified. The results reported in this article, found through a survey with PACE medical directors and IDT members concerning effective interventions, can be viewed as strategies to improve care for older adults, enabling them to maintain their independence in the community, avoid the expense of facility-based care, and enhance their quality of life. PMID:25647691

  9. Adverse childhood experiences, gender, and HIV risk behaviors: Results from a population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lin; Chuang, Deng-Min; Lee, Yookyong

    2016-12-01

    Recent HIV research suggested assessing adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) as contributing factors of HIV risk behaviors. However, studies often focused on a single type of adverse experience and very few utilized population-based data. This population study examined the associations between ACE (individual and cumulative ACE score) and HIV risk behaviors. We analyzed the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) from 5 states. The sample consisted of 39,434 adults. Eight types of ACEs that included different types of child abuse and household dysfunctions before the age of 18 were measured. A cumulative score of ACEs was also computed. Logistic regression estimated of the association between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors using odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for males and females separately. We found that ACEs were positively associated with HIV risk behaviors overall, but the associations differed between males and females in a few instances. While the cumulative ACE score was associated with HIV risk behaviors in a stepwise manner, the pattern varied by gender. For males, the odds of HIV risk increased at a significant level as long as they experienced one ACE, whereas for females, the odds did not increase until they experienced three or more ACEs. Future research should further investigate the gender-specific associations between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors. As childhood adversities are prevalent among general population, and such experiences are associated with increased risk behaviors for HIV transmission, service providers can benefit from the principles of trauma-informed practice. PMID:27413671

  10. [The adult attachment projective (AAP) - psychometric properties and new reserach results].

    PubMed

    Buchheim, Anna; George, Carol; West, Malcom

    2003-01-01

    George, West and Pettem developed a new measure, the Adult Attachment Projective (AAP) to assess attachment representation in adults. The AAP is comprised of a set of eight drawings, one neutral scene and seven scenes of attachment situations. Although the pictures were drawn as projective stimuli, the method of administration combines projective and interview techniques in the form of a semi-structured interview. In this paper the coding procedure and attachment classifications of the AAP will shortly be described. The current results on reliability and convergent validity are reported. Developmental studies examining correlates of attachment during the preschool-age years, as well as adult attachment classification and foster mothers' perceptions of their relationship with their at risk foster children give first evidence for the predicitve validity of the AAP. The results of a recent study with dysthymic women using the AAP add to the increasing number of studies that have identified an association between preoccupied attachment and depression. This study encourages the use of the AAP in a broader clinical context. The modified application of the AAP using functional MRI opens a new approach to assess neural correlates of attachment representation in patients with a Borderline Personality Disorder compared to controls, and other clinical groups. PMID:14528412

  11. Population estimates and monitoring guidelines for endangered Laysan Teal, Anas Laysanensis, at Midway Atoll: Pilot study results 2008-2010.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Laniawe, Leona

    2011-01-01

    To improve the Laysan Teal population estimates, we recommend changes to the monitoring protocol. Additional years of data are needed to quantify inter-annual seasonal detection probabilities, which may allow the use of standardized direct counts as an unbiased index of population size. Survey protocols should be enhanced through frequent resights, regular survey intervals, and determining reliable standards to detect catastrophic declines and annual changes in adult abundance. In late 2009 to early 2010, 68% of the population was marked with unique color band combinations. This allowed for potentially accurate adult population estimates and survival estimates without the need to mark new birds in 2010, 2011, and possibly 2012. However, efforts should be made to replace worn or illegible bands so birds can be identified in future surveys. It would be valuable to develop more sophisticated population size and survival models using Program MARK, a state-of-the-art software package which uses likelihood models to analyze mark-recapture data. This would allow for more reliable adult population and survival estimates to compare with the ―source‖ Laysan Teal population on Laysan Island. These models will require additional years of resight data (> 1 year) and, in some cases, an intensive annual effort of marking and recapture. Because data indicate standardized all-wetland counts are a poor index of abundance, monitoring efforts could be improved by expanding resight surveys to include all wetlands, discontinuing the all-wetland counts, and reallocating some of the wetland count effort to collect additional opportunistic resights. Approximately two years of additional bimonthly surveys are needed to validate the direct count as an appropriate index of population abundance. Additional years of individual resight data will allow estimates of adult population size, as specified in recovery criteria, and to track species population dynamics at Midway Atoll.

  12. Population Genetic Analyses of Helicobacter pylori Isolates from Gambian Adults and Children

    PubMed Central

    Secka, Ousman; Moodley, Yoshan; Antonio, Martin; Berg, Douglas E.; Tapgun, Mary; Walton, Robert; Worwui, Archibald; Thomas, Vivat; Corrah, Tumani; Thomas, Julian E.; Adegbola, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is one of the most genetically diverse of bacterial species. Much of its diversity stems from frequent mutation and recombination, preferential transmission within families and local communities, and selection during persistent gastric mucosal infection. MLST of seven housekeeping genes had identified multiple distinct H. pylori populations, including three from Africa: hpNEAfrica, hpAfrica1 and hpAfrica2, which consists of three subpopulations (hspWAfrica, hspCAfrica and hspSAfrica). Most detailed H. pylori population analyses have used strains from non-African countries, despite Africa's high importance in the emergence and evolution of humans and their pathogens. Our concatenated sequences from seven H. pylori housekeeping genes from 44 Gambian patients (MLST) identified 42 distinct sequence types (or haplotypes), and no clustering with age or disease. STRUCTURE analysis of the sequence data indicated that Gambian H. pylori strains belong to the hspWAfrica subpopulation of hpAfrica1, in accord with Gambia's West African location. Despite Gambia's history of invasion and colonisation by Europeans and North Africans during the last millennium, no traces of Ancestral Europe1 (AE1) population carried by those people were found. Instead, admixture of 17% from Ancestral Europe2 (AE2) was detected in Gambian strains; this population predominates in Nilo-Saharan speakers of North-East Africa, and might have been derived from admixture of hpNEAfrica strains these people carried when they migrated across the Sahara during the Holocene humid period 6,000–9,000 years ago. Alternatively, shared AE2 ancestry might have resulted from shared ancestral polymorphisms already present in the common ancestor of sister populations hpAfrica1 and hpNEAfrica. PMID:25310300

  13. Hair concentration of essential trace elements in adult non-exposed Russian population.

    PubMed

    Skalny, Anatoly V; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Tinkov, Alexey A; Serebryansky, Eugeny P; Demidov, Vasily A; Lobanova, Yulia N; Grabeklis, Andrei R; Berezkina, Elena S; Gryazeva, Irina V; Skalny, Andrey A; Skalnaya, Oksana A; Zhivaev, Nikolay G; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2015-11-01

    Appropriate reference values of hair trace element content are required for correct interpretation of biomonitoring data. The primary objective of the current study was to estimate the reference values of selected essential trace elements in hair of adult Russian population. Involved in current investigation were 7256 occupationally non-exposed adults aged from 20 to 60 years and living in the European part of Russia. Occipital hair essential metal and metalloid (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, V, Zn) content was estimated using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The reference ranges were calculated in accordance with the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) recommendations. Women were characterized by 55, 18, 58, and 7% higher values of hair Co, Cu, Mn, and Zn content as compared to the values observed in men. At the same time, hair Cr, Fe, Se, and V concentration in men significantly exceeded the respective female values by 65, 13, 20, and 56%. Consequently, the reference ranges of essential hair trace elements content should be separately calculated for both men and women. The obtained reference ranges for hair Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, V, and Zn in men were 0.11-0.67, 0.007-0.045, 10.4-22.6, 11.1-40.5, 0.24-1.05, 0.089-0.480, 0.014-0.083, and 125.7-262.8 μg/g, respectively. The respective values estimated for women were 0.06-0.40, 0.011-0.085, 12.1-44.5, 8.9-25.6, 0.32-2.05, 0.094-0.504, 0.010-0.056, and 140.0-315.1 μg/g. The reference ranges for hair Co (0.07-0.50), Cr (0.009-0.073), Cu (11.8-29.2), Fe (9.6-31.5), Mn (0.29-1.76), Se (0.093-0.482), V (0.011-0.069), and Zn (134.7-301.9) content (μg/g) in the general cohort were also calculated. PMID:26446131

  14. IRRITABLE MOOD IN ADULT MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER: RESULTS FROM THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH SURVEYS

    PubMed Central

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bromet, Evelyn; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gruber, Michael J.; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie G.; Jin, Robert; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Medina-Mora, María E.; O’Neill, Siobhan; Ono, Yutaka; Posada-Villa, José A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Scott, Kate M.; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria C.; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although irritability is a core symptom of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) for youth but not adults, clinical studies find comparable rates of irritability between nonbipolar depressed adults and youth. Including irritability as a core symptom of adult MDD would allow detection of depression-equivalent syndromes with primary irritability hypothesized to be more common among males than females. We carried out a preliminary examination of this issue using cross-national community-based survey data from 21 countries in the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys (n = 110,729). Methods The assessment of MDD in the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview includes one question about persistent irritability. We examined two expansions of the definition of MDD involving this question: (1) cases with dysphoria and/or anhedonia and exactly four of nine Criterion A symptoms plus irritability; and (2) cases with two or more weeks of irritability plus four or more other Criterion A MDD symptoms in the absence of dysphoria or anhedonia. Results Adding irritability as a tenth Criterion A symptom increased lifetime prevalence by 0.4% (from 11.2 to 11.6%). Adding episodes of persistent irritability increased prevalence by an additional 0.2%. Proportional prevalence increases were significantly higher, but nonetheless small, among males compared to females. Rates of severe role impairment were significantly lower among respondents with this irritable depression who did not meet conventional DSM-IV criteria than those with DSM-IV MDD. Conclusion Although limited by the superficial assessment in this single question on irritability, results do not support expanding adult MDD criteria to include irritable mood. PMID:23364997

  15. Disaggregating measurement uncertainty from population variability and Bayesian treatment of uncensored results

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.; Joyce, Kevin E.; Maclellan, Jay A.; Watson, David J.; Lynch, Timothy P.; Antonio, Cheryl L.; Birchall, Alan; Anderson, Kevin K.; Zharov, Peter

    2012-04-17

    In making low-level radioactivity measurements of populations, it is commonly observed that a substantial portion of net results are negative. Furthermore, the observed variance of the measurement results arises from a combination of measurement uncertainty and population variability. This paper presents a method for disaggregating measurement uncertainty from population variability to produce a probability density function (PDF) of possibly true results. To do this, simple, justifiable, and reasonable assumptions are made about the relationship of the measurements to the measurands (the 'true values'). The measurements are assumed to be unbiased, that is, that their average value is the average of the measurands. Using traditional estimates of each measurement's uncertainty to disaggregate population variability from measurement uncertainty, a PDF of measurands for the population is produced. Then, using Bayes's theorem, the same assumptions, and all the data from the population of individuals, a prior PDF is computed for each individual's measurand. These PDFs are non-negative, and their average is equal to the average of the measurement results for the population. The uncertainty in these Bayesian posterior PDFs is all Berkson with no remaining classical component. The methods are applied to baseline bioassay data from the Hanford site. The data include 90Sr urinalysis measurements on 128 people, 137Cs in vivo measurements on 5,337 people, and 239Pu urinalysis measurements on 3,270 people. The method produces excellent results for the 90Sr and 137Cs measurements, since there are nonzero concentrations of these global fallout radionuclides in people who have not been occupationally exposed. The method does not work for the 239Pu measurements in non-occupationally exposed people because the population average is essentially zero.

  16. Bicycle injury events among older adults in Northern Sweden: a 10-year population based study.

    PubMed

    Scheiman, Simeon; Moghaddas, Hossein S; Björnstig, Ulf; Bylund, Per-Olof; Saveman, Britt-Inger

    2010-03-01

    Bicycles are a common mode of transportation and injured bicyclists cause a substantial burden on the medical sector. In Sweden, about half of fatally injured bicyclists are 65 years or older. This study analyzes the injury mechanisms, injuries, and consequences among bicyclists 65 years or older and compare with younger bicyclists (< or =64) and older adults as passenger car drivers, to give a basis for an injury preventive discussion for this age group. Umeå University Hospital's primary catchments area had 142,000 inhabitants in 2006. Nearly all injured road users in the well-defined geographic area are treated at this hospital and a 10-year data set (N=456) of injured bicyclists aged 65+ from the hospital's continuous injury registration (1997-2006) was analyzed. The results show that the annual injury incidence was 2.4 and 2.2 per 1000 men and women, respectively, aged 65 or older. For men the incidence rate was constant in the three age groups 65-74, 75-84 and 85+, while it decreased strongly for women. The incidence rate for old adults as passenger car drivers and younger bicyclists was 1.0 and 4.6, respectively. Most frequent injury mechanisms were falls when getting on or off a bicycle (20%) and by potholes or irregularities on the ground, edge of a sidewalk, or similar (13%). Only 6% were hit by cars, trucks, or buses. Half of the injured suffered fractures or dislocations, and 10% suffered concussion or more serious intracranial injuries. Getting on or off the bicycle caused most fractures (especially a high fraction of the hip and femur fractures) and resulted in 27% of all inpatient days in hospital. Three individuals died. One-third of the injured were treated as inpatients for a total of 1413 days (on average 9 days), with 69% of the days being caused by fractures. The cost for out- and inpatient acute treatment was approximately USD 4700 (SEK 33,000) per injured. The results merit an interest for this target group; bicycle injuries among older

  17. Heart Failure in Non-Caucasians, Women, and Older Adults: A White Paper on Special Populations From the Heart Failure Society of America Guideline Committee.

    PubMed

    Colvin, Monica; Sweitzer, Nancy K; Albert, Nancy M; Krishnamani, Rajan; Rich, Michael W; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Walsh, Mary Norine; Westlake Canary, Cheryl A; Allen, Larry A; Bonnell, Mark R; Carson, Peter E; Chan, Michael C; Dickinson, Michael G; Dries, Daniel L; Ewald, Gregory A; Fang, James C; Hernandez, Adrian F; Hershberger, Ray E; Katz, Stuart D; Moore, Stephanie; Rodgers, Jo E; Rogers, Joseph G; Vest, Amanda R; Whellan, David J; Givertz, Michael M

    2015-08-01

    The presentation, natural history, clinical outcomes, and response to therapy in patients with heart failure differ in some ways across populations. Women, older adults, and non-Caucasian racial or ethnic groups compose a substantial proportion of the overall heart failure population, but they have typically been underrepresented in clinical trials. As a result, uncertainty exists about the efficacy of some guideline-directed medical therapies and devices in specific populations, which may result in the under- or overtreatment of these patients. Even when guideline-based treatments are prescribed, socioeconomic, physical, or psychologic factors may affect non-Caucasian and older adult patient groups to a different extent and affect the application, effectiveness, and tolerability of these therapies. Individualized therapy based on tailored biology (genetics, proteomics, metabolomics), socioeconomic and cultural considerations, and individual goals and preferences may be the optimal approach for managing diverse patients. This comprehensive approach to personalized medicine is evolving, but in the interim, the scientific community should continue efforts focused on intensifying research in special populations, prescribing guideline-directed medical therapy unless contraindicated, and implementing evidence-based strategies including patient and family education and multidisciplinary team care in the management of patients. PMID:26051012

  18. Insecticide Rotation Programs with Entomopathogenic Organisms for Suppression of Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) Adult Populations under Greenhouse Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kivett, Jessica M; Cloyd, Raymond A; Bello, Nora M

    2015-08-01

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is one of the most destructive insect pests of greenhouse production systems with the ability to develop resistance to a wide variety of insecticides. A common resistance management strategy is rotating insecticides with different modes of action. By incorporating entomopathogenic organisms (fungi and bacteria), which have discrete modes of action compared to standard insecticides, greenhouse producers may preserve the effectiveness of insecticides used for suppression of western flower thrips populations. The objective of this study was to determine how different rotation programs that include entomopathogenic organisms (Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosoroseus, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Chromobacterium subtsugae) and commonly used standard insecticides (spinosad, chlorfenapyr, abamectin, and pyridalyl) may impact the population dynamics of western flower thrips adult populations by means of suppression. Eight-week rotation programs were applied to chrysanthemum, Dendranthema x morifolium plants and weekly counts of western flower thrips adults captured on yellow sticky cards were recorded as a means to evaluate the impact of the rotation programs. A final quality assessment of damage caused by western flower thrips feeding on foliage and flowers was also recorded. Furthermore, a cost comparison of each rotation program was conducted. Overall, insecticide rotation programs that incorporated entomopathogenic organisms were not significantly different than the standard insecticide rotation programs without entomopathogenic organisms in suppressing western flower thrips adult populations. However, there were no significant differences among any of the rotation programs compared to the water control. Moreover, there was no differential effect of the rotation programs on foliage and flower quality. Cost savings of up to 34% (in US dollars) are possible when including entomopathogenic organisms in the

  19. Sun Exposure Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results from the Austrian Population-Based UVSkinRisk Survey

    PubMed Central

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

    2016-01-01

    Recreational sun exposure accounts for a large number of acute and chronic dermatological diseases, including skin cancer. This study aimed at estimating the one-year prevalence of sun exposure and skin health-associated knowledge and attitudes among Austrian citizens. The population-based UVSkinRisk survey investigated a representative sample of Austrian adults using a structured questionnaire. In total, 1500 study subjects (median age 33.0 years, 50.5% females) participated in this questionnaire survey. Among study participants, prevalence of sun exposure was 47%, with slightly higher rates in males (48%) compared to females (46%). Younger age, lower professional category, darker skin type, motives to tan, sunbed use, sunburn, and outdoor sport activity increased the odds for prevalent sun exposure. This is the first population-based study evaluating the prevailing sun exposure and recreational habits influencing skin health among Austrian citizens. Despite public media campaigns educating on the harmful effects of sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunlight exposure. The results suggest that multifaceted socio-cultural characteristics stimulate recreational sun exposure and tanning habits. Communicating individualized Public (Skin) Health messages might be the key to prevent photo-induced skin health hazards in light-skinned populations. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26797627

  20. Sun Exposure Prevalence and Associated Skin Health Habits: Results from the Austrian Population-Based UVSkinRisk Survey.

    PubMed

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

    2016-01-01

    Recreational sun exposure accounts for a large number of acute and chronic dermatological diseases, including skin cancer. This study aimed at estimating the one-year prevalence of sun exposure and skin health-associated knowledge and attitudes among Austrian citizens. The population-based UVSkinRisk survey investigated a representative sample of Austrian adults using a structured questionnaire. In total, 1500 study subjects (median age 33.0 years, 50.5% females) participated in this questionnaire survey. Among study participants, prevalence of sun exposure was 47%, with slightly higher rates in males (48%) compared to females (46%). Younger age, lower professional category, darker skin type, motives to tan, sunbed use, sunburn, and outdoor sport activity increased the odds for prevalent sun exposure. This is the first population-based study evaluating the prevailing sun exposure and recreational habits influencing skin health among Austrian citizens. Despite public media campaigns educating on the harmful effects of sunlight exposure, we found a high prevalence of self-reported sunlight exposure. The results suggest that multifaceted socio-cultural characteristics stimulate recreational sun exposure and tanning habits. Communicating individualized Public (Skin) Health messages might be the key to prevent photo-induced skin health hazards in light-skinned populations. The practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26797627

  1. Accuracy and Acceptability of Oral Fluid HIV Self-Testing in a General Adult Population in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Ann E; Cleland, Charles M; Chhun, Nok; Sidle, John E; Were, Edwin; Naanyu, Violet; Emonyi, Wilfred; Macharia, Stephen M; Sang, Edwin; Siika, Abraham M

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated performance, accuracy, and acceptability parameters of unsupervised oral fluid (OF) HIV self-testing (HIVST) in a general population in western Kenya. In a prospective validation design, we enrolled 240 adults to perform rapid OF HIVST and compared results to staff administered OF and rapid fingerstick tests. All reactive, discrepant, and a proportion of negative results were confirmed with lab ELISA. Twenty participants were video-recorded conducting self-testing. All participants completed a staff administered survey before and after HIVST to assess attitudes towards OF HIVST acceptability. HIV prevalence was 14.6 %. Thirty-six of the 239 HIVSTs were invalid (15.1 %; 95 % CI 11.1-20.1 %), with males twice as likely to have invalid results as females. HIVST sensitivity was 89.7 % (95 % CI 73-98 %) and specificity was 98 % (95 % CI 89-99 %). Although sensitivity was somewhat lower than expected, there is clear interest in, and high acceptability (94 %) of OF HIV self-testing. PMID:26438487

  2. Hippocampal Brain Volume Is Associated with Faster Facial Emotion Identification in Older Adults: Preliminary Results.

    PubMed

    Szymkowicz, Sarah M; Persson, Jonas; Lin, Tian; Fischer, Håkan; Ebner, Natalie C

    2016-01-01

    Quick correct identification of facial emotions is highly relevant for successful social interactions. Research suggests that older, compared to young, adults experience increased difficulty with face and emotion processing skills. While functional neuroimaging studies suggest age differences in neural processing of faces and emotions, evidence about age-associated structural brain changes and their involvement in face and emotion processing is scarce. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), this study investigated the extent to which volumes of frontal and temporal brain structures were related to reaction time in accurate identification of facial emotions in 30 young and 30 older adults. Volumetric segmentation was performed using FreeSurfer and gray matter volumes from frontal and temporal regions were extracted. Analysis of covariances (ANCOVAs) models with response time (RT) as the dependent variable and age group and regional volume, and their interaction, as independent variables were conducted, controlling for total intracranial volume (ICV). Results indicated that, in older adults, larger hippocampal volumes were associated with faster correct facial emotion identification. These preliminary observations suggest that greater volume in brain regions associated with face and emotion processing contributes to improved facial emotion identification performance in aging. PMID:27610082

  3. Hippocampal Brain Volume Is Associated with Faster Facial Emotion Identification in Older Adults: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Szymkowicz, Sarah M.; Persson, Jonas; Lin, Tian; Fischer, Håkan; Ebner, Natalie C.

    2016-01-01

    Quick correct identification of facial emotions is highly relevant for successful social interactions. Research suggests that older, compared to young, adults experience increased difficulty with face and emotion processing skills. While functional neuroimaging studies suggest age differences in neural processing of faces and emotions, evidence about age-associated structural brain changes and their involvement in face and emotion processing is scarce. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), this study investigated the extent to which volumes of frontal and temporal brain structures were related to reaction time in accurate identification of facial emotions in 30 young and 30 older adults. Volumetric segmentation was performed using FreeSurfer and gray matter volumes from frontal and temporal regions were extracted. Analysis of covariances (ANCOVAs) models with response time (RT) as the dependent variable and age group and regional volume, and their interaction, as independent variables were conducted, controlling for total intracranial volume (ICV). Results indicated that, in older adults, larger hippocampal volumes were associated with faster correct facial emotion identification. These preliminary observations suggest that greater volume in brain regions associated with face and emotion processing contributes to improved facial emotion identification performance in aging. PMID:27610082

  4. Norbin ablation results in defective adult hippocampal neurogenesis and depressive-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Warner-Schmidt, Jennifer; Varela, Santiago; Enikolopov, Grigori; Greengard, Paul; Flajolet, Marc

    2015-08-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus subgranular zone is associated with the etiology and treatment efficiency of depression. Factors that affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been shown to contribute to the neuropathology of depression. Glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter, plays a critical role in different aspects of neurogenesis. Of the eight metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), mGluR5 is the most highly expressed in neural stem cells. We previously identified Norbin as a positive regulator of mGluR5 and showed that its expression promotes neurite outgrowth. In this study, we investigated the role of Norbin in adult neurogenesis and depressive-like behaviors using Norbin-deficient mice. We found that Norbin deletion significantly reduced hippocampal neurogenesis; specifically, the loss of Norbin impaired the proliferation and maturation of newborn neurons without affecting cell-fate specification of neural stem cells/neural progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs). Norbin is highly expressed in the granular neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, but it is undetectable in NSCs/NPCs or immature neurons, suggesting that the effect of Norbin on neurogenesis is likely caused by a nonautonomous niche effect. In support of this hypothesis, we found that the expression of a cell-cell contact gene, Desmoplakin, is greatly reduced in Norbin-deletion mice. Moreover, Norbin-KO mice show an increased immobility in the forced-swim test and the tail-suspension test and reduced sucrose preference compared with wild-type controls. Taken together, these results show that Norbin is a regulator of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and that its deletion causes depressive-like behaviors. PMID:26195764

  5. Norbin ablation results in defective adult hippocampal neurogenesis and depressive-like behavior in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Warner-Schmidt, Jennifer; Varela, Santiago; Enikolopov, Grigori; Greengard, Paul; Flajolet, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus subgranular zone is associated with the etiology and treatment efficiency of depression. Factors that affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been shown to contribute to the neuropathology of depression. Glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter, plays a critical role in different aspects of neurogenesis. Of the eight metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), mGluR5 is the most highly expressed in neural stem cells. We previously identified Norbin as a positive regulator of mGluR5 and showed that its expression promotes neurite outgrowth. In this study, we investigated the role of Norbin in adult neurogenesis and depressive-like behaviors using Norbin-deficient mice. We found that Norbin deletion significantly reduced hippocampal neurogenesis; specifically, the loss of Norbin impaired the proliferation and maturation of newborn neurons without affecting cell-fate specification of neural stem cells/neural progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs). Norbin is highly expressed in the granular neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, but it is undetectable in NSCs/NPCs or immature neurons, suggesting that the effect of Norbin on neurogenesis is likely caused by a nonautonomous niche effect. In support of this hypothesis, we found that the expression of a cell–cell contact gene, Desmoplakin, is greatly reduced in Norbin-deletion mice. Moreover, Norbin-KO mice show an increased immobility in the forced-swim test and the tail-suspension test and reduced sucrose preference compared with wild-type controls. Taken together, these results show that Norbin is a regulator of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and that its deletion causes depressive-like behaviors. PMID:26195764

  6. The use of non‐adult vertebral dimensions as indicators of growth disruption and non‐specific health stress in skeletal populations

    PubMed Central

    Gowland, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Traditional methods of detecting growth disruption have focused on deficiencies in the diaphyseal length of the long bones. This study proposes the implementation of vertebral measurements (body height and transverse diameter of the neural canal) from non‐adults (0–17 years) as a new methodology for the identification of growth disruption. Methods Measurements of vertebral body height and transverse diameter were taken from 96 non‐adult skeletons and 40 adult skeletons from two post‐medieval sites in England (Bow Baptist, London and Coronation Street, South Shields). Non‐adult measurements were plotted against dental age to construct vertebral growth profiles through which inter‐population comparisons could be made. Results Results demonstrated that both sites experienced some growth retardation in infancy, evident as deficiencies in transverse diameter. However, analysis of vertebral body height revealed different chronologies of growth disruption between the sites, with a later age of attainment of skeletal maturity recorded in the Bow Baptist sample. Discussion These vertebral dimensions undergo cessation of growth at different ages, with transverse diameter being “locked‐in” by ∼1–2 years of age, while vertebral body height may continue to grow into early adulthood. These measurements can therefore provide complementary information regarding the timing of growth disruption within archaeological populations. Non‐adult vertebral measurements can increase our osteobiographical understanding of the timings of episodes of health stress, and allow for the analysis of growth when other skeletal elements are fragmentary. Am J Phys Anthropol 158:155–164, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26118898

  7. Prevalence, nature and potential preventability of adverse drug events – a population-based medical record study of 4970 adults

    PubMed Central

    Hakkarainen, Katja M; Gyllensten, Hanna; Jönsson, Anna K; Andersson Sundell, Karolina; Petzold, Max; Hägg, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    Aims To estimate the 3 month prevalence of adverse drug events (ADEs), categories of ADEs and preventable ADEs, and the preventability of ADEs among adults in Sweden. Further, to identify drug classes and organ systems associated with ADEs and estimate their seriousness. Methods A random sample of 5025 adults in a Swedish county council in 2008 was drawn from the Total Population Register. All their medical records in 29 inpatient care departments in three hospitals, 110 specialized outpatient clinics and 51 primary care units were reviewed retrospectively in a stepwise manner, and complemented with register data on dispensed drugs. ADEs, including adverse drug reactions (ADRs), sub-therapeutic effects of drug therapy (STEs), drug dependence and abuse, drug intoxications from overdose, and morbidities due to drug-related untreated indication, were detected during a 3 month study period, and assessed for preventability. Results Among 4970 included individuals, the prevalence of ADEs was 12.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 11.1, 12.9%), and preventable ADEs 5.6% (95% CI 5.0, 6.2%). ADRs (6.9%; 95% CI 6.2, 7.6%) and STEs (6.4%; 95% CI 5.8, 7.1%) were more prevalent than the other ADEs. Of the ADEs, 38.8% (95% CI 35.8–41.9%) was preventable, varying by ADE category and seriousness. ADEs were frequently associated with nervous system and cardiovascular drugs, but the associated drugs and affected organs varied by ADE category. Conclusions The considerable burden of ADEs and preventable ADEs from commonly used drugs across care settings warrants large-scale efforts to redesign safer, higher quality healthcare systems. The heterogeneous nature of the ADE categories should be considered in research and clinical practice for preventing, detecting and mitigating ADEs. PMID:24372506

  8. Household and community-level Adverse Childhood Experiences and adult health outcomes in a diverse urban population.

    PubMed

    Wade, Roy; Cronholm, Peter F; Fein, Joel A; Forke, Christine M; Davis, Martha B; Harkins-Schwarz, Mary; Pachter, Lee M; Bair-Merritt, Megan H

    2016-02-01

    Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), which include family dysfunction and community-level stressors, negatively impact the health and well being of children throughout the life course. While several studies have examined the impact of these childhood exposures amongst racially and socially diverse populations, the contribution of ACEs in the persistence of socioeconomic disparities in health is poorly understood. To determine the association between ACEs and health outcomes amongst a sample of adults living in Philadelphia and examine the moderating effect of Socioeconomic Status (SES) on this association, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,784 Philadelphia adults, ages 18 and older, using random digit dialing methodology to assess Conventional ACEs (experiences related to family dysfunction), Expanded ACEs (community-level stressors), and health outcomes. Using weighted, multivariable logistic regression analyses along with SES stratified models, we examined the relationship between ACEs and health outcomes as well as the modifying effect of current SES. High Conventional ACE scores were significantly associated with health risk behaviors, physical and mental illness, while elevated Expanded ACE scores were associated only with substance abuse history and sexually transmitted infections. ACEs did have some differential impacts on health outcomes based on SES. Given the robust impact of Conventional ACEs on health, our results support prior research highlighting the primacy of family relationships on a child's life course trajectory and the importance of interventions designed to support families. Our findings related to the modifying effect of SES may provide additional insight into the complex relationship between poverty and childhood adversity. PMID:26726759

  9. Serum Concentrations of IgG4 in the Spanish Adult Population: Relationship with Age, Gender, and Atopy

    PubMed Central

    Carballo, Iago; Alvela, Lucía; Pérez, Luis-Fernando; Gude, Francisco; Vidal, Carmen; Alonso, Manuela; Sopeña, Bernardo; Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Serum IgG4 concentrations are commonly measured in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate serum IgG4 concentrations in adults and their potential relationship with demographic, lifestyle, metabolic, and allergy-related factors. Methods Serum IgG4 concentrations were measured with a commercial assay in 413 individuals (median age 55 years, 45% males) who were randomly selected from a general adult population. Results Median IgG4 concentration was 26.8 mg/dL. Five out of the 413 individuals (1.2%) exhibited IgG4 concentrations >135 mg/dL, and 17 out of 411 (4.1%) exhibited an IgG4/total IgG ratio >8%. Serum IgG4 concentrations were significantly higher in males than in females and decreased with age. After adjusting for age and sex, serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly influenced by alcohol consumption, smoking or common metabolic abnormalities (obesity and the related metabolic syndrome). Serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly correlated with serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammation markers. Serum IgG4 concentrations were significantly correlated with IgE concentrations. Serum IgG4 concentrations tended to be higher in atopics (individuals with IgE-mediated sensitization to aeroallergens) than in non-atopics, particularly among atopics without respiratory symptoms. Serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly correlated with total eosinophil blood count. Cases of IgG4-related disease were neither present at baseline nor detected after a median of 11 years of follow-up. Conclusions Studies aimed at defining reference IgG4 values should consider partitioning by age and sex. Further studies are needed to confirm the potential influence of atopy status on serum IgG4 concentrations. PMID:26910567

  10. Gingival recession and associated factors in a homogeneous Mexican adult male population: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Minaya-Sánchez, Mirna; Medina-Solís, Carlo E.; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana A.; Marquez-Corona, Maria L.; Pontigo-Loyola, América P.; Islas-Granillo, Horacio; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diverse variables are implicated in the pathogenesis of gingival recession; more detailed knowledge about the relationship between the clinical presentation of gingival recession and assorted risk indicators may lead to improved patient monitoring, early intervention, and subsequent prevention. The objective was to evaluate clinically gingival recession in a homogeneous Mexican adult male population and to determine the strength of association with related factors. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a largely homogeneous group in terms of ethnic background, socioeconomic status, gender, occupation, and medical/dental insurance, in Campeche, Mexico. Periodontal examinations were undertaken to determine diverse clinical dental variables. All periodontal clinical examinations were assessed using the Florida Probe System, a dental chair and one examiner. Questionnaires were used to collect diverse risk indicators. Statistical analyses were undertaken with negative binomial regression models. Results: The mean number of sites with gingival recession per subject was 6.73±5.81; the prevalence was 87.6%. In the negative binomial regression model we observed that for (i) each year of age, and (ii) each percentage unit of increase in sites with plaque, and (iii) with suppuration, mean sites with gingival recession increased 2.9%, 1.0% and 13.0%, respectively. Having a spouse was associated with gingival recession. Conclusions: We observed association between gingival recession, and sociodemographic and clinical parameters. Patients need to be educated about risk indicators for gingival recession as well as the preventive maneuvers that may be implemented to minimize its occurrence. The potential of improved oral self-care to prevent a largely benign condition such as gingival recession is important, given the associated disorders that may ensue root exposure, such as root caries and root hypersensitivity. Key words:Oral health, periodontal health

  11. Serum Vitamin D Concentrations and Cognitive Function in a Population-Based Study among Older Adults in South Germany.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Gabriele; Herbolsheimer, Florian; Riepe, Matthias; Nikolaus, Thorsten; Denkinger, Michael D; Peter, Richard; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Koenig, Wolfgang; Ludolph, Albert C; von Arnim, Christine A F

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the associations of vitamin D serum levels with dementia and cognitive function in specific domains in community dwelling older adults. Between 2009 and 2010, we conducted a cross-sectional study in 1,373 individuals (56% men) aged 65+ years in the "Activity and Function in the Elderly in Ulm" (ActiFE) study. Dementia was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score ≤ 24. The 25-OHD serum level [ng/mL] was measured by an electrochemilumineszenz immunoassay (ECLIA). Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR)s for cognitive domains (cut-point: 10th percentile) by serum 25-OHD concentrations (both continuously and by cut-point of 20 ng/ml for vitamin D deficiency). Mean age of the study population was 75.6 (SD 6.6) years.We identified 75 participants (43% women) with dementia. 25-OHD concentrations were significantly lower in the participants with dementia compared to persons with a MMSE score >24. We also observed an association of continuous 25-OHD serum concentrations with prevalence of dementia (crude OR 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-1.08, p-value 0.009) per 1 ng/mL decrease, after adjustment the OR was 1.03, 95% CI, 0.995-1.08 (p-value 0.09). Although vitamin D deficiency was tentatively associated with severity of dementia measured by MMSE (OR 1.35, 95% CI, 0.84-2.19), the association was not statistically significant. However, deficits in specific cognitive domains such as executive functions, wordlist encoding, and visual memory (encoding and recall) were significantly associated with low vitamin D concentration. Our results suggest an association between vitamin D deficiency and cognitive function in specific domains in community dwelling older adults. PMID:25649649

  12. Symptoms of muscle dysmorphia, body dysmorphic disorder, and eating disorders in a nonclinical population of adult male weightlifters in Australia.

    PubMed

    Nieuwoudt, Johanna E; Zhou, Shi; Coutts, Rosanne A; Booker, Ray

    2015-05-01

    The current study aimed to (a) determine the rates of symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), and eating disorder; (b) determine the relationships among symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders; and (c) provide a comprehensive comparison of symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders in a nonclinical population of adult male weightlifters in Australia. The participants (N = 648, mean age = 29.5 years, SD = 10.1) participated in an online survey, consisting of Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale, the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire, and the Eating Attitude Test-26. Results indicated that 110 participants (17%) were at risk of having MD, 69 participants (10.6%) were at risk of having BDD, and 219 participants (33.8%) were at risk of having an eating disorder. Furthermore, 36 participants (5.6%) were found at risk of having both MD and BDD, and 60 participants (9.3%) were at risk of having both MD and an eating disorder. Significant correlations and associations were found between symptoms of MD and BDD, and symptoms of MD and eating disorders. Support was provided for the comorbidity of, and symptomatic similarities between, symptoms of MD and BDD, and symptoms of MD and eating disorders. This may reflect a shared pathogenesis between symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders. Strength and conditioning professionals, exercise scientists, athletic trainers, and personal trainers should be aware that adult males who are working out with weights (i.e., free weights or machines) may be at increased risk of having MD, BDD, and eating disorders. PMID:25909960

  13. Population pharmacokinetics of a single intramuscular administration of tulathromycin in adult desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii).

    PubMed

    Kinney, M E; Lamberski, N; Wack, R; Foster, R; Neely, M; Tell, L; Gehring, R

    2014-10-01

    Tulathromycin, a long acting macrolide antibiotic, has demonstrated efficacy against respiratory pathogens including Mycoplasma bovis and M. hyopneumoniae. A pharmacokinetic study was performed to evaluate the clinical applicability of tulathromycin in desert tortoises following a single intramuscular dose of 5 mg/kg. A single blood sample was collected from 110 different desert tortoises at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, 120, and 240 h following drug administration. Plasma concentrations of the parent form of tulathromycin were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. As each tortoise was only bled once, pharmacokinetic parameters were initially estimated using a naïve pooled data approach. Given the variability in the data, population-based compartmental modeling was also performed. Using nonparametric population compartmental modeling, a two-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination best fit the data. An observed Cmax of 36.2 ± 29.7 μg/mL was detected at 0.25 h (observed Tmax ). The elimination half-life (T½el ) was long (77.1 h) resulting in detectable plasma concentrations 240 h postadministration. This study represents a preliminary step in evaluating the utility of tulathromycin in chelonian species and demonstrates that population data modeling offers advantages for estimating pharmacokinetic parameters where sparse data sampling occurs and there is substantial variability in the data. PMID:24611596

  14. The Impact of DSM-IV Symptom and Clinical Significance Criteria on the Prevalence Estimates of Subthreshold and Threshold Anxiety in the Older Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Grenier, Sébastien; Préville, Michel; Boyer, Richard; O’Connor, Kieron; Béland, Sarah-Gabrielle; Potvin, Olivier; Hudon, Carol; Brassard, Joëlle

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Subthreshold anxiety refers to a condition where individuals do not meet the full symptom criteria (i.e., the number of symptoms required for a formal diagnosis is not reached) and/or do not report significant impairment or distress in functioning (i.e., the clinical significance criterion is not met). The purpose of this study was to examine how the symptom and the clinical significance criteria may affect the prevalence estimates of anxiety problems in the older adult population and whether applying these criteria results in an identifiable older group showing more severe anxiety. Setting and Participants Data came from a large representative sample of community-dwelling older adults age 65 years and older (N = 2,784). Results Results showed that the 12-month prevalence rate of any anxiety problem varied from 5.6% when DSM-IV criteria for anxiety disorders were used to 26.2% when all subthreshold manifestations of anxiety were considered. Findings also indicated that when compared with respondents without anxiety, older adults presenting different manifestations of subthreshold or threshold anxiety appear to be more similar than different in their health and health behavior characteristics. Conclusions Subthreshold anxiety has a high prevalence and may cause significant impairment. Both symptom and clinical significance criteria do not perfectly discriminate between older adults with or without a severe anxiety problem presenting comorbid disorders and needing psychiatric help. PMID:21427640

  15. Dynamics of a neutral delay equation for an insect population with long larval and short adult phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourley, Stephen A.; Kuang, Yang

    We present a global study on the stability of the equilibria in a nonlinear autonomous neutral delay differential population model formulated by Bocharov and Hadeler. This model may be suitable for describing the intriguing dynamics of an insect population with long larval and short adult phases such as the periodical cicada. We circumvent the usual difficulties associated with the study of the stability of a nonlinear neutral delay differential model by transforming it to an appropriate non-neutral nonautonomous delay differential equation with unbounded delay. In the case that no juveniles give birth, we establish the positivity and boundedness of solutions by ad hoc methods and global stability of the extinction and positive equilibria by the method of iteration. We also show that if the time adjusted instantaneous birth rate at the time of maturation is greater than 1, then the population will grow without bound, regardless of the population death process.

  16. Geographical patterns of turnover and nestedness-resultant components of allelic diversity among populations.

    PubMed

    Diniz-Filho, Jose Alexandre Felizola; Collevatti, Rosane Garcia; Soares, Thannya Nascimento; Telles, Mariana Pires de Campos

    2012-06-01

    The analysis of geographical patterns in population divergence has always been a powerful way to infer microevolutionary processes involved in population differentiation, and several approaches have been used to investigate such patterns. Most frequently, multivariate spatial patterns of population differentiation are analyzed by computing pairwise genetic distances or F(ST) (or related statistics, such as ϕ(ST) from AMOVA), which are then correlated with geographical distances or landscape features. However, when calculating distances, especially based on presence-absence of alleles in local populations, there would be a confounding effect of allelic richness differences in the population differentiation. Moreover, the relative magnitude of these components and their spatial patterns can help identifying microevolutionary processes driving population differentiation. Here we show how recent methodological advances in ecological community analyses that allows partitioning dissimilarity into turnover (turnover) and richness differences, or nestedness-resultant dissimilarity, can be applied to allelic variation data, using an endemic Cerrado tree (Dipteryx alata) as a case study. Individuals from 15 local populations were genotyped for eight microsatellite loci, and pairwise dissimilarities were computed based on presence-absence of alleles. The turnover of alleles among populations represented 69 % of variation in dissimilarity, but only the richness difference component shows a clear spatial structure, appearing as a westward decrease of allelic richness. We show that decoupling richness difference and turnover components of allelic variation reveals more clearly how similarity among populations reflects geographical patterns in allelic diversity that can be interpreted in respect to historical range expansion in the species. PMID:22886007

  17. Genetic testing of children for adult-onset conditions: opinions of the British adult population and implications for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Shkedi-Rafid, Shiri; Fenwick, Angela; Dheensa, Sandi; Lucassen, Anneke M

    2015-10-01

    This study set out to explore the attitudes of a representative sample of the British public towards genetic testing in children to predict disease in the future. We sought opinions about genetic testing for adult-onset conditions for which no prevention/treatment is available during childhood, and about genetic 'carrier' status to assess future reproductive risks. The study also examined participants' level of agreement with the reasons professional organisations give in favour of deferring such testing. Participants (n=2998) completed a specially designed questionnaire, distributed by email. Nearly half of the sample (47%) agreed that parents should be able to test their child for adult-onset conditions, even if there is no treatment or prevention at time of testing. This runs contrary to professional guidance about genetic testing in children. Testing for carrier status was supported by a larger proportion (60%). A child's future ability to decide for her/himself if and when to be tested was the least supported argument in favour of deferring testing. PMID:25370041

  18. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Lens Opacities in a Korean Adult Population with and without Diabetes: The 2008–2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Nyun; Lee, Joo Eun; Lee, Eun Ju; Won, Jong Chul; Noh, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Kim, Dong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the prevalence of and factors associated with lens opacities in a Korean adult population with and without diabetes. Research Design and Methods Among the 11,163 adults (≥19 years old) from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008–2009, the data from laboratory tests, nutritional surveys, and slit-lamp examinations of 10,248 persons (4,397 men, 5,851 women) were examined. Cataract was defined as the presence of any nuclear, cortical, subcapsular, or mixed cataract in at least one eye, using the Lens Opacities Classification System III. Results The weighted prevalence of cataracts were 23.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 21.7–25.4] in a Korean adult population (19–39 years old, 1.8% [1.3–2.5], 40–64 years old, 25.2% [22.5–28.1],≥65 years old, 87.8% [85.4–89.9])and 54.7% [50.1–59.2] in a diabetic population(19–39 years old, 11.6% [4.5–26.5], 40–64 years old, 41.1% [35.4–47.0], ≥65 years old, 88.3% [83.5–91.8]). In a logistic regression analysis, age, myopia, and the presence of diabetes were independent risk factors. For young (age 19–39 years) and middle aged (age 40–65 years) adults with diabetes, the OR of having a lens opacity is 5.04 [1.41–17.98] and 1.47 [1.11–1.94], respectively, as those without diabetes, whereas for adults aged 65 and older, there was no difference in the prevalence of cataract. Conclusions According to these national survey data, ∼ 24% of Korean adults and ∼ 55% of people with diabetes have cataracts. The presence of diabetes was independently associated with cataracts in young and middle aged adults. PMID:24718421

  19. Lower Virus Infections in Varroa destructor-Infested and Uninfested Brood and Adult Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) of a Low Mite Population Growth Colony Compared to a High Mite Population Growth Colony

    PubMed Central

    Emsen, Berna; Hamiduzzaman, Mollah Md.; Goodwin, Paul H.; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    A comparison was made of the prevalence and relative quantification of deformed wing virus (DWV), Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) and sac brood virus (SBV) in brood and adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) from colonies selected for high (HMP) and low (LMP) Varroa destructor mite population growth. Two viruses, ABPV and SBV, were never detected. For adults without mite infestation, DWV, IAPV, BQCV and KBV were detected in the HMP colony; however, only BQCV was detected in the LMP colony but at similar levels as in the HMP colony. With mite infestation, the four viruses were detected in adults of the HMP colony but all at higher amounts than in the LMP colony. For brood without mite infestation, DWV and IAPV were detected in the HMP colony, but no viruses were detected in the LMP colony. With mite infestation of brood, the four viruses were detected in the HMP colony, but only DWV and IAPV were detected and at lower amounts in the LMP colony. An epidemiological explanation for these results is that pre-experiment differences in virus presence and levels existed between the HMP and LMP colonies. It is also possible that low V. destructor population growth in the LMP colony resulted in the bees being less exposed to the mite and thus less likely to have virus infections. LMP and HMP bees may have also differed in susceptibility to virus infection. PMID:25723540

  20. Lower virus infections in Varroa destructor-infested and uninfested brood and adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) of a low mite population growth colony compared to a high mite population growth colony.

    PubMed

    Emsen, Berna; Hamiduzzaman, Mollah Md; Goodwin, Paul H; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    A comparison was made of the prevalence and relative quantification of deformed wing virus (DWV), Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) and sac brood virus (SBV) in brood and adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) from colonies selected for high (HMP) and low (LMP) Varroa destructor mite population growth. Two viruses, ABPV and SBV, were never detected. For adults without mite infestation, DWV, IAPV, BQCV and KBV were detected in the HMP colony; however, only BQCV was detected in the LMP colony but at similar levels as in the HMP colony. With mite infestation, the four viruses were detected in adults of the HMP colony but all at higher amounts than in the LMP colony. For brood without mite infestation, DWV and IAPV were detected in the HMP colony, but no viruses were detected in the LMP colony. With mite infestation of brood, the four viruses were detected in the HMP colony, but only DWV and IAPV were detected and at lower amounts in the LMP colony. An epidemiological explanation for these results is that pre-experiment differences in virus presence and levels existed between the HMP and LMP colonies. It is also possible that low V. destructor population growth in the LMP colony resulted in the bees being less exposed to the mite and thus less likely to have virus infections. LMP and HMP bees may have also differed in susceptibility to virus infection. PMID:25723540

  1. Depression, Sex and Gender Roles in Older Adult Populations: The International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS)

    PubMed Central

    Vafaei, Afshin; Ahmed, Tamer; Freire, Aline do N. Falcão; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Guerra, Ricardo O.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the associations between gender roles and depression in older men and women and whether gender roles are independent risk factors for depression. Methods International cross-sectional study of adults between 65 and 74 years old (n = 1,967). Depression was defined by a score of 16 or over in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). A validated 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) was used to classify participants in gender roles (Masculine, Feminine, Androgynous, and Undifferentiated) using research site medians of femininity and masculinity as cut-off points. Poisson regressions were fitted to estimate the prevalence ratios (PR) of depression for each gender role compared to the masculine role, adjusting for sex, sufficiency of income, education, marital status, self-rated health, and chronic conditions. Results Among men, 31.2% were androgynous, 26% were masculine, 14.4% were feminine, and 28.4% were undifferentiated; among women, the corresponding percentages were 32.7%, 14.9%, 27%, and 25.4%. Both in men and in women, depressive symptoms (CES-D≥16) were more prevalent in those endorsing the undifferentiated type, compared to masculine, feminine or androgynous groups. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, compared to the masculine group only those endorsing the androgynous role were 28% less likely to suffer from depression: PR of 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55–0.93). In fully adjusted models, prevalence rates of depression were not different from masculine participants in the two other gender groups of feminine and undifferentiated. Conclusions Androgynous roles were associated with lower rates of depression in older adults, independently of being a man or a woman. PMID:26771828

  2. Characteristics of and risk factors for colorectal neoplasms in young adults in a screening population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Eun; Jo, Hee Bum; Kwack, Won Gun; Jeong, Yun Jin; Yoon, Yeo-Jin; Kang, Hyoun Woo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate prevalence and risk factors for colorectal neoplasms in adults aged < 50 years, for whom screening is not recommended. METHODS: This cross-sectional study compared prevalence and characteristics of colorectal and advanced adenomas in patients aged < 50 years who underwent colonoscopy screening with subjects aged ≥ 50 years. To evaluate risk factors for colorectal and advanced adenoma in young adults, we used multivariable logistic regression models. Colorectal neoplasm characteristics were evaluated and compared with those in older patients. RESULTS: Among 2819 patients included, prevalences of colorectal adenoma and advanced adenoma were 19.7% and 1.5%, respectively. As patient age increased, so did the prevalence of colorectal neoplasm. However, prevalence of advanced adenoma did not differ between age-groups 45-49 years and ≥ 50 years (OR = 0.43, 95%CI: 0.17-1.07, P = 0.070). In younger age-group (< 50 years), colorectal adenoma was significantly associated with older age, waist circumference (OR = 1.72, 95%CI: 1.15-2.55, P = 0.008), and current smoking (OR = 1.60, 95%CI: 1.07-2.41, P = 0.023). Alcohol consumption was an independent risk factor for colorectal advanced adenoma (OR = 3.69, 95%CI: 1.08-12.54, P = 0.037). Multiple neoplasms and large neoplasms (≥ 1 cm) were more prevalent in subjects ≥ 50 years. CONCLUSION: Current screening strategies for colorectal cancer may need to be amended to account for patient age, especially in young subjects with abdominal obesity, current smoking and alcohol consumption. PMID:26973394

  3. Frailty and depression in older adults: A high-risk clinical population

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Patrick J.; Roose, Steven P.; Fieo, Robert; Liu, Xinhua; Rantanen, Taina; Sneed, Joel R.; Rutherford, Bret R.; Devanand, D.P.; Avlund, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify salient characteristics of frailty that increase risk of death in depressed elders. Design Data from the Nordic Research on Ageing Study. Setting Research sites in Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. Participants Sample included 1027 75-year-old adults, 436 men and 591 women. Main Outcome Measure Time of death was obtained, providing a maximum survival time of 11.08 years (initial evaluation took place between 1988-1991). Results Depressed elders showed greater baseline impairments in each frailty characteristic (gait speed, grip strength, physical activity levels, and fatigue). Simultaneous models including all four frailty characteristics showed slow gait speed (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.05-3.21) and fatigue (HR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.11-3.40) associated with faster progression to death in depressed women; none of the frailty characteristics in the simultaneous model were associated with death in depressed men. In women, the effect of impaired gait speed on mortality rates nearly doubled when depression was present (mortality rates, nondepressed women: no gait impairment =26%; slow gait =40%; depressed women: no gait impairment=32%; slow gait =58%). A similar pattern was observed for fatigue. Conclusions The confluence of specific characteristics of frailty (fatigue and slow gait speed) and depressive illness is associated with an increased risk of death in older adults; this association is particularly strong in older depressed women. Future research should investigate whether multimodal interventions targeting depressive illness, mobility deficits, and fatigue can decrease mortality and improve quality of life in older depressed individuals with characteristics of the syndrome of frailty. PMID:23973252

  4. Altered protein prenylation in Sertoli cells is associated with adult infertility resulting from childhood mumps infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu-Xing; Ying, Pu; Diao, Fan; Wang, Qiang; Ye, Dan; Jiang, Chen; Shen, Ning; Xu, Na; Chen, Wei-Bo; Lai, Shan-Shan; Jiang, Shan; Miao, Xiao-Li; Feng, Jin; Tao, Wei-Wei; Zhao, Ning-Wei; Yao, Bing; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Sun, Hai-Xiang; Li, Jian-Min; Sha, Jia-Hao; Huang, Xing-Xu; Shi, Qing-Hua; Tang, Hong; Gao, Xiang; Li, Chao-Jun

    2013-07-29

    Mumps commonly affects children 5-9 yr of age, and can lead to permanent adult sterility in certain cases. However, the etiology of this long-term effect remains unclear. Mumps infection results in progressive degeneration of the seminiferous epithelium and, occasionally, Sertoli cell-only syndrome. Thus, the remaining Sertoli cells may be critical to spermatogenesis recovery after orchitis healing. Here, we report that the protein farnesylation/geranylgeranylation balance is critical for patients' fertility. The expression of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase 1 (GGPPS) was decreased due to elevated promoter methylation in the testes of infertile patients with mumps infection history. When we deleted GGPPS in mouse Sertoli cells, these cells remained intact, whereas the adjacent spermatogonia significantly decreased after the fifth postnatal day. The proinflammatory MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways were constitutively activated in GGPPS(-/-) Sertoli cells due to the enhanced farnesylation of H-Ras. GGPPS(-/-) Sertoli cells secreted an array of cytokines to stimulate spermatogonia apoptosis, and chemokines to induce macrophage invasion into the seminiferous tubules. Invaded macrophages further blocked spermatogonia development, resulting in a long-term effect through to adulthood. Notably, this defect could be rescued by GGPP administration in EMCV-challenged mice. Our results suggest a novel mechanism by which mumps infection during childhood results in adult sterility. PMID:23825187

  5. Intravenous gestational nicotine exposure results in increased motivation for sucrose reward in adult rat offspring

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Ryan T.; Hord, Lauren L.; Morgan, Amanda J.; Harrod, Steven B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure is associated with alterations in motivated behavior in offspring, such as increased consumption of highly palatable foods and abused drugs. Animal models show that gestational nicotine (GN) exposure mediates changes in responding for sucrose and drug reward. Methods A novel, intermittent low-dose intravenous (IV) exposure model was used to administer nicotine (0.05 mg/kg/injection) or saline 3×/day to rats on gestational days 8-21. Two experiments investigated the effect of IV GN on 1) the habituation of spontaneous locomotor activity and on 2) sucrose reinforced responding in offspring. For the operant experiments, animals acquired fixed-ratio (FR-3) responding for sucrose, 26% (w/v), and were tested on varying concentrations (0, 3, 10, 30, 56%; Latin-square) according to a FR-3, and then a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule. Male and female adult offspring were used. Results IV GN did not alter birth or growth weight, or the number of pups born. No between-group differences in habituation to spontaneous locomotor activity were observed. FR testing produced an inverted U-shaped response curve, and rats showed peak responding for 10% sucrose reinforcement. Neither gestation nor sex affected responding, suggesting equivalent sensitivity to varying sucrose concentrations. PR testing revealed that GN rats showed greater motivation for sucrose reinforcement relative to controls. Conclusions A low-dose, IV GN exposure model resulted in increased motivation to respond for sucrose reinforcement in adult offspring. This suggests that using a low number of cigarettes throughout pregnancy will result in increased motivation for highly palatable foods in adult, and perhaps, adolescent offspring. PMID:22377090

  6. Treatment of unstable osteochondritis dissecans in adults with autogenous osteochondral grafts (Mosaicplasty): long-term results

    PubMed Central

    RONGA, MARIO; STISSI, PLACIDO; LA BARBERA, GIUSEPPE; VALOROSO, MARCO; ANGERETTI, GLORIA; GENOVESE, EUGENIO; CHERUBINO, PAOLO

    2015-01-01

    Purpose the unstable osteochondritis dissecans (OCD-type II and III according to the ICRS classification) of the knee largher than > 2.5 cm2 in adults are uncommon lesions and there is no consensus on how to treat them. Medium-term studies have reported good results using autogenous osteochondral plugs (mosaicplasty). The aim of this study is to analyze the long-term results of this technique for the treatment of unstable OCD in a selected group of adult patients. Methods four patients with OCD at either one of the femoral condyles were included in this prospective study. The average age was 21.2 years (range, 18–24 years). The OCD lesions were classified as type II in three patients and type III in one patient and the average size was 3.8 cm2 (range, 2.55–5.1 cm2). The lesions were treated in situ with a variable number of autogenous osteochondral plugs (Ø 4.5 mm2). The Modified Cincinnati, Lysholm II and Tegner scores were used for clinical and functional evaluation. Magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) was performed before surgery and at 2, 5 and 10 years after surgery. A modified MOCART score was used to evaluate MRA findings. Results the average follow-up duration was ten years and 6 months (range, 10–11 years). No complications occurred. At the final follow-up, all scores (clinical, functional and MOCART) improved. In all but one of the patients MRA showed complete osteochondral repair. Conclusions the fixation of large and unstable OCD lesions with mosaicplasty may be a good option for treating type II or III OCD lesions in adults. The advantages of this technique include stable fixation, promotion of blood supply to the base of the OCD fragment, and grafting of autologous cancellous bone that stimulates healing with preservation of the articular surface. Level of evidence Level IV, therapeutic case series. PMID:26904522

  7. Systematic review of validated case definitions for diabetes in ICD-9-coded and ICD-10-coded data in adult populations

    PubMed Central

    Khokhar, Bushra; Jette, Nathalie; Metcalfe, Amy; Cunningham, Ceara Tess; Kaplan, Gilaad G; Butalia, Sonia; Rabi, Doreen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives With steady increases in ‘big data’ and data analytics over the past two decades, administrative health databases have become more accessible and are now used regularly for diabetes surveillance. The objective of this study is to systematically review validated International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-based case definitions for diabetes in the adult population. Setting, participants and outcome measures Electronic databases, MEDLINE and Embase, were searched for validation studies where an administrative case definition (using ICD codes) for diabetes in adults was validated against a reference and statistical measures of the performance reported. Results The search yielded 2895 abstracts, and of the 193 potentially relevant studies, 16 met criteria. Diabetes definition for adults varied by data source, including physician claims (sensitivity ranged from 26.9% to 97%, specificity ranged from 94.3% to 99.4%, positive predictive value (PPV) ranged from 71.4% to 96.2%, negative predictive value (NPV) ranged from 95% to 99.6% and κ ranged from 0.8 to 0.9), hospital discharge data (sensitivity ranged from 59.1% to 92.6%, specificity ranged from 95.5% to 99%, PPV ranged from 62.5% to 96%, NPV ranged from 90.8% to 99% and κ ranged from 0.6 to 0.9) and a combination of both (sensitivity ranged from 57% to 95.6%, specificity ranged from 88% to 98.5%, PPV ranged from 54% to 80%, NPV ranged from 98% to 99.6% and κ ranged from 0.7 to 0.8). Conclusions Overall, administrative health databases are useful for undertaking diabetes surveillance, but an awareness of the variation in performance being affected by case definition is essential. The performance characteristics of these case definitions depend on the variations in the definition of primary diagnosis in ICD-coded discharge data and/or the methodology adopted by the healthcare facility to extract information from patient records. PMID:27496226

  8. Tracking an Elusive Population: Family Carers of Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Romandy (Switzerland)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jecker-Parvex, Maurice; Breitenbach, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Despite a long-standing tradition of institutional placement in Switzerland, many older adults with intellectual disabilities continue to be supported by aging parents and siblings. For various reasons, these carers and the adults concerned have been overlooked up to now. To find out how many such families are providing housing and care of this…

  9. Reaching a Culturally Diverse Immigrant Population of Adult English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Joan; Owen, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Culturally Responsive Teaching (CRT) is a framework to help adult English as a second language (ESL) educators renovate their practices into effective, culturally responsive programs, readily accessible to adult learners. Four CRT strategies that can be used include (a) validation through caring, (b) valuing cultural experiences, (c) creating a…

  10. Characterization of a unique cell population marked by transgene expression in the adult cochlea of nestin-CreER(T2)/tdTomato-reporter mice.

    PubMed

    Chow, Cynthia L; Guo, Weixiang; Trivedi, Parul; Zhao, Xinyu; Gubbels, Samuel P

    2015-07-01

    Hair cells in the adult mammalian cochlea cannot spontaneously regenerate after damage, resulting in the permanency of hearing loss. Stem cells have been found to be present in the cochlea of young rodents; however, there has been little evidence for their existence into adulthood. We used nestin-CreER(T2)/tdTomato-reporter mice to trace the lineage of putative nestin-expressing cells and their progeny in the cochleae of adult mice. Nestin, an intermediate filament found in neural progenitor cells during early development and adulthood, is regarded as a multipotent and neural stem cell marker. Other investigators have reported its presence in postnatal and young adult rodents; however, there are discrepancies among these reports. Using lineage tracing, we documented a robust population of tdTomato-expressing cells and evaluated these cells at a series of adult time points. Upon activation of the nestin promoter, tdTomato was observed just below and medial to the inner hair cell layer. All cells colocalized with the stem cell and cochlear-supporting-cell marker Sox2 as well as the supporting cell and Schwann cell marker Sox10; however, they did not colocalize with the Schwann cell marker Krox20, spiral ganglion marker NF200, nor glial fibrillary acidic acid (GFAP)-expressing supporting cell marker. The cellular identity of this unique population of tdTomato-expressing cells in the adult cochlea of nestin-CreER(T2)/tdTomato mice remains unclear; however, these cells may represent a type of supporting cell on the neural aspect of the inner hair cell layer. PMID:25611038

  11. Characterization of a Unique Cell Population Marked by Transgene Expression in the Adult Cochlea of Nestin-CreERT2/tdTomato-Reporter Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Cynthia L.; Guo, Weixiang; Trivedi, Parul; Zhao, Xinyu; Gubbels, Samuel P.

    2015-01-01

    Hair cells in the adult mammalian cochlea cannot spontaneously regenerate after damage resulting in the permanency of hearing loss. Stem cells have been found to be present in the cochlea of young rodents; however, there has been little evidence for their existence into adulthood. We used nestin-CreERT2/tdTomato-reporter mice to trace the lineage of putative nestin-expressing cells and their progeny in the cochleae of adult mice. Nestin, an intermediate filament found in neural progenitor cells during early development and adulthood, is regarded as a multi-potent and neural stem cell marker. Other investigators have reported its presence in postnatal and young adult rodents; however, there are discrepancies amongst these reports. Using lineage tracing, we documented a robust population of tdTomato-expressing cells and evaluated these cells at a series of adult time points. Upon activation of the nestin promoter, tdTomato was observed just below and medial to the inner hair cell layer. All cells co-localized with the stem cell and cochlear-supporting-cell marker Sox2 as well as the supporting cell and Schwann cell marker Sox10; however, they did not co-localize with the Schwann cell marker Krox20, spiral ganglion marker NF200, or GFAP-expressing supporting cell marker. The cellular identity of this unique population of tdTomato-expressing cells in the adult cochlea of nestin-CreERT2/tdTomato mice remains unclear however these cells may represent a type of supporting cell on the neural aspect of the inner hair cell layer. PMID:25611038

  12. Further validation of the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory in a US adult population sample

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) was developed in 1995. Since then, it has been widely used in cancer research and cancer-related illnesses but has never been validated in fatiguing illnesses or in a large US population-selected sample. In this study, we sought to examine the reliability and validity of the MFI-20 in the population of the state of Georgia, USA. Further, we assessed whether the MFI-20 could serve as a complementary diagnostic tool in chronically fatigued and unwell populations. Methods The data derive from a cross-sectional population-based study investigating the prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in Georgia. The study sample was comprised of three diagnostic groups: CFS-like (292), chronically unwell (269), and well (222). Participants completed the MFI-20 along with several other measures of psychosocial functioning, including the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 (SF-36), the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). We assessed the five MFI-20 subscales using several criteria: inter-item correlations, corrected item-total correlations, internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficients), construct validity, discriminant (known-group) validity, floor/ceiling effects, and convergent validity through correlations with the SF-36, SDS, and STAI instruments. Results Averaged inter-item correlations ranged from 0.38 to 0.61, indicating no item redundancy. Corrected item-total correlations for all MFI-20 subscales were greater than 0.30, and Cronbach's alpha coefficients achieved an acceptable level of 0.70. No significant floor/ceiling effect was observed. Factor analysis demonstrated factorial complexity. The MFI-20 also distinguished clearly between three diagnostic groups on all subscales. Furthermore, correlations with depression (SDS), anxiety (STAI), and functional impairment (SF-36) demonstrated strong convergent validity. Conclusions

  13. The Health Literacy of America's Adults: Results from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy. NCES 2006-483

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutner, Mark; Greenburg, Elizabeth; Jin, Ying; Paulsen, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the health literacy of America's adults is important because so many aspects of finding health care and health information, and maintaining health, depend on understanding written information. Many reports have suggested that low health literacy is associated with poor communication between patients and health care providers and with…

  14. Young Adults' Risk Perceptions of Various Tobacco Products Relative to Cigarettes: Results from the National Young Adult Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method: We examined risk…

  15. Hyalomma scupense (Acari, Ixodidae) in northeast Tunisia: seasonal population dynamics of nymphs and adults on field cattle

    PubMed Central

    Gharbi, Mohamed; Hayouni, Mohamed Ettaïeb; Sassi, Limam; Dridi, Walid; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Hyalomma scupense is a two-host tick infesting mainly cattle representing in North Africa the vector of tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection), a major tick-borne disease affecting cattle. Any effective control programme of ticks requires a good knowledge of the biology of the target species. In the present study, three cattle farms in northeast Tunisia were surveyed during the activity seasons for adult and nymphs of Hyalomma scupense. Several indicators were studied, including chronological indicators, infestation prevalence, infestation intensity and feeding predilection sites of the ticks. The adult ticks were present from mid-June to late November. Nymphs were observed on animals from early September to late November. A large proportion of the ticks were attached in the posterior udder quarters: 41% and 64% of adult ticks and nymphs, respectively. The animals that were heavily infested by adult ticks were also heavily infested by nymphs. Moreover, 17% of adult ticks and 53% of nymphs were present on only 5% of cattle population. These data are important for the success of targeted acaricide application leading to a dramatic decrease of acaricide quantity needed for the treatment. When the preferential sites of attachment are known, the effectiveness of manual removal of ticks can be improved. The presence of highly infested animals is to be considered when any control programme is implemented, since these animals harbour a high proportion of the ticks. PMID:23547915

  16. Sustained reduction of the dengue vector population resulting from an integrated control strategy applied in two Brazilian cities.

    PubMed

    Regis, Lêda N; Acioli, Ridelane Veiga; Silveira, José Constantino; Melo-Santos, Maria Alice Varjal; Souza, Wayner Vieira; Ribeiro, Cândida M Nogueira; da Silva, Juliana C Serafim; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel Vieira; Oliveira, Cláudia M F; Barbosa, Rosângela M R; Braga, Cynthia; Rodrigues, Marco Aurélio Benedetti; Silva, Marilú Gomes N M; Ribeiro, Paulo Justiniano; Bonat, Wagner Hugo; de Castro Medeiros, Liliam César; Carvalho, Marilia Sa; Furtado, André Freire

    2013-01-01

    Aedes aegypti has developed evolution-driven adaptations for surviving in the domestic human habitat. Several trap models have been designed considering these strategies and tested for monitoring this efficient vector of Dengue. Here, we report a real-scale evaluation of a system for monitoring and controlling mosquito populations based on egg sampling coupled with geographic information systems technology. The SMCP-Aedes, a system based on open technology and open data standards, was set up from March/2008 to October/2011 as a pilot trial in two sites of Pernambuco -Brazil: Ipojuca (10,000 residents) and Santa Cruz (83,000), in a joint effort of health authorities and staff, and a network of scientists providing scientific support. A widespread infestation by Aedes was found in both sites in 2008-2009, with 96.8%-100% trap positivity. Egg densities were markedly higher in SCC than in Ipojuca. A 90% decrease in egg density was recorded in SCC after two years of sustained control pressure imposed by suppression of >7,500,000 eggs and >3,200 adults, plus larval control by adding fishes to cisterns. In Ipojuca, 1.1 million mosquito eggs were suppressed and a 77% reduction in egg density was achieved. This study aimed at assessing the applicability of a system using GIS and spatial statistic analysis tools for quantitative assessment of mosquito populations. It also provided useful information on the requirements for reducing well-established mosquito populations. Results from two cities led us to conclude that the success in markedly reducing an Aedes population required the appropriate choice of control measures for sustained mass elimination guided by a user-friendly mosquito surveillance system. The system was able to support interventional decisions and to assess the program's success. Additionally, it created a stimulating environment for health staff and residents, which had a positive impact on their commitment to the dengue control program. PMID:23844059

  17. Sustained Reduction of the Dengue Vector Population Resulting from an Integrated Control Strategy Applied in Two Brazilian Cities

    PubMed Central

    Regis, Lêda N.; Acioli, Ridelane Veiga; Silveira, José Constantino; Melo-Santos, Maria Alice Varjal; Souza, Wayner Vieira; Ribeiro, Cândida M. Nogueira.; da Silva, Juliana C. Serafim.; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel Vieira; Oliveira, Cláudia M. F.; Barbosa, Rosângela M. R.; Braga, Cynthia; Rodrigues, Marco Aurélio Benedetti; Silva, Marilú Gomes N. M.; Ribeiro Jr., Paulo Justiniano; Bonat, Wagner Hugo; de Castro Medeiros, Liliam César; Carvalho, Marilia Sa; Furtado, André Freire

    2013-01-01

    Aedes aegypti has developed evolution-driven adaptations for surviving in the domestic human habitat. Several trap models have been designed considering these strategies and tested for monitoring this efficient vector of Dengue. Here, we report a real-scale evaluation of a system for monitoring and controlling mosquito populations based on egg sampling coupled with geographic information systems technology. The SMCP-Aedes, a system based on open technology and open data standards, was set up from March/2008 to October/2011 as a pilot trial in two sites of Pernambuco -Brazil: Ipojuca (10,000 residents) and Santa Cruz (83,000), in a joint effort of health authorities and staff, and a network of scientists providing scientific support. A widespread infestation by Aedes was found in both sites in 2008–2009, with 96.8%–100% trap positivity. Egg densities were markedly higher in SCC than in Ipojuca. A 90% decrease in egg density was recorded in SCC after two years of sustained control pressure imposed by suppression of >7,500,000 eggs and >3,200 adults, plus larval control by adding fishes to cisterns. In Ipojuca, 1.1 million mosquito eggs were suppressed and a 77% reduction in egg density was achieved. This study aimed at assessing the applicability of a system using GIS and spatial statistic analysis tools for quantitative assessment of mosquito populations. It also provided useful information on the requirements for reducing well-established mosquito populations. Results from two cities led us to conclude that the success in markedly reducing an Aedes population required the appropriate choice of control measures for sustained mass elimination guided by a user-friendly mosquito surveillance system. The system was able to support interventional decisions and to assess the program’s success. Additionally, it created a stimulating environment for health staff and residents, which had a positive impact on their commitment to the dengue control program. PMID:23844059

  18. Electronic cigarette use among adult population: a cross-sectional study in Barcelona, Spain (2013–2014)

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Ballbè, Montse; Fu, Marcela; Martín-Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Saltó, Esteve; Gottlieb, Mark; Daynard, Richard; Connolly, Gregory N; Fernández, Esteve

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study seeks to analyse the prevalence and correlates of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, purchase location and satisfaction with its use in a sample of the general population of the city of Barcelona, Spain. Design, setting and participants We used participants from a longitudinal study of a representative sample of the adult (≥16 years old) population of Barcelona (336 men and 400 women). The field work was conducted between May 2013 and February 2014. We computed the prevalence, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Results The prevalence of ever e-cigarette use was 6.5% (95% CI 4.7% to 8.3%): 1.6% current use, 2.2% past use and 2.7% only e-cigarette experimentation. 75% (95% CI 62.8% to 87.3%) of ever e-cigarette users were current cigarette smokers at the moment of the interview. E-cigarette use was more likely among current smokers (OR=54.57; 95% CI 7.33 to 406.38) and highly dependent cigarette smokers (OR=3.96; 95% CI 1.60 to 9.82). 62.5% of the ever users charged their e-cigarettes with nicotine with 70% of them obtaining the liquids with nicotine in a specialised shop. 39.6% of ever e-cigarette users were not satisfied with their use, a similar percentage of not satisfied expressing the smokers (38.9%) and there were no statistically significant differences in the satisfaction between the users of e-cigarettes with and without nicotine. Conclusions E-cigarette use is strongly associated with current smoking (dual use) and most users continue to be addicted to nicotine. Six out of 10 e-cigarette users preferred devices that deliver nicotine. The satisfaction with e-cigarette use is very low. PMID:25157186

  19. Chronic Airflow Obstruction in a Black African Population: Results of BOLD Study, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obaseki, Daniel O; Erhabor, Gregory E; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Adewole, Olufemi O; Buist, Sonia A; Burney, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    Global estimates suggest that Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is emerging as a leading cause of death in developing countries but there are few spirometry-based general population data on its prevalence and risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa. We used the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) protocol to select a representative sample of adults aged 40 years and above in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. All the participants underwent spirometry and provided information on smoking history, biomass and occupational exposures as well as diagnosed respiratory diseases and symptoms. Chronic Airflow Obstruction (CAO) was defined as the ratio of post-bronchodilator (BD) one second Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1) to Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) below the lower limit of normal (LLN) of the population distribution for FEV1/FVC. The overall prevalence of obstruction (post-BD FEV1/FVC < LLN) was 7.7% (2.7% above LLN) using Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) equations. It was associated with few respiratory symptoms; 0.3% reported a previous doctor-diagnosed chronic bronchitis, emphysema or COPD. Independent predictors included a lack of education (OR 2.5, 95% CI: 1.0, 6.4) and a diagnosis of either TB (OR 23.4, 95% CI: 2.0, 278.6) or asthma (OR 35.4, 95%CI: 4.9, 255.8). There was no association with the use of firewood or coal for cooking or heating. The vast majority of this population (89%) are never smokers. We conclude that the prevalence of CAO is low in Ile-Ife, Nigeria and unrelated to biomass exposure. The key independent predictors are poor education, and previous diagnosis of tuberculosis or asthma. PMID:26451840

  20. Association of the Estrogen Receptor 1 (ESR1) Gene with Body Height in Adult Males from Two Swedish Population Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Dahlgren, Andreas; Lundmark, Per; Axelsson, Tomas; Lind, Lars; Syvänen, Ann-Christine

    2008-01-01

    Human body height is a complex genetic trait with high heritability. We performed an association study of 17 candidate genes for height in the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM) that consists of 1153 elderly men of age 70 born in the central region of Sweden. First we genotyped a panel of 137 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) evenly distributed across the candidate genes in the ULSAM cohort. We identified 4 SNPs in the estrogen receptor gene (ESR1) on chromosome 6q25.1 with suggestive signals of association (p<0.05) with standing body height. This result was followed up by genotyping the same 25 SNPs in the ESR1 gene as in ULSAM in a second population cohort, the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) cohort that consist of 507 males and 509 females of age 70 from the same geographical region as ULSAM. One SNP, rs2179922 located in intron 4 of ESR1 showed and association signal (p = 0.0056) in the male samples from the PIVUS cohort. Homozygote carriers of the G-allele of the SNP rs2179922 were on average 0.90 cm taller than individuals with the two other genotypes at this SNP in the ULSAM cohort and 2.3 cm taller in the PIVUS cohort. No association was observed for the females in the PIVUS cohort. PMID:18350145

  1. Association of Plasma Heat Shock Protein 70, Interleukin 6, and Creatine Kinase Concentrations in a Healthy, Young Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Contreras-Sesvold, Carmen; Revenis, Bradley D.; O'Connor, Francis G.; Deuster, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Variations of baseline plasma concentrations of creatine kinase (CK), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) have been reported. We report categorical associations which may influence these protein levels. Methods. Blood was harvested for DNA and plasma protein analysis from 567 adults. Mean protein levels of CK, HSP70, and IL-6 were compared by sex, ethnicity, genetic variants—CKMM Nco1 (rs1803285), HSPA1B +A1538G (rs1061581), and IL6 G-174C (rs1800795)—self-reported history of exercise, oral contraceptive use, and dietary supplement use. Results. SNP major allele frequencies for CKMM, HSPA1B, and IL6 were 70% A, 57% A, and 60%. Mean CK statistically differed by sex, ethnicity, oral contraceptives, and caffeine. Plasma HSP70 differed by caffeine and protein. Mean IL-6 concentration differed by sex, ethnicity, and genotype. Plasma IL-6 was significantly lower (29%) in males (1.92 ± 0.08 pg/mL) and higher (29%) among African Americans (2.85 ± 0.50 pg/mL) relative to the others. IL6 G-174C GG genotype (2.23 ± 0.14 pg/mL) was 19% greater than CG or CC genotypes. Conclusion. Differences in baseline CK and IL-6 plasma protein concentrations are associated with genetics, sex, ethnicity, and the use of oral contraceptives, caffeine, and protein supplements in this young and athletic population. PMID:26664829

  2. Comparison of ultrasonography-guided central venous catheterization between adult and pediatric populations.

    PubMed

    Tercan, Fahri; Oguzkurt, Levent; Ozkan, Ugur; Eker, Hatice Evren

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the technical success and complication rates of ultrasonography-guided central venous catheterization between adult and pediatric patients which have not been reported previously. In a 4-year period, 859 ultrasonography-guided central vein catheterizations in 688 adult patients and 247 catheterizations in 156 pediatric patients were retrospectively evaluated. Mean age was 56.3 years (range, 18 to 95 years) for adults and 3.3 years (range, 0.1 to 16.3 years) for children. The preferred catheterization site was internal jugular vein in 97% of adults and 85% of children. The technical success rate, mean number of punctures, and rate of single wall puncture were 99.4%, 1.04 (range, 1-3), and 83% for adults and 90.3%, 1.25 (range, 1-5), and 49% for children, respectively. All the differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Complication rates were 2.3% and 2.4% for adults and children, respectively (p > 0.05). Major complications such as pneumothorax and hemothorax were not seen in any group. In conclusion, ultrasonography-guided central venous catheterization has a high technical success rate, lower puncture attempt rate, and higher single wall puncture rate in adults compared to children. Complication rates are comparable in the two groups. PMID:18330631

  3. Comparison of Ultrasonography-Guided Central Venous Catheterization Between Adult and Pediatric Populations

    SciTech Connect

    Tercan, Fahri Oguzkurt, Levent; Ozkan, Ugur; Eker, Hatice Evren

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the technical success and complication rates of ultrasonography-guided central venous catheterization between adult and pediatric patients which have not been reported previously. In a 4-year period, 859 ultrasonography-guided central vein catheterizations in 688 adult patients and 247 catheterizations in 156 pediatric patients were retrospectively evaluated. Mean age was 56.3 years (range, 18 to 95 years) for adults and 3.3 years (range, 0.1 to 16.3 years) for children. The preferred catheterization site was internal jugular vein in 97% of adults and 85% of children. The technical success rate, mean number of punctures, and rate of single wall puncture were 99.4%, 1.04 (range, 1-3), and 83% for adults and 90.3%, 1.25 (range, 1-5), and 49% for children, respectively. All the differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Complication rates were 2.3% and 2.4% for adults and children, respectively (p > 0.05). Major complications such as pneumothorax and hemothorax were not seen in any group. In conclusion, ultrasonography-guided central venous catheterization has a high technical success rate, lower puncture attempt rate, and higher single wall puncture rate in adults compared to children. Complication rates are comparable in the two groups.

  4. Public say food regulatory policies to improve health in Western Australia are important: population survey results

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Christina M; Daly, Alison; Moore, Michael; Binns, Colin W

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the level of support among Western Australian adults for food control policies to improve diet, reduce obesity and protect the environment. Methods Attitudes towards government food control policies on food labelling, food advertising, and the supply of environmentally friendly food data were pooled from two Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series telephone surveys of 2,147 adults aged 18–64 years collected in 2009 and 2012. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted using survey module of STATA 12. Results The majority of adults believe it is important that government regulates food policy options under consideration: nutrition information on food labels (97% versus 2% who think it is not important); health rating on food labels (95% versus 3%); food advertising (83% versus 11%); and the supply of environmentally friendly food (86% versus 9%). Conclusions Community perception is that government control or regulation of food labelling, food advertising and the supply of environmentally friendly food is important. Implications Curbing excess weight gain and related disease burden is a public health priority. Australian governments are considering food regulatory interventions to assist the public to improve their dietary intake. These findings should provide reassurance to government officials considering these regulatory measures. PMID:24090332

  5. Comparison of adult HIV prevalence from national population-based surveys and antenatal clinic surveillance in countries with generalised epidemics: implications for calibrating surveillance data

    PubMed Central

    Gouws, E; Mishra, V; Fowler, T B

    2008-01-01

    Background: Estimates of the impact of HIV in countries with generalised epidemics are generally based on antenatal clinic surveillance data collected over time. In an attempt to obtain geographically more representative estimates of HIV prevalence, many countries are now also conducting national population-based surveys in which HIV testing is included. We compare adult HIV prevalence estimates from antenatal clinic surveillance to those from national population-based surveys to assess the implications for calibrating surveillance data. Methods: HIV prevalence estimates derived from fitting prevalence curves to antenatal clinic surveillance data are statistically compared to prevalence from national population-based surveys using data from 26 countries with generalised epidemics for the year in which the survey was conducted. Appropriate transformations are applied to inform the correction factors needed to adjust prevalence in countries where population-based surveys have not been conducted. Results: HIV prevalence derived from antenatal clinic surveillance data generally overestimate population-based survey prevalence by about 20% (95% confidence interval: 10% to 30%) in both urban and rural areas. Conclusions: In countries where national population-based HIV surveys have been conducted, survey estimates of HIV prevalence (adjusted for potential survey biases as appropriate) can be used directly to calibrate antenatal clinic surveillance data. In countries where national HIV surveys have not been conducted, HIV prevalence derived from antenatal clinic surveillance data should be multiplied by about 0.8 to adjust for overestimation. PMID:18647861

  6. Adult Transitions to Learning in the USA: What Do PIAAC Survey Results Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Margaret Becker; Paulson, Usha G.

    2016-01-01

    The Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) assessed literacy, numeracy, and technology-related skills of adults and found skill levels of US adults are well below the international average. In a world where advanced skills are requisite to workplace competitiveness, low skills are a danger sign. An initial PIAAC…

  7. Cognitive-Behaviorally-Oriented Group Rehabilitation of Adults with ADHD: Results of a 6-Month Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salakari, Anita; Virta, Maarit; Gronroos, Nina; Chydenius, Esa; Partinen, Markku; Vataja, Risto; Kaski, Markus; Iivanainen, Matti

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Recently, novel psychological treatments for adult ADHD have been reported with promising results. However, studies about long-term treatment effects are scanty. The authors study effects of cognitive-behaviorally-oriented group rehabilitation during a 6-month follow-up. Method: Participating in the rehabilitation were 29 adults, of…

  8. Competencies for Adult Basic Education and Diploma Programs: A Summary of Studies and Cross-Reference of Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Joan Keller

    This report summarizes and cross-references the results of 12 studies dealing with competencies for Adult Basic Education (ABE) and diploma programs. Described in the report are the following studies/projects: (1) the Adult Performance Level (APL) Study; (2) five APL-based validation studies (the New Jersey ABE Study, the New Jersey English as a…

  9. Use of the Internet as a Health Information Resource Among French Young Adults: Results From a Nationally Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Nguyen-Thanh, Viet; Montagni, Ilaria; Parizot, Isabelle; Renahy, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Background The Internet is one of the main resources of health information especially for young adults, but website content is not always trustworthy or validated. Little is known about this specific population and the importance of online health searches for use and impact. It is fundamental to assess behaviors and attitudes of young people looking for online health-related information and their level of trust in such information. Objective The objective is to describe the characteristics of Internet users aged 15-30 years who use the Web as a health information resource and their trust in it, and to define the context and the effect of such use on French young adults’ behavior in relation to their medical consultations. Methods We used the French Health Barometer 2010, a nationally representative survey of 27,653 individuals that investigates population health behaviors and concerns. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed using a subsample of 1052 young adults aged 15-30 years to estimate associations between demographics, socioeconomic, and health status and (1) the use of the Internet to search for health information, and (2) its impact on health behaviors and the physician-patient relationship. Results In 2010, 48.5% (474/977) of Web users aged 15-30 years used the Internet for health purposes. Those who did not use the Internet for health purposes reported being informed enough by other sources (75.0%, 377/503), stated they preferred seeing a doctor (74.1%, 373/503) or did not trust the information on the Internet (67.2%, 338/503). However, approximately 80% (371/474) of young online health seekers considered the information found online reliable. Women (P<.001) and people with higher sociocultural positions (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.9 and OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.7 for employees and manual workers, respectively, vs individuals with executive or manager positions) were more likely to use the Internet for health purposes. For a subsample of women only

  10. The Solid Rocket Motor Slag Population: Results of a Radar-based Regressive Statistical Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horstman, Matthew F.; Xu, Yu-Lin

    2008-01-01

    Solid rocket motor (SRM) slag has been identified as a significant source of man-made orbital debris. The propensity of SRMs to generate particles of 100 m and larger has caused concern regarding their contribution to the debris environment. Radar observation, rather than in-situ gathered evidence, is currently the only measurable source for the NASA/ODPO model of the on-orbit slag population. This simulated model includes the time evolution of the resultant orbital populations using a historical database of SRM launches, propellant masses, and estimated locations and times of tail-off. However, due to the small amount of observational evidence, there can be no direct comparison to check the validity of this model. Rather than using the assumed population developed from purely historical and physical assumptions, a regressional approach was used which utilized the populations observed by the Haystack radar from 1996 to present. The estimated trajectories from the historical model of slag sources, and the corresponding plausible detections by the Haystack radar, were identified. Comparisons with observational data from the ensuing years were made, and the SRM model was altered with respect to size and mass production of slag particles to reflect the historical data obtained. The result is a model SRM population that fits within the bounds of the observed environment.

  11. Increasing hepatitis C knowledge among homeless adults: results of a community-based, interdisciplinary intervention.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Darlene; Nyamathi, Adeline; Stein, Judith A; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Hodge, Felicia; Gelberg, Lillian

    2014-01-01

    Homeless adults have high rates of hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) and low levels of HCV knowledge. This study reports results of an interdisciplinary, community-based intervention using stakeholder cooperation, case management, risk factor identification, and modification of dysfunctional psychosocial factors to increase HCV knowledge among homeless adults (N = 747). Data are from a randomized quasi-experimental study, with the major goal of evaluating the effectiveness of a Nurse Case Managed Intervention compared to a Standard Intervention, encouraging completion of a three-series hepatitis A/hepatitis B vaccination program. Increased HCV knowledge was measured with an 18-item questionnaire discerning risk factors for HCV and common misconceptions about individuals with HCV. A significant increase in HCV knowledge resulted regardless of intervention format. Receiving the Nurse Case Managed Intervention predicted greatest gain in HCV knowledge (p < 0.000). Successfully engaging key stakeholders, outreach workers, community organizations, and homeless people themselves proved most efficacious in increasing HCV knowledge. PMID:23616250

  12. Distribution of intraocular pressure and its determinants in an Iranian adult population

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Shariati, Mohammad; Yekta, Abbasali; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) and its determinants in an Iranian population. METHODS In a cross-sectional survey, random cluster sampling was conducted from the 40-64 years old population of Shahroud, in the north of Iran. All participants had optometry and ophthalmic exams. IOP was determined using the Goldmann tonometry method and biometric components were measured. RESULTS Of the 6311 people selected for the study, 5190 (82.2%) participated. The mean age of the participants was 50.9±6.2y and 58.7% of them were female. Mean IOP was 12.87±2.27 mm Hg. In this study 0.3% of the participants had an IOP higher than 21 mm Hg. The multiple linear regression model revealed that sex (Coef=-0.30; 95% CI: -0.43 to -0.17), diabetes (Coef=0.43; 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.67), high systolic blood pressure (Coef=0.02; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.02), high body mass index (BMI) (Coef=0.03; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.04), higher education (Coef=0.02, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.04), thicker central corneal thickness (Coef=0.01; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.02), and myopic shift in spherical equivalent (Coef=-0.14; 95% CI: -0.18 to -0.10) significantly correlated with high IOP. CONCLUSION The IOP in this 40-64 years old population is low overall. In the north of Iran, average IOP is statistically significantly correlated with female sex, diabetes, higher BMI, systolic blood pressure, higher education, thicker cornea, and myopic refractive error. PMID:27588277

  13. Early prenatal androgenization results in diminished ovarian reserve in adult female rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Dumesic, D.A.; Patankar, M.S.; Barnett, D.K.; Lesnick, T.G.; Hutcherson, B.A.; Abbott, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Early prenatal androgenization (PA) accelerates follicle differentiation and impairs embryogenesis in adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) undergoing FSH therapy for IVF. To determine whether androgen excess in utero affects follicle development over time, this study examines whether PA exposure, beginning at gestational days 40–44 (early treated) or 100–115 (late treated), alters the decline in serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels with age in adult female rhesus monkeys and perturbs their ovarian response to recombinant human FSH (rhFSH) therapy for IVF. METHODS Thirteen normal (control), 11 early-treated and 6 late-treated PA adult female monkeys had serum AMH levels measured at random times of the menstrual cycle or anovulatory period. Using some of the same animals, basal serum AMH, gonadotrophins and steroids were also measured in six normal, five early-treated and three late-treated PA female monkeys undergoing FSH therapy for IVF during late-reproductive life (>17 years); serum AMH also was measured on day of HCG administration and at oocyte retrieval. RESULTS Serum AMH levels in early-treated PA females declined with age to levels that were significantly lower than those of normal (P ≤ 0.05) and late-treated PA females (P ≤ 0.025) by late-reproductive life. Serum AMH levels positively predicted numbers of total/mature oocytes retrieved, with early-treated PA females having the lowest serum AMH levels, fewest oocytes retrieved and lowest percentage of females with fertilized oocytes that cleaved. CONCLUSIONS Based on these animals, early PA appears to program an exaggerated decline in ovarian reserve with age, suggesting that epigenetically induced hormonal factors during fetal development may influence the cohort size of ovarian follicles after birth. PMID:19740899

  14. Exploring the relationship between child physical abuse and adult dating violence using a causal inference approach in an emerging adult population in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Wesley G; Park, MiRang; Richards, Tara N; Tomsich, Elizabeth; Gover, Angela; Powers, Ráchael A

    2014-12-01

    Child maltreatment is one of the most commonly examined risk factors for violence in dating relationships. Often referred to as the intergenerational transmission of violence or cycle of violence, a fair amount of research suggests that experiencing abuse during childhood significantly increases the likelihood of involvement in violent relationships later, but these conclusions are primarily based on correlational research designs. Furthermore, the majority of research linking childhood maltreatment and dating violence has focused on samples of young people from the United States. Considering these limitations, the current study uses a rigorous, propensity score matching approach to estimate the causal effect of experiencing child physical abuse on adult dating violence among a large sample of South Korean emerging adults. Results indicate that the link between child physical abuse and adult dating violence is spurious rather than causal. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:25220481

  15. Mortality in Adults with Moderate to Profound Intellectual Disability: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrer, F.; Smith, L. K.; McGrother, C. W.

    2007-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disability (ID) experience a variety of health inequalities compared with the general population including higher mortality rates. This is the first UK population-based study to measure the extent of excess mortality in people with ID compared with the general population. Method: Indirectly standardized…

  16. CD4 T-cell activation and reduced regulatory T-cell populations are associated with early development of cataracts among HIV-infected adults in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nakanjako, Damalie; Otiti-Sengeri, Juliet; Ssewanyana, Isaac; Nabatanzi, Rose; Bayigga, Lois; Kirimunda, Samuel; Joloba, Moses; Manabe, Yukari C.; Kambugu, Andrew; Colebunders, Robert; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    Background Cataracts contribute 12% of visual loss among HIV-infected adults in Uganda. Immuno-pathogenesis of cataracts may differ among HIV-infected individuals; thus the need for innovative therapeutic interventions among HIV-infected adults. Methods In a laboratory based case-control study, nested in a clinical/surgical community outreach camp, 50 adults with cataracts eligible for surgery were selected consecutively. HIV testing was done for individuals with unknown HIV sero-status. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) were collected from all HIV-positive-adults-with-cataracts (cases) and HIV-negative-adults-with-cataracts (comparative group) and age-matched HIV-negative and HIV-positive- adults- without-cataracts (comparative group). Treg were measured as CD3+CD4+FoxP3+CD25+bright and immune activation as CD3+CD4+CD38+HALDR+ using a Facs Canto II flowcytometer. Mann Whitney test was used to compare expression among the four groups. Results Of 50 adults operated for cataracts, 24 (48%) were female, 25(50%) were HIV-positive. HIV-positive-individuals had cataracts earlier [median; Inter-quartile Range (IQR); 49(44-53) years] than HIV-negative [70 (IQR 59-75) years]; p=0.0005.Treg were lower among individuals with cataracts irrespective of HIV status; p=0.001; but comparable among younger HIV-positive and elderly HIV-negative with cataracts; p=0.301. Immune activation levels were comparable among HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals with cataracts. However, HIV-positive-individuals with cataracts expressed higher levels of immune activation than HIV-positive-individuals without cataracts; p=0.012 and HIV-negative-individuals-with-cataracts expressed higher levels of immune activation that HIV-negative-without-cataracts; p<0.0001. Conclusion CD4 T-cell activation and reduced regulatory T-cell populations were associated with cataracts among adults aging with HIV. We recommend studies on clinical relevance of immune modulation in the prevention of early

  17. Apathy and cognitive and functional decline in community-dwelling older adults: Results from the Baltimore ECA longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Diana E.; Ko, Jean Y.; Lyketsos, Constantine; Rebok, George W.; Eaton, William W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Apathy, a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome, commonly affects patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Prevalence estimates for apathy range widely and are based on cross-sectional data and / or clinic samples. This study examines the relationships between apathy and cognitive and functional declines in non-depressed community-based older adults. Methods Data on 1,136 community-dwelling adults age 50 and older from the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study, with 1 and 13 years of follow-up, were used. Apathy was assessed with a subscale of items from the General Health Questionnaire. Chi-square, t-tests, logistic regression, and Generalized Estimating Equations were used to accomplish the study’s objectives. Results The prevalence of apathy at Wave 1 was 23.7%. Compared to those without, individuals with apathy were on average older, more likely to be female, and have lower MMSE scores and impairments in basic and instrumental functioning at baseline. Apathy was significantly associated with cognitive decline (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.06, 2.60) and declines in instrumental (OR = 4.42; 95% CI = 2.65, 7.38) and basic (OR=2.74; 95%CI= 1.35, 5.57) function at 1 year follow-up, even after adjustment for baseline age, level of education, race, and depression at follow-up. At 13 years of follow-up, apathetic individuals were not at greater risk for cognitive decline but were 2-fold more likely to have functional decline. Incidence of apathy at 1- year follow up and 13- year follow-up was respectively, 22.6% and 29.4%. Conclusions These results underline the public health importance of apathy and the need for further population-based studies in this area. PMID:20478091

  18. Thyroid Dysfunction in an Adult Female Population: A population-based study of Latin American Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (LAVOS) - Puerto Rico Site Hypothyroidism in LAVOS-Puerto Rico site

    PubMed Central

    González-Rodríguez, Loida A.; Felici-Giovanini, Marcos E; Haddock, Lillian

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of hypothyroidism in an adult female population in Puerto Rico and to determine the relationship between hypothyroidism, bone mineral density and vertebral and non-vertebral fractures in this population. Methods Data from the 400 subjects database of the Latin American Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (LAVOS), Puerto Rico site was reviewed. Patient’s medical history, anthropometric data, current medications, laboratories, and DXA results was extracted. Subjects with thyroid dysfunction were identified based on their previous medical history and levels of TSH. Bone Mineral Density was classified using the World Health Organization criteria. Crude prevalence of thyroid dysfunction were estimated with a confidence of 95% and weighted by the population distribution by age, according to the distribution by age group in the 2000 census. Bone mineral densities and prevalence of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures were compared among the groups. Results The weighted prevalence of hyperthyroidism in this population was 0.0043% (95% CI: −0.0021%, 0.0107%). The weighted prevalence of hypothyroidism was 24.2% (95% CI: 19.9%, 28.4%). Increased prevalence of hypothyroidism was found in participants 70 years or older. The mean BMD at spine, hip and femoral neck was similar among the groups. No difference in the proportion of participants with vertebral and non-vertebral fractures was found among the groups. Conclusion Our study found a high prevalence of hypothyroidism among adult postmenopausal females in Puerto Rico. No association between hypothyroidism and decreased bone mineral densities, vertebral or non-vertebral fractures was found in this population. PMID:23781620

  19. Systematic literature review of the effects of food and drink advertising on food and drink-related behaviour, attitudes and beliefs in adult populations.

    PubMed

    Mills, S D H; Tanner, L M; Adams, J

    2013-04-01

    A large body of research confirms that food advertising affects the food preferences and behaviour of children. The impact of food advertising on adults is less clear. We conducted a systematic review exploring the effects of advertising of food and non-alcoholic drinks (referred to as 'food' throughout) on food-related behaviour, attitudes and beliefs in adult populations. We searched seven electronic databases, grey literature sources, and references and citations of included material for experimental studies written in English investigating the effects of commercial food advertising on the food-related behaviours, attitudes and beliefs of adults aged 16 years and over. Nine studies, rated moderate to poor quality, were included in the review; all were from developed countries and explored the impact of televised food advertising. Overall, the results did not show conclusively whether or not food advertising affects food-related behaviour, attitudes or beliefs in adults, but suggest that the impact varies inconsistently within subgroups, including gender, weight and existing food psychology. The identification of a small number of relevant studies, none of which were high quality, and with substantial heterogeneity, highlights the need for further research. Future studies investigating longer term outcomes, diverse advertising formats, and in countries with different levels of economic development will be of particular value. PMID:23297736

  20. A Population-Based Study of Sexual Orientation Identity and Gender Differences in Adult Health

    PubMed Central

    Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Landers, Stewart J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We provide estimates of several leading US adult health indicators by sexual orientation identity and gender to fill gaps in the current literature. Methods. We aggregated data from the 2001–2008 Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance surveys (N = 67 359) to examine patterns in self-reported health by sexual orientation identity and gender, using multivariable logistic regression. Results. Compared with heterosexuals, sexual minorities (i.e., gays/lesbians, 2% of sample; bisexuals, 1%) were more likely to report activity limitation, tension or worry, smoking, drug use, asthma, lifetime sexual victimization, and HIV testing, but did not differ on 3-year Papanicolaou tests, lifetime mammography, diabetes, or heart disease. Compared with heterosexuals, bisexuals reported more barriers to health care, current sadness, past-year suicidal ideation, and cardiovascular disease risk. Gay men were less likely to be overweight or obese and to obtain prostate-specific antigen tests, and lesbians were more likely to be obese and to report multiple risks for cardiovascular disease. Binge drinking and lifetime physical intimate partner victimization were more common among bisexual women. Conclusions. Sexual orientation disparities in chronic disease risk, victimization, health care access, mental health, and smoking merit increased attention. More research on heterogeneity in health and health determinants among sexual minorities is needed. PMID:20516373

  1. Surprising SES Gradients in Mortality, Health, and Biomarkers in a Latin American Population of Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dow, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Background To determine socioeconomic status (SES) gradients in the different dimensions of health among elderly Costa Ricans. Hypothesis: SES disparities in adult health are minimal in Costa Rican society. Methods Data from the Costa Rican Study on Longevity and Healthy Aging study: 8,000 elderly Costa Ricans to determine mortality in the period 2000–2007 and a subsample of 3,000 to determine prevalence of several health conditions and biomarkers from anthropometry and blood and urine specimens. Results The ultimate health indicator, mortality, as well as the metabolic syndrome, reveals that better educated and wealthier individuals are worse off. In contrast, quality of life–related measures such as functional and cognitive disabilities, physical frailty, and depression all clearly worsen with lower SES. Overall self-reported health (SRH) also shows a strong positive SES gradient. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes and cholesterol are not significantly related to SES, but hypertension and obesity are worse among high-SES individuals. Reflecting mixed SES gradients in behaviors, smoking and lack of exercise are more common among low SES, but high calorie diets are more common among high SES. Conclusions Negative modern behaviors among high-SES groups may be reversing cardiovascular risks across SES groups, hence reversing mortality risks. But negative SES gradients in healthy years of life persist. PMID:19196695

  2. Cigarette smoking and the risk of adult leukemia: results from the Three Mile Island cohort study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Talbott, Evelyn O; Zborowski, Jeanne V; Rager, Judith R

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is an unconfirmed risk factor for the development of leukemia. The authors examined the potential link using data from the Three Mile Island cohort for the period 1979-1995. Eligible for analysis were 24,539 individuals aged 14 years or older who were followed up over 16 years from the Three Mile Island cohort. The authors identified all incident leukemia cases through the Pennsylvania Department of Health Cancer Registry. They used the Cox proportional hazards model to evaluate the relationships and observed 42 incident leukemia cases, including 15 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases, in the cohort. After controlling for other confounding factors, the authors found current smoking to be associated with an increased risk of adult AML (relative risk = 3.47; 95% confidence interval = 1.002-11.99). The authors also observed a marginally significant linear trend of risk of AML associated with the number of years smoked (p = .06). The results from this study suggested that cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk of adult AML. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings. PMID:18400653

  3. The Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine among Lebanese Adults: Results from a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Naja, F.; Alameddine, M.; Itani, L.; Shoaib, H.; Hariri, D.; Talhouk, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine the prevalence and correlates of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use in Lebanon. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through face to face interviews on a nationally representative sample of 1,475 Lebanese adults. The survey questionnaire explored the sociodemographic and health related characteristics as well as the types and modes of CAM use. The main outcome in this study was the use of CAM during the last 12 months. Results. Prevalence of CAM use was 29.87% with “folk herbs” being the most commonly used (75%). Two out of five CAM users indicated using it as alternative to conventional therapies and only 28.4% of users disclosed the use of CAM to their physician. CAM use was significantly associated with higher income, presence of a chronic disease, and lack of access to needed health care. Lower odds of CAM use were observed among older adults and those with a higher education level. Conclusions. This study revealed a high prevalence of CAM use in Lebanon. Health policy and decision makers need to facilitate proper regulation and integration of CAM into mainstream medicine and educate health care providers and the public alike on the safe and effective use of CAM therapies. PMID:26106436

  4. Optimizing healthcare at the population level: results of the improving cardiovascular outcomes in Nova Scotia partnership.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jafna; Johnstone, David; Nemis-White, Joanna; Montague, Terrence

    2008-01-01

    Disease management is increasingly considered a valid strategy in the chronic care of our aging patient populations with multiple diseases. The Improving Cardiovascular Outcomes in Nova Scotia (ICONS) project examined whether a community-oriented health management partnership would lead to enhanced care and improved outcomes across an entire healthcare system. ICONS was a prospective cohort study, with baseline and repeated measurements of care and outcomes fed back to all project partners, along with other interventions aimed at optimizing care; preceding interval cohorts served as controls to post-intervention cohorts. The setting was the province of Nova Scotia, whose population is approximately 950,000. All 34,060 consecutive adult patients hospitalized in Nova Scotia with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), unstable angina (UA) or congestive heart failure (CHF) October 1997-March 2002 were included. Interventions were a combination of serial audits and feedbacks of practices and outcomes, web-based publication of findings, newsletter-based education and reminders, physician small-group workshops, pharmacy monitoring and compliance programs, care maps, algorithms, discharge forms and patient information cards. Rates of use of evidence-based marker therapies were the primary outcome measure. Secondary measures included one-year, all-cause mortality and re-hospitalization. Evidence-based prescription practices, for all target diseases, continuously and markedly improved over time. At the population level, there were no changes in one-year mortality for any disease state, although use of proven therapies predicted survival at the individual level throughout the five-year period for all disease states. Rates of re-hospitalization decreased significantly for all disease states over the course of ICONS; but most traditional positive and negative predictors of this outcome, like advanced age and use of proven therapies, respectively, were not predictive. ICONS

  5. Considerations in Applying the Results of Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials to the Care of Older Adults With Kidney Disease in the Clinical Setting: The SHARP Trial.

    PubMed

    Butler, Catherine R; O'Hare, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    The Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP) found that treatment with ezetemibe and low-dose simvastatin reduced the incidence of major atherosclerotic events in patients with kidney disease. Due to the paucity of evidence-based interventions that lower cardiovascular morbidity in this high-risk population, the SHARP trial will likely have a large impact on clinical practice. However, applying the results of clinical trials conducted in select populations to the care of individual patients in real-world settings can be fraught with difficulty. This is especially true when caring for older adults with complex comorbidity and limited life expectancy. These patients are often excluded from clinical trials, frequently have competing health priorities, and may be less likely to benefit and more likely to be harmed by medications. We discuss key considerations in applying the results of the SHARP trial to the care of older adults with CKD in real-world clinical settings using guiding principles set forth by the American Geriatrics Society's Expert Panel on the Care of Older Adults with Multimorbidity. Using this schema, we emphasize the importance of evaluating trial results in the unique context of each patient's goals, values, priorities, and circumstances. PMID:26709060

  6. Juvenile Resilience and Adult Longevity Explain Residual Populations of the Andean Wax Palm Ceroxylon quindiuense after Deforestation

    PubMed Central

    Sanín, María José; Anthelme, Fabien; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe; Galeano, Gloria; Bernal, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Wax palms are an important element of the cloud forests in the tropical Andes. Despite heavy deforestation, the density of adults seems to be similar in deforested pastures as in forests. We aimed to infer the mechanisms responsible for this apparent resilience in pastures and we tested two hypotheses to explain it: 1) adult palms survived in pastures because they were spared from logging, and 2) adults occurred in pastures through the resilience of large juvenile rosettes, which survived through subterranean meristems and later developed into adults. For this purpose, we characterized the demographic structure of C. quindiuense in a total of 122 plots of 400 m2 in forests and pastures at two sites with contrasted land use histories in Colombia and Peru. Additionally, we implemented growth models that allowed us to estimate the age of individuals at four sites. These data were combined with information collected from local land managers in order to complete our knowledge on the land use history at each site. At two sites, the presence of old individuals up to 169 years and a wide age range evidenced that, at least, a portion of current adults in pastures were spared from logging at the time of deforestation. However, at the two other sites, the absence of older adults in pastures and the narrow age range of the populations indicated that individuals came exclusively from rosette resilience. These interpretations were consistent with the land use history of sites. In consequence, the combination of the two hypotheses (spared individuals and rosette resilience) explained patterns of C. quindiuense in pastures on a regional scale. Regeneration through subterranean meristems in palms is an important, yet overlooked mechanism of resilience, which occurs in a number of palm species and deserves being integrated in the conceptual framework of disturbance ecology. PMID:24194823

  7. Juvenile resilience and adult longevity explain residual populations of the Andean wax palm Ceroxylon quindiuense after deforestation.

    PubMed

    Sanín, María José; Anthelme, Fabien; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe; Galeano, Gloria; Bernal, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Wax palms are an important element of the cloud forests in the tropical Andes. Despite heavy deforestation, the density of adults seems to be similar in deforested pastures as in forests. We aimed to infer the mechanisms responsible for this apparent resilience in pastures and we tested two hypotheses to explain it: 1) adult palms survived in pastures because they were spared from logging, and 2) adults occurred in pastures through the resilience of large juvenile rosettes, which survived through subterranean meristems and later developed into adults. For this purpose, we characterized the demographic structure of C. quindiuense in a total of 122 plots of 400 m(2) in forests and pastures at two sites with contrasted land use histories in Colombia and Peru. Additionally, we implemented growth models that allowed us to estimate the age of individuals at four sites. These data were combined with information collected from local land managers in order to complete our knowledge on the land use history at each site. At two sites, the presence of old individuals up to 169 years and a wide age range evidenced that, at least, a portion of current adults in pastures were spared from logging at the time of deforestation. However, at the two other sites, the absence of older adults in pastures and the narrow age range of the populations indicated that individuals came exclusively from rosette resilience. These interpretations were consistent with the land use history of sites. In consequence, the combination of the two hypotheses (spared individuals and rosette resilience) explained patterns of C. quindiuense in pastures on a regional scale. Regeneration through subterranean meristems in palms is an important, yet overlooked mechanism of resilience, which occurs in a number of palm species and deserves being integrated in the conceptual framework of disturbance ecology. PMID:24194823

  8. Targeting Adults Who Provide Alcohol to Underage Youth: Results from a National Survey of Local Law Enforcement Agencies

    PubMed Central

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We investigated what local enforcement agencies are doing to target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth; what types of enforcement activities are being conducted to target adult providers; and factors that encourage enforcement activities that target adult providers. Method We surveyed 1056 local law enforcement agencies in the U.S. and measured whether or not the agency conducted enforcement activities that target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. We also measured whether certain agency and jurisdiction characteristics were associated with enforcement activities that target adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. Results Less than half (42%) of local enforcement agencies conducted enforcement efforts targeting adults who provide alcohol to underage youth. Agencies that conducted the enforcement activities targeting adult providers were significantly more likely to have a full time officer specific to alcohol enforcement, a division specific to alcohol enforcement, a social host law, and to perceive underage drinking was very common. Conclusions Results suggest that targeting social providers (i.e., adults over 21 years of age) will require greater law enforcement resources, implementation of underage drinking laws (e.g., social host policies), and changing perceptions among law enforcement regarding underage drinking. Future studies are needed to identify the most effective enforcement efforts and to examine how enforcement efforts are prospectively linked to alcohol consumption. PMID:25466432

  9. PCSK1 rs6232 Is Associated with Childhood and Adult Class III Obesity in the Mexican Population

    PubMed Central

    Villalobos-Comparán, Marisela; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Larrieta-Carrasco, Elena; León-Mimila, Paola; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Liceaga-Fuentes, Adriana E.; Campos-Pérez, Francisco J.; López-Contreras, Blanca E.; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; del Río-Navarro, Blanca E.; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Background Common variants rs6232 and rs6235 in the PCSK1 gene have been associated with obesity in European populations. We aimed to evaluate the contribution of these variants to obesity and related traits in Mexican children and adults. Methodology/Principal Findings Rs6232 and rs6235 were genotyped in 2382 individuals, 1206 children and 1176 adults. Minor allele frequencies were 0.78% for rs6232 and 19.99% for rs6235. Rs6232 was significantly associated with childhood obesity and adult class III obesity (OR = 3.01 95%CI 1.64–5.53; P = 4×10−4 in the combined analysis). In addition, this SNP was significantly associated with lower fasting glucose levels (P = 0.01) and with increased insulin levels and HOMA-B (P = 0.05 and 0.01, respectively) only in non-obese children. In contrast, rs6235 showed no significant association with obesity or with glucose homeostasis parameters in any group. Conclusion/Significance Although rs6232 is rare in the Mexican population, it should be considered as an important risk factor for extreme forms of obesity. PMID:22737226

  10. Urinary sodium or potassium excretion and blood pressure in adults of Shandong province, China: preliminary results of the SMASH project.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Guo, Xiaolei; Ma, Jixiang; Zhang, Jiyu; Tang, Junli; Yan, Liuxia; Xu, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xiaofei; Ren, Jie; Lu, Zilong; Zhang, Gaohui; Dong, Jing; Xu, Aiqiang

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the urinary electrolyte excretion and assess the relationship between dietary sodium or potassium intake and blood pressure within a population of 18-69 adults in Shandong province, China. Random samples of 2184 adults enrolled in the Shandong and Ministry of Health Action on Salt reduction and Hypertension project were collected from 20 countries or districts. Electrolyte intake was estimated by 24-hour urine collections, and urinary volume or creatinine was measured to estimate the accuracy of the collection. Anthropometry was measured with standard procedures. Regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between electrolyte excretion and blood pressure. The mean sodium excretion was 241.8 ± 7.9 mmol among men and 222.3 ± 7.9 mmol among women, respectively. The 24-hour average potassium excretion was 39.9 ± 0.9 and 41.8 ± 1.1 mmol, respectively. Some resident and geographic differences were found for 24-hour urinary electrolyte. Regression analysis showed increments of 1.15 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 0.67 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure per gram increment in urinary sodium excretion. For each increment of 1-g potassium excretion per day, there was a decrement of 0.81 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 0.76 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure. The highest blood pressure was observed in the group with lowest potassium and the highest sodium excretion, which was 13.6 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 7.3 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure difference from group with highest potassium excretion and lowest sodium excretion (P < .0001 for interaction). The Shandong and Ministry of Health Action on Salt reduction and Hypertension project results show a substantially higher sodium excretion and a lower potassium excretion than recommended in Shandong adults. The sodium or potassium intake is positively association with blood pressure. These results support the recommended approaches to lower the risk of

  11. Evaluation of observation-fused regional air quality model results for population air pollution exposure estimation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Li, Jingyi; Ying, Qi; Sherman, Seth; Perkins, Neil; Rajeshwari, Sundaram; Mendola, Pauline

    2014-07-01

    In this study, Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to predict ambient gaseous and particulate concentrations during 2001 to 2010 in 15 hospital referral regions (HRRs) using a 36-km horizontal resolution domain. An inverse distance weighting based method was applied to produce exposure estimates based on observation-fused regional pollutant concentration fields using the differences between observations and predictions at grid cells where air quality monitors were located. Although the raw CMAQ model is capable of producing satisfying results for O3 and PM2.5 based on EPA guidelines, using the observation data fusing technique to correct CMAQ predictions leads to significant improvement of model performance for all gaseous and particulate pollutants. Regional average concentrations were calculated using five different methods: 1) inverse distance weighting of observation data alone, 2) raw CMAQ results, 3) observation-fused CMAQ results, 4) population-averaged raw CMAQ results and 5) population-averaged fused CMAQ results. It shows that while O3 (as well as NOx) monitoring networks in the HRRs are dense enough to provide consistent regional average exposure estimation based on monitoring data alone, PM2.5 observation sites (as well as monitors for CO, SO2, PM10 and PM2.5 components) are usually sparse and the difference between the average concentrations estimated by the inverse distance interpolated observations, raw CMAQ and fused CMAQ results can be significantly different. Population-weighted average should be used to account for spatial variation in pollutant concentration and population density. Using raw CMAQ results or observations alone might lead to significant biases in health outcome analyses. PMID:24747248

  12. Evaluation of Observation-Fused Regional Air Quality Model Results for Population Air Pollution Exposure Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Li, Jingyi; Ying, Qi; Sherman, Seth; Perkins, Neil; Rajeshwari, Sundaram; Mendola, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to predict ambient gaseous and particulate concentrations during 2001 to 2010 in 15 hospital referral regions (HRRs) using a 36-km horizontal resolution domain. An inverse distance weighting based method was applied to produce exposure estimates based on observation-fused regional pollutant concentration fields using the differences between observations and predictions at grid cells where air quality monitors were located. Although the raw CMAQ model is capable of producing satisfying results for O3 and PM2.5 based on EPA guidelines, using the observation data fusing technique to correct CMAQ predictions leads to significant improvement of model performance for all gaseous and particulate pollutants. Regional average concentrations were calculated using five different methods: 1) inverse distance weighting of observation data alone, 2) raw CMAQ results, 3) observation-fused CMAQ results, 4) population-averaged raw CMAQ results and 5) population-averaged fused CMAQ results. It shows that while O3 (as well as NOx) monitoring networks in the HRR regions are dense enough to provide consistent regional average exposure estimation based on monitoring data alone, PM2.5 observation sites (as well as monitors for CO, SO2, PM10 and PM2.5 components) are usually sparse and the difference between the average concentrations estimated by the inverse distance interpolated observations, raw CMAQ and fused CMAQ results can be significantly different. Population-weighted average should be used to account spatial variation in pollutant concentration and population density. Using raw CMAQ results or observations alone might lead to significant biases in health outcome analyses. PMID:24747248

  13. Spirometer Replacement and Serial Lung Function Measurements in Population Studies: Results From the SAPALDIA Study.

    PubMed

    Bridevaux, Pierre-Olivier; Dupuis-Lozeron, Elise; Schindler, Christian; Keidel, Dirk; Gerbase, Margaret W; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Bettschart, Robert; Burdet, Luc; Pons, Marco; Rothe, Thomas; Turk, Alexander; Stolz, Daiana; Tschopp, Jean-Marie; Kuenzli, Nino; Rochat, Thierry

    2015-05-15

    The Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Disease in Adults (SAPALDIA), a population cohort study, used heated-wire spirometers in 1991 and 2002 and then ultrasonic spirometers in 2010 revealing measurement bias in healthy never smokers. To provide a practical method to control for measurement bias given the replacement of spirometer in long-term population studies, we built spirometer-specific reference equations from healthy never smokers participating in 1991, 2002, and 2010 to derive individualized corrections terms. We compared yearly lung function decline without corrections terms with fixed terms that were obtained from a quasi-experimental study and individualized terms. Compared with baseline reference equations, spirometer-specific reference equations predicted lower lung function. The mean measurement bias increased with age and height. The decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second during the reference period of 1991-2002 was 31.5 (standard deviation (SD), 28.7) mL/year while, after spirometer replacement, uncorrected, corrected by fixed term, and individualized term, the declines were 47.0 (SD, 30.1), 40.4 (SD, 30.1), and 30.4 (SD, 29.9) mL/year, respectively. In healthy never smokers, ultrasonic spirometers record lower lung function values than heated-wire spirometers. This measurement bias is sizeable enough to be relevant for researchers and clinicians. Future reference equations should account for not only anthropometric variables but also spirometer type. We provide a novel method to address spirometer replacement in cohort studies. PMID:25816817

  14. Pain in Community-Dwelling Older Adults with Dementia: Results from the National Health and Aging Trends Study

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Lauren J.; Covinsky, Kenneth E.; Yaffe, Kristine; Stephens, Caroline E.; Miao, Yinghui; Boscardin, W. John; Smith, Alex K.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To report prevalence, correlates, and medication management of pain in community-dwelling older adults with dementia. DESIGN Cross-sectional. SETTING In-person interviews with self- or proxy respondents living in private residences or non-nursing home residential care settings. PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 and older enrolled in the National Health and Aging Trends Study 2011 wave. MEASUREMENTS Dementia status was determined using a modified previously validated algorithm. Participants were asked whether they had had bothersome and activity-limiting pain over the past month. A multivariable Poisson regression model was used to determine the relationship between bothersome pain and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS Of the 7,609 participants with complete data on cognitive function, 802 had dementia (67.2% aged ≥80, 65.0% female, 67.9% white, 49.7% proxy response, 32.0% lived alone, 18.8% lived in residential care); 670 (63.5%) participants with dementia experienced bothersome pain, and 347 (43.3%) had pain that limited activities. These rates were significantly higher than in a propensity score–matched cohort without dementia (54.5% bothersome pain, P < .001, 27.2% pain that limited activity, P < .001). Proxies reported slightly higher rates of pain than self-respondents, but differences were statistically significant only for activity-limiting pain (46.6% proxy vs 40.1% self, P = .03). Correlates of bothersome pain included arthritis, heart and lung disease, less than high school education, activity of daily living disability, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and low energy. Of those reporting pain, 30.3% stated that they rarely or never took any medications for pain. CONCLUSION Community-living older adults with dementia are at high risk of having pain. Creative interventions and programs are needed to manage pain adequately in this vulnerable population. PMID

  15. Dietary exposure of Hong Kong adults to pesticide residues: results of the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Waiky W K; Yau, Arthur T C; Chung, Stephen W C; Lam, Chi-ho; Ma, Stephanie; Ho, Y Y; Xiao, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The use of pesticides and other chemicals has become a common practice in modern agriculture to enhance and stabilise crop yield, protect the nutritional integrity of food, facilitate food storage to assure year-round supplies, and provide attractive and appealing food products. With the adoption of strict good agricultural practice (GAP), only minimal amounts of pesticide residues should remain on the crops or in connected foods of animal origin up the food chain. To assess their associated health risk to local people, the dietary exposure of Hong Kong adults to residues of four groups of pesticides or their metabolites - organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), carbamates, pyrethrins and pyrethroids, and dithiocarbamate (DTC) metabolites - is estimated in the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study (TDS). A total of 150 commonly consumed food items were collected and prepared "as consumed". A total of 600 composite food samples were analysed for 85 pesticides or their metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). These pesticides were primarily found at low levels (highest mean = 350 μg kg⁻¹) in food samples of plant origin such as vegetables and fruits. Dietary exposures to pesticide residues were estimated based on the analytical results and the food consumption data of the local residents. The estimated dietary exposures of Hong Kong adults to all individual pesticides were well below their respective acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). The percentage contributions of the estimated mean and 95th percentile dietary exposures to the ADIs of individual pesticides were <6% and <24% for the OPPs, <1% for the carbamates and pyrethrins and pyrethroids, and <1% and <4% for the DTC metabolites, respectively. The findings indicate that dietary exposures to all the pesticide residues analysed in this study were unlikely to pose unacceptable health risks to the Hong Kong population. PMID:24588687

  16. Association of Perceived Stress with Atopic Dermatitis in Adults: A Population-Based Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyejin; Kim, Kisok

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a widely prevalent skin disease that affects both children and adults. The aim of the study was to assess the association of perceived stress (single-item, self-reported) with AD (self-reported) in a sample of Korean adults using a cross-sectional research design. A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from 33,018 adults aged 20 years and older collected in the 2007–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES). An increased level of self-reported stress was positively associated with an increased prevalence of AD in Korean adults (p for trend <0.001). After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratios (ORs) of AD among participants reporting high and very high levels of stress were 1.81 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22, 2.67) and 2.17 (95% CI: 1.38, 3.42), respectively, compared with those who reported low levels of stress. This study found a statistically significant association between perceived stress and AD among Korean adults. PMID:27472355

  17. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding gemstone therapeutics in a selected adult population in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ishaque, Sidra; Saleem, Taimur; Qidwai, Waris

    2009-01-01

    Background Gemstones have been in use as part of alternative and complementary medicine for years. However, our understanding of the perceived healing powers of gemstones is limited. An extensive literature search revealed that there is a dearth of validated information on this subject. This study was therefore undertaken to explore the various aspects of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the public towards gemstone therapeutics. Methods A survey was performed in the Community Health Centre of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Pakistan. Data collection was done via a face-to-face interview based on a structured, pre-tested questionnaire. Participants included all willing persons between 18–75 years of age approached prior to their appointments at the Community Health Centre. Results The survey response rate was 86% (400/465). More than half (63%) of the study population was aware of the use of gemstone therapy. One hundred fifty-six individuals believed that gemstone use impacts health. Of this group, 39% believed that gemstone use increases physical strength. 62% believed that gemstone use is based on superstitious beliefs, whereas 28% opined that it is based on religious beliefs. 38% had used gemstones therapeutics formerly, while 24% were current users. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age status and education status were significant (p < 0.05) independent predictors for both awareness of gemstone therapy and the belief that gemstone use impacts health. The elderly (aged 51–61) were 5.9-times more likely to believe that gemstones had an impact on health than the younger population (aged 18–28 years). (Adjusted Odd's Ratio = 5.9 [95% Confidence Interval = 2.9–11.9]). Conclusion More than half of our sample population is aware of the use of the gemstones for their various effects. Willingness to use gemstones is associated with the beliefs about the impact of gemstone therapy on health. Friends and family seem to be the major

  18. Dyslipidemia, obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors in the adult population in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Doupa, Dominique; Seck, Sidy Mohamed; Dia, Charles Abdou; Diallo, Fatou Agne; Kane, Modou Oumy; Kane, Adama; Gueye, Pape Madieye; Mbaye, Maimouna Ndour; Gueye, Lamine; Jobe, Modou

    2014-01-01

    Introduction According to the WHO, 50% of deaths worldwide (40.1% in developing countries) are due to chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Of these chronic NCDs, cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of death and disability in developed countries. The Framingham study has shown the importance of hypercholesterolemia as a primary risk factor. In Senegal, the epidemiology of dyslipidemia and obesity are still poorly understood due to the lack of comprehensive studies on their impact on the general population. This motivated this study to look into the key epidemiologic and socio-demographic determinants of these risk factors. Methods It was a cross-sectional descriptive epidemiological survey which included 1037 individuals selected by cluster sampling. Data were collected using a questionnaire following the WHO STEPwise approach. Socio-demographic, health and biomedical variables were collected. P value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The average age was 48 years with a female predominance (M: F of 0.6). The literacy rate was 65.2% and 44.7% of participants were from rural areas. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hyperLDLemia, hypoHDLemia, hypertriglyceridemia and mixed hyperlipidemia were 56%, 22.5%, 12.4%, 7.11% and 1.9% respectively. One in four was obese (BMI> 30kg/m2) and 34.8% had abdominal obesity. The main factors significantly associated with dyslipidemia were obesity, urban dwelling, physical inactivity and a family history of dyslipidemia. Conclusion The prevalence of dyslipidemia, obesity and other risk factors in the population was high needing immediate care for those affected and implementation of prevention strategies. PMID:25815102

  19. Prevalence and comorbidity of nocturnal wandering in the US adult general population

    PubMed Central

    Mahowald, M.W.; Dauvilliers, Y.; Krystal, A.D.; Léger, D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence and comorbid conditions of nocturnal wandering with abnormal state of consciousness (NW) in the American general population. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted with a representative sample of 19,136 noninstitutionalized individuals of the US general population ≥18 years old. The Sleep-EVAL expert system administered questions on life and sleeping habits; health; and sleep, mental, and organic disorders (DSM-IV-TR; International Classification of Sleep Disorders, version 2; International Classification of Diseases–10). Results: Lifetime prevalence of NW was 29.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.5%–29.9%). In the previous year, NW was reported by 3.6% (3.3%–3.9%) of the sample: 1% had 2 or more episodes per month and 2.6% had between 1 and 12 episodes in the previous year. Family history of NW was reported by 30.5% of NW participants. Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (odds ratio [OR] 3.9), circadian rhythm sleep disorder (OR 3.4), insomnia disorder (OR 2.1), alcohol abuse/dependence (OR 3.5), major depressive disorder (MDD) (OR 3.5), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (OR 3.9), or using over-the-counter sleeping pills (OR 2.5) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants (OR 3.0) were at higher risk of frequent NW episodes (≥2 times/month). Conclusions: With a rate of 29.2%, lifetime prevalence of NW is high. SSRIs were associated with an increased risk of NW. However, these medications appear to precipitate events in individuals with a prior history of NW. Furthermore, MDD and OCD were associated with significantly greater risk of NW, and this was not due to the use of psychotropic medication. These psychiatric associations imply an increased risk due to sleep disturbance. PMID:22585435

  20. Cell Competition Modifies Adult Stem Cell and Tissue Population Dynamics in a JAK-STAT-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Kolahgar, Golnar; Suijkerbuijk, Saskia J.E.; Kucinski, Iwo; Poirier, Enzo Z.; Mansour, Sarah; Simons, Benjamin D.; Piddini, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Throughout their lifetime, cells may suffer insults that reduce their fitness and disrupt their function, and it is unclear how these potentially harmful cells are managed in adult tissues. We address this question using the adult Drosophila posterior midgut as a model of homeostatic tissue and ribosomal Minute mutations to reduce fitness in groups of cells. We take a quantitative approach combining lineage tracing and biophysical modeling and address how cell competition affects stem cell and tissue population dynamics. We show that healthy cells induce clonal extinction in weak tissues, targeting both stem and differentiated cells for elimination. We also find that competition induces stem cell proliferation and self-renewal in healthy tissue, promoting selective advantage and tissue colonization. Finally, we show that winner cell proliferation is fueled by the JAK-STAT ligand Unpaired-3, produced by Minute−/+ cells in response to chronic JNK stress signaling. PMID:26212135

  1. Cell Competition Modifies Adult Stem Cell and Tissue Population Dynamics in a JAK-STAT-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Kolahgar, Golnar; Suijkerbuijk, Saskia J E; Kucinski, Iwo; Poirier, Enzo Z; Mansour, Sarah; Simons, Benjamin D; Piddini, Eugenia

    2015-08-10

    Throughout their lifetime, cells may suffer insults that reduce their fitness and disrupt their function, and it is unclear how these potentially harmful cells are managed in adult tissues. We address this question using the adult Drosophila posterior midgut as a model of homeostatic tissue and ribosomal Minute mutations to reduce fitness in groups of cells. We take a quantitative approach combining lineage tracing and biophysical modeling and address how cell competition affects stem cell and tissue population dynamics. We show that healthy cells induce clonal extinction in weak tissues, targeting both stem and differentiated cells for elimination. We also find that competition induces stem cell proliferation and self-renewal in healthy tissue, promoting selective advantage and tissue colonization. Finally, we show that winner cell proliferation is fueled by the JAK-STAT ligand Unpaired-3, produced by Minute(-/+) cells in response to chronic JNK stress signaling. PMID:26212135

  2. Prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide results in myocardial remodelling in adult murine offspring

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The epigenetic plasticity hypothesis indicates that pregnancy exposure may result in adult-onset diseases, including hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, in offspring. In a previous study, we discovered that prenatal exposure to inflammatory stimulants, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), could lead to hypertension in adult rat offspring. In the present study, we further demonstrate that maternal inflammation induces cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction via ectopic over-expression of nuclear transcription factor κB (NF- κB), and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) can protect cardiac function by reducing maternal inflammation. Methods Pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into three groups and intraperitoneally injected with a vehicle, LPS (0.79 mg/kg), or LPS (0.79 mg/kg) plus PDTC (100 mg/kg) at 8 to 12 days of gestation. The offspring were raised until 4 and 8 months old, at which point an echocardiographic study was performed. The left ventricular (LV) mass index and apoptosis were examined. Results At 4 months of age, the LPS offspring exhibited augmented posterior wall thickness. These rats displayed left ventricle (LV) hypertrophy and LV diastolic dysfunction as well as a higher apoptotic index, a higher level of Bax and a lower level of Bcl-2 at 8 months of age. The protein levels of NF-κB (p65) in the myocardium of the offspring were measured at this time. NF-κB protein levels were higher in the myocardium of LPS offspring. The offspring that were prenatally treated with PDTC displayed improved signs of blood pressure (BP) and LV hypertrophy. Conclusions Maternal inflammation can induce cardiac hypertrophy in offspring during aging accompanied with hypertension emergence and can be rescued by the maternal administration of PDTC (the inhibitor of NF-κB). PMID:24764457