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Sample records for adult post-mortem human

  1. Essentials of forensic post-mortem MR imaging in adults

    PubMed Central

    Ruder, T D; Thali, M J; Hatch, G M

    2014-01-01

    Post-mortem MR (PMMR) imaging is a powerful diagnostic tool with a wide scope in forensic radiology. In the past 20 years, PMMR has been used as both an adjunct and an alternative to autopsy. The role of PMMR in forensic death investigations largely depends on the rules and habits of local jurisdictions, availability of experts, financial resources, and individual case circumstances. PMMR images are affected by post-mortem changes, including position-dependent sedimentation, variable body temperature and decomposition. Investigators must be familiar with the appearance of normal findings on PMMR to distinguish them from disease or injury. Coronal whole-body images provide a comprehensive overview. Notably, short tau inversion–recovery (STIR) images enable investigators to screen for pathological fluid accumulation, to which we refer as “forensic sentinel sign”. If scan time is short, subsequent PMMR imaging may be focussed on regions with a positive forensic sentinel sign. PMMR offers excellent anatomical detail and is especially useful to visualize pathologies of the brain, heart, subcutaneous fat tissue and abdominal organs. PMMR may also be used to document skeletal injury. Cardiovascular imaging is a core area of PMMR imaging and growing evidence indicates that PMMR is able to detect ischaemic injury at an earlier stage than traditional autopsy and routine histology. The aim of this review is to present an overview of normal findings on forensic PMMR, provide general advice on the application of PMMR and summarise the current literature on PMMR imaging of the head and neck, cardiovascular system, abdomen and musculoskeletal system. PMID:24191122

  2. Field Documentation of Unusual Post-Mortem Arthropod Activity on Human Remains.

    PubMed

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Crippen, Tawni L; Tarone, Aaron M; Singh, Baneshwar; Lenhart, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    During a forensic investigation, the presence of physical marks on human remains can influence the interpretation of events related to the death of an individual. Some tissue injury on human remains can be misinterpreted as ante- or peri-mortem wounds by an investigator when in reality the markings resulted from post-mortem arthropod activity. Unusual entomological data were collected during a study examining the decomposition of a set of human remains in San Marcos, Texas. An adult female Pediodectes haldemani (Girard) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) and an Armadillidium cf. vulgare (Isopoda: Armadilidiidae) were documented feeding on the remains. Both arthropods produced physical marks or artifacts on the remains that could be misinterpreted as attack, abuse, neglect, or torture. Additionally, red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), were observed constructing structures in the mark produced by the P. haldemani feeding. These observations provide insight into the potential of post-mortem arthropod damage to human remains, which previously had not been described for these taxa, and therefore, physical artifacts on any remains found in similar circumstances may result from arthropod activity and not ante- or peri-mortem wounds. PMID:26336287

  3. Field Documentation of Unusual Post-Mortem Arthropod Activity on Human Remains.

    PubMed

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Crippen, Tawni L; Tarone, Aaron M; Singh, Baneshwar; Lenhart, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    During a forensic investigation, the presence of physical marks on human remains can influence the interpretation of events related to the death of an individual. Some tissue injury on human remains can be misinterpreted as ante- or peri-mortem wounds by an investigator when in reality the markings resulted from post-mortem arthropod activity. Unusual entomological data were collected during a study examining the decomposition of a set of human remains in San Marcos, Texas. An adult female Pediodectes haldemani (Girard) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) and an Armadillidium cf. vulgare (Isopoda: Armadilidiidae) were documented feeding on the remains. Both arthropods produced physical marks or artifacts on the remains that could be misinterpreted as attack, abuse, neglect, or torture. Additionally, red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), were observed constructing structures in the mark produced by the P. haldemani feeding. These observations provide insight into the potential of post-mortem arthropod damage to human remains, which previously had not been described for these taxa, and therefore, physical artifacts on any remains found in similar circumstances may result from arthropod activity and not ante- or peri-mortem wounds.

  4. Post Mortem DNA Degradation of Human Tissue Experimentally Mummified in Salt

    PubMed Central

    Shved, Natallia; Haas, Cordula; Papageorgopoulou, Christina; Akguel, Guelfirde; Paulsen, Katja; Bouwman, Abigail; Warinner, Christina; Rühli, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Mummified human tissues are of great interest in forensics and biomolecular archaeology. The aim of this study was to analyse post mortem DNA alterations in soft tissues in order to improve our knowledge of the patterns of DNA degradation that occur during salt mummification. In this study, the lower limb of a female human donor was amputated within 24 h post mortem and mummified using a process designed to simulate the salt dehydration phase of natural or artificial mummification. Skin and skeletal muscle were sampled at multiple time points over a period of 322 days and subjected to genetic analysis. Patterns of genomic fragmentation, miscoding lesions, and overall DNA degradation in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA was assessed by different methods: gel electrophoresis, multiplex comparative autosomal STR length amplification, cloning and sequence analysis, and PCR amplification of different fragment sizes using a damage sensitive recombinant polymerase. The study outcome reveals a very good level of DNA preservation in salt mummified tissues over the course of the experiment, with an overall slower rate of DNA fragmentation in skin compared to muscle. PMID:25337822

  5. Post mortem DNA degradation of human tissue experimentally mummified in salt.

    PubMed

    Shved, Natallia; Haas, Cordula; Papageorgopoulou, Christina; Akguel, Guelfirde; Paulsen, Katja; Bouwman, Abigail; Warinner, Christina; Rühli, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Mummified human tissues are of great interest in forensics and biomolecular archaeology. The aim of this study was to analyse post mortem DNA alterations in soft tissues in order to improve our knowledge of the patterns of DNA degradation that occur during salt mummification. In this study, the lower limb of a female human donor was amputated within 24 h post mortem and mummified using a process designed to simulate the salt dehydration phase of natural or artificial mummification. Skin and skeletal muscle were sampled at multiple time points over a period of 322 days and subjected to genetic analysis. Patterns of genomic fragmentation, miscoding lesions, and overall DNA degradation in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA was assessed by different methods: gel electrophoresis, multiplex comparative autosomal STR length amplification, cloning and sequence analysis, and PCR amplification of different fragment sizes using a damage sensitive recombinant polymerase. The study outcome reveals a very good level of DNA preservation in salt mummified tissues over the course of the experiment, with an overall slower rate of DNA fragmentation in skin compared to muscle.

  6. The rate of RNA degradation in human dental pulp reveals post-mortem interval.

    PubMed

    Poór, Viktor S; Lukács, Dénes; Nagy, Tamás; Rácz, Evelin; Sipos, Katalin

    2016-05-01

    Post-mortem interval (PMI) is the amount of time elapsed since the time of death. Over the years, many methods were developed to assess PMI, but their precision and time frame of applicability are often limited. Our present pilot study aimed to prove if RNA degradation of human dental pulp can be used for PMI estimation. RNA was isolated from the pulps of healthy wisdom teeth and premolars. RNA degradation was determined as RNA integrity number (RIN) with Agilent Bioanalyzer and subsequently by amplification of different length products by PCR after reverse transcription. The RNA integrity analysis allowed us to determine the time of post-mortem interval with high confidence level in the first 21 days. With the PCR-based method, we were able to perform a crude estimation of incubation time of teeth between 20 and 42 days post extraction. These results show that this method might be a promising new tool for PMI estimation despite the limitations. PMID:26608472

  7. Post-mortem cooling of the human head: an infrared thermology study.

    PubMed

    Khallaf, A; Williams, R W

    1991-01-01

    The post-mortem cooling of the human head, over the first fifteen hours after death, was measured by infrared thermology. A detailed temperature map of the head and face was obtained by the use of image processing techniques and the cooling behaviour of twelve preselected facial features was observed. The two main findings of the study were a difference in cooling pattern between the upper and the lower part of the head, and a consistency in the cooling pattern of the lower part of the head in all the cases studied. A comparison of various model fits to the raw data was undertaken and the "best" bodies, models and features were determined on a statistical basis. The formula that best fitted the raw data was a novel double application of Newton's law. The features with the least error in data fitting were the chin and zygoma; that with the most error was the mouth.

  8. Post Mortem Human Surrogate Injury Response of the Pelvis and Lower Extremities to Simulated Underbody Blast.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Ann M; Christopher, John J; Brozoski, Frederick; Salzar, Robert S

    2015-08-01

    Military vehicle underbody blast (UBB) is the cause of many serious injuries in theatre today; however, the effects of these chaotic events on the human body are not well understood. The purpose of this research was to replicate both UBB loading conditions and investigate occupant response in a controlled laboratory setting. In addition to better understanding the response of the human to high rate vertical loading, this test series also aimed to identify high rate injury thresholds. Ten whole body post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) tests were completed using the University of Virginia's ODYSSEY simulated blast rig under a range of loading conditions. Seat pan accelerations ranged from 291 to 738 g's over 3 ms of positive phase duration, and foot pan accelerations from 234 to 858 g's over 3 ms of positive phase duration. Post-test computed tomography (CT) scans and necropsies were performed to determine injuries, and revealed a combination of pelvic, lumbar, thoracic, and lower extremity injuries. The research in this paper discusses pelvis and lower extremity injuries under high rate vertical loads.

  9. Post Mortem Human Surrogate Injury Response of the Pelvis and Lower Extremities to Simulated Underbody Blast.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Ann M; Christopher, John J; Brozoski, Frederick; Salzar, Robert S

    2015-08-01

    Military vehicle underbody blast (UBB) is the cause of many serious injuries in theatre today; however, the effects of these chaotic events on the human body are not well understood. The purpose of this research was to replicate both UBB loading conditions and investigate occupant response in a controlled laboratory setting. In addition to better understanding the response of the human to high rate vertical loading, this test series also aimed to identify high rate injury thresholds. Ten whole body post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) tests were completed using the University of Virginia's ODYSSEY simulated blast rig under a range of loading conditions. Seat pan accelerations ranged from 291 to 738 g's over 3 ms of positive phase duration, and foot pan accelerations from 234 to 858 g's over 3 ms of positive phase duration. Post-test computed tomography (CT) scans and necropsies were performed to determine injuries, and revealed a combination of pelvic, lumbar, thoracic, and lower extremity injuries. The research in this paper discusses pelvis and lower extremity injuries under high rate vertical loads. PMID:25503737

  10. Cochlear neuropathy in human presbycusis: confocal analysis of hidden hearing loss in post-mortem tissue

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Lucas M.; O’Malley, Jennifer T.; Burgess, Barbara J.; Jones, Dianne D.; Oliveira, Carlos A.C.P.; Santos, Felipe; Merchant, Saumil N.; Liberman, Leslie D.; Liberman, M. Charles

    2015-01-01

    Recent animal work has suggested that cochlear synapses are more vulnerable than hair cells in both noise-induced and age-related hearing loss. This synaptopathy is invisible in conventional histopathological analysis, because cochlear nerve cell bodies in the spiral ganglion survive for years, and synaptic analysis requires special immunostaining or serial-section electron microscopy. Here, we show that the same quadruple-immunostaining protocols that allow synaptic counts, hair cell counts, neuronal counts and differentiation of afferent and efferent fibers in mouse can be applied to human temporal bones, when harvested within 9 hrs post-mortem and prepared as dissected whole mounts of the sensory epithelium and osseous spiral lamina. Quantitative analysis of five “normal” ears, aged 54 to 89 yrs, without any history of otologic disease, suggests that cochlear synaptopathy and the degeneration of cochlear nerve peripheral axons, despite a near-normal hair cell population, may be an important component of human presbycusis. Although primary cochlear nerve degeneration is not expected to affect audiometric thresholds, it may be key to problems with hearing in noise that are characteristic of declining hearing abilities in the aging ear. PMID:26002688

  11. Oblique Loading in Post Mortem Human Surrogates from Vehicle Lateral Impact Tests using Chestbands.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Humm, John R; Pintar, Frank A; Arun, Mike W J; Rhule, Heather; Rudd, Rodney; Craig, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    While numerous studies have been conducted to determine side impact responses of Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) using sled and other equipment, experiments using the biological surrogate in modern full-scale vehicles are not available. The present study investigated the presence of oblique loading in moving deformable barrier and pole tests. Threepoint belt restrained PMHS were positioned in the left front and left rear seats in the former and left front seat in the latter condition and tested according to consumer testing protocols. Three chestbands were used in each specimen (upper, middle and lower thorax). Accelerometers were secured to the skull, shoulder, upper, middle and lower thoracic vertebrae, sternum, and sacrum. Chestband signals were processed to determine magnitudes and angulations of peak deflections. The magnitude and timing of various signal peaks are given. Vehicle accelerations, door velocities, and seat belt loads are also given. Analysis of deformation contours, peak deflections, and angulations indicated that the left rear seated specimen were exposed to anterior oblique loading while left front specimens in both tests sustained essentially pure lateral loading to the torso. These data can be used to validate human body computational models. The occurrence of oblique loading in full-scale testing, hitherto unrecognized, may serve to stimulate the exploration of its role in injuries to the thorax and lower extremities in modern vehicles. It may be important to continue research in this area because injury metrics have a lower threshold for angled loading.

  12. Oblique Loading in Post Mortem Human Surrogates from Vehicle Lateral Impact Tests using Chestbands.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Humm, John R; Pintar, Frank A; Arun, Mike W J; Rhule, Heather; Rudd, Rodney; Craig, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    While numerous studies have been conducted to determine side impact responses of Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) using sled and other equipment, experiments using the biological surrogate in modern full-scale vehicles are not available. The present study investigated the presence of oblique loading in moving deformable barrier and pole tests. Threepoint belt restrained PMHS were positioned in the left front and left rear seats in the former and left front seat in the latter condition and tested according to consumer testing protocols. Three chestbands were used in each specimen (upper, middle and lower thorax). Accelerometers were secured to the skull, shoulder, upper, middle and lower thoracic vertebrae, sternum, and sacrum. Chestband signals were processed to determine magnitudes and angulations of peak deflections. The magnitude and timing of various signal peaks are given. Vehicle accelerations, door velocities, and seat belt loads are also given. Analysis of deformation contours, peak deflections, and angulations indicated that the left rear seated specimen were exposed to anterior oblique loading while left front specimens in both tests sustained essentially pure lateral loading to the torso. These data can be used to validate human body computational models. The occurrence of oblique loading in full-scale testing, hitherto unrecognized, may serve to stimulate the exploration of its role in injuries to the thorax and lower extremities in modern vehicles. It may be important to continue research in this area because injury metrics have a lower threshold for angled loading. PMID:26660738

  13. Injuries to Post Mortem Human Surrogates in Oblique Aircraft Seat Environment.

    PubMed

    Humm, John; Peterson, Brian; Pintar, Frank; Yoganandan, Narayan; Moorcroft, David; Taylor, Amanda; DeWeese, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Increased interest in the airline industry to enhance occupant comfort and maximize seating density has prompted the design and installation of obliquely mounted seats in aircraft. The potential for injury and their mechanism in this seating environment is unknown. Epidemiology-based field injury data do not exist for airplane crashes, however, typical impact scenarios have been determined and safety standards addressing fore, aft, and side-facing seats have been levied by the FAA. The impact scenarios defined in these standards can be used to study likely injuries and injury mechanisms using Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) in a controlled laboratory environment. Four PMHS were seated upright with Frankfurt plane horizontal in a custom designed seat configured to simulate potential aircraft environments and candidate restraint geometries. A scaled Part 25.562 Emergency Landing condition for horizontal impact was used as the dynamic test input. High speed video recorded occupant kinematics. Pre and posttest x-rays and CT’s were obtained and autopsies were conducted. Severe injuries to the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine were observed in three of the four specimens and attributed to torso flail. Pelvis injuries likely caused by the seat belt were found in two tests. Multiple rib fractures were also seen, caused by contact with arm rest or other body regions. The fourth test was run at a lower severity and did not produce injury. This suggests a conservative threshold for human tolerance to this loading environment. Although the study is of a limited sample size, it suggests the need for further testing to develop standards that provide similar levels of safety for obliquely mounted seats as forward/aft facing seats in aircraft. PMID:25996749

  14. Comparing different post-mortem human samples as DNA sources for downstream genotyping and identification.

    PubMed

    Calacal, Gayvelline C; Apaga, Dame Loveliness T; Salvador, Jazelyn M; Jimenez, Joseph Andrew D; Lagat, Ludivino J; Villacorta, Renato Pio F; Lim, Maria Cecilia F; Fortun, Raquel D R; Datar, Francisco A; De Ungria, Maria Corazon A

    2015-11-01

    The capability of DNA laboratories to perform genotyping procedures from post-mortem remains, including those that had undergone putrefaction, continues to be a challenge in the Philippines, a country characterized by very humid and warm conditions all year round. These environmental conditions accelerate the decomposition of human remains that were recovered after a disaster and those that were left abandoned after a crime. When considerable tissue decomposition of human remains has taken place, there is no other option but to extract DNA from bone and/or teeth samples. Routinely, femur shafts are obtained from recovered bodies for human identification because the calcium matrix protects the DNA contained in the osteocytes. In the Philippines, there is difficulty in collecting femur samples after natural disasters or even human-made disasters, because these events are usually characterized by a large number of fatalities. Identification of casualties is further delayed by limitation in human and material resources. Hence, it is imperative to test other types of biological samples that are easier to collect, transport, process and store. We analyzed DNA that were obtained from body fluid, bone marrow, muscle tissue, clavicle, femur, metatarsal, patella, rib and vertebral samples from five recently deceased untreated male cadavers and seven male human remains that were embalmed, buried for ∼ 1 month and then exhumed. The bodies had undergone different environmental conditions and were in various stages of putrefaction. A DNA extraction method utilizing a detergent-washing step followed by an organic procedure was used. The utility of bone marrow and vitreous fluid including bone marrow and vitreous fluid that was transferred on FTA(®) cards and subjected to autosomal STR and Y-STR DNA typing were also evaluated. DNA yield was measured and the presence or absence of PCR inhibitors in DNA extracts was assessed using Plexor(®)HY. All samples were amplified using

  15. Comparing different post-mortem human samples as DNA sources for downstream genotyping and identification.

    PubMed

    Calacal, Gayvelline C; Apaga, Dame Loveliness T; Salvador, Jazelyn M; Jimenez, Joseph Andrew D; Lagat, Ludivino J; Villacorta, Renato Pio F; Lim, Maria Cecilia F; Fortun, Raquel D R; Datar, Francisco A; De Ungria, Maria Corazon A

    2015-11-01

    The capability of DNA laboratories to perform genotyping procedures from post-mortem remains, including those that had undergone putrefaction, continues to be a challenge in the Philippines, a country characterized by very humid and warm conditions all year round. These environmental conditions accelerate the decomposition of human remains that were recovered after a disaster and those that were left abandoned after a crime. When considerable tissue decomposition of human remains has taken place, there is no other option but to extract DNA from bone and/or teeth samples. Routinely, femur shafts are obtained from recovered bodies for human identification because the calcium matrix protects the DNA contained in the osteocytes. In the Philippines, there is difficulty in collecting femur samples after natural disasters or even human-made disasters, because these events are usually characterized by a large number of fatalities. Identification of casualties is further delayed by limitation in human and material resources. Hence, it is imperative to test other types of biological samples that are easier to collect, transport, process and store. We analyzed DNA that were obtained from body fluid, bone marrow, muscle tissue, clavicle, femur, metatarsal, patella, rib and vertebral samples from five recently deceased untreated male cadavers and seven male human remains that were embalmed, buried for ∼ 1 month and then exhumed. The bodies had undergone different environmental conditions and were in various stages of putrefaction. A DNA extraction method utilizing a detergent-washing step followed by an organic procedure was used. The utility of bone marrow and vitreous fluid including bone marrow and vitreous fluid that was transferred on FTA(®) cards and subjected to autosomal STR and Y-STR DNA typing were also evaluated. DNA yield was measured and the presence or absence of PCR inhibitors in DNA extracts was assessed using Plexor(®)HY. All samples were amplified using

  16. Human decomposition and the reliability of a 'Universal' model for post mortem interval estimations.

    PubMed

    Cockle, Diane L; Bell, Lynne S

    2015-08-01

    Human decomposition is a complex biological process driven by an array of variables which are not clearly understood. The medico-legal community have long been searching for a reliable method to establish the post-mortem interval (PMI) for those whose deaths have either been hidden, or gone un-noticed. To date, attempts to develop a PMI estimation method based on the state of the body either at the scene or at autopsy have been unsuccessful. One recent study has proposed that two simple formulae, based on the level of decomposition humidity and temperature, could be used to accurately calculate the PMI for bodies outside, on or under the surface worldwide. This study attempted to validate 'Formula I' [1] (for bodies on the surface) using 42 Canadian cases with known PMIs. The results indicated that bodies exposed to warm temperatures consistently overestimated the known PMI by a large and inconsistent margin for Formula I estimations. And for bodies exposed to cold and freezing temperatures (less than 4°C), then the PMI was dramatically under estimated. The ability of 'Formulae II' to estimate the PMI for buried bodies was also examined using a set of 22 known Canadian burial cases. As these cases used in this study are retrospective, some of the data needed for Formula II was not available. The 4.6 value used in Formula II to represent the standard ratio of time that burial decelerates the rate of decomposition was examined. The average time taken to achieve each stage of decomposition both on, and under the surface was compared for the 118 known cases. It was found that the rate of decomposition was not consistent throughout all stages of decomposition. The rates of autolysis above and below the ground were equivalent with the buried cases staying in a state of putrefaction for a prolonged period of time. It is suggested that differences in temperature extremes and humidity levels between geographic regions may make it impractical to apply formulas developed in

  17. Human decomposition and the reliability of a 'Universal' model for post mortem interval estimations.

    PubMed

    Cockle, Diane L; Bell, Lynne S

    2015-08-01

    Human decomposition is a complex biological process driven by an array of variables which are not clearly understood. The medico-legal community have long been searching for a reliable method to establish the post-mortem interval (PMI) for those whose deaths have either been hidden, or gone un-noticed. To date, attempts to develop a PMI estimation method based on the state of the body either at the scene or at autopsy have been unsuccessful. One recent study has proposed that two simple formulae, based on the level of decomposition humidity and temperature, could be used to accurately calculate the PMI for bodies outside, on or under the surface worldwide. This study attempted to validate 'Formula I' [1] (for bodies on the surface) using 42 Canadian cases with known PMIs. The results indicated that bodies exposed to warm temperatures consistently overestimated the known PMI by a large and inconsistent margin for Formula I estimations. And for bodies exposed to cold and freezing temperatures (less than 4°C), then the PMI was dramatically under estimated. The ability of 'Formulae II' to estimate the PMI for buried bodies was also examined using a set of 22 known Canadian burial cases. As these cases used in this study are retrospective, some of the data needed for Formula II was not available. The 4.6 value used in Formula II to represent the standard ratio of time that burial decelerates the rate of decomposition was examined. The average time taken to achieve each stage of decomposition both on, and under the surface was compared for the 118 known cases. It was found that the rate of decomposition was not consistent throughout all stages of decomposition. The rates of autolysis above and below the ground were equivalent with the buried cases staying in a state of putrefaction for a prolonged period of time. It is suggested that differences in temperature extremes and humidity levels between geographic regions may make it impractical to apply formulas developed in

  18. A post-mortem stereological study of striatal cell number in human obesity

    PubMed Central

    Weise, Christopher M.; Mouton, Peter R; Eschbacher, Jennifer; Coons, Stephen W.; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Neuroimaging studies have revealed abnormalities in brain structure, including the striatum, in obese people. We aimed to investigate the cellular and parenchymal basis for these findings in post-mortem brain tissue. Design and Methods Design-based (unbiased) stereology combined with histochemical and immunocytochemical staining were used to quantify total number of neurons and astrocytes in post-mortem striatal brain samples from 9 obese (BMI 40.2±6.1 kg*m−2) and 8 lean (BMI 24.4±1.0 kg*m−2) donors. Total numbers of Nissl-stained neurons and GFAP-immunopositive astrocytes were counted in ten systematic-random sections starting from the frontal pole of the striatum. Results There were no differences in mean total numbers of neurons (obese: 7.60E+06; SD 2.50E+06; lean: 7.85E+06; SD 8.26E+05; p<0.78) or astrocytes (obese: 7.42E+06; SD 2.27E+06; lean: 7.43E+06; SD 2.50E+06; p<0.99). A higher variance was found for number of neurons (p<0.007) but not astrocytes (p<0.72) in the obese group. Neuron/glia ratios were similar in both groups (obese: 1.07; SD 0.39; lean: 1.15; SD 0.37; p<0.70) with an overall striatal neuron/glia ratio of 1.11 (SD 0.37) across the entire study population (n=17). Conclusion We found no difference in the average numbers of neurons and astrocytes in the anterior striatum between lean and obese people. The morphological basis for structural brain changes in obesity requires further investigation. PMID:25234737

  19. Partitioning the Proteome: Phase Separation for Targeted Analysis of Membrane Proteins in Human Post-Mortem Brain

    PubMed Central

    Scaife, Caitriona; Cotter, David R.; Dunn, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroproteomics is a powerful platform for targeted and hypothesis driven research, providing comprehensive insights into cellular and sub-cellular disease states, Gene × Environmental effects, and cellular response to medication effects in human, animal, and cell culture models. Analysis of sub-proteomes is becoming increasingly important in clinical proteomics, enriching for otherwise undetectable proteins that are possible markers for disease. Membrane proteins are one such sub-proteome class that merit in-depth targeted analysis, particularly in psychiatric disorders. As membrane proteins are notoriously difficult to analyse using traditional proteomics methods, we evaluate a paradigm to enrich for and study membrane proteins from human post-mortem brain tissue. This is the first study to extensively characterise the integral trans-membrane spanning proteins present in human brain. Using Triton X-114 phase separation and LC-MS/MS analysis, we enriched for and identified 494 membrane proteins, with 194 trans-membrane helices present, ranging from 1 to 21 helices per protein. Isolated proteins included glutamate receptors, G proteins, voltage gated and calcium channels, synaptic proteins, and myelin proteins, all of which warrant quantitative proteomic investigation in psychiatric and neurological disorders. Overall, our sub-proteome analysis reduced sample complexity and enriched for integral membrane proteins by 2.3 fold, thus allowing for more manageable, reproducible, and targeted proteomics in case vs. control biomarker studies. This study provides a valuable reference for future neuroproteomic investigations of membrane proteins, and validates the use Triton X-114 detergent phase extraction on human post mortem brain. PMID:22745773

  20. Dating human skeletal remains: investigating the viability of measuring the equilibrium between 210Po and 210Pb as a means of estimating the post-mortem interval.

    PubMed

    Swift, B

    1998-11-30

    Estimating the post-mortem interval in skeletal remains is a notoriously difficult task; forensic pathologists often rely heavily upon experience in recognising morphological appearances. Previous techniques have involved measuring physical or chemical changes within the hydroxyapatite matrix, radiocarbon dating and 90Sr dating, though no individual test has been advocated. Within this paper it is proposed that measuring the equilibrium between two naturally occurring radio-isotopes, 210Po and 210Pb, and comparison with post-mortem examination samples would produce a new method of dating human skeletal remains. Possible limitations exist, notably the effect of diagenesis, time limitations and relative cost, though this technique could provide a relatively accurate means of determining the post-mortem interval. It is therefore proposed that a large study be undertaken to provide a calibration scale against which bones uncovered can be dated.

  1. Ultra-High Field MRI Post Mortem Structural Connectivity of the Human Subthalamic Nucleus, Substantia Nigra, and Globus Pallidus

    PubMed Central

    Plantinga, Birgit R.; Roebroeck, Alard; Kemper, Valentin G.; Uludağ, Kâmil; Melse, Maartje; Mai, Jürgen; Kuijf, Mark L.; Herrler, Andreas; Jahanshahi, Ali; ter Haar Romeny, Bart M.; Temel, Yasin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, and globus pallidus, three nuclei of the human basal ganglia, play an important role in motor, associative, and limbic processing. The network of the basal ganglia is generally characterized by a direct, indirect, and hyperdirect pathway. This study aims to investigate the mesoscopic nature of these connections between the subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, and globus pallidus and their surrounding structures. Methods: A human post mortem brain specimen including the substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus, and globus pallidus was scanned on a 7 T MRI scanner. High resolution diffusion weighted images were used to reconstruct the fibers intersecting the substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus, and globus pallidus. The course and density of these tracks was analyzed. Results: Most of the commonly established projections of the subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, and globus pallidus were successfully reconstructed. However, some of the reconstructed fiber tracks such as the connections of the substantia nigra pars compacta to the other included nuclei and the connections with the anterior commissure have not been shown previously. In addition, the quantitative tractography approach showed a typical degree of connectivity previously not documented. An example is the relatively larger projections of the subthalamic nucleus to the substantia nigra pars reticulata when compared to the projections to the globus pallidus internus. Discussion: This study shows that ultra-high field post mortem tractography allows for detailed 3D reconstruction of the projections of deep brain structures in humans. Although the results should be interpreted carefully, the newly identified connections contribute to our understanding of the basal ganglia. PMID:27378864

  2. Mass spectrometric measurement of [beta]-endorphin and methionine enkephalin in human pituitaries. Tumors and post-mortem controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusmierz, Jozef J.; Dass, Chhabil; Robertson, James T.; Desiderio, Dominic M.

    1991-12-01

    Two opioid neuropeptides, [beta]-endorphin (BE), which derives from the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) precursor, and methionine enkephalin (DE), which derives from proenkephalin A, were quantified with fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS) in individual human pituitaries (post-mortem) and in tumor pituitaries (post-surgery) in a study to clarify the molecular processes that occur in tumor formation. FAB-MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode linked the precursor ion (the MH+ ion) of the peptide with a fragment ion that was unique to each neuropeptide to increase significantly the molecular specificity of these quantitative analytical measurements. The ME was quantified as the intact pentapeptide, whereas BE1-31 was quantified via its tryptic fragment BE20-24 (NAIIK). Two corresponding stable isotope-incorporated peptides, [2H5-4Phe]-ME and [2H4-22Ile]-BE1-31,human respectively, were used as the internal standards. The amount of each neuropeptide quantified in control post-mortem pituitaries (n = 8) was 75.2 ± 29.6(s.e.m.) pmol ME mg-1 protein, and in the pituitary tumor samples (n = 5), 25.0 ± 7.6 pmol ME mg-1 protein and 36.0 ± 14.8 pmol BE mg-1 protein. The difference in the BE content between the control and tumor pituitaries was significant (p = 0.004), and reflected an aberrant metabolism of the POMC system in those human pituitary tumor tissues.

  3. Clozapine effects on adenylyl cyclase activity and serotonin type 1A receptors in human brain post-mortem.

    PubMed

    Marazziti, Donatella; Baroni, Stefano; Palego, Lionella; Betti, Laura; Giannaccini, Gino; Castagna, Maura; Naccarato, Antonio G; Luccachini, Antonio; Catena-Dell'Osso, Mario; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2014-04-01

    Although the pharmacological profile of the atypical antipsychotic clozapine has been extensively studied in animal models, little information is available on its effects in the human brain. In particular, much interest is focused on the understanding of clozapine activity on serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission, particularly on 5-HT receptor of type 1A (5-HT(1A)) that seems to play a pivotal role in the control of the 5-HT system. The present work, therefore, aimed at evaluating the effects of clozapine and its major metabolite, norclozapine, on the modulation of adenylyl cyclase (AC) velocity via 5-HT(1A) receptors in human post-mortem brain regions, in particular the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and raphe nuclei. Concomitantly, the ability of the two compounds to displace the specific binding of the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist [³H]-8-hydroxy-(2-di-N-propylamino) tetralin ([³H]-8-OH-DPAT) was evaluated in the same brain areas. The results showed that both clozapine and norclozapine, although with a 20-fold lower affinity, displaced [³H]8-OH-DPAT binding in all of the brain regions analysed, suggesting their interaction with 5-HT(1A) receptors. At the same time, clozapine and, to a lesser extent, norclozapine were found to inhibit the forskolin (FK)-stimulated AC system, while decreasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentrations in the hippocampus only. The receptor characterisation of the clozapine effect on AC observed in the hippocampus by the use of antagonists showed a mixed profile, involving not only the 5-HT(1A) receptor but also a muscarinic (M) receptor subtype, most likely the M₄ one. These findings, while considering all the limitations due to the use of post-mortem tissues, are strongly suggestive of a region-dependent pharmacological action of clozapine in the human brain that may explain its peculiar clinical effects and open up research towards novel targets for future antipsychotic drugs.

  4. Adult post-mortem imaging in traumatic and cardiorespiratory death and its relation to clinical radiological imaging

    PubMed Central

    Adlam, D; Robinson, C; Pakkal, M; Rutty, G N

    2014-01-01

    The use of post-mortem imaging is expanding throughout the world with increasing use of advanced imaging techniques, such as contrast-enhanced CT and MRI. The questions asked of post-mortem imaging are complex and can be very different, for example for natural sudden death investigation will focus on the cause, whereas for trauma the cause of death is often clear, but injury patterns may be very revealing in investigating the background to the incident. Post-mortem imaging is different to clinical imaging regarding both the appearance of pathology and the information required, but there is much to learn from many years of clinical research in the use of these techniques. Furthermore, it is possible that post-mortem imaging research could be used not only for investigating the cause of death but also as a model to conduct clinically relevant research. This article reviews challenges to the development of post-mortem imaging for trauma, identification and cardiorespiratory death, and how they may be influenced by current clinical thinking and practice. PMID:24338941

  5. Post-mortem sporulation of Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) after death in adult Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kent, Michael L.; Soderlund, K.; Thomann, E.; Schreck, Carl B.; Sharpton, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) is a common gastrointestinal pathogen of salmonid fishes in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. We have been investigating this parasite in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Willamette River, Oregon. In prior work, we observed differences in the pattern of development of C. shasta in adult salmon compared to juvenile salmon. Adult salmon consistently had large numbers of prespore stages in many of the fish that survived to spawn in the fall. However, myxospores were rarely observed, even though they were exposed and presumably infected for months before spawning. We evaluated the ability of C. shasta to sporulate following fish death because it is reported that myxosores are common in carcasses of Chinook salmon. We collected the intestine from 30 adult salmon immediately after artificial spawning and death (T0). A total of 23 fish were infected with C. shasta based on histology, but only a few myxospores were observed in 1 fish by histology. Intestines of these fish were examined at T0 and T7 (latter held at 17 C for 7 days) using quantified wet mount preparations. An increase in myxospore concentrations was seen in 39% of these fish, ranging between a 1.5- to a 14.5-fold increase. The most heavily infected fish exhibited a 4.6-fold increase from 27,841 to 129,352 myxospores/cm. This indicates, supported by various statistical analyses, that under certain conditions presporogonic forms are viable and continue to sporulate after death in adult salmon. Considering the life cycle of C. shasta and anadromous salmon, the parasite may have evolved 2, non-mutually exclusive developmental strategies. In young fish (parr and smolts), the parasite sporulates shortly after infection and is released into freshwater from either live or dead fish before their migration to seawater, where the alternate host is absent. The second strategy occurs in adult salmon, particularly spring Chinook salmon, which become infected upon

  6. Post-mortem sporulation of Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) after death in adult Chinook salmon.

    PubMed

    Kent, M L; Soderlund, K; Thomann, Estela; Schreck, C B; Sharpton, T J

    2014-10-01

    Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) is a common gastrointestinal pathogen of salmonid fishes in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. We have been investigating this parasite in adult Chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) in the Willamette River, Oregon. In prior work, we observed differences in the pattern of development of C. shasta in adult salmon compared to juvenile salmon. Adult salmon consistently had large numbers of prespore stages in many of the fish that survived to spawn in the fall. However, myxospores were rarely observed, even though they were exposed and presumably infected for months before spawning. We evaluated the ability of C. shasta to sporulate following fish death because it is reported that myxosores are common in carcasses of Chinook salmon. We collected the intestine from 30 adult salmon immediately after artificial spawning and death (T0). A total of 23 fish were infected with C. shasta based on histology, but only a few myxospores were observed in 1 fish by histology. Intestines of these fish were examined at T0 and T7 (latter held at 17 C for 7 days) using quantified wet mount preparations. An increase in myxospore concentrations was seen in 39% of these fish, ranging between a 1.5- to a 14.5-fold increase. The most heavily infected fish exhibited a 4.6-fold increase from 27,841 to 129,352 myxospores/cm. This indicates, supported by various statistical analyses, that under certain conditions presporogonic forms are viable and continue to sporulate after death in adult salmon. Considering the life cycle of C. shasta and anadromous salmon, the parasite may have evolved 2, non-mutually exclusive developmental strategies. In young fish (parr and smolts), the parasite sporulates shortly after infection and is released into freshwater from either live or dead fish before their migration to seawater, where the alternate host is absent. The second strategy occurs in adult salmon, particularly spring Chinook salmon, which become infected

  7. Foot-Ankle Fractures and Injury Probability Curves from Post-mortem Human Surrogate Tests.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Chirvi, Sajal; Pintar, Frank A; Uppal, Harmeeth; Schlick, Michael; Banerjee, Anjishnu; Voo, Liming; Merkle, Andrew; Kleinberger, Michael

    2016-10-01

    This purpose of this study was to replicate foot-ankle injuries seen in the military and derive human injury probability curves using the human cadaver model. Lower legs were isolated below knee from seventeen unembalmed human cadavers and they were aligned in a 90-90 posture (plantar surface orthogonal to leg). The specimens were loaded along the tibia axis by applying short-time duration pulses, using a repeated testing protocol. Injuries were documented using pre- and post-test X-rays, computed tomography scans, and dissection. Peak force-based risk curves were derived using survival analysis and accounted for data censoring. Fractures were grouped into all foot-ankle (A), any calcaneus (B), and any tibia injuries (C), respectively. Calcaneus and/or distal tibia/pilon fractures occurred in fourteen tests. Axial forces were the greatest and least for groups C and B, respectively. Times attainments of forces for all groups were within ten milliseconds. The Weibull function was the optimal probability distribution for all groups. Age was significant (p < 0.05) for groups A and C. Survival analysis-based probability curves were derived for all groups. Data are given in the body of paper. Age-based, risk-specific, and continuous distribution probability curves/responses guide in the creation of an injury assessment capability for military blast environments.

  8. Studies on time of death estimation in the early post mortem period -- application of a method based on eyeball temperature measurement to human bodies.

    PubMed

    Kaliszan, Michał

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a verification of the thermodynamic model allowing an estimation of the time of death (TOD) by calculating the post mortem interval (PMI) based on a single eyeball temperature measurement at the death scene. The study was performed on 30 cases with known PMI, ranging from 1h 35min to 5h 15min, using pin probes connected to a high precision electronic thermometer (Dostmann-electronic). The measured eye temperatures ranged from 20.2 to 33.1°C. Rectal temperature was measured at the same time and ranged from 32.8 to 37.4°C. Ambient temperatures which ranged from -1 to 24°C, environmental conditions (still air to light wind) and the amount of hair on the head were also recorded every time. PMI was calculated using a formula based on Newton's law of cooling, previously derived and successfully tested in comprehensive studies on pigs and a few human cases. Thanks to both the significantly faster post mortem decrease of eye temperature and a residual or nonexistent plateau effect in the eye, as well as practically no influence of body mass, TOD in the human death cases could be estimated with good accuracy. The highest TOD estimation error during the post mortem intervals up to around 5h was 1h 16min, 1h 14min and 1h 03min, respectively in three cases among 30, while for the remaining 27 cases it was not more than 47min. The mean error for all 30 cases was ±31min. All that indicates that the proposed method is of quite good precision in the early post mortem period, with an accuracy of ±1h for a 95% confidence interval. On the basis of the presented method, TOD can be also calculated at the death scene with the use of a proposed portable electronic device (TOD-meter).

  9. Dynamic Responses of Intact Post Mortem Human Surrogates from Inferior-to-Superior Loading at the Pelvis.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Moore, Jason; Arun, Mike W J; Pintar, Frank A

    2014-11-01

    During certain events such as underbody blasts due to improvised explosive devices, occupants in military vehicles are exposed to inferior-to-superior loading from the pelvis. Injuries to the pelvis-sacrum-lumbar spine complex have been reported from these events. The mechanism of load transmission and potential variables defining the migration of injuries between pelvis and or spinal structures are not defined. This study applied inferior-to-superior impacts to the tuberosities of the ischium of supine-positioned five post mortem human subjects (PMHS) using different acceleration profiles, defined using shape, magnitude and duration parameters. Seventeen tests were conducted. Overlay temporal plots were presented for normalized (impulse momentum approach) forces and accelerations of the sacrum and spine. Scatter plots showing injury and non-injury data as a function of peak normalized forces, pulse characteristics, impulse and power, loading rate and sacrum and spine accelerations were evaluated as potential metrics related to pathological outcomes with the focus of examining the role of the pulse characteristics from inferior-to-superior loading of the pelvis-sacrum-lumbar spine complex. Interrelationships were explored between non-fracture and fracture outcomes, and fracture patterns with a focus on migration of injuries from the hip-only to hip and spine to spine-only regions. Observations indicate that injury to the pelvis and or spine from inferior-to-superior loading is associated with pulse and not just peak velocity. The role of the effect of mass recruitment and injury migration parallel knee-thigh-hip complex studies, suggest a wider application of the recruitment concept and the role of the pulse characteristics.

  10. Optimized lower leg injury probability curves from post-mortem human subject tests under axial impacts

    PubMed Central

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W.J.; Pintar, Frank A.; Szabo, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Objective Derive optimum injury probability curves to describe human tolerance of the lower leg using parametric survival analysis. Methods The study re-examined lower leg PMHS data from a large group of specimens. Briefly, axial loading experiments were conducted by impacting the plantar surface of the foot. Both injury and non-injury tests were included in the testing process. They were identified by pre- and posttest radiographic images and detailed dissection following the impact test. Fractures included injuries to the calcaneus and distal tibia-fibula complex (including pylon), representing severities at the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) level 2+. For the statistical analysis, peak force was chosen as the main explanatory variable and the age was chosen as the co-variable. Censoring statuses depended on experimental outcomes. Parameters from the parametric survival analysis were estimated using the maximum likelihood approach and the dfbetas statistic was used to identify overly influential samples. The best fit from the Weibull, log-normal and log-logistic distributions was based on the Akaike Information Criterion. Plus and minus 95% confidence intervals were obtained for the optimum injury probability distribution. The relative sizes of the interval were determined at predetermined risk levels. Quality indices were described at each of the selected probability levels. Results The mean age, stature and weight: 58.2 ± 15.1 years, 1.74 ± 0.08 m and 74.9 ± 13.8 kg. Excluding all overly influential tests resulted in the tightest confidence intervals. The Weibull distribution was the most optimum function compared to the other two distributions. A majority of quality indices were in the good category for this optimum distribution when results were extracted for 25-, 45- and 65-year-old at five, 25 and 50% risk levels age groups for lower leg fracture. For 25, 45 and 65 years, peak forces were 8.1, 6.5, and 5.1 kN at 5% risk; 9.6, 7.7, and 6.1 kN at 25% risk

  11. [POST MORTEM PATERNITY].

    PubMed

    Marguénaud, Jean-Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Post mortem paternity, namely the procreation after the death of the man whom is part of the couple, is one of the questions which raised the most hesitations since the first bioethics laws of 1994. The National Assembly, encouraged by several opinions of the CCNE (National advisory committee of ethics) had let itself convince that the transfer had, at least, to be authorized in utero embryos preserved at the regard of which no one could not claim to have rights equal or higher than those of the woman concerned. However, the Senate always ended up obtaining the maintenance of an absolute prohibition of posthumous procreation (starting) from the spermatozoids or frozen embryos. This indifference with the cruelty of the application of the law to the women plunged into mourning--based on a paradoxical appreciation of the interest of the child not to be born orphan, and on a not very glorious taking into account of the interest of the Body of notaries not to change its practices--is particularly debatable. One can, nevertheless, try to understand it according to the obsession of the legalization of surrogate motherhood by application of the principle of nondiscrimination which could justify the requests of the men who, thanks to a surrogate mother, would wish to become fathers starting from gametes or embryos taken or created before the death of their wife or partner. PMID:27356350

  12. Investigation on occupant ejection in high severity rear impact based on post mortem human subject sled tests.

    PubMed

    Petit, Philippe; Luet, Carole; Potier, Pascal; Vallancien, Guy

    2011-11-01

    Occupant protection in rear impact involves two competing challenges. On one hand, allowing a deformation of the seat would act as an energy absorber in low severity impacts and would consequently decrease the risk of neck injuries. However, on the other hand, large deformations of the seat may increase the likelihood of occupant ejection in high severity cases. Green et al. 1987 analyzed a total of 919 accidents in Great Britain. They found that occupant ejection resulted in a risk of severe injuries and fatalities between 3.6 and 4.5 times higher than those cases where no ejection was observed. The sample included single front, side and rear impacts as well as multiple impacts and rollover. The rate of belt use in the sample was 50%. While this analysis included all forms of impact scenarios, nevertheless, it highlights the relative injury severity of occupant ejection. Extensive literature search has found no full-scale rear impact tests involving Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) conducted in a laboratory environment and resulting in ejection. This paper describes a total of 10 sled tests conducted on 3 belted PMHS using a simplified seat design composed of rigid plates assembled such that the angular and linear stiffness of the seatback (including the foam) was modeled. The initial angular position and the range of motion of the seatback, the size of the PMHS, the slack length of the seatbelt, the angular stiffness of the seatback, and the use of headrest were varied in the test matrix while the pulse was kept constant (triangular acceleration with a peak of 17 G at 30 ms and a duration of 95 ms). In the test series, the tests were not run randomly but the likelihood of occupant ejection was increased systematically until ejection occurred. PMHS seat ejection was observed only for the 95th percentile, initially positioned with a seatback angle relative to the vertical equal to 22°, a range of seatback angular motion equal to 44° and no headrest. Repeating

  13. Investigation on occupant ejection in high severity rear impact based on post mortem human subject sled tests.

    PubMed

    Petit, Philippe; Luet, Carole; Potier, Pascal; Vallancien, Guy

    2011-11-01

    Occupant protection in rear impact involves two competing challenges. On one hand, allowing a deformation of the seat would act as an energy absorber in low severity impacts and would consequently decrease the risk of neck injuries. However, on the other hand, large deformations of the seat may increase the likelihood of occupant ejection in high severity cases. Green et al. 1987 analyzed a total of 919 accidents in Great Britain. They found that occupant ejection resulted in a risk of severe injuries and fatalities between 3.6 and 4.5 times higher than those cases where no ejection was observed. The sample included single front, side and rear impacts as well as multiple impacts and rollover. The rate of belt use in the sample was 50%. While this analysis included all forms of impact scenarios, nevertheless, it highlights the relative injury severity of occupant ejection. Extensive literature search has found no full-scale rear impact tests involving Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) conducted in a laboratory environment and resulting in ejection. This paper describes a total of 10 sled tests conducted on 3 belted PMHS using a simplified seat design composed of rigid plates assembled such that the angular and linear stiffness of the seatback (including the foam) was modeled. The initial angular position and the range of motion of the seatback, the size of the PMHS, the slack length of the seatbelt, the angular stiffness of the seatback, and the use of headrest were varied in the test matrix while the pulse was kept constant (triangular acceleration with a peak of 17 G at 30 ms and a duration of 95 ms). In the test series, the tests were not run randomly but the likelihood of occupant ejection was increased systematically until ejection occurred. PMHS seat ejection was observed only for the 95th percentile, initially positioned with a seatback angle relative to the vertical equal to 22°, a range of seatback angular motion equal to 44° and no headrest. Repeating

  14. [Post-mortem microbiology analysis].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Amparo; Alberola, Juan; Cohen, Marta Cecilia

    2013-12-01

    Post-mortem microbiology is useful in both clinical and forensic autopsies, and allows a suspected infection to be confirmed. Indeed, it is routinely applied to donor studies in the clinical setting, as well as in sudden and unexpected death in the forensic field. Implementation of specific sampling techniques in autopsy can minimize the possibility of contamination, making interpretation of the results easier. Specific interpretation criteria for post-mortem cultures, the use of molecular diagnosis, and its fusion with molecular biology and histopathology have led to post-mortem microbiology playing a major role in autopsy. Multidisciplinary work involving microbiologists, pathologists, and forensic physicians will help to improve the achievements of post-mortem microbiology, prevent infectious diseases, and contribute to a healthier population.

  15. [Post-mortem microbiology analysis].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Amparo; Alberola, Juan; Cohen, Marta Cecilia

    2013-12-01

    Post-mortem microbiology is useful in both clinical and forensic autopsies, and allows a suspected infection to be confirmed. Indeed, it is routinely applied to donor studies in the clinical setting, as well as in sudden and unexpected death in the forensic field. Implementation of specific sampling techniques in autopsy can minimize the possibility of contamination, making interpretation of the results easier. Specific interpretation criteria for post-mortem cultures, the use of molecular diagnosis, and its fusion with molecular biology and histopathology have led to post-mortem microbiology playing a major role in autopsy. Multidisciplinary work involving microbiologists, pathologists, and forensic physicians will help to improve the achievements of post-mortem microbiology, prevent infectious diseases, and contribute to a healthier population. PMID:23195835

  16. Variable telomere length across post-mortem human brain regions and specific reduction in the hippocampus of major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Mamdani, F; Rollins, B; Morgan, L; Myers, R M; Barchas, J D; Schatzberg, A F; Watson, S J; Akil, H; Potkin, S G; Bunney, W E; Vawter, M P; Sequeira, P A

    2015-09-15

    Stress can be a predisposing factor to psychiatric disorders and has been associated with decreased neurogenesis and reduced hippocampal volume especially in depression. Similarly, in white blood cells chronic psychological stress has been associated with telomere shortening and with mood disorders and schizophrenia (SZ). However, in previous post-mortem brain studies from occipital cortex and cerebellum, no difference in telomere length was observed in depression. We hypothesized that in psychiatric disorders, stress-driven accelerated cellular aging can be observed in brain regions particularly sensitive to stress. Telomere length was measured by quantitative-PCR in five brain regions (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, hippocampus (HIPP), amygdala, nucleus accumbens and substantia nigra (SN)) in major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, SZ and normal control subjects (N = 40, 10 subjects per group). We observed significant differences in telomere length across brain regions suggesting variable levels of cell aging, with SN and HIPP having the longest telomeres and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex the shortest. A significant decrease (P < 0.02) in telomere length was observed specifically in the HIPP of MDD subjects even after controlling for age. In the HIPP of MDD subjects, several genes involved in neuroprotection and in stress response (FKBP5, CRH) showed altered levels of mRNA. Our results suggest the presence of hippocampal stress-mediated accelerated cellular aging in depression. Further studies are needed to investigate the cellular specificity of these findings.

  17. Variable telomere length across post-mortem human brain regions and specific reduction in the hippocampus of major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mamdani, F; Rollins, B; Morgan, L; Myers, R M; Barchas, J D; Schatzberg, A F; Watson, S J; Akil, H; Potkin, S G; Bunney, W E; Vawter, M P; Sequeira, P A

    2015-01-01

    Stress can be a predisposing factor to psychiatric disorders and has been associated with decreased neurogenesis and reduced hippocampal volume especially in depression. Similarly, in white blood cells chronic psychological stress has been associated with telomere shortening and with mood disorders and schizophrenia (SZ). However, in previous post-mortem brain studies from occipital cortex and cerebellum, no difference in telomere length was observed in depression. We hypothesized that in psychiatric disorders, stress-driven accelerated cellular aging can be observed in brain regions particularly sensitive to stress. Telomere length was measured by quantitative-PCR in five brain regions (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, hippocampus (HIPP), amygdala, nucleus accumbens and substantia nigra (SN)) in major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, SZ and normal control subjects (N=40, 10 subjects per group). We observed significant differences in telomere length across brain regions suggesting variable levels of cell aging, with SN and HIPP having the longest telomeres and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex the shortest. A significant decrease (P<0.02) in telomere length was observed specifically in the HIPP of MDD subjects even after controlling for age. In the HIPP of MDD subjects, several genes involved in neuroprotection and in stress response (FKBP5, CRH) showed altered levels of mRNA. Our results suggest the presence of hippocampal stress-mediated accelerated cellular aging in depression. Further studies are needed to investigate the cellular specificity of these findings. PMID:26371764

  18. A comparison of mitochondrial DNA isolation methods in frozen post-mortem human brain tissue--applications for studies of mitochondrial genetics in brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Devall, Matthew; Burrage, Joe; Caswell, Richard; Johnson, Matthew; Troakes, Claire; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Jeffries, Aaron R; Mill, Jonathan; Lunnon, Katie

    2015-10-01

    Given that many brain disorders are characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction, there is a growing interest in investigating genetic and epigenetic variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). One major caveat for such studies is the presence of nuclear-mitochondrial pseudogenes (NUMTs), which are regions of the mitochondrial genome that have been inserted into the nuclear genome over evolution and, if not accounted for, can confound genetic studies of mtDNA. Here we provide the first systematic comparison of methods for isolating mtDNA from frozen post-mortem human brain tissue. Our data show that a commercial method from Miltenyi Biotec, which magnetically isolates mitochondria using antibodies raised against the mitochondrial import receptor subunit TOM22, gives significant mtDNA enrichment and should be considered the method of choice for mtDNA studies in frozen brain tissue.

  19. The NADPH oxidase NOX2 as a novel biomarker for suicidality: evidence from human post mortem brain samples

    PubMed Central

    Schiavone, S; Neri, M; Mhillaj, E; Morgese, M G; Cantatore, S; Bove, M; Riezzo, I; Tucci, P; Pomara, C; Turillazzi, E; Cuomo, V; Trabace, L

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence points towards a role of oxidative stress in suicidality. However, few studies were carried out on the sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in subjects with suicidal behaviour. We have previously demonstrated that the NADPH oxidase NOX2-derived oxidative stress has a major role in the development of neuropathological alterations observed in an animal model of psychosis. Here, we investigated the possible increase in NOX2 in post mortem brain samples of subjects who died by asphyctic suicide (AS) compared with controls (CTRL) and subjects who died by non-suicidal asphyxia (NSA). We found that NOX2 expression was significantly higher in the cortex of AS subjects than in the other two experimental groups. NOX2 immunostaining was mainly detected in GABAergic neurons, with a minor presence of NOX2-positive-stained cells in glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurons, as well as astrocytes and microglia. A sustained increase in the expression of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, an indirect marker of oxidative stress, was also detected in the cortex of AS subjects, compared with CTRL and NSA subjects. A significant elevation in cortical interleukin-6 immunoreactivity in AS subjects suggested an involvement of cytokine-associated molecular pathways in NOX2 elevations. Our results suggest that the increase in NOX2-derived oxidative stress in the brain might be involved in the neuropathological pathways leading to suicidal behaviour. These results may open innovative insights in the identification of new pathogenetic and necroscopic biomarkers, predictive for suicidality and potentially useful for suicide prevention. PMID:27187235

  20. Changes in CB1 and CB2 receptors in the post-mortem cerebellum of humans affected by spinocerebellar ataxias

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Cueto, Carmen; Benito, Cristina; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Romero, Julián; Hernández-Gálvez, Mariluz; Gómez-Ruiz, María

    2014-01-01

    Background and PurposeSpinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a family of chronic progressive neurodegenerative diseases, clinically and genetically heterogeneous, characterized by loss of balance and motor coordination due to degeneration of the cerebellum and its afferent and efferent connections. Unlike other motor disorders, the possible role of changes in the endocannabinoid system in the pathogenesis of SCAs has not been investigated. Experimental ApproachThe status of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) receptors in the post-mortem cerebellum of SCA patients and controls was investigated using immunohistochemical procedures. Key ResultsImmunoreactivity for the CB1 receptor, and also for the CB2 receptor, was found in the granular layer, Purkinje cells, neurons of the dentate nucleus and areas of white matter in the cerebellum of SCA patients at levels notably higher than controls. Double-labelling procedures demonstrated co-localization of CB1 and, in particular, CB2 receptors with calbindin, supporting the presence of these receptors in Purkinje neurons. Both receptors also co-localized with Iba-1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein in the granular layer and white matter areas, indicating that they are present in microglia and astrocytes respectively. Conclusions and ImplicationsOur results demonstrate that CB1 and CB2 receptor levels are significantly altered in the cerebellum of SCA patients. Their identification in Purkinje neurons, which are the main cells affected in SCAs, as well as the changes they experienced, suggest that alterations in endocannabinoid receptors may be related to the pathogenesis of SCAs. Therefore, the endocannabinoid system could provide potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of SCAs and its progression. Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids 2013. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-6 PMID:23808969

  1. Studies on drug metabolism by fungi colonizing decomposing human cadavers. Part II: biotransformation of five model drugs by fungi isolated from post-mortem material.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ramírez, Jorge A; Walther, Grit; Peters, Frank T

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated the in vitro metabolic capacity of 28 fungal strains isolated from post-mortem material towards five model drugs: amitriptyline, metoprolol, mirtazapine, promethazine, and zolpidem. Each fungal strain was incubated at 25 °C for up to 120 h with each of the five models drugs. Cunninghamella elegans was used as positive control. Aliquots of the incubation mixture were centrifuged and 50 μL of the supernatants were diluted and directly analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with product ion scanning. The remaining mixture was analyzed by full scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after liquid-liquid extraction and acetylation. The metabolic activity was evaluated through the total number of detected metabolites (NDM) produced in each model and fungal strains and the percentage of parent drug remaining (%RPD) after up to five days of incubation. All the tested fungal strains were capable of forming mammalian phase I metabolites. Fungi from the normal fungal flora of the human body such as Candida sp., Geotrichum candidum, and Trichosporon asahii) formed up to seven metabolites at %RPD values greater than 52% but no new fungal metabolites (NFM). In contrast, some airborne fungal strains like Bjerkandera adusta, Chaetomium sp, Coriolopsis sp., Fusarium solani and Mucor plumbeus showed NDM values exceeding those of the positive control, complete metabolism of the parent drug in some models and formation of NFM. NFM (numbers in brackets) were detected in four of the five model drugs: amitriptyline (18), metoprolol (4), mirtazapine (8), and zolpidem (2). The latter NFM are potential candidates for marker substances indicating post-mortem fungal metabolism. PMID:24898183

  2. Post-mortem brain pathology is related to declining respiratory function in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Buchman, Aron S; Yu, Lei; Wilson, Robert S; Dawe, Robert J; VanderHorst, Veronique; Schneider, Julie A; Bennett, David A

    2015-01-01

    Damage to brain structures which constitute the distributed neural network that integrates respiratory muscle and pulmonary functions, can impair adequate ventilation and its volitional control. We tested the hypothesis that the level of brain pathology in older adults is associated with declining respiratory function measured during life. 1,409 older adults had annual testing with spirometry (SPI) and respiratory muscle strength (RMS) based on maximal inspiratory and maximal expiratory pressures (MEPs). Those who died underwent structured brain autopsy. On average, during 5 years of follow-up, SPI and RMS showed progressive decline which was moderately correlated (ρ = 0.57, p < 0.001). Among decedents (N = 447), indices of brain neuropathologies showed differential associations with declining SPI and RMS. Nigral neuronal loss was associated with the person-specific decline in SPI (Estimate, -0.016 unit/year, S.E. 0.006, p = 0.009) and reduction of the slope variance was equal to 4%. By contrast, Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology (Estimate, -0.030 unit/year, S.E. 0.009, p < 0.001) and macroscopic infarcts (-0.033 unit/year, S.E., 0.011, p = 0.003) were associated with the person-specific decline in RMS and reduction of the slope variance was equal to 7%. These results suggest that brain pathology is associated with the rate of declining respiratory function in older adults.

  3. Diagnosis, management and post-mortem findings of a human case of rabies imported into the United Kingdom from India: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human rabies infection continues to be a significant public health burden globally, and is occasionally imported to high income settings where the Milwaukee Protocol for intensive care management has recently been employed, with limited success in improving survival. Access to molecular diagnostics, pre- and post-mortem, and documentation of pathophysiological responses while using the Milwaukee protocol, can add useful insights for the future of rabies management. Case presentation A 58-year-old British Asian woman was referred to a regional general hospital in the UK with hydrophobia, anxiety and confusion nine weeks after receiving a dog bite in North West India. Nuchal skin biopsy, saliva, and a skin biopsy from the site of the dog bite wound, taken on the day of admission, all demonstrated the presence of rabies virus RNA. Within 48 hours sequence analysis of viral RNA confirmed the diagnosis and demonstrated that the virus was a strain closely related to canine rabies viruses circulating in South Asia. Her condition deteriorated rapidly with increased agitation and autonomic dysfunction. She was heavily sedated and intubated on the day after admission, treated according to a modified Milwaukee protocol, and remained stable until she developed heart block and profound acidosis and died on the eighth day. Analysis of autopsy samples showed a complete absence of rabies neutralizing antibody in cerebrospinal fluid and serum, and corresponding high levels of virus antigen and nucleic acid in brain and cerebrospinal fluid. Quantitative PCR showed virus was also distributed widely in peripheral tissues despite mild or undetectable histopathological changes. Vagus nerve branches in the heart showed neuritis, a probable Negri body but no demonstrable rabies antigen. Conclusion Rapid molecular diagnosis and strain typing is helpful in the management of human rabies infection. Post-mortem findings such as vagal neuritis highlight clinically important effects

  4. Post-mortem CT and MRI: appropriate post-mortem imaging appearances and changes related to cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Offiah, Curtis E; Dean, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Post-mortem cross-sectional imaging in the form of CT and, less frequently, MRI is an emerging facility in the evaluation of cause-of-death and human identification for the coronial service as well as in assisting the forensic investigation of suspicious deaths and homicide. There are marked differences between the radiological evaluation and interpretation of the CT and MRI features of the live patient (i.e. antemortem imaging) and the evaluation and interpretation of post-mortem CT and MRI appearances. In addition to the absence of frequently utilized tissue enhancement following intravenous contrast administration in antemortem imaging, there are a number of variable changes which occur in the tissues and organs of the body as a normal process following death, some of which are, in addition, affected significantly by environmental factors. Many patients and victims will also have undergone aggressive attempts at cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the perimortem period which will also significantly alter post-mortem CT and MRI appearances. It is paramount that the radiologist and pathologist engaged in the interpretation of such post-mortem imaging are familiar with the appropriate non-pathological imaging changes germane to death, the post-mortem interval and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in order to avoid erroneously attributing such changes to trauma or pathology. Some of the more frequently encountered radiological imaging considerations of this nature will be reviewed. PMID:26562099

  5. Flow cytometry analysis of synaptosomes from post-mortem human brain reveals changes specific to Lewy Body and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Postupna, Nadia O.; Keene, C. Dirk; Latimer, Caitlin; Sherfield, Emily E.; Van Gelder, Rachel D.; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Montine, Thomas J.; Darvas, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic dysfunction is thought to play an important role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Lewy body disease (LBD). To improve our understanding of synaptic alterations in health and disease, we investigated synaptosomes prepared from post-mortem human cerebral cortex, putamen, and two regions of the caudate nucleus, dorso-lateral (DL) and ventro-medial (VM), regions commonly affected in AD and LBD. We observed that the fraction of synaptosomal particles with reactivity for dopamine transporter (DAT) was significantly reduced in the putamen and VM caudate of patients with neuropathological diagnosis of LBD. As expected, these differences also were reflected in direct measurements of dopamine (DA) and its metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), in caudate and putamen of LBD patients. The fraction of synaptosomal particles positive for amyloid β (Aβ) was significantly increased in frontal cortical samples of patients with the neuropathological diagnosis of severe AD, and was positively correlated with disease progression. We also prepared synaptosomes from the striatum of mice with severe loss of DA neurons (Slc6a3-DTR mice) and wild-type littermate controls. We observed dramatically reduced levels of DAT-positive synaptosomes in Slc6a3-DTR mice following exposure to diphtheria toxin (DT). Striatal levels of DA and DOPAC in Slc6a3-DTR mice also were reduced significantly following DT exposure. We conclude that flow cytometric analysis of synaptosomes prepared from human or mouse brain provides an opportunity to study expression of pathology-associated proteins and also the specific loss of dopaminergic nerve terminals. Hence, we believe it is a valid method to detect pathological changes at the level of the synapse in LBD as well as AD. PMID:25068655

  6. Cannabinoid receptor CB2 is expressed on vascular cells, but not astroglial cells in the post-mortem human Huntington's disease brain.

    PubMed

    Dowie, Megan J; Grimsey, Natasha L; Hoffman, Therri; Faull, Richard L M; Glass, Michelle

    2014-09-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurological disease with motor, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms. Characterised by neuronal degeneration, HD pathology is initially apparent in the striatum and cortex. Considerable research has recently suggested that the neurological immune response apparent in brain injury and disease may provide a valuable therapeutic target. Cannabinoid CB2 receptors are localised and up-regulated on a number of peripheral immune cell types following inflammation and injury. However, their cellular location within the human brain during inflammation has not been well characterised. The present study shows CB2 is expressed in human post-mortem striatum in HD. Quantification revealed a trend towards an increase in CB2 staining with disease, but no significant difference was measured compared to neurologically normal controls. In HD striatal tissue, there is an up-regulation of the brains' resident immune cells, with a significant increase in GFAP-positive astrocyte staining at both grade 1 (685±118%) and grade 3 (1145±163%) and Iba1-positive microglia at grade 1 (299±27%) but not grade 3 (119±48%), compared to neurologically normal controls. Both cell types exhibit irregular cell morphology, particularly at higher grades. Using double-labelled immunohistochemistry CB2 receptors are demonstrated not to be expressed on microglia or astrocytes and instead appear to be localised on CD31-positive blood vessel endothelium and vascular smooth muscle. Co-expression analysis suggests that CB2 may be more highly expressed on CD31 positive cells in HD brains than in control brains. Contrasting with evidence from rodent studies suggesting CB2 glial cell localisation, our observation that CB2 is present on blood vessel cells, with increased CD31 co-localisation in HD may represent a new context for CB2 therapeutic approaches to neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. The Effect of Upper Body Mass and Initial Knee Flexion on the Injury Outcome of Post Mortem Human Subject Pedestrian Isolated Legs.

    PubMed

    Petit, Philippe; Trosseille, Xavier; Dufaure, Nicolas; Dubois, Denis; Potier, Pascal; Vallancien, Guy

    2014-11-01

    In the ECE 127 Regulation on pedestrian leg protection, as well as in the Euro NCAP test protocol, a legform impactor hits the vehicle at the speed of 40 kph. In these tests, the knee is fully extended and the leg is not coupled to the upper body. However, the typical configuration of a pedestrian impact differs since the knee is flexed during most of the gait cycle and the hip joint applies an unknown force to the femur. This study aimed at investigating the influence of the inertia of the upper body (modelled using an upper body mass fixed at the proximal end of the femur) and the initial knee flexion angle on the lower limb injury outcome. In total, 18 tests were conducted on 18 legs from 9 Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS). The principle of these tests was to impact the leg at 40 kph using a sled equipped with 3 crushing steel tubes, the stiffness of which were representative of the front face of a European sedan (bonnet leading edge, bumper and spoiler). The mass of the equipped sled was 74.5 kg. The test matrix was designed to perform 4 tests in 4 configurations combining two upper body masses (either 0 or 3 kg) and two knee angles (0 or 20 degrees) at 40 kph (11 m/s) plus 2 tests at 9 m/s. Autopsies were performed on the lower limbs and an injury assessment was established. The findings of this study were first that the increase of the upper body mass resulted in more severe injuries, second that an initial flexion of the knee, corresponding to its natural position during the gait cycle, decreased the severity of the injuries, and third that based on the injury outcome, a test conducted with no upper body mass and the knee fully extended was as severe as a test conducted with a 3 kg upper body mass and an initial knee flexion of 20°. PMID:26192955

  8. The Effect of Upper Body Mass and Initial Knee Flexion on the Injury Outcome of Post Mortem Human Subject Pedestrian Isolated Legs.

    PubMed

    Petit, Philippe; Trosseille, Xavier; Dufaure, Nicolas; Dubois, Denis; Potier, Pascal; Vallancien, Guy

    2014-11-01

    In the ECE 127 Regulation on pedestrian leg protection, as well as in the Euro NCAP test protocol, a legform impactor hits the vehicle at the speed of 40 kph. In these tests, the knee is fully extended and the leg is not coupled to the upper body. However, the typical configuration of a pedestrian impact differs since the knee is flexed during most of the gait cycle and the hip joint applies an unknown force to the femur. This study aimed at investigating the influence of the inertia of the upper body (modelled using an upper body mass fixed at the proximal end of the femur) and the initial knee flexion angle on the lower limb injury outcome. In total, 18 tests were conducted on 18 legs from 9 Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS). The principle of these tests was to impact the leg at 40 kph using a sled equipped with 3 crushing steel tubes, the stiffness of which were representative of the front face of a European sedan (bonnet leading edge, bumper and spoiler). The mass of the equipped sled was 74.5 kg. The test matrix was designed to perform 4 tests in 4 configurations combining two upper body masses (either 0 or 3 kg) and two knee angles (0 or 20 degrees) at 40 kph (11 m/s) plus 2 tests at 9 m/s. Autopsies were performed on the lower limbs and an injury assessment was established. The findings of this study were first that the increase of the upper body mass resulted in more severe injuries, second that an initial flexion of the knee, corresponding to its natural position during the gait cycle, decreased the severity of the injuries, and third that based on the injury outcome, a test conducted with no upper body mass and the knee fully extended was as severe as a test conducted with a 3 kg upper body mass and an initial knee flexion of 20°.

  9. Paralytic shellfish poisoning: post-mortem analysis of tissue and body fluid samples from human victims in the Patagonia fjords.

    PubMed

    García, Carlos; del Carmen Bravo, María; Lagos, Marcelo; Lagos, Néstor

    2004-02-01

    toxins went under metabolic transformation during the 3-4 h of human intoxication period, in which PSP toxins showed enzymatic oxidation of N(1) in the tetrahydropurine nucleus, producing neoSTX and GTX4/GTX1 epimers starting from STX and GTX3/GTX2 epimers, respectively. This study conclude, that PSP toxins are metabolically transformed by humans and that they are removed from the body by excretion in the urine and feces like any other xenobiotic compound. PMID:15019474

  10. Expression of microRNAs in human post-mortem amyotrophic lateral sclerosis spinal cords provides insight into disease mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Romero, Claudia; Hur, Junguk; Lunn, J Simon; Paez-Colasante, Ximena; Bender, Diane E; Yung, Raymond; Sakowski, Stacey A; Feldman, Eva L

    2016-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a late-onset and terminal neurodegenerative disease. The majority of cases are sporadic with unknown causes and only a small number of cases are genetically linked. Recent evidence suggests that post-transcriptional regulation and epigenetic mechanisms, such as microRNAs, underlie the onset and progression of neurodegenerative disorders; therefore, altered microRNA expression may result in the dysregulation of key genes and biological pathways that contribute to the development of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Using systems biology analyses on postmortem human spinal cord tissue, we identified dysregulated mature microRNAs and their potential targets previously implicated in functional process and pathways associated with the pathogenesis of ALS. Furthermore, we report a global reduction of mature microRNAs, alterations in microRNA processing, and support for a role of the nucleotide binding protein, TAR DNA binding protein 43, in regulating sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-associated microRNAs, thereby offering a potential underlying mechanism for sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  11. Comparison of the Thorax Dynamic Responses of Small Female and Midsize Male Post Mortem Human Subjects in Side and Forward Oblique Impact Tests.

    PubMed

    Baudrit, Pascal; Petitjean, Audrey; Potier, Pascal; Trosseille, Xavier; Vallencien, Guy

    2014-11-01

    Despite the increasing knowledge of the thorax mechanics in impact loadings, the effects of inter-individual differences on the mechanical response are difficult to take into account. For example, the biofidelity corridors for the small female or large male are extrapolated from the midsize male corridors. The present study reports on the results of new tests performed on small female Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS), and compares them with test results on midsize male PMHS. Three tests in pure side impact and three tests in forward oblique impact were performed on the thorax of small female specimens. The average weight and stature were 43 kg and 1.58 m for the small female specimens. The initial speed of the impactor was 4.3 m/s. The mass and the diameter of the impactor face were respectively 23.4 kg and 130 mm. The instrumentation and methodology was the same as for the tests published in 2008 by Trosseille et al. on midsize male specimens. The rib cages were instrumented with accelerometers on the T1, T4 and T12 vertebrae, upper and lower sternum, and the ribs were instrumented with up to 110 strain gauges. A force transducer and an accelerometer were mounted on the impactor in order to record the force applied onto the thorax. Targets fixed on vertebrae were tracked using high speed cameras in order to estimate the thoracic deflection. For the six midsize males, the test conditions were exactly the same as for the small female specimens, except for the diameter of the impactor face which was 152 mm. The average weight and stature were 70.3 kg and 1.70 m for the midsize male specimens. The force and thoracic deflection time-histories and the injury assessments are given for each specimen. The thorax force magnitude varied from 1.05 to 1.45 kN and from 1.63 to 2.34 kN, respectively for the small female and midsize male groups. The maximum deflection varied from 51 to 117 mm and from 59 to 81 mm, respectively for the small female and midsize male groups. The

  12. Fluorescently labeled bacteria provide insight on post-mortem microbial transmigration.

    PubMed

    Burcham, Z M; Hood, J A; Pechal, J L; Krausz, K L; Bose, J L; Schmidt, C J; Benbow, M E; Jordan, H R

    2016-07-01

    Microbially mediated mechanisms of human decomposition begin immediately after death, and are a driving force for the conversion of a once living organism to a resource of energy and nutrients. Little is known about post-mortem microbiology in cadavers, particularly the community structure of microflora residing within the cadaver and the dynamics of these communities during decomposition. Recent work suggests these bacterial communities undergo taxa turnover and shifts in community composition throughout the post-mortem interval. In this paper we describe how the microbiome of a living host changes and transmigrates within the body after death thus linking the microbiome of a living individual to post-mortem microbiome changes. These differences in the human post-mortem from the ante-mortem microbiome have demonstrated promise as evidence in death investigations. We investigated the post-mortem structure and function dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium perfringens after intranasal inoculation in the animal model Mus musculus L. (mouse) to identify how transmigration of bacterial species can potentially aid in post-mortem interval estimations. S. aureus was tracked using in vivo and in vitro imaging to determine colonization routes associated with different physiological events of host decomposition, while C. perfringens was tracked using culture-based techniques. Samples were collected at discrete time intervals associated with various physiological events and host decomposition beginning at 1h and ending at 60 days post-mortem. Results suggest that S. aureus reaches its highest concentration at 5-7 days post-mortem then begins to rapidly decrease and is undetectable by culture on day 30. The ability to track these organisms as they move in to once considered sterile space may be useful for sampling during autopsy to aid in determining post-mortem interval range estimations, cause of death, and origins associated with the geographic location of human

  13. Post-mortem timing of skeletal muscle biochemical and mechanical degradation.

    PubMed

    Tuttle, Lori J; Alperin, Marianna; Lieber, Richard L

    2014-04-11

    Fresh cadaveric human tissue is a valuable resource that is used to address important clinical questions. However, it is unknown how post-mortem time impacts skeletal muscle mechanical and biochemical properties. We simulated morgue conditions in rabbits and tested the passive mechanical properties of muscle bundles, and the degradation of myosin heavy chain, collagen, and titin at specific intervals up to 7 days post-mortem. While a great deal of inter-specimen variability was observed, it was independent of post-mortem time. Passive mechanics, myosin heavy chain, and collagen content were all unaffected while the titin protein degraded up to 80% over 7 days post-mortem. These data indicate that fresh cadaveric tissue may be used for passive mechanical testing and that certain biochemical properties are unchanged up to 7 days after death. PMID:24589021

  14. A comparative autoradiography study in post mortem whole hemisphere human brain slices taken from Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls using two radiolabelled DAA1106 analogues with high affinity to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) system.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Makkai, Boglárka; Kása, Péter; Gulya, Károly; Bakota, Lidia; Várszegi, Szilvia; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Andersson, Jan; Csiba, László; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Suhara, Tetsua; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Higuchi, Makato; Halldin, Christer

    2009-01-01

    The binding of two radiolabelled analogues (N-(5-[125I]Iodo-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desfluoro-DAA1106) and N-(5-[125I]Fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[125I]Iodo-5-methoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desmethoxy-DAA1106) of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) (or TSPO, 18kDa translocator protein) ligand DAA1106 was examined by in vitro autoradiography on human post mortem whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched controls. Both [(125)I]desfluoro-IDAA1106 and [(125)I]desmethoxy-IDAA1106 were effectively binding to various brain structures. The binding could be blocked by the unlabelled ligand as well as by other PBR specific ligands. With both radiolabelled compounds, the binding showed regional inhomogeneity and the specific binding values proved to be the highest in the hippocampus, temporal and parietal cortex, the basal ganglia and thalamus in the AD brains. Compared with age-matched control brains, specific binding in several brain structures (temporal and parietal lobes, thalamus and white matter) in Alzheimer brains was significantly higher, indicating that the radioligands can effectively label-activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in AD. Complementary immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactive microglia activation in the AD brain tissue and indicated that increased ligand binding coincides with increased regional microglia activation due to neuroinflammation. These investigations yield further support to the PBR/TSPO binding capacity of DAA1106 in human brain tissue, demonstrate the effective usefulness of its radio-iodinated analogues as imaging biomarkers in post mortem human studies, and indicate that its radiolabelled analogues, labelled with short half-time bioisotopes, can serve as prospective in vivo imaging biomarkers of activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in the human brain.

  15. A comparative autoradiography study in post mortem whole hemisphere human brain slices taken from Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls using two radiolabelled DAA1106 analogues with high affinity to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) system.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Makkai, Boglárka; Kása, Péter; Gulya, Károly; Bakota, Lidia; Várszegi, Szilvia; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Andersson, Jan; Csiba, László; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Suhara, Tetsua; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Higuchi, Makato; Halldin, Christer

    2009-01-01

    The binding of two radiolabelled analogues (N-(5-[125I]Iodo-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desfluoro-DAA1106) and N-(5-[125I]Fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[125I]Iodo-5-methoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desmethoxy-DAA1106) of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) (or TSPO, 18kDa translocator protein) ligand DAA1106 was examined by in vitro autoradiography on human post mortem whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched controls. Both [(125)I]desfluoro-IDAA1106 and [(125)I]desmethoxy-IDAA1106 were effectively binding to various brain structures. The binding could be blocked by the unlabelled ligand as well as by other PBR specific ligands. With both radiolabelled compounds, the binding showed regional inhomogeneity and the specific binding values proved to be the highest in the hippocampus, temporal and parietal cortex, the basal ganglia and thalamus in the AD brains. Compared with age-matched control brains, specific binding in several brain structures (temporal and parietal lobes, thalamus and white matter) in Alzheimer brains was significantly higher, indicating that the radioligands can effectively label-activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in AD. Complementary immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactive microglia activation in the AD brain tissue and indicated that increased ligand binding coincides with increased regional microglia activation due to neuroinflammation. These investigations yield further support to the PBR/TSPO binding capacity of DAA1106 in human brain tissue, demonstrate the effective usefulness of its radio-iodinated analogues as imaging biomarkers in post mortem human studies, and indicate that its radiolabelled analogues, labelled with short half-time bioisotopes, can serve as prospective in vivo imaging biomarkers of activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in the human brain. PMID:18984021

  16. Post-mortem sperm retrieval in Australasia.

    PubMed

    Kroon, Benjamin; Kroon, Frederick; Holt, Saul; Wong, Brittany; Yazdani, Anusch

    2012-10-01

    Post-mortem Sperm Retrieval (PMSR) is seldom requested in Australasia. The retrieval of sperm is permitted only by prior written consent or by order of the court. Sperm should be retrieved within 24 h following death; however, collection within 36 h may still be successful. The clinical response to such a request must be mindful of complex ethical and legal considerations. Clear, accessible and consistent law in this area would benefit medical, legal and societal stakeholders. PMID:22862141

  17. Distribution and binding of 18F-labeled and 125I-labeled analogues of ACI-80, a prospective molecular imaging biomarker of disease: a whole hemisphere post mortem autoradiography study in human brains obtained from Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Spenger, Christian; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Gulya, Károly; Kása, Péter; Jahan, Mahabuba; Jia, Zhisheng; Weber, Urs; Pfeifer, Andrea; Muhs, Andreas; Willbold, Dieter; Halldin, Christer

    2012-01-01

    One of the major pathological landmarks of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases is the presence of amyloid deposits in the brain. The early non-invasive visualization of amyloid is a major objective of recent diagnostic neuroimaging approaches, including positron emission tomography (PET), with an eye on follow-up of disease progression and/or therapy efficacy. The development of molecular imaging biomarkers with binding affinity to amyloid in the brain is therefore in the forefront of imaging biomarker and radiochemistry research. Recently, a dodecamer peptide (amino acid sequence=QSHYRHISPAQV; denominated D1 or ACI-80) was identified as a prospective ligand candidate, binding with high ex vivo affinity to L-Aβ-amyloid (K(d): 0.4 μM). In order to assess the ligand's capacity to visualize amyloid in Alzheimer's disease (AD), two (125)I labeled and three (18)F labeled analogues of the peptide were synthesized and tested in post mortem human autoradiography experiments using whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from deceased AD patients and age matched control subjects. The (18)F-labeled radioligands showed more promising visualization capacity of amyloid that the (125)I-labeled radioligands. In the case of each (18)F radioligands the grey matter uptake in the AD brains was significantly higher than that in control brains. Furthermore, the grey matter: white matter uptake ratio was over ~2, the difference being significant for each (18)F-radioligands. The regional distribution of the uptake of the various radioligands systematically shows a congruent pattern between the high uptake regions and spots in the autoradiographic images and the disease specific signals obtained in adjacent or identical brain slices labeled with histological, immunohistochemical or autoradiographic stains for amyloid deposits or activated astrocytes. The present data, using post mortem human brain autoradiography in whole hemisphere human brains obtained from deceased

  18. Human neuro-specimen banking 1961-1992. The National Neurological Research Specimen Bank (a donor program of pre- and post-mortem tissues and cerebrospinal fluid/blood; and a collection of cryopreserved human neurological specimens for neuroscientists).

    PubMed

    Tourtellotte, W W; Rosario, I P; Conrad, A; Syndulko, K

    1993-01-01

    The National Neurological Research Specimen Bank (The Bank) was established in 1961 to provide a vital service to neuroscientists. Our purpose is to support medical research which seeks the etiopathogenesis for devastating neurological disorders with no known cause, treatment or precise animal model. It serves as a bridge between the neurology clinician who diagnoses and cares for patients with incurable disease and the basic scientist who has need for specimens to find their etiopathogenesis. In the long run this service should advance neurologic diagnoses and serve as the basis for designing treatment. The Bank has grown to be the largest, most diverse neurological specimen bank of its kind in the world. It is a type of "tissue bank" where donor members "will" their central nervous system tissues to science. Then we collect, photograph, seal in air tight bags, quick freeze, cryogenically store and distribute on request the donated tissue to research scientists around the world. All tissue diagnoses are confirmed by clinical records and neuropathologic examination; further histology is conducted on request. In addition to brain and spinal cord tissues, the Bank has samples of other tissues. There are also samples of pre- and post-mortem CSF and sera from normal individuals and patients with various neurological disorders, especially serial specimens on multiple sclerosis patients and HIV-1 seropositive and at risk individuals. This paper outlines the global operations of our human brain bank, based on protocols developed and used by the authors. These operations include donor solicitation, tissue acquisition and documentation, tissue processing and storage, specimen dissemination to users, outcome assessment of banking, quality control, cost of our operation, table of organization and the future. PMID:8360665

  19. The Elusive Universal Post-Mortem Interval Formula

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, Arpad Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The following manuscript details our initial attempt at developing universal post-mortem interval formulas describing human decomposition. These formulas are empirically derived from data collected over the last 20 years from the University of Tennessee's Anthropology Research Facility, in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Two formulas were developed (surface decomposition and burial decomposition) based on temperature, moisture, and the partial pressure of oxygen, as being three of the four primary drivers for human decomposition. It is hoped that worldwide application of these formulas to environments and situations not readily studied in Tennessee will result in interdisciplinary cooperation between scientists and law enforcement personnel that will allow for future refinements of these models leading to increased accuracy.

  20. Pressure measurements in the spinal canal of post-mortem human subjects during rear-end impact and correlation of results to the neck injury criterion.

    PubMed

    Eichberger, A; Darok, M; Steffan, H; Leinzinger, P E; Boström, O; Svensson, M Y

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the pressure effect theory on human beings during a realistic rear-end impact and to correlate the neck injury criterion to pressure in the spinal canal. Sled experiments were performed using a test setup similar to real rear-end collisions. Test conditions were chosen based on accident statistics and recordings of real accidents. In particular, velocity change and acceleration level were reproduced similar to actual collisions. The head restraint as well as the seat back were adjusted to different positions. Two small pressure transducer were implemented to the spinal canal of postmortem human subjects and pressure measurement similar to the pig experiments (using exactly the same equipment) were performed. A total set of 21 experiments with four different subjects were performed. The subjects were additionally instrumented with triaxial accelerometers that allowed for calculation of the NIC criterion. Results showed that NIC and pressure amplitudes of the CSF correlate well and therefore NIC seems to be able to predict these amplitudes also for human beings. Conclusions whether these pressure effects induce soft tissue neck injuries or not could not be drawn and should be investigated in further research.

  1. The norepinephrine transporter (NET) radioligand (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2 shows significant decreases in NET density in the human brain in Alzheimer's disease: a post-mortem autoradiographic study.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Brockschnieder, Damian; Nag, Sangram; Pavlova, Elena; Kása, Péter; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Légrádi, Adám; Gulya, Károly; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Halldin, Christer

    2010-01-01

    Earlier post-mortem histological and autoradiographic studies have indicated a reduction of cell numbers in the locus coeruleus (LC) and a corresponding decrease in norepinephrine transporter (NET) in brains obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients as compared to age-matched healthy controls. In order to test the hypothesis that the regional decrease of NET is a disease specific biomarker in AD and as such, it can be used in PET imaging studies for diagnostic considerations, regional differences in the density of NET in various anatomical structures were measured in whole hemisphere human brain slices obtained from AD patients and age-matched control subjects in a series of autoradiographic experiments using the novel selective PET radioligand for NET (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2). (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2) appears to be a useful imaging biomarker for quantifying the density of NET in various brain structures, including the LC and the thalamus wherein the highest densities are found in physiological conditions. In AD significant decreases of NET densities can be demonstrated with the radioligand in both structures as compared to age-matched controls. The decreases in AD correlate with the progress of the disease as indicated by Braak grades. As the size of the LC is below the spatial resolution of the PET scanners, but the size of the thalamus can be detected with appropriate spatial accuracy in advanced scanners, the present findings confirm our earlier observations with PET that the in vivo imaging of NET with (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2) in the thalamus is viable. Nevertheless, further studies are warranted to assess the usefulness of such an imaging approach for the early detection of changes in thalamic NET densities as a disease-specific biomarker and the possible use of (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2) as a molecular imaging biomarker in AD. PMID:20211213

  2. Distribution of serotonin receptor of type 6 (5-HT₆) in human brain post-mortem. A pharmacology, autoradiography and immunohistochemistry study.

    PubMed

    Marazziti, Donatella; Baroni, Stefano; Pirone, Andrea; Giannaccini, Gino; Betti, Laura; Schmid, Lara; Vatteroni, Elena; Palego, Lionella; Borsini, Franco; Bordi, Fabio; Piano, Ilaria; Gargini, Claudia; Castagna, Maura; Catena-Dell'osso, Mario; Lucacchini, Antonio

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of serotonin (5-HT) receptors of type 6 (5-HT(6)) in postmortem human prefrontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus. The brain samples were obtained from 6 subjects who had died for causes not involving primarily or secondarily the CNS. The 5-HT(6) receptor distribution was explored by the [(125)I]SB-258585 binding to brain membranes followed by the pharmacological characterization, where possible, and by autoradiographic, immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence evaluations. A specific and saturable [(125)I]SB-258585 binding was detected in striatum only, with a pharmacological characterization consistent with that of a 5-HT(6) receptor. The autoradiography showed the presence of a specific [(125)I]SB-258585 binding distributed homogeneously in caudate, putamen and accumbens. The immunohistochemistry, carried out in the striatum only, coupled with the immunofluorescence with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and parvalbumin (PV) showed the co-localization of 5-HT(6) receptor with PV, while indicating that this receptor subtype was expressed in neurons and not in astrocytes. Taken together, the present findings showed the presence of a higher density of 5-HT(6) receptors, as labeled by [(125)I]SB-258585, in striatum than in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, and specifically within the neuronal body. In addition, they would suggest that striatum is one of the major potential CNS targets linked to 5-HT(6) receptor modulation. PMID:22278721

  3. 9 CFR 352.11 - Post-mortem inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-mortem inspection. (a) Post-mortem inspection of reindeer, elk, deer, antelope, bison and water buffalo shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions contained in 9 CFR part 310 or as determined by...

  4. 9 CFR 352.11 - Post-mortem inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-mortem inspection. (a) Post-mortem inspection of reindeer, elk, deer, antelope, bison and water buffalo shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions contained in 9 CFR part 310 or as determined by...

  5. 9 CFR 352.11 - Post-mortem inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-mortem inspection. (a) Post-mortem inspection of reindeer, elk, deer, antelope, bison and water buffalo shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions contained in 9 CFR part 310 or as determined by...

  6. 9 CFR 352.11 - Post-mortem inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-mortem inspection. (a) Post-mortem inspection of reindeer, elk, deer, antelope, bison and water buffalo shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions contained in 9 CFR part 310 or as determined by...

  7. 9 CFR 352.11 - Post-mortem inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-mortem inspection. (a) Post-mortem inspection of reindeer, elk, deer, antelope, bison and water buffalo shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions contained in 9 CFR part 310 or as determined by...

  8. Long-term stability of RNA in post-mortem bovine skeletal muscle, liver and subcutaneous adipose tissues

    PubMed Central

    Bahar, Bojlul; Monahan, Frank J; Moloney, Aidan P; Schmidt, Olaf; MacHugh, David E; Sweeney, Torres

    2007-01-01

    Background Recovering high quality intact RNA from post-mortem tissue is of major concern for gene expression studies in animals and humans. Since the availability of post-mortem tissue is often associated with substantial delay, it is important that we understand the temporal variation in the stability of total RNA and of individual gene transcripts so as to be able to appropriately interpret the data generated from such studies. Hence, the objective of this experiment was to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the integrity of total and messenger RNA extracted from bovine skeletal muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver stored at 4°C at a range of time points up to 22 days post-mortem. These conditions were designed to mimic the environment prevailing during the transport of beef from the abattoir to retail outlets. Results The 28S and 18S rRNA molecules of total RNA were intact for up to 24 h post-mortem in liver and adipose tissues and up to 8 days post-mortem in skeletal muscle. The mRNA of housekeeping genes (GAPDH and ACTB) and two diet-related genes (RBP5 and SCD) were detectable up to 22 days post-mortem in skeletal muscle. While the mRNA stability of the two housekeeping genes was different in skeletal muscle and liver, they were similar to each other in adipose tissue. After 22 days post-mortem, the relative abundance of RBP5 gene was increased in skeletal muscle and in adipose tissue and decreased in liver. During this period, the relative abundance of SCD gene also increased in skeletal muscle whereas it decreased in both adipose tissue and liver. Conclusion Stability of RNA in three tissues (skeletal muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver) subjected to long-term post-mortem storage at refrigeration temperature indicated that skeletal muscle can be a suitable tissue for recovering biologically useful RNA for gene expression studies even if the tissue is subjected to post-mortem storage for weeks, whereas adipose tissue and liver

  9. Evaluation of post-mortem lateral cerebral ventricle changes using sequential scans during post-mortem computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Iwao; Shimizu, Akinobu; Saito, Atsushi; Suzuki, Hideto; Vogel, Hermann; Püschel, Klaus; Heinemann, Axel

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we evaluated post-mortem lateral cerebral ventricle (LCV) changes using computed tomography (CT). Subsequent periodical CT scans termed "sequential scans" were obtained for three cadavers. The first scan was performed immediately after the body was transferred from the emergency room to the institute of legal medicine. Sequential scans were obtained and evaluated for 24 h at maximum. The time of death had been determined in the emergency room. The sequential scans enabled us to observe periodical post-mortem changes in CT images. The series of continuous LCV images obtained up to 24 h (two cases)/16 h (1 case) after death was evaluated. The average Hounsfield units (HU) within the LCVs progressively increased, and LCV volume progressively decreased over time. The HU in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) increased at an individual rate proportional to the post-mortem interval (PMI). Thus, an early longitudinal radiodensity change in the CSF could be potential indicator of post-mortem interval (PMI). Sequential imaging scans reveal post-mortem changes in the CSF space which may reflect post-mortem brain alterations. Further studies are needed to evaluate the proposed CSF change markers in correlation with other validated PMI indicators.

  10. Skeletal muscle stem cells adopt a dormant cell state post mortem and retain regenerative capacity.

    PubMed

    Latil, Mathilde; Rocheteau, Pierre; Châtre, Laurent; Sanulli, Serena; Mémet, Sylvie; Ricchetti, Miria; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim; Chrétien, Fabrice

    2012-01-01

    The accessibility to stem cells from healthy or diseased individuals, and the maintenance of their potency are challenging issues for stem cell biology. Here we report the isolation of viable and functional skeletal myogenic cells from humans up to 17 days, and mice up to 14 days post mortem, much longer beyond previous reports. Muscle stem cells are enriched in post mortem tissue, suggesting a selective survival advantage compared with other cell types. Transplantation of mouse muscle and haematopoietic stem cells regenerates tissues robustly. Cellular quiescence contributes to this cell viability where cells adopt a reversible dormant state characterized by reduced metabolic activity, a prolonged lag phase before the first cell division, elevated levels of reactive oxygen species and a transcriptional status less primed for commitment. Finally, severe hypoxia, or anoxia is critical for maintaining stem cell viability and regenerative capacity. Thus, these cells provide a useful resource for studying stem cell biology.

  11. DNA methylation results depend on DNA integrity—role of post mortem interval

    PubMed Central

    Rhein, Mathias; Hagemeier, Lars; Klintschar, Michael; Muschler, Marc; Bleich, Stefan; Frieling, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Major questions of neurological and psychiatric mechanisms involve the brain functions on a molecular level and cannot be easily addressed due to limitations in access to tissue samples. Post mortem studies are able to partly bridge the gap between brain tissue research retrieved from animal trials and the information derived from peripheral analysis (e.g., measurements in blood cells) in patients. Here, we wanted to know how fast DNA degradation is progressing under controlled conditions in order to define thresholds for tissue quality to be used in respective trials. Our focus was on the applicability of partly degraded samples for bisulfite sequencing and the determination of simple means to define cut-off values. After opening the brain cavity, we kept two consecutive pig skulls at ambient temperature (19–21°C) and removed cortex tissue up to a post mortem interval (PMI) of 120 h. We calculated the percentage of degradation on DNA gel electrophoresis of brain DNA to estimate quality and relate this estimation spectrum to the quality of human post mortem control samples. Functional DNA quality was investigated by bisulfite sequencing of two functionally relevant genes for either the serotonin receptor 5 (SLC6A4) or aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2). Testing our approach in a heterogeneous collective of human blood and brain samples, we demonstrate integrity of measurement quality below the threshold of 72 h PMI. While sequencing technically worked for all timepoints irrespective of conceivable DNA degradation, there is a good correlation between variance of methylation to degradation levels documented in the gel (R2 = 0.4311, p = 0.0392) for advancing post mortem intervals (PMI). This otherwise elusive phenomenon is an important prerequisite for the interpretation and evaluation of samples prior to in-depth processing via an affordable and easy assay to estimate identical sample quality and thereby comparable methylation measurements. PMID:26042147

  12. Advances in post-mortem CT-angiography

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, J; Dominguez, A; Vanhaebost, J; Mangin, P

    2014-01-01

    Performing a post-mortem multidetector CT (MDCT) scan has already become routine in some institutes of forensic medicine. To better visualize the vascular system, different techniques of post-mortem CT-angiography have been explored, which can essentially be divided into partial- and whole-body angiography techniques. Probably the most frequently applied technique today is the so-called multiphase post-mortem CT-angiography (MPMCTA) a standardized method for investigating the vessels of the head, thorax and abdomen. Different studies exist, describing its use for medicolegal investigations, and its advantages as well as its artefacts and pitfalls. With the aim to investigate the performance of PMCTA and to develop and validate techniques, an international working group was created in 2012 called the “Technical Working Group Post-mortem Angiography Methods” (TWGPAM). Beyond its primary perspective, the goals of this group include creating recommendations for the indication of the investigation and for the interpretation of the images and to distribute knowledge about PMCTA. This article provides an overview about the different approaches that have been developed and tested in recent years and an update about ongoing research in this field. It will explain the technique of MPMCTA in detail and give an outline of its indications, application, advantages and limitations. PMID:24234582

  13. Method for modeling post-mortem biometric 3D fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeev, Srijith; Shreyas, Kamath K. M.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2016-05-01

    Despite the advancements of fingerprint recognition in 2-D and 3-D domain, authenticating deformed/post-mortem fingerprints continue to be an important challenge. Prior cleansing and reconditioning of the deceased finger is required before acquisition of the fingerprint. The victim's finger needs to be precisely and carefully operated by a medium to record the fingerprint impression. This process may damage the structure of the finger, which subsequently leads to higher false rejection rates. This paper proposes a non-invasive method to perform 3-D deformed/post-mortem finger modeling, which produces a 2-D rolled equivalent fingerprint for automated verification. The presented novel modeling method involves masking, filtering, and unrolling. Computer simulations were conducted on finger models with different depth variations obtained from Flashscan3D LLC. Results illustrate that the modeling scheme provides a viable 2-D fingerprint of deformed models for automated verification. The quality and adaptability of the obtained unrolled 2-D fingerprints were analyzed using NIST fingerprint software. Eventually, the presented method could be extended to other biometric traits such as palm, foot, tongue etc. for security and administrative applications.

  14. The post-mortem resilience of facial creases and the possibility for use in identification of the dead.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Helmi; Wilkinson, Caroline M

    2014-04-01

    The post-mortem resilience of facial creases was studied using donated bodies in order to establish the efficacy of crease analysis for identification of the dead. Creases were studied on normal (pre-embalmed) and bloated (embalmed) cadavers at the Centre for Anatomy and Human Identification (CAHID) to establish whether facial bloating would affect facial crease visibility. Embalming was chosen to simulate the effects produced by post-mortem bloating. The results suggested that creases are resilient and changes were only detected for creases located on the periphery of the face, particularly at areas where the skin is thick, such as at the cheeks. Two new creases not previously classified were identified; these creases were called the vertical superciliary arch line and the lateral nose crease. This research suggests that facial creases may be resilient enough after death to be utilised for human identification.

  15. Understanding fast macroscale fracture from microcrack post mortem patterns

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Claudia; Scheibert, Julien; Bonamy, Daniel; Dalmas, Davy

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic crack propagation drives catastrophic solid failures. In many amorphous brittle materials, sufficiently fast crack growth involves small-scale, high-frequency microcracking damage localized near the crack tip. The ultrafast dynamics of microcrack nucleation, growth, and coalescence is inaccessible experimentally and fast crack propagation was therefore studied only as a macroscale average. Here, we overcome this limitation in polymethylmethacrylate, the archetype of brittle amorphous materials: We reconstruct the complete spatiotemporal microcracking dynamics, with micrometer/nanosecond resolution, through post mortem analysis of the fracture surfaces. We find that all individual microcracks propagate at the same low, load-independent velocity. Collectively, the main effect of microcracks is not to slow down fracture by increasing the energy required for crack propagation, as commonly believed, but on the contrary to boost the macroscale velocity through an acceleration factor selected on geometric grounds. Our results emphasize the key role of damage-related internal variables in the selection of macroscale fracture dynamics. PMID:22203962

  16. Scaring us all to death: the need for responsible legal scholarship on post-mortem organ donation.

    PubMed

    Naffine, Ngaire; Richards, Bernadette; Rogers, Wendy

    2009-02-01

    This article considers the legal, medical and policy issues arising from post-mortem organ donation. It explains the basis of relevant law, and examines the diagnosis of death and the ethics of medical aspects of post-mortem donation. While the law in this area may well be imperfect, it provides an appropriate and ethical framework within which health care professionals can function. The current medico-legal framework protects and preserves the public interest, such that the broader society can be confident that the dead donor rule is observed irrespective of the way that death is diagnosed. This article also acknowledges the human fear of death and calls for responsible scholarship in this area.

  17. Post-mortem investigations on a leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea stranded along the Northern Adriatic coastline.

    PubMed

    Poppi, Lisa; Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Pasotto, Daniela; Dotto, Giorgia; Marcer, Federica; Scaravelli, Dino; Mazzariol, Sandro

    2012-08-13

    Leatherback sea turtles Dermochelys coriacea are regularly reported in the Mediterranean Sea but rarely reach the northern Adriatic Sea. In the summer of 2009, a well-preserved carcass of an adult female of this species was found dead along the coast of Lido di Venezia. A complete necropsy was carried out, along with evaluation of levels of tissue trace elements. The the post-mortem revealed acute severe bacterial gastroenteritis caused by Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida, an opportunistic agent that infected an apparently debilitated animal weakened by ingested plastic debris. High levels of heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cd and As) found in the liver and kidneys might have contributed to the animal's demise. These findings support previous indications that marine debris is one of the major threats to marine animals, particularly for critically endangered species such as the leatherback turtle.

  18. Post-mortem investigations on a leatherback turtle Dermochelys coriacea stranded along the Northern Adriatic coastline.

    PubMed

    Poppi, Lisa; Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Pasotto, Daniela; Dotto, Giorgia; Marcer, Federica; Scaravelli, Dino; Mazzariol, Sandro

    2012-08-13

    Leatherback sea turtles Dermochelys coriacea are regularly reported in the Mediterranean Sea but rarely reach the northern Adriatic Sea. In the summer of 2009, a well-preserved carcass of an adult female of this species was found dead along the coast of Lido di Venezia. A complete necropsy was carried out, along with evaluation of levels of tissue trace elements. The the post-mortem revealed acute severe bacterial gastroenteritis caused by Photobacterium damselae ssp. piscicida, an opportunistic agent that infected an apparently debilitated animal weakened by ingested plastic debris. High levels of heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cd and As) found in the liver and kidneys might have contributed to the animal's demise. These findings support previous indications that marine debris is one of the major threats to marine animals, particularly for critically endangered species such as the leatherback turtle. PMID:22885515

  19. Long live the stem cell: the use of stem cells isolated from post mortem tissues for translational strategies.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Stuart I; Stagg, Kelda; Sturm, Marian; Edel, Michael; Blancafort, Pilar

    2014-11-01

    The "stem cell" has become arguably one of the most important biological tools in the arsenal of translational research directed at regeneration and repair. It remains to be seen whether every tissue has its own stem cell niche, although relatively recently a large amount of research has focused on isolating and characterizing tissue-specific stem cell populations, as well as those that are able to be directed to transdifferentiate into a variety of different lineages. Traditionally, stem cells are isolated from the viable tissue of embryonic, fetal, or adult living hosts; from "fresh" donated tissues that have been surgically or otherwise removed (biopsies), or obtained directly from tissues within minutes to several hours post mortem (PM). These human progenitor/stem cell sources remain potentially highly controversial, since they are accompanied by various still-unresolved ethical, social, moral and legal challenges. Due to the limited number of "live" donors, the small amount of material obtained from biopsies and difficulties during purification processes, harvesting from cadaveric material presents itself as an alternative strategy that could provide a hitherto untapped source of stem cells. However, PM stem cells are not without their own unique set of limitations including difficulty of obtaining samples, limited supply of material, variations in delay between death and sample collection, possible lack of medication history and suboptimal retrospective assignment of diagnostic and demographic data. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: The challenge of translation.

  20. [Post-mortem examination prior to cremation--an instrument to verify the quality of medical post-mortems and uncover non-natural deaths?].

    PubMed

    Germerott, Tanja; Todt, Melanie; Bode-Jänisch, Stefanie; Albrecht, Knut; Breitmeier, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The external post-mortem examination, its deficient quality and possible causes have been the subject of numerous political and professional discussions. The external post-mortem examination is the basis for the decision whether further criminal investigations are required to clarify the cause of death. It is thus an essential instrument to ensure legal certainty. Before cremation, a second external post-mortem examination is performed by a public medical officer to make sure that errors of the first post-mortem are corrected. In the present study, cases were retrospectively analyzed in which a forensic autopsy had been ordered on the basis of the results of the post-mortem examination performed before cremation. The entries on the death certificate regarding the manner and cause of death were compared with the autopsy results. Between 1998 and 2007, 387 autopsies were ordered after external examination before cremation. In 55 cases (14.2%), the autopsy revealed a non-natural death, although a natural death had been attested on the death certificate. In descending order, a wrong manner of death was attested by clinicians, general practitioners and emergency physicians. With regard to the place where the first external post-mortem had been performed the lowest error rate was seen in nursing homes. Concerning the cause of death, discrepancies between the first post-mortem and autopsy were found in 59.4% of the cases. In this respect, general practitioners and clinicians were ranking first, whereas in nursing homes the cause of death was wrongly assessed in over 70% of cases. At present, the medical post-mortem does not meet the required quality standards, especially with regard to legal certainty. Determination of the cause of death on the basis of the external post-mortem examination is a challenging task even for the experienced medical examiner. As to the categorization of the manner of death it has to be stated that non-natural deaths are often not recognized or

  1. [Post-mortem examination prior to cremation--an instrument to verify the quality of medical post-mortems and uncover non-natural deaths?].

    PubMed

    Germerott, Tanja; Todt, Melanie; Bode-Jänisch, Stefanie; Albrecht, Knut; Breitmeier, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The external post-mortem examination, its deficient quality and possible causes have been the subject of numerous political and professional discussions. The external post-mortem examination is the basis for the decision whether further criminal investigations are required to clarify the cause of death. It is thus an essential instrument to ensure legal certainty. Before cremation, a second external post-mortem examination is performed by a public medical officer to make sure that errors of the first post-mortem are corrected. In the present study, cases were retrospectively analyzed in which a forensic autopsy had been ordered on the basis of the results of the post-mortem examination performed before cremation. The entries on the death certificate regarding the manner and cause of death were compared with the autopsy results. Between 1998 and 2007, 387 autopsies were ordered after external examination before cremation. In 55 cases (14.2%), the autopsy revealed a non-natural death, although a natural death had been attested on the death certificate. In descending order, a wrong manner of death was attested by clinicians, general practitioners and emergency physicians. With regard to the place where the first external post-mortem had been performed the lowest error rate was seen in nursing homes. Concerning the cause of death, discrepancies between the first post-mortem and autopsy were found in 59.4% of the cases. In this respect, general practitioners and clinicians were ranking first, whereas in nursing homes the cause of death was wrongly assessed in over 70% of cases. At present, the medical post-mortem does not meet the required quality standards, especially with regard to legal certainty. Determination of the cause of death on the basis of the external post-mortem examination is a challenging task even for the experienced medical examiner. As to the categorization of the manner of death it has to be stated that non-natural deaths are often not recognized or

  2. [Detection of dengue virus antigen in post-mortem tissues].

    PubMed

    Rivera, Jorge; Neira, Marcela; Parra, Edgar; Méndez, Jairo; Sarmiento, Ladys; Caldas, María Leonor

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiological situation of dengue has worsened over the last decade. The difficulties in preventing its transmission and the absence of a vaccine or specific treatment have made dengue a serious risk to public health, health centers and research systems at different levels. Currently, most studies on the pathogenesis of dengue infection focus on the T-cell immune response almost exclusively in secondary infections and are aimed at identifying the mechanisms involved in the development of vascular permeability and bleeding events that accompany the infection. This report describes the case of a baby girl less than 45 days of age with clinical signs of severe dengue, whose diagnosis was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in post-mortem tissue samples and by the ancillary diagnostic use of immunohistochemistry, which detected viral antigens in all organs obtained at autopsy. This case highlights the importance of studying primary infections associated with severe dengue, particularly in children, who are more likely to develop the severe form of the disease without previous infection, and it further stresses the importance of a diagnosis that should not be based solely on the examination of liver tissue samples when studying the pathogenesis of the viral infection. PMID:25504239

  3. Post-mortem cytogenomic investigations in patients with congenital malformations.

    PubMed

    Dias, Alexandre Torchio; Zanardo, Évelin Aline; Dutra, Roberta Lelis; Piazzon, Flavia Balbo; Novo-Filho, Gil Monteiro; Montenegro, Marilia Moreira; Nascimento, Amom Mendes; Rocha, Mariana; Madia, Fabricia Andreia Rosa; Costa, Thais Virgínia Moura Machado; Milani, Cintia; Schultz, Regina; Gonçalves, Fernanda Toledo; Fridman, Cintia; Yamamoto, Guilherme Lopes; Bertola, Débora Romeo; Kim, Chong Ae; Kulikowski, Leslie Domenici

    2016-08-01

    Congenital anomalies are the second highest cause of infant deaths, and, in most cases, diagnosis is a challenge. In this study, we characterize patterns of DNA copy number aberrations in different samples of post-mortem tissues from patients with congenital malformations. Twenty-eight patients undergoing autopsy were cytogenomically evaluated using several methods, specifically, Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA), microsatellite marker analysis with a MiniFiler kit, FISH, a cytogenomic array technique and bidirectional Sanger sequencing, which were performed on samples of different tissues (brain, heart, liver, skin and diaphragm) preserved in RNAlater, in formaldehyde or by paraffin-embedding. The results identified 13 patients with pathogenic copy number variations (CNVs). Of these, eight presented aneuploidies involving chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y (two presented inter- and intra-tissue mosaicism). In addition, other abnormalities were found, including duplication of the TYMS gene (18p11.32); deletion of the CHL1 gene (3p26.3); deletion of the HIC1 gene (17p13.3); and deletion of the TOM1L2 gene (17p11.2). One patient had a pathogenic missense mutation of g.8535C>G (c.746C>G) in exon 7 of the FGFR3 gene consistent with Thanatophoric Dysplasia type I. Cytogenomic techniques were reliable for the analysis of autopsy material and allowed the identification of inter- and intra-tissue mosaicism and a better understanding of the pathogenesis of congenital malformations. PMID:27450648

  4. Application of contrast media in post-mortem imaging (CT and MRI).

    PubMed

    Grabherr, Silke; Grimm, Jochen; Baumann, Pia; Mangin, Patrice

    2015-09-01

    The application of contrast media in post-mortem radiology differs from clinical approaches in living patients. Post-mortem changes in the vascular system and the absence of blood flow lead to specific problems that have to be considered for the performance of post-mortem angiography. In addition, interpreting the images is challenging due to technique-related and post-mortem artefacts that have to be known and that are specific for each applied technique. Although the idea of injecting contrast media is old, classic methods are not simply transferable to modern radiological techniques in forensic medicine, as they are mostly dedicated to single-organ studies or applicable only shortly after death. With the introduction of modern imaging techniques, such as post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) and post-mortem magnetic resonance (PMMR), to forensic death investigations, intensive research started to explore their advantages and limitations compared to conventional autopsy. PMCT has already become a routine investigation in several centres, and different techniques have been developed to better visualise the vascular system and organ parenchyma in PMCT. In contrast, the use of PMMR is still limited due to practical issues, and research is now starting in the field of PMMR angiography. This article gives an overview of the problems in post-mortem contrast media application, the various classic and modern techniques, and the issues to consider by using different media.

  5. Could pre-mortem computerised tomography scans reduce the need for coroner's post-mortem examinations?

    PubMed Central

    Owais, Anwar E; Wilson, Timothy R; Khan, Shakeeb A; Jaidev, Jo; Renwick, Ian; Mitchell, Charles; Macfie, John

    2010-01-01

    Post-mortem examinations may result in considerable distress to the bereaved family. This audit was undertaken to examine whether computerised tomography (CT) scanning prior to death might reduce the need for post-mortems without compromising the accuracy of recording the cause of death. The case notes of 100 consecutive patients who had a coroner's post-mortem, because the cause of death was unknown, were reviewed by four senior clinicians. Along with the likely cause of death, the clinicians gave their opinion as to whether a CT scan would have enabled certification of death without the need for a post-mortem. Concordance between the post-mortem findings and the clinical events surrounding death was explored. It would have been possible to perform a pre-mortem CT scan on 90 of the 100 patients. A pre-mortem CT scan would have given the cause of death in 59 (66%) of these. In 30 patients, the cause of death established by the post-mortem was at variance with the clinical events surrounding death and clinically relevant information, such as recent surgery, was not recorded on the death certificates of 26 patients. The use of a pre-mortem CT scan and involvement of senior clinicians in the process of establishing cause of death will improve the accuracy and may obviate the need for a post-mortem in some patients. However, if a post-mortem is needed, the clinical notes should always be available for the pathologists and a senior member of the patient's team should attend the post-mortem to help accurate death certification. PMID:20385041

  6. Best-practices approach to determination of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at specific time points: Combination of ante-mortem alcohol pharmacokinetic modeling and post-mortem alcohol generation and transport considerations.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Dallas M; Maskrey, Joshua R; Fung, Ernest S; Woods, Tyler A; Stabryla, Lisa M; Scott, Paul K; Finley, Brent L

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol concentrations in biological matrices offer information regarding an individual's intoxication level at a given time. In forensic cases, the alcohol concentration in the blood (BAC) at the time of death is sometimes used interchangeably with the BAC measured post-mortem, without consideration for alcohol concentration changes in the body after death. However, post-mortem factors must be taken into account for accurate forensic determination of BAC prior to death to avoid incorrect conclusions. The main objective of this work was to describe best practices for relating ante-mortem and post-mortem alcohol concentrations, using a combination of modeling, empirical data and other qualitative considerations. The Widmark modeling approach is a best practices method for superimposing multiple alcohol doses ingested at various times with alcohol elimination rate adjustments based on individual body factors. We combined the selected ante-mortem model with a suggestion for an approach used to roughly estimate changes in BAC post-mortem, and then analyzed the available data on post-mortem alcohol production in human bodies and potential markers for alcohol production through decomposition and putrefaction. Hypothetical cases provide best practice approaches as an example for determining alcohol concentration in biological matrices ante-mortem, as well as potential issues encountered with quantitative post-mortem approaches. This study provides information for standardizing BAC determination in forensic toxicology, while minimizing real world case uncertainties.

  7. 42 CFR 35.16 - Autopsies and other post-mortem operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.16 Autopsies and other post-mortem... to in writing by a person authorized under the law of the State in which the station or hospital...

  8. Metals and (metallo)proteins identification in vitreous humor focusing on post-mortem biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Santos Júnior, Júlio César; Mollo Filho, Pedro Carlos; Felice Guidugli, Ruggero Bernardo; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Pessôa, Gustavo de Souza; da Silva, Elidiane Gomes; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi; Höehr, Nelci Fenalti

    2014-10-01

    This work describes the evaluation of metals and (metallo)proteins in vitreous humor samples and their correlations with some biological aspects in different post-mortem intervals (1-7 days), taking into account both decomposing and non-decomposing bodies. After qualitative evaluation of the samples involving 26 elements, representative metal ions (Fe, Mg and Mo) are determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after using mini-vial decomposition system for sample preparation. A significant trend for Fe is found with post-mortem time for decomposing bodies because of a significant increase of iron concentration when comparing samples from bodies presenting 3 and 7 days post-mortem interval. An important clue to elucidate the role of metals is the coupling of liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for identification of metals linked to proteins, as well as mass spectrometry for the identification of those proteins involved in the post-mortem interval.

  9. Effect of different post mortem temperatures on carcass quality of suckling lamb.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Begoña; Vieira, Ceferina; Martínez, Beatriz; Fernández, Ana M

    2013-08-01

    The effect of post mortem treatment on microbiological lamb carcass quality was studied. Suckling lambs carcasses were assigned to three different post mortem treatments: conventional (2  for 24 h), ultra-rapid (-20  for 3.5 h then 2  until 24 h post mortem) and slow (12   for 7 h then 2  until 24 h post mortem). Carcass pH and temperature were measured at 0, 3.5, 7 and 24 h post slaughter. Lamb carcasses were sampled for total aerobic viable and Enterobacteriaceae counts just after dressing and 24 h post mortem. A significant effect (p < 0.05) of post mortem treatment on carcasses temperature and pH was found corresponding the faster pH fall to slowly chilled muscles. However, no differences were found at 24 h post mortem among treatments in both parameters. Regarding microbiological results, carcasses of ultra-rapid treatment had the lowest total aerobic viable and Enterobacteriaceae counts and those belonging to conventional treatment had the highest total aerobic viable counts. From 0 to 24 h post mortem, an increase of total aerobic viable was observed in conventional and slow treatments whilst Enterobacteriaceae counts remained constant in all cases. From a microbiological point of view, the ultra-rapid treatment was the only one allowed to maintain the hygienic carcasses quality. However, according to pH and temperature results the carcasses subjected to this treatment may be susceptible to cold shortening.

  10. Sequenom MassARRAY approach in the arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy post-mortem setting: clinical and forensic implications.

    PubMed

    Alcalde, M; Campuzano, O; Allegue, C; Torres, M; Arbelo, E; Partemi, S; Iglesias, A; Brugada, J; Oliva, A; Carracedo, A; Brugada, R

    2015-01-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a rare cardiac disease characterized by myocardial fibrofatty replacement, which can lead to sudden death. Previous studies have described a reduction of plakoglobin (PKG) protein at the level of intercalated disks as the hallmark of ARVC. The main objective of this study was to investigate the involvement of desmosome mutations in the histological phenotype of ARVC. We performed a genetic analysis of ARVC cases, and histological characterization of ARVC heart tissue samples. We genetically analyzed 48 ARVC cases distributed into two groups: 42 human tissue heart samples with conclusive diagnoses of ARVC after post-mortem examination; and six DNA samples from peripheral blood of living patients who were clinically diagnosed. Sequenom MassARRAY analysis revealed three ARVC-associated variants in three patients in 42 tissue samples (7.14 %). Three individuals carried one single pathogenic mutation, p.R811S _PKP2, p.S824L_DSC2, and p.T526M_PKP2 in postmortem samples. In the living patients group, Sequenom MassARRAY revealed no mutation, however, later Sanger sequencing analysis identified three ARVC mutations in 2/6 patients not included in the Sequenom design. In post-mortem tissue samples we performed immunohistochemical labeling for desmosomal proteins and Connexin 43. This study revealed that PKP2 carriers present either absent or clearly reduced PKG immunolabeling, while the DSC2 carrier showed PKG immunolabeling similar to control samples. Immunolabeling for Cx43 did not show any differences compared to controls. The present Sequenom MassARRAY design is a useful tool for post-mortem genetic diagnosis of ARVC. Plakoglobin reduction occurs at intercalated disks, while other desmosome proteins and Cx43 remain unaltered.

  11. Differential Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Preservation in Post-Mortem Teeth with Implications for Forensic and Ancient DNA Studies

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Denice; Rohrlach, Adam B.; Kaidonis, John; Townsend, Grant; Austin, Jeremy J.

    2015-01-01

    Major advances in genetic analysis of skeletal remains have been made over the last decade, primarily due to improvements in post-DNA-extraction techniques. Despite this, a key challenge for DNA analysis of skeletal remains is the limited yield of DNA recovered from these poorly preserved samples. Enhanced DNA recovery by improved sampling and extraction techniques would allow further advancements. However, little is known about the post-mortem kinetics of DNA degradation and whether the rate of degradation varies between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA or across different skeletal tissues. This knowledge, along with information regarding ante-mortem DNA distribution within skeletal elements, would inform sampling protocols facilitating development of improved extraction processes. Here we present a combined genetic and histological examination of DNA content and rates of DNA degradation in the different tooth tissues of 150 human molars over short-medium post-mortem intervals. DNA was extracted from coronal dentine, root dentine, cementum and pulp of 114 teeth via a silica column method and the remaining 36 teeth were examined histologically. Real time quantification assays based on two nuclear DNA fragments (67 bp and 156 bp) and one mitochondrial DNA fragment (77 bp) showed nuclear and mitochondrial DNA degraded exponentially, but at different rates, depending on post-mortem interval and soil temperature. In contrast to previous studies, we identified differential survival of nuclear and mtDNA in different tooth tissues. Futhermore histological examination showed pulp and dentine were rapidly affected by loss of structural integrity, and pulp was completely destroyed in a relatively short time period. Conversely, cementum showed little structural change over the same time period. Finally, we confirm that targeted sampling of cementum from teeth buried for up to 16 months can provide a reliable source of nuclear DNA for STR-based genotyping using standard

  12. Post mortem muscle metabolism and meat quality in three genetic types of turkey.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, X; Sante, V; Baeza, E; Lebihan-Duval, E; Berri, C; Remignon, H; Babile, R; Le Pottier, G; Millet, N; Berge, P; Astruc, T

    2001-09-01

    1. A standard (FG, fast-growing), a black local or 'label', type (SG, slow-growing) turkey line, and the crossbreed between these two lines were compared for muscle post-mortem metabolism and related meat quality traits. 2. Ninety male turkeys (30 of each genetic type) were raised under the same experimental conditions until slaughter at 16 weeks of age. 3. Live weights at 16 weeks of age differed significantly (7.8, 6.0 and 4.2 kg, for the FG, crossbred and SG lines, respectively). Collagen content of Pectoralis superficialis (PS) muscle was higher in SG birds than in the other two types. 4. The rate of post-mortem glycogen depletion and lactate accumulation in PS and Ilio tibialis (IT) muscles were similar in the 3 lines, as were the rate and extent of post-mortem pH fall in PS muscle. In IT muscle, however, SG birds showed a slight but significantly faster pH decline. 5. Colour measurements indicated a paler breast muscle and a higher degree of myoglobin oxidation in SG birds at 24 h post mortem, than in both other lines. But these differences had disappeared after 4 and 7 d post mortem 6. SG birds showed higher drip loss and instrumentally-assessed toughness in breast muscle, compared with crossbred and FG birds. FG birds, however, had the lowest yield of breast meat after curing-cooking. 7. No marked differences in post-mortem metabolism were found between the three lines. However, differences in water-holding capacity of fresh and cured-cooked meat suggest that factors other than the rate and extent of post-mortem pH fall may contribute to the respective characteristics of these lines.

  13. Post-mortem calpain-system kinetics in lamb: Effects of clenbuterol and preslaughter exercise.

    PubMed

    Simmons, N J; Young, O A; Dobbie, P M; Singh, K; Thompson, B C; Speck, P A

    1997-09-01

    The effect of dietary supplementation with clenbuterol for either 8 days or 55 days in lambs was studied. The 55-day treatment was combined with an immediate preslaughter exercise regime. The effect of these treatments on post-mortem calpain system activities, meat ageing and meat quality was studied. Neither short-nor long-term supplementation had an effect on the rate of pH fall post mortem. Short-term supplementation had no effect on the initial nor the final shear force values but these were higher at intermediate times. In contrast, prolonged supplementation increased shear force values at all times post mortem. Preslaughter exercise, while influencing the rate of pH decrease in both control and supplemented groups, did not affect meat tenderness. After short-term clenbuterol-supplementation, the in-vitro μ-calpain activity was significantly lower in the supplemented group at 6 and 24 hr post mortem, while m-calpain and calpastatin activities were largely unaffected. In contrast, 55-day clenbuterol supplementation resulted in significantly higher levels of calpastatin activity at all times post mortem. These data imply that clenbuterol results in toughened meat due to alterations in the calpain/calpastatin system, the mechanisms of which are dependent upon the duration of supplementation.

  14. Retrospective analysis of post-mortem findings in 1,444 aged donkeys.

    PubMed

    Morrow, L D; Smith, K C; Piercy, R J; du Toit, N; Burden, F A; Olmos, G; Gregory, N G; Verheyen, K L P

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and report the prevalence of conditions found at necropsy examination of UK donkeys. Records from 1,444 donkeys over a 7-year period were included in the analysis. Sixty-one categories of post-mortem finding were identified from 9,744 observations. The four most prevalent conditions noted were dental disorder (78.7%), vascular disease other than aneurysm (60.9%), arthritis (55.4%) and foot disorder (44.8%). Gastric ulceration was found in 42% of the donkeys and gastrointestinal impaction in 18.6%. The most frequent combination of two post-mortem findings in the same animal was arthritis and dental disorder. The most common disorders were associated with age, body weight and/or body condition post mortem and, for some disorders, gender. For many of the post-mortem findings, crude associations were found between the presence of one finding and the odds of also having certain other post-mortem findings. This study is the first to summarize all conditions noted at necropsy examination for a large group of donkeys. The findings increase knowledge of diseases and conditions of this species and may be useful when investigating the relevance of various pathological conditions in the live animal.

  15. A novel approach to determine post mortem interval using neutron radiography.

    PubMed

    Bilheux, Hassina Z; Cekanova, Maria; Vass, Arpad A; Nichols, Trent L; Bilheux, Jean C; Donnell, Robert L; Finochiarro, Vincenzo

    2015-06-01

    One of the most difficult challenges in forensic research is to objectively determine the post-mortem interval (PMI). The accuracy of PMI is critical for determining the timeline of events surrounding a death. Most PMI techniques rely on gross morphological changes of cadavers that are highly sensitive to taphonomic factors. Recent studies have demonstrated that even exhumed individuals exposed to the same environmental conditions with similar PMIs can present different stages of decomposition. After death, tissue undergoes sequential changes consisting of organic and inorganic phase variations, as well as a gradual reduction of tissue water content. Hydrogen (H) is the primary contributor to neutron radiography (NR) contrast in biological specimens because (1) it is the most abundant element in biological tissues and (2) its nucleus scatters thermal and cold neutrons more strongly than any other atomic nucleus. These contrast differences can be advantageous in a forensic context to determine small changes in hydrogen concentrations. Neutron radiography of decaying canine tissues was performed to evaluate the PMI by measuring the changes in H content. In this study, dog cadavers were used as a model for human cadavers. Canine tissues and cadavers were exposed to controlled (laboratory settings, at the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine) and uncontrolled (University of Tennessee Anthropology Research Facility) environmental conditions, respectively. Neutron radiographs were supplemented with photographs and histology data to assess the decompositional stages of cadavers. Results demonstrated that the increase in neutron transmission likely corresponded to a decrease in hydrogen content in the tissue, which was correlated with the decay time of the tissue. Tissues depleted in hydrogen were brighter in the neutron transmission radiographs of skeletal muscles, lung, and bone, under controlled conditions. Over a period of 10 days, changes in neutron

  16. Increased acetyl and total histone levels in post-mortem Alzheimer's disease brain.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Pritika J; Lill, Claire; Faull, Richard; Curtis, Maurice A; Dragunow, Mike

    2015-02-01

    labelling. In addition, valproic acid worked synergistically with Mg132 in elevating ubiquitin load and causing cell death. These findings highlight important pathological relationships linking a compromise in protein turnover with the histone changes observed in Alzheimer's disease post-mortem human brain.

  17. Amount and distribution of fume contaminants in the lungs of an arc welder post mortem.

    PubMed Central

    Kalliomäki, P L; Sutinen, S; Kelhä, V; Lakomaa, E; Sortti, V; Sutinen, S

    1979-01-01

    This study describes various post-mortem examinations of the lungs of a shipyard arc welder. These investigations comprised morphological methods, including gross pathology and radiography, histological and ultrastructural examinations, chemical analysis of lung tissue, and sensitive magnetic measurements, which can now be used to detect magnetic contaminants, such as welding fume, in human tissue. Such methods can also show the distribution of contaminants. The amount of welding-fume contaminants was low, only 110 mg. The contaminant iron seemed to represent only 10% of the total iron chemically analysed in lung tissue. The concentration of the total iron was 4-10 times higher than that in control tissue. Contaminants tended to collect in the central areas of the lungs. Two concentration centres could be observed in each lung, one anterior and one posterior. There was slight fibrosis around pigmented areas. Histological findings were similar to those of previous studies. Transmission electron micrographs showed that enlarged lysosomes of macrophages contained electron-dense granules, 450 nm to less than 5 nm in diameter, which formed aggregates and short chains, and resembled welding-fume particles in the breathing zone. Our results show the value of studying the same material by a number of inter-related methods. Images PMID:500782

  18. Investigation of Post-mortem Tissue Effects Using Long-time Decorrelation Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csány, Gergely; Balogh, Lajos; Gyöngy, Miklós

    Decorrelation ultrasound is being increasingly used to investigate long-term biological phenomena. In the current work, ultrasound image sequences of mice who did not survive anesthesia (in a separate investigation) were analyzed and post-mortem tissue effects were observed via decorrelation calculation. A method was developed to obtain a quantitative parameter characterizing the rate of decorrelation. The results show that ultrasound decorrelation imaging is an effective method of observing post-mortem tissue effects and point to further studies elucidating the mechanism behind these effects.

  19. Characterisation of the metabolome of ocular tissues and post-mortem changes in the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shi Z; Mullard, Graham; Hollywood, Katherine A; Dunn, Warwick B; Bishop, Paul N

    2016-08-01

    Time-dependent post-mortem biochemical changes have been demonstrated in donor cornea and vitreous, but there have been no published studies to date that objectively measure post-mortem changes in the retinal metabolome over time. The aim of the study was firstly, to investigate post-mortem, time-dependent changes in the rat retinal metabolome and secondly, to compare the metabolite composition of healthy rat ocular tissues. To study post-mortem changes in the rat retinal metabolome, globes were enucleated and stored at 4 °C and sampled at 0, 2, 4, 8, 24 and 48 h post-mortem. To study the metabolite composition of rat ocular tissues, eyes were dissected immediately after culling to isolate the cornea, lens, vitreous and retina, prior to storing at -80 °C. Tissue extracts were subjected to Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). Generally, the metabolic composition of the retina was stable for 8 h post-mortem when eyes were stored at 4 °C, but showed increasing changes thereafter. However, some more rapid changes were observed such as increases in TCA cycle metabolites after 2 h post-mortem, whereas some metabolites such as fatty acids only showed decreases in concentration from 24 h. A total of 42 metabolites were identified across the ocular tissues by GC-MS (MSI level 1) and 2782 metabolites were annotated by UHPLC-MS (MSI level 2) according to MSI reporting standards. Many of the metabolites detected were common to all of the tissues but some metabolites showed partitioning between different ocular structures with 655, 297, 93 and 13 metabolites being uniquely detected in the retina, lens, cornea and vitreous respectively. Only a small percentage (1.6%) of metabolites found in the vitreous were only detected in the retina and not other tissues. In conclusion, mass spectrometry-based techniques have been used for the first time to compare the metabolic composition of

  20. Differentiation of ante-mortem and post-mortem fractures with MRI: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ruder, T D; Germerott, T; Thali, M J; Hatch, G M

    2011-01-01

    We describe a case of a fatal speed flying accident in which the victim was electrocuted, burned and fell from a great height. Post-mortem imaging revealed acute appearing fractures on CT, without bone marrow oedema on MRI. Based on the known clinical imaging findings of bone marrow oedema in acute fractures, we concluded that the speed flyer died from electrocution rather than the fall and that the fractures occurred post-mortem. Radiological imaging augmented the reconstruction of the peri-mortem events. Further research is needed to assess whether bone marrow oedema in acute fractures is a reliable vital sign. PMID:21415297

  1. Generalized arterial calcification of infancy--Findings at post-mortem computed tomography and autopsy.

    PubMed

    Bolster, Ferdia; Ali, Zabiullah; Southall, Pamela; Fowler, David

    2015-09-01

    Generalized arterial calcification in infancy is a rare genetic disorder characterized by abnormal calcification of large and medium sized arteries and marked myointimal proliferation resulting in arterial stenosis. The condition is often fatal secondary to complications of cardiac ischemia, hypertension and cardiac failure. In this report we describe the findings at post mortem computed tomography, histology and autopsy.

  2. Post-Mortem Tissue Biopsies Obtained at Minimally Invasive Autopsy: An RNA-Quality Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kap, Marcel; Weustink, Annick C.; Riegman, Peter H. J.; Oosterhuis, J. Wolter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Bereaved relatives often refuse to give consent for post-mortem investigation of deceased cancer patients, mainly because of the mutilation due to conventional autopsy (CA). Minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) may be a more acceptable alternative and, if implemented in clinical practice, creates an opportunity to more often obtain post-mortem tissue samples of (recurred) primary tumors and metastases for molecular research. As a measure for tissue quality for molecular studies, we hereby present a feasibility study, comparing the RNA quality of MIA and CA samples, and fresh frozen samples as reference. Materials and methods Tissue samples of heart, liver and kidney were prospectively collected from 24 MIAs followed by CA, and compared to corresponding archival fresh frozen tissue. After RNA isolation and RT-qPCR, RNA integrity numbers (RIN) and GAPDH expression (six amplicon sizes ranging from 71 to 530 base pairs) were measured. RIN values and GAPDH Cq values were analyzed and compared between all sample groups and post-mortem intervals (PMI). Results RIN values in MIA samples were significantly higher than those in CA samples. GAPDH was expressed significantly higher in MIA samples than in CA samples and 530 bp PCR products could be measured in all cases. GAPDH expression was significantly lower in samples with PMI >15 hours. As expected, the samples of the fresh frozen reference standard performed best in all analyses. Conclusion MIA samples showed better RNA quality than CA samples, probably due to shorter PMI. Both had lower RNA quality and expression levels than fresh frozen tissue, however, remaining GAPDH RNA was still sufficiently intact. Therefore, other highly expressed genes are most likely also detectable. Gene array analysis should be performed to gain insight into the quality of entire post-mortem genomes. Reducing PMI will further improve the feasibility of demanding molecular research on post-mortem tissues, this is most likely more

  3. False-positive diatom test: a real challenge? A post-mortem study using standardized protocols.

    PubMed

    Lunetta, Philippe; Miettinen, Arto; Spilling, Kristian; Sajantila, Antti

    2013-09-01

    The main criticism of the validity of the diatom test for the diagnosis of drowning is based on the potential ante- and post-mortem penetration of diatoms and the finding of diatoms in bodies of non-drowned human beings. However, qualitative and quantitative studies on diatoms in organs of the non-drowned have yielded both conflicting and contradictory results. In the present study, we have analysed under standardised methods the diatom content in several organs of 14 non-drowned human bodies. Overall, only 9 diatoms (6 entire, 3 fragmented) were disclosed in 6 of the 14 non-drowned bodies. Each of these 6 cadavers had only a single "positive" organ. Six diatoms were found in the bone marrow, 2 in the lung, and one in the pleural liquid. No diatoms were recovered from the brain, liver, kidney, or blood samples of any of these 14 bodies. Moreover, in five additional cadavers, whose lungs were injected, prior autopsy, with a 3.5L solution containing a bi-cellulate diatom culture (Thalassiosira baltica, Thalassiosira levanderi) via tracheostomy, a few diatoms appeared in the pleural cavity and in the blood from the left heart chamber, but none in any other internal organs investigated. The results of the presented study demonstrate that the issue of the false-positive diatom test should not be a logical impediment to the performance of the diatom method. However, strict and standardized protocols aimed at avoiding contamination during sample preparation must be used, appropriate separation values set and taxonomic analysis of all diatoms performed. PMID:23701706

  4. A novel approach to determine post mortem interval using neutron radiography

    DOE PAGES

    Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Cekanova, Maria; Vass, Arpad Alexander; Nichols, Trent L.; Bilheux, Jean -Christophe; Donnell, Robert; Finocchiaro, Vincenzo

    2015-03-06

    In this study, neutron radiography (NR) is used non-destructively to measure changes in hydrogen (H) content in decaying tissues as a mean to estimate post-mortem invertal (PMI). After death, tissue undergoes sequential changes consisting of organic and inorganic phase variations, as well as a gradual reduction of tissue water content. H is the primary contributor to NR contrast in biological specimens because (1) it is the most abundant element in biological tissues and (2) its nucleus scatter thermal and cold neutrons more strongly than any other atomic nucleus. These contrast differences can be advantageous in a forensic context to determinemore » small changes in hydrogen concentrations. Dog cadavers were used as a model for human cadavers. Canine tissues and cadavers were exposed to controlled (laboratory settings) and uncontrolled (University of Tennessee Anthropology Research Facility) environmental conditions during putefraction, respectively. Neutron radiographs were supplemented with photographs and histology data to assess the decomposition stage of cadavers. Results demonstrated that the increase in neutron transmission likely corresponded to a decrease in hydrogen content in the tissue, which was correlated with the time of decay of the tissue. Tissues depleted in hydrogen are brighter in the neutron transmission radiographs of skeletal muscles, lung, and bone, under controlled conditions. Over a period of 10 days, changes in neutron transmission through lung and muscle were found to be higher than bone by 8.3%, 7.0 %, and 2.0 %, respectively. Estimation of the PMI was calculated from a natural logarithmic fitting of the NR data. Under controlled conditions, estimation of the PMI was 70% and 63.9 % accurate for bone and lung tissues, while being 1.4% accurate for muscle tissue. All results underestimated the true PMI. In conclusion, neutron radiography can be used for detection of hydrogen changes in decaying tissues to estimate PMI.« less

  5. A novel approach to determine post mortem interval using neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Cekanova, Maria; Vass, Arpad Alexander; Nichols, Trent L.; Bilheux, Jean -Christophe; Donnell, Robert; Finocchiaro, Vincenzo

    2015-03-06

    In this study, neutron radiography (NR) is used non-destructively to measure changes in hydrogen (H) content in decaying tissues as a mean to estimate post-mortem invertal (PMI). After death, tissue undergoes sequential changes consisting of organic and inorganic phase variations, as well as a gradual reduction of tissue water content. H is the primary contributor to NR contrast in biological specimens because (1) it is the most abundant element in biological tissues and (2) its nucleus scatter thermal and cold neutrons more strongly than any other atomic nucleus. These contrast differences can be advantageous in a forensic context to determine small changes in hydrogen concentrations. Dog cadavers were used as a model for human cadavers. Canine tissues and cadavers were exposed to controlled (laboratory settings) and uncontrolled (University of Tennessee Anthropology Research Facility) environmental conditions during putefraction, respectively. Neutron radiographs were supplemented with photographs and histology data to assess the decomposition stage of cadavers. Results demonstrated that the increase in neutron transmission likely corresponded to a decrease in hydrogen content in the tissue, which was correlated with the time of decay of the tissue. Tissues depleted in hydrogen are brighter in the neutron transmission radiographs of skeletal muscles, lung, and bone, under controlled conditions. Over a period of 10 days, changes in neutron transmission through lung and muscle were found to be higher than bone by 8.3%, 7.0 %, and 2.0 %, respectively. Estimation of the PMI was calculated from a natural logarithmic fitting of the NR data. Under controlled conditions, estimation of the PMI was 70% and 63.9 % accurate for bone and lung tissues, while being 1.4% accurate for muscle tissue. All results underestimated the true PMI. In conclusion, neutron radiography can be used for detection of hydrogen changes in decaying tissues to estimate PMI.

  6. Post mortem findings in sows and gilts euthanised or found dead in a large Swedish herd

    PubMed Central

    Engblom, Linda; Eliasson-Selling, Lena; Lundeheim, Nils; Belák, Katinka; Andersson, Kjell; Dalin, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to get information on post mortem diagnoses of sows found dead or euthanised and to understand the diagnoses aetiology (causative background). Moreover, the study was to evaluate the association between the clinical symptoms observed on farm and post mortem findings. Methods A large Swedish herd was studied from January to September 2006. During the 32-week period 3.9% of the removed sows and gilts (old enough to be mated) were found dead, 12.0% were euthanised and the rest were sent to slaughter. Of 32 sows/gilts found dead 17 (53%) were post mortem examined, and of 98 sows euthanised 79 (81%) were examined. The 96 examined carcasses were after 70 sows and 26 gilts. The findings at examination were together with data from the herd monitoring program PigWin Sugg the base for the descriptive statistics presented. Results The average parity number at removal was 2.8 for those found dead and 2.1 for those euthanised. The highest number euthanised and found dead was in parity 0 (gilts). The main proportion of post mortem examinations was made on sows being in the period = 28 d of gestation at death (37.5%), followed by weaning to next service period (24.0%). Arthritis, with an incidence of 36.4% was the most common main finding of pathological-anatomical diagnosis (PAD). Of sows/gilts found dead were circulatory/cardiac failure (23.5%) and trauma related injuries (23.5%) most common PAD. The most commonly observed clinical symptom and reason for euthanasia of the sows/gilts was lameness. Notably, in 43% of the cases with PAD arthritis, the clinical symptoms suggested it being a fracture. Further one or more abscesses (38.5%) and teeth injuries (31.0%) were common findings when also incidental findings were included. Conclusion This post mortem study based on carcasses from sows/gilts found dead or euthanised showed that arthritis was a significant problem in the studied herd and that post mortem examination was important to get

  7. Role of forensic odontologist in post mortem person identification.

    PubMed

    Pramod, Jahagirdar B; Marya, Anand; Sharma, Vidhii

    2012-09-01

    The natural teeth are the most durable organs in the bodies of vertebrates, and humankind's understanding of their own past and evolution relies heavily upon remnant dental evidence found as fossils. The use of features unique to the human dentition as an aid to personal identification is widely accepted within the forensic field. Comparative dental identifications play a major role in identifying the victims of violence, disaster or other mass tragedies. The comparison of ante-mortem and postmortem dental records to determine human identity has long been established. Indeed, it is still a major identification method in criminal investigations, mass disasters, grossly decomposed or traumatized bodies, and in other situations where visual identification is neither possible nor desirable. This article has comprehensively described some of the methods, and additional factors aiding in postmortem person identification. PMID:23559914

  8. Role of forensic odontologist in post mortem person identification

    PubMed Central

    Pramod, Jahagirdar B.; Marya, Anand; Sharma, Vidhii

    2012-01-01

    The natural teeth are the most durable organs in the bodies of vertebrates, and humankind's understanding of their own past and evolution relies heavily upon remnant dental evidence found as fossils. The use of features unique to the human dentition as an aid to personal identification is widely accepted within the forensic field. Comparative dental identifications play a major role in identifying the victims of violence, disaster or other mass tragedies. The comparison of ante-mortem and postmortem dental records to determine human identity has long been established. Indeed, it is still a major identification method in criminal investigations, mass disasters, grossly decomposed or traumatized bodies, and in other situations where visual identification is neither possible nor desirable. This article has comprehensively described some of the methods, and additional factors aiding in postmortem person identification. PMID:23559914

  9. Brain banks: benefits, limitations and cautions concerning the use of post-mortem brain tissue for molecular studies.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Isidre; Martinez, Anna; Boluda, Susana; Parchi, Piero; Barrachina, Marta

    2008-09-01

    Brain banks are facilities providing an interface between generous donation of nervous tissues and research laboratories devoted to increase our understanding of the diseases of the nervous system, discover new diagnostic targets, and develop new strategies. Considering this crucial role, it is important to learn about the suitabilities, limitations and proper handling of individual brain samples for particular studies. Several factors may interfere with preservation of DNA, RNA, proteins and lipids, and, therefore, special care must be taken first to detect sub-optimally preserved tissues and second to provide adequate material for each specific purpose. Basic aspects related with DNA, RNA and protein preservation include agonal state, post-mortem delay, temperature of storage and procedures of tissue preservation. Examination of DNA and RNA preservation is best done by using bioanalyzer technologies instead of less sensitive methods such as agarose gels. Adequate RNA preservation is mandatory in RNA microarray studies and adequate controls are necessary for proper PCR validation. Like for RNA, the preservation of proteins is not homogeneous since some molecules are more vulnerable than others. This aspect is crucial in the study of proteins including expression levels and possible post-translational modifications. Similarly, the reliability of functional and enzymatic studies in human post-mortem brain largely depends on protein preservation. Much less is known about other aspects, such as the effects of putative deleterious factors on epigenetic events such as methylation of CpGs in gene promoters, nucleosome preservation, histone modifications, and conservation of microRNA species. Most brains are appropriate for morphological approaches but not all brains are useful for certain biochemical and molecular studies.

  10. Viability and infectivity of Ichthyophonus sp. in post-mortem Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, Richard M.; Hart, Lucas M.; Lewandowski, Naomi; Hershberger, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Ichthyophonus-infected Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, were allowed to decompose in ambient seawater then serially sampled for 29 days to evaluate parasite viability and infectivity for Pacific staghorn sculpin, Leptocottus armatus. Ichthyophonus sp. was viable in decomposing herring tissues for at least 29 days post-mortem and could be transmitted via ingestion to sculpin for up to 5 days. The parasite underwent morphologic changes during the first 48 hr following death of the host that were similar to those previously reported, but as host tissue decomposition progressed, several previously un-described forms of the parasite were observed. The significance of long-term survival and continued morphologic transformation in the post-mortem host is unknown, but it could represent a saprozoic phase of the parasite life cycle that has survival value for Ichthyophonus sp.

  11. Effects of post-mortem and physical degradation on RNA integrity and quality

    PubMed Central

    Sidova, Monika; Tomankova, Silvie; Abaffy, Pavel; Kubista, Mikael; Sindelka, Radek

    2015-01-01

    The precision and reliability of quantitative nucleic acid analysis depends on the quality of the sample analyzed and the integrity of the nucleic acids. The integrity of RNA is currently primarily assessed by the analysis of ribosomal RNA, which is the by far dominant species. The extrapolation of these results to mRNAs and microRNAs, which are structurally quite different, is questionable. Here we show that ribosomal and some nucleolar and mitochondrial RNAs, are highly resistant to naturally occurring post-mortem degradation, while mRNAs, although showing substantial internal variability, are generally much more prone to nucleolytic degradation. In contrast, all types of RNA show the same sensitivity to heat. Using qPCR assays targeting different regions of mRNA molecules, we find no support for 5′ or 3′ preferentiality upon post-mortem degradation. PMID:27077037

  12. Post-mortems in recreational scuba diver deaths: the utility of radiology.

    PubMed

    Wheen, Lyndsae Clair; Williams, Michael Philip

    2009-07-01

    Post-mortem radiology and autopsy findings in a series of six diving-related deaths are presented. The cases had different causes of death but essentially similar radiological findings. We propose that the so-called classical radiological features of cerebral arterial gas embolism more likely represent "off-gassing" (gas coming out of solution into intra-vascular spaces due to pressure changes). As such, we suggest that post-mortem radiology, when accompanying a competent autopsy examination, be limited to the chest, whereby it may be useful in the demonstration of pneumothoraces which might not be demonstrated at autopsy, thereby providing supporting evidence for barotrauma in the context of appropriate clinical and autopsy findings.

  13. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microstructure and post-mortem anaerobic metabolism of bovine muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yook, Hong.-Sun; Lee, Ju.-Woon; Lee, Kyong.-Haeng; Kim, Moo.-Kang; Song, Chi.-won; Byun, Myung.-Woo

    2001-05-01

    Experiments were performed to study the effect of gamma irradiation on morphological properties and post-mortem metabolism in bovine M. sternomandibularis with special reference to ultrastructure, shear force, pH and ATP breakdown. The shortening of sarcomere was not observed in gamma-irradiated muscle, however, the disappearance of M-line and of A- and I-bands was perceptible. During cold storage, the destruction of muscle bundles was faster in the gamma-irradiated muscle than in the non-irradiated with a dose-dependent manner. The same is true for the post mortem pH drop and ATP breakdown. So, experimental results confirmed that the anaerobic metabolism and morphological properties are noticeably affected by gamma irradiation in beef.

  14. Post-mortem genetic testing in a family with long-QT syndrome and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kane, David A; Triedman, John

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric sudden unexplained deaths are rare and tragic events that should be evaluated with all the tools available to the medical community. The current state of genetic testing is an excellent resource that improves our ability to diagnose cardiovascular disorders that can lead to sudden cardiac arrest. Post-mortem genetic testing is not typically a covered benefit of health insurance and may not be offered to families in the setting of a negative autopsy. This unusual case includes two separate cardiovascular disorders that highlight the use of genetic testing and its role in diagnosis, screening, and risk stratification. The insurance company's decision to cover post-mortem testing demonstrated both compassion as well as an understanding of the long-term cost effectiveness.

  15. [Inheritance rights fo the child born from post-mortem fertilization].

    PubMed

    Iniesta Delgado, Juan José

    2008-01-01

    Spanish Law allows in the possibility of post mortem fertilization, recognizing the paternity of the deceased male. The most prominent legal effects of this fact have to do with the succession of his father. The way of fixing the child's portion in the forced succession and its protection, the question of determining his share in the inheritance and the necessity of defending his rights until the verification of the birth are some of the issues that are discussed in this article.

  16. [Inheritance rights fo the child born from post-mortem fertilization].

    PubMed

    Iniesta Delgado, Juan José

    2008-01-01

    Spanish Law allows in the possibility of post mortem fertilization, recognizing the paternity of the deceased male. The most prominent legal effects of this fact have to do with the succession of his father. The way of fixing the child's portion in the forced succession and its protection, the question of determining his share in the inheritance and the necessity of defending his rights until the verification of the birth are some of the issues that are discussed in this article. PMID:19334404

  17. Post mortem function of AtMC9 in xylem vessel elements.

    PubMed

    Bollhöner, Benjamin; Zhang, Bo; Stael, Simon; Denancé, Nicolas; Overmyer, Kirk; Goffner, Deborah; Van Breusegem, Frank; Tuominen, Hannele

    2013-10-01

    Cell death of xylem elements is manifested by rupture of the tonoplast and subsequent autolysis of the cellular contents. Metacaspases have been implicated in various forms of plant cell death but regulation and execution of xylem cell death by metacaspases remains unknown. Analysis of the type II metacaspase gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana supported the function of METACASPASE 9 (AtMC9) in xylem cell death. Progression of xylem cell death was analysed in protoxylem vessel elements of 3-d-old atmc9 mutant roots using reporter gene analysis and electron microscopy. Protoxylem cell death was normally initiated in atmc9 mutant lines, but detailed electron microscopic analyses revealed a role for AtMC9 in clearance of the cell contents post mortem, that is after tonoplast rupture. Subcellular localization of fluorescent AtMC9 reporter fusions supported a post mortem role for AtMC9. Further, probe-based activity profiling suggested a function of AtMC9 on activities of papain-like cysteine proteases. Our data demonstrate that the function of AtMC9 in xylem cell death is to degrade vessel cell contents after vacuolar rupture. We further provide evidence on a proteolytic cascade in post mortem autolysis of xylem vessel elements and suggest that AtMC9 is part of this cascade.

  18. Post-Mortem Corneal Thickness Measurements with a Portable Optical Coherence Tomography System: a Reliability Study

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Pietro Emanuele; Nioi, Matteo; d’Aloja, Ernesto; Fossarello, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the repeatability and reproducibility of post-mortem central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements by using a real-time, portable optical coherence tomography (OCT) system on an animal model, and to prospectively evaluate the time-course of post-mortem changes in CCT. Forty-six ocular globes of sheep (Ovis aries) were analyzed with a portable spectral-domain OCT device by two operators at different postmortem intervals (PMIs) as follows: immediately (i.e. within 10 minutes), at the 30th minute, at the 1st, 6th, 12th, 24th and 48th hour, and later (up to the 96th hour). The coefficient of repeatability ranged from 0.3% to 3.5%, and coefficients of reproducibility ranged from 0.2% to 3.7% in the central region of the cornea. The intraclass correlation coefficients were particularly high at different PMIs, thus confirming good measurement reliability with the portable OCT. The average CCT decreased immediately and then increased thereafter, with two peaks at 6 and 24 hours after death. Our results suggest that portable OCT is a reliable tool for monitoring CCT variations after death and may be useful in characterizing corneas before explantation, detecting quantitative variations during post-mortem corneal degeneration or assessing changes in CCT for forensic implications. PMID:27457021

  19. The Use of Contrast-Enhanced Post Mortem CT in the Detection of Cardiovascular Deaths

    PubMed Central

    Penzkofer, Tobias; Kuhl, Christiane Katharina; Knüchel, Ruth; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the diagnostic value of contrast enhanced post mortem computed tomography (PMCT) in comparison to non-enhanced post mortem CT in the detection of cardiovascular causes of death (COD). Background As autopsy rates decline, new methods to determine CODs are necessary. So contrast enhanced PMCT shall be evaluated in comparison to established non-enhanced PMCT in order to further improve the method. Methods In a prospective study, 20 corpses were examined using a 64-row multisclice CT (MSCT) before and after intraarterial perfusion with a newly developed, barium-bearing contrast agent and ventilation of the lungs. The cause of death was determined in enhanced and unenhanced scans and a level of confidence (LOC) was given by three experienced radiologists on a scale between 0 and 4. Results were compared to autopsy results as gold standard. Autopsy was performed blinded to PMCT-findings. Results The method allowed visualization of different types of cause of death. There was a significant improvement in LOC in enhanced scans compared to unenhanced scans as well as an improvement in the detection of COD. The cause of death could be determined in 19 out of 20 patients. Conclusions PMCT is feasible and appears to be robust for diagnosing cardiovascular causes of death. When compared with unenhanced post-mortem CT intraarterial perfusion and pulmonary ventilation significantly improve visualization and diagnostic accuracy. These promising results warrant further studies. PMID:24759757

  20. Micro-mechanics of Post-mortem Retrieved Cement-Bone Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark A.; Eberhardt, Alan W.; Cleary, Richard J.; Verdonschot, Nico; Mann, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    The cement-bone interface plays an important role in load transfer between cemented implant systems and adjacent bone, but little is known about the micro-mechanical behavior of this interface following in vivo service. Small samples of post-mortem retrieved cement-bone specimens from cemented total hip replacements were prepared and mechanically loaded to determine the mechanical response to tensile and compressive loading. The morphology of the cement-bone interface was quantified using a CT-based stereology approach. Laboratory prepared specimens were used to represent immediate post-operative conditions for comparison. The stiffness and strength of the cement-bone interface from post-mortem retrievals was much lower than that measured from laboratory prepared specimens. The cement-bone interfaces from post-mortem retrievals were very compliant (under tension and compression) and had a very low tensile strength (0.21 ± 0.32 MPa). With a linear regression model, including interface contact fraction and intersection fraction between cement and bone could explain 71% (p<0.0001) of the variability in experimental response. Bony remodeling following an arthroplasty procedure may contribute to reduced contact between cement and bone and this is associated with weaker and more compliant interfaces. PMID:19658167

  1. Effect of epididymis handling conditions on the quality of ram spermatozoa recovered post-mortem.

    PubMed

    Kaabi, M; Paz, P; Alvarez, M; Anel, E; Boixo, J C; Rouissi, H; Herraez, P; Anel, L

    2003-10-15

    Post-mortem spermatozoa recovery is an important technique for obtaining germplasm reserves from genetically valuable animals or endangered species. However, there are many factors that influence the outcome of this technique. We have studied the effect of the interval between animal's death and sperm recovery (0, 24 or 48 h) on the quality and freezability of ram spermatozoa from cauda epididymidis. Storage temperature of epididymis (room temperature or 5 degrees C) was also analysed. Spermatozoa were diluted with Tes-Tris-Fructose solution supplemented with egg yolk (10%) and glycerol (4%), and frozen using a programmable biofreezer (-20 degrees C/min). Pre-freeze and post-thaw sperm samples showed viable spermatozoa up to 48 h after the animal's death, although their quality declined significantly as post-mortem storage time increased. Epididymis sperm stored at 5 degrees C showed better motility and a lower percentage of abnormal forms than epididymis stored at room temperature after 24 and 48 h. The fertilizing ability of cauda epididymis ram spermatozoa obtained at 0 and 24h after the animal's death is similar to that of ejaculated spermatozoa. Therefore, a good protocol for post-mortem semen collection in rams when epididymal spermatozoa cannot be collected immediately, is to preserve the epididymis at 5 degrees C and process the samples in the first 24h after the animal's death. PMID:14511779

  2. Family and community concerns about post-mortem needle biopsies in a Muslim society

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Post-mortem needle biopsies have been used in resource-poor settings to determine cause of death and there is interest in using them in Bangladesh. However, we did not know how families and communities would perceive this procedure or how they would decide whether or not to consent to a post-mortem needle biopsy. The goal of this study was to better understand family and community concerns and decision-making about post-mortem needle biopsies in this low-income, predominantly Muslim country in order to design an informed consent process. Methods We conducted 16 group discussions with family members of persons who died during an outbreak of Nipah virus illness during 2004-2008 and 11 key informant interviews with their community and religious leaders. Qualitative researchers first described the post-mortem needle biopsy procedure and asked participants whether they would have agreed to this procedure during the outbreak. Researchers probed participants about the circumstances under which the procedure would be acceptable, if any, their concerns about the procedure, and how they would decide whether or not to consent to the procedure. Results Overall, most participants agreed that post-mortem needle biopsies would be acceptable in some situations, particularly if they benefitted society. This procedure was deemed more acceptable than full autopsy because it would not require major delays in burial or remove organs, and did not require cutting or stitching of the body. It could be performed before the ritual bathing of the body in either the community or hospital setting. However, before consent would be granted for such a procedure, the research team must gain the trust of the family and community which could be difficult. Although consent may only be provided by the guardians of the body, decisions about consent for the procedure would involve extended family and community and religious leaders. Conclusions The possible acceptability of this procedure

  3. Post-mortem findings and piglet mortality in relation to strategic use of straw at farrowing.

    PubMed

    Westin, Rebecka; Holmgren, Nils; Hultgren, Jan; Ortman, Kerstin; Linder, Anders; Algers, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Piglet survival is the outcome of complex interactions between the sow, the piglet and their environment. In order to facilitate nest-building and to provide a suitable environment for the newborn piglets, a strategic method to supply loose housed sows with large quantities of straw at farrowing has been developed by Swedish piglet-producing farmers. The objectives of this cohort study were to use post-mortem findings to assess the causes of death and to quantify the effect of a large quantity of straw provided before farrowing compared to limited small daily amounts on stillbirths, post-mortem findings in piglets dying within 5 days after birth and the pre-weaning mortality. On each of four commercial piglet-producing farms in South-West Sweden, one batch of sows was studied during two consecutive lactations. At inclusion, sows were randomly assigned to two treatment groups, and sows remaining in the batch during the next lactation switched treatment group. In the STRAW group (n=181 litters) sows were provided with 15-20 kg of chopped straw 2 days prior to the calculated date of farrowing. Sows in the CONTROL group (n=182 litters) received 0.5-1 kg of chopped straw on a daily basis plus about 2 kg for nest-building when the stockperson judged the sow to be about to farrow. After onset of farrowing, additionally 1-2 kg was given. Post-mortem examination was performed in all piglets that died within 5 days after birth (n=798). The three major post-mortem findings were starvation (34%) crushing by the sow (28%), and enteritis (24%). In conclusion, strategic use of large quantities of straw reduced the number of stillborn piglets per litter by 27% (p=0.007). Under the conditions studied, the pre-weaning mortality of liveborn piglets was not affected by treatment; however, the distribution of post-mortem findings differed with fewer piglets dying due to starvation and more due to crushing and enteritis in STRAW litters.

  4. Autopsy in older medical patients: concordance in ante- and post-mortem findings and changing trends.

    PubMed

    Swaro, A; Adhiyaman, V

    2010-09-01

    Despite modern diagnostics, the discordance between ante- and post-mortem diagnoses is still around 25%, reiterating the need for high post-mortem rates. In our study, 3.5% had class I errors that, had they been detected during life, would or might have affected short-term outcome. Another 14% had major errors, conditions recorded as primary cause of death that were clinically missed or unrecorded but would not have affected the outcome. There has been an unexplained decline in hospital post mortems and more than a third of UK autopsies are now performed under the instruction of the relevant Coroner's office. The UK Coroners' system is currently under judicial and administrative review to improve the speed of and reduce the need for post-mortem analysis.

  5. Time-dependent post mortem changes in the composition of intestinal bacteria using real-time quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Post mortem or even normal changes during life occurring in major gut bacterial populations are not known. We investigated Bacteroides sp., Bifidobacterium sp., Clostridium leptum, Clostridium coccoides, Streptococcus sp., Lactobacillus sp. and Enterobacteriacaea ratios in 7 fecal samples from healthy volunteers and in 61 autopsies rectum and cecum samples and studied the effect of post mortem time using quantitative real-time PCR. Bacterial ratios in stool samples from volunteers and rectum samples from autopsy cases were similar and did not change significantly up to 5 days post mortem. In cecum, significant post mortem time-dependent differences were observed in ratios of Bacteroides sp. (p = 0.014) and Lactobacillus sp. (p = 0.024). Our results showed that ratios of Bacteroides sp., Bifidobacterium sp., Clostridium leptum, Clostridium coccoides, Streptococcus sp., Lactobacillus sp. and Enterobacteriacaea can be investigated in autopsy rectum samples up to 5 days after death. PMID:24267574

  6. Monitoring post mortem changes in porcine muscle through 2-D DIGE proteome analysis of Longissimus muscle exudate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Meat quality is a complex trait influenced by a range of factors with post mortem biochemical processes highly influential in defining ultimate quality. High resolution two-dimensional DIfference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and Western blot were applied to study the influence of post mortem meat ageing on the proteome of pork muscle. Exudate collected from the muscle following centrifugation was analysed at three timepoints representing a seven day meat ageing period. Results The intensity of 136 spots varied significantly (p < 0.05) across this post mortem period and 40 spots were identified using mass spectrometry. The main functional categories represented were metabolic proteins, stress-related proteins, transport and structural proteins. Metabolic and structural proteins were generally observed to increase in abundance post mortem and many likely represent the accumulation of the degradation products of proteolytic enzyme activity. In contrast, stress-related proteins broadly decreased in abundance across the ageing period. Stress response proteins have protective roles in maintaining cellular integrity and a decline in their abundance over time may correlate with a reduction in cellular integrity and the onset of meat ageing. Since cellular conditions alter with muscle ageing, changes in solubility may also contribute to observed abundance profiles. Conclusions Muscle exudate provided valuable information about the pathways and processes underlying the post mortem ageing period, highlighting the importance of post mortem modification of proteins and their interaction for the development of meat quality traits. PMID:23514628

  7. Precocious egg development in the blowfly Calliphora vicina: implications for developmental studies and post-mortem interval estimation.

    PubMed

    Davies, K; Harvey, M

    2012-09-01

    The occurrence of precocious egg development in forensically important calliphorid species has previously been reported; however, the frequency of occurrence in both wild and captive colonies, and the consequent effects on developmental studies and post-mortem interval (PMI) estimates, are largely unknown. A PMI estimate based on samples developed from precocious eggs could be extended by the entire period of embryogenesis, which at 22 °C would result in a significant error of around 24 h. This study examined the occurrence of precocious egg development in Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae) wild-caught and captive-bred adults by investigating the presence of larvae in the adult female genital chamber and by monitoring hatching times of entire batches of eggs throughout embryogenesis, respectively. A total of 8.82% of gravid wild-caught females contained a larva in the genital tract (i.e. a precocious egg). This indicates that all specimens collected should be considered potentially precocious for the purpose of PMI estimation. Less than 2.55% of a batch of eggs laid by captive females were precocious; protocols for minimizing the effect of precocious eggs on developmental studies are suggested.

  8. Applicability of an on-site test for its use in post-mortem blood.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Amparo; Sánchez, Marta; Palahí, Mariona; Barbal, Maria; Marrón, M A Teresa; Mora, Agustí

    2011-09-01

    The number of deaths related to drugs of abuse makes necessary the use of an on-site test for those cases in which a rapid detection of the consumed drug is required. Cozart® DDS test provides a simple, fast and reliable tool for the qualitative on-site analysis in post-mortem blood. Owing that this test is prepared for oral fluid samples, a validation becomes essential in order to use it for a different matrix than the established one. According to that, results obtained by Cozart® DDS test used in post-mortem blood samples have been compared with a qualitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS). Positive results for cocaine family compounds (COC-F) were 43.75%, for opiates family compounds (OPI-F) 25.78%, and for cannabis family compounds (THC-F) 2.34%. Negative results were 28.13%. No amphetamines (AMP) or methamphetamines (MA) were found. Sensitivity and specificity was available for cocaine and opiates but not for cannabis because only five cases were detected. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive positive value and predictive negative value for cocaine were 98%, 91%, 88% and 99%, respectively. Sensivilty, specificity, predictive positive value (PPV) and predictive negative value (NPV) for opiates were 93%, 92%, 76% and 98%, respectively. Likelihood positive ratios for cocaine and opiates have been 10.92 and 11.69, respectively, while likelihood negative ratios have been 0.02 and 0.08, respectively. Results show the suitability of Cozart® DDS test for the qualitative detection of cocaine and opiates in post-mortem blood.

  9. [Unusual questions of evidence in a case of offensive post-mortem dismemberment].

    PubMed

    Madea, Burkhard; Schmidt, Peter; Preuss, Johanna; Dietmar, Elenz

    2010-01-01

    In cases of post-mortem dismemberment, the main medicolegal task apart from the identification and assignment of body parts to one or several individuals is the determination of the cause of death and the course of events. Notably in cases of offensive postmortem dismemberment, the medicolegal findings on the victim may be of special importance also for the psychiatric evaluation of the suspect. In a case of offensive post-mortem dismemberment, parts of the body were found in a stone quarry and in the apartment where the victim and the suspect had lived together. Since the suspect refused to make a statement, the medicolegal findings were of great relevance for the psychiatric evaluation. In the first trial, in which the psychiatric expert was not present when the forensic pathologist gave his opinion, the Regional Court acquitted the suspect of murder and committed him to a psychiatric hospital. The accused successfully appealed on points of law, as the form and content of the psychiatric expert opinion did not comply with the requirements of procedural law and the forensic psychiatric state of the art. In a second trial, additional psychiatric experts were summoned. In that hearing, the task of the medicolegal expert was to reconstruct the course of events as far as possible to create a reliable basis for the psychiatric evaluation, as the suspect refused to make a statement both with regard to his personal circumstances and the facts of the case and did not agree to a psychiatric exploration either. The motivational and morphological criteria of the medicolegal classification as offensive post-mortem dismemberment with a cannibalistic background are discussed. In addition, some issues to be answered such as the detection of bloodstains on nonporous surfaces by means of leucocrystalviolet and the time of heat exposure of burned body parts are dealt with.

  10. Post-mortem 1.5T MR quantification of regular anatomical brain structures.

    PubMed

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Hottinger, Anna-Lena; Schwendener, Nicole; Schuster, Frederick; Persson, Anders; Warntjes, Marcel J; Jackowski, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Recently, post-mortem MR quantification has been introduced to the field of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging. By usage of a particular MR quantification sequence, T1 and T2 relaxation times and proton density (PD) of tissues and organs can be quantified simultaneously. The aim of the present basic research study was to assess the quantitative T1, T2, and PD values of regular anatomical brain structures for a 1.5T application and to correlate the assessed values with corpse temperatures. In a prospective study, 30 forensic cases were MR-scanned with a quantification sequence prior to autopsy. Body temperature was assessed during MR scans. In synthetically calculated T1, T2, and PD-weighted images, quantitative T1, T2 (both in ms) and PD (in %) values of anatomical structures of cerebrum (Group 1: frontal gray matter, frontal white matter, thalamus, internal capsule, caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus) and brainstem/cerebellum (Group 2: cerebral crus, substantia nigra, red nucleus, pons, cerebellar hemisphere, and superior cerebellar peduncle) were assessed. The investigated brain structures of cerebrum and brainstem/cerebellum could be characterized and differentiated based on a combination of their quantitative T1, T2, and PD values. MANOVA testing verified significant differences between the investigated anatomical brain structures among each other in Group 1 and Group 2 based on their quantitative values. Temperature dependence was observed mainly for T1 values, which were slightly increasing with rising temperature in the investigated brain structures in both groups. The results provide a base for future computer-aided diagnosis of brain pathologies and lesions in post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26872469

  11. Factors impacting the success of post-mortem sperm rescue in the rhinoceros.

    PubMed

    Roth, T L; Stoops, M A; Robeck, T R; O'Brien, J K

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to identify factors that influenced the ability to successfully rescue sperm post-mortem from rhinoceroses maintained in North American zoos. Factors considered included procedural technicalities, individual rhinoceros characteristics and timing. Gross testicular pathology was noted in 17.4% of males (4/23) but did not impact sperm recovery except in one case of azoospermia (4.3%). Of the males in which sperm recovery was attempted (n=21), 62% yielded quality samples considered adequate for cryopreservation (≥ 30% motility with ≥ 2.0 forward progressive status). A high percentage of males (70.6%; 12/17) from which reproductive tissue was removed an d cooled ≤ 4 h after death yielded quality sperm samples, whereas only 25% (1/4) of males from which tissue was removed>4h after death yielded quality samples. Quality samples were recovered 1-51 h post-mortem from rhinoceroses 8 to 36 years old. Neither type of illness (prolonged or acute), or method of death (euthanasia or natural) affected the ability to harvest quality samples (P > 0.05). The Indian rhinoceros yielded significantly more sperm on average (40 × 10(9)) than the African black rhinoceros (3.6 × 10(9); P < 0.01) and the African white rhinoceros (3.2 × 10(9); P < 0.05). Across all species and samples assessed (n = 11), mean post-thaw sperm motility (41%), was only 15% less than pre-freeze motility (56%) and only decreased to 22% during the 6h post-thaw assessment period. Rhinoceros sperm rescue post-mortem is relatively successful across a wide range of variables, especially when tissues are removed and cooled promptly after death, and should be considered standard practice among zoos. PMID:26879096

  12. Post-mortem detection of gasoline residues in lung tissue and heart blood of fire victims.

    PubMed

    Pahor, Kevin; Olson, Greg; Forbes, Shari L

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether gasoline residues could be detected post-mortem in lung tissue and heart blood of fire victims. The lungs and heart blood were investigated to determine whether they were suitable samples for collection and could be collected without contamination during an autopsy. Three sets of test subjects (pig carcasses) were investigated under two different fire scenarios. Test subjects 1 were anaesthetized following animal ethics approval, inhaled gasoline vapours for a short period and then euthanized. The carcasses were clothed and placed in a house where additional gasoline was poured onto the carcass post-mortem in one fire, but not in the other. Test subjects 2 did not inhale gasoline, were clothed and placed in the house and had gasoline poured onto them in both fires. Test subjects 3 were clothed but had no exposure to gasoline either ante- or post-mortem. Following controlled burns and suppression with water, the carcasses were collected, and their lungs and heart blood were excised at a necropsy. The headspace from the samples was analysed using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Gasoline was identified in the lungs and heart blood from the subjects that were exposed to gasoline vapours prior to death (test subjects 1). All other samples were negative for gasoline residues. These results suggest that it is useful to analyse for volatile ignitable liquids in lung tissue and blood as it may help to determine whether a victim was alive and inhaling gases at the time of a fire.

  13. A combined post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging and quantitative histological study of multiple sclerosis pathology

    PubMed Central

    Kolasinski, James; Chance, Steven A.; DeLuca, Gabriele C.; Esiri, Margaret M.; Chang, Eun-Hyuk; Palace, Jacqueline A.; McNab, Jennifer A.; Jenkinson, Mark; Miller, Karla L.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory neurological condition characterized by focal and diffuse neurodegeneration and demyelination throughout the central nervous system. Factors influencing the progression of pathology are poorly understood. One hypothesis is that anatomical connectivity influences the spread of neurodegeneration. This predicts that measures of neurodegeneration will correlate most strongly between interconnected structures. However, such patterns have been difficult to quantify through post-mortem neuropathology or in vivo scanning alone. In this study, we used the complementary approaches of whole brain post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging and quantitative histology to assess patterns of multiple sclerosis pathology. Two thalamo-cortical projection systems were considered based on their distinct neuroanatomy and their documented involvement in multiple sclerosis: lateral geniculate nucleus to primary visual cortex and mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus to prefrontal cortex. Within the anatomically distinct thalamo-cortical projection systems, magnetic resonance imaging derived cortical thickness was correlated significantly with both a measure of myelination in the connected tract and a measure of connected thalamic nucleus cell density. Such correlations did not exist between these markers of neurodegeneration across different thalamo-cortical systems. Magnetic resonance imaging lesion analysis depicted clearly demarcated subcortical lesions impinging on the white matter tracts of interest; however, quantitation of the extent of lesion-tract overlap failed to demonstrate any appreciable association with the severity of markers of diffuse pathology within each thalamo-cortical projection system. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging metrics in both white matter tracts were correlated significantly with a histologically derived measure of tract myelination. These data demonstrate for the first time the relevance of functional

  14. Post-mortem re-cloning of a transgenic red fluorescent protein dog.

    PubMed

    Hong, So Gun; Koo, Ok Jae; Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Minjung; Kim, Geon-A; Park, Eun Jung; Jang, Goo; Lee, Byeong-Chun

    2011-12-01

    Recently, the world's first transgenic dogs were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. However, cellular senescence is a major limiting factor for producing more advanced transgenic dogs. To overcome this obstacle, we rejuvenated transgenic cells using a re-cloning technique. Fibroblasts from post-mortem red fluorescent protein (RFP) dog were reconstructed with in vivo matured oocytes and transferred into 10 surrogate dogs. One puppy was produced and confirmed as a re-cloned dog. Although the puppy was lost during birth, we successfully established a rejuvenated fibroblast cell line from this animal. The cell line was found to stably express RFP and is ready for additional genetic modification.

  15. Increased concentration of. cap alpha. - and. gamma. -endorphin in post mortem hypothalamic tissue of schizophrenic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegant, V.M.; Verhoef, C.J.; Burbach, J.P.H.; de Wied, D.

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations of ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..- and ..gamma..-endorphin were determined by radioimmunoassay in HPLC fractionated extracts of post mortem hypothalamic tissue obtained from schizophrenic patients and controls. The hypothalamic concentration of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphin was significantly higher in patients than in controls. No difference was found in the concentration of ..beta..-endorphin, the putative precursor of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphins. These results suggest a deviant metabolism of ..beta..-endorphin in the brain of schizophrenic patients. Whether this phenomenon is related to the psychopathology, or is a consequence of ante mortem farmacotherapy, remains to be established.

  16. (31)P NMR study of post mortem changes in pig muscle.

    PubMed

    Miri, A; Talmant, A; Renou, J P; Monin, G

    1992-01-01

    The rate and the extent of post mortem pH changes in pig muscle largely determine pork quality. Fast pH fall combined with low ultimate pH leads to pale soft exudative (PSE) meat; high ultimate pH leads to dark firm dry (DFD) meat. Post mortem metabolism was studied in pig muscle using(31)P NMR. Fifteen pigs, i.e. 7 Large White pigs and 8 Pietrain pigs, were used. Five pigs of each breed were slaughtered, taking care to minimize preslaughter stress. The other pigs (3 Large Whites and 2 Pietrains) were injected with 0·1 mg adrenaline per kg liveweight before slaughter, in order to increase meat ultimate pH. All the animals were killed by electronarcosis and exsanguination. Three of the adrenaline-treated pigs (1 Large White and 2 Pietrains) gave meat with ultimate pH above 6 (DFD meat). The pigs with normal muscle ultimate pH, i.e. 6 Large Whites and 6 Pietrains, had very variable rates of post mortem muscle metabolism (pH at 30 min after slaughter: 6·17-6·85 in Large Whites; 6·04-6·23 in Pietrains). The relationships between pH and ATP changes were similar in all pigs showing normal muscle ultimate pH, whereas ATP disappeared at a high pH value (on average pH 6·4) in pigs with high ultimate pH. The course of post mortem biochemical changes in a given animal could be predicted rather well by examination of a single(31)P NMR spectrum obtained around 30 min after death. At this time, muscle with a low rate of metabolism simultaneously showed medium to high pH, high ATP content (4-6·8 μmol/g) and rather low Pi content (6-14 μmol/g); muscle with a fast rate of metabolism (PSE-prone muscle) had low pH, low to medium ATP content (1·1-4 μmol/g) and generally high phosphomonoester (PME) content (9-23 μmol/g); muscle with high ultimate pH (DFD-prone muscle) had high pH, low PME content (4-8 μmol/g) and high Pi content (22-27 μmol/g).

  17. Post-mortem study of the hip joint. III. Correlations between observations.

    PubMed Central

    Byers, P D; Contepomi, C A; Farkas, T A

    1976-01-01

    Correlations between alterations in hip joints, described in a post-mortem study, have established the independence of limited and progressive alterations, and in addition have shown that there is a weak association between limited alterations and osteophytes and a strong one between progressive alterations and osteophytes. Nevertheless limited alterations may rarely undergo progressive damage. Cysts relate strongly to osteophytes but only moderately with progressive alterations. Limited alterations of both head and acetabulum can be subdivided. Some implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:942267

  18. Using bacterial and necrophagous insect dynamics for post-mortem interval estimation during cold season: Novel case study in Romania.

    PubMed

    Iancu, Lavinia; Carter, David O; Junkins, Emily N; Purcarea, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    Considering the biogeographical characteristics of forensic entomology, and the recent development of forensic microbiology as a complementary approach for post-mortem interval estimation, the current study focused on characterizing the succession of necrophagous insect species and bacterial communities inhabiting the rectum and mouth cavities of swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) carcasses during a cold season outdoor experiment in an urban natural environment of Bucharest, Romania. We monitored the decomposition process of three swine carcasses during a 7 month period (November 2012-May 2013) corresponding to winter and spring periods of a temperate climate region. The carcasses, protected by wire cages, were placed on the ground in a park type environment, while the meteorological parameters were constantly recorded. The succession of necrophagous Diptera and Coleoptera taxa was monitored weekly, both the adult and larval stages, and the species were identified both by morphological and genetic characterization. The structure of bacterial communities from swine rectum and mouth tissues was characterized during the same time intervals by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. We observed a shift in the structure of both insect and bacterial communities, primarily due to seasonal effects and the depletion of the carcass. A total of 14 Diptera and 6 Coleoptera species were recorded on the swine carcasses, from which Calliphora vomitoria and C. vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Necrobia violacea (Coleoptera: Cleridae) and Thanatophilus rugosus (Coleoptera: Silphidae) were observed as predominant species. The first colonizing wave, primarily Calliphoridae, was observed after 15 weeks when the temperature increased to 13°C. This was followed by Muscidae, Fanniidae, Anthomyiidae, Sepsidae and Piophilidae. Families belonging to Coleoptera Order were observed at week 18 when temperatures raised above 18°C, starting with

  19. Post-feeding larval behaviour in the blowfly, Calliphora vicina: effects on post-mortem interval estimates.

    PubMed

    Arnott, Sophie; Turner, Bryan

    2008-05-20

    Using the rate of development of blowflies colonising a corpse, accumulated degree hours (ADH), or days (ADD), is an established method used by forensic entomologists to estimate the post-mortem interval (PMI). Derived from laboratory experiments, their application to field situations needs care. This study examines the effect of the post-feeding larval dispersal time on the ADH and therefore the PMI estimate. Post-feeding dispersal in blowfly larvae is typically very short in the laboratory but may extend for hours or days in the field, whilst the larvae try to find a suitable pupariation site. Increases in total ADH (to adult eclosion), due to time spent dispersing, are not simply equal to the dispersal time. The pupal period is increased by approximately 2 times the length of the dispersal period. In practice, this can introduce over-estimation errors in the PMI estimate of between 1 and 2 days if the total ADH calculations do not consider the possibility of an extended larval dispersal period.

  20. Virtual forensic entomology: improving estimates of minimum post-mortem interval with 3D micro-computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Richards, Cameron S; Simonsen, Thomas J; Abel, Richard L; Hall, Martin J R; Schwyn, Daniel A; Wicklein, Martina

    2012-07-10

    We demonstrate how micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) can be a powerful tool for describing internal and external morphological changes in Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) during metamorphosis. Pupae were sampled during the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th quarter of development after the onset of pupariation at 23 °C, and placed directly into 80% ethanol for preservation. In order to find the optimal contrast, four batches of pupae were treated differently: batch one was stained in 0.5M aqueous iodine for 1 day; two for 7 days; three was tagged with a radiopaque dye; four was left unstained (control). Pupae stained for 7d in iodine resulted in the best contrast micro-CT scans. The scans were of sufficiently high spatial resolution (17.2 μm) to visualise the internal morphology of developing pharate adults at all four ages. A combination of external and internal morphological characters was shown to have the potential to estimate the age of blowfly pupae with a higher degree of accuracy and precision than using external morphological characters alone. Age specific developmental characters are described. The technique could be used as a measure to estimate a minimum post-mortem interval in cases of suspicious death where pupae are the oldest stages of insect evidence collected.

  1. The role of Xpert MTB/RIF in diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis in post-mortem tissues

    PubMed Central

    García-Basteiro, Alberto L.; Ismail, Mamudo R.; Carrilho, Carla; Ussene, Esperança; Castillo, Paola; Chitsungo, Dércio; Rodríguez, Cristina; Lovane, Lucília; Vergara, Andrea; López-Varela, Elisa; Mandomando, Inacio; Lorenzoni, Cesaltina; Ordi, Jaume; Menéndez, Clara; Bassat, Quique; Martínez, Miguel J.

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which the Xpert MTB/RIF (Gene Xpert) contributes to tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in samples other than sputum and cerebrospinal fluid remains uncertain. We aimed to assess the role of Xpert MTB/RIF for detecting M. tuberculosis in post-mortem tissues. We conducted a study among 30 complete diagnostic autopsies (CDA) performed at the Maputo Central Hospital (Mozambique). Lung tissues were screened for TB in all cases. In addition other tissues were tested when compatible lesions were identified in the histological exam. We used in-house real time PCR and LAMP assays to confirm the presence of M. tuberculosis DNA. The diagnosis of tuberculosis at death was established based on microbiological and histopathological results. Eight out of 30 cases (26.7%) were diagnosed of tuberculosis. Xpert had a sensitivity to detect TB in lung tissue of 87.5% (95% CI 47.3–99.7) and a specificity of 95.7% (95% CI: 78.1–99.9). In-house DNA amplification methods and Xpert showed 93.6% concordance for lung tissue and 100% concordance for brain and liver tissues. The final cause of death was attributable to tuberculosis in four cases. Xpert MTB/RIF may represent a valuable, easy-to perform technique for post-mortem TB diagnosis. PMID:26860394

  2. Experimental taphonomy: post-mortem microstructural modifications in Sus scrofa domesticus bone.

    PubMed

    Kontopoulos, Ioannis; Nystrom, Pia; White, Lorraine

    2016-09-01

    Bone is a highly specialised form of hard and rigid connective tissue whose histological structure undergoes post-mortem modifications. In taphonomic research, histological examination of bone thin sections is used to investigate these post-mortem microstructural changes in skeletal tissues. In this study, diagenetic modifications in pig skeletal remains (Sus scrofa domesticus) which were exposed to different taphonomic conditions as part of a long-term, real-time experiment were examined under light microscope (i.e. plain and cross polarized light). This experiment demonstrated that macroscopic appearance and microscopic preservation of bone may significantly differ. Early microbial attack was identified as enlarged osteocyte lacunae that later coalesce to constitute larger foci. Additionally, microscopic preservation of different skeletal elements varied intra-individually, while within bone differential preservation (i.e. proximal versus distal ends) was also observed. However, no specific patterns of early histological attack (e.g. endosteal and periosteal destruction) and no clear relationship between histological preservation and proximity to the abdominal area were detected. Lastly, the presence and composition of protective textiles had a clear effect on bone preservation. This research project, therefore, provided important evidence for the better understanding of the diagenetic processes that occur within bones whilst buried or exposed on the ground surface. PMID:27368073

  3. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance of Post Mortem Multiple Sclerosis Brain before and after Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Schmierer, Klaus; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia AM; Tozer, Daniel J; Boulby, Phil A; Parkes, Harold G; Yousry, Tarek A; Scaravilli, Francesco; Barker, Gareth J; Tofts, Paul S; Miller, David H

    2007-01-01

    Unfixed and fixed post mortem multiple sclerosis (MS) brain is being used to probe pathology underlying quantitative MR (qMR) changes. Effects of fixation on qMR indices in MS brain are unknown. In 15 post mortem MS brain slices T1, T2, MT ratio (MTR), macromolecular proton fraction (fB), mean, axial and radial diffusivity (MD, Dax and Drad), and fractional anisotropy (FA) were assessed in white matter (WM) lesions (WML) and normal appearing WM (NAWM) before and after fixation in formalin. Myelin content, axonal count and gliosis were quantified histologically. Student's t-test and regression were used for analysis. T1, T2, MTR, and fB obtained in unfixed MS brain were similar to published values obtained in patients with MS in vivo. Following fixation T1, T2 (NAWM, WML) and MTR (NAWM) dropped, whereas fB (NAWM, WML) increased. Compared to published in vivo data all diffusivity measures were lower in unfixed MS brain, and dropped further following fixation (except for FA). MTR was the best predictor of myelin in unfixed MS brain (r=−0.83; p<0.01) whereas post-fixation T2 (r=0.92; p<0.01), T1 (r=−0.89; p<0.01) and fB (r=−0.86; p<0.01) were superior. All diffusivity measures (except for Dax in unfixed tissue) were predictors of myelin content. PMID:18228601

  4. The social life of the dead: The role of post-mortem examinations in medical student socialisation.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Dawn; Machin, Laura; Taylor, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Dissection has held a privileged position in medical education although the professional values it inculcates have been subject to intense debate. Claims vary from it generating a dehumanising level of emotional detachment, to promotion of rational and dispassionate decision-making, even to being a positive vehicle for ethical education. Social scientists have positioned dissection as a critical experience in the emotional socialisation of medical students. However, curricular revision has provoked debate about the style and quantity of anatomy teaching thus threatening this 'rite of passage' of medical students. Consequently, some UK medical schools do not employ dissection at all. In its place, observation of post-mortem examinations - a long established, if underutilised, practice - has re-emerged in an attempt to recoup aspects of anatomical knowledge that are arguably lost when dissection is omitted. Bodies for post-mortem examinations and bodies for dissection, however, have striking differences, meaning that post-mortem examinations and dissection cannot be considered comparable opportunities to learn anatomy. In this article, we explore the distinctions between dissection and post-mortem examinations. In particular, we focus on the absence of a discourse of consent, concerns about bodily integrity, how the body's shifting ontology, between object and person, disrupts students' attempts to distance themselves, and how the observation of post-mortem examinations features in the emotional socialisation of medical students.

  5. Effect of delay in cryofixation on the elemental composition of biopsies and post mortem specimens of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Wróblewski, R

    1994-07-01

    The time between the excision and cryofixation of a biopsy is most important regarding its elemental composition as demonstrated by an investigation of the thyroid glands of rats and pigs. Biopsies taken and cryofixed immediately served as control specimens. Biopsies that were allowed to stand at room temperature for 20 min before cryofixation and specimens cryofixed at 1 h post mortem were also investigated. Significant changes in the ion concentration of the cells and colloid were apparent in biopsies in which cryofixation was delayed for 20 min and in thyroids cryofixed 1 h post mortem. It was demonstrated that redistribution of electrolytes occurs within 1h post mortem and that similar changes occur in biopsies allowed to stand for 20 min at room temperature before cryofixation. The results stress the importance of immediate cryofixation after surgical excision of a biopsy. This is especially important since numerous elemental changes due to delayed cryofixation resemble those which occur in pathological processes.

  6. Legal aspects of post-mortem reproduction: a comparative perspective of French, Brazilian and Portuguese legal systems.

    PubMed

    Eduardo, Dantas; Raposo, Vera Lúcia

    2012-06-01

    Death arrives always too soon, and most often unexpectedly, destroying our plans and the plans of the ones who love us. Medically assisted reproduction offers nowadays a technique that makes possible to have children from someone that recently passed away. Post mortem reproduction is not the satisfaction of a mere whim, but the continuity of strong love affections, and frequently provides some kind of fulfillment to the common aspiration of the couple in constituting a family. All around the world courts and law makers are profoundly divided in the legitimacy of this practice. The well being of the child to be and the respect for the dead person seem to be the strongest arguments against. But, as this study will show, none of them resist to a more careful scrutiny. Therefore, not only post mortem embryo transfer should be allowed, but post mortem insemination and fertilization should also be permitted.

  7. Legal aspects of post-mortem reproduction: a comparative perspective of French, Brazilian and Portuguese legal systems.

    PubMed

    Eduardo, Dantas; Raposo, Vera Lúcia

    2012-06-01

    Death arrives always too soon, and most often unexpectedly, destroying our plans and the plans of the ones who love us. Medically assisted reproduction offers nowadays a technique that makes possible to have children from someone that recently passed away. Post mortem reproduction is not the satisfaction of a mere whim, but the continuity of strong love affections, and frequently provides some kind of fulfillment to the common aspiration of the couple in constituting a family. All around the world courts and law makers are profoundly divided in the legitimacy of this practice. The well being of the child to be and the respect for the dead person seem to be the strongest arguments against. But, as this study will show, none of them resist to a more careful scrutiny. Therefore, not only post mortem embryo transfer should be allowed, but post mortem insemination and fertilization should also be permitted. PMID:22900410

  8. [Post-mortem diagnosis of diabetic crisis in the presence of suspicious findings at the scene].

    PubMed

    Hagemeier, Lars; Madea, Burkhard

    2009-01-01

    In Germany, approximately 8 million people suffer from diabetes mellitus, of which over 90% have type 2 diabetes. Worldwide, there are around 246 million people with diabetes mellitus. As diabetes is often symptomless for a long time, around 2.5% of the population have diabetes without knowing it. Diabetic coma is a life-threatening complication, which affects up to 1.2% of all diabetics annually and is associated with a mortality rate of 20-25%. Since in 25% of patients the diabetic coma is the first manifestation of the disease, a valid post-mortem biochemical method for the diagnosis of the metabolic crisis is very important. The article presents cases from the authors' own autopsy material showing that the analysis of the vitreous humour is indispensable for the reconstruction of the events leading to death even in cases in which the cause of death is seemingly clear. PMID:19938404

  9. Detection of diabetic metabolism disorders post-mortem--forensic case reports on cause of death hyperglycaemia.

    PubMed

    Hess, C; Wöllner, K; Musshoff, F; Madea, B

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic coma is the most severe form of hyperglycaemic metabolic disorders. The post-mortem diagnosis of this disorder of glucose metabolism can be difficult and vague due to a lack of characteristic morphological findings. Six death cases caused by diabetic coma are described with special focus on biochemical (and histological) findings. The possible glycaemia markers glucose, lactate, HbA1c, fructosamine, anhydroglucitol, and ketone bodies were measured and the usefulness of these parameters is evaluated and discussed. Estimations of glucose concentrations in vitreous humour or cerebrospinal fluid and of ketone bodies in blood or other matrices are obligatory while measurements of HbA1c, fructosamine, or anhydroglucitol can only provide additional information on the long-term adjustment of diabetes in the deceased. Lactate concentrations (addition of glucose and lactate levels to form the sum formula of Traub) do not give more information than the glucose concentration itself and can be therefore omitted.

  10. Angiofil: a novel radio-contrast agent for post-mortem micro-angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabherr, Silke; Dominietto, Marco; Yu, Lisa; Djonov, Valentin; Müller, Bert; Friess, Sebastian

    2008-08-01

    The radio-contrast agent Angiofil has recently been developed to be predominantely applied in forensic medicine. Angiofil is a liquid radio-contrast agent based on iodine. Its viscosity is easy to adjust by the choice and the concentration of the solvent. Therefore, it is well suited for penetrating vessels of different diameters. The liquid Angiofil avoids the sedimentation of suspensions containing radio-opaque materials such as barium sulfate. The injection of Angiofil into the vascular system of mice post-mortem results in remarkable data showing the vascular trees of tissues and entire organs. Penetration into the surrounding tissue was not observed. Consequently, Angiofil has the potential to reach the performance of the established casting agent Microfil.

  11. Next-Generation Sequencing in Post-mortem Genetic Testing of Young Sudden Cardiac Death Cases

    PubMed Central

    Lahrouchi, Najim; Behr, Elijah R.; Bezzina, Connie R.

    2016-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the young (<40 years) occurs in the setting of a variety of rare inherited cardiac disorders and is a disastrous event for family members. Establishing the cause of SCD is important as it permits the pre-symptomatic identification of relatives at risk of SCD. Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) is defined as SCD in the setting of negative autopsy findings and toxicological analysis. In such cases, reaching a diagnosis is even more challenging and post-mortem genetic testing can crucially contribute to the identification of the underlying cause of death. In this review, we will discuss the current achievements of “the molecular autopsy” in young SADS cases and provide an overview of key challenges in assessing pathogenicity (i.e., causality) of genetic variants identified through next-generation sequencing. PMID:27303672

  12. Signature Based Detection of User Events for Post-mortem Forensic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Joshua Isaac; Gladyshev, Pavel; Zhu, Yuandong

    This paper introduces a novel approach to user event reconstruction by showing the practicality of generating and implementing signature-based analysis methods to reconstruct high-level user actions from a collection of low-level traces found during a post-mortem forensic analysis of a system. Traditional forensic analysis and the inferences an investigator normally makes when given digital evidence, are examined. It is then demonstrated that this natural process of inferring high-level events from low-level traces may be encoded using signature-matching techniques. Simple signatures using the defined method are created and applied for three popular Windows-based programs as a proof of concept.

  13. The relationship between bupropion and suicide in post-mortem investigations.

    PubMed

    Kriikku, Pirkko; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2016-09-01

    We reviewed the 33727 postmortem toxicology investigations performed in Finland over a period of 5years (2009-2013) and identified those in which the antidepressant bupropion was detected. Cases positive for other antidepressant drugs were reviewed for comparison. The postmortem toxicological examination included, in all cases, the routine screening and quantification of hundreds of drugs and poisons using quality-controlled methods. Bupropion was detected in 65 cases. A large proportion of the bupropion-positive deaths resulted from suicide (55%). In fatal poisoning cases found positive for bupropion, the proportion of suicide was even higher (77%). The measured median bupropion postmortem blood concentration (0.69mg/L) was markedly higher than the normal therapeutic range in plasma in the treatment of depression (up to 0.1mg/L) and even higher in fatal bupropion poisonings (13mg/L). Only 14% of the deceased positive for bupropion were estimated to be drug abusers. However, nearly all of the drug abuse cases were from the last year of the study (2013), indicating a recent increase of the use of bupropion among drug abusers and possibly even abuse of bupropion itself. Suicide victims positive for bupropion were younger than those who died with other antidepressant drugs in their blood. In addition, the percentage of fatal poisonings among bupropion-positive postmortem cases was higher than among the users of other antidepressant drugs. Suicide was significantly more common among the deceased positive for bupropion than among users of other antidepressant drugs. An unknown degree of bupropion degradation before the assay and post-mortem redistribution of bupropion may have impacted the measured levels. Nonetheless, all post-mortem concentrations of bupropion were elevated and especially high concentrations were detected in suicides.

  14. Effect of temperature and pH on the post-mortem degradation of myofibrillar proteins.

    PubMed

    Yates, L D; Dutson, T R; Caldwell, J; Carpenter, Z L

    1983-01-01

    Incubation of bovine muscle at 37°C promoted a more drastic proteolytic change in myofibrillar proteins, as determined from sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gels of isolated myofibrils, than incubation at 4°C. Degradation of myosin and troponin-T were the most noticeable changes at 37°C. Loss of α-actinin was observed in the 4°C incubated muscle. Ground bovine muscle incubated at pH 5·4 and 7 revealed that alterations in myosin and troponin-T were the most noticeable changes at ph 5·4 while troponin-T and α-actinin were altered at pH7. More troponin-T degradation occurred at pH 5·4 and 37°C than at pH7 and 4°C (similar to the degradation of myosin), indicating that troponin-T degradation in post-mortem muscle may be an indicator of overall myofibrillar proteolysis and not responsible for post-mortem tenderisation per se. Myosin degradation in the ground samples incubated at pH 5·4 and in whole samples incubated at 37°C was compared with the digestion of myofibrillar myosin by papain. Both pyrophosphate and Guba-Straub extracts of the 37°C and pH 5·4 treated samples confirmed that myosin degradation did occur to a much greater extent at this temperature and pH than at 4°C and pH7, and, in addition, at pH 5·4 frequent cleavage occurred near the papain sensitive site of myosin. PMID:22055822

  15. 9 CFR 381.76 - Post-mortem inspection, when required; extent; traditional, Streamlined Inspection System (SIS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...; extent; traditional, Streamlined Inspection System (SIS), New Line Speed (NELS) Inspection System and the... inspection, when required; extent; traditional, Streamlined Inspection System (SIS), New Line Speed (NELS... are five systems of post-mortem inspection: Streamlined Inspection System (SIS) and the New Line...

  16. Sequencing CYP2D6 for the detection of poor-metabolizers in post-mortem blood samples with tramadol.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Suzana; Amorim, António; Costa, Heloísa Afonso; Franco, João; Porto, Maria João; Santos, Jorge Costa; Dias, Mário

    2016-08-01

    Tramadol concentrations and analgesic effect are dependent on the CYP2D6 enzymatic activity. It is well known that some genetic polymorphisms are responsible for the variability in the expression of this enzyme and in the individual drug response. The detection of allelic variants described as non-functional can be useful to explain some circumstances of death in the study of post-mortem cases with tramadol. A Sanger sequencing methodology was developed for the detection of genetic variants that cause absent or reduced CYP2D6 activity, such as *3, *4, *6, *8, *10 and *12 alleles. This methodology, as well as the GC/MS method for the detection and quantification of tramadol and its main metabolites in blood samples was fully validated in accordance with international guidelines. Both methodologies were successfully applied to 100 post-mortem blood samples and the relation between toxicological and genetic results evaluated. Tramadol metabolism, expressed as its metabolites concentration ratio (N-desmethyltramadol/O-desmethyltramadol), has been shown to be correlated with the poor-metabolizer phenotype based on genetic characterization. It was also demonstrated the importance of enzyme inhibitors identification in toxicological analysis. According to our knowledge, this is the first study where a CYP2D6 sequencing methodology is validated and applied to post-mortem samples, in Portugal. The developed methodology allows the data collection of post-mortem cases, which is of primordial importance to enhance the application of these genetic tools to forensic toxicology and pathology.

  17. [Medicolegal experiences in external post-mortem examinations before cremation--a retrospective analysis of the years 1998-2008].

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Philipp; Schyma, Christian; Madea, Burkhard

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a retrospective analysis of 16,541 external post-mortem examinations carried out before cremation by the Institute of Forensic Medicine of the University of Bonn between 1998 and 2008 with regard to different variables (age, sex, place of death, cause of death etc.). In more than 50 % of cases, the individuals had died in a hospital followed by their apartment or a nursing home. The first post-mortem examination was mainly performed by hospital doctors followed by emergency doctors and office practitioners. As to the age distribution, the 6th to 8th decade of life was prevalent. In 99.8 %, a natural death was certified in the first external post-mortem and only in 0.2 % the manner of death was determined to be non-natural or unclear. In more than half of the cases, the non-natural deaths were determined by emergency doctors. Deaths wrongly classified in the first external post-mortem were mostly accidents and deaths associated with medical procedures. Although the second external examination before cremation is very useful in detecting previously overlooked signs of homicide, it is only of limited value in homicides with few external traces or for detecting underlying diseases and causes of death. In this respect, the second external examination before cremation can only check the plausibility of the cause of death given by the attending physician. The gold standard for a reliable certification of the manner and cause of death remains the autopsy.

  18. Changes of microbial spoilage, lipid-protein oxidation and physicochemical properties during post mortem refrigerated storage of goat meat.

    PubMed

    Sabow, Azad Behnan; Sazili, Awis Qurni; Aghwan, Zeiad Amjad; Zulkifli, Idrus; Goh, Yong Meng; Ab Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin; Nakyinsige, Khadijah; Kaka, Ubedullah; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda

    2016-06-01

    Examined was the effect of post mortem refrigerated storage on microbial spoilage, lipid-protein oxidation and physicochemical traits of goat meat. Seven Boer bucks were slaughtered, eviscerated and aged for 24 h. The Longissimus lumborum (LL) and Semitendinosus (ST) muscles were excised and subjected to 13 days post mortem refrigerated storage. The pH, lipid and protein oxidation, tenderness, color and drip loss were determined in LL while microbiological analysis was performed on ST. Bacterial counts generally increased with increasing aging time and the limit for fresh meat was reached at day 14 post mortem. Significant differences were observed in malondialdehyde (MDA) content at day 7 of storage. The thiol concentration significantly reduced as aging time increased. The band intensities of myosin heavy chain (MHC) and troponin-T significantly decreased as storage progressed, while actin remained relatively stable. After 14 days of aging, tenderness showed significant improvement while muscle pH and drip loss reduced with increase in storage time. Samples aged for 14 days had higher lightness (P < 0.05) and lower (P < 0.05) yellowness and redness. Post mortem refrigerated storage influenced oxidative and microbial stability and physico-chemical properties of goat meat. PMID:26890722

  19. Herpes simplex encephalitis is linked with selective mitochondrial damage; a post-mortem and in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Wnęk, Małgorzata; Ressel, Lorenzo; Ricci, Emanuele; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carmen; Guerrero, Julio Cesar Villalvazo; Ismail, Zarini; Smith, Colin; Kipar, Anja; Sodeik, Beate; Chinnery, Patrick F; Solomon, Tom; Griffiths, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE) is the most commonly diagnosed cause of viral encephalitis in western countries. Despite antiviral treatment, HSE remains a devastating disease with high morbidity and mortality. Improved understanding of pathogenesis may lead to more effective therapies. Mitochondrial damage has been reported during HSV infection in vitro. However, whether it occurs in the human brain and whether this contributes to the pathogenesis has not been fully explored. Minocycline, an antibiotic, has been reported to protect mitochondria and limit brain damage. Minocycline has not been studied in HSV infection. In the first genome-wide transcriptomic study of post-mortem human HSE brain tissue, we demonstrated a highly preferential reduction in mitochondrial genome (MtDNA) encoded transcripts in HSE cases (n = 3) compared to controls (n = 5). Brain tissue exhibited a significant inverse correlation for immunostaining between cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), a MtDNA encoded enzyme subunit, and HSV-1; with lower abundance for mitochondrial protein in regions where HSV-1 was abundant. Preferential loss of mitochondrial function, among MtDNA encoded components, was confirmed using an in vitro primary human astrocyte HSV-1 infection model. Dysfunction of cytochrome c oxidase (CO), a mitochondrial enzyme composed predominantly of MtDNA encoded subunits, preceded that of succinate dehydrogenase (composed entirely of nuclear encoded subunits). Minocycline treated astrocytes exhibited higher CO1 transcript abundance, sustained CO activity and cell viability compared to non-treated astrocytes. Based on observations from HSE patient tissue, this study highlights mitochondrial damage as a critical and early event during HSV-1 infection. We demonstrate minocycline preserves mitochondrial function and cell viability during HSV-1 infection. Minocycline, and mitochondrial protection, offers a novel adjunctive therapeutic approach for

  20. Herpes simplex encephalitis is linked with selective mitochondrial damage; a post-mortem and in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Wnęk, Małgorzata; Ressel, Lorenzo; Ricci, Emanuele; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carmen; Guerrero, Julio Cesar Villalvazo; Ismail, Zarini; Smith, Colin; Kipar, Anja; Sodeik, Beate; Chinnery, Patrick F; Solomon, Tom; Griffiths, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE) is the most commonly diagnosed cause of viral encephalitis in western countries. Despite antiviral treatment, HSE remains a devastating disease with high morbidity and mortality. Improved understanding of pathogenesis may lead to more effective therapies. Mitochondrial damage has been reported during HSV infection in vitro. However, whether it occurs in the human brain and whether this contributes to the pathogenesis has not been fully explored. Minocycline, an antibiotic, has been reported to protect mitochondria and limit brain damage. Minocycline has not been studied in HSV infection. In the first genome-wide transcriptomic study of post-mortem human HSE brain tissue, we demonstrated a highly preferential reduction in mitochondrial genome (MtDNA) encoded transcripts in HSE cases (n = 3) compared to controls (n = 5). Brain tissue exhibited a significant inverse correlation for immunostaining between cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), a MtDNA encoded enzyme subunit, and HSV-1; with lower abundance for mitochondrial protein in regions where HSV-1 was abundant. Preferential loss of mitochondrial function, among MtDNA encoded components, was confirmed using an in vitro primary human astrocyte HSV-1 infection model. Dysfunction of cytochrome c oxidase (CO), a mitochondrial enzyme composed predominantly of MtDNA encoded subunits, preceded that of succinate dehydrogenase (composed entirely of nuclear encoded subunits). Minocycline treated astrocytes exhibited higher CO1 transcript abundance, sustained CO activity and cell viability compared to non-treated astrocytes. Based on observations from HSE patient tissue, this study highlights mitochondrial damage as a critical and early event during HSV-1 infection. We demonstrate minocycline preserves mitochondrial function and cell viability during HSV-1 infection. Minocycline, and mitochondrial protection, offers a novel adjunctive therapeutic approach for

  1. Effect of post-mortem handling conditions on the quality of spent hen meat curry.

    PubMed

    Mendiratta, S K; Sharma, B D; Majhi, M; Kumar, R R

    2012-04-01

    Study was performed to determine the effect of post-mortem handling conditions on the physico-chemical and sensory attributes of spent hen meat curry. Breast cuts of spent hens were subjected to different postmortem handling conditions before cooking viz; made into small cuts and cooked within 1-2 h of slaughter (condition 1), made into small cuts and cooked after 4-5 h of slaughter (condition 2), made into small cuts immediately after slaughter, stored at 4 ± 1 °C for 12 h and then cooked (condition 3), stored at 4 ± 1 °C for 12 h, made into small cuts and cooked (condition 4). The pH of meat just before cooking due to different stages of rigor development under various conditions differed accordingly. Observed differences in temperature of meat just before cooking were because of different postmortem handling condition variations viz:1,2,3,&4. The associated post mortem changes under different postmortem handling conditions before cooking led to significant variation in Water holding capacity, Water Soluble Protein, Salt Soluble Protein, cooking yield, moisture percentage before cooking and after cooking and also WB shear force value. In general, sensory scores were higher for conditions 4 and 1 as compared to conditions 2 and 3. Results revealed that quality attributes of spent hen meat curry can be improved by following proper post-slaughter handling and processing conditions. To get meat curry of good sensory quality, meat should be cooked preferably within 1-2 h of slaughter or after 10-12 h of storage of intact carcass at 4 ± 1 °C. Cuts should be made just before cooking but cooking after 4-5 h of slaughter should be avoided. PMID:23572849

  2. Elevated formic acid concentrations in putrefied post-mortem blood and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Viinamäki, Jenni; Rasanen, Ilpo; Vuori, Erkki; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2011-05-20

    Formic acid (FA) concentration was measured in post-mortem blood and urine samples as methyl formate using a headspace in-tube extraction gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry method. A total of 113 cases were analyzed, each including a blood and urine sample fortified with 1% sodium fluoride. The cases were divided into three groups: regular (n=59), putrefied (n=30), and methanol-positive (n=22) cases. There was no evidence of ante-mortem methanol consumption in the regular and putrefied cases. In regular cases, the mean (and median) FA concentrations were 0.04 g/l (0.04 g/l) and 0.06 g/l (0.04 g/l) in blood and urine, respectively. In putrefied cases, the mean (and median) FA concentrations were substantially higher, 0.24 g/l (0.22 g/l) and 0.25 g/l (0.15 g/l) in blood and urine, respectively. In three putrefied cases, FA concentration in blood exceeded 0.5 g/l, a level associated with fatal methanol poisoning. Ten putrefied cases were reanalyzed after 3-4 months storage, and no significant changes in FA concentrations were seen. These observations suggest that FA was formed by putrefaction during the post-mortem period, not during sample storage when sodium fluoride was added as a preservative. In methanol-positive cases, the mean (and median) FA concentrations were 0.80 g/l (0.88 g/l) and 3.4 g/l (3.3 g/l) in blood and urine, respectively, and the concentrations ranged from 0.19 to 1.0 g/l in blood and from 1.7 to 5.6 g/l in urine. The mean (and median) methanol concentrations in methanol-positive cases were 3.0 g/l (3.0 g/l) and 4.4 g/l (4.7 g/l) in blood and in urine, respectively. The highest methanol concentrations were 6.0 g/l and 8.7 g/l in blood and urine, respectively. No ethyl alcohol was found in the methanol-positive blood samples. Poor correlation was shown between blood and urine concentrations of FA. Poor correlations were also shown, in both blood and urine, between methanol and FA concentrations. PMID:21112705

  3. Methods used for the killing and preservation of blowfly larvae, and their effect on post-mortem larval length.

    PubMed

    Adams, Zoe J O; Hall, Martin J R

    2003-12-17

    A record of the length of the largest larvae collected from a corpse can be used to estimate the age of the oldest larvae present and, therefore, give an estimate of minimum time since death. Consequently, factors that affect post-mortem larval length will impact on any estimate of PMI based on it. Methods used to kill and preserve larvae are known to affect post-mortem length. This study looks at the effects of different preservatives, and variations in the protocol used for killing larvae by immersion in a hot water bath = [hot water killed; HWK], on the length of dead larvae of two common blowfly species. Post-feeding third instar Calliphora vomitoria and Lucilia sericata larvae were either HWK in boiling water and then placed in 80% ethanol or 10% formaldehyde solution, or placed live into the preservatives. For both species, choice of preservative and method of killing significantly affected post-mortem length. There were significant interspecific differences in their response to identical methods of killing and preservation. Additional experiments were carried out where C. vomitoria larvae were HWK in water at 80 and 100 degrees C for 1, 30, 60 and 90 s duration. Both temperature and duration significantly affected post-mortem length. Maximum length was attained after at least 60 s immersion. The amount of post-mortem decomposition that occurred after the larvae were placed in preservative could be greatly reduced by increasing the duration of immersion and/or increasing the water temperature. For the HWK larvae, it was possible to record their length immediately after death and before they had been placed in preservative. This data revealed that where 80% ethanol was used as a preservative the larvae expanded in the preservative. The timing of this expansion was investigated with a sample of C. vomitoria, HWK at 100 degrees C for 30 s and recording post-mortem length immediately after death and again after 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 27, 30 and 33 h storage in 80

  4. Post mortem computed tomography: useful or unnecessary in gunshot wounds deaths? Two case reports.

    PubMed

    Maiese, Aniello; Gitto, Lorenzo; De Matteis, Alessandra; Panebianco, Valeria; Bolino, Giorgio

    2014-11-01

    Post-mortem computer tomography (PMCT) is currently an useful procedure that can elucidate patterns of injuries, providing strong medical evidence that is very useful during litigation and at trial. This technique is especially useful in gunshot wounds cases, allowing an easier location and retrieval of the bullet and/or its fragments inside the body. In such cases, the use of 3D rendering can be very useful in order to obtain essential information, such as: accurate depict of the wound track, discerning between entrance and exit wounds, show bone's fracture and its fragments course inside the body. The authors performed analysis on two cases of death by gunshot wounds, and a PMCT before the postmortem examination was made. The obtained CT scans were evaluated using the open-source software OsiriX on a Mac OS X computer, performing 3D rendering of the DICOM images. The crime scene reconstruction was performed using the software Poser Debut® on a Mac OS X computer. In both cases, PMCT showed multiple advantages: objectivity, reproducibility, ease visualization of the wound paths, easy localization of bullet and their fragments, allowing us to clarify the cause of death before the traditional autopsy. PMCT should became a standard in forensic practice as an aid to the tradition postmortem examination to obtain as much information as possible in order to clarify the cause and manner of death. PMID:25001050

  5. A forensic toxicological dilemma: the interpretation of post-mortem concentrations of central acting analgesics.

    PubMed

    Daldrup, Th

    2004-06-10

    Dora V., a 88-year-old pensioner suffering from a hiatus hernia, died at the home of an orthopaedist and his wife, an anaesthetist, immediately after she had received a dose of 300 mg pethidine via intravenous infusion in a timeframe of about 90 min. One day before her death a befriended notary of the couple visited Dora V. and obtained a blank signature. After her death, a will was forged using this signature, rendering the couple sole heirs of Dora V.'s estate with a value of several million euros. Post-mortem toxicology was performed in three different institutes of legal medicine. The concentrations of pethidine in peripheral venous blood were between 6.1 and 6.5mg/l and 9.5 and 17.2mg/kg in brain. Pharmacokinetic calculation confirms the given dose. There was no doubt that the cause of death was acute pethidine intoxication. The accused couple claimed that this dose of pethidine was indicated to relief pain, and as the pathologists said in their expert opinions that the hiatus hernia could explain her death, the court had to acquit the accused. This very special case demonstrates that preconceived murder of a sick person with suitable analgesics cannot be proven--at least not with the methods available to forensic toxicology and pathology. This has to be taken into consideration if euthanasia will be legalised under special circumstances.

  6. [Obligation to report occupational diseases. Importance of external post-mortem examinations before cremation].

    PubMed

    Verhoff, M A; Risse, M; Alles, J-U; Müller, K-M; Stachetzki, U

    2004-05-01

    The practical use of the legally required documentation of occupational diseases is demonstrated by a case of asbestos-related pleural mesothelioma. During the mandatory inquest before cremation, information of manifest pleural mesothelioma had been relayed to the widow of the patient, and an investigation for a possible occupational disease was performed. Reconstruction of the case showed that in the course of 3 months at least 13 physicians had been involved in in-hospital as well as ambulatory therapeutic measures. Until death, none of them informed the trade association about a suspected occupational disease in accordance with BK 4105 of the codex of occupational diseases, although the diagnosis of manifest pleural mesothelioma had been histologically confirmed already 10 weeks prior to the death of the patient. This case demonstrates obvious and evident deficiencies in applying the Code of Social Law VII, which requires physicians to report occupational diseases. In addition, it shows the importance of the post-mortem examination as a control function before cremation.

  7. Audit of practice in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) post mortems and neuropathological findings

    PubMed Central

    Michalak, Zuzanna; Wright, Gabriella; Dawson, Timothy; Hilton, David; Joshi, Abhijit; Diehl, Beate; Koepp, Matthias; Lhatoo, Samden; Sander, Josemir W.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is one of the leading causes of death in people with epilepsy. For classification of definite SUDEP, a post mortem (PM), including anatomical and toxicological examination, is mandatory to exclude other causes of death. We audited PM practice as well as the value of brain examination in SUDEP. Methods We reviewed 145 PM reports in SUDEP cases from four UK neuropathology centres. Data were extracted for clinical epilepsy details, circumstances of death and neuropathological findings. Results Macroscopic brain abnormalities were identified in 52% of cases. Mild brain swelling was present in 28%, and microscopic pathologies relevant to cause or effect of seizures were seen in 89%. Examination based on whole fixed brains (76.6% of all PMs), and systematic regional sampling was associated with higher detection rates of underlying pathology (P < 0.01). Information was more frequently recorded regarding circumstances of death and body position/location than clinical epilepsy history and investigations. Conclusion Our findings support the contribution of examination of the whole fixed brain in SUDEP, with high rates of detection of relevant pathology. Availability of full clinical epilepsy‐related information at the time of PM could potentially further improve detection through targeted tissue sampling. Apart from confirmation of SUDEP, complete neuropathological examination contributes to evaluation of risk factors as well as helping to direct future research into underlying causes. PMID:26300477

  8. [Post-mortem cesarean sections in Puerto Rico, 1805-1807].

    PubMed

    Rigau-Pérez, J G; Villaizán, M

    1991-03-01

    The idea of saving an infant by incising the abdomen of the recently deceased mother was first put into practice in ancient times, and the Catholic Church endorsed its use to provide baptism for the infant's soul. The practice received official support in Madrid in 1804 with a Real Cédula (royal order) of Charles IV to the civilian and ecclesiastic officials of the Indies and the Philippines. This operation was used, before the cédula, in Spain, Mexico, Venezuela and Peru, but in Puerto Rico this order seems to have provoked the practice of post-mortem caesarean section. In a review of burial records of the San Juan cathedral for 1797 to 1814, one such operation is mentioned (1807), but the records of Cayey (a town in the mountains) from 1801 to 1812 show three cases (1805-6). We transcribe here (with modern spelling) the cédula and burial certificates, and we then comment on their significance. PMID:1854384

  9. Post-mortem analysis of lactate concentration in diabetics and metformin poisonings.

    PubMed

    Keltanen, T; Nenonen, T; Ketola, R A; Ojanperä, I; Sajantila, A; Lindroos, K

    2015-11-01

    Lactate is produced in carbohydrate metabolism under anaerobic conditions. Lactic acidosis occurs when the production of lactate exceeds its removal. In post-mortem (PM) context, the lactic acidosis is difficult to interpret due to unknown pathophysiological factors prior to death and PM changes that may affect the lactate levels. We evaluated 1865 medico-legal autopsy cases where the quantitation of glucose, lactate, and ketone bodies was performed as a part of the cause of death (CoD) investigation. Lactate was shown to ascend in a logarithmic manner as the PM interval increased until a plateau was achieved approximately after 8-10 days PM, and the elevation was caused mainly by PM changes. The lactate level was higher than the mean in cases where the CoD was diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) or metformin poisoning. Although there was a correlation between metformin and lactate levels, our findings suggest the DM2 and its complications were the cause for elevated lactate levels rather than metformin, since the lactate levels were similar in DM2-associated deaths where no metformin was detected. Elevated lactate levels in PM samples rather referred to metabolic disturbances often caused by DM2. An assay to detect D-lactate in PM samples was described.

  10. Breast density quantification with cone-beam CT: a post-mortem study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Travis; Ding, Huanjun; Le, Huy Q; Ducote, Justin L; Molloi, Sabee

    2013-12-01

    Forty post-mortem breasts were imaged with a flat-panel based cone-beam x-ray CT system at 50 kVp. The feasibility of breast density quantification has been investigated using standard histogram thresholding and an automatic segmentation method based on the fuzzy c-means algorithm (FCM). The breasts were chemically decomposed into water, lipid, and protein immediately after image acquisition was completed. The per cent fibroglandular volume (%FGV) from chemical analysis was used as the gold standard for breast density comparison. Both image-based segmentation techniques showed good precision in breast density quantification with high linear coefficients between the right and left breast of each pair. When comparing with the gold standard using %FGV from chemical analysis, Pearson's r-values were estimated to be 0.983 and 0.968 for the FCM clustering and the histogram thresholding techniques, respectively. The standard error of the estimate was also reduced from 3.92% to 2.45% by applying the automatic clustering technique. The results of the postmortem study suggested that breast tissue can be characterized in terms of water, lipid and protein contents with high accuracy by using chemical analysis, which offers a gold standard for breast density studies comparing different techniques. In the investigated image segmentation techniques, the FCM algorithm had high precision and accuracy in breast density quantification. In comparison to conventional histogram thresholding, it was more efficient and reduced inter-observer variation.

  11. Post mortem computed tomography: useful or unnecessary in gunshot wounds deaths? Two case reports.

    PubMed

    Maiese, Aniello; Gitto, Lorenzo; De Matteis, Alessandra; Panebianco, Valeria; Bolino, Giorgio

    2014-11-01

    Post-mortem computer tomography (PMCT) is currently an useful procedure that can elucidate patterns of injuries, providing strong medical evidence that is very useful during litigation and at trial. This technique is especially useful in gunshot wounds cases, allowing an easier location and retrieval of the bullet and/or its fragments inside the body. In such cases, the use of 3D rendering can be very useful in order to obtain essential information, such as: accurate depict of the wound track, discerning between entrance and exit wounds, show bone's fracture and its fragments course inside the body. The authors performed analysis on two cases of death by gunshot wounds, and a PMCT before the postmortem examination was made. The obtained CT scans were evaluated using the open-source software OsiriX on a Mac OS X computer, performing 3D rendering of the DICOM images. The crime scene reconstruction was performed using the software Poser Debut® on a Mac OS X computer. In both cases, PMCT showed multiple advantages: objectivity, reproducibility, ease visualization of the wound paths, easy localization of bullet and their fragments, allowing us to clarify the cause of death before the traditional autopsy. PMCT should became a standard in forensic practice as an aid to the tradition postmortem examination to obtain as much information as possible in order to clarify the cause and manner of death.

  12. How to optimise the yield of forensic and clinical post-mortem microbiology with an adequate sampling: a proposal for standardisation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rodríguez, A; Cohen, M C; Lucena, J; Van de Voorde, W; Angelini, A; Ziyade, N; Saegeman, V

    2015-05-01

    Post-mortem microbiology (PMM) is an important tool in forensic pathology, helping to determine the cause and manner of death, especially in difficult scenarios such as sudden unexpected death (SD). Currently, there is a lack of standardization of PMM sampling throughout Europe. We present recommendations elaborated by a panel of European experts aimed to standardize microbiological sampling in the most frequent forensic and clinical post-mortem situations. A network of forensic microbiologists, pathologists and physicians from Spain, England, Belgium, Italy and Turkey shaped a flexible protocol providing minimal requirements for PMM sampling at four practical scenarios: SD, bioterrorism, tissue and cell transplantation (TCT) and paleomicrobiology. Biosafety recommendations were also included. SD was categorized into four subgroups according to the age of the deceased and circumstances at autopsy: (1) included SD in infancy and childhood (0-16 years); (2) corresponded to SD in the young (17-35 years); (3) comprised SD at any age with clinical symptoms; and (4) included traumatic/iatrogenic SD. For each subgroup, a minimum set of samples and general recommendations for microbiological analyses were established. Sampling recommendations for main bioterrorism scenarios were provided. In the TCT setting, the Belgian sampling protocol was presented as an example. Finally, regarding paleomicrobiology, the sampling selection for different types of human remains was reviewed. This proposal for standardization in the sampling constitutes the first step towards a consensus in PMM procedures. In addition, the protocol flexibility to adapt the sampling to the clinical scenario and specific forensic findings adds a cost-benefit value.

  13. Influence of Post-Mortem Sperm Recovery Method and Extender on Unstored and Refrigerated Rooster Sperm Variables.

    PubMed

    Villaverde-Morcillo, S; Esteso, M C; Castaño, C; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2016-02-01

    Many post-mortem sperm collection techniques have been described for mammalian species, but their use in birds is scarce. This paper compares the efficacy of two post-mortem sperm retrieval techniques - the flushing and float-out methods - in the collection of rooster sperm, in conjunction with the use of two extenders, i.e., L&R-84 medium and Lake 7.1 medium. To determine whether the protective effects of these extenders against refrigeration are different for post-mortem and ejaculated sperm, pooled ejaculated samples (procured via the massage technique) were also diluted in the above extenders. Post-mortem and ejaculated sperm variables were assessed immediately at room temperature (0 h), and after refrigeration at 5°C for 24 and 48 h. The flushing method retrieved more sperm than the float-out method (596.5 ± 75.4 million sperm vs 341.0 ± 87.6 million sperm; p < 0.05); indeed, the number retrieved by the former method was similar to that obtained by massage-induced ejaculation (630.3 ± 78.2 million sperm). For sperm collected by all methods, the L&R-84 medium provided an advantage in terms of sperm motility variables at 0 h. In the refrigerated sperm samples, however, the Lake 7.1 medium was associated with higher percentages of viable sperm, and had a greater protective effect (p < 0.05) with respect to most motility variables. In conclusion, the flushing method is recommended for collecting sperm from dead birds. If this sperm needs to be refrigerated at 5°C until analysis, Lake 7.1 medium is recommended as an extender. PMID:26602054

  14. Comparison of endogenous GHB concentrations in blood and hair in death cases with emphasis on the post mortem interval.

    PubMed

    Castro, André L; Tarelho, Sónia; Dias, Mário; Reis, Flávio; Teixeira, Helena M

    2016-07-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound which has a story of clinical use and illicit abuse since the 1960's. The possibility to use a multi-sample approach for GHB evaluation, including whole blood and hair, to better characterize a forensic toxicology case and evaluate a possible causal association with the death is an exciting up-to-date issue. In addition, its post-mortem behaviour, namely regarding degradation and metabolism, has been increasingly investigated as a putative biomarker for post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation. Thus, in order to contribute to clarification of this specific aspect, whole blood and hair post-mortem GHB levels were evaluated in 32 real cases with previous information on death and autopsy data. The results obtained suggest that the PMI (until 5 days between death and sampling) influences GHB whole blood concentration, but not GHB levels in hair samples. No differences were encountered for the other parameters evaluated, including age, gender, cause of death and presence or absence of substances. This study brings new insights regarding the usefulness of GHB levels in forensic toxicology, which might be further strengthened with larger, but comparable, studies from other laboratories and institutions in the context of legal medicine.

  15. Effect of South African beef production systems on post-mortem muscle energy status and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Frylinck, L; Strydom, P E; Webb, E C; du Toit, E

    2013-04-01

    Post-slaughter muscle energy metabolism meat colour of South African production systems were compared; steers (n=182) of Nguni, Simmental Brahman crossbreds were reared on pasture until A-, AB-, or B-age, in feedlot until A-AB-age. After exsanguination carcasses were electrically stimulated (400 V for 15 s). M. longissimus dorsi muscle energy samples were taken at 1, 2, 4 and 20 h. Post-mortem samples for meat quality studies were taken at 1, 7 and 14 days post-mortem. Production systems affected muscle glycogen, glucose, glucose-6-P, lactic acid, ATP, creatine-P glycolytic potential (P<0.05), with the muscles of feedlot carcasses having a faster glycolysis rate than pasture carcasses. Energy metabolites correlated (0.40.5) water holding capacity, drip loss, and Warner Bratzler shear force. Muscle energy only affected muscle contraction of the A-age-pasture system (shortest sarcomere length of 1.66 μm vs 1.75 μm highest WBS of 6 kg vs 5 kg 7 days post-mortem). PMID:23305833

  16. Towards muscle-specific meat color stability of Chinese Luxi yellow cattle: A proteomic insight into post-mortem storage.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Yu, Qian-Qian; Fu, Yu; Tian, Xiao-Jing; Jia, Fei; Li, Xing-Min; Dai, Rui-Tong

    2016-09-16

    Searching for potential predictors of meat color is a challenging task for the meat industry. In this study, the relationship between meat color parameters and the sarcoplasmic proteome of M. longissimuss lumborum (LL) and M. psoas major (PM) from Chinese Luxi yellow cattle during post-mortem storage (0, 5, 10 and 15days) were explored with the aid of the integrated proteomics and bioinformatics approaches. Meat color attributes revealed that LL displayed better color stability than PM during storage. Furthermore, sarcoplasmic proteins of these two muscles were compared between days 5, 10, 15 and day 0. Several proteins were closely correlated with meat color attributes and they were muscle-specific and responsible for the meat color stability at different storage periods. Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A isoform, glycogen phosphorylase, peroxiredoxin-2, phosphoglucomutase-1, superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn], heat shock cognate protein (71kDa) might serve as the candidate predictors of meat color stability during post-mortem storage. In addition, bioinformatics analyses indicated that more proteins were involved in glycolytic metabolism of LL, which contributed to better meat color stability of LL than PM. The present results could provide a proteomic insight into muscle-specific meat color stability of Chinese Luxi yellow cattle during post-mortem storage.

  17. Effect of South African beef production systems on post-mortem muscle energy status and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Frylinck, L; Strydom, P E; Webb, E C; du Toit, E

    2013-04-01

    Post-slaughter muscle energy metabolism meat colour of South African production systems were compared; steers (n=182) of Nguni, Simmental Brahman crossbreds were reared on pasture until A-, AB-, or B-age, in feedlot until A-AB-age. After exsanguination carcasses were electrically stimulated (400 V for 15 s). M. longissimus dorsi muscle energy samples were taken at 1, 2, 4 and 20 h. Post-mortem samples for meat quality studies were taken at 1, 7 and 14 days post-mortem. Production systems affected muscle glycogen, glucose, glucose-6-P, lactic acid, ATP, creatine-P glycolytic potential (P<0.05), with the muscles of feedlot carcasses having a faster glycolysis rate than pasture carcasses. Energy metabolites correlated (0.40.5) water holding capacity, drip loss, and Warner Bratzler shear force. Muscle energy only affected muscle contraction of the A-age-pasture system (shortest sarcomere length of 1.66 μm vs 1.75 μm highest WBS of 6 kg vs 5 kg 7 days post-mortem).

  18. Ventilated post-mortem computed tomography through the use of a definitive airway.

    PubMed

    Rutty, Guy N; Biggs, Mike J P; Brough, Alison; Robinson, Claire; Mistry, Reena; Amoroso, Jasmin; Deshpande, Aparna; Morgan, Bruno

    2015-03-01

    Ventilated post-mortem computed tomography (VPMCT) has been shown to achieve lung expansion in cadavers and has been proposed to enhance the diagnosis of lung pathology. Two key problems of the method of ventilation have been identified: firstly, the presence of head and neck rigor making airway insertion challenging and, secondly, air leak, if there is not a good seal around the airway, which diminishes lung expansion and causes inflation of the stomach. Simple procedures to insert a 'definitive' cuffed airway, which has a balloon inflated within the trachea, are therefore desirable. This study aims to test different procedures for inserting cuffed airways in cadavers and compare their ventilation efficacy and to propose a decision algorithm to select the most appropriate method. We prospectively tested variations on two ways of inserting a cuffed airway into the trachea: firstly, using an endotracheal tube (ET) approach, either blind or by direct visualisation, and, secondly, using a tracheostomy incision, either using a standard tracheostomy tube or shortened ET tube. We compare these approaches with a retrospective analysis of a previously reported series using supraglottic airways. All techniques, except 'blind' insertion of ET tubes, were possible with adequate placement of the airway in most cases. However, achieving both adequate insertion and a complete tracheal seal was better for definitive airways with 56 successful cases from 59 (95 %), compared with 9 cases from 18 (50 %) using supraglottic airways (p < 0.0001). Good lung expansion was achieved using all techniques if the airway was adequately positioned and achieved a good seal, and there was no significant chest pathology. We prefer inserting a shortened ET tube via a tracheostomy incision, as we find this the easiest technique to perform and train. Based on our experience, we have developed a decision algorithm to select the most appropriate method for VPMCT.

  19. Temperature dependent ageing mechanisms in Lithium-ion batteries - A Post-Mortem study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldmann, Thomas; Wilka, Marcel; Kasper, Michael; Fleischhammer, Meike; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Margret

    2014-09-01

    The effects of temperatures in the range of -20 °C to 70 °C on the ageing behaviour of cycled Lithium-ion batteries are investigated quantitatively by electrochemical methods and Post-Mortem analysis. Commercial 18650-type high-power cells with a LixNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2/LiyMn2O4 blend cathode and graphite/carbon anode were used as test system. The cells were cycled at a rate of 1 C until the discharge capacity falls below 80% of the initial capacity. Interestingly, an Arrhenius plot indicates two different ageing mechanisms for the ranges of -20 °C to 25 °C and 25 °C to 70 °C. Below 25 °C, the ageing rates increase with decreasing temperature, while above 25 °C ageing is accelerated with increasing temperature. The aged 18650 cells are inspected via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), measurements of electrode thickness and X-ray diffraction (XRD) after disassembly to learn more about the chemical reasons of the degradation. The effect of different temperatures on the electrode polarizations are evaluated by assembling electrodes in pouch cells with reference electrode as a model system. We find that the dominating ageing mechanism for T < 25 °C is Lithium plating, while for T > 25 °C the cathodes show degeneration and the anodes will be increasingly covered by SEI layers.

  20. Post-mortem forensic neuroimaging: correlation of MSCT and MRI findings with autopsy results.

    PubMed

    Yen, Kathrin; Lövblad, Karl-Olof; Scheurer, Eva; Ozdoba, Christoph; Thali, Michael J; Aghayev, Emin; Jackowski, Christian; Anon, Javier; Frickey, Nathalie; Zwygart, Karin; Weis, Joachim; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2007-11-15

    Multislice-computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are increasingly used for forensic purposes. Based on broad experience in clinical neuroimaging, post-mortem MSCT and MRI were performed in 57 forensic cases with the goal to evaluate the radiological methods concerning their usability for forensic head and brain examination. An experienced clinical radiologist evaluated the imaging data. The results were compared to the autopsy findings that served as the gold standard with regard to common forensic neurotrauma findings such as skull fractures, soft tissue lesions of the scalp, various forms of intracranial hemorrhage or signs of increased brain pressure. The sensitivity of the imaging methods ranged from 100% (e.g., heat-induced alterations, intracranial gas) to zero (e.g., mediobasal impression marks as a sign of increased brain pressure, plaques jaunes). The agreement between MRI and CT was 69%. The radiological methods prevalently failed in the detection of lesions smaller than 3mm of size, whereas they were generally satisfactory concerning the evaluation of intracranial hemorrhage. Due to its advanced 2D and 3D post-processing possibilities, CT in particular possessed certain advantages in comparison with autopsy with regard to forensic reconstruction. MRI showed forensically relevant findings not seen during autopsy in several cases. The partly limited sensitivity of imaging that was observed in this retrospective study was based on several factors: besides general technical limitations it became apparent that clinical radiologists require a sound basic forensic background in order to detect specific signs. Focused teaching sessions will be essential to improve the outcome in future examinations. On the other hand, the autopsy protocols should be further standardized to allow an exact comparison of imaging and autopsy data. In consideration of these facts, MRI and CT have the power to play an important role in future forensic

  1. Analysis of new designer drugs in post-mortem blood using high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pasin, Daniel; Bidny, Sergei; Fu, Shanlin

    2015-04-01

    An analytical method was developed and validated for the purpose of detecting and quantifying 37 new designer drugs including cathinones, hallucinogenic phenethylamines and piperazines. Using only 100 µL whole blood, a salting-out-assisted liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile was performed to isolate target compounds followed by chromatographic separation using a Waters ACQUITY ultra performance liquid chromatograph coupled to a Waters XEVO quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Mephedrone-d3 was used as an internal standard. A gradient elution was used in combination with a Waters ACQUITY HSS C18 column (2.1 × 150 mm, 1.8 µm). Samples were analyzed using the detector in positive electrospray ionization mode with MS(E) acquisition. All compounds of interest were resolved in a 15 min run time and positively identified based on accurate mass of the molecular ion, two product ions and retention time. All analyte calibration curves were linear over the range of 0.05-2 mg/L with most correlation coefficient (r(2)) values >0.98. The limits of detection were within the range of 0.007-0.07 mg/L and limits of quantification within 0.05-0.1 mg/L. All analytes were stable 48 h after extraction and most were stable in blood after 1 week stored in a refrigerator and 3 freeze-thaw cycles. No carryover was observed up to 10 mg/L and no interferences from common therapeutic drugs or endogenous compounds. Recoveries ranged from 71 to 100% and matrix effects were assessed for blank, post-mortem and decomposed blood. All bias and % coefficient of variation values were within the acceptable values of ±15 and ≤15%, respectively (±20 and ≤20% at lower limit of quantification). The method was applied to several forensic cases where the subject exhibited behavior characteristic of designer drug intoxication and where routine screening for a panel of drugs was negative.

  2. Endogenous gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) concentrations in post-mortem specimens and further recommendation for interpretative cut-offs.

    PubMed

    Andresen-Streichert, Hilke; Jensen, P; Kietzerow, J; Schrot, M; Wilke, N; Vettorazzi, E; Mueller, A; Iwersen-Bergmann, S

    2015-01-01

    When interpreting gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) concentrations in post-mortem specimens, a possible increase in GHB concentrations because of post-mortem generation must be considered. In this study, endogenous GHB concentrations in post-mortem biological fluids were investigated. Additionally, we review post-mortem GHB concentrations already published in the literature. Heart and peripheral blood samples, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, and vitreous humor were collected from 64 autopsies in subjects where the cause of death excluded GHB exposure. Sample analysis was carried out either on the day of autopsy or later after immediate freezing and storage at -20 °C. GHB concentrations in venous blood samples (n = 61) were <0.6-28.7 mg/L (mean 11.9 mg/L; median 10.6 mg/L), <0.6-65.3 mg/L (mean 15.2 mg/L; median 12.8 mg/L) in heart blood (n = 56), <0.6-25.1 mg/L (mean 6.0 mg/L; median 3.8 mg/L) in urine (n = 50), <0.6-39.0 mg/L (mean 9.6 mg/L; median 7.5 mg/L), in vitreous humor (n = 54), and <0.6-24.0 mg/L (mean 4.2 mg/L; median 3.2 mg/L) in cerebrospinal fluid (n = 52). There was no significant difference between GHB concentrations in cases where there were signs of beginning putrefaction at the time of autopsy (n = 9) and cases without obvious signs of putrefaction. In one case with advanced putrefaction, the GHB concentration in venous blood was 32.7 mg/L. In conclusion, for post-mortem venous blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid, an interpretative cut-off of 30 mg/L for GHB concentrations is suggested in cases where GHB analysis is conducted on the day of sample collection at autopsy or if samples have been stored at -20 °C immediately after collection.

  3. Post-mortem pregnancy: a proposed methodology for the resolution of conflicts over whether a brain dead pregnant woman should be maintained on life-sustaining treatment.

    PubMed

    Gregorian, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author examines conflicts over whether to maintain a brain dead pregnant woman on life-sustaining treatment. The author cautions that on the rare occasions when courts are confronted with such a conflict, they should employ a consistent methodology for resolution of the conflict and attempt to honor the wishes of the post-mortem mother and her family. The author draws on relevant areas of law to demonstrate the existence of a legal fiction that protects the interests of post-mortem pregnant women in refusing medical treatment. This article then proceeds to propose a methodology that enables courts to account for a post-mortem pregnant woman's interests, her family's interests, and the state's interests in resolving conflicts over whether to remove a post-mortem pregnant woman from life-sustaining treatment. PMID:21443149

  4. Post-mortem pregnancy: a proposed methodology for the resolution of conflicts over whether a brain dead pregnant woman should be maintained on life-sustaining treatment.

    PubMed

    Gregorian, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author examines conflicts over whether to maintain a brain dead pregnant woman on life-sustaining treatment. The author cautions that on the rare occasions when courts are confronted with such a conflict, they should employ a consistent methodology for resolution of the conflict and attempt to honor the wishes of the post-mortem mother and her family. The author draws on relevant areas of law to demonstrate the existence of a legal fiction that protects the interests of post-mortem pregnant women in refusing medical treatment. This article then proceeds to propose a methodology that enables courts to account for a post-mortem pregnant woman's interests, her family's interests, and the state's interests in resolving conflicts over whether to remove a post-mortem pregnant woman from life-sustaining treatment.

  5. Causes of mortality and pathological lesions observed post-mortem in red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The red squirrel population in Great Britain has declined dramatically in recent decades, principally due to squirrelpox. Concern exists that red squirrels may become extinct nationally and, as there has been limited research in to diseases other than squirrelpox, this study aimed to identify additional causes of mortality. Results Post-mortem examinations on 163 red squirrels found dead on Isle of Wight (IoW) England, in Scotland and at other locations in Great Britain showed that 41.7% (n = 68) were killed by road traffic and 9.2% (n = 15) by predators, principally domestic cats and dogs. The overall male/female ratio was 1.08/1. Fleas were recorded on 34.9% of IoW squirrels and on 43.8% of Scottish squirrels but sucking lice and ixodid ticks were only seen on Scottish squirrels. Bacterial infections were significant, particularly in association with respiratory disease (n = 16); two squirrels died of Bordetella bronchiseptica bronchopneumonia. Cases of fatal exudative dermatitis (n = 5) associated with a lukM-positive clone of Staphylococcus aureus occurred only on the IoW. Toxoplasmosis (n = 12) was also confined to IoW where it was responsible for almost one tenth (9.5%) of all deaths. Hepatozoonosis was common, especially in IoW squirrels, but was not considered a primary cause of mortality. Hepatic capillariasis affected four IoW squirrels and one from Scotland. Fungal infections included oral candidiasis, adiaspiromycosis and pulmonary phaeohyphomycosis. Neoplastic conditions diagnosed were: pulmonary carcinoma, gastric spindle cell tumour, renal papillary adenoma and trichoepithelioma. Epidermal hyperplasia of unknown aetiology was seen in squirrels showing crusty lesions of the ear pinnae on IoW (n = 3) and Brownsea Island (n = 1), associated in two cases with cutaneous wart-like growths. Miscellaneous diagnoses included chylothorax, electrocution, intussusception, suspected cholecalciferol rodenticide poisoning and

  6. Cocaine in sudden and unexpected death: a review of 49 post-mortem cases.

    PubMed

    Pilgrim, Jennifer L; Woodford, Noel; Drummer, Olaf H

    2013-04-10

    Cocaine is a potent sympathomimetic drug that is associated with cardiotoxicity, including ventricular arrhythmia, systemic hypertension, acute myocardial infarction and left ventricular hypertrophy. The use of cocaine in Australia has risen steadily since the late 1990s. What remains unclear in the literature is whether cocaine-associated death can occur in the absence of other contributing factors, such as concomitant drug use or natural disease. A search was conducted on the National Coroners Information System database, to identify all deaths occurring in Victoria, Australia, between January 2000 and December 2011, where cocaine or its metabolites were detected by post-mortem toxicological analysis. All cases were closed by the Coroner. These cases were examined with regards to case circumstances, pathology and toxicology results, and coronial findings, to determine the prevalence of cardiotoxicity and the involvement of cocaine in the deaths compared with other contributing factors. There were 49 cases where cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, methylecgonine or cocaethylene, were detected in the 11-year period. The individuals ranged in age from 16 to 70 years (median 30). There were 36 males. In 22 cases the cause of death was determined to be drug toxicity, 22 were external injury and 5 were attributed to natural disease. The concentration of cocaine in the cases was relatively low (range 0.01-3 mg/L, median 0.1 mg/L). Cocaine metabolites were detected frequently in blood and urine: benzoylecgonine (46 cases); ecgonine methyl ester (12 cases); cocaethylene (8 cases); and methylecgonine (9 cases). Opioids were commonly detected (23 cases), in addition to amphetamines (15 cases), ethanol (17 cases) and benzodiazepines (12 cases). Of the 43 cases receiving a full autopsy, there were 14 cases involving significant heart disease. This included coronary artery disease (11 cases), an enlarged heart (5 cases), myocarditis and contraction band necrosis

  7. Post-mortem assessment of hypoperfusion of cerebral cortex in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Taya; Miners, Scott; Love, Seth

    2015-04-01

    Perfusion is reduced in the cerebral neocortex in Alzheimer's disease. We have explored some of the mechanisms, by measurement of perfusion-sensitive and disease-related proteins in post-mortem tissue from Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and age-matched control brains. To distinguish physiological from pathological reduction in perfusion (i.e. reduction exceeding the decline in metabolic demand), we measured the concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a protein induced under conditions of tissue hypoxia through the actions of hypoxia-inducible factors, and the myelin associated glycoprotein to proteolipid protein 1 (MAG:PLP1) ratio, which declines in chronically hypoperfused brain tissue. To evaluate possible mechanisms of hypoperfusion, we also measured the levels of amyloid-β40, amyloid-β42, von Willebrand factor (VWF; a measure of microvascular density) and the potent vasoconstrictor endothelin 1 (EDN1); we assayed the activity of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE), which catalyses the production of another potent vasoconstrictor, angiotensin II; and we scored the severity of arteriolosclerotic small vessel disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and determined the Braak tangle stage. VEGF was markedly increased in frontal and parahippocampal cortex in Alzheimer's disease but only slightly and not significantly in vascular dementia. In frontal cortex the MAG:PLP1 ratio was significantly reduced in Alzheimer's disease and even more so in vascular dementia. VEGF but not MAG:PLP1 increased with Alzheimer's disease severity, as measured by Braak tangle stage, and correlated with amyloid-β42 and amyloid-β42: amyloid-β40 but not amyloid-β40. Although MAG:PLP1 tended to be lowest in cortex from patients with severe small vessel disease or cerebral amyloid angiopathy, neither VEGF nor MAG:PLP1 correlated significantly with the severity of structural vascular pathology (small vessel disease, cerebral amyloid angiopathy or VWF

  8. Phenazepam abuse in Finland: findings from apprehended drivers, post-mortem cases and police confiscations.

    PubMed

    Kriikku, Pirkko; Wilhelm, Lars; Rintatalo, Janne; Hurme, Jukka; Kramer, Jan; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2012-07-10

    Phenazepam is a long-acting benzodiazepine that, unlike other benzodiazepines, is currently not scheduled as a narcotic in Finland, most other European countries or the USA. It is used as an anxiolytic, sedative-hypnotic and anti-epileptic, mainly in Russia. In Finland, as well as in some other countries, an increase in the unauthorized use of phenazepam has been observed in recent years. In the one year period between July 1, 2010 and June 30, 2011 the prevalence of phenazepam in Finland was assessed among drivers apprehended for driving under the influence of drugs (DUID), in medico-legal autopsy cases and in police confiscations of illicit drugs. In DUID cases an LC-MS/MS method preceded by solid phase extraction was used for the determination of phenazepam. In the post-mortem investigations the sample preparation consisted of liquid-liquid extraction followed by derivatization and the determination was carried out by GC-MS. The police confiscations were analysed by GC-MS. There were 141 positive phenazepam cases among apprehended drivers, representing approximately 3.5% of all confirmed drug cases (n=4007) in this time period. The median (range) phenazepam blood concentration in DUID cases was 0.061 mg/L (0.004-3.600 mg/L). The median phenazepam concentration in cases with no concomitant stimulant use was significantly higher than the overall median concentration. Phenazepam was found in 17 medico-legal autopsy cases and the median (range) blood concentration was 0.048 mg/L (0.007-1.600 mg/L). Phenazepam was not considered by the medico-legal team to be the sole cause of death in any of the cases, the majority of them being accidental opiod overdoses. There were 26 seizures of phenazepam by the Police in the time period studied, some of the batches consisted of a mixture of phenazepam and stimulant designer drugs. The data show that phenazepam abuse is a widespread phenomenon in Finland. A typical user was a male multi-drug user in his 30s. The concentration

  9. Post-mortem assessment of hypoperfusion of cerebral cortex in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Taya; Miners, Scott; Love, Seth

    2015-04-01

    Perfusion is reduced in the cerebral neocortex in Alzheimer's disease. We have explored some of the mechanisms, by measurement of perfusion-sensitive and disease-related proteins in post-mortem tissue from Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and age-matched control brains. To distinguish physiological from pathological reduction in perfusion (i.e. reduction exceeding the decline in metabolic demand), we measured the concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a protein induced under conditions of tissue hypoxia through the actions of hypoxia-inducible factors, and the myelin associated glycoprotein to proteolipid protein 1 (MAG:PLP1) ratio, which declines in chronically hypoperfused brain tissue. To evaluate possible mechanisms of hypoperfusion, we also measured the levels of amyloid-β40, amyloid-β42, von Willebrand factor (VWF; a measure of microvascular density) and the potent vasoconstrictor endothelin 1 (EDN1); we assayed the activity of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE), which catalyses the production of another potent vasoconstrictor, angiotensin II; and we scored the severity of arteriolosclerotic small vessel disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and determined the Braak tangle stage. VEGF was markedly increased in frontal and parahippocampal cortex in Alzheimer's disease but only slightly and not significantly in vascular dementia. In frontal cortex the MAG:PLP1 ratio was significantly reduced in Alzheimer's disease and even more so in vascular dementia. VEGF but not MAG:PLP1 increased with Alzheimer's disease severity, as measured by Braak tangle stage, and correlated with amyloid-β42 and amyloid-β42: amyloid-β40 but not amyloid-β40. Although MAG:PLP1 tended to be lowest in cortex from patients with severe small vessel disease or cerebral amyloid angiopathy, neither VEGF nor MAG:PLP1 correlated significantly with the severity of structural vascular pathology (small vessel disease, cerebral amyloid angiopathy or VWF

  10. The degradation of proteins in pinniped skeletal muscle: viability of post-mortem tissue in physiological research.

    PubMed

    Moore, Colby D; Fahlman, Andreas; Crocker, Daniel E; Robbins, Kathleen A; Trumble, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    As marine divers, pinnipeds have a high capacity for exercise at depth while holding their breath. With finite access to oxygen, these species need to be capable of extended aerobic exercise and conservation of energy. Pinnipeds must deal with common physiological hurdles, such as hypoxia, exhaustion and acidosis, that are common to all exercising mammals. The physiological mechanisms in marine mammals used for managing oxygen and carbon dioxide have sparked much research, but access to animals and tissues is difficult and requires permits. Deceased animals that are either bycaught or stranded provide one potential source for tissues, but the validity of biochemical data from post-mortem samples has not been rigorously assessed. Tissues collected from stranded diving mammals may be a crucial source to add to our limited knowledge on the physiology of some of these animals and important to the conservation and management of these species. We aim to determine the reliability of biochemical assays derived from post-mortem tissue and to promote the immediate sampling of stranded animals for the purpose of physiological research. In this study, we mapped the temporal degradation of muscle enzymes from biopsied Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) and highlight recommendations for storage protocols for the best preservation of tissue. We also compared the enzymatic activity of different muscle groups (pectoral and latissimus dorsi) in relation to locomotion and measured the effects of four freeze-thaw cycles on muscle tissue enzyme function. Results indicate that enzymatic activity fluctuates greatly, especially with varying storage temperature, storage time, species and muscle group being assayed. In contrast, proteins, such as myoglobin, remain relatively continuous in their increase at 4°C for 48 h. Stranded animals can be a valuable source of biochemical data, but enzyme assays should be used only with great caution in post-mortem tissues.

  11. The degradation of proteins in pinniped skeletal muscle: viability of post-mortem tissue in physiological research

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Colby D.; Fahlman, Andreas; Crocker, Daniel E.; Robbins, Kathleen A.; Trumble, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    As marine divers, pinnipeds have a high capacity for exercise at depth while holding their breath. With finite access to oxygen, these species need to be capable of extended aerobic exercise and conservation of energy. Pinnipeds must deal with common physiological hurdles, such as hypoxia, exhaustion and acidosis, that are common to all exercising mammals. The physiological mechanisms in marine mammals used for managing oxygen and carbon dioxide have sparked much research, but access to animals and tissues is difficult and requires permits. Deceased animals that are either bycaught or stranded provide one potential source for tissues, but the validity of biochemical data from post-mortem samples has not been rigorously assessed. Tissues collected from stranded diving mammals may be a crucial source to add to our limited knowledge on the physiology of some of these animals and important to the conservation and management of these species. We aim to determine the reliability of biochemical assays derived from post-mortem tissue and to promote the immediate sampling of stranded animals for the purpose of physiological research. In this study, we mapped the temporal degradation of muscle enzymes from biopsied Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) and highlight recommendations for storage protocols for the best preservation of tissue. We also compared the enzymatic activity of different muscle groups (pectoral and latissimus dorsi) in relation to locomotion and measured the effects of four freeze–thaw cycles on muscle tissue enzyme function. Results indicate that enzymatic activity fluctuates greatly, especially with varying storage temperature, storage time, species and muscle group being assayed. In contrast, proteins, such as myoglobin, remain relatively continuous in their increase at 4°C for 48 h. Stranded animals can be a valuable source of biochemical data, but enzyme assays should be used only with great caution in post-mortem tissues. PMID

  12. The degradation of proteins in pinniped skeletal muscle: viability of post-mortem tissue in physiological research.

    PubMed

    Moore, Colby D; Fahlman, Andreas; Crocker, Daniel E; Robbins, Kathleen A; Trumble, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    As marine divers, pinnipeds have a high capacity for exercise at depth while holding their breath. With finite access to oxygen, these species need to be capable of extended aerobic exercise and conservation of energy. Pinnipeds must deal with common physiological hurdles, such as hypoxia, exhaustion and acidosis, that are common to all exercising mammals. The physiological mechanisms in marine mammals used for managing oxygen and carbon dioxide have sparked much research, but access to animals and tissues is difficult and requires permits. Deceased animals that are either bycaught or stranded provide one potential source for tissues, but the validity of biochemical data from post-mortem samples has not been rigorously assessed. Tissues collected from stranded diving mammals may be a crucial source to add to our limited knowledge on the physiology of some of these animals and important to the conservation and management of these species. We aim to determine the reliability of biochemical assays derived from post-mortem tissue and to promote the immediate sampling of stranded animals for the purpose of physiological research. In this study, we mapped the temporal degradation of muscle enzymes from biopsied Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) and highlight recommendations for storage protocols for the best preservation of tissue. We also compared the enzymatic activity of different muscle groups (pectoral and latissimus dorsi) in relation to locomotion and measured the effects of four freeze-thaw cycles on muscle tissue enzyme function. Results indicate that enzymatic activity fluctuates greatly, especially with varying storage temperature, storage time, species and muscle group being assayed. In contrast, proteins, such as myoglobin, remain relatively continuous in their increase at 4°C for 48 h. Stranded animals can be a valuable source of biochemical data, but enzyme assays should be used only with great caution in post-mortem tissues. PMID:27293704

  13. Post-mortem semen cryopreservation and characterization in two different endangered gazelle species (Gazella gazella and Gazella dorcas) and one subspecies (Gazella gazelle acaiae).

    PubMed

    Saragusty, Joseph; Gacitua, Haim; King, Roni; Arav, Amir

    2006-09-01

    Both Gazella gazella and Gazella dorcas are endangered species with continually dwindling population size, yet basic knowledge on their spermatozoa is missing. Semen collected post-mortem (PM) from the cauda epididymis of five adult gazelles (three Gazella gazella gazella, one Gazella gazella acaiae and one G. dorcas) was cryopreserved using directional freezing of large volumes (8 mL) with egg-yolk-free extender. Sperm size measurements and SYBR-14/propodium iodide (PI) viability stain validation for use in gazelles were conducted. Post-thaw characterization included motility, viability, acrosome damage evaluation, computerized motility characterization and morphology and sperm motility index (SMI) was calculated. Extracted sperm motility was 71.67+/-11.67% (mean+/-S.E.M.). Post-thaw motility ranged between 15% and 63%, viability was 57.49+/-3.24%, intact acrosome was detected in 63.74+/-2.6% (median 64.8%, upper/lower quartiles 71.79%, 61.82%), and normal morphology ranged between 41% and 63%. Motility characterization showed two sub-groups-highly active and progressively motile spermatozoa with SMI of 62.75+/-0.38 and low activity and poorly progressive with SMI of 46.16+/-1.53. Our results indicate that PM preservation of gazelle spermatozoa with satisfactory post-thaw viability is possible and cryobanking is achievable. PMID:16530260

  14. Comparative Proteomic Profiling of Divergent Phenotypes for Water Holding Capacity across the Post Mortem Ageing Period in Porcine Muscle Exudate.

    PubMed

    Di Luca, Alessio; Hamill, Ruth M; Mullen, Anne Maria; Slavov, Nikolai; Elia, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Two dimensional Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and mass spectrometry were applied to investigate the changes in metabolic proteins that occur over a seven day (day 1, 3 and 7) post mortem ageing period in porcine centrifugal exudate from divergent meat quality phenotypes. The objectives of the research were to enhance our understanding of the phenotype (water holding capacity) and search for biomarkers of this economically significant pork quality attribute. Major changes in protein abundance across nine phenotype-by-time conditions were observed. Proteomic patterns were dominated by post mortem ageing timepoint. Using a machine learning algorithm (l1-regularized logistic regression), a model was derived with the ability to discriminate between high drip and low drip phenotypes using a subset of 25 proteins with an accuracy of 63%. Models discriminating between divergent phenotypes with accuracy of 72% and 73% were also derived comparing respectively, high drip plus intermediate phenotype (considered as one phenotype) versus low drip and comparing low drip plus intermediate phenotype (considered as one phenotype) versus high drip. In all comparisons, the general classes of discriminatory proteins identified include metabolic enzymes, stress response, transport and structural proteins. In this research we have enhanced our understanding of the protein related processes underpinning this phenotype and provided strong data to work toward development of protein biomarkers for water holding capacity.

  15. Altered post-mortem metabolism identified in very fast chilled lamb M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum using metabolomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Warner, Robyn D; Jacob, Robin H; Rosenvold, Katja; Rochfort, Simone; Trenerry, Craige; Plozza, Tim; McDonagh, Matthew B

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this experiment was to use metabolomic techniques to investigate the energy metabolism in lamb M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum subjected to very fast chilling (VFC) post-mortem. The tissue was prepared by 2 different operators and subjected to very fast chilling (less than 0°C within 1.5h of slaughter) or typical chilling regimes (Control; 0°C within 22h of slaughter). Non-targeted metabolomic analysis ((1)H NMR) and targeted analysis ((31)P NMR, HPLC-PDA and HPLC-MS/MS) were used to examine the change in muscle metabolites post-mortem. One VFC treatment, which resulted in a colder core temperature and more tender meat, had higher levels of glycolytic intermediate metabolites pre-rigor as well as more of the end-products of adenosine and nicotine nucleotide metabolism pre-rigor, relative to conventionally chilled treatments. In conclusion, VFC to less than 0°C within 1.5h of slaughter causes considerable changes in metabolism and rigor onset, which are associated with tender meat. PMID:26163181

  16. Effects of inhibitors on the synergistic interaction between calpain and caspase-3 during post-mortem aging of chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Feng, Xian Chao; Zhang, Wan Gang; Xu, Xing Lian; Zhou, Guang Hong

    2012-08-29

    Calpain has been considered to be the most important protease involved in tenderization during the conversion of muscle into meat. However, recent evidence suggests the possible involvement of the key apoptosis protease, caspase, on post-mortem tenderization. This study used inhibitors of calpain and caspase-3 to treat chicken muscle immediately after slaughter and followed the changes in caspase-3 and calpain activities together with their expression during 5 days of aging. Addition of calpain inhibitors to the system resulted in significantly higher caspase-3 activities (p < 0.01) during storage. Western blot analysis of pro-caspase-3 and α-spectrin cleavage of the 120 kDa peptide (SBDP 120) showed that the addition of calpain inhibitors resulted in the formation of higher amounts of the active form of caspase-3 compared with the control (p < 0.01). Inclusion of inhibitors of caspase-3 led to lower calpain activities (p < 0.01) and dramatically reduced the expression of calpain-1 and calpain-2 (p < 0.01). Concomitantly, this inhibition resulted in greater calpastatin expression compared with the control (p < 0.01). The findings of this investigation show that calpain prevented the activation of caspase-3, whereas caspase-3 appeared to enhance the calpain activity during post-mortem aging through inhibition of calpastatin. It is therefore suggested that there is a relationship between caspase-3 and calpain which contributes to the tenderizing process during the conversion of muscle tissue into meat.

  17. Comparative Proteomic Profiling of Divergent Phenotypes for Water Holding Capacity across the Post Mortem Ageing Period in Porcine Muscle Exudate

    PubMed Central

    Di Luca, Alessio; Hamill, Ruth M.; Mullen, Anne Maria; Slavov, Nikolai; Elia, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Two dimensional Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and mass spectrometry were applied to investigate the changes in metabolic proteins that occur over a seven day (day 1, 3 and 7) post mortem ageing period in porcine centrifugal exudate from divergent meat quality phenotypes. The objectives of the research were to enhance our understanding of the phenotype (water holding capacity) and search for biomarkers of this economically significant pork quality attribute. Major changes in protein abundance across nine phenotype-by-time conditions were observed. Proteomic patterns were dominated by post mortem ageing timepoint. Using a machine learning algorithm (l1-regularized logistic regression), a model was derived with the ability to discriminate between high drip and low drip phenotypes using a subset of 25 proteins with an accuracy of 63%. Models discriminating between divergent phenotypes with accuracy of 72% and 73% were also derived comparing respectively, high drip plus intermediate phenotype (considered as one phenotype) versus low drip and comparing low drip plus intermediate phenotype (considered as one phenotype) versus high drip. In all comparisons, the general classes of discriminatory proteins identified include metabolic enzymes, stress response, transport and structural proteins. In this research we have enhanced our understanding of the protein related processes underpinning this phenotype and provided strong data to work toward development of protein biomarkers for water holding capacity. PMID:26950297

  18. Visualisation of the intact dura mater and brain surface in infant autopsies: a minimally destructive technique for the post-mortem assessment of head injury.

    PubMed

    Cheshire, Emma C; Malcomson, Roger D G; Rutty, Guy N; James, Deryk S

    2015-03-01

    During the post-mortem examination of babies and young children, it is important to be able to visualise the brain and its coverings, particularly in cases where a head injury is likely to have occurred. In this paper, we present an improved method for removal of the calvarial bones in infant autopsies to enable viewing of the dura mater and brain. In contrast to the standard post-mortem procedure for observing and removing the brain, this novel technique is minimally disruptive, allowing the dura mater to remain undamaged. Specialised paediatric neurosurgical tools were used to remove the skull bones from 23 neonates, infants and young children during post-mortem examination. In 21 of our 23 cases, the calvarial bones were removed successfully with the dura mater remaining intact. In one case, there was a thickening of the dura mater which created a strong adherence of this membrane to the bone. In another case, the dura mater was slightly damaged due to the inexperience of the operator in using the neurosurgical tools. This method of calvarial bone removal reduces the degree of post-mortem artefact and enhances the ability to observe and photographically document autopsy findings, including the artefact-free detection of signs of injury such as epidural or subdural haematoma, and brain swelling. This technique has now become a routine practise in both of our units to remove the skull bones in infant/young children post-mortem examinations.

  19. Autoradiographic analysis of tritiated imipramine binding in the human brain post mortem: effects of suicide

    SciTech Connect

    Gross-Isseroff, R.; Israeli, M.; Biegon, A.

    1989-03-01

    In vitro quantitative autoradiography of high-affinity tritiated imipramine binding sites was performed on brains of 12 suicide victims and 12 matched controls. Region-specific differences in imipramine binding were found between the two groups. Thus, the pyramidal and molecular layers of the cornu ammoni hippocampal fields and the hilus of the dentate gyrus exhibited 80%, 60%, and 90% increases in binding in the suicide group, respectively. The postcentral cortical gyrus, insular cortex, and claustrum had 45%, 28%, and 75% decreases in binding in the suicide group, respectively. No difference in imipramine binding was observed in prefrontal cortical regions, in the basal ganglia, and in mesencephalic nuclei. No sex and postmortem delay effects on imipramine binding were found. Imipramine binding was positively correlated with age, the effect of age being most pronounced in portions of the basal ganglia and temporal cortex.

  20. Don't take your EHR to heaven, donate it to science: legal and research policies for EHR post mortem.

    PubMed

    Huser, Vojtech; Cimino, James J

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Health Records (EHR) represent a valuable research source. We explore legal and research policies governing EHR use after a patient's death. We describe how the EHR is used after patient's death and how deceased status impacts laws and regulations governing such record. We explore the patient consent mechanism that would support creation of a separate deceased subject integrated data repository (dsIDR) and discuss potential benefit of such repository in comparison with existing query tools, such as the i2b2 cohort estimation query tool, which operate under IRB exemption for reviews preparatory for research. Governance of dsIDR data is compared to regulatory frameworks governing post-mortem management of tissues, organs and corpses as well as digital afterlife of non-healthcare private data. PMID:24303243

  1. Post mortem concentrations of endogenous gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and in vitro formation in stored blood and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Bertol, Elisabetta; Vaiano, Fabio; Baglio, Giovanni; Montana, Angelo; Barbera, Nunziata; Zaami, Simona; Romano, Guido

    2014-10-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a central nervous system depressant, primarily used as a recreational drug of abuse with numerous names. It has also been involved in various instances of drug-facilitated sexual assault due to its potential incapacitating effects. The first aim of this paper is to measure the post-mortem concentration of endogenous GHB in whole blood and urine samples of 30 GHB free-users, who have been divided according to the post-mortem interval (PMI) in three groups (first group: 24-36h; second group: 37-72h; third group: 73-192h), trying to evaluate the role of PMI in affecting post mortem levels. Second, the Authors have evaluated the new formation of GHB in vitro in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20°C, 4°C and 20°C over a period of one month. The concentrations were measured by GC-MS after liquid-liquid extraction according to the method validated and published by Elliot (For. Sci. Int., 2003). For urine samples, GHB concentrations were creatinine-normalized. In the first group the GHB mean concentration measured after autopsy was: 2.14mg/L (range 0.54-3.21mg/L) in blood and 3.90mg/g (range 0.60-4.81mg/g) in urine; in the second group it was: 5.13mg/L (range 1.11-9.60mg/L) in blood and 3.93mg/g (range 0.91-7.25mg/g) in urine; in the third group it was: 11.8mg/L (range 3.95-24.12mg/L) in blood and 9.83mg/g (range 3.67-21.90mg/g) in urine. The results obtained in blood and urine samples showed a statistically significant difference among groups (p<0.001) in the first analysis performed immediately after autopsy. Throughout the period of investigation up to 4 weeks, the comparison of storage temperatures within each group showed in blood and urine samples a mean difference at 20°C compared to -20°C not statistically significant at the 10% level. These findings allow us to affirm that the PMI strongly affects the post mortem production of GHB in blood and urine samples. Regarding the new formation of

  2. Coronary optical coherence tomography: minimally invasive virtual histology as part of targeted post-mortem computed tomography angiography.

    PubMed

    Adlam, David; Joseph, Shiju; Robinson, Claire; Rousseau, Clement; Barber, Jade; Biggs, Mike; Morgan, Bruno; Rutty, Guy

    2013-09-01

    Social, cultural and practical barriers to conventional invasive autopsy have led to considerable interest in the development of minimally invasive radiological techniques as an alternative to the invasive autopsy for determining the cause of death. Critical to accurate diagnosis in this context is detailed examination of coronary anatomy and pathology. Current computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging approaches have significantly advanced minimally invasive autopsy practice but have limited spatial resolution. This prohibits assessment at a microscopic level, meaning that histological assessment is still required for detailed analysis of, for example, coronary plaque rupture or dissection. Coronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used in the living during percutaneous coronary interventions to provide high-resolution coronary imaging, but this technique for obtaining virtual histology has not, to date, been translated into minimally invasive autopsy practice. We present a first description of minimally invasive post-mortem coronary OCT and discuss the potential for this technique to advance current practice. PMID:23455719

  3. A study to model the post-mortem stability of 4-MMC, MDMA and BZP in putrefying remains.

    PubMed

    Wenholz, Daniel S; Luong, Susan; Philp, Morgan; Forbes, Shari L; Stuart, Barbara H; Drummer, Olaf H; Fu, Shanlin

    2016-08-01

    There is currently limited data available on the stabilities of the three stimulants 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and N-benzylpiperazine (BZP) in a putrefying matrix. A Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) method to determine the concentration of the three drugs in putrefying porcine liver over a three month period was developed and validated. Both 4-MMC and BZP were found to be unstable, becoming undetectable and having an average recovery of 52% respectively after one month at ambient room temperature (20°C). MDMA was found to be moderately stable, with an average recovery of 74% after three months at room temperature. This study indicated that the putrefaction process could have a significant impact on concentrations of 4-MMC and BZP in post-mortem cases involving putrefied remains. PMID:26829335

  4. Don't take your EHR to heaven, donate it to science: legal and research policies for EHR post mortem.

    PubMed

    Huser, Vojtech; Cimino, James J

    2014-01-01

    Recently, an important public debate emerged about the digital afterlife of any personal data stored in the cloud. Such debate brings also to attention the importance of transparent management of electronic health record (EHR) data of deceased patients. In this perspective paper, we look at legal and regulatory policies for EHR data post mortem. We analyze observational research situations using EHR data that do not require institutional review board approval. We propose creation of a deceased subject integrated data repository (dsIDR) as an effective tool for piloting certain types of research projects. We highlight several dsIDR challenges in proving death status, informed consent, obtaining data from payers and healthcare providers and the involvement of next of kin. PMID:23966483

  5. Genomic Convergence Analysis of Schizophrenia: mRNA Sequencing Reveals Altered Synaptic Vesicular Transport in Post-Mortem Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Mudge, Joann; Miller, Neil A.; Khrebtukova, Irina; Lindquist, Ingrid E.; May, Gregory D.; Huntley, Jim J.; Luo, Shujun; Zhang, Lu; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C.; Farmer, Andrew D.; Lewis, Sharon; Beavis, William D.; Schilkey, Faye D.; Virk, Selene M.; Black, C. Forrest; Myers, M. Kathy; Mader, Lar C.; Langley, Ray J.; Utsey, John P.; Kim, Ryan W.; Roberts, Rosalinda C.; Khalsa, Sat Kirpal; Garcia, Meredith; Ambriz-Griffith, Victoria; Harlan, Richard; Czika, Wendy; Martin, Stanton; Wolfinger, Russell D.; Perrone-Bizzozero, Nora I.; Schroth, Gary P.; Kingsmore, Stephen F.

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a common, disabling mental illness with high heritability but complex, poorly understood genetic etiology. As the first phase of a genomic convergence analysis of SCZ, we generated 16.7 billion nucleotides of short read, shotgun sequences of cDNA from post-mortem cerebellar cortices of 14 patients and six, matched controls. A rigorous analysis pipeline was developed for analysis of digital gene expression studies. Sequences aligned to approximately 33,200 transcripts in each sample, with average coverage of 450 reads per gene. Following adjustments for confounding clinical, sample and experimental sources of variation, 215 genes differed significantly in expression between cases and controls. Golgi apparatus, vesicular transport, membrane association, Zinc binding and regulation of transcription were over-represented among differentially expressed genes. Twenty three genes with altered expression and involvement in presynaptic vesicular transport, Golgi function and GABAergic neurotransmission define a unifying molecular hypothesis for dysfunction in cerebellar cortex in SCZ. PMID:18985160

  6. Influence of post-mortem changes on DNA typing (D1S80, TH01, HLA DQA 1, and PM typing system): case studies for personal identification.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Shin-Ichi; Tokunaga, Itsuo; Kitamura, Osamu; Gotohda, Takako; Ishigami, Akiko

    2004-07-01

    Between 1996 and 2002, we tested a total of 20 unidentified bodies for DNA typing. We describe here the relationships among detection rates achieved by four DNA typing systems (D1S80 typing, TH01 typing, HLA DQA1 typing, and PM typings), the post-mortem interval, types of specimens (bone, nail, and blood), post-mortem changes, and the site at which the corpse was found (indoors, outdoor, or in the sea). Detection rates for PM typings, HLA DQA1 typing, TH01 typing, and D1S80 typing in all cases were 94.7, 90.0, 73.7, and 50.0%, respectively. The success of the typings was highly influenced by the post-mortem interval. Using blood, almost all DNA types were detected, while the nail showed comparatively higher detection rates than bone. The detection rate decreased in order with indoor, outdoor, sea, and soil as the site at which the corpse was found. It is important to consider the specimen, the site at which the corpse was found, and the post-mortem interval to successfully achieve DNA typing.

  7. Multi-axial Loading Micromechanics of the Cement-Bone Interface in Post-Mortem Retrievals and Lab-Prepared Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark A; Race, Amos; Waanders, Daan; Cleary, Richard; Janssen, Dennis; Verdonschot, Nico; Mann, Kenneth A

    2010-01-01

    Maintaining adequate fixation between cement and bone is important for successful long term survival of cemented total joint replacements. Mixed-mode loading conditions (combination of tension/compression and shear) are present during in vivo loading, but the micromotion response of the interface to these conditions is not fully understood. Non-destructive, multi-axial loading experiments were conducted on laboratory prepared (n=6) and post mortem (n=6) human cement-bone interfaces. Specimens were mounted in custom loading discs and loaded at 0, 30, 60, and 90° relative to the interface plane where 0° represents normal loading to the interface, and 90° represents shear loading along the longitudinal axis of the femur. Axial compliance did not depend on loading angle for laboratory prepared (p=0.96) or postmortem specimens (p=0.62). The cement-bone interface was more compliant under tensile than compressive loading at the 0° loading angle only (p=0.024). The coupled transverse to axial compliance ratio, which is a measure of the coupled motion, was small for laboratory prepared (0.115±0.115) and postmortem specimens (0.142±0.101). There was a moderately strong inverse relationship between interface compliance and contact index (r2 = 0.65). From a computational modeling perspective, the results of the current study support the concept that the cement-bone interface could be numerically implemented as a compliant layer with the same initial stiffness in tension and shear directions. The magnitude of the compliance could be modified to simulate immediate post-operative conditions (using laboratory prepared data set) or long-term remodeling (using postmortem data set). PMID:21316624

  8. Post-mortem prediction of primal and selected retail cut weights of New Zealand lamb from carcass and animal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ngo, L; Ho, H; Hunter, P; Quinn, K; Thomson, A; Pearson, G

    2016-02-01

    Post-mortem measurements (cold weight, grade and external carcass linear dimensions) as well as live animal data (age, breed, sex) were used to predict ovine primal and retail cut weights for 792 lamb carcases. Significant levels of variance could be explained using these predictors. The predictive power of those measurements on primal and retail cut weights was studied by using the results from principal component analysis and the absolute value of the t-statistics of the linear regression model. High prediction accuracy for primal cut weight was achieved (adjusted R(2) up to 0.95), as well as moderate accuracy for key retail cut weight: tenderloins (adj-R(2)=0.60), loin (adj-R(2)=0.62), French rack (adj-R(2)=0.76) and rump (adj-R(2)=0.75). The carcass cold weight had the best predictive power, with the accuracy increasing by around 10% after including the next three most significant variables. PMID:26519607

  9. [Infanticide in the light of post-mortem findings and court files from the period 1990-2000 (selected problems)].

    PubMed

    Kołowski, Janusz; Nowak, Klaudia Magdalena

    2005-01-01

    Drawing upon 28 court files of the District Court in Poznań and 30 post-mortem protocols--from the Department of Forensic Medicine at Poznań Medical Academy. This article tackles the issue of infanticide in the period from 1990 to 2000. The aim of this paper was to find answers to the following questions: what was the social background and mental state of female offenders? How was infanticide committed? In order to solve certain research problems, a document examination technique was employed to analyse the contents of the documents available. Female offenders were aged between 17 to 42 years. In the majority of cases (56.7%), perpetrators were occupationally active, single young women with a low level of education and having a working-class background. In the majority of cases (80%), active infanticide was committed. Most frequently, infanticide was committed by shutting a child into a tight space, and tamponade of throat and larynx. Passive infanticide was committed in 20% of cases, with infants left without care at the place of birth. No case of psychosis was determined in the examined material.

  10. The effect of electrical stimulation on post mortem myofibrillar protein degradation and small heat shock protein kinetics in bull beef.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Castillo, C J; Lomiwes, D; Wu, G; Frost, D; Farouk, M M

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of electrical stimulation and ultimate pH (pHu) on shear force, myofibrillar protein degradation and small heat shock protein (sHSP) concentrations in M. longissimus lumborum (LL). The LL from both sides of carcasses (n=15) was excised with low voltage electrical stimulation (ES) applied to an LL muscle from one side, while the opposing LL muscle was not stimulated (NS). Muscles were categorised into low (pHu<5.8), intermediate (5.8≤pHu<6.2) and high pHu (pHu≥6.2) and aged for up to 28days post mortem at -1.5°C. High pHu meat tenderised faster which corresponded with the faster degradation of titin and desmin in this group compared with low and intermediate pHu meat. Electrical stimulation significantly affected the variable levels of αβ-crystallin and HSP20 with higher concentrations of these sHSP in ES muscles at later ageing timepoints compared with NS muscles.

  11. Post-mortem glycolysis in ox skeletal muscle. Effect of pre-rigor freezing and thawing on the intermediary metabolism.

    PubMed

    Scopes, R K; Newbold, R P

    1968-09-01

    1. Ox sternomandibularis muscle was ;slow-frozen' by placing it in air at -22 degrees or ;fast-frozen' by immersion in liquid air or acetone-solid carbon dioxide. In all cases muscles were frozen pre-rigor. Changes in length, pH and the concentrations of P(i), creatine phosphate, hexose monophosphate (glucose 1-phosphate+glucose 6-phosphate+fructose 6-phosphate), fructose diphosphate (fructose 1,6-diphosphate+(1/2) triose phosphate), lactate, ATP, ADP, AMP and NAD(+) during freezing and during subsequent thawing were determined. In addition some measurements were made of the changes in alpha-glycerophosphate, 3-phosphoglycerate, 2-phosphoglycerate, phosphoenolpyruvate and pyruvate concentrations during slow freezing. 2. Appreciable shortening and marked changes in chemical composition took place during slow freezing but not during fast freezing. 3. During slow freezing the hexose monophosphate concentration fell and fructose 1,6-diphosphate and triose phosphate increased substantially. Increases also took place in 3-phosphoglycerate, 2-phosphoglycerate and phosphoenolpyruvate, but not in pyruvate. 4. On thawing, most of the chemical changes were similar to those in unfrozen muscle post mortem, but took place much more rapidly; loss of NAD(+) was particularly rapid. Fast-frozen muscle metabolized at a faster rate on thawing than did slow-frozen muscle. 5. The overall changes in length during freezing and thawing were about the same in slow-frozen as in fast-frozen muscle.

  12. Potential use of bacterial community succession for estimating post-mortem interval as revealed by high-throughput sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Juanjuan; Fu, Xiaoliang; Liao, Huidan; Hu, Zhenyu; Long, Lingling; Yan, Weitao; Ding, Yanjun; Zha, Lagabaiyila; Guo, Yadong; Yan, Jie; Chang, Yunfeng; Cai, Jifeng

    2016-01-01

    Decomposition is a complex process involving the interaction of both biotic and abiotic factors. Microbes play a critical role in the process of carrion decomposition. In this study, we analysed bacterial communities from live rats and rat remains decomposed under natural conditions, or excluding sarcosaphagous insect interference, in China using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A total of 1,394,842 high-quality sequences and 1,938 singleton operational taxonomic units were obtained. Bacterial communities showed notable variation in relative abundance and became more similar to each other across body sites during the decomposition process. As decomposition progressed, Proteobacteria (mostly Gammaproteobacteria) became the predominant phylum in both the buccal cavity and rectum, while Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the mouth and rectum, respectively, gradually decreased. In particular, the arrival and oviposition of sarcosaphagous insects had no obvious influence on bacterial taxa composition, but accelerated the loss of biomass. In contrast to the rectum, the microbial community structure in the buccal cavity of live rats differed considerably from that of rats immediately after death. Although this research indicates that bacterial communities can be used as a “microbial clock” for the estimation of post-mortem interval, further work is required to better understand this concept. PMID:27052375

  13. Fetal Adrenal Gland in the Second Half of Gestation: Morphometrical Assessment with 3.0T Post-Mortem MRI

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Zhongyu; Ma, Jun; Feng, Lei; Lin, Xiangtao; Tang, Yuchun; Zhang, Xiaoli; Liu, Qingwei; Liu, Shuwei

    2013-01-01

    Background The morphometry of fetal adrenal gland is rarely described with MRI of high magnetic field. The purpose of this study is to assess the normal fetal adrenal gland length (AL), width (AW), height (AH), surface area (AS) and volume (AV) in the second half of gestation with 3.0T post-mortem MRI. Methods and Findings Fifty-two fetal specimens of 23–40 weeks gestational age (GA) were scanned by 3.0T MRI. Morphological changes and quantitative measurements of the fetal adrenal gland were analyzed. Asymmetry and sexual dimorphism were also obtained. The shape of the fetal adrenal gland did not change substantially from 23 to 40 weeks GA. The bilateral adrenal glands appeared as a ‘Y’, pyramidal or half-moon shape after reconstruction. There was a highly linear correlation between AL, AW, AH, AS, AV and GA. AW, AH, AS and AV were larger for the left adrenal gland than the right. No sexual dimorphism was found. Conclusions Our data delineated the normal fetal adrenal gland during the second half of gestation, and can serve as a useful precise reference for anatomy or in vivo fetus. PMID:24116052

  14. Death, cadavers and post-mortem biomedical research: a point of view from a Christian community.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Philippe; Joly, Alain; Champagnat, Julie; Brun, Luc; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin; Hervé, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Facing modern developments of medicine and biomedical researches, religious communities are a strong source of ethics principles and orientations. Human dignity does not disappear after life, in a context of biomedical research on cadavers. Moral, political, social and scientific aspects of research on human cadavers (mainly autopsies) have been widely discussed in biomedical publications, whereas the religious ones (which could be predominant for some) have rarely been analyzed and presented. This article will present the results of a survey carried out a French Benedictine Abbey (relative to death, cadaver's status and biomedical research) and subsequent Christian background according to canonic texts and practical cases from anthropological, historical, archeological and biomedical origin.

  15. Death, cadavers and post-mortem biomedical research: a point of view from a Christian community.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Philippe; Joly, Alain; Champagnat, Julie; Brun, Luc; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin; Hervé, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Facing modern developments of medicine and biomedical researches, religious communities are a strong source of ethics principles and orientations. Human dignity does not disappear after life, in a context of biomedical research on cadavers. Moral, political, social and scientific aspects of research on human cadavers (mainly autopsies) have been widely discussed in biomedical publications, whereas the religious ones (which could be predominant for some) have rarely been analyzed and presented. This article will present the results of a survey carried out a French Benedictine Abbey (relative to death, cadaver's status and biomedical research) and subsequent Christian background according to canonic texts and practical cases from anthropological, historical, archeological and biomedical origin. PMID:22782433

  16. Sonar-induced pressure fields in a post-mortem common dolphin.

    PubMed

    Foote, Kenneth G; Hastings, Mardi C; Ketten, Darlene R; Lin, Ying-Tsong; Reidenberg, Joy S; Rye, Kent

    2012-02-01

    Potential physical effects of sonar transmissions on marine mammals were investigated by measuring pressure fields induced in a 119-kg, 211-cm-long, young adult male common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) cadaver. The specimen was instrumented with tourmaline acoustic pressure gauges used as receiving sensors. Gauge implantation near critical tissues was guided by intraoperative, high-resolution, computerized tomography (CT) scanning. Instrumented structures included the melon, nares, ear, thoracic wall, lungs, epaxial muscle, and lower abdomen. The specimen was suspended from a frame equipped with a standard 50.8-mm-diameter spherical transducer used as the acoustic source and additional receiving sensors to monitor the transmitted and external, scattered field. Following immersion, the transducer transmitted pulsed sinusoidal signals at 5, 7, and 10 kHz. Quantitative internal pressure fields are reported for all cases except those in which the gauge failed or no received signal was detected. A full necropsy was performed immediately after the experiment to examine instrumented areas and all major organs. No lesions attributable to acoustic transmissions were found, consistent with the low source level and source-receiver distances.

  17. Sonar-induced pressure fields in a post-mortem common dolphin.

    PubMed

    Foote, Kenneth G; Hastings, Mardi C; Ketten, Darlene R; Lin, Ying-Tsong; Reidenberg, Joy S; Rye, Kent

    2012-02-01

    Potential physical effects of sonar transmissions on marine mammals were investigated by measuring pressure fields induced in a 119-kg, 211-cm-long, young adult male common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) cadaver. The specimen was instrumented with tourmaline acoustic pressure gauges used as receiving sensors. Gauge implantation near critical tissues was guided by intraoperative, high-resolution, computerized tomography (CT) scanning. Instrumented structures included the melon, nares, ear, thoracic wall, lungs, epaxial muscle, and lower abdomen. The specimen was suspended from a frame equipped with a standard 50.8-mm-diameter spherical transducer used as the acoustic source and additional receiving sensors to monitor the transmitted and external, scattered field. Following immersion, the transducer transmitted pulsed sinusoidal signals at 5, 7, and 10 kHz. Quantitative internal pressure fields are reported for all cases except those in which the gauge failed or no received signal was detected. A full necropsy was performed immediately after the experiment to examine instrumented areas and all major organs. No lesions attributable to acoustic transmissions were found, consistent with the low source level and source-receiver distances. PMID:22352529

  18. One small scan for radiology, one giant leap for forensic medicine - Post-mortem imaging replaces forensic autopsy in a case of traumatic aortic laceration.

    PubMed

    Ruder, Thomas D; Hatch, Gary M; Thali, Michael J; Fischer, Nadja

    2011-01-01

    The questions of cause and manner of death are the most pressing ones in any forensic investigation. Traditionally, autopsy is the means to provide answers to these questions and despite the increasing use of CT and MR in the post-mortem setting, imaging has usually been an adjunct to forensic autopsy. Here we describe a case where post-mortem CT and MR were performed instead of autopsy, at the request of the responsible public prosecutor. The forensic conclusions derived from imaging, including cause and manner of death were accepted by the legal authorities, thereby setting precedence for future cases. This case represents a landmark in forensic medicine and is another step toward the full realization of minimally invasive forensic autopsy.

  19. Effect of nitric oxide on μ-calpain activation, protein proteolysis, and protein oxidation of pork during post-mortem aging.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-pin; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Wan-gang; Fu, Qing-quan; Liu, Nian; Zhou, Guang-hong

    2014-06-25

    The aim of the current research was to examine the influence of nitric oxide (NO) on calpain activation, protein proteolysis, and oxidation in post-mortem pork. Five longissimus muscles were removed from carcass after slaughter, and samples were incubated with water, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, or NO donor for 24 h at 4 °C. The samples were taken out and then stored under 4 °C for 1, 4, and 7 d. Results showed that autolysis of μ-calpain increased by incubation with NOS inhibitor after storage for 1 d (P<0.05). Degradation of titin and nebulin increased by treatment of NOS inhibitor among three treatments (P<0.05). Higher levels of protein oxidation were observed after samples incubated with NO donor than treatment of NOS inhibitor (P<0.05). These data indicated that NO could participate in regulating calpain activation and its proteolysis activity during post-mortem aging.

  20. Post-mortem stability of RNA in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and the tissue-specific expression of myostatin, perilipin and associated factors in the horse.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Philippa K; Bing, Chen; Harris, Patricia A; Maltin, Charlotte A; Grove-White, Dai; Argo, Caroline McG

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, a major concern for equine welfare, is highly prevalent in the leisure horse population. Skeletal-muscle and adipose tissues are important determinants of maintenance energy requirements. The myostatin and perilipin pathways play key roles in the regulation of muscle mass and lipolysis respectively and have both been associated with obesity predisposition in other mammalian species. High quality samples, suitable for molecular biology, are an essential prerequisite for detailed investigations of gene and protein expression. Hence, this study has evaluated a) the post-mortem stability of RNA extracted from skeletal-muscle and adipose-tissues collected under commercial conditions and b) the tissue-specific presence of myostatin, the moystatin receptor (activin receptor IIB, ActRIIB), follistatin and perilipin, genes and proteins across a range of equine tissues. Objectives were addressed using tissues from 7 Thoroughbred horses presented for slaughter at a commercial abattoir; a) samples were collected at 7 time-points from Masseter muscle and perirenal adipose from 5 minutes to 6 hours post-mortem. Extracted RN was appraised by Optical Density analysis and agarose-gel electrophoresis. b) Quantitative real time PCR and Western Blotting were used to evaluate gene and protein expression in anatomically-defined samples collected from 17 tissues (6 organs, 4 skeletal muscles and 7 discrete adipose depots). The results indicate that, under the present collection conditions, intact, good quality RNA could be extracted from skeletal-muscle for up to 2 hours post-mortem. However, RNA from adipose tissue may be more susceptible to degradation/contamination and samples should be collected no later than 30 minutes post-mortem. The data also show that myostatin and ActRIIB genes and proteins were almost exclusively expressed in skeletal muscle. The follistatin gene showed a more diverse gene expression profile, with expression evident in several organs, adipose tissue

  1. Post-mortem stability of RNA in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and the tissue-specific expression of myostatin, perilipin and associated factors in the horse.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Philippa K; Bing, Chen; Harris, Patricia A; Maltin, Charlotte A; Grove-White, Dai; Argo, Caroline McG

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, a major concern for equine welfare, is highly prevalent in the leisure horse population. Skeletal-muscle and adipose tissues are important determinants of maintenance energy requirements. The myostatin and perilipin pathways play key roles in the regulation of muscle mass and lipolysis respectively and have both been associated with obesity predisposition in other mammalian species. High quality samples, suitable for molecular biology, are an essential prerequisite for detailed investigations of gene and protein expression. Hence, this study has evaluated a) the post-mortem stability of RNA extracted from skeletal-muscle and adipose-tissues collected under commercial conditions and b) the tissue-specific presence of myostatin, the moystatin receptor (activin receptor IIB, ActRIIB), follistatin and perilipin, genes and proteins across a range of equine tissues. Objectives were addressed using tissues from 7 Thoroughbred horses presented for slaughter at a commercial abattoir; a) samples were collected at 7 time-points from Masseter muscle and perirenal adipose from 5 minutes to 6 hours post-mortem. Extracted RN was appraised by Optical Density analysis and agarose-gel electrophoresis. b) Quantitative real time PCR and Western Blotting were used to evaluate gene and protein expression in anatomically-defined samples collected from 17 tissues (6 organs, 4 skeletal muscles and 7 discrete adipose depots). The results indicate that, under the present collection conditions, intact, good quality RNA could be extracted from skeletal-muscle for up to 2 hours post-mortem. However, RNA from adipose tissue may be more susceptible to degradation/contamination and samples should be collected no later than 30 minutes post-mortem. The data also show that myostatin and ActRIIB genes and proteins were almost exclusively expressed in skeletal muscle. The follistatin gene showed a more diverse gene expression profile, with expression evident in several organs, adipose tissue

  2. LC-MS/MS method development and validation for quantitative analyses of 2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid--a new cyanide exposure marker in post mortem blood.

    PubMed

    Giebułtowicz, Joanna; Rużycka, Monika; Fudalej, Marcin; Krajewski, Paweł; Wroczyński, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) is a hydrogen cyanide metabolite that has been found to be a reliable biomarker of cyanide poisoning, because of its long-term stability in biological material. There are several methods of ATCA determination; however, they are restricted to extraction on mixed mode cation exchange sorbents. To date, there has been no reliable method of ATCA determination in whole blood, the most frequently used material in forensic analysis. This novel method for ATCA determination in post mortem specimen includes protein precipitation, and derivatization of interfering compounds and their later extraction with ethyl acetate. ATCA was quantitatively analyzed via high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with positive electrospray ionization detection using a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column. The method satisfied all validation criteria and was tested on the real samples with satisfactory results. Therefore, this analytical approach has been proven to be a tool for measuring endogenous levels of ATCA in post mortem specimens. To conclude, a novel, accurate and sensitive method of ATCA determination in post mortem blood was developed. The establishment of the method provides new possibilities in the field of forensic science.

  3. Properties of raw meat and meat curry from spent goat in relation with post-mortem handling conditions.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Raj; Mendiratta, S K; Mane, B G

    2013-04-01

    The properties of raw meat and meat curry from spent goat meat in relation with post-mortem handling conditions were evaluated. The conditions evaluated were: cooking of meat within 1-2 h post-slaughter (condition 1); deboning meat storage at 25 ± 2 °C for 5-6 h and cooking (condition 2); post-slaughter storage of carcass at room temperature for 5-6 h, then deboning followed by storage of meat at refrigeration temperature for 5-6 h and cooking (condition 3); deboning and storage of meat at 25 ± 2 °C for 10-12 h and cooking (condition 4). Significant difference was observed in pH values in condition 1 (p < 0.01) and moisture content (p < 0.05) of raw meat as compared to the conditions 2, 3 and 4. However, the moisture content of cooked meat was significantly higher (p < 0.05) for conditions 1 and 2 as compared to the conditions 3 and 4. Significant differences were also observed in muscle fiber diameter values of different conditions, that is, the mean values were significantly higher (p < 0.05) for conditions 2 and 4 and significantly lower for condition 1. The mean water holding capacity and cooking yield values were highest in condition 1, followed by conditions 2, 3 and 4. The significant differences was also observed in shear force value of cooked meat chunks, that is, the mean value was significantly higher (p < 0.01) for condition 2 and significantly lower for condition 1. Sensory scores were significantly higher in condition 1 and significantly lower in condition 2. However, sensory scores for condition 4 were almost similar to the condition 1.

  4. Utility of urinary ethyl glucuronide analysis in post-mortem toxicology when investigating alcohol-related deaths.

    PubMed

    Sundström, M; Jones, A W; Ojanperä, I

    2014-08-01

    Use and abuse of alcohol are common findings when unnatural deaths are investigated as evidenced by high blood- and urine- alcohol concentrations (BAC and UAC) at autopsy. Because ethanol is metabolized in the liver until the time of death, the autopsy BAC or UAC might be negative even though the deceased had consumed alcohol in the immediate ante-mortem period. Analysis of the non-oxidative metabolite of ethanol [ethyl glucuronide (EtG)] offers a more sensitive test of recent drinking. In this paper, we determined the concentrations of ethanol and EtG in urine samples from 972 consecutive forensic autopsies. In 425 cases (44%) both EtG and ethanol were positive, which supports ante-mortem drinking. In 342 cases (35%), both EtG and ethanol was negative, which speaks against any consumption of alcohol just before death. In 181 cases, ethanol was negative in urine (<0.2 g/kg), whereas EtG was positive (>0.5 mg/L), which points towards ingestion of alcohol some time before death. In these cases, mean and median concentrations of EtG were 53.2 mg/L and 23.7 mg/L, respectively, although there was no mention of alcohol on 131 of the death certificates. Alcohol was mentioned on death certificates as an underlying or immediate cause of death or a contributing factor in 435 (45%) cases, which rose to 566 (58%) cases when positive EtG results were included. This article demonstrates the usefulness of EtG analysis in routine post-mortem toxicology when ante-mortem drinking and alcohol-related deaths are investigated. PMID:24954799

  5. Effects of electrical stimulation on the post-mortem biochemical changes and texture of broiler pectoralis muscle.

    PubMed

    Lyon, C E; Davis, C E; Dickens, J A; Papa, C M; Reagan, J O

    1989-02-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of electrical stimulation (50,200, or 350 V ac) on biochemical and textural changes in broiler breast muscle. Sixty-four broilers were stunned (50 V ac) prior to kill, and all but a control group were pulse stimulated during bleeding. After processing, carcasses were held in 10-C water for 1 h, then in 2-C ice/water slush for 1 h prior to muscle removal at 2 h post-mortem (PM). Bagged samples were held at 2 C for 24 h, then cooked. The pH, R value (ratio of adenine nucleotides to inosine nucleotides), cook yield, fluids and solids lost (F&S), and objective texture were measured. In addition, 16 broilers processed in the same manner were used in producing a profile of sarcoplasmic protein/enzyme changes in the breast muscle by cation exchange fast protein-liquid chromatography at 10 min, 2, and 24 h PM. The R values and soluble protein were also determined. Stimulation at 200 and 350 V accelerated the onset of rigor noted by lower pH values at 10 min and 1 h PM, and higher R values at 2 h PM. Muscle stimulated at 350 V exhibited the lowest cook yield and highest percentage of F&S lost, suggesting both the loss of functional properties and muscle integrity due to this treatment. All control and stimulated samples exhibited shear values in excess of what would be considered tender. Hardness and chewiness values increased as stimulation voltage levels increased. Only one of the seven principal chromatographic peaks decreased in response to increased electrical stimulation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2704680

  6. Post-mortem assessment of the short and long-term effects of the trophic factor neurturin in patients with α-synucleinopathies.

    PubMed

    Bartus, R T; Kordower, J H; Johnson, E M; Brown, L; Kruegel, B R; Chu, Y; Baumann, T L; Lang, A E; Olanow, C W; Herzog, C D

    2015-06-01

    Substantial interest persists for developing neurotrophic factors to treat neurodegenerative diseases. At the same time, significant progress has been made in implementing gene therapy as a means to provide long-term expression of bioactive neurotrophic factors to targeted sites in the brain. Nonetheless, to date, no double-blind clinical trial has achieved positive results on its primary endpoint despite robust benefits achieved in animal models. A major issue with advancing the field is the paucity of information regarding the expression and effects of neurotrophic factors in human neurodegenerative brain, relative to the well-characterized responses in animal models. To help fill this information void, we examined post-mortem brain tissue from four patients with nigrostriatal degeneration who had participated in clinical trials testing gene delivery of neurturin to the putamen of patients. Each had died of unrelated causes ranging from 1.5-to-3-months (2 Parkinson's disease patients), to 4+-years (1 Parkinson's disease and 1 multiple-system atrophy-parkinsonian type patient) following gene therapy. Quantitative and immunohistochemical evaluation of neurturin, alpha-synuclein, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and an oligodendroglia marker (Olig 2) were performed in each brain. Comparable volumes-of-expression of neurturin were seen in the putamen in all cases (~15-22%; mean=18.5%). TH-signal in the putamen was extremely sparse in the shorter-term cases. A 6-fold increase was seen in longer-term cases, but was far less than achieved in animal models of nigrostriatal degeneration with similar or even far less NRTN exposure. Less than 1% of substantia nigra (SN) neurons stained for neurturin in the shorter-term cases. A 15-fold increase was seen in the longer-term cases, but neurturin was still only detected in ~5% of nigral cells. These data provide unique insight into the functional status of advanced, chronic nigrostriatal degeneration in human brain and the response of

  7. MRI visual rating scales in the diagnosis of dementia: evaluation in 184 post-mortem confirmed cases

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Lorna; Fumagalli, Giorgio G.; Barkhof, Frederik; Scheltens, Philip; O’Brien, John T.; Bouwman, Femke; Burton, Emma J.; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Fox, Nick C.; Ridgway, Gerard R.

    2016-01-01

    Accurately distinguishing between different degenerative dementias during life is challenging but increasingly important with the prospect of disease-modifying therapies. Molecular biomarkers of dementia pathology are becoming available, but are not widely used in clinical practice. Conversely, structural neuroimaging is recommended in the evaluation of cognitive impairment. Visual assessment remains the primary method of scan interpretation, but in the absence of a structured approach, diagnostically relevant information may be under-utilized. This definitive, multi-centre study uses post-mortem confirmed cases as the gold standard to: (i) assess the reliability of six visual rating scales; (ii) determine their associated pattern of atrophy; (iii) compare their diagnostic value with expert scan assessment; and (iv) assess the accuracy of a machine learning approach based on multiple rating scales to predict underlying pathology. The study includes T1-weighted images acquired in three European centres from 184 individuals with histopathologically confirmed dementia (101 patients with Alzheimer’s disease, 28 patients with dementia with Lewy bodies, 55 patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration), and scans from 73 healthy controls. Six visual rating scales (medial temporal, posterior, anterior temporal, orbito-frontal, anterior cingulate and fronto-insula) were applied to 257 scans (two raters), and to a subset of 80 scans (three raters). Six experts also provided a diagnosis based on unstructured assessment of the 80-scan subset. The reliability and time taken to apply each scale was evaluated. Voxel-based morphometry was used to explore the relationship between each rating scale and the pattern of grey matter volume loss. Additionally, the performance of each scale to predict dementia pathology both individually and in combination was evaluated using a support vector classifier, which was compared with expert scan assessment to estimate clinical value

  8. MRI visual rating scales in the diagnosis of dementia: evaluation in 184 post-mortem confirmed cases.

    PubMed

    Harper, Lorna; Fumagalli, Giorgio G; Barkhof, Frederik; Scheltens, Philip; O'Brien, John T; Bouwman, Femke; Burton, Emma J; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Fox, Nick C; Ridgway, Gerard R; Schott, Jonathan M

    2016-04-01

    Accurately distinguishing between different degenerative dementias during life is challenging but increasingly important with the prospect of disease-modifying therapies. Molecular biomarkers of dementia pathology are becoming available, but are not widely used in clinical practice. Conversely, structural neuroimaging is recommended in the evaluation of cognitive impairment. Visual assessment remains the primary method of scan interpretation, but in the absence of a structured approach, diagnostically relevant information may be under-utilized. This definitive, multi-centre study uses post-mortem confirmed cases as the gold standard to: (i) assess the reliability of six visual rating scales; (ii) determine their associated pattern of atrophy; (iii) compare their diagnostic value with expert scan assessment; and (iv) assess the accuracy of a machine learning approach based on multiple rating scales to predict underlying pathology. The study includes T1-weighted images acquired in three European centres from 184 individuals with histopathologically confirmed dementia (101 patients with Alzheimer's disease, 28 patients with dementia with Lewy bodies, 55 patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration), and scans from 73 healthy controls. Six visual rating scales (medial temporal, posterior, anterior temporal, orbito-frontal, anterior cingulate and fronto-insula) were applied to 257 scans (two raters), and to a subset of 80 scans (three raters). Six experts also provided a diagnosis based on unstructured assessment of the 80-scan subset. The reliability and time taken to apply each scale was evaluated. Voxel-based morphometry was used to explore the relationship between each rating scale and the pattern of grey matter volume loss. Additionally, the performance of each scale to predict dementia pathology both individually and in combination was evaluated using a support vector classifier, which was compared with expert scan assessment to estimate clinical value

  9. Effects of Dietary Energy Sources on Post Mortem Glycolysis, Meat Quality and Muscle Fibre Type Transformation of Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanjiao; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Changning; Lin, Meng; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Yuanfang; Nuldnali, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Dietary energy source can influence muscle glycogen storage at slaughter. However, few studies have demonstrated whether the diet-induced change of muscle glycogen is achieved by the transformation of muscle fibre type. This study investigated the effects of dietary energy sources on meat quality, post mortem glycolysis and muscle fibre type transformation of finishing pigs. Seventy-two barrows with an average body weight of 65.0 ± 2.0 kg were selected and were allotted to three iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets A, B or C, and each treatment consisted of three replicates (pens) of eight pigs each. Diet A contained 44.1% starch, 5.9% crude fat and 12.6% neutral detergent fiber (NDF); diet B contained 37.6% starch, 9.5% crude fat and 15.4% NDF; and diet C contained 30.9% starch, 14.3% crude fat and 17.8% NDF. The duration of the experiment was 28 days. After feed withdrawal 12 h, 24 pigs (eight per treatment) were slaughtered, samples from M. longissimus lumborum (LL) were collected for subsequent analysis. The results showed that pigs fed diet C had lesser average daily gain, average daily feed intake and back fat depth than those fed diet A (P<0.05). Diet C increased pH45min (P<0.05) and decreased drip loss (P<0.05) in LL muscles compared with diet A. Meat from pigs fed diet A showed increased contents of lactate and greater glycolytic potential (GP) compared with those fed diet C (P<0.05). Greater mRNA expression of myosin heavy-chain (MyHC)-I and IIa and lesser expression of MyHC-IIx and IIb (P<0.05) in LL muscles were found in pigs fed diet C, than in pigs fed diet A. In addition, pigs fed diet C resulted in downregulation of miR23a and upregulation of miR409 and miR208b (P<0.05), associated with conserved changes of their corresponding targets. These findings indicated that diets containing low starch and high fibre were beneficial in reducing muscle glycolysis, improving meat quality of finishing pigs. This reduction of GP may be partially associated

  10. Effects of Dietary Energy Sources on Post Mortem Glycolysis, Meat Quality and Muscle Fibre Type Transformation of Finishing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanjiao; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Changning; Lin, Meng; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Yuanfang; Nuldnali, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Dietary energy source can influence muscle glycogen storage at slaughter. However, few studies have demonstrated whether the diet-induced change of muscle glycogen is achieved by the transformation of muscle fibre type. This study investigated the effects of dietary energy sources on meat quality, post mortem glycolysis and muscle fibre type transformation of finishing pigs. Seventy-two barrows with an average body weight of 65.0 ± 2.0 kg were selected and were allotted to three iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets A, B or C, and each treatment consisted of three replicates (pens) of eight pigs each. Diet A contained 44.1% starch, 5.9% crude fat and 12.6% neutral detergent fiber (NDF); diet B contained 37.6% starch, 9.5% crude fat and 15.4% NDF; and diet C contained 30.9% starch, 14.3% crude fat and 17.8% NDF. The duration of the experiment was 28 days. After feed withdrawal 12 h, 24 pigs (eight per treatment) were slaughtered, samples from M. longissimus lumborum (LL) were collected for subsequent analysis. The results showed that pigs fed diet C had lesser average daily gain, average daily feed intake and back fat depth than those fed diet A (P<0.05). Diet C increased pH45min (P<0.05) and decreased drip loss (P<0.05) in LL muscles compared with diet A. Meat from pigs fed diet A showed increased contents of lactate and greater glycolytic potential (GP) compared with those fed diet C (P<0.05). Greater mRNA expression of myosin heavy-chain (MyHC)-I and IIa and lesser expression of MyHC-IIx and IIb (P<0.05) in LL muscles were found in pigs fed diet C, than in pigs fed diet A. In addition, pigs fed diet C resulted in downregulation of miR23a and upregulation of miR409 and miR208b (P<0.05), associated with conserved changes of their corresponding targets. These findings indicated that diets containing low starch and high fibre were beneficial in reducing muscle glycolysis, improving meat quality of finishing pigs. This reduction of GP may be partially associated

  11. Effects of Dietary Energy Sources on Post Mortem Glycolysis, Meat Quality and Muscle Fibre Type Transformation of Finishing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanjiao; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Changning; Lin, Meng; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Yuanfang; Nuldnali, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Dietary energy source can influence muscle glycogen storage at slaughter. However, few studies have demonstrated whether the diet-induced change of muscle glycogen is achieved by the transformation of muscle fibre type. This study investigated the effects of dietary energy sources on meat quality, post mortem glycolysis and muscle fibre type transformation of finishing pigs. Seventy-two barrows with an average body weight of 65.0 ± 2.0 kg were selected and were allotted to three iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets A, B or C, and each treatment consisted of three replicates (pens) of eight pigs each. Diet A contained 44.1% starch, 5.9% crude fat and 12.6% neutral detergent fiber (NDF); diet B contained 37.6% starch, 9.5% crude fat and 15.4% NDF; and diet C contained 30.9% starch, 14.3% crude fat and 17.8% NDF. The duration of the experiment was 28 days. After feed withdrawal 12 h, 24 pigs (eight per treatment) were slaughtered, samples from M. longissimus lumborum (LL) were collected for subsequent analysis. The results showed that pigs fed diet C had lesser average daily gain, average daily feed intake and back fat depth than those fed diet A (P<0.05). Diet C increased pH45min (P<0.05) and decreased drip loss (P<0.05) in LL muscles compared with diet A. Meat from pigs fed diet A showed increased contents of lactate and greater glycolytic potential (GP) compared with those fed diet C (P<0.05). Greater mRNA expression of myosin heavy-chain (MyHC)-I and IIa and lesser expression of MyHC-IIx and IIb (P<0.05) in LL muscles were found in pigs fed diet C, than in pigs fed diet A. In addition, pigs fed diet C resulted in downregulation of miR23a and upregulation of miR409 and miR208b (P<0.05), associated with conserved changes of their corresponding targets. These findings indicated that diets containing low starch and high fibre were beneficial in reducing muscle glycolysis, improving meat quality of finishing pigs. This reduction of GP may be partially associated

  12. Determination of medicinal and illicit drugs in post mortem dental hard tissues and comparison with analytical results for body fluids and hair samples.

    PubMed

    Klima, Miriam; Altenburger, Markus J; Kempf, Jürgen; Auwärter, Volker; Neukamm, Merja A

    2016-08-01

    In burnt or skeletonized bodies dental hard tissue sometimes is the only remaining specimen available. Therefore, it could be used as an alternative matrix in post mortem toxicology. Additionally, analysis of dental tissues could provide a unique retrospective window of detection. For forensic interpretation, routes and rates of incorporation of different drugs as well as physicochemical differences between tooth root, tooth crown and carious material have to be taken into account. In a pilot study, one post mortem tooth each from three drug users was analyzed for medicinal and illicit drugs. The pulp was removed in two cases; in one case the tooth was root canal treated. The teeth were separated into root, crown and carious material and drugs were extracted from the powdered material with methanol under ultrasonication. The extracts were screened for drugs by LC-MS(n) (ToxTyper™) and quantitatively analyzed with LC-ESI-MS/MS in MRM mode. The findings were compared to the analytical results for cardiac blood, femoral blood, urine, stomach content and hair. In dental hard tissues, 11 drugs (amphetamine, MDMA, morphine, codeine, norcodeine, methadone, EDDP, fentanyl, tramadol, diazepam, nordazepam, and promethazine) could be detected and concentrations ranged from approximately 0.13pg/mg to 2,400pg/mg. The concentrations declined in the following order: carious material>root>crown. Only the root canal treated tooth showed higher concentrations in the crown than in the root. In post mortem toxicology, dental hard tissue could be a useful alternative matrix facilitating a more differentiated consideration of drug consumption patterns, as the window of detection seems to overlap those for body fluids and hair. PMID:26930453

  13. Determination of medicinal and illicit drugs in post mortem dental hard tissues and comparison with analytical results for body fluids and hair samples.

    PubMed

    Klima, Miriam; Altenburger, Markus J; Kempf, Jürgen; Auwärter, Volker; Neukamm, Merja A

    2016-08-01

    In burnt or skeletonized bodies dental hard tissue sometimes is the only remaining specimen available. Therefore, it could be used as an alternative matrix in post mortem toxicology. Additionally, analysis of dental tissues could provide a unique retrospective window of detection. For forensic interpretation, routes and rates of incorporation of different drugs as well as physicochemical differences between tooth root, tooth crown and carious material have to be taken into account. In a pilot study, one post mortem tooth each from three drug users was analyzed for medicinal and illicit drugs. The pulp was removed in two cases; in one case the tooth was root canal treated. The teeth were separated into root, crown and carious material and drugs were extracted from the powdered material with methanol under ultrasonication. The extracts were screened for drugs by LC-MS(n) (ToxTyper™) and quantitatively analyzed with LC-ESI-MS/MS in MRM mode. The findings were compared to the analytical results for cardiac blood, femoral blood, urine, stomach content and hair. In dental hard tissues, 11 drugs (amphetamine, MDMA, morphine, codeine, norcodeine, methadone, EDDP, fentanyl, tramadol, diazepam, nordazepam, and promethazine) could be detected and concentrations ranged from approximately 0.13pg/mg to 2,400pg/mg. The concentrations declined in the following order: carious material>root>crown. Only the root canal treated tooth showed higher concentrations in the crown than in the root. In post mortem toxicology, dental hard tissue could be a useful alternative matrix facilitating a more differentiated consideration of drug consumption patterns, as the window of detection seems to overlap those for body fluids and hair.

  14. Post-mortem Whole exome sequencing with gene-specific analysis for autopsy-negative sudden unexplained death in the young: a case series.

    PubMed

    Narula, Nupoor; Tester, David J; Paulmichl, Anna; Maleszewski, Joseph J; Ackerman, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    Annually, thousands of sudden deaths in individuals under 35 years remain unexplained following comprehensive medico-legal autopsy. Previously, post-mortem genetic analysis by Sanger sequencing of four major cardiac channelopathy genes revealed that approximately one-fourth of these autopsy-negative sudden unexplained death in the young (SUDY) cases harbored an underlying mutation. However, there are now over 100 sudden death-predisposing cardiac channelopathy-, cardiomyopathy-, and metabolic disorder-susceptibility genes. Here, we set out to determine whether post-mortem whole exome sequencing (WES) is an efficient strategy to detect ultra-rare, potentially pathogenic variants. We performed post-mortem WES and gene-specific analysis of 117 sudden death-susceptibility genes for 14 consecutively referred Caucasian SUDY victims (average age at death 17.4 ± 8.6 years) to identify putative SUDY-associated mutations. On average, each SUDY case had 12,758 ± 2,016 non-synonymous variants, of which 79 ± 15 localized to these 117 genes. Overall, eight ultra-rare variants (seven missense, one in-frame insertion) absent in three publically available exome databases were identified in six genes (three in TTN, and one each in CACNA1C, JPH2, MYH7, VCL, RYR2) in seven of 14 cases (50 %). Of the seven missense alterations, two (T171M-CACNA1C, I22160T-TTN) were predicted damaging by three independent in silico tools. Although WES and gene-specific surveillance is an efficient means to detect rare genetic variants that might underlie the pathogenic cause of death, accurate interpretation of each variant is challenging. Great restraint and caution must be exercised otherwise families may be informed prematurely and incorrectly that the root cause has been found.

  15. Alteration of fatty acid profile and nucleotide-related substances in post-mortem breast meat of α-lipoic acid-fed broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hamano, Y

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of α-lipoic acid supplementation on post-mortem changes in the fatty acid profile and concentrations of nucleotide-related substances, especially those of a taste-active compound, inosine 5'-monophosphate, in chicken meat. Mixed-sex broiler chicks aged 14 d were divided into three groups of 16 birds each and were fed on diets supplemented with α-lipoic acid at levels of 0, 100 or 200 mg/kg for 4 weeks. Blood and breast muscle samples were taken at 42 d of age under the fed condition and then after fasting for 18 h. The breast muscle obtained from fasted chickens was subsequently refrigerated at 2°C for one and 3 d. α-Lipoic acid supplementation did not affect any plasma metabolite concentration independently of feeding condition, while a slight increase in plasma glucose concentration was shown with both administration levels of α-lipoic acid. In early post-mortem breast muscle under the fed condition, α-lipoic acid had no effect on concentrations of fatty acids or nucleotides of ATP, ADP, and AMP. In post-mortem breast tissues obtained from fasted chickens, total fatty acid concentrations were markedly increased by α-lipoic acid feeding at 200 mg/kg irrespective of length of refrigeration. This effect was dependent on stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid. However, among fatty acids, the only predominantly increased unsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid. Dietary supplementation with α-lipoic acid at 200 mg/kg increased the inosine 5'-monophosphate concentration in breast meat and, in contrast, reduced the subsequent catabolites, inosine and xanthine, regardless of the length of refrigeration. Therefore, the present study suggests that α-lipoic acid administration altered the fatty acid profile and improved meat quality by increasing taste-active substances in the post-mortem meat obtained from fasted chickens.

  16. Degradation of Kidney and Psoas Muscle Proteins as Indicators of Post-Mortem Interval in a Rat Model, with Use of Lateral Flow Technology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Gi; Yang, Kyeong Eun; Hwang, Jeong Won; Kang, Hwan-Soo; Lee, Seung-Yeul; Choi, Seoyeon; Shin, Joonchul; Jang, Ik-Soon; An, Hyun Joo; Chung, Heesun; Jung, Hyo-Il; Choi, Jong-Soon

    2016-01-01

    We investigated potential protein markers of post-mortem interval (PMI) using rat kidney and psoas muscle. Tissue samples were taken at 12 h intervals for up to 96 h after death by suffocation. Expression levels of eight soluble proteins were analyzed by Western blotting. Degradation patterns of selected proteins were clearly divided into three groups: short-term, mid-term, and long-term PMI markers based on the half maximum intensity of intact protein expression. In kidney, glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β were degraded completely within 48 h making them short-term PMI markers. AMP-activated protein kinase α, caspase 3 and GS were short-term PMI markers in psoas muscle. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was a mid-term PMI marker in both tissues. Expression levels of the typical long-term PMI markers, p53 and β-catenin, were constant for at least 96 h post-mortem in both tissues. The degradation patterns of GS and caspase-3 were verified by immunohistochemistry in both tissues. GAPDH was chosen as a test PMI protein to perform a lateral flow assay (LFA). The presence of recombinant GAPDH was clearly detected in LFA and quantified in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that LFA might be used to estimate PMI at a crime scene. PMID:27552165

  17. Degradation of Kidney and Psoas Muscle Proteins as Indicators of Post-Mortem Interval in a Rat Model, with Use of Lateral Flow Technology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Gi; Yang, Kyeong Eun; Hwang, Jeong Won; Kang, Hwan-Soo; Lee, Seung-Yeul; Choi, Seoyeon; Shin, Joonchul; Jang, Ik-Soon; An, Hyun Joo; Chung, Heesun; Jung, Hyo-Il; Choi, Jong-Soon

    2016-01-01

    We investigated potential protein markers of post-mortem interval (PMI) using rat kidney and psoas muscle. Tissue samples were taken at 12 h intervals for up to 96 h after death by suffocation. Expression levels of eight soluble proteins were analyzed by Western blotting. Degradation patterns of selected proteins were clearly divided into three groups: short-term, mid-term, and long-term PMI markers based on the half maximum intensity of intact protein expression. In kidney, glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β were degraded completely within 48 h making them short-term PMI markers. AMP-activated protein kinase α, caspase 3 and GS were short-term PMI markers in psoas muscle. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was a mid-term PMI marker in both tissues. Expression levels of the typical long-term PMI markers, p53 and β-catenin, were constant for at least 96 h post-mortem in both tissues. The degradation patterns of GS and caspase-3 were verified by immunohistochemistry in both tissues. GAPDH was chosen as a test PMI protein to perform a lateral flow assay (LFA). The presence of recombinant GAPDH was clearly detected in LFA and quantified in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that LFA might be used to estimate PMI at a crime scene. PMID:27552165

  18. Advantages of using development models of the carrion beetles Thanatophilus micans (Fabricius) and T. mutilatus (Castelneau) (Coleoptera: Silphidae) for estimating minimum post mortem intervals, verified with case data.

    PubMed

    Ridgeway, J A; Midgley, J M; Collett, I J; Villet, M H

    2014-01-01

    Some beetles are as useful as blow flies for estimating the minimum post mortem interval (PMImin) or time since death. Examples include Thanatophilus micans (Fabricius) and Thanatophilus mutilatus (Castelneau), two geographically and ecologically overlapping African beetles. Molecular means of identifying these species, descriptions of their natural history, thermal summation models for the development of each species, and a case in which T. micans was recovered are presented. These beetles colonise bodies soon after death, their development spans more time than that of flies, and they may be little affected by maggot-generated heat. From an experimental perspective, they can be reared individually, which allows the identification of sick individuals and has analytical advantages relative to fly larvae that must be reared in groups. Estimating minimum post mortem intervals for both species using the case data strongly suggests that developmental models parameterised for one species should not be used to make forensic estimates for closely related species for which no specific model is available and emphasises the need for correct identifications.

  19. Topography of Cortical Microbleeds in Alzheimer's Disease with and without Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy: A Post-Mortem 7.0-Tesla MRI Study.

    PubMed

    De Reuck, J; Auger, F; Durieux, N; Deramecourt, V; Cordonnier, C; Pasquier, F; Maurage, C A; Leys, D; Bordet, R

    2015-11-01

    Cortical microbleeds (CMBs) detected on T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GRE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are considered as a possible hallmark of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). The present post-mortem 7.0-tesla MRI study investigates whether topographic differences exist in Alzheimer's brains without (AD) and with CAA (AD-CAA). The distribution of CMBs in thirty-two post-mortem brains, consisting of 12 AD, 8 AD-CAA and 12 controls, was mutually compared on T2*-GRE MRI of six coronal sections of a cerebral hemisphere. The mean numbers of CMBs were determined in twenty-two different gyri. As a whole there was a trend of more CMBs on GRE MRI in the prefrontal section of the AD, the AD-CAA as well as of the control brains. Compared to controls AD brains had significantly more CMBs in the superior frontal, the inferior temporal, the rectus and the cinguli gyrus, and in the insular cortex. In AD-CAA brains CMBs were increased in all gyri with exception of the medial parietal gyrus and the hippocampus. AD-CAA brains showed a highly significant increase of CMBs in the inferior parietal gyrus (p value: 0.001) and a significant increase in the precuneus and the cuneus (p value: 0.01) compared to the AD brains. The differences in topographic distribution of CMBs between AD and AD-CAA brains should be further investigated on MRI in clinically suspected patients.

  20. Original implementation of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in symmetric cells: Evaluation of post-mortem protocols applied to characterize electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Isabel Jiménez; Genies, Sylvie; Si Larbi, Gregory; Boulineau, Adrien; Daniel, Lise; Alias, Mélanie

    2016-03-01

    Understanding ageing mechanisms of Li-ion batteries is essential for further optimizations. To determine performance loss causes, post-mortem analyses are commonly applied. For each type of post-mortem test, different sample preparation protocols are adopted. However, reports on the reliability of these protocols are rare. Herein, Li-ion pouch cells with LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 - polyvinylidene fluoride positive electrode, graphite-carboxymethyl cellulose-styrene rubber negative electrode and LiPF6 - carbonate solvents mixture electrolyte, are opened and electrodes are recovered following a specified protocol. Negative and positive symmetric cells are assembled and their impedances are recorded. A signal analysis is applied to reconstruct the Li-ion pouch cell impedance from the symmetric cells, then comparison against the pouch cell true impedance allows the evaluation of the sample preparation protocols. The results are endorsed by Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM) and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. Carbonate solvents used to remove the salt impacts slightly the surface properties of both electrodes. Drying electrodes under vacuum at 25 °C produces an impedance increase, particularly very marked for the positive electrode. Drying at 50 °C under vacuum or/and exposition to the anhydrous room atmosphere is very detrimental.

  1. Investigation of markers to indicate and distinguish death due to alcoholic ketoacidosis, diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state using post-mortem samples.

    PubMed

    Hockenhull, Joanna; Dhillo, Waljit; Andrews, Rebecca; Paterson, Sue

    2012-01-10

    Data from 191 post-mortem cases where post-mortem blood beta-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) and acetone concentrations and vitreous humor glucose concentrations (where available) had been measured were retrospectively investigated to determine the markers required to identify and distinguish between Alcoholic Ketoacidosis (AKA), Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) and Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State (HHS). Blood βHB concentrations above 250 μg/mL were considered significant and it was shown to be the preferred marker of ketoacidosis. All cases with significant βHB detected also had acetone present (greater than 2mg/dL) demonstrating that acetone can be used as a marker to identify ketoacidosis and can be used to indicate when βHB measurement is necessary. Vitreous humor glucose concentrations above 6.9 mmol/L were considered high and indicative of hyperglycemia prior to death. Vitreous humor glucose concentrations can be used to distinguish between DKA and ketoacidosis from other causes and to identify deaths due to HHS. The data showed that ketoacidosis can occur without a history of alcoholism or diabetes. Many diabetics are undiagnosed for many years. Therefore, DKA or HHS should be considered in sudden or unexplained deaths and glucose should be routinely measured especially in cases with risk factors for diabetes including obesity, old age, a history of mental health problems or treatment with atypical antipsychotic drugs including clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone.

  2. Impact of temperature dependent sampling procedures in proteomics and peptidomics--a characterization of the liver and pancreas post mortem degradome.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Birger; Sköld, Karl; Kultima, Kim; Fernandez, Celine; Waldemarson, Sofia; Savitski, Mikhail M; Söderquist, Marcus; Borén, Mats; Stella, Robert; Andrén, Per; Zubarev, Roman; James, Peter

    2011-03-01

    Little is known about the nature of post mortem degradation of proteins and peptides on a global level, the so-called degradome. This is especially true for nonneural tissues. Degradome properties in relation to sampling procedures on different tissues are of great importance for the studies of, for instance, post translational modifications and/or the establishment of clinical biobanks. Here, snap freezing of fresh (<2 min post mortem time) mouse liver and pancreas tissue is compared with rapid heat stabilization with regard to effects on the proteome (using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis) and peptidome (using label free liquid chromatography). We report several proteins and peptides that exhibit heightened degradation sensitivity, for instance superoxide dismutase in liver, and peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase and insulin C-peptides in pancreas. Tissue sampling based on snap freezing produces a greater amount of degradation products and lower levels of endogenous peptides than rapid heat stabilization. We also demonstrate that solely snap freezing related degradation can be attenuated by subsequent heat stabilization. We conclude that tissue sampling involving a rapid heat stabilization step is preferable to freezing with regard to proteomic and peptidomic sample quality.

  3. Evaluation of the efficiency of nested q-PCR in the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex directly from tuberculosis-suspected lesions in post-mortem macroscopic inspections of bovine carcasses slaughtered in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ricardo César Tavares; Furlanetto, Leone Vinícius; Maruyama, Fernanda Harumy; Araújo, Cristina Pires de; Barros, Sílvia Letícia Bomfim; Ramos, Carlos Alberto do Nascimento; Dutra, Valéria; Araújo, Flábio Ribeiro de; Paschoalin, Vânia Margaret Flosi; Nakazato, Luciano; Figueiredo, Eduardo Eustáquio de Souza

    2015-08-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). The quick and specific detection of this species is of extreme importance, since BTB may cause economic impacts, in addition to presenting imminent risks to human health. In the present study a nested real-time PCR test (nested q-PCR) was used in post-mortem evaluations to assess cattle carcasses with BTB-suspected lesions. A total of 41,193 cattle slaughtered in slaughterhouses located in the state of Mato Grosso, were examined. Of the examined animals, 198 (0.48%) showed BTB-suspected lesions. M. bovis was isolated in 1.5% (3/198) of the samples. Multiplex-PCR detected MTC in 7% (14/198) of the samples. The nested q-PCR test detected MTC in 28% (56/198) of the BTB-suspected lesions, demonstrating higher efficiency when compared to the multiplex-PCR and conventional microbiology. Nested q-PCR can therefore be used as a complementary test in the national program for control and eradication of bovine tuberculosis.

  4. Role of biogenic amines in the post-mortem migration of Anisakis pegreffii (Nematoda: Anisakidae Dujardin, 1845) larvae into fish fillets.

    PubMed

    Šimat, Vida; Miletić, Jelena; Bogdanović, Tanja; Poljak, Vedran; Mladineo, Ivona

    2015-12-01

    Infective third-stage larvae (L3) of nematode Anisakis spp. have been recognized as one of the major food-borne threats in lightly processed fish products in Europe, particularly in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the effect of different storage temperatures of fish on larval post-mortem migration from visceral cavity into fillets is an important parameter to take into account when evaluating the risk for consumer safety. The European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) were caught during fishing season, a subsample of fillets was checked for the presence of Anisakis larvae at capture (mean abundance=0.07), and the rest was stored at four different temperatures (-18, 0, 4 and 22°C) in order to count migrating larvae and measure the production of biogenic amines over a period of time. Larvae were identified by morphological features and molecular tools. Post-mortem migration was observed in fillets stored at 0 and 4°C after three and five days, respectively, but not at 22 and -18°C. In case of storage at 22°C for two days, at the onset of putrefaction of the visceral organs, larvae migrated out of the visceral cavity towards the fish surface. Measured pH and biogenic amine profile during storage indicated that certain biochemical conditions trigger larval migration into fillets. Likewise, migration was observed at pH ~6.4 when sensory degradation of the fish was markedly visible. Although larval migration was delayed for approximately four days at a temperature of <4°C the correlation between pH and abundance of A. pegreffii larvae in the fillet was high and statistically significant at both 0 (r=0.998, p<0.01) and 4°C (r=0.946, p<0.05). Out of eight biogenic amines measured, cadaverine and putrescine levels correlated the most with the post-mortem migration at 4°C, while tyramine levels were significant at both temperatures.

  5. PMICALC: an R code-based software for estimating post-mortem interval (PMI) compatible with Windows, Mac and Linux operating systems.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Barús, José I; Rodríguez-Calvo, María Sol; Suárez-Peñaranda, José M; Vieira, Duarte N; Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen; Febrero-Bande, Manuel

    2010-01-30

    In legal medicine the correct determination of the time of death is of utmost importance. Recent advances in estimating post-mortem interval (PMI) have made use of vitreous humour chemistry in conjunction with Linear Regression, but the results are questionable. In this paper we present PMICALC, an R code-based freeware package which estimates PMI in cadavers of recent death by measuring the concentrations of potassium ([K+]), hypoxanthine ([Hx]) and urea ([U]) in the vitreous humor using two different regression models: Additive Models (AM) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), which offer more flexibility than the previously used Linear Regression. The results from both models are better than those published to date and can give numerical expression of PMI with confidence intervals and graphic support within 20 min. The program also takes into account the cause of death.

  6. The effect on cadaver blood DNA identification by the use of targeted and whole body post-mortem computed tomography angiography.

    PubMed

    Rutty, Guy N; Barber, Jade; Amoroso, Jasmin; Morgan, Bruno; Graham, Eleanor A M

    2013-12-01

    Post-mortem computed tomography angiography (PMCTA) involves the injection of contrast agents. This could have both a dilution effect on biological fluid samples and could affect subsequent post-contrast analytical laboratory processes. We undertook a small sample study of 10 targeted and 10 whole body PMCTA cases to consider whether or not these two methods of PMCTA could affect post-PMCTA cadaver blood based DNA identification. We used standard methodology to examine DNA from blood samples obtained before and after the PMCTA procedure. We illustrate that neither of these PMCTA methods had an effect on the alleles called following short tandem repeat based DNA profiling, and therefore the ability to undertake post-PMCTA blood based DNA identification.

  7. Post-mortem findings in southern right whales Eubalaena australis at Península Valdés, Argentina, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    McAloose, Denise; Rago, M Virginia; Di Martino, Matías; Chirife, Andrea; Olson, Sarah H; Beltramino, Lucas; Pozzi, Luciana M; Musmeci, Luciana; La Sala, Luciano; Mohamed, Nadia; Sala, Juan Emilio; Bandieri, Lucas; Andrejuk, Julian; Tomaszewicz, Ania; Seimon, Tracie; Sironi, Mariano; Samartino, Luis E; Rowntree, Victoria; Uhart, Marcela M

    2016-04-12

    Between 2003 and 2012, 605 southern right whales (SRW; Eubalaena australis) were found dead along the shores of Península Valdés (PV), Argentina. These deaths included alarmingly high annual losses between 2007 and 2012, a peak number of deaths (116) in 2012, and a significant number of deaths across years in calves-of-the-year (544 of 605 [89.9%]; average = 60.4 yr(-1)). Post-mortem examination and pathogen testing were performed on 212 whales; 208 (98.1%) were calves-of-the-year and 48.0% of these were newborns or neonates. A known or probable cause of death was established in only a small number (6.6%) of cases. These included ship strike in a juvenile and blunt trauma or lacerations (n = 5), pneumonia (n = 4), myocarditis (n = 2), meningitis (n = 1), or myocarditis and meningitis (n = 1) in calves. Ante-mortem gull parasitism was the most common gross finding. It was associated with systemic disease in a single 1-2 mo old calf. Immunohistochemical labeling for canine distemper virus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp., and PCR for cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV), influenza A, and apicomplexan protozoa were negative on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung and brain samples from a subset of whales; PCR for Brucella spp. was positive in a newborn/neonate with pneumonia. Skin samples from whales with gull parasitism were PCR negative for CeMV, poxvirus, and papillomavirus. This is the first long-term study to investigate and summarize notable post-mortem findings in the PV SRW population. Consistent, significant findings within or between years to explain the majority of deaths and those in high-mortality years remain to be identified. PMID:27068500

  8. Post-mortem findings in southern right whales Eubalaena australis at Península Valdés, Argentina, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    McAloose, Denise; Rago, M Virginia; Di Martino, Matías; Chirife, Andrea; Olson, Sarah H; Beltramino, Lucas; Pozzi, Luciana M; Musmeci, Luciana; La Sala, Luciano; Mohamed, Nadia; Sala, Juan Emilio; Bandieri, Lucas; Andrejuk, Julian; Tomaszewicz, Ania; Seimon, Tracie; Sironi, Mariano; Samartino, Luis E; Rowntree, Victoria; Uhart, Marcela M

    2016-04-12

    Between 2003 and 2012, 605 southern right whales (SRW; Eubalaena australis) were found dead along the shores of Península Valdés (PV), Argentina. These deaths included alarmingly high annual losses between 2007 and 2012, a peak number of deaths (116) in 2012, and a significant number of deaths across years in calves-of-the-year (544 of 605 [89.9%]; average = 60.4 yr(-1)). Post-mortem examination and pathogen testing were performed on 212 whales; 208 (98.1%) were calves-of-the-year and 48.0% of these were newborns or neonates. A known or probable cause of death was established in only a small number (6.6%) of cases. These included ship strike in a juvenile and blunt trauma or lacerations (n = 5), pneumonia (n = 4), myocarditis (n = 2), meningitis (n = 1), or myocarditis and meningitis (n = 1) in calves. Ante-mortem gull parasitism was the most common gross finding. It was associated with systemic disease in a single 1-2 mo old calf. Immunohistochemical labeling for canine distemper virus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp., and PCR for cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV), influenza A, and apicomplexan protozoa were negative on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung and brain samples from a subset of whales; PCR for Brucella spp. was positive in a newborn/neonate with pneumonia. Skin samples from whales with gull parasitism were PCR negative for CeMV, poxvirus, and papillomavirus. This is the first long-term study to investigate and summarize notable post-mortem findings in the PV SRW population. Consistent, significant findings within or between years to explain the majority of deaths and those in high-mortality years remain to be identified.

  9. Feather retention force in broilers ante-, peri-, and post-mortem as influenced by carcass orientation, angle of extraction, and slaughter method.

    PubMed

    Buhr, R J; Cason, J A; Rowland, G N

    1997-11-01

    Stunning and slaughter trials were conducted to evaluate the influence of carcass orientation (inverted or supine), angle of feather extraction (parallel or perpendicular to the carcass surface), and slaughter method (exsanguination without or with spinal cord transection) on feather retention force (FRF) in commercial broilers sampled ante-, peri-, and post-mortem. The pectoral, sternal, and femoral feather tracts were sampled before and after stunning contralaterally, with a maximum indicating force gauge, from broilers suspended on a shackle (inverted) or laying on a table (supine). For all trials and sample periods FRF was consistently greater in the femoral area (547 to 679 g) than in the pectoral area (273 to 391 g), with the sternal feather tract requiring the least force at 246 to 343 g. Feathers extracted parallel to the carcass resulted in consistently greater FRF (9 to 29%) than feathers extracted at a perpendicular angle, at all sample periods. Broilers suspended on shackles ante- and peri-mortem had higher FRF values (5 to 30%) than those restrained in shackles in a supine position on a table. Other parameters resulted in minor and inconsistent alterations in FRF. Electrical stunning, when not followed by bleeding, resulted in small reductions in FRF (up to 7%). Bleeding after stunning without or with spinal cord transection resulted in variable peri-mortem FRF changes (+7 to -11% and +11 to -11%, respectively). Only in the pectoral feather tract was there a significant increase (5 to 6%) in FRF as broilers went from the ante- to peri-mortem state. At 2 and 6 min after stunning and initiation of exsanguination, post-mortem FRF was unaffected by carcass orientation for the pectoral and femoral tracts.

  10. Blood parameters and corneal-reflex of finishing pigs with and without lung affections observed post mortem in two abattoirs stunning with CO₂.

    PubMed

    Fries, R; Rindermann, G; Siegling-Vlitakis, C; Bandick, N; Bräutigam, L; Buschulte, A; Irsigler, H; Wolf, K; Hartmann, H

    2013-02-01

    In two pig abattoirs of different slaughter capacities, the stunning efficacy of CO2 on finishing pigs with and without pneumonic lesions (observed post mortem) was reflected against the corneal-reflex and blood parameters (blood pH, pCO2 and pO2) from individual finishers. Stunning duration was 120 s (abattoir A) and 90 s (abattoir B), respectively. Pneumonia in finisher pigs is frequently observed during post mortem inspection, which may raise concerns about a delay of unconsciousness because of hampered gas exchange in the lungs. The aim of this study was to examine possible pneumonia consequences for stunning efficacy under commercial conditions. For that, corneal reflex, O2 and CO2 partial pressure in the blood as well as blood pH were measured in 2650 finishers from abattoir A and 2100 from abattoir B. The partial pressure of O2 after stunning accounted to about 3 kPa, the partial pressure of CO2 was found at levels of about 24 kPa in abattoir A (after 120 s CO2 exposure) and 17.5 kPa in abattoir B (after 90 s CO2 exposure). In abattoir A, the blood pH was at 6.9, and at 7.0 in abattoir B. The corneal reflex was observed in 6.2% of pigs in abattoir A and 17.1% of pigs in abattoir B. A correlation between pneumonic lesions and blood status was not observed. However, for some individual farms, a significant correlation between pneumonia and corneal reflex was observed. PMID:22898535

  11. Effect of preservative solutions on preservation of Calliphora augur and Lucilia cuprina larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae) with implications for post-mortem interval estimates.

    PubMed

    Day, Donnah M; Wallman, James F

    2008-07-18

    A major role of forensic entomology is to estimate the post-mortem interval. An entomologist's estimate of post-mortem interval is based on a series of generally valid assumptions, error in any of which can alter the accuracy of an estimate. The initial process of collecting and preserving maggots can itself lead to error, as can the method of killing and preservation. Since circumstances exist where it is not possible to rear maggots, methods of killing and preservation can be vital to preserving the integrity of entomological evidence. In this study, a number of preservation techniques used at crime scenes and in mortuaries were examined, and their effect on feeding third-instar larvae of Calliphora augur and Lucilia cuprina evaluated. The preservatives used were 70, 75, 80, 90 and 100% EtOH, Kahle's solution and 10% formalin. Each treatment was replicated three times. The effect of handling on first- and second-instar, feeding and post-feeding third-instar larvae of C. augur was also examined and compared to unhandled controls. Finally, the effects of preservatives were noted when larvae of C. augur and L. cuprina were placed into preservatives alive. It was found that continued handling is detrimental to specimens because preservative evaporates from both the vial and the specimens. No single preservative type was found to be entirely suitable for both species if DNA retrieval is desired. Specimens placed into most preservatives alive exhibited adverse colour changes, desiccation, sunkeness and agglomeration. It is concluded that the reaction to preservative type might be species specific and that different instars of the same species might also react differently. PMID:18514451

  12. Effect of preservative solutions on preservation of Calliphora augur and Lucilia cuprina larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae) with implications for post-mortem interval estimates.

    PubMed

    Day, Donnah M; Wallman, James F

    2008-07-18

    A major role of forensic entomology is to estimate the post-mortem interval. An entomologist's estimate of post-mortem interval is based on a series of generally valid assumptions, error in any of which can alter the accuracy of an estimate. The initial process of collecting and preserving maggots can itself lead to error, as can the method of killing and preservation. Since circumstances exist where it is not possible to rear maggots, methods of killing and preservation can be vital to preserving the integrity of entomological evidence. In this study, a number of preservation techniques used at crime scenes and in mortuaries were examined, and their effect on feeding third-instar larvae of Calliphora augur and Lucilia cuprina evaluated. The preservatives used were 70, 75, 80, 90 and 100% EtOH, Kahle's solution and 10% formalin. Each treatment was replicated three times. The effect of handling on first- and second-instar, feeding and post-feeding third-instar larvae of C. augur was also examined and compared to unhandled controls. Finally, the effects of preservatives were noted when larvae of C. augur and L. cuprina were placed into preservatives alive. It was found that continued handling is detrimental to specimens because preservative evaporates from both the vial and the specimens. No single preservative type was found to be entirely suitable for both species if DNA retrieval is desired. Specimens placed into most preservatives alive exhibited adverse colour changes, desiccation, sunkeness and agglomeration. It is concluded that the reaction to preservative type might be species specific and that different instars of the same species might also react differently.

  13. Variation of bone layer thicknesses and trabecular volume fraction in the adult male human calvarium.

    PubMed

    Boruah, Sourabh; Paskoff, Glenn R; Shender, Barry S; Subit, Damien L; Salzar, Robert S; Crandall, Jeff R

    2015-08-01

    The human calvarium is a sandwich structure with two dense layers of cortical bone separated by porous cancellous bone. The variation of the three dimensional geometry, including the layer thicknesses and the volume fraction of the cancellous layer across the population, is unavailable in the current literature. This information is of particular importance to mathematical models of the human head used to simulate mechanical response. Although the target geometry for these models is the median geometry of the population, the best attempt so far has been the scaling of a unique geometry based on a few median anthropometric measurements of the head. However, this method does not represent the median geometry. This paper reports the average three dimensional geometry of the calvarium from X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging and layer thickness and trabecular volume fraction from micro CT (μCT) imaging of ten adult male post-mortem human surrogates (PMHS). Skull bone samples have been obtained and μCT imaging was done at a resolution of 30 μm. Monte Carlo simulation was done to estimate the variance in these measurements due to the uncertainty in image segmentation. The layer thickness data has been averaged over areas of 5mm(2). The outer cortical layer was found to be significantly (p < 0.01; Student's t test) thicker than the inner layer (median of thickness ratio 1.68). Although there was significant location to location difference in all the layer thicknesses and volume fraction measurements, there was no trend. Average distribution and the variance of these metrics on the calvarium have been shown. The findings have been reported as colormaps on a 2D projection of the cranial vault. PMID:25920690

  14. Understanding Early Post-Mortem Biochemical Processes Underlying Meat Color and pH Decline in the Longissimus thoracis Muscle of Young Blond d'Aquitaine Bulls Using Protein Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Terlouw, E M Claudia; Micol, Didier; Boudjellal, Abdelghani; Hocquette, Jean-François; Picard, Brigitte

    2015-08-01

    Many studies on color biochemistry and protein biomarkers were undertaken in post-mortem beef muscles after ≥24 hours. The present study was conducted on Longissimus thoracis muscles of 21 Blond d'Aquitaine young bulls to evaluate the relationships between protein biomarkers present during the early post-mortem and known to be related to tenderness and pH decline and color development. pH values at 45 min, 3 h, and 30 h post-mortem were correlated with three, seven, and six biomarkers, respectively. L*a*b* color coordinates 24 h post-mortem were correlated with nine, five, and eight protein biomarkers, respectively. Regression models included Hsp proteins and explained between 47 and 59% of the variability between individuals in pH and between 47 and 65% of the variability in L*a*b* color coordinates. Proteins correlated with pH and/or color coordinates were involved in apoptosis or had antioxidative or chaperone activities. The main results include the negative correlations between pH45 min, pH3 h, and pHu and Prdx6, which may be explained by the antioxidative and phospholipase activities of this biomarker. Similarly, inducible Hsp70-1A/B and μ-calpain were correlated with L*a*b* coordinates, due to the protective action of Hsp70-1A/B on the proteolytic activities of μ-calpain on structural proteins. Correlations existed further between MDH1, ENO3, and LDH-B and pH decline and color stability probably due to the involvement of these enzymes in the glycolytic pathway and, thus, the energy status of the cell. The present results show that research using protein indicators may increase the understanding of early post-mortem biological mechanisms involved in pH and beef color development.

  15. The ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord differs from other species and shows ependymoma-like features.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Florensa-Vila, José; Ferrer, Isidro; Grassner, Lukas; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo

    2015-06-01

    Several laboratories have described the existence of undifferentiated precursor cells that may act like stem cells in the ependyma of the rodent spinal cord. However, there are reports showing that this region is occluded and disassembled in humans after the second decade of life, although this has been largely ignored or interpreted as a post-mortem artefact. To gain insight into the patency, actual structure, and molecular properties of the adult human spinal cord ependymal region, we followed three approaches: (i) with MRI, we estimated the central canal patency in 59 control subjects, 99 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury, and 26 patients with non-traumatic spinal cord injuries. We observed that the central canal is absent from the vast majority of individuals beyond the age of 18 years, gender-independently, throughout the entire length of the spinal cord, both in healthy controls and after injury; (ii) with histology and immunohistochemistry, we describe morphological properties of the non-lesioned ependymal region, which showed the presence of perivascular pseudorosettes, a common feature of ependymoma; and (iii) with laser capture microdissection, followed by TaqMan® low density arrays, we studied the gene expression profile of the ependymal region and found that it is mainly enriched in genes compatible with a low grade or quiescent ependymoma (53 genes); this region is enriched only in 14 genes related to neurogenic niches. In summary, we demonstrate here that the central canal is mainly absent in the adult human spinal cord and is replaced by a structure morphologically and molecularly different from that described for rodents and other primates. The presented data suggest that the ependymal region is more likely to be reminiscent of a low-grade ependymoma. Therefore, a direct translation to adult human patients of an eventual therapeutic potential of this region based on animal models should be approached with caution. PMID:25882650

  16. The ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord differs from other species and shows ependymoma-like features.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Florensa-Vila, José; Ferrer, Isidro; Grassner, Lukas; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo

    2015-06-01

    Several laboratories have described the existence of undifferentiated precursor cells that may act like stem cells in the ependyma of the rodent spinal cord. However, there are reports showing that this region is occluded and disassembled in humans after the second decade of life, although this has been largely ignored or interpreted as a post-mortem artefact. To gain insight into the patency, actual structure, and molecular properties of the adult human spinal cord ependymal region, we followed three approaches: (i) with MRI, we estimated the central canal patency in 59 control subjects, 99 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury, and 26 patients with non-traumatic spinal cord injuries. We observed that the central canal is absent from the vast majority of individuals beyond the age of 18 years, gender-independently, throughout the entire length of the spinal cord, both in healthy controls and after injury; (ii) with histology and immunohistochemistry, we describe morphological properties of the non-lesioned ependymal region, which showed the presence of perivascular pseudorosettes, a common feature of ependymoma; and (iii) with laser capture microdissection, followed by TaqMan® low density arrays, we studied the gene expression profile of the ependymal region and found that it is mainly enriched in genes compatible with a low grade or quiescent ependymoma (53 genes); this region is enriched only in 14 genes related to neurogenic niches. In summary, we demonstrate here that the central canal is mainly absent in the adult human spinal cord and is replaced by a structure morphologically and molecularly different from that described for rodents and other primates. The presented data suggest that the ependymal region is more likely to be reminiscent of a low-grade ependymoma. Therefore, a direct translation to adult human patients of an eventual therapeutic potential of this region based on animal models should be approached with caution.

  17. Post-mortem levels and tissue distribution of codeine, codeine-6-glucuronide, norcodeine, morphine and morphine glucuronides in a series of codeine-related deaths.

    PubMed

    Frost, Joachim; Løkken, Trine Nordgård; Helland, Arne; Nordrum, Ivar Skjåk; Slørdal, Lars

    2016-05-01

    This article presents levels and tissue distribution of codeine, codeine-6-glucuronide (C6G), norcodeine, morphine and the morphine metabolites morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) in post-mortem blood (peripheral and heart blood), vitreous fluid, muscle, fat and brain tissue in a series of 23 codeine-related fatalities. CYP2D6 genotype is also determined and taken into account. Quantification of codeine, C6G, norcodeine, morphine, M3G and M6G was performed with a validated solid phase extraction LC-MS method. The series comprise 19 deaths (83%) attributed to mixed drug intoxication, 4 deaths (17%) attributed to other causes of death, and no cases of unambiguous monointoxication with codeine. The typical peripheral blood concentration pattern in individual cases was C6G≫codeine≫norcodeine>morphine, and M3G>M6G>morphine. In matrices other than blood, the concentration pattern was similar, although in a less systematic fashion. Measured concentrations were generally lower in matrices other than blood, especially in brain and fat, and in particular for the glucuronides (C6G, M3G and M6G) and, to some extent, morphine. In brain tissue, the presumed active moieties morphine and M6G were both below the LLOQ (0.0080mg/L and 0.058mg/L, respectively) in a majority of cases. In general, there was a large variability in both measured concentrations and calculated blood/tissue concentration ratios. There was also a large variability in calculated ratios of morphine to codeine, C6G to codeine and norcodeine to codeine in all matrices, and CYP2D6 genotype was not a reliable predictor of these ratios. The different blood/tissue concentration ratios showed no systematic relationship with the post-mortem interval. No coherent degradation or formation patterns for codeine, morphine, M3G and M6G were observed upon reanalysis in peripheral blood after storage.

  18. Human snake bite victims: the successful detection of circulating snake venom by radiommunoassay,.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, S K; Couter, A R; Broad, A J

    1975-01-11

    A new solid-phase radioimmunoassay has been developed which allows positive identification of the type of snake venom in human tissue and fluids and its accurate quantitation. Tiger snake venom at a level of 210 ng/ml was detected post mortem in the serum of a child, and brown snake venom was detected in two adults bitten by unidentified snakes. Apart from forensic applications, the assay will be useful in studying clinical aspects of envenomation and the use of antivenenes. PMID:1128354

  19. The consequences of chronic arsenic poisoning among Moselle wine growers. Pathoanatomical investigations of post-mortem examinations performed between 1960 and 1977.

    PubMed

    Lüchtrath, H

    1983-01-01

    From post-mortem examinations performed at the Pathology Institute at Koblenz, 163 cases of wine growers affected by chronic arsenic poisoning were analyzed. While a reduction could be seen in the number of cases of liver cirrhosis, the carcinoma rate was still high and even increased when compared to earlier reports. Lung cancers were identified in 66% of all wine growers affected and are thus the leading form of the skin were observed. A particular characteristic of amount of carcinomas or precarcinogenic alterations of arsenic carcinoma. However, nearly the same amount of carcinomas or precarcinogenic alterations of the skin were observed. A particular characteristic of cases. Among the multiple tumors, up to six different carcinomas were found. As arsenic is no longer detectable by toxicologic-chemical means the deposits of arsenic have been depleted and excreted long ago and so the diagnosis of chronic poisoning today depends on morphological changes of the skin (arsenic hyperkeratosis, melanosis and M. Bowen) which have been shown to be reliable. A comparison of our analysis with much more extensive material collected by the trade association supports our experience and the determined case rates. Furthermore modern theories on the carcinogenic action of arsenic, the question of the tumor latency and the relation of specific cancers to the poison are presented. In addition medical opinions on chronic arsenic poisoning are discussed.

  20. Metabolomic Profiling of Post-Mortem Brain Reveals Changes in Amino Acid and Glucose Metabolism in Mental Illness Compared with Controls.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Tong; Ali, Ali Muhsen; Al Washih, Mohammed; Pickard, Benjamin; Watson, David G

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomic profiling was carried out on 53 post-mortem brain samples from subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder (SDB), diabetes, and controls. Chromatography on a ZICpHILIC column was used with detection by Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Data extraction was carried out with m/z Mine 2.14 with metabolite searching against an in-house database. There was no clear discrimination between the controls and the SDB samples on the basis of a principal components analysis (PCA) model of 755 identified or putatively identified metabolites. Orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLSDA) produced clear separation between 17 of the controls and 19 of the SDB samples (R2CUM 0.976, Q2 0.671, p-value of the cross-validated ANOVA score 0.0024). The most important metabolites producing discrimination were the lipophilic amino acids leucine/isoleucine, proline, methionine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine; the neurotransmitters GABA and NAAG and sugar metabolites sorbitol, gluconic acid, xylitol, ribitol, arabinotol, and erythritol. Eight samples from diabetic brains were analysed, six of which grouped with the SDB samples without compromising the model (R2 CUM 0.850, Q2 CUM 0.534, p-value for cross-validated ANOVA score 0.00087). There appears on the basis of this small sample set to be some commonality between metabolic perturbations resulting from diabetes and from SDB. PMID:27076878

  1. Post-mortem analysis of a long-term tested proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack under low cathode humidification conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Nam-In; Seo, Yongho; Kim, Ki Buem; Lee, Naesung; Lee, Jin-Hwa; Song, Inseob; Choi, Hanshin; Park, Jun-Young

    2014-05-01

    During continuous power operation for 2740 h, the major mechanisms and patterns of performance degradation in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack are investigated under low cathode humidification with simulated reformate fuel gases through the use of various physicochemical and electrochemical analysis tools. As operating time increases, the operating voltages and open-circuit voltages (OCVs) of the stack decrease with the large voltage distributions. In the post-mortem analysis of the stack, the delamination of the catalyst layer (CL) of unstable operating membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) is significant near the cathode gas inlets. This observation is in agreement with the results of OCV, hydrogen crossover current, and anode off-gas measurements. This phenomenon may be due to the acceleration of carbon corrosion in the cathode during the frequent start-up and shut-down process, because the local cathode potential can reach more than 1.5 V in the air/fuel boundary. Additionally, the frequent membrane hydration and dehydration by the accumulation of excess water (through electrochemical reaction) and faster water evaporation (under dry-air cathode conditions and high operating temperatures) may accelerate the interface delamination between the membrane and cathode CL with a substantially uneven distribution of water.

  2. Altered CB1 receptor coupling to G-proteins in the post-mortem caudate nucleus and cerebellum of alcoholic subjects.

    PubMed

    Erdozain, Amaia M; Rubio, Marina; Meana, J Javier; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Callado, Luis F

    2015-11-01

    Biochemical, pharmacological and genetic evidence suggests the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in alcohol dependence. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the state of CB1 receptors in post-mortem caudate nucleus, hippocampus and cerebellum of alcoholic subjects.CB1 protein levels were measured by Western blot, CB1 receptor density and affinity by [(3)H]WIN55,212-2 saturation assays and CB1 functionality by [(35)S]GTPγS binding assays. Experiments were performed in samples from 24 subjects classified as non-suicidal alcoholics (n = 6), suicidal alcoholics (n = 6), non-alcoholic suicide victims (n = 6) and control subjects (n = 6).Alcoholic subjects presented hyperfunctional CB1 receptors in the caudate nucleus resulting in a higher maximal effect in both alcoholic groups compared to the non-alcoholic groups (p < 0.001). Conversely, in the cerebellum the non-suicidal alcoholic subjects showed hypofunctional receptors with lower maximal effect and potency (p < 0.001). No changes were found in the CB1 protein expression in either region. In the hippocampus of alcoholic subjects, no changes were observed either in the functionality, density or protein levels.Our data support an association between endocannabinoid system activity and alcoholism. The modifications reported here could be either a consequence of high lifetime ethanol consumption or a vulnerability factor to develop alcohol addiction.

  3. Evaluation of pre-rigor injection of beef with proteases on cooked meat volatile profile after 1 day and 21 days post-mortem storage.

    PubMed

    Ma, Q L; Hamid, N; Bekhit, A E D; Robertson, J; Law, T F

    2012-12-01

    This research was carried out to determine the effects of pre-rigor injection of beef semimembranosus muscle with nine proteases from plant and microbial sources, on the volatile profile of cooked beef after 1 day and 21 days post-mortem (PM) storage using Solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 23 aldehydes, 5 ketones, 3 furans, 8 nitrogen and sulphur compounds, 4 alkanes, 7 alcohols and 6 terpenes were detected. Eleven volatile compounds characteristic of ginger flavour were detected in zingibain-treated meat. Benzaldehyde significantly increased (p<0.05) only in kiwifruit juice (KJ), fungal 31 protease and Asparagus protease (ASP) treated samples from 1 day to 21 days PM storage. A significant increase (p<0.05) in 3-methylbutanal was observed in KJ, bacterial and fungal protease treated samples at 21 days PM storage. Treatments with bromelain, papain, ASP, actinidin, and KJ (except KJ 21 days) proteases resulted in flavour profiles closer to that of the control beef sample. PMID:22682685

  4. Tissue microscopic changes and artifacts in multi-phase post-mortem computed tomography angiography in a hospital setting: a fatal case of systemic vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Capuani, Caroline; Guilbeau-Frugier, Céline; Mokrane, Fatima-Zohra; Delisle, Marie-Bernadette; Marcheix, Bertrand; Rousseau, Hervé; Telmon, Norbert; Rougé, Daniel; Dedouit, Fabrice

    2014-09-01

    A 27-year-old man suddenly died in hospital of acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to severe systemic vasculitis. Multi-phase post-mortem computed tomography angiography followed by scientific autopsy of the thoracic and abdominal cavity and histology was performed, illustrating the advantages and drawbacks of such techniques. Imaging enabled us to examine the cranium, as the family refused cerebral dissection. MPMCTA revealed absence of opacification of the left middle cerebral artery. But parenchymal findings of thoracic and abdominal organs were still difficult to interpret after both imaging and macroscopic examination during the autopsy. Microscopic examination provided the definitive diagnosis of cause of death. Analysis revealed systemic vasculitis of the lung complicated by diffuse alveolar, mediastinal, splenic and retroperitoneal lesions. We were unable to determine the type of vasculitis, whether polyarteritis nodosa or microscopic polyangiitis, because of artifactual glomerular collapse. We observed some structural changes in tissue secondary to contrast agent injection, affecting the vascular system and renal parenchyma in particular. Such artifacts must be known in order to avoid misinterpreting them as pathological findings. MPMCTA and conventional autopsy are two complementary techniques showing both their specific advantages and limits which have to be known in order to choose the appropriate technique. One limit of both techniques is the detection of microscopic findings which can only be obtained by additional histological examination. This case report underlines this fact and demonstrates that caution is required in some cases if microscopic analyses are carried out after contrast agent injection.

  5. Evaluation of pre-rigor injection of beef with proteases on cooked meat volatile profile after 1 day and 21 days post-mortem storage.

    PubMed

    Ma, Q L; Hamid, N; Bekhit, A E D; Robertson, J; Law, T F

    2012-12-01

    This research was carried out to determine the effects of pre-rigor injection of beef semimembranosus muscle with nine proteases from plant and microbial sources, on the volatile profile of cooked beef after 1 day and 21 days post-mortem (PM) storage using Solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 23 aldehydes, 5 ketones, 3 furans, 8 nitrogen and sulphur compounds, 4 alkanes, 7 alcohols and 6 terpenes were detected. Eleven volatile compounds characteristic of ginger flavour were detected in zingibain-treated meat. Benzaldehyde significantly increased (p<0.05) only in kiwifruit juice (KJ), fungal 31 protease and Asparagus protease (ASP) treated samples from 1 day to 21 days PM storage. A significant increase (p<0.05) in 3-methylbutanal was observed in KJ, bacterial and fungal protease treated samples at 21 days PM storage. Treatments with bromelain, papain, ASP, actinidin, and KJ (except KJ 21 days) proteases resulted in flavour profiles closer to that of the control beef sample.

  6. Huntingtin's WW domain partners in Huntington's disease post-mortem brain fulfill genetic criteria for direct involvement in Huntington's disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Passani, L A; Bedford, M T; Faber, P W; McGinnis, K M; Sharp, A H; Gusella, J F; Vonsattel, J P; MacDonald, M E

    2000-09-01

    An elongated glutamine tract in mutant huntingtin initiates Huntington's disease (HD) pathogenesis via a novel structural property that displays neuronal selectivity, glutamine progressivity and dominance over the normal protein based on genetic criteria. As this mechanism is likely to involve a deleterious protein interaction, we have assessed the major class of huntingtin interactors comprising three WW domain proteins. These are revealed to be related spliceosome proteins (HYPA/FBP-11 and HYPC) and a transcription factor (HYPB) that implicate huntingtin in mRNA biogenesis. In HD post-mortem brain, specific antibody reagents detect each partner in HD target neurons, in association with disease-related N-terminal morphologic deposits but not with filter trapped insoluble-aggregate. Glutathione S:-transferase partner 'pull-down' assays reveal soluble, aberrantly migrating, forms of full-length mutant huntingtin specific to HD target tissue. Importantly, these novel mutant species exhibit exaggerated WW domain binding that abrogates partner association with other huntingtin isoforms. Thus, each WW domain partner's association with huntingtin fulfills HD genetic criteria, supporting a direct role in pathogenesis. Our findings indicate that modification of mutant huntingtin in target neurons may promote an abnormal interaction with one, or all, of huntingtin's WW domain partners, perhaps altering ribonucleoprotein function with toxic consequences.

  7. The prevalence and distribution of Mycobacterium bovis infection in European badgers (Meles meles) as determined by enhanced post mortem examination and bacteriological culture.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D; Gormley, E; Costello, E; O'Meara, D; Corner, L A L

    2010-02-01

    The accurate diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in badgers is key to understanding the epidemiology of tuberculosis in this species and has significant implications for devising strategies to limit spread of the disease. In this study, badgers (n=215) in the Republic of Ireland were examined at post mortem and tissues were collected from a range of anatomical locations and pooled into groups for bacterial culture of M. bovis. By assessing confirmed gross visible lesions (VL) alone, infection was detected in 12.1% of badgers. However, by including the results of all culture positive pooled samples, the overall infection prevalence increased significantly to 36.3%. Two-thirds (66.7%) of infected animals had no visible lesions (NVL). While the thoracic cavity (lungs and pulmonary lymph nodes) was found to be the most common site of infection, in a proportion of animals infection was absent from the lungs and draining lymph nodes and was confined to the lymph nodes of the carcase or the head. This may indicate an early extrapulmonary dissemination of infection or alternatively, in the case of the head lymph nodes, a secondary pathogenic pathway involving the lymphoid tissues of the upper respiratory tract (URT).

  8. An unusual homicidal stab wound of the cervical spinal cord: A single case examined by post-mortem computed tomography angiography (PMCTA).

    PubMed

    Savall, Frederic; Dedouit, Fabrice; Mokrane, Fatima-Zohra; Rougé, Daniel; Saint-Martin, Pauline; Telmon, Norbert

    2015-09-01

    We report an unusual case of homicidal stab wound of the cervical spinal cord, which illustrates the value of post-mortem computed tomography angiography (PMCTA) in cases of vascular injury. First, we noted a posterior and horizontal trajectory to the neck with complete section of the cervical spinal cord between the first and second cervical vertebrae. This lesion was accompanied by section of the right vertebral and right deep cervical arteries. We also noted an anterior cervical trajectory with an injury to the right internal jugular vein and an anterior right chest wound with a lung trajectory and section of the internal mammary vessels. Cases of spinal cord injuries secondary to stab wounds are rare in the literature. Only one large series has been published from Cape Town. Complete section of the cervical spinal cord accounts for only 4.5% of all cases. Furthermore, lethal cases are rare and classically victims survive and present neurological sequelae. We found only one similar case but despite the transection of the cervical spinal cord the patient survived. Some studies suggest that PMCTA may be very helpful in visualizing vascular system injuries. Our observations are consistent with this proposal. The use of different-time acquisitions was essential for detection of the injured vessels.

  9. Metabolomic Profiling of Post-Mortem Brain Reveals Changes in Amino Acid and Glucose Metabolism in Mental Illness Compared with Controls

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Tong; Ali, Ali Muhsen; Al Washih, Mohammed; Pickard, Benjamin; Watson, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomic profiling was carried out on 53 post-mortem brain samples from subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder (SDB), diabetes, and controls. Chromatography on a ZICpHILIC column was used with detection by Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Data extraction was carried out with m/z Mine 2.14 with metabolite searching against an in-house database. There was no clear discrimination between the controls and the SDB samples on the basis of a principal components analysis (PCA) model of 755 identified or putatively identified metabolites. Orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLSDA) produced clear separation between 17 of the controls and 19 of the SDB samples (R2CUM 0.976, Q2 0.671, p-value of the cross-validated ANOVA score 0.0024). The most important metabolites producing discrimination were the lipophilic amino acids leucine/isoleucine, proline, methionine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine; the neurotransmitters GABA and NAAG and sugar metabolites sorbitol, gluconic acid, xylitol, ribitol, arabinotol, and erythritol. Eight samples from diabetic brains were analysed, six of which grouped with the SDB samples without compromising the model (R2 CUM 0.850, Q2 CUM 0.534, p-value for cross-validated ANOVA score 0.00087). There appears on the basis of this small sample set to be some commonality between metabolic perturbations resulting from diabetes and from SDB. PMID:27076878

  10. Early and 24 h post-mortem changes in breast muscle quality traits of two turkey genotypes and their reciprocal crosses raised under semi-confined conditions.

    PubMed

    Damaziak, K; Pietrzak, D; Michalczuk, M; Adamczak, L; Chmiel, M; Florowski, T; Gozdowski, D; Niemiec, J

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of reciprocal crossing of turkeys on early and 24 h post-mortem changes in quality traits of their breast muscles. The turkeys of slow-growing (SG) and fast-growing (FG) lines as well as SF (SG × FG) and FS crosses (FG × SG) were reared with access to free range. After slaughter turkey breast muscles were examined in the following terms: 5 min, 45 min, 2 h and 24 h post-mortem, for: temperature, pH, glycogen content (G), lactate content (L) and electrical conductivity (EC). Quality attributes of the breast meat were evaluated based on chemical composition, water holding capacity (WHC), cooking loss (%), shear force (N) and colour (L*, a*, b*). Despite differences in the rate of post-mortem changes, the genotype of turkeys had no significant effect upon many quality traits assessed 24 h post-mortem. Meat of lighter birds (SG and SF) was characterised by a lower fat content but a similar protein content compared to meat of FS and FG turkeys. In addition, meat of males from these groups was darker. Meat from the breast muscles of heavier birds (FS and FG) was harder. Significant negative maternal effects were determined for temperature of meat of both male and female turkeys, for pH2 and EC24 of males as well as for L2, L24 and cooking loss of female meat. Positive heterosis was confirmed only for pH2 of female meat and for G2 of male meat. In summary, the direction of fast- and slow-growing turkey crossing may affect the quality of their meat. However, meat of both types of hybrids reared under semi-confined conditions (with the possibility of using free range) was characterised by appropriate quality parameters.

  11. Early and 24 h post-mortem changes in breast muscle quality traits of two turkey genotypes and their reciprocal crosses raised under semi-confined conditions.

    PubMed

    Damaziak, K; Pietrzak, D; Michalczuk, M; Adamczak, L; Chmiel, M; Florowski, T; Gozdowski, D; Niemiec, J

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of reciprocal crossing of turkeys on early and 24 h post-mortem changes in quality traits of their breast muscles. The turkeys of slow-growing (SG) and fast-growing (FG) lines as well as SF (SG × FG) and FS crosses (FG × SG) were reared with access to free range. After slaughter turkey breast muscles were examined in the following terms: 5 min, 45 min, 2 h and 24 h post-mortem, for: temperature, pH, glycogen content (G), lactate content (L) and electrical conductivity (EC). Quality attributes of the breast meat were evaluated based on chemical composition, water holding capacity (WHC), cooking loss (%), shear force (N) and colour (L*, a*, b*). Despite differences in the rate of post-mortem changes, the genotype of turkeys had no significant effect upon many quality traits assessed 24 h post-mortem. Meat of lighter birds (SG and SF) was characterised by a lower fat content but a similar protein content compared to meat of FS and FG turkeys. In addition, meat of males from these groups was darker. Meat from the breast muscles of heavier birds (FS and FG) was harder. Significant negative maternal effects were determined for temperature of meat of both male and female turkeys, for pH2 and EC24 of males as well as for L2, L24 and cooking loss of female meat. Positive heterosis was confirmed only for pH2 of female meat and for G2 of male meat. In summary, the direction of fast- and slow-growing turkey crossing may affect the quality of their meat. However, meat of both types of hybrids reared under semi-confined conditions (with the possibility of using free range) was characterised by appropriate quality parameters. PMID:26927475

  12. Arts & Humanities in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Word's Worth: A Quarterly Newsletter of the Lifelong Learning Network, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly newsletter on lifelong learning focuses on the theme of the arts and humanities in adult literacy education. The following articles are included: (1) "In Defense of a Practical Education" (Earl Shorris); (2) "From the Program Director" (Elizabeth Bryant McCrary); (3) "Vermont Council on the Humanities: Book Discussion…

  13. Comparison between drug screening by immunoassay and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry in post-mortem urine.

    PubMed

    Sundström, Mira; Pelander, Anna; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2015-05-01

    Immunoassay is currently the most common approach for urine drug screening. However, the continuous emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS) and their low urinary concentrations have challenged the scope and sensitivity of immunoassays. Consequently, specialized toxicology laboratories rely more and more on mass spectrometry (MS) based techniques. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HR-TOF-MS) is an especially attractive technique for comprehensive drug screening. The objective was to compare the performances of immunoassay and UHPLC-HR-TOF-MS in terms of scope, flexibility, sensitivity, and reliability of substance identification. A total of 279 post-mortem urine samples were analyzed using a method representative of each technique. The immunoassay method was an Emit II Plus enzyme immunoassay for the following drug groups: amphetamines, benzodiazepines, buprenorphine, cannabis, and opiates. The UHPLC-HR-TOF-MS method was a recently published method covering hundreds of drugs: conventional drugs of abuse, abused prescription drugs, and NPS of various classes. UHPLC-HR-TOF-MS produced a lower number of false positive (FP) results for the drug groups covered by immunoassay. Many of the false negative (FN, n = 40) and FP (n = 22) immunoassay results were obviously due to the higher cut-off concentrations and interfering matrix, respectively. Moreover, the wider scope of UHPLC-HR-TOF-MS allowed detection of NPS and prescription drugs. UHPLC-HR-TOF-MS gave FP results related to a few particular substances. The future option of adjusting all compound-specific reporting parameters individually would allow the method's sensitivity and specificity to be fully exploited.

  14. Post mortem identification of deoxyguanosine kinase (DGUOK) gene mutations combined with impaired glucose homeostasis and iron overload features in four infants with severe progressive liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Węglewska-Jurkiewicz, Anna; Taybert, Joanna; Pronicki, Maciej; Szymańska-Dębińska, Tamara; Karkucińska-Więckowska, Agnieszka; Jakóbkiewicz-Banecka, Joanna; Kowalski, Paweł; Piekutowska-Abramczuk, Dorota; Pajdowska, Magdalena; Socha, Piotr; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2010-01-01

    Deoxyguanosine kinase deficiency (dGK) is a frequent cause of the hepatocerebral form of mitochondrial depletion syndrome (MDS). A group of 28 infants with severe progressive liver failure of unknown cause was recruited for post mortem search for deoxyguanosine kinase (DGUOK) gene mutations. Four affected patients (14% of the studied group), two homozygotes, one compound heterozygote, and one heterozygote, with DGUOK mutation found on only one allele, were identified. Three known pathogenic mutations in the DGUOK gene were detected, c.3G>A (p.Met1Ile), c.494A>T (p.Glu165Val), and c.766_767insGATT (p.Phe256X), and one novel molecular variant of unknown pathogeneity, c.813_814insTTT (p.Asn271_Thr272insPhe). Profound mitochondrial DNA depletion was confirmed in available specimens of the liver (4%, 15%, and 10% of the normal value) and in the muscle (4%, 23%, 45%, and 6%, respectively). The patients were born with low weights for gestational age and they presented adaptation trouble during the first days of life. Subsequently, liver failure developed, leading to death at the ages of 18, 6, 5.5, and 2.25 months, respectively. Mild neurological involvement was observed in all children (hypotonia, psychomotor retardation, and ptosis). Hypoglycemia (hypoketotic) and lactic acidosis were the constant laboratory findings. Elevated transferrin saturation, high ferritin, and alpha-fetoprotein levels resembled, in two cases, a neonatal hemochromatosis. Liver histopathology showed severe hepatic damage ranging from micronodular formation and cirrhosis to the total loss of liver architecture with diffuse fibrosis and neocholangiolar proliferation. Pancreatic islet cell hyperplasia with numerous confluent giant islets was found in both autopsied infants. Analysis of the natural history of the disease in our patients and the literature data led us to the following observations: (i) islet cell hyperplasia (and hyperinsulinism) may contribute to MDS-associated hypoglycemia; (ii

  15. A post-mortem survey on end-of-life decisions using a representative sample of death certificates in Flanders, Belgium: research protocol

    PubMed Central

    Chambaere, Kenneth; Bilsen, Johan; Cohen, Joachim; Pousset, Geert; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje; Mortier, Freddy; Deliens, Luc

    2008-01-01

    Background Reliable studies of the incidence and characteristics of medical end-of-life decisions with a certain or possible life shortening effect (ELDs) are indispensable for an evidence-based medical and societal debate on this issue. This article presents the protocol drafted for the 2007 ELD Study in Flanders, Belgium, and outlines how the main aims and challenges of the study (i.e. making reliable incidence estimates of end-of-life decisions, even rare ones, and describing their characteristics; allowing comparability with past ELD studies; guaranteeing strict anonymity given the sensitive nature of the research topic; and attaining a sufficient response rate) are addressed in a post-mortem survey using a representative sample of death certificates. Study design Reliable incidence estimates are achievable by using large at random samples of death certificates of deceased persons in Flanders (aged one year or older). This entails the cooperation of the appropriate administrative authorities. To further ensure the reliability of the estimates and descriptions, especially of less prevalent end-of-life decisions (e.g. euthanasia), a stratified sample is drawn. A questionnaire is sent out to the certifying physician of each death sampled. The questionnaire, tested thoroughly and avoiding emotionally charged terms is based largely on questions that have been validated in previous national and European ELD studies. Anonymity of both patient and physician is guaranteed through a rigorous procedure, involving a lawyer as intermediary between responding physicians and researchers. To increase response we follow the Total Design Method (TDM) with a maximum of three follow-up mailings. Also, a non-response survey is conducted to gain insight into the reasons for lack of response. Discussion The protocol of the 2007 ELD Study in Flanders, Belgium, is appropriate for achieving the objectives of the study; as past studies in Belgium, the Netherlands, and other European

  16. Human organotypic retinal cultures (HORCs) as a chronic experimental model for investigation of retinal ganglion cell degeneration.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Andrew; Hopes, Marina; Wright, Phillip; Broadway, David C; Sanderson, Julie

    2016-02-01

    There is a growing need for models of human diseases that utilise native, donated human tissue in order to model disease processes and develop novel therapeutic strategies. In this paper we assessed the suitability of adult human retinal explants as a potential model of chronic retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration. Our results confirmed that RGC markers commonly used in rodent studies (NeuN, βIII Tubulin and Thy-1) were appropriate for labelling human RGCs and followed the expected differential expression patterns across, as well as throughout, the macular and para-macular regions of the retina. Furthermore, we showed that neither donor age nor post-mortem time (within 24 h) significantly affected the initial expression levels of RGC markers. In addition, the feasibility of using human post mortem donor tissue as a long-term model of RGC degeneration was determined with RGC protein being detectable up to 4 weeks in culture with an associated decline in RGC mRNA and significant, progressive, apoptotic labelling of NeuN(+) cells. Differences in RGC apoptosis might have been influenced by medium compositions indicating that media constituents could play a role in supporting axotomised RGCs. We propose that using ex vivo human explants may prove to be a useful model for testing the effectiveness of neuroprotective strategies.

  17. In vitro maturation and fertilization in the Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus) using oocytes and spermatozoa recovered post-mortem from animals that had died because of foot and mouth disease outbreak.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, Yu; Rao, B S; Suman, K; Lakshmikantan, U; Charan, K V; Gibence, H R W; Shivaji, S

    2011-10-01

    The ability to rescue gametes from endangered or wildlife species and to subsequently produce viable embryos holds tremendous potential as a means to increase the population size of endangered or wildlife species. The objective of this study was to assess the developmental competence of gametes recovered from nilgai that had died because of foot and mouth disease outbreak. Oocytes collected from the ovaries of seven dead nilgais were allowed to mature in vitro and were tested for developmental potential by in vitro fertilization (IVF) with epididymal spermatozoa collected also post-mortem. The average number of oocytes (n = 517) recovered per ovary was 36.9, and the side (right or left), size and weight of the ovaries had no significant effect on the number and quality of oocytes recovered. In vitro maturation studies indicated that the proportion of matured oocytes (MII stage) at 18, 24 and 30 h was 55.6%, 63.4% and 63.6%, respectively. Furthermore, 43% of the matured oocytes cleaved following in vitro fertilization and 12% of the cleaved oocytes (6/49) developed to the 4-8 cell stage. These findings suggest that the gametes recovered from nilgai post-mortem could be utilized for in vitro production of embryos. PMID:21272098

  18. Debridement of cartilage lesions before autologous chondrocyte implantation by open or transarthroscopic techniques: a comparative study using post-mortem materials.

    PubMed

    Drobnic, M; Radosavljevic, D; Cör, A; Brittberg, M; Strazar, K

    2010-04-01

    We compared the quality of debridement of chondral lesions performed by four arthroscopic (SH, shaver; CU, curette; SHCU, shaver and curette; BP, bipolar electrodes) and one open technique (OPEN, scalpel and curette) which are used prior to autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). The ex vivo simulation of all five techniques was carried out on six juvenile equine stifle joints. The OPEN, SH and SHCU techniques were tested on knees harvested from six adult human cadavers. The most vertical walls with the least adjacent damage to cartilage were obtained with the OPEN technique. The CU and SHCU methods gave inferior, but still acceptable results whereas the SH technique alone resulted in a crater-like defect and the BP method undermined the cartilage wall. The subchondral bone was severely violated in all the equine samples which might have been peculiar to this model. The predominant depth of the debridement in the adult human samples was at the level of the calcified cartilage. Some minor penetrations of the subchondral end-plate were induced regardless of the instrumentation used. Our study suggests that not all routine arthroscopic instruments are suitable for the preparation of a defect for ACI. We have shown that the preferred debridement technique is either open or arthroscopically-assisted manual curettage. The use of juvenile equine stifles was not appropriate for the study of the cartilage-subchondral bone interface. PMID:20357342

  19. Kinetic and kinematic responses of post mortem human surrogates and the Hybrid III ATD in high-speed frontal sled tests.

    PubMed

    Beeman, Stephanie M; Kemper, Andrew R; Madigan, Michael L; Duma, Stefan M

    2013-06-01

    Despite improvements in vehicle design and safety technologies, frontal automotive collisions continue to result in a substantial number of injuries and fatalities each year. Although a considerable amount of research has been performed on PMHSs and ATDs, matched dynamic whole-body frontal testing with PMHSs and the current ATD aimed at quantifying both kinetic and kinematic data in a single controlled study is lacking in the literature. Therefore, a total of 4 dynamic matched frontal sled tests were performed with three male PMHSs and a Hybrid III 50th percentile male ATD (28.6g, Δv=40 kph). Each subject was restrained using a 4 kN load limiting, driver-side, 3-point seatbelt. Belt force was measured for the lap belt and shoulder belt. Reaction forces were measured at the seat pan, seat back, independent foot plates, and steering column. Linear head acceleration, angular head acceleration, and pelvic acceleration were measured for all subjects. Acceleration of C7, T7, T12, both femurs, and both tibias were also measured for the PMHSs. A Vicon motion analysis system, consisting of 12 MX-T20 2 megapixel cameras, was used to quantify subject 3D motion (±1 mm) at a rate of 1 kHz. Excursions of select anatomical regions were normalized to their respective initial positions and compared by test condition and between subject types. Notable discrepancies were observed in the responses of the PMHSs and the ATD. The reaction forces and belt loading for the ATD, particularly foot plate, seat back, steering column, and lap belt forces, were not in agreement with those of the PMHSs. The forward excursions of the ATD were consistently within those of the PMHSs with the exception of the left upper extremity. This could potentially be due to the known limitations of the Hybrid III ATD shoulder and chest. The results presented herein demonstrate that there are some limitations to the current Hybrid III ATD under the loading conditions evaluated in the current study. Overall, this study presents a comprehensive data set of belt forces, reaction forces, accelerations, and bilateral displacement data that can be used to evaluate the performance of ATDs and validate computational models.

  20. Post-mortem characterization of fs laser-generated micro-pillars in Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 electrodes by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyrek, P.; Zheng, Y.; Seifert, H. J.; Pfleging, W.

    2016-03-01

    NMC thick films were prepared by tape-casting and subsequent ultrafast laser-structuring. The lithium distribution in electrochemically cycled and unstructured or fs laser-structured NMC cathodes was investigated by using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The main goal is to develop an optimized three dimensional cell architecture with improved electrochemical properties based on studies of the homogeneity of the local State-of-Charge. LIBS experiments were carried out using a LIBS workstation equipped with a mode-locked diode pumped solid state Nd:YAG laser operating at a wavelength of 1063 nm. The element distribution was investigated using two different techniques: element mapping and element depth-profiling of the unstructured / fs laser-structured electrode surface. Results achieved from post-mortem studies using LIBS will be presented.

  1. Governing the postmortem procurement of human body material for research.

    PubMed

    Van Assche, Kristof; Capitaine, Laura; Pennings, Guido; Sterckx, Sigrid

    2015-03-01

    Human body material removed post mortem is a particularly valuable resource for research. Considering the efforts that are currently being made to study the biochemical processes and possible genetic causes that underlie cancer and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, it is likely that this type of research will continue to gain in importance. However, post mortem procurement of human body material for research raises specific ethical concerns, more in particular with regard to the consent of the research participant. In this paper, we attempt to determine which consent regime should govern the post mortem procurement of body material for research. In order to do so, we assess the various arguments that could be put forward in support of a duty to make body material available for research purposes after death. We argue that this duty does in practice not support conscription but is sufficiently strong to defend a policy of presumed rather than explicit consent.

  2. Fatal Human Meningoencephalitis due to Halicephalobus Nematodes, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Monoranu, Camelia-Maria; Müllges, Wolfgang; Keppler, Marc; Brehm, Klaus; Ondrejka, Sarah L.; Muntau, Birgit; Tannich, Egbert; Müller-Hermelink, Hans Konrad; Tappe, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Infections with Halicephalobus nematodes, causative agents of severe meningoencephalitis in horses, have rarely been reported in humans. In this study, the clinical, serological, cytokine, and histopathological findings of a rapidly progressive and eventually fatal meningoencephalitis in a previously healthy human are described. The helminth was finally diagnosed by specific polymerase chain reactions from post mortem tissue. PMID:26125032

  3. Calretinin and parvalbumin in schizophrenia and affective disorders: a mini-review, a perspective on the evolutionary role of calretinin in schizophrenia, and a preliminary post-mortem study of calretinin in the septal nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Brisch, Ralf; Bielau, Hendrik; Saniotis, Arthur; Wolf, Rainer; Bogerts, Bernhard; Krell, Dieter; Steiner, Johann; Braun, Katharina; Krzyżanowska, Marta; Krzyżanowski, Maciej; Jankowski, Zbigniew; Kaliszan, Michał; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Gos, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The septal nuclei are important limbic regions that are involved in emotional behavior and connect to various brain regions such as the habenular complex. Both the septal nuclei and the habenular complex are involved in the pathology of schizophrenia and affective disorders. Methods: We characterized the number and density of calretinin-immunoreactive neurons in the lateral, medial, and dorsal subregions of the septal nuclei in three groups of subjects: healthy control subjects (N = 6), patients with schizophrenia (N = 10), and patients with affective disorders (N = 6). Results: Our mini-review of the combined role of calretinin and parvalbumin in schizophrenia and affective disorders summarizes 23 studies. We did not observe significant differences in the numbers of calretinin-immunoreactive neurons or neuronal densities in the lateral, medial, and dorsal septal nuclei of patients with schizophrenia or patients with affective disorders compared to healthy control subjects. Conclusions: Most post-mortem investigations of patients with schizophrenia have indicated significant abnormalities of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons in various brain regions including the hippocampus, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. This study also provides an explanation from an evolutionary perspective for why calretinin is affected in schizophrenia. PMID:26578879

  4. Optical properties of the deep brain in the red and NIR: changes observed under in-vivo, post-mortem, frozen and formalin-fixated conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitzschke, A.; Lovisa, B.; Seydoux, O.; Zellweger, M.; Pfleiderer, M.; Haenggi, M.; Oertel, M.; Tardy, Y.; Wagnières, G.

    2015-07-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a promising approach to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) symptoms in cellular or animal models. Unfortunately, little information is available on the optical parameters playing a role in the light dosimetry during PBM. We conducted a study to determine the effective attenuation coefficient μeff of PD-relevant human deep brain tissues at 671 and 808 nm, using a multichannel fluence rate-meter comprising sub-millimeter isotropic detectors. The first step involved measurements of tissue modifications induced by postmortem situation and tissue storage on rabbit brains. The parameter μeff was measured using various tissue conditions (in vivo, immediately after sacrifice, after six weeks' storage at -20°C or in 10 % formaldehyde solution) on eight female New Zealand white rabbits. In the second step, fluence rate was measured at various locations of a frozen human deep brain when the deep brain was illuminated from the sphenoidal sinus. The results were processed by an iterative Monte-Carlo algorithm to generate sets of optical parameters, and results collected on rabbit brains were used to extrapolate the μeff value that would be observed in human deep brain tissues in vivo. Under all tissue conditions, the value of μeff at 808 nm was smaller than that at 671 nm. After long-term storage for six weeks at -20°C, μeff decreased, on average by 15 to 25 % at all wavelengths, while it increased by 5 to 15 % at all wavelengths after storage in formaldehyde. Therefore, a reasonable estimate of in vivo human deep brain μeff values at 671 and 808 nm can be obtained by multiplying the data we report by 120 %.

  5. Hepatic parasitosis in two wood mice, Apodemus sylvaticus (Rodentia: Muridae), due to Aonchotheca annulosa (Nematoda: Trichuridae), and Eucoleus bacillatus (Nematoda: Trichuridae). Erratic parasitism or post mortem migration?

    PubMed

    Debenedetti, Ángela L; Sáez-Durán, Sandra; Sainz-Elipe, Sandra; Galán-Puchades, Maria Teresa; Fuentes, Màrius V

    2014-10-01

    Aonchotheca annulosa and Eucoleus bacillatus are two capillariin nematodes parasitizing the intestinal and stomach mucosa, respectively, of various rodent species, and two, among others, component species of the helminth fauna of the wood mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus. A capillariin each was found in the liver parenchyma of two wood mice in a post-fire regeneration enclave in Serra Calderona Natural Park (Valencian Community, Spain). Due to their location, the preliminary identification of the helminths corresponded to Calodium hepaticum, a hepatic capillariin with rodents as its main host. So far, this species had never been found in Serra Calderona. To verify the preliminary identification, a comparative morphometric study between the specimens from Serra Calderona and a preserved individual of C. hepaticum from another enclave was carried out. Morphometric analysis revealed that the adult helminth as well as the eggs found in the liver of the first mouse belonged to A. annulosa, whereas the second one was identified as a male E. bacillatus. Moreover, the liver from both hosts showed a visible pathology, being the consequence of aberrant migration of the parasites. This is the first evidence that A. annulosa and E. bacillatus may migrate erratically and thus produce ectopic foci in other organs.

  6. Quantitative Measurement of Intact Alpha-Synuclein Proteoforms from Post-Mortem Control and Parkinson's Disease Brain Tissue by Intact Protein Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellie, John F.; Higgs, Richard E.; Ryder, John W.; Major, Anthony; Beach, Thomas G.; Adler, Charles H.; Merchant, Kalpana; Knierman, Michael D.

    2014-07-01

    A robust top down proteomics method is presented for profiling alpha-synuclein species from autopsied human frontal cortex brain tissue from Parkinson's cases and controls. The method was used to test the hypothesis that pathology associated brain tissue will have a different profile of post-translationally modified alpha-synuclein than the control samples. Validation of the sample processing steps, mass spectrometry based measurements, and data processing steps were performed. The intact protein quantitation method features extraction and integration of m/z data from each charge state of a detected alpha-synuclein species and fitting of the data to a simple linear model which accounts for concentration and charge state variability. The quantitation method was validated with serial dilutions of intact protein standards. Using the method on the human brain samples, several previously unreported modifications in alpha-synuclein were identified. Low levels of phosphorylated alpha synuclein were detected in brain tissue fractions enriched for Lewy body pathology and were marginally significant between PD cases and controls (p = 0.03).

  7. Quantitative measurement of intact alpha-synuclein proteoforms from post-mortem control and Parkinson's disease brain tissue by intact protein mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kellie, John F; Higgs, Richard E; Ryder, John W; Major, Anthony; Beach, Thomas G; Adler, Charles H; Merchant, Kalpana; Knierman, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    A robust top down proteomics method is presented for profiling alpha-synuclein species from autopsied human frontal cortex brain tissue from Parkinson's cases and controls. The method was used to test the hypothesis that pathology associated brain tissue will have a different profile of post-translationally modified alpha-synuclein than the control samples. Validation of the sample processing steps, mass spectrometry based measurements, and data processing steps were performed. The intact protein quantitation method features extraction and integration of m/z data from each charge state of a detected alpha-synuclein species and fitting of the data to a simple linear model which accounts for concentration and charge state variability. The quantitation method was validated with serial dilutions of intact protein standards. Using the method on the human brain samples, several previously unreported modifications in alpha-synuclein were identified. Low levels of phosphorylated alpha synuclein were detected in brain tissue fractions enriched for Lewy body pathology and were marginally significant between PD cases and controls (p = 0.03). PMID:25052239

  8. Considerations in establishing a post-mortem brain and tissue bank for the study of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: a proposed protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Our aim, having previously investigated through a qualitative study involving extensive discussions with experts and patients the issues involved in establishing and maintaining a disease specific brain and tissue bank for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), was to develop a protocol for a UK ME/CFS repository of high quality human tissue from well characterised subjects with ME/CFS and controls suitable for a broad range of research applications. This would involve a specific donor program coupled with rapid tissue collection and processing, supplemented by comprehensive prospectively collected clinical, laboratory and self-assessment data from cases and controls. Findings We reviewed the operations of existing tissue banks from published literature and from their internal protocols and standard operating procedures (SOPs). On this basis, we developed the protocol presented here, which was designed to meet high technical and ethical standards and legal requirements and was based on recommendations of the MRC UK Brain Banks Network. The facility would be most efficient and cost-effective if incorporated into an existing tissue bank. Tissue collection would be rapid and follow robust protocols to ensure preservation sufficient for a wide range of research uses. A central tissue bank would have resources both for wide-scale donor recruitment and rapid response to donor death for prompt harvesting and processing of tissue. Conclusion An ME/CFS brain and tissue bank could be established using this protocol. Success would depend on careful consideration of logistic, technical, legal and ethical issues, continuous consultation with patients and the donor population, and a sustainable model of funding ideally involving research councils, health services, and patient charities. This initiative could revolutionise the understanding of this still poorly-understood disease and enhance development of diagnostic biomarkers and treatments

  9. Agonist and antagonist bind differently to 5-HT1A receptors during Alzheimer's disease: A post-mortem study with PET radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Benjamin; Sebti, Johan; Verdurand, Mathieu; Fieux, Sylvain; Billard, Thierry; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Troakes, Claire; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian; Zimmer, Luc

    2016-10-01

    PET imaging studies using 5-HT1A receptor radiotracers show a decreased density of this receptor in hippocampi of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) at advanced stages. However, current 5-HT1A receptor radiopharmaceuticals used in neuroimaging are antagonists, thought to bind to 5-HT1A receptors in different functional states (i.e., both the one which displays high affinity for agonists and is thought to mediate receptor activation, as well as the state which has low affinity for agonists). Comparing the PET imaging obtained using an agonist radiotracer, which binds selectively to functional receptors, with the PET imaging obtained using an antagonist radiotracer would therefore provide original information on 5-HT1A receptor impairment during AD. Quantitative autoradiography using [(18)F]F13640 and [(18)F]MPPF, a 5-HT1A agonist and antagonist, respectively, was measured in hippocampi of patients with AD (n = 25, at different Braak stages) and control subjects (n = 9). The neuronal density was measured in the same tissues by NeuN immunohistochemistry. The specific binding of both radiotracers was determined by addition of WAY-100635, a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. The autoradiography distribution of both 5-HT1A PET radiotracers varied across hippocampus regions. The highest binding density was in the pyramidal layer of CA1. Incubation with Gpp(NH)p, a non-hydrolysable analogue of GTP, reduced significantly [(18)F]F13640 binding in hippocampal regions, confirming its preferential interaction with G-coupled receptors, and slightly increased [(18)F]MPPF binding. In the CA1 subfield, [(18)F]F13640 binding was significantly decreased at Braak stages I/II (-19%), Braak stages III/IV (-23%), and Braak stages V/VI (-36%) versus control. In contrast, [(18)F]MPPF binding was statistically reduced only at the most advanced Braak stages V/VI compared to control (-33%). Since [(18)F]F13640 and [(18)F]MPPF can be used in vivo in humans, this

  10. SU-C-12A-04: Diagnostic Imaging Research Using Decedents as a Proxy for the Living: Are Radiation Dosimetry and Tissue Property Measurements Affected by Post-Mortem Changes?

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, D; Heintz, P; Weber, W; Melo, D; Adolphi, N; Hatch, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation dose (RD) from diagnostic imaging is a growing public health concern. Implanting dosimeters is a more accurate way to assess organ dose, relative to commonly used mathematical estimations. However, performing accurate dosimetry using live subjects is hindered by patient motion and safety considerations, which limit the RD and placement of implanted dosimeters. Performing multiple scans on the same subject would be the ideal way to assess the impact of dose reduction on image quality; however, performing multiple non-standard-of-care scans on live subjects for dosimetry and image quality measurements is generally prohibited by IRB committees. Our objective is to assess whether RD and tissue property (TP) measurements in post-mortem (PM) subjects are sufficiently similar to those in live subjects to justify the use of deceased subjects in future dosimetry and image quality studies. Methods: 4 MOSFET radiation dosimeters were placed enterically in each subject (2 sedated Rhesus Macaques) to measure the RD at 4 levels (carina, lung, heart, and liver) during CT scanning. The CT protocol was performed ante-mortem (AM) and 2 and 3 hours PM. For TP analysis, additional scans were taken at 24 hours PM. To compare AM and PM TP, regions-of-interest were drawn on selected organs and the average CT density with standard deviation (in units of HU) were taken; additionally, visual comparisons of images were made at each PM interval. Results: No significant difference was observed in 8 of 9 measurements comparing AM and PM RD. Only one measurement (liver of the first subject) showed a significant difference (7% lower on PM measurement), possibly due to subject re-positioning. Initial TP visual and quantitative analyses show little to no change PM. Conclusion: Our results suggest that realistic radiation dosimetry and image quality measurements based on tissue properties can be performed reliably on recently deceased subjects.

  11. Network Topology Analysis of Post-Mortem Brain Microarrays Identifies More Alzheimer’s Related Genes and MicroRNAs and Points to Novel Routes for Fighting with the Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Sreedevi; Bonchev, Danail

    2016-01-01

    Network-based approaches are powerful and beneficial tools to study complex systems in their entirety, elucidating the essential factors that turn the multitude of individual elements into a functional system. In this study we used critical network topology descriptors and guilt-by-association rule to explore and understand the significant molecular players, drug targets and underlying biological mechanisms of Alzheimer’s disease. Analyzing two post-mortem brain gene microarrays (GSE4757 and GSE28146) with Pathway Studio software package we constructed and analyzed a set of protein-protein interaction, as well as miRNA-target networks. In a 4-step procedure the expression datasets were normalized using Robust Multi-array Average approach, while the modulation of gene expression by the disease was statistically evaluated by the empirical Bayes method from the limma Bioconductor package. Representative set of 214 seed-genes (p<0.01) common for the three brain sections of the two microarrays was thus created. The Pathway Studio analysis of the networks built identified 15 new potential AD-related genes and 17 novel AD-involved microRNAs. Using KEGG pathways relevant in Alzheimer’s disease we built an integrated mechanistic network from the interactions between the overlapping genes in these pathways. Routes of possible disease initiation process were thus revealed through the CD4, DCN, and IL8 extracellular ligands. DAVID and IPA enrichment analysis uncovered a number of deregulated biological processes and pathways including neuron projection/differentiation, aging, oxidative stress, chemokine/ neurotrophin signaling, long-term potentiation and others. The findings in this study offer information of interest for subsequent experimental studies. PMID:26784894

  12. A validated method for simultaneous determination of codeine, codeine-6-glucuronide, norcodeine, morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide in post-mortem blood, vitreous fluid, muscle, fat and brain tissue by LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Frost, Joachim; Løkken, Trine N; Brede, Wenche R; Hegstad, Solfrid; Nordrum, Ivar S; Slørdal, Lars

    2015-04-01

    The toxicodynamics and, to a lesser degree, toxicokinetics of the widely used opiate codeine remain a matter of controversy. To address this issue, analytical methods capable of providing reliable quantification of codeine metabolites alongside codeine concentrations are required. This article presents a validated method for simultaneous determination of codeine, codeine metabolites codeine-6-glucuronide (C6G), norcodeine and morphine, and morphine metabolites morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) in post-mortem whole blood, vitreous fluid, muscle, fat and brain tissue by high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Samples were prepared by solid-phase extraction. The validated ranges were 1.5-300 ng/mL for codeine, norcodeine and morphine, and 23-4,600 ng/mL for C6G, M3G and M6G, with exceptions for norcodeine in muscle (3-300 ng/mL), morphine in muscle, fat and brain (3-300 ng/mL) and M6G in fat (46-4,600 ng/mL). Within-run and between-run accuracy (88.1-114.1%) and precision (CV 0.6-12.7%), matrix effects (CV 0.3-13.5%) and recovery (57.8-94.1%) were validated at two concentration levels; 3 and 150 ng/mL for codeine, norcodeine and morphine, and 46 and 2,300 ng/mL for C6G, M3G and M6G. Freeze-thaw and long-term stability (6 months at -80°C) was assessed, showing no significant changes in analyte concentrations (-12 to +8%). The method was applied in two authentic forensic autopsy cases implicating codeine in both therapeutic and presumably lethal concentration levels.

  13. Deficit in sustained attention following selective cholinergic lesion of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus in rat, as measured with both post-mortem immunocytochemistry and in vivo PET imaging with [¹⁸F]fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol.

    PubMed

    Cyr, Marilyn; Parent, Maxime J; Mechawar, Naguib; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Clark, Stewart D; Aghourian, Meghmik; Bedard, Marc-Andre

    2015-02-01

    Cholinergic neurons of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) are thought to be involved in cognitive functions such as sustained attention, and lesions of these cells have been documented in patients showing fluctuations of attention such as in Parkinson's disease or dementia with Lewy Body. Animal studies have been conducted to support the role of these cells in attention, but the lesions induced in these animals were not specific to the cholinergic PPTg system, and were assessed by post-mortem methods remotely performed from the in vivo behavioral assessments. Moreover, sustained attention have not been directly assessed in these studies, but rather deduced from indirect measurements. In the present study, rats were assessed on the 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task (5-CSRTT), and a specific measure of variability in response latency was created. Animals were observed both before and after selective lesion of the PPTg cholinergic neurons. Brain cholinergic denervation was assessed both in vivo and ex vivo, using PET imaging with [(18)F]fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol ([(18)F]FEOBV) and immunocytochemistry respectively. Results showed that the number of correct responses and variability in response latency in the 5-CSRTT were the only behavioral measures affected following the lesions. These measures were found to correlate significantly with the number of PPTg cholinergic cells, as measured with both [(18)F]FEOBV and immunocytochemistry. This suggests the primary role of the PPTg cholinergic cells in sustained attention. It also allows to reliably use the PET imaging with [(18)F]FEOBV for the purpose of assessing the relationship between behavior and cholinergic innervation in living animals. PMID:25257103

  14. Suicide terrorism and post-mortem benefits.

    PubMed

    Gray, Jacqueline M; Dickins, Thomas E

    2014-08-01

    Lankford claims that suicide terrorists are suicidal, but that their suicidal tendencies are often frustrated by injunctive social norms. Martyrdom represents a solution, and terrorist organizations exploit this. In this commentary, we claim that this argument has not been fully made and that such ideation in itself does not explain a willingness to engage in punitive actions against an enemy. We suggest the psychology of kinship as a possible missing factor.

  15. Angiogenic properties of adult human thymus fat.

    PubMed

    Salas, Julián; Montiel, Mercedes; Jiménez, Eugenio; Valenzuela, Miguel; Valderrama, José Francisco; Castillo, Rafael; González, Sergio; El Bekay, Rajaa

    2009-11-01

    The endogenous proangiogenic properties of adipose tissue are well recognized. Although the adult human thymus has long been known to degenerate into fat tissue, it has never been considered as a potential source of angiogenic factors. We have investigated the expression of diverse angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor A and B, angiopoietin 1, and tyrosine-protein kinase receptor-2 (an angiopoietin receptor), and then analyzed their physiological role on endothelial cell migration and proliferation, two relevant events in angiogenesis. The detection of the gene and protein expression of the various proteins has been performed by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We show, for the first time, that adult thymus fat produces a variety of angiogenic factors and induces the proliferation and migration of human umbilical cord endothelial cells. Based on these findings, we suggest that this fat has a potential angiogenic function that might affect thymic function and ongoing adipogenesis within the thymus.

  16. Thiamin requirement of the adult human.

    PubMed

    Sauberlich, H E; Herman, Y F; Stevens, C O; Herman, R H

    1979-11-01

    Young adult male subjects maintained on a metabolic ward were fed diets providing controlled intakes of thiamin and either 2800 or 3600 kcal. The higher level of calories was attained by an increased intake of carbohydrates. Constant weights were maintained by the subjects by adjusting daily activity and exercise schedules. Thiamin requirements were evaluated in terms of erythrocyte transketolase activity and urinary excretion of the vitamin. The results of the study revealed that a relationship exists between thiamin requirement and caloric intake and expenditure. Thus, when the calories being utilized were derived primarily from carbohydrate sources, the minimum adult male requirement for thiamin appeared to be 0.30 mg of thiamin per 1000 kcal. Urinary excretion of thiamin and erythrocyte transketolase activity appear to be reasonably reliable reflections of thiamin intakes and thiamin nutritional status. The use of these measurements in nutrition surveys appears justified. The microbiological assay (Lactobacillus viridescens) for measuring thiamin levels in urine samples appears to be a somewhat more sensitive but valid procedure as an alternate for the thiochrome method. Judged from the results of this study, the recommended intake for the adult human of 0.40 mg of thiamin per 1000 kcal by FAO/WHO and the recommended allowance of 0.5 mg per 1000 kcal by the Food and Nutrition Board of the NAS-NRC appear reasonable and amply allow for biological variations and other factors that may influence the requirement for this vitamin.

  17. [Adult neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (Kufs disease)--a rare cause of dementia].

    PubMed

    Kozian, R; Kiszka, T; Peter, K

    1994-11-01

    Kufs' disease is a very rare type of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. A case of a 52 year old man with dementia is described. The cause for patient's dementia was the adult type (Kufs' disease) of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. The diagnosis based on the histopathological post mortem-examination of the brain-tissue. A brother of our patient became ill with the same symptoms and at the same age of onset. So we conclude that there is a accumulation in the family.

  18. Rethinking Adult Literacy Programs: A Humanities-Based Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anania, Joanne

    The Roosevelt University Humanities Enrichment Program tries to acknowledge the adult part of adult literacy. Its instructional materials are of interest and value to the adult student and, therefore, provide incentives for reading and discussion instead of serving merely as skill-building exercises. The materials are drawn from literature,…

  19. Have you got any cholesterol? Adults' views of human nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schibeci, Renato; Wong, Khoon Yoong

    1994-12-01

    The general aim of our human nutrition project is to develop a health education model grounded in ‘everyday’ or ‘situated’ cognition (Hennessey, 1993). In 1993, we began pilot work to document adult understanding of human nutrition. We used a HyperCard stack as the basis for a series of interviews with 50 adults (25 university students, and 25 adults from offcampus). The interviews were transcribed and analysed using the NUDIST computer program. A summary of the views of these 50 adults on selected aspects of human nutrition is presented in this paper.

  20. Adult Education & Human Resource Development: Overlapping and Disparate Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Karen E.; Marsick, Victoria J.

    2014-01-01

    Adult education and human resource development as fields of practice and study share some roots in common but have grown in different directions in their histories. Adult education's roots focused initially on citizenship for a democratic society, whereas human resource development's roots are in performance at work. While they have…

  1. Could adult hippocampal neurogenesis be relevant for human behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Jason S.; Cameron, Heather A.

    2011-01-01

    Although the function of adult neurogenesis is still unclear, tools for directly studying the behavioral role of new hippocampal neurons now exist in rodents. Since similar studies are impossible to do in humans, it is important to assess whether the role of new neurons in rodents is likely to be similar to that in humans. One feature of adult neurogenesis that varies tremendously across species is the number of neurons that are generated, so a key question is whether there are enough neurons generated in humans to impact function. In this review we examine neuroanatomy and circuit function in the hippocampus to ask how many granule neurons are needed to impact hippocampal function and then discuss what is known about numbers of new neurons produced in adult rats and humans. We conclude that relatively small numbers of neurons could affect hippocampal circuits and that the magnitude of adult neurogenesis in adult rats and humans is probably larger than generally believed. PMID:21736900

  2. Phytoestrogen Metabolism by Adult Human Gut Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Gaya, Pilar; Medina, Margarita; Sánchez-Jiménez, Abel; Landete, José Mᵃ

    2016-08-09

    Phytoestrogens are plant-derived polyphenols with a structure similar to human estrogens. The three main groups of phytoestrogens, isoflavones, ellagitannins, and lignans, are transformed into equol, urolithins, and enterolignans, respectively, by bacteria. These metabolites have more estrogenic/antiestrogenic and antioxidant activities than their precursors, and they are more bioavailable. The aim of this study was to analyze the metabolism of isoflavones, lignans and ellagitannins by gut microbiota, and to study the possible correlation in the metabolism of these three groups of phytoestrogens. In vitro fermentation experiments were performed with feces samples from 14 healthy adult volunteers, and metabolite formation was measured by HPLC-PAD and HPLC-ESI/MS. Only the microbiota of one subject produced equol, while most of them showed production of O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA). Significant inter-subject differences were observed in the metabolism of dihydrodaidzein and dihydrogenistein, while the glucoside isoflavones and their aglycones showed less variability, except for glycitin. Most subjects produced urolithins M-5 and E. Urolithin D was not detected, while uroltithin B was found in half of the individuals analyzed, and urolithins A and C were detected in two and four subjects, respectively. Enterolactone was found in all subjects, while enterodiol only appeared in five. Isoflavone metabolism could be correlated with the metabolism of lignans and ellagitannins. However, the metabolism of ellagitannins and lignans could not be correlated. This the first study where the metabolism of the three groups together of phytoestrogen, isoflavones, lignans, and ellagitannins by gut microbiota is analyzed.

  3. Adult Human Neurogenesis: From Microscopy to Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, Amanda; Encinas, Juan M.; Maletic-Savatic, Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Neural stem cells reside in well-defined areas of the adult human brain and are capable of generating new neurons throughout the life span. In rodents, it is well established that the new born neurons are involved in olfaction as well as in certain forms of memory and learning. In humans, the functional relevance of adult human neurogenesis is being investigated, in particular its implication in the etiopathology of a variety of brain disorders. Adult neurogenesis in the human brain was discovered by utilizing methodologies directly imported from the rodent research, such as immunohistological detection of proliferation and cell-type specific biomarkers in postmortem or biopsy tissue. However, in the vast majority of cases, these methods do not support longitudinal studies; thus, the capacity of the putative stem cells to form new neurons under different disease conditions cannot be tested. More recently, new technologies have been specifically developed for the detection and quantification of neural stem cells in the living human brain. These technologies rely on the use of magnetic resonance imaging, available in hospitals worldwide. Although they require further validation in rodents and primates, these new methods hold the potential to test the contribution of adult human neurogenesis to brain function in both health and disease. This review reports on the current knowledge on adult human neurogenesis. We first review the different methods available to assess human neurogenesis, both ex vivo and in vivo and then appraise the changes of adult neurogenesis in human diseases. PMID:21519376

  4. Phytoestrogen Metabolism by Adult Human Gut Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Gaya, Pilar; Medina, Margarita; Sánchez-Jiménez, Abel; Landete, José Mᵃ

    2016-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant-derived polyphenols with a structure similar to human estrogens. The three main groups of phytoestrogens, isoflavones, ellagitannins, and lignans, are transformed into equol, urolithins, and enterolignans, respectively, by bacteria. These metabolites have more estrogenic/antiestrogenic and antioxidant activities than their precursors, and they are more bioavailable. The aim of this study was to analyze the metabolism of isoflavones, lignans and ellagitannins by gut microbiota, and to study the possible correlation in the metabolism of these three groups of phytoestrogens. In vitro fermentation experiments were performed with feces samples from 14 healthy adult volunteers, and metabolite formation was measured by HPLC-PAD and HPLC-ESI/MS. Only the microbiota of one subject produced equol, while most of them showed production of O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA). Significant inter-subject differences were observed in the metabolism of dihydrodaidzein and dihydrogenistein, while the glucoside isoflavones and their aglycones showed less variability, except for glycitin. Most subjects produced urolithins M-5 and E. Urolithin D was not detected, while uroltithin B was found in half of the individuals analyzed, and urolithins A and C were detected in two and four subjects, respectively. Enterolactone was found in all subjects, while enterodiol only appeared in five. Isoflavone metabolism could be correlated with the metabolism of lignans and ellagitannins. However, the metabolism of ellagitannins and lignans could not be correlated. This the first study where the metabolism of the three groups together of phytoestrogen, isoflavones, lignans, and ellagitannins by gut microbiota is analyzed. PMID:27517891

  5. Gustofacial and olfactofacial responses in human adults.

    PubMed

    Weiland, Romy; Ellgring, Heiner; Macht, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Adults' facial reactions in response to tastes and odors were investigated in order to determine whether differential facial displays observed in newborns remain stable in adults who exhibit a greater voluntary facial control. Twenty-eight healthy nonsmokers (14 females) tasted solutions of PROP (bitter), NaCl (salty), citric acid (sour), sucrose (sweet), and glutamate (umami) differing in concentration (low, medium, and high) and smelled different odors (banana, cinnamon, clove, coffee, fish, and garlic). Their facial reactions were video recorded and analyzed using the Facial Action Coding System. Adults' facial reactions discriminated between stimuli with opponent valences. Unpleasant tastes and odors elicited negative displays (brow lower, upper lip raise, and lip corner depress). The pleasant sweet taste elicited positive displays (lip suck), whereas the pleasant odors did not. Unlike newborns, adults smiled with higher concentrations of some unpleasant tastes that can be regarded as serving communicative functions. Moreover, adults expressed negative displays with higher sweetness. Except for the "social" smile in response to unpleasant tastes, adults' facial reactions elicited by tastes and odors mostly correspond to those found in newborns. In conclusion, adults' facial reactions to tastes and odors appear to remain stable in their basic displays; however, some additional reactions might reflect socialization influences.

  6. Hydrocarbon profiles throughout adult Calliphoridae aging: A promising tool for forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Moore, Hannah; Drijfhout, Falko; Benbow, M Eric

    2014-12-01

    Blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are typically the first insects to arrive at human remains and carrion. Predictable succession patterns and known larval development of necrophagous insects on vertebrate remains can assist a forensic entomologist with estimates of a minimum post-mortem interval (PMImin) range. However, adult blow flies are infrequently used to estimate the PMImin, but rather are used for a confirmation of larval species identification. Cuticular hydrocarbons have demonstrated potential for estimating adult blow fly age, as hydrocarbons are present throughout blow fly development, from egg to adult, and are stable structures. The goal of this study was to identify hydrocarbon profiles associated with the adults of a North American native blow fly species, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) and a North American invasive species, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). Flies were reared at a constant temperature (25°C), a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) (h), and were provided water, sugar and powdered milk ad libitum. Ten adult females from each species were collected at day 1, 5, 10, 20, and 30 post-emergence. Hydrocarbon compounds were extracted and then identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. A total of 37 and 35 compounds were detected from C. macellaria and Ch. rufifacies, respectively. There were 24 and 23 n-alkene and methyl-branched alkane hydrocarbons from C. macellaria and Ch. rufifacies, respectively (10 compounds were shared between species), used for statistical analysis. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis and permutational multivariate analysis of variance were used to analyze the hydrocarbon profiles with significant differences (P<0.001) detected among post-emergence age cohorts for each species, and unique hydrocarbon profiles detected as each adult blow fly species aged. This work provides empirical data that serve as a foundation for future research into improving PMImin estimates made by forensic

  7. Adult Literacy Education and Human Rights: A View from Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Susan M.; Kooij, Christina S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we argue that adult literacy as part of international development is an issue of both human rights and women's rights. We explore this by presenting a case study of the effects of one innovative adult literacy program in Afghanistan that places men and women, as well as various ethnicities, together in the same classroom as…

  8. A comparative study of bifidobacteria in human babies and adults

    PubMed Central

    KHONSARI, Shadi; SUGANTHY, Mayuran; BURCZYNSKA, Beata; DANG, Vu; CHOUDHURY, Manika; PACHENARI, Azra

    2015-01-01

    The composition and diversity of the gut microbiota are known to be different between babies and adults. The aim of this project was to compare the level of bifidobacteria between babies and adults and to investigate the influence of lifestyle factors on the level of this bacterium in the gut. During this study, the levels of bifidobacteria in 10 human babies below 2 years of age were compared with that of 10 human adults above 40 years. The level of bifidobacteria proved to be significantly higher in babies in comparison with adults. This investigation concluded that a combination of several factors, such as age, diet, and BMI, has an important effect on the level of bifidobacteria in adults, while in babies, a combination of diet and age may influence the level of intestinal bifidobacteria. PMID:27200263

  9. Injury Response of Resected Human Brain Tissue In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Verwer, Ronald W H; Sluiter, Arja A; Balesar, Rawien A; Baaijen, Johannes C; de Witt Hamer, Philip C; Speijer, Dave; Li, Yichen; Swaab, Dick F

    2015-07-01

    Brain injury affects a significant number of people each year. Organotypic cultures from resected normal neocortical tissue provide unique opportunities to study the cellular and neuropathological consequences of severe injury of adult human brain tissue in vitro. The in vitro injuries caused by resection (interruption of the circulation) and aggravated by the preparation of slices (severed neuronal and glial processes and blood vessels) reflect the reaction of human brain tissue to severe injury. We investigated this process using immunocytochemical markers, reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Essential features were rapid shrinkage of neurons, loss of neuronal marker expression and proliferation of reactive cells that expressed Nestin and Vimentin. Also, microglia generally responded strongly, whereas the response of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes appeared to be more variable. Importantly, some reactive cells also expressed both microglia and astrocytic markers, thus confounding their origin. Comparison with post-mortem human brain tissue obtained at rapid autopsies suggested that the reactive process is not a consequence of epilepsy.

  10. A multi-modal parcellation of human cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Matthew F; Coalson, Timothy S; Robinson, Emma C; Hacker, Carl D; Harwell, John; Yacoub, Essa; Ugurbil, Kamil; Andersson, Jesper; Beckmann, Christian F; Jenkinson, Mark; Smith, Stephen M; Van Essen, David C

    2016-08-11

    Understanding the amazingly complex human cerebral cortex requires a map (or parcellation) of its major subdivisions, known as cortical areas. Making an accurate areal map has been a century-old objective in neuroscience. Using multi-modal magnetic resonance images from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) and an objective semi-automated neuroanatomical approach, we delineated 180 areas per hemisphere bounded by sharp changes in cortical architecture, function, connectivity, and/or topography in a precisely aligned group average of 210 healthy young adults. We characterized 97 new areas and 83 areas previously reported using post-mortem microscopy or other specialized study-specific approaches. To enable automated delineation and identification of these areas in new HCP subjects and in future studies, we trained a machine-learning classifier to recognize the multi-modal 'fingerprint' of each cortical area. This classifier detected the presence of 96.6% of the cortical areas in new subjects, replicated the group parcellation, and could correctly locate areas in individuals with atypical parcellations. The freely available parcellation and classifier will enable substantially improved neuroanatomical precision for studies of the structural and functional organization of human cerebral cortex and its variation across individuals and in development, aging, and disease. PMID:27437579

  11. Neural stem cells in the adult human brain

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Perez, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    For decades, it was believed that the adult brain was a quiescent organ unable to produce new neurons. At the beginning of the1960's, this dogma was challenged by a small group of neuroscientists. To date, it is well-known that new neurons are generated in the adult brain throughout life. Adult neurogenesis is primary confined to the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the forebrain and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus within the hippocampus. In both the human and the rodent brain, the primary progenitor of adult SVZ is a subpopulation of astrocytes that have stem-cell-like features. The human SVZ possesses a peculiar cell composition and displays important organizational differences when compared to the SVZ of other mammals. Some evidence suggests that the human SVZ may be not only an endogenous source of neural precursor cells for brain repair, but also a source of brain tumors. In this review, we described the cytoarchitecture and cellular composition of the SVZ in the adult human brain. We also discussed some clinical implications of SVZ, such as: stem-cell-based therapies against neurodegenerative diseases and its potential as a source of malignant cells. Understanding the biology of human SVZ and its neural progenitors is one of the crucial steps to develop novel therapies against neurological diseases in humans. PMID:23181200

  12. Humanities and the Adult Learner in an Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Dale; Kamholtz, Jonathan

    Humanities courses have often been given little attention in continuing education for adults, possibly because they have been viewed as not "practical" or not "job-oriented" enough in our career-oriented, technologically advanced society. However, the humanities should be an integral part of our culture and of the lives of educated persons--a…

  13. Teaching Human Rights: Grades 7 through Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiman, David A.

    This curriculum resource on human rights is rooted in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and seeks to help students understand the issues involved. Using the rights categories suggested by the Universal Declaration, this book offers new ways of teaching about familiar themes. The book contains activities to encourage students…

  14. On Expression Patterns and Developmental Origin of Human Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Lior; Chechik, Gal

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical substructures of the human brain have characteristic cell-types, connectivity and local circuitry, which are reflected in area-specific transcriptome signatures, but the principles governing area-specific transcription and their relation to brain development are still being studied. In adult rodents, areal transcriptome patterns agree with the embryonic origin of brain regions, but the processes and genes that preserve an embryonic signature in regional expression profiles were not quantified. Furthermore, it is not clear how embryonic-origin signatures of adult-brain expression interplay with changes in expression patterns during development. Here we first quantify which genes have regional expression-patterns related to the developmental origin of brain regions, using genome-wide mRNA expression from post-mortem adult human brains. We find that almost all human genes (92%) exhibit an expression pattern that agrees with developmental brain-region ontology, but that this agreement changes at multiple phases during development. Agreement is particularly strong in neuron-specific genes, but also in genes that are not spatially correlated with neuron-specific or glia-specific markers. Surprisingly, agreement is also stronger in early-evolved genes. We further find that pairs of similar genes having high agreement to developmental region ontology tend to be more strongly correlated or anti-correlated, and that the strength of spatial correlation changes more strongly in gene pairs with stronger embryonic signatures. These results suggest that transcription regulation of most genes in the adult human brain is spatially tuned in a way that changes through life, but in agreement with development-determined brain regions. PMID:27564987

  15. New neurons in the adult striatum: from rodents to humans

    PubMed Central

    Inta, Dragos; Cameron, Heather A.; Gass, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Most neurons are generated during development and are not replaced during adulthood, even if they are lost to injury or disease. It is firmly established, however, that new neurons are generated in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of virtually all adult mammals, including humans [1]. Many questions still remain, however, regarding adult neurogenesis in other brain regions and particularly in humans, where standard birthdating methods are not generally feasible. Exciting recent evidence indicates that calretinin-expressing interneurons are added to the adult human striatum at a substantial rate [2]. The role of new neurons is unknown, but studies in rodents will be able to further elucidate their identity and origin and then begin to understand their regulation and function. PMID:26298770

  16. Adult human metapneumonovirus (hMPV) pneumonia mimicking Legionnaire's disease.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Irshad, Nadia; Connolly, James J

    2016-01-01

    In adults hospitalized with viral pneumonias the main differential diagnostic consideration is influenza pneumonia. The respiratory viruses causing viral influenza like illnesses (ILIs), e.g., RSV may closely resemble influenza. Rarely, extrapulmonary findings of some ILIs may resemble Legionnaire's disease (LD), e.g., adenovirus, human parainfluenza virus (HPIV-3). We present a most unusual case of human metapneumonovirus pneumonia (hMPV) with some characteristic extrapulmonary findings characteristic of LD, e.g., relative bradycardia, as well as mildly elevated serum transaminases and hyphosphatemia. We believe this is the first reported case of hMPV pneumonia in a hospitalized adult that had some features of LD.

  17. Adult human metapneumonovirus (hMPV) pneumonia mimicking Legionnaire's disease.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Irshad, Nadia; Connolly, James J

    2016-01-01

    In adults hospitalized with viral pneumonias the main differential diagnostic consideration is influenza pneumonia. The respiratory viruses causing viral influenza like illnesses (ILIs), e.g., RSV may closely resemble influenza. Rarely, extrapulmonary findings of some ILIs may resemble Legionnaire's disease (LD), e.g., adenovirus, human parainfluenza virus (HPIV-3). We present a most unusual case of human metapneumonovirus pneumonia (hMPV) with some characteristic extrapulmonary findings characteristic of LD, e.g., relative bradycardia, as well as mildly elevated serum transaminases and hyphosphatemia. We believe this is the first reported case of hMPV pneumonia in a hospitalized adult that had some features of LD. PMID:26988110

  18. Investigating the utility of human embryonic stem cell-derived neurons to model ageing and neurodegenerative disease using whole-genome gene expression and splicing analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patani, Rickie; Lewis, Patrick A; Trabzuni, Daniah; Puddifoot, Clare A; Wyllie, David J A; Walker, Robert; Smith, Colin; Hardingham, Giles E; Weale, Michael; Hardy, John; Chandran, Siddharthan; Ryten, Mina

    2012-01-01

    A major goal in regenerative medicine is the predictable manipulation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to defined cell fates that faithfully represent their somatic counterparts. Directed differentiation of hESCs into neuronal populations has galvanized much interest into their potential application in modelling neurodegenerative disease. However, neurodegenerative diseases are age-related, and therefore establishing the maturational comparability of hESC-derived neural derivatives is critical to generating accurate in vitro model systems. We address this issue by comparing genome-wide, exon-specific expression analyses of pluripotent hESCs, multipotent neural precursor cells and a terminally differentiated enriched neuronal population to expression data from post-mortem foetal and adult human brain samples. We show that hESC-derived neuronal cultures (using a midbrain differentiation protocol as a prototypic example of lineage restriction), while successful in generating physiologically functional neurons, are closer to foetal than adult human brain in terms of molecular maturation. These findings suggest that developmental stage has a more dominant influence on the cellular transcriptome than regional identity. In addition, we demonstrate that developmentally regulated gene splicing is common, and potentially a more sensitive measure of maturational state than gene expression profiling alone. In summary, this study highlights the value of genomic indices in refining and validating optimal cell populations appropriate for modelling ageing and neurodegeneration. PMID:22681703

  19. Late Pleistocene adult mortality patterns and modern human establishment

    PubMed Central

    Trinkaus, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The establishment of modern humans in the Late Pleistocene, subsequent to their emergence in eastern Africa, is likely to have involved substantial population increases, during their initial dispersal across southern Asia and their subsequent expansions throughout Africa and into more northern Eurasia. An assessment of younger (20–40 y) versus older (>40 y) adult mortality distributions for late archaic humans (principally Neandertals) and two samples of early modern humans (Middle Paleolithic and earlier Upper Paleolithic) provides little difference across the samples. All three Late Pleistocene samples have a dearth of older individuals compared with Holocene ethnographic/historical samples. They also lack older adults compared with Holocene paleodemographic profiles that have been critiqued for having too few older individuals for subsistence, social, and demographic viability. Although biased, probably through a combination of preservation, age assessment, and especially Pleistocene mobility requirements, these adult mortality distributions suggest low life expectancy and demographic instability across these Late Pleistocene human groups. They indicate only subtle and paleontologically invisible changes in human paleodemographics with the establishment of modern humans; they provide no support for a life history advantage among early modern humans. PMID:21220336

  20. Novel surface markers directed against adult human gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Galivo, Feorillo H; Dorrell, Craig; Grompe, Maria T; Zhong, YongPing; Streeter, Philip R; Grompe, Markus

    2015-07-01

    Novel cell surface-reactive monoclonal antibodies generated against extrahepatic biliary cells were developed for the isolation and characterization of different cell subsets from normal adult human gallbladder. Eleven antigenically distinct gallbladder subpopulations were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. They were classified into epithelial, mesenchymal, and pancreatobiliary (PDX1(+)SOX9(+)) subsets based on gene expression profiling. These antigenically distinct human gallbladder cell subsets could potentially also reflect different functional properties in regards to bile physiology, cell renewal and plasticity. Three of the novel monoclonal antibodies differentially labeled archival sections of primary carcinoma of human gallbladder relative to normal tissue. The novel monoclonal antibodies described herein enable the identification and characterization of antigenically diverse cell subsets within adult human gallbladder and are putative tumor biomarkers.

  1. Age-Related Gene Expression Differences in Monocytes from Human Neonates, Young Adults, and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Ann-Jay; Kollmann, Tobias R.; Smale, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of age-related differences in the innate and adaptive immune systems have been proposed to contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection of human neonates and older adults. The emergence of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provides an opportunity to obtain an unbiased, comprehensive, and quantitative view of gene expression differences in defined cell types from different age groups. An examination of ex vivo human monocyte responses to lipopolysaccharide stimulation or Listeria monocytogenes infection by RNA-seq revealed extensive similarities between neonates, young adults, and older adults, with an unexpectedly small number of genes exhibiting statistically significant age-dependent differences. By examining the differentially induced genes in the context of transcription factor binding motifs and RNA-seq data sets from mutant mouse strains, a previously described deficiency in interferon response factor-3 activity could be implicated in most of the differences between newborns and young adults. Contrary to these observations, older adults exhibited elevated expression of inflammatory genes at baseline, yet the responses following stimulation correlated more closely with those observed in younger adults. Notably, major differences in the expression of constitutively expressed genes were not observed, suggesting that the age-related differences are driven by environmental influences rather than cell-autonomous differences in monocyte development. PMID:26147648

  2. [The existence vomeronasal organ in adult humans].

    PubMed

    Rapiejko, Piotr; Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, Beata; Wojdas, Andrzej; Ratajczak, Jan; Jurkiewicz, Dariusz

    2007-01-01

    The influence of chemical substances (feromones) on human emotional and physical condition has fascinated psychologists, sexuologists and laryngologists since centurie. Literature conveys inconsistent information on vomeronasal organ (VNO) occurrence in humans. This organ is often called Jacobson's, and 2 symmetrical openings leading into it, located on both sides of septum, are called Ruyasch's ducts. The aim of the study was to analyze vomeronasal organ occurrence in humans in relation to age and sex. The study was conducted in a group of 634 patients, aged 18-80 years. All patients underwent routine ENT examination including rhinoscopy, nasal cavity examination with usage of 2.5x magnification lens (surgical glasses) and surgical microscope with 10x magnification. All persons had nasal cavities examined endoscopically. Every time presence of vomeronasal organ openings, along with localization, size and symmetry of these was noted. Subjects, who presented Jacobson's organ, were asked to fill a questionnaire concerning influence of smells on erotic sensations. Vomeronasal organ was fund in 312 persons, that is 49.21%. In 83.65% of cases vomeronasal organ opening size was smaller than 0.2 mm, what restricted its visibility to usage of magnifying lens, microscope, or endoscope. In 16.34% of cases only vomeronasal organ ducts openings were well visible in routine rhinoscopy without magnification. Vomeronasal organ was found more often in men than women. VNO was significantly more rare in patients with nasal septal deviation. In these cases, vomeronasal organ was usually found unilaterally, in all the cases on the concave side of deviated nasal septum. PMID:18260256

  3. Expansion of Multipotent Stem Cells from the Adult Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Murrell, Wayne; Palmero, Emily; Bianco, John; Stangeland, Biljana; Joel, Mrinal; Paulson, Linda; Thiede, Bernd; Grieg, Zanina; Ramsnes, Ingunn; Skjellegrind, Håvard K.; Nygård, Ståle; Brandal, Petter; Sandberg, Cecilie; Vik-Mo, Einar; Palmero, Sheryl; Langmoen, Iver A.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of stem cells in the adult human brain has revealed new possible scenarios for treatment of the sick or injured brain. Both clinical use of and preclinical research on human adult neural stem cells have, however, been seriously hampered by the fact that it has been impossible to passage these cells more than a very few times and with little expansion of cell numbers. Having explored a number of alternative culturing conditions we here present an efficient method for the establishment and propagation of human brain stem cells from whatever brain tissue samples we have tried. We describe virtually unlimited expansion of an authentic stem cell phenotype. Pluripotency proteins Sox2 and Oct4 are expressed without artificial induction. For the first time multipotency of adult human brain-derived stem cells is demonstrated beyond tissue boundaries. We characterize these cells in detail in vitro including microarray and proteomic approaches. Whilst clarification of these cells’ behavior is ongoing, results so far portend well for the future repair of tissues by transplantation of an adult patient’s own-derived stem cells. PMID:23967194

  4. Distribution of immunoreactive glutamine synthetase in the adult human and mouse brain. Qualitative and quantitative observations with special emphasis on extra-astroglial protein localization.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Bannier, Jana; Meyer-Lotz, Gabriela; Steiner, Johann; Keilhoff, Gerburg; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Walter, Martin; Bogerts, Bernhard

    2014-11-01

    Glutamine synthetase catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of ammonia and glutamate to form glutamine, thus playing a pivotal role in glutamate and glutamine homoeostasis. Despite a plethora of studies on this enzyme, knowledge about the regional and cellular distribution of this enzyme in human brain is still fragmentary. Therefore, we mapped fourteen post-mortem brains of psychically healthy individuals for the distribution of the glutamine synthetase immunoreactive protein. It was found that glutamine synthetase immunoreactivity is expressed in multiple gray and white matter astrocytes, but also in oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and certain neurons. Since a possible extra-astrocytic expression of glutamine synthetase is highly controversial, we paid special attention to its appearance in oligodendrocytes and neurons. By double immunolabeling of mouse brain slices and cultured mouse brain cells for glutamine synthetase and cell-type-specific markers we provide evidence that besides astrocytes subpopulations of oligodendrocytes, microglial cells and neurons express glutamine synthetase. Moreover, we show that glutamine synthetase-immunopositive neurons are not randomly distributed throughout human and mouse brain, but represent a subpopulation of nitrergic (i.e. neuronal nitric oxide synthase expressing) neurons. Possible functional implications of an extra-astrocytic localization of glutamine synthetase are discussed.

  5. Human pancreatic polypeptide in children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Hanukoglu, A; Chalew, S; Kowarski, A A

    1990-01-01

    Measurement of human pancreatic polypeptide may be useful for assessment of gastrointestinal function, integrity of the parasympathetic nervous system or screening for endocrine neoplasia. In adults hPP levels have been reported to increase with age. However hPP levels throughout childhood have not been well characterized in comparison with the adult range. We studied fasting human pancreatic polypeptide (hPP) from 45 pediatric patients, from infancy - 15 years, and 18 older adolescents and adults aged 16-45 years. The mean hPP level of children (233 +/- 147 pg/ml) was significantly higher than that (113 +/- 35 pg/ml) of adults (P less than .0001). There was no difference in mean hPP levels of children with normal growth hormone secretion compared to growth hormone deficient patients. There was no effect of gender or body mass index on hPP levels. We conclude that fasting hPP levels must be interpreted with respect to the age of the subject, children particularly, in that preteens may have higher fasting levels than older teenagers and adults.

  6. Human pancreatic polypeptide in children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Hanukoglu, A; Chalew, S; Kowarski, A A

    1990-01-01

    Measurement of human pancreatic polypeptide may be useful for assessment of gastrointestinal function, integrity of the parasympathetic nervous system or screening for endocrine neoplasia. In adults hPP levels have been reported to increase with age. However hPP levels throughout childhood have not been well characterized in comparison with the adult range. We studied fasting human pancreatic polypeptide (hPP) from 45 pediatric patients, from infancy - 15 years, and 18 older adolescents and adults aged 16-45 years. The mean hPP level of children (233 +/- 147 pg/ml) was significantly higher than that (113 +/- 35 pg/ml) of adults (P less than .0001). There was no difference in mean hPP levels of children with normal growth hormone secretion compared to growth hormone deficient patients. There was no effect of gender or body mass index on hPP levels. We conclude that fasting hPP levels must be interpreted with respect to the age of the subject, children particularly, in that preteens may have higher fasting levels than older teenagers and adults. PMID:2307392

  7. Predictors of food preferences in adult humans.

    PubMed

    Logue, A W; Smith, M E

    1986-06-01

    Predictors of preferences for a wide variety of foods were examined in 303 male and female human subjects ranging from 14-68 years of age. The subjects completed questionnaires which requested information on the subject's sex, age, thinness, sensation seeking and ethnic background, as well as on the subjects' food preferences. Largely consistent with previous studies, female subjects reported higher preferences for low-calorie foods, candy and wine, and lower preferences for meat, beer, spicy foods and milk. Younger subjects reported higher preferences for sweet foods and lower preferences for foods such as chili pepper that are considered acquired tastes. Thinner subjects tended to rate both sweet foods and meat lower than did other subjects. Preferences for spicy foods or foods likely to cause illness were positively correlated with sensation seeking while preferences for sweet or bland foods or foods unlikely to cause illness were negatively correlated with sensation seeking. Subjects for whom the primary cuisine on which they were raised was Oriental cuisine preferred alcoholic beverages and non-Oriental foods less than did other subjects. A factor analysis of the food preferences yielded ten factors including those for meat and potatoes, alcohol, spices and junk food. Data on predictors of food preferences can assist research on the determinants of food preferences, however much of the variance in food preferences remains to be explained.

  8. Human Adult Cortical Reorganization and Consequent Visual Distortion

    PubMed Central

    Dilks, Daniel D.; Serences, John T.; Rosenau, Benjamin J.; Yantis, Steven; McCloskey, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Neural and behavioral evidence for cortical reorganization in the adult somatosensory system after loss of sensory input (e.g., amputation) has been well documented. In contrast, evidence for reorganization in the adult visual system is far less clear: neural evidence is the subject of controversy, behavioral evidence is sparse, and studies combining neural and behavioral evidence have not previously been reported. Here, we report converging behavioral and neuroimaging evidence from a stroke patient (B.L.) in support of cortical reorganization in the adult human visual system. B.L.’s stroke spared the primary visual cortex (V1), but destroyed fibers that normally provide input to V1 from the upper left visual field (LVF). As a consequence, B.L. is blind in the upper LVF, and exhibits distorted perception in the lower LVF: stimuli appear vertically elongated, toward and into the blind upper LVF. For example, a square presented in the lower LVF is perceived as a rectangle extending upward. We hypothesized that the perceptual distortion was a consequence of cortical reorganization in V1. Extensive behavioral testing supported our hypothesis, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) confirmed V1 reorganization. Together, the behavioral and fMRI data show that loss of input to V1 after a stroke leads to cortical reorganization in the adult human visual system, and provide the first evidence that reorganization of the adult visual system affects visual perception. These findings contribute to our understanding of the human adult brain’s capacity to change and has implications for topics ranging from learning to recovery from brain damage. PMID:17804619

  9. Ultrastructural characteristics of human adult and infant cerebral cortical neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, W Y; Garey, L J

    1991-01-01

    Biopsy specimens of human cerebral cortex from three adults and two infants were studied by correlating their light microscopic features in semithin sections with their ultrastructural characteristics. There was good tissue preservation, due to a minimum delay between obtaining the specimens and fixation. Pyramidal cells had a prominent apical dendrite, fine heterochromatin clumps in the nucleus and generally small numbers of cytoplasmic organelles, except for numerous free ribosomes in some of the large pyramids of Layers III to VI. Non-pyramidal cells lacked an apical dendrite and were further classified, on size and ultrastructure, into small, medium and large types. Large numbers of asymmetrical and symmetrical synapses were present in the neuropil but very few axosomatic synapses were found in the human cerebral cortex compared with subhuman primates and other mammals. Some symmetrical synapses were characterised by the presence of wide pre- and postsynaptic densities. The same general features of the adult cortex were also encountered in the infant, with certain exceptions. Many of the infant neurons had less densely packed heterochromatin, but greater numbers of free ribosomes, compared with the adult, and lipofuscin was absent. There was a total absence of myelinated fibres from the infant cortex; more large diameter dendrites were present than in the adult and axosomatic synapses were commoner. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2050578

  10. [Generation of new nerve cells in the adult human brain].

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Frantz Rom; Meyer, Morten; Rasmussen, Jens Zimmer

    2003-03-31

    Generation of new nerve cells (neurogenesis) is normally considered to be limited to the fetal and early postnatal period. Thus, damaged nerve cells are not expected to be replaced by generation of new cells. The brain is, however, more plastic than previously assumed. This also includes neurogenesis in the adult human brain. In particular two brain regions show continuous division of neural stem and progenitor cells generating neurons and glial cells, namely the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zones of the lateral ventricles. From the latter region newly generated neuroblasts (immature nerve cells) migrate toward the olfactory bulb where they differentiate into neurons. In the dentate gyrus the newly generated neurons become functionally integrated in the granule cell layer, where they are believed to be of importance to learning and memory. It is at present not known whether neurogenesis in the adult human brain can be manipulated for specific repair after brain damage.

  11. Quality control parameters on a large dataset of regionally dissected human control brains for whole genome expression studies

    PubMed Central

    Trabzuni, Daniah; Ryten, Mina; Walker, Robert; Smith, Colin; Imran, Sabaena; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Weale, Michael E; Hardy, John

    2011-01-01

    We are building an open-access database of regional human brain expression designed to allow the genome-wide assessment of genetic variability on expression. Array and RNA sequencing technologies make assessment of genome-wide expression possible. Human brain tissue is a challenging source for this work because it can only be obtained several and variable hours post-mortem and after varying agonal states. These variables alter RNA integrity in a complex manner. In this report, we assess the effect of post-mortem delay, agonal state and age on gene expression, and the utility of pH and RNA integrity number as predictors of gene expression as measured on 1266 Affymetrix Exon Arrays. We assessed the accuracy of the array data using QuantiGene, as an independent non-PCR-based method. These quality control parameters will allow database users to assess data accuracy. We report that within the parameters of this study post-mortem delay, agonal state and age have little impact on array quality, array data are robust to variable RNA integrity, and brain pH has only a small effect on array performance. QuantiGene gave very similar expression profiles as array data. This study is the first step in our initiative to make human, regional brain expression freely available. PMID:21848658

  12. Epidermal growth factor receptor in adult human dorsal root ganglia.

    PubMed

    Huerta, J J; Diaz-Trelles, R; Naves, F J; Llamosas, M M; Del Valle, M E; Vega, J A

    1996-09-01

    Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFalpha) enhances neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth in cultured dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons. It binds a membrane protein, denominated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr). EGFr has been localized in developing and adult human DRG. However, it remains to be elucidated whether all DRG neurons express EGFr or whether differences exist among neuronal subtypes. This study was undertaken to investigate these topics in adult human DRG using immunoblotting, and combined immunohistochemistry and image analysis techniques. A mouse monoclonal antibody (clone F4) mapping within the intracytoplasmic domain of EGFr was used. Immunoblotting revealed two main proteins with estimated molecular masses of approximately/equal to 65 kDa and 170 kDa, and thus consistent with the full-length EGFr. Additional protein bands were also encountered. Light immunohistochemistry revealed specific immunoreactivity (IR) for EGFr-like proteins in most (86%) primary sensory neurons, the intensity of immunostaining being stronger in the small- and intermediate-sized ones. Furthermore, EGFr-like IR was also observed in the satellite glial cells of the ganglia as well as in the intraganglionic and dorsal root Schwann cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that EGFr, and other related proteins containing the epitope labeled with the antibody F4, are responsible for the EGFr IR reported in DRG. Furthermore, we demonstrated heterogeneity in the expression of EGFr-like IR in adult human primary sensory neurons, which suggests different responsiveness to their ligands.

  13. The effect of neurotrophic factors on morphology, TRPV1 expression and capsaicin responses of cultured human DRG sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Anand, U; Otto, W R; Casula, M A; Day, N C; Davis, J B; Bountra, C; Birch, R; Anand, P

    2006-05-15

    We have studied the effect of key neurotrophic factors (NTFs) on morphology, levels of the vanilloid receptor-1 (TRPV1) and responses to capsaicin in adult human sensory neurons in vitro. Avulsed dorsal root ganglia (DRG, n = 5) were cultured with or without a combination of nerve growth factor (NGF), glial cell (line)-derived growth factor (GDNF) and neurotrophin3 (NT3) for 5 days. In the absence of NTFs, the diameter of neurons ranged from 20 to 100 microm (mean 42 +/- 4 microm). Adding NTFs caused a significant increase in neuronal sizes, up to 120 microm (mean diameter 62 +/- 5 microm, P < 0.01, t-test), an overall 35% increase of TRPV1-positive neurons (P < 0.003), and notably of large TRPV1-positive neurons > 80 microm (P < 0.05). Responses to capsaicin were significantly enhanced with calcium ratiometry (P < 0.0001). Short duration (1h) exposure of dissociated sensory neurons to NTFs increased numbers of TRPV1-positive neurons, but not of TRPV3, Nav 1.8 and IK1 and the morphological size-distribution remained similar to intact post-mortem DRG neurons. NTFs thus increase size, elevate TRPV1 levels and enhance capsaicin responses in cultured human DRG neurons; these changes may relate to pathophysiology in disease states, and provide an in vitro model to study novel analgesics. PMID:16481104

  14. Identification of Reliable Sulcal Patterns of the Human Rolandic Region.

    PubMed

    Mellerio, Charles; Lapointe, Marie-Noël; Roca, Pauline; Charron, Sylvain; Legrand, Laurence; Meder, Jean-François; Oppenheim, Catherine; Cachia, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    A major feature of the human cortex is its huge morphological variability. Although a comprehensive literature about the sulco-gyral pattern of the central region is available from post-mortem data, a reliable and reproducible characterization from in vivo data is still lacking. The aim of this study is to test the reliability of morphological criteria of the central region sulci used in post-mortem data, when applied to in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Thirty right-handed healthy individuals were included in the study. Automated segmentation and three dimensional (3D) surface-based rendering were obtained from clinical 3D T1-weighted MRI. Two senior radiologists labeled the three sulci composing the central region (precentral [PreCS], central [CS] and postcentral [PostCS]) and analyzed their morphological variations using 47 standard criteria derived from Ono's atlas based on post-mortem data. For each criterion, inter-rater concordance and comparison with the occurrence frequency provided in Ono's atlas were estimated. Overall, the sulcal pattern criteria derived from MRI data were highly reproducible between the raters with a high mean inter-rater concordance in the three sulci (CS: κ = 0.92 in left hemisphere/κ = 0.91 in right hemisphere; PreCS: κ = 0.91/κ = 0.93; PostCS: κ = 0.84/0.79). Only a very limited number of sulcal criteria significantly differed between the in vivo and the post-mortem data (CS: 2 criteria in the left hemisphere/3 criteria in the right hemisphere; PreCS: 3 in the left and right hemispheres; PostCS: 3 in the left hemisphere and 5 in the right hemisphere). Our study provides a comprehensive description of qualitative sulcal patterns in the central region from in vivo clinical MRI with high agreement with previous post-mortem data. Such identification of reliable sulcal patterns of the central region visible with standard clinical MRI data paves the way for the detection of subtle variations of the central sulcation

  15. Identification of Reliable Sulcal Patterns of the Human Rolandic Region

    PubMed Central

    Mellerio, Charles; Lapointe, Marie-Noël; Roca, Pauline; Charron, Sylvain; Legrand, Laurence; Meder, Jean-François; Oppenheim, Catherine; Cachia, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    A major feature of the human cortex is its huge morphological variability. Although a comprehensive literature about the sulco-gyral pattern of the central region is available from post-mortem data, a reliable and reproducible characterization from in vivo data is still lacking. The aim of this study is to test the reliability of morphological criteria of the central region sulci used in post-mortem data, when applied to in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Thirty right-handed healthy individuals were included in the study. Automated segmentation and three dimensional (3D) surface-based rendering were obtained from clinical 3D T1-weighted MRI. Two senior radiologists labeled the three sulci composing the central region (precentral [PreCS], central [CS] and postcentral [PostCS]) and analyzed their morphological variations using 47 standard criteria derived from Ono’s atlas based on post-mortem data. For each criterion, inter-rater concordance and comparison with the occurrence frequency provided in Ono’s atlas were estimated. Overall, the sulcal pattern criteria derived from MRI data were highly reproducible between the raters with a high mean inter-rater concordance in the three sulci (CS: κ = 0.92 in left hemisphere/κ = 0.91 in right hemisphere; PreCS: κ = 0.91/κ = 0.93; PostCS: κ = 0.84/0.79). Only a very limited number of sulcal criteria significantly differed between the in vivo and the post-mortem data (CS: 2 criteria in the left hemisphere/3 criteria in the right hemisphere; PreCS: 3 in the left and right hemispheres; PostCS: 3 in the left hemisphere and 5 in the right hemisphere). Our study provides a comprehensive description of qualitative sulcal patterns in the central region from in vivo clinical MRI with high agreement with previous post-mortem data. Such identification of reliable sulcal patterns of the central region visible with standard clinical MRI data paves the way for the detection of subtle variations of the central sulcation

  16. Post mortem analysis of fatigue mechanisms in LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 - LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 - LiMn2O4/graphite lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Michael; Darma, Mariyam Susana Dewi; Kleiner, Karin; Riekehr, Lars; Mereacre, Liuda; Ávila Pérez, Marta; Liebau, Verena; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    The fatigue of commercial lithium ion batteries after long-term cycling at two different temperatures and cycling rates is investigated. The cells are opened after cycling and post-mortem analysis are conducted. Two main contributions to the capacity loss of the batteries are revealed. The loss of active lithium leads to a relative shift between anodes and cathodes potentials. A growth of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on the anode is determined as well as the formation of lithium fluoride species as an electrolyte decomposition product. Those effects are reinforced by increasing cycling rates from 1C/2C (charge/discharge) to 2C/3C as well as by increasing cycling temperatures from 25 °C to 40 °C. The other contribution to the capacity loss originates from a fatigue of the blended cathodes consisting of LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM), LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) and LiMn2O4 (LMO). Phase-specific capacity losses and fatigue mechanisms are identified. The layered oxides tend to form microcracks and reveal changes of the surface structure leading to a worsening of the lithium kinetics. The cathode exhibits a loss of manganese at 40 °C cycling temperature. Cycling at 40 °C instead of 25 °C has the major impact on cathodes capacity loss, while cycling at 2C/3C rates barely influences it.

  17. [Multipotency of adult stem cells derived from human amnion].

    PubMed

    Shi, Mingxia; Li, Weijia; Li, Bingzong; Li, Jing; Zhao, Chunhua

    2009-05-01

    Adult stem cells are drawing more and more attention due to the potential application in degenerative medicine without posing any moral problem. There is growing evidence showing that the human amnion contains various types of adult stem cell. Since amniotic tissue is readily available, it has the potential to be an important source of regenerative medicine material. In this study we tried to find multipotent adult stem cells in human amnion. We isolated stem cells from amniotic mesenchymal cells by limiting dilution assay. Similar to bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells, these cells displayed a fibroblast like appearance. They were positive for CD105, CD29, CD44, negative for haematopoietic (GlyA, CD31, CD34, CD45) and epithelial cell (pan-CK) markers. These stem cells had the potential to differentiate not only into osteogenic, adipogenic and endothelial lineages, but also hepatocyte-like cells and neural cells at the single-cell level depending on the culture conditions. They had the capacity for self-renewal and multilineage differentiation even after being expanded for more than 30 population doublings in vitro. So they may be an ideal stem cell source for inherited or degenerative diseases treatment.

  18. How long have adult humans been consuming milk?

    PubMed

    Gerbault, Pascale; Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Evershed, Richard P; Thomas, Mark G

    2013-12-01

    Lactase is the enzyme that breaks down the milk sugar lactose, and in most mammals, including most humans, lactase activity is down-regulated after the weaning period is completed. However, in about 35% of adults worldwide, lactase continues to be expressed throughout adulthood, a feature termed lactase persistence (LP). Genetic evidence indicates that LP is a recent human adaptation, and its current geographic distribution correlates with the relative historical importance of dairying in different human populations. Investigating archaeological evidence for fresh milk consumption has proved crucial in building an account of the joint evolution of LP and dairying. A powerful technique for investigating food processing, including milk processing, in ancient populations is lipid residue analysis on archaeological pottery. We review here the archaeological and genetic evidence available that have contributed to a better understanding of the gene-culture co-evolution of LP and dairying. PMID:24339181

  19. How long have adult humans been consuming milk?

    PubMed

    Gerbault, Pascale; Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Evershed, Richard P; Thomas, Mark G

    2013-12-01

    Lactase is the enzyme that breaks down the milk sugar lactose, and in most mammals, including most humans, lactase activity is down-regulated after the weaning period is completed. However, in about 35% of adults worldwide, lactase continues to be expressed throughout adulthood, a feature termed lactase persistence (LP). Genetic evidence indicates that LP is a recent human adaptation, and its current geographic distribution correlates with the relative historical importance of dairying in different human populations. Investigating archaeological evidence for fresh milk consumption has proved crucial in building an account of the joint evolution of LP and dairying. A powerful technique for investigating food processing, including milk processing, in ancient populations is lipid residue analysis on archaeological pottery. We review here the archaeological and genetic evidence available that have contributed to a better understanding of the gene-culture co-evolution of LP and dairying.

  20. Neurons in the White Matter of the Adult Human Neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Solá, M. Luisa; González-Delgado, Francisco J.; Pueyo-Morlans, Mercedes; Medina-Bolívar, O. Carolina; Hernández-Acosta, N. Carolina; González-Gómez, Miriam; Meyer, Gundela

    2009-01-01

    The white matter (WM) of the adult human neocortex contains the so-called “interstitial neurons”. They are most numerous in the superficial WM underlying the cortical gyri, and decrease in density toward the deep WM. They are morphologically heterogeneous. A subgroup of interstitial neurons display pyramidal-cell like morphologies, characterized by a polarized dendritic tree with a dominant apical dendrite, and covered with a variable number of dendritic spines. In addition, a large contingent of interstitial neurons can be classified as interneurons based on their neurochemical profile as well as on morphological criteria. WM- interneurons have multipolar or bipolar shapes and express GABA and a variety of other neuronal markers, such as calbindin and calretinin, the extracellular matrix protein reelin, or neuropeptide Y, somatostatin, and nitric oxide synthase. The heterogeneity of interstitial neurons may be relevant for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease and schizophrenia. Interstitial neurons are most prominent in human brain, and only rudimentary in the brain of non-primate mammals. These evolutionary differences have precluded adequate experimental work on this cell population, which is usually considered as a relict of the subplate, a transient compartment proper of development and without a known function in the adult brain. The primate-specific prominence of the subplate in late fetal stages points to an important role in the establishment of interstitial neurons. Neurons in the adult WM may be actively involved in coordinating inter-areal connectivity and regulation of blood flow. Further studies in primates will be needed to elucidate the developmental history, adult components and activities of this large neuronal system. PMID:19543540

  1. Post-mortem shrinkage of homograft aortic valves

    PubMed Central

    Dexter, F.; Donnelly, R. J.; Deverall, P. B.; Watson, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Experience has shown that some frame-mounted homograft aortic valves, although competent immediately after mounting, are incompetent when subsequently presented for surgical use. Retraction and shrinkage of the cusps appears to be the cause of this change. Clinical and experimental studies have shown that shrinkage of homograft aortic valves occurs over an approximately five-day period after death of the donor and it is recommended that this period should elapse before mounting homograft aortic valves on to support frames. Images PMID:5039445

  2. The New Zealand Hacker Case: A Post Mortem

    SciTech Connect

    Popovsky, Barbara; Ryan, Daniel J.; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2005-10-01

    A typical incident response pits technicians against networks that aren't prepared forensically. [1, 2] If practitioners do consider collecting network forensic data, they face a choice between expending extraordinary effort (time and money) collecting forensically sound data, or simply restoring the network as quickly as possible. In this context, the concept of organizational network forensic readiness has emerged. The following is a discussion of selected computer crime cases, using publically available information, spanning a period of time of several years, that together demonstrate the need for a preventive and proactive response to malicious intrusion over a reactive one. It concludes with recommendations for how to "operationalize" organizational network forensic readiness.

  3. Ontogeny of morningness-eveningness across the adult human lifespan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randler, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    Sleep timing of humans can be classified alongside a continuum from early to late sleepers, with some people (larks) having an early activity, early bed, and rise times and others (owls) with a more nocturnally orientated activity. Only a few studies reported that morningness-eveningness changes significantly during the adult lifespan based on community samples. Here, I applied a different methodological approach to seek for evidence for the age-related changes in morningness-eveningness preferences by using a meta-data from all available studies. The new aspect of this cross-sectional approach is that only a few studies themselves address the age-related changes of the adult lifespan development, but that many studies are available that provide exactly the data needed. The studies came from 27 countries and included 36,939 participants. Age was highly significantly correlated with scores on the Composite Scale of Morningness ( r = 0.70). This relationship seems linear, because a linear regression explained nearly the same amount of variance compared to other models such as logarithmic, quadratic, or cubic models. The standard deviation of age correlated with the standard deviation of CSM scores ( r = 0.55), suggesting when there is much variance in age in a study; in turn, there is much variance in morningness. This meta-analytical approach shows that morningness-eveningness changes across the adult lifespan and that older age is related to higher morningness.

  4. Multipotent progenitor cells isolated from adult human pancreatic tissue.

    PubMed

    Todorov, I; Nair, I; Ferreri, K; Rawson, J; Kuroda, A; Pascual, M; Omori, K; Valiente, L; Orr, C; Al-Abdullah, I; Riggs, A; Kandeel, F; Mullen, Y

    2005-10-01

    The supply of islet cells is a limiting factor for the widespread application of islet transplantation of type-1 diabetes. Islets constitute 1% to 2% of pancreatic tissue, leaving approximately 98% as discard after islet isolation and purification. In this report we present our data on the isolation of multipotent progenitor cells from discarded adult human pancreatic tissue. The collected cells from discarded nonislet fractions, after enzymatic digestion and gradient purification of islets, were dissociated for suspension culture in a serum-free medium. The cell clusters grown to a size of 100 to 150 mum contained cells staining for stage-specific embryonic antigens, but not insulin or C-peptide. To direct cell differentiation toward islets, clusters were recultured in a pancreatic differentiation medium. Insulin and C-peptide-positive cells by immunocytochemistry appeared within a week, reaching over 10% of the cell population. Glucagon and somatostatin-positive cells were also detected. The cell clusters were found to secrete insulin in response to glucose stimulation. Cells from the same clusters also had the capacity for differentiation into neural cells, as documented by staining for neural and glial cell markers when cultured as monolayers in media containing neurotrophic factors. These data suggest that multipotent pancreatic progenitor cells exist within the human pancreatic tissue that is typically discarded during islet isolation procedures. These adult progenitor cells can be successfully differentiated into insulin-producing cells, and thus they have the potential for treatment of type-1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:16298614

  5. 9 CFR 310.1 - Extent and time of post-mortem inspection; post-mortem inspection staffing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... inspector performs the viscera and upper carcass inspection. 1 1 The “Maximum Slaughter Rates” figures... accompanying rules. (i) Inspection Using the Viscera Truck. Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates (head... 1 1 1 85 to 86 1 2 1 87 to 143 2 2 1 Cows and Bulls Maximum slaughter rates (head per hour)...

  6. 9 CFR 310.1 - Extent and time of post-mortem inspection; post-mortem inspection staffing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or more inspector slaughter lines, upon the use of a mirror, as described in § 307.2(m)(6), at the..., except in certain cases as determined by the inspection service, if a mirror is used, it must comply with...) Without mirror With mirror Sows and boars (heads detached) Without mirror With mirror 0 to 5 140 150...

  7. 9 CFR 310.1 - Extent and time of post-mortem inspection; post-mortem inspection staffing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Inspection Using Viscera Table, Tongue-In Presentation of Heads. Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates..., Tongue-Out Presentation of Heads. Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates (head per hour) Number...

  8. 9 CFR 310.1 - Extent and time of post-mortem inspection; post-mortem inspection staffing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Inspection Using Viscera Table, Tongue-In Presentation of Heads. Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates..., Tongue-Out Presentation of Heads. Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates (head per hour) Number...

  9. 9 CFR 310.1 - Extent and time of post-mortem inspection; post-mortem inspection staffing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... washbasin. 2 This refers to the carcasses in the bleeding area. (ii) Inspection Using Viscera Table, Tongue... 289 5 4 2 290 to 314 5 5 2 (iii) Inspection Using Viscera Table, Tongue-Out Presentation of...

  10. Normalizing and scaling of data to derive human response corridors from impact tests.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W J; Pintar, Frank A

    2014-06-01

    It is well known that variability is inherent in any biological experiment. Human cadavers (Post-Mortem Human Subjects, PMHS) are routinely used to determine responses to impact loading for crashworthiness applications including civilian (motor vehicle) and military environments. It is important to transform measured variables from PMHS tests (accelerations, forces and deflections) to a standard or reference population, termed normalization. The transformation process should account for inter-specimen variations with some underlying assumptions used during normalization. Scaling is a process by which normalized responses are converted from one standard to another (example, mid-size adult male to large-male and small-size female adults, and to pediatric populations). These responses are used to derive corridors to assess the biofidelity of anthropomorphic test devices (crash dummies) used to predict injury in impact environments and design injury mitigating devices. This survey examines the pros and cons of different approaches for obtaining normalized and scaled responses and corridors used in biomechanical studies for over four decades. Specifically, the equal-stress equal-velocity and impulse-momentum methods along with their variations are discussed in this review. Methods ranging from subjective to quasi-static loading to different approaches are discussed for deriving temporal mean and plus minus one standard deviation human corridors of time-varying fundamental responses and cross variables (e.g., force-deflection). The survey offers some insights into the potential efficacy of these approaches with examples from recent impact tests and concludes with recommendations for future studies. The importance of considering various parameters during the experimental design of human impact tests is stressed.

  11. Normalizing and scaling of data to derive human response corridors from impact tests.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W J; Pintar, Frank A

    2014-06-01

    It is well known that variability is inherent in any biological experiment. Human cadavers (Post-Mortem Human Subjects, PMHS) are routinely used to determine responses to impact loading for crashworthiness applications including civilian (motor vehicle) and military environments. It is important to transform measured variables from PMHS tests (accelerations, forces and deflections) to a standard or reference population, termed normalization. The transformation process should account for inter-specimen variations with some underlying assumptions used during normalization. Scaling is a process by which normalized responses are converted from one standard to another (example, mid-size adult male to large-male and small-size female adults, and to pediatric populations). These responses are used to derive corridors to assess the biofidelity of anthropomorphic test devices (crash dummies) used to predict injury in impact environments and design injury mitigating devices. This survey examines the pros and cons of different approaches for obtaining normalized and scaled responses and corridors used in biomechanical studies for over four decades. Specifically, the equal-stress equal-velocity and impulse-momentum methods along with their variations are discussed in this review. Methods ranging from subjective to quasi-static loading to different approaches are discussed for deriving temporal mean and plus minus one standard deviation human corridors of time-varying fundamental responses and cross variables (e.g., force-deflection). The survey offers some insights into the potential efficacy of these approaches with examples from recent impact tests and concludes with recommendations for future studies. The importance of considering various parameters during the experimental design of human impact tests is stressed. PMID:24726322

  12. Neuropeptide Y in the adult and fetal human pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Møller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Badiu, Corin

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passage and primarily located in a perifollicular position with some fibers entering the pineal parenchyma inside the follicle. The distance from the immunoreactive terminals to the pinealocytes indicates a modulatory function of neuropeptide Y for pineal physiology. Some of the immunoreactive fibers might originate from neurons located in the brain and be a part of the central innervation of the pineal gland. In a series of human fetuses, neuropeptide Y-containing nerve fibers was present and could be detected as early as in the pineal of four- to five-month-old fetuses. This early innervation of the human pineal is different from most rodents, where the innervation starts postnatally.

  13. Gustatory reaction time to various sweeteners in human adults.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Kato, T; Matsuo, R; Kawamura, Y; Yoshida, M

    1985-09-01

    Reaction times to recognize the sweet taste of 12 sweeteners at various concentrations were measured in 48 human adults. The reaction time (T) decreased with increasing concentration (C) of each sweetener applied to the anterior dorsal tongue. The relationships between T and C, and T and logC were well described by a rectangular hyperbola formula for each of the 12 sweeteners. Reaction times to discriminate sweet taste quality between pairs of sweeteners were measured, then a similarity index was calculated. Factor analysis based on correlation coefficients between pairs of sweeteners which were obtained by the similarity indices has indicated classification of the sweeteners. Sucrose, fructose, glucose, maltose, sorbitol and aspartame tend to group together. Na-cyclamate and Na-saccharin form another group. DL-alanine, stevioside and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone are rather independent and do not belong to any group.

  14. A biokinetic model for systemic technetium in adult humans

    DOE PAGES

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Giussani, Augusto

    2015-04-10

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently is updating its biokinetic and dosimetric models for internally deposited radionuclides. Technetium (Tc), the lightest element that exists only in radioactive form, has two important isotopes from the standpoint of potential risk to humans: the long-lived isotope 99Tm(T1/2=2.1x105 y) is present in high concentration in nuclear waste, and the short-lived isotope 99mTc (T1/2=6.02 h) is the most commonly used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. This paper reviews data on the biological behavior of technetium and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic technetium in the adult human body for use in radiation protection.more » Compared with the ICRP s current occupational model for systemic technetium, the proposed model provides a more realistic description of the paths of movement of technetium in the body; provides greater consistency with experimental and medical data; and, for most radiosensitive organs, yields substantially different estimates of cumulative activity (total radioactive decays within the organ) following uptake of 99Tm or 99mTc to blood.« less

  15. Comprehensive cellular‐resolution atlas of the adult human brain

    PubMed Central

    Royall, Joshua J.; Sunkin, Susan M.; Ng, Lydia; Facer, Benjamin A.C.; Lesnar, Phil; Guillozet‐Bongaarts, Angie; McMurray, Bergen; Szafer, Aaron; Dolbeare, Tim A.; Stevens, Allison; Tirrell, Lee; Benner, Thomas; Caldejon, Shiella; Dalley, Rachel A.; Dee, Nick; Lau, Christopher; Nyhus, Julie; Reding, Melissa; Riley, Zackery L.; Sandman, David; Shen, Elaine; van der Kouwe, Andre; Varjabedian, Ani; Write, Michelle; Zollei, Lilla; Dang, Chinh; Knowles, James A.; Koch, Christof; Phillips, John W.; Sestan, Nenad; Wohnoutka, Paul; Zielke, H. Ronald; Hohmann, John G.; Jones, Allan R.; Bernard, Amy; Hawrylycz, Michael J.; Hof, Patrick R.; Fischl, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Detailed anatomical understanding of the human brain is essential for unraveling its functional architecture, yet current reference atlases have major limitations such as lack of whole‐brain coverage, relatively low image resolution, and sparse structural annotation. We present the first digital human brain atlas to incorporate neuroimaging, high‐resolution histology, and chemoarchitecture across a complete adult female brain, consisting of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion‐weighted imaging (DWI), and 1,356 large‐format cellular resolution (1 µm/pixel) Nissl and immunohistochemistry anatomical plates. The atlas is comprehensively annotated for 862 structures, including 117 white matter tracts and several novel cyto‐ and chemoarchitecturally defined structures, and these annotations were transferred onto the matching MRI dataset. Neocortical delineations were done for sulci, gyri, and modified Brodmann areas to link macroscopic anatomical and microscopic cytoarchitectural parcellations. Correlated neuroimaging and histological structural delineation allowed fine feature identification in MRI data and subsequent structural identification in MRI data from other brains. This interactive online digital atlas is integrated with existing Allen Institute for Brain Science gene expression atlases and is publicly accessible as a resource for the neuroscience community. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3127–3481, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27418273

  16. Comprehensive cellular-resolution atlas of the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Ding, Song-Lin; Royall, Joshua J; Sunkin, Susan M; Ng, Lydia; Facer, Benjamin A C; Lesnar, Phil; Guillozet-Bongaarts, Angie; McMurray, Bergen; Szafer, Aaron; Dolbeare, Tim A; Stevens, Allison; Tirrell, Lee; Benner, Thomas; Caldejon, Shiella; Dalley, Rachel A; Dee, Nick; Lau, Christopher; Nyhus, Julie; Reding, Melissa; Riley, Zackery L; Sandman, David; Shen, Elaine; van der Kouwe, Andre; Varjabedian, Ani; Write, Michelle; Zollei, Lilla; Dang, Chinh; Knowles, James A; Koch, Christof; Phillips, John W; Sestan, Nenad; Wohnoutka, Paul; Zielke, H Ronald; Hohmann, John G; Jones, Allan R; Bernard, Amy; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Hof, Patrick R; Fischl, Bruce; Lein, Ed S

    2016-11-01

    Detailed anatomical understanding of the human brain is essential for unraveling its functional architecture, yet current reference atlases have major limitations such as lack of whole-brain coverage, relatively low image resolution, and sparse structural annotation. We present the first digital human brain atlas to incorporate neuroimaging, high-resolution histology, and chemoarchitecture across a complete adult female brain, consisting of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and 1,356 large-format cellular resolution (1 µm/pixel) Nissl and immunohistochemistry anatomical plates. The atlas is comprehensively annotated for 862 structures, including 117 white matter tracts and several novel cyto- and chemoarchitecturally defined structures, and these annotations were transferred onto the matching MRI dataset. Neocortical delineations were done for sulci, gyri, and modified Brodmann areas to link macroscopic anatomical and microscopic cytoarchitectural parcellations. Correlated neuroimaging and histological structural delineation allowed fine feature identification in MRI data and subsequent structural identification in MRI data from other brains. This interactive online digital atlas is integrated with existing Allen Institute for Brain Science gene expression atlases and is publicly accessible as a resource for the neuroscience community. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3127-3481, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27418273

  17. Comprehensive cellular-resolution atlas of the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Ding, Song-Lin; Royall, Joshua J; Sunkin, Susan M; Ng, Lydia; Facer, Benjamin A C; Lesnar, Phil; Guillozet-Bongaarts, Angie; McMurray, Bergen; Szafer, Aaron; Dolbeare, Tim A; Stevens, Allison; Tirrell, Lee; Benner, Thomas; Caldejon, Shiella; Dalley, Rachel A; Dee, Nick; Lau, Christopher; Nyhus, Julie; Reding, Melissa; Riley, Zackery L; Sandman, David; Shen, Elaine; van der Kouwe, Andre; Varjabedian, Ani; Write, Michelle; Zollei, Lilla; Dang, Chinh; Knowles, James A; Koch, Christof; Phillips, John W; Sestan, Nenad; Wohnoutka, Paul; Zielke, H Ronald; Hohmann, John G; Jones, Allan R; Bernard, Amy; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Hof, Patrick R; Fischl, Bruce; Lein, Ed S

    2016-11-01

    Detailed anatomical understanding of the human brain is essential for unraveling its functional architecture, yet current reference atlases have major limitations such as lack of whole-brain coverage, relatively low image resolution, and sparse structural annotation. We present the first digital human brain atlas to incorporate neuroimaging, high-resolution histology, and chemoarchitecture across a complete adult female brain, consisting of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and 1,356 large-format cellular resolution (1 µm/pixel) Nissl and immunohistochemistry anatomical plates. The atlas is comprehensively annotated for 862 structures, including 117 white matter tracts and several novel cyto- and chemoarchitecturally defined structures, and these annotations were transferred onto the matching MRI dataset. Neocortical delineations were done for sulci, gyri, and modified Brodmann areas to link macroscopic anatomical and microscopic cytoarchitectural parcellations. Correlated neuroimaging and histological structural delineation allowed fine feature identification in MRI data and subsequent structural identification in MRI data from other brains. This interactive online digital atlas is integrated with existing Allen Institute for Brain Science gene expression atlases and is publicly accessible as a resource for the neuroscience community. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3127-3481, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A biokinetic model for systemic technetium in adult humans

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Giussani, Augusto

    2015-04-10

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently is updating its biokinetic and dosimetric models for internally deposited radionuclides. Technetium (Tc), the lightest element that exists only in radioactive form, has two important isotopes from the standpoint of potential risk to humans: the long-lived isotope 99Tm(T1/2=2.1x105 y) is present in high concentration in nuclear waste, and the short-lived isotope 99mTc (T1/2=6.02 h) is the most commonly used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. This paper reviews data on the biological behavior of technetium and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic technetium in the adult human body for use in radiation protection. Compared with the ICRP s current occupational model for systemic technetium, the proposed model provides a more realistic description of the paths of movement of technetium in the body; provides greater consistency with experimental and medical data; and, for most radiosensitive organs, yields substantially different estimates of cumulative activity (total radioactive decays within the organ) following uptake of 99Tm or 99mTc to blood.

  19. The Adult Learner. The Definitive Classic in Adult Education and Human Resource Development. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Malcolm S.; Holton, Elwood F., III; Swanson, Richard A.

    This book examines the core principles of adult learning and the roots of andragogy, advances in adult learning, and practice in adult learning. The following are among the topics discussed in the book's 17 chapters: importance of learning theory; theories of learning (concept of part and whole models of development, theories based on elemental…

  20. Adult somatic stem cells in the human parasite, Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James J.; Wang, Bo; Lambrus, Bramwell G.; Tharp, Marla; Iyer, Harini; Newmark, Phillip A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Schistosomiasis is among the most prevalent human parasitic diseases, affecting more than 200 million people worldwide1. The etiological agents of this disease are trematode flatworms (Schistosoma) that live and lay eggs within the vasculature of the host. These eggs lodge in host tissues, causing inflammatory responses that are the primary cause of morbidity. Because these parasites can live and reproduce within human hosts for decades2, elucidating the mechanisms that promote their longevity is of fundamental importance. Although adult pluripotent stem cells, called neoblasts, drive long-term homeostatic tissue maintenance in long-lived free-living flatworms3,4 (e.g., planarians), and neoblast-like cells have been described in some parasitic tapeworms5, little is known about whether similar cell types exist in any trematode species. Here, we describe a population of neoblast-like cells in the trematode Schistosoma mansoni. These cells resemble planarian neoblasts morphologically and share their ability to proliferate and differentiate into derivatives of multiple germ layers. Capitalizing on available genomic resources6,7 and RNAseq-based gene expression profiling, we find that these schistosome neoblast-like cells express a fibroblast growth factor receptor ortholog. Using RNA interference we demonstrate that this gene is required for the maintenance of these neoblast-like cells. Our observations suggest that adaptation of developmental strategies shared by free-living ancestors to modern-day schistosomes likely contributed to the success of these animals as long-lived obligate parasites. We expect that future studies deciphering the function of these neoblast-like cells will have important implications for understanding the biology of these devastating parasites. PMID:23426263

  1. A biokinetic model for systemic technetium in adult humans.

    PubMed

    Leggett, R; Giussani, A

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews biokinetic data for technetium and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic technetium in adult humans. The development of parameter values focuses on data for pertechnetate TcO(-)(4) the most commonly encountered form of technetium and the form expected to be present in body fluids. The model is intended as a default model for occupational or environmental intake of technetium, i.e. applicable in the absence of form- or site-specific information. Tissues depicted explicitly in the model include thyroid, salivary glands, stomach wall, right colon wall, liver, kidneys, and bone. Compared with the ICRP's current biokinetic model for occupational or environmental intake of technetium (ICRP 1993, 1994), the proposed model provides a more detailed and biologically realistic description of the systemic behaviour of technetium and is based on a broader set of experimental and medical data. For acute input of (99m)Tc (T(1/2) = 6.02 h) to blood, the ratios of cumulative (time-integrated) activity predicted by the current ICRP model to that predicted by the proposed model range from 0.4-7 for systemic regions addressed explicitly in both models. For acute input of (99)Tc (T(1/2) = 2.1 × 10(5) year) to blood, the corresponding ratios range from 0.2-30.

  2. Metric analysis of basal sphenoid angle in adult human skulls

    PubMed Central

    Netto, Dante Simionato; Nascimento, Sergio Ricardo Rios; Ruiz, Cristiane Regina

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the variations in the angle basal sphenoid skulls of adult humans and their relationship to sex, age, ethnicity and cranial index. Methods The angles were measured in 160 skulls belonging to the Museum of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo Department of Morphology. We use two flexible rules and a goniometer, having as reference points for the first rule the posterior end of the ethmoidal crest and dorsum of the sella turcica, and for the second rule the anterior margin of the foramen magnum and clivus, measuring the angle at the intersection of two. Results The average angle was 115.41°, with no statistical correlation between the value of the angle and sex or age. A statistical correlation was noted between the value of the angle and ethnicity, and between the angle and the horizontal cranial index. Conclusions The distribution of the angle basal sphenoid was the same in sex, and there was correlation between the angle and ethnicity, being the proportion of non-white individuals with an angle >125° significantly higher than that of whites with an angle >125°. There was correlation between the angle and the cranial index, because skulls with higher cranial index tend to have higher basiesfenoidal angle too. PMID:25295452

  3. Bone-forming capacity of adult human nasal chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Pippenger, Benjamin E; Ventura, Manuela; Pelttari, Karoliina; Feliciano, Sandra; Jaquiery, Claude; Scherberich, Arnaud; Walboomers, X Frank; Barbero, Andrea; Martin, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Nasal chondrocytes (NC) derive from the same multipotent embryological segment that gives rise to the majority of the maxillofacial bone and have been reported to differentiate into osteoblast-like cells in vitro. In this study, we assessed the capacity of adult human NC, appropriately primed towards hypertrophic or osteoblastic differentiation, to form bone tissue in vivo. Hypertrophic induction of NC-based micromass pellets formed mineralized cartilaginous tissues rich in type X collagen, but upon implantation into subcutaneous pockets of nude mice remained avascular and reverted to stable hyaline-cartilage. In the same ectopic environment, NC embedded into ceramic scaffolds and primed with osteogenic medium only sporadically formed intramembranous bone tissue. A clonal study could not demonstrate that the low bone formation efficiency was related to a possibly small proportion of cells competent to become fully functional osteoblasts. We next tested whether the cues present in an orthotopic environment could induce a more efficient direct osteoblastic transformation of NC. Using a nude rat calvarial defect model, we demonstrated that (i) NC directly participated in frank bone formation and (ii) the efficiency of survival and bone formation by NC was significantly higher than that of reference osteogenic cells, namely bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells. This study provides a proof-of-principle that NC have the plasticity to convert into bone cells and thereby represent an easily available cell source to be further investigated for craniofacial bone regeneration. PMID:25689393

  4. A Contribution of Beef to Human Health: A Review of the Role of the Animal Production Systems

    PubMed Central

    Pighin, Dario; Pazos, Adriana; Chamorro, Verónica; Paschetta, Fernanda; Cunzolo, Sebastián; Godoy, Fernanda; Messina, Valeria; Pordomingo, Anibal; Grigioni, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Meat and meat products constitute important source of protein, fat, and several functional compounds. Although beef consumption may implicate possible negative impacts on human health, its consumption can also contribute to human health. Quality traits of beef, as well as its nutritional properties, depend on animal genetics, feeding, livestock practices, and post mortem procedures. Available data show that emerging beef production systems are able to improve both, quality and nutritional traits of beef in a sustainable way. In this context, Argentina's actions are aimed at maximising beef beneficial effects and minimising its negative impact on human health, in a way of contributing to global food security. PMID:26989765

  5. Increased Expression of the Large Conductance, Calcium-Activated K+ (BK) Channel in Adult-Onset Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis

    PubMed Central

    Donnelier, Julien; Braun, Samuel T.; Dolzhanskaya, Natalia; Ahrendt, Eva; Braun, Andrew P.; Velinov, Milen; Braun, Janice E. A.

    2015-01-01

    Cysteine string protein (CSPα) is a presynaptic J protein co-chaperone that opposes neurodegeneration. Mutations in CSPα (i.e., Leu115 to Arg substitution or deletion (Δ) of Leu116) cause adult neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (ANCL), a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease. We have previously demonstrated that CSPα limits the expression of large conductance, calcium-activated K+ (BK) channels in neurons, which may impact synaptic excitability and neurotransmission. Here we show by western blot analysis that expression of the pore-forming BKα subunit is elevated ~2.5 fold in the post-mortem cortex of a 36-year-old patient with the Leu116∆ CSPα mutation. Moreover, we find that the increase in BKα subunit level is selective for ANCL and not a general feature of neurodegenerative conditions. While reduced levels of CSPα are found in some postmortem cortex specimens from Alzheimer’s disease patients, we find no concomitant increase in BKα subunit expression in Alzheimer’s specimens. Both CSPα monomer and oligomer expression are reduced in synaptosomes prepared from ANCL cortex compared with control. In a cultured neuronal cell model, CSPα oligomers are short lived. The results of this study indicate that the Leu116∆ mutation leads to elevated BKα subunit levels in human cortex and extend our initial work in rodent models demonstrating the modulation of BKα subunit levels by the same CSPα mutation. While the precise sequence of pathogenic events still remains to be elucidated, our findings suggest that dysregulation of BK channels may contribute to neurodegeneration in ANCL. PMID:25905915

  6. Adult Education and the Human Environment: Transactions of a Celebration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Quartey, K. A. B., Ed.; And Others

    The document comprises a collection of speeches and seminar reports arising from the 25th anniversary celebration of the Institute of Adult Education at the University of Ghana. The theme of the celebration, introduced in the first chapter, was Adult Education and Man's Environment--the Next Quarter-Century. The second chapter comprises the…

  7. Subplate zone of the human brain: historical perspective and new concepts.

    PubMed

    Kostović, Ivica; Jovanov-Milosević, Natasa

    2008-01-01

    Subplate zone (SP) is prominent, transient laminar compartment of the human fetal cerebral wall. The SP develops around 13 and gradually disappears after 32-34 postovulatory weeks. The SP neurons can be found as late as nine postnatal months, while remnants of the SP neurons can be traced until adult age in the form of interstitial neurons of the gyral white matter. SP is composed of postmigratory and migratory neurons, growth cones, loosely arranged axons, dendrites, glial cell and synapses. The remarkable feature of the SP is the presence of large amount of extracellular matrix. This feature can be used for delineation of SP in magnetic resonance images (MRI) of both, in vivo and post mortem brains. The importance of SP as the main synaptic zone of the human fetal cortex is based on the rich input of ,waiting,< afferents from thalamus and cortex, during the crucial phase of cortical target area selection. SP increases during mammalian evolution and culminates in human brain concomitantly with increase in number and diversity of cortico-cortical fibers. The recent neurobiological evidence shows that SP is important site of spontaneous endogeneous activity, building a framework for development of cortical columnar organization. The SP which can be readily visualized on conventional and DTI (diffusion-tensor-imaging) MRI in vivo, today is in the focus of interest of pediatric neurology due to the following facts: (1) SP is the site of early neural activity, (2) SP is the major substrate for functional plasticity, and (3) selective vulnerability of SP may lead to cognitive impairment. PMID:18405051

  8. Transcriptional profiling of adult neural stem-like cells from the human brain.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Cecilie Jonsgar; Vik-Mo, Einar O; Behnan, Jinan; Helseth, Eirik; Langmoen, Iver A

    2014-01-01

    There is a great potential for the development of new cell replacement strategies based on adult human neural stem-like cells. However, little is known about the hierarchy of cells and the unique molecular properties of stem- and progenitor cells of the nervous system. Stem cells from the adult human brain can be propagated and expanded in vitro as free floating neurospheres that are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into all three cell types of the central nervous system. Here we report the first global gene expression study of adult human neural stem-like cells originating from five human subventricular zone biopsies (mean age 42, range 33-60). Compared to adult human brain tissue, we identified 1,189 genes that were significantly up- and down-regulated in adult human neural stem-like cells (1% false discovery rate). We found that adult human neural stem-like cells express stem cell markers and have reduced levels of markers that are typical of the mature cells in the nervous system. We report that the genes being highly expressed in adult human neural stem-like cells are associated with developmental processes and the extracellular region of the cell. The calcium signaling pathway and neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions are enriched among the most differentially regulated genes between adult human neural stem-like cells and adult human brain tissue. We confirmed the expression of 10 of the most up-regulated genes in adult human neural stem-like cells in an additional sample set that included adult human neural stem-like cells (n = 6), foetal human neural stem cells (n = 1) and human brain tissues (n = 12). The NGFR, SLITRK6 and KCNS3 receptors were further investigated by immunofluorescence and shown to be heterogeneously expressed in spheres. These receptors could potentially serve as new markers for the identification and characterisation of neural stem- and progenitor cells or as targets for manipulation of cellular fate.

  9. Transcriptional Profiling of Adult Neural Stem-Like Cells from the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Cecilie Jonsgar; Vik-Mo, Einar O.; Behnan, Jinan; Helseth, Eirik; Langmoen, Iver A.

    2014-01-01

    There is a great potential for the development of new cell replacement strategies based on adult human neural stem-like cells. However, little is known about the hierarchy of cells and the unique molecular properties of stem- and progenitor cells of the nervous system. Stem cells from the adult human brain can be propagated and expanded in vitro as free floating neurospheres that are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into all three cell types of the central nervous system. Here we report the first global gene expression study of adult human neural stem-like cells originating from five human subventricular zone biopsies (mean age 42, range 33–60). Compared to adult human brain tissue, we identified 1,189 genes that were significantly up- and down-regulated in adult human neural stem-like cells (1% false discovery rate). We found that adult human neural stem-like cells express stem cell markers and have reduced levels of markers that are typical of the mature cells in the nervous system. We report that the genes being highly expressed in adult human neural stem-like cells are associated with developmental processes and the extracellular region of the cell. The calcium signaling pathway and neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions are enriched among the most differentially regulated genes between adult human neural stem-like cells and adult human brain tissue. We confirmed the expression of 10 of the most up-regulated genes in adult human neural stem-like cells in an additional sample set that included adult human neural stem-like cells (n = 6), foetal human neural stem cells (n = 1) and human brain tissues (n = 12). The NGFR, SLITRK6 and KCNS3 receptors were further investigated by immunofluorescence and shown to be heterogeneously expressed in spheres. These receptors could potentially serve as new markers for the identification and characterisation of neural stem- and progenitor cells or as targets for manipulation of cellular fate. PMID

  10. Germline stem cells and neo-oogenesis in the adult human ovary.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yifei; Wu, Chao; Lyu, Qifeng; Yang, Dongzi; Albertini, David F; Keefe, David L; Liu, Lin

    2007-06-01

    It remains unclear whether neo-oogenesis occurs in postnatal ovaries of mammals, based on studies in mice. We thought to test whether adult human ovaries contain germline stem cells (GSCs) and undergo neo-oogenesis. Rather than using genetic manipulation which is unethical in humans, we took the approach of analyzing the expression of meiotic marker genes and genes for germ cell proliferation, which are required for neo-oogenesis, in adult human ovaries covering an age range from 28 to 53 years old, compared to testis and fetal ovaries served as positive controls. We show that active meiosis, neo-oogenesis and GSCs are unlikely to exist in normal, adult, human ovaries. No early meiotic-specific or oogenesis-associated mRNAs for SPO11, PRDM9, SCP1, TERT and NOBOX were detectable in adult human ovaries using RT-PCR, compared to fetal ovary and adult testis controls. These findings are further corroborated by the absence of early meiocytes and proliferating germ cells in adult human ovarian cortex probed with markers for meiosis (SCP3), oogonium (OCT3/4, c-KIT), and cell cycle progression (Ki-67, PCNA), in contrast to fetal ovary controls. If postnatal oogenesis is confirmed in mice, then this species would represent an exception to the rule that neo-oogenesis does not occur in adults.

  11. A comparison of erythrocyte glutathione S-transferase activity from human foetuses and adults.

    PubMed Central

    Strange, R C; Johnston, J D; Coghill, D R; Hume, R

    1980-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase activity was measured in partially purified haemolysates of erythrocytes from human foetuses and adults. Enzyme activity was present in erythrocytes obtained between 12 and 40 weeks of gestation. The catalytic properties of the enzyme from foetal cells were similar to those of the enzyme from adult erythrocytes, indicating that probably only one form of the erythrocytes enzyme exists throughout foetal and adult life. PMID:7396875

  12. Brain stem auditory evoked responses in human infants and adults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecox, K.; Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Brain stem evoked potentials were recorded by conventional scalp electrodes in infants (3 weeks to 3 years of age) and adults. The latency of one of the major response components (wave V) is shown to be a function both of click intensity and the age of the subject; this latency at a given signal strength shortens postnatally to reach the adult value (about 6 msec) by 12 to 18 months of age. The demonstrated reliability and limited variability of these brain stem electrophysiological responses provide the basis for an optimistic estimate of their usefulness as an objective method for assessing hearing in infants and adults.

  13. Adult Continuing Education and Human Resource Development: Present Competitors, Potential Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Douglas H.

    2006-01-01

    Adult Continuing Education (ACE) and Human Resource Development (HRD) have grown tremendously in the last quarter century. ACE experienced tremendous growth in the 60s and 70s, with over 17 million attending colleges and universities, and local school and community adult education programs by the end of the 1970s. More ACE programs were started…

  14. Reaching beyond the United States: Adventures in International Adult Education and Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henschke, John A.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his experience of how travel and adult education merged, for him, into a major emphasis in international adult education (AE) and human resource development (HRD). International ventures have been some of the most exciting and learning-filled aspects of the author's career in AE and HRD. His involvement in…

  15. Newborn human skin fibroblasts senesce in vitro without acquiring adult growth factor requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, W.

    1984-01-01

    Cultures of human fibroblasts were prepared from chest skin obtained either from newborns (less than 3 months old) or adults (more than 35 years old) and maintained in vitro until they senesced. Adult cells grew logarithmically in medium supplemented with whole blood serum but not with platelet-poor plasma. Early passage cells obtained from newborns grew equally well in either plasma- or serum-supplemented medium. The difference in growth factor requirements between adult and newborn cells persisted through the lifespan of the cells; i.e., newborn cells did not develop adult hormonal requirements when maintained in culture. Thus, in vitro cellular aging can be distinguished from some types of differentiation.

  16. Investigation of genes important in neurodevelopment disorders in adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Maussion, Gilles; Diallo, Alpha B; Gigek, Carolina O; Chen, Elizabeth S; Crapper, Liam; Théroux, Jean-Francois; Chen, Gary G; Vasuta, Cristina; Ernst, Carl

    2015-10-01

    Several neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are caused by mutations in genes expressed in fetal brain, but little is known about these same genes in adult human brain. Here, we test the hypothesis that genes associated with NDDs continue to have a role in adult human brain to explore the idea that NDD symptoms may be partially a result of their adult function rather than just their neurodevelopmental function. To demonstrate adult brain function, we performed expression analyses and ChIPseq in human neural stem cell(NSC) lines at different developmental stages and adult human brain, targeting two genes associated with NDDs, SATB2 and EHMT1, and the WNT signaling gene TCF7L2, which has not been associated with NDDs. Analysis of DNA interaction sites in neural stem cells reveals high (40-50 %) overlap between proliferating and differentiating cells for each gene in temporal space. Studies in adult brain demonstrate that consensus sites are similar to NSCs but occur at different genomic locations. We also performed expression analyses using BrainSpan data for NDD-associated genes SATB2, EHMT1, FMR1, MECP2, MBD5, CTNND2, RAI1, CHD8, GRIN2A, GRIN2B, TCF4, SCN2A, and DYRK1A and find high expression of these genes in adult brain, at least comparable to developing human brain, confirming that genes associated with NDDs likely have a role in adult tissue. Adult function of genes associated with NDDs might be important in clinical disease presentation and may be suitable targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26194112

  17. Investigation of genes important in neurodevelopment disorders in adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Maussion, Gilles; Diallo, Alpha B; Gigek, Carolina O; Chen, Elizabeth S; Crapper, Liam; Théroux, Jean-Francois; Chen, Gary G; Vasuta, Cristina; Ernst, Carl

    2015-10-01

    Several neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are caused by mutations in genes expressed in fetal brain, but little is known about these same genes in adult human brain. Here, we test the hypothesis that genes associated with NDDs continue to have a role in adult human brain to explore the idea that NDD symptoms may be partially a result of their adult function rather than just their neurodevelopmental function. To demonstrate adult brain function, we performed expression analyses and ChIPseq in human neural stem cell(NSC) lines at different developmental stages and adult human brain, targeting two genes associated with NDDs, SATB2 and EHMT1, and the WNT signaling gene TCF7L2, which has not been associated with NDDs. Analysis of DNA interaction sites in neural stem cells reveals high (40-50 %) overlap between proliferating and differentiating cells for each gene in temporal space. Studies in adult brain demonstrate that consensus sites are similar to NSCs but occur at different genomic locations. We also performed expression analyses using BrainSpan data for NDD-associated genes SATB2, EHMT1, FMR1, MECP2, MBD5, CTNND2, RAI1, CHD8, GRIN2A, GRIN2B, TCF4, SCN2A, and DYRK1A and find high expression of these genes in adult brain, at least comparable to developing human brain, confirming that genes associated with NDDs likely have a role in adult tissue. Adult function of genes associated with NDDs might be important in clinical disease presentation and may be suitable targets for therapeutic intervention.

  18. The Human Function Compunction: Teleological Explanation in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelemen, Deborah; Rosset, Evelyn

    2009-01-01

    Research has found that children possess a broad bias in favor of teleological--or purpose-based--explanations of natural phenomena. The current two experiments explored whether adults implicitly possess a similar bias. In Study 1, undergraduates judged a series of statements as "good" (i.e., correct) or "bad" (i.e., incorrect) explanations for…

  19. Teaching Adults with Learning Disabilities. Professional Practices in Adult Education and Human Resource Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Dale R.

    This book is designed to show teachers how to reach out to adults and adolescents with learning disabilities and employ specific strategies for helping them to compensate for the disabilities and acquire literacy skills. The ways in which specific differences in brain structure inhibit the mastery of reading, spelling, handwriting, phonics, and…

  20. Optimized magnetic resonance diffusion protocol for ex-vivo whole human brain imaging with a clinical scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherrer, Benoit; Afacan, Onur; Stamm, Aymeric; Singh, Jolene; Warfield, Simon K.

    2015-03-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) provides a novel insight into the brain to facilitate our understanding of the brain connectivity and microstructure. While in-vivo DW-MRI enables imaging of living patients and longitudinal studies of brain changes, post-mortem ex-vivo DW-MRI has numerous advantages. Ex-vivo imaging benefits from greater resolution and sensitivity due to the lack of imaging time constraints; the use of tighter fitting coils; and the lack of movement artifacts. This allows characterization of normal and abnormal tissues with unprecedented resolution and sensitivity, facilitating our ability to investigate anatomical structures that are inaccessible in-vivo. This also offers the opportunity to develop today novel imaging biomarkers that will, with tomorrow's MR technology, enable improved in-vivo assessment of the risk of disease in an individual. Post-mortem studies, however, generally rely on the fixation of specimen to inhibit tissue decay which starts as soon as tissue is deprived from its blood supply. Unfortunately, fixation of tissues substantially alters tissue diffusivity profiles. In addition, ex-vivo DW-MRI requires particular care when packaging the specimen because the presence of microscopic air bubbles gives rise to geometric and intensity image distortion. In this work, we considered the specific requirements of post-mortem imaging and designed an optimized protocol for ex-vivo whole brain DW-MRI using a human clinical 3T scanner. Human clinical 3T scanners are available to a large number of researchers and, unlike most animal scanners, have a bore diameter large enough to image a whole human brain. Our optimized protocol will facilitate widespread ex-vivo investigations of large specimen.

  1. Substance P immunoreactivity increases following human traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Zacest, Andrew C; Vink, Robert; Manavis, Jim; Sarvestani, Ghafar T; Blumbergs, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    Recent experimental evidence suggests that neuropeptides, and in particular substance P (SP), are released following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and may play a significant role in the aetiology of cerebral edema and increased intracranial pressure. Whether SP may play a similar role in clinical TBI remains unknown and was investigated in the current study. Archival post-mortem material was selected from patients who had sustained TBI, had died and had undergone post-mortem and detailed neuropathological examination (n = 13). A second cohort of patients who had died, but who showed no neuropathological abnormality (n = 10), served as case controls. Changes in SP immunoreactivity were examined in the cerebral cortex directly beneath the subdural haematoma in 7 TBI cases and in proximity to contusions in the other 6 cases. Increased SP perivascular immunoreactivity was observed after TBI in 10/13 cases, cortical neurones in 12/13 and astrocytes in 10/13 cases. Perivascular axonal injury was observed by amyloid precursor protein (APP) immunoreactivity in 6/13 TBI cases. Co-localization of SP and APP in a small subset of perivascular fibres suggests perivascular axonal injury could be a mechanism of release of this neuropeptide. The abundance of SP fibres around the human cerebral microvasculature, particularly post capillary venules, together with the changes observed following TBI in perivascular axons, cortical neurones and astrocytes suggest a potentially important role for substance P in neurogenic inflammation following human TBI. PMID:19812951

  2. The human function compunction: teleological explanation in adults.

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Deborah; Rosset, Evelyn

    2009-04-01

    Research has found that children possess a broad bias in favor of teleological--or purpose-based--explanations of natural phenomena. The current two experiments explored whether adults implicitly possess a similar bias. In Study 1, undergraduates judged a series of statements as "good" (i.e., correct) or "bad" (i.e., incorrect) explanations for why different phenomena occur. Judgments occurred in one of three conditions: fast speeded, moderately speeded, or unspeeded. Participants in speeded conditions judged significantly more scientifically unwarranted teleological explanations as correct (e.g., "the sun radiates heat because warmth nurtures life"), but were not more error-prone on control items (e.g., unwarranted physical explanations such as "hills form because floodwater freezes"). Study 2 extended these findings by examining the relationship between different aspects of adults' "promiscuous teleology" and other variables such as scientific knowledge, religious beliefs, and inhibitory control. Implications of these findings for scientific literacy are discussed. PMID:19200537

  3. Exploratory Metabolomic Analyses Reveal Compounds Correlated with Lutein Concentration in Frontal Cortex, Hippocampus, and Occipital Cortex of Human Infant Brain.

    PubMed

    Lieblein-Boff, Jacqueline C; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Kennedy, Adam D; Lai, Chron-Si; Kuchan, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Lutein is a dietary carotenoid well known for its role as an antioxidant in the macula, and recent reports implicate a role for lutein in cognitive function. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in both pediatric and geriatric brain tissue. In addition, cognitive function in older adults correlated with macular and postmortem brain lutein concentrations. Furthermore, lutein was found to preferentially accumulate in the infant brain in comparison to other carotenoids that are predominant in diet. While lutein is consistently related to cognitive function, the mechanisms by which lutein may influence cognition are not clear. In an effort to identify potential mechanisms through which lutein might influence neurodevelopment, an exploratory study relating metabolite signatures and lutein was completed. Post-mortem metabolomic analyses were performed on human infant brain tissues in three regions important for learning and memory: the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and occipital cortex. Metabolomic profiles were compared to lutein concentration, and correlations were identified and reported here. A total of 1276 correlations were carried out across all brain regions. Of 427 metabolites analyzed, 257 were metabolites of known identity. Unidentified metabolite correlations (510) were excluded. In addition, moderate correlations with xenobiotic relationships (2) or those driven by single outliers (3) were excluded from further study. Lutein concentrations correlated with lipid pathway metabolites, energy pathway metabolites, brain osmolytes, amino acid neurotransmitters, and the antioxidant homocarnosine. These correlations were often brain region-specific. Revealing relationships between lutein and metabolic pathways may help identify potential candidates on which to complete further analyses and may shed light on important roles of lutein in the human brain during development.

  4. Exploratory Metabolomic Analyses Reveal Compounds Correlated with Lutein Concentration in Frontal Cortex, Hippocampus, and Occipital Cortex of Human Infant Brain

    PubMed Central

    Lieblein-Boff, Jacqueline C.; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Kennedy, Adam D.; Lai, Chron-Si; Kuchan, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Lutein is a dietary carotenoid well known for its role as an antioxidant in the macula, and recent reports implicate a role for lutein in cognitive function. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in both pediatric and geriatric brain tissue. In addition, cognitive function in older adults correlated with macular and postmortem brain lutein concentrations. Furthermore, lutein was found to preferentially accumulate in the infant brain in comparison to other carotenoids that are predominant in diet. While lutein is consistently related to cognitive function, the mechanisms by which lutein may influence cognition are not clear. In an effort to identify potential mechanisms through which lutein might influence neurodevelopment, an exploratory study relating metabolite signatures and lutein was completed. Post-mortem metabolomic analyses were performed on human infant brain tissues in three regions important for learning and memory: the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and occipital cortex. Metabolomic profiles were compared to lutein concentration, and correlations were identified and reported here. A total of 1276 correlations were carried out across all brain regions. Of 427 metabolites analyzed, 257 were metabolites of known identity. Unidentified metabolite correlations (510) were excluded. In addition, moderate correlations with xenobiotic relationships (2) or those driven by single outliers (3) were excluded from further study. Lutein concentrations correlated with lipid pathway metabolites, energy pathway metabolites, brain osmolytes, amino acid neurotransmitters, and the antioxidant homocarnosine. These correlations were often brain region—specific. Revealing relationships between lutein and metabolic pathways may help identify potential candidates on which to complete further analyses and may shed light on important roles of lutein in the human brain during development. PMID:26317757

  5. Human brain diffusion tensor imaging at submillimeter isotropic resolution on a 3Tesla clinical MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hing-Chiu; Sundman, Mark; Petit, Laurent; Guhaniyogi, Shayan; Chu, Mei-Lan; Petty, Christopher; Song, Allen W; Chen, Nan-kuei

    2015-09-01

    The advantages of high-resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been demonstrated in a recent post-mortem human brain study (Miller et al., NeuroImage 2011;57(1):167-181), showing that white matter fiber tracts can be much more accurately detected in data at a submillimeter isotropic resolution. To our knowledge, in vivo human brain DTI at a submillimeter isotropic resolution has not been routinely achieved yet because of the difficulty in simultaneously achieving high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in DTI scans. Here we report a 3D multi-slab interleaved EPI acquisition integrated with multiplexed sensitivity encoded (MUSE) reconstruction, to achieve high-quality, high-SNR and submillimeter isotropic resolution (0.85×0.85×0.85mm(3)) in vivo human brain DTI on a 3Tesla clinical MRI scanner. In agreement with the previously reported post-mortem human brain DTI study, our in vivo data show that the structural connectivity networks of human brains can be mapped more accurately and completely with high-resolution DTI as compared with conventional DTI (e.g., 2×2×2mm(3)).

  6. Human brain diffusion tensor imaging at submillimeter isotropic resolution on a 3 Tesla clinical MRI scanner

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hing-Chiu; Sundman, Mark; Petit, Laurent; Guhaniyogi, Shayan; Chu, Mei-Lan; Petty, Christopher; Song, Allen W.; Chen, Nan-kuei

    2015-01-01

    The advantages of high-resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been demonstrated in a recent post-mortem human brain study (Miller et al., NeuroImage 2011;57(1):167–181), showing that white matter fiber tracts can be much more accurately detected in data at submillimeter isotropic resolution. To our knowledge, in vivo human brain DTI at submillimeter isotropic resolution has not been routinely achieved yet because of the difficulty in simultaneously achieving high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in DTI scans. Here we report a 3D multi-slab interleaved EPI acquisition integrated with multiplexed sensitivity encoded (MUSE) reconstruction, to achieve high-quality, high-SNR and submillimeter isotropic resolution (0.85 × 0.85 × 0.85 mm3) in vivo human brain DTI on a 3 Tesla clinical MRI scanner. In agreement with the previously reported post-mortem human brain DTI study, our in vivo data show that the structural connectivity networks of human brains can be mapped more accurately and completely with high-resolution DTI as compared with conventional DTI (e.g., 2 × 2 × 2 mm3). PMID:26072250

  7. The Adult Learning Disabled Employee: The Organization's Hidden Human Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macomber, Janet A.

    This paper describes an experiment with background material designed to promote problem (learning disabled) employees as human resources rather than rejects. The material is presented in the form of the transcript of a fictional advisory committee meeting attended by the human resources manager, assistant corporate counsel, training director, line…

  8. Adult Education and Human Capital: Leadership from the Fortune 500.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Teresa M.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 333 Fortune 500 firms received 81 replies indicating that (1) two-thirds formally recognized the value of human resources; (2) most had changed corporate policy regarding human capital; and (3) most training was provided in the ares of new employee orientation, current job needs, customer relations, personal development, and…

  9. Alternative Sources of Adult Stem Cells: Human Amniotic Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolbank, Susanne; van Griensven, Martijn; Grillari-Voglauer, Regina; Peterbauer-Scherb, Anja

    Human amniotic membrane is a highly promising cell source for tissue engineering. The cells thereof, human amniotic epithelial cells (hAEC) and human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSC), may be immunoprivileged, they represent an early developmental status, and their application is ethically uncontroversial. Cell banking strategies may use freshly isolated cells or involve in vitro expansion to increase cell numbers. Therefore, we have thoroughly characterized the effect of in vitro cultivation on both phenotype and differentiation potential of hAEC. Moreover, we present different strategies to improve expansion including replacement of animal-derived supplements by human platelet products or the introduction of the catalytic subunit of human telomerase to extend the in vitro lifespan of amniotic cells. Characterization of the resulting cultures includes phenotype, growth characteristics, and differentiation potential, as well as immunogenic and immunomodulatory properties.

  10. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Harimurti, Kuntjoro; Saldi, Siti R F; Dewiasty, Esthika; Khoeri, Miftahuddin M; Yunihastuti, Evi; Putri, Tiara; Tafroji, Wisnu; Safari, Dodi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution of serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae carried by adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Jakarta, Indonesia. Specimens of nasopharyngeal swab were collected from 200 HIV infected adults aged 21 to 63 years. Identification of S. pneumoniae was done by optochin susceptibility test and PCR for the presence of psaA and lytA genes. Serotyping was performed with sequential multiplex PCR and antibiotic susceptibility with the disk diffusion method. S. pneumoniae strains were carried by 10% adults with serotype 6A/B 20% was common serotype among cultured strains in 20 adults. Most of isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol (80%) followed by clindamycin (75%), erythromycin (75%), penicillin (55%), and tetracycline (50%). This study found resistance to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim was most common with only 15% of strains being susceptible. High non-susceptibility to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim was observed in S. pneumoniae strains carried by HIV infected adults in Jakarta, Indonesia.

  11. Molecular Mechanism of Adult Neurogenesis and its Association with Human Brain Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, He; Song, Ni

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience challenge the old dogma that neurogenesis occurs only during embryonic development. Mounting evidence suggests that functional neurogenesis occurs throughout adulthood. This review article discusses molecular factors that affect adult neurogenesis, including morphogens, growth factors, neurotransmitters, transcription factors, and epigenetic factors. Furthermore, we summarize and compare current evidence of associations between adult neurogenesis and human brain diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and brain tumors. PMID:27375363

  12. Molecular Mechanism of Adult Neurogenesis and its Association with Human Brain Diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, He; Song, Ni

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience challenge the old dogma that neurogenesis occurs only during embryonic development. Mounting evidence suggests that functional neurogenesis occurs throughout adulthood. This review article discusses molecular factors that affect adult neurogenesis, including morphogens, growth factors, neurotransmitters, transcription factors, and epigenetic factors. Furthermore, we summarize and compare current evidence of associations between adult neurogenesis and human brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and brain tumors. PMID:27375363

  13. [Dietary phytoestrogen and its potential benefits in adult human health].

    PubMed

    Garrido, Argelia; de la Maza, María Pía; Valladares, Luis

    2003-11-01

    Human diet contains a series of bioactive vegetal compounds that can improve human health. Among these, there has been a special interest for phytoestrogens. This article reviews the evidence about the potential benefits of phytoestrogens for human health. Forty eight manuscripts were selected for their study design and relevance to human health. The cell growth inhibitory effects of phytoestrogens and their implication in breast cancer are reviewed. Also the effects of these compounds on serum lipid levels and the effectiveness of a phytoestrogen derivate, ipriflavone, on the prevention of osteoporosis are analyzed. Although these compounds have a great potential for improving health, there is still not enough evidence to recommend the routine use of phytoestrogens.

  14. Cold Preservation of Human Adult Hepatocytes for Liver Cell Therapy.

    PubMed

    Duret, Cedric; Moreno, Daniel; Balasiddaiah, Anangi; Roux, Solene; Briolotti, Phillipe; Raulet, Edith; Herrero, Astrid; Ramet, Helene; Biron-Andreani, Christine; Gerbal-Chaloin, Sabine; Ramos, Jeanne; Navarro, Francis; Hardwigsen, Jean; Maurel, Patrick; Aldabe, Rafael; Daujat-Chavanieu, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation is a promising alternative therapy for the treatment of hepatic failure, hepatocellular deficiency, and genetic metabolic disorders. Hypothermic preservation of isolated human hepatocytes is potentially a simple and convenient strategy to provide on-demand hepatocytes in sufficient quantity and of the quality required for biotherapy. In this study, first we assessed how cold storage in three clinically safe preservative solutions (UW, HTS-FRS, and IGL-1) affects the viability and in vitro functionality of human hepatocytes. Then we evaluated whether such cold-preserved human hepatocytes could engraft and repopulate damaged livers in a mouse model of liver failure. Human hepatocytes showed comparable viabilities after cold preservation in the three solutions. The ability of fresh and cold-stored hepatocytes to attach to a collagen substratum and to synthesize and secrete albumin, coagulation factor VII, and urea in the medium after 3 days in culture was also equally preserved. Cold-stored hepatocytes were then transplanted in the spleen of immunodeficient mice previously infected with adenoviruses containing a thymidine kinase construct and treated with a single dose of ganciclovir to induce liver injury. Engraftment and liver repopulation were monitored over time by measuring the blood level of human albumin and by assessing the expression of specific human hepatic mRNAs and proteins in the recipient livers by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Our findings show that cold-stored human hepatocytes in IGL-1 and HTS-FRS preservative solutions can survive, engraft, and proliferate in a damaged mouse liver. These results demonstrate the usefulness of human hepatocyte hypothermic preservation for cell transplantation. PMID:25622096

  15. Preparation of human formalin-fixed brain slices for electron microscopic investigations.

    PubMed

    Krause, Martin; Brüne, Martin; Theiss, Carsten

    2016-07-01

    Ultra-structural analysis of human post-mortem brain tissue is important for investigations into the pathomechanism of neuropsychiatric disorders, especially those lacking alternative models of studying human-specific morphological features. For example, Von Economo Neurons (VENs) mainly located in the anterior cingulate cortex and in the anterior part of the insula, which seem to play a role in a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions, including frontotemporal dementia, autism and schizophrenia, can hardly be studied in nonhuman animals. Accordingly, little is known about the ultra-structural alterations of these neurons, though important research using qualitative stereological methods has revealed that protein expression of the VENs assigns them a role in immune function. Formaldehyde, which is the most common fixative in human pathology, interferes with the immunoreactivity of the tissue, possibly leading to unreliable results. Therefore, a method for ultra-structural investigations independent of antigenic properties of the fixated tissue is needed. Here, we propose an approach using electron microscopy to examine cytoskeletal structures, synapses and mitochondria in these cells. We also show that our methodology is able to keep tissue consumption to a minimum, while still allowing for the specimens to be handled with ease by using agar embedded slices in contrast to blocks for the embedding procedure. Accordingly, a stepwise protocol utilising 60μm thick human post mortem brain sections for electron microscopic ultra-structural investigations is presented. PMID:27136748

  16. A century of trends in adult human height.

    PubMed

    2016-07-26

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5-22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3-19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8-144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.

  17. A century of trends in adult human height

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5–22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3–19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8–144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13410.001 PMID:27458798

  18. Resident aerobic microbiota of the adult human nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, T T; Kirkeby, L P; Poulsen, K; Reinholdt, J; Kilian, M

    2000-10-01

    Recent evidence strongly suggests that the microbiota of the nasal cavity plays a crucial role in determining the reaction patterns of the mucosal and systemic immune system. However, little is known about the normal microbiota of the nasal cavity. The purpose of this study was to determine the microbiota in different parts of the nasal cavity and to develop and evaluate methods for this purpose. Samples were collected from 10 healthy adults by nasal washes and by swabbing of the mucosa through a sterile introduction device. Both methods gave results that were quantitatively and qualitatively reproducible, and revealed significant differences in the density of the nasal microbiota between individuals. The study revealed absence of gram-negative bacteria that are regular members of the commensal microbiota of the pharynx. Likewise, viridans type streptococci were sparsely represented. The nasal microbiota was dominated by species of the genera Corynebacterium, Aureobacterium, Rhodococcus, and Staphylococcus, including S. epidermis, S. capitis, S. hominis, S. haemolyticus, S. lugdunensis and S. warneri. These studies show that the microbiota of the nasal cavity of adults is strikingly different from that of the pharynx, and that the nasal cavity is a primary habitat for several species of diphtheroids recognized as opportunistic pathogens. Under special circumstances, single species, including IgA1 protease-producing bacteria, may become predominant in a restricted area of the nasal mucosa. PMID:11200821

  19. A century of trends in adult human height.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5-22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3-19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8-144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries. PMID:27458798

  20. Hesperetin induces melanin production in adult human epidermal melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Usach, Iris; Taléns-Visconti, Raquel; Magraner-Pardo, Lorena; Peris, José-Esteban

    2015-06-01

    One of the major sources of flavonoids for humans are citrus fruits, hesperidin being the predominant flavonoid. Hesperetin (HSP), the aglycon of hesperidin, has been reported to provide health benefits such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic effects. However, the effect of HSP on skin pigmentation is not clear. Some authors have found that HSP induces melanogenesis in murine B16-F10 melanoma cells, which, if extrapolated to in vivo conditions, might protect skin against photodamage. Since the effect of HSP on normal melanocytes could be different to that observed on melanoma cells, the described effect of HSP on murine melanoma cells has been compared to the effect obtained using normal human melanocytes. HSP concentrations of 25 and 50 µM induced melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in human melanocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared to control melanocytes, 25 µM HSP increased melanin production and tyrosinase activity 1.4-fold (p < 0.01) and 1.1-fold (p < 0.01), respectively, and the corresponding increases in the case of 50 µM HSP were 1.9-fold (p < 0.001) and 1.3-fold (p < 0.001). Therefore, HSP could be considered a valuable photoprotective substance if its capacity to increase melanin production in human melanocyte cultures could be reproduced on human skin.

  1. The landscape of genomic imprinting across diverse adult human tissues

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Yael; Subramaniam, Meena; Biton, Anne; Tukiainen, Taru; Tsang, Emily K.; Rivas, Manuel A.; Pirinen, Matti; Gutierrez-Arcelus, Maria; Smith, Kevin S.; Kukurba, Kim R.; Zhang, Rui; Eng, Celeste; Torgerson, Dara G.; Urbanek, Cydney; Li, Jin Billy; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Burchard, Esteban G.; Seibold, Max A.; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Zaitlen, Noah A.; Lappalainen, Tuuli

    2015-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is an important regulatory mechanism that silences one of the parental copies of a gene. To systematically characterize this phenomenon, we analyze tissue specificity of imprinting from allelic expression data in 1582 primary tissue samples from 178 individuals from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. We characterize imprinting in 42 genes, including both novel and previously identified genes. Tissue specificity of imprinting is widespread, and gender-specific effects are revealed in a small number of genes in muscle with stronger imprinting in males. IGF2 shows maternal expression in the brain instead of the canonical paternal expression elsewhere. Imprinting appears to have only a subtle impact on tissue-specific expression levels, with genes lacking a systematic expression difference between tissues with imprinted and biallelic expression. In summary, our systematic characterization of imprinting in adult tissues highlights variation in imprinting between genes, individuals, and tissues. PMID:25953952

  2. Investigation of G72 (DAOA) expression in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Benzel, Isabel; Kew, James NC; Viknaraja, Ramya; Kelly, Fiona; de Belleroche, Jacqueline; Hirsch, Steven; Sanderson, Thirza H; Maycox, Peter R

    2008-01-01

    Background Polymorphisms at the G72/G30 locus on chromosome 13q have been associated with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder in more than ten independent studies. Even though the genetic findings are very robust, the physiological role of the predicted G72 protein has thus far not been resolved. Initial reports suggested G72 as an activator of D-amino acid oxidase (DAO), supporting the glutamate dysfunction hypothesis of schizophrenia. However, these findings have subsequently not been reproduced and reports of endogenous human G72 mRNA and protein expression are extremely limited. In order to better understand the function of this putative schizophrenia susceptibility gene, we attempted to demonstrate G72 mRNA and protein expression in relevant human brain regions. Methods The expression of G72 mRNA was studied by northern blotting and semi-quantitative SYBR-Green and Taqman RT-PCR. Protein expression in human tissue lysates was investigated by western blotting using two custom-made specific anti-G72 peptide antibodies. An in-depth in silico analysis of the G72/G30 locus was performed in order to try and identify motifs or regulatory elements that provide insight to G72 mRNA expression and transcript stability. Results Despite using highly sensitive techniques, we failed to identify significant levels of G72 mRNA in a variety of human tissues (e.g. adult brain, amygdala, caudate nucleus, fetal brain, spinal cord and testis) human cell lines or schizophrenia/control post mortem BA10 samples. Furthermore, using western blotting in combination with sensitive detection methods, we were also unable to detect G72 protein in a number of human brain regions (including cerebellum and amygdala), spinal cord or testis. A detailed in silico analysis provides several lines of evidence that support the apparent low or absent expression of G72. Conclusion Our results suggest that native G72 protein is not normally present in the tissues that we analysed in this study. We also

  3. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S.; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high‐dose hormone application in adult female‐to‐male transsexuals. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4 weeks of testosterone treatment, with each scan including structural, diffusion weighted and functional imaging. Voxel‐based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter volume with increasing levels of bioavailable testosterone exclusively in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Particularly, this may link known sex differences in language performance to the influence of testosterone on relevant brain regions. Using probabilistic tractography, we further observed that longitudinal changes in testosterone negatively predicted changes in mean diffusivity of the corresponding structural connection passing through the extreme capsule. Considering a related increase in myelin staining in rodents, this potentially reflects a strengthening of the fiber tract particularly involved in language comprehension. Finally, functional images at resting‐state were evaluated, showing increased functional connectivity between the two brain regions with increasing testosterone levels. These findings suggest testosterone‐dependent neuroplastic adaptations in adulthood within language‐specific brain regions and connections. Importantly, deteriorations in gray matter volume seem to be compensated by enhancement of corresponding structural and functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1738–1748, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876303

  4. Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jake; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell

    2016-08-01

    Improved survival with combination antiretroviral therapy has led to a dramatic increase in the number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals 50 years of age or older such that by 2020 more than 50% of HIV-infected persons in the United States will be above this age. Recent studies confirm that antiretroviral therapy should be offered to all HIV-infected patients regardless of age, symptoms, CD4+ cell count, or HIV viral load. However, when compared with HIV-uninfected populations, even with suppression of measurable HIV replication, older individuals are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease, malignancies, liver disease, and other comorbidities.

  5. Adult human adipose tissue contains several types of multipotent cells.

    PubMed

    Tallone, Tiziano; Realini, Claudio; Böhmler, Andreas; Kornfeld, Christopher; Vassalli, Giuseppe; Moccetti, Tiziano; Bardelli, Silvana; Soldati, Gianni

    2011-04-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a type of adult stem cells that can be easily isolated from various tissues and expanded in vitro. Many reports on their pluripotency and possible clinical applications have raised hopes and interest in MSCs. In an attempt to unify the terminology and the criteria to label a cell as MSC, in 2006 the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) proposed a standard set of rules to define the identity of these cells. However, MSCs are still extracted from different tissues, by diverse isolation protocols, are cultured and expanded in different media and conditions. All these variables may have profound effects on the selection of cell types and the composition of heterogeneous subpopulations, on the selective expansion of specific cell populations with totally different potentials and ergo, on the long-term fate of the cells upon in vitro culture. Therefore, specific molecular and cellular markers that identify MSCs subsets as well as standardization of expansion protocols for these cells are urgently needed. Here, we briefly discuss new useful markers and recent data supporting the rapidly emerging concept that many different types of progenitor cells are found in close association with blood vessels. This knowledge may promote the necessary technical improvements required to reduce variability and promote higher efficacy and safety when isolating and expanding these cells for therapeutic use. In the light of the discussed data, particularly the identification of new markers, and advances in the understanding of fundamental MSC biology, we also suggest a revision of the 2006 ISCT criteria.

  6. Human germ cell differentiation from fetal- and adult-derived induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Panula, Sarita; Medrano, Jose V.; Kee, Kehkooi; Bergström, Rosita; Nguyen, Ha Nam; Byers, Blake; Wilson, Kitchener D.; Wu, Joseph C.; Simon, Carlos; Hovatta, Outi; Reijo Pera, Renee A.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, our understanding of molecular genetic aspects of human germ cell development has been limited, at least in part due to inaccessibility of early stages of human development to experimentation. However, the derivation of pluripotent stem cells may provide the necessary human genetic system to study germ cell development. In this study, we compared the potential of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), derived from adult and fetal somatic cells to form primordial and meiotic germ cells, relative to human embryonic stem cells. We found that ∼5% of human iPSCs differentiated to primordial germ cells (PGCs) following induction with bone morphogenetic proteins. Furthermore, we observed that PGCs expressed green fluorescent protein from a germ cell-specific reporter and were enriched for the expression of endogenous germ cell-specific proteins and mRNAs. In response to the overexpression of intrinsic regulators, we also observed that iPSCs formed meiotic cells with extensive synaptonemal complexes and post-meiotic haploid cells with a similar pattern of ACROSIN staining as observed in human spermatids. These results indicate that human iPSCs derived from reprogramming of adult somatic cells can form germline cells. This system may provide a useful model for molecular genetic studies of human germline formation and pathology and a novel platform for clinical studies and potential therapeutical applications. PMID:21131292

  7. Treatment of Human-Caused Trauma: Attrition in the Adult Outcomes Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthieu, Monica; Ivanoff, Andre

    2006-01-01

    Attrition or dropout is the failure of a participant to complete, comply, or the prematurely discontinuation or discharge from treatment, resulting in lost data and affecting outcomes. This review of 10 years of adult posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment outcome literature specific to Criterion A events of human origin examines how…

  8. Adult attachment style is associated with cerebral μ-opioid receptor availability in humans.

    PubMed

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Manninen, Sandra; Tuominen, Lauri; Hirvonen, Jussi; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Nuutila, Pirjo; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Hari, Riitta; Dunbar, Robin I M; Sams, Mikko

    2015-09-01

    Human attachment behavior mediates establishment and maintenance of social relationships. Adult attachment characteristically varies on anxiety and avoidance dimensions, reflecting the tendencies to worry about the partner breaking the social bond (anxiety) and feeling uncomfortable about depending on others (avoidance). In primates and other mammals, the endogenous μ-opioid system is linked to long-term social bonding, but evidence of its role in human adult attachment remains more limited. We used in vivo positron emission tomography to reveal how variability in μ-opioid receptor (MOR) availability is associated with adult attachment in humans. We scanned 49 healthy subjects using a MOR-specific ligand [(11) C]carfentanil and measured their attachment avoidance and anxiety with the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised scale. The avoidance dimension of attachment correlated negatively with MOR availability in the thalamus and anterior cingulate cortex, as well as the frontal cortex, amygdala, and insula. No associations were observed between MOR availability and the anxiety dimension of attachment. Our results suggest that the endogenous opioid system may underlie interindividual differences in avoidant attachment style in human adults, and that differences in MOR availability are associated with the individuals' social relationships and psychosocial well-being. PMID:26046928

  9. Perspectives on Adult Education, Human Resource Development, and the Emergence of Workforce Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a perspective on the relationship between adult education and human resource development of the past two decades and the subsequent emergence of workforce development. The lesson taken from the article should be more than simply a recounting of events related to these fields of study. Instead, the more general lesson may be…

  10. Concept Maps: Practice Applications in Adult Education and Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Concept maps can be used as both a cognitive and constructivist learning strategy in teaching and learning in adult education and human resource development. The maps can be used to understand course readings, analyze case studies, develop reflective thinking and enhance research skills. The creation of concept maps can also be supported by the…

  11. Emotions and Human Concern: Adult Education and the Philosophical Thought of Martha Nussbaum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Donovan

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that philosopher Martha Nussbaum's reflections on the role of the emotions in human flourishing can contribute in important ways to our understanding of the emotions in adult education contexts. The article summarises Nussbaum's exploration of the contributions of classical philosophers like Socrates, Aristotle, and…

  12. Evaluation of Serum Creatinine Changes With Integrase Inhibitor Use in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lindeman, Tara A.; Duggan, Joan M.; Sahloff, Eric G.

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective chart review evaluated changes in serum creatinine and creatinine clearance (CrCl) after initiation of an integrase inhibitor (INSTI)-based regimen as initial treatment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults. Serum creatinine and CrCl changes were similar to those seen in clinical trials for INSTIs. No renal-related serious adverse events or discontinuations occurred. PMID:27092314

  13. NIRS Measurement of Venous Oxygen Saturation in the Adult Human Head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Derek W.; Haensse, Daniel; Bauschatz, Andrea; Wolf, Martin

    Provided that both the breathing frequency remains constant and that the temporal resolution of the instrument is sufficiently high, NIRS spiroximetry enables measurement of cerebral SvO2 in healthy human adults. Furthermore, simultaneous measurements of StO2, SaO2, and SvO2 enable calculation of both OEF and the compartmental distribution of cerebral blood volume.

  14. Equality and Human Capital: Conflicting Concepts within State-Funded Adult Education in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a critique of the concept of equality as it informs the White Paper on Adult Education: Learning for Life (2000). It also outlines the extent to which human capital theory can be seen to have effectively colonised lifelong learning from the outset of its adoption by the European Union with highly constraining implications for…

  15. Severe Infections with Human Adenovirus 7d in 2 Adults in Family, Illinois, USA, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Ison, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Human adenovirus 7d, a genomic variant with no reported circulation in the United States, was isolated from 2 adults with severe respiratory infections in Illinois. Molecular typing identified a close relationship with strains of the same genome type isolated from cases of respiratory disease in several provinces of China since 2009. PMID:26982199

  16. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part One, Assumptions, Definitions, and Critiques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere

    2006-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995).…

  17. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part Two, the Critical Turn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere

    2006-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995). The…

  18. An Assessemnt of Graduate Adult Education and Human Resource Development Programs: A U.S. Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akdere, Mesut; Conceicao, Simone C. O.

    2009-01-01

    Due to recent changes in the workplace, the workforce and higher education have driven academic programs of adult education (AE) and human resource development (HRD) in the U.S. to become more integrated as part of the mission of institutions of higher education. In this exploratory study, existing graduate programs in AE and HRD in the U.S. were…

  19. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part Two, the Critical Turn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere

    2014-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995). The…

  20. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part One, Assumptions, Definitions, and Critiques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere

    2013-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995).…

  1. In vivo functional and myeloarchitectonic mapping of human primary auditory areas

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Frederic; Tierney, Adam Taylor; Lutti, Antoine; Josephs, Oliver; Sereno, Martin I.; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to vision, where retinotopic mapping alone can define areal borders, primary auditory areas such as A1 are best delineated by combining in vivo tonotopic mapping with post mortem cyto- or myelo-architectonics from the same individual. We combined high-resolution (800 μm) quantitative T1 mapping with phase-encoded tonotopic methods to map primary auditory areas (A1 and R) within the ‘auditory core’ of human volunteers. We first quantitatively characterize the highly myelinated auditory core in terms of shape, area, cortical depth profile, and position, with our data showing considerable correspondence to post-mortem myeloarchitectonic studies, both in cross-participant averages and in individuals. The core region contains two ‘mirror-image‘ tonotopic maps oriented along the same axis as observed in macaque and owl monkey. We suggest that thee two maps within the core are the human analogues of primate auditory areas A1 and R. The core occupies a much smaller portion of tonotopically organized cortex on the superior temporal plane and gyrus than is generally supposed. The multi-modal approach to defining the auditory core will facilitate investigations of structure-function relationships, comparative neuroanatomical studies, and promises new biomarkers for diagnosis and clinical studies. PMID:23152594

  2. Myelin and iron concentration in the human brain: a quantitative study of MRI contrast.

    PubMed

    Stüber, Carsten; Morawski, Markus; Schäfer, Andreas; Labadie, Christian; Wähnert, Miriam; Leuze, Christoph; Streicher, Markus; Barapatre, Nirav; Reimann, Katja; Geyer, Stefan; Spemann, Daniel; Turner, Robert

    2014-06-01

    During the last five years ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has enabled an unprecedented view of living human brain. Brain tissue contrast in most MRI sequences is known to reflect mainly the spatial distributions of myelin and iron. These distributions have been shown to overlap significantly in many brain regions, especially in the cortex. It is of increasing interest to distinguish and identify cortical areas by their appearance in MRI, which has been shown to be feasible in vivo. Parcellation can benefit greatly from quantification of the independent contributions of iron and myelin to MRI contrast. Recent studies using susceptibility mapping claim to allow such a separation of the effects of myelin and iron in MRI. We show, using post-mortem human brain tissue, that this goal can be achieved. After MRI scanning of the block with appropriate T1 mapping and T2* weighted sequences, we section the block and apply a novel technique, proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE), to spatially map iron, phosphorus and sulfur elemental concentrations, simultaneously with 1μm spatial resolution. Because most brain phosphorus is located in myelin phospholipids, a calibration step utilizing element maps of sulfur enables semi-quantitative ex vivo mapping of myelin concentration. Combining results for iron and myelin concentration in a linear model, we have accurately modeled MRI tissue contrasts. Conversely, iron and myelin concentrations can now be estimated from appropriate MRI measurements in post-mortem brain samples. PMID:24607447

  3. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  4. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  5. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated...

  6. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated...

  7. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  8. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  9. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  10. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  11. Self-Control and Impulsiveness in Nondieting Adult Human Females: Effects of Visual Food Cues and Food Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forzano, Lori-Ann B.; Chelonis, John J.; Casey, Caitlin; Forward, Marion; Stachowiak, Jacqueline A.; Wood, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Self-control can be defined as the choice of a larger, more delayed reinforcer over a smaller, less delayed reinforcer, and impulsiveness as the opposite. Previous research suggests that exposure to visual food cues affects adult humans' self-control. Previous research also suggests that food deprivation decreases adult humans' self-control. The…

  12. Predictions of ozone absorption in human lungs from newborn to adult

    SciTech Connect

    Overton, J.H.; Graham, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Dosimetry models for gases mainly have been used to predict absorption in adult humans and laboratory animals. The lack of lower respiratory tract (LRT) lung models for children has discouraged the application of theoretical gaseous dosimetry to this important sub-population. To fill this gap the authors have used several sources of data on age dependent LRT volumes, age dependent airway dimensions, a model of an adult tracheobronchial region, and a model of the adult acinus to construct theoretical LRT lung models for humans from birth to adult. An ozone (O{sub 3}) dosimetry model was then used to estimate the regional and local uptake of O{sub 3} in the (theoretical) LRTs of children and adults. For sedentary breathing, the LRT distribution of absorbed O{sub 3}, the percent uptake (76 to 85%), and the centriacinar O{sub 3} tissue dose are not very sensitive to age. For maximal work during exercise, predicted uptakes range from 83 to 91%, and the regional percent uptakes are more dependent on age than during quiet breathing. In general, total O{sub 3} absorption per minute increases with age. Regardless of age and state of breathing, the largest tissue dose of O{sub 3} is predicted to occur in the centriacinar region, where many animal studies show the maximal morphological damage due to O{sub 3}.

  13. Larval food quantity affects the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit human malaria

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Lillian L. M.; Murdock, Courtney C.; Jacobs, Gregory R.; Thomas, Rachel J.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Adult traits of holometabolous insects are shaped by conditions experienced during larval development, which might impact interactions between adult insect hosts and parasites. However, the ecology of larval insects that vector disease remains poorly understood. Here, we used Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes and the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, to investigate whether larval conditions affect the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit malaria. We reared larvae in two groups; one group received a standard laboratory rearing diet, whereas the other received a reduced diet. Emerging adult females were then provided an infectious blood meal. We assessed mosquito longevity, parasite development rate and prevalence of infectious mosquitoes over time. Reduced larval food led to increased adult mortality and caused a delay in parasite development and a slowing in the rate at which parasites invaded the mosquito salivary glands, extending the time it took for mosquitoes to become infectious. Together, these effects increased transmission potential of mosquitoes in the high food regime by 260–330%. Such effects have not, to our knowledge, been shown previously for human malaria and highlight the importance of improving knowledge of larval ecology to better understand vector-borne disease transmission dynamics. PMID:27412284

  14. The mechanical properties of human ribs in young adult.

    PubMed

    Pezowicz, Celina; Głowacki, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    A good understanding of thoracic biomechanics is important for complete examination and control of chest behaviour under conditions of physiological and pathological work, and under the impact of external forces leading to traumatic loading of the chest. The purpose of the study was to analyse the mechanical properties of human ribs obtained from individuals under the age of 25 with scoliosis deformation and to correlate them with geometric properties of ribs. Thirty three fragments of ribs (9th to 12th) were tested in three-point bending. Rib fragments were collected intraoperatively from female patients treated for scoliosis in the thoracic, thoracolumbar, and lumbar spine. The results were used to determine the maximum failure force, stiffness, and Young's modulus. A significant relationship was found between the age and elastic modulus of the ribs. The analysis was carried out for two age groups, i.e., between the ages of 10 and 15 and between the ages of 16 and 22, and statistically significant differences were obtained for Young's modulus (p = 0.0001) amounting to, respectively, 2.79 ± 1.34 GPa for the first group and 7.44 ± 2.85 GPa for the second group. The results show a significant impact of age on the mechanical properties of ribs.

  15. A humanized version of Foxp2 does not affect ultrasonic vocalization in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, K; Schreiweis, C; Minge, C; Pääbo, S; Fischer, J; Enard, W

    2015-11-01

    The transcription factor FOXP2 has been linked to severe speech and language impairments in humans. An analysis of the evolution of the FOXP2 gene has identified two amino acid substitutions that became fixed after the split of the human and chimpanzee lineages. Studying the functional consequences of these two substitutions in the endogenous Foxp2 gene of mice showed alterations in dopamine levels, striatal synaptic plasticity, neuronal morphology and cortico-striatal-dependent learning. In addition, ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) of pups had a significantly lower average pitch than control littermates. To which degree adult USVs would be affected in mice carrying the 'humanized' Foxp2 variant remained unclear. In this study, we analyzed USVs of 68 adult male mice uttered during repeated courtship encounters with different females. Mice carrying the Foxp2(hum/hum) allele did not differ significantly in the number of call elements, their element structure or in their element composition from control littermates. We conclude that neither the structure nor the usage of USVs in adult mice is affected by the two amino acid substitutions that occurred in FOXP2 during human evolution. The reported effect for pup vocalization thus appears to be transient. These results are in line with accumulating evidence that mouse USVs are hardly influenced by vocal learning. Hence, the function and evolution of genes that are necessary, but not sufficient for vocal learning in humans, must be either studied at a different phenotypic level in mice or in other organisms.

  16. Transolfactory neuroinvasion by viruses threatens the human brain.

    PubMed

    Mori, I

    2015-12-01

    Viral neuroinvasion via the olfactory system has been investigated in a variety of virus-animal models by scientists in many fields including virologists, pathologists, and neurologists. In humans, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), Borna disease virus, rabies virus, and influenza A virus have been shown to take the olfactory route for neuroinvasion based on forensic and post-mortem specimens. This article briefly summarizes the anatomy, physiology, and immunology of the olfactory system and presents a battery of neurovirulent viruses that may threaten the human brain by invading through this peripheral pathway, especially focusing on two of the most intensively studied viruses--HSV-1 and influenza A virus. Viruses may insidiously invade the olfactory neural network not only to precipitate encephalitis/encephalopathy but also to promote the development of neurodegenerative and demyelinating disorders. Substantial information obtained by analyzing human specimens is required to argue for or against this hypothesis.

  17. Predictions of ozone absorption in human lungs from newborn to adult

    SciTech Connect

    Overton, J.H.; Graham, R.C. )

    1989-01-01

    Although children are an important human population, dosimetry models for gases have been used to predict absorption mainly in laboratory animals and adult humans. To correct this omission, we have used several sources of data on age-dependent lower respiratory tract (LRT) volumes, age-dependent airway dimensions, a model of the adult tracheobronchial region, and a model of the adult acinus to construct theoretical LRT lung models for humans from birth to adulthood. An ozone (O3) dosimetry model was then used to estimate the regional and local uptake of O3 in the (theoretical) LRT of children and adults. For sedentary or quiet breathing, the LRT distribution of absorbed O3, the percent uptake (84 to 88%) and the centriacinar O3 tissue dose are not very sensitive to age. For maximal work during exercise, predicted LRT uptakes range from 87 to 93%, and the regional percent uptakes are more dependent on age than during quiet breathing. In general, the total quantity of O3 absorbed per minute increases with age. Regardless of age and state of breathing, the largest tissue dose of O3 is predicted to occur in the centriacinar region, where many animal studies show the maximal morphological damage from O3.

  18. Localization of PPAR isotypes in the adult mouse and human brain

    PubMed Central

    Warden, Anna; Truitt, Jay; Merriman, Morgan; Ponomareva, Olga; Jameson, Kelly; Ferguson, Laura B.; Mayfield, R. Dayne; Harris, R. Adron

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that act as ligand-activated transcription factors. PPAR agonists have well-documented anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective roles in the central nervous system. Recent evidence suggests that PPAR agonists are attractive therapeutic agents for treating neurodegenerative diseases as well as addiction. However, the distribution of PPAR mRNA and protein in brain regions associated with these conditions (i.e. prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, ventral tegmental area) is not well defined. Moreover, the cell type specificity of PPARs in mouse and human brain tissue has yet to be investigated. We utilized quantitative PCR and double immunofluorescence microscopy to determine that both PPAR mRNA and protein are expressed ubiquitously throughout the adult mouse brain. We found that PPARs have unique cell type specificities that are consistent between species. PPARα was the only isotype to colocalize with all cell types in both adult mouse and adult human brain tissue. Overall, we observed a strong neuronal signature, which raises the possibility that PPAR agonists may be targeting neurons rather than glia to produce neuroprotection. Our results fill critical gaps in PPAR distribution and define novel cell type specificity profiles in the adult mouse and human brain. PMID:27283430

  19. The response of the anterior striatum during adult human vocal learning

    PubMed Central

    Leech, Robert; Iverson, Paul; Wise, Richard J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Research on mammals predicts that the anterior striatum is a central component of human motor learning. However, because vocalizations in most mammals are innate, much of the neurobiology of human vocal learning has been inferred from studies on songbirds. Essential for song learning is a pathway, the homolog of mammalian cortical-basal ganglia “loops,” which includes the avian striatum. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated adult human vocal learning, a skill that persists throughout life, albeit imperfectly given that late-acquired languages are spoken with an accent. Monolingual adult participants were scanned while repeating novel non-native words. After training on the pronunciation of half the words for 1 wk, participants underwent a second scan. During scanning there was no external feedback on performance. Activity declined sharply in left and right anterior striatum, both within and between scanning sessions, and this change was independent of training and performance. This indicates that adult speakers rapidly adapt to the novel articulatory movements, possibly by using motor sequences from their native speech to approximate those required for the novel speech sounds. Improved accuracy correlated only with activity in motor-sensory perisylvian cortex. We propose that future studies on vocal learning, using different behavioral and pharmacological manipulations, will provide insights into adult striatal plasticity and its potential for modification in both educational and clinical contexts. PMID:24805076

  20. Neuroscience of human social interactions and adult attachment style

    PubMed Central

    Vrtička, Pascal; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    attachment insecurity and particularly anxiety. Emotion regulation strategies such as reappraisal or suppression of social emotions are also differentially modulated by attachment style. This research does not only help better understand the neural underpinnings of human social behavior, but also provides important insights on psychopathological conditions where attachment dysregulation is likely to play an important (causal) role. PMID:22822396

  1. Human Centred Design Considerations for Connected Health Devices for the Older Adult

    PubMed Central

    Harte, Richard P.; Glynn, Liam G.; Broderick, Barry J.; Rodriguez-Molinero, Alejandro; Baker, Paul M. A.; McGuiness, Bernadette; O’Sullivan, Leonard; Diaz, Marta; Quinlan, Leo R.; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2014-01-01

    Connected health devices are generally designed for unsupervised use, by non-healthcare professionals, facilitating independent control of the individuals own healthcare. Older adults are major users of such devices and are a population significantly increasing in size. This group presents challenges due to the wide spectrum of capabilities and attitudes towards technology. The fit between capabilities of the user and demands of the device can be optimised in a process called Human Centred Design. Here we review examples of some connected health devices chosen by random selection, assess older adult known capabilities and attitudes and finally make analytical recommendations for design approaches and design specifications. PMID:25563225

  2. Short-Term Monocular Deprivation Alters GABA in the Adult Human Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Lunghi, Claudia; Emir, Uzay E.; Morrone, Maria Concetta; Bridge, Holly

    2016-01-01

    Summary Neuroplasticity is a fundamental property of the nervous system that is maximal early in life, within the critical period [1–3]. Resting GABAergic inhibition is necessary to trigger ocular dominance plasticity and to modulate the onset and offset of the critical period [4, 5]. GABAergic inhibition also plays a crucial role in neuroplasticity of adult animals: the balance between excitation and inhibition in the primary visual cortex (V1), measured at rest, modulates the susceptibility of ocular dominance to deprivation [6–10]. In adult humans, short-term monocular deprivation strongly modifies ocular balance, unexpectedly boosting the deprived eye, reflecting homeostatic plasticity [11, 12]. There is no direct evidence, however, to support resting GABAergic inhibition in homeostatic plasticity induced by visual deprivation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that GABAergic inhibition, measured at rest, is reduced by deprivation, as demonstrated by animal studies. GABA concentration in V1 of adult humans was measured using ultra-high-field 7T magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after short-term monocular deprivation. After monocular deprivation, resting GABA concentration decreased in V1 but was unaltered in a control parietal area. Importantly, across participants, the decrease in GABA strongly correlated with the deprived eye perceptual boost measured by binocular rivalry. Furthermore, after deprivation, GABA concentration measured during monocular stimulation correlated with the deprived eye dominance. We suggest that reduction in resting GABAergic inhibition triggers homeostatic plasticity in adult human V1 after a brief period of abnormal visual experience. These results are potentially useful for developing new therapeutic strategies that could exploit the intrinsic residual plasticity of the adult human visual cortex. PMID:26004760

  3. The activity ratio of 228Th to 228Ra in bone tissue of recently deceased humans: a new dating method in forensic examinations.

    PubMed

    Zinka, Bettina; Kandlbinder, Robert; Schupfner, Robert; Haas, Gerald; Wolfbeis, Otto S; Graw, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Reliable determination of time since death in human skeletons or single bones often is limited by methodically difficulties. Determination of the specific activity ratio of natural radionuclides, in particular of 232Th (Thorium), 228Th and 228Ra (Radium) seems to be a new appropriate method to calculate the post mortem interval. These radionuclides are incorporated by any human being, mainly from food. So with an individual's death the uptake of radionuclides ends. But the decay of 232Th produces 228Ra and 228Th due to its decay series, whereas 228Th is continuously built up in the human's bones. Thus, it can be concluded that in all deceased humans at different times after death different activity ratios of 228Th to 228Ra will develop in bone. According to this fact it should be possible to calculate time since death of an individual by first analysing the specific activities of 228Th and 228Ra in bones of deceased and then determining the 228Th/228Ra activity ratio, which can be assigned to a certain post-mortem interval.

  4. The activity ratio of 228Th to 228Ra in bone tissue of recently deceased humans: a new dating method in forensic examinations.

    PubMed

    Zinka, Bettina; Kandlbinder, Robert; Schupfner, Robert; Haas, Gerald; Wolfbeis, Otto S; Graw, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Reliable determination of time since death in human skeletons or single bones often is limited by methodically difficulties. Determination of the specific activity ratio of natural radionuclides, in particular of 232Th (Thorium), 228Th and 228Ra (Radium) seems to be a new appropriate method to calculate the post mortem interval. These radionuclides are incorporated by any human being, mainly from food. So with an individual's death the uptake of radionuclides ends. But the decay of 232Th produces 228Ra and 228Th due to its decay series, whereas 228Th is continuously built up in the human's bones. Thus, it can be concluded that in all deceased humans at different times after death different activity ratios of 228Th to 228Ra will develop in bone. According to this fact it should be possible to calculate time since death of an individual by first analysing the specific activities of 228Th and 228Ra in bones of deceased and then determining the 228Th/228Ra activity ratio, which can be assigned to a certain post-mortem interval. PMID:22606910

  5. CB1 cannabinoid receptor enrichment in the ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Ferrer, Isidro; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo; Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel

    2015-12-04

    Cannabinoids are involved in the regulation of neural stem cell biology and their receptors are expressed in the neurogenic niches of adult rodents. In the spinal cord of rats and mice, neural stem cells can be found in the ependymal region, surrounding the central canal, but there is evidence that this region is largely different in adult humans: lacks a patent canal and presents perivascular pseudorosettes, typically found in low grade ependymomas. Using Laser Capture Microdissection, Taqman gene expression assays and immunohistochemistry, we have studied the expression of endocannabinoid system components (receptors and enzymes) at the human spinal cord ependymal region. We observe that ependymal region is enriched in CB1 cannabinoid receptor, due to high CB1 expression in GFAP+ astrocytic domains. However, in human spinal cord levels that retain central canal patency we found ependymal cells with high CB1 expression, equivalent to the CB1(HIGH) cell subpopulation described in rodents. Our results support the existence of ependymal CB1(HIGH) cells across species, and may encourage further studies on this subpopulation, although only in cases when central canal is patent. In the adult human ependyma, which usually shows central canal absence, CB1 may play a different role by modulating astrocyte functions.

  6. CB1 cannabinoid receptor enrichment in the ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Ferrer, Isidro; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo; Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Cannabinoids are involved in the regulation of neural stem cell biology and their receptors are expressed in the neurogenic niches of adult rodents. In the spinal cord of rats and mice, neural stem cells can be found in the ependymal region, surrounding the central canal, but there is evidence that this region is largely different in adult humans: lacks a patent canal and presents perivascular pseudorosettes, typically found in low grade ependymomas. Using Laser Capture Microdissection, Taqman gene expression assays and immunohistochemistry, we have studied the expression of endocannabinoid system components (receptors and enzymes) at the human spinal cord ependymal region. We observe that ependymal region is enriched in CB1 cannabinoid receptor, due to high CB1 expression in GFAP+ astrocytic domains. However, in human spinal cord levels that retain central canal patency we found ependymal cells with high CB1 expression, equivalent to the CB1HIGH cell subpopulation described in rodents. Our results support the existence of ependymal CB1HIGH cells across species, and may encourage further studies on this subpopulation, although only in cases when central canal is patent. In the adult human ependyma, which usually shows central canal absence, CB1 may play a different role by modulating astrocyte functions. PMID:26634814

  7. Immunohistochemical Study of Expression of Sohlh1 and Sohlh2 in Normal Adult Human Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Liu, Ruihua; Su, Zhongxue; Zhang, Yuecun; Zhang, Wenfang; Liu, Xinyu; Wang, Fuwu; Guo, Yuji; Li, Chuangang; Hao, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The expression pattern of Sohlh1 (spermatogenesis and oogenesis specific basic helix-loop-helix 1) and Sohlh2 in mice has been reported in previous studies. Sohlh1 and Sohlh2 are specifically expressed in spermatogonia, prespermatogonia in male mice and oocytes of primordial and primary follicles in female mice. In this report, we studied the expression pattern of Sohlh1 and Sohlh2 in human adult tissues. Immunohistochemical staining of Sohlh1 and Sohlh2 was performed in 5 samples of normal ovaries and testes, respectively. The results revealed that Sohlh genes are not only expressed in oocytes and spermatogonia, but also in granular cells, theca cells, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells, and in smooth muscles of blood vessel walls. To further investigate the expression of Sohlh genes in other adult human tissues, we collected representative normal adult tissues developed from three embryonic germ layers. Compared with the expression in mice, Sohlhs exhibited a much more extensive expression pattern in human tissues. Sohlhs were detected in testis, ovary and epithelia developed from embryonic endoderm, ectoderm and tissues developed from embryonic mesoderm. Sohlh signals were found in spermatogonia, Sertoli cells and also Leydig cells in testis, while in ovary, the expression was mainly in oocytes of primordial and primary follicles, granular cells and theca cells of secondary follicles. Compared with Sohlh2, the expression of Sohlh1 was stronger and more extensive. Our study explored the expression of Sohlh genes in human tissues and might provide insights for functional studies of Sohlh genes. PMID:26375665

  8. Visualization of monoamine oxidase in human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.J.; Pappas, N.; Shea, C.; MacGregor, R.R.; Logan, J.

    1996-12-31

    Monoamine oxidase is a flavin enzyme which exists in two subtypes, MAO A and MAO B. In human brain MAO B predominates and is largely compartmentalized in cell bodies of serotonergic neurons and glia. Regional distribution of MAO B was determined by positron computed tomography with volunteers after the administration of deuterium substituted [11C]L-deprenyl. The basal ganglia and thalamus exhibited the greatest concentrations of MAO B with intermediate levels in the frontal cortex and cingulate gyrus while lowest levels were observed in the parietal and temporal cortices and cerebellum. We observed that brain MAO B increases with are in health normal subjects, however the increases were generally smaller than those revealed with post-mortem studies.

  9. Experimental analysis of the mechanical behavior of the viscoelastic porcine pancreas and preliminary case study on the human pancreas.

    PubMed

    Wex, C; Fröhlich, M; Brandstädter, K; Bruns, C; Stoll, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study the mechanical properties of the pancreas. Up to now, the mechanical properties of the pancreas are not sufficiently characterized. The possibility of intraoperative mechanical testing of pathological pancreata will allow the classification of pancreatic diseases in the future. The application of mechanical parameters instead of the intraoperative frozen section analysis shortens waiting times in the operating room. This study proves the general applicability of shear rheology for the determination of the mechanical properties of pancreas and the assessment of graft quality for transplantation. Porcine and human pancreas samples were examined ex vivo and a nonlinear viscoelastic behavior was observed. Pancreas was found to be more viscous than liver but both abdominal organs showed a similar flow behavior. The shear deformation dependence of healthy human pancreas was similar to porcine pancreas. An increase in the post-mortem time led to an increase in the complex modulus for a post-mortem time up to 8.5 days. Histological investigations showed that an increased amount of collagen coincides with the stiffening of the pancreatic tissue.

  10. Origin of germ cells and formation of new primary follicles in adult human ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Bukovsky, Antonin; Caudle, Michael R; Svetlikova, Marta; Upadhyaya, Nirmala B

    2004-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that functional mouse oocytes and sperm can be derived in vitro from somatic cell lines. We hypothesize that in adult human ovaries, mesenchymal cells in the tunica albuginea (TA) are bipotent progenitors with a commitment for both primitive granulosa and germ cells. We investigated ovaries of twelve adult women (mean age 32.8 ± 4.1 SD, range 27–38 years) by single, double, and triple color immunohistochemistry. We show that cytokeratin (CK)+ mesenchymal cells in ovarian TA differentiate into surface epithelium (SE) cells by a mesenchymal-epithelial transition. Segments of SE directly associated with ovarian cortex are overgrown by TA, forming solid epithelial cords, which fragment into small (20 micron) epithelial nests descending into the lower ovarian cortex, before assembling with zona pellucida (ZP)+ oocytes. Germ cells can originate from SE cells which cover the TA. Small (10 micron) germ-like cells showing PS1 meiotically expressed oocyte carbohydrate protein are derived from SE cells via asymmetric division. They show nuclear MAPK immunoexpression, subsequently divide symmetrically, and enter adjacent cortical vessels. During vascular transport, the putative germ cells increase to oocyte size, and are picked-up by epithelial nests associated with the vessels. During follicle formation, extensions of granulosa cells enter the oocyte cytoplasm, forming a single paranuclear CK+ Balbiani body supplying all the mitochondria of the oocyte. In the ovarian medulla, occasional vessels show an accumulation of ZP+ oocytes (25–30 microns) or their remnants, suggesting that some oocytes degenerate. In contrast to males, adult human female gonads do not preserve germline type stem cells. This study expands our previous observations on the formation of germ cells in adult human ovaries. Differentiation of primitive granulosa and germ cells from the bipotent mesenchymal cell precursors of TA in adult human ovaries represents a most

  11. Self-control in adult humans: variation in positive reinforcer amount and delay.

    PubMed Central

    Logue, A W; Peña-Correal, T E; Rodriguez, M L; Kabela, E

    1986-01-01

    In five experiments, choice responding of female human adults was examined, as a function of variations in reinforcer amount and reinforcer delay. Experiment 1 used a discrete-trials procedure, and Experiments 2, 3, 4, and 5 used a concurrent variable-interval variable-interval schedule. Reinforcer amount and reinforcer delay were varied both separately and together. In contrast to results previously reported with pigeons, the subjects in the present experiments usually chose the larger reinforcers even when those reinforcers were delayed. Together, the results from all the experiments suggest that the subjects followed a maximization strategy in choosing reinforcers. Such behavior makes it easy to observe self-control and difficult to observe impulsiveness in traditional laboratory experiments that use adult human subjects. PMID:3760749

  12. Monocular advantage for face perception implicates subcortical mechanisms in adult humans.

    PubMed

    Gabay, Shai; Nestor, Adrian; Dundas, Eva; Behrmann, Marlene

    2014-05-01

    The ability to recognize faces accurately and rapidly is an evolutionarily adaptive process. Most studies examining the neural correlates of face perception in adult humans have focused on a distributed cortical network of face-selective regions. There is, however, robust evidence from phylogenetic and ontogenetic studies that implicates subcortical structures, and recently, some investigations in adult humans indicate subcortical correlates of face perception as well. The questions addressed here are whether low-level subcortical mechanisms for face perception (in the absence of changes in expression) are conserved in human adults, and if so, what is the nature of these subcortical representations. In a series of four experiments, we presented pairs of images to the same or different eyes. Participants' performance demonstrated that subcortical mechanisms, indexed by monocular portions of the visual system, play a functional role in face perception. These mechanisms are sensitive to face-like configurations and afford a coarse representation of a face, comprised of primarily low spatial frequency information, which suffices for matching faces but not for more complex aspects of face perception such as sex differentiation. Importantly, these subcortical mechanisms are not implicated in the perception of other visual stimuli, such as cars or letter strings. These findings suggest a conservation of phylogenetically and ontogenetically lower-order systems in adult human face perception. The involvement of subcortical structures in face recognition provokes a reconsideration of current theories of face perception, which are reliant on cortical level processing, inasmuch as it bolsters the cross-species continuity of the biological system for face recognition.

  13. Isolation, Characterization, and Differentiation of Progenitor Cells from Human Adult Adrenal Medulla

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Magda M.; Chung, Kuei-Fang; Vukicevic, Vladimir; Rosmaninho-Salgado, Joana; Kanczkowski, Waldemar; Cortez, Vera; Hackmann, Karl; Bastos, Carlos A.; Mota, Alfredo; Schrock, Evelin; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Cavadas, Cláudia

    2012-01-01

    Chromaffin cells, sympathetic neurons of the dorsal ganglia, and the intermediate small intensely fluorescent cells derive from a common neural crest progenitor cell. Contrary to the closely related sympathetic nervous system, within the adult adrenal medulla a subpopulation of undifferentiated progenitor cells persists, and recently, we established a method to isolate and differentiate these progenitor cells from adult bovine adrenals. However, no studies have elucidated the existence of adrenal progenitor cells within the human adrenal medulla. Here we describe the isolation, characterization, and differentiation of chromaffin progenitor cells obtained from adult human adrenals. Human chromaffin progenitor cells were cultured in low-attachment conditions for 10–12 days as free-floating spheres in the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and epidermal growth factor. These primary human chromosphere cultures were characterized by the expression of several progenitor markers, including nestin, CD133, Notch1, nerve growth factor receptor, Snai2, Sox9, Sox10, Phox2b, and Ascl1 on the molecular level and of Sox9 on the immunohistochemical level. In opposition, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), a marker for differentiated chromaffin cells, significantly decreased after 12 days in culture. Moreover, when plated on poly-l-lysine/laminin-coated slides in the presence of FGF-2, human chromaffin progenitor cells were able to differentiate into two distinct neuron-like cell types, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)+/β-3-tubulin+ cells and TH−/β-3-tubulin+ cells, and into chromaffin cells (TH+/PNMT+). This study demonstrates the presence of progenitor cells in the human adrenal medulla and reveals their potential use in regenerative medicine, especially in the treatment of neuroendocrine and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23197690

  14. Isolation, characterization, and differentiation of progenitor cells from human adult adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Santana, Magda M; Chung, Kuei-Fang; Vukicevic, Vladimir; Rosmaninho-Salgado, Joana; Kanczkowski, Waldemar; Cortez, Vera; Hackmann, Klaus; Bastos, Carlos A; Mota, Alfredo; Schrock, Evelin; Bornstein, Stefan R; Cavadas, Cláudia; Ehrhart-Bornstein, Monika

    2012-11-01

    Chromaffin cells, sympathetic neurons of the dorsal ganglia, and the intermediate small intensely fluorescent cells derive from a common neural crest progenitor cell. Contrary to the closely related sympathetic nervous system, within the adult adrenal medulla a subpopulation of undifferentiated progenitor cells persists, and recently, we established a method to isolate and differentiate these progenitor cells from adult bovine adrenals. However, no studies have elucidated the existence of adrenal progenitor cells within the human adrenal medulla. Here we describe the isolation, characterization, and differentiation of chromaffin progenitor cells obtained from adult human adrenals. Human chromaffin progenitor cells were cultured in low-attachment conditions for 10-12 days as free-floating spheres in the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and epidermal growth factor. These primary human chromosphere cultures were characterized by the expression of several progenitor markers, including nestin, CD133, Notch1, nerve growth factor receptor, Snai2, Sox9, Sox10, Phox2b, and Ascl1 on the molecular level and of Sox9 on the immunohistochemical level. In opposition, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), a marker for differentiated chromaffin cells, significantly decreased after 12 days in culture. Moreover, when plated on poly-l-lysine/laminin-coated slides in the presence of FGF-2, human chromaffin progenitor cells were able to differentiate into two distinct neuron-like cell types, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)(+)/β-3-tubulin(+) cells and TH(-)/β-3-tubulin(+) cells, and into chromaffin cells (TH(+)/PNMT(+)). This study demonstrates the presence of progenitor cells in the human adrenal medulla and reveals their potential use in regenerative medicine, especially in the treatment of neuroendocrine and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23197690

  15. Normalizing the environment recapitulates adult human immune traits in laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Beura, Lalit K; Hamilton, Sara E; Bi, Kevin; Schenkel, Jason M; Odumade, Oludare A; Casey, Kerry A; Thompson, Emily A; Fraser, Kathryn A; Rosato, Pamela C; Filali-Mouhim, Ali; Sekaly, Rafick P; Jenkins, Marc K; Vezys, Vaiva; Haining, W Nicholas; Jameson, Stephen C; Masopust, David

    2016-04-28

    Our current understanding of immunology was largely defined in laboratory mice, partly because they are inbred and genetically homogeneous, can be genetically manipulated, allow kinetic tissue analyses to be carried out from the onset of disease, and permit the use of tractable disease models. Comparably reductionist experiments are neither technically nor ethically possible in humans. However, there is growing concern that laboratory mice do not reflect relevant aspects of the human immune system, which may account for failures to translate disease treatments from bench to bedside. Laboratory mice live in abnormally hygienic specific pathogen free (SPF) barrier facilities. Here we show that standard laboratory mouse husbandry has profound effects on the immune system and that environmental changes produce mice with immune systems closer to those of adult humans. Laboratory mice--like newborn, but not adult, humans--lack effector-differentiated and mucosally distributed memory T cells. These cell populations were present in free-living barn populations of feral mice and pet store mice with diverse microbial experience, and were induced in laboratory mice after co-housing with pet store mice, suggesting that the environment is involved in the induction of these cells. Altering the living conditions of mice profoundly affected the cellular composition of the innate and adaptive immune systems, resulted in global changes in blood cell gene expression to patterns that more closely reflected the immune signatures of adult humans rather than neonates, altered resistance to infection, and influenced T-cell differentiation in response to a de novo viral infection. These data highlight the effects of environment on the basal immune state and response to infection and suggest that restoring physiological microbial exposure in laboratory mice could provide a relevant tool for modelling immunological events in free-living organisms, including humans. PMID:27096360

  16. Normalizing the environment recapitulates adult human immune traits in laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Beura, Lalit K; Hamilton, Sara E; Bi, Kevin; Schenkel, Jason M; Odumade, Oludare A; Casey, Kerry A; Thompson, Emily A; Fraser, Kathryn A; Rosato, Pamela C; Filali-Mouhim, Ali; Sekaly, Rafick P; Jenkins, Marc K; Vezys, Vaiva; Haining, W Nicholas; Jameson, Stephen C; Masopust, David

    2016-04-28

    Our current understanding of immunology was largely defined in laboratory mice, partly because they are inbred and genetically homogeneous, can be genetically manipulated, allow kinetic tissue analyses to be carried out from the onset of disease, and permit the use of tractable disease models. Comparably reductionist experiments are neither technically nor ethically possible in humans. However, there is growing concern that laboratory mice do not reflect relevant aspects of the human immune system, which may account for failures to translate disease treatments from bench to bedside. Laboratory mice live in abnormally hygienic specific pathogen free (SPF) barrier facilities. Here we show that standard laboratory mouse husbandry has profound effects on the immune system and that environmental changes produce mice with immune systems closer to those of adult humans. Laboratory mice--like newborn, but not adult, humans--lack effector-differentiated and mucosally distributed memory T cells. These cell populations were present in free-living barn populations of feral mice and pet store mice with diverse microbial experience, and were induced in laboratory mice after co-housing with pet store mice, suggesting that the environment is involved in the induction of these cells. Altering the living conditions of mice profoundly affected the cellular composition of the innate and adaptive immune systems, resulted in global changes in blood cell gene expression to patterns that more closely reflected the immune signatures of adult humans rather than neonates, altered resistance to infection, and influenced T-cell differentiation in response to a de novo viral infection. These data highlight the effects of environment on the basal immune state and response to infection and suggest that restoring physiological microbial exposure in laboratory mice could provide a relevant tool for modelling immunological events in free-living organisms, including humans.

  17. Tripartite containing motif 32 modulates proliferation of human neural precursor cells in HIV-1 neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, M; Kumari, R; Schwamborn, J C; Mahadevan, A; Shankar, S K; Raja, R; Seth, P

    2016-01-01

    In addition to glial cells, HIV-1 infection occurs in multipotent human neural precursor cells (hNPCs) and induces quiescence in NPCs. HIV-1 infection of the brain alters hNPC stemness, leading to perturbed endogenous neurorestoration of the CNS following brain damage by HIV-1, compounding the severity of dementia in adult neuroAIDS cases. In pediatric neuroAIDS cases, HIV-1 infection of neural stem cell can lead to delayed developmental milestones and impaired cognition. Using primary cultures of human fetal brain-derived hNPCs, we gained novel insights into the role of a neural stem cell determinant, tripartite containing motif 32 (TRIM32), in HIV-1 Tat-induced quiescence of NPCs. Acute HIV-1 Tat treatment of hNPCs resulted in proliferation arrest but did not induce differentiation. Cellular localization and levels of TRIM32 are critical regulators of stemness of NPCs. HIV-1 Tat exposure increased nuclear localization and levels of TRIM32 in hNPCs. The in vitro findings were validated by studying TRIM32 localization and levels in frontal cortex of HIV-1-seropositive adult patients collected at post mortem as well as by infection of hNPCs by HIV-1. We observed increased percentage of cells with nuclear localization of TRIM32 in the subventricular zone (SVZ) as compared with age-matched controls. Our quest for probing into the mechanisms revealed that TRIM32 is targeted by miR-155 as downregulation of miR-155 by HIV-1 Tat resulted in upregulation of TRIM32 levels. Furthermore, miR-155 or siRNA against TRIM32 rescued HIV-1 Tat-induced quiescence in NPCs. Our findings suggest a novel molecular cascade involving miR-155 and TRIM32 leading to HIV-1 Tat-induced attenuated proliferation of hNPCs. The study also uncovered an unidentified role for miR-155 in modulating human neural stem cell proliferation, helping in better understanding of hNPCs and diseased brain. PMID:26586575

  18. Earliest Directly-Dated Human Skull-Cups

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Silvia M.; Parfitt, Simon A.; Stringer, Chris B.

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of human braincases as drinking cups and containers has extensive historic and ethnographic documentation, but archaeological examples are extremely rare. In the Upper Palaeolithic of western Europe, cut-marked and broken human bones are widespread in the Magdalenian (∼15 to 12,000 years BP) and skull-cup preparation is an element of this tradition. Principal Findings Here we describe the post-mortem processing of human heads at the Upper Palaeolithic site of Gough's Cave (Somerset, England) and identify a range of modifications associated with the production of skull-cups. New analyses of human remains from Gough's Cave demonstrate the skilled post-mortem manipulation of human bodies. Results of the research suggest the processing of cadavers for the consumption of body tissues (bone marrow), accompanied by meticulous shaping of cranial vaults. The distribution of cut-marks and percussion features indicates that the skulls were scrupulously 'cleaned' of any soft tissues, and subsequently modified by controlled removal of the facial region and breakage of the cranial base along a sub-horizontal plane. The vaults were also ‘retouched’, possibly to make the broken edges more regular. This manipulation suggests the shaping of skulls to produce skull-cups. Conclusions Three skull-cups have been identified amongst the human bones from Gough's Cave. New ultrafiltered radiocarbon determinations provide direct dates of about 14,700 cal BP, making these the oldest directly dated skull-cups and the only examples known from the British Isles. PMID:21359211

  19. Designing Instruction for Adult Learners. Second Edition. Professional Practices in Adult Education and Human Resource Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Gary J.

    This book focuses on applying instructional design to development of classroom learning for adults. Chapter 1 presents an overview of the model and addresses concerns about use of instructional design in adult education. Chapter 2 deals with assessing and developing skills as an adult educator; a literature review on behavior, beliefs, knowledge,…

  20. Moxidectin causes adult worm mortality of human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi in rodent models.

    PubMed

    Verma, Meenakshi; Pathak, Manisha; Shahab, Mohd; Singh, Kavita; Mitra, Kalyan; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2014-12-01

    Moxidectin is a macrocyclic lactone belonging to milbemycin family closely related to ivermectin and is currently progressing towards Phase III clinical trial against human infection with the filaria Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart, 1894). There is a single report on the microfilaricidal and embryostatic activity of moxidectin in case of the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi (Brug, 1927) in Mastomys coucha (Smith) but without any adulticidal action. In the present study, the in vitro and in vivo antifilarial efficacy of moxidectin was evaluated on, B. malayi. In vitro moxidectin showed 100% reduction in adult female worm motility at 0.6 μM concentration within 7 days with 68% inhibition in the reduction of MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide dye) (which is used to detect viability of worms). A 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of moxidectin for adult female parasite was 0.242 μM, for male worm 0.186 μM and for microfilaria IC50 was 0.813 μM. In adult B. malayi-transplanted primary screening model (Meriones unguiculatus Milne-Edwards), moxidectin at a single optimal dose of 20 mg/kg by oral and subcutaneous route was found effective on both adult parasites and microfilariae. In secondary screening (M coucha, subcutaneously inoculated with infective larvae), moxidectin at the same dose by subcutaneous route brought about death of 49% of adult worms besides causing sterilisation in 54% of the recovered live female worms. The treated animals exhibited a continuous and sustained reduction in peripheral blood microfilaraemia throughout the observation period of 90 days. The mechanism of action of moxidectin is suggested to be similar to avermectins. The in silico studies were also designed to explore the interaction of moxidectin with glutamate-gated chloride channels of B. malayi. The docking results revealed a close interaction of moxidectin with various GluCl ligand sites of B. malayi. PMID:25651699

  1. Urinary concentrations of parabens in Chinese young adults: implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wan-Li; Wang, Lei; Guo, Ying; Liu, Li-Yan; Qi, Hong; Zhu, Ning-Zheng; Gao, Chong-Jing; Li, Yi-Fan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-10-01

    Parabens are widely used as preservatives in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. However, recent studies have indicated that high and systemic exposure to parabens can be harmful to human health. Although a few studies have reported urinary paraben levels in western countries, studies on paraben exposure in the Chinese population are limited. China is currently a major producer of parabens in the world. In this study, 109 urine samples collected from Chinese young adults (approximately 20 years old) were analyzed for five parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl-, and benzyl-parabens) by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Methyl-, propyl-, and ethyl-parabens were the three major paraben analogues found in all (100%) samples. The concentration of the sum of the five parabens ranged from 0.82 to 728 ng/mL with a geometric mean value of 17.4 ng/mL. Urinary concentration of parabens was 2-fold greater in females than in males. Based on the measured urinary concentrations, daily intake of parabens by the Chinese young adults was estimated and compared with those reported for United States adults. The estimated daily intakes (EDIurine) of parabens were 18.4 and 40.8 μg/kg bw/day for Chinese males and females, respectively, values that were lower than those reported for United States adults (74.7 μg/kg bw/day). Based on the reported concentrations of parabens in foods from China and the United States, the contribution of dietary intake to EDIurine was estimated to be 5.5, 2.6, and 0.42% for Chinese males, Chinese females, and United States adults, respectively, which indicates the significance of nondietary sources of parabens to human exposures.

  2. Populations of subplate and interstitial neurons in fetal and adult human telencephalon

    PubMed Central

    Judaš, Miloš; Sedmak, Goran; Pletikos, Mihovil; Jovanov-Milošević, Nataša

    2010-01-01

    In the adult human telencephalon, subcortical (gyral) white matter contains a special population of interstitial neurons considered to be surviving descendants of fetal subplate neurons [Kostovic & Rakic (1980) Cytology and the time of origin of interstitial neurons in the white matter in infant and adult human and monkey telencephalon. J Neurocytol9, 219]. We designate this population of cells as superficial (gyral) interstitial neurons and describe their morphology and distribution in the postnatal and adult human cerebrum. Human fetal subplate neurons cannot be regarded as interstitial, because the subplate zone is an essential part of the fetal cortex, the major site of synaptogenesis and the ‘waiting’ compartment for growing cortical afferents, and contains both projection neurons and interneurons with distinct input–output connectivity. However, although the subplate zone is a transient fetal structure, many subplate neurons survive postnatally as superficial (gyral) interstitial neurons. The fetal white matter is represented by the intermediate zone and well-defined deep periventricular tracts of growing axons, such as the corpus callosum, anterior commissure, internal and external capsule, and the fountainhead of the corona radiata. These tracts gradually occupy the territory of transient fetal subventricular and ventricular zones.The human fetal white matter also contains distinct populations of deep fetal interstitial neurons, which, by virtue of their location, morphology, molecular phenotypes and advanced level of dendritic maturation, remain distinct from subplate neurons and neurons in adjacent structures (e.g. basal ganglia, basal forebrain). We describe the morphological, histochemical (nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase) and immunocytochemical (neuron-specific nuclear protein, microtubule-associated protein-2, calbindin, calretinin, neuropeptide Y) features of both deep fetal interstitial neurons and deep (periventricular

  3. Drosophila as a model for the identification of genes causing adult human heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Matthew J.; Amrein, Hubert; Izatt, Joseph A.; Choma, Michael A.; Reedy, Mary C.; Rockman, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster genetics provides the advantage of molecularly defined P-element insertions and deletions that span the entire genome. Although Drosophila has been extensively used as a model system to study heart development, it has not been used to dissect the genetics of adult human heart disease because of an inability to phenotype the adult fly heart in vivo. Here we report the development of a strategy to measure cardiac function in awake adult Drosophila that opens the field of Drosophila genetics to the study of human dilated cardiomyopathies. Through the application of optical coherence tomography, we accurately distinguish between normal and abnormal cardiac function based on measurements of internal cardiac chamber dimensions in vivo. Normal Drosophila have a fractional shortening of 87 ± 4%, whereas cardiomyopathic flies that contain a mutation in troponin I or tropomyosin show severe impairment of systolic function. To determine whether the fly can be used as a model system to recapitulate human dilated cardiomyopathy, we generated transgenic Drosophila with inducible cardiac expression of a mutant of human δ-sarcoglycan (δsgS151A), which has previously been associated with familial dilated cardiomyopathy. Compared to transgenic flies overexpressing wild-type δsg, or the standard laboratory strain w1118, Drosophila expressing δsgS151A developed marked impairment of systolic function and significantly enlarged cardiac chambers. These data illustrate the utility of Drosophila as a model system to study dilated cardiomyopathy and the applicability of the vast genetic resources available in Drosophila to systematically study the genetic mechanisms responsible for human cardiac disease. PMID:16432241

  4. Rabbit Neonates and Human Adults Perceive a Blending 6-Component Odor Mixture in a Comparable Manner

    PubMed Central

    Sinding, Charlotte; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry; Chambault, Adeline; Béno, Noelle; Dosne, Thibaut; Chabanet, Claire; Schaal, Benoist; Coureaud, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    Young and adult mammals are constantly exposed to chemically complex stimuli. The olfactory system allows for a dual processing of relevant information from the environment either as single odorants in mixtures (elemental perception) or as mixtures of odorants as a whole (configural perception). However, it seems that human adults have certain limits in elemental perception of odor mixtures, as suggested by their inability to identify each odorant in mixtures of more than 4 components. Here, we explored some of these limits by evaluating the perception of three 6-odorant mixtures in human adults and newborn rabbits. Using free-sorting tasks in humans, we investigated the configural or elemental perception of these mixtures, or of 5-component sub-mixtures, or of the 6-odorant mixtures with modified odorants' proportion. In rabbit pups, the perception of the same mixtures was evaluated by measuring the orocephalic sucking response to the mixtures or their components after conditioning to one of these stimuli. The results revealed that one mixture, previously shown to carry the specific odor of red cordial in humans, was indeed configurally processed in humans and in rabbits while the two other 6-component mixtures were not. Moreover, in both species, such configural perception was specific not only to the 6 odorants included in the mixture but also to their respective proportion. Interestingly, rabbit neonates also responded to each odorant after conditioning to the red cordial mixture, which demonstrates their ability to perceive elements in addition to configuration in this complex mixture. Taken together, the results provide new insights related to the processing of relatively complex odor mixtures in mammals and the inter-species conservation of certain perceptual mechanisms; the results also revealed some differences in the expression of these capacities between species putatively linked to developmental and ecological constraints. PMID:23341948

  5. Comparison of human growth hormone products' cost in pediatric and adult patients. A budgetary impact model.

    PubMed

    Bazalo, Gary R; Joshi, Ashish V; Germak, John

    2007-09-01

    We assessed the economic impact to the United States payer of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) utilization, comparing the relative dosage efficiency of marketed pen-based and vial-based products in a pediatric and in an adult population. A budgetary impact model calculated drug costs based on product waste and cost. Waste was the difference between prescribed dose, based on patient weight, and actual delivered dose, based on dosing increments and maximum deliverable dose for pens and a fixed-percent waste as derived from the literature for vials. Annual wholesale acquisition costs were calculated based upon total milligrams delivered, using a daily dose of 0.03 mg/kg for pediatric patients and 0.016 mg/kg for adults. Total annual drug costs were compared for two scenarios: 1) a product mix based on national market share and 2) restricting use to the product with lowest waste. Based on the literature, waste for each vial product was 23 percent. Among individual pens, waste was highest for Humatrope 24 mg (19.5 percent pediatric, 14.3 percent adult) and lowest for Norditropin Nordi-Flex 5 mg (1.1 percent pediatric, 1 percent adult). Restricting use to the brand with least waste (Norditropin), compared to national product share mix, resulted in a 10.2 percent reduction in annual pediatric patient cost from $19,026 to $17,089 and an 8 percent reduction in annual adult patient cost from $24,099 to $22,161. We concluded that pen delivery systems result in less waste than vial and syringe. Considering all approved delivery systems, Norditropin resulted in the least product waste and lower annual patient cost for both pediatric and adult populations.

  6. The mental representation of the human gait in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Stöckel, Tino; Jacksteit, Robert; Behrens, Martin; Skripitz, Ralf; Bader, Rainer; Mau-Moeller, Anett

    2015-01-01

    The link between mental representation (MREP) structures and motor performance has been evidenced for a great variety of movement skills, but not for the human gait. Therefore the present study sought to investigate the cognitive memory structures underlying the human gait in young and older adults. In a first experiment, gait parameters at comfortable gait speed (OptoGait) were compared with gait-specific MREPs (structural dimensional analysis of MREP; SDA-M) in 36 young adults. Participants were divided into a slow- and fast-walking group. The proven relationship between gait speed and executive functions such as working memory led to the hypothesis that gait pattern and MREP differ between slow- and fast-walking adults. In a second experiment, gait performance and MREPs were compared between 24 young (27.9 years) and 24 elderly (60.1 years) participants. As age-related declines in gait performance occur from the seventh decade of life onward, we hypothesized that gait parameters would not be affected until the age of 60 years accompanied by unchanged MREP. Data of experiment one revealed that gait parameters and MREPs differed significantly between slow and fast walkers. Notably, eleven previously incurred musculoskeletal injuries were documented for the slow walkers but only two injuries and one disorder for fast walkers. Experiment two revealed no age-related differences in gait parameters or MREPs between healthy young and older adults. In conclusion, the differences in gait parameters associated with lower comfortable gait speeds are reflected by differences in MREPs, whereby SDA-M data indicate that the single limb support phase may serve as a critical functional period. These differences probably resulted from previously incurred musculoskeletal injuries. Our data further indicate that the human gait and its MREP are stable until the age of 60. SDA-M may be considered as a valuable clinical tool for diagnosis of gait abnormalities and monitoring of

  7. The Ecology of Human Performance Framework: A Model for Identifying and Designing Appropriate Accommodations for Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Winnie; Gilbert, Mary Pat; Parker, Kathy

    This paper proposes a model framework, The Ecology of Human Performance (EHP) framework, for organizing adult basic education to utilize the skills of occupational therapists. The paper also includes two responses to the proposed framework by Janet S. Stotts and Cheryl Keenan. Reasons for the inclusion of occupational therapy in adult education…

  8. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. 26.1704 Section 26.1704 Protection of Environment... research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. (a) This section applies to research subject to...

  9. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. 26.1704 Section 26.1704 Protection of Environment... research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. (a) This section applies to research subject to...

  10. Hepatoblastoma of the adult with pericardial metastasis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Celotti, Andrea; Baiocchi, Gian Luca; Ceresoli, Marco; Bartoli, Michele; Ulinici, Silvia; Portolani, Nazario

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatoblastoma is the most frequent liver tumor in children, but very rare in the adult and associated with an unfavorable prognosis. The diagnosis is always postoperative or post mortem and biopsy is not useful. Surgery is the only accepted treatment. Case presentation Our patient underwent surgery in the suspect of liver metastasis from a previous gastric cancer. Surgery consisted in left lobectomy with partial diaphragm resection and partial pericardiectomy for a pericardial lesion, found after the opening of the thorax. The diaphragm defect was corrected with a biological mesh. Results The histopathological examination indicated hepatoblastoma of the adult with pericardial metastases. The patient was asymptomatic and without recurrence after 21 months of follow up. Conclusion The hepatoblastoma of the adult is related to a poor prognosis with median survival time less than 5 months. Surgery is the only curative treatment, but in many cases tumor resection requires complex operations. Vascular and thoracic expertise could be useful in the management of hepatoblastoma. PMID:26826931

  11. Mineral-bound noncollagenous proteins in archaeological human skeletons.

    PubMed

    Freundorfer, S; Grupe, G; Weickmann, D

    1995-05-01

    Archaeometric approaches to archaelogical human bone also include the extraction, identification and molecular analysis of surviving bone proteins. Due to its abundance as a matrix protein, most studies focus on collagen (e.g. radiocarbon dating). Also, a variety of serum proteins are detectable in excavated skeletons. Very limited knowledge still exists on mineral-bound noncollagenous bone proteins from ancient bones because, in the mature tissue, they occur in trace amounts only. Moreover, post-mortem decomposition is likely to change characteristic features of the molecules. Due to their suggested role as growth and developmental factors, identification and quantification of such proteins should be valuable for both physical anthropology and epidemiology. We present a valid method for the detection of small amounts of surviving mineral-bound noncollagenous proteins in excavated human bones up to 7500 years of age.

  12. Maternal and child undernutrition: consequences for adult health and human capital.

    PubMed

    Victora, Cesar G; Adair, Linda; Fall, Caroline; Hallal, Pedro C; Martorell, Reynaldo; Richter, Linda; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh

    2008-01-26

    In this paper we review the associations between maternal and child undernutrition with human capital and risk of adult diseases in low-income and middle-income countries. We analysed data from five long-standing prospective cohort studies from Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa and noted that indices of maternal and child undernutrition (maternal height, birthweight, intrauterine growth restriction, and weight, height, and body-mass index at 2 years according to the new WHO growth standards) were related to adult outcomes (height, schooling, income or assets, offspring birthweight, body-mass index, glucose concentrations, blood pressure). We undertook systematic reviews of studies from low-income and middle-income countries for these outcomes and for indicators related to blood lipids, cardiovascular disease, lung and immune function, cancers, osteoporosis, and mental illness. Undernutrition was strongly associated, both in the review of published work and in new analyses, with shorter adult height, less schooling, reduced economic productivity, and--for women--lower offspring birthweight. Associations with adult disease indicators were not so clear-cut. Increased size at birth and in childhood were positively associated with adult body-mass index and to a lesser extent with blood pressure values, but not with blood glucose concentrations. In our new analyses and in published work, lower birthweight and undernutrition in childhood were risk factors for high glucose concentrations, blood pressure, and harmful lipid profiles once adult body-mass index and height were adjusted for, suggesting that rapid postnatal weight gain--especially after infancy--is linked to these conditions. The review of published works indicates that there is insufficient information about long-term changes in immune function, blood lipids, or osteoporosis indicators. Birthweight is positively associated with lung function and with the incidence of some cancers, and

  13. Isoforms of Hsp70-binding human LDL in adult Schistosoma mansoni worms.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Adriana S A; Cavalcanti, Marília G S; Zingali, Russolina B; Lima-Filho, José L; Chaves, Maria E C

    2015-03-01

    Schistosoma mansoni is one of the most common parasites infecting humans. They are well adapted to the host, and this parasite's longevity is a consequence of effective escape from the host immune system. In the blood circulation, lipoproteins not only help to conceal the worm from attack by host antibodies but also act as a source of lipids for S. mansoni. Previous SEM studies showed that the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles present on the surface of adult S. mansoni worms decreased in size when the incubation time increased. In this study, immunocytochemical and proteomic analyses were used to locate and identify S. mansoni binding proteins to human plasma LDL. Ultrathin sections of adult worms were cut transversely from the anterior, medial and posterior regions of the parasite. Immunocytochemical experiments revealed particles of gold in the tegument, muscle region and spine in male worms and around vitelline cells in females. Immunoblotting and 2D-electrophoresis using incubations with human serum, anti-LDL antibodies and anti-chicken IgG peroxidase conjugate were performed to identify LDL-binding proteins in S. mansoni. Analysis of the binding proteins using LC-MS identified two isoforms of the Hsp70 chaperone in S. mansoni. Hsp70 is involved in the interaction with apoB in the cytoplasm and its transport to the endoplasmic reticulum. However, further studies are needed to clarify the functional role of Hsp70 in S. mansoni, mainly related to the interaction with human LDL.

  14. Uptake of dietary milk miRNAs by adult humans: a validation study

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Amanda; Vyas, Gopi; Li, Anne; Halushka, Marc; Witwer, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Breast milk is replete with nutritional content as well as nucleic acids including microRNAs (miRNAs). In a recent report, adult humans who drank bovine milk appeared to have increased circulating levels of miRNAs miR-29b-3p and miR-200c-3p. Since these miRNAs are homologous between human and cow, these results could be explained by xeno-miRNA influx, endogenous miRNA regulation, or both. More data were needed to validate the results and explore for additional milk-related alterations in circulating miRNAs. Samples from the published study were obtained, and 223 small RNA features were profiled with a custom OpenArray, followed by individual quantitative PCR assays for selected miRNAs. Additionally, small RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data obtained from plasma samples of the same project were analyzed to find human and uniquely bovine miRNAs. OpenArray revealed no significantly altered miRNA signals after milk ingestion, and this was confirmed by qPCR. Plasma sequencing data contained no miR-29b or miR-200c reads and no intake-consistent mapping of uniquely bovine miRNAs. In conclusion, the results do not support transfer of dietary xenomiRs into the circulation of adult humans. PMID:27158459

  15. Identification of novel molecular markers through transcriptomic analysis in human fetal and adult corneal endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinyin; Huang, Kevin; Nakatsu, Martin N; Xue, Zhigang; Deng, Sophie X; Fan, Guoping

    2013-04-01

    The corneal endothelium is composed of a monolayer of corneal endothelial cells (CECs), which is essential for maintaining corneal transparency. To better characterize CECs in different developmental stages, we profiled mRNA transcriptomes in human fetal and adult corneal endothelium with the goal to identify novel molecular markers in these cells. By comparing CECs with 12 other tissue types, we identified 245 and 284 signature genes that are highly expressed in fetal and adult CECs, respectively. Functionally, these genes are enriched in pathways characteristic of CECs, including inorganic anion transmembrane transporter, extracellular matrix structural constituent and cyclin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor activity. Importantly, several of these genes are disease target genes in hereditary corneal dystrophies, consistent with their functional significance in CEC physiology. We also identified stage-specific markers associated with CEC development, such as specific members in the transforming growth factor beta and Wnt signaling pathways only expressed in fetal, but not in adult CECs. Lastly, by the immunohistochemistry of ocular tissues, we demonstrated the unique protein localization for Wnt5a, S100A4, S100A6 and IER3, the four novel markers for fetal and adult CECs. The identification of a new panel of stage-specific markers for CECs would be very useful for characterizing CECs derived from stem cells or ex vivo expansion for cell replacement therapy. PMID:23257286

  16. Adult education as a human right: The Latin American context and the ecopedagogic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, Moacir

    2011-08-01

    This article presents the concept and practice of adult education as a key issue for Brazil and other Latin American countries, both for formal and non-formal education in the public and private sectors. It includes citizen education focused on democratisation of society and sustainable development. The concept is pluralist and ideological as well as technical. All along the history of contemporary education it is essential to highlight the importance of the CONFINTEA conferences for the construction of an expanded vision of this concept. Adult education is understood as a human right. The right to education does not end when a person has reached the so-called "proper" age; it continues to be a right for the duration of everyone's entire life. This article explores Paulo Freire's contribution, particularly the methodology of MOVA (Youth and Adult Literacy Movement). It also presents the ecopedagogic perspective, which was inspired by Paulo Freire's legacy. Finally, this article stresses the need to support a long-term policy for adult education, following the recommendations of the Civil Society International Forum (FISC) and CONFINTEA VI, both held in Belém, Brazil, in 2009.

  17. Oral Human Papillomavirus Detection in Older Adults Who Have Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fatahzadeh, Mahnaz; Schlecht, Nicolas F.; Chen, Zigui; Bottalico, Danielle; McKinney, Sharod; Ostoloza, Janae; Dunne, Anne; Burk, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate reproducibility of oral rinse self-collection for HPV detection and investigate associations between oral HPV, oral lesions, immune and sociodemographic factors, we performed a cross-sectional study of older adults with HIV infection. Study Design We collected oral rinse samples from 52 subjects at two different times of day followed by an oral examination and interview. We identified HPV using PCR platforms optimized for detection of mucosal and cutaneous types. Results Eighty seven percent of individuals had oral HPV, of which 23% had oncogenic alpha, 40% had non-oncogenic alpha, and 46% had beta or gamma HPV. Paired oral specimens were concordant in all parameters tested. Significant associations observed for oral HPV with increased HIV viral load, hepatitis-C seropositivity, history of sexually transmitted diseases and lifetime number of sexual partners. Conclusions Oral cavity may be a reservoir of subclinical HPV in older adults who have HIV infection. Understanding natural history, transmission and potential implications of oral HPV warrants further investigations. PMID:23375488

  18. Adoptive transfer of macrophages from adult mice reduces mortality in mice infected with human enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiangning; Li, Xiaoying; Fan, Xiaoxu; Ma, Chunmei; Qin, Chuan; Zhang, Lianfeng

    2013-02-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes hand, foot and mouth disease in children under 6 years of age, and the neurological complications of this virus can lead to death. Until now, no vaccines or drugs have been available for the clinical control of this epidemic. Macrophages can engulf pathogens and mediate a series of host immune responses that play a role in the defence against infectious diseases. Using immunohistochemistry, we observed the localizations of virus in muscle tissues of EV71-infected mice. The macrophages isolated from the adult mice could kill the virus gradually in vitro, as shown using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and virus titration. Co-localisation of lysosomes and virus within macrophages suggested that the lysosomes were possibly responsible for the phagocytosis of EV71. Activation of the macrophages in the peritoneal cavity of mice four days pre-infection reduced the mortality of mice upon lethal EV71 infection. The adoptive transfer of macrophages from adult mice inhibited virus replication in the muscle tissues of infected mice, and this was followed by a relief of symptoms and a significant reduction of mortality, which suggested that the adoptive transfer of macrophages from adult humans represents a potential strategy to treat EV71-infected patients.

  19. Acceptance and Attitudes Toward a Human-like Socially Assistive Robot by Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Louie, Wing-Yue Geoffrey; McColl, Derek; Nejat, Goldie

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that cognitive and social interventions are crucial to the overall health of older adults including their psychological, cognitive, and physical well-being. However, due to the rapidly growing elderly population of the world, the resources and people to provide these interventions is lacking. Our work focuses on the use of social robotic technologies to provide person-centered cognitive interventions. In this article, we investigate the acceptance and attitudes of older adults toward the human-like expressive socially assistive robot Brian 2.1 in order to determine if the robot's human-like assistive and social characteristics would promote the use of the robot as a cognitive and social interaction tool to aid with activities of daily living. The results of a robot acceptance questionnaire administered during a robot demonstration session with a group of 46 elderly adults showed that the majority of the individuals had positive attitudes toward the socially assistive robot and its intended applications.

  20. Physical Exercise Habits Correlate with Gray Matter Volume of the Hippocampus in Healthy Adult Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killgore, William D. S.; Olson, Elizabeth A.; Weber, Mareen

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity facilitates neurogenesis of dentate cells in the rodent hippocampus, a brain region critical for memory formation and spatial representation. Recent findings in humans also suggest that aerobic exercise can lead to increased hippocampal volume and enhanced cognitive functioning in children and elderly adults. However, the association between physical activity and hippocampal volume during the period from early adulthood through middle age has not been effectively explored. Here, we correlated the number of minutes of self-reported exercise per week with gray matter volume of the hippocampus using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 61 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 45 years of age. After controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume, total minutes of weekly exercise correlated significantly with volume of the right hippocampus. Findings highlight the relationship between regular physical exercise and brain structure during early to middle adulthood.

  1. Health and population effects of rare gene knockouts in adult humans with related parents

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Vagheesh M.; Hunt, Karen A.; Mason, Dan; Baker, Christopher L.; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Barnes, Michael R.; Barnett, Anthony H.; Bates, Chris; Bellary, Srikanth; Bockett, Nicholas A.; Giorda, Kristina; Griffiths, Christopher J.; Hemingway, Harry; Jia, Zhilong; Kelly, M. Ann; Khawaja, Hajrah A.; Lek, Monkol; McCarthy, Shane; McEachan, Rosie; O’Donnell-Luria, Anne; Paigen, Kenneth; Parisinos, Constantinos A.; Sheridan, Eamonn; Southgate, Laura; Tee, Louise; Thomas, Mark; Xue, Yali; Schnall-Levin, Michael; Petkov, Petko M.; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Maher, Eamonn R.; Trembath, Richard C.; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Wright, John; Durbin, Richard; van Heel, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Examining complete gene knockouts within a viable organism can inform on gene function. We sequenced the exomes of 3,222 British Pakistani-heritage adults with high parental relatedness, discovering 1,111 rare-variant homozygous genotypes with predicted loss of gene function (knockouts) in 781 genes. We observed 13.7% fewer than expected homozygous knockout genotypes, implying an average load of 1.6 recessive-lethal-equivalent LOF variants per adult. Linking genetic data to lifelong health records, knockouts were not associated with clinical consultation or prescription rate. In this dataset we identified a healthy PRDM9 knockout mother, and performed phased genome sequencing on her, her child and controls, which showed meiotic recombination sites localised away from PRDM9-dependent hotspots. Thus, natural LOF variants inform upon essential genetic loci, and demonstrate PRDM9 redundancy in humans. PMID:26940866

  2. Adult stem cells: simply a tool for regenerative medicine or an additional piece in the puzzle of human aging?

    PubMed

    Tollervey, James R; Lunyak, Victoria V

    2011-12-15

    Adult stem cells have taken center stage in current research related to regenerative medicine and pharmacogenomic studies seeking new therapeutic interventions. As we learn more about these cells, it is becoming apparent that the next big leap in our understanding of adult stem cell biology and adult stem cell aging will depend on the integration of approaches from various disciplines. Major advances and technological breakthroughs at the crossroad of fields such as biomaterials, genomics, epigenomics, and proteomics will enable the design of better tools to model human diseases, and warrant safe usage of adult stem cells in the clinic.

  3. Human tau expression reduces adult neurogenesis in a mouse model of tauopathy.

    PubMed

    Komuro, Yutaro; Xu, Guixiang; Bhaskar, Kiran; Lamb, Bruce T

    2015-06-01

    Accumulation of hyperphosphorylated and aggregated microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) is a central feature of a class of neurodegenerative diseases termed tauopathies. Notably, there is increasing evidence that tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease, are also characterized by a reduction in neurogenesis, the birth of adult neurons. However, the exact relationship between hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of MAPT and neurogenic deficits remains unclear, including whether this is an early- or late-stage disease marker. In the present study, we used the genomic-based hTau mouse model of tauopathy to examine the temporal and spatial regulation of adult neurogenesis during the course of the disease. Surprisingly, hTau mice exhibited reductions in adult neurogenesis in 2 different brain regions by as early as 2 months of age, before the development of robust MAPT pathology in this model. This reduction was found to be due to reduced proliferation and not because of enhanced apoptosis in the hippocampus. At these same time points, hTau mice also exhibited altered MAPT phosphorylation with neurogenic precursors. To examine whether the effects of MAPT on neurogenesis were cell autonomous, neurospheres prepared from hTau animals were examined in vitro, revealing a growth deficit when compared with non-transgenic neurosphere cultures. Taken together, these studies provide evidence that altered adult neurogenesis is a robust and early marker of altered, cell-autonomous function of MAPT in the hTau mouse mode of tauopathy and that altered adult neurogenesis should be examined as a potential marker and therapeutic target for human tauopathies.

  4. Three-dimensional dental arch curvature in human adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Poggio, C E; Serrao, G; Colombo, A

    1999-04-01

    The three-dimensional arrangement of dental cusps and incisal edges in human dentitions has been reported to fit the surface of a sphere (the curve of Monson), with a radius of about 4 inches in adults. The objective of the current study was to compare the three-dimensional curvature of the mandibular dental arch in healthy permanent dentitions of young adults and adolescents. The mandibular casts of 50 adults (aged 19 to 22 years) and 20 adolescents (aged 12 to 14 years) with highly selected sound dentitions that were free from temporomandibular joint problems were obtained. The three coordinates of cusp tips excluding the third molars were digitized with a three-dimensional digitizer, and used to derive a spherical model of the curvature of the occlusal surfaces. From the best interpolating sphere, the radii of the left and right curves of Spee (quasi-sagittal plane) and of molar curve of Wilson (frontal plane) were computed. Mandibular arch size (interdental distances) was also calculated. The occlusal curvature of the mandibular arch was not significantly influenced by sex, although a significant effect of age was found (Student t, P <.005). The radii of the overall sphere, right and left curves of Spee, and curve of Wilson in the molar area were about 101 mm in adults, and about 80 mm in adolescents. Arch size was not influenced by either sex or age. The different curvatures of the occlusal plane in adolescents and adults may be explained by a progressive rotation of the major axis of the teeth moving the occlusal plane toward a more buccal position. These dental movements should be performed in a frontal plane on an anteroposterior axis located next to the dental crown.

  5. Characterization of diverse forms of myosin heavy chain expressed in adult human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Saez, L; Leinwand, L A

    1986-01-01

    In an attempt to define myosin heavy chain (MHC) gene organization and expression in adult human skeletal muscle, we have isolated and characterized genomic sequences corresponding to different human sarcomeric MHC genes (1). In this report, we present the complete DNA sequence of two different adult human skeletal muscle MHC cDNA clones, one of which encodes the entire light meromyosin (LMM) segment of MHC and represents the longest described MHC cDNA sequence. Additionally, both clones provide new sequence data from a 228 amino acid segment of the MHC tail for which no protein or DNA sequence has been previously available. One clone encodes a "fast" form of skeletal muscle MHC while the other clone most closely resembles a MHC form described in rat cardiac ventricles. We show that the 3' untranslated region of skeletal MHC cDNAs are homologous from widely separated species as are cardiac MHC cDNAs. However, there is no homology between the 3' untranslated region of cardiac and skeletal muscle MHCs. Isotype-specific preservation of MHC 3' untranslated sequences during evolution suggests a functional role for these regions. Images PMID:2421254

  6. Cortical surface area and cortical thickness in the precuneus of adult humans.

    PubMed

    Bruner, E; Román, F J; de la Cuétara, J M; Martin-Loeches, M; Colom, R

    2015-02-12

    The precuneus has received considerable attention in the last decade, because of its cognitive functions, its role as a central node of the brain networks, and its involvement in neurodegenerative processes. Paleoneurological studies suggested that form changes in the deep parietal areas represent a major character associated with the origin of the modern human brain morphology. A recent neuroanatomical survey based on shape analysis suggests that the proportions of the precuneus are also a determinant source of overall brain geometrical differences among adult individuals, influencing the brain spatial organization. Here, we evaluate the variation of cortical thickness and cortical surface area of the precuneus in a sample of adult humans, and their relation with geometry and cognition. Precuneal thickness and surface area are not correlated. There is a marked individual variation. The right precuneus is thinner and larger than the left one, but there are relevant fluctuating asymmetries, with only a modest correlation between the hemispheres. Males have a thicker cortex but differences in cortical area are not significant between sexes. The surface area of the precuneus shows a positive allometry with the brain surface area, although the correlation is modest. The dilation/contraction of the precuneus, described as a major factor of variability within adult humans, is associated with