Science.gov

Sample records for adult post-mortem human

  1. Imaging maculopathy in post-mortem human eyes.

    PubMed

    Curcio, Christine A

    2005-12-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) remains a poorly understood degeneration. To discover new pathways using contemporary genomics, proteomics, and immunohistochemistry, validate emerging animal models, and validate new imaging modalities, human tissues obtained from donor eyes will be essential to ARM research for the foreseeable future. Because fundus appearance is the clinical diagnostic lingua franca, laboratory investigators adapted these standards to the distinctive appearance of post-mortem tissues in order to identify and stage ARM in donor eyes. Post-mortem tissues offer unique advantages and limitations relative to pre-mortem tissues for imaging studies. One fellow eye can be used for imaging and the other for correlative laboratory studies, if some degree of disease stage asymmetry between eyes is acceptable. Histological verification is a necessary, albeit challenging, step in validating a grading system. PMID:16171840

  2. Essentials of forensic post-mortem MR imaging in adults

    PubMed Central

    Ruder, T D; Thali, M J; Hatch, G M

    2014-01-01

    Post-mortem MR (PMMR) imaging is a powerful diagnostic tool with a wide scope in forensic radiology. In the past 20 years, PMMR has been used as both an adjunct and an alternative to autopsy. The role of PMMR in forensic death investigations largely depends on the rules and habits of local jurisdictions, availability of experts, financial resources, and individual case circumstances. PMMR images are affected by post-mortem changes, including position-dependent sedimentation, variable body temperature and decomposition. Investigators must be familiar with the appearance of normal findings on PMMR to distinguish them from disease or injury. Coronal whole-body images provide a comprehensive overview. Notably, short tau inversion–recovery (STIR) images enable investigators to screen for pathological fluid accumulation, to which we refer as “forensic sentinel sign”. If scan time is short, subsequent PMMR imaging may be focussed on regions with a positive forensic sentinel sign. PMMR offers excellent anatomical detail and is especially useful to visualize pathologies of the brain, heart, subcutaneous fat tissue and abdominal organs. PMMR may also be used to document skeletal injury. Cardiovascular imaging is a core area of PMMR imaging and growing evidence indicates that PMMR is able to detect ischaemic injury at an earlier stage than traditional autopsy and routine histology. The aim of this review is to present an overview of normal findings on forensic PMMR, provide general advice on the application of PMMR and summarise the current literature on PMMR imaging of the head and neck, cardiovascular system, abdomen and musculoskeletal system. PMID:24191122

  3. Field Documentation of Unusual Post-Mortem Arthropod Activity on Human Remains.

    PubMed

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Crippen, Tawni L; Tarone, Aaron M; Singh, Baneshwar; Lenhart, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    During a forensic investigation, the presence of physical marks on human remains can influence the interpretation of events related to the death of an individual. Some tissue injury on human remains can be misinterpreted as ante- or peri-mortem wounds by an investigator when in reality the markings resulted from post-mortem arthropod activity. Unusual entomological data were collected during a study examining the decomposition of a set of human remains in San Marcos, Texas. An adult female Pediodectes haldemani (Girard) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) and an Armadillidium cf. vulgare (Isopoda: Armadilidiidae) were documented feeding on the remains. Both arthropods produced physical marks or artifacts on the remains that could be misinterpreted as attack, abuse, neglect, or torture. Additionally, red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), were observed constructing structures in the mark produced by the P. haldemani feeding. These observations provide insight into the potential of post-mortem arthropod damage to human remains, which previously had not been described for these taxa, and therefore, physical artifacts on any remains found in similar circumstances may result from arthropod activity and not ante- or peri-mortem wounds. PMID:26336287

  4. The rate of RNA degradation in human dental pulp reveals post-mortem interval.

    PubMed

    Poór, Viktor S; Lukács, Dénes; Nagy, Tamás; Rácz, Evelin; Sipos, Katalin

    2016-05-01

    Post-mortem interval (PMI) is the amount of time elapsed since the time of death. Over the years, many methods were developed to assess PMI, but their precision and time frame of applicability are often limited. Our present pilot study aimed to prove if RNA degradation of human dental pulp can be used for PMI estimation. RNA was isolated from the pulps of healthy wisdom teeth and premolars. RNA degradation was determined as RNA integrity number (RIN) with Agilent Bioanalyzer and subsequently by amplification of different length products by PCR after reverse transcription. The RNA integrity analysis allowed us to determine the time of post-mortem interval with high confidence level in the first 21 days. With the PCR-based method, we were able to perform a crude estimation of incubation time of teeth between 20 and 42 days post extraction. These results show that this method might be a promising new tool for PMI estimation despite the limitations. PMID:26608472

  5. Post Mortem Human Surrogate Injury Response of the Pelvis and Lower Extremities to Simulated Underbody Blast.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Ann M; Christopher, John J; Brozoski, Frederick; Salzar, Robert S

    2015-08-01

    Military vehicle underbody blast (UBB) is the cause of many serious injuries in theatre today; however, the effects of these chaotic events on the human body are not well understood. The purpose of this research was to replicate both UBB loading conditions and investigate occupant response in a controlled laboratory setting. In addition to better understanding the response of the human to high rate vertical loading, this test series also aimed to identify high rate injury thresholds. Ten whole body post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) tests were completed using the University of Virginia's ODYSSEY simulated blast rig under a range of loading conditions. Seat pan accelerations ranged from 291 to 738 g's over 3 ms of positive phase duration, and foot pan accelerations from 234 to 858 g's over 3 ms of positive phase duration. Post-test computed tomography (CT) scans and necropsies were performed to determine injuries, and revealed a combination of pelvic, lumbar, thoracic, and lower extremity injuries. The research in this paper discusses pelvis and lower extremity injuries under high rate vertical loads. PMID:25503737

  6. Oblique Loading in Post Mortem Human Surrogates from Vehicle Lateral Impact Tests using Chestbands.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Humm, John R; Pintar, Frank A; Arun, Mike W J; Rhule, Heather; Rudd, Rodney; Craig, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    While numerous studies have been conducted to determine side impact responses of Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) using sled and other equipment, experiments using the biological surrogate in modern full-scale vehicles are not available. The present study investigated the presence of oblique loading in moving deformable barrier and pole tests. Threepoint belt restrained PMHS were positioned in the left front and left rear seats in the former and left front seat in the latter condition and tested according to consumer testing protocols. Three chestbands were used in each specimen (upper, middle and lower thorax). Accelerometers were secured to the skull, shoulder, upper, middle and lower thoracic vertebrae, sternum, and sacrum. Chestband signals were processed to determine magnitudes and angulations of peak deflections. The magnitude and timing of various signal peaks are given. Vehicle accelerations, door velocities, and seat belt loads are also given. Analysis of deformation contours, peak deflections, and angulations indicated that the left rear seated specimen were exposed to anterior oblique loading while left front specimens in both tests sustained essentially pure lateral loading to the torso. These data can be used to validate human body computational models. The occurrence of oblique loading in full-scale testing, hitherto unrecognized, may serve to stimulate the exploration of its role in injuries to the thorax and lower extremities in modern vehicles. It may be important to continue research in this area because injury metrics have a lower threshold for angled loading. PMID:26660738

  7. Cochlear neuropathy in human presbycusis: Confocal analysis of hidden hearing loss in post-mortem tissue.

    PubMed

    Viana, Lucas M; O'Malley, Jennifer T; Burgess, Barbara J; Jones, Dianne D; Oliveira, Carlos A C P; Santos, Felipe; Merchant, Saumil N; Liberman, Leslie D; Liberman, M Charles

    2015-09-01

    Recent animal work has suggested that cochlear synapses are more vulnerable than hair cells in both noise-induced and age-related hearing loss. This synaptopathy is invisible in conventional histopathological analysis, because cochlear nerve cell bodies in the spiral ganglion survive for years, and synaptic analysis requires special immunostaining or serial-section electron microscopy. Here, we show that the same quadruple-immunostaining protocols that allow synaptic counts, hair cell counts, neuronal counts and differentiation of afferent and efferent fibers in mouse can be applied to human temporal bones, when harvested within 9 h post-mortem and prepared as dissected whole mounts of the sensory epithelium and osseous spiral lamina. Quantitative analysis of five "normal" ears, aged 54-89 yrs, without any history of otologic disease, suggests that cochlear synaptopathy and the degeneration of cochlear nerve peripheral axons, despite a near-normal hair cell population, may be an important component of human presbycusis. Although primary cochlear nerve degeneration is not expected to affect audiometric thresholds, it may be key to problems with hearing in noise that are characteristic of declining hearing abilities in the aging ear. PMID:26002688

  8. Injuries to Post Mortem Human Surrogates in Oblique Aircraft Seat Environment.

    PubMed

    Humm, John; Peterson, Brian; Pintar, Frank; Yoganandan, Narayan; Moorcroft, David; Taylor, Amanda; DeWeese, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Increased interest in the airline industry to enhance occupant comfort and maximize seating density has prompted the design and installation of obliquely mounted seats in aircraft. The potential for injury and their mechanism in this seating environment is unknown. Epidemiology-based field injury data do not exist for airplane crashes, however, typical impact scenarios have been determined and safety standards addressing fore, aft, and side-facing seats have been levied by the FAA. The impact scenarios defined in these standards can be used to study likely injuries and injury mechanisms using Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) in a controlled laboratory environment. Four PMHS were seated upright with Frankfurt plane horizontal in a custom designed seat configured to simulate potential aircraft environments and candidate restraint geometries. A scaled Part 25.562 Emergency Landing condition for horizontal impact was used as the dynamic test input. High speed video recorded occupant kinematics. Pre and posttest x-rays and CT’s were obtained and autopsies were conducted. Severe injuries to the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine were observed in three of the four specimens and attributed to torso flail. Pelvis injuries likely caused by the seat belt were found in two tests. Multiple rib fractures were also seen, caused by contact with arm rest or other body regions. The fourth test was run at a lower severity and did not produce injury. This suggests a conservative threshold for human tolerance to this loading environment. Although the study is of a limited sample size, it suggests the need for further testing to develop standards that provide similar levels of safety for obliquely mounted seats as forward/aft facing seats in aircraft. PMID:25996749

  9. Comparing different post-mortem human samples as DNA sources for downstream genotyping and identification.

    PubMed

    Calacal, Gayvelline C; Apaga, Dame Loveliness T; Salvador, Jazelyn M; Jimenez, Joseph Andrew D; Lagat, Ludivino J; Villacorta, Renato Pio F; Lim, Maria Cecilia F; Fortun, Raquel D R; Datar, Francisco A; De Ungria, Maria Corazon A

    2015-11-01

    The capability of DNA laboratories to perform genotyping procedures from post-mortem remains, including those that had undergone putrefaction, continues to be a challenge in the Philippines, a country characterized by very humid and warm conditions all year round. These environmental conditions accelerate the decomposition of human remains that were recovered after a disaster and those that were left abandoned after a crime. When considerable tissue decomposition of human remains has taken place, there is no other option but to extract DNA from bone and/or teeth samples. Routinely, femur shafts are obtained from recovered bodies for human identification because the calcium matrix protects the DNA contained in the osteocytes. In the Philippines, there is difficulty in collecting femur samples after natural disasters or even human-made disasters, because these events are usually characterized by a large number of fatalities. Identification of casualties is further delayed by limitation in human and material resources. Hence, it is imperative to test other types of biological samples that are easier to collect, transport, process and store. We analyzed DNA that were obtained from body fluid, bone marrow, muscle tissue, clavicle, femur, metatarsal, patella, rib and vertebral samples from five recently deceased untreated male cadavers and seven male human remains that were embalmed, buried for ∼ 1 month and then exhumed. The bodies had undergone different environmental conditions and were in various stages of putrefaction. A DNA extraction method utilizing a detergent-washing step followed by an organic procedure was used. The utility of bone marrow and vitreous fluid including bone marrow and vitreous fluid that was transferred on FTA(®) cards and subjected to autosomal STR and Y-STR DNA typing were also evaluated. DNA yield was measured and the presence or absence of PCR inhibitors in DNA extracts was assessed using Plexor(®)HY. All samples were amplified using

  10. Human decomposition and the reliability of a 'Universal' model for post mortem interval estimations.

    PubMed

    Cockle, Diane L; Bell, Lynne S

    2015-08-01

    Human decomposition is a complex biological process driven by an array of variables which are not clearly understood. The medico-legal community have long been searching for a reliable method to establish the post-mortem interval (PMI) for those whose deaths have either been hidden, or gone un-noticed. To date, attempts to develop a PMI estimation method based on the state of the body either at the scene or at autopsy have been unsuccessful. One recent study has proposed that two simple formulae, based on the level of decomposition humidity and temperature, could be used to accurately calculate the PMI for bodies outside, on or under the surface worldwide. This study attempted to validate 'Formula I' [1] (for bodies on the surface) using 42 Canadian cases with known PMIs. The results indicated that bodies exposed to warm temperatures consistently overestimated the known PMI by a large and inconsistent margin for Formula I estimations. And for bodies exposed to cold and freezing temperatures (less than 4°C), then the PMI was dramatically under estimated. The ability of 'Formulae II' to estimate the PMI for buried bodies was also examined using a set of 22 known Canadian burial cases. As these cases used in this study are retrospective, some of the data needed for Formula II was not available. The 4.6 value used in Formula II to represent the standard ratio of time that burial decelerates the rate of decomposition was examined. The average time taken to achieve each stage of decomposition both on, and under the surface was compared for the 118 known cases. It was found that the rate of decomposition was not consistent throughout all stages of decomposition. The rates of autolysis above and below the ground were equivalent with the buried cases staying in a state of putrefaction for a prolonged period of time. It is suggested that differences in temperature extremes and humidity levels between geographic regions may make it impractical to apply formulas developed in

  11. Ultra-High Field MRI Post Mortem Structural Connectivity of the Human Subthalamic Nucleus, Substantia Nigra, and Globus Pallidus

    PubMed Central

    Plantinga, Birgit R.; Roebroeck, Alard; Kemper, Valentin G.; Uludağ, Kâmil; Melse, Maartje; Mai, Jürgen; Kuijf, Mark L.; Herrler, Andreas; Jahanshahi, Ali; ter Haar Romeny, Bart M.; Temel, Yasin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, and globus pallidus, three nuclei of the human basal ganglia, play an important role in motor, associative, and limbic processing. The network of the basal ganglia is generally characterized by a direct, indirect, and hyperdirect pathway. This study aims to investigate the mesoscopic nature of these connections between the subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, and globus pallidus and their surrounding structures. Methods: A human post mortem brain specimen including the substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus, and globus pallidus was scanned on a 7 T MRI scanner. High resolution diffusion weighted images were used to reconstruct the fibers intersecting the substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus, and globus pallidus. The course and density of these tracks was analyzed. Results: Most of the commonly established projections of the subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, and globus pallidus were successfully reconstructed. However, some of the reconstructed fiber tracks such as the connections of the substantia nigra pars compacta to the other included nuclei and the connections with the anterior commissure have not been shown previously. In addition, the quantitative tractography approach showed a typical degree of connectivity previously not documented. An example is the relatively larger projections of the subthalamic nucleus to the substantia nigra pars reticulata when compared to the projections to the globus pallidus internus. Discussion: This study shows that ultra-high field post mortem tractography allows for detailed 3D reconstruction of the projections of deep brain structures in humans. Although the results should be interpreted carefully, the newly identified connections contribute to our understanding of the basal ganglia. PMID:27378864

  12. Mass spectrometric measurement of [beta]-endorphin and methionine enkephalin in human pituitaries. Tumors and post-mortem controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusmierz, Jozef J.; Dass, Chhabil; Robertson, James T.; Desiderio, Dominic M.

    1991-12-01

    Two opioid neuropeptides, [beta]-endorphin (BE), which derives from the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) precursor, and methionine enkephalin (DE), which derives from proenkephalin A, were quantified with fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS) in individual human pituitaries (post-mortem) and in tumor pituitaries (post-surgery) in a study to clarify the molecular processes that occur in tumor formation. FAB-MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode linked the precursor ion (the MH+ ion) of the peptide with a fragment ion that was unique to each neuropeptide to increase significantly the molecular specificity of these quantitative analytical measurements. The ME was quantified as the intact pentapeptide, whereas BE1-31 was quantified via its tryptic fragment BE20-24 (NAIIK). Two corresponding stable isotope-incorporated peptides, [2H5-4Phe]-ME and [2H4-22Ile]-BE1-31,human respectively, were used as the internal standards. The amount of each neuropeptide quantified in control post-mortem pituitaries (n = 8) was 75.2 ± 29.6(s.e.m.) pmol ME mg-1 protein, and in the pituitary tumor samples (n = 5), 25.0 ± 7.6 pmol ME mg-1 protein and 36.0 ± 14.8 pmol BE mg-1 protein. The difference in the BE content between the control and tumor pituitaries was significant (p = 0.004), and reflected an aberrant metabolism of the POMC system in those human pituitary tumor tissues.

  13. Adult post-mortem imaging in traumatic and cardiorespiratory death and its relation to clinical radiological imaging

    PubMed Central

    Adlam, D; Robinson, C; Pakkal, M; Rutty, G N

    2014-01-01

    The use of post-mortem imaging is expanding throughout the world with increasing use of advanced imaging techniques, such as contrast-enhanced CT and MRI. The questions asked of post-mortem imaging are complex and can be very different, for example for natural sudden death investigation will focus on the cause, whereas for trauma the cause of death is often clear, but injury patterns may be very revealing in investigating the background to the incident. Post-mortem imaging is different to clinical imaging regarding both the appearance of pathology and the information required, but there is much to learn from many years of clinical research in the use of these techniques. Furthermore, it is possible that post-mortem imaging research could be used not only for investigating the cause of death but also as a model to conduct clinically relevant research. This article reviews challenges to the development of post-mortem imaging for trauma, identification and cardiorespiratory death, and how they may be influenced by current clinical thinking and practice. PMID:24338941

  14. Post-mortem sporulation of Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) after death in adult Chinook salmon.

    PubMed

    Kent, M L; Soderlund, K; Thomann, Estela; Schreck, C B; Sharpton, T J

    2014-10-01

    Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) is a common gastrointestinal pathogen of salmonid fishes in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. We have been investigating this parasite in adult Chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) in the Willamette River, Oregon. In prior work, we observed differences in the pattern of development of C. shasta in adult salmon compared to juvenile salmon. Adult salmon consistently had large numbers of prespore stages in many of the fish that survived to spawn in the fall. However, myxospores were rarely observed, even though they were exposed and presumably infected for months before spawning. We evaluated the ability of C. shasta to sporulate following fish death because it is reported that myxosores are common in carcasses of Chinook salmon. We collected the intestine from 30 adult salmon immediately after artificial spawning and death (T0). A total of 23 fish were infected with C. shasta based on histology, but only a few myxospores were observed in 1 fish by histology. Intestines of these fish were examined at T0 and T7 (latter held at 17 C for 7 days) using quantified wet mount preparations. An increase in myxospore concentrations was seen in 39% of these fish, ranging between a 1.5- to a 14.5-fold increase. The most heavily infected fish exhibited a 4.6-fold increase from 27,841 to 129,352 myxospores/cm. This indicates, supported by various statistical analyses, that under certain conditions presporogonic forms are viable and continue to sporulate after death in adult salmon. Considering the life cycle of C. shasta and anadromous salmon, the parasite may have evolved 2, non-mutually exclusive developmental strategies. In young fish (parr and smolts), the parasite sporulates shortly after infection and is released into freshwater from either live or dead fish before their migration to seawater, where the alternate host is absent. The second strategy occurs in adult salmon, particularly spring Chinook salmon, which become infected

  15. Stability and Autolysis of Cortical Neurons in Post-Mortem Adult Rat Brains

    PubMed Central

    Sheleg, Sergey V; LoBello, Janine R; Hixon, Hugh; Coons, Stephen W; Lowry, David; Nedzved, Mikhail K

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the dynamics of autolytic damage of the cortical neurons in adult brains for 24 hours at room temperature (+20°C) after cardiac arrest. The progressive histological and ultrastructural changes were documented using routine and immunohistochemical staining as well as electron microscopy. Our results demonstrated that there were no autolytic damages in the ultrastructure of cerebral neurons in the first 6 hours after warm cardiac arrest, in agreement with previous studies in other mammals. Interestingly, the activation of caspase-3 was observed in a significant number of neurons of the cerebellum and neocortex 9 hours following cardiac arrest. No significant changes related to autolysis were observed using amnio-cupric acid and Nissl (thionine) staining. PMID:18784829

  16. Identification of extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors in post mortem human brain with [125I]epidepride.

    PubMed

    Kessler, R M; Whetsell, W O; Ansari, M S; Votaw, J R; de Paulis, T; Clanton, J A; Schmidt, D E; Mason, N S; Manning, R G

    1993-04-23

    The regional distribution of striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptors in human brain was studied in vitro with (S)-N-[(1-ethyl-2- pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-[125I]iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide, [125I]epidepride, using post mortem brain specimens from six subjects. Scatchard analysis of the saturation equilibrium binding in twenty-three regions of post mortem brain revealed highest levels of binding in the caudate (16.5 pmol/g tissue) and putamen (16.6 pmol/g tissue) with lower levels seen in the globus pallidus (7.0 pmol/g tissue), nucleus accumbens (7.2 pmol/g tissue), hypothalamus (1.8 pmol/g tissue), pituitary (1.3 pmol/g tissue), substantia innominata (1.0 pmol/g tissue), and amygdala (0.87 pmol/g tissue). Of note was the presence of dopamine D2 receptors in the four thalamic nuclei studied, i.e. anterior nucleus (1.0 pmol/g tissue), dorsomedial nucleus (0.96 pmol/g tissue), ventral nuclei (0.72 pmol/g tissue), and pulvinar (0.86 pmol/g tissue), at levels comparable to the amygdala (0.87 pmol/g tissue) and considerably higher than levels seen in anterior cingulate (0.26 pmol/g tissue) or anterior hippocampus (0.36 pmol/g tissue). The frontal cortex had very low levels of dopamine D2 receptors (0.17-0.20 pmol/g tissue) while the inferior and medial temporal cortex had relatively higher levels (0.31-0.46 pmol/g tissue). Inhibition of [125I]epidepride binding by a variety of neurotransmitter ligands to striatal, ventral thalamic and inferior temporal cortical homogenates demonstrated that [125I]epidepride binding was potently inhibited only by dopamine D2 ligands. The present study demonstrates that dopamine D2 receptors are present in basal ganglia, many limbic regions, cortex and in the thalamus. The density of thalamic D2 receptors is comparable to many limbic regions and is considerably higher than in cortex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8099521

  17. Dynamic Responses of Intact Post Mortem Human Surrogates from Inferior-to-Superior Loading at the Pelvis.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Moore, Jason; Arun, Mike W J; Pintar, Frank A

    2014-11-01

    During certain events such as underbody blasts due to improvised explosive devices, occupants in military vehicles are exposed to inferior-to-superior loading from the pelvis. Injuries to the pelvis-sacrum-lumbar spine complex have been reported from these events. The mechanism of load transmission and potential variables defining the migration of injuries between pelvis and or spinal structures are not defined. This study applied inferior-to-superior impacts to the tuberosities of the ischium of supine-positioned five post mortem human subjects (PMHS) using different acceleration profiles, defined using shape, magnitude and duration parameters. Seventeen tests were conducted. Overlay temporal plots were presented for normalized (impulse momentum approach) forces and accelerations of the sacrum and spine. Scatter plots showing injury and non-injury data as a function of peak normalized forces, pulse characteristics, impulse and power, loading rate and sacrum and spine accelerations were evaluated as potential metrics related to pathological outcomes with the focus of examining the role of the pulse characteristics from inferior-to-superior loading of the pelvis-sacrum-lumbar spine complex. Interrelationships were explored between non-fracture and fracture outcomes, and fracture patterns with a focus on migration of injuries from the hip-only to hip and spine to spine-only regions. Observations indicate that injury to the pelvis and or spine from inferior-to-superior loading is associated with pulse and not just peak velocity. The role of the effect of mass recruitment and injury migration parallel knee-thigh-hip complex studies, suggest a wider application of the recruitment concept and the role of the pulse characteristics. PMID:26192952

  18. Metabolic signatures of Huntington's disease (HD): (1)H NMR analysis of the polar metabolome in post-mortem human brain.

    PubMed

    Graham, Stewart F; Kumar, Praveen K; Bjorndahl, Trent; Han, BeomSoo; Yilmaz, Ali; Sherman, Eric; Bahado-Singh, Ray O; Wishart, David; Mann, David; Green, Brian D

    2016-09-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal neurodegenerative disorder affecting approximately 5-10 persons per 100,000 worldwide. The pathophysiology of HD is not fully understood but the age of onset is known to be highly dependent on the number of CAG triplet repeats in the huntingtin gene. Using (1)H NMR spectroscopy this study biochemically profiled 39 brain metabolites in post-mortem striatum (n=14) and frontal lobe (n=14) from HD sufferers and controls (n=28). Striatum metabolites were more perturbed with 15 significantly affected in HD cases, compared with only 4 in frontal lobe (p<0.05; q<0.3). The metabolite which changed most overall was urea which decreased 3.25-fold in striatum (p<0.01). Four metabolites were consistently affected in both brain regions. These included the neurotransmitter precursors tyrosine and l-phenylalanine which were significantly depleted by 1.55-1.58-fold and 1.48-1.54-fold in striatum and frontal lobe, respectively (p=0.02-0.03). They also included l-leucine which was reduced 1.54-1.69-fold (p=0.04-0.09) and myo-inositol which was increased 1.26-1.37-fold (p<0.01). Logistic regression analyses performed with MetaboAnalyst demonstrated that data obtained from striatum produced models which were profoundly more sensitive and specific than those produced from frontal lobe. The brain metabolite changes uncovered in this first (1)H NMR investigation of human HD offer new insights into the disease pathophysiology. Further investigations of striatal metabolite disturbances are clearly warranted. PMID:27288730

  19. Optimized lower leg injury probability curves from post-mortem human subject tests under axial impacts

    PubMed Central

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W.J.; Pintar, Frank A.; Szabo, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Objective Derive optimum injury probability curves to describe human tolerance of the lower leg using parametric survival analysis. Methods The study re-examined lower leg PMHS data from a large group of specimens. Briefly, axial loading experiments were conducted by impacting the plantar surface of the foot. Both injury and non-injury tests were included in the testing process. They were identified by pre- and posttest radiographic images and detailed dissection following the impact test. Fractures included injuries to the calcaneus and distal tibia-fibula complex (including pylon), representing severities at the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) level 2+. For the statistical analysis, peak force was chosen as the main explanatory variable and the age was chosen as the co-variable. Censoring statuses depended on experimental outcomes. Parameters from the parametric survival analysis were estimated using the maximum likelihood approach and the dfbetas statistic was used to identify overly influential samples. The best fit from the Weibull, log-normal and log-logistic distributions was based on the Akaike Information Criterion. Plus and minus 95% confidence intervals were obtained for the optimum injury probability distribution. The relative sizes of the interval were determined at predetermined risk levels. Quality indices were described at each of the selected probability levels. Results The mean age, stature and weight: 58.2 ± 15.1 years, 1.74 ± 0.08 m and 74.9 ± 13.8 kg. Excluding all overly influential tests resulted in the tightest confidence intervals. The Weibull distribution was the most optimum function compared to the other two distributions. A majority of quality indices were in the good category for this optimum distribution when results were extracted for 25-, 45- and 65-year-old at five, 25 and 50% risk levels age groups for lower leg fracture. For 25, 45 and 65 years, peak forces were 8.1, 6.5, and 5.1 kN at 5% risk; 9.6, 7.7, and 6.1 kN at 25% risk

  20. BDNF promoter I methylation correlates between post-mortem human peripheral and brain tissues.

    PubMed

    Stenz, Ludwig; Zewdie, Seblewongel; Laforge-Escarra, Térèse; Prados, Julien; La Harpe, Romano; Dayer, Alexandre; Paoloni-Giacobino, Ariane; Perroud, Nader; Aubry, Jean-Michel

    2015-02-01

    Several psychiatric disorders have been associated with CpG methylation changes in CG rich promoters of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mainly by extracting DNA from peripheral blood cells. Whether changes in peripheral DNA methylation can be used as a proxy for brain-specific alterations remains an open question. In this study we aimed to compare DNA methylation levels in BDNF promoter regions in human blood cells, muscle and brain regions using bisulfite-pyrosequencing. We found a significant correlation between the levels of BDNF promoter I methylation measured in quadriceps and vPFC tissues extracted from the same individuals (n = 98, Pearson, r = 0.48, p = 4.5 × 10(-7)). In the hippocampus, BDNF promoter I and IV methylation levels were strongly correlated (Pearson, n = 37, r = 0.74, p = 1.4 × 10(-7)). We found evidence for sex-dependent effect on BDNF promoter methylation levels in the various tissues and blood samples. Taken together, these data indicate a strong intra-individual correlation between peripheral and brain tissue. They also suggest that sex determines methylation patterns in BDNF promoter region across different types of tissue, including muscle, brain, and blood. PMID:25450314

  1. Histological validation of high-resolution DTI in human post mortem tissue

    PubMed Central

    Seehaus, Arne; Roebroeck, Alard; Bastiani, Matteo; Fonseca, Lúcia; Bratzke, Hansjürgen; Lori, Nicolás; Vilanova, Anna; Goebel, Rainer; Galuske, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is amongst the simplest mathematical models available for diffusion magnetic resonance imaging, yet still by far the most used one. Despite the success of DTI as an imaging tool for white matter fibers, its anatomical underpinnings on a microstructural basis remain unclear. In this study, we used 65 myelin-stained sections of human premotor cortex to validate modeled fiber orientations and oft used microstructure-sensitive scalar measures of DTI on the level of individual voxels. We performed this validation on high spatial resolution diffusion MRI acquisitions investigating both white and gray matter. We found a very good agreement between DTI and myelin orientations with the majority of voxels showing angular differences less than 10°. The agreement was strongest in white matter, particularly in unidirectional fiber pathways. In gray matter, the agreement was good in the deeper layers highlighting radial fiber directions even at lower fractional anisotropy (FA) compared to white matter. This result has potentially important implications for tractography algorithms applied to high resolution diffusion MRI data if the aim is to move across the gray/white matter boundary. We found strong relationships between myelin microstructure and DTI-based microstructure-sensitive measures. High FA values were linked to high myelin density and a sharply tuned histological orientation profile. Conversely, high values of mean diffusivity (MD) were linked to bimodal or diffuse orientation distributions and low myelin density. At high spatial resolution, DTI-based measures can be highly sensitive to white and gray matter microstructure despite being relatively unspecific to concrete microarchitectural aspects. PMID:26257612

  2. Investigation on occupant ejection in high severity rear impact based on post mortem human subject sled tests.

    PubMed

    Petit, Philippe; Luet, Carole; Potier, Pascal; Vallancien, Guy

    2011-11-01

    Occupant protection in rear impact involves two competing challenges. On one hand, allowing a deformation of the seat would act as an energy absorber in low severity impacts and would consequently decrease the risk of neck injuries. However, on the other hand, large deformations of the seat may increase the likelihood of occupant ejection in high severity cases. Green et al. 1987 analyzed a total of 919 accidents in Great Britain. They found that occupant ejection resulted in a risk of severe injuries and fatalities between 3.6 and 4.5 times higher than those cases where no ejection was observed. The sample included single front, side and rear impacts as well as multiple impacts and rollover. The rate of belt use in the sample was 50%. While this analysis included all forms of impact scenarios, nevertheless, it highlights the relative injury severity of occupant ejection. Extensive literature search has found no full-scale rear impact tests involving Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) conducted in a laboratory environment and resulting in ejection. This paper describes a total of 10 sled tests conducted on 3 belted PMHS using a simplified seat design composed of rigid plates assembled such that the angular and linear stiffness of the seatback (including the foam) was modeled. The initial angular position and the range of motion of the seatback, the size of the PMHS, the slack length of the seatbelt, the angular stiffness of the seatback, and the use of headrest were varied in the test matrix while the pulse was kept constant (triangular acceleration with a peak of 17 G at 30 ms and a duration of 95 ms). In the test series, the tests were not run randomly but the likelihood of occupant ejection was increased systematically until ejection occurred. PMHS seat ejection was observed only for the 95th percentile, initially positioned with a seatback angle relative to the vertical equal to 22°, a range of seatback angular motion equal to 44° and no headrest. Repeating

  3. [Post-mortem microbiology analysis].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Amparo; Alberola, Juan; Cohen, Marta Cecilia

    2013-12-01

    Post-mortem microbiology is useful in both clinical and forensic autopsies, and allows a suspected infection to be confirmed. Indeed, it is routinely applied to donor studies in the clinical setting, as well as in sudden and unexpected death in the forensic field. Implementation of specific sampling techniques in autopsy can minimize the possibility of contamination, making interpretation of the results easier. Specific interpretation criteria for post-mortem cultures, the use of molecular diagnosis, and its fusion with molecular biology and histopathology have led to post-mortem microbiology playing a major role in autopsy. Multidisciplinary work involving microbiologists, pathologists, and forensic physicians will help to improve the achievements of post-mortem microbiology, prevent infectious diseases, and contribute to a healthier population. PMID:23195835

  4. Involvement of neuroleptic drugs in selenium deficiency and sudden death of cardiac origin: study and human post-mortem examination.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Lamia; Bost, Muriel; Chazot, Guy; Bui-Xuan, Bernard; Vaillant, Fanny; Dehina, Leila; Descotes, Jacques; Tabib, Alain; Mamou, Zahida; Timour, Quadiri

    2012-06-01

    The involvement of psychotropic drugs in sudden deaths has been highlighted. The objective of this work was to establish a link between selenium levels in heart tissue, psychotropic treatment and sudden death. Selenium levels were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy post-mortem in heart, brain and liver. Histological examination evidenced dilated cardiomyopathy in 45% of cases, left ventricular hypertrophy in 36%, and ischemic coronaropathy in 18%. A significant reduction of myocardial selenium levels compared to controls was seen in patients treated with neuroleptic drugs or meprobamate. No changes in brain or liver selenium levels were seen. These results suggest that selenium deficiency can facilitate sudden death in patients on psychotropic drugs. The reduced activity of glutathione peroxidase due to selenium deficiency can result in augmented oxidative stress in myocardial cells and myocardiopathy leading to sudden death. PMID:22664334

  5. Post-mortem clinical pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Ferner, R E

    2008-01-01

    Clinical pharmacology assumes that deductions can be made about the concentrations of drugs from a knowledge of the pharmacokinetic parameters in an individual; and that the effects are related to the measured concentration. Post-mortem changes render the assumptions of clinical pharmacology largely invalid, and make the interpretation of concentrations measured in post-mortem samples difficult or impossible. Qualitative tests can show the presence of substances that were not present in life, and can fail to detect substances that led to death. Quantitative analysis is subject to error in itself, and because post-mortem concentrations vary in largely unpredictable ways with the site and time of sampling, as a result of the phenomenon of post-mortem redistribution. Consequently, compilations of ‘lethal concentrations’ are misleading. There is a lack of adequate studies of the true relationship between fatal events and the concentrations that can be measured subsequently, but without such studies, clinical pharmacologists and others should be wary of interpreting post-mortem measurements. PMID:18637886

  6. Global and Site-Specific Changes in 5-Methylcytosine and 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine after Extended Post-mortem Interval

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Jeffrey A.; Nagy, Corina; Lin, Li; Bonneil, Éric; Maheu, Marissa; Thibault, Pierre; Mechawar, Naguib; Jin, Peng; Turecki, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in the study of epigenetic mechanisms to elucidate the molecular bases of human brain-related diseases and disorders. Frequently, researchers utilize post-mortem tissue with the assumption that post-mortem tissue decay has little or no effect on epigenetic marks. Although previous studies show no effect of post-mortem interval on certain epigenetic marks, no such research has been performed on cytosine modifications. In this study, we use DNA from the brains of adult Sprague Dawley rats subjected to post-mortem intervals at room temperature, ranging from 0 to 96 h, to assess the stability of cytosine modifications, namely 5-methycytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. Our results indicate that neither global nor site-specific levels of 5-methycytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine are affected by the post-mortem intervals we studied. As such, the use of post-mortem tissue to study cytosine modifications in the context of neurological or neuropsychiatric disorders is appropriate. PMID:27446202

  7. A comparison of mitochondrial DNA isolation methods in frozen post-mortem human brain tissue--applications for studies of mitochondrial genetics in brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Devall, Matthew; Burrage, Joe; Caswell, Richard; Johnson, Matthew; Troakes, Claire; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Jeffries, Aaron R; Mill, Jonathan; Lunnon, Katie

    2015-10-01

    Given that many brain disorders are characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction, there is a growing interest in investigating genetic and epigenetic variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). One major caveat for such studies is the presence of nuclear-mitochondrial pseudogenes (NUMTs), which are regions of the mitochondrial genome that have been inserted into the nuclear genome over evolution and, if not accounted for, can confound genetic studies of mtDNA. Here we provide the first systematic comparison of methods for isolating mtDNA from frozen post-mortem human brain tissue. Our data show that a commercial method from Miltenyi Biotec, which magnetically isolates mitochondria using antibodies raised against the mitochondrial import receptor subunit TOM22, gives significant mtDNA enrichment and should be considered the method of choice for mtDNA studies in frozen brain tissue. PMID:26458552

  8. The NADPH oxidase NOX2 as a novel biomarker for suicidality: evidence from human post mortem brain samples.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, S; Neri, M; Mhillaj, E; Morgese, M G; Cantatore, S; Bove, M; Riezzo, I; Tucci, P; Pomara, C; Turillazzi, E; Cuomo, V; Trabace, L

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence points towards a role of oxidative stress in suicidality. However, few studies were carried out on the sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in subjects with suicidal behaviour. We have previously demonstrated that the NADPH oxidase NOX2-derived oxidative stress has a major role in the development of neuropathological alterations observed in an animal model of psychosis. Here, we investigated the possible increase in NOX2 in post mortem brain samples of subjects who died by asphyctic suicide (AS) compared with controls (CTRL) and subjects who died by non-suicidal asphyxia (NSA). We found that NOX2 expression was significantly higher in the cortex of AS subjects than in the other two experimental groups. NOX2 immunostaining was mainly detected in GABAergic neurons, with a minor presence of NOX2-positive-stained cells in glutamatergic and dopaminergic neurons, as well as astrocytes and microglia. A sustained increase in the expression of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, an indirect marker of oxidative stress, was also detected in the cortex of AS subjects, compared with CTRL and NSA subjects. A significant elevation in cortical interleukin-6 immunoreactivity in AS subjects suggested an involvement of cytokine-associated molecular pathways in NOX2 elevations. Our results suggest that the increase in NOX2-derived oxidative stress in the brain might be involved in the neuropathological pathways leading to suicidal behaviour. These results may open innovative insights in the identification of new pathogenetic and necroscopic biomarkers, predictive for suicidality and potentially useful for suicide prevention. PMID:27187235

  9. Studies on drug metabolism by fungi colonizing decomposing human cadavers. Part II: biotransformation of five model drugs by fungi isolated from post-mortem material.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ramírez, Jorge A; Walther, Grit; Peters, Frank T

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated the in vitro metabolic capacity of 28 fungal strains isolated from post-mortem material towards five model drugs: amitriptyline, metoprolol, mirtazapine, promethazine, and zolpidem. Each fungal strain was incubated at 25 °C for up to 120 h with each of the five models drugs. Cunninghamella elegans was used as positive control. Aliquots of the incubation mixture were centrifuged and 50 μL of the supernatants were diluted and directly analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with product ion scanning. The remaining mixture was analyzed by full scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after liquid-liquid extraction and acetylation. The metabolic activity was evaluated through the total number of detected metabolites (NDM) produced in each model and fungal strains and the percentage of parent drug remaining (%RPD) after up to five days of incubation. All the tested fungal strains were capable of forming mammalian phase I metabolites. Fungi from the normal fungal flora of the human body such as Candida sp., Geotrichum candidum, and Trichosporon asahii) formed up to seven metabolites at %RPD values greater than 52% but no new fungal metabolites (NFM). In contrast, some airborne fungal strains like Bjerkandera adusta, Chaetomium sp, Coriolopsis sp., Fusarium solani and Mucor plumbeus showed NDM values exceeding those of the positive control, complete metabolism of the parent drug in some models and formation of NFM. NFM (numbers in brackets) were detected in four of the five model drugs: amitriptyline (18), metoprolol (4), mirtazapine (8), and zolpidem (2). The latter NFM are potential candidates for marker substances indicating post-mortem fungal metabolism. PMID:24898183

  10. Post-mortem brain pathology is related to declining respiratory function in community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Buchman, Aron S.; Yu, Lei; Wilson, Robert S.; Dawe, Robert J.; VanderHorst, Veronique; Schneider, Julie A.; Bennett, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Damage to brain structures which constitute the distributed neural network that integrates respiratory muscle and pulmonary functions, can impair adequate ventilation and its volitional control. We tested the hypothesis that the level of brain pathology in older adults is associated with declining respiratory function measured during life. 1,409 older adults had annual testing with spirometry (SPI) and respiratory muscle strength (RMS) based on maximal inspiratory and maximal expiratory pressures (MEPs). Those who died underwent structured brain autopsy. On average, during 5 years of follow-up, SPI and RMS showed progressive decline which was moderately correlated (ρ = 0.57, p < 0.001). Among decedents (N = 447), indices of brain neuropathologies showed differential associations with declining SPI and RMS. Nigral neuronal loss was associated with the person-specific decline in SPI (Estimate, −0.016 unit/year, S.E. 0.006, p = 0.009) and reduction of the slope variance was equal to 4%. By contrast, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology (Estimate, −0.030 unit/year, S.E. 0.009, p < 0.001) and macroscopic infarcts (−0.033 unit/year, S.E., 0.011, p = 0.003) were associated with the person-specific decline in RMS and reduction of the slope variance was equal to 7%. These results suggest that brain pathology is associated with the rate of declining respiratory function in older adults. PMID:26539108

  11. Prevalence of tuberculosis in post-mortem studies of HIV-infected adults and children in resource-limited settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rishi K.; Lucas, Sebastian B.; Fielding, Katherine L.; Lawn, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Tuberculosis (TB) is estimated to be the leading cause of HIV-related deaths globally. However, since HIV-associated TB frequently remains unascertained, we systematically reviewed autopsy studies to determine the true burden of TB at death. Methods: We systematically searched Medline and Embase databases (to end 2013) for literature reporting on health facility-based autopsy studies of HIV-infected adults and/or children in resource-limited settings. Using forest plots and random-effects meta-analysis, we summarized the TB prevalence found at autopsy and used meta-regression to explore variables associated with autopsy TB prevalence. Results: We included 36 eligible studies, reporting on 3237 autopsies. Autopsy TB prevalence was extremely heterogeneous (range 0–64.4%), but was markedly higher in adults [pooled prevalence 39.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 32.4–47.0%] compared to children (pooled prevalence 4.5%, 95% CI 1.7–7.4%). Post-mortem TB prevalence varied by world region, with pooled estimates in adults of 63.2% (95% CI 57.7–68.7%) in South Asia (n = 2 studies); 43.2% (95% CI 38.0–48.3) in sub-Saharan Africa (n = 9 studies); and 27.1% (95% CI 16.0–38.1%) in the Americas (n = 5 studies). Autopsy prevalence positively correlated with contemporary estimates of national TB prevalence. TB in adults was disseminated in 87.9% (82.2–93.7%) of cases and was considered the cause of death in 91.4% (95% CI 85.8–97.0%) of TB cases. Overall, TB was the cause of death in 37.2% (95% CI 25.7–48.7%) of adult HIV/AIDS-related deaths. TB remained undiagnosed at death in 45.8% (95% CI 32.6–59.1%) of TB cases. Conclusions: In resource-limited settings, TB accounts for approximately 40% of facility-based HIV/AIDS-related adult deaths. Almost half of this disease remains undiagnosed at the time of death. These findings highlight the critical need to improve the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of HIV-associated TB globally. PMID

  12. Diagnosis, management and post-mortem findings of a human case of rabies imported into the United Kingdom from India: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human rabies infection continues to be a significant public health burden globally, and is occasionally imported to high income settings where the Milwaukee Protocol for intensive care management has recently been employed, with limited success in improving survival. Access to molecular diagnostics, pre- and post-mortem, and documentation of pathophysiological responses while using the Milwaukee protocol, can add useful insights for the future of rabies management. Case presentation A 58-year-old British Asian woman was referred to a regional general hospital in the UK with hydrophobia, anxiety and confusion nine weeks after receiving a dog bite in North West India. Nuchal skin biopsy, saliva, and a skin biopsy from the site of the dog bite wound, taken on the day of admission, all demonstrated the presence of rabies virus RNA. Within 48 hours sequence analysis of viral RNA confirmed the diagnosis and demonstrated that the virus was a strain closely related to canine rabies viruses circulating in South Asia. Her condition deteriorated rapidly with increased agitation and autonomic dysfunction. She was heavily sedated and intubated on the day after admission, treated according to a modified Milwaukee protocol, and remained stable until she developed heart block and profound acidosis and died on the eighth day. Analysis of autopsy samples showed a complete absence of rabies neutralizing antibody in cerebrospinal fluid and serum, and corresponding high levels of virus antigen and nucleic acid in brain and cerebrospinal fluid. Quantitative PCR showed virus was also distributed widely in peripheral tissues despite mild or undetectable histopathological changes. Vagus nerve branches in the heart showed neuritis, a probable Negri body but no demonstrable rabies antigen. Conclusion Rapid molecular diagnosis and strain typing is helpful in the management of human rabies infection. Post-mortem findings such as vagal neuritis highlight clinically important effects

  13. Post-mortem interval estimation of human skeletal remains by micro-computed tomography, mid-infrared microscopic imaging and energy dispersive X-ray mapping

    PubMed Central

    Hatzer-Grubwieser, P.; Bauer, C.; Parson, W.; Unterberger, S. H.; Kuhn, V.; Pemberger, N.; Pallua, Anton K.; Recheis, W.; Lackner, R.; Stalder, R.; Pallua, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    In this study different state-of-the-art visualization methods such as micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), mid-infrared (MIR) microscopic imaging and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) mapping were evaluated to study human skeletal remains for the determination of the post-mortem interval (PMI). PMI specific features were identified and visualized by overlaying molecular imaging data and morphological tissue structures generated by radiological techniques and microscopic images gained from confocal microscopy (Infinite Focus (IFM)). In this way, a more distinct picture concerning processes during the PMI as well as a more realistic approximation of the PMI were achieved. It could be demonstrated that the gained result in combination with multivariate data analysis can be used to predict the Ca/C ratio and bone volume (BV) over total volume (TV) for PMI estimation. Statistical limitation of this study is the small sample size, and future work will be based on more specimens to develop a screening tool for PMI based on the outcome of this multidimensional approach. PMID:25878731

  14. Post-mortem CT and MRI: appropriate post-mortem imaging appearances and changes related to cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Offiah, Curtis E; Dean, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Post-mortem cross-sectional imaging in the form of CT and, less frequently, MRI is an emerging facility in the evaluation of cause-of-death and human identification for the coronial service as well as in assisting the forensic investigation of suspicious deaths and homicide. There are marked differences between the radiological evaluation and interpretation of the CT and MRI features of the live patient (i.e. antemortem imaging) and the evaluation and interpretation of post-mortem CT and MRI appearances. In addition to the absence of frequently utilized tissue enhancement following intravenous contrast administration in antemortem imaging, there are a number of variable changes which occur in the tissues and organs of the body as a normal process following death, some of which are, in addition, affected significantly by environmental factors. Many patients and victims will also have undergone aggressive attempts at cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the perimortem period which will also significantly alter post-mortem CT and MRI appearances. It is paramount that the radiologist and pathologist engaged in the interpretation of such post-mortem imaging are familiar with the appropriate non-pathological imaging changes germane to death, the post-mortem interval and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in order to avoid erroneously attributing such changes to trauma or pathology. Some of the more frequently encountered radiological imaging considerations of this nature will be reviewed. PMID:26562099

  15. Flow cytometry analysis of synaptosomes from post-mortem human brain reveals changes specific to Lewy Body and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Postupna, Nadia O.; Keene, C. Dirk; Latimer, Caitlin; Sherfield, Emily E.; Van Gelder, Rachel D.; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Montine, Thomas J.; Darvas, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic dysfunction is thought to play an important role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Lewy body disease (LBD). To improve our understanding of synaptic alterations in health and disease, we investigated synaptosomes prepared from post-mortem human cerebral cortex, putamen, and two regions of the caudate nucleus, dorso-lateral (DL) and ventro-medial (VM), regions commonly affected in AD and LBD. We observed that the fraction of synaptosomal particles with reactivity for dopamine transporter (DAT) was significantly reduced in the putamen and VM caudate of patients with neuropathological diagnosis of LBD. As expected, these differences also were reflected in direct measurements of dopamine (DA) and its metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), in caudate and putamen of LBD patients. The fraction of synaptosomal particles positive for amyloid β (Aβ) was significantly increased in frontal cortical samples of patients with the neuropathological diagnosis of severe AD, and was positively correlated with disease progression. We also prepared synaptosomes from the striatum of mice with severe loss of DA neurons (Slc6a3-DTR mice) and wild-type littermate controls. We observed dramatically reduced levels of DAT-positive synaptosomes in Slc6a3-DTR mice following exposure to diphtheria toxin (DT). Striatal levels of DA and DOPAC in Slc6a3-DTR mice also were reduced significantly following DT exposure. We conclude that flow cytometric analysis of synaptosomes prepared from human or mouse brain provides an opportunity to study expression of pathology-associated proteins and also the specific loss of dopaminergic nerve terminals. Hence, we believe it is a valid method to detect pathological changes at the level of the synapse in LBD as well as AD. PMID:25068655

  16. Analysis of the Relationship between Peak Stress and Proteoglycan Loss Following Injurious Compression of Human Post-mortem Knee and Ankle Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Patwari, Parth; Cheng, Debbie M.; Cole, Ada A.; Kuettner, Klaus E.; Grodzinsky, Alan J.

    2009-01-01

    While traumatic joint injuries are known to increase the risk of osteoarthritis (OA), the mechanism is not known. Models for injurious compression of cartilage may identify predictors of injury that suggest a clinical mechanism. We investigated the relationship between peak stress during compression and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) loss after injury for knee and ankle cartilages. Human cartilage explant disks were harvested post-mortem from the knee and ankle of three organ donors with no history of OA and subjected to injurious compression to 65% strain in uniaxial unconfined compression at 2 mm/s (400%/s). The GAG content of the conditioned medium was measured three days after injury. After injury of knee cartilage disks, damage was visible in 18 of 39 disks (46%). Three days after injury, the increase in GAG loss to the medium (GAG loss from injured disks minus GAG loss from location-matched uncompressed controls) was 1.5 ± 0.3 μg/disk (mean ± SEM). With final strain and compression velocity held constant, we observed that increasing peak stress during injury was associated with less GAG loss after injury (p<0.001). In contrast, ankle cartilage appeared damaged after injury in only one of 16 disks (6%), there was no increase in GAG loss (0.0 ± 0.3 μg/disk), and no relationship between peak stress and increase in GAG loss was detected (p=0.51). By itself, increasing peak stress did not appear to be an important cause of GAG loss from human cartilage in our injurious compression model. However, we observed further evidence for differences in the response of knee and ankle cartilages to injury. PMID:16715319

  17. Analysis of the relationship between peak stress and proteoglycan loss following injurious compression of human post-mortem knee and ankle cartilage.

    PubMed

    Patwari, Parth; Cheng, Debbie M; Cole, Ada A; Kuettner, Klaus E; Grodzinsky, Alan J

    2007-01-01

    While traumatic joint injuries are known to increase the risk of osteoarthritis (OA), the mechanism is not known. Models for injurious compression of cartilage may identify predictors of injury that suggest a clinical mechanism. We investigated the relationship between peak stress during compression and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) loss after injury for knee and ankle cartilages. Human cartilage explant disks were harvested post-mortem from the knee and ankle of three organ donors with no history of OA and subjected to injurious compression to 65% strain in uniaxial unconfined compression at 2 mm/s (400%/s). The GAG content of the conditioned medium was measured 3 days after injury. After injury of knee cartilage disks, damage was visible in 18 of 39 disks (36%). Three days after injury, the increase in GAG loss to the medium (GAG loss from injured disks minus GAG loss from location-matched uncompressed controls) was 1.5+/-0.3 microg/disk (mean +/- SEM). With final strain and compression velocity held constant, we observed that increasing peak stress during injury was associated with less GAG loss after injury (P<0.001). In contrast, ankle cartilage appeared damaged after injury in only 1 of 16 disks (6%), there was no increase in GAG loss (0.0+/-0.3 microg/disk), and no relationship between peak stress and increase in GAG loss was detected (P=0.51). By itself, increasing peak stress did not appear to be an important cause of GAG loss from human cartilage in our injurious compression model. However, we observed further evidence for differences in the response of knee and ankle cartilages to injury. PMID:16715319

  18. Metabolomics of Neurotransmitters and Related Metabolites in Post-Mortem Tissue from the Dorsal and Ventral Striatum of Alcoholic Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Kashem, Mohammed Abul; Ahmed, Selina; Sultana, Nilufa; Ahmed, Eakhlas U; Pickford, Russell; Rae, Caroline; Šerý, Omar; McGregor, Iain S; Balcar, Vladimir J

    2016-02-01

    We report on changes in neurotransmitter metabolome and protein expression in the striatum of humans exposed to heavy long-term consumption of alcohol. Extracts from post mortem striatal tissue (dorsal striatum; DS comprising caudate nucleus; CN and putamen; P and ventral striatum; VS constituted by nucleus accumbens; NAc) were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Proteomics was studied in CN by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass-spectrometry. Proteomics identified 25 unique molecules expressed differently by the alcohol-affected tissue. Two were dopamine-related proteins and one a GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD65. Two proteins that are related to apoptosis and/or neuronal loss (BiD and amyloid-β A4 precursor protein-binding family B member 3) were increased. There were no differences in the levels of dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydrophenylacetic acid (DOPAC), serotonin (5HT), homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (HIAA), histamine, L-glutamate (Glu), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), tyrosine (Tyr) and tryptophan (Tryp) between the DS (CN and P) and VS (NAc) in control brains. Choline (Ch) and acetylcholine (Ach) were higher and norepinephrine (NE) lower, in the VS. Alcoholic striata had lower levels of neurotransmitters except for Glu (30 % higher in the alcoholic ventral striatum). Ratios of DOPAC/DA and HIAA/5HT were higher in alcoholic striatum indicating an increase in the DA and 5HT turnover. Glutathione was significantly reduced in all three regions of alcohol-affected striatum. We conclude that neurotransmitter systems in both the DS (CN and P) and the VS (NAc) were significantly influenced by long-term heavy alcohol intake associated with alcoholism . PMID:26801172

  19. The Effect of Upper Body Mass and Initial Knee Flexion on the Injury Outcome of Post Mortem Human Subject Pedestrian Isolated Legs.

    PubMed

    Petit, Philippe; Trosseille, Xavier; Dufaure, Nicolas; Dubois, Denis; Potier, Pascal; Vallancien, Guy

    2014-11-01

    In the ECE 127 Regulation on pedestrian leg protection, as well as in the Euro NCAP test protocol, a legform impactor hits the vehicle at the speed of 40 kph. In these tests, the knee is fully extended and the leg is not coupled to the upper body. However, the typical configuration of a pedestrian impact differs since the knee is flexed during most of the gait cycle and the hip joint applies an unknown force to the femur. This study aimed at investigating the influence of the inertia of the upper body (modelled using an upper body mass fixed at the proximal end of the femur) and the initial knee flexion angle on the lower limb injury outcome. In total, 18 tests were conducted on 18 legs from 9 Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS). The principle of these tests was to impact the leg at 40 kph using a sled equipped with 3 crushing steel tubes, the stiffness of which were representative of the front face of a European sedan (bonnet leading edge, bumper and spoiler). The mass of the equipped sled was 74.5 kg. The test matrix was designed to perform 4 tests in 4 configurations combining two upper body masses (either 0 or 3 kg) and two knee angles (0 or 20 degrees) at 40 kph (11 m/s) plus 2 tests at 9 m/s. Autopsies were performed on the lower limbs and an injury assessment was established. The findings of this study were first that the increase of the upper body mass resulted in more severe injuries, second that an initial flexion of the knee, corresponding to its natural position during the gait cycle, decreased the severity of the injuries, and third that based on the injury outcome, a test conducted with no upper body mass and the knee fully extended was as severe as a test conducted with a 3 kg upper body mass and an initial knee flexion of 20°. PMID:26192955

  20. Cerebellar Oxidative DNA Damage and Altered DNA Methylation in the BTBR T+tf/J Mouse Model of Autism and Similarities with Human Post Mortem Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Shpyleva, Svitlana; Ivanovsky, Samuil; de Conti, Aline; Melnyk, Stepan; Tryndyak, Volodymyr; Beland, Frederick A.; James, S. Jill; Pogribny, Igor P.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular pathogenesis of autism is complex and involves numerous genomic, epigenomic, proteomic, metabolic, and physiological alterations. Elucidating and understanding the molecular processes underlying the pathogenesis of autism is critical for effective clinical management and prevention of this disorder. The goal of this study is to investigate key molecular alterations postulated to play a role in autism and their role in the pathophysiology of autism. In this study we demonstrate that DNA isolated from the cerebellum of BTBR T+tf/J mice, a relevant mouse model of autism, and from human post-mortem cerebellum of individuals with autism, are both characterized by an increased levels of 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), 5-methylcytosine (5mC), and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). The increase in 8-oxodG and 5mC content was associated with a markedly reduced expression of the 8-oxoguanine DNA-glycosylase 1 (Ogg1) and increased expression of de novo DNA methyltransferases 3a and 3b (Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b). Interestingly, a rise in the level of 5hmC occurred without changes in the expression of ten-eleven translocation expression 1 (Tet1) and Tet2 genes, but significantly correlated with the presence of 8-oxodG in DNA. This finding and similar elevation in 8-oxodG in cerebellum of individuals with autism and in the BTBR T+tf/J mouse model warrant future large-scale studies to specifically address the role of OGG1 alterations in pathogenesis of autism. PMID:25423485

  1. Paralytic shellfish poisoning: post-mortem analysis of tissue and body fluid samples from human victims in the Patagonia fjords.

    PubMed

    García, Carlos; del Carmen Bravo, María; Lagos, Marcelo; Lagos, Néstor

    2004-02-01

    toxins went under metabolic transformation during the 3-4 h of human intoxication period, in which PSP toxins showed enzymatic oxidation of N(1) in the tetrahydropurine nucleus, producing neoSTX and GTX4/GTX1 epimers starting from STX and GTX3/GTX2 epimers, respectively. This study conclude, that PSP toxins are metabolically transformed by humans and that they are removed from the body by excretion in the urine and feces like any other xenobiotic compound. PMID:15019474

  2. 42 CFR 35.16 - Autopsies and other post-mortem operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 35.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE... located to permit an autopsy or such other post-mortem operation under the circumstances of the particular... the autopsy or other post-mortem operation shall be observed. Documents embodying consent shall...

  3. 42 CFR 35.16 - Autopsies and other post-mortem operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Section 35.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE... located to permit an autopsy or such other post-mortem operation under the circumstances of the particular... the autopsy or other post-mortem operation shall be observed. Documents embodying consent shall...

  4. 42 CFR 35.16 - Autopsies and other post-mortem operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 35.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE... located to permit an autopsy or such other post-mortem operation under the circumstances of the particular... the autopsy or other post-mortem operation shall be observed. Documents embodying consent shall...

  5. 42 CFR 35.16 - Autopsies and other post-mortem operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 35.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE... located to permit an autopsy or such other post-mortem operation under the circumstances of the particular... the autopsy or other post-mortem operation shall be observed. Documents embodying consent shall...

  6. 42 CFR 35.16 - Autopsies and other post-mortem operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Autopsies and other post-mortem operations. 35.16 Section 35.16 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.16 Autopsies and other post-mortem operations. Autopsies, or other...

  7. Comparison of the Thorax Dynamic Responses of Small Female and Midsize Male Post Mortem Human Subjects in Side and Forward Oblique Impact Tests.

    PubMed

    Baudrit, Pascal; Petitjean, Audrey; Potier, Pascal; Trosseille, Xavier; Vallencien, Guy

    2014-11-01

    Despite the increasing knowledge of the thorax mechanics in impact loadings, the effects of inter-individual differences on the mechanical response are difficult to take into account. For example, the biofidelity corridors for the small female or large male are extrapolated from the midsize male corridors. The present study reports on the results of new tests performed on small female Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS), and compares them with test results on midsize male PMHS. Three tests in pure side impact and three tests in forward oblique impact were performed on the thorax of small female specimens. The average weight and stature were 43 kg and 1.58 m for the small female specimens. The initial speed of the impactor was 4.3 m/s. The mass and the diameter of the impactor face were respectively 23.4 kg and 130 mm. The instrumentation and methodology was the same as for the tests published in 2008 by Trosseille et al. on midsize male specimens. The rib cages were instrumented with accelerometers on the T1, T4 and T12 vertebrae, upper and lower sternum, and the ribs were instrumented with up to 110 strain gauges. A force transducer and an accelerometer were mounted on the impactor in order to record the force applied onto the thorax. Targets fixed on vertebrae were tracked using high speed cameras in order to estimate the thoracic deflection. For the six midsize males, the test conditions were exactly the same as for the small female specimens, except for the diameter of the impactor face which was 152 mm. The average weight and stature were 70.3 kg and 1.70 m for the midsize male specimens. The force and thoracic deflection time-histories and the injury assessments are given for each specimen. The thorax force magnitude varied from 1.05 to 1.45 kN and from 1.63 to 2.34 kN, respectively for the small female and midsize male groups. The maximum deflection varied from 51 to 117 mm and from 59 to 81 mm, respectively for the small female and midsize male groups. The

  8. Fluorescently labeled bacteria provide insight on post-mortem microbial transmigration.

    PubMed

    Burcham, Z M; Hood, J A; Pechal, J L; Krausz, K L; Bose, J L; Schmidt, C J; Benbow, M E; Jordan, H R

    2016-07-01

    Microbially mediated mechanisms of human decomposition begin immediately after death, and are a driving force for the conversion of a once living organism to a resource of energy and nutrients. Little is known about post-mortem microbiology in cadavers, particularly the community structure of microflora residing within the cadaver and the dynamics of these communities during decomposition. Recent work suggests these bacterial communities undergo taxa turnover and shifts in community composition throughout the post-mortem interval. In this paper we describe how the microbiome of a living host changes and transmigrates within the body after death thus linking the microbiome of a living individual to post-mortem microbiome changes. These differences in the human post-mortem from the ante-mortem microbiome have demonstrated promise as evidence in death investigations. We investigated the post-mortem structure and function dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium perfringens after intranasal inoculation in the animal model Mus musculus L. (mouse) to identify how transmigration of bacterial species can potentially aid in post-mortem interval estimations. S. aureus was tracked using in vivo and in vitro imaging to determine colonization routes associated with different physiological events of host decomposition, while C. perfringens was tracked using culture-based techniques. Samples were collected at discrete time intervals associated with various physiological events and host decomposition beginning at 1h and ending at 60 days post-mortem. Results suggest that S. aureus reaches its highest concentration at 5-7 days post-mortem then begins to rapidly decrease and is undetectable by culture on day 30. The ability to track these organisms as they move in to once considered sterile space may be useful for sampling during autopsy to aid in determining post-mortem interval range estimations, cause of death, and origins associated with the geographic location of human

  9. A comparative autoradiography study in post mortem whole hemisphere human brain slices taken from Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls using two radiolabelled DAA1106 analogues with high affinity to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) system.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Makkai, Boglárka; Kása, Péter; Gulya, Károly; Bakota, Lidia; Várszegi, Szilvia; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Andersson, Jan; Csiba, László; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Suhara, Tetsua; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Higuchi, Makato; Halldin, Christer

    2009-01-01

    The binding of two radiolabelled analogues (N-(5-[125I]Iodo-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desfluoro-DAA1106) and N-(5-[125I]Fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[125I]Iodo-5-methoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desmethoxy-DAA1106) of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) (or TSPO, 18kDa translocator protein) ligand DAA1106 was examined by in vitro autoradiography on human post mortem whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched controls. Both [(125)I]desfluoro-IDAA1106 and [(125)I]desmethoxy-IDAA1106 were effectively binding to various brain structures. The binding could be blocked by the unlabelled ligand as well as by other PBR specific ligands. With both radiolabelled compounds, the binding showed regional inhomogeneity and the specific binding values proved to be the highest in the hippocampus, temporal and parietal cortex, the basal ganglia and thalamus in the AD brains. Compared with age-matched control brains, specific binding in several brain structures (temporal and parietal lobes, thalamus and white matter) in Alzheimer brains was significantly higher, indicating that the radioligands can effectively label-activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in AD. Complementary immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactive microglia activation in the AD brain tissue and indicated that increased ligand binding coincides with increased regional microglia activation due to neuroinflammation. These investigations yield further support to the PBR/TSPO binding capacity of DAA1106 in human brain tissue, demonstrate the effective usefulness of its radio-iodinated analogues as imaging biomarkers in post mortem human studies, and indicate that its radiolabelled analogues, labelled with short half-time bioisotopes, can serve as prospective in vivo imaging biomarkers of activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in the human brain. PMID:18984021

  10. Validation of adequate endogenous reference genes for reverse transcription-qPCR studies in human post-mortem brain tissue of SIDS cases.

    PubMed

    El-Kashef, Noha; Gomes, Iva; Mercer-Chalmers-Bender, Katja; Schneider, Peter M; Rothschild, Markus A; Juebner, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the main cause of post-neonatal infant death in most developed countries. It is still of ambiguous etiology. Gene expression studies of relevant target genes using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) in SIDS cases, and comparing them with age-matched controls, could help in understanding the pathogenesis of SIDS. However, selecting inadequate reference genes used for normalization of the RT-qPCR gene expression data can give misleading results. The aim of the present study was to identify reference genes with the most stable expression in post-mortem brainstem samples of SIDS and control cases. Among the five candidate reference genes (GAPDH, GUSB, HMBS, SDHA, UBXN6) studied in both groups, SDHA and UBXN6 were identified as the most stable. To further demonstrate the importance of using validated genes for RT-qPCR data normalization, the expression of a potential gene of interest in SIDS, the RPS27A gene, was evaluated using validated versus non-validated reference genes for normalization. This gene encodes the ubiquitin protein that has been shown in other pathological studies to be induced in SIDS. Using the identified most stable genes for normalization of RPS27A gene expression data revealed, as expected, a statistically significant up-regulation in SIDS as compared to the controls. However, using a single unstable reference gene for normalization resulted in no significant differences in transcript abundance of RPS27A between SIDS and the controls. This emphasizes the need for validation of the suitability of reference genes used in a given tissue type under certain experimental conditions. PMID:26434654

  11. Guanidino compound levels in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and post-mortem brain material of patients with argininemia.

    PubMed

    Deignan, Joshua L; De Deyn, Peter P; Cederbaum, Stephen D; Fuchshuber, Arno; Roth, Bernhard; Gsell, Wieland; Marescau, Bart

    2010-01-01

    The paucity of hyperammonemic crises together with spasticity, only seen in human arginase I deficient patients and not in patients with other urea cycle disorders, forces a search for candidates other than ammonia to associate with the pathophysiology and symptomatology. Therefore, we determined arginine together with some catabolites of arginine in blood and cerebrospinal fluid of these patients as well as in extremely rare post-mortem brain material of two patients with argininemia. The levels of alpha-keto-delta-guanidinovaleric acid, argininic acid and alpha-N-acetylarginine correlate with the arginine levels in blood and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with imposed or spontaneous protein restriction. The levels in blood are higher than the upper limit of normal in all studied patients. In addition to the highly increased levels of these same compounds in blood of a child with argininemia, the increase of guanidinoacetic acid, 24h before death, is remarkable. However, the manifest increases of these studied catabolites of arginine are not seen in post-mortem brain material of the same pediatric patient. Otherwise a clear increase of guanidinoacetic acid in post-mortem brain material of an adult patient was shown. A similar, comparable increase of homoarginine in both studied post-mortem brain materials is observed. Therefore the study of the pathobiochemistry of arginine in argininemia must be completed in the future by the determination of the end catabolites of the nitric oxide and agmatine biosynthesis pathways in the knockouts as well as in the patients to evaluate their role, together with the here studied catabolites, as candidates for association with pathophysiology and symptomatology. PMID:20176499

  12. Distribution and binding of 18F-labeled and 125I-labeled analogues of ACI-80, a prospective molecular imaging biomarker of disease: a whole hemisphere post mortem autoradiography study in human brains obtained from Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Spenger, Christian; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Gulya, Károly; Kása, Péter; Jahan, Mahabuba; Jia, Zhisheng; Weber, Urs; Pfeifer, Andrea; Muhs, Andreas; Willbold, Dieter; Halldin, Christer

    2012-01-01

    One of the major pathological landmarks of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases is the presence of amyloid deposits in the brain. The early non-invasive visualization of amyloid is a major objective of recent diagnostic neuroimaging approaches, including positron emission tomography (PET), with an eye on follow-up of disease progression and/or therapy efficacy. The development of molecular imaging biomarkers with binding affinity to amyloid in the brain is therefore in the forefront of imaging biomarker and radiochemistry research. Recently, a dodecamer peptide (amino acid sequence=QSHYRHISPAQV; denominated D1 or ACI-80) was identified as a prospective ligand candidate, binding with high ex vivo affinity to L-Aβ-amyloid (K(d): 0.4 μM). In order to assess the ligand's capacity to visualize amyloid in Alzheimer's disease (AD), two (125)I labeled and three (18)F labeled analogues of the peptide were synthesized and tested in post mortem human autoradiography experiments using whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from deceased AD patients and age matched control subjects. The (18)F-labeled radioligands showed more promising visualization capacity of amyloid that the (125)I-labeled radioligands. In the case of each (18)F radioligands the grey matter uptake in the AD brains was significantly higher than that in control brains. Furthermore, the grey matter: white matter uptake ratio was over ~2, the difference being significant for each (18)F-radioligands. The regional distribution of the uptake of the various radioligands systematically shows a congruent pattern between the high uptake regions and spots in the autoradiographic images and the disease specific signals obtained in adjacent or identical brain slices labeled with histological, immunohistochemical or autoradiographic stains for amyloid deposits or activated astrocytes. The present data, using post mortem human brain autoradiography in whole hemisphere human brains obtained from deceased

  13. The Elusive Universal Post-Mortem Interval Formula

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, Arpad Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The following manuscript details our initial attempt at developing universal post-mortem interval formulas describing human decomposition. These formulas are empirically derived from data collected over the last 20 years from the University of Tennessee's Anthropology Research Facility, in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Two formulas were developed (surface decomposition and burial decomposition) based on temperature, moisture, and the partial pressure of oxygen, as being three of the four primary drivers for human decomposition. It is hoped that worldwide application of these formulas to environments and situations not readily studied in Tennessee will result in interdisciplinary cooperation between scientists and law enforcement personnel that will allow for future refinements of these models leading to increased accuracy.

  14. Regional vulnerability of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons prone to degenerate in Parkinson's disease: a post-mortem study in human control subjects.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lixia; Neff, Frauke; Fischer, Daniel Alvarez; Henze, Carmen; Hirsch, Etienne C; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Schlegel, Jürgen; Hartmann, Andreas

    2006-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the human midbrain, which varies greatly among mesencephalic subregions. The genetic expression profiles of mesencephalic DA neurons particularly prone to degenerate during PD (nigrosome 1 within the substantia nigra pars compacta-SNpc) and those particularly resistant in the disease course (central grey substance-CGS) were compared in five control subjects by immuno-laser capture microdissection followed by RNA arbitrarily primed PCR. 8 ESTs of interest were selected for analysis by real time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. DA neurons in the CGS preferentially expressed implicated in cell survival (7 out of 8 genes selected), whereas SNpc DA neurons preferentially expressed one gene making them potentially susceptible to undergo cell death in PD. We propose that factors making CGS DA neurons more resistant may be helpful in protecting SNpc DA neurons against a pathological insult. PMID:16753304

  15. The norepinephrine transporter (NET) radioligand (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2 shows significant decreases in NET density in the human brain in Alzheimer's disease: a post-mortem autoradiographic study.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Brockschnieder, Damian; Nag, Sangram; Pavlova, Elena; Kása, Péter; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Légrádi, Adám; Gulya, Károly; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Halldin, Christer

    2010-01-01

    Earlier post-mortem histological and autoradiographic studies have indicated a reduction of cell numbers in the locus coeruleus (LC) and a corresponding decrease in norepinephrine transporter (NET) in brains obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients as compared to age-matched healthy controls. In order to test the hypothesis that the regional decrease of NET is a disease specific biomarker in AD and as such, it can be used in PET imaging studies for diagnostic considerations, regional differences in the density of NET in various anatomical structures were measured in whole hemisphere human brain slices obtained from AD patients and age-matched control subjects in a series of autoradiographic experiments using the novel selective PET radioligand for NET (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2). (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2) appears to be a useful imaging biomarker for quantifying the density of NET in various brain structures, including the LC and the thalamus wherein the highest densities are found in physiological conditions. In AD significant decreases of NET densities can be demonstrated with the radioligand in both structures as compared to age-matched controls. The decreases in AD correlate with the progress of the disease as indicated by Braak grades. As the size of the LC is below the spatial resolution of the PET scanners, but the size of the thalamus can be detected with appropriate spatial accuracy in advanced scanners, the present findings confirm our earlier observations with PET that the in vivo imaging of NET with (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2) in the thalamus is viable. Nevertheless, further studies are warranted to assess the usefulness of such an imaging approach for the early detection of changes in thalamic NET densities as a disease-specific biomarker and the possible use of (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2) as a molecular imaging biomarker in AD. PMID:20211213

  16. Detection frequency of human herpesviruses-6A, -6B, and -7 genomic sequences in central nervous system DNA samples from post-mortem individuals with unspecified encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Chapenko, Svetlana; Roga, Silvija; Skuja, Sandra; Rasa, Santa; Cistjakovs, Maksims; Svirskis, Simons; Zaserska, Zane; Groma, Valerija; Murovska, Modra

    2016-08-01

    In this autopsy-based study, human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) and -7 (HHV-7) genomic sequence frequency, HHV-6 variants, HHV-6 load and the expression of HHV-6 antigens in brain samples from the individuals, with and without unspecified encephalopathy (controls), using nested and real-time polymerase chain reactions, restriction endonuclease, and immunohistochemical analysis were examined. GraphPad Prism 6.0 Mann-Whitney nonparametric and chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analysis. The encephalopathy diagnoses were shown by magnetic resonance imaging made during their lifetime and macro- and microscopically studied autopsy tissue materials. Widespread HHV-6 and/or HHV-7 positivity was detected in the brain tissue of various individuals with encephalopathy, as well as in controls (51/57, 89.4 % and 35/51, 68.6 %, respectively; p = 0.009). Significantly higher detection frequency of single HHV-6 and concurrent HHV-6 + HHV-7 DNA was found in pia mater meninges, frontal lobe, temporal lobe, and olfactory tract DNAs in individuals with encephalopathy compared to the control group. HHV-6 load and higher frequency of the viral load >10 copies/10(6) cells significantly differed in samples from individuals with and without encephalopathy. The expression of HHV-6 antigens was revealed in different neural cell types with strong predominance in the encephalopathy group. In all HHV-6-positive autopsy samples of individuals with and without encephalopathy, HHV-6B was revealed. Significantly higher detection frequency of beta-herpesvirus DNA, more often detected HHV-6 load >10 copies/10(6) cells, as well as the expression of HHV-6 antigens in different brain tissue samples from individuals with encephalopathy in comparison with control group indicate on potential involvement of these viruses in encephalopathy development. PMID:26727906

  17. 9 CFR 352.11 - Post-mortem inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-mortem inspection. (a) Post-mortem inspection of reindeer, elk, deer, antelope, bison and water buffalo shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions contained in 9 CFR part 310 or as determined by...

  18. 9 CFR 352.11 - Post-mortem inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-mortem inspection. (a) Post-mortem inspection of reindeer, elk, deer, antelope, bison and water buffalo shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions contained in 9 CFR part 310 or as determined by...

  19. 9 CFR 352.11 - Post-mortem inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-mortem inspection. (a) Post-mortem inspection of reindeer, elk, deer, antelope, bison and water buffalo shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions contained in 9 CFR part 310 or as determined by...

  20. 9 CFR 352.11 - Post-mortem inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-mortem inspection. (a) Post-mortem inspection of reindeer, elk, deer, antelope, bison and water buffalo shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions contained in 9 CFR part 310 or as determined by...

  1. 9 CFR 352.11 - Post-mortem inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-mortem inspection. (a) Post-mortem inspection of reindeer, elk, deer, antelope, bison and water buffalo shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions contained in 9 CFR part 310 or as determined by...

  2. Evaluation of post-mortem lateral cerebral ventricle changes using sequential scans during post-mortem computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Iwao; Shimizu, Akinobu; Saito, Atsushi; Suzuki, Hideto; Vogel, Hermann; Püschel, Klaus; Heinemann, Axel

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we evaluated post-mortem lateral cerebral ventricle (LCV) changes using computed tomography (CT). Subsequent periodical CT scans termed "sequential scans" were obtained for three cadavers. The first scan was performed immediately after the body was transferred from the emergency room to the institute of legal medicine. Sequential scans were obtained and evaluated for 24 h at maximum. The time of death had been determined in the emergency room. The sequential scans enabled us to observe periodical post-mortem changes in CT images. The series of continuous LCV images obtained up to 24 h (two cases)/16 h (1 case) after death was evaluated. The average Hounsfield units (HU) within the LCVs progressively increased, and LCV volume progressively decreased over time. The HU in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) increased at an individual rate proportional to the post-mortem interval (PMI). Thus, an early longitudinal radiodensity change in the CSF could be potential indicator of post-mortem interval (PMI). Sequential imaging scans reveal post-mortem changes in the CSF space which may reflect post-mortem brain alterations. Further studies are needed to evaluate the proposed CSF change markers in correlation with other validated PMI indicators. PMID:27048214

  3. DNA methylation results depend on DNA integrity—role of post mortem interval

    PubMed Central

    Rhein, Mathias; Hagemeier, Lars; Klintschar, Michael; Muschler, Marc; Bleich, Stefan; Frieling, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Major questions of neurological and psychiatric mechanisms involve the brain functions on a molecular level and cannot be easily addressed due to limitations in access to tissue samples. Post mortem studies are able to partly bridge the gap between brain tissue research retrieved from animal trials and the information derived from peripheral analysis (e.g., measurements in blood cells) in patients. Here, we wanted to know how fast DNA degradation is progressing under controlled conditions in order to define thresholds for tissue quality to be used in respective trials. Our focus was on the applicability of partly degraded samples for bisulfite sequencing and the determination of simple means to define cut-off values. After opening the brain cavity, we kept two consecutive pig skulls at ambient temperature (19–21°C) and removed cortex tissue up to a post mortem interval (PMI) of 120 h. We calculated the percentage of degradation on DNA gel electrophoresis of brain DNA to estimate quality and relate this estimation spectrum to the quality of human post mortem control samples. Functional DNA quality was investigated by bisulfite sequencing of two functionally relevant genes for either the serotonin receptor 5 (SLC6A4) or aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2). Testing our approach in a heterogeneous collective of human blood and brain samples, we demonstrate integrity of measurement quality below the threshold of 72 h PMI. While sequencing technically worked for all timepoints irrespective of conceivable DNA degradation, there is a good correlation between variance of methylation to degradation levels documented in the gel (R2 = 0.4311, p = 0.0392) for advancing post mortem intervals (PMI). This otherwise elusive phenomenon is an important prerequisite for the interpretation and evaluation of samples prior to in-depth processing via an affordable and easy assay to estimate identical sample quality and thereby comparable methylation measurements. PMID:26042147

  4. Advances in post-mortem CT-angiography

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, J; Dominguez, A; Vanhaebost, J; Mangin, P

    2014-01-01

    Performing a post-mortem multidetector CT (MDCT) scan has already become routine in some institutes of forensic medicine. To better visualize the vascular system, different techniques of post-mortem CT-angiography have been explored, which can essentially be divided into partial- and whole-body angiography techniques. Probably the most frequently applied technique today is the so-called multiphase post-mortem CT-angiography (MPMCTA) a standardized method for investigating the vessels of the head, thorax and abdomen. Different studies exist, describing its use for medicolegal investigations, and its advantages as well as its artefacts and pitfalls. With the aim to investigate the performance of PMCTA and to develop and validate techniques, an international working group was created in 2012 called the “Technical Working Group Post-mortem Angiography Methods” (TWGPAM). Beyond its primary perspective, the goals of this group include creating recommendations for the indication of the investigation and for the interpretation of the images and to distribute knowledge about PMCTA. This article provides an overview about the different approaches that have been developed and tested in recent years and an update about ongoing research in this field. It will explain the technique of MPMCTA in detail and give an outline of its indications, application, advantages and limitations. PMID:24234582

  5. Can we infer post mortem interval on the basis of decomposition rate? A case from a Portuguese cemetery.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, M Teresa; Cunha, Eugénia

    2013-03-10

    Post mortem interval estimation is crucial in forensic sciences for both positive identification and reconstruction of perimortem events. However, reliable dating of skeletonized remains poses a scientific challenge since human remains decomposition involves a set of complex and highly variable processes. Many of the difficulties in determining post mortem interval and/or the permanence of a body in a specific environment relates with the lack of systematic observations and research in human body decomposition modalities in different environments. In March 2006, in order to solve a problem of misidentification, a team of the South Branch of Portuguese National Institute of Legal Medicine carried out the exhumation of 25 identified individuals buried for almost five years in the same cemetery plot. Even though all individuals shared similar post mortem intervals, they presented different stages of decomposition. In order to analyze the post mortem factors associated with the different stages of decomposition displayed by the 25 exhumed individuals, the stages of decomposition were scored. Information regarding age at death and sex of the individuals were gathered and recorded as well as data in the cause of death and grave and coffin characteristics. Although the observed distinct decay stages may be explained by the burial conditions, namely by the micro taphonomic environments, individual endogenous factors also play an important role on differential decomposition as witnessed by the present case. PMID:23357229

  6. Haemorrhoids leading to post-mortem bleeding artefact.

    PubMed

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Menezes, Ritesh G; Manipady, Shahnavaz

    2006-07-01

    We present a case where a 54-year-old man suffering from haemorrhoids, committed suicide by hanging. Gravitational forces due to the upright position of the body facilitated post-mortem per-rectal bleeding from the ulcerated haemorrhoids. The bleeding stained his under garment and wrap around cloth. Frank blood was also seen on the floor beneath the hanging body. The blood at the crime scene was wrongly interpreted by the investigating police as that due to self-inflicted injury or possibly case of homicide followed by post-mortem suspension of the body. Observation of the crime scene by forensic medicine experts and subsequent autopsy findings revealed that the bleeding was from the haemorrhoids. This case is reported for its rarity, for the awareness of the possible post-mortem haemorrhoidal bleeding artefact, to explain the circumstances of such a possibility, and to emphasize the importance of involving forensic medicine experts as a part of the crime scene investigation team. PMID:16442833

  7. Volumetric analysis of the diagonal band of Broca in patients with schizophrenia and affective disorders: A post-mortem study.

    PubMed

    Brisch, Ralf; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Krzyżanowska, Marta; Jankowski, Zbigniew; Bogerts, Bernhard; Gos, Tomasz

    2016-05-01

    The human diagonal band of Broca is connected to other parts of the limbic system, such as the hippocampus, that are involved in the pathology of schizophrenia. This study aimed to characterize the volume and anterior-to-posterior distance of the human diagonal band of Broca (vertical limb) from post-mortem brains obtained from three groups: healthy control subjects (N = 17), patients with schizophrenia (N = 26), and patients with affective disorders (N = 12). There were no significant differences in the volume or anterior-to-posterior distance in the patients with schizophrenia or affective disorders compared with the healthy control subjects. To date, this is the first post-mortem investigation measuring the volume and the anterior-to-posterior distance of the diagonal band of Broca (vertical limb) in patients with schizophrenia or affective disorders compared with healthy control subjects. Clin. Anat. 29:466-472, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26457806

  8. Understanding fast macroscale fracture from microcrack post mortem patterns.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Claudia; Scheibert, Julien; Bonamy, Daniel; Dalmas, Davy

    2012-01-10

    Dynamic crack propagation drives catastrophic solid failures. In many amorphous brittle materials, sufficiently fast crack growth involves small-scale, high-frequency microcracking damage localized near the crack tip. The ultrafast dynamics of microcrack nucleation, growth, and coalescence is inaccessible experimentally and fast crack propagation was therefore studied only as a macroscale average. Here, we overcome this limitation in polymethylmethacrylate, the archetype of brittle amorphous materials: We reconstruct the complete spatiotemporal microcracking dynamics, with micrometer/nanosecond resolution, through post mortem analysis of the fracture surfaces. We find that all individual microcracks propagate at the same low, load-independent velocity. Collectively, the main effect of microcracks is not to slow down fracture by increasing the energy required for crack propagation, as commonly believed, but on the contrary to boost the macroscale velocity through an acceleration factor selected on geometric grounds. Our results emphasize the key role of damage-related internal variables in the selection of macroscale fracture dynamics. PMID:22203962

  9. Outdoor post-mortem depredation by local fauna.

    PubMed

    Feola, Alessandro; Campilongo, Sara; Pietra, Bruno Della

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of complete post-mortem decapitation of a 43 years old man killed by gunshots discharged from a distance of 40 - 50 cm. The corpse was left in the courtyard of his isolated carpentry and a mongrel dog lived in that courtyard, maybe attracted by the blood gushed from the wound, got a depredation of the corpse till the complete decapitation and the removal of all intrathoracic organs. The action of the dog was completed by the rats and mice that lived in the place. The case is not rare and sometimes the alteration of the features of the corpse makes it impossible for the investigators, to objectify any other signs of criminal nature. PMID:24625020

  10. Understanding fast macroscale fracture from microcrack post mortem patterns

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Claudia; Scheibert, Julien; Bonamy, Daniel; Dalmas, Davy

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic crack propagation drives catastrophic solid failures. In many amorphous brittle materials, sufficiently fast crack growth involves small-scale, high-frequency microcracking damage localized near the crack tip. The ultrafast dynamics of microcrack nucleation, growth, and coalescence is inaccessible experimentally and fast crack propagation was therefore studied only as a macroscale average. Here, we overcome this limitation in polymethylmethacrylate, the archetype of brittle amorphous materials: We reconstruct the complete spatiotemporal microcracking dynamics, with micrometer/nanosecond resolution, through post mortem analysis of the fracture surfaces. We find that all individual microcracks propagate at the same low, load-independent velocity. Collectively, the main effect of microcracks is not to slow down fracture by increasing the energy required for crack propagation, as commonly believed, but on the contrary to boost the macroscale velocity through an acceleration factor selected on geometric grounds. Our results emphasize the key role of damage-related internal variables in the selection of macroscale fracture dynamics. PMID:22203962

  11. The cardiothoracic ratio on post-mortem computer tomography.

    PubMed

    Jotterand, M; Doenz, F; Grabherr, S; Faouzi, M; Boone, S; Mangin, P; Michaud, K

    2016-09-01

    In clinical practice, the cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) was first utilized on plain chest radiography, and subsequently with computed tomography (CT) to diagnose cardiomegaly with a threshold of 0.5. Using CTR in forensic practice could help to detect cardiomegaly on post-mortem CT (PMCT) prior to the autopsy. However, an adaption of the threshold could be necessary because of post-mortem changes. Our retrospective study aimed to measure the CTR on PMCT and test the possible influence of variables. We selected 109 autopsy cases in which the heart weight was within normal limits. A forensic pathologist and a radiologist measured separately the CTR on axial and scout views on PMCT. We tested the statistical concordance between the two readers and between the axial and scout view and identified factors that could be associated with a modification of the CTR. The CTR measurements revealed an overestimation of the measurements made on scout compared to axial view. The inter-reader correlation was very high for both views. Among the different variables statistically tested, heart dilatation and body mass index (BMI) were the only two factors statistically associated with an augmentation of the CTR. The CTR can be useful in the diagnosis of cardiomegaly on PMCT. However, dilatation of the cardiac chambers caused by acute heart failure may be misinterpreted radiographically as cardiomegaly. Inter-observer reliability in our study was very high. CTR may be overestimated when measured on the scout view. Further investigations with larger cohorts, including cases with cardiac hypertrophy, are necessary to better understand the relationship between radiological CTR and the morphology of the heart. PMID:26886107

  12. Long live the stem cell: the use of stem cells isolated from post mortem tissues for translational strategies.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Stuart I; Stagg, Kelda; Sturm, Marian; Edel, Michael; Blancafort, Pilar

    2014-11-01

    The "stem cell" has become arguably one of the most important biological tools in the arsenal of translational research directed at regeneration and repair. It remains to be seen whether every tissue has its own stem cell niche, although relatively recently a large amount of research has focused on isolating and characterizing tissue-specific stem cell populations, as well as those that are able to be directed to transdifferentiate into a variety of different lineages. Traditionally, stem cells are isolated from the viable tissue of embryonic, fetal, or adult living hosts; from "fresh" donated tissues that have been surgically or otherwise removed (biopsies), or obtained directly from tissues within minutes to several hours post mortem (PM). These human progenitor/stem cell sources remain potentially highly controversial, since they are accompanied by various still-unresolved ethical, social, moral and legal challenges. Due to the limited number of "live" donors, the small amount of material obtained from biopsies and difficulties during purification processes, harvesting from cadaveric material presents itself as an alternative strategy that could provide a hitherto untapped source of stem cells. However, PM stem cells are not without their own unique set of limitations including difficulty of obtaining samples, limited supply of material, variations in delay between death and sample collection, possible lack of medication history and suboptimal retrospective assignment of diagnostic and demographic data. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: The challenge of translation. PMID:25300917

  13. [Post-mortem examination prior to cremation--an instrument to verify the quality of medical post-mortems and uncover non-natural deaths?].

    PubMed

    Germerott, Tanja; Todt, Melanie; Bode-Jänisch, Stefanie; Albrecht, Knut; Breitmeier, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The external post-mortem examination, its deficient quality and possible causes have been the subject of numerous political and professional discussions. The external post-mortem examination is the basis for the decision whether further criminal investigations are required to clarify the cause of death. It is thus an essential instrument to ensure legal certainty. Before cremation, a second external post-mortem examination is performed by a public medical officer to make sure that errors of the first post-mortem are corrected. In the present study, cases were retrospectively analyzed in which a forensic autopsy had been ordered on the basis of the results of the post-mortem examination performed before cremation. The entries on the death certificate regarding the manner and cause of death were compared with the autopsy results. Between 1998 and 2007, 387 autopsies were ordered after external examination before cremation. In 55 cases (14.2%), the autopsy revealed a non-natural death, although a natural death had been attested on the death certificate. In descending order, a wrong manner of death was attested by clinicians, general practitioners and emergency physicians. With regard to the place where the first external post-mortem had been performed the lowest error rate was seen in nursing homes. Concerning the cause of death, discrepancies between the first post-mortem and autopsy were found in 59.4% of the cases. In this respect, general practitioners and clinicians were ranking first, whereas in nursing homes the cause of death was wrongly assessed in over 70% of cases. At present, the medical post-mortem does not meet the required quality standards, especially with regard to legal certainty. Determination of the cause of death on the basis of the external post-mortem examination is a challenging task even for the experienced medical examiner. As to the categorization of the manner of death it has to be stated that non-natural deaths are often not recognized or

  14. Understanding fast macroscale fracture from microcrack post mortem patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibert, J.; Guerra, C.; Bonamy, D.; Dalmas, D.

    2012-04-01

    Dynamic crack propagation drives catastrophic solid failures. In many amorphous brittle materials, sufficiently fast crack growth involves small-scale, high-frequency microcracking damage localized near the crack tip [1]. The ultra-fast dynamics of microcrack nucleation, growth and coalescence is inaccessible experimentally and fast crack propagation was therefore studied only as a macroscale average. We will see how to overcome this limitation in polymethylmethacrylate, the archetype of brittle amorphous materials: We reconstructed the complete spatio-temporal microcracking dynamics, with micrometer / nanosecond resolution, through post mortem analysis of the fracture surfaces [2]. We found that all individual microcracks propagate at the same low, load-independent, velocity. Collectively, the main effect of microcracks is not to slow down fracture by increasing the energy required for crack propagation, as commonly believed, but on the contrary to boost the macroscale velocity through an acceleration factor selected on geometric grounds. Our results emphasize the key role of damage-related internal variables in the selection of macroscale fracture dynamics. [1] J. Scheibert, C. Guerra, F. Célarié, D. Dalmas, D. Bonamy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 045501 (2010) [2] C. Guerra, J. Scheibert, D. Bonamy, D. Dalmas, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 390 (2012)

  15. Post-mortem cytogenomic investigations in patients with congenital malformations.

    PubMed

    Dias, Alexandre Torchio; Zanardo, Évelin Aline; Dutra, Roberta Lelis; Piazzon, Flavia Balbo; Novo-Filho, Gil Monteiro; Montenegro, Marilia Moreira; Nascimento, Amom Mendes; Rocha, Mariana; Madia, Fabricia Andreia Rosa; Costa, Thais Virgínia Moura Machado; Milani, Cintia; Schultz, Regina; Gonçalves, Fernanda Toledo; Fridman, Cintia; Yamamoto, Guilherme Lopes; Bertola, Débora Romeo; Kim, Chong Ae; Kulikowski, Leslie Domenici

    2016-08-01

    Congenital anomalies are the second highest cause of infant deaths, and, in most cases, diagnosis is a challenge. In this study, we characterize patterns of DNA copy number aberrations in different samples of post-mortem tissues from patients with congenital malformations. Twenty-eight patients undergoing autopsy were cytogenomically evaluated using several methods, specifically, Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA), microsatellite marker analysis with a MiniFiler kit, FISH, a cytogenomic array technique and bidirectional Sanger sequencing, which were performed on samples of different tissues (brain, heart, liver, skin and diaphragm) preserved in RNAlater, in formaldehyde or by paraffin-embedding. The results identified 13 patients with pathogenic copy number variations (CNVs). Of these, eight presented aneuploidies involving chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y (two presented inter- and intra-tissue mosaicism). In addition, other abnormalities were found, including duplication of the TYMS gene (18p11.32); deletion of the CHL1 gene (3p26.3); deletion of the HIC1 gene (17p13.3); and deletion of the TOM1L2 gene (17p11.2). One patient had a pathogenic missense mutation of g.8535C>G (c.746C>G) in exon 7 of the FGFR3 gene consistent with Thanatophoric Dysplasia type I. Cytogenomic techniques were reliable for the analysis of autopsy material and allowed the identification of inter- and intra-tissue mosaicism and a better understanding of the pathogenesis of congenital malformations. PMID:27450648

  16. Isolation of Cardiomyocyte Nuclei from Post-mortem Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Olaf; Jovinge, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Identification of cardiomyocyte nuclei has been challenging in tissue sections as most strategies rely only on cytoplasmic marker proteins1. Rare events in cardiac myocytes such as proliferation and apoptosis require an accurate identification of cardiac myocyte nuclei to analyze cellular renewal in homeostasis and in pathological conditions2. Here, we provide a method to isolate cardiomyocyte nuclei from post mortem tissue by density sedimentation and immunolabeling with antibodies against pericentriolar material 1 (PCM-1) and subsequent flow cytometry sorting. This strategy allows a high throughput analysis and isolation with the advantage of working equally well on fresh tissue and frozen archival material. This makes it possible to study material already collected in biobanks. This technique is applicable and tested in a wide range of species and suitable for multiple downstream applications such as carbon-14 dating3, cell-cycle analysis4, visualization of thymidine analogues (e.g. BrdU and IdU)4, transcriptome and epigenetic analysis. PMID:22805241

  17. Isolation of cardiomyocyte nuclei from post-mortem tissue.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Olaf; Jovinge, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Identification of cardiomyocyte nuclei has been challenging in tissue sections as most strategies rely only on cytoplasmic marker proteins(1). Rare events in cardiac myocytes such as proliferation and apoptosis require an accurate identification of cardiac myocyte nuclei to analyze cellular renewal in homeostasis and in pathological conditions(2). Here, we provide a method to isolate cardiomyocyte nuclei from post mortem tissue by density sedimentation and immunolabeling with antibodies against pericentriolar material 1 (PCM-1) and subsequent flow cytometry sorting. This strategy allows a high throughput analysis and isolation with the advantage of working equally well on fresh tissue and frozen archival material. This makes it possible to study material already collected in biobanks. This technique is applicable and tested in a wide range of species and suitable for multiple downstream applications such as carbon-14 dating(3), cell-cycle analysis(4), visualization of thymidine analogues (e.g. BrdU and IdU)(4), transcriptome and epigenetic analysis. PMID:22805241

  18. [Detection of dengue virus antigen in post-mortem tissues].

    PubMed

    Rivera, Jorge; Neira, Marcela; Parra, Edgar; Méndez, Jairo; Sarmiento, Ladys; Caldas, María Leonor

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiological situation of dengue has worsened over the last decade. The difficulties in preventing its transmission and the absence of a vaccine or specific treatment have made dengue a serious risk to public health, health centers and research systems at different levels. Currently, most studies on the pathogenesis of dengue infection focus on the T-cell immune response almost exclusively in secondary infections and are aimed at identifying the mechanisms involved in the development of vascular permeability and bleeding events that accompany the infection. This report describes the case of a baby girl less than 45 days of age with clinical signs of severe dengue, whose diagnosis was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in post-mortem tissue samples and by the ancillary diagnostic use of immunohistochemistry, which detected viral antigens in all organs obtained at autopsy. This case highlights the importance of studying primary infections associated with severe dengue, particularly in children, who are more likely to develop the severe form of the disease without previous infection, and it further stresses the importance of a diagnosis that should not be based solely on the examination of liver tissue samples when studying the pathogenesis of the viral infection. PMID:25504239

  19. Best-practices approach to determination of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at specific time points: Combination of ante-mortem alcohol pharmacokinetic modeling and post-mortem alcohol generation and transport considerations.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Dallas M; Maskrey, Joshua R; Fung, Ernest S; Woods, Tyler A; Stabryla, Lisa M; Scott, Paul K; Finley, Brent L

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol concentrations in biological matrices offer information regarding an individual's intoxication level at a given time. In forensic cases, the alcohol concentration in the blood (BAC) at the time of death is sometimes used interchangeably with the BAC measured post-mortem, without consideration for alcohol concentration changes in the body after death. However, post-mortem factors must be taken into account for accurate forensic determination of BAC prior to death to avoid incorrect conclusions. The main objective of this work was to describe best practices for relating ante-mortem and post-mortem alcohol concentrations, using a combination of modeling, empirical data and other qualitative considerations. The Widmark modeling approach is a best practices method for superimposing multiple alcohol doses ingested at various times with alcohol elimination rate adjustments based on individual body factors. We combined the selected ante-mortem model with a suggestion for an approach used to roughly estimate changes in BAC post-mortem, and then analyzed the available data on post-mortem alcohol production in human bodies and potential markers for alcohol production through decomposition and putrefaction. Hypothetical cases provide best practice approaches as an example for determining alcohol concentration in biological matrices ante-mortem, as well as potential issues encountered with quantitative post-mortem approaches. This study provides information for standardizing BAC determination in forensic toxicology, while minimizing real world case uncertainties. PMID:27041394

  20. Adverse events, toxicity and post-mortem data on duloxetine: case reports and literature survey.

    PubMed

    Vey, Eric L; Kovelman, Inna

    2010-05-01

    Duloxetine, a dual acting norepinephrine serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is a relatively new pharmacologic agent utilized in the treatment of depression, as well as diabetic neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and female stress urinary incontinence. This expanding scope of usage will inevitably lead to its eventual appearance during routine post-mortem toxicologic assays. Currently there is a paucity of post-mortem toxicologic data concerning duloxetine. The current report provides six additional case reports of post-mortem duloxetine levels, along with a review of duloxetine's pharmacokinetics, and the toxicologic manifestations which have been reported in the literature. The post-mortem levels reported, including the highest level recorded to date, are integrated with previously published reports to generate a foundation for a nascent guide to the interpretation of post-mortem duloxetine levels that could be encountered during routine post-mortem toxicologic analyses, and establish a basis upon which the establishment of toxic and lethal thresholds for this compound can be further elucidated with greater clarity. PMID:20382351

  1. Comparative proteomic profiling of cerebrospinal fluid between living and post mortem ALS and control subjects

    PubMed Central

    RANGANATHAN, SRIKANTH; NICHOLL, GEORGINA C.B.; HENRY, SARAH; LUTKA, FRAN; SATHANOORI, RAMASRI; LACOMIS, DAVID; BOWSER, ROBERT

    2010-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), lack definitive diagnostic tests or biomarkers of disease progression. Most studies that investigate protein abnormalities in ALS have used biofluids such as blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), while some have used post mortem tissue or CSF samples. Since ALS disease progression and post mortem effects probably induce significant alterations to protein modifications or proteolysis, we directly examined the CSF proteome from ALS subjects at various lengths of time from symptom onset and at autopsy by mass spectrometry based proteomics. CSF was also obtained from both healthy age-matched control subjects and at autopsy from healthy and Alzheimer's disease (AD) controls. We identified significant differences in the CSF proteome between living and post mortem ALS subjects, as well as living and post mortem control subjects. We also noted differences in the CSF proteome of ALS subjects that have exhibited symptoms for varying lengths of time and between ALS and AD subjects at end-stage of disease. This is the first study describing differences in the CSF proteome from post mortem and living ALS subjects using a mass spectrometric approach. These differences highlight the importance of utilizing CSF from living ALS subjects near the time of symptom onset for the identification of early protein biomarkers, although some protein alterations that occur early in the disease process are maintained throughout the course of disease and in post mortem samples. PMID:17852009

  2. Differential Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Preservation in Post-Mortem Teeth with Implications for Forensic and Ancient DNA Studies

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Denice; Rohrlach, Adam B.; Kaidonis, John; Townsend, Grant; Austin, Jeremy J.

    2015-01-01

    Major advances in genetic analysis of skeletal remains have been made over the last decade, primarily due to improvements in post-DNA-extraction techniques. Despite this, a key challenge for DNA analysis of skeletal remains is the limited yield of DNA recovered from these poorly preserved samples. Enhanced DNA recovery by improved sampling and extraction techniques would allow further advancements. However, little is known about the post-mortem kinetics of DNA degradation and whether the rate of degradation varies between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA or across different skeletal tissues. This knowledge, along with information regarding ante-mortem DNA distribution within skeletal elements, would inform sampling protocols facilitating development of improved extraction processes. Here we present a combined genetic and histological examination of DNA content and rates of DNA degradation in the different tooth tissues of 150 human molars over short-medium post-mortem intervals. DNA was extracted from coronal dentine, root dentine, cementum and pulp of 114 teeth via a silica column method and the remaining 36 teeth were examined histologically. Real time quantification assays based on two nuclear DNA fragments (67 bp and 156 bp) and one mitochondrial DNA fragment (77 bp) showed nuclear and mitochondrial DNA degraded exponentially, but at different rates, depending on post-mortem interval and soil temperature. In contrast to previous studies, we identified differential survival of nuclear and mtDNA in different tooth tissues. Futhermore histological examination showed pulp and dentine were rapidly affected by loss of structural integrity, and pulp was completely destroyed in a relatively short time period. Conversely, cementum showed little structural change over the same time period. Finally, we confirm that targeted sampling of cementum from teeth buried for up to 16 months can provide a reliable source of nuclear DNA for STR-based genotyping using standard

  3. Differential nuclear and mitochondrial DNA preservation in post-mortem teeth with implications for forensic and ancient DNA studies.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Denice; Rohrlach, Adam B; Kaidonis, John; Townsend, Grant; Austin, Jeremy J

    2015-01-01

    Major advances in genetic analysis of skeletal remains have been made over the last decade, primarily due to improvements in post-DNA-extraction techniques. Despite this, a key challenge for DNA analysis of skeletal remains is the limited yield of DNA recovered from these poorly preserved samples. Enhanced DNA recovery by improved sampling and extraction techniques would allow further advancements. However, little is known about the post-mortem kinetics of DNA degradation and whether the rate of degradation varies between nuclear and mitochondrial DNA or across different skeletal tissues. This knowledge, along with information regarding ante-mortem DNA distribution within skeletal elements, would inform sampling protocols facilitating development of improved extraction processes. Here we present a combined genetic and histological examination of DNA content and rates of DNA degradation in the different tooth tissues of 150 human molars over short-medium post-mortem intervals. DNA was extracted from coronal dentine, root dentine, cementum and pulp of 114 teeth via a silica column method and the remaining 36 teeth were examined histologically. Real time quantification assays based on two nuclear DNA fragments (67 bp and 156 bp) and one mitochondrial DNA fragment (77 bp) showed nuclear and mitochondrial DNA degraded exponentially, but at different rates, depending on post-mortem interval and soil temperature. In contrast to previous studies, we identified differential survival of nuclear and mtDNA in different tooth tissues. Furthermore histological examination showed pulp and dentine were rapidly affected by loss of structural integrity, and pulp was completely destroyed in a relatively short time period. Conversely, cementum showed little structural change over the same time period. Finally, we confirm that targeted sampling of cementum from teeth buried for up to 16 months can provide a reliable source of nuclear DNA for STR-based genotyping using standard

  4. Deuterium inventory in Tore Supra: reconciling particle balance and post-mortem analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsitrone, E.; Brosset, C.; Pégourié, B.; Gauthier, E.; Bouvet, J.; Bucalossi, J.; Carpentier, S.; Corre, Y.; Delchambre, E.; Desgranges, L.; Dittmar, T.; Douai, D.; Ekedahl, A.; Escarguel, A.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Grisolia, C.; Grosman, A.; Gunn, J.; Hong, S. H.; Jacob, W.; Kazarian, F.; Kocan, M.; Khodja, H.; Linez, F.; Loarer, T.; Marandet, Y.; Martinez, A.; Mayer, M.; Meyer, O.; Monier Garbet, P.; Moreau, P.; Pascal, J. Y.; Pasquet, B.; Rimini, F.; Roche, H.; Roure, I.; Rosanvallon, S.; Roubin, P.; Roth, J.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Samaille, F.; Vartanian, S.

    2009-07-01

    Fuel retention, a crucial issue for next step devices, is assessed in present-day tokamaks using two methods: particle balance performed during shots and post-mortem analysis carried out during shutdowns between experimental campaigns. Post-mortem analysis generally gives lower estimates of fuel retention than integrated particle balance. In order to understand the discrepancy between these two methods, a dedicated experimental campaign has been performed in Tore Supra to load the vessel walls with deuterium (D) and monitor the trapped D inventory through particle balance. The campaign was followed by an extensive post-mortem analysis phase of the Tore Supra limiter. This paper presents the status of the analysis phase, including the assessment of the D content in the castellated tile structure of the limiter. Indeed, using combined surface analysis techniques, it was possible to derive the relative contributions of different zones of interest on the limiter (erosion, thick deposits, thin deposits), showing that the post-mortem inventory is mainly due to codeposition (90% of the total), in particular due to gap deposits. However, deuterium was also evidenced deep into the material in erosion zones (10% of the total). At the present stage of the analysis, 50% of the inventory deduced from particle balance has been found through post-mortem analysis, a significant progress with respect to previous studies (factor 8-10 discrepancy). This shows that post-mortem analysis can be consistent with particle balance provided specific procedures are implemented (dedicated campaign followed by extensive post-mortem analysis). Both techniques are needed for a reliable assessment of fuel retention in tokamaks, giving complementary information on how much and where fuel is retained in the vessel walls.

  5. A novel approach to determine post mortem interval using neutron radiography.

    PubMed

    Bilheux, Hassina Z; Cekanova, Maria; Vass, Arpad A; Nichols, Trent L; Bilheux, Jean C; Donnell, Robert L; Finochiarro, Vincenzo

    2015-06-01

    One of the most difficult challenges in forensic research is to objectively determine the post-mortem interval (PMI). The accuracy of PMI is critical for determining the timeline of events surrounding a death. Most PMI techniques rely on gross morphological changes of cadavers that are highly sensitive to taphonomic factors. Recent studies have demonstrated that even exhumed individuals exposed to the same environmental conditions with similar PMIs can present different stages of decomposition. After death, tissue undergoes sequential changes consisting of organic and inorganic phase variations, as well as a gradual reduction of tissue water content. Hydrogen (H) is the primary contributor to neutron radiography (NR) contrast in biological specimens because (1) it is the most abundant element in biological tissues and (2) its nucleus scatters thermal and cold neutrons more strongly than any other atomic nucleus. These contrast differences can be advantageous in a forensic context to determine small changes in hydrogen concentrations. Neutron radiography of decaying canine tissues was performed to evaluate the PMI by measuring the changes in H content. In this study, dog cadavers were used as a model for human cadavers. Canine tissues and cadavers were exposed to controlled (laboratory settings, at the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine) and uncontrolled (University of Tennessee Anthropology Research Facility) environmental conditions, respectively. Neutron radiographs were supplemented with photographs and histology data to assess the decompositional stages of cadavers. Results demonstrated that the increase in neutron transmission likely corresponded to a decrease in hydrogen content in the tissue, which was correlated with the decay time of the tissue. Tissues depleted in hydrogen were brighter in the neutron transmission radiographs of skeletal muscles, lung, and bone, under controlled conditions. Over a period of 10 days, changes in neutron

  6. Increased acetyl and total histone levels in post-mortem Alzheimer's disease brain.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Pritika J; Lill, Claire; Faull, Richard; Curtis, Maurice A; Dragunow, Mike

    2015-02-01

    labelling. In addition, valproic acid worked synergistically with Mg132 in elevating ubiquitin load and causing cell death. These findings highlight important pathological relationships linking a compromise in protein turnover with the histone changes observed in Alzheimer's disease post-mortem human brain. PMID:25484284

  7. Material properties of the post-mortem colon in high-rate equibiaxial elongation.

    PubMed

    Howes, Meghan K; Hardy, Warren N

    2012-01-01

    Crash-induced injuries of the colon that occur in motor vehicle collisions include perforations, serosal tears, and ischemic colon injuries. To characterize the biomechanical response of the colon associated with these failure modes, high-rate equibiaxial stretch was applied to cruciate tissue samples harvested from four post-mortem human surrogates. Sample arms were gripped in four low-mass tissue clamps and simultaneous motion of four carriages applied equibiaxial stretch in four orthogonal directions. Tests were conducted to failure at a target strain rate of 100s-1 to investigate failure at rates expected to be experienced in motor vehicle collisions. Overhead high-speed video captured at 2500fps provided optical marker displacement data in a central region of interest. Marker positions were tracked using motion analysis software. Displacement data were input into LS-DYNA and average Green-Lagrange strain was calculated at 0.05ms time intervals. All data were truncated at tear initiation determined from high-speed video analysis. This manuscript presents the results of 26 colon tests conducted at an average strain rate of 67.1±17.9s-1. Average failure strain was 0.164±0.046 and 0.139±0.042 in the circumferential and longitudinal directions. Average maximum principal failure strain was 0.211±0.064. Material property data acquired in this study contribute to the biomechanical dataset useful for human body finite element model validation. PMID:22846280

  8. Analysis of RNA from Alzheimer's Disease Post-mortem Brain Tissues.

    PubMed

    Clement, Christian; Hill, James M; Dua, Prerna; Culicchia, Frank; Lukiw, Walter J

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a uniquely human, age-related central nervous system (CNS) disorder for which there is no adequate experimental model. While well over 100 transgenic murine models of AD (TgAD) have been developed that recapitulate many of the neuropathological features of AD, key pathological features of AD such as progressive neuronal atrophy, neuron cell loss, and neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) formation have not been observed in any TgAD model to date. To more completely analyze and understand the neuropathology, altered neuro-inflammatory and innate-immune signaling pathways, and the complex molecular-genetics and epigenetics of AD, it is therefore necessary to rigorously examine short post-mortem interval (PMI) human brain tissues to gain a deeper and more thorough insight into the neuropathological mechanisms that characterize the AD process. This perspective-methods paper will highlight some important recent findings on the utilization of short PMI tissues in sporadic (idiopathic; of unknown origin) AD research with focus on the extraction and quantification of RNA, and in particular microRNA (miRNA) and messenger RNA (mRNA) and analytical strategies, drawing on the authors' combined 125 years of laboratory experience into this investigative research area. We sincerely hope that new investigators in the field of "gene expression analysis in neurological disease" will benefit from the observations presented here and incorporate these recent findings and observations into their future experimental planning and design. PMID:25631714

  9. Characterization of post mortem arterial tissue using time-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy at 436, 461 and 532 nm.

    PubMed

    Beard, P C; Mills, T N

    1997-01-01

    Time-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy has been used to characterize post mortem arterial tissue for the purpose of discriminating between normal and atheromatous areas of tissue. Ultrasonic thermoelastic waves were generated in post mortem human aorta by the absorption of nanosecond laser pulses at 436, 461 and 532 nm produced by a frequency doubled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser in conjunction with a gas filled Raman cell. A PVDF membrane hydrophone was used to detect the thermoelastic waves. At 436 nm, differences in the photoacoustic signatures of normal tissue and atherorma were found to be highly variable. At 461 nm, there was a clear and reproducible difference between the photacoustic response of atheroma and normal tissue as a result of increased optical attenuation in atheroma. At 532 nm, the generation of subsurface thermoelastic waves provided a means of determining the structure and thickness of the tissue sample. It is suggested that pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy at 461 and 532 nm may find application in characterizing arterial tissue in situ by providing information about both the composition and thickness of the vessel wall. PMID:9015817

  10. Amount and distribution of fume contaminants in the lungs of an arc welder post mortem.

    PubMed Central

    Kalliomäki, P L; Sutinen, S; Kelhä, V; Lakomaa, E; Sortti, V; Sutinen, S

    1979-01-01

    This study describes various post-mortem examinations of the lungs of a shipyard arc welder. These investigations comprised morphological methods, including gross pathology and radiography, histological and ultrastructural examinations, chemical analysis of lung tissue, and sensitive magnetic measurements, which can now be used to detect magnetic contaminants, such as welding fume, in human tissue. Such methods can also show the distribution of contaminants. The amount of welding-fume contaminants was low, only 110 mg. The contaminant iron seemed to represent only 10% of the total iron chemically analysed in lung tissue. The concentration of the total iron was 4-10 times higher than that in control tissue. Contaminants tended to collect in the central areas of the lungs. Two concentration centres could be observed in each lung, one anterior and one posterior. There was slight fibrosis around pigmented areas. Histological findings were similar to those of previous studies. Transmission electron micrographs showed that enlarged lysosomes of macrophages contained electron-dense granules, 450 nm to less than 5 nm in diameter, which formed aggregates and short chains, and resembled welding-fume particles in the breathing zone. Our results show the value of studying the same material by a number of inter-related methods. Images PMID:500782

  11. Physical changes of significance for early post mortem water distribution in porcine M. longissimus.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Hanne Christine; Schäfer, Annette; Rosenvold, Katja; Andersen, Henrik Jørgen

    2004-04-01

    The post mortem changes in water mobility and distribution were followed in porcine muscle (M. longissimus dorsi) samples using continuous low-field NMR relaxation measurements and simultaneous measurement of changes in muscle impedance as an indirect measure of membrane integrity as well as muscle contraction measurements using a rigormeter instrument. Distributed exponential fitting analysis of NMR T(2) relaxation data revealed the presence of three distinct water populations (T(20), T(21), T(22)) within the muscle during its conversion to meat. Comparison of T(2) relaxation patterns and contraction data indicates that rigor development affects the attributes of the T(21) water population and thereby contributes to myofibrillar water characteristics post mortem, as the T(21) water population is believed to reflect inter/intra-myofibrillar water. The volume of the water population believed to reflect extra-cellular water (T(22)) in the living muscle. Early post mortem T(22) decreased slightly within the first 2-3 h post mortem followed by an increase and a change in its characteristic time constant. This was ascribed to an initial muscle cell swelling followed by water being expelled from the cellular space into the extra-myofibrillar space. Comparison of changes in the T(22) water population and impedance characteristics within the muscle during its conversion to meat revealed close relationship between progresses in the two attributes. Obtained data strongly support that the post mortem reorganization of water is closely associated with membrane properties, which moreover was found to affect the final water-holding capacity of the meat. Finally, a model for early post mortem events leading to changes in the distribution of water within muscles is proposed. PMID:22061025

  12. Characterisation of the metabolome of ocular tissues and post-mortem changes in the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shi Z; Mullard, Graham; Hollywood, Katherine A; Dunn, Warwick B; Bishop, Paul N

    2016-08-01

    Time-dependent post-mortem biochemical changes have been demonstrated in donor cornea and vitreous, but there have been no published studies to date that objectively measure post-mortem changes in the retinal metabolome over time. The aim of the study was firstly, to investigate post-mortem, time-dependent changes in the rat retinal metabolome and secondly, to compare the metabolite composition of healthy rat ocular tissues. To study post-mortem changes in the rat retinal metabolome, globes were enucleated and stored at 4 °C and sampled at 0, 2, 4, 8, 24 and 48 h post-mortem. To study the metabolite composition of rat ocular tissues, eyes were dissected immediately after culling to isolate the cornea, lens, vitreous and retina, prior to storing at -80 °C. Tissue extracts were subjected to Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). Generally, the metabolic composition of the retina was stable for 8 h post-mortem when eyes were stored at 4 °C, but showed increasing changes thereafter. However, some more rapid changes were observed such as increases in TCA cycle metabolites after 2 h post-mortem, whereas some metabolites such as fatty acids only showed decreases in concentration from 24 h. A total of 42 metabolites were identified across the ocular tissues by GC-MS (MSI level 1) and 2782 metabolites were annotated by UHPLC-MS (MSI level 2) according to MSI reporting standards. Many of the metabolites detected were common to all of the tissues but some metabolites showed partitioning between different ocular structures with 655, 297, 93 and 13 metabolites being uniquely detected in the retina, lens, cornea and vitreous respectively. Only a small percentage (1.6%) of metabolites found in the vitreous were only detected in the retina and not other tissues. In conclusion, mass spectrometry-based techniques have been used for the first time to compare the metabolic composition of

  13. Investigation of Post-mortem Tissue Effects Using Long-time Decorrelation Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csány, Gergely; Balogh, Lajos; Gyöngy, Miklós

    Decorrelation ultrasound is being increasingly used to investigate long-term biological phenomena. In the current work, ultrasound image sequences of mice who did not survive anesthesia (in a separate investigation) were analyzed and post-mortem tissue effects were observed via decorrelation calculation. A method was developed to obtain a quantitative parameter characterizing the rate of decorrelation. The results show that ultrasound decorrelation imaging is an effective method of observing post-mortem tissue effects and point to further studies elucidating the mechanism behind these effects.

  14. [Post-mortem study of laryngotracheal lesions produced by prolonged intubation and/or tracheotomy].

    PubMed

    Esteller Moré, E; Ibáñez-Nolla, J; García-Hernández, F; Carrasco-García, M A; León-Regidor, M A; Díaz-Boladeras, R M; Orus-Dotu, C; Ademà-Alcover, J M; Nolla-Salas, M

    1997-10-01

    Injuries of the laryngotracheal axis caused by prolonged intubation in critically ill patients raise the issue of the timing of tracheotomy in intubated patients. In 1992 a prospective study was begun in intensive care patients with intubation lasting more than 48 hours. Eight months later, post-mortem data on the laryngotracheal axis of deceased patients was added to our prospective study protocol. The study was closed with 125 cases (52 deceased). The clinical data of 73 surviving patients was compared with that of 18 post-mortem cases. The macroscopic results of the post-mortem study are summarized by grading the lesions according to a personal modification of the Lindholm classification. All cases had laryngotracheal injuries. Only 15% of the lesions were located in the tracheal region. Five cases were classified as grade 2, with an average orotracheal intubation of 9 days, 9 cases as grade 3 with 15 days intubation, and 4 cases as grade 4 with 21 days intubation. We concluded that the severity of laryngotracheal injuries in the early post-mortem exploration was related with the duration of intubation. PMID:9489156

  15. Effect of chilling method and post-mortem aging time on broiler breast fillet quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of chilling method and post-mortem aging time on broiler breast fillet quality. One hundred-fifty eviscerated broiler carcasses were removed from a commercial processing line prior to chilling and transported to the laboratory. Half of the carcasses we...

  16. Generalized arterial calcification of infancy--Findings at post-mortem computed tomography and autopsy.

    PubMed

    Bolster, Ferdia; Ali, Zabiullah; Southall, Pamela; Fowler, David

    2015-09-01

    Generalized arterial calcification in infancy is a rare genetic disorder characterized by abnormal calcification of large and medium sized arteries and marked myointimal proliferation resulting in arterial stenosis. The condition is often fatal secondary to complications of cardiac ischemia, hypertension and cardiac failure. In this report we describe the findings at post mortem computed tomography, histology and autopsy. PMID:26165490

  17. The Design and Development of a Post-Mortem Room Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, A. D.

    1977-01-01

    The design of a post-mortem room complex to serve the needs of three separate organizations on the campus of the University of Bristol's Veterinary Field Station is described. Comments are made on disadvantages that have become apparent during eight years of use. (Author/LBH)

  18. Effect of Chilling Method and Post-Mortem Aging Time on Broiler Breast Fillet Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of chilling method (dry air or immersion) and post-mortem aging time on broiler breast fillet quality (raw fillet color, raw fillet pH, cook yield and Allo-Kramer shear). One hundred fifty eviscerated broiler carcasses were removed from a commercial p...

  19. [Corpse disposal by concealment in transport containers or packaging materials: Examination by post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) before forensic autopsy].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Iwao; Heinemann, Axel; Jahnke, Philipp; Wilke, Nadine; Kammal, Michael; Püschel, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The presented case reports illustrate the value of post-mortem computed tomography in cases of homicide in which the body was hidden in a container or packaging material and could not be inspected directly from outside. In Case 1, the body was forced into a suitcase, which was then thrown into a flood basin. Post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) visualized the compressed and extremely flexed body inside the suitcase as well as fractures of the left temporal bone, the left ulna and the left side of the mandible. After recovery of the body, the consequences of long-term immersion in fresh water became visible. At autopsy, a laceration in the left temporal region and a temporal bone fracture were observed. The fractures of the left ulna and the left jaw were associated with moderate hematoma. In Case 2, the body of an 11-year-old girl was retrieved from a plastic bag concealed in a garden shed. The cause of death was ligature strangulation. In the presented cases, PMCT was performed as part of the police investigations for reliable primary documentation of the contents of the containers without further manipulation. Thus the human body, its position inside the container and the presence of bone injuries could be demonstrated before opening the container. In such cases, post-mortem imaging provides reliable and rapid information to the investigating authorities before autopsy already. PMID:26548018

  20. Altered expression of synapse and glutamate related genes in post-mortem hippocampus of depressed subjects

    PubMed Central

    Duric, Vanja; Banasr, Mounira; Stockmeier, Craig A.; Simen, Arthur A.; Newton, Samuel S.; Overholser, James C.; Jurjus, George J.; Dieter, Lesa; Duman, Ronald S.

    2012-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been linked to changes in function and activity of the hippocampus, one of the central limbic regions involved in regulation of emotions and mood. The exact cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying hippocampal plasticity in response to stress are yet to be fully characterized. In this study, we examined the genetic profile of micro-dissected subfields of post-mortem hippocampus from subjects diagnosed with MDD and comparison subjects matched for sex, race and age. Gene expression profiles of the dentate gyrus and CA1 were assessed by 48K human HEEBO whole genome microarrays and a subgroup of identified genes was confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Pathway analysis revealed altered expression of several gene families, including cytoskeletal proteins involved in rearrangement of neuronal processes. Based on this and evidence of hippocampal neuronal atrophy in MDD, we focused on the expression of cytoskeletal, synaptic and glutamate receptor genes. Our findings demonstrate significant dysregulation of synaptic function/structure related genes SNAP25, DLG2 (SAP93), and MAP1A, and 2-amino-3-(5-methyl-3-oxo-1,2-oxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid receptor subunit genes GLUR1 and GLUR3. Several of these human target genes were similarly dysregulated in a rat model of chronic unpredictable stress and the effects reversed by antidepressant treatment. Together, these studies provide new evidence that disruption of synaptic and glutamatergic signalling pathways contribute to the pathophysiology underlying MDD and provide interesting targets for novel therapeutic interventions. PMID:22339950

  1. A novel approach to determine post mortem interval using neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Cekanova, Maria; Vass, Arpad Alexander; Nichols, Trent L.; Bilheux, Jean -Christophe; Donnell, Robert; Finocchiaro, Vincenzo

    2015-03-06

    In this study, neutron radiography (NR) is used non-destructively to measure changes in hydrogen (H) content in decaying tissues as a mean to estimate post-mortem invertal (PMI). After death, tissue undergoes sequential changes consisting of organic and inorganic phase variations, as well as a gradual reduction of tissue water content. H is the primary contributor to NR contrast in biological specimens because (1) it is the most abundant element in biological tissues and (2) its nucleus scatter thermal and cold neutrons more strongly than any other atomic nucleus. These contrast differences can be advantageous in a forensic context to determine small changes in hydrogen concentrations. Dog cadavers were used as a model for human cadavers. Canine tissues and cadavers were exposed to controlled (laboratory settings) and uncontrolled (University of Tennessee Anthropology Research Facility) environmental conditions during putefraction, respectively. Neutron radiographs were supplemented with photographs and histology data to assess the decomposition stage of cadavers. Results demonstrated that the increase in neutron transmission likely corresponded to a decrease in hydrogen content in the tissue, which was correlated with the time of decay of the tissue. Tissues depleted in hydrogen are brighter in the neutron transmission radiographs of skeletal muscles, lung, and bone, under controlled conditions. Over a period of 10 days, changes in neutron transmission through lung and muscle were found to be higher than bone by 8.3%, 7.0 %, and 2.0 %, respectively. Estimation of the PMI was calculated from a natural logarithmic fitting of the NR data. Under controlled conditions, estimation of the PMI was 70% and 63.9 % accurate for bone and lung tissues, while being 1.4% accurate for muscle tissue. All results underestimated the true PMI. In conclusion, neutron radiography can be used for detection of hydrogen changes in decaying tissues to estimate PMI.

  2. A novel approach to determine post mortem interval using neutron radiography

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Cekanova, Maria; Vass, Arpad Alexander; Nichols, Trent L.; Bilheux, Jean -Christophe; Donnell, Robert; Finocchiaro, Vincenzo

    2015-03-06

    In this study, neutron radiography (NR) is used non-destructively to measure changes in hydrogen (H) content in decaying tissues as a mean to estimate post-mortem invertal (PMI). After death, tissue undergoes sequential changes consisting of organic and inorganic phase variations, as well as a gradual reduction of tissue water content. H is the primary contributor to NR contrast in biological specimens because (1) it is the most abundant element in biological tissues and (2) its nucleus scatter thermal and cold neutrons more strongly than any other atomic nucleus. These contrast differences can be advantageous in a forensic context to determinemore » small changes in hydrogen concentrations. Dog cadavers were used as a model for human cadavers. Canine tissues and cadavers were exposed to controlled (laboratory settings) and uncontrolled (University of Tennessee Anthropology Research Facility) environmental conditions during putefraction, respectively. Neutron radiographs were supplemented with photographs and histology data to assess the decomposition stage of cadavers. Results demonstrated that the increase in neutron transmission likely corresponded to a decrease in hydrogen content in the tissue, which was correlated with the time of decay of the tissue. Tissues depleted in hydrogen are brighter in the neutron transmission radiographs of skeletal muscles, lung, and bone, under controlled conditions. Over a period of 10 days, changes in neutron transmission through lung and muscle were found to be higher than bone by 8.3%, 7.0 %, and 2.0 %, respectively. Estimation of the PMI was calculated from a natural logarithmic fitting of the NR data. Under controlled conditions, estimation of the PMI was 70% and 63.9 % accurate for bone and lung tissues, while being 1.4% accurate for muscle tissue. All results underestimated the true PMI. In conclusion, neutron radiography can be used for detection of hydrogen changes in decaying tissues to estimate PMI.« less

  3. Post-mortem findings in a patient with avian influenza A (H5N6) virus infection.

    PubMed

    Gao, R; Pan, M; Li, X; Zou, X; Zhao, X; Li, T; Yang, H; Zou, S; Bo, H; Xu, J; Li, S; Zhang, M; Li, Z; Wang, D; Zaki, S R; Shu, Y

    2016-06-01

    Avian influenza A (H5N6) has been found to infect humans, and has resulted in ten cases with six deaths in China since 2014. Here, we describe the systematic post-mortem pathology of a patient fatally infected with H5N6 virus and evaluate the associated pathogenesis compared with H1N1 pdm09 fatal cases. The most prominent histopathological features were diffuse alveolar damage and pulmonary vasculitis in the lungs of the patient. The virus disseminated to extrapulmonary organs, including the brain. Compared with H1N1 pdm09 fatal infection, H5N6 infection induced a more exacerbated immune response involving overt pulmonary inflammation, which led to alveolar damage and respiratory failure. PMID:27040806

  4. Brain banks: benefits, limitations and cautions concerning the use of post-mortem brain tissue for molecular studies.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Isidre; Martinez, Anna; Boluda, Susana; Parchi, Piero; Barrachina, Marta

    2008-09-01

    Brain banks are facilities providing an interface between generous donation of nervous tissues and research laboratories devoted to increase our understanding of the diseases of the nervous system, discover new diagnostic targets, and develop new strategies. Considering this crucial role, it is important to learn about the suitabilities, limitations and proper handling of individual brain samples for particular studies. Several factors may interfere with preservation of DNA, RNA, proteins and lipids, and, therefore, special care must be taken first to detect sub-optimally preserved tissues and second to provide adequate material for each specific purpose. Basic aspects related with DNA, RNA and protein preservation include agonal state, post-mortem delay, temperature of storage and procedures of tissue preservation. Examination of DNA and RNA preservation is best done by using bioanalyzer technologies instead of less sensitive methods such as agarose gels. Adequate RNA preservation is mandatory in RNA microarray studies and adequate controls are necessary for proper PCR validation. Like for RNA, the preservation of proteins is not homogeneous since some molecules are more vulnerable than others. This aspect is crucial in the study of proteins including expression levels and possible post-translational modifications. Similarly, the reliability of functional and enzymatic studies in human post-mortem brain largely depends on protein preservation. Much less is known about other aspects, such as the effects of putative deleterious factors on epigenetic events such as methylation of CpGs in gene promoters, nucleosome preservation, histone modifications, and conservation of microRNA species. Most brains are appropriate for morphological approaches but not all brains are useful for certain biochemical and molecular studies. PMID:18543077

  5. Post-mortems in recreational scuba diver deaths: the utility of radiology.

    PubMed

    Wheen, Lyndsae Clair; Williams, Michael Philip

    2009-07-01

    Post-mortem radiology and autopsy findings in a series of six diving-related deaths are presented. The cases had different causes of death but essentially similar radiological findings. We propose that the so-called classical radiological features of cerebral arterial gas embolism more likely represent "off-gassing" (gas coming out of solution into intra-vascular spaces due to pressure changes). As such, we suggest that post-mortem radiology, when accompanying a competent autopsy examination, be limited to the chest, whereby it may be useful in the demonstration of pneumothoraces which might not be demonstrated at autopsy, thereby providing supporting evidence for barotrauma in the context of appropriate clinical and autopsy findings. PMID:19481710

  6. Viability and infectivity of Ichthyophonus sp. in post-mortem Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, Richard M.; Hart, Lucas M.; Lewandowski, Naomi; Hershberger, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Ichthyophonus-infected Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, were allowed to decompose in ambient seawater then serially sampled for 29 days to evaluate parasite viability and infectivity for Pacific staghorn sculpin, Leptocottus armatus. Ichthyophonus sp. was viable in decomposing herring tissues for at least 29 days post-mortem and could be transmitted via ingestion to sculpin for up to 5 days. The parasite underwent morphologic changes during the first 48 hr following death of the host that were similar to those previously reported, but as host tissue decomposition progressed, several previously un-described forms of the parasite were observed. The significance of long-term survival and continued morphologic transformation in the post-mortem host is unknown, but it could represent a saprozoic phase of the parasite life cycle that has survival value for Ichthyophonus sp.

  7. Early post-mortem changes and stages of decomposition in exposed cadavers.

    PubMed

    Lee Goff, M

    2009-10-01

    Decomposition of an exposed cadaver is a continuous process, beginning at the moment of death and ending when the body is reduced to a dried skeleton. Traditional estimates of the period of time since death or post-mortem interval have been based on a series of grossly observable changes to the body, including livor mortis, algor mortis, rigor mortis and similar phenomena. These changes will be described briefly and their relative significance discussed. More recently, insects, mites and other arthropods have been increasingly used by law enforcement to provide an estimate of the post-mortem interval. Although the process of decomposition is continuous, it is useful to divide this into a series of five stages: Fresh, Bloated, Decay, Postdecay and Skeletal. Here these stages are characterized by physical parameters and related assemblages of arthropods, to provide a framework for consideration of the decomposition process and acarine relationships to the body. PMID:19554461

  8. Olanzapine-induced hyperglycemic ketoacidosis and corresponding acetone concentrations post-mortem: a forensic interpretation.

    PubMed

    House, Chris J

    2007-08-24

    Olanzapine has been shown to cause or have a contributory role in the development of hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus. Without careful monitoring for the development of these conditions and control of the resulting adverse effects, patients receiving olanzapine may be at risk of developing fatal ketoacidosis. A review of post-mortem toxicological reports has revealed an increase in the incidence of post-mortem findings of acetone in decedents who were taking olanzapine over the past decade. A review of the current literature and a comprehensive review of case histories and toxicological findings were conducted at the Centre of Forensic Sciences (Toronto, Ontario). Olanzapine concentrations ranging from <62.5 to 858 ng/mL and acetone concentrations as high as 95 mg/dL were detected concurrently. Due to the unstable nature of olanzapine, in several instances quantitation was not possible despite elevated responses during qualitative screening procedures. Five cases suggesting olanzapine-induced ketoacidosis were identified based on the case history and toxicological findings. These data have been compiled and examined with respect to acetone concentrations following olanzapine use and the forensic relevance of post-mortem olanzapine and acetone concentrations are discussed. PMID:17084052

  9. Post-Mortem Corneal Thickness Measurements with a Portable Optical Coherence Tomography System: a Reliability Study

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Pietro Emanuele; Nioi, Matteo; d’Aloja, Ernesto; Fossarello, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the repeatability and reproducibility of post-mortem central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements by using a real-time, portable optical coherence tomography (OCT) system on an animal model, and to prospectively evaluate the time-course of post-mortem changes in CCT. Forty-six ocular globes of sheep (Ovis aries) were analyzed with a portable spectral-domain OCT device by two operators at different postmortem intervals (PMIs) as follows: immediately (i.e. within 10 minutes), at the 30th minute, at the 1st, 6th, 12th, 24th and 48th hour, and later (up to the 96th hour). The coefficient of repeatability ranged from 0.3% to 3.5%, and coefficients of reproducibility ranged from 0.2% to 3.7% in the central region of the cornea. The intraclass correlation coefficients were particularly high at different PMIs, thus confirming good measurement reliability with the portable OCT. The average CCT decreased immediately and then increased thereafter, with two peaks at 6 and 24 hours after death. Our results suggest that portable OCT is a reliable tool for monitoring CCT variations after death and may be useful in characterizing corneas before explantation, detecting quantitative variations during post-mortem corneal degeneration or assessing changes in CCT for forensic implications. PMID:27457021

  10. Estimation of post mortem interval by tomographic images of intra-cardiac hypostasis.

    PubMed

    Zerbini, Talita; da Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz; Lobato Baptista, Pedro Artur; Ikari, Eduardo Seigo; Rodrigues de Araujo, Marina; de André, Carmen Diva Saldiva; da Motta Singer, Julio; da Rocha, Francisco Marcelo Monteiro; Junior, Edson Amaro; Pasqualucci, Carlos Augusto Gonçalves; Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento

    2016-02-01

    The determination of the post mortem interval (PMI) is important in many instances, especially in criminal investigations. So, we consider post mortem tomographic evaluation of intra-cardiac hypostasis as an additional method for such purpose. Tomographic images of the thoraces of the corpses of 23 patients who died in a hospital were obtained sequentially at one hour intervals to allow the analysis of changes in density due to hypostasis over time. The right and left atria, which appear in the mediastinal window, were selected for measurements of the average organ density. An exponential model was used to relate the difference between the attenuation coefficients of the anterior segment of the right atrium and the posterior segment of the left atrium to the PMI. In spite of the large variability of the data from this observational study, PMI estimates during the first 12 h after death can be estimated with a margin of error smaller than two hours. The results suggest that the difference between the attenuation coefficients stabilizes around 12 h post mortem and may be used as an additional method to estimate the PMI. PMID:26802976

  11. Post-Mortem Corneal Thickness Measurements with a Portable Optical Coherence Tomography System: a Reliability Study.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Pietro Emanuele; Nioi, Matteo; d'Aloja, Ernesto; Fossarello, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the repeatability and reproducibility of post-mortem central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements by using a real-time, portable optical coherence tomography (OCT) system on an animal model, and to prospectively evaluate the time-course of post-mortem changes in CCT. Forty-six ocular globes of sheep (Ovis aries) were analyzed with a portable spectral-domain OCT device by two operators at different postmortem intervals (PMIs) as follows: immediately (i.e. within 10 minutes), at the 30(th) minute, at the 1(st), 6(th), 12(th), 24(th) and 48(th) hour, and later (up to the 96(th) hour). The coefficient of repeatability ranged from 0.3% to 3.5%, and coefficients of reproducibility ranged from 0.2% to 3.7% in the central region of the cornea. The intraclass correlation coefficients were particularly high at different PMIs, thus confirming good measurement reliability with the portable OCT. The average CCT decreased immediately and then increased thereafter, with two peaks at 6 and 24 hours after death. Our results suggest that portable OCT is a reliable tool for monitoring CCT variations after death and may be useful in characterizing corneas before explantation, detecting quantitative variations during post-mortem corneal degeneration or assessing changes in CCT for forensic implications. PMID:27457021

  12. Post-mortem findings and piglet mortality in relation to strategic use of straw at farrowing.

    PubMed

    Westin, Rebecka; Holmgren, Nils; Hultgren, Jan; Ortman, Kerstin; Linder, Anders; Algers, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Piglet survival is the outcome of complex interactions between the sow, the piglet and their environment. In order to facilitate nest-building and to provide a suitable environment for the newborn piglets, a strategic method to supply loose housed sows with large quantities of straw at farrowing has been developed by Swedish piglet-producing farmers. The objectives of this cohort study were to use post-mortem findings to assess the causes of death and to quantify the effect of a large quantity of straw provided before farrowing compared to limited small daily amounts on stillbirths, post-mortem findings in piglets dying within 5 days after birth and the pre-weaning mortality. On each of four commercial piglet-producing farms in South-West Sweden, one batch of sows was studied during two consecutive lactations. At inclusion, sows were randomly assigned to two treatment groups, and sows remaining in the batch during the next lactation switched treatment group. In the STRAW group (n=181 litters) sows were provided with 15-20 kg of chopped straw 2 days prior to the calculated date of farrowing. Sows in the CONTROL group (n=182 litters) received 0.5-1 kg of chopped straw on a daily basis plus about 2 kg for nest-building when the stockperson judged the sow to be about to farrow. After onset of farrowing, additionally 1-2 kg was given. Post-mortem examination was performed in all piglets that died within 5 days after birth (n=798). The three major post-mortem findings were starvation (34%) crushing by the sow (28%), and enteritis (24%). In conclusion, strategic use of large quantities of straw reduced the number of stillborn piglets per litter by 27% (p=0.007). Under the conditions studied, the pre-weaning mortality of liveborn piglets was not affected by treatment; however, the distribution of post-mortem findings differed with fewer piglets dying due to starvation and more due to crushing and enteritis in STRAW litters. PMID:25792335

  13. Monitoring post mortem changes in porcine muscle through 2-D DIGE proteome analysis of Longissimus muscle exudate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Meat quality is a complex trait influenced by a range of factors with post mortem biochemical processes highly influential in defining ultimate quality. High resolution two-dimensional DIfference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and Western blot were applied to study the influence of post mortem meat ageing on the proteome of pork muscle. Exudate collected from the muscle following centrifugation was analysed at three timepoints representing a seven day meat ageing period. Results The intensity of 136 spots varied significantly (p < 0.05) across this post mortem period and 40 spots were identified using mass spectrometry. The main functional categories represented were metabolic proteins, stress-related proteins, transport and structural proteins. Metabolic and structural proteins were generally observed to increase in abundance post mortem and many likely represent the accumulation of the degradation products of proteolytic enzyme activity. In contrast, stress-related proteins broadly decreased in abundance across the ageing period. Stress response proteins have protective roles in maintaining cellular integrity and a decline in their abundance over time may correlate with a reduction in cellular integrity and the onset of meat ageing. Since cellular conditions alter with muscle ageing, changes in solubility may also contribute to observed abundance profiles. Conclusions Muscle exudate provided valuable information about the pathways and processes underlying the post mortem ageing period, highlighting the importance of post mortem modification of proteins and their interaction for the development of meat quality traits. PMID:23514628

  14. Post-mortem 1.5T MR quantification of regular anatomical brain structures.

    PubMed

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Hottinger, Anna-Lena; Schwendener, Nicole; Schuster, Frederick; Persson, Anders; Warntjes, Marcel J; Jackowski, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Recently, post-mortem MR quantification has been introduced to the field of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging. By usage of a particular MR quantification sequence, T1 and T2 relaxation times and proton density (PD) of tissues and organs can be quantified simultaneously. The aim of the present basic research study was to assess the quantitative T1, T2, and PD values of regular anatomical brain structures for a 1.5T application and to correlate the assessed values with corpse temperatures. In a prospective study, 30 forensic cases were MR-scanned with a quantification sequence prior to autopsy. Body temperature was assessed during MR scans. In synthetically calculated T1, T2, and PD-weighted images, quantitative T1, T2 (both in ms) and PD (in %) values of anatomical structures of cerebrum (Group 1: frontal gray matter, frontal white matter, thalamus, internal capsule, caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus) and brainstem/cerebellum (Group 2: cerebral crus, substantia nigra, red nucleus, pons, cerebellar hemisphere, and superior cerebellar peduncle) were assessed. The investigated brain structures of cerebrum and brainstem/cerebellum could be characterized and differentiated based on a combination of their quantitative T1, T2, and PD values. MANOVA testing verified significant differences between the investigated anatomical brain structures among each other in Group 1 and Group 2 based on their quantitative values. Temperature dependence was observed mainly for T1 values, which were slightly increasing with rising temperature in the investigated brain structures in both groups. The results provide a base for future computer-aided diagnosis of brain pathologies and lesions in post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26872469

  15. Factors impacting the success of post-mortem sperm rescue in the rhinoceros.

    PubMed

    Roth, T L; Stoops, M A; Robeck, T R; O'Brien, J K

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to identify factors that influenced the ability to successfully rescue sperm post-mortem from rhinoceroses maintained in North American zoos. Factors considered included procedural technicalities, individual rhinoceros characteristics and timing. Gross testicular pathology was noted in 17.4% of males (4/23) but did not impact sperm recovery except in one case of azoospermia (4.3%). Of the males in which sperm recovery was attempted (n=21), 62% yielded quality samples considered adequate for cryopreservation (≥ 30% motility with ≥ 2.0 forward progressive status). A high percentage of males (70.6%; 12/17) from which reproductive tissue was removed an d cooled ≤ 4 h after death yielded quality sperm samples, whereas only 25% (1/4) of males from which tissue was removed>4h after death yielded quality samples. Quality samples were recovered 1-51 h post-mortem from rhinoceroses 8 to 36 years old. Neither type of illness (prolonged or acute), or method of death (euthanasia or natural) affected the ability to harvest quality samples (P > 0.05). The Indian rhinoceros yielded significantly more sperm on average (40 × 10(9)) than the African black rhinoceros (3.6 × 10(9); P < 0.01) and the African white rhinoceros (3.2 × 10(9); P < 0.05). Across all species and samples assessed (n = 11), mean post-thaw sperm motility (41%), was only 15% less than pre-freeze motility (56%) and only decreased to 22% during the 6h post-thaw assessment period. Rhinoceros sperm rescue post-mortem is relatively successful across a wide range of variables, especially when tissues are removed and cooled promptly after death, and should be considered standard practice among zoos. PMID:26879096

  16. A combined post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging and quantitative histological study of multiple sclerosis pathology

    PubMed Central

    Kolasinski, James; Chance, Steven A.; DeLuca, Gabriele C.; Esiri, Margaret M.; Chang, Eun-Hyuk; Palace, Jacqueline A.; McNab, Jennifer A.; Jenkinson, Mark; Miller, Karla L.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory neurological condition characterized by focal and diffuse neurodegeneration and demyelination throughout the central nervous system. Factors influencing the progression of pathology are poorly understood. One hypothesis is that anatomical connectivity influences the spread of neurodegeneration. This predicts that measures of neurodegeneration will correlate most strongly between interconnected structures. However, such patterns have been difficult to quantify through post-mortem neuropathology or in vivo scanning alone. In this study, we used the complementary approaches of whole brain post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging and quantitative histology to assess patterns of multiple sclerosis pathology. Two thalamo-cortical projection systems were considered based on their distinct neuroanatomy and their documented involvement in multiple sclerosis: lateral geniculate nucleus to primary visual cortex and mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus to prefrontal cortex. Within the anatomically distinct thalamo-cortical projection systems, magnetic resonance imaging derived cortical thickness was correlated significantly with both a measure of myelination in the connected tract and a measure of connected thalamic nucleus cell density. Such correlations did not exist between these markers of neurodegeneration across different thalamo-cortical systems. Magnetic resonance imaging lesion analysis depicted clearly demarcated subcortical lesions impinging on the white matter tracts of interest; however, quantitation of the extent of lesion-tract overlap failed to demonstrate any appreciable association with the severity of markers of diffuse pathology within each thalamo-cortical projection system. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging metrics in both white matter tracts were correlated significantly with a histologically derived measure of tract myelination. These data demonstrate for the first time the relevance of functional

  17. Post-mortem re-cloning of a transgenic red fluorescent protein dog

    PubMed Central

    Hong, So Gun; Koo, Ok Jae; Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Minjung; Kim, Geon-A; Park, Eun Jung; Jang, Goo

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the world's first transgenic dogs were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. However, cellular senescence is a major limiting factor for producing more advanced transgenic dogs. To overcome this obstacle, we rejuvenated transgenic cells using a re-cloning technique. Fibroblasts from post-mortem red fluorescent protein (RFP) dog were reconstructed with in vivo matured oocytes and transferred into 10 surrogate dogs. One puppy was produced and confirmed as a re-cloned dog. Although the puppy was lost during birth, we successfully established a rejuvenated fibroblast cell line from this animal. The cell line was found to stably express RFP and is ready for additional genetic modification. PMID:22122908

  18. Increased concentration of. cap alpha. - and. gamma. -endorphin in post mortem hypothalamic tissue of schizophrenic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegant, V.M.; Verhoef, C.J.; Burbach, J.P.H.; de Wied, D.

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations of ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..- and ..gamma..-endorphin were determined by radioimmunoassay in HPLC fractionated extracts of post mortem hypothalamic tissue obtained from schizophrenic patients and controls. The hypothalamic concentration of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphin was significantly higher in patients than in controls. No difference was found in the concentration of ..beta..-endorphin, the putative precursor of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphins. These results suggest a deviant metabolism of ..beta..-endorphin in the brain of schizophrenic patients. Whether this phenomenon is related to the psychopathology, or is a consequence of ante mortem farmacotherapy, remains to be established.

  19. Perinatal and paediatric post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMR): sequences and technique.

    PubMed

    Norman, Wendy; Jawad, Noorulhuda; Jones, Rod; Taylor, Andrew M; Arthurs, Owen J

    2016-06-01

    As post-mortem MRI (PMMR) becomes more widely used for investigation following perinatal and paediatric deaths, the best possible images should be acquired. In this article, we review the most widely used published PMMR sequences, together with outlining our acquisition protocol and sequence parameters for foetal, perinatal and paediatric PMMR. We give examples of both normal and abnormal appearances, so that the reader can understand the logic behind each acquisition step before interpretation, as a useful day-to-day reference guide to performing PMMR. PMID:26916282

  20. Using bacterial and necrophagous insect dynamics for post-mortem interval estimation during cold season: Novel case study in Romania.

    PubMed

    Iancu, Lavinia; Carter, David O; Junkins, Emily N; Purcarea, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    Considering the biogeographical characteristics of forensic entomology, and the recent development of forensic microbiology as a complementary approach for post-mortem interval estimation, the current study focused on characterizing the succession of necrophagous insect species and bacterial communities inhabiting the rectum and mouth cavities of swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) carcasses during a cold season outdoor experiment in an urban natural environment of Bucharest, Romania. We monitored the decomposition process of three swine carcasses during a 7 month period (November 2012-May 2013) corresponding to winter and spring periods of a temperate climate region. The carcasses, protected by wire cages, were placed on the ground in a park type environment, while the meteorological parameters were constantly recorded. The succession of necrophagous Diptera and Coleoptera taxa was monitored weekly, both the adult and larval stages, and the species were identified both by morphological and genetic characterization. The structure of bacterial communities from swine rectum and mouth tissues was characterized during the same time intervals by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. We observed a shift in the structure of both insect and bacterial communities, primarily due to seasonal effects and the depletion of the carcass. A total of 14 Diptera and 6 Coleoptera species were recorded on the swine carcasses, from which Calliphora vomitoria and C. vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Necrobia violacea (Coleoptera: Cleridae) and Thanatophilus rugosus (Coleoptera: Silphidae) were observed as predominant species. The first colonizing wave, primarily Calliphoridae, was observed after 15 weeks when the temperature increased to 13°C. This was followed by Muscidae, Fanniidae, Anthomyiidae, Sepsidae and Piophilidae. Families belonging to Coleoptera Order were observed at week 18 when temperatures raised above 18°C, starting with

  1. DNA quality and quantity from up to 16 years old post-mortem blood stored on FTA cards.

    PubMed

    Rahikainen, Anna-Liina; Palo, Jukka U; de Leeuw, Wiljo; Budowle, Bruce; Sajantila, Antti

    2016-04-01

    Blood samples preserved on FTA cards offer unique opportunities for genetic research. DNA recovered from these cards should be stable for long periods of time. However, it is not well established as how well the DNA stored on FTA card for substantial time periods meets the demands of forensic or genomic DNA analyses and especially so for from post-mortem (PM) samples in which the quality can vary upon initial collection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the time-dependent degradation on DNA quality and quantity extracted from up to 16 years old post-mortem bloodstained FTA cards. Four random FTA samples from eight time points spanning 1998 to 2013 (n=32) were collected and extracted in triplicate. The quantity and quality of the extracted DNA samples were determined with Quantifiler(®) Human Plus (HP) Quantification kit. Internal sample and sample-to-sample variation were evaluated by comparing recovered DNA yields. The DNA from the triplicate samplings were subsequently combined and normalized for further analysis. The practical effect of degradation on DNA quality was evaluated from normalized samples both with forensic and pharmacogenetic target markers. Our results suggest that (1) a PM change, e.g. blood clotting prior to sampling, affects the recovered DNA yield, creating both internal and sample-to-sample variation; (2) a negative correlation between the FTA card storage time and DNA quantity (r=-0.836 at the 0.01 level) was observed; (3) a positive correlation (r=0.738 at the level 0.01) was found between FTA card storage time and degradation levels. However, no inhibition was observed with the method used. The effect of degradation was manifested clearly with functional applications. Although complete STR-profiles were obtained for all samples, there was evidence of degradation manifested as decreased peak heights in the larger-sized amplicons. Lower amplification success was notable with the large 5.1kb CYP2D6 gene fragment which strongly supports

  2. Ablation of fast-spiking interneurons in the dorsal striatum, recapitulating abnormalities seen post-mortem in Tourette syndrome, produces anxiety and elevated grooming.

    PubMed

    Xu, M; Li, L; Pittenger, C

    2016-06-01

    Tic disorders, including Tourette syndrome (TS), are thought to involve pathology of cortico-basal ganglia loops, but their pathology is not well understood. Post-mortem studies have shown a reduced number of several populations of striatal interneurons, including the parvalbumin-expressing fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs), in individuals with severe, refractory TS. We tested the causal role of this interneuronal deficit by recapitulating it in an otherwise normal adult mouse using a combination transgenic-viral cell ablation approach. FSIs were reduced bilaterally by ∼40%, paralleling the deficit found post-mortem. This did not produce spontaneous stereotypies or tic-like movements, but there was increased stereotypic grooming after acute stress in two validated paradigms. Stereotypy after amphetamine, in contrast, was not elevated. FSI ablation also led to increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze, but not to alterations in motor learning on the rotorod or to alterations in prepulse inhibition, a measure of sensorimotor gating. These findings indicate that a striatal FSI deficit can produce stress-triggered repetitive movements and anxiety. These repetitive movements may recapitulate aspects of the pathophysiology of tic disorders. PMID:26968763

  3. Experimental taphonomy: post-mortem microstructural modifications in Sus scrofa domesticus bone.

    PubMed

    Kontopoulos, Ioannis; Nystrom, Pia; White, Lorraine

    2016-09-01

    Bone is a highly specialised form of hard and rigid connective tissue whose histological structure undergoes post-mortem modifications. In taphonomic research, histological examination of bone thin sections is used to investigate these post-mortem microstructural changes in skeletal tissues. In this study, diagenetic modifications in pig skeletal remains (Sus scrofa domesticus) which were exposed to different taphonomic conditions as part of a long-term, real-time experiment were examined under light microscope (i.e. plain and cross polarized light). This experiment demonstrated that macroscopic appearance and microscopic preservation of bone may significantly differ. Early microbial attack was identified as enlarged osteocyte lacunae that later coalesce to constitute larger foci. Additionally, microscopic preservation of different skeletal elements varied intra-individually, while within bone differential preservation (i.e. proximal versus distal ends) was also observed. However, no specific patterns of early histological attack (e.g. endosteal and periosteal destruction) and no clear relationship between histological preservation and proximity to the abdominal area were detected. Lastly, the presence and composition of protective textiles had a clear effect on bone preservation. This research project, therefore, provided important evidence for the better understanding of the diagenetic processes that occur within bones whilst buried or exposed on the ground surface. PMID:27368073

  4. What can post-mortem studies tell us about the pathoetiology of suicide?

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ghanshyam N; Dwivedi, Yogesh

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is a major public health concern; however, its neurobiology is unclear. Post-mortem brain tissue obtained from suicide victims and normal controls offers a useful method for studying the neurobiology of suicide. Despite several limitations, these studies have offered important leads in the neurobiology of suicide. In this article, we discuss some important findings resulting from these studies, focusing on serotonergic mechanisms, signal transduction systems, neuroendocrine studies and immune function abnormalities in suicide. These studies suggest that abnormalities of certain receptor subtypes, components of signaling systems such as protein kinase C and protein kinase A, transcription factors such as cyclic AMP response element-binding protein and neurotrophins may play an important role in the pathophysiology of suicide. These studies also suggest abnormalities of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis system components, feedback mechanisms and cytokines, which are chemical mediators of the immune functions. Post-mortem brain tissue offers an opportunity for future studies, such as genetic and epigenetic studies. PMID:21436961

  5. The social life of the dead: The role of post-mortem examinations in medical student socialisation.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Dawn; Machin, Laura; Taylor, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Dissection has held a privileged position in medical education although the professional values it inculcates have been subject to intense debate. Claims vary from it generating a dehumanising level of emotional detachment, to promotion of rational and dispassionate decision-making, even to being a positive vehicle for ethical education. Social scientists have positioned dissection as a critical experience in the emotional socialisation of medical students. However, curricular revision has provoked debate about the style and quantity of anatomy teaching thus threatening this 'rite of passage' of medical students. Consequently, some UK medical schools do not employ dissection at all. In its place, observation of post-mortem examinations - a long established, if underutilised, practice - has re-emerged in an attempt to recoup aspects of anatomical knowledge that are arguably lost when dissection is omitted. Bodies for post-mortem examinations and bodies for dissection, however, have striking differences, meaning that post-mortem examinations and dissection cannot be considered comparable opportunities to learn anatomy. In this article, we explore the distinctions between dissection and post-mortem examinations. In particular, we focus on the absence of a discourse of consent, concerns about bodily integrity, how the body's shifting ontology, between object and person, disrupts students' attempts to distance themselves, and how the observation of post-mortem examinations features in the emotional socialisation of medical students. PMID:27261534

  6. Next-Generation Sequencing in Post-mortem Genetic Testing of Young Sudden Cardiac Death Cases

    PubMed Central

    Lahrouchi, Najim; Behr, Elijah R.; Bezzina, Connie R.

    2016-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the young (<40 years) occurs in the setting of a variety of rare inherited cardiac disorders and is a disastrous event for family members. Establishing the cause of SCD is important as it permits the pre-symptomatic identification of relatives at risk of SCD. Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) is defined as SCD in the setting of negative autopsy findings and toxicological analysis. In such cases, reaching a diagnosis is even more challenging and post-mortem genetic testing can crucially contribute to the identification of the underlying cause of death. In this review, we will discuss the current achievements of “the molecular autopsy” in young SADS cases and provide an overview of key challenges in assessing pathogenicity (i.e., causality) of genetic variants identified through next-generation sequencing. PMID:27303672

  7. Demonstrating the origin of cardiac air embolism using post-mortem computed tomography; an illustrated case.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Sarah; Kotecha, Deepjay; Morgan, Bruno; Raj, Vimal; Rutty, Guy

    2011-03-01

    An 83 year old female was found dead in her home. The deceased had been struck repeatedly to the head with at least one weapon, one of which was a hammer. The deceased had suffered both penetrating and non-penetrating blunt trauma to the head as a result of the assault. A multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) scan was undertaken approximately 12h after death prior to the autopsy examination. This demonstrated the presence of a cardiac air embolus and continuity between the air embolus and the penetrating head injury. Air within the heart is a recognised post-mortem artefact frequently seen on MDCT scans and a common pitfall for inexperienced cadaveric MDCT reporters. This case builds upon a previous report by Kauczor, illustrating how MDCT can be used to demonstrate the origin and route of ingress of a genuine air embolism to the heart. PMID:21131225

  8. [Post-mortem partial skeletization of the face and neck by an Appenzell mountain dog].

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Sandra; Lardi, Christelle; La Harpe, Romano

    2009-01-01

    An 81-year-old man died unexpectedly from a cardiac cause. His wife, who lived in the same house and suffered from Alzheimer's disease, did not realize his death. When the body was found at the foot of the stairs 2-3 days afterwards, extensive soft tissue defects with notched wound edges, but no signs of vitality, were observed on the head and neck. The site where the body was found showed almost no traces of blood. In view of the injuries and their obviously post-mortem origin it was assumed that they had been caused by the man's Appenzell mountain dog which also lived in the house. By means of DNA typing, swabs from the wound edges of the soft-tissue defects could be assigned to the deceased's dog. PMID:19432090

  9. Signature Based Detection of User Events for Post-mortem Forensic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Joshua Isaac; Gladyshev, Pavel; Zhu, Yuandong

    This paper introduces a novel approach to user event reconstruction by showing the practicality of generating and implementing signature-based analysis methods to reconstruct high-level user actions from a collection of low-level traces found during a post-mortem forensic analysis of a system. Traditional forensic analysis and the inferences an investigator normally makes when given digital evidence, are examined. It is then demonstrated that this natural process of inferring high-level events from low-level traces may be encoded using signature-matching techniques. Simple signatures using the defined method are created and applied for three popular Windows-based programs as a proof of concept.

  10. Increased steroid hormone dehydroepiandrosterone and pregnenolone levels in post-mortem brain samples of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Kärkkäinen, Olli; Häkkinen, Merja R; Auriola, Seppo; Kautiainen, Hannu; Tiihonen, Jari; Storvik, Markus

    2016-05-01

    Intra-tissue levels of steroid hormones (e.g., dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA], pregnenolone [PREGN], and testosterone [T]) may influence the pathological changes seen in neurotransmitter systems of alcoholic brains. Our aim was to compare levels of these steroid hormones between the post-mortem brain samples of alcoholics and non-alcoholic controls. We studied steroid levels with quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in post-mortem brain samples of alcoholics (N = 14) and non-alcoholic controls (N = 10). Significant differences were observed between study groups in DHEA and PREGN levels (p values 0.0056 and 0.019, respectively), but not in T levels. Differences between the study groups were most prominent in the nucleus accumbens (NAC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and anterior insula (AINS). DHEA levels were increased in most alcoholic subjects compared to controls. However, only a subgroup of alcoholics showed increased PREGN levels. Negative Spearman correlations between tissue levels of PREGN and previous reports of [(3)H]naloxone binding to μ-opioid receptors were observed in the AINS, ACC, NAC, and frontal cortex (R values between -0.6 and -0.8; p values ≤ 0.002), suggesting an association between the opioid system and brain PREGN levels. Although preliminary, and from relatively small diagnostic groups, these results show significantly increased levels of DHEA and PREGN in the brains of alcoholics, and could be associated with the pathology of alcoholism. PMID:27139239

  11. Sequencing CYP2D6 for the detection of poor-metabolizers in post-mortem blood samples with tramadol.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Suzana; Amorim, António; Costa, Heloísa Afonso; Franco, João; Porto, Maria João; Santos, Jorge Costa; Dias, Mário

    2016-08-01

    Tramadol concentrations and analgesic effect are dependent on the CYP2D6 enzymatic activity. It is well known that some genetic polymorphisms are responsible for the variability in the expression of this enzyme and in the individual drug response. The detection of allelic variants described as non-functional can be useful to explain some circumstances of death in the study of post-mortem cases with tramadol. A Sanger sequencing methodology was developed for the detection of genetic variants that cause absent or reduced CYP2D6 activity, such as *3, *4, *6, *8, *10 and *12 alleles. This methodology, as well as the GC/MS method for the detection and quantification of tramadol and its main metabolites in blood samples was fully validated in accordance with international guidelines. Both methodologies were successfully applied to 100 post-mortem blood samples and the relation between toxicological and genetic results evaluated. Tramadol metabolism, expressed as its metabolites concentration ratio (N-desmethyltramadol/O-desmethyltramadol), has been shown to be correlated with the poor-metabolizer phenotype based on genetic characterization. It was also demonstrated the importance of enzyme inhibitors identification in toxicological analysis. According to our knowledge, this is the first study where a CYP2D6 sequencing methodology is validated and applied to post-mortem samples, in Portugal. The developed methodology allows the data collection of post-mortem cases, which is of primordial importance to enhance the application of these genetic tools to forensic toxicology and pathology. PMID:26926096

  12. 9 CFR 381.76 - Post-mortem inspection, when required; extent; traditional, Streamlined Inspection System (SIS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Post-mortem inspection, when required; extent; traditional, Streamlined Inspection System (SIS), New Line Speed (NELS) Inspection System and the New Turkey Inspection (NTI) System; rate of inspection. 381.76 Section 381.76 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION...

  13. Changes of microbial spoilage, lipid-protein oxidation and physicochemical properties during post mortem refrigerated storage of goat meat.

    PubMed

    Sabow, Azad Behnan; Sazili, Awis Qurni; Aghwan, Zeiad Amjad; Zulkifli, Idrus; Goh, Yong Meng; Ab Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin; Nakyinsige, Khadijah; Kaka, Ubedullah; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda

    2016-06-01

    Examined was the effect of post mortem refrigerated storage on microbial spoilage, lipid-protein oxidation and physicochemical traits of goat meat. Seven Boer bucks were slaughtered, eviscerated and aged for 24 h. The Longissimus lumborum (LL) and Semitendinosus (ST) muscles were excised and subjected to 13 days post mortem refrigerated storage. The pH, lipid and protein oxidation, tenderness, color and drip loss were determined in LL while microbiological analysis was performed on ST. Bacterial counts generally increased with increasing aging time and the limit for fresh meat was reached at day 14 post mortem. Significant differences were observed in malondialdehyde (MDA) content at day 7 of storage. The thiol concentration significantly reduced as aging time increased. The band intensities of myosin heavy chain (MHC) and troponin-T significantly decreased as storage progressed, while actin remained relatively stable. After 14 days of aging, tenderness showed significant improvement while muscle pH and drip loss reduced with increase in storage time. Samples aged for 14 days had higher lightness (P < 0.05) and lower (P < 0.05) yellowness and redness. Post mortem refrigerated storage influenced oxidative and microbial stability and physico-chemical properties of goat meat. PMID:26890722

  14. Herpes simplex encephalitis is linked with selective mitochondrial damage; a post-mortem and in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Wnęk, Małgorzata; Ressel, Lorenzo; Ricci, Emanuele; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carmen; Guerrero, Julio Cesar Villalvazo; Ismail, Zarini; Smith, Colin; Kipar, Anja; Sodeik, Beate; Chinnery, Patrick F; Solomon, Tom; Griffiths, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE) is the most commonly diagnosed cause of viral encephalitis in western countries. Despite antiviral treatment, HSE remains a devastating disease with high morbidity and mortality. Improved understanding of pathogenesis may lead to more effective therapies. Mitochondrial damage has been reported during HSV infection in vitro. However, whether it occurs in the human brain and whether this contributes to the pathogenesis has not been fully explored. Minocycline, an antibiotic, has been reported to protect mitochondria and limit brain damage. Minocycline has not been studied in HSV infection. In the first genome-wide transcriptomic study of post-mortem human HSE brain tissue, we demonstrated a highly preferential reduction in mitochondrial genome (MtDNA) encoded transcripts in HSE cases (n = 3) compared to controls (n = 5). Brain tissue exhibited a significant inverse correlation for immunostaining between cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), a MtDNA encoded enzyme subunit, and HSV-1; with lower abundance for mitochondrial protein in regions where HSV-1 was abundant. Preferential loss of mitochondrial function, among MtDNA encoded components, was confirmed using an in vitro primary human astrocyte HSV-1 infection model. Dysfunction of cytochrome c oxidase (CO), a mitochondrial enzyme composed predominantly of MtDNA encoded subunits, preceded that of succinate dehydrogenase (composed entirely of nuclear encoded subunits). Minocycline treated astrocytes exhibited higher CO1 transcript abundance, sustained CO activity and cell viability compared to non-treated astrocytes. Based on observations from HSE patient tissue, this study highlights mitochondrial damage as a critical and early event during HSV-1 infection. We demonstrate minocycline preserves mitochondrial function and cell viability during HSV-1 infection. Minocycline, and mitochondrial protection, offers a novel adjunctive therapeutic approach for

  15. Causes of Stillbirth and Time of Death in Swedish Holstein Calves Examined Post Mortem

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, B; Steinbock, L; Elvander, M

    2003-01-01

    This study was initiated due to the observation of increasing and rather high levels of stillbirths, especially in first-calving Swedish Holstein cows (10.3%, 2002). Seventy-six Swedish Holstein calves born to heifers at 41 different farms were post mortem examined in order to investigate possible reasons for stillbirth and at what time in relation to full-term gestation they had occurred. The definition of a stillborn calf was dead at birth or within 24 h after birth after at least 260 days of gestation. Eight calves were considered as having died already in uterus. Slightly less than half of the examined calves (46.1%) were classified as having died due to a difficult calving. Four calves (5.3%) had different kinds of malformations (heart defects, enlarged thymus, urine bladder defect). Approximately one third of the calves (31.6%) were clinically normal at full-term with no signs of malformation and born with no indication of difficulties at parturition or any other reason that could explain the stillbirth. The numbers of male and female calves were rather equally distributed within the groups. A wide variation in post mortem weights was seen in all groups, although a number of the calves in the group of clinically normal calves with unexplained reason of death were rather small and, compared with e.g. those calves categorised as having died due to a difficult calving, their average birth weight was 6 kg lower (39.9 ± 1.7 kg vs. 45.9 ± 1.5 kg, p ≤ 0.01). It was concluded that the cause of stillbirth with a non-infectious aetiology is likely to be multifactorial and difficult calving may explain only about half of the stillbirths. As much as one third of the calves seemed clinically normal with no obvious reason for death. This is a target group of calves that warrants a more thorough investigation in further studies. PMID:15074624

  16. Effect of post-mortem handling conditions on the quality of spent hen meat curry.

    PubMed

    Mendiratta, S K; Sharma, B D; Majhi, M; Kumar, R R

    2012-04-01

    Study was performed to determine the effect of post-mortem handling conditions on the physico-chemical and sensory attributes of spent hen meat curry. Breast cuts of spent hens were subjected to different postmortem handling conditions before cooking viz; made into small cuts and cooked within 1-2 h of slaughter (condition 1), made into small cuts and cooked after 4-5 h of slaughter (condition 2), made into small cuts immediately after slaughter, stored at 4 ± 1 °C for 12 h and then cooked (condition 3), stored at 4 ± 1 °C for 12 h, made into small cuts and cooked (condition 4). The pH of meat just before cooking due to different stages of rigor development under various conditions differed accordingly. Observed differences in temperature of meat just before cooking were because of different postmortem handling condition variations viz:1,2,3,&4. The associated post mortem changes under different postmortem handling conditions before cooking led to significant variation in Water holding capacity, Water Soluble Protein, Salt Soluble Protein, cooking yield, moisture percentage before cooking and after cooking and also WB shear force value. In general, sensory scores were higher for conditions 4 and 1 as compared to conditions 2 and 3. Results revealed that quality attributes of spent hen meat curry can be improved by following proper post-slaughter handling and processing conditions. To get meat curry of good sensory quality, meat should be cooked preferably within 1-2 h of slaughter or after 10-12 h of storage of intact carcass at 4 ± 1 °C. Cuts should be made just before cooking but cooking after 4-5 h of slaughter should be avoided. PMID:23572849

  17. Elevated formic acid concentrations in putrefied post-mortem blood and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Viinamäki, Jenni; Rasanen, Ilpo; Vuori, Erkki; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2011-05-20

    Formic acid (FA) concentration was measured in post-mortem blood and urine samples as methyl formate using a headspace in-tube extraction gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry method. A total of 113 cases were analyzed, each including a blood and urine sample fortified with 1% sodium fluoride. The cases were divided into three groups: regular (n=59), putrefied (n=30), and methanol-positive (n=22) cases. There was no evidence of ante-mortem methanol consumption in the regular and putrefied cases. In regular cases, the mean (and median) FA concentrations were 0.04 g/l (0.04 g/l) and 0.06 g/l (0.04 g/l) in blood and urine, respectively. In putrefied cases, the mean (and median) FA concentrations were substantially higher, 0.24 g/l (0.22 g/l) and 0.25 g/l (0.15 g/l) in blood and urine, respectively. In three putrefied cases, FA concentration in blood exceeded 0.5 g/l, a level associated with fatal methanol poisoning. Ten putrefied cases were reanalyzed after 3-4 months storage, and no significant changes in FA concentrations were seen. These observations suggest that FA was formed by putrefaction during the post-mortem period, not during sample storage when sodium fluoride was added as a preservative. In methanol-positive cases, the mean (and median) FA concentrations were 0.80 g/l (0.88 g/l) and 3.4 g/l (3.3 g/l) in blood and urine, respectively, and the concentrations ranged from 0.19 to 1.0 g/l in blood and from 1.7 to 5.6 g/l in urine. The mean (and median) methanol concentrations in methanol-positive cases were 3.0 g/l (3.0 g/l) and 4.4 g/l (4.7 g/l) in blood and in urine, respectively. The highest methanol concentrations were 6.0 g/l and 8.7 g/l in blood and urine, respectively. No ethyl alcohol was found in the methanol-positive blood samples. Poor correlation was shown between blood and urine concentrations of FA. Poor correlations were also shown, in both blood and urine, between methanol and FA concentrations. PMID:21112705

  18. [Post-mortem cesarean sections in Puerto Rico, 1805-1807].

    PubMed

    Rigau-Pérez, J G; Villaizán, M

    1991-03-01

    The idea of saving an infant by incising the abdomen of the recently deceased mother was first put into practice in ancient times, and the Catholic Church endorsed its use to provide baptism for the infant's soul. The practice received official support in Madrid in 1804 with a Real Cédula (royal order) of Charles IV to the civilian and ecclesiastic officials of the Indies and the Philippines. This operation was used, before the cédula, in Spain, Mexico, Venezuela and Peru, but in Puerto Rico this order seems to have provoked the practice of post-mortem caesarean section. In a review of burial records of the San Juan cathedral for 1797 to 1814, one such operation is mentioned (1807), but the records of Cayey (a town in the mountains) from 1801 to 1812 show three cases (1805-6). We transcribe here (with modern spelling) the cédula and burial certificates, and we then comment on their significance. PMID:1854384

  19. Post mortem sampling of the bladder for the identification of victims of fire related deaths.

    PubMed

    Owen, Rebecca; Bedford, Paul; Leditschke, Jodie; Schlenker, Andrew; Hartman, Dadna

    2013-12-10

    In a coronial setting a deceased person must be formally identified. It is difficult to identify a deceased person when their physical features are disrupted and identification by visual means cannot occur. In the absence of visual identification, the confirmation of identity of a deceased person relies on the scientific comparison of information obtained post mortem with ante mortem information. The ante mortem information may include dental and medical records, fingerprints, and DNA profiling. For cases involving incinerated remains, this traditionally requires the collection of blood, muscle or bone samples from the deceased (depending on the severity of the burns) for DNA analysis and subsequent comparison to a reference sample for kinship determination. Following on from work conducted during the DVI response to a plane crash in Papua New Guinea in 2011, a study has been performed examining the viability of utilising material obtained from bladder swabs in deaths associated with fires. Twenty-eight cases were analysed during 2012 with deaths occurring in motor vehicle and aviation accidents, as well as house fires, homicides and from self-immolation. Bladder and conventional (blood, muscle or bone) samples were subjected to DNA analysis and compared. Our findings demonstrate that the bladder samples all gave DNA of sufficient quality for DNA profiling. This easily obtained sample (when available) can be now recommended in the scientific identification process of fire affected deceased persons. PMID:24314496

  20. A forensic toxicological dilemma: the interpretation of post-mortem concentrations of central acting analgesics.

    PubMed

    Daldrup, Th

    2004-06-10

    Dora V., a 88-year-old pensioner suffering from a hiatus hernia, died at the home of an orthopaedist and his wife, an anaesthetist, immediately after she had received a dose of 300 mg pethidine via intravenous infusion in a timeframe of about 90 min. One day before her death a befriended notary of the couple visited Dora V. and obtained a blank signature. After her death, a will was forged using this signature, rendering the couple sole heirs of Dora V.'s estate with a value of several million euros. Post-mortem toxicology was performed in three different institutes of legal medicine. The concentrations of pethidine in peripheral venous blood were between 6.1 and 6.5mg/l and 9.5 and 17.2mg/kg in brain. Pharmacokinetic calculation confirms the given dose. There was no doubt that the cause of death was acute pethidine intoxication. The accused couple claimed that this dose of pethidine was indicated to relief pain, and as the pathologists said in their expert opinions that the hiatus hernia could explain her death, the court had to acquit the accused. This very special case demonstrates that preconceived murder of a sick person with suitable analgesics cannot be proven--at least not with the methods available to forensic toxicology and pathology. This has to be taken into consideration if euthanasia will be legalised under special circumstances. PMID:15172078

  1. Post mortem computed tomography: useful or unnecessary in gunshot wounds deaths? Two case reports.

    PubMed

    Maiese, Aniello; Gitto, Lorenzo; De Matteis, Alessandra; Panebianco, Valeria; Bolino, Giorgio

    2014-11-01

    Post-mortem computer tomography (PMCT) is currently an useful procedure that can elucidate patterns of injuries, providing strong medical evidence that is very useful during litigation and at trial. This technique is especially useful in gunshot wounds cases, allowing an easier location and retrieval of the bullet and/or its fragments inside the body. In such cases, the use of 3D rendering can be very useful in order to obtain essential information, such as: accurate depict of the wound track, discerning between entrance and exit wounds, show bone's fracture and its fragments course inside the body. The authors performed analysis on two cases of death by gunshot wounds, and a PMCT before the postmortem examination was made. The obtained CT scans were evaluated using the open-source software OsiriX on a Mac OS X computer, performing 3D rendering of the DICOM images. The crime scene reconstruction was performed using the software Poser Debut® on a Mac OS X computer. In both cases, PMCT showed multiple advantages: objectivity, reproducibility, ease visualization of the wound paths, easy localization of bullet and their fragments, allowing us to clarify the cause of death before the traditional autopsy. PMCT should became a standard in forensic practice as an aid to the tradition postmortem examination to obtain as much information as possible in order to clarify the cause and manner of death. PMID:25001050

  2. The cholesterol levels in median nerve and post-mortem interval evaluation.

    PubMed

    Vacchiano, G; Maldonado, A Luna; Ros, M Matas; Di Lorenzo, P; Pieri, M

    2016-08-01

    Cholesterol levels in the median nerve were studied at various post-mortem intervals (PMIs). Single median nerve samples were collected from the wrists of 36 subjects during forensic autopsies of subjects with known circumstances and times of death. Although the absolute values varied, increments in cholesterol concentration were recorded. Subsequently, 16 subjects who did not suffer of any neurological and/or metabolic diseases with known times and circumstances of death were enrolled. For each enrolled subject, two samples were collected from the wrist at an interval of approximately two hours (t1 and t2). The obtained results revealed a gradual increase in cholesterol level with increasing time since death. The cholesterol concentration data obtained for each subject at t1 and t2 were correlated with the time since death, a linear interpolation was applied, and the PMI was back-calculated. Similar trends were obtained for the samples collected at similar PMIs; thus, three groups were considered: PMI<48h, 4878h. Good correlation coefficients were obtained, especially for the first group (R(2)=0.9362) for which the PMI could be calculated with an error that ranged from -4 to 5.9h. Although it requires further confirmation via analyses of larger numbers of samples, the method proposed here can currently be applied to PMI determinations. PMID:26826850

  3. Quantifying the relative contribution of ante- and post-mortem factors to the variability in beef texture.

    PubMed

    Juárez, M; Basarab, J A; Baron, V S; Valera, M; Larsen, I L; Aalhus, J L

    2012-11-01

    This study aims to investigate the relative contribution of ante- and post-mortem factors to the final quality of beef. In all, 112 steers (four breed-crosses) were arranged in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experimental including production system, growth implant and β-adrenergic agonist strategies. Carcasses were suspended by the Achilles tendon or the aitch bone and meat was aged for 2/6/13/21/27 days (longissimus muscle) or 2/27 days (semimembranosus muscle). Meat quality traits related to beef texture were measured. Statistical analyses were developed including ante- and post-mortem factors and their relative contribution to the variability observed for each measured trait was calculated. The main factor responsible for the variability in sarcomere length was the suspension method (91.1%), which also influenced drip-loss (44.3%). Increasing the percentage of British breeds increased (P < 0.05) the intramuscular fat content in longissimus muscle, but only when implants were not used. Thus, the breed-cross, implant strategy and their interaction were responsible for >58% of the variability in this trait. The variability in instrumental and sensory tenderness was mainly affected by post-mortem factors (carcass suspension, ageing time and their interaction), explaining generally ∼70% of the variability in these traits. Breed-cross was the second most important effect (∼15%) when carcass suspension was not considered in the model, but still ageing time was responsible for a much larger proportion of the variability in tenderness (>45%). In conclusion, post-mortem handling of the carcasses may be much more effective in controlling beef tenderness than pre-mortem strategies. PMID:23031348

  4. Influence of Post-Mortem Sperm Recovery Method and Extender on Unstored and Refrigerated Rooster Sperm Variables.

    PubMed

    Villaverde-Morcillo, S; Esteso, M C; Castaño, C; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2016-02-01

    Many post-mortem sperm collection techniques have been described for mammalian species, but their use in birds is scarce. This paper compares the efficacy of two post-mortem sperm retrieval techniques - the flushing and float-out methods - in the collection of rooster sperm, in conjunction with the use of two extenders, i.e., L&R-84 medium and Lake 7.1 medium. To determine whether the protective effects of these extenders against refrigeration are different for post-mortem and ejaculated sperm, pooled ejaculated samples (procured via the massage technique) were also diluted in the above extenders. Post-mortem and ejaculated sperm variables were assessed immediately at room temperature (0 h), and after refrigeration at 5°C for 24 and 48 h. The flushing method retrieved more sperm than the float-out method (596.5 ± 75.4 million sperm vs 341.0 ± 87.6 million sperm; p < 0.05); indeed, the number retrieved by the former method was similar to that obtained by massage-induced ejaculation (630.3 ± 78.2 million sperm). For sperm collected by all methods, the L&R-84 medium provided an advantage in terms of sperm motility variables at 0 h. In the refrigerated sperm samples, however, the Lake 7.1 medium was associated with higher percentages of viable sperm, and had a greater protective effect (p < 0.05) with respect to most motility variables. In conclusion, the flushing method is recommended for collecting sperm from dead birds. If this sperm needs to be refrigerated at 5°C until analysis, Lake 7.1 medium is recommended as an extender. PMID:26602054

  5. Towards muscle-specific meat color stability of Chinese Luxi yellow cattle: A proteomic insight into post-mortem storage.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Yu, Qian-Qian; Fu, Yu; Tian, Xiao-Jing; Jia, Fei; Li, Xing-Min; Dai, Rui-Tong

    2016-09-16

    Searching for potential predictors of meat color is a challenging task for the meat industry. In this study, the relationship between meat color parameters and the sarcoplasmic proteome of M. longissimuss lumborum (LL) and M. psoas major (PM) from Chinese Luxi yellow cattle during post-mortem storage (0, 5, 10 and 15days) were explored with the aid of the integrated proteomics and bioinformatics approaches. Meat color attributes revealed that LL displayed better color stability than PM during storage. Furthermore, sarcoplasmic proteins of these two muscles were compared between days 5, 10, 15 and day 0. Several proteins were closely correlated with meat color attributes and they were muscle-specific and responsible for the meat color stability at different storage periods. Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A isoform, glycogen phosphorylase, peroxiredoxin-2, phosphoglucomutase-1, superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn], heat shock cognate protein (71kDa) might serve as the candidate predictors of meat color stability during post-mortem storage. In addition, bioinformatics analyses indicated that more proteins were involved in glycolytic metabolism of LL, which contributed to better meat color stability of LL than PM. The present results could provide a proteomic insight into muscle-specific meat color stability of Chinese Luxi yellow cattle during post-mortem storage. PMID:26546560

  6. A New Insight into the Role of Calpains in Post-mortem Meat Tenderization in Domestic Animals: A review

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Ting; Wang, Linjie; Liu, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    Tenderness is the most important meat quality trait, which is determined by intracellular environment and extracellular matrix. Particularly, specific protein degradation and protein modification can disrupt the architecture and integrity of muscle cells so that improves the meat tenderness. Endogenous proteolytic systems are responsible for modifying proteinases as well as the meat tenderization. Abundant evidence has testified that calpains (CAPNs) including calpain I (CAPN1) and calpastatin (CAST) have the closest relationship with tenderness in livestock. They are involved in a wide range of physiological processes including muscle growth and differentiation, pathological conditions and post-mortem meat aging. Whereas, Calpain3 (CAPN3) has been established as an important activating enzyme specifically expressed in livestock’s skeletal muscle, but its role in domestic animals meat tenderization remains controversial. In this review, we summarize the role of CAPN1, calpain II (CAPN2) and CAST in post-mortem meat tenderization, and analyse the relationship between CAPN3 and tenderness in domestic animals. Besides, the possible mechanism affecting post-mortem meat aging and improving meat tenderization, and current possible causes responsible for divergence (whether CAPN3 contributes to animal meat tenderization or not) are inferred. Only the possible mechanism of CAPN3 in meat tenderization has been confirmed, while its exact role still needs to be studied further. PMID:25049808

  7. A New Insight into the Role of Calpains in Post-mortem Meat Tenderization in Domestic Animals: A review.

    PubMed

    Lian, Ting; Wang, Linjie; Liu, Yiping

    2013-03-01

    Tenderness is the most important meat quality trait, which is determined by intracellular environment and extracellular matrix. Particularly, specific protein degradation and protein modification can disrupt the architecture and integrity of muscle cells so that improves the meat tenderness. Endogenous proteolytic systems are responsible for modifying proteinases as well as the meat tenderization. Abundant evidence has testified that calpains (CAPNs) including calpain I (CAPN1) and calpastatin (CAST) have the closest relationship with tenderness in livestock. They are involved in a wide range of physiological processes including muscle growth and differentiation, pathological conditions and post-mortem meat aging. Whereas, Calpain3 (CAPN3) has been established as an important activating enzyme specifically expressed in livestock's skeletal muscle, but its role in domestic animals meat tenderization remains controversial. In this review, we summarize the role of CAPN1, calpain II (CAPN2) and CAST in post-mortem meat tenderization, and analyse the relationship between CAPN3 and tenderness in domestic animals. Besides, the possible mechanism affecting post-mortem meat aging and improving meat tenderization, and current possible causes responsible for divergence (whether CAPN3 contributes to animal meat tenderization or not) are inferred. Only the possible mechanism of CAPN3 in meat tenderization has been confirmed, while its exact role still needs to be studied further. PMID:25049808

  8. Effect of South African beef production systems on post-mortem muscle energy status and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Frylinck, L; Strydom, P E; Webb, E C; du Toit, E

    2013-04-01

    Post-slaughter muscle energy metabolism meat colour of South African production systems were compared; steers (n=182) of Nguni, Simmental Brahman crossbreds were reared on pasture until A-, AB-, or B-age, in feedlot until A-AB-age. After exsanguination carcasses were electrically stimulated (400 V for 15 s). M. longissimus dorsi muscle energy samples were taken at 1, 2, 4 and 20 h. Post-mortem samples for meat quality studies were taken at 1, 7 and 14 days post-mortem. Production systems affected muscle glycogen, glucose, glucose-6-P, lactic acid, ATP, creatine-P glycolytic potential (P<0.05), with the muscles of feedlot carcasses having a faster glycolysis rate than pasture carcasses. Energy metabolites correlated (0.40.5) water holding capacity, drip loss, and Warner Bratzler shear force. Muscle energy only affected muscle contraction of the A-age-pasture system (shortest sarcomere length of 1.66 μm vs 1.75 μm highest WBS of 6 kg vs 5 kg 7 days post-mortem). PMID:23305833

  9. Comparison of endogenous GHB concentrations in blood and hair in death cases with emphasis on the post mortem interval.

    PubMed

    Castro, André L; Tarelho, Sónia; Dias, Mário; Reis, Flávio; Teixeira, Helena M

    2016-07-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound which has a story of clinical use and illicit abuse since the 1960's. The possibility to use a multi-sample approach for GHB evaluation, including whole blood and hair, to better characterize a forensic toxicology case and evaluate a possible causal association with the death is an exciting up-to-date issue. In addition, its post-mortem behaviour, namely regarding degradation and metabolism, has been increasingly investigated as a putative biomarker for post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation. Thus, in order to contribute to clarification of this specific aspect, whole blood and hair post-mortem GHB levels were evaluated in 32 real cases with previous information on death and autopsy data. The results obtained suggest that the PMI (until 5 days between death and sampling) influences GHB whole blood concentration, but not GHB levels in hair samples. No differences were encountered for the other parameters evaluated, including age, gender, cause of death and presence or absence of substances. This study brings new insights regarding the usefulness of GHB levels in forensic toxicology, which might be further strengthened with larger, but comparable, studies from other laboratories and institutions in the context of legal medicine. PMID:26846768

  10. Characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum from slowly glycolysing and from rapidly glycolysing pig skeletal muscle post mortem

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, David B.; Berman, Mervyn C.; Kench, James E.

    1977-01-01

    The composition and function of fragmented sarcoplasmic reticulum from pig skeletal muscle was examined in the period immediately post mortem. Muscle was defined as being either slowly glycolysing or rapidly glycolysing on the basis of colour, pH and concentrations of glycogen and lactate. The microsomal fraction was separated on a discontinuous gradient of 35, 40 and 45% (w/v) sucrose into heavy and intermediate fractions which sedimented to the interfaces, and a light fraction which remained on the surface of the 35%-sucrose layer. The sarcoplasmic reticulum from rapidly glycolysing muscle had a lower buoyant density than had that from slowly glycolysing muscle. This was reflected in the consistent lack of material in the heavy fraction and a greater proportion in the light fraction. The latter material had significantly lower ratios (w/w) of protein to phospholipid (2.3:1 versus 3.8:1) and of protein to cholesterol (10.4:1 versus 15.6:1). There were no gross differences in phospholipid content or in fatty acid composition of individual phospholipid classes in the membranes from the two types of muscle. Analysis of membrane proteins by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis showed that ATPase (adenosine triphosphatase) was a major component of each fraction and that its contribution to the total protein content of the membrane was greater in rapidly glycolysing muscle, suggesting a loss of non-ATPase proteins. The two fractions of sarcoplasmic reticulum prepared from rapidly glycolysing muscle had approximately one-third the normal activities of Ca2+ binding and Ca2+ uptake in the presence of ATP and one-half the passive Ca2+-binding capacity in the absence of ATP of the fractions from slowly glycolysing muscle. However, the (Ca2++Mg2+)-stimulated ATPase activities were similar. Efflux from actively loaded vesicles, after the addition of EDTA, consisted of a rapid and a slow phase. Vesicles from rapidly glycolysing muscle lost 60% of

  11. Characterization and short-term storage of Tasmanian devil sperm collected post-mortem.

    PubMed

    Keeley, T; McGreevy, P D; O'Brien, J K

    2011-09-01

    The Tasmanian devil is suffering from a severe population decline due to the fatal Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD). The development of assisted reproductive technologies such as AI and long-term sperm storage could facilitate genetic management of captive insurance populations. The aim of this study was to characterise semen samples collected post-mortem, and to develop a suitable diluent for short-term preservation of devil sperm. Low numbers of sperm (1.33 ± 0.85 × 10(6) sperm per male) were extracted from the epididymides of 17 males. Devil sperm sample characteristics such as concentration and morphology were similar to other dasyurids. The most commonly observed morphological abnormalities were midpiece separation, tail curling, and tail twisting (on the axial plane). Changes in motility occurred throughout the regions of the epididymis with (mean ± SD) 29.4 ± 16.8, 46.8 ± 13.6 and 29.4 ± 18.1% of sperm exhibiting motility, and 88.9 ± 11.4, 32.0 ± 24.3 and 0.1 ± 0.2% of motile sperm exhibiting forward progressive motility in the cauda, corpus and caput, respectively. Sperm from the cauda and corpus epididymis maintained 31.7 ± 26.6 and 80.6 ± 85.9%, respectively, of initial motility after 12 h at 15 °C in a TEST yolk buffer diluent. These findings provided new information regarding devil sperm biology and short-term sperm storage; such information is necessary for future development of long-term sperm preservation methods in the Tasmanian devil. PMID:21652060

  12. Preservation of Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) pupae for use in post-mortem interval estimation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Katherine; Thorne, Alan; Harvey, Michelle

    2012-11-30

    Post-mortem interval (PMI) is frequently calculated using immature stages of carrion frequenting Calliphoridae (Diptera). This is based on identification to species level, followed by age estimation of the samples. These two processes depend on suitable preservation of insects for subsequent analyses, yet preservation methods for the pupal stage are poorly defined and inappropriate methods may result in discolouration or nucleic acid degradation. This study examined the effects of 21 common preservation methods on Calliphora vicina pupae of 4 and 7d old, assessing consequences of the various methods for DNA-based species identification, age estimation using morphological analyses, and differential gene expression (DGE) studies. Pupae were examined within two weeks of preservation and again after 6-8 months. Of the methods tested, hot-water-killing (HWK) followed by storage in 80% ethanol at -20°C or 4°C was the best treatment for external morphology and histological analyses respectively. DNA based species identification was possible following all methods. RNA integrity and amplification were best when pupae were stored at -80°C or in RNAlater (-20°C), however HWK and storage in 80% ethanol at -20°C was also acceptable, and thus the latter is proposed as a universal preservative method for pupae. This study proposes a preservation method for pupae that enables DNA-based species identification, internal and external morphological analysis for age estimation, and DGE study to be carried out on a single specimen, enabling a multidisciplinary approach to age estimation from a single pupa. PMID:23000139

  13. Temperature dependent ageing mechanisms in Lithium-ion batteries - A Post-Mortem study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldmann, Thomas; Wilka, Marcel; Kasper, Michael; Fleischhammer, Meike; Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, Margret

    2014-09-01

    The effects of temperatures in the range of -20 °C to 70 °C on the ageing behaviour of cycled Lithium-ion batteries are investigated quantitatively by electrochemical methods and Post-Mortem analysis. Commercial 18650-type high-power cells with a LixNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2/LiyMn2O4 blend cathode and graphite/carbon anode were used as test system. The cells were cycled at a rate of 1 C until the discharge capacity falls below 80% of the initial capacity. Interestingly, an Arrhenius plot indicates two different ageing mechanisms for the ranges of -20 °C to 25 °C and 25 °C to 70 °C. Below 25 °C, the ageing rates increase with decreasing temperature, while above 25 °C ageing is accelerated with increasing temperature. The aged 18650 cells are inspected via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), measurements of electrode thickness and X-ray diffraction (XRD) after disassembly to learn more about the chemical reasons of the degradation. The effect of different temperatures on the electrode polarizations are evaluated by assembling electrodes in pouch cells with reference electrode as a model system. We find that the dominating ageing mechanism for T < 25 °C is Lithium plating, while for T > 25 °C the cathodes show degeneration and the anodes will be increasingly covered by SEI layers.

  14. The endocannabinoid system is altered in the post-mortem prefrontal cortex of alcoholic subjects.

    PubMed

    Erdozain, Amaia M; Rubio, Marina; Valdizan, Elsa M; Pazos, Angel; Meana, J Javier; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Alexander, Stephen P H; Callado, Luis F

    2015-07-01

    There is strong biochemical, pharmacological and genetic evidence for the involvement of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in alcohol dependence. However, the majority of studies have been performed in animal models. The aim of the present study was to assess the state of the CB1 receptor, the enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the post-mortem prefrontal cortex of alcoholic subjects. Experiments were performed in samples from 44 subjects classified in four experimental groups: (1) non-suicidal alcoholic subjects (n = 11); (2) suicidal alcoholic subjects (n = 11); (3) non-alcoholic suicide victims (n = 11); and (4) control subjects (n = 11). We did not observe statistically significant differences in CB1 mRNA relative expression among the four experimental groups. Conversely, our results showed an increase in CB1 receptor protein expression in the prefrontal cortex of the suicidal alcoholic group (127.2 ± 7.3%), with no changes in functionality with regard to either G protein activation or the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. In parallel, alcoholic subjects presented lower levels of MAGL activity, regardless of the cause of death. A significant decrease in the active form of ERK and CREB levels was also observed in both alcoholic groups. Taken together, our data are consistent with a role for the ECS in the neurobiological mechanisms underlying alcoholism. Moreover, the alterations reported here should be of great interest for the therapeutic treatment of this chronic psychiatric disease. PMID:25041461

  15. Drug concentrations in post-mortem femoral blood compared with therapeutic concentrations in plasma

    PubMed Central

    Launiainen, Terhi; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic drug concentrations measured in plasma are of limited value as reference intervals for interpretation in post-mortem (PM) toxicology. In this study, drug concentration distributions were studied in PM femoral venous blood from 57 903 Finnish autopsy cases representing all causes of death during an 11-year period. Cause-of-death information was obtained from death certificates issued by forensic pathologists. Median, mean, and upper percentile (90th, 95th, 97.5th) concentrations were calculated for 129 drugs. To illustrate how PM median concentrations relate to established therapeutic ranges in plasma, a PM blood/plasma relationship was calculated for each drug. Males represented 75% of the subjects and showed a lower median age (55 yrs) than females (59 yrs). In 43% of these cases, blood alcohol concentration was higher than 0.2‰, and the median was 1.8‰. Sixty-one (47%) of the 129 drugs showed a PM blood/plasma relationship of 1. For 22 drugs (17%), the relationship was <1, and for 46 drugs (35%), the relationship was >1. No marked correlation was found between the PM blood/plasma relationship and the volume of distribution (Vd). For 36 drugs, more than 10% of cases were fatal poisonings attributed to this drug as the main finding. These drug concentration distributions based on a large database provide a helpful reference not only to forensic toxicologists and pathologists but also to clinical pharmacologists in charge of interpreting drug concentrations in PM cases. © 2013 The Authors. Drug Testing and Analysis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23881890

  16. Basement membrane changes in capillaries of the ageing human retina

    PubMed Central

    Powner, Michael B; Scott, Andrew; Zhu, Meidong; Munro, Peter M G; Foss, Alexander J E; Hageman, Gregory S; Gillies, Mark C; Fruttiger, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The ultrastructural appearance of retinal capillaries can yield important information about disease mechanisms, but is not well characterised in human post mortem samples. We therefore aimed to create a baseline for the appearance of capillaries and establish how this is influenced by post mortem fixation delays and donor age. Methods Electron microscopy was used to characterise retinal capillaries in 20 anonymous donors (with no known eye diseases) of various ages and with various post mortem fixation delays. In addition, samples from six patients with conditions that are known to affect the retinal vasculature (four cases of type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy, one case of diabetic retinopathy and one case of macular telangiectasia type 2) were analysed. Results Vacuoles were found in capillary basement membranes at the vessel—glia interface in all samples, from both the normal and disease cases. Vacuole frequency increased with donor age but was not influenced by post mortem fixation delays. Conclusion Vacuoles in the basement membrane are a normal feature of adult human retinal capillaries and do not indicate disease. Their incidence increases with age and might be a contributing factor to late-onset pathologies of the retinal vasculature. PMID:21606466

  17. Causes of mortality and pathological lesions observed post-mortem in red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The red squirrel population in Great Britain has declined dramatically in recent decades, principally due to squirrelpox. Concern exists that red squirrels may become extinct nationally and, as there has been limited research in to diseases other than squirrelpox, this study aimed to identify additional causes of mortality. Results Post-mortem examinations on 163 red squirrels found dead on Isle of Wight (IoW) England, in Scotland and at other locations in Great Britain showed that 41.7% (n = 68) were killed by road traffic and 9.2% (n = 15) by predators, principally domestic cats and dogs. The overall male/female ratio was 1.08/1. Fleas were recorded on 34.9% of IoW squirrels and on 43.8% of Scottish squirrels but sucking lice and ixodid ticks were only seen on Scottish squirrels. Bacterial infections were significant, particularly in association with respiratory disease (n = 16); two squirrels died of Bordetella bronchiseptica bronchopneumonia. Cases of fatal exudative dermatitis (n = 5) associated with a lukM-positive clone of Staphylococcus aureus occurred only on the IoW. Toxoplasmosis (n = 12) was also confined to IoW where it was responsible for almost one tenth (9.5%) of all deaths. Hepatozoonosis was common, especially in IoW squirrels, but was not considered a primary cause of mortality. Hepatic capillariasis affected four IoW squirrels and one from Scotland. Fungal infections included oral candidiasis, adiaspiromycosis and pulmonary phaeohyphomycosis. Neoplastic conditions diagnosed were: pulmonary carcinoma, gastric spindle cell tumour, renal papillary adenoma and trichoepithelioma. Epidermal hyperplasia of unknown aetiology was seen in squirrels showing crusty lesions of the ear pinnae on IoW (n = 3) and Brownsea Island (n = 1), associated in two cases with cutaneous wart-like growths. Miscellaneous diagnoses included chylothorax, electrocution, intussusception, suspected cholecalciferol rodenticide poisoning and

  18. Post-mortem assessment of hypoperfusion of cerebral cortex in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Taya; Miners, Scott; Love, Seth

    2015-04-01

    Perfusion is reduced in the cerebral neocortex in Alzheimer's disease. We have explored some of the mechanisms, by measurement of perfusion-sensitive and disease-related proteins in post-mortem tissue from Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and age-matched control brains. To distinguish physiological from pathological reduction in perfusion (i.e. reduction exceeding the decline in metabolic demand), we measured the concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a protein induced under conditions of tissue hypoxia through the actions of hypoxia-inducible factors, and the myelin associated glycoprotein to proteolipid protein 1 (MAG:PLP1) ratio, which declines in chronically hypoperfused brain tissue. To evaluate possible mechanisms of hypoperfusion, we also measured the levels of amyloid-β40, amyloid-β42, von Willebrand factor (VWF; a measure of microvascular density) and the potent vasoconstrictor endothelin 1 (EDN1); we assayed the activity of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE), which catalyses the production of another potent vasoconstrictor, angiotensin II; and we scored the severity of arteriolosclerotic small vessel disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and determined the Braak tangle stage. VEGF was markedly increased in frontal and parahippocampal cortex in Alzheimer's disease but only slightly and not significantly in vascular dementia. In frontal cortex the MAG:PLP1 ratio was significantly reduced in Alzheimer's disease and even more so in vascular dementia. VEGF but not MAG:PLP1 increased with Alzheimer's disease severity, as measured by Braak tangle stage, and correlated with amyloid-β42 and amyloid-β42: amyloid-β40 but not amyloid-β40. Although MAG:PLP1 tended to be lowest in cortex from patients with severe small vessel disease or cerebral amyloid angiopathy, neither VEGF nor MAG:PLP1 correlated significantly with the severity of structural vascular pathology (small vessel disease, cerebral amyloid angiopathy or VWF

  19. Wear of polyethylene cups in total hip arthroplasty. A study of specimens retrieved post mortem.

    PubMed

    Sychterz, C J; Moon, K H; Hashimoto, Y; Terefenko, K M; Engh, C A; Bauer, T W

    1996-08-01

    The wear of polyethylene components of total hip replacements has previously been studied radiographically and by analysis of retrieved components. The extent of wear, however, has largely been determined from components retrieved at reoperation and has therefore been based on a subset of patients in whom the prosthesis is more likely to show excessive wear. The study of cups retrieved post mortem provides a better indication of the extent of wear of well functioning components. Twenty-six polyethylene liners were retrieved at autopsy from nineteen patients, after a mean of ninety-one months (range, thirty-three to 206 months) in situ. Each component had articulated with a thirty-two-millimeter-diameter femoral head. The components were evaluated visually for evidence of polyethylene wear such as pitting, scratching, and burnishing. Additionally; a shadowgraph technique was used to examine molds of the inner surface of the liner to determine the direction and extent of wear. The mean extent of linear wear of the retrieved liners was 0.45 millimeter (range, 0.17 to 1.07 millimeters), and the mean rate of wear was 0.07 millimeter (range, 0.02 to 0.18 millimeter) per year. The mean volumetric wear was 245.3 cubic millimeters (range, 13.0 to 779.1 cubic millimeters), and the mean rate of volumetric wear was 39.8 cubic millimeters (range, 1.0 to 131.3 cubic millimeters) per year. The mean rate of wear for the twenty-six liners was 45 to 69 per cent less than the rates reported in the literature for polyethylene liners retrieved at reoperation. Examination of the articulating surface did not reveal gross evidence of surface failure such as delamination or fatigue cracks. In general, the surfaces were merely burnished and scratched. The rates of wear of press-fit, metal-backed liners were significantly higher than those of all-polyethylene cemented components (p < 0.05). Additionally, statistical analysis revealed no correlation between wear and the patient's age, weight

  20. The degradation of proteins in pinniped skeletal muscle: viability of post-mortem tissue in physiological research

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Colby D.; Fahlman, Andreas; Crocker, Daniel E.; Robbins, Kathleen A.; Trumble, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    As marine divers, pinnipeds have a high capacity for exercise at depth while holding their breath. With finite access to oxygen, these species need to be capable of extended aerobic exercise and conservation of energy. Pinnipeds must deal with common physiological hurdles, such as hypoxia, exhaustion and acidosis, that are common to all exercising mammals. The physiological mechanisms in marine mammals used for managing oxygen and carbon dioxide have sparked much research, but access to animals and tissues is difficult and requires permits. Deceased animals that are either bycaught or stranded provide one potential source for tissues, but the validity of biochemical data from post-mortem samples has not been rigorously assessed. Tissues collected from stranded diving mammals may be a crucial source to add to our limited knowledge on the physiology of some of these animals and important to the conservation and management of these species. We aim to determine the reliability of biochemical assays derived from post-mortem tissue and to promote the immediate sampling of stranded animals for the purpose of physiological research. In this study, we mapped the temporal degradation of muscle enzymes from biopsied Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) and highlight recommendations for storage protocols for the best preservation of tissue. We also compared the enzymatic activity of different muscle groups (pectoral and latissimus dorsi) in relation to locomotion and measured the effects of four freeze–thaw cycles on muscle tissue enzyme function. Results indicate that enzymatic activity fluctuates greatly, especially with varying storage temperature, storage time, species and muscle group being assayed. In contrast, proteins, such as myoglobin, remain relatively continuous in their increase at 4°C for 48 h. Stranded animals can be a valuable source of biochemical data, but enzyme assays should be used only with great caution in post-mortem tissues. PMID

  1. Prevalence of Atherosclerotic Coronary Stenosis in Asymptomatic North Indian Population: A Post-mortem Coronary Angiography Study

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Shatrugan Prasad; Kumar, Senthil; Setia, Puneet

    2015-01-01

    Aim A preliminary study of coronaries using post-mortem angiography was undertaken to see the prevalence of atherosclerotic coronary stenosis in non-cardiac unnatural deaths. Materials and Methods This study was conducted in a tertiary care centre located in Chandigarh. A total of 128 medico-legal cases were studied comprising 88 males and 40 females. Post-mortem examinations of these MLC cases were conducted in the Department of Forensic Medicine, PGIMER, Chandigarh. All hearts were visually screened by post-mortem coronary angiography first and then grossly examined using serial transverse incision technique in positive screening cases to find the degree of narrowing. Results Of the study group, 34% males and 20% females showed evidence of narrowing on angiography. Of the males showing coronary stenosis, 83% had single vessel disease and 13% had double vessel disease, while only one individual had triple vessel disease. In cases of female, all the cases of coronary stenosis were single vessel disease. Left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was the most common vessel involved, followed by right coronary artery (RCA) & Left circumflex artery (LCX) and in cases of double vessel disease, LAD in combination with LCX was responsible for 75% of the cases. Remarkably 23.6% of study population in the age group of less than 40 years showed appreciable narrowing in at least one of the coronaries. Conclusion In general, the prevalence of CAD is on the rise, particularly in younger population owing to the changes in their lifestyle and food habits. This preliminary study revealed evidence of narrowing of at least one coronary in 34% male and 20% female population and 23.6% subjects were less than 40 years old. Further detailed studies are needed especially in younger age group and to support the need for preventive cardiology in the early years of life. PMID:26500922

  2. Post-mortem whole-exome sequencing (WES) with a focus on cardiac disease-associated genes in five young sudden unexplained death (SUD) cases.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Jacqueline; Haas, Cordula; Bartsch, Christine; Medeiros-Domingo, Argelia; Berger, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    Sudden death of healthy young adults in the absence of any medical reason is generally categorised as autopsy-negative sudden unexplained death (SUD). Approximately 30 % of all SUD cases can be explained by lethal sequence variants in cardiac genes causing disturbed ion channel functions (channelopathies) or minimal structural heart abnormalities (cardiomyopathies). The aim of this study was to perform whole-exome sequencing (WES) in five young SUD cases in order to identify potentially disease-causing mutations with a focus on 184 genes associated with cardiac diseases or sudden death. WES analysis enabled the identification of damaging-predicted cardiac sequence alterations in three out of five SUD cases. Two SUD victims carried disease-causing variants in long QT syndrome (LQTS)-associated genes (KCNH2, SCN5A). In a third case, WES identified variants in two genes involved in mitral valve prolapse and thoracic aortic aneurism (DCHS1, TGFβ2). The genome of a fourth case carried several minor variants involved in arrhythmia pointing to a multigene influence that might have contributed to sudden death. Our results confirm that post-mortem genetic testing in SUD cases in addition to the conventional autopsy can help to identify familial cardiac diseases and can contribute to the identification of genetic risk factors for sudden death. PMID:26846766

  3. Effects of inhibitors on the synergistic interaction between calpain and caspase-3 during post-mortem aging of chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Feng, Xian Chao; Zhang, Wan Gang; Xu, Xing Lian; Zhou, Guang Hong

    2012-08-29

    Calpain has been considered to be the most important protease involved in tenderization during the conversion of muscle into meat. However, recent evidence suggests the possible involvement of the key apoptosis protease, caspase, on post-mortem tenderization. This study used inhibitors of calpain and caspase-3 to treat chicken muscle immediately after slaughter and followed the changes in caspase-3 and calpain activities together with their expression during 5 days of aging. Addition of calpain inhibitors to the system resulted in significantly higher caspase-3 activities (p < 0.01) during storage. Western blot analysis of pro-caspase-3 and α-spectrin cleavage of the 120 kDa peptide (SBDP 120) showed that the addition of calpain inhibitors resulted in the formation of higher amounts of the active form of caspase-3 compared with the control (p < 0.01). Inclusion of inhibitors of caspase-3 led to lower calpain activities (p < 0.01) and dramatically reduced the expression of calpain-1 and calpain-2 (p < 0.01). Concomitantly, this inhibition resulted in greater calpastatin expression compared with the control (p < 0.01). The findings of this investigation show that calpain prevented the activation of caspase-3, whereas caspase-3 appeared to enhance the calpain activity during post-mortem aging through inhibition of calpastatin. It is therefore suggested that there is a relationship between caspase-3 and calpain which contributes to the tenderizing process during the conversion of muscle tissue into meat. PMID:22720745

  4. Comparative Proteomic Profiling of Divergent Phenotypes for Water Holding Capacity across the Post Mortem Ageing Period in Porcine Muscle Exudate

    PubMed Central

    Di Luca, Alessio; Hamill, Ruth M.; Mullen, Anne Maria; Slavov, Nikolai; Elia, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Two dimensional Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and mass spectrometry were applied to investigate the changes in metabolic proteins that occur over a seven day (day 1, 3 and 7) post mortem ageing period in porcine centrifugal exudate from divergent meat quality phenotypes. The objectives of the research were to enhance our understanding of the phenotype (water holding capacity) and search for biomarkers of this economically significant pork quality attribute. Major changes in protein abundance across nine phenotype-by-time conditions were observed. Proteomic patterns were dominated by post mortem ageing timepoint. Using a machine learning algorithm (l1-regularized logistic regression), a model was derived with the ability to discriminate between high drip and low drip phenotypes using a subset of 25 proteins with an accuracy of 63%. Models discriminating between divergent phenotypes with accuracy of 72% and 73% were also derived comparing respectively, high drip plus intermediate phenotype (considered as one phenotype) versus low drip and comparing low drip plus intermediate phenotype (considered as one phenotype) versus high drip. In all comparisons, the general classes of discriminatory proteins identified include metabolic enzymes, stress response, transport and structural proteins. In this research we have enhanced our understanding of the protein related processes underpinning this phenotype and provided strong data to work toward development of protein biomarkers for water holding capacity. PMID:26950297

  5. Altered post-mortem metabolism identified in very fast chilled lamb M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum using metabolomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Warner, Robyn D; Jacob, Robin H; Rosenvold, Katja; Rochfort, Simone; Trenerry, Craige; Plozza, Tim; McDonagh, Matthew B

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this experiment was to use metabolomic techniques to investigate the energy metabolism in lamb M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum subjected to very fast chilling (VFC) post-mortem. The tissue was prepared by 2 different operators and subjected to very fast chilling (less than 0°C within 1.5h of slaughter) or typical chilling regimes (Control; 0°C within 22h of slaughter). Non-targeted metabolomic analysis ((1)H NMR) and targeted analysis ((31)P NMR, HPLC-PDA and HPLC-MS/MS) were used to examine the change in muscle metabolites post-mortem. One VFC treatment, which resulted in a colder core temperature and more tender meat, had higher levels of glycolytic intermediate metabolites pre-rigor as well as more of the end-products of adenosine and nicotine nucleotide metabolism pre-rigor, relative to conventionally chilled treatments. In conclusion, VFC to less than 0°C within 1.5h of slaughter causes considerable changes in metabolism and rigor onset, which are associated with tender meat. PMID:26163181

  6. The post mortem temperature plateau and its role in the estimation of time of death. A review.

    PubMed

    Smart, Jimmy L; Kaliszan, Michał

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine evidence to seek an explanation of the possible cause(s) or contributing factors to the temperature plateau phenomenon and its influence on time of death (TOD) estimation. The concept of the temperature plateau effect (TPE) is reviewed, and investigation is conducted into its possible prediction under post mortem conditions. The conclusion of this paper is that the appearance of a TPE in postmortem body core temperature decay curves is currently random and cannot be predicted. This unpredictability is based upon the interindividual differences in states (core body temperature, hyperthermia, use of drugs, trauma, etc.) and biomarker concentrations (electrolytes, thyroxine, etc.) at antemortem times, which will ultimately affect the shape of the postmortem temperature decay curve. However, studies indicated that the TPE is diminished or even absent in the head tissues, including eye and ear. The possibility of precise estimation of the TOD in the early post mortem period based on eye temperature measurements is also commented. PMID:22285645

  7. Quality Characteristics of PSE-Like Turkey Pectoralis major Muscles Generated by High Post-Mortem Temperature in a Local Turkish Slaughterhouse

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of high post-mortem temperature application on development of pale, soft, exudative (PSE) turkey meat characteristics in terms of local slaughter conditions. Within this scope, it was targeted to obtain PSE-like muscles benefiting from different post-mortem temperature applications. Immediately after slaughter, turkey Pectoralis major (n=15) muscles were kept at various post-mortem temperatures (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40℃) for 5 h. pH values of 40℃ treatment were lower than four other treatments (p<0.05). L* values, drip loss, cook loss, and thawing loss of 40℃ group were higher than the other groups (p< 0.05). Napole yield of 40℃ treatment indicated that high post-mortem temperature decreases brine uptake. Protein solubility of 40℃ group was lower than 0℃ group (p<0.05). Expressible moisture did not differ between 0 and 40℃ treatments. Hardness, gumminess and chewiness of 40℃ treatment were higher than 0℃ treatment. The results of this research showed that high post-mortem temperature treatment induced development of PSE-like turkey meat, with lower pH, paler color, higher technological and storage losses, and reduced protein solubility and texture. PMID:26761875

  8. Autoradiographic analysis of tritiated imipramine binding in the human brain post mortem: effects of suicide

    SciTech Connect

    Gross-Isseroff, R.; Israeli, M.; Biegon, A.

    1989-03-01

    In vitro quantitative autoradiography of high-affinity tritiated imipramine binding sites was performed on brains of 12 suicide victims and 12 matched controls. Region-specific differences in imipramine binding were found between the two groups. Thus, the pyramidal and molecular layers of the cornu ammoni hippocampal fields and the hilus of the dentate gyrus exhibited 80%, 60%, and 90% increases in binding in the suicide group, respectively. The postcentral cortical gyrus, insular cortex, and claustrum had 45%, 28%, and 75% decreases in binding in the suicide group, respectively. No difference in imipramine binding was observed in prefrontal cortical regions, in the basal ganglia, and in mesencephalic nuclei. No sex and postmortem delay effects on imipramine binding were found. Imipramine binding was positively correlated with age, the effect of age being most pronounced in portions of the basal ganglia and temporal cortex.

  9. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance study of post mortem catabolism and intracellular pH in intact excised rabbit muscle.

    PubMed

    Renou, J P; Canioni, P; Gatelier, P; Valin, C; Cozzone, P J

    1986-04-01

    Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance has been used to study the post mortem catabolism of high-energy phosphate compounds and the associated intracellular pH variation in pure fast- and slow-twitch rabbit muscles and in rabbit muscle with mixed fiber types. Comparative results from pure fiber types are reported for the first time. Large amounts of glycerophosphorylcholine (14.1 mumol/g fresh tissue) are found in the internal conoidal bundle (ICB), a pure oxidative slow twitch muscle, whereas the m. psoas major (PM), a pure glycolytic fast twitch muscle and the m. gastrocnemius caput medialis (GCM), with mixed fiber types, are devoid of the same metabolite. The total content of phosphorylated metabolites is constant among the three muscle types. The time-dependent post mortem changes in phosphorylated metabolites display the expected rapid drop in phosphocreatine and a simultaneous increase in intracellular inorganic phosphate. However, the ATP level remains constant during more than 2 h. Rate constants for metabolite breakdown and apparent ATPase activity have been determined. The comparative kinetics of intracellular acidosis at 25 degrees C yield rates of 3.3 X 10(-3) pH unit/min for PM, 2.7 X 10(-3) pH unit/min for GCM and 3.0 X 10(-3) pH unit/min for ICB. Initial intracellular pH values are 7.07, 7.20 and 7.02, respectively. Upon aging, the heterogeneity of the Pi signal reflects the existence of cellular compartments with different internal pH. The results suggest that the more intense low-pH Pi signal arises from the sarcoplasmic reticulum while the less intense resonance would reflect the sarcoplasmic higher pH. The temperature effect on post mortem catabolism in the 15-25 degrees C range has been documented. As expected, phosphocreatine and ATP breakdown increase with temperature but at a higher rate for slow-twitch ICB than for fast-twitch PM. PMID:3091088

  10. Effects of post-mortem aging time and type of aging on palatability of low marbled beef loins.

    PubMed

    Lepper-Blilie, A N; Berg, E P; Buchanan, D S; Berg, P T

    2016-02-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effect of post-mortem aging period (14 to 49days), dry vs. wet (D vs W) type of aging on the palatability of bone-in (BI) beef short loins (n=96) and boneless (BL) strip loins (n=96) possessing United States Department of Agriculture marbling scores between Slight and Small. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) scores decreased linearly over time (P=0.0001). WBSF was not influenced by aging method or loin type. Aged flavor was higher for DBL than for DBI with WBL and WBI intermediate. Dry aging strip loins increase aged flavor yet did not improve beefy flavor compared to wet aging. Based on objective data and panelist's scores for tenderness, juiciness and aged flavor, a boneless, 28days wet aged strip steak, cooked to 71°C would provide the best combination of eating satisfaction and value. PMID:26551359

  11. Re-oxygenation of post-mortem lividity by passive diffusion through the skin at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Watchman, Hannah; Walker, G Stewart; Randeberg, Lise L; Langlois, Neil E I

    2011-12-01

    Post-mortem hypostasis develops due to passive settling of the blood under the effect of gravity after death. Due to consumption of oxygen in the tissues by residual cellular activity after the circulation has stopped, lividity is composed of deoxygenated blood. It has been previously shown that cooling of a body causes lividity to oxygenate, changing from a dark red/blue to a pink/red color, due to hemoglobin's increased affinity for oxygen at low temperature. This study has confirmed that this occurs by passive diffusion through the skin, but that this can only occur within a limited time frame. The reasons for this process and its potential forensic application require further investigation. PMID:21590457

  12. Coronary optical coherence tomography: minimally invasive virtual histology as part of targeted post-mortem computed tomography angiography.

    PubMed

    Adlam, David; Joseph, Shiju; Robinson, Claire; Rousseau, Clement; Barber, Jade; Biggs, Mike; Morgan, Bruno; Rutty, Guy

    2013-09-01

    Social, cultural and practical barriers to conventional invasive autopsy have led to considerable interest in the development of minimally invasive radiological techniques as an alternative to the invasive autopsy for determining the cause of death. Critical to accurate diagnosis in this context is detailed examination of coronary anatomy and pathology. Current computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging approaches have significantly advanced minimally invasive autopsy practice but have limited spatial resolution. This prohibits assessment at a microscopic level, meaning that histological assessment is still required for detailed analysis of, for example, coronary plaque rupture or dissection. Coronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) is used in the living during percutaneous coronary interventions to provide high-resolution coronary imaging, but this technique for obtaining virtual histology has not, to date, been translated into minimally invasive autopsy practice. We present a first description of minimally invasive post-mortem coronary OCT and discuss the potential for this technique to advance current practice. PMID:23455719

  13. A comparison of direct fluorescent antibody and Giemsa staining for the post-mortem diagnosis of anaplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Johnston, L A; Trueman, K F; Leatch, G; Wilson, A J

    1980-03-01

    Direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) and Giemsa staining of Anaplasma marginale were compared in smears collected serially at post-mortem (PM) from 11 experimentally infected calves. Once smears had been prepared and air-dried they could be held for at least 5 days before staining with either technique with no noticeable change in staining quality. DFA staining was more sensitive in detecting anaplasms in smears than Giemsa staining. Anaplasma spp could be differentiated from Babesia bovis and B. bigemina by DFA staining but there were cross reactions between A. marginale and A. centrale. Blood smears prepared from subcutaneous vessels in the legs provided better diagnostic material than kidney, heart and lung smears. Brain smears were not suitable for PM diagnosis using either staining technique. PMID:7002139

  14. A study to model the post-mortem stability of 4-MMC, MDMA and BZP in putrefying remains.

    PubMed

    Wenholz, Daniel S; Luong, Susan; Philp, Morgan; Forbes, Shari L; Stuart, Barbara H; Drummer, Olaf H; Fu, Shanlin

    2016-08-01

    There is currently limited data available on the stabilities of the three stimulants 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and N-benzylpiperazine (BZP) in a putrefying matrix. A Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) method to determine the concentration of the three drugs in putrefying porcine liver over a three month period was developed and validated. Both 4-MMC and BZP were found to be unstable, becoming undetectable and having an average recovery of 52% respectively after one month at ambient room temperature (20°C). MDMA was found to be moderately stable, with an average recovery of 74% after three months at room temperature. This study indicated that the putrefaction process could have a significant impact on concentrations of 4-MMC and BZP in post-mortem cases involving putrefied remains. PMID:26829335

  15. Don't take your EHR to heaven, donate it to science: legal and research policies for EHR post mortem

    PubMed Central

    Huser, Vojtech; Cimino, James J

    2014-01-01

    Recently, an important public debate emerged about the digital afterlife of any personal data stored in the cloud. Such debate brings also to attention the importance of transparent management of electronic health record (EHR) data of deceased patients. In this perspective paper, we look at legal and regulatory policies for EHR data post mortem. We analyze observational research situations using EHR data that do not require institutional review board approval. We propose creation of a deceased subject integrated data repository (dsIDR) as an effective tool for piloting certain types of research projects. We highlight several dsIDR challenges in proving death status, informed consent, obtaining data from payers and healthcare providers and the involvement of next of kin. PMID:23966483

  16. Procedures to recover DNA from pre-molar and molar teeth of decomposed cadavers with different post-mortem intervals.

    PubMed

    Raimann, Paulo E; Picanço, Juliane B; Silva, Deborah S B S; Albuquerque, Trícia C K; Paludo, Francis Jackson O; Alho, Clarice S

    2012-11-01

    A task-force to resolve 26 pending forensic caseworks was carried out. We tested four different protocols to extract DNA from molar and pre-molar teeth from 26 cadavers with post-mortem intervals from 2 months to 12 years. We compared the amount of DNA and DNA profiles with the time elapsed between death and laboratory procedures. Molar or pre-molar teeth were removed from the corpses, cleaned, and DNA was extracted using 2 or 12h of incubation on lysis buffer and filtered using concentration column or precipitated with isopropanol. DNA profiles were obtained using PowerPlex16™ System PCR Amplification Kit, AmpFlSTR(®) Yfiler™ and/or mtDNA sequencing. Complete DNA profiles comparison and statistical evaluation allowed unambiguous identification of the 26 victims. No significant differences were observed in the amount of DNA obtained with the distinct incubation times. The use of concentration column resulted in an increased amount of DNA when compared to isopropanol. However, the lower concentration of DNA obtained with isopropanol seemed to have been compensated by the higher purity. No significant differences in the number of amplified loci were found. A non-significant tendency was found between the amount of total DNA recovered and the time elapsed between death and laboratory procedures. The increase of post-mortem time did not interfere in the analysed autosomal loci. In conclusion, molar and pre-molar teeth were shown to be good candidates to obtain satisfactory DNA profiles, suggesting the high potential of tooth samples as source for DNA typing independently of the decomposed corpse's time or laboratory procedures. PMID:23040740

  17. Effects of water-misting sprays with forced ventilation on post mortem glycolysis, AMP-activated protein kinase and meat quality of broilers after transport during summer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nannan; Xing, Tong; Han, Minyi; Deng, Shaolin; Xu, Xinglian

    2016-05-01

    Effects of water-misting sprays with forced ventilation on post mortem glycolysis, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and meat quality of broilers after transport during summer were investigated in the present paper. A total of 105 mixed-sex Arbor Acres broilers were divided into three treatment groups: (i) 45 min transport without rest (T); (ii) 45 min transport with 1 h rest (TR); and (iii) 45 min transport with 15 min water-misting sprays with forced ventilation and 45 min rest (TWFR). Each treatment consisted of five replicates with seven birds each. The results indicated that the water-misting sprays with forced ventilation could mitigate the stress caused by transport under high temperature conditions during summer, which reduced the energy depletion in post mortem Pectoralis major (PM) muscle. This resulted in a higher energy status compared to the T group, which would decrease the expression of phosphorylation of AMPK (p-AMPK). Furthermore, decreased the expression of p-AMPK then slowed down the rate of glycolysis in post mortem PM muscle during the early post mortem period, which in turn lessened the negative effects caused by transport on meat quality. In conclusion, water-misting sprays with forced ventilation may be a better method to control the incidence of the pale, soft and exudative meat in broilers. PMID:26712455

  18. Calpain proteolysis of alpha II-spectrin in the normal adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Huh, G Y; Glantz, S B; Je, S; Morrow, J S; Kim, J H

    2001-12-01

    The proteolysis of alphaII-spectrin by calpain may be physiologically involved with synaptic remodeling, long-term potentiation, and memory formation. Calpain activation may also mediate neuronal apoptosis, responses to hypoxic insult, and excitotoxic injury. Surprisingly little is known of the activity of these calpain-mediated processes in the adult human brain. Using an antibody that specifically recognizes calpain-cleaved alphaII-spectrin, we have mapped the topographic distribution of the major alphaII-spectrin break-down product (alphaII-bdp1) in six adult brains examined post-mortem. All brains were from patients without evident neurological disease. Focally positive alphaII-bdp1 was consistently detected in the neuropil of the cortical gray matter, in occasional pyramidal neurons, and in rare reactive astrocytes in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Cerebellar Purkinje cells were more frequently, and more intensely, immunopositive. In all fields, staining was most intense in the soma and dendrites of neurons. There was no correlation of the frequency of positive cells with the postmortem interval or clinical condition. While these findings do not rigorously exclude contributions from postmortem calpain activation, they do suggest that a low-level of calpain processing of alphaII-spectrin is likely to be a constitutive process in the adult human brain. PMID:11720774

  19. Freshwater drowning in a child: A case study demonstrating the role of post-mortem computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Filograna, Laura; Tartaglione, Tommaso; Vetrugno, Giuseppe; Guerra, Claudio; Fileni, Adriano; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, modern imaging techniques have gained ground in forensics. A crucial question is whether virtual autopsy is capable of replacing traditional autopsy. Forensic diagnosis of freshwater drowning (FWD) is based on the evidence of findings from external inspection (e.g. frothy fluid exuding from the mouth and nostrils), internal examination (e.g. pulmonary congestion, enlargement of heart chambers) and biochemical analysis (haemodilution), findings which are non-specific. The detection of diatoms in organs of the systemic circulation may be of some assistance, but this analysis is rarely performed and is of debatable validity. An 18-month-old child was found dead at home in a swimming pool. Considering the family's wishes to avoid autopsy, the district attorney authorised a whole-body post-mortem computed tomography scan (PMCT). The main imaging findings were frothy fluid in the upper airways, fluid in the trachea and main bronchi, many pulmonary nodular ground glass opacities (GGO) in non-dependent regions and haemodilution. CT imaging did not show any other forensically relevant abnormality.A high concordance was found between the CT findings reported in the literature in cases of FWD and the imaging results. Thus, after the exclusion of other causes of death, advised by the forensic pathologist, the district attorney closed the case and the death was attributed to FWD. This case report demonstrates that PMCT imaging in cases of suspected FWD can provide some important findings for the diagnosis of FWD as the cause of death. PMID:25628338

  20. NMR approach for monitoring post-mortem changes in Atlantic salmon fillets stored at 0 and 4°C.

    PubMed

    Shumilina, Elena; Ciampa, Alessandra; Capozzi, Francesco; Rustad, Turid; Dikiy, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    High resolution NMR technique has been used to monitor post-mortem changes in salmon (Salmo salar) fillets upon storage at 4 and 0°C. Thirty-one different fish metabolites influencing freshness and taste properties have been unequivocally assigned by NMR using either available standard compounds or ad hoc acquired 2D (1)H-(1)H TOCSY and (1)H-(13)С HSQC spectra. The monitored fish metabolites include amino acids, dipeptides, sugars, vitamins, biogenic amines, as well as different products of the ATP degradation. The detection and monitoring of biogenic amines by NMR, upon fish storage, is information of interest for consumers, since some of these compounds are toxic. The data from this study shows that NMR spectroscopy also provides the amount of all metabolites necessary for the calculation of the K-index used to express fish freshness. A good correlation was found between the K-index increase and the formation of the undesired biogenic amines. The metabolite concentrations and the K-index found in this work were compared and found coherent with literature data. The performed study reveals the strengths and the suitability of the NMR approach to monitor different biochemical processes occurring during fish storage and qualitatively and quantitatively characterise fish metabolites determining fish quality. PMID:25872421

  1. Post-mortem prediction of primal and selected retail cut weights of New Zealand lamb from carcass and animal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ngo, L; Ho, H; Hunter, P; Quinn, K; Thomson, A; Pearson, G

    2016-02-01

    Post-mortem measurements (cold weight, grade and external carcass linear dimensions) as well as live animal data (age, breed, sex) were used to predict ovine primal and retail cut weights for 792 lamb carcases. Significant levels of variance could be explained using these predictors. The predictive power of those measurements on primal and retail cut weights was studied by using the results from principal component analysis and the absolute value of the t-statistics of the linear regression model. High prediction accuracy for primal cut weight was achieved (adjusted R(2) up to 0.95), as well as moderate accuracy for key retail cut weight: tenderloins (adj-R(2)=0.60), loin (adj-R(2)=0.62), French rack (adj-R(2)=0.76) and rump (adj-R(2)=0.75). The carcass cold weight had the best predictive power, with the accuracy increasing by around 10% after including the next three most significant variables. PMID:26519607

  2. A combined in-situ and post-mortem investigation on local permanent degradation in a direct methanol fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresciani, F.; Rabissi, C.; Zago, M.; Gazdzicki, P.; Schulze, M.; Guétaz, L.; Escribano, S.; Bonde, J. L.; Marchesi, R.; Casalegno, A.

    2016-02-01

    Performance degradation is one of the key issues hindering direct methanol fuel cell commercialization, caused by different mechanisms interplaying locally and resulting in both temporary and permanent contributions. This work proposes a systematic experimental investigation, coupling in-situ diagnostics (electrochemical and mass transport investigation) with ex-situ analyses of pristine, activated and aged components (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy), with an in-plane and through-plane local resolution. Such a combined approach allows to identify on one hand the degradation mechanisms, the affected components and the presence of heterogeneities; on the other hand, it allows to quantify the effect of the major mechanisms on performance decay. Thanks to a novel procedure, temporary (21 μV h-1) and permanent degradation (59 μV h-1) are separated, distinguishing the latter in different contributions: the effects of active area loss at both at anode (9 μV h-1) and cathode (31 μV h-1), mass transport issue (15 μV h-1) and membrane decay (4 μV h-1). The post-mortem analysis highlights the effect of degradation mechanisms consistent with the in-situ analysis and reveals the presence of considerable in plane and through plane heterogeneities in: particle size growth in catalyst layers, Pt/Ru and polymer content in catalyst and diffusion layers, Pt/Ru precipitates in the membrane.

  3. Is It Health or the Burial Environment: Differentiating between Hypomineralised and Post-Mortem Stained Enamel in an Archaeological Context

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Samantha; Farah, Rami; Broadbent, Jonathan M.; Tayles, Nancy; Halcrow, Sian E.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental enamel defects are often used as indicators of general health in past archaeological populations. However, it can be difficult to macroscopically distinguish subtle hypomineralised opacities from post-mortem staining, unrelated to developmental defects. To overcome this difficulty, we have used non-destructive x-ray microtomography to estimate the mineral density of enamel. Using a sample of deciduous teeth from a prehistoric burial site in Northeast Thailand, we demonstrate that it is possible to determine whether observed enamel discolourations were more likely to be true hypomineralised lesions or artefacts occurring as the result of taphonomic effects. The analyses of our sample showed no evidence of hypomineralised areas in teeth with macroscopic discolouration, which had previously been thought, on the basis of macroscopic observation, to be hypomineralisations indicative of growth disruption. Our results demonstrate that x-ray microtomography can be a powerful, non-destructive method for the investigation of the presence and severity of hypomineralisation, and that diagnosis of enamel hypomineralisation based on macroscopic observation of buried teeth should be made with caution. This method makes it possible to identify true dental defects that are indicative of growth disruptions. PMID:23734206

  4. Potential use of bacterial community succession for estimating post-mortem interval as revealed by high-throughput sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Juanjuan; Fu, Xiaoliang; Liao, Huidan; Hu, Zhenyu; Long, Lingling; Yan, Weitao; Ding, Yanjun; Zha, Lagabaiyila; Guo, Yadong; Yan, Jie; Chang, Yunfeng; Cai, Jifeng

    2016-01-01

    Decomposition is a complex process involving the interaction of both biotic and abiotic factors. Microbes play a critical role in the process of carrion decomposition. In this study, we analysed bacterial communities from live rats and rat remains decomposed under natural conditions, or excluding sarcosaphagous insect interference, in China using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A total of 1,394,842 high-quality sequences and 1,938 singleton operational taxonomic units were obtained. Bacterial communities showed notable variation in relative abundance and became more similar to each other across body sites during the decomposition process. As decomposition progressed, Proteobacteria (mostly Gammaproteobacteria) became the predominant phylum in both the buccal cavity and rectum, while Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the mouth and rectum, respectively, gradually decreased. In particular, the arrival and oviposition of sarcosaphagous insects had no obvious influence on bacterial taxa composition, but accelerated the loss of biomass. In contrast to the rectum, the microbial community structure in the buccal cavity of live rats differed considerably from that of rats immediately after death. Although this research indicates that bacterial communities can be used as a “microbial clock” for the estimation of post-mortem interval, further work is required to better understand this concept. PMID:27052375

  5. Post-mortem glycolysis in ox skeletal muscle. Effect of pre-rigor freezing and thawing on the intermediary metabolism.

    PubMed

    Scopes, R K; Newbold, R P

    1968-09-01

    1. Ox sternomandibularis muscle was ;slow-frozen' by placing it in air at -22 degrees or ;fast-frozen' by immersion in liquid air or acetone-solid carbon dioxide. In all cases muscles were frozen pre-rigor. Changes in length, pH and the concentrations of P(i), creatine phosphate, hexose monophosphate (glucose 1-phosphate+glucose 6-phosphate+fructose 6-phosphate), fructose diphosphate (fructose 1,6-diphosphate+(1/2) triose phosphate), lactate, ATP, ADP, AMP and NAD(+) during freezing and during subsequent thawing were determined. In addition some measurements were made of the changes in alpha-glycerophosphate, 3-phosphoglycerate, 2-phosphoglycerate, phosphoenolpyruvate and pyruvate concentrations during slow freezing. 2. Appreciable shortening and marked changes in chemical composition took place during slow freezing but not during fast freezing. 3. During slow freezing the hexose monophosphate concentration fell and fructose 1,6-diphosphate and triose phosphate increased substantially. Increases also took place in 3-phosphoglycerate, 2-phosphoglycerate and phosphoenolpyruvate, but not in pyruvate. 4. On thawing, most of the chemical changes were similar to those in unfrozen muscle post mortem, but took place much more rapidly; loss of NAD(+) was particularly rapid. Fast-frozen muscle metabolized at a faster rate on thawing than did slow-frozen muscle. 5. The overall changes in length during freezing and thawing were about the same in slow-frozen as in fast-frozen muscle. PMID:4300508

  6. Potential use of bacterial community succession for estimating post-mortem interval as revealed by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Guo, Juanjuan; Fu, Xiaoliang; Liao, Huidan; Hu, Zhenyu; Long, Lingling; Yan, Weitao; Ding, Yanjun; Zha, Lagabaiyila; Guo, Yadong; Yan, Jie; Chang, Yunfeng; Cai, Jifeng

    2016-01-01

    Decomposition is a complex process involving the interaction of both biotic and abiotic factors. Microbes play a critical role in the process of carrion decomposition. In this study, we analysed bacterial communities from live rats and rat remains decomposed under natural conditions, or excluding sarcosaphagous insect interference, in China using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A total of 1,394,842 high-quality sequences and 1,938 singleton operational taxonomic units were obtained. Bacterial communities showed notable variation in relative abundance and became more similar to each other across body sites during the decomposition process. As decomposition progressed, Proteobacteria (mostly Gammaproteobacteria) became the predominant phylum in both the buccal cavity and rectum, while Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the mouth and rectum, respectively, gradually decreased. In particular, the arrival and oviposition of sarcosaphagous insects had no obvious influence on bacterial taxa composition, but accelerated the loss of biomass. In contrast to the rectum, the microbial community structure in the buccal cavity of live rats differed considerably from that of rats immediately after death. Although this research indicates that bacterial communities can be used as a "microbial clock" for the estimation of post-mortem interval, further work is required to better understand this concept. PMID:27052375

  7. Death, cadavers and post-mortem biomedical research: a point of view from a Christian community.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Philippe; Joly, Alain; Champagnat, Julie; Brun, Luc; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin; Hervé, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Facing modern developments of medicine and biomedical researches, religious communities are a strong source of ethics principles and orientations. Human dignity does not disappear after life, in a context of biomedical research on cadavers. Moral, political, social and scientific aspects of research on human cadavers (mainly autopsies) have been widely discussed in biomedical publications, whereas the religious ones (which could be predominant for some) have rarely been analyzed and presented. This article will present the results of a survey carried out a French Benedictine Abbey (relative to death, cadaver's status and biomedical research) and subsequent Christian background according to canonic texts and practical cases from anthropological, historical, archeological and biomedical origin. PMID:22782433

  8. Sonar-induced pressure fields in a post-mortem common dolphin.

    PubMed

    Foote, Kenneth G; Hastings, Mardi C; Ketten, Darlene R; Lin, Ying-Tsong; Reidenberg, Joy S; Rye, Kent

    2012-02-01

    Potential physical effects of sonar transmissions on marine mammals were investigated by measuring pressure fields induced in a 119-kg, 211-cm-long, young adult male common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) cadaver. The specimen was instrumented with tourmaline acoustic pressure gauges used as receiving sensors. Gauge implantation near critical tissues was guided by intraoperative, high-resolution, computerized tomography (CT) scanning. Instrumented structures included the melon, nares, ear, thoracic wall, lungs, epaxial muscle, and lower abdomen. The specimen was suspended from a frame equipped with a standard 50.8-mm-diameter spherical transducer used as the acoustic source and additional receiving sensors to monitor the transmitted and external, scattered field. Following immersion, the transducer transmitted pulsed sinusoidal signals at 5, 7, and 10 kHz. Quantitative internal pressure fields are reported for all cases except those in which the gauge failed or no received signal was detected. A full necropsy was performed immediately after the experiment to examine instrumented areas and all major organs. No lesions attributable to acoustic transmissions were found, consistent with the low source level and source-receiver distances. PMID:22352529

  9. Effect of muscle and post-mortem rate of pH and temperature fall on antioxidant enzyme activities in beef.

    PubMed

    Pastsart, Umaporn; De Boever, Maarten; Claeys, Erik; De Smet, Stefaan

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of muscle, inner and outer Musculus biceps femoris (IBF and OBF respectively) and Musculus longissimus dorsi (LD), on the post-mortem rate of pH and temperature fall, and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) during simulated retail display. At day 0 of display (2 days post-mortem), the CAT and GSH-Px activities were lower in IBF than in OBF and LD (P<0.001), and the SOD activity was lower in OBF compared to IBF and LD (P<0.001). At day 10 of display, SOD and CAT activities had decreased in all three muscles compared to day 0 (P<0.001), whereas the GSH-Px activity did increase with time of display. Across muscles, there were significant relationships between temperature fall, colour, lipid and colour stability and antioxidant enzyme activities. PMID:23273481

  10. Post-mortem stability of RNA in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and the tissue-specific expression of myostatin, perilipin and associated factors in the horse.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Philippa K; Bing, Chen; Harris, Patricia A; Maltin, Charlotte A; Grove-White, Dai; Argo, Caroline McG

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, a major concern for equine welfare, is highly prevalent in the leisure horse population. Skeletal-muscle and adipose tissues are important determinants of maintenance energy requirements. The myostatin and perilipin pathways play key roles in the regulation of muscle mass and lipolysis respectively and have both been associated with obesity predisposition in other mammalian species. High quality samples, suitable for molecular biology, are an essential prerequisite for detailed investigations of gene and protein expression. Hence, this study has evaluated a) the post-mortem stability of RNA extracted from skeletal-muscle and adipose-tissues collected under commercial conditions and b) the tissue-specific presence of myostatin, the moystatin receptor (activin receptor IIB, ActRIIB), follistatin and perilipin, genes and proteins across a range of equine tissues. Objectives were addressed using tissues from 7 Thoroughbred horses presented for slaughter at a commercial abattoir; a) samples were collected at 7 time-points from Masseter muscle and perirenal adipose from 5 minutes to 6 hours post-mortem. Extracted RN was appraised by Optical Density analysis and agarose-gel electrophoresis. b) Quantitative real time PCR and Western Blotting were used to evaluate gene and protein expression in anatomically-defined samples collected from 17 tissues (6 organs, 4 skeletal muscles and 7 discrete adipose depots). The results indicate that, under the present collection conditions, intact, good quality RNA could be extracted from skeletal-muscle for up to 2 hours post-mortem. However, RNA from adipose tissue may be more susceptible to degradation/contamination and samples should be collected no later than 30 minutes post-mortem. The data also show that myostatin and ActRIIB genes and proteins were almost exclusively expressed in skeletal muscle. The follistatin gene showed a more diverse gene expression profile, with expression evident in several organs, adipose tissue

  11. Post-Mortem Stability of RNA in Skeletal Muscle and Adipose Tissue and the Tissue-Specific Expression of Myostatin, Perilipin and Associated Factors in the Horse

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Philippa K.; Bing, Chen; Harris, Patricia A.; Maltin, Charlotte A.; Grove-White, Dai; Argo, Caroline McG.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, a major concern for equine welfare, is highly prevalent in the leisure horse population. Skeletal-muscle and adipose tissues are important determinants of maintenance energy requirements. The myostatin and perilipin pathways play key roles in the regulation of muscle mass and lipolysis respectively and have both been associated with obesity predisposition in other mammalian species. High quality samples, suitable for molecular biology, are an essential prerequisite for detailed investigations of gene and protein expression. Hence, this study has evaluated a) the post-mortem stability of RNA extracted from skeletal-muscle and adipose-tissues collected under commercial conditions and b) the tissue-specific presence of myostatin, the moystatin receptor (activin receptor IIB, ActRIIB), follistatin and perilipin, genes and proteins across a range of equine tissues. Objectives were addressed using tissues from 7 Thoroughbred horses presented for slaughter at a commercial abattoir; a) samples were collected at 7 time-points from Masseter muscle and perirenal adipose from 5 minutes to 6 hours post-mortem. Extracted RN was appraised by Optical Density analysis and agarose-gel electrophoresis. b) Quantitative real time PCR and Western Blotting were used to evaluate gene and protein expression in anatomically-defined samples collected from 17 tissues (6 organs, 4 skeletal muscles and 7 discrete adipose depots). The results indicate that, under the present collection conditions, intact, good quality RNA could be extracted from skeletal-muscle for up to 2 hours post-mortem. However, RNA from adipose tissue may be more susceptible to degradation/contamination and samples should be collected no later than 30 minutes post-mortem. The data also show that myostatin and ActRIIB genes and proteins were almost exclusively expressed in skeletal muscle. The follistatin gene showed a more diverse gene expression profile, with expression evident in several organs, adipose tissue

  12. A validated method for the analysis of cannabinoids in post-mortem blood using liquid-liquid extraction and two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Rebecca; Paterson, Sue

    2012-10-10

    A validated method for the identification and quantification of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), 11-hydroxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) and 11-nor-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) in post-mortem blood specimens is described. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to extract the cannabinoids from 1 mL of post-mortem blood. The extracts were derivatized with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide. The final derivatized extracts were analyzed using two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The limit of detection was 0.25 ng/mL for all analytes and the limit of quantification of the assay was 0.25 ng/mL for THC, CBN, 11-OH-THC and 0.5 ng/mL for CBD and THC-COOH. The assay was linear across the concentration range 0.25-50 ng/mL (determined with a low and a high calibration range) with correlation coefficients ≥0.992 for all analytes. Inter-day and intra-day accuracy was within ±15% of the target concentration for all analytes. The co-efficients of variation (%CV) for inter-day and intra-day precision were ≤12% for all analytes. The extraction efficiency was >73% for all analytes. The method has successfully been applied to 54 post-mortem blood specimens to date. To the authors knowledge this is the first validated 2D GC-MS method for the analysis of THC, CBD, CBN, 11-OH-THC and THC-COOH following LLE and its application to post-mortem specimens. PMID:22717553

  13. Investigation on CAST, CAPN1 and CAPN3 porcine gene polymorphisms and expression in relation to post-mortem calpain activity in muscle and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, G; Pomponio, L; Ertbjerg, P; Karlsson, A H; Nanni Costa, L; Lametsch, R; Russo, V; Davoli, R

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to detect variability in CAST, CAPN1 and CAPN3 porcine genes and to investigate the effect of CAST and CAPN1 polymorphisms on the activity of native and autolyzed μ-calpain and m-calpain, measured from 1 to 72 h post-mortem in Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of 30 pigs. Effects of polymorphisms on meat quality parameter such as pH, color and drip loss were also evaluated. Samples carrying CAST EU137105:g.76,872AA genotype showed higher autolyzed μ-calpain activity 24 and 72 h post-mortem, as well as lower drip loss values. Expression of CAST, CAPN1 and CAPN3 was assessed in LD muscles divergent for shear force. Higher CAST and CAPN3 expression was found in LD with high shear force (P<0.2), confirming a direct role for calpastatin but not for calpain 3 in meat tenderization. In conclusion, CAST gene affected post-mortem activation time of calpain and drip loss. PMID:21450414

  14. LC-MS/MS method development and validation for quantitative analyses of 2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid - a new cyanide exposure marker in post mortem blood.

    PubMed

    Giebułtowicz, Joanna; Rużycka, Monika; Fudalej, Marcin; Krajewski, Paweł; Wroczyński, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) is a hydrogen cyanide metabolite that has been found to be a reliable biomarker of cyanide poisoning, because of its long-term stability in biological material. There are several methods of ATCA determination; however, they are restricted to extraction on mixed mode cation exchange sorbents. To date, there has been no reliable method of ATCA determination in whole blood, the most frequently used material in forensic analysis. This novel method for ATCA determination in post mortem specimen includes protein precipitation, and derivatization of interfering compounds and their later extraction with ethyl acetate. ATCA was quantitatively analyzed via high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with positive electrospray ionization detection using a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column. The method satisfied all validation criteria and was tested on the real samples with satisfactory results. Therefore, this analytical approach has been proven to be a tool for measuring endogenous levels of ATCA in post mortem specimens. To conclude, a novel, accurate and sensitive method of ATCA determination in post mortem blood was developed. The establishment of the method provides new possibilities in the field of forensic science. PMID:26838446

  15. Utility of urinary ethyl glucuronide analysis in post-mortem toxicology when investigating alcohol-related deaths.

    PubMed

    Sundström, M; Jones, A W; Ojanperä, I

    2014-08-01

    Use and abuse of alcohol are common findings when unnatural deaths are investigated as evidenced by high blood- and urine- alcohol concentrations (BAC and UAC) at autopsy. Because ethanol is metabolized in the liver until the time of death, the autopsy BAC or UAC might be negative even though the deceased had consumed alcohol in the immediate ante-mortem period. Analysis of the non-oxidative metabolite of ethanol [ethyl glucuronide (EtG)] offers a more sensitive test of recent drinking. In this paper, we determined the concentrations of ethanol and EtG in urine samples from 972 consecutive forensic autopsies. In 425 cases (44%) both EtG and ethanol were positive, which supports ante-mortem drinking. In 342 cases (35%), both EtG and ethanol was negative, which speaks against any consumption of alcohol just before death. In 181 cases, ethanol was negative in urine (<0.2 g/kg), whereas EtG was positive (>0.5 mg/L), which points towards ingestion of alcohol some time before death. In these cases, mean and median concentrations of EtG were 53.2 mg/L and 23.7 mg/L, respectively, although there was no mention of alcohol on 131 of the death certificates. Alcohol was mentioned on death certificates as an underlying or immediate cause of death or a contributing factor in 435 (45%) cases, which rose to 566 (58%) cases when positive EtG results were included. This article demonstrates the usefulness of EtG analysis in routine post-mortem toxicology when ante-mortem drinking and alcohol-related deaths are investigated. PMID:24954799

  16. Effects of Dietary Energy Sources on Post Mortem Glycolysis, Meat Quality and Muscle Fibre Type Transformation of Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanjiao; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Changning; Lin, Meng; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Yuanfang; Nuldnali, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Dietary energy source can influence muscle glycogen storage at slaughter. However, few studies have demonstrated whether the diet-induced change of muscle glycogen is achieved by the transformation of muscle fibre type. This study investigated the effects of dietary energy sources on meat quality, post mortem glycolysis and muscle fibre type transformation of finishing pigs. Seventy-two barrows with an average body weight of 65.0 ± 2.0 kg were selected and were allotted to three iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets A, B or C, and each treatment consisted of three replicates (pens) of eight pigs each. Diet A contained 44.1% starch, 5.9% crude fat and 12.6% neutral detergent fiber (NDF); diet B contained 37.6% starch, 9.5% crude fat and 15.4% NDF; and diet C contained 30.9% starch, 14.3% crude fat and 17.8% NDF. The duration of the experiment was 28 days. After feed withdrawal 12 h, 24 pigs (eight per treatment) were slaughtered, samples from M. longissimus lumborum (LL) were collected for subsequent analysis. The results showed that pigs fed diet C had lesser average daily gain, average daily feed intake and back fat depth than those fed diet A (P<0.05). Diet C increased pH45min (P<0.05) and decreased drip loss (P<0.05) in LL muscles compared with diet A. Meat from pigs fed diet A showed increased contents of lactate and greater glycolytic potential (GP) compared with those fed diet C (P<0.05). Greater mRNA expression of myosin heavy-chain (MyHC)-I and IIa and lesser expression of MyHC-IIx and IIb (P<0.05) in LL muscles were found in pigs fed diet C, than in pigs fed diet A. In addition, pigs fed diet C resulted in downregulation of miR23a and upregulation of miR409 and miR208b (P<0.05), associated with conserved changes of their corresponding targets. These findings indicated that diets containing low starch and high fibre were beneficial in reducing muscle glycolysis, improving meat quality of finishing pigs. This reduction of GP may be partially associated

  17. MRI visual rating scales in the diagnosis of dementia: evaluation in 184 post-mortem confirmed cases.

    PubMed

    Harper, Lorna; Fumagalli, Giorgio G; Barkhof, Frederik; Scheltens, Philip; O'Brien, John T; Bouwman, Femke; Burton, Emma J; Rohrer, Jonathan D; Fox, Nick C; Ridgway, Gerard R; Schott, Jonathan M

    2016-04-01

    Accurately distinguishing between different degenerative dementias during life is challenging but increasingly important with the prospect of disease-modifying therapies. Molecular biomarkers of dementia pathology are becoming available, but are not widely used in clinical practice. Conversely, structural neuroimaging is recommended in the evaluation of cognitive impairment. Visual assessment remains the primary method of scan interpretation, but in the absence of a structured approach, diagnostically relevant information may be under-utilized. This definitive, multi-centre study uses post-mortem confirmed cases as the gold standard to: (i) assess the reliability of six visual rating scales; (ii) determine their associated pattern of atrophy; (iii) compare their diagnostic value with expert scan assessment; and (iv) assess the accuracy of a machine learning approach based on multiple rating scales to predict underlying pathology. The study includes T1-weighted images acquired in three European centres from 184 individuals with histopathologically confirmed dementia (101 patients with Alzheimer's disease, 28 patients with dementia with Lewy bodies, 55 patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration), and scans from 73 healthy controls. Six visual rating scales (medial temporal, posterior, anterior temporal, orbito-frontal, anterior cingulate and fronto-insula) were applied to 257 scans (two raters), and to a subset of 80 scans (three raters). Six experts also provided a diagnosis based on unstructured assessment of the 80-scan subset. The reliability and time taken to apply each scale was evaluated. Voxel-based morphometry was used to explore the relationship between each rating scale and the pattern of grey matter volume loss. Additionally, the performance of each scale to predict dementia pathology both individually and in combination was evaluated using a support vector classifier, which was compared with expert scan assessment to estimate clinical value

  18. MRI visual rating scales in the diagnosis of dementia: evaluation in 184 post-mortem confirmed cases

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Lorna; Fumagalli, Giorgio G.; Barkhof, Frederik; Scheltens, Philip; O’Brien, John T.; Bouwman, Femke; Burton, Emma J.; Rohrer, Jonathan D.; Fox, Nick C.; Ridgway, Gerard R.

    2016-01-01

    Accurately distinguishing between different degenerative dementias during life is challenging but increasingly important with the prospect of disease-modifying therapies. Molecular biomarkers of dementia pathology are becoming available, but are not widely used in clinical practice. Conversely, structural neuroimaging is recommended in the evaluation of cognitive impairment. Visual assessment remains the primary method of scan interpretation, but in the absence of a structured approach, diagnostically relevant information may be under-utilized. This definitive, multi-centre study uses post-mortem confirmed cases as the gold standard to: (i) assess the reliability of six visual rating scales; (ii) determine their associated pattern of atrophy; (iii) compare their diagnostic value with expert scan assessment; and (iv) assess the accuracy of a machine learning approach based on multiple rating scales to predict underlying pathology. The study includes T1-weighted images acquired in three European centres from 184 individuals with histopathologically confirmed dementia (101 patients with Alzheimer’s disease, 28 patients with dementia with Lewy bodies, 55 patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration), and scans from 73 healthy controls. Six visual rating scales (medial temporal, posterior, anterior temporal, orbito-frontal, anterior cingulate and fronto-insula) were applied to 257 scans (two raters), and to a subset of 80 scans (three raters). Six experts also provided a diagnosis based on unstructured assessment of the 80-scan subset. The reliability and time taken to apply each scale was evaluated. Voxel-based morphometry was used to explore the relationship between each rating scale and the pattern of grey matter volume loss. Additionally, the performance of each scale to predict dementia pathology both individually and in combination was evaluated using a support vector classifier, which was compared with expert scan assessment to estimate clinical value

  19. Post-Mortem Whole Exome Sequencing with Gene-Specific Analysis for Autopsy Negative Sudden Unexplained Death in the Young: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Narula, Nupoor; Tester, David J.; Paulmichl, Anna; Maleszewski, Joseph J.; Ackerman, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Annually, thousands of sudden deaths in individuals under 35 years remain unexplained following comprehensive medico-legal autopsy. Previously, post-mortem genetic analysis by Sanger-sequencing of 4 major cardiac channelopathy genes revealed that approximately one-fourth of these autopsy-negative sudden unexplained death in the young (SUDY) cases harbored an underlying mutation. However, there are now over 100 sudden death predisposing cardiac channelopathy-, cardiomyopathy-, and metabolic disorder-susceptibility genes. Here, we set out to determine whether post-mortem whole exome sequencing (WES) is an efficient strategy to detect ultra-rare, potentially pathogenic variants. Materials and Methods We performed post-mortem WES and gene-specific analysis of 117 sudden death-susceptibility genes for 14 consecutively-referred Caucasian SUDY victims (average age at death 17.4 ± 8.6 years) to identify putative SUDY-associated mutations. Results On average, each SUDY case had 12,758 ± 2016 non-synonymous variants, of which 79 ± 15 localized to these 117 genes. Overall, 8 ultra-rare variants (7 missense, 1 in-frame insertion) absent in 3 publically available exome databases were identified in 6 genes (3 in TTN, and 1 each in CACNA1C, JPH2, MYH7, VCL, RYR2) in 7 of 14 cases (50%). Of the 7 missense alterations, 2 (T171M-CACNA1C, I22160T-TTN) were predicted damaging by 3 independent in-silico tools. Conclusions Although WES and gene-specific surveillance is an efficient means to detect rare genetic variants that might underlie the pathogenic cause of death, accurate interpretation of each variant is challenging. Great restraint and caution must be exercised less families be informed prematurely and incorrectly that the root cause has been found. PMID:25500949

  20. Simulated surgical-type cerebral biopsies from post-mortem brains allows accurate neuropathological diagnoses in the majority of neurodegenerative disease groups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In theory, cerebral biopsies could provide the diagnosis in a significant proportion of patients with neurodegenerative diseases, however, there are considerable ethical barriers. Previous series of cerebral biopsies have shown variable diagnostic accuracy but have understandably suffered because of lack of post-mortem tissue with which to compare the diagnosis. To determine the accuracy of such biopsies in neurodegenerative disease we took small biopsy-sized samples of predominantly fresh post-mortem brain tissue from frontal and temporal lobes in 62 cases. These were processed as for a biopsy and stained for H&E, p62, tau, Aβ, α-synuclein, and TDP-43. The sections were assessed blind by 3 neuropathologists and the results compared with the final post-mortem diagnosis. Results The agreement and sensitivity in most cases was good especially: controls; Alzheimer’s disease (AD); multiple system atrophy (MSA); frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 positive inclusions and/or motor neurone disease (FTLD-TDP/MND); Huntington’s disease (HD); corticobasal degeneration (CBD) / microtubular associated protein tau mutation cases with CBD-like features (CBD/MAPT); and combined AD- Dementia with Lewy Bodies (AD-DLB) where the sensitivity on assessing both brain regions varied between 75-100%. There was poor sensitivity for progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) (both 0%), but moderate sensitivity for pure DLB (60%). The temporal lobe assessment was marginally more accurate than the frontal lobe but these were only slightly worse than both combined. Conclusions The study shows that with certain caveats the cerebral biopsy in life should be a viable method of accurately diagnosing many neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24252649

  1. Antipsychotic drugs attenuate aberrant DNA methylation of DTNBP1 (dysbindin) promoter in saliva and post-mortem brain of patients with schizophrenia and Psychotic bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Abdolmaleky, Hamid M; Pajouhanfar, Sara; Faghankhani, Masoomeh; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Mostafavi, Ashraf; Thiagalingam, Sam

    2015-12-01

    Due to the lack of genetic association between individual genes and schizophrenia (SCZ) pathogenesis, the current consensus is to consider both genetic and epigenetic alterations. Here, we report the examination of DNA methylation status of DTNBP1 promoter region, one of the most credible candidate genes affected in SCZ, assayed in saliva and post-mortem brain samples. The Illumina DNA methylation profiling and bisulfite sequencing of representative samples were used to identify methylation status of the DTNBP1 promoter region. Quantitative methylation specific PCR (qMSP) was employed to assess methylation of DTNBP1 promoter CpGs flanking a SP1 binding site in the saliva of SCZ patients, their first-degree relatives and control subjects (30, 15, and 30/group, respectively) as well as in post-mortem brains of patients with SCZ and bipolar disorder (BD) versus controls (35/group). qRT-PCR was used to assess DTNBP1 expression. We found DNA hypermethylation of DTNBP1 promoter in the saliva of SCZ patients (∼12.5%, P = 0.036), particularly in drug-naïve patients (∼20%, P = 0.011), and a trend toward hypermethylation in their first-degree relatives (P = 0.085) versus controls. Analysis of post-mortem brain samples revealed an inverse correlation between DTNBP1 methylation and expression, and normalization of this epigenetic change by classic antipsychotic drugs. Additionally, BD patients with psychotic depression exhibited higher degree of methylation versus other BD patients (∼80%, P = 0.025). DTNBP1 promoter DNA methylation may become a key element in a panel of biomarkers for diagnosis, prevention, or therapy in SCZ and at risk individuals pending confirmatory studies with larger sample sizes to attain a higher degree of significance. PMID:26285059

  2. Prevalence and blood concentrations of desoxypipradrol (2-DPMP) in drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs and in post-mortem cases.

    PubMed

    Kriikku, Pirkko; Wilhelm, Lars; Rintatalo, Janne; Hurme, Jukka; Kramer, Jan; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2013-03-10

    The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of the use of desoxypipradrol (2-DPMP) among drivers apprehended on suspicion of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) and the prevalence of the drug in post-mortem cases in Finland. Serum samples from drivers apprehended on suspicion of DUID and blood samples from post-mortem cases in Finland between October 2010 and May 2012 were analysed for the presence of desoxypipradrol. All samples were analysed for desoxypipradrol by mass spectrometric methods following comprehensive drug screening. Psychomotor performance of subjects was assessed by a clinician. There were 106 positive desoxypipradrol samples from apprehended drivers (1.7% of all confirmed DUID cases) in the study period. In most cases amphetamine and/or benzodiazepines were also present. The median (range) desoxypipradrol concentration was 0.073 mg/L (0.006-0.890 mg/L). The presence of other psychoactive drugs confounded assessment of the effect of desoxypipradrol on psychomotor performance except for one case in which it was the only drug present at pharmacologically active levels. Desoxypipradrol was found in 5 autopsy cases (0.05% of the investigated cases) and thought to contribute to death in two of these. Even though there are few data available on the pharmacology of desoxypipradrol, based on our findings, and the growing number of users, it is reasonable to assume that desoxypipradrol - a long-acting psychostimulant with dangerous side effects has an increasing detrimental impact on traffic safety in Finland. However, it was only rarely found to be the cause of death in post-mortem cases. PMID:23333504

  3. Determination of medicinal and illicit drugs in post mortem dental hard tissues and comparison with analytical results for body fluids and hair samples.

    PubMed

    Klima, Miriam; Altenburger, Markus J; Kempf, Jürgen; Auwärter, Volker; Neukamm, Merja A

    2016-08-01

    In burnt or skeletonized bodies dental hard tissue sometimes is the only remaining specimen available. Therefore, it could be used as an alternative matrix in post mortem toxicology. Additionally, analysis of dental tissues could provide a unique retrospective window of detection. For forensic interpretation, routes and rates of incorporation of different drugs as well as physicochemical differences between tooth root, tooth crown and carious material have to be taken into account. In a pilot study, one post mortem tooth each from three drug users was analyzed for medicinal and illicit drugs. The pulp was removed in two cases; in one case the tooth was root canal treated. The teeth were separated into root, crown and carious material and drugs were extracted from the powdered material with methanol under ultrasonication. The extracts were screened for drugs by LC-MS(n) (ToxTyper™) and quantitatively analyzed with LC-ESI-MS/MS in MRM mode. The findings were compared to the analytical results for cardiac blood, femoral blood, urine, stomach content and hair. In dental hard tissues, 11 drugs (amphetamine, MDMA, morphine, codeine, norcodeine, methadone, EDDP, fentanyl, tramadol, diazepam, nordazepam, and promethazine) could be detected and concentrations ranged from approximately 0.13pg/mg to 2,400pg/mg. The concentrations declined in the following order: carious material>root>crown. Only the root canal treated tooth showed higher concentrations in the crown than in the root. In post mortem toxicology, dental hard tissue could be a useful alternative matrix facilitating a more differentiated consideration of drug consumption patterns, as the window of detection seems to overlap those for body fluids and hair. PMID:26930453

  4. Possibilities of using the European bison (Bison bonasus) epididymal spermatozoa collected post-mortem for cryopreservation and artificial insemination: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background European bison is the largest mammal in Europe with the population of approximately 4000 individuals. However, there is no report of post-mortem spermatozoa collection and cryopreservation from this species and the aim of this study was to test if the epididymal spermatozoa collected post-mortem from European bison are suitable for cryopreservation and artificial insemination (AI). Methods Epididymides were collected post-mortem from two European bison bulls at age of 8 (bull 1) and 11 year (bull 2). Epididymal sperm was harvested by making multiple incisions in caudae epididymidis, which were then rinsed with extender. The left epididymis of bull 1 was rinsed with BioXcell (IMV, France), whereas the right epididymis of bull 1 and the right and left epididymides of bull 2 were rinsed with the extender based on Tris, citric acid, glucose, egg yolk, glycerol, antibiotics and distilled water (extender II). The diluted semen was cooled to 5 degrees C, and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapour. Then, properties of the frozen/thawed semen were examined with the use of computer-assisted semen analysis system, and thirty cows and nine heifers of domestic cattle were artificially inseminated. Results Motility of fresh spermatozoa collected from the right epididymis of bull 1 was 70% (spermatozoa diluted with extender II), and from the left one was 60% (spermatozoa diluted with BioXcell), whereas motility of fresh spermatozoa collected from bull 2 was 90% (spermatozoa diluted with extender II). Spermatozoa motility just after thawing were 11 and 13% in bull 1, respectively for spermatozoa collected from the left and right epididymis and 48% in bull 2. As a result of AI of domestic cows and heifers with the frozen/thawed European bison spermatozoa, two pregnancies were obtained in heifers. One pregnancy finished with a premature labour after 253 days of pregnancy, and the second one after 264 days of pregnancy. Conclusions This is the first report showing pregnancy in

  5. Original implementation of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in symmetric cells: Evaluation of post-mortem protocols applied to characterize electrode materials for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Isabel Jiménez; Genies, Sylvie; Si Larbi, Gregory; Boulineau, Adrien; Daniel, Lise; Alias, Mélanie

    2016-03-01

    Understanding ageing mechanisms of Li-ion batteries is essential for further optimizations. To determine performance loss causes, post-mortem analyses are commonly applied. For each type of post-mortem test, different sample preparation protocols are adopted. However, reports on the reliability of these protocols are rare. Herein, Li-ion pouch cells with LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 - polyvinylidene fluoride positive electrode, graphite-carboxymethyl cellulose-styrene rubber negative electrode and LiPF6 - carbonate solvents mixture electrolyte, are opened and electrodes are recovered following a specified protocol. Negative and positive symmetric cells are assembled and their impedances are recorded. A signal analysis is applied to reconstruct the Li-ion pouch cell impedance from the symmetric cells, then comparison against the pouch cell true impedance allows the evaluation of the sample preparation protocols. The results are endorsed by Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM) and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. Carbonate solvents used to remove the salt impacts slightly the surface properties of both electrodes. Drying electrodes under vacuum at 25 °C produces an impedance increase, particularly very marked for the positive electrode. Drying at 50 °C under vacuum or/and exposition to the anhydrous room atmosphere is very detrimental.

  6. Identification of different domains of calpain and calpastatin from chicken blood and their role in post-mortem aging of meat during holding at refrigeration temperatures.

    PubMed

    Biswas, A K; Tandon, S; Beura, C K

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple, specific and rapid analytical method for accurate identification of calpain and calpastatin from chicken blood and muscle samples. The method is based on liquid-liquid extraction technique followed by casein Zymography detection. The target compounds were extracted from blood and meat samples by tris buffer, and purified and separated on anion exchange chromatography. It has been observed that buffer (pH 6.7) containing 50 mM tris-base appears to be excellent extractant as activity of analytes was maximum for all samples. The concentrations of μ-, m-calpain and calpastatin detected in the extracts of blood, breast and thigh samples were 0.28-0.55, 1.91-2.05 and 1.38-1.52 Unit/g, respectively. For robustness, the analytical method was applied to determine the activity of calpains (μ and m) in eighty postmortem muscle samples. It has been observed that μ-calpain activity in breast and thigh muscles declined very rapidly at 48 h and 24 h, respectively while activity of m-calpain remained stable. Shear force values were also declined with the increase of post-mortem aging showing the presence of ample tenderness of breast and thigh muscles. Finally, it is concluded that the method standardized for the detection of calpain and calpastatin has the potential to be applied to identify post-mortem aging of chicken meat samples. PMID:26830594

  7. Degradation of Kidney and Psoas Muscle Proteins as Indicators of Post-Mortem Interval in a Rat Model, with Use of Lateral Flow Technology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Gi; Yang, Kyeong Eun; Hwang, Jeong Won; Kang, Hwan-Soo; Lee, Seung-Yeul; Choi, Seoyeon; Shin, Joonchul; Jang, Ik-Soon; An, Hyun Joo; Chung, Heesun; Jung, Hyo-Il; Choi, Jong-Soon

    2016-01-01

    We investigated potential protein markers of post-mortem interval (PMI) using rat kidney and psoas muscle. Tissue samples were taken at 12 h intervals for up to 96 h after death by suffocation. Expression levels of eight soluble proteins were analyzed by Western blotting. Degradation patterns of selected proteins were clearly divided into three groups: short-term, mid-term, and long-term PMI markers based on the half maximum intensity of intact protein expression. In kidney, glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β were degraded completely within 48 h making them short-term PMI markers. AMP-activated protein kinase α, caspase 3 and GS were short-term PMI markers in psoas muscle. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was a mid-term PMI marker in both tissues. Expression levels of the typical long-term PMI markers, p53 and β-catenin, were constant for at least 96 h post-mortem in both tissues. The degradation patterns of GS and caspase-3 were verified by immunohistochemistry in both tissues. GAPDH was chosen as a test PMI protein to perform a lateral flow assay (LFA). The presence of recombinant GAPDH was clearly detected in LFA and quantified in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that LFA might be used to estimate PMI at a crime scene. PMID:27552165

  8. Longitudinal assessment of short-term memory deterioration in a logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia with post-mortem confirmed Alzheimer's Disease pathology.

    PubMed

    Tree, Jeremy; Kay, Janice

    2015-09-01

    In the field of dementia research, there are reports of neurodegenerative cases with a focal loss of language, termed primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Currently, this condition has been further sub-classified, with the most recent sub-type dubbed logopenic variant (PPA-LV). As yet, there remains somewhat limited evaluation of the characteristics of this condition, with no studies providing longitudinal assessment accompanied by post-mortem examination. Moreover, a key characteristic of the PPA-LV case is a deterioration of phonological short-term memory, but again little work has scrutinized the nature of this impairment over time. The current study seeks to redress these oversights and presents detailed longitudinal examination of language and memory function in a case of PPA-LV, with special focus on tests linked to components of phonological short-term memory function. Our findings are then considered with reference to a contemporary model of the neuropsychology of phonological short-term memory. Additionally, post-mortem examinations indicated Alzheimer's disease type pathology, providing further evidence that the PPA-LV presentation may reflect an atypical presentation of this condition. PMID:24751373

  9. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid endogenous production and post-mortem behaviour - the importance of different biological matrices, cut-off reference values, sample collection and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Castro, André L; Dias, Mário; Reis, Flávio; Teixeira, Helena M

    2014-10-01

    Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound with a story of clinical use, since the 1960's. However, due to its secondary effects, it has become a controlled substance, entering the illicit market for recreational and "dance club scene" use, muscle enhancement purposes and drug-facilitated sexual assaults. Its endogenous context can bring some difficulties when interpreting, in a forensic context, the analytical values achieved in biological samples. This manuscript reviewed several crucial aspects related to GHB forensic toxicology evaluation, such as its post-mortem behaviour in biological samples; endogenous production values, whether in in vivo and in post-mortem samples; sampling and storage conditions (including stability tests); and cut-off reference values evaluation for different biological samples, such as whole blood, plasma, serum, urine, saliva, bile, vitreous humour and hair. This revision highlights the need of specific sampling care, storage conditions, and cut-off reference values interpretation in different biological samples, essential for proper practical application in forensic toxicology. PMID:25287794

  10. Degradation of Kidney and Psoas Muscle Proteins as Indicators of Post-Mortem Interval in a Rat Model, with Use of Lateral Flow Technology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Gi; Yang, Kyeong Eun; Hwang, Jeong Won; Kang, Hwan-Soo; Lee, Seung-Yeul; Choi, Seoyeon; Shin, Joonchul; Jang, Ik-Soon; An, Hyun Joo; Chung, Heesun; Jung, Hyo-Il; Choi, Jong-Soon

    2016-01-01

    We investigated potential protein markers of post-mortem interval (PMI) using rat kidney and psoas muscle. Tissue samples were taken at 12 h intervals for up to 96 h after death by suffocation. Expression levels of eight soluble proteins were analyzed by Western blotting. Degradation patterns of selected proteins were clearly divided into three groups: short-term, mid-term, and long-term PMI markers based on the half maximum intensity of intact protein expression. In kidney, glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β were degraded completely within 48 h making them short-term PMI markers. AMP-activated protein kinase α, caspase 3 and GS were short-term PMI markers in psoas muscle. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was a mid-term PMI marker in both tissues. Expression levels of the typical long-term PMI markers, p53 and β-catenin, were constant for at least 96 h post-mortem in both tissues. The degradation patterns of GS and caspase-3 were verified by immunohistochemistry in both tissues. GAPDH was chosen as a test PMI protein to perform a lateral flow assay (LFA). The presence of recombinant GAPDH was clearly detected in LFA and quantified in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that LFA might be used to estimate PMI at a crime scene. PMID:27552165

  11. Human metapneumovirus in adults.

    PubMed

    Haas, Lenneke E M; Thijsen, Steven F T; van Elden, Leontine; Heemstra, Karen A

    2013-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a relative newly described virus. It was first isolated in 2001 and currently appears to be one of the most significant and common human viral infections. Retrospective serologic studies demonstrated the presence of HMPV antibodies in humans more than 50 years earlier. Although the virus was primarily known as causative agent of respiratory tract infections in children, HMPV is an important cause of respiratory infections in adults as well. Almost all children are infected by HMPV below the age of five; the repeated infections throughout life indicate transient immunity. HMPV infections usually are mild and self-limiting, but in the frail elderly and the immunocompromised patients, the clinical course can be complicated. Since culturing the virus is relatively difficult, diagnosis is mostly based on a nucleic acid amplification test, such as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. To date, no vaccine is available and treatment is supportive. However, ongoing research shows encouraging results. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature concerning HMPV infections in adults, and discuss recent development in treatment and vaccination. PMID:23299785

  12. Human Metapneumovirus in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Lenneke E. M.; Thijsen, Steven F. T.; van Elden, Leontine; Heemstra, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a relative newly described virus. It was first isolated in 2001 and currently appears to be one of the most significant and common human viral infections. Retrospective serologic studies demonstrated the presence of HMPV antibodies in humans more than 50 years earlier. Although the virus was primarily known as causative agent of respiratory tract infections in children, HMPV is an important cause of respiratory infections in adults as well. Almost all children are infected by HMPV below the age of five; the repeated infections throughout life indicate transient immunity. HMPV infections usually are mild and self-limiting, but in the frail elderly and the immunocompromised patients, the clinical course can be complicated. Since culturing the virus is relatively difficult, diagnosis is mostly based on a nucleic acid amplification test, such as reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. To date, no vaccine is available and treatment is supportive. However, ongoing research shows encouraging results. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature concerning HMPV infections in adults, and discuss recent development in treatment and vaccination. PMID:23299785

  13. Evaluation of the efficiency of nested q-PCR in the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex directly from tuberculosis-suspected lesions in post-mortem macroscopic inspections of bovine carcasses slaughtered in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ricardo César Tavares; Furlanetto, Leone Vinícius; Maruyama, Fernanda Harumy; Araújo, Cristina Pires de; Barros, Sílvia Letícia Bomfim; Ramos, Carlos Alberto do Nascimento; Dutra, Valéria; Araújo, Flábio Ribeiro de; Paschoalin, Vânia Margaret Flosi; Nakazato, Luciano; Figueiredo, Eduardo Eustáquio de Souza

    2015-08-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). The quick and specific detection of this species is of extreme importance, since BTB may cause economic impacts, in addition to presenting imminent risks to human health. In the present study a nested real-time PCR test (nested q-PCR) was used in post-mortem evaluations to assess cattle carcasses with BTB-suspected lesions. A total of 41,193 cattle slaughtered in slaughterhouses located in the state of Mato Grosso, were examined. Of the examined animals, 198 (0.48%) showed BTB-suspected lesions. M. bovis was isolated in 1.5% (3/198) of the samples. Multiplex-PCR detected MTC in 7% (14/198) of the samples. The nested q-PCR test detected MTC in 28% (56/198) of the BTB-suspected lesions, demonstrating higher efficiency when compared to the multiplex-PCR and conventional microbiology. Nested q-PCR can therefore be used as a complementary test in the national program for control and eradication of bovine tuberculosis. PMID:25863190

  14. Role of biogenic amines in the post-mortem migration of Anisakis pegreffii (Nematoda: Anisakidae Dujardin, 1845) larvae into fish fillets.

    PubMed

    Šimat, Vida; Miletić, Jelena; Bogdanović, Tanja; Poljak, Vedran; Mladineo, Ivona

    2015-12-01

    Infective third-stage larvae (L3) of nematode Anisakis spp. have been recognized as one of the major food-borne threats in lightly processed fish products in Europe, particularly in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the effect of different storage temperatures of fish on larval post-mortem migration from visceral cavity into fillets is an important parameter to take into account when evaluating the risk for consumer safety. The European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) were caught during fishing season, a subsample of fillets was checked for the presence of Anisakis larvae at capture (mean abundance=0.07), and the rest was stored at four different temperatures (-18, 0, 4 and 22°C) in order to count migrating larvae and measure the production of biogenic amines over a period of time. Larvae were identified by morphological features and molecular tools. Post-mortem migration was observed in fillets stored at 0 and 4°C after three and five days, respectively, but not at 22 and -18°C. In case of storage at 22°C for two days, at the onset of putrefaction of the visceral organs, larvae migrated out of the visceral cavity towards the fish surface. Measured pH and biogenic amine profile during storage indicated that certain biochemical conditions trigger larval migration into fillets. Likewise, migration was observed at pH ~6.4 when sensory degradation of the fish was markedly visible. Although larval migration was delayed for approximately four days at a temperature of <4°C the correlation between pH and abundance of A. pegreffii larvae in the fillet was high and statistically significant at both 0 (r=0.998, p<0.01) and 4°C (r=0.946, p<0.05). Out of eight biogenic amines measured, cadaverine and putrescine levels correlated the most with the post-mortem migration at 4°C, while tyramine levels were significant at both temperatures. PMID:26318909

  15. Effect of preservative solutions on preservation of Calliphora augur and Lucilia cuprina larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae) with implications for post-mortem interval estimates.

    PubMed

    Day, Donnah M; Wallman, James F

    2008-07-18

    A major role of forensic entomology is to estimate the post-mortem interval. An entomologist's estimate of post-mortem interval is based on a series of generally valid assumptions, error in any of which can alter the accuracy of an estimate. The initial process of collecting and preserving maggots can itself lead to error, as can the method of killing and preservation. Since circumstances exist where it is not possible to rear maggots, methods of killing and preservation can be vital to preserving the integrity of entomological evidence. In this study, a number of preservation techniques used at crime scenes and in mortuaries were examined, and their effect on feeding third-instar larvae of Calliphora augur and Lucilia cuprina evaluated. The preservatives used were 70, 75, 80, 90 and 100% EtOH, Kahle's solution and 10% formalin. Each treatment was replicated three times. The effect of handling on first- and second-instar, feeding and post-feeding third-instar larvae of C. augur was also examined and compared to unhandled controls. Finally, the effects of preservatives were noted when larvae of C. augur and L. cuprina were placed into preservatives alive. It was found that continued handling is detrimental to specimens because preservative evaporates from both the vial and the specimens. No single preservative type was found to be entirely suitable for both species if DNA retrieval is desired. Specimens placed into most preservatives alive exhibited adverse colour changes, desiccation, sunkeness and agglomeration. It is concluded that the reaction to preservative type might be species specific and that different instars of the same species might also react differently. PMID:18514451

  16. Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein in post-mortem brain of teenage suicide victims: specific decrease in the prefrontal cortex but not the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ghanshyam N; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Ren, Xinguo; Rizavi, Hooriyah S; Roberts, Rosalinda C; Conley, Robert R

    2007-10-01

    Abnormalities in both adenylyl cyclase (AC) and phosphoinositide (PI) signalling systems have been observed in the post-mortem brain of suicide victims. Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is a transcription factor that is activated by phosphorylating enzymes such as protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC), which suggests that both AC and PI signalling systems converge at the level of CREB. CREB is involved in the transcription of many neuronally expressed genes that have been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and suicide. Since we observed abnormalities of both PKA and PKC in the post-mortem brain of teenage suicide victims, we examined if these abnormalities are also associated with abnormalities of CREB, which is activated by these phosphorylating enzymes. We determined CRE-DNA binding using the gel shift assay, as well as protein expression of CREB using the Western blot technique, and the mRNA expression of CREB using a quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and hippocampus obtained from 17 teenage suicide victims and 17 matched normal control subjects. We observed that the CRE-DNA binding and the protein expression of CREB were significantly decreased in the PFC of teenage suicide victims compared with controls. There was also a significant decrease in mRNA expression of CREB in the PFC of teenage suicide victims compared with control subjects. However, there were no significant differences in CRE-DNA binding or the protein and mRNA expression of CREB in the hippocampus of teenage suicide victims compared with control subjects. These results suggest that the abnormalities of PKA, and of PKC, observed in teenage suicide victims are also associated with abnormalities of the transcription factor CREB, and that this may also cause alterations of important neuronally expressed genes, and provide further support of the signal transduction of abnormalities

  17. Post-mortem findings in southern right whales Eubalaena australis at Península Valdés, Argentina, 2003-2012.

    PubMed

    McAloose, Denise; Rago, M Virginia; Di Martino, Matías; Chirife, Andrea; Olson, Sarah H; Beltramino, Lucas; Pozzi, Luciana M; Musmeci, Luciana; La Sala, Luciano; Mohamed, Nadia; Sala, Juan Emilio; Bandieri, Lucas; Andrejuk, Julian; Tomaszewicz, Ania; Seimon, Tracie; Sironi, Mariano; Samartino, Luis E; Rowntree, Victoria; Uhart, Marcela M

    2016-04-12

    Between 2003 and 2012, 605 southern right whales (SRW; Eubalaena australis) were found dead along the shores of Península Valdés (PV), Argentina. These deaths included alarmingly high annual losses between 2007 and 2012, a peak number of deaths (116) in 2012, and a significant number of deaths across years in calves-of-the-year (544 of 605 [89.9%]; average = 60.4 yr(-1)). Post-mortem examination and pathogen testing were performed on 212 whales; 208 (98.1%) were calves-of-the-year and 48.0% of these were newborns or neonates. A known or probable cause of death was established in only a small number (6.6%) of cases. These included ship strike in a juvenile and blunt trauma or lacerations (n = 5), pneumonia (n = 4), myocarditis (n = 2), meningitis (n = 1), or myocarditis and meningitis (n = 1) in calves. Ante-mortem gull parasitism was the most common gross finding. It was associated with systemic disease in a single 1-2 mo old calf. Immunohistochemical labeling for canine distemper virus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp., and PCR for cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV), influenza A, and apicomplexan protozoa were negative on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung and brain samples from a subset of whales; PCR for Brucella spp. was positive in a newborn/neonate with pneumonia. Skin samples from whales with gull parasitism were PCR negative for CeMV, poxvirus, and papillomavirus. This is the first long-term study to investigate and summarize notable post-mortem findings in the PV SRW population. Consistent, significant findings within or between years to explain the majority of deaths and those in high-mortality years remain to be identified. PMID:27068500

  18. Variation of bone layer thicknesses and trabecular volume fraction in the adult male human calvarium.

    PubMed

    Boruah, Sourabh; Paskoff, Glenn R; Shender, Barry S; Subit, Damien L; Salzar, Robert S; Crandall, Jeff R

    2015-08-01

    The human calvarium is a sandwich structure with two dense layers of cortical bone separated by porous cancellous bone. The variation of the three dimensional geometry, including the layer thicknesses and the volume fraction of the cancellous layer across the population, is unavailable in the current literature. This information is of particular importance to mathematical models of the human head used to simulate mechanical response. Although the target geometry for these models is the median geometry of the population, the best attempt so far has been the scaling of a unique geometry based on a few median anthropometric measurements of the head. However, this method does not represent the median geometry. This paper reports the average three dimensional geometry of the calvarium from X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging and layer thickness and trabecular volume fraction from micro CT (μCT) imaging of ten adult male post-mortem human surrogates (PMHS). Skull bone samples have been obtained and μCT imaging was done at a resolution of 30 μm. Monte Carlo simulation was done to estimate the variance in these measurements due to the uncertainty in image segmentation. The layer thickness data has been averaged over areas of 5mm(2). The outer cortical layer was found to be significantly (p < 0.01; Student's t test) thicker than the inner layer (median of thickness ratio 1.68). Although there was significant location to location difference in all the layer thicknesses and volume fraction measurements, there was no trend. Average distribution and the variance of these metrics on the calvarium have been shown. The findings have been reported as colormaps on a 2D projection of the cranial vault. PMID:25920690

  19. The ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord differs from other species and shows ependymoma-like features.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Florensa-Vila, José; Ferrer, Isidro; Grassner, Lukas; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo

    2015-06-01

    Several laboratories have described the existence of undifferentiated precursor cells that may act like stem cells in the ependyma of the rodent spinal cord. However, there are reports showing that this region is occluded and disassembled in humans after the second decade of life, although this has been largely ignored or interpreted as a post-mortem artefact. To gain insight into the patency, actual structure, and molecular properties of the adult human spinal cord ependymal region, we followed three approaches: (i) with MRI, we estimated the central canal patency in 59 control subjects, 99 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury, and 26 patients with non-traumatic spinal cord injuries. We observed that the central canal is absent from the vast majority of individuals beyond the age of 18 years, gender-independently, throughout the entire length of the spinal cord, both in healthy controls and after injury; (ii) with histology and immunohistochemistry, we describe morphological properties of the non-lesioned ependymal region, which showed the presence of perivascular pseudorosettes, a common feature of ependymoma; and (iii) with laser capture microdissection, followed by TaqMan® low density arrays, we studied the gene expression profile of the ependymal region and found that it is mainly enriched in genes compatible with a low grade or quiescent ependymoma (53 genes); this region is enriched only in 14 genes related to neurogenic niches. In summary, we demonstrate here that the central canal is mainly absent in the adult human spinal cord and is replaced by a structure morphologically and molecularly different from that described for rodents and other primates. The presented data suggest that the ependymal region is more likely to be reminiscent of a low-grade ependymoma. Therefore, a direct translation to adult human patients of an eventual therapeutic potential of this region based on animal models should be approached with caution. PMID:25882650

  20. The ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord differs from other species and shows ependymoma-like features

    PubMed Central

    Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Florensa-Vila, José; Ferrer, Isidro; Grassner, Lukas; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Several laboratories have described the existence of undifferentiated precursor cells that may act like stem cells in the ependyma of the rodent spinal cord. However, there are reports showing that this region is occluded and disassembled in humans after the second decade of life, although this has been largely ignored or interpreted as a post-mortem artefact. To gain insight into the patency, actual structure, and molecular properties of the adult human spinal cord ependymal region, we followed three approaches: (i) with MRI, we estimated the central canal patency in 59 control subjects, 99 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury, and 26 patients with non-traumatic spinal cord injuries. We observed that the central canal is absent from the vast majority of individuals beyond the age of 18 years, gender-independently, throughout the entire length of the spinal cord, both in healthy controls and after injury; (ii) with histology and immunohistochemistry, we describe morphological properties of the non-lesioned ependymal region, which showed the presence of perivascular pseudorosettes, a common feature of ependymoma; and (iii) with laser capture microdissection, followed by TaqMan® low density arrays, we studied the gene expression profile of the ependymal region and found that it is mainly enriched in genes compatible with a low grade or quiescent ependymoma (53 genes); this region is enriched only in 14 genes related to neurogenic niches. In summary, we demonstrate here that the central canal is mainly absent in the adult human spinal cord and is replaced by a structure morphologically and molecularly different from that described for rodents and other primates. The presented data suggest that the ependymal region is more likely to be reminiscent of a low-grade ependymoma. Therefore, a direct translation to adult human patients of an eventual therapeutic potential of this region based on animal models should be approached with caution. PMID:25882650

  1. Post-mortem levels and tissue distribution of codeine, codeine-6-glucuronide, norcodeine, morphine and morphine glucuronides in a series of codeine-related deaths.

    PubMed

    Frost, Joachim; Løkken, Trine Nordgård; Helland, Arne; Nordrum, Ivar Skjåk; Slørdal, Lars

    2016-05-01

    This article presents levels and tissue distribution of codeine, codeine-6-glucuronide (C6G), norcodeine, morphine and the morphine metabolites morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) in post-mortem blood (peripheral and heart blood), vitreous fluid, muscle, fat and brain tissue in a series of 23 codeine-related fatalities. CYP2D6 genotype is also determined and taken into account. Quantification of codeine, C6G, norcodeine, morphine, M3G and M6G was performed with a validated solid phase extraction LC-MS method. The series comprise 19 deaths (83%) attributed to mixed drug intoxication, 4 deaths (17%) attributed to other causes of death, and no cases of unambiguous monointoxication with codeine. The typical peripheral blood concentration pattern in individual cases was C6G≫codeine≫norcodeine>morphine, and M3G>M6G>morphine. In matrices other than blood, the concentration pattern was similar, although in a less systematic fashion. Measured concentrations were generally lower in matrices other than blood, especially in brain and fat, and in particular for the glucuronides (C6G, M3G and M6G) and, to some extent, morphine. In brain tissue, the presumed active moieties morphine and M6G were both below the LLOQ (0.0080mg/L and 0.058mg/L, respectively) in a majority of cases. In general, there was a large variability in both measured concentrations and calculated blood/tissue concentration ratios. There was also a large variability in calculated ratios of morphine to codeine, C6G to codeine and norcodeine to codeine in all matrices, and CYP2D6 genotype was not a reliable predictor of these ratios. The different blood/tissue concentration ratios showed no systematic relationship with the post-mortem interval. No coherent degradation or formation patterns for codeine, morphine, M3G and M6G were observed upon reanalysis in peripheral blood after storage. PMID:26986973

  2. Early post mortem expression of genes related to tenderization in two Italian Simmental young bulls' skeletal muscles differing in contractile type.

    PubMed

    Saccà, Elena; Corazzin, Mirco; Pizzutti, Nicoletta; Lippe, Giovanna; Piasentier, Edi

    2015-12-01

    The early post mortem expression of eight genes potentially involved in meat ageing process and the tenderness of two Italian Simmental young bulls' (Bos taurus) skeletal muscles differing in their contractile type were evaluated. Samples of Longissimus lumborum (LL) and Infraspinatus (IS) muscles were collected from 17 bulls. The messenger RNA (mRNA) abundances of calpain-1, calpain-2, calpastatin, caspase 3, caspase 9, heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27), Hsp40 and Hsp70 were detected by quantitative PCR. The myosin heavy chain-slow and -fast isoform content, the pH48h and the lipid content of the muscles were in line with the contractile and metabolic type. In comparison with the fast LL, the slow IS showed a lower calpain-1/calpastatin mRNA content ratio after slaughtering and a higher Warner-Bratzler Initial Yield value after 7 days of ageing. Hsp27 and Hsp70 mRNA abundances were significantly lower in LL than IS, highlighting their potential role in the ageing process of bovine muscles. PMID:26152790

  3. Simultaneous screening and quantification of 25 opioid drugs in post-mortem blood and urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gergov, M; Nokua, P; Vuori, E; Ojanperä, I

    2009-04-15

    A method for simultaneous screening and quantification was developed for the fentanyls alfentanil, fentanyl, p-fluorofentanyl, cis-3-methylfentanyl, trans-3-methylfentanyl, alpha-methylfentanyl, norfentanyl, remifentanil, sufentanil, and the other opioid drugs 6-acetylmorphine, buprenorphine, codeine, dextropropoxyphene, ethylmorphine, heroin, methadone, morphine, naloxone, naltrexone, norbuprenorphine, normethadone, oxycodone, pentazocine, pethidine, and tramadol in post-mortem blood and urine samples by LC-MS/MS. Samples were extracted with butyl acetate at pH 7. The drugs were separated by LC on a Genesis C(18) reversed-phase column, with a gradient consisting of acetonitrile and ammonium acetate at pH 3.2. The mass spectrometric analysis was performed with a quadrupole-linear ion-trap mass spectrometer equipped with a turbo ion spray interface in positive mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Quantification was performed based on five isotope-labelled internal standards. Validation included assessment of linearity, limit of quantification, inaccuracy, precision, and matrix effects. The limits of quantification were adequate for screening and quantification of opioid drugs at low therapeutic or abuse concentration levels, with inaccuracy less than 23% and precision better than 24% both in blood and urine samples. When this method was applied to autopsy cases, its results were in agreement with those of reference methods. PMID:19232849

  4. Epidemiological study of non-systemic parasitism in dogs in southeast Mediterranean Spain assessed by coprological and post-mortem examination.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Carrasco, C; Berriatua, E; Garijo, M; Martínez, J; Alonso, F D; de Ybáñez, R Ruiz

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence and risk factors of non-systemic canine ecto- and endoparasitism and anthelminthic use in Murcia located at the centre of the Spanish Mediterranean coastal arch, was investigated by coprology and necropsy in up to 275 pet, city shelter and stray dogs in 2001-2004. Faecal parasite stages were detected in 25% of dogs. Species frequency was 6-10% for Toxocara canis, Ancylostomatidae spp., Toxascaris leonina and Isospora canis, and 0.4-1% for Trichuris vulpis, Giardia lamblia, and Dipylidium caninum. Logistic regression indicated that the risk of intestinal parasitism was highest for dogs post-mortem and coprological examination for intestinal parasites was generally poor. Necropsy revealed 10%G. lamblia, 12%Taenia spp. 38%D. caninum infections. Fleas, ticks and lice were also found in 38%, 6% and 2% of necropsied stray dogs. These results demonstrate the need for an urgent parasite control programme at the city dog shelter and the need to improve the owner's education on zoonotic risks, the proper use of anthelminthics, and other parasite control practices. PMID:17542962

  5. Metabolomic Profiling of Post-Mortem Brain Reveals Changes in Amino Acid and Glucose Metabolism in Mental Illness Compared with Controls.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Tong; Ali, Ali Muhsen; Al Washih, Mohammed; Pickard, Benjamin; Watson, David G

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomic profiling was carried out on 53 post-mortem brain samples from subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder (SDB), diabetes, and controls. Chromatography on a ZICpHILIC column was used with detection by Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Data extraction was carried out with m/z Mine 2.14 with metabolite searching against an in-house database. There was no clear discrimination between the controls and the SDB samples on the basis of a principal components analysis (PCA) model of 755 identified or putatively identified metabolites. Orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLSDA) produced clear separation between 17 of the controls and 19 of the SDB samples (R2CUM 0.976, Q2 0.671, p-value of the cross-validated ANOVA score 0.0024). The most important metabolites producing discrimination were the lipophilic amino acids leucine/isoleucine, proline, methionine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine; the neurotransmitters GABA and NAAG and sugar metabolites sorbitol, gluconic acid, xylitol, ribitol, arabinotol, and erythritol. Eight samples from diabetic brains were analysed, six of which grouped with the SDB samples without compromising the model (R2 CUM 0.850, Q2 CUM 0.534, p-value for cross-validated ANOVA score 0.00087). There appears on the basis of this small sample set to be some commonality between metabolic perturbations resulting from diabetes and from SDB. PMID:27076878

  6. Metabolomic Profiling of Post-Mortem Brain Reveals Changes in Amino Acid and Glucose Metabolism in Mental Illness Compared with Controls

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Tong; Ali, Ali Muhsen; Al Washih, Mohammed; Pickard, Benjamin; Watson, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomic profiling was carried out on 53 post-mortem brain samples from subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder (SDB), diabetes, and controls. Chromatography on a ZICpHILIC column was used with detection by Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Data extraction was carried out with m/z Mine 2.14 with metabolite searching against an in-house database. There was no clear discrimination between the controls and the SDB samples on the basis of a principal components analysis (PCA) model of 755 identified or putatively identified metabolites. Orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLSDA) produced clear separation between 17 of the controls and 19 of the SDB samples (R2CUM 0.976, Q2 0.671, p-value of the cross-validated ANOVA score 0.0024). The most important metabolites producing discrimination were the lipophilic amino acids leucine/isoleucine, proline, methionine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine; the neurotransmitters GABA and NAAG and sugar metabolites sorbitol, gluconic acid, xylitol, ribitol, arabinotol, and erythritol. Eight samples from diabetic brains were analysed, six of which grouped with the SDB samples without compromising the model (R2 CUM 0.850, Q2 CUM 0.534, p-value for cross-validated ANOVA score 0.00087). There appears on the basis of this small sample set to be some commonality between metabolic perturbations resulting from diabetes and from SDB. PMID:27076878

  7. A post mortem 3-D Brain Hemisphere Cortical Tau and Amyloid–β Pathology Mapping and Quantification as a Validation Method of Neuropathology Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Smid, Lojze M.; Kepe, Vladimir; Vinters, Harry V.; Bresjanac, Mara; Toyokuni, Tatsushi; Satyamurthy, N.; Wong, Koon-Pong; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Silverman, Daniel H.S.; Miller, Karen; Small, Gary W.; Barrio, Jorge R.

    2013-01-01

    This work is aimed at correlating pre mortem [F-18]FDDNP PET scan results in a patient with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), with cortical neuropathology distribution determined post mortem in three physical dimensions in whole brain coronal sections. Analysis of total Aβ distribution in frontal cortex and posterior cingulate gyrus confirmed its statistically significant correlation with cortical [F-18]FDDNP PET binding values (distribution volume ratios, DVR) (p<0.001, R=0.97, R2=0.94). Neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) distribution correlated significantly with cortical [F-18]FDDNP PET DVR in the temporal lobe (p<0.001, R=0.87, R2=0.76). Linear combination of Aβ and NFT densities was highly predictive of [F-18]FDDNP-PET DVR through all analyzed regions of interest (p<0.0001, R=0.92, R2=0.85), and both densities contributed significantly to the model. Lewy bodies (LB) were present at a much lower level than either Aβ or NFTs and did not significantly contribute to the in vivo signal. [F-18]FDG PET scan results in this patient were consistent with the distinctive DLB pattern of hypometabolism. This work offers a mapping brain model applicable to all imaging probes for verification of imaging results with Aβ and/or tau neuropathology brain distribution using immunohistochemistry, fluorescence microscopy and autoradiography. PMID:23568102

  8. Identification of Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated by post mortem examinations of a bearded dragon and a gecko by phenotypic and genotypic properties

    PubMed Central

    Ülbegi-Mohyla, H.; Hijazin, M.; Alber, J.; Hassan, A. A.; Abdulmawjood, A.; Prenger-Berninghoff, E.; Weiß, R.; Zschöck, M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to identify phenotypically and genotypically two Arcanobacterium (A.) pyogenes strains isolated by post mortem examinations of a bearded dragon and a gecko. The A. pyogenes strains showed the typical biochemical properties and displayed CAMP-like synergistic hemolytic activities with various indicator strains. The species identity could be confirmed genotypically by amplification and sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene and, as novel target gene, by sequencing of the beta subunit of RNA polymerase encoding gene rpoB, of both strains and of reference strains representing nine species of the genus Arcanobacterium. The species identity of the two A. pyogenes strains could additionally be confirmed by PCR mediated amplification of species specific parts of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region, the pyolysin encoding gene plo and by amplification of the collagen-binding protein encoding gene cbpA. All these molecular targets might help to improve the future identification and further characterization of A. pyogenes which, as demonstrated in the present study, could also be isolated from reptile specimens. PMID:20706035

  9. Identification of Arcanobacterium pyogenes isolated by post mortem examinations of a bearded dragon and a gecko by phenotypic and genotypic properties.

    PubMed

    Ulbegi-Mohyla, H; Hijazin, M; Alber, J; Lämmler, C; Hassan, A A; Abdulmawjood, A; Prenger-Berninghoff, E; Weiss, R; Zschöck, M

    2010-09-01

    The present study was designed to identify phenotypically and genotypically two Arcanobacterium (A.) pyogenes strains isolated by post mortem examinations of a bearded dragon and a gecko. The A. pyogenes strains showed the typical biochemical properties and displayed CAMP-like synergistic hemolytic activities with various indicator strains. The species identity could be confirmed genotypically by amplification and sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene and, as novel target gene, by sequencing of the beta subunit of RNA polymerase encoding gene rpoB, of both strains and of reference strains representing nine species of the genus Arcanobacterium. The species identity of the two A. pyogenes strains could additionally be confirmed by PCR mediated amplification of species specific parts of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region, the pyolysin encoding gene plo and by amplification of the collagen-binding protein encoding gene cbpA. All these molecular targets might help to improve the future identification and further characterization of A. pyogenes which, as demonstrated in the present study, could also be isolated from reptile specimens. PMID:20706035

  10. Tissue microscopic changes and artifacts in multi-phase post-mortem computed tomography angiography in a hospital setting: a fatal case of systemic vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Capuani, Caroline; Guilbeau-Frugier, Céline; Mokrane, Fatima-Zohra; Delisle, Marie-Bernadette; Marcheix, Bertrand; Rousseau, Hervé; Telmon, Norbert; Rougé, Daniel; Dedouit, Fabrice

    2014-09-01

    A 27-year-old man suddenly died in hospital of acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to severe systemic vasculitis. Multi-phase post-mortem computed tomography angiography followed by scientific autopsy of the thoracic and abdominal cavity and histology was performed, illustrating the advantages and drawbacks of such techniques. Imaging enabled us to examine the cranium, as the family refused cerebral dissection. MPMCTA revealed absence of opacification of the left middle cerebral artery. But parenchymal findings of thoracic and abdominal organs were still difficult to interpret after both imaging and macroscopic examination during the autopsy. Microscopic examination provided the definitive diagnosis of cause of death. Analysis revealed systemic vasculitis of the lung complicated by diffuse alveolar, mediastinal, splenic and retroperitoneal lesions. We were unable to determine the type of vasculitis, whether polyarteritis nodosa or microscopic polyangiitis, because of artifactual glomerular collapse. We observed some structural changes in tissue secondary to contrast agent injection, affecting the vascular system and renal parenchyma in particular. Such artifacts must be known in order to avoid misinterpreting them as pathological findings. MPMCTA and conventional autopsy are two complementary techniques showing both their specific advantages and limits which have to be known in order to choose the appropriate technique. One limit of both techniques is the detection of microscopic findings which can only be obtained by additional histological examination. This case report underlines this fact and demonstrates that caution is required in some cases if microscopic analyses are carried out after contrast agent injection. PMID:25085763

  11. Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: region-specific analysis of organic acids and acylcarnitines in post mortem brain predicts vulnerability of the putamen.

    PubMed

    Kölker, S; Hoffmann, G F; Schor, D S M; Feyh, P; Wagner, L; Jeffrey, I; Pourfarzam, M; Okun, J G; Zschocke, J; Baric, I; Bain, M D; Jakobs, C; Chalmers, R A

    2003-06-01

    The neurometabolic disorder glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) deficiency is biochemically characterised by an accumulation of the marker metabolites 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, glutaric acid, and glutarylcarnitine. If untreated, the disease is complicated by acute encephalopathic crises, resulting in neurodegeneration of vulnerable brain regions, in particular the putamen. 3-hydroxyglutaric acid is considered the major neurotoxin in this disease. There are only preliminary data concerning glutaric acid concentrations in the brains of affected children and the distribution of 3-hydroxyglutaric acid and glutarylcarnitine has not been described. In the present study, we investigated post mortem the distribution of 3-hydroxyglutaric and glutaric acids as well as glutarylcarnitine in 14 different brain regions, internal organs, and body fluids (urine, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid) in a 14-year-old boy. 3-Hydroxyglutaric acid showed the highest concentration (62 nmol/g protein) in the putamen among all brain areas investigated. The glutarylcarnitine concentration was also highest in the putamen (7.1 nmol/g protein). We suggest that the regional-specific differences in the relative concentrations of 3-hydroxyglutaric acid contribute to the pattern of neuronal damage in this disease. These results provide an explanatory basis for the high vulnerability of the putamen in this disease, adding to the strong corticostriatal glutamatergic input into the putamen and the high excitotoxic susceptibility of neostriatal medium spiny neurons. PMID:14598231

  12. 9 CFR 381.76 - Post-mortem inspection, when required; extent; traditional, Streamlined Inspection System (SIS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... eviscerated shall be opened so as to expose the organs and the body cavity for proper examination by the... not needed for inspection purposes and are not intended for human food and are condemned. (b)(1) There...; extent; traditional, Streamlined Inspection System (SIS), New Line Speed (NELS) Inspection System and...

  13. 9 CFR 381.76 - Post-mortem inspection, when required; extent; traditional, Streamlined Inspection System (SIS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... eviscerated shall be opened so as to expose the organs and the body cavity for proper examination by the... not needed for inspection purposes and are not intended for human food and are condemned. (b)(1) There...; extent; traditional, Streamlined Inspection System (SIS), New Line Speed (NELS) Inspection System and...

  14. 9 CFR 381.76 - Post-mortem inspection, when required; extent; traditional, Streamlined Inspection System (SIS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... eviscerated shall be opened so as to expose the organs and the body cavity for proper examination by the... not needed for inspection purposes and are not intended for human food and are condemned. (b)(1) There...; extent; traditional, Streamlined Inspection System (SIS), New Line Speed (NELS) Inspection System and...

  15. Arts & Humanities in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Word's Worth: A Quarterly Newsletter of the Lifelong Learning Network, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly newsletter on lifelong learning focuses on the theme of the arts and humanities in adult literacy education. The following articles are included: (1) "In Defense of a Practical Education" (Earl Shorris); (2) "From the Program Director" (Elizabeth Bryant McCrary); (3) "Vermont Council on the Humanities: Book Discussion…

  16. Early and 24 h post-mortem changes in breast muscle quality traits of two turkey genotypes and their reciprocal crosses raised under semi-confined conditions.

    PubMed

    Damaziak, K; Pietrzak, D; Michalczuk, M; Adamczak, L; Chmiel, M; Florowski, T; Gozdowski, D; Niemiec, J

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of reciprocal crossing of turkeys on early and 24 h post-mortem changes in quality traits of their breast muscles. The turkeys of slow-growing (SG) and fast-growing (FG) lines as well as SF (SG × FG) and FS crosses (FG × SG) were reared with access to free range. After slaughter turkey breast muscles were examined in the following terms: 5 min, 45 min, 2 h and 24 h post-mortem, for: temperature, pH, glycogen content (G), lactate content (L) and electrical conductivity (EC). Quality attributes of the breast meat were evaluated based on chemical composition, water holding capacity (WHC), cooking loss (%), shear force (N) and colour (L*, a*, b*). Despite differences in the rate of post-mortem changes, the genotype of turkeys had no significant effect upon many quality traits assessed 24 h post-mortem. Meat of lighter birds (SG and SF) was characterised by a lower fat content but a similar protein content compared to meat of FS and FG turkeys. In addition, meat of males from these groups was darker. Meat from the breast muscles of heavier birds (FS and FG) was harder. Significant negative maternal effects were determined for temperature of meat of both male and female turkeys, for pH2 and EC24 of males as well as for L2, L24 and cooking loss of female meat. Positive heterosis was confirmed only for pH2 of female meat and for G2 of male meat. In summary, the direction of fast- and slow-growing turkey crossing may affect the quality of their meat. However, meat of both types of hybrids reared under semi-confined conditions (with the possibility of using free range) was characterised by appropriate quality parameters. PMID:26927475

  17. Development, appraisal, validation and implementation of a consensus protocol for the assessment of cerebral amyloid angiopathy in post-mortem brain tissue

    PubMed Central

    Love, Seth; Chalmers, Katy; Ince, Paul; Esiri, Margaret; Attems, Johannes; Kalaria, Raj; Jellinger, Kurt; Yamada, Masahito; McCarron, Mark; Minett, Thais; Matthews, Fiona; Greenberg, Steven; Mann, David; Kehoe, Patrick Gavin

    2015-01-01

    In a collaboration involving 11 groups with research interests in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), we used a two-stage process to develop and in turn validate a new consensus protocol and scoring scheme for the assessment of CAA and associated vasculopathic abnormalities in post-mortem brain tissue. Stage one used an iterative Delphi-style survey to develop the consensus protocol. The resultant scoring scheme was tested on a series of digital images and paraffin sections that were circulated blind to a number of scorers. The scoring scheme and choice of staining methods were refined by open-forum discussion. The agreed protocol scored parenchymal and meningeal CAA on a 0-3 scale, capillary CAA as present/absent and vasculopathy on 0-2 scale, in the 4 cortical lobes that were scored separately. A further assessment involving three centres was then undertaken. Neuropathologists in three centres (Bristol, Oxford and Sheffield) independently scored sections from 75 cases (25 from each centre) and high inter-rater reliability was demonstrated. Stage two used the results of the three-centre assessment to validate the protocol by investigating previously described associations between APOE genotype (previously determined), and both CAA and vasculopathy. Association of capillary CAA with or without arteriolar CAA with APOE ε4 was confirmed. However APOE ε2 was also found to be a strong risk factor for the development of CAA, not only in AD but also in elderly non-demented controls. Further validation of this protocol and scoring scheme is encouraged, to aid its wider adoption to facilitate collaborative and replication studies of CAA. PMID:26807344

  18. Comparison of molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) with classical solid-phase extraction (SPE) for the detection of benzodiazepines in post-mortem hair samples.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Robert A; Ariffin, Marinah M; Cormack, Peter A G; Miller, Eleanor I

    2008-01-15

    This preliminary study compares the benzodiazepine results for 10 post-mortem scalp hair samples using a classical solid-phase extraction (SPE) and a molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) system. The hair samples selected for testing were from drug-related deaths where a positive benzodiazepine blood result was obtained. Samples were decontaminated with 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate, distilled water and dichloromethane, incubated overnight in methanol/25% aqueous ammonium hydroxide (20:1), extracted by SPE or MISPE and subsequently analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Both extraction methods detected diazepam, nordiazepam, oxazepam, temazepam and nitrazepam in the samples. Diazepam was detected in a greater number of samples using MISPE due to both its lower limit of detection (LOD) and higher extraction recovery as a result of excellent molecular recognition of the template (diazepam) imparted by the imprinting process. The selective recognition of two diazepam analogues, nordiazepam and oxazepam, was demonstrated using MISPE since they were also detected in a greater number of samples. In contrast, another diazepam analogue, temazepam, was detected in a greater number of samples using SPE since the LOD using this extraction was lower than with MISPE. Nitrazepam was detected in one sample using both extraction methods. Overall the MISPE and SPE hair results were in good qualitative agreement. For the samples, where both extraction methods detected nordiazepam, temazepam and oxazepam, the concentrations were always higher for SPE. This is probably due to the MIP procedure producing extracts with fewer matrix interferences than the extracts produced using the classical SPE method. MISPE could be used as a complementary method to classical SPE for the analysis of benzodiazepine positive hair samples collected from chronic users. PMID:17467213

  19. A comparison of post-mortem findings in broilers dead-on-farm and broilers dead-on-arrival at the abattoir.

    PubMed

    Kittelsen, K E; Granquist, E G; Kolbjørnsen, Ø; Nafstad, O; Moe, R O

    2015-11-01

    Broiler mortality during transport to abattoirs (dead-on-arrival/DOA) evokes concern due to compromised animal welfare and associated economic losses. The general aim of this study was to characterize pathological lesions associated with mortality in broilers close to slaughter. The specific aim was to investigate whether disease at the end of the growth period may be a predisposing factor for DOA by describing and comparing the pathological findings in broilers dead-on-farm (DOF) in the final days of the production cycle and in broilers DOA from the same flocks. Gross post-mortem examinations were performed on 607 broilers from 32 flocks, either DOF (371) or DOA (236). In DOF broilers, the most common pathological lesions were lung congestion (37.7%), endocarditis (29.4%), and ascites (24.0%), whereas the most common findings in broilers DOA were lung congestion (57.2%) and trauma (24.6%). Lung congestion was more prevalent among DOA broilers compared to DOF broilers (P-value of > 0.001). A possible cause behind the pathological finding lung congestion is sudden death syndrome (SDS). The study indicates that steps in the transportation process per se cause the majority of pathological lesions such as lung congestion and trauma that may have led to the mortalities registered. Pre-existing diseases such as ascites and osteomyelitis may also predispose for DOA. Thus, factors relating to on-farm health, catching, and transportation are all areas of future investigation in order to reduce transport mortalities and to enhance welfare in broilers. PMID:26500266

  20. Network Topology Analysis of Post-Mortem Brain Microarrays Identifies More Alzheimer's Related Genes and MicroRNAs and Points to Novel Routes for Fighting with the Disease.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Sreedevi; Bonchev, Danail

    2016-01-01

    Network-based approaches are powerful and beneficial tools to study complex systems in their entirety, elucidating the essential factors that turn the multitude of individual elements into a functional system. In this study we used critical network topology descriptors and guilt-by-association rule to explore and understand the significant molecular players, drug targets and underlying biological mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease. Analyzing two post-mortem brain gene microarrays (GSE4757 and GSE28146) with Pathway Studio software package we constructed and analyzed a set of protein-protein interaction, as well as miRNA-target networks. In a 4-step procedure the expression datasets were normalized using Robust Multi-array Average approach, while the modulation of gene expression by the disease was statistically evaluated by the empirical Bayes method from the limma Bioconductor package. Representative set of 214 seed-genes (p<0.01) common for the three brain sections of the two microarrays was thus created. The Pathway Studio analysis of the networks built identified 15 new potential AD-related genes and 17 novel AD-involved microRNAs. Using KEGG pathways relevant in Alzheimer's disease we built an integrated mechanistic network from the interactions between the overlapping genes in these pathways. Routes of possible disease initiation process were thus revealed through the CD4, DCN, and IL8 extracellular ligands. DAVID and IPA enrichment analysis uncovered a number of deregulated biological processes and pathways including neuron projection/differentiation, aging, oxidative stress, chemokine/ neurotrophin signaling, long-term potentiation and others. The findings in this study offer information of interest for subsequent experimental studies. PMID:26784894

  1. A highly selective molecularly imprinted sorbent for extraction of 2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid--Synthesis, characterization and application in post-mortem whole blood analysis.

    PubMed

    Luliński, Piotr; Giebułtowicz, Joanna; Wroczyński, Piotr; Maciejewska, Dorota

    2015-11-13

    In this paper, the optimized synthesis and detailed characterization of novel imprinted material for selective extraction of 2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) were described. The prepolymeric system contained 1-allyl-2-thiourea and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in methanol, tetrahydrofuran and dimethyl sulfoxide porogenic mixture and 2-aminothiazole-4-carboxylic acid which was used as the template for ATCA. This structural analog of the target analyte was found to provide the imprinted polymer with sufficient binding capacity (60.7 ± 0.9 μg g(-1)) and high selectivity (imprinting factor equal to 18.4) toward ATCA. The adsorption of ATCA was analyzed by the Langmuir model. The heterogeneous population of binding sites on the imprinted polymer was characterized by dissociation constants equal to 3.72 μg L(-1) and 435 μg L(-1) for high and low affinity binding sites, respectively. The morphology of the polymer was studied employing SEM and BET analyses and the composition was confirmed by EDS and (13)C CP/MAS NMR analyses. Adsorption of amino acids on the imprinted material was tested to analyze the impact of the sample components. The superiority of the imprinted sorbent was proved in a novel dispersive solid phase extraction procedure of ATCA from post-mortem whole blood with respect to the extraction efficacy on the commercial ion-exchange sorbents. The limit of quantification and limit of detection of ATCA in the new analytical method were 12 μg L(-1) and 3.5 μg L(-1), respectively. The recovery of ATCA was in the range of 81-89% and the precision of the method ranged from 1.5 to 2.7%. PMID:26463428

  2. [Post-mortem organ donation].

    PubMed

    Goroll, T; Gerresheim, G; Schaffartzik, W; Schwemmer, U

    2015-07-01

    In Germany approximately 3000 body organs are transplanted annually. In general, all artificially ventilated patients with diagnosed brain death are potential organ donors. All German hospitals are obliged to report potential organ donors and be actively involved in the organ donation process. These matters lie under the jurisdiction of the German transplantation act. An essential prerequisite for organ donation is the diagnosis of brain death according to the guidelines of the German Medical Association. Brain death is associated with complex pathophysiological changes in cardiopulmonary function as well as fluid, electrolyte and metabolic homeostasis. In the case of diagnosed brain death and with permission for organ donation, a precise organ-protective therapy is initiated, essentially focussing on optimal organ perfusion and oxygenation. The quality of organ protection has a direct influence on the outcome of transplantation. PMID:26174748

  3. Neurofibrillary tangle pathology and Braak staging in chronic epilepsy in relation to traumatic brain injury and hippocampal sclerosis: a post-mortem study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Joan Y.W.; Thompson, Pam; Phadke, Rahul; Narkiewicz, Marta; Martinian, Lillian; Marsdon, Derek; Koepp, Matthias; Caboclo, Luis; Catarino, Claudia B.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.

    2011-01-01

    The long-term pathological effects of chronic epilepsy on normal brain ageing are unknown. Previous clinical and epidemiological studies show progressive cognitive decline in subsets of patients and an increased prevalence of Alzheimer's disease in epilepsy. In a post-mortem series of 138 patients with long-term, mainly drug-resistant epilepsy, we carried out Braak staging for Alzheimer's disease neurofibrillary pathology using tau protein immunohistochemistry. The stages were compared with clinicopathological factors, including seizure history and presence of old traumatic brain injury. Overall, 31% of cases were Braak Stage 0, 36% Stage I/II, 31% Stage III/IV and 2% Stage V/VI. The mean age at death was 56.5 years and correlated with Braak stage (P < 0.001). Analysis of Braak stages within age groups showed a significant increase in mid-Braak stages (III/IV), in middle age (40–65 years) compared with data from an ageing non-epilepsy series (P < 0.01). There was no clear relationship between seizure type (generalized or complex partial), seizure frequency, age of onset and duration of epilepsy with Braak stage although higher Braak stages were noted with focal more than with generalized epilepsy syndromes (P < 0.01). In 30% of patients, there was pathological evidence of traumatic brain injury that was significantly associated with higher Braak stages (P < 0.001). Cerebrovascular disease present in 40.3% and cortical malformations in 11.3% were not significantly associated with Braak stage. Astrocytic-tau protein correlated with the presence of both traumatic brain injury (P < 0.01) and high Braak stage (P < 0.001). Hippocampal sclerosis, identified in 40% (bilateral in 48%), was not associated with higher Braak stages, but asymmetrical patterns of tau protein accumulation within the sclerotic hippocampus were noted. In over half of patients with cognitive decline, the Braak stage was low indicating causes other than Alzheimer's disease

  4. Human organotypic retinal cultures (HORCs) as a chronic experimental model for investigation of retinal ganglion cell degeneration.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Andrew; Hopes, Marina; Wright, Phillip; Broadway, David C; Sanderson, Julie

    2016-02-01

    There is a growing need for models of human diseases that utilise native, donated human tissue in order to model disease processes and develop novel therapeutic strategies. In this paper we assessed the suitability of adult human retinal explants as a potential model of chronic retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration. Our results confirmed that RGC markers commonly used in rodent studies (NeuN, βIII Tubulin and Thy-1) were appropriate for labelling human RGCs and followed the expected differential expression patterns across, as well as throughout, the macular and para-macular regions of the retina. Furthermore, we showed that neither donor age nor post-mortem time (within 24 h) significantly affected the initial expression levels of RGC markers. In addition, the feasibility of using human post mortem donor tissue as a long-term model of RGC degeneration was determined with RGC protein being detectable up to 4 weeks in culture with an associated decline in RGC mRNA and significant, progressive, apoptotic labelling of NeuN(+) cells. Differences in RGC apoptosis might have been influenced by medium compositions indicating that media constituents could play a role in supporting axotomised RGCs. We propose that using ex vivo human explants may prove to be a useful model for testing the effectiveness of neuroprotective strategies. PMID:26432917

  5. [An entomological case report during the winter months: estimation of the post-mortem interval considering the influence of cold temperatures on the development of the forensically important blowfly Calliphora vomitoria].

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Waltraud; Reibe, Saskia; Madea, Burkhard

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe a case report with entomological estimation of the post-mortem interval in the winter months. In early December 2007, the body of a suicide was discovered not far from a lake near Bonn in North Rhine-Westphalia four weeks after the man had disappeared from a hospital. The corpse was very well preserved and did not show any signs of advanced putrefaction. The stage of decomposition did not allow a correct estimation of the time since death. Infestation of insect larvae of the species Calliphora vomitoria was detected in the oral cavity as well as in the self-inflicted deep cut to the throat responsible for death. The age of the larvae was determined by considering the specific minimum threshold of the species (minimum temperature necessary for development). To estimate the time until the blowflies detect the body and start to oviposit, the authors ran an experiment with a pig in a comparable environment with similar temperatures. Altogether, these investigations suggested that the man had committed suicide shortly after disappearing from the hospital. Without the entomological evaluation it would have been very difficult to narrow down the post-mortem interval correctly. PMID:19432091

  6. Debridement of cartilage lesions before autologous chondrocyte implantation by open or transarthroscopic techniques: a comparative study using post-mortem materials.

    PubMed

    Drobnic, M; Radosavljevic, D; Cör, A; Brittberg, M; Strazar, K

    2010-04-01

    We compared the quality of debridement of chondral lesions performed by four arthroscopic (SH, shaver; CU, curette; SHCU, shaver and curette; BP, bipolar electrodes) and one open technique (OPEN, scalpel and curette) which are used prior to autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI). The ex vivo simulation of all five techniques was carried out on six juvenile equine stifle joints. The OPEN, SH and SHCU techniques were tested on knees harvested from six adult human cadavers. The most vertical walls with the least adjacent damage to cartilage were obtained with the OPEN technique. The CU and SHCU methods gave inferior, but still acceptable results whereas the SH technique alone resulted in a crater-like defect and the BP method undermined the cartilage wall. The subchondral bone was severely violated in all the equine samples which might have been peculiar to this model. The predominant depth of the debridement in the adult human samples was at the level of the calcified cartilage. Some minor penetrations of the subchondral end-plate were induced regardless of the instrumentation used. Our study suggests that not all routine arthroscopic instruments are suitable for the preparation of a defect for ACI. We have shown that the preferred debridement technique is either open or arthroscopically-assisted manual curettage. The use of juvenile equine stifles was not appropriate for the study of the cartilage-subchondral bone interface. PMID:20357342

  7. Kinetic and kinematic responses of post mortem human surrogates and the Hybrid III ATD in high-speed frontal sled tests.

    PubMed

    Beeman, Stephanie M; Kemper, Andrew R; Madigan, Michael L; Duma, Stefan M

    2013-06-01

    Despite improvements in vehicle design and safety technologies, frontal automotive collisions continue to result in a substantial number of injuries and fatalities each year. Although a considerable amount of research has been performed on PMHSs and ATDs, matched dynamic whole-body frontal testing with PMHSs and the current ATD aimed at quantifying both kinetic and kinematic data in a single controlled study is lacking in the literature. Therefore, a total of 4 dynamic matched frontal sled tests were performed with three male PMHSs and a Hybrid III 50th percentile male ATD (28.6g, Δv=40 kph). Each subject was restrained using a 4 kN load limiting, driver-side, 3-point seatbelt. Belt force was measured for the lap belt and shoulder belt. Reaction forces were measured at the seat pan, seat back, independent foot plates, and steering column. Linear head acceleration, angular head acceleration, and pelvic acceleration were measured for all subjects. Acceleration of C7, T7, T12, both femurs, and both tibias were also measured for the PMHSs. A Vicon motion analysis system, consisting of 12 MX-T20 2 megapixel cameras, was used to quantify subject 3D motion (±1 mm) at a rate of 1 kHz. Excursions of select anatomical regions were normalized to their respective initial positions and compared by test condition and between subject types. Notable discrepancies were observed in the responses of the PMHSs and the ATD. The reaction forces and belt loading for the ATD, particularly foot plate, seat back, steering column, and lap belt forces, were not in agreement with those of the PMHSs. The forward excursions of the ATD were consistently within those of the PMHSs with the exception of the left upper extremity. This could potentially be due to the known limitations of the Hybrid III ATD shoulder and chest. The results presented herein demonstrate that there are some limitations to the current Hybrid III ATD under the loading conditions evaluated in the current study. Overall, this study presents a comprehensive data set of belt forces, reaction forces, accelerations, and bilateral displacement data that can be used to evaluate the performance of ATDs and validate computational models. PMID:23507433

  8. Post-mortem characterization of fs laser-generated micro-pillars in Li(Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3)O2 electrodes by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyrek, P.; Zheng, Y.; Seifert, H. J.; Pfleging, W.

    2016-03-01

    NMC thick films were prepared by tape-casting and subsequent ultrafast laser-structuring. The lithium distribution in electrochemically cycled and unstructured or fs laser-structured NMC cathodes was investigated by using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The main goal is to develop an optimized three dimensional cell architecture with improved electrochemical properties based on studies of the homogeneity of the local State-of-Charge. LIBS experiments were carried out using a LIBS workstation equipped with a mode-locked diode pumped solid state Nd:YAG laser operating at a wavelength of 1063 nm. The element distribution was investigated using two different techniques: element mapping and element depth-profiling of the unstructured / fs laser-structured electrode surface. Results achieved from post-mortem studies using LIBS will be presented.

  9. Calretinin and parvalbumin in schizophrenia and affective disorders: a mini-review, a perspective on the evolutionary role of calretinin in schizophrenia, and a preliminary post-mortem study of calretinin in the septal nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Brisch, Ralf; Bielau, Hendrik; Saniotis, Arthur; Wolf, Rainer; Bogerts, Bernhard; Krell, Dieter; Steiner, Johann; Braun, Katharina; Krzyżanowska, Marta; Krzyżanowski, Maciej; Jankowski, Zbigniew; Kaliszan, Michał; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Gos, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The septal nuclei are important limbic regions that are involved in emotional behavior and connect to various brain regions such as the habenular complex. Both the septal nuclei and the habenular complex are involved in the pathology of schizophrenia and affective disorders. Methods: We characterized the number and density of calretinin-immunoreactive neurons in the lateral, medial, and dorsal subregions of the septal nuclei in three groups of subjects: healthy control subjects (N = 6), patients with schizophrenia (N = 10), and patients with affective disorders (N = 6). Results: Our mini-review of the combined role of calretinin and parvalbumin in schizophrenia and affective disorders summarizes 23 studies. We did not observe significant differences in the numbers of calretinin-immunoreactive neurons or neuronal densities in the lateral, medial, and dorsal septal nuclei of patients with schizophrenia or patients with affective disorders compared to healthy control subjects. Conclusions: Most post-mortem investigations of patients with schizophrenia have indicated significant abnormalities of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons in various brain regions including the hippocampus, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. This study also provides an explanation from an evolutionary perspective for why calretinin is affected in schizophrenia. PMID:26578879

  10. Optical properties of the deep brain in the red and NIR: changes observed under in-vivo, post-mortem, frozen and formalin-fixated conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitzschke, A.; Lovisa, B.; Seydoux, O.; Zellweger, M.; Pfleiderer, M.; Haenggi, M.; Oertel, M.; Tardy, Y.; Wagnières, G.

    2015-07-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a promising approach to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) symptoms in cellular or animal models. Unfortunately, little information is available on the optical parameters playing a role in the light dosimetry during PBM. We conducted a study to determine the effective attenuation coefficient μeff of PD-relevant human deep brain tissues at 671 and 808 nm, using a multichannel fluence rate-meter comprising sub-millimeter isotropic detectors. The first step involved measurements of tissue modifications induced by postmortem situation and tissue storage on rabbit brains. The parameter μeff was measured using various tissue conditions (in vivo, immediately after sacrifice, after six weeks' storage at -20°C or in 10 % formaldehyde solution) on eight female New Zealand white rabbits. In the second step, fluence rate was measured at various locations of a frozen human deep brain when the deep brain was illuminated from the sphenoidal sinus. The results were processed by an iterative Monte-Carlo algorithm to generate sets of optical parameters, and results collected on rabbit brains were used to extrapolate the μeff value that would be observed in human deep brain tissues in vivo. Under all tissue conditions, the value of μeff at 808 nm was smaller than that at 671 nm. After long-term storage for six weeks at -20°C, μeff decreased, on average by 15 to 25 % at all wavelengths, while it increased by 5 to 15 % at all wavelengths after storage in formaldehyde. Therefore, a reasonable estimate of in vivo human deep brain μeff values at 671 and 808 nm can be obtained by multiplying the data we report by 120 %.

  11. Quantitative measurement of intact alpha-synuclein proteoforms from post-mortem control and Parkinson's disease brain tissue by intact protein mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kellie, John F; Higgs, Richard E; Ryder, John W; Major, Anthony; Beach, Thomas G; Adler, Charles H; Merchant, Kalpana; Knierman, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    A robust top down proteomics method is presented for profiling alpha-synuclein species from autopsied human frontal cortex brain tissue from Parkinson's cases and controls. The method was used to test the hypothesis that pathology associated brain tissue will have a different profile of post-translationally modified alpha-synuclein than the control samples. Validation of the sample processing steps, mass spectrometry based measurements, and data processing steps were performed. The intact protein quantitation method features extraction and integration of m/z data from each charge state of a detected alpha-synuclein species and fitting of the data to a simple linear model which accounts for concentration and charge state variability. The quantitation method was validated with serial dilutions of intact protein standards. Using the method on the human brain samples, several previously unreported modifications in alpha-synuclein were identified. Low levels of phosphorylated alpha synuclein were detected in brain tissue fractions enriched for Lewy body pathology and were marginally significant between PD cases and controls (p = 0.03). PMID:25052239

  12. Quantitative Measurement of Intact Alpha-Synuclein Proteoforms from Post-Mortem Control and Parkinson's Disease Brain Tissue by Intact Protein Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kellie, John F.; Higgs, Richard E.; Ryder, John W.; Major, Anthony; Beach, Thomas G.; Adler, Charles H.; Merchant, Kalpana; Knierman, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    A robust top down proteomics method is presented for profiling alpha-synuclein species from autopsied human frontal cortex brain tissue from Parkinson's cases and controls. The method was used to test the hypothesis that pathology associated brain tissue will have a different profile of post-translationally modified alpha-synuclein than the control samples. Validation of the sample processing steps, mass spectrometry based measurements, and data processing steps were performed. The intact protein quantitation method features extraction and integration of m/z data from each charge state of a detected alpha-synuclein species and fitting of the data to a simple linear model which accounts for concentration and charge state variability. The quantitation method was validated with serial dilutions of intact protein standards. Using the method on the human brain samples, several previously unreported modifications in alpha-synuclein were identified. Low levels of phosphorylated alpha synuclein were detected in brain tissue fractions enriched for Lewy body pathology and were marginally significant between PD cases and controls (p = 0.03). PMID:25052239

  13. Quantitative Measurement of Intact Alpha-Synuclein Proteoforms from Post-Mortem Control and Parkinson's Disease Brain Tissue by Intact Protein Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellie, John F.; Higgs, Richard E.; Ryder, John W.; Major, Anthony; Beach, Thomas G.; Adler, Charles H.; Merchant, Kalpana; Knierman, Michael D.

    2014-07-01

    A robust top down proteomics method is presented for profiling alpha-synuclein species from autopsied human frontal cortex brain tissue from Parkinson's cases and controls. The method was used to test the hypothesis that pathology associated brain tissue will have a different profile of post-translationally modified alpha-synuclein than the control samples. Validation of the sample processing steps, mass spectrometry based measurements, and data processing steps were performed. The intact protein quantitation method features extraction and integration of m/z data from each charge state of a detected alpha-synuclein species and fitting of the data to a simple linear model which accounts for concentration and charge state variability. The quantitation method was validated with serial dilutions of intact protein standards. Using the method on the human brain samples, several previously unreported modifications in alpha-synuclein were identified. Low levels of phosphorylated alpha synuclein were detected in brain tissue fractions enriched for Lewy body pathology and were marginally significant between PD cases and controls (p = 0.03).

  14. Considerations in establishing a post-mortem brain and tissue bank for the study of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: a proposed protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Our aim, having previously investigated through a qualitative study involving extensive discussions with experts and patients the issues involved in establishing and maintaining a disease specific brain and tissue bank for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), was to develop a protocol for a UK ME/CFS repository of high quality human tissue from well characterised subjects with ME/CFS and controls suitable for a broad range of research applications. This would involve a specific donor program coupled with rapid tissue collection and processing, supplemented by comprehensive prospectively collected clinical, laboratory and self-assessment data from cases and controls. Findings We reviewed the operations of existing tissue banks from published literature and from their internal protocols and standard operating procedures (SOPs). On this basis, we developed the protocol presented here, which was designed to meet high technical and ethical standards and legal requirements and was based on recommendations of the MRC UK Brain Banks Network. The facility would be most efficient and cost-effective if incorporated into an existing tissue bank. Tissue collection would be rapid and follow robust protocols to ensure preservation sufficient for a wide range of research uses. A central tissue bank would have resources both for wide-scale donor recruitment and rapid response to donor death for prompt harvesting and processing of tissue. Conclusion An ME/CFS brain and tissue bank could be established using this protocol. Success would depend on careful consideration of logistic, technical, legal and ethical issues, continuous consultation with patients and the donor population, and a sustainable model of funding ideally involving research councils, health services, and patient charities. This initiative could revolutionise the understanding of this still poorly-understood disease and enhance development of diagnostic biomarkers and treatments

  15. Agonist and antagonist bind differently to 5-HT1A receptors during Alzheimer's disease: A post-mortem study with PET radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Benjamin; Sebti, Johan; Verdurand, Mathieu; Fieux, Sylvain; Billard, Thierry; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Troakes, Claire; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian; Zimmer, Luc

    2016-10-01

    PET imaging studies using 5-HT1A receptor radiotracers show a decreased density of this receptor in hippocampi of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) at advanced stages. However, current 5-HT1A receptor radiopharmaceuticals used in neuroimaging are antagonists, thought to bind to 5-HT1A receptors in different functional states (i.e., both the one which displays high affinity for agonists and is thought to mediate receptor activation, as well as the state which has low affinity for agonists). Comparing the PET imaging obtained using an agonist radiotracer, which binds selectively to functional receptors, with the PET imaging obtained using an antagonist radiotracer would therefore provide original information on 5-HT1A receptor impairment during AD. Quantitative autoradiography using [(18)F]F13640 and [(18)F]MPPF, a 5-HT1A agonist and antagonist, respectively, was measured in hippocampi of patients with AD (n = 25, at different Braak stages) and control subjects (n = 9). The neuronal density was measured in the same tissues by NeuN immunohistochemistry. The specific binding of both radiotracers was determined by addition of WAY-100635, a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. The autoradiography distribution of both 5-HT1A PET radiotracers varied across hippocampus regions. The highest binding density was in the pyramidal layer of CA1. Incubation with Gpp(NH)p, a non-hydrolysable analogue of GTP, reduced significantly [(18)F]F13640 binding in hippocampal regions, confirming its preferential interaction with G-coupled receptors, and slightly increased [(18)F]MPPF binding. In the CA1 subfield, [(18)F]F13640 binding was significantly decreased at Braak stages I/II (-19%), Braak stages III/IV (-23%), and Braak stages V/VI (-36%) versus control. In contrast, [(18)F]MPPF binding was statistically reduced only at the most advanced Braak stages V/VI compared to control (-33%). Since [(18)F]F13640 and [(18)F]MPPF can be used in vivo in humans, this

  16. Network Topology Analysis of Post-Mortem Brain Microarrays Identifies More Alzheimer’s Related Genes and MicroRNAs and Points to Novel Routes for Fighting with the Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Sreedevi; Bonchev, Danail

    2016-01-01

    Network-based approaches are powerful and beneficial tools to study complex systems in their entirety, elucidating the essential factors that turn the multitude of individual elements into a functional system. In this study we used critical network topology descriptors and guilt-by-association rule to explore and understand the significant molecular players, drug targets and underlying biological mechanisms of Alzheimer’s disease. Analyzing two post-mortem brain gene microarrays (GSE4757 and GSE28146) with Pathway Studio software package we constructed and analyzed a set of protein-protein interaction, as well as miRNA-target networks. In a 4-step procedure the expression datasets were normalized using Robust Multi-array Average approach, while the modulation of gene expression by the disease was statistically evaluated by the empirical Bayes method from the limma Bioconductor package. Representative set of 214 seed-genes (p<0.01) common for the three brain sections of the two microarrays was thus created. The Pathway Studio analysis of the networks built identified 15 new potential AD-related genes and 17 novel AD-involved microRNAs. Using KEGG pathways relevant in Alzheimer’s disease we built an integrated mechanistic network from the interactions between the overlapping genes in these pathways. Routes of possible disease initiation process were thus revealed through the CD4, DCN, and IL8 extracellular ligands. DAVID and IPA enrichment analysis uncovered a number of deregulated biological processes and pathways including neuron projection/differentiation, aging, oxidative stress, chemokine/ neurotrophin signaling, long-term potentiation and others. The findings in this study offer information of interest for subsequent experimental studies. PMID:26784894

  17. Deficit in sustained attention following selective cholinergic lesion of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus in rat, as measured with both post-mortem immunocytochemistry and in vivo PET imaging with [¹⁸F]fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol.

    PubMed

    Cyr, Marilyn; Parent, Maxime J; Mechawar, Naguib; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Clark, Stewart D; Aghourian, Meghmik; Bedard, Marc-Andre

    2015-02-01

    Cholinergic neurons of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) are thought to be involved in cognitive functions such as sustained attention, and lesions of these cells have been documented in patients showing fluctuations of attention such as in Parkinson's disease or dementia with Lewy Body. Animal studies have been conducted to support the role of these cells in attention, but the lesions induced in these animals were not specific to the cholinergic PPTg system, and were assessed by post-mortem methods remotely performed from the in vivo behavioral assessments. Moreover, sustained attention have not been directly assessed in these studies, but rather deduced from indirect measurements. In the present study, rats were assessed on the 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task (5-CSRTT), and a specific measure of variability in response latency was created. Animals were observed both before and after selective lesion of the PPTg cholinergic neurons. Brain cholinergic denervation was assessed both in vivo and ex vivo, using PET imaging with [(18)F]fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol ([(18)F]FEOBV) and immunocytochemistry respectively. Results showed that the number of correct responses and variability in response latency in the 5-CSRTT were the only behavioral measures affected following the lesions. These measures were found to correlate significantly with the number of PPTg cholinergic cells, as measured with both [(18)F]FEOBV and immunocytochemistry. This suggests the primary role of the PPTg cholinergic cells in sustained attention. It also allows to reliably use the PET imaging with [(18)F]FEOBV for the purpose of assessing the relationship between behavior and cholinergic innervation in living animals. PMID:25257103

  18. SU-C-12A-04: Diagnostic Imaging Research Using Decedents as a Proxy for the Living: Are Radiation Dosimetry and Tissue Property Measurements Affected by Post-Mortem Changes?

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, D; Heintz, P; Weber, W; Melo, D; Adolphi, N; Hatch, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation dose (RD) from diagnostic imaging is a growing public health concern. Implanting dosimeters is a more accurate way to assess organ dose, relative to commonly used mathematical estimations. However, performing accurate dosimetry using live subjects is hindered by patient motion and safety considerations, which limit the RD and placement of implanted dosimeters. Performing multiple scans on the same subject would be the ideal way to assess the impact of dose reduction on image quality; however, performing multiple non-standard-of-care scans on live subjects for dosimetry and image quality measurements is generally prohibited by IRB committees. Our objective is to assess whether RD and tissue property (TP) measurements in post-mortem (PM) subjects are sufficiently similar to those in live subjects to justify the use of deceased subjects in future dosimetry and image quality studies. Methods: 4 MOSFET radiation dosimeters were placed enterically in each subject (2 sedated Rhesus Macaques) to measure the RD at 4 levels (carina, lung, heart, and liver) during CT scanning. The CT protocol was performed ante-mortem (AM) and 2 and 3 hours PM. For TP analysis, additional scans were taken at 24 hours PM. To compare AM and PM TP, regions-of-interest were drawn on selected organs and the average CT density with standard deviation (in units of HU) were taken; additionally, visual comparisons of images were made at each PM interval. Results: No significant difference was observed in 8 of 9 measurements comparing AM and PM RD. Only one measurement (liver of the first subject) showed a significant difference (7% lower on PM measurement), possibly due to subject re-positioning. Initial TP visual and quantitative analyses show little to no change PM. Conclusion: Our results suggest that realistic radiation dosimetry and image quality measurements based on tissue properties can be performed reliably on recently deceased subjects.

  19. Suicide terrorism and post-mortem benefits.

    PubMed

    Gray, Jacqueline M; Dickins, Thomas E

    2014-08-01

    Lankford claims that suicide terrorists are suicidal, but that their suicidal tendencies are often frustrated by injunctive social norms. Martyrdom represents a solution, and terrorist organizations exploit this. In this commentary, we claim that this argument has not been fully made and that such ideation in itself does not explain a willingness to engage in punitive actions against an enemy. We suggest the psychology of kinship as a possible missing factor. PMID:25162847

  20. Rethinking Adult Literacy Programs: A Humanities-Based Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anania, Joanne

    The Roosevelt University Humanities Enrichment Program tries to acknowledge the adult part of adult literacy. Its instructional materials are of interest and value to the adult student and, therefore, provide incentives for reading and discussion instead of serving merely as skill-building exercises. The materials are drawn from literature,…

  1. Gender and age related expression of Oct-6--a POU III domain transcription factor, in the adult mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Ilia, Maria; Sugiyama, Yuka; Price, Jack

    2003-06-26

    Oct-6 is a POU III domain transcription factor whose primary role is thought to be developmental. It is expressed in embryonic stem cells, Schwann cells, and in neuronal subpopulations during telencephalic development. Its best characterised role is in Schwann cells where it is thought to regulate myelin specific gene expression. Expression of Oct-6 was recently discovered in neurons in post-mortem human schizophrenic specimens while being undetectable in matched controls. This study of human tissue contrasted in a number of regards with earlier studies of rodent brain, and questioned what we can consider to be normal adult expression of this gene. In this study, we have investigated Oct-6 expression via in situ hybridisation and Western blot analysis in normal adult female mice of different ages. We show that both RNA and protein levels of Oct-6 expression are highly sustained in the adult and aging cerebellum, whereas they are attenuated in the telencephalon by PW30 (postnatal week 30). These observations suggest that Oct-6 expression takes place in a sex and age dependent way. PMID:12782346

  2. Have you got any cholesterol? Adults' views of human nutrition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schibeci, Renato; Wong, Khoon Yoong

    1994-12-01

    The general aim of our human nutrition project is to develop a health education model grounded in ‘everyday’ or ‘situated’ cognition (Hennessey, 1993). In 1993, we began pilot work to document adult understanding of human nutrition. We used a HyperCard stack as the basis for a series of interviews with 50 adults (25 university students, and 25 adults from offcampus). The interviews were transcribed and analysed using the NUDIST computer program. A summary of the views of these 50 adults on selected aspects of human nutrition is presented in this paper.

  3. Adult Education and Human Resource Development: A Symbiotic Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, Robert E.; Hemby, K. Virginia; Conerly-Stewart, Donna L.

    1998-01-01

    Top-ranked competencies for graduate education in human resources development (HRD) identified by 55 (of 195) HRD practitioners were adult learning, presentation, facilitation, needs assessment, and human relations. Seven of the top 10 were allied with adult education graduate program content. (SK)

  4. Encephalitis-Associated Human Metapneumovirus Pneumonia in Adult, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Mateevici, Cristina; Lin, Belinda; Chandra, Ronil V.; Chong, Victor H.T.

    2015-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus pneumonia, most commonly found in children, was diagnosed in an adult with encephalitis. This case suggests that testing for human metapneumovirus RNA in nasopharyngeal aspirate and cerebrospinal fluid samples should be considered in adults with encephalitis who have a preceding respiratory infection, PMID:26488420

  5. Adult Education & Human Resource Development: Overlapping and Disparate Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Karen E.; Marsick, Victoria J.

    2014-01-01

    Adult education and human resource development as fields of practice and study share some roots in common but have grown in different directions in their histories. Adult education's roots focused initially on citizenship for a democratic society, whereas human resource development's roots are in performance at work. While they have…

  6. Adult Human Neurogenesis: From Microscopy to Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, Amanda; Encinas, Juan M.; Maletic-Savatic, Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Neural stem cells reside in well-defined areas of the adult human brain and are capable of generating new neurons throughout the life span. In rodents, it is well established that the new born neurons are involved in olfaction as well as in certain forms of memory and learning. In humans, the functional relevance of adult human neurogenesis is being investigated, in particular its implication in the etiopathology of a variety of brain disorders. Adult neurogenesis in the human brain was discovered by utilizing methodologies directly imported from the rodent research, such as immunohistological detection of proliferation and cell-type specific biomarkers in postmortem or biopsy tissue. However, in the vast majority of cases, these methods do not support longitudinal studies; thus, the capacity of the putative stem cells to form new neurons under different disease conditions cannot be tested. More recently, new technologies have been specifically developed for the detection and quantification of neural stem cells in the living human brain. These technologies rely on the use of magnetic resonance imaging, available in hospitals worldwide. Although they require further validation in rodents and primates, these new methods hold the potential to test the contribution of adult human neurogenesis to brain function in both health and disease. This review reports on the current knowledge on adult human neurogenesis. We first review the different methods available to assess human neurogenesis, both ex vivo and in vivo and then appraise the changes of adult neurogenesis in human diseases. PMID:21519376

  7. Phytoestrogen Metabolism by Adult Human Gut Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Gaya, Pilar; Medina, Margarita; Sánchez-Jiménez, Abel; Landete, José Mᵃ

    2016-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant-derived polyphenols with a structure similar to human estrogens. The three main groups of phytoestrogens, isoflavones, ellagitannins, and lignans, are transformed into equol, urolithins, and enterolignans, respectively, by bacteria. These metabolites have more estrogenic/antiestrogenic and antioxidant activities than their precursors, and they are more bioavailable. The aim of this study was to analyze the metabolism of isoflavones, lignans and ellagitannins by gut microbiota, and to study the possible correlation in the metabolism of these three groups of phytoestrogens. In vitro fermentation experiments were performed with feces samples from 14 healthy adult volunteers, and metabolite formation was measured by HPLC-PAD and HPLC-ESI/MS. Only the microbiota of one subject produced equol, while most of them showed production of O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA). Significant inter-subject differences were observed in the metabolism of dihydrodaidzein and dihydrogenistein, while the glucoside isoflavones and their aglycones showed less variability, except for glycitin. Most subjects produced urolithins M-5 and E. Urolithin D was not detected, while uroltithin B was found in half of the individuals analyzed, and urolithins A and C were detected in two and four subjects, respectively. Enterolactone was found in all subjects, while enterodiol only appeared in five. Isoflavone metabolism could be correlated with the metabolism of lignans and ellagitannins. However, the metabolism of ellagitannins and lignans could not be correlated. This the first study where the metabolism of the three groups together of phytoestrogen, isoflavones, lignans, and ellagitannins by gut microbiota is analyzed. PMID:27517891

  8. Developing Resourceful Humans. Adult Education within the Economic Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Lynn Elen, Ed.

    This book, which explores the shifting paradigm from human resource development to developing resourceful humans, establishes the historical position of adult education within the economic context, discusses human capital propositions, and examines the learning dimensions of economic and educational change. The following chapters are included:…

  9. Biomechanical impact response of the human chin and manubrium.

    PubMed

    Stammen, Jason A; Bolte, John H; Shaw, Joshua

    2012-03-01

    Chin-to-chest impact commonly occurs in frontal crash simulations with restrained anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) in non-airbag situations. This study investigated the biofidelity of this contact by evaluating the impact response of both the chin and manubrium of adult post-mortem human subjects (PMHSs). The adult PMHS data were scaled to a 10-year-old (YO) human size and then compared with the Hybrid III 10YO child (HIII-10C) ATD response with the same test configurations. For both the chin and manubrium, the responses of the scaled PMHS had different characteristics than the HIII-10C ATD responses. Elevated energy impact tests to the PMHS mandible provided a mean injury tolerance value for chin impact force. Chin contact forces in the HIII-10C ATD were calculated in previously conducted HYGE sled crash simulation tests, and these contact forces were strongly correlated with the Head Injury Criterion (HIC(36 ms)). The mean injurious force from the PMHS tests corresponded to a HIC(36 ms) value that would predict an elevated injury risk if it is assumed that fractures of the chin and skull are similarly correlated with HIC(36 ms). Given the rarity of same occupant-induced chin injury in booster-seated occupants in real crash data and the disparity in chin and manubrium stiffnesses between scaled PMHS and HIII-10C ATD, the data from this study can be made use of to improve biofidelity of chin-to-manubrium contact in ATDs. PMID:21971966

  10. Why Teach the Humanities to Adult Basic Education Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mocker, Donald W., Ed.; Jones, William C., Ed.

    The publication contains an article on curriculum selection in adult basic education (ABE), three presentations on the humanities and ABE, and a concluding commentary. An introductory article, "Criteria for Selecting Curriculum in Adult Basic Education" by Donald Mocker, emphasizes the need for broader criteria for selection of ABE curriculum.…

  11. Adult Literacy Education and Human Rights: A View from Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Susan M.; Kooij, Christina S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we argue that adult literacy as part of international development is an issue of both human rights and women's rights. We explore this by presenting a case study of the effects of one innovative adult literacy program in Afghanistan that places men and women, as well as various ethnicities, together in the same classroom as…

  12. Humanizing Adult Education Research: Five Stories from the 1930's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Ronald

    Taken from the author's doctoral dissertation, this award-winning monograph describes a method for humanizing educational research in adult education and provides five stories of adult education efforts in the 1930's as examples of such research. The method described suggests valuing qualitative data as much as quantitative in the field of…

  13. Technology and the Adult Degree Program: The Human Element

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriquez, Frank G.; Nash, Susan Smith

    2004-01-01

    While technology has for many years been a critical component in programs for adults and calls to mind sophisticated gadgetry with expensive price tags, it is often the nexus where technology and humans intersect that proves most critical to the success and quality of adult degree programs.

  14. A comparative study of bifidobacteria in human babies and adults

    PubMed Central

    KHONSARI, Shadi; SUGANTHY, Mayuran; BURCZYNSKA, Beata; DANG, Vu; CHOUDHURY, Manika; PACHENARI, Azra

    2015-01-01

    The composition and diversity of the gut microbiota are known to be different between babies and adults. The aim of this project was to compare the level of bifidobacteria between babies and adults and to investigate the influence of lifestyle factors on the level of this bacterium in the gut. During this study, the levels of bifidobacteria in 10 human babies below 2 years of age were compared with that of 10 human adults above 40 years. The level of bifidobacteria proved to be significantly higher in babies in comparison with adults. This investigation concluded that a combination of several factors, such as age, diet, and BMI, has an important effect on the level of bifidobacteria in adults, while in babies, a combination of diet and age may influence the level of intestinal bifidobacteria. PMID:27200263

  15. A comparative study of bifidobacteria in human babies and adults.

    PubMed

    Khonsari, Shadi; Suganthy, Mayuran; Burczynska, Beata; Dang, Vu; Choudhury, Manika; Pachenari, Azra

    2016-01-01

    The composition and diversity of the gut microbiota are known to be different between babies and adults. The aim of this project was to compare the level of bifidobacteria between babies and adults and to investigate the influence of lifestyle factors on the level of this bacterium in the gut. During this study, the levels of bifidobacteria in 10 human babies below 2 years of age were compared with that of 10 human adults above 40 years. The level of bifidobacteria proved to be significantly higher in babies in comparison with adults. This investigation concluded that a combination of several factors, such as age, diet, and BMI, has an important effect on the level of bifidobacteria in adults, while in babies, a combination of diet and age may influence the level of intestinal bifidobacteria. PMID:27200263

  16. A multi-modal parcellation of human cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Matthew F; Coalson, Timothy S; Robinson, Emma C; Hacker, Carl D; Harwell, John; Yacoub, Essa; Ugurbil, Kamil; Andersson, Jesper; Beckmann, Christian F; Jenkinson, Mark; Smith, Stephen M; Van Essen, David C

    2016-08-11

    Understanding the amazingly complex human cerebral cortex requires a map (or parcellation) of its major subdivisions, known as cortical areas. Making an accurate areal map has been a century-old objective in neuroscience. Using multi-modal magnetic resonance images from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) and an objective semi-automated neuroanatomical approach, we delineated 180 areas per hemisphere bounded by sharp changes in cortical architecture, function, connectivity, and/or topography in a precisely aligned group average of 210 healthy young adults. We characterized 97 new areas and 83 areas previously reported using post-mortem microscopy or other specialized study-specific approaches. To enable automated delineation and identification of these areas in new HCP subjects and in future studies, we trained a machine-learning classifier to recognize the multi-modal 'fingerprint' of each cortical area. This classifier detected the presence of 96.6% of the cortical areas in new subjects, replicated the group parcellation, and could correctly locate areas in individuals with atypical parcellations. The freely available parcellation and classifier will enable substantially improved neuroanatomical precision for studies of the structural and functional organization of human cerebral cortex and its variation across individuals and in development, aging, and disease. PMID:27437579

  17. Humanities and the Adult Learner in an Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Dale; Kamholtz, Jonathan

    Humanities courses have often been given little attention in continuing education for adults, possibly because they have been viewed as not "practical" or not "job-oriented" enough in our career-oriented, technologically advanced society. However, the humanities should be an integral part of our culture and of the lives of educated persons--a…

  18. A perspective on terra incognita: uncovering the neuroanatomy of the human subcortex

    PubMed Central

    Alkemade, Anneke; Keuken, Max C.; Forstmann, Birte U.

    2013-01-01

    Recent exciting advancements in the field of in vivo neuroimaging allow for visualization of the living human brain with unprecedented anatomical detail. Large consortium studies will provide us with novel insights in the function and connectivity of the human brain. However, it is unlikely that the spatial resolution obtained using in vivo imaging will, in the near future, approximate the level of detail obtained in post-mortem anatomical studies. Initiatives such as the recently published Big Brain project (Amunts et al., 2013) herald a novel approach in post-mortem brain research. We feel that linking data from histological observations with in vivo imaging studies will greatly advance our understanding of the functional neuroanatomy of the human brain. PMID:24348343

  19. Thirty-Second Net Stressor Task in Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Steven; Gerlai, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish have become a popular animal model for behavioral neuroscience (Gerlai, 2014). Recent studies have demonstrated that brief experimental handling prior to euthanizing animals can subsequently alter biological measures quantified post-mortem (e.g. cortisol levels) (Ramsay et al., 2009; Tran et al., 2014). Here we provide a detailed protocol for a simple 30-sec net stressor task for adult zebrafish that increases whole-body cortisol levels without altering the levels of whole-brain dopamine, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (Tran et al., 2014).

  20. On Expression Patterns and Developmental Origin of Human Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Lior; Chechik, Gal

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical substructures of the human brain have characteristic cell-types, connectivity and local circuitry, which are reflected in area-specific transcriptome signatures, but the principles governing area-specific transcription and their relation to brain development are still being studied. In adult rodents, areal transcriptome patterns agree with the embryonic origin of brain regions, but the processes and genes that preserve an embryonic signature in regional expression profiles were not quantified. Furthermore, it is not clear how embryonic-origin signatures of adult-brain expression interplay with changes in expression patterns during development. Here we first quantify which genes have regional expression-patterns related to the developmental origin of brain regions, using genome-wide mRNA expression from post-mortem adult human brains. We find that almost all human genes (92%) exhibit an expression pattern that agrees with developmental brain-region ontology, but that this agreement changes at multiple phases during development. Agreement is particularly strong in neuron-specific genes, but also in genes that are not spatially correlated with neuron-specific or glia-specific markers. Surprisingly, agreement is also stronger in early-evolved genes. We further find that pairs of similar genes having high agreement to developmental region ontology tend to be more strongly correlated or anti-correlated, and that the strength of spatial correlation changes more strongly in gene pairs with stronger embryonic signatures. These results suggest that transcription regulation of most genes in the adult human brain is spatially tuned in a way that changes through life, but in agreement with development-determined brain regions. PMID:27564987

  1. Adult human metapneumonovirus (hMPV) pneumonia mimicking Legionnaire's disease.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Irshad, Nadia; Connolly, James J

    2016-01-01

    In adults hospitalized with viral pneumonias the main differential diagnostic consideration is influenza pneumonia. The respiratory viruses causing viral influenza like illnesses (ILIs), e.g., RSV may closely resemble influenza. Rarely, extrapulmonary findings of some ILIs may resemble Legionnaire's disease (LD), e.g., adenovirus, human parainfluenza virus (HPIV-3). We present a most unusual case of human metapneumonovirus pneumonia (hMPV) with some characteristic extrapulmonary findings characteristic of LD, e.g., relative bradycardia, as well as mildly elevated serum transaminases and hyphosphatemia. We believe this is the first reported case of hMPV pneumonia in a hospitalized adult that had some features of LD. PMID:26988110

  2. The weight of nations: an estimation of adult human biomass

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The energy requirement of species at each trophic level in an ecological pyramid is a function of the number of organisms and their average mass. Regarding human populations, although considerable attention is given to estimating the number of people, much less is given to estimating average mass, despite evidence that average body mass is increasing. We estimate global human biomass, its distribution by region and the proportion of biomass due to overweight and obesity. Methods For each country we used data on body mass index (BMI) and height distribution to estimate average adult body mass. We calculated total biomass as the product of population size and average body mass. We estimated the percentage of the population that is overweight (BMI > 25) and obese (BMI > 30) and the biomass due to overweight and obesity. Results In 2005, global adult human biomass was approximately 287 million tonnes, of which 15 million tonnes were due to overweight (BMI > 25), a mass equivalent to that of 242 million people of average body mass (5% of global human biomass). Biomass due to obesity was 3.5 million tonnes, the mass equivalent of 56 million people of average body mass (1.2% of human biomass). North America has 6% of the world population but 34% of biomass due to obesity. Asia has 61% of the world population but 13% of biomass due to obesity. One tonne of human biomass corresponds to approximately 12 adults in North America and 17 adults in Asia. If all countries had the BMI distribution of the USA, the increase in human biomass of 58 million tonnes would be equivalent in mass to an extra 935 million people of average body mass, and have energy requirements equivalent to that of 473 million adults. Conclusions Increasing population fatness could have the same implications for world food energy demands as an extra half a billion people living on the earth. PMID:22709383

  3. Expression of tmp21 in normal adult human tissues

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jian; Yang, Yuan; Li, Jianbo; Hou, Jing; Xia, Kun; Song, Weihong; Liu, Shengchun

    2014-01-01

    TMP21, known as p23 protein, is one important member of the p24 protein families. The degradation of TMP21 is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, as with the other presenilin-associated γ-secretase complex members. NFAT plays a very important role in regulation of human TMP21 gene expression. Compared with the function of TMP21, the studies about the distribution of this protein in human tissues are limited. We collected 19 normal adult human tissues from a healthy adult man died in a traffic accident and did examination of all the tissues collected for ICH, western blot and RT-PCR. It was shown that the expression of TMP21 is at high levels in heart, liver, lung, kidney and adrenal gland; moderate levels in brain, pancreas, prostate gland, testicle, small intestine, colon, stomach, gall bladder, thyroid gland and trachea; low levels in skeletal muscle, skin and lymphonodus. TMP21 is widely existed in normal adult human tissues. The current study provided for the first time a comprehensive expression of TMP21 in normal adult human tissues. It will benefit on helping in the design and interpretation of future studies focused on expounding the function of TMP21. PMID:25356171

  4. Late Pleistocene adult mortality patterns and modern human establishment

    PubMed Central

    Trinkaus, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The establishment of modern humans in the Late Pleistocene, subsequent to their emergence in eastern Africa, is likely to have involved substantial population increases, during their initial dispersal across southern Asia and their subsequent expansions throughout Africa and into more northern Eurasia. An assessment of younger (20–40 y) versus older (>40 y) adult mortality distributions for late archaic humans (principally Neandertals) and two samples of early modern humans (Middle Paleolithic and earlier Upper Paleolithic) provides little difference across the samples. All three Late Pleistocene samples have a dearth of older individuals compared with Holocene ethnographic/historical samples. They also lack older adults compared with Holocene paleodemographic profiles that have been critiqued for having too few older individuals for subsistence, social, and demographic viability. Although biased, probably through a combination of preservation, age assessment, and especially Pleistocene mobility requirements, these adult mortality distributions suggest low life expectancy and demographic instability across these Late Pleistocene human groups. They indicate only subtle and paleontologically invisible changes in human paleodemographics with the establishment of modern humans; they provide no support for a life history advantage among early modern humans. PMID:21220336

  5. Novel surface markers directed against adult human gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Galivo, Feorillo H.; Dorrell, Craig S.; Grompe, Maria; Zhong, Yong-Ping; Streeter, Philip; Grompe, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Novel cell surface-reactive monoclonal antibodies generated against extrahepatic biliary cells were developed for the isolation and characterization of different cell subsets from normal adult human gallbladder. Eleven antigenically distinct gallbladder subpopulations were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. They were classified into epithelial, mesenchymal, and pancreatobiliary (PDX1+SOX9+) subsets based on gene expression profiling. These antigenically distinct human gallbladder cell subsets could potentially also reflect different functional properties in regards to bile physiology, cell renewal and plasticity. Three of the novel monoclonal antibodies differentially labeled archival sections of primary carcinoma of human gallbladder relative to normal tissue. The novel monoclonal antibodies described herein enable the identification and characterization of antigenically diverse cell subsets within adult human gallbladder and are putative tumor biomarkers. PMID:26079872

  6. Age-Related Gene Expression Differences in Monocytes from Human Neonates, Young Adults, and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Lissner, Michelle M; Thomas, Brandon J; Wee, Kathleen; Tong, Ann-Jay; Kollmann, Tobias R; Smale, Stephen T

    2015-01-01

    A variety of age-related differences in the innate and adaptive immune systems have been proposed to contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection of human neonates and older adults. The emergence of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provides an opportunity to obtain an unbiased, comprehensive, and quantitative view of gene expression differences in defined cell types from different age groups. An examination of ex vivo human monocyte responses to lipopolysaccharide stimulation or Listeria monocytogenes infection by RNA-seq revealed extensive similarities between neonates, young adults, and older adults, with an unexpectedly small number of genes exhibiting statistically significant age-dependent differences. By examining the differentially induced genes in the context of transcription factor binding motifs and RNA-seq data sets from mutant mouse strains, a previously described deficiency in interferon response factor-3 activity could be implicated in most of the differences between newborns and young adults. Contrary to these observations, older adults exhibited elevated expression of inflammatory genes at baseline, yet the responses following stimulation correlated more closely with those observed in younger adults. Notably, major differences in the expression of constitutively expressed genes were not observed, suggesting that the age-related differences are driven by environmental influences rather than cell-autonomous differences in monocyte development. PMID:26147648

  7. Linking adult hippocampal neurogenesis with human physiology and disease.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Megan; Jessberger, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    We here review the existing evidence linking adult hippocampal neurogenesis and human brain function in physiology and disease. Furthermore, we aim to point out where evidence is missing, highlight current promising avenues of investigation, and suggest future tools and approaches to foster the link between life-long neurogenesis and human brain function. Developmental Dynamics 245:702-709, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26890418

  8. Dendritic cells in humans--from fetus to adult.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Naomi; Chan, Jerry K Y; Ginhoux, Florent

    2015-02-01

    The human immune system evolves continuously during development from the embryo into the adult, reflecting the ever-changing environment and demands of our body. This ability of our immune system to sense external cues and adapt as we develop is just as important in the early tolerogenic environment of the fetus, as it is in the constantly pathogen-challenged adult. Dendritic cells (DCs), the professional antigen-sensing and antigen-presenting components of the immune system, play a crucial role in this process where they act as sentinels, both initiating and regulating immune responses. Here, we provide an overview of the human immune system in the developing fetus and the adult, with a focus on DC ontogeny and function during these discrete but intimately linked life stages. PMID:25323843

  9. Investigating the utility of human embryonic stem cell-derived neurons to model ageing and neurodegenerative disease using whole-genome gene expression and splicing analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patani, Rickie; Lewis, Patrick A; Trabzuni, Daniah; Puddifoot, Clare A; Wyllie, David J A; Walker, Robert; Smith, Colin; Hardingham, Giles E; Weale, Michael; Hardy, John; Chandran, Siddharthan; Ryten, Mina

    2012-01-01

    A major goal in regenerative medicine is the predictable manipulation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to defined cell fates that faithfully represent their somatic counterparts. Directed differentiation of hESCs into neuronal populations has galvanized much interest into their potential application in modelling neurodegenerative disease. However, neurodegenerative diseases are age-related, and therefore establishing the maturational comparability of hESC-derived neural derivatives is critical to generating accurate in vitro model systems. We address this issue by comparing genome-wide, exon-specific expression analyses of pluripotent hESCs, multipotent neural precursor cells and a terminally differentiated enriched neuronal population to expression data from post-mortem foetal and adult human brain samples. We show that hESC-derived neuronal cultures (using a midbrain differentiation protocol as a prototypic example of lineage restriction), while successful in generating physiologically functional neurons, are closer to foetal than adult human brain in terms of molecular maturation. These findings suggest that developmental stage has a more dominant influence on the cellular transcriptome than regional identity. In addition, we demonstrate that developmentally regulated gene splicing is common, and potentially a more sensitive measure of maturational state than gene expression profiling alone. In summary, this study highlights the value of genomic indices in refining and validating optimal cell populations appropriate for modelling ageing and neurodegeneration. PMID:22681703

  10. Expansion of Multipotent Stem Cells from the Adult Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Murrell, Wayne; Palmero, Emily; Bianco, John; Stangeland, Biljana; Joel, Mrinal; Paulson, Linda; Thiede, Bernd; Grieg, Zanina; Ramsnes, Ingunn; Skjellegrind, Håvard K.; Nygård, Ståle; Brandal, Petter; Sandberg, Cecilie; Vik-Mo, Einar; Palmero, Sheryl; Langmoen, Iver A.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of stem cells in the adult human brain has revealed new possible scenarios for treatment of the sick or injured brain. Both clinical use of and preclinical research on human adult neural stem cells have, however, been seriously hampered by the fact that it has been impossible to passage these cells more than a very few times and with little expansion of cell numbers. Having explored a number of alternative culturing conditions we here present an efficient method for the establishment and propagation of human brain stem cells from whatever brain tissue samples we have tried. We describe virtually unlimited expansion of an authentic stem cell phenotype. Pluripotency proteins Sox2 and Oct4 are expressed without artificial induction. For the first time multipotency of adult human brain-derived stem cells is demonstrated beyond tissue boundaries. We characterize these cells in detail in vitro including microarray and proteomic approaches. Whilst clarification of these cells’ behavior is ongoing, results so far portend well for the future repair of tissues by transplantation of an adult patient’s own-derived stem cells. PMID:23967194

  11. The adult human brain harbors multipotent perivascular mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Paul, Gesine; Özen, Ilknur; Christophersen, Nicolaj S; Reinbothe, Thomas; Bengzon, Johan; Visse, Edward; Jansson, Katarina; Dannaeus, Karin; Henriques-Oliveira, Catarina; Roybon, Laurent; Anisimov, Sergey V; Renström, Erik; Svensson, Mikael; Haegerstrand, Anders; Brundin, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Blood vessels and adjacent cells form perivascular stem cell niches in adult tissues. In this perivascular niche, a stem cell with mesenchymal characteristics was recently identified in some adult somatic tissues. These cells are pericytes that line the microvasculature, express mesenchymal markers and differentiate into mesodermal lineages but might even have the capacity to generate tissue-specific cell types. Here, we isolated, purified and characterized a previously unrecognized progenitor population from two different regions in the adult human brain, the ventricular wall and the neocortex. We show that these cells co-express markers for mesenchymal stem cells and pericytes in vivo and in vitro, but do not express glial, neuronal progenitor, hematopoietic, endothelial or microglial markers in their native state. Furthermore, we demonstrate at a clonal level that these progenitors have true multilineage potential towards both, the mesodermal and neuroectodermal phenotype. They can be epigenetically induced in vitro into adipocytes, chondroblasts and osteoblasts but also into glial cells and immature neurons. This progenitor population exhibits long-term proliferation, karyotype stability and retention of phenotype and multipotency following extensive propagation. Thus, we provide evidence that the vascular niche in the adult human brain harbors a novel progenitor with multilineage capacity that appears to represent mesenchymal stem cells and is different from any previously described human neural stem cell. Future studies will elucidate whether these cells may play a role for disease or may represent a reservoir that can be exploited in efforts to repair the diseased human brain. PMID:22523602

  12. Human Service Planning as a Collective Adult Learning Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Joan

    Based on a study by the Department of Community Service Education, Cornell University, to evaluate human service planning (HSP) nationwide, this paper discusses the premises that HSP may be defined as community learning and that the community (according to the Robert Boyd and Jerold Apps model for adult education) is both a beneficiary of and…

  13. [The existence vomeronasal organ in adult humans].

    PubMed

    Rapiejko, Piotr; Zielnik-Jurkiewicz, Beata; Wojdas, Andrzej; Ratajczak, Jan; Jurkiewicz, Dariusz

    2007-01-01

    The influence of chemical substances (feromones) on human emotional and physical condition has fascinated psychologists, sexuologists and laryngologists since centurie. Literature conveys inconsistent information on vomeronasal organ (VNO) occurrence in humans. This organ is often called Jacobson's, and 2 symmetrical openings leading into it, located on both sides of septum, are called Ruyasch's ducts. The aim of the study was to analyze vomeronasal organ occurrence in humans in relation to age and sex. The study was conducted in a group of 634 patients, aged 18-80 years. All patients underwent routine ENT examination including rhinoscopy, nasal cavity examination with usage of 2.5x magnification lens (surgical glasses) and surgical microscope with 10x magnification. All persons had nasal cavities examined endoscopically. Every time presence of vomeronasal organ openings, along with localization, size and symmetry of these was noted. Subjects, who presented Jacobson's organ, were asked to fill a questionnaire concerning influence of smells on erotic sensations. Vomeronasal organ was fund in 312 persons, that is 49.21%. In 83.65% of cases vomeronasal organ opening size was smaller than 0.2 mm, what restricted its visibility to usage of magnifying lens, microscope, or endoscope. In 16.34% of cases only vomeronasal organ ducts openings were well visible in routine rhinoscopy without magnification. Vomeronasal organ was found more often in men than women. VNO was significantly more rare in patients with nasal septal deviation. In these cases, vomeronasal organ was usually found unilaterally, in all the cases on the concave side of deviated nasal septum. PMID:18260256

  14. Telocytes of the human adult trigeminal ganglion.

    PubMed

    Rusu, Mugurel Constantin; Cretoiu, Dragos; Vrapciu, Alexandra Diana; Hostiuc, Sorin; Dermengiu, Dan; Manoiu, Vasile Sorin; Cretoiu, Sanda Maria; Mirancea, Nicolae

    2016-06-01

    Telocytes (TCs) are typically defined as cells with telopodes by their ultrastructural features. Their presence was reported in various organs, however little is known about their presence in human trigeminal ganglion. To address this issue, samples of trigeminal ganglia were tested by immunocytochemistry for CD34 and examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We found that TCs are CD34 positive and form networks within the ganglion in close vicinity to microvessels and nerve fibers around the neuronal-glial units (NGUs). TEM examination confirmed the existence of spindle-shaped and bipolar TCs with one or two telopodes measuring between 15 to 53 μm. We propose that TCs are cells with stemness capacity which might contribute in regeneration and repair processes by: modulation of the stem cell activity or by acting as progenitors of other cells present in the normal tissue. In addition, further studies are needed to establish if they might influence the neuronal circuits. PMID:27147447

  15. Human pancreatic polypeptide in children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Hanukoglu, A; Chalew, S; Kowarski, A A

    1990-01-01

    Measurement of human pancreatic polypeptide may be useful for assessment of gastrointestinal function, integrity of the parasympathetic nervous system or screening for endocrine neoplasia. In adults hPP levels have been reported to increase with age. However hPP levels throughout childhood have not been well characterized in comparison with the adult range. We studied fasting human pancreatic polypeptide (hPP) from 45 pediatric patients, from infancy - 15 years, and 18 older adolescents and adults aged 16-45 years. The mean hPP level of children (233 +/- 147 pg/ml) was significantly higher than that (113 +/- 35 pg/ml) of adults (P less than .0001). There was no difference in mean hPP levels of children with normal growth hormone secretion compared to growth hormone deficient patients. There was no effect of gender or body mass index on hPP levels. We conclude that fasting hPP levels must be interpreted with respect to the age of the subject, children particularly, in that preteens may have higher fasting levels than older teenagers and adults. PMID:2307392

  16. Human Adult Cortical Reorganization and Consequent Visual Distortion

    PubMed Central

    Dilks, Daniel D.; Serences, John T.; Rosenau, Benjamin J.; Yantis, Steven; McCloskey, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Neural and behavioral evidence for cortical reorganization in the adult somatosensory system after loss of sensory input (e.g., amputation) has been well documented. In contrast, evidence for reorganization in the adult visual system is far less clear: neural evidence is the subject of controversy, behavioral evidence is sparse, and studies combining neural and behavioral evidence have not previously been reported. Here, we report converging behavioral and neuroimaging evidence from a stroke patient (B.L.) in support of cortical reorganization in the adult human visual system. B.L.’s stroke spared the primary visual cortex (V1), but destroyed fibers that normally provide input to V1 from the upper left visual field (LVF). As a consequence, B.L. is blind in the upper LVF, and exhibits distorted perception in the lower LVF: stimuli appear vertically elongated, toward and into the blind upper LVF. For example, a square presented in the lower LVF is perceived as a rectangle extending upward. We hypothesized that the perceptual distortion was a consequence of cortical reorganization in V1. Extensive behavioral testing supported our hypothesis, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) confirmed V1 reorganization. Together, the behavioral and fMRI data show that loss of input to V1 after a stroke leads to cortical reorganization in the adult human visual system, and provide the first evidence that reorganization of the adult visual system affects visual perception. These findings contribute to our understanding of the human adult brain’s capacity to change and has implications for topics ranging from learning to recovery from brain damage. PMID:17804619

  17. Adult human sarcomas. II. Medical oncology.

    PubMed

    Sinkovics, Joseph G

    2007-02-01

    Human sarcoma cells can be killed by radio- and chemotherapy, but tumor cells acquiring resistance frequently kill the patient. A keen understanding of the intracellular course of oncogenic cascades leads to the discovery of small molecular inhibitors of the involved phosphorylated kinases. Targeted therapy complements chemotherapy. Oncogene silencing is feasible by small interfering RNA. The restoration of some of the mutated or deleted tumor-suppressor genes (p53, Rb, PTEN, hSNF, INK/ARF and WT) by demethylation or reacetylation of their histones has been accomplished. Genetically engineered or naturally oncolytic viruses selectively lyse tumors and leave healthy tissues intact. Adeno- or retroviral vectors deliver genes of immunological costimulators, tumor antigens, chemo- or cytokines and/or tumor-suppressor proteins into tumor (sarcoma) cells. Suicide gene delivery results in apoptosis induction. Genes of enzymes that target prodrugs as their substrates render tumor cells highly susceptible to chemotherapy, with the prodrug to be targeted intracellularly. It will be combinations of sophisticated surgical removal of the nonencapsulated and locally invasive primary sarcomas, advanced forms of radiotherapy to the involved sites and immunotherapy with sarcoma vaccines that will cure primary sarcomas. Adoptive immunotherapy with immune lymphocytes will be operational in metastatic disease only when populations of regulatory T cells are controlled. Targeted therapy with small molecular inhibitors of oncogene cascades, the driving forces of sarcoma cells, alteration of the tumor stroma from a supportive to a tumor-hostile environment, reactivation or replacement of wild-type tumor-suppressor genes, and radio-chemotherapy (with much reduced toxicity) will eventually accomplish the cure of metastatic sarcomas. PMID:17288529

  18. Perivascular mesenchymal progenitors in human fetal and adult liver.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Jörg C; Over, Patrick; Turner, Morris E; Thompson, Robert L; Foka, Hubert G; Chen, William C W; Péault, Bruno; Gridelli, Bruno; Schmelzer, Eva

    2012-12-10

    The presence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been described in various organs. Pericytes possess a multilineage differentiation potential and have been suggested to be one of the developmental sources for MSCs. In human liver, pericytes have not been defined. Here, we describe the identification, purification, and characterization of pericytes in human adult and fetal liver. Flow cytometry sorting revealed that human adult and fetal liver contains 0.56%±0.81% and 0.45%±0.39% of CD146(+)CD45(-)CD56(-)CD34(-) pericytes, respectively. Of these, 41% (adult) and 30% (fetal) were alkaline phosphatase-positive (ALP(+)). In situ, pericytes were localized around periportal blood vessels and were positive for NG2 and vimentin. Purified pericytes could be cultured extensively and had low population doubling times. Immunofluorescence of cultures demonstrated that cells were positive for pericyte and mesenchymal cell markers CD146, NG2, CD90, CD140b, and vimentin, and negative for endothelial, hematopoietic, stellate, muscle, or liver epithelial cell markers von Willebrand factor, CD31, CD34, CD45, CD144, CD326, CK19, albumin, α-fetoprotein, CYP3A7, glial fibrillary acid protein, MYF5, and Pax7 by gene expression; myogenin and alpha-smooth muscle actin expression were variable. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of cultures confirmed surface expression of CD146, CD73, CD90, CD10, CD13, CD44, CD105, and ALP and absence of human leukocyte antigen-DR. In vitro differentiation assays demonstrated that cells possessed robust osteogenic and myogenic, but low adipogenic and low chondrogenic differentiation potentials. In functional in vitro assays, cells had typical mesenchymal strong migratory and invasive activity. In conclusion, human adult and fetal livers harbor pericytes that are similar to those found in other organs and are distinct from hepatic stellate cells. PMID:22931482

  19. Ultrastructural characteristics of human adult and infant cerebral cortical neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, W Y; Garey, L J

    1991-01-01

    Biopsy specimens of human cerebral cortex from three adults and two infants were studied by correlating their light microscopic features in semithin sections with their ultrastructural characteristics. There was good tissue preservation, due to a minimum delay between obtaining the specimens and fixation. Pyramidal cells had a prominent apical dendrite, fine heterochromatin clumps in the nucleus and generally small numbers of cytoplasmic organelles, except for numerous free ribosomes in some of the large pyramids of Layers III to VI. Non-pyramidal cells lacked an apical dendrite and were further classified, on size and ultrastructure, into small, medium and large types. Large numbers of asymmetrical and symmetrical synapses were present in the neuropil but very few axosomatic synapses were found in the human cerebral cortex compared with subhuman primates and other mammals. Some symmetrical synapses were characterised by the presence of wide pre- and postsynaptic densities. The same general features of the adult cortex were also encountered in the infant, with certain exceptions. Many of the infant neurons had less densely packed heterochromatin, but greater numbers of free ribosomes, compared with the adult, and lipofuscin was absent. There was a total absence of myelinated fibres from the infant cortex; more large diameter dendrites were present than in the adult and axosomatic synapses were commoner. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 PMID:2050578

  20. The nutrition intervention improved adult human capital and economic productivity.

    PubMed

    Martorell, Reynaldo; Melgar, Paul; Maluccio, John A; Stein, Aryeh D; Rivera, Juan A

    2010-02-01

    This article reviews key findings about the long-term impact of a nutrition intervention carried out by the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama from 1969 to 1977. Results from follow-up studies in 1988-89 and 2002-04 show substantial impact on adult human capital and economic productivity. The 1988-89 study showed that adult body size and work capacity increased for those provided improved nutrition through age 3 y, whereas the 2002-04 follow-up showed that schooling was increased for women and reading comprehension and intelligence increased in both men and women. Participants were 26-42 y of age at the time of the 2002-04 follow-up, facilitating the assessment of economic productivity. Wages of men increased by 46% in those provided with improved nutrition through age 2 y. Findings for cardiovascular disease risk factors were heterogeneous; however, they suggest that improved nutrition in early life is unlikely to increase cardiovascular disease risk later in life and may indeed lower risk. In conclusion, the substantial improvement in adult human capital and economic productivity resulting from the nutrition intervention provides a powerful argument for promoting improvements in nutrition in pregnant women and young children. PMID:20032473

  1. How long have adult humans been consuming milk?

    PubMed

    Gerbault, Pascale; Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Evershed, Richard P; Thomas, Mark G

    2013-12-01

    Lactase is the enzyme that breaks down the milk sugar lactose, and in most mammals, including most humans, lactase activity is down-regulated after the weaning period is completed. However, in about 35% of adults worldwide, lactase continues to be expressed throughout adulthood, a feature termed lactase persistence (LP). Genetic evidence indicates that LP is a recent human adaptation, and its current geographic distribution correlates with the relative historical importance of dairying in different human populations. Investigating archaeological evidence for fresh milk consumption has proved crucial in building an account of the joint evolution of LP and dairying. A powerful technique for investigating food processing, including milk processing, in ancient populations is lipid residue analysis on archaeological pottery. We review here the archaeological and genetic evidence available that have contributed to a better understanding of the gene-culture co-evolution of LP and dairying. PMID:24339181

  2. Gene expression in human brain implicates sexually dimorphic pathways in autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Werling, Donna M.; Parikshak, Neelroop N.; Geschwind, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is more prevalent in males, and the mechanisms behind this sex-differential risk are not fully understood. Two competing, but not mutually exclusive, hypotheses are that ASD risk genes are sex-differentially regulated, or alternatively, that they interact with characteristic sexually dimorphic pathways. Here we characterized sexually dimorphic gene expression in multiple data sets from neurotypical adult and prenatal human neocortical tissue, and evaluated ASD risk genes for evidence of sex-biased expression. We find no evidence for systematic sex-differential expression of ASD risk genes. Instead, we observe that genes expressed at higher levels in males are significantly enriched for genes upregulated in post-mortem autistic brain, including astrocyte and microglia markers. This suggests that it is not sex-differential regulation of ASD risk genes, but rather naturally occurring sexually dimorphic processes, potentially including neuron–glial interactions, that modulate the impact of risk variants and contribute to the sex-skewed prevalence of ASD. PMID:26892004

  3. Identification of Reliable Sulcal Patterns of the Human Rolandic Region.

    PubMed

    Mellerio, Charles; Lapointe, Marie-Noël; Roca, Pauline; Charron, Sylvain; Legrand, Laurence; Meder, Jean-François; Oppenheim, Catherine; Cachia, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    A major feature of the human cortex is its huge morphological variability. Although a comprehensive literature about the sulco-gyral pattern of the central region is available from post-mortem data, a reliable and reproducible characterization from in vivo data is still lacking. The aim of this study is to test the reliability of morphological criteria of the central region sulci used in post-mortem data, when applied to in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Thirty right-handed healthy individuals were included in the study. Automated segmentation and three dimensional (3D) surface-based rendering were obtained from clinical 3D T1-weighted MRI. Two senior radiologists labeled the three sulci composing the central region (precentral [PreCS], central [CS] and postcentral [PostCS]) and analyzed their morphological variations using 47 standard criteria derived from Ono's atlas based on post-mortem data. For each criterion, inter-rater concordance and comparison with the occurrence frequency provided in Ono's atlas were estimated. Overall, the sulcal pattern criteria derived from MRI data were highly reproducible between the raters with a high mean inter-rater concordance in the three sulci (CS: κ = 0.92 in left hemisphere/κ = 0.91 in right hemisphere; PreCS: κ = 0.91/κ = 0.93; PostCS: κ = 0.84/0.79). Only a very limited number of sulcal criteria significantly differed between the in vivo and the post-mortem data (CS: 2 criteria in the left hemisphere/3 criteria in the right hemisphere; PreCS: 3 in the left and right hemispheres; PostCS: 3 in the left hemisphere and 5 in the right hemisphere). Our study provides a comprehensive description of qualitative sulcal patterns in the central region from in vivo clinical MRI with high agreement with previous post-mortem data. Such identification of reliable sulcal patterns of the central region visible with standard clinical MRI data paves the way for the detection of subtle variations of the central sulcation

  4. Identification of Reliable Sulcal Patterns of the Human Rolandic Region

    PubMed Central

    Mellerio, Charles; Lapointe, Marie-Noël; Roca, Pauline; Charron, Sylvain; Legrand, Laurence; Meder, Jean-François; Oppenheim, Catherine; Cachia, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    A major feature of the human cortex is its huge morphological variability. Although a comprehensive literature about the sulco-gyral pattern of the central region is available from post-mortem data, a reliable and reproducible characterization from in vivo data is still lacking. The aim of this study is to test the reliability of morphological criteria of the central region sulci used in post-mortem data, when applied to in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Thirty right-handed healthy individuals were included in the study. Automated segmentation and three dimensional (3D) surface-based rendering were obtained from clinical 3D T1-weighted MRI. Two senior radiologists labeled the three sulci composing the central region (precentral [PreCS], central [CS] and postcentral [PostCS]) and analyzed their morphological variations using 47 standard criteria derived from Ono’s atlas based on post-mortem data. For each criterion, inter-rater concordance and comparison with the occurrence frequency provided in Ono’s atlas were estimated. Overall, the sulcal pattern criteria derived from MRI data were highly reproducible between the raters with a high mean inter-rater concordance in the three sulci (CS: κ = 0.92 in left hemisphere/κ = 0.91 in right hemisphere; PreCS: κ = 0.91/κ = 0.93; PostCS: κ = 0.84/0.79). Only a very limited number of sulcal criteria significantly differed between the in vivo and the post-mortem data (CS: 2 criteria in the left hemisphere/3 criteria in the right hemisphere; PreCS: 3 in the left and right hemispheres; PostCS: 3 in the left hemisphere and 5 in the right hemisphere). Our study provides a comprehensive description of qualitative sulcal patterns in the central region from in vivo clinical MRI with high agreement with previous post-mortem data. Such identification of reliable sulcal patterns of the central region visible with standard clinical MRI data paves the way for the detection of subtle variations of the central sulcation

  5. Post mortem analysis of fatigue mechanisms in LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 - LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 - LiMn2O4/graphite lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Michael; Darma, Mariyam Susana Dewi; Kleiner, Karin; Riekehr, Lars; Mereacre, Liuda; Ávila Pérez, Marta; Liebau, Verena; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2016-09-01

    The fatigue of commercial lithium ion batteries after long-term cycling at two different temperatures and cycling rates is investigated. The cells are opened after cycling and post-mortem analysis are conducted. Two main contributions to the capacity loss of the batteries are revealed. The loss of active lithium leads to a relative shift between anodes and cathodes potentials. A growth of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on the anode is determined as well as the formation of lithium fluoride species as an electrolyte decomposition product. Those effects are reinforced by increasing cycling rates from 1C/2C (charge/discharge) to 2C/3C as well as by increasing cycling temperatures from 25 °C to 40 °C. The other contribution to the capacity loss originates from a fatigue of the blended cathodes consisting of LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 (NCM), LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) and LiMn2O4 (LMO). Phase-specific capacity losses and fatigue mechanisms are identified. The layered oxides tend to form microcracks and reveal changes of the surface structure leading to a worsening of the lithium kinetics. The cathode exhibits a loss of manganese at 40 °C cycling temperature. Cycling at 40 °C instead of 25 °C has the major impact on cathodes capacity loss, while cycling at 2C/3C rates barely influences it.

  6. Ontogeny of morningness-eveningness across the adult human lifespan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randler, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    Sleep timing of humans can be classified alongside a continuum from early to late sleepers, with some people (larks) having an early activity, early bed, and rise times and others (owls) with a more nocturnally orientated activity. Only a few studies reported that morningness-eveningness changes significantly during the adult lifespan based on community samples. Here, I applied a different methodological approach to seek for evidence for the age-related changes in morningness-eveningness preferences by using a meta-data from all available studies. The new aspect of this cross-sectional approach is that only a few studies themselves address the age-related changes of the adult lifespan development, but that many studies are available that provide exactly the data needed. The studies came from 27 countries and included 36,939 participants. Age was highly significantly correlated with scores on the Composite Scale of Morningness ( r = 0.70). This relationship seems linear, because a linear regression explained nearly the same amount of variance compared to other models such as logarithmic, quadratic, or cubic models. The standard deviation of age correlated with the standard deviation of CSM scores ( r = 0.55), suggesting when there is much variance in age in a study; in turn, there is much variance in morningness. This meta-analytical approach shows that morningness-eveningness changes across the adult lifespan and that older age is related to higher morningness.

  7. Ontogeny of morningness-eveningness across the adult human lifespan.

    PubMed

    Randler, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    Sleep timing of humans can be classified alongside a continuum from early to late sleepers, with some people (larks) having an early activity, early bed, and rise times and others (owls) with a more nocturnally orientated activity. Only a few studies reported that morningness-eveningness changes significantly during the adult lifespan based on community samples. Here, I applied a different methodological approach to seek for evidence for the age-related changes in morningness-eveningness preferences by using a meta-data from all available studies. The new aspect of this cross-sectional approach is that only a few studies themselves address the age-related changes of the adult lifespan development, but that many studies are available that provide exactly the data needed. The studies came from 27 countries and included 36,939 participants. Age was highly significantly correlated with scores on the Composite Scale of Morningness (r = 0.70). This relationship seems linear, because a linear regression explained nearly the same amount of variance compared to other models such as logarithmic, quadratic, or cubic models. The standard deviation of age correlated with the standard deviation of CSM scores (r = 0.55), suggesting when there is much variance in age in a study; in turn, there is much variance in morningness. This meta-analytical approach shows that morningness-eveningness changes across the adult lifespan and that older age is related to higher morningness. PMID:26715354

  8. Cohort Programming and Learning: Improving Educational Experiences for Adult Learners. Professional Practices in Adult Education and Human Resource Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltiel, Iris M.; Russo, Charline S.

    This book, which is intended for adult educators and human resource developers, presents guidelines for using the principles of cohort programming and learning to improve adult learners' educational experiences. The following are among the topics covered in the book's eight chapters: (1) cohort programming and learning (cohort programs defined;…

  9. Assessing Adult Learning: A Guide for Practitioners. Revised Edition. Professional Practices in Adult Education and Human Resource Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Joseph J.

    This book, which is intended for adult educators and human resource developers, presents guidelines for assessing adult learning. The following are among the topics covered in the book's eight chapters: (1) basic principles of informal assessment (relationship between learning and assessment activities; sequencing learning and assessment…

  10. Unique multipotent cells in adult human mesenchymal cell populations

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Yasumasa; Kitada, Masaaki; Wakao, Shohei; Nishikawa, Kouki; Tanimura, Yukihiro; Makinoshima, Hideki; Goda, Makoto; Akashi, Hideo; Inutsuka, Ayumu; Niwa, Akira; Shigemoto, Taeko; Nabeshima, Yoko; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Nabeshima, Yo-ichi; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Dezawa, Mari

    2010-01-01

    We found adult human stem cells that can generate, from a single cell, cells with the characteristics of the three germ layers. The cells are stress-tolerant and can be isolated from cultured skin fibroblasts or bone marrow stromal cells, or directly from bone marrow aspirates. These cells can self-renew; form characteristic cell clusters in suspension culture that express a set of genes associated with pluripotency; and can differentiate into endodermal, ectodermal, and mesodermal cells both in vitro and in vivo. When transplanted into immunodeficient mice by local or i.v. injection, the cells integrated into damaged skin, muscle, or liver and differentiated into cytokeratin 14-, dystrophin-, or albumin-positive cells in the respective tissues. Furthermore, they can be efficiently isolated as SSEA-3(+) cells. Unlike authentic ES cells, their proliferation activity is not very high and they do not form teratomas in immunodeficient mouse testes. Thus, nontumorigenic stem cells with the ability to generate the multiple cell types of the three germ layers can be obtained through easily accessible adult human mesenchymal cells without introducing exogenous genes. These unique cells will be beneficial for cell-based therapy and biomedical research. PMID:20421459

  11. Multipotent progenitor cells isolated from adult human pancreatic tissue.

    PubMed

    Todorov, I; Nair, I; Ferreri, K; Rawson, J; Kuroda, A; Pascual, M; Omori, K; Valiente, L; Orr, C; Al-Abdullah, I; Riggs, A; Kandeel, F; Mullen, Y

    2005-10-01

    The supply of islet cells is a limiting factor for the widespread application of islet transplantation of type-1 diabetes. Islets constitute 1% to 2% of pancreatic tissue, leaving approximately 98% as discard after islet isolation and purification. In this report we present our data on the isolation of multipotent progenitor cells from discarded adult human pancreatic tissue. The collected cells from discarded nonislet fractions, after enzymatic digestion and gradient purification of islets, were dissociated for suspension culture in a serum-free medium. The cell clusters grown to a size of 100 to 150 mum contained cells staining for stage-specific embryonic antigens, but not insulin or C-peptide. To direct cell differentiation toward islets, clusters were recultured in a pancreatic differentiation medium. Insulin and C-peptide-positive cells by immunocytochemistry appeared within a week, reaching over 10% of the cell population. Glucagon and somatostatin-positive cells were also detected. The cell clusters were found to secrete insulin in response to glucose stimulation. Cells from the same clusters also had the capacity for differentiation into neural cells, as documented by staining for neural and glial cell markers when cultured as monolayers in media containing neurotrophic factors. These data suggest that multipotent pancreatic progenitor cells exist within the human pancreatic tissue that is typically discarded during islet isolation procedures. These adult progenitor cells can be successfully differentiated into insulin-producing cells, and thus they have the potential for treatment of type-1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:16298614

  12. The New Zealand Hacker Case: A Post Mortem

    SciTech Connect

    Popovsky, Barbara; Ryan, Daniel J.; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2005-10-01

    A typical incident response pits technicians against networks that aren't prepared forensically. [1, 2] If practitioners do consider collecting network forensic data, they face a choice between expending extraordinary effort (time and money) collecting forensically sound data, or simply restoring the network as quickly as possible. In this context, the concept of organizational network forensic readiness has emerged. The following is a discussion of selected computer crime cases, using publically available information, spanning a period of time of several years, that together demonstrate the need for a preventive and proactive response to malicious intrusion over a reactive one. It concludes with recommendations for how to "operationalize" organizational network forensic readiness.

  13. Le post mortem d'une evaluation conjecturelle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurteau, Marthe; Nadeau, Marc-Andre

    1987-01-01

    A responsive model of evaluation was used for program evaluation in a French-speaking university. Two objectives were addressed: determining the local utility of the program being assessed and identifying the advantages and limits of the model and comparing them to those reported in the literature. (RB)

  14. Post-mortem measurements of fuel retention at JET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koivuranta, S.; Likonen, J.; Hakola, A.; Coad, J. P.; Widdowson, A.; Hole, D. E.; Rubel, M.; contributors, JET-EFDA

    2014-04-01

    The deuterium inventory at Joint European Torus in co-deposits and bulk material in inner, outer and upper wall components of the vacuum vessel exposed in 2007-2009 has been determined using nuclear reaction analysis and secondary ion mass spectrometry and optical microscopy. Approximately 1.8 g of the deuterium is retained in these areas, which corresponds to ˜0.07% of the retained deuterium.

  15. 9 CFR 310.1 - Extent and time of post-mortem inspection; post-mortem inspection staffing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accompanying rules. (i) Inspection Using the Viscera Truck. Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates (head...) Inspection Using Viscera Table, Tongue-In Presentation of Heads. Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates..., Tongue-Out Presentation of Heads. Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates (head per hour) Number...

  16. 9 CFR 310.1 - Extent and time of post-mortem inspection; post-mortem inspection staffing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... accompanying rules. (i) Inspection Using the Viscera Truck. Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates (head...) Inspection Using Viscera Table, Tongue-In Presentation of Heads. Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates..., Tongue-Out Presentation of Heads. Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates (head per hour) Number...

  17. 9 CFR 310.1 - Extent and time of post-mortem inspection; post-mortem inspection staffing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... accompanying rules. (i) Inspection Using the Viscera Truck. Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates (head...-In Presentation of Heads. Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates (head per hour) Number of.... Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates (head per hour) Number of inspectors by stations Head...

  18. 9 CFR 310.1 - Extent and time of post-mortem inspection; post-mortem inspection staffing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... accompanying rules. (i) Inspection Using the Viscera Truck. Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates (head...-In Presentation of Heads. Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates (head per hour) Number of.... Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates (head per hour) Number of inspectors by stations Head...

  19. 9 CFR 310.1 - Extent and time of post-mortem inspection; post-mortem inspection staffing standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... accompanying rules. (i) Inspection Using the Viscera Truck. Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates (head...) Inspection Using Viscera Table, Tongue-In Presentation of Heads. Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates..., Tongue-Out Presentation of Heads. Steers and Heifers Maximum slaughter rates (head per hour) Number...

  20. Normalizing and scaling of data to derive human response corridors from impact tests.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W J; Pintar, Frank A

    2014-06-01

    It is well known that variability is inherent in any biological experiment. Human cadavers (Post-Mortem Human Subjects, PMHS) are routinely used to determine responses to impact loading for crashworthiness applications including civilian (motor vehicle) and military environments. It is important to transform measured variables from PMHS tests (accelerations, forces and deflections) to a standard or reference population, termed normalization. The transformation process should account for inter-specimen variations with some underlying assumptions used during normalization. Scaling is a process by which normalized responses are converted from one standard to another (example, mid-size adult male to large-male and small-size female adults, and to pediatric populations). These responses are used to derive corridors to assess the biofidelity of anthropomorphic test devices (crash dummies) used to predict injury in impact environments and design injury mitigating devices. This survey examines the pros and cons of different approaches for obtaining normalized and scaled responses and corridors used in biomechanical studies for over four decades. Specifically, the equal-stress equal-velocity and impulse-momentum methods along with their variations are discussed in this review. Methods ranging from subjective to quasi-static loading to different approaches are discussed for deriving temporal mean and plus minus one standard deviation human corridors of time-varying fundamental responses and cross variables (e.g., force-deflection). The survey offers some insights into the potential efficacy of these approaches with examples from recent impact tests and concludes with recommendations for future studies. The importance of considering various parameters during the experimental design of human impact tests is stressed. PMID:24726322

  1. The Biomechanics of the Pediatric and Adult Human Thoracic Spine

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J.; Lau, Sabrina; Riley, Patrick; Lamp, John; Kent, Richard

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of literature points out the relevance of the thoracic spine dynamics in understanding the thorax-restraint interaction as well as in determining the kinematics of the head and cervical spine. This study characterizes the dynamic response in bending of eight human spinal specimens (4 pediatric: ages 7 and 15 years, 4 adult: ages 48 and 52 years) from two sections along the thoracic spine (T2–T4 and T7–T9). Each specimen consisted of three vertebral bodies connected by the corresponding intervertebral discs. All ligaments were preserved in the preparation with the exception of the inter-transverse ligament. Specimens were exposed to a series of five dynamic bending ramp-and-hold tests with varying amplitudes at a nominal rate of 2 rad/s. After this battery of tests, failure experiments were conducted. The 7-year-old specimen showed the lowest tolerance to a moment (T2–T4: 12.1 Nm; T7–T9: 11.6 Nm) with no significant reduction of the relative rotation between the vertebrae. The 15-year-old failure tolerance was comparable to that of the adult specimens. Failure of the adult specimens occurred within a wide range at the T2–T4 thoracic section (23.3 Nm- 53.0 Nm) while it was circumscribed to the interval 48.3 Nm-52.5 Nm for the T7–T9 section. The series of dynamic ramp-and-hold were used to assess two different scaling methods (mass scaling and SAE scaling). Neither method was able to capture the stiffness, peak moment and relaxation characteristics exhibited by the pediatric specimens. PMID:22105396

  2. Gender specificity of sucrose induced analgesia in human adults.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Manasi; Bhatia, Renu; Mathur, Rashmi

    2007-01-01

    Sweet, palatable substances such as sucrose are reported to calm infants undergoing routine investigative procedures. The analgesic effect persists in pre pubertal children and adults with a hint of gender dependent variation in the analgesic response. The present study was therefore designed to explore gender specificity of sucrose induced analgesia in adult volunteers utilizing the nociceptive flexion reflex, an objective tool for pain assessment. Nociceptive flexion reflex was recorded, both before and after (up to 15 min) ingestion of 100 ml of 25% sucrose solution in 6 male and 6 female volunteers. In the male volunteers the maximum amplitude of the response was 20.8 +/- 7.7 microV before sucrose ingestion and 22.6 +/- 9.1 microV, 6.6 +/- 0.7 microV, 6.2 +/- 1.1 microV, 7.5 +/- 0.9 microV at 0, 5, 10 and 15 minutes post sucrose ingestion respectively. In female volunteers, the maximum amplitude of the response was 33.7 +/- 17.7 microV before sucrose ingestion and 43.6 +/- 17.2 microV, 7.1 +/- 1.2 microV, 25.9 +/- 16.1 microV, 50.6 +/- 16.3 microV at the same time intervals post sucrose ingestion. The maximum amplitude values were significantly lower in the males at 10 and 15 minutes after sucrose ingestion (P < 0.05). This is the first objective report of gender specificity in sucrose induced analgesia in adult humans. The gender dependent variation in sucrose induced analgesia is prolonged in male (15 min) and short lived in female (5 min) volunteers. This knowledge may have important implications in pain management. PMID:18476396

  3. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, D.L.

    1989-11-01

    During the report period significant progress on the quantitative understanding of regional upper airway deposition of airborne particle has been realized. Replicate models of the human upper airways obtained from post-mortem casting of the nasal, oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal and upper tracheal regions and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the same regions of adults and children have been employed to determine the overall and local deposition characteristics of aerosols in the ultrafine (1--100 {mu}m diameter) and fine (0.8--12 {mu}m diameter) region. Studies have been carried out for both nasal and oral breathing during inspiratory and expiratory flow at constant flow rates representative of rest and states of exercise. The results of these investigations indicate that particles in the size range of unattached'' radon progeny (1--3 nm) are deposited in both the nasal and oral passages with high efficiency (60--80%) for both inspiration and expiration, with the nasal deposition being somewhat greater (5--10%) than oral deposition. The effect of flow rate on upper airway deposition for both pathways is not great; data analysis indicates that the deposition for all flow rates from 4--50 liters/minute can be grouped by plotting deposition vs Q-{sup 1/8}, where Q is flow rate, a far weaker dependency than observed for inertial deposition. Diffusional transport is the primary mechanism of deposition, and size dependence can be accounted for by plotting, deposition percent vs D{sup n} where D is particle diffusion coefficient and n ranges from 0.5--0.66. 2 refs.

  4. Human herpesvirus 7 is a constitutive inhabitant of adult human saliva.

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, L S; Frenkel, N

    1992-01-01

    We report the frequent isolation of human herpesvirus 7 from the saliva of healthy adults. Virus isolates recovered from different individuals exhibited minimal restriction enzyme polymorphism, which was mostly confined to heterogeneous (het) sequences in the genome. DNAs of isolates recovered from the same individual over a period of several months showed the same characteristic het fragments, indicating the stability of the het sequences upon virus replication and shedding in vivo. In contrast to the results of previous reports, human herpesvirus 6, the causative agent of roseola infantum, could not be isolated from the saliva specimens, raising questions regarding oral transmission of human herpesvirus 6 and human herpesvirus 7 to young children. Images PMID:1348548

  5. Exchange delays and impulsive choice in adult humans.

    PubMed

    Hyten, C; Madden, G J; Field, D P

    1994-09-01

    Choice responding by adult humans in a discrete-trial task was examined as a function of conditions that manipulated either the delay to point delivery or the delay between points and their exchange for money. In point-delay conditions, subjects chose between an "impulsive" alternative that provided a small amount of points immediately and a "self-control" alternative that provided a larger amount of points delayed by 15, 30, or 60 s. Points were exchanged for money immediately following the session. Subjects preferred the self-control alternative. In exchange-delay conditions, subjects chose between a small amount of points exchangeable for money immediately following the session and a larger amount of points exchangeable for money after 1 day, 3 weeks, or 6 weeks. A self-control preference observed for all subjects in the 1-day exchange-delay condition reversed to exclusive impulsive preference for 4 of the 6 subjects when choice conditions involved exchange delays of 3 or 6 weeks. These results show that human choice is sensitive to the manipulation of exchange delays and that impulsive preference can be obtained with exchange delays on the order of weeks. PMID:7964366

  6. Simultaneous characterization of progenitor cell compartments in adult human liver.

    PubMed

    Porretti, Laura; Cattaneo, Alessandra; Colombo, Federico; Lopa, Raffaella; Rossi, Giorgio; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Battiston, Carlo; Svegliati-Baroni, Gianluca; Bertolini, Francesco; Rebulla, Paolo; Prati, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    The human liver is a complex tissue consisting of epithelial, endothelial, hematopoietic, and mesenchymal elements that probably derive from multiple lineage-committed progenitors, but no comprehensive study aimed at identifying and characterizing intrahepatic precursors has yet been published. Cell suspensions for this study were obtained by enzymatic digestion of liver specimens taken from 20 patients with chronic liver disease and 13 multiorgan donors. Stem and progenitor cells were first isolated, amplified, and characterized ex vivo according to previously validated methods, and then optimized flow cytometry was used to assess their relative frequencies and characterize their immunophenotypes in the clinical specimens. Stem and progenitor cells committed to hematopoietic, endothelial, epithelial, and mesenchymal lineages were clearly identifiable in livers from both healthy and diseased subjects. Within the mononuclear liver cell compartment, epithelial progenitors [epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)(+)/CD49f(+)/CD29(+)/CD45(-)] accounted for 2.7-3.5% whereas hematopoietic (CD34(+)/CD45(+)), endothelial [vascular endothelial growth factor-2 (KDR)(+)/CD146(+)/CD45(-)], and mesenchymal [CD73(+)/CD105(+)/CD90 (Thy-1)(+)/CD45 (-)] stem cells and progenitors accounted for smaller fractions (0.02-0.6%). The patients' livers had higher percentages of hematopoietic and endothelial precursors than those of the donors. In conclusion, we identified and characterized precursors committed to four different lineages in adult human liver. We also optimized a flow cytometry approach that will be useful in exploring the contribution of these cells to the pathogenesis of liver disease. PMID:19960544

  7. A biokinetic model for systemic technetium in adult humans

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Giussani, Augusto

    2015-04-10

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently is updating its biokinetic and dosimetric models for internally deposited radionuclides. Technetium (Tc), the lightest element that exists only in radioactive form, has two important isotopes from the standpoint of potential risk to humans: the long-lived isotope 99Tm(T1/2=2.1x105 y) is present in high concentration in nuclear waste, and the short-lived isotope 99mTc (T1/2=6.02 h) is the most commonly used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. This paper reviews data on the biological behavior of technetium and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic technetium in the adult human body for use in radiation protection. Compared with the ICRP s current occupational model for systemic technetium, the proposed model provides a more realistic description of the paths of movement of technetium in the body; provides greater consistency with experimental and medical data; and, for most radiosensitive organs, yields substantially different estimates of cumulative activity (total radioactive decays within the organ) following uptake of 99Tm or 99mTc to blood.

  8. A biokinetic model for systemic technetium in adult humans

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Giussani, Augusto

    2015-04-10

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently is updating its biokinetic and dosimetric models for internally deposited radionuclides. Technetium (Tc), the lightest element that exists only in radioactive form, has two important isotopes from the standpoint of potential risk to humans: the long-lived isotope 99Tm(T1/2=2.1x105 y) is present in high concentration in nuclear waste, and the short-lived isotope 99mTc (T1/2=6.02 h) is the most commonly used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. This paper reviews data on the biological behavior of technetium and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic technetium in the adult human body for use in radiation protection.more » Compared with the ICRP s current occupational model for systemic technetium, the proposed model provides a more realistic description of the paths of movement of technetium in the body; provides greater consistency with experimental and medical data; and, for most radiosensitive organs, yields substantially different estimates of cumulative activity (total radioactive decays within the organ) following uptake of 99Tm or 99mTc to blood.« less

  9. Ossified Ligamentum Longitudinale Anterius in Adult Human Dry Vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Venumadhav, Nelluri; KS, Siddaraju

    2014-01-01

    Background: The ligamentum longitudinale anterius is a broad and strong band of fibrous tissue that runs along the anterior surfaces of the bodies of the vertebrae. Aim: The study was undertaken to evaluate the incidence of ossified ligamentum longitudinale anterius in adult dry human vertebra. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 95 sets of dry human vertebral columns irrespective of age and sex at Mayo Institute of Medical Sciences- Barabanki,-UP, Melaka Manipal Medical College-Manipal University and Department of Anatomy, KMCT Medical College, Manassery- Calicut, India. All the sets of vertebral columns were macroscopically inspected for the ossified ligamentum longitudinale anterius. Results: It was observed that out of 95 sets of vertebral columns, 27 (28.42%) vertebral columns showed ossification. Out of 27 vertebral columns, 17 (17.89%) vertebral columns showed segmental type of ossification, 2 (2.11%) vertebral columns showed continuous type of ossification and 8 (8.42%) vertebral columns showed mixed type of ossification at different vertebral level. Conclusion: Such type of ossification will affect the biomechanics of the spine and may result in stiff neck, low back pain, dysphagia, odynophagia, compression of the brachial plexus, aphonia, immobility or mucosal thickening of larynx. Hence, knowledge of such abnormalities should be kept in mind to minimise serious complications in any surgical intervention or investigative procedures in the region. PMID:25302180

  10. Professional Fulfillment and Satisfaction of US and Canadian Adult Education and Human Resource Development Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Shari L.; Wiesenberg, Faye

    2004-01-01

    This comparative study explored the professional fulfillment and job satisfaction of US and Canadian college and university faculty in the fields of Adult Education and Human Resource Development. In Autumn 2001, we disseminated electronically "The Adult Education and Human Resource Development Faculty Survey" to a selected sample of Canadian and…

  11. Analysis and evaluation of the biofidelity of the human body finite element model in lateral impact simulations according to ISO-TR9790 procedures.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Jesse S; El-Jawahri, Raed; Rouhana, Stephen W; Barbat, Saeed; Prasad, Priya

    2006-11-01

    The biofidelity of the Ford Motor Company human body finite element (FE) model in side impact simulations was analyzed and evaluated following the procedures outlined in ISO technical report TR9790. This FE model, representing a 50th percentile adult male, was used to simulate the biomechanical impact tests described in ISO-TR9790. These laboratory tests were considered as suitable for assessing the lateral impact biofidelity of the head, neck, shoulder, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis of crash test dummies, subcomponent test devices, and math models that are used to represent a 50th percentile adult male. The simulated impact responses of the head, neck, shoulder, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis of the FE model were compared with the PMHS (Post Mortem Human Subject) data upon which the response requirements for side impact surrogates was based. An overall biofidelity rating of the human body FE model was determined using the ISO-TR9790 rating method. The resulting rating for the human body FE model was 8.5 on a 0 to 10 scale with 8.6-10 being excellent biofidelity. In addition, in order to explore whether there is a dependency of the impact responses of the FE model on different analysis codes, three commercially available analysis codes, namely, LS-DYNA, Pamcrash, and Radioss were used to run the human body FE model. Effects of these codes on biofidelity when compared with ISO-TR9790 data are discussed. Model robustness and numerical issues arising with three different code simulations are also discussed. PMID:17311174

  12. The Adult Learner. The Definitive Classic in Adult Education and Human Resource Development. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Malcolm S.; Holton, Elwood F., III; Swanson, Richard A.

    This book examines the core principles of adult learning and the roots of andragogy, advances in adult learning, and practice in adult learning. The following are among the topics discussed in the book's 17 chapters: importance of learning theory; theories of learning (concept of part and whole models of development, theories based on elemental…

  13. Multiple colonization of a cadaver by insects in an indoor environment: first record of Fannia trimaculata (Diptera: Fanniidae) and Peckia (Peckia) chrysostoma (Sarcophagidae) as colonizers of a human corpse.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Simão Dias; Soares, Thiago Ferreira; Costa, Diego Leonel

    2014-01-01

    We describe here a case of multiple colonization of a male cadaver found indoors in the municipality of Jaboatao dos Guararapes, Brazil. The body was colonized by six species of Diptera: Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya putoria (Calliphoridae), Megaselia scalaris (Phoridae), Fannia trimaculata (Fanniidae), and Peckia (Peckia) chrysostoma (Sarcophagidae). The most abundant species were C. albiceps (65.0 % of all emerged adults) and C. megacephala (18.6 %). The case illustrates the ability of six insect species to simultaneously colonize a corpse in an indoor environment and represents the first collaboration between the forensic police and entomologists in Northeastern Brazil. We provide here the first record of two species, F. trimaculata and Peckia (P.) chrysostoma colonizing a human cadaver. We also report the first case of cadaver colonization by C. putoria and M. scalaris in Northeastern Brazil. Information on the development time of two species, C. albiceps and C. megacephala, were used to discuss the estimation of the post-mortem interval. Considering that the region harbors the highest rates of homicide in Brazil, implications of these findings for the consolidation of forensic entomology in the region are discussed. PMID:24218014

  14. Adult somatic stem cells in the human parasite, Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James J.; Wang, Bo; Lambrus, Bramwell G.; Tharp, Marla; Iyer, Harini; Newmark, Phillip A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Schistosomiasis is among the most prevalent human parasitic diseases, affecting more than 200 million people worldwide1. The etiological agents of this disease are trematode flatworms (Schistosoma) that live and lay eggs within the vasculature of the host. These eggs lodge in host tissues, causing inflammatory responses that are the primary cause of morbidity. Because these parasites can live and reproduce within human hosts for decades2, elucidating the mechanisms that promote their longevity is of fundamental importance. Although adult pluripotent stem cells, called neoblasts, drive long-term homeostatic tissue maintenance in long-lived free-living flatworms3,4 (e.g., planarians), and neoblast-like cells have been described in some parasitic tapeworms5, little is known about whether similar cell types exist in any trematode species. Here, we describe a population of neoblast-like cells in the trematode Schistosoma mansoni. These cells resemble planarian neoblasts morphologically and share their ability to proliferate and differentiate into derivatives of multiple germ layers. Capitalizing on available genomic resources6,7 and RNAseq-based gene expression profiling, we find that these schistosome neoblast-like cells express a fibroblast growth factor receptor ortholog. Using RNA interference we demonstrate that this gene is required for the maintenance of these neoblast-like cells. Our observations suggest that adaptation of developmental strategies shared by free-living ancestors to modern-day schistosomes likely contributed to the success of these animals as long-lived obligate parasites. We expect that future studies deciphering the function of these neoblast-like cells will have important implications for understanding the biology of these devastating parasites. PMID:23426263

  15. Metric analysis of basal sphenoid angle in adult human skulls

    PubMed Central

    Netto, Dante Simionato; Nascimento, Sergio Ricardo Rios; Ruiz, Cristiane Regina

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the variations in the angle basal sphenoid skulls of adult humans and their relationship to sex, age, ethnicity and cranial index. Methods The angles were measured in 160 skulls belonging to the Museum of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo Department of Morphology. We use two flexible rules and a goniometer, having as reference points for the first rule the posterior end of the ethmoidal crest and dorsum of the sella turcica, and for the second rule the anterior margin of the foramen magnum and clivus, measuring the angle at the intersection of two. Results The average angle was 115.41°, with no statistical correlation between the value of the angle and sex or age. A statistical correlation was noted between the value of the angle and ethnicity, and between the angle and the horizontal cranial index. Conclusions The distribution of the angle basal sphenoid was the same in sex, and there was correlation between the angle and ethnicity, being the proportion of non-white individuals with an angle >125° significantly higher than that of whites with an angle >125°. There was correlation between the angle and the cranial index, because skulls with higher cranial index tend to have higher basiesfenoidal angle too. PMID:25295452

  16. Electrochemically Preadsorbed Collagen Promotes Adult Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Benavidez, Tomás E; Wechsler, Marissa E; Farrer, Madeleine M; Bizios, Rena; Garcia, Carlos D

    2016-01-01

    The present article reports on the effect of electric potential on the adsorption of collagen type I (the most abundant component of the organic phase of bone) onto optically transparent carbon electrodes (OTCE) and its mediation on subsequent adhesion of adult, human, mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). For this purpose, adsorption of collagen type I was investigated as a function of the protein concentration (0.01, 0.1, and 0.25 mg/mL) and applied potential (open circuit potential [OCP; control], +400, +800, and +1500 mV). The resulting substrate surfaces were characterized using spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. Adsorption of collagen type I onto OTCE was affected by the potential applied to the sorbent surface and the concentration of protein. The higher the applied potential and protein concentration, the higher the adsorbed amount (Γcollagen). It was also observed that the application of potential values higher than +800 mV resulted in the oxidation of the adsorbed protein. Subsequent adhesion of hMSCs on the OTCEs (precoated with the collagen type I films) under standard cell culture conditions for 2 h was affected by the extent of collagen preadsorbed onto the OTCE substrates. Specifically, enhanced hMSCs adhesion was observed when the Γcollagen was the highest. When the collagen type I was oxidized (under applied potential equal to +1500 mV), however, hMSCs adhesion was decreased. These results provide the first correlation between the effects of electric potential on protein adsorption and subsequent modulation of anchorage-dependent cell adhesion. PMID:26549607

  17. A Contribution of Beef to Human Health: A Review of the Role of the Animal Production Systems

    PubMed Central

    Pighin, Dario; Pazos, Adriana; Chamorro, Verónica; Paschetta, Fernanda; Cunzolo, Sebastián; Godoy, Fernanda; Messina, Valeria; Pordomingo, Anibal; Grigioni, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Meat and meat products constitute important source of protein, fat, and several functional compounds. Although beef consumption may implicate possible negative impacts on human health, its consumption can also contribute to human health. Quality traits of beef, as well as its nutritional properties, depend on animal genetics, feeding, livestock practices, and post mortem procedures. Available data show that emerging beef production systems are able to improve both, quality and nutritional traits of beef in a sustainable way. In this context, Argentina's actions are aimed at maximising beef beneficial effects and minimising its negative impact on human health, in a way of contributing to global food security. PMID:26989765

  18. A comparison of erythrocyte glutathione S-transferase activity from human foetuses and adults.

    PubMed Central

    Strange, R C; Johnston, J D; Coghill, D R; Hume, R

    1980-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase activity was measured in partially purified haemolysates of erythrocytes from human foetuses and adults. Enzyme activity was present in erythrocytes obtained between 12 and 40 weeks of gestation. The catalytic properties of the enzyme from foetal cells were similar to those of the enzyme from adult erythrocytes, indicating that probably only one form of the erythrocytes enzyme exists throughout foetal and adult life. PMID:7396875

  19. Sequential Biomechanics of the Human Upper Thoracic Spine and Pectoral Girdle

    PubMed Central

    Stammen, Jason A.; Herriott, Rodney; Kang, Yun-Seok; Bolte, John; Dupaix, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Thoracic spine flexibility affects head motion, which is critical to control in motor vehicle crashes given the frequency and severity of head injuries. The objective of this study is to investigate the dynamic response of the human upper thoracic region. An original experimental/analytical approach, Isolated Segment Manipulation (ISM), is introduced to quantify the intact upper thoracic spine-pectoral girdle (UTS-PG) dynamic response of six adult post-mortem human subjects (PMHS). A continuous series of small displacement, frontal perturbations were applied to the human UTS-PG using fifteen combinations of speed and constraint per PMHS. The non-parametric response of the T1–T6 lumped mass segment was obtained using a system identification technique. A parametric mass-damper-spring model was used to fit the non-parametric system response. Mechanical parameters of the upper thoracic spine were determined from the experimental model and analyzed in each speed/constraint configuration. The natural frequencies of the UTS-PG were 22.9 ± 7.1 rad/sec (shear, n=58), 32.1 ± 7.4 rad/sec (axial, n=58), and 27.8 ± 7.7 rad/sec (rotation, n=65). The damping ratios were 0.25 ± 0.20 (shear), 0.42 ± 0.24 (axial), and 0.58± 0.32 (rotation). N-way analysis of variance (Type III constrained sum of squares, no interaction effects) revealed that the relative effects of test speed, pectoral girdle constraint, and PMHS anthropometry on the UTS-PG dynamic properties varied per property and direction. While more work is needed to verify accuracy in realistic crash scenarios, the UTS-PG model system dynamic properties could eventually aid in developing integrated anthropomorphic test device (ATD) thoracic spine and shoulder components to provide improved head kinematics and belt interaction. PMID:23169125

  20. Human paraoxonase polymorphism: Hungarian population studies in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Szabó, I; Róna, K; Czinner, A; Gachályi, B

    1991-06-01

    The paraoxonase phenotype distribution pattern was studied in a Hungarian population of 102 children and 100 adults. All the subjects were of Caucasian origin and are not related. The adult population showed the trimodality in phenotype distribution similar to other European population data. The gene frequencies obtained were statistically not significantly different either. There was no correlation between the activity of serum paraoxonase and activity of cholinesterase, sex, age and body weight. The phenotype distribution was trimodal in the children's population too. There was a significant difference in gene frequency, however, compared to data from adult population. PMID:1651288

  1. Brain stem auditory evoked responses in human infants and adults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecox, K.; Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Brain stem evoked potentials were recorded by conventional scalp electrodes in infants (3 weeks to 3 years of age) and adults. The latency of one of the major response components (wave V) is shown to be a function both of click intensity and the age of the subject; this latency at a given signal strength shortens postnatally to reach the adult value (about 6 msec) by 12 to 18 months of age. The demonstrated reliability and limited variability of these brain stem electrophysiological responses provide the basis for an optimistic estimate of their usefulness as an objective method for assessing hearing in infants and adults.

  2. Reaching beyond the United States: Adventures in International Adult Education and Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henschke, John A.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his experience of how travel and adult education merged, for him, into a major emphasis in international adult education (AE) and human resource development (HRD). International ventures have been some of the most exciting and learning-filled aspects of the author's career in AE and HRD. His involvement in…

  3. Adult Continuing Education and Human Resource Development: Present Competitors, Potential Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Douglas H.

    2006-01-01

    Adult Continuing Education (ACE) and Human Resource Development (HRD) have grown tremendously in the last quarter century. ACE experienced tremendous growth in the 60s and 70s, with over 17 million attending colleges and universities, and local school and community adult education programs by the end of the 1970s. More ACE programs were started…

  4. Newborn human skin fibroblasts senesce in vitro without acquiring adult growth factor requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, W.

    1984-01-01

    Cultures of human fibroblasts were prepared from chest skin obtained either from newborns (less than 3 months old) or adults (more than 35 years old) and maintained in vitro until they senesced. Adult cells grew logarithmically in medium supplemented with whole blood serum but not with platelet-poor plasma. Early passage cells obtained from newborns grew equally well in either plasma- or serum-supplemented medium. The difference in growth factor requirements between adult and newborn cells persisted through the lifespan of the cells; i.e., newborn cells did not develop adult hormonal requirements when maintained in culture. Thus, in vitro cellular aging can be distinguished from some types of differentiation.

  5. Identification of genes and gene pathways associated with major depressive disorder by integrative brain analysis of rat and human prefrontal cortex transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    Malki, K; Pain, O; Tosto, M G; Du Rietz, E; Carboni, L; Schalkwyk, L C

    2015-01-01

    Despite moderate heritability estimates, progress in uncovering the molecular substrate underpinning major depressive disorder (MDD) has been slow. In this study, we used prefrontal cortex (PFC) gene expression from a genetic rat model of MDD to inform probe set prioritization in PFC in a human post-mortem study to uncover genes and gene pathways associated with MDD. Gene expression differences between Flinders sensitive (FSL) and Flinders resistant (FRL) rat lines were statistically evaluated using the RankProd, non-parametric algorithm. Top ranking probe sets in the rat study were subsequently used to prioritize orthologous selection in a human PFC in a case–control post-mortem study on MDD from the Stanley Brain Consortium. Candidate genes in the human post-mortem study were then tested against a matched control sample using the RankProd method. A total of 1767 probe sets were differentially expressed in the PFC between FSL and FRL rat lines at (q⩽0.001). A total of 898 orthologous probe sets was found on Affymetrix's HG-U95A chip used in the human study. Correcting for the number of multiple, non-independent tests, 20 probe sets were found to be significantly dysregulated between human cases and controls at q⩽0.05. These probe sets tagged the expression profile of 18 human genes (11 upregulated and seven downregulated). Using an integrative rat–human study, a number of convergent genes that may have a role in pathogenesis of MDD were uncovered. Eighty percent of these genes were functionally associated with a key stress response signalling cascade, involving NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells), AP-1 (activator protein 1) and ERK/MAPK, which has been systematically associated with MDD, neuroplasticity and neurogenesis. PMID:25734512

  6. Corporate Human Resources Adult Training and Employment Program Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aetna Life and Casualty, Hartford, CT.

    In response to increasing difficulty in finding qualified candidates for entry-level positions, the Aetna company has developed an Adult Training and Employment program. This program (1) trains, hires, and retains nontraditional candidates from the area's public and private agencies; (2) focuses on issues that affect this population's ability to…

  7. The Human Function Compunction: Teleological Explanation in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelemen, Deborah; Rosset, Evelyn

    2009-01-01

    Research has found that children possess a broad bias in favor of teleological--or purpose-based--explanations of natural phenomena. The current two experiments explored whether adults implicitly possess a similar bias. In Study 1, undergraduates judged a series of statements as "good" (i.e., correct) or "bad" (i.e., incorrect) explanations for…

  8. "Adult Education Is about Human Being in All Its Aspects"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Derek Legge, who celebrated his 95th birthday at the end of last month, is one of the most dedicated and influential of the largely unsung heroes of the adult education movement in Britain. As modesty is one of the many qualities with which his friends and colleagues credit him, he is certain to shrink from the description, but there is little…

  9. Adult Literacy Programs in Uganda. Africa Region Human Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okech, Anthony; Carr-Hill, Roy A.; Katahoire, Anne R.; Kakooza, Teresa; Ndidde, Alice N.; Oxenham, John

    This report evaluates the outcomes and cost effectiveness of adult literacy programs in Ugandan villages and compares government programs with those provided by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Part 1 describes evaluation objectives, government and NGO literacy programs and the rural socioeconomic context, and evaluation design. About 100…

  10. Human Capital Development: Reforms for Adult and Community Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Sarojni; Haukka, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    The adult and community education (ACE) sector is consistently responsive to changing community needs and government priorities. It is this particular function that has drawn ACE into the lifelong learning debate as one model for sustaining communities. The responsiveness of ACE means that the sector and its programs continue to make valuable…

  11. Searching for the vomeronasal organ of adult humans: preliminary findings on location, structure, and size.

    PubMed

    Smith, T D; Siegel, M I; Burrows, A M; Mooney, M P; Burdi, A R; Fabrizio, P A; Clemente, F R

    1998-06-15

    The adult human vomeronasal organ (VNO) has been the focus of numerous recent investigations, yet its developmental continuity from the human fetal VNO is poorly understood. The present study compared new data on the adult human "VNO" with previous findings on the fetal human VNO. Nasal septa were removed from twelve adult human cadavers and each specimen was histologically sectioned. Coronal sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid-Schiff-hematoxylin. The sections were examined by light microscopy for the presence of VNOs and the anterior paraseptal cartilages (PC). VNOs were quantified using a computer reconstruction technique to obtain VNO length, volume, and vomeronasal epithelium (VNE) volume. Histologically, VNOs and PCs were identified in eleven specimens. VNOs had ciliated, pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells. Variations (e.g., multiple communications to the nasal cavity) were observed in several specimens. Quantification was possible for 16 right or left VNOs. Right or left VNOs ranged from 3.5 to 11.8 mm in length, from 1.8 to 33.8 x 10(-4)cc in volume, and from 2.7 to 18.1 x 10(-4)cc in VNE volume. Results indicated that the adult human VNO was similar in VNE morphology, lumen shape, and spatial relationships when compared to human fetal VNOs. By comparison with previous fetal VNO measures, mean VNO length, volume, and VNE volume were larger in adult humans. These results support previous suggestions that postnatal VNO growth occurs. Findings on location and spatial relationships of the adult VNO were similar to those seen in human fetuses, but critical questions remain regarding the ontogeny of the vomeronasal nerves and VNE. PMID:9712196

  12. Teaching Adults with Learning Disabilities. Professional Practices in Adult Education and Human Resource Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Dale R.

    This book is designed to show teachers how to reach out to adults and adolescents with learning disabilities and employ specific strategies for helping them to compensate for the disabilities and acquire literacy skills. The ways in which specific differences in brain structure inhibit the mastery of reading, spelling, handwriting, phonics, and…

  13. Arts and Humanities in Adult and Continuing Education. Trends and Issues Alerts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Trends and issues related to arts and humanities in adult and continuing education can be categorized in three ways: ways of knowing, informal sites of learning, and cultural pluralism. The arts and humanities are vehicles for critical reflection, and they present paths to the individual construction of knowledge that are intuitive, relational,…

  14. The human function compunction: teleological explanation in adults.

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Deborah; Rosset, Evelyn

    2009-04-01

    Research has found that children possess a broad bias in favor of teleological--or purpose-based--explanations of natural phenomena. The current two experiments explored whether adults implicitly possess a similar bias. In Study 1, undergraduates judged a series of statements as "good" (i.e., correct) or "bad" (i.e., incorrect) explanations for why different phenomena occur. Judgments occurred in one of three conditions: fast speeded, moderately speeded, or unspeeded. Participants in speeded conditions judged significantly more scientifically unwarranted teleological explanations as correct (e.g., "the sun radiates heat because warmth nurtures life"), but were not more error-prone on control items (e.g., unwarranted physical explanations such as "hills form because floodwater freezes"). Study 2 extended these findings by examining the relationship between different aspects of adults' "promiscuous teleology" and other variables such as scientific knowledge, religious beliefs, and inhibitory control. Implications of these findings for scientific literacy are discussed. PMID:19200537

  15. Postnatal and adult neurogenesis in the development of human disease.

    PubMed

    Danzer, Steve C

    2008-10-01

    The mammalian brain contains a population of neurons that are continuously generated from late embryogenesis through adulthood-after the generation of almost all other neuronal types. This brain region-the hippocampal dentate gyrus-is in a sense, therefore, persistently immature. Postnatal and adult neurogenesis is likely an essential feature of the dentate, which is critical for learning and memory. Protracted neurogenesis after birth would allow the new cells to develop in conjunction with external events-but it may come with a price: while neurogenesis in utero occurs in a protected environment, children and adults are exposed to any number of hazards, such as toxins and infectious agents. Mature neurons might be resistant to such exposures, but new neurons may be vulnerable. Consistent with this prediction, in adult rodents seizures disrupt the integration of newly generated granule cells, whereas mature granule cells are comparatively unaffected. Significantly, abnormally interconnected cells may contribute to epileptogenesis and/or associated cognitive and memory deficits. Finally, studies increasingly indicate that new granule cells are extremely sensitive to a host of endogenous and exogenous factors, raising the possibility that disrupted granule cell integration may be a common feature of many neurological diseases. PMID:18997123

  16. Optimized magnetic resonance diffusion protocol for ex-vivo whole human brain imaging with a clinical scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherrer, Benoit; Afacan, Onur; Stamm, Aymeric; Singh, Jolene; Warfield, Simon K.

    2015-03-01

    Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) provides a novel insight into the brain to facilitate our understanding of the brain connectivity and microstructure. While in-vivo DW-MRI enables imaging of living patients and longitudinal studies of brain changes, post-mortem ex-vivo DW-MRI has numerous advantages. Ex-vivo imaging benefits from greater resolution and sensitivity due to the lack of imaging time constraints; the use of tighter fitting coils; and the lack of movement artifacts. This allows characterization of normal and abnormal tissues with unprecedented resolution and sensitivity, facilitating our ability to investigate anatomical structures that are inaccessible in-vivo. This also offers the opportunity to develop today novel imaging biomarkers that will, with tomorrow's MR technology, enable improved in-vivo assessment of the risk of disease in an individual. Post-mortem studies, however, generally rely on the fixation of specimen to inhibit tissue decay which starts as soon as tissue is deprived from its blood supply. Unfortunately, fixation of tissues substantially alters tissue diffusivity profiles. In addition, ex-vivo DW-MRI requires particular care when packaging the specimen because the presence of microscopic air bubbles gives rise to geometric and intensity image distortion. In this work, we considered the specific requirements of post-mortem imaging and designed an optimized protocol for ex-vivo whole brain DW-MRI using a human clinical 3T scanner. Human clinical 3T scanners are available to a large number of researchers and, unlike most animal scanners, have a bore diameter large enough to image a whole human brain. Our optimized protocol will facilitate widespread ex-vivo investigations of large specimen.

  17. The Adult Learning Disabled Employee: The Organization's Hidden Human Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macomber, Janet A.

    This paper describes an experiment with background material designed to promote problem (learning disabled) employees as human resources rather than rejects. The material is presented in the form of the transcript of a fictional advisory committee meeting attended by the human resources manager, assistant corporate counsel, training director, line…

  18. The expression of c-kit protein in human adult and fetal tissues.

    PubMed

    Horie, K; Fujita, J; Takakura, K; Kanzaki, H; Suginami, H; Iwai, M; Nakayama, H; Mori, T

    1993-11-01

    The c-kit proto-oncogene encodes a tyrosine kinase receptor and is allelic with the dominant white-spotting (W) locus of the mouse. In this study we investigated the expression of human c-kit protein in various adult and fetal human tissues immunohistochemically using anti-human c-kit monoclonal antibody. To discriminate c-kit+ cells from mast cells expressing c-kit, mast cells were identified by staining with Toluidine blue. In oogonia, spermatogonia and skin melanocytes of the fetus and in oocytes of adult ovary, c-kit expression was detected. In adult uterus, c-kit+ cells were widely distributed in the basal layer of the endometrium, myometrium and cervix, the number and distribution being almost identical to those of mast cells. In fetal uterus, c-kit+ non-mast cells clustered beneath the epithelium and a few mast cells were observed in the myometrium and subserosal layer. In both adult and fetus, c-kit+ non-mast cells were detected within smooth muscle layers of the intestine, colon and oesophagus, while mast cells were observed in the mucosal and submucosal layers of these organs. In contrast to mice, no expression of c-kit protein was detected in the human placenta and decidua. Thus, the distribution of c-kit+ cells in various tissues is similar but not identical between adult and fetus and between human and mouse. PMID:7507133

  19. Alternative Sources of Adult Stem Cells: Human Amniotic Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolbank, Susanne; van Griensven, Martijn; Grillari-Voglauer, Regina; Peterbauer-Scherb, Anja

    Human amniotic membrane is a highly promising cell source for tissue engineering. The cells thereof, human amniotic epithelial cells (hAEC) and human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSC), may be immunoprivileged, they represent an early developmental status, and their application is ethically uncontroversial. Cell banking strategies may use freshly isolated cells or involve in vitro expansion to increase cell numbers. Therefore, we have thoroughly characterized the effect of in vitro cultivation on both phenotype and differentiation potential of hAEC. Moreover, we present different strategies to improve expansion including replacement of animal-derived supplements by human platelet products or the introduction of the catalytic subunit of human telomerase to extend the in vitro lifespan of amniotic cells. Characterization of the resulting cultures includes phenotype, growth characteristics, and differentiation potential, as well as immunogenic and immunomodulatory properties.

  20. Exploratory Metabolomic Analyses Reveal Compounds Correlated with Lutein Concentration in Frontal Cortex, Hippocampus, and Occipital Cortex of Human Infant Brain

    PubMed Central

    Lieblein-Boff, Jacqueline C.; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Kennedy, Adam D.; Lai, Chron-Si; Kuchan, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Lutein is a dietary carotenoid well known for its role as an antioxidant in the macula, and recent reports implicate a role for lutein in cognitive function. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in both pediatric and geriatric brain tissue. In addition, cognitive function in older adults correlated with macular and postmortem brain lutein concentrations. Furthermore, lutein was found to preferentially accumulate in the infant brain in comparison to other carotenoids that are predominant in diet. While lutein is consistently related to cognitive function, the mechanisms by which lutein may influence cognition are not clear. In an effort to identify potential mechanisms through which lutein might influence neurodevelopment, an exploratory study relating metabolite signatures and lutein was completed. Post-mortem metabolomic analyses were performed on human infant brain tissues in three regions important for learning and memory: the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and occipital cortex. Metabolomic profiles were compared to lutein concentration, and correlations were identified and reported here. A total of 1276 correlations were carried out across all brain regions. Of 427 metabolites analyzed, 257 were metabolites of known identity. Unidentified metabolite correlations (510) were excluded. In addition, moderate correlations with xenobiotic relationships (2) or those driven by single outliers (3) were excluded from further study. Lutein concentrations correlated with lipid pathway metabolites, energy pathway metabolites, brain osmolytes, amino acid neurotransmitters, and the antioxidant homocarnosine. These correlations were often brain region—specific. Revealing relationships between lutein and metabolic pathways may help identify potential candidates on which to complete further analyses and may shed light on important roles of lutein in the human brain during development. PMID:26317757

  1. Molecular Mechanism of Adult Neurogenesis and its Association with Human Brain Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, He; Song, Ni

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience challenge the old dogma that neurogenesis occurs only during embryonic development. Mounting evidence suggests that functional neurogenesis occurs throughout adulthood. This review article discusses molecular factors that affect adult neurogenesis, including morphogens, growth factors, neurotransmitters, transcription factors, and epigenetic factors. Furthermore, we summarize and compare current evidence of associations between adult neurogenesis and human brain diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and brain tumors. PMID:27375363

  2. Molecular Mechanism of Adult Neurogenesis and its Association with Human Brain Diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, He; Song, Ni

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience challenge the old dogma that neurogenesis occurs only during embryonic development. Mounting evidence suggests that functional neurogenesis occurs throughout adulthood. This review article discusses molecular factors that affect adult neurogenesis, including morphogens, growth factors, neurotransmitters, transcription factors, and epigenetic factors. Furthermore, we summarize and compare current evidence of associations between adult neurogenesis and human brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and brain tumors. PMID:27375363

  3. Human brain diffusion tensor imaging at submillimeter isotropic resolution on a 3 Tesla clinical MRI scanner

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hing-Chiu; Sundman, Mark; Petit, Laurent; Guhaniyogi, Shayan; Chu, Mei-Lan; Petty, Christopher; Song, Allen W.; Chen, Nan-kuei

    2015-01-01

    The advantages of high-resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been demonstrated in a recent post-mortem human brain study (Miller et al., NeuroImage 2011;57(1):167–181), showing that white matter fiber tracts can be much more accurately detected in data at submillimeter isotropic resolution. To our knowledge, in vivo human brain DTI at submillimeter isotropic resolution has not been routinely achieved yet because of the difficulty in simultaneously achieving high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in DTI scans. Here we report a 3D multi-slab interleaved EPI acquisition integrated with multiplexed sensitivity encoded (MUSE) reconstruction, to achieve high-quality, high-SNR and submillimeter isotropic resolution (0.85 × 0.85 × 0.85 mm3) in vivo human brain DTI on a 3 Tesla clinical MRI scanner. In agreement with the previously reported post-mortem human brain DTI study, our in vivo data show that the structural connectivity networks of human brains can be mapped more accurately and completely with high-resolution DTI as compared with conventional DTI (e.g., 2 × 2 × 2 mm3). PMID:26072250

  4. [Dietary phytoestrogen and its potential benefits in adult human health].

    PubMed

    Garrido, Argelia; de la Maza, María Pía; Valladares, Luis

    2003-11-01

    Human diet contains a series of bioactive vegetal compounds that can improve human health. Among these, there has been a special interest for phytoestrogens. This article reviews the evidence about the potential benefits of phytoestrogens for human health. Forty eight manuscripts were selected for their study design and relevance to human health. The cell growth inhibitory effects of phytoestrogens and their implication in breast cancer are reviewed. Also the effects of these compounds on serum lipid levels and the effectiveness of a phytoestrogen derivate, ipriflavone, on the prevention of osteoporosis are analyzed. Although these compounds have a great potential for improving health, there is still not enough evidence to recommend the routine use of phytoestrogens. PMID:14743696

  5. A century of trends in adult human height.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5-22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3-19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8-144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries. PMID:27458798

  6. A century of trends in adult human height

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5–22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3–19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8–144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13410.001 PMID:27458798

  7. Resident aerobic microbiota of the adult human nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, T T; Kirkeby, L P; Poulsen, K; Reinholdt, J; Kilian, M

    2000-10-01

    Recent evidence strongly suggests that the microbiota of the nasal cavity plays a crucial role in determining the reaction patterns of the mucosal and systemic immune system. However, little is known about the normal microbiota of the nasal cavity. The purpose of this study was to determine the microbiota in different parts of the nasal cavity and to develop and evaluate methods for this purpose. Samples were collected from 10 healthy adults by nasal washes and by swabbing of the mucosa through a sterile introduction device. Both methods gave results that were quantitatively and qualitatively reproducible, and revealed significant differences in the density of the nasal microbiota between individuals. The study revealed absence of gram-negative bacteria that are regular members of the commensal microbiota of the pharynx. Likewise, viridans type streptococci were sparsely represented. The nasal microbiota was dominated by species of the genera Corynebacterium, Aureobacterium, Rhodococcus, and Staphylococcus, including S. epidermis, S. capitis, S. hominis, S. haemolyticus, S. lugdunensis and S. warneri. These studies show that the microbiota of the nasal cavity of adults is strikingly different from that of the pharynx, and that the nasal cavity is a primary habitat for several species of diphtheroids recognized as opportunistic pathogens. Under special circumstances, single species, including IgA1 protease-producing bacteria, may become predominant in a restricted area of the nasal mucosa. PMID:11200821

  8. Hesperetin induces melanin production in adult human epidermal melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Usach, Iris; Taléns-Visconti, Raquel; Magraner-Pardo, Lorena; Peris, José-Esteban

    2015-06-01

    One of the major sources of flavonoids for humans are citrus fruits, hesperidin being the predominant flavonoid. Hesperetin (HSP), the aglycon of hesperidin, has been reported to provide health benefits such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic effects. However, the effect of HSP on skin pigmentation is not clear. Some authors have found that HSP induces melanogenesis in murine B16-F10 melanoma cells, which, if extrapolated to in vivo conditions, might protect skin against photodamage. Since the effect of HSP on normal melanocytes could be different to that observed on melanoma cells, the described effect of HSP on murine melanoma cells has been compared to the effect obtained using normal human melanocytes. HSP concentrations of 25 and 50 µM induced melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in human melanocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared to control melanocytes, 25 µM HSP increased melanin production and tyrosinase activity 1.4-fold (p < 0.01) and 1.1-fold (p < 0.01), respectively, and the corresponding increases in the case of 50 µM HSP were 1.9-fold (p < 0.001) and 1.3-fold (p < 0.001). Therefore, HSP could be considered a valuable photoprotective substance if its capacity to increase melanin production in human melanocyte cultures could be reproduced on human skin. PMID:25765751

  9. The landscape of genomic imprinting across diverse adult human tissues.

    PubMed

    Baran, Yael; Subramaniam, Meena; Biton, Anne; Tukiainen, Taru; Tsang, Emily K; Rivas, Manuel A; Pirinen, Matti; Gutierrez-Arcelus, Maria; Smith, Kevin S; Kukurba, Kim R; Zhang, Rui; Eng, Celeste; Torgerson, Dara G; Urbanek, Cydney; Li, Jin Billy; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R; Burchard, Esteban G; Seibold, Max A; MacArthur, Daniel G; Montgomery, Stephen B; Zaitlen, Noah A; Lappalainen, Tuuli

    2015-07-01

    Genomic imprinting is an important regulatory mechanism that silences one of the parental copies of a gene. To systematically characterize this phenomenon, we analyze tissue specificity of imprinting from allelic expression data in 1582 primary tissue samples from 178 individuals from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. We characterize imprinting in 42 genes, including both novel and previously identified genes. Tissue specificity of imprinting is widespread, and gender-specific effects are revealed in a small number of genes in muscle with stronger imprinting in males. IGF2 shows maternal expression in the brain instead of the canonical paternal expression elsewhere. Imprinting appears to have only a subtle impact on tissue-specific expression levels, with genes lacking a systematic expression difference between tissues with imprinted and biallelic expression. In summary, our systematic characterization of imprinting in adult tissues highlights variation in imprinting between genes, individuals, and tissues. PMID:25953952

  10. The landscape of genomic imprinting across diverse adult human tissues

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Yael; Subramaniam, Meena; Biton, Anne; Tukiainen, Taru; Tsang, Emily K.; Rivas, Manuel A.; Pirinen, Matti; Gutierrez-Arcelus, Maria; Smith, Kevin S.; Kukurba, Kim R.; Zhang, Rui; Eng, Celeste; Torgerson, Dara G.; Urbanek, Cydney; Li, Jin Billy; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Burchard, Esteban G.; Seibold, Max A.; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Zaitlen, Noah A.; Lappalainen, Tuuli

    2015-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is an important regulatory mechanism that silences one of the parental copies of a gene. To systematically characterize this phenomenon, we analyze tissue specificity of imprinting from allelic expression data in 1582 primary tissue samples from 178 individuals from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. We characterize imprinting in 42 genes, including both novel and previously identified genes. Tissue specificity of imprinting is widespread, and gender-specific effects are revealed in a small number of genes in muscle with stronger imprinting in males. IGF2 shows maternal expression in the brain instead of the canonical paternal expression elsewhere. Imprinting appears to have only a subtle impact on tissue-specific expression levels, with genes lacking a systematic expression difference between tissues with imprinted and biallelic expression. In summary, our systematic characterization of imprinting in adult tissues highlights variation in imprinting between genes, individuals, and tissues. PMID:25953952

  11. Preparation of human formalin-fixed brain slices for electron microscopic investigations.

    PubMed

    Krause, Martin; Brüne, Martin; Theiss, Carsten

    2016-07-01

    Ultra-structural analysis of human post-mortem brain tissue is important for investigations into the pathomechanism of neuropsychiatric disorders, especially those lacking alternative models of studying human-specific morphological features. For example, Von Economo Neurons (VENs) mainly located in the anterior cingulate cortex and in the anterior part of the insula, which seem to play a role in a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions, including frontotemporal dementia, autism and schizophrenia, can hardly be studied in nonhuman animals. Accordingly, little is known about the ultra-structural alterations of these neurons, though important research using qualitative stereological methods has revealed that protein expression of the VENs assigns them a role in immune function. Formaldehyde, which is the most common fixative in human pathology, interferes with the immunoreactivity of the tissue, possibly leading to unreliable results. Therefore, a method for ultra-structural investigations independent of antigenic properties of the fixated tissue is needed. Here, we propose an approach using electron microscopy to examine cytoskeletal structures, synapses and mitochondria in these cells. We also show that our methodology is able to keep tissue consumption to a minimum, while still allowing for the specimens to be handled with ease by using agar embedded slices in contrast to blocks for the embedding procedure. Accordingly, a stepwise protocol utilising 60μm thick human post mortem brain sections for electron microscopic ultra-structural investigations is presented. PMID:27136748

  12. Multiple cellular and molecular mechanisms are involved in human Aβ clearance by transplanted adult astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Pihlaja, Rea; Koistinaho, Jari; Kauppinen, Riitta; Sandholm, Jouko; Tanila, Heikki; Koistinaho, Milla

    2011-11-01

    Astrocytes and microglia are able to degrade potentially neurotoxic β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits typical for Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Contrary to microglia, astrocytes degrade human Aβ from tissue sections in vitro without any additional stimulation, but it has remained unclear whether transplanted astrocytes are able to clear deposited human Aβ in vivo. We transplanted adult mouse astrocytes into the hippocampi of transgenic mice mimicking AD and observed their fate, effects on microglial responses, and Aβ clearance. After 2-months follow-up time, we discovered a significant reduction in Aβ burden compared with AD mice infused with PBS only. The remaining Aβ deposits were fragmented and most of the Aβ immunoreactivity was seen within the transplanted astrocytes. Concomitant to Aβ reduction, both CD68 and CD45 immunoreactivities were significantly upregulated but phagocytic microglia were often surrounding and engulfing Aβ burdened, TUNEL-positive astrocytes rather than co-localizing with Aβ alone. Astrocytes are known to degrade Aβ also by secreting proteases involved in Aβ catabolism. To study the contribution of neprilysin (NEP), angiotensin-converting enzyme-1 (ACE-1), and endothelin-converting enzyme-2 (ECE-2) in human Aβ clearance, we utilized an ex vivo assay to demonstrate that adult astrocytes respond to human Aβ by upregulating NEP expression. Further, incubation of adult astrocytes with known inhibitors of NEP, ACE-1, or ECE-2 significantly inhibited the removal of human Aβ from the tissue suggesting an important role for these proteases in Aβ clearance by adult astrocytes ex vivo. PMID:21826742

  13. Prospective heterotopic ossification progenitors in adult human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Downey, Jennifer; Lauzier, Dominique; Kloen, Peter; Klarskov, Klaus; Richter, Martin; Hamdy, Reggie; Faucheux, Nathalie; Scimè, Anthony; Balg, Frédéric; Grenier, Guillaume

    2015-02-01

    Skeletal muscle has strong regenerative capabilities. However, failed regeneration can lead to complications where aberrant tissue forms as is the case with heterotopic ossification (HO), in which chondrocytes, osteoblasts and white and brown adipocytes can arise following severe trauma. In humans, the various HO cell types likely originate from multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in skeletal muscle, which have not been identified in humans until now. In the present study, adherent cells from freshly digested skeletal muscle tissue were expanded in defined culture medium and were FACS-enriched for the CD73(+)CD105(+)CD90(-) population, which displayed robust multilineage potential. Clonal differentiation assays confirmed that all three lineages originated from a single multipotent progenitor. In addition to differentiating into typical HO lineages, human muscle resident MSCs (hmrMSCs) also differentiated into brown adipocytes expressing uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Characterizing this novel multipotent hmrMSC population with a brown adipocyte differentiation capacity has enhanced our understanding of the contribution of non-myogenic progenitor cells to regeneration and aberrant tissue formation in human skeletal muscle. PMID:25445454

  14. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S.; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high‐dose hormone application in adult female‐to‐male transsexuals. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4 weeks of testosterone treatment, with each scan including structural, diffusion weighted and functional imaging. Voxel‐based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter volume with increasing levels of bioavailable testosterone exclusively in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Particularly, this may link known sex differences in language performance to the influence of testosterone on relevant brain regions. Using probabilistic tractography, we further observed that longitudinal changes in testosterone negatively predicted changes in mean diffusivity of the corresponding structural connection passing through the extreme capsule. Considering a related increase in myelin staining in rodents, this potentially reflects a strengthening of the fiber tract particularly involved in language comprehension. Finally, functional images at resting‐state were evaluated, showing increased functional connectivity between the two brain regions with increasing testosterone levels. These findings suggest testosterone‐dependent neuroplastic adaptations in adulthood within language‐specific brain regions and connections. Importantly, deteriorations in gray matter volume seem to be compensated by enhancement of corresponding structural and functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1738–1748, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876303

  15. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2016-05-01

    Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high-dose hormone application in adult female-to-male transsexuals. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging before and after 4 weeks of testosterone treatment, with each scan including structural, diffusion weighted and functional imaging. Voxel-based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter volume with increasing levels of bioavailable testosterone exclusively in Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Particularly, this may link known sex differences in language performance to the influence of testosterone on relevant brain regions. Using probabilistic tractography, we further observed that longitudinal changes in testosterone negatively predicted changes in mean diffusivity of the corresponding structural connection passing through the extreme capsule. Considering a related increase in myelin staining in rodents, this potentially reflects a strengthening of the fiber tract particularly involved in language comprehension. Finally, functional images at resting-state were evaluated, showing increased functional connectivity between the two brain regions with increasing testosterone levels. These findings suggest testosterone-dependent neuroplastic adaptations in adulthood within language-specific brain regions and connections. Importantly, deteriorations in gray matter volume seem to be compensated by enhancement of corresponding structural and functional connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1738-1748, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876303

  16. Bacteriology of severe periodontitis in young adult humans.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, W E; Holdeman, L V; Smibert, R M; Hash, D E; Burmeister, J A; Ranney, R R

    1982-01-01

    A total of 78 bacteriological samples were taken from the supragingival tooth surface after superficial cleaning with toothpicks or from the periodontal sulci of 42 affected sites in 21 adolescents or young adults with severe generalized periodontitis. Of 190 bacterial species, subspecies, or serotypes detected among 2,723 isolates, 11 species exceeded 1% of the subgingival flora and were most closely associated with the diseased sulci. Eleven others were also sufficiently frequent to be suspect agents of tissue destruction. Many of these species are known pathogens of other body sites. In addition, 10 species of Treponema were isolated. One of these and the "large treponeme" were also more closely associated with severe periodontitis than they were with healthy sites or gingivitis. There were highly significant differences between the composition of the flora of the affected sulci and the flora of (i) the adjacent supragingival tooth surface, (ii) the gingival crevice of periodontally healthy people, and (iii) sites with a gingival index score of 0 or 2 in experimental gingivitis studies. The floras of different individuals were also significantly different. There was no statistically detectable effect of sampling per se upon the composition of the flora of subsequent samples from the same sites. The composition of the supragingival flora of the patients with severe generalized periodontitis that had serum antibody to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was significantly different from the supragingival flora of patients without this serum antibody. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the composition of their subgingival floras. PMID:7152665

  17. Profile of the Adult Education and Human Resource Development Professoriate: Characteristics and Professional Fulfillment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Shari L.; Provo, Joanne

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 113 members of the Commission of Professors of Adult Education and 50 of the Academy of Human Resource Development found few differences except in age, rank, and salary. The two faculties are compatible and could be integrated. Overall job satisfaction is high. Professors tended to come from other fields and to remain. (SK)

  18. Equality and Human Capital: Conflicting Concepts within State-Funded Adult Education in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a critique of the concept of equality as it informs the White Paper on Adult Education: Learning for Life (2000). It also outlines the extent to which human capital theory can be seen to have effectively colonised lifelong learning from the outset of its adoption by the European Union with highly constraining implications for…

  19. An Instrument Development Model for Online Surveys in Human Resource Development and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strachota, Elaine M.; Conceicao, Simone C. O.; Schmidt, Steven W.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the use of a schematic model for developing and distributing online surveys. Two empirical studies that developed and implemented online surveys to collect data to measure satisfaction in various aspects of human resource development and adult education exemplify the use of the model to conduct online survey research. The…

  20. An Assessemnt of Graduate Adult Education and Human Resource Development Programs: A U.S. Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akdere, Mesut; Conceicao, Simone C. O.

    2009-01-01

    Due to recent changes in the workplace, the workforce and higher education have driven academic programs of adult education (AE) and human resource development (HRD) in the U.S. to become more integrated as part of the mission of institutions of higher education. In this exploratory study, existing graduate programs in AE and HRD in the U.S. were…

  1. Adult attachment style is associated with cerebral μ-opioid receptor availability in humans.

    PubMed

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Manninen, Sandra; Tuominen, Lauri; Hirvonen, Jussi; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Nuutila, Pirjo; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Hari, Riitta; Dunbar, Robin I M; Sams, Mikko

    2015-09-01

    Human attachment behavior mediates establishment and maintenance of social relationships. Adult attachment characteristically varies on anxiety and avoidance dimensions, reflecting the tendencies to worry about the partner breaking the social bond (anxiety) and feeling uncomfortable about depending on others (avoidance). In primates and other mammals, the endogenous μ-opioid system is linked to long-term social bonding, but evidence of its role in human adult attachment remains more limited. We used in vivo positron emission tomography to reveal how variability in μ-opioid receptor (MOR) availability is associated with adult attachment in humans. We scanned 49 healthy subjects using a MOR-specific ligand [(11) C]carfentanil and measured their attachment avoidance and anxiety with the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised scale. The avoidance dimension of attachment correlated negatively with MOR availability in the thalamus and anterior cingulate cortex, as well as the frontal cortex, amygdala, and insula. No associations were observed between MOR availability and the anxiety dimension of attachment. Our results suggest that the endogenous opioid system may underlie interindividual differences in avoidant attachment style in human adults, and that differences in MOR availability are associated with the individuals' social relationships and psychosocial well-being. PMID:26046928

  2. Severe Infections with Human Adenovirus 7d in 2 Adults in Family, Illinois, USA, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Ison, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Human adenovirus 7d, a genomic variant with no reported circulation in the United States, was isolated from 2 adults with severe respiratory infections in Illinois. Molecular typing identified a close relationship with strains of the same genome type isolated from cases of respiratory disease in several provinces of China since 2009. PMID:26982199

  3. Evaluation of Serum Creatinine Changes With Integrase Inhibitor Use in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lindeman, Tara A.; Duggan, Joan M.; Sahloff, Eric G.

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective chart review evaluated changes in serum creatinine and creatinine clearance (CrCl) after initiation of an integrase inhibitor (INSTI)-based regimen as initial treatment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults. Serum creatinine and CrCl changes were similar to those seen in clinical trials for INSTIs. No renal-related serious adverse events or discontinuations occurred. PMID:27092314

  4. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part One, Assumptions, Definitions, and Critiques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere

    2006-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995).…

  5. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part Two, the Critical Turn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere

    2006-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995). The…

  6. Emotions and Human Concern: Adult Education and the Philosophical Thought of Martha Nussbaum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Donovan

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that philosopher Martha Nussbaum's reflections on the role of the emotions in human flourishing can contribute in important ways to our understanding of the emotions in adult education contexts. The article summarises Nussbaum's exploration of the contributions of classical philosophers like Socrates, Aristotle, and…

  7. PREDICTIONS OF OZONE ABSORPTION IN HUMAN LUNGS FROM NEWBORN TO ADULT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dosimetry models for gases mainly have been used to predict absorption in adult humans and laboratory animals. he lack of lower respiratory tract (LRT) lung models for children has discouraged the application of theoretical gaseous dosimetry to this important subpopulation. o fil...

  8. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part Two, the Critical Turn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere

    2014-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995). The…

  9. Perspectives on Adult Education, Human Resource Development, and the Emergence of Workforce Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a perspective on the relationship between adult education and human resource development of the past two decades and the subsequent emergence of workforce development. The lesson taken from the article should be more than simply a recounting of events related to these fields of study. Instead, the more general lesson may be…

  10. Concept Maps: Practice Applications in Adult Education and Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Concept maps can be used as both a cognitive and constructivist learning strategy in teaching and learning in adult education and human resource development. The maps can be used to understand course readings, analyze case studies, develop reflective thinking and enhance research skills. The creation of concept maps can also be supported by the…

  11. Bridging the Gap between Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Part One, Assumptions, Definitions, and Critiques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim; Bowles, Tuere

    2013-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) as a scholarly endeavor and as a practice is often criticized in the adult education (AE) literature and by AE scholars as manipulative and oppressive and, through training and other interventions, controlling workers for strictly economic ends (Baptiste, 2001; Cunningham, 2004; Schied, 2001; Welton, 1995).…

  12. Human-derived neural progenitors functionally replace astrocytes in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Qian, Kun; Chen, Wei; Hu, Baoyang; Blackbourn, Lisle W.; Du, Zhongwei; Ma, Lixiang; Liu, Huisheng; Knobel, Karla M.; Ayala, Melvin; Zhang, Su-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes are integral components of the homeostatic neural network as well as active participants in pathogenesis of and recovery from nearly all neurological conditions. Evolutionarily, compared with lower vertebrates and nonhuman primates, humans have an increased astrocyte-to-neuron ratio; however, a lack of effective models has hindered the study of the complex roles of human astrocytes in intact adult animals. Here, we demonstrated that after transplantation into the cervical spinal cords of adult mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), human pluripotent stem cell–derived (PSC-derived) neural progenitors migrate a long distance and differentiate to astrocytes that nearly replace their mouse counterparts over a 9-month period. The human PSC-derived astrocytes formed networks through their processes, encircled endogenous neurons, and extended end feet that wrapped around blood vessels without altering locomotion behaviors, suggesting structural, and potentially functional, integration into the adult mouse spinal cord. Furthermore, in SCID mice transplanted with neural progenitors derived from induced PSCs from patients with ALS, astrocytes were generated and distributed to a similar degree as that seen in mice transplanted with healthy progenitors; however, these mice exhibited motor deficit, highlighting functional integration of the human-derived astrocytes. Together, these results indicate that this chimeric animal model has potential for further investigating the roles of human astrocytes in disease pathogenesis and repair. PMID:25642771

  13. Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jake; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell

    2016-08-01

    Improved survival with combination antiretroviral therapy has led to a dramatic increase in the number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals 50 years of age or older such that by 2020 more than 50% of HIV-infected persons in the United States will be above this age. Recent studies confirm that antiretroviral therapy should be offered to all HIV-infected patients regardless of age, symptoms, CD4+ cell count, or HIV viral load. However, when compared with HIV-uninfected populations, even with suppression of measurable HIV replication, older individuals are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease, malignancies, liver disease, and other comorbidities. PMID:27394024

  14. Adult human adipose tissue contains several types of multipotent cells.

    PubMed

    Tallone, Tiziano; Realini, Claudio; Böhmler, Andreas; Kornfeld, Christopher; Vassalli, Giuseppe; Moccetti, Tiziano; Bardelli, Silvana; Soldati, Gianni

    2011-04-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a type of adult stem cells that can be easily isolated from various tissues and expanded in vitro. Many reports on their pluripotency and possible clinical applications have raised hopes and interest in MSCs. In an attempt to unify the terminology and the criteria to label a cell as MSC, in 2006 the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) proposed a standard set of rules to define the identity of these cells. However, MSCs are still extracted from different tissues, by diverse isolation protocols, are cultured and expanded in different media and conditions. All these variables may have profound effects on the selection of cell types and the composition of heterogeneous subpopulations, on the selective expansion of specific cell populations with totally different potentials and ergo, on the long-term fate of the cells upon in vitro culture. Therefore, specific molecular and cellular markers that identify MSCs subsets as well as standardization of expansion protocols for these cells are urgently needed. Here, we briefly discuss new useful markers and recent data supporting the rapidly emerging concept that many different types of progenitor cells are found in close association with blood vessels. This knowledge may promote the necessary technical improvements required to reduce variability and promote higher efficacy and safety when isolating and expanding these cells for therapeutic use. In the light of the discussed data, particularly the identification of new markers, and advances in the understanding of fundamental MSC biology, we also suggest a revision of the 2006 ISCT criteria. PMID:21327755

  15. Canonical Genetic Signatures of the Adult Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Hawrylycz, Michael; Miller, Jeremy A.; Menon, Vilas; Feng, David; Dolbeare, Tim; Guillozet-Bongaarts, Angela L.; Jegga, Anil G.; Aronow, Bruce J.; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Bernard, Amy; Glasser, Matthew F.; Dierker, Donna L.; Menche, Jörge; Szafer, Aaron; Collman, Forrest; Grange, Pascal; Berman, Kenneth A.; Mihalas, Stefan; Yao, Zizhen; Stewart, Lance; Barabási, Albert-László; Schulkin, Jay; Phillips, John; Ng, Lydia; Dang, Chinh; Haynor, David R.; Jones, Allan; Van Essen, David C.; Koch, Christof; Lein, Ed

    2015-01-01

    The structure and function of the human brain are highly stereotyped, implying a conserved molecular program responsible for its development, cellular structure, and function. We applied a correlation-based metric of “differential stability” (DS) to assess reproducibility of gene expression patterning across 132 structures in six individual brains, revealing meso-scale genetic organization. The highest DS genes are highly biologically relevant, with enrichment for brain-related biological annotations, disease associations, drug targets, and literature citations. Using high DS genes we identified 32 anatomically diverse and reproducible gene expression signatures, which represent distinct cell types, intracellular components, and/or associations with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Genes in neuron-associated compared to non-neuronal networks showed higher preservation between human and mouse; however, many diversely-patterned genes displayed dramatic shifts in regulation between species. Finally, highly consistent transcriptional architecture in neocortex is correlated with resting state functional connectivity, suggesting a link between conserved gene expression and functionally relevant circuitry. PMID:26571460

  16. Canonical genetic signatures of the adult human brain.

    PubMed

    Hawrylycz, Michael; Miller, Jeremy A; Menon, Vilas; Feng, David; Dolbeare, Tim; Guillozet-Bongaarts, Angela L; Jegga, Anil G; Aronow, Bruce J; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Bernard, Amy; Glasser, Matthew F; Dierker, Donna L; Menche, Jörg; Szafer, Aaron; Collman, Forrest; Grange, Pascal; Berman, Kenneth A; Mihalas, Stefan; Yao, Zizhen; Stewart, Lance; Barabási, Albert-László; Schulkin, Jay; Phillips, John; Ng, Lydia; Dang, Chinh; Haynor, David R; Jones, Allan; Van Essen, David C; Koch, Christof; Lein, Ed

    2015-12-01

    The structure and function of the human brain are highly stereotyped, implying a conserved molecular program responsible for its development, cellular structure and function. We applied a correlation-based metric called differential stability to assess reproducibility of gene expression patterning across 132 structures in six individual brains, revealing mesoscale genetic organization. The genes with the highest differential stability are highly biologically relevant, with enrichment for brain-related annotations, disease associations, drug targets and literature citations. Using genes with high differential stability, we identified 32 anatomically diverse and reproducible gene expression signatures, which represent distinct cell types, intracellular components and/or associations with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Genes in neuron-associated compared to non-neuronal networks showed higher preservation between human and mouse; however, many diversely patterned genes displayed marked shifts in regulation between species. Finally, highly consistent transcriptional architecture in neocortex is correlated with resting state functional connectivity, suggesting a link between conserved gene expression and functionally relevant circuitry. PMID:26571460

  17. Self-Control and Impulsiveness in Nondieting Adult Human Females: Effects of Visual Food Cues and Food Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forzano, Lori-Ann B.; Chelonis, John J.; Casey, Caitlin; Forward, Marion; Stachowiak, Jacqueline A.; Wood, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Self-control can be defined as the choice of a larger, more delayed reinforcer over a smaller, less delayed reinforcer, and impulsiveness as the opposite. Previous research suggests that exposure to visual food cues affects adult humans' self-control. Previous research also suggests that food deprivation decreases adult humans' self-control. The…

  18. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  19. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated...

  20. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  1. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  2. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated...

  3. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  4. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  5. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  6. Larval food quantity affects the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit human malaria.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Lillian L M; Murdock, Courtney C; Jacobs, Gregory R; Thomas, Rachel J; Thomas, Matthew B

    2016-07-13

    Adult traits of holometabolous insects are shaped by conditions experienced during larval development, which might impact interactions between adult insect hosts and parasites. However, the ecology of larval insects that vector disease remains poorly understood. Here, we used Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes and the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, to investigate whether larval conditions affect the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit malaria. We reared larvae in two groups; one group received a standard laboratory rearing diet, whereas the other received a reduced diet. Emerging adult females were then provided an infectious blood meal. We assessed mosquito longevity, parasite development rate and prevalence of infectious mosquitoes over time. Reduced larval food led to increased adult mortality and caused a delay in parasite development and a slowing in the rate at which parasites invaded the mosquito salivary glands, extending the time it took for mosquitoes to become infectious. Together, these effects increased transmission potential of mosquitoes in the high food regime by 260-330%. Such effects have not, to our knowledge, been shown previously for human malaria and highlight the importance of improving knowledge of larval ecology to better understand vector-borne disease transmission dynamics. PMID:27412284

  7. Larval food quantity affects the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit human malaria

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Lillian L. M.; Murdock, Courtney C.; Jacobs, Gregory R.; Thomas, Rachel J.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Adult traits of holometabolous insects are shaped by conditions experienced during larval development, which might impact interactions between adult insect hosts and parasites. However, the ecology of larval insects that vector disease remains poorly understood. Here, we used Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes and the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, to investigate whether larval conditions affect the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit malaria. We reared larvae in two groups; one group received a standard laboratory rearing diet, whereas the other received a reduced diet. Emerging adult females were then provided an infectious blood meal. We assessed mosquito longevity, parasite development rate and prevalence of infectious mosquitoes over time. Reduced larval food led to increased adult mortality and caused a delay in parasite development and a slowing in the rate at which parasites invaded the mosquito salivary glands, extending the time it took for mosquitoes to become infectious. Together, these effects increased transmission potential of mosquitoes in the high food regime by 260–330%. Such effects have not, to our knowledge, been shown previously for human malaria and highlight the importance of improving knowledge of larval ecology to better understand vector-borne disease transmission dynamics. PMID:27412284

  8. Predictions of ozone absorption in human lungs from newborn to adult

    SciTech Connect

    Overton, J.H.; Graham, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Dosimetry models for gases mainly have been used to predict absorption in adult humans and laboratory animals. The lack of lower respiratory tract (LRT) lung models for children has discouraged the application of theoretical gaseous dosimetry to this important sub-population. To fill this gap the authors have used several sources of data on age dependent LRT volumes, age dependent airway dimensions, a model of an adult tracheobronchial region, and a model of the adult acinus to construct theoretical LRT lung models for humans from birth to adult. An ozone (O{sub 3}) dosimetry model was then used to estimate the regional and local uptake of O{sub 3} in the (theoretical) LRTs of children and adults. For sedentary breathing, the LRT distribution of absorbed O{sub 3}, the percent uptake (76 to 85%), and the centriacinar O{sub 3} tissue dose are not very sensitive to age. For maximal work during exercise, predicted uptakes range from 83 to 91%, and the regional percent uptakes are more dependent on age than during quiet breathing. In general, total O{sub 3} absorption per minute increases with age. Regardless of age and state of breathing, the largest tissue dose of O{sub 3} is predicted to occur in the centriacinar region, where many animal studies show the maximal morphological damage due to O{sub 3}.

  9. A humanized version of Foxp2 does not affect ultrasonic vocalization in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, K; Schreiweis, C; Minge, C; Pääbo, S; Fischer, J; Enard, W

    2015-11-01

    The transcription factor FOXP2 has been linked to severe speech and language impairments in humans. An analysis of the evolution of the FOXP2 gene has identified two amino acid substitutions that became fixed after the split of the human and chimpanzee lineages. Studying the functional consequences of these two substitutions in the endogenous Foxp2 gene of mice showed alterations in dopamine levels, striatal synaptic plasticity, neuronal morphology and cortico-striatal-dependent learning. In addition, ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) of pups had a significantly lower average pitch than control littermates. To which degree adult USVs would be affected in mice carrying the 'humanized' Foxp2 variant remained unclear. In this study, we analyzed USVs of 68 adult male mice uttered during repeated courtship encounters with different females. Mice carrying the Foxp2(hum/hum) allele did not differ significantly in the number of call elements, their element structure or in their element composition from control littermates. We conclude that neither the structure nor the usage of USVs in adult mice is affected by the two amino acid substitutions that occurred in FOXP2 during human evolution. The reported effect for pup vocalization thus appears to be transient. These results are in line with accumulating evidence that mouse USVs are hardly influenced by vocal learning. Hence, the function and evolution of genes that are necessary, but not sufficient for vocal learning in humans, must be either studied at a different phenotypic level in mice or in other organisms. PMID:26250064

  10. Localization of PPAR isotypes in the adult mouse and human brain

    PubMed Central

    Warden, Anna; Truitt, Jay; Merriman, Morgan; Ponomareva, Olga; Jameson, Kelly; Ferguson, Laura B.; Mayfield, R. Dayne; Harris, R. Adron

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that act as ligand-activated transcription factors. PPAR agonists have well-documented anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective roles in the central nervous system. Recent evidence suggests that PPAR agonists are attractive therapeutic agents for treating neurodegenerative diseases as well as addiction. However, the distribution of PPAR mRNA and protein in brain regions associated with these conditions (i.e. prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, ventral tegmental area) is not well defined. Moreover, the cell type specificity of PPARs in mouse and human brain tissue has yet to be investigated. We utilized quantitative PCR and double immunofluorescence microscopy to determine that both PPAR mRNA and protein are expressed ubiquitously throughout the adult mouse brain. We found that PPARs have unique cell type specificities that are consistent between species. PPARα was the only isotype to colocalize with all cell types in both adult mouse and adult human brain tissue. Overall, we observed a strong neuronal signature, which raises the possibility that PPAR agonists may be targeting neurons rather than glia to produce neuroprotection. Our results fill critical gaps in PPAR distribution and define novel cell type specificity profiles in the adult mouse and human brain. PMID:27283430

  11. Predictions of ozone absorption in human lungs from newborn to adult

    SciTech Connect

    Overton, J.H.; Graham, R.C. )

    1989-01-01

    Although children are an important human population, dosimetry models for gases have been used to predict absorption mainly in laboratory animals and adult humans. To correct this omission, we have used several sources of data on age-dependent lower respiratory tract (LRT) volumes, age-dependent airway dimensions, a model of the adult tracheobronchial region, and a model of the adult acinus to construct theoretical LRT lung models for humans from birth to adulthood. An ozone (O3) dosimetry model was then used to estimate the regional and local uptake of O3 in the (theoretical) LRT of children and adults. For sedentary or quiet breathing, the LRT distribution of absorbed O3, the percent uptake (84 to 88%) and the centriacinar O3 tissue dose are not very sensitive to age. For maximal work during exercise, predicted LRT uptakes range from 87 to 93%, and the regional percent uptakes are more dependent on age than during quiet breathing. In general, the total quantity of O3 absorbed per minute increases with age. Regardless of age and state of breathing, the largest tissue dose of O3 is predicted to occur in the centriacinar region, where many animal studies show the maximal morphological damage from O3.

  12. The response of the anterior striatum during adult human vocal learning

    PubMed Central

    Leech, Robert; Iverson, Paul; Wise, Richard J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Research on mammals predicts that the anterior striatum is a central component of human motor learning. However, because vocalizations in most mammals are innate, much of the neurobiology of human vocal learning has been inferred from studies on songbirds. Essential for song learning is a pathway, the homolog of mammalian cortical-basal ganglia “loops,” which includes the avian striatum. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated adult human vocal learning, a skill that persists throughout life, albeit imperfectly given that late-acquired languages are spoken with an accent. Monolingual adult participants were scanned while repeating novel non-native words. After training on the pronunciation of half the words for 1 wk, participants underwent a second scan. During scanning there was no external feedback on performance. Activity declined sharply in left and right anterior striatum, both within and between scanning sessions, and this change was independent of training and performance. This indicates that adult speakers rapidly adapt to the novel articulatory movements, possibly by using motor sequences from their native speech to approximate those required for the novel speech sounds. Improved accuracy correlated only with activity in motor-sensory perisylvian cortex. We propose that future studies on vocal learning, using different behavioral and pharmacological manipulations, will provide insights into adult striatal plasticity and its potential for modification in both educational and clinical contexts. PMID:24805076

  13. Predictions of ozone absorption in human lungs from newborn to adult.

    PubMed

    Overton, J H; Graham, R C

    1989-01-01

    Although children are an important human population, dosimetry models for gases have been used to predict absorption mainly in laboratory animals and adult humans. To correct this omission, we have used several sources of data on age-dependent lower respiratory tract (LRT) volumes, age-dependent airway dimensions, a model of the adult tracheobronchial region, and a model of the adult acinus to construct theoretical LRT lung models for humans from birth to adulthood. An ozone (O3) dosimetry model was then used to estimate the regional and local uptake of O3 in the (theoretical) LRT of children and adults. For sedentary or quiet breathing, the LRT distribution of absorbed O3, the percent uptake (84 to 88%) and the centriacinar O3 tissue dose are not very sensitive to age. For maximal work during exercise, predicted LRT uptakes range from 87 to 93%, and the regional percent uptakes are more dependent on age than during quiet breathing. In general, the total quantity of O3 absorbed per minute increases with age. Regardless of age and state of breathing, the largest tissue dose of O3 is predicted to occur in the centriacinar region, where many animal studies show the maximal morphological damage from O3. PMID:2606688

  14. Human Centred Design Considerations for Connected Health Devices for the Older Adult

    PubMed Central

    Harte, Richard P.; Glynn, Liam G.; Broderick, Barry J.; Rodriguez-Molinero, Alejandro; Baker, Paul M. A.; McGuiness, Bernadette; O’Sullivan, Leonard; Diaz, Marta; Quinlan, Leo R.; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2014-01-01

    Connected health devices are generally designed for unsupervised use, by non-healthcare professionals, facilitating independent control of the individuals own healthcare. Older adults are major users of such devices and are a population significantly increasing in size. This group presents challenges due to the wide spectrum of capabilities and attitudes towards technology. The fit between capabilities of the user and demands of the device can be optimised in a process called Human Centred Design. Here we review examples of some connected health devices chosen by random selection, assess older adult known capabilities and attitudes and finally make analytical recommendations for design approaches and design specifications. PMID:25563225

  15. Myelin and iron concentration in the human brain: a quantitative study of MRI contrast.

    PubMed

    Stüber, Carsten; Morawski, Markus; Schäfer, Andreas; Labadie, Christian; Wähnert, Miriam; Leuze, Christoph; Streicher, Markus; Barapatre, Nirav; Reimann, Katja; Geyer, Stefan; Spemann, Daniel; Turner, Robert

    2014-06-01

    During the last five years ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has enabled an unprecedented view of living human brain. Brain tissue contrast in most MRI sequences is known to reflect mainly the spatial distributions of myelin and iron. These distributions have been shown to overlap significantly in many brain regions, especially in the cortex. It is of increasing interest to distinguish and identify cortical areas by their appearance in MRI, which has been shown to be feasible in vivo. Parcellation can benefit greatly from quantification of the independent contributions of iron and myelin to MRI contrast. Recent studies using susceptibility mapping claim to allow such a separation of the effects of myelin and iron in MRI. We show, using post-mortem human brain tissue, that this goal can be achieved. After MRI scanning of the block with appropriate T1 mapping and T2* weighted sequences, we section the block and apply a novel technique, proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE), to spatially map iron, phosphorus and sulfur elemental concentrations, simultaneously with 1μm spatial resolution. Because most brain phosphorus is located in myelin phospholipids, a calibration step utilizing element maps of sulfur enables semi-quantitative ex vivo mapping of myelin concentration. Combining results for iron and myelin concentration in a linear model, we have accurately modeled MRI tissue contrasts. Conversely, iron and myelin concentrations can now be estimated from appropriate MRI measurements in post-mortem brain samples. PMID:24607447

  16. Short-term monocular deprivation alters GABA in the adult human visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Lunghi, Claudia; Emir, Uzay E; Morrone, Maria Concetta; Bridge, Holly

    2015-06-01

    Neuroplasticity is a fundamental property of the nervous system that is maximal early in life, within the critical period [1-3]. Resting GABAergic inhibition is necessary to trigger ocular dominance plasticity and to modulate the onset and offset of the critical period [4, 5]. GABAergic inhibition also plays a crucial role in neuroplasticity of adult animals: the balance between excitation and inhibition in the primary visual cortex (V1), measured at rest, modulates the susceptibility of ocular dominance to deprivation [6-10]. In adult humans, short-term monocular deprivation strongly modifies ocular balance, unexpectedly boosting the deprived eye, reflecting homeostatic plasticity [11, 12]. There is no direct evidence, however, to support resting GABAergic inhibition in homeostatic plasticity induced by visual deprivation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that GABAergic inhibition, measured at rest, is reduced by deprivation, as demonstrated by animal studies. GABA concentration in V1 of adult humans was measured using ultra-high-field 7T magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after short-term monocular deprivation. After monocular deprivation, resting GABA concentration decreased in V1 but was unaltered in a control parietal area. Importantly, across participants, the decrease in GABA strongly correlated with the deprived eye perceptual boost measured by binocular rivalry. Furthermore, after deprivation, GABA concentration measured during monocular stimulation correlated with the deprived eye dominance. We suggest that reduction in resting GABAergic inhibition triggers homeostatic plasticity in adult human V1 after a brief period of abnormal visual experience. These results are potentially useful for developing new therapeutic strategies that could exploit the intrinsic residual plasticity of the adult human visual cortex. PMID:26004760

  17. Neuroscience of human social interactions and adult attachment style

    PubMed Central

    Vrtička, Pascal; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    attachment insecurity and particularly anxiety. Emotion regulation strategies such as reappraisal or suppression of social emotions are also differentially modulated by attachment style. This research does not only help better understand the neural underpinnings of human social behavior, but also provides important insights on psychopathological conditions where attachment dysregulation is likely to play an important (causal) role. PMID:22822396

  18. Planning for Effective Faculty Development: Using Adult Learning Strategies. Professional Practices in Adult Education and Human Resource Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Patricia A.; King, Kathleen P.

    This book describes how to use adult learning strategies in planning faculty development. Chapter 1 addresses concerns about success, demonstrating how to use an adult learning model to help faculty developers succeed. Chapter 2 presents the Adult Learning Model for Faculty Development, which has four stages grounded in adult learning and program…

  19. Anatomical localization, gene expression profiling and functional characterization of adult human neck brown fat.

    PubMed

    Cypess, Aaron M; White, Andrew P; Vernochet, Cecile; Schulz, Tim J; Xue, Ruidan; Sass, Christina A; Huang, Tian Liang; Roberts-Toler, Carla; Weiner, Lauren S; Sze, Cathy; Chacko, Aron T; Deschamps, Laura N; Herder, Lindsay M; Truchan, Nathan; Glasgow, Allison L; Holman, Ashley R; Gavrila, Alina; Hasselgren, Per-Olof; Mori, Marcelo A; Molla, Michael; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2013-05-01

    The imbalance between energy intake and expenditure is the underlying cause of the current obesity and diabetes pandemics. Central to these pathologies is the fat depot: white adipose tissue (WAT) stores excess calories, and brown adipose tissue (BAT) consumes fuel for thermogenesis using tissue-specific uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). BAT was once thought to have a functional role in rodents and human infants only, but it has been recently shown that in response to mild cold exposure, adult human BAT consumes more glucose per gram than any other tissue. In addition to this nonshivering thermogenesis, human BAT may also combat weight gain by becoming more active in the setting of increased whole-body energy intake. This phenomenon of BAT-mediated diet-induced thermogenesis has been observed in rodents and suggests that activation of human BAT could be used as a safe treatment for obesity and metabolic dysregulation. In this study, we isolated anatomically defined neck fat from adult human volunteers and compared its gene expression, differentiation capacity and basal oxygen consumption to different mouse adipose depots. Although the properties of human neck fat vary substantially between individuals, some human samples share many similarities with classical, also called constitutive, rodent BAT. PMID:23603815

  20. Transolfactory neuroinvasion by viruses threatens the human brain.

    PubMed

    Mori, I

    2015-12-01

    Viral neuroinvasion via the olfactory system has been investigated in a variety of virus-animal models by scientists in many fields including virologists, pathologists, and neurologists. In humans, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), Borna disease virus, rabies virus, and influenza A virus have been shown to take the olfactory route for neuroinvasion based on forensic and post-mortem specimens. This article briefly summarizes the anatomy, physiology, and immunology of the olfactory system and presents a battery of neurovirulent viruses that may threaten the human brain by invading through this peripheral pathway, especially focusing on two of the most intensively studied viruses--HSV-1 and influenza A virus. Viruses may insidiously invade the olfactory neural network not only to precipitate encephalitis/encephalopathy but also to promote the development of neurodegenerative and demyelinating disorders. Substantial information obtained by analyzing human specimens is required to argue for or against this hypothesis. PMID:26666182

  1. CB1 cannabinoid receptor enrichment in the ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Ferrer, Isidro; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo; Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Cannabinoids are involved in the regulation of neural stem cell biology and their receptors are expressed in the neurogenic niches of adult rodents. In the spinal cord of rats and mice, neural stem cells can be found in the ependymal region, surrounding the central canal, but there is evidence that this region is largely different in adult humans: lacks a patent canal and presents perivascular pseudorosettes, typically found in low grade ependymomas. Using Laser Capture Microdissection, Taqman gene expression assays and immunohistochemistry, we have studied the expression of endocannabinoid system components (receptors and enzymes) at the human spinal cord ependymal region. We observe that ependymal region is enriched in CB1 cannabinoid receptor, due to high CB1 expression in GFAP+ astrocytic domains. However, in human spinal cord levels that retain central canal patency we found ependymal cells with high CB1 expression, equivalent to the CB1HIGH cell subpopulation described in rodents. Our results support the existence of ependymal CB1HIGH cells across species, and may encourage further studies on this subpopulation, although only in cases when central canal is patent. In the adult human ependyma, which usually shows central canal absence, CB1 may play a different role by modulating astrocyte functions. PMID:26634814

  2. CB1 cannabinoid receptor enrichment in the ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Ferrer, Isidro; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo; Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Cannabinoids are involved in the regulation of neural stem cell biology and their receptors are expressed in the neurogenic niches of adult rodents. In the spinal cord of rats and mice, neural stem cells can be found in the ependymal region, surrounding the central canal, but there is evidence that this region is largely different in adult humans: lacks a patent canal and presents perivascular pseudorosettes, typically found in low grade ependymomas. Using Laser Capture Microdissection, Taqman gene expression assays and immunohistochemistry, we have studied the expression of endocannabinoid system components (receptors and enzymes) at the human spinal cord ependymal region. We observe that ependymal region is enriched in CB1 cannabinoid receptor, due to high CB1 expression in GFAP+ astrocytic domains. However, in human spinal cord levels that retain central canal patency we found ependymal cells with high CB1 expression, equivalent to the CB1(HIGH) cell subpopulation described in rodents. Our results support the existence of ependymal CB1(HIGH) cells across species, and may encourage further studies on this subpopulation, although only in cases when central canal is patent. In the adult human ependyma, which usually shows central canal absence, CB1 may play a different role by modulating astrocyte functions. PMID:26634814

  3. Immunological characteristics of human mesenchymal stem cells and multipotent adult progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Sandra A; Roobrouck, Valerie D; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Van Gool, Stefaan W

    2013-01-01

    Somatic, also termed adult, stem cells are highly attractive biomedical cell candidates because of their extensive replication potential and functional multilineage differentiation capacity. They can be used for drug and toxicity screenings in preclinical studies, as in vitro model to study differentiation or for regenerative medicine to aid in the repair of tissues or replace tissues that are lost upon disease, injury or ageing. Multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are two types of adult stem cells derived from bone marrow that are currently being used clinically for tissue regeneration and for their immunomodulatory and trophic effects. This review will give an overview of the phenotypic and functional differences between human MAPCs and MSCs, with a strong emphasis on their immunological characteristics. Finally, we will discuss the clinical studies in which MSCs and MAPCs are already used. PMID:23295415

  4. Immuno-localisation of anti-thyroid antibodies in adult human cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Kogie; Botha, Julia; Raidoo, Deshandra Munsamy; Naidoo, Strinivasen

    2011-03-15

    Expression of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R) has been demonstrated in adipocytes, lymphocytes, bone, kidney, heart, intestine and rat brain. Immuno-reactive TSH-R has been localised in rat brain and human embryonic cerebral cortex but not in adult human brain. We designed a pilot study to determine whether anti-thyroid auto-antibodies immuno-localise in normal adult human cerebral cortex. Forensic samples from the frontal, motor, sensory, occipital, cingulate and parieto-occipito-temporal association cortices were obtained from five individuals who had died of trauma. Although there were no head injuries, the prior psychiatric history of patients was unknown. The tissues were probed with commercial antibodies against both human TSH-R and human thyroglobulin (TG). Anti-TSH-R IgG immuno-localised to cell bodies and axons of large neurones in all 6 regions of all 5 brains. The intensity and percentage of neurones labelled were similar in all tissue sections. TSH-R immuno-label was also observed in vascular endothelial cells in the cingulate gyrus. Although also found in all 5 brains and all six cortical regions, TG localised exclusively in vascular smooth muscle cells and not on neurones. Although limited by the small sample size and number of brain areas examined, this is the first study describing the presence of antigenic targets for anti-TSH-R IgG on human cortical neurons, and anti-TG IgG in cerebral vasculature. PMID:21196016

  5. Increased reprogramming of human fetal hepatocytes compared with adult hepatocytes in feeder-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Hansel, Marc C; Gramignoli, Roberto; Blake, William; Davila, Julio; Skvorak, Kristen; Dorko, Kenneth; Tahan, Veysel; Lee, Brian R; Tafaleng, Edgar; Guzman-Lepe, Jorge; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Fox, Ira J; Strom, Stephen C

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation has been used to treat liver disease. The availability of cells for these procedures is quite limited. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) may be a useful source of hepatocytes for basic research and transplantation if efficient and effective differentiation protocols were developed and problems with tumorigenicity could be overcome. Recent evidence suggests that the cell of origin may affect hiPSC differentiation. Thus, hiPSCs generated from hepatocytes may differentiate back to hepatocytes more efficiently than hiPSCs from other cell types. We examined the efficiency of reprogramming adult and fetal human hepatocytes. The present studies report the generation of 40 hiPSC lines from primary human hepatocytes under feeder-free conditions. Of these, 37 hiPSC lines were generated from fetal hepatocytes, 2 hiPSC lines from normal hepatocytes, and 1 hiPSC line from hepatocytes of a patient with Crigler-Najjar syndrome, type 1. All lines were confirmed reprogrammed and expressed markers of pluripotency by gene expression, flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and teratoma formation. Fetal hepatocytes were reprogrammed at a frequency over 50-fold higher than adult hepatocytes. Adult hepatocytes were only reprogrammed with six factors, while fetal hepatocytes could be reprogrammed with three (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG) or four factors (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, LIN28 or OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, C-MYC). The increased reprogramming efficiency of fetal cells was not due to increased transduction efficiency or vector toxicity. These studies confirm that hiPSCs can be generated from adult and fetal hepatocytes including those with genetic diseases. Fetal hepatocytes reprogram much more efficiently than adult hepatocytes, although both could serve as useful sources of hiPSC-derived hepatocytes for basic research or transplantation. PMID:23394081

  6. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Harimurti, Kuntjoro; Saldi, Siti R F; Dewiasty, Esthika; Khoeri, Miftahuddin M; Yunihastuti, Evi; Putri, Tiara; Tafroji, Wisnu; Safari, Dodi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution of serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae carried by adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Jakarta, Indonesia. Specimens of nasopharyngeal swab were collected from 200 HIV infected adults aged 21 to 63 years. Identification of S. pneumoniae was done by optochin susceptibility test and PCR for the presence of psaA and lytA genes. Serotyping was performed with sequential multiplex PCR and antibiotic susceptibility with the disk diffusion method. S. pneumoniae strains were carried by 10% adults with serotype 6A/B 20% was common serotype among cultured strains in 20 adults. Most of isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol (80%) followed by clindamycin (75%), erythromycin (75%), penicillin (55%), and tetracycline (50%). This study found resistance to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim was most common with only 15% of strains being susceptible. High non-susceptibility to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim was observed in S. pneumoniae strains carried by HIV infected adults in Jakarta, Indonesia. PMID:26896285

  7. The synthesis of dermatan sulphate proteoglycans by fetal and adult human articular cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Melching, L I; Roughley, P J

    1989-01-01

    Non-aggregating dermatan sulphate proteoglycans can be extracted from both fetal and adult human articular cartilage. The dermatan sulphate proteoglycans appear to be smaller in the adult, this presumably being due to shorter glycosaminoglycan chains, and these chains contain a greater proportion of their uronic acid residues as iduronate. Both the adult and fetal dermatan sulphate proteoglycans contain a greater amount of 4-sulphation than 6-sulphation of the N-acetylgalactosamine residues, in contrast with the aggregating proteoglycans, which always show more 6-sulphation on their chondroitin sulphate chains. In the fetus the major dermatan sulphate proteoglycan to be synthesized is DS-PGI, though DS-PGII is synthesized in reasonable amounts. In the adult, however, DS-PGI synthesis is barely detectable relative to DS-PGII, which is still synthesized in substantial amounts. Purification of the dermatan sulphate proteoglycans from adult cartilage is hampered by the presence of degradation products derived from the large aggregating proteoglycans, which possess similar charge, size and density properties, but which can be distinguished by their ability to interact with hyaluronic acid. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2775229

  8. The activity ratio of 228Th to 228Ra in bone tissue of recently deceased humans: a new dating method in forensic examinations.

    PubMed

    Zinka, Bettina; Kandlbinder, Robert; Schupfner, Robert; Haas, Gerald; Wolfbeis, Otto S; Graw, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Reliable determination of time since death in human skeletons or single bones often is limited by methodically difficulties. Determination of the specific activity ratio of natural radionuclides, in particular of 232Th (Thorium), 228Th and 228Ra (Radium) seems to be a new appropriate method to calculate the post mortem interval. These radionuclides are incorporated by any human being, mainly from food. So with an individual's death the uptake of radionuclides ends. But the decay of 232Th produces 228Ra and 228Th due to its decay series, whereas 228Th is continuously built up in the human's bones. Thus, it can be concluded that in all deceased humans at different times after death different activity ratios of 228Th to 228Ra will develop in bone. According to this fact it should be possible to calculate time since death of an individual by first analysing the specific activities of 228Th and 228Ra in bones of deceased and then determining the 228Th/228Ra activity ratio, which can be assigned to a certain post-mortem interval. PMID:22606910

  9. Normalizing the environment recapitulates adult human immune traits in laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Beura, Lalit K; Hamilton, Sara E; Bi, Kevin; Schenkel, Jason M; Odumade, Oludare A; Casey, Kerry A; Thompson, Emily A; Fraser, Kathryn A; Rosato, Pamela C; Filali-Mouhim, Ali; Sekaly, Rafick P; Jenkins, Marc K; Vezys, Vaiva; Haining, W Nicholas; Jameson, Stephen C; Masopust, David

    2016-04-28

    Our current understanding of immunology was largely defined in laboratory mice, partly because they are inbred and genetically homogeneous, can be genetically manipulated, allow kinetic tissue analyses to be carried out from the onset of disease, and permit the use of tractable disease models. Comparably reductionist experiments are neither technically nor ethically possible in humans. However, there is growing concern that laboratory mice do not reflect relevant aspects of the human immune system, which may account for failures to translate disease treatments from bench to bedside. Laboratory mice live in abnormally hygienic specific pathogen free (SPF) barrier facilities. Here we show that standard laboratory mouse husbandry has profound effects on the immune system and that environmental changes produce mice with immune systems closer to those of adult humans. Laboratory mice--like newborn, but not adult, humans--lack effector-differentiated and mucosally distributed memory T cells. These cell populations were present in free-living barn populations of feral mice and pet store mice with diverse microbial experience, and were induced in laboratory mice after co-housing with pet store mice, suggesting that the environment is involved in the induction of these cells. Altering the living conditions of mice profoundly affected the cellular composition of the innate and adaptive immune systems, resulted in global changes in blood cell gene expression to patterns that more closely reflected the immune signatures of adult humans rather than neonates, altered resistance to infection, and influenced T-cell differentiation in response to a de novo viral infection. These data highlight the effects of environment on the basal immune state and response to infection and suggest that restoring physiological microbial exposure in laboratory mice could provide a relevant tool for modelling immunological events in free-living organisms, including humans. PMID:27096360

  10. Isolation, characterization, and differentiation of progenitor cells from human adult adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Santana, Magda M; Chung, Kuei-Fang; Vukicevic, Vladimir; Rosmaninho-Salgado, Joana; Kanczkowski, Waldemar; Cortez, Vera; Hackmann, Klaus; Bastos, Carlos A; Mota, Alfredo; Schrock, Evelin; Bornstein, Stefan R; Cavadas, Cláudia; Ehrhart-Bornstein, Monika

    2012-11-01

    Chromaffin cells, sympathetic neurons of the dorsal ganglia, and the intermediate small intensely fluorescent cells derive from a common neural crest progenitor cell. Contrary to the closely related sympathetic nervous system, within the adult adrenal medulla a subpopulation of undifferentiated progenitor cells persists, and recently, we established a method to isolate and differentiate these progenitor cells from adult bovine adrenals. However, no studies have elucidated the existence of adrenal progenitor cells within the human adrenal medulla. Here we describe the isolation, characterization, and differentiation of chromaffin progenitor cells obtained from adult human adrenals. Human chromaffin progenitor cells were cultured in low-attachment conditions for 10-12 days as free-floating spheres in the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and epidermal growth factor. These primary human chromosphere cultures were characterized by the expression of several progenitor markers, including nestin, CD133, Notch1, nerve growth factor receptor, Snai2, Sox9, Sox10, Phox2b, and Ascl1 on the molecular level and of Sox9 on the immunohistochemical level. In opposition, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), a marker for differentiated chromaffin cells, significantly decreased after 12 days in culture. Moreover, when plated on poly-l-lysine/laminin-coated slides in the presence of FGF-2, human chromaffin progenitor cells were able to differentiate into two distinct neuron-like cell types, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)(+)/β-3-tubulin(+) cells and TH(-)/β-3-tubulin(+) cells, and into chromaffin cells (TH(+)/PNMT(+)). This study demonstrates the presence of progenitor cells in the human adrenal medulla and reveals their potential use in regenerative medicine, especially in the treatment of neuroendocrine and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23197690

  11. Isolation, Characterization, and Differentiation of Progenitor Cells from Human Adult Adrenal Medulla

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Magda M.; Chung, Kuei-Fang; Vukicevic, Vladimir; Rosmaninho-Salgado, Joana; Kanczkowski, Waldemar; Cortez, Vera; Hackmann, Karl; Bastos, Carlos A.; Mota, Alfredo; Schrock, Evelin; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Cavadas, Cláudia

    2012-01-01

    Chromaffin cells, sympathetic neurons of the dorsal ganglia, and the intermediate small intensely fluorescent cells derive from a common neural crest progenitor cell. Contrary to the closely related sympathetic nervous system, within the adult adrenal medulla a subpopulation of undifferentiated progenitor cells persists, and recently, we established a method to isolate and differentiate these progenitor cells from adult bovine adrenals. However, no studies have elucidated the existence of adrenal progenitor cells within the human adrenal medulla. Here we describe the isolation, characterization, and differentiation of chromaffin progenitor cells obtained from adult human adrenals. Human chromaffin progenitor cells were cultured in low-attachment conditions for 10–12 days as free-floating spheres in the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and epidermal growth factor. These primary human chromosphere cultures were characterized by the expression of several progenitor markers, including nestin, CD133, Notch1, nerve growth factor receptor, Snai2, Sox9, Sox10, Phox2b, and Ascl1 on the molecular level and of Sox9 on the immunohistochemical level. In opposition, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), a marker for differentiated chromaffin cells, significantly decreased after 12 days in culture. Moreover, when plated on poly-l-lysine/laminin-coated slides in the presence of FGF-2, human chromaffin progenitor cells were able to differentiate into two distinct neuron-like cell types, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)+/β-3-tubulin+ cells and TH−/β-3-tubulin+ cells, and into chromaffin cells (TH+/PNMT+). This study demonstrates the presence of progenitor cells in the human adrenal medulla and reveals their potential use in regenerative medicine, especially in the treatment of neuroendocrine and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23197690

  12. Localizing the human primary auditory cortex in vivo using structural MRI.

    PubMed

    Wasserthal, Christian; Brechmann, André; Stadler, Jörg; Fischl, Bruce; Engel, Karin

    2014-06-01

    Currently there are no routine methods to delineate the primary auditory cortex (PAC) of humans in vivo. Due to the large differences in the location of the PAC between subjects, labels derived from post-mortem brains may be inaccurate when applied to different samples of in vivo brains. Recent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies suggested that MR-tissue properties can be used to define the location of the PAC region in vivo. The basis for such an approach is that the PAC region is more strongly myelinated than the secondary areas. We developed a fully automatic method to identify the PAC in conventional anatomical data using a combination of two complementary MR contrasts, i.e., T1 and T2, at 3T with 0.7mm isotropic resolution. Our algorithm maps the anatomical MR data to reconstructed cortical surfaces and uses a classification approach to create an artificial contrast that is highly sensitive to the effects of an increased myelination of the cortex. Consistent with the location of the PAC defined in post-mortem brains, we found a compact region on the medial two thirds of Heschl's gyrus in both hemispheres of all 39 subjects. With further improvements in signal-to-noise ratio of the anatomical data and manual correction of segmentation errors, the results suggest that the primary auditory cortex can be defined in the living brain of single subjects. PMID:23891882

  13. Visualization of monoamine oxidase in human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.J.; Pappas, N.; Shea, C.; MacGregor, R.R.; Logan, J.

    1996-12-31

    Monoamine oxidase is a flavin enzyme which exists in two subtypes, MAO A and MAO B. In human brain MAO B predominates and is largely compartmentalized in cell bodies of serotonergic neurons and glia. Regional distribution of MAO B was determined by positron computed tomography with volunteers after the administration of deuterium substituted [11C]L-deprenyl. The basal ganglia and thalamus exhibited the greatest concentrations of MAO B with intermediate levels in the frontal cortex and cingulate gyrus while lowest levels were observed in the parietal and temporal cortices and cerebellum. We observed that brain MAO B increases with are in health normal subjects, however the increases were generally smaller than those revealed with post-mortem studies.

  14. FGF2-induced effects on transcriptome associated with regeneration competence in adult human fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adult human fibroblasts grown in low oxygen and with FGF2 supplementation have the capacity to tip the healing outcome of skeletal muscle injury – by favoring regeneration response in vivo over scar formation. Here, we compare the transcriptomes of control adult human dermal fibroblasts and induced regeneration-competent (iRC) fibroblasts to identify transcriptional changes that may be related to their regeneration competence. Results We identified a unique gene-expression profile that characterizes FGF2-induced iRC fibroblast phenotype. Significantly differentially expressed genes due to FGF2 treatment were identified and analyzed to determine overrepresented Gene Ontology terms. Genes belonging to extracellular matrix components, adhesion molecules, matrix remodelling, cytoskeleton, and cytokines were determined to be affected by FGF2 treatment. Conclusions Transcriptome analysis comparing control adult human fibroblasts with FGF2-treated fibroblasts identified functional groups of genes that reflect transcriptional changes potentially contributing to their regeneration competence. This comparative transcriptome analysis should contribute new insights into genes that characterize cells with greater regenerative potential. PMID:24066673

  15. Fas and Fas ligand expression in fetal and adult human testis with normal or deranged spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Francavilla, S; D'Abrizio, P; Rucci, N; Silvano, G; Properzi, G; Straface, E; Cordeschi, G; Necozione, S; Gnessi, L; Arizzi, M; Ulisse, S

    2000-08-01

    In mice, the Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) system has been shown to be involved in germ cell apoptosis. In the present study we evaluated the expression of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) in fetal and adult human testis. Semiquantitative RT-PCR demonstrated the expression of Fas and FasL messenger ribonucleic acids in adult testis, but not in fetal testis (20-22 weeks gestation). In situ RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry experiments on adult human testis demonstrated the expression of FasL messenger ribonucleic acid and protein in Sertoli and Leydig cells, whereas the expression of Fas was confined to the Leydig cells and sporadic degenerating spermatocytes. The number of Fas-positive germ cells per 100 Sertoli cell nuclei was increased in 10 biopsies with postmeiotic germ cell arrest compared to 10 normal testis biopsies (mean, 3.82 +/- 0.45 vs. 2.02 +/- 0.29; P = 0.0001), but not in 10 biopsies with meiotic germ cell arrest (mean, 1.56 +/- 1.07). Fas and FasL proteins were not expressed in cases of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Together, these findings may suggest that Fas/FasL expression in the human testis is developmentally regulated and under gonadotropin control. The increased germ cell expression of Fas in patients with postmeiotic germ cell arrest suggests that the Fas/FasL system may be involved in the quality control mechanism of the produced gametes. PMID:10946867

  16. Human rabies in Hong Kong: a case review.

    PubMed

    Wong, T W; Chan, P K; Fung, K P

    1987-10-01

    Five human rabies cases were reported in Hong Kong between 1980 and 1984. A review of their clinical data showed only 2 had a definite history of dog bite, while 3 were residents in the infected area. The human outbreak concurred with the epizootic of canine rabies. However, only two cases were diagnosed ante-mortem. Two cases were not even suspected as rabies until proven by post mortem pathological examination. Three of five cases presented as non-specific encephalitis. All the patients died, despite the administration of specific anti-rabies treatment in two cases. Close liaison between the clinician, epidemiologist and pathologist is essential in the management of suspected rabies. Though rabies control is the primary responsibility of the epidemiologist, surveillance data especially in respect of the occurrence of epizootics and human outbreaks as well as the area of infection should be useful to the clinician in patient management. PMID:3446009

  17. Attitudes of Korean adults towards human dignity: A Q methodology approach

    PubMed Central

    Kae Hwa, JO; Gyeong-Ju, AN; DOORENBOS, Ardith Z.

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to identify the perceived attitudes of Korean adults towards human dignity in order to determine the relationship of human dignity to its social and cultural background. Methods The Q methodology research technique was used to explore perceived attitude typology on the basis of the respondents’ ranking order for different statements. A convenience sampling method was used to select 40 Korean adults who were interested in human dignity to create statements. From the questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and a literature review, a total of 158 statements was obtained. The final 34 Q samples were selected from a review by two nursing professors and a Q methodology expert. Moreover, 38 respondents participated as P samples by sorting 34 Q statements on a nine-point normal distribution scale. The data were analyzed by using the QUANL software package. Results The following four types of attitudes about human dignity were identified in Korea: a happiness-oriented–self-pursuit type, relationship-oriented–self-recognition type, reflection-oriented–self-unification type, and discrimination-oriented–self-maintenance type. Conclusions The results indicate that approaches to developing human dignity education need to take this typology into account and the characteristics of the participants who fall into each category. These results provide general guidelines to understand Korean values for professional practice in various healthcare settings. PMID:22583944

  18. Experimental analysis of the mechanical behavior of the viscoelastic porcine pancreas and preliminary case study on the human pancreas.

    PubMed

    Wex, C; Fröhlich, M; Brandstädter, K; Bruns, C; Stoll, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study the mechanical properties of the pancreas. Up to now, the mechanical properties of the pancreas are not sufficiently characterized. The possibility of intraoperative mechanical testing of pathological pancreata will allow the classification of pancreatic diseases in the future. The application of mechanical parameters instead of the intraoperative frozen section analysis shortens waiting times in the operating room. This study proves the general applicability of shear rheology for the determination of the mechanical properties of pancreas and the assessment of graft quality for transplantation. Porcine and human pancreas samples were examined ex vivo and a nonlinear viscoelastic behavior was observed. Pancreas was found to be more viscous than liver but both abdominal organs showed a similar flow behavior. The shear deformation dependence of healthy human pancreas was similar to porcine pancreas. An increase in the post-mortem time led to an increase in the complex modulus for a post-mortem time up to 8.5 days. Histological investigations showed that an increased amount of collagen coincides with the stiffening of the pancreatic tissue. PMID:25460416

  19. Tripartite containing motif 32 modulates proliferation of human neural precursor cells in HIV-1 neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Fatima, M; Kumari, R; Schwamborn, J C; Mahadevan, A; Shankar, S K; Raja, R; Seth, P

    2016-05-01

    In addition to glial cells, HIV-1 infection occurs in multipotent human neural precursor cells (hNPCs) and induces quiescence in NPCs. HIV-1 infection of the brain alters hNPC stemness, leading to perturbed endogenous neurorestoration of the CNS following brain damage by HIV-1, compounding the severity of dementia in adult neuroAIDS cases. In pediatric neuroAIDS cases, HIV-1 infection of neural stem cell can lead to delayed developmental milestones and impaired cognition. Using primary cultures of human fetal brain-derived hNPCs, we gained novel insights into the role of a neural stem cell determinant, tripartite containing motif 32 (TRIM32), in HIV-1 Tat-induced quiescence of NPCs. Acute HIV-1 Tat treatment of hNPCs resulted in proliferation arrest but did not induce differentiation. Cellular localization and levels of TRIM32 are critical regulators of stemness of NPCs. HIV-1 Tat exposure increased nuclear localization and levels of TRIM32 in hNPCs. The in vitro findings were validated by studying TRIM32 localization and levels in frontal cortex of HIV-1-seropositive adult patients collected at post mortem as well as by infection of hNPCs by HIV-1. We observed increased percentage of cells with nuclear localization of TRIM32 in the subventricular zone (SVZ) as compared with age-matched controls. Our quest for probing into the mechanisms revealed that TRIM32 is targeted by miR-155 as downregulation of miR-155 by HIV-1 Tat resulted in upregulation of TRIM32 levels. Furthermore, miR-155 or siRNA against TRIM32 rescued HIV-1 Tat-induced quiescence in NPCs. Our findings suggest a novel molecular cascade involving miR-155 and TRIM32 leading to HIV-1 Tat-induced attenuated proliferation of hNPCs. The study also uncovered an unidentified role for miR-155 in modulating human neural stem cell proliferation, helping in better understanding of hNPCs and diseased brain. PMID:26586575

  20. Tripartite containing motif 32 modulates proliferation of human neural precursor cells in HIV-1 neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, M; Kumari, R; Schwamborn, J C; Mahadevan, A; Shankar, S K; Raja, R; Seth, P

    2016-01-01

    In addition to glial cells, HIV-1 infection occurs in multipotent human neural precursor cells (hNPCs) and induces quiescence in NPCs. HIV-1 infection of the brain alters hNPC stemness, leading to perturbed endogenous neurorestoration of the CNS following brain damage by HIV-1, compounding the severity of dementia in adult neuroAIDS cases. In pediatric neuroAIDS cases, HIV-1 infection of neural stem cell can lead to delayed developmental milestones and impaired cognition. Using primary cultures of human fetal brain-derived hNPCs, we gained novel insights into the role of a neural stem cell determinant, tripartite containing motif 32 (TRIM32), in HIV-1 Tat-induced quiescence of NPCs. Acute HIV-1 Tat treatment of hNPCs resulted in proliferation arrest but did not induce differentiation. Cellular localization and levels of TRIM32 are critical regulators of stemness of NPCs. HIV-1 Tat exposure increased nuclear localization and levels of TRIM32 in hNPCs. The in vitro findings were validated by studying TRIM32 localization and levels in frontal cortex of HIV-1-seropositive adult patients collected at post mortem as well as by infection of hNPCs by HIV-1. We observed increased percentage of cells with nuclear localization of TRIM32 in the subventricular zone (SVZ) as compared with age-matched controls. Our quest for probing into the mechanisms revealed that TRIM32 is targeted by miR-155 as downregulation of miR-155 by HIV-1 Tat resulted in upregulation of TRIM32 levels. Furthermore, miR-155 or siRNA against TRIM32 rescued HIV-1 Tat-induced quiescence in NPCs. Our findings suggest a novel molecular cascade involving miR-155 and TRIM32 leading to HIV-1 Tat-induced attenuated proliferation of hNPCs. The study also uncovered an unidentified role for miR-155 in modulating human neural stem cell proliferation, helping in better understanding of hNPCs and diseased brain. PMID:26586575

  1. Isolation and culture of adult epithelial stem cells from human skin.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiru; Draheim, Kyle; Lyle, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The homeostasis of all self-renewing tissues is dependent on adult stem cells. As undifferentiated stem cells undergo asymmetric divisions, they generate daughter cells that retain the stem cell phenotype and transit-amplifying cells (TA cells) that migrate from the stem cell niche, undergo rapid proliferation and terminally differentiate to repopulate the tissue. Epithelial stem cells have been identified in the epidermis, hair follicle, and intestine as cells with a high in vitro proliferative potential and as slow-cycling label-retaining cells in vivo (1-3). Adult, tissue-specific stem cells are responsible for the regeneration of the tissues in which they reside during normal physiologic turnover as well as during times of stress (4-5). Moreover, stem cells are generally considered to be multi-potent, possessing the capacity to give rise to multiple cell types within the tissue (6). For example, rodent hair follicle stem cells can generate epidermis, sebaceous glands, and hair follicles (7-9). We have shown that stem cells from the human hair follicle bulge region exhibit multi-potentiality (10). Stem cells have become a valuable tool in biomedical research, due to their utility as an in vitro system for studying developmental biology, differentiation, tumorigenesis and for their possible therapeutic utility. It is likely that adult epithelial stem cells will be useful in the treatment of diseases such as ectodermal dysplasias, monilethrix, Netherton syndrome, Menkes disease, hereditary epidermolysis bullosa and alopecias (11-13). Additionally, other skin problems such as burn wounds, chronic wounds and ulcers will benefit from stem cell related therapies (14,15). Given the potential for reprogramming of adult cells into a pluripotent state (iPS cells)(16,17), the readily accessible and expandable adult stem cells in human skin may provide a valuable source of cells for induction and downstream therapy for a wide range of disease including diabetes and

  2. Moxidectin causes adult worm mortality of human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi in rodent models.

    PubMed

    Verma, Meenakshi; Pathak, Manisha; Shahab, Mohd; Singh, Kavita; Mitra, Kalyan; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja

    2014-12-01

    Moxidectin is a macrocyclic lactone belonging to milbemycin family closely related to ivermectin and is currently progressing towards Phase III clinical trial against human infection with the filaria Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart, 1894). There is a single report on the microfilaricidal and embryostatic activity of moxidectin in case of the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi (Brug, 1927) in Mastomys coucha (Smith) but without any adulticidal action. In the present study, the in vitro and in vivo antifilarial efficacy of moxidectin was evaluated on, B. malayi. In vitro moxidectin showed 100% reduction in adult female worm motility at 0.6 μM concentration within 7 days with 68% inhibition in the reduction of MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide dye) (which is used to detect viability of worms). A 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of moxidectin for adult female parasite was 0.242 μM, for male worm 0.186 μM and for microfilaria IC50 was 0.813 μM. In adult B. malayi-transplanted primary screening model (Meriones unguiculatus Milne-Edwards), moxidectin at a single optimal dose of 20 mg/kg by oral and subcutaneous route was found effective on both adult parasites and microfilariae. In secondary screening (M coucha, subcutaneously inoculated with infective larvae), moxidectin at the same dose by subcutaneous route brought about death of 49% of adult worms besides causing sterilisation in 54% of the recovered live female worms. The treated animals exhibited a continuous and sustained reduction in peripheral blood microfilaraemia throughout the observation period of 90 days. The mechanism of action of moxidectin is suggested to be similar to avermectins. The in silico studies were also designed to explore the interaction of moxidectin with glutamate-gated chloride channels of B. malayi. The docking results revealed a close interaction of moxidectin with various GluCl ligand sites of B. malayi. PMID:25651699

  3. Urinary concentrations of parabens in Chinese young adults: implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wan-Li; Wang, Lei; Guo, Ying; Liu, Li-Yan; Qi, Hong; Zhu, Ning-Zheng; Gao, Chong-Jing; Li, Yi-Fan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-10-01

    Parabens are widely used as preservatives in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. However, recent studies have indicated that high and systemic exposure to parabens can be harmful to human health. Although a few studies have reported urinary paraben levels in western countries, studies on paraben exposure in the Chinese population are limited. China is currently a major producer of parabens in the world. In this study, 109 urine samples collected from Chinese young adults (approximately 20 years old) were analyzed for five parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl-, and benzyl-parabens) by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Methyl-, propyl-, and ethyl-parabens were the three major paraben analogues found in all (100%) samples. The concentration of the sum of the five parabens ranged from 0.82 to 728 ng/mL with a geometric mean value of 17.4 ng/mL. Urinary concentration of parabens was 2-fold greater in females than in males. Based on the measured urinary concentrations, daily intake of parabens by the Chinese young adults was estimated and compared with those reported for United States adults. The estimated daily intakes (EDIurine) of parabens were 18.4 and 40.8 μg/kg bw/day for Chinese males and females, respectively, values that were lower than those reported for United States adults (74.7 μg/kg bw/day). Based on the reported concentrations of parabens in foods from China and the United States, the contribution of dietary intake to EDIurine was estimated to be 5.5, 2.6, and 0.42% for Chinese males, Chinese females, and United States adults, respectively, which indicates the significance of nondietary sources of parabens to human exposures. PMID:23744051

  4. Rabbit Neonates and Human Adults Perceive a Blending 6-Component Odor Mixture in a Comparable Manner

    PubMed Central

    Sinding, Charlotte; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry; Chambault, Adeline; Béno, Noelle; Dosne, Thibaut; Chabanet, Claire; Schaal, Benoist; Coureaud, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    Young and adult mammals are constantly exposed to chemically complex stimuli. The olfactory system allows for a dual processing of relevant information from the environment either as single odorants in mixtures (elemental perception) or as mixtures of odorants as a whole (configural perception). However, it seems that human adults have certain limits in elemental perception of odor mixtures, as suggested by their inability to identify each odorant in mixtures of more than 4 components. Here, we explored some of these limits by evaluating the perception of three 6-odorant mixtures in human adults and newborn rabbits. Using free-sorting tasks in humans, we investigated the configural or elemental perception of these mixtures, or of 5-component sub-mixtures, or of the 6-odorant mixtures with modified odorants' proportion. In rabbit pups, the perception of the same mixtures was evaluated by measuring the orocephalic sucking response to the mixtures or their components after conditioning to one of these stimuli. The results revealed that one mixture, previously shown to carry the specific odor of red cordial in humans, was indeed configurally processed in humans and in rabbits while the two other 6-component mixtures were not. Moreover, in both species, such configural perception was specific not only to the 6 odorants included in the mixture but also to their respective proportion. Interestingly, rabbit neonates also responded to each odorant after conditioning to the red cordial mixture, which demonstrates their ability to perceive elements in addition to configuration in this complex mixture. Taken together, the results provide new insights related to the processing of relatively complex odor mixtures in mammals and the inter-species conservation of certain perceptual mechanisms; the results also revealed some differences in the expression of these capacities between species putatively linked to developmental and ecological constraints. PMID:23341948

  5. Epidemiologic, clinical, and virologic characteristics of human rhinovirus infection among otherwise healthy children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Ju; Arnold, John C.; Fairchok, Mary P.; Danaher, Patrick J.; McDonough, Erin A.; Blair, Patrick J.; Garcia, Josefina; Halsey, Eric S.; Schofield, Christina; Ottolini, Martin; Mor, Deepika; Ridoré, Michelande; Burgess, Timothy H.; Millar, Eugene V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human rhinovirus (HRV) is a major cause of influenza-like illness (ILI) in adults and children. Differences in disease severity by HRV species have been described among hospitalized patients with underlying illness. Less is known about the clinical and virologic characteristics of HRV infection among otherwise healthy populations, particularly adults. Objectives To characterize molecular epidemiology of HRV and association between HRV species and clinical presentation and viral shedding. Study design Observational, prospective, facility-based study of ILI was conducted from February 2010 to April 2012. Collection of nasopharyngeal specimens, patient symptoms, and clinical information occurred on days 0, 3, 7, and 28. Patients recorded symptom severity daily for the first 7 days of illness in a symptom diary. HRV was identified by RT-PCR and genotyped for species determination. Cases who were co-infected with other viral respiratory pathogens were excluded from the analysis. We evaluated the associations between HRV species, clinical severity, and patterns of viral shedding. Results Eighty-four HRV cases were identified and their isolates genotyped. Of these, 62 (74%) were >18y. Fifty-four were HRV-A, 11 HRV-B, and 19 HRV-C. HRV-C infection was more common among children than adults (59% vs. 10%, P<0.001). Among adults, HRV-A was associated with higher severity of upper respiratory symptoms compared to HRV-B (P=0.02), but no such association was found in children. In addition, adults shed HRV-A significantly longer than HRV-C (Ptrend=0.01). Conclusions Among otherwise healthy adults with HRV infection, we observed species-specific differences in respiratory symptom severity and duration of viral shedding. PMID:25728083

  6. A Comparison between the Purpose and Goals of Human Resource Development and Adult Education: Whose Interests Are Being Served?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelder, John Stuart; Byxbe, Ferris

    2002-01-01

    The purposes and goals of adult education and human resource development (HRD) differ and even clash. They find common ground in the personal development function but differ in the control and motivation for learning. Adult education seeks to enable learner self-determination; HRD's focus is enabling organizational control through employee…

  7. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. 26.1704 Section 26.1704 Protection of Environment... research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. (a) This section applies to research subject to...

  8. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. 26.1704 Section 26.1704 Protection of Environment... research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. (a) This section applies to research subject to...

  9. Kinetics and genomic profiling of adult human and mouse β-cell maturation.

    PubMed

    Szabat, Marta; Pourghaderi, Poya; Soukhatcheva, Galina; Verchere, C Bruce; Warnock, Garth L; Piret, James M; Johnson, James D

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes is a multifactorial metabolic disorder defined by the loss of functional pancreatic insulin-producing β-cells. The functional maturation and dedifferentiation of adult β-cells is central to diabetes pathogenesis and to β-cell replacement therapy for the treatment of diabetes. Despite its importance, the dynamics and mechanisms of adult β-cell maturation remain poorly understood. Using a novel Pdx1/Ins1 dual fluorescent reporter lentiviral vector, we previously found that individual adult human and mouse β-cells exist in at least two differentiation states distinguishable by the activation of the rat Ins1 promoter and performed the first real-time imaging of the maturation of individual cultured β-cells. Our previous study focused on transformed (MIN6) β-cells as a model to investigatethe kinetics of β-cell maturation. In the present study, we investigated the kinetics of the maturation process in primary human and mouse β-cells and performed gene expression profiling. Gene expression profiling of FACS purified immature Pdx1 (+) /Ins1 (low) cells and mature Pdx1 (high) /Ins1 (high ) cells from cultures of human islets, mouse islets and MIN6 cells revealed that Pdx1 (+) /Ins1 (low) cells are enriched for multiple genes associated with β-cell development/progenitor cells, proliferation, apoptosis, as well as genes coding for other islet cell hormones such as glucagon. We also demonstrated that the heterogeneity in β-cell maturation states previously observed in vitro, can also be found in vivo. Collectively, these experiments contribute to the understanding of maturation, dedifferentiation and plasticity of adult pancreatic β-cells. The results have significant implications for islet regeneration and for in vitro generation of functional β-cells to treat diabetes. PMID:21633187

  10. The mental representation of the human gait in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Stöckel, Tino; Jacksteit, Robert; Behrens, Martin; Skripitz, Ralf; Bader, Rainer; Mau-Moeller, Anett

    2015-01-01

    The link between mental representation (MREP) structures and motor performance has been evidenced for a great variety of movement skills, but not for the human gait. Therefore the present study sought to investigate the cognitive memory structures underlying the human gait in young and older adults. In a first experiment, gait parameters at comfortable gait speed (OptoGait) were compared with gait-specific MREPs (structural dimensional analysis of MREP; SDA-M) in 36 young adults. Participants were divided into a slow- and fast-walking group. The proven relationship between gait speed and executive functions such as working memory led to the hypothesis that gait pattern and MREP differ between slow- and fast-walking adults. In a second experiment, gait performance and MREPs were compared between 24 young (27.9 years) and 24 elderly (60.1 years) participants. As age-related declines in gait performance occur from the seventh decade of life onward, we hypothesized that gait parameters would not be affected until the age of 60 years accompanied by unchanged MREP. Data of experiment one revealed that gait parameters and MREPs differed significantly between slow and fast walkers. Notably, eleven previously incurred musculoskeletal injuries were documented for the slow walkers but only two injuries and one disorder for fast walkers. Experiment two revealed no age-related differences in gait parameters or MREPs between healthy young and older adults. In conclusion, the differences in gait parameters associated with lower comfortable gait speeds are reflected by differences in MREPs, whereby SDA-M data indicate that the single limb support phase may serve as a critical functional period. These differences probably resulted from previously incurred musculoskeletal injuries. Our data further indicate that the human gait and its MREP are stable until the age of 60. SDA-M may be considered as a valuable clinical tool for diagnosis of gait abnormalities and monitoring of

  11. Location and phenotype of human adult keratinocyte stem cells of the skin.

    PubMed

    Webb, Angela; Li, Amy; Kaur, Pritinder

    2004-10-01

    The location and identity of interfollicular epidermal stem cells of adult human skin remain undefined. Based on our previous work in both adult murine and neonatal human foreskin, we demonstrate that cell surface levels of the alpha6 integrin and the transferrin receptor (CD71) are valid markers for resolving a putative stem cell, transit amplifying and differentiating compartment in adult human skin by flow cytometry. Specifically, epidermal cells expressing high levels of alpha6 integrin and low levels of the transferrin receptor CD71 (phenotype alpha6 (bri)CD71(dim)) exhibit several stem cell characteristics, comprising a minor population (2%-5%) of the K14(bri) fraction, enriched for quiescent and small blast-like cells with high clonogenic capacity, lacking the differentiation marker K10. Conversely, the majority of K14(bri) K10(neg) epidermal cells express high levels of CD71 (phenotype alpha6 (bri)CD71(bri)), and represent the actively cycling fraction of keratinocytes displaying greater cell size due to an increase in cytoplasmic area, consistent with their being transient amplifying cells. The alpha6 (bri)CD71(bri) population exhibited intermediate clonogenic capacity. A third population of K14(dim) but K10 positive epidermal cells could be identified by their low levels of alpha6 integrin expression (i.e. alpha6 (dim) cells), representing the differentiation compartment; predictably, this subpopulation exhibited poor clonogenic efficiency. Flow cytometric analysis for the hair follicle bulge region (stem cell) marker K15 revealed preferential expression of this keratin in alpha6 (bri) cells (i.e., both stem and transient amplifying fractions), but not the alpha6 (dim) population. Given that K15 positive cells could only be detected in the deep rete ridges of adult skin in situ, we conclude that stem and transient amplifying cells reside in this location, while differentiating (K15 negative) cells are found in the shallow rete ridges. PMID:15606498

  12. Earliest Directly-Dated Human Skull-Cups

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Silvia M.; Parfitt, Simon A.; Stringer, Chris B.

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of human braincases as drinking cups and containers has extensive historic and ethnographic documentation, but archaeological examples are extremely rare. In the Upper Palaeolithic of western Europe, cut-marked and broken human bones are widespread in the Magdalenian (∼15 to 12,000 years BP) and skull-cup preparation is an element of this tradition. Principal Findings Here we describe the post-mortem processing of human heads at the Upper Palaeolithic site of Gough's Cave (Somerset, England) and identify a range of modifications associated with the production of skull-cups. New analyses of human remains from Gough's Cave demonstrate the skilled post-mortem manipulation of human bodies. Results of the research suggest the processing of cadavers for the consumption of body tissues (bone marrow), accompanied by meticulous shaping of cranial vaults. The distribution of cut-marks and percussion features indicates that the skulls were scrupulously 'cleaned' of any soft tissues, and subsequently modified by controlled removal of the facial region and breakage of the cranial base along a sub-horizontal plane. The vaults were also ‘retouched’, possibly to make the broken edges more regular. This manipulation suggests the shaping of skulls to produce skull-cups. Conclusions Three skull-cups have been identified amongst the human bones from Gough's Cave. New ultrafiltered radiocarbon determinations provide direct dates of about 14,700 cal BP, making these the oldest directly dated skull-cups and the only examples known from the British Isles. PMID:21359211

  13. Evaluating human papillomavirus vaccination programs in Canada: should provincial healthcare pay for voluntary adult vaccination?

    PubMed Central

    Llamazares, Marco; Smith?, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Background Recently, provincial health programs in Canada and elsewhere have begun rolling out vaccination against human papillomavirus for girls aged 9–13. While vaccination is voluntary, the cost of vaccination is waived, to encourage parents to have their daughters vaccinated. Adult women who are eligible for the vaccine may still receive it, but at a cost of approximately CAN$400. Given the high efficacy and immunogenicity of the vaccine, the possibility of eradicating targeted types of the virus may be feasible, assuming the vaccination programs are undertaken strategically. Methods We develop a mathematical model to describe the epidemiology of vaccination against human papillomavirus, accounting for a widespread childhood vaccination program that may be supplemented by voluntary adult vaccination. A stability analysis is performed to determine the stability of the disease-free equilibrium. The critical vaccine efficacy and immunogenicity thresholds are derived, and the minimum level of adult vaccination required for eradication of targeted types is determined. Results We demonstrate that eradication of targeted types is indeed feasible, although the burden of coverage for a childhood-only vaccination program may be high. However, if a small, but non-negligible, proportion of eligible adults can be vaccinated, then the possibility of eradication of targeted types becomes much more favourable. We provide a threshold for eradication in general communities and illustrate the results with numerical simulations. We also investigate the effects of suboptimal efficacy and immunogenicity and show that there is a critical efficacy below which eradication of targeted types is not possible. If eradication is possible, then there is a critical immunogenicity such that even 100% childhood vaccination will not eradicate the targeted types of the virus and must be supplemented with voluntary adult vaccination. However, the level of adult vaccination coverage required is

  14. Uptake of dietary milk miRNAs by adult humans: a validation study

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Amanda; Vyas, Gopi; Li, Anne; Halushka, Marc; Witwer, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Breast milk is replete with nutritional content as well as nucleic acids including microRNAs (miRNAs). In a recent report, adult humans who drank bovine milk appeared to have increased circulating levels of miRNAs miR-29b-3p and miR-200c-3p. Since these miRNAs are homologous between human and cow, these results could be explained by xeno-miRNA influx, endogenous miRNA regulation, or both. More data were needed to validate the results and explore for additional milk-related alterations in circulating miRNAs. Samples from the published study were obtained, and 223 small RNA features were profiled with a custom OpenArray, followed by individual quantitative PCR assays for selected miRNAs. Additionally, small RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data obtained from plasma samples of the same project were analyzed to find human and uniquely bovine miRNAs. OpenArray revealed no significantly altered miRNA signals after milk ingestion, and this was confirmed by qPCR. Plasma sequencing data contained no miR-29b or miR-200c reads and no intake-consistent mapping of uniquely bovine miRNAs. In conclusion, the results do not support transfer of dietary xenomiRs into the circulation of adult humans. PMID:27158459

  15. Quantitative analysis of miRNA expression in seven human foetal and adult organs.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yanping; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Lijie; Ingvarsson, Sigurdur; Chen, Huiping

    2011-01-01

    miRNAs have been found to repress gene expression at posttranscriptional level in cells. Studies have shown that expression of miRNAs is tissue-specific and developmental-stage-specific. The mechanism behind this could be explained by miRNA pathways. In this study, totally 54 miRNAs were analysed in 7 matched human foetal and adult organs (brain, colon, heart, kidney, liver, lung and spleen) using real-time PCR. Quantitative analysis showed that a big proportion of the 54 miRNAs have higher general expression in the organs of the foetal period than the adult period, with the exception of the heart. The miRNA gene promoter methylation level in the adult stages was higher than in the foetal stages. Moreover, there is a high general expression level of several miRNAs in both stages of brain, kidney, liver, lung and spleen, but not seen in colon and heart. Our results indicate that the miRNAs may play a bigger role in the foetal stage than the adult stage of brain, colon, kidney, liver, lung and spleen. The majority of the miRNAs analysed may play an important role in the growth and development of brain, kidney, liver, lung and spleen. However, a minority of the miRNAs may be functional in colon and heart. PMID:22194897

  16. Identification of novel molecular markers through transcriptomic analysis in human fetal and adult corneal endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinyin; Huang, Kevin; Nakatsu, Martin N; Xue, Zhigang; Deng, Sophie X; Fan, Guoping

    2013-04-01

    The corneal endothelium is composed of a monolayer of corneal endothelial cells (CECs), which is essential for maintaining corneal transparency. To better characterize CECs in different developmental stages, we profiled mRNA transcriptomes in human fetal and adult corneal endothelium with the goal to identify novel molecular markers in these cells. By comparing CECs with 12 other tissue types, we identified 245 and 284 signature genes that are highly expressed in fetal and adult CECs, respectively. Functionally, these genes are enriched in pathways characteristic of CECs, including inorganic anion transmembrane transporter, extracellular matrix structural constituent and cyclin-dependent protein kinase inhibitor activity. Importantly, several of these genes are disease target genes in hereditary corneal dystrophies, consistent with their functional significance in CEC physiology. We also identified stage-specific markers associated with CEC development, such as specific members in the transforming growth factor beta and Wnt signaling pathways only expressed in fetal, but not in adult CECs. Lastly, by the immunohistochemistry of ocular tissues, we demonstrated the unique protein localization for Wnt5a, S100A4, S100A6 and IER3, the four novel markers for fetal and adult CECs. The identification of a new panel of stage-specific markers for CECs would be very useful for characterizing CECs derived from stem cells or ex vivo expansion for cell replacement therapy. PMID:23257286

  17. Adult education as a human right: The Latin American context and the ecopedagogic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, Moacir

    2011-08-01

    This article presents the concept and practice of adult education as a key issue for Brazil and other Latin American countries, both for formal and non-formal education in the public and private sectors. It includes citizen education focused on democratisation of society and sustainable development. The concept is pluralist and ideological as well as technical. All along the history of contemporary education it is essential to highlight the importance of the CONFINTEA conferences for the construction of an expanded vision of this concept. Adult education is understood as a human right. The right to education does not end when a person has reached the so-called "proper" age; it continues to be a right for the duration of everyone's entire life. This article explores Paulo Freire's contribution, particularly the methodology of MOVA (Youth and Adult Literacy Movement). It also presents the ecopedagogic perspective, which was inspired by Paulo Freire's legacy. Finally, this article stresses the need to support a long-term policy for adult education, following the recommendations of the Civil Society International Forum (FISC) and CONFINTEA VI, both held in Belém, Brazil, in 2009.

  18. 14C-labeled substrate catabolism by human diploid fibroblasts derived from infants and adults

    SciTech Connect

    Rhead, W.J.; Moon, A.; Roettger, V.; Henkle, K.

    1985-10-01

    Untransformed diploid skin fibroblasts from eight normal adults, aged 24 to 74 years, catabolized several 14C-labeled substrates less effectively than cells from ten normal male infants. 14C-labeled substrate metabolism was quantitated either by measuring the evolution of 14CO2 from the 14C-labeled compounds or the incorporation of 14C into cellular protein via transamination of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates derived from the 14C-labeled substrates. With these methods, adult cells catabolized (1-14C)butyrate, (1-14C)octanoate, and 1-(2-14C)leucine at rates 44 to 64% of those found in infant cells. The oxidation of (1,4-14C)succinate and (U-14C)malate was identical in both infant and adult cells, while (2,3-14C)succinate catabolism was mildly decreased in adult cells (65-80% of control). These observations parallel those made in rat tissues and confirm that the same phenomenon occurs in cultured human fibroblasts.

  19. Acceptance and Attitudes Toward a Human-like Socially Assistive Robot by Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Louie, Wing-Yue Geoffrey; McColl, Derek; Nejat, Goldie

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that cognitive and social interventions are crucial to the overall health of older adults including their psychological, cognitive, and physical well-being. However, due to the rapidly growing elderly population of the world, the resources and people to provide these interventions is lacking. Our work focuses on the use of social robotic technologies to provide person-centered cognitive interventions. In this article, we investigate the acceptance and attitudes of older adults toward the human-like expressive socially assistive robot Brian 2.1 in order to determine if the robot's human-like assistive and social characteristics would promote the use of the robot as a cognitive and social interaction tool to aid with activities of daily living. The results of a robot acceptance questionnaire administered during a robot demonstration session with a group of 46 elderly adults showed that the majority of the individuals had positive attitudes toward the socially assistive robot and its intended applications. PMID:26131794

  20. Identification of Distinct Layers Within the Stratified Squamous Epithelium of the Adult Human True Vocal Fold

    PubMed Central

    Dowdall, Jayme R.; Sadow, Peter M.; Hartnick, Christopher; Vinarsky, Vladimir; Mou, Hongmei; Zhao, Rui; Song, Phillip C.; Franco, Ramon A.; Rajagopal, Jayaraj

    2016-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis A precise molecular schema for classifying the different cell types of the normal human vocal fold epithelium is lacking. We hypothesize that the true vocal fold epithelium has a cellular architecture and organization similar to that of other stratified squamous epithelia including the skin, cornea, oral mucosa, and esophagus. In analogy to disorders of the skin and gastrointestinal tract, a molecular definition of the normal cell types within the human vocal fold epithelium and a description of their geometric relationships should serve as a foundation for characterizing cellular changes associated with metaplasia, dysplasia, and cancer. Study Design Qualitative study with adult human larynges. Methods Histologic sections of normal human laryngeal tissue were analyzed for morphology (hematoxylin and eosin) and immunohistochemical protein expression profile, including cytokeratins (CK13 and CK14), cornified envelope proteins (involucrin), basal cells (NGFR/p75), and proliferation markers (Ki67). Results We demonstrated that three distinct cell strata with unique marker profiles are present within the stratified squamous epithelium of the true vocal fold. We used these definitions to establish that cell proliferation is restricted to certain cell types and layers within the epithelium. These distinct cell types are reproducible across five normal adult larynges. Conclusion We have established that three layers of cells are present within the normal adult stratified squamous epithelium of the true vocal fold. Furthermore, replicating cell populations are largely restricted to the parabasal strata within the epithelium. This delineation of distinct cell populations will facilitate future studies of vocal fold regeneration and cancer. Level of Evidence N/A. PMID:25988619

  1. Photoacoustic tomography through a whole adult human skull with a photon recycler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Liming; Cai, Xin; Maslov, Konstantin; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Anastasio, Mark A.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-11-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) of the human brain is challenging due to the fact that the skull strongly absorbs and scatters light, and attenuates and distorts ultrasound as well. For the first time, we demonstrated the feasibility of PAT through a whole adult human skull. A photon recycler (PR) was built to increase light transmittance through the skull. Both a graphite target and a canine brain were imaged through the skull. Use of the PR was found to improve the photoacoustic signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of 2.4. In addition, subtraction of photoacoustic signals that arise from light absorption within the skull significantly improved the contrast of the target. Our results indicate that PAT can potentially be applied to in vivo human brain imaging.

  2. Mineral-bound noncollagenous proteins in archaeological human skeletons.

    PubMed

    Freundorfer, S; Grupe, G; Weickmann, D

    1995-05-01

    Archaeometric approaches to archaelogical human bone also include the extraction, identification and molecular analysis of surviving bone proteins. Due to its abundance as a matrix protein, most studies focus on collagen (e.g. radiocarbon dating). Also, a variety of serum proteins are detectable in excavated skeletons. Very limited knowledge still exists on mineral-bound noncollagenous bone proteins from ancient bones because, in the mature tissue, they occur in trace amounts only. Moreover, post-mortem decomposition is likely to change characteristic features of the molecules. Due to their suggested role as growth and developmental factors, identification and quantification of such proteins should be valuable for both physical anthropology and epidemiology. We present a valid method for the detection of small amounts of surviving mineral-bound noncollagenous proteins in excavated human bones up to 7500 years of age. PMID:7588569

  3. Health and population effects of rare gene knockouts in adult humans with related parents.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Vagheesh M; Hunt, Karen A; Mason, Dan; Baker, Christopher L; Karczewski, Konrad J; Barnes, Michael R; Barnett, Anthony H; Bates, Chris; Bellary, Srikanth; Bockett, Nicholas A; Giorda, Kristina; Griffiths, Christopher J; Hemingway, Harry; Jia, Zhilong; Kelly, M Ann; Khawaja, Hajrah A; Lek, Monkol; McCarthy, Shane; McEachan, Rosie; O'Donnell-Luria, Anne; Paigen, Kenneth; Parisinos, Constantinos A; Sheridan, Eamonn; Southgate, Laura; Tee, Louise; Thomas, Mark; Xue, Yali; Schnall-Levin, Michael; Petkov, Petko M; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Maher, Eamonn R; Trembath, Richard C; MacArthur, Daniel G; Wright, John; Durbin, Richard; van Heel, David A

    2016-04-22

    Examining complete gene knockouts within a viable organism can inform on gene function. We sequenced the exomes of 3222 British adults of Pakistani heritage with high parental relatedness, discovering 1111 rare-variant homozygous genotypes with predicted loss of function (knockouts) in 781 genes. We observed 13.7% fewer homozygous knockout genotypes than we expected, implying an average load of 1.6 recessive-lethal-equivalent loss-of-function (LOF) variants per adult. When genetic data were linked to the individuals' lifelong health records, we observed no significant relationship between gene knockouts and clinical consultation or prescription rate. In this data set, we identified a healthy PRDM9-knockout mother and performed phased genome sequencing on her, her child, and control individuals. Our results show that meiotic recombination sites are localized away from PRDM9-dependent hotspots. Thus, natural LOF variants inform on essential genetic loci and demonstrate PRDM9 redundancy in humans. PMID:26940866

  4. Physical Exercise Habits Correlate with Gray Matter Volume of the Hippocampus in Healthy Adult Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killgore, William D. S.; Olson, Elizabeth A.; Weber, Mareen

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity facilitates neurogenesis of dentate cells in the rodent hippocampus, a brain region critical for memory formation and spatial representation. Recent findings in humans also suggest that aerobic exercise can lead to increased hippocampal volume and enhanced cognitive functioning in children and elderly adults. However, the association between physical activity and hippocampal volume during the period from early adulthood through middle age has not been effectively explored. Here, we correlated the number of minutes of self-reported exercise per week with gray matter volume of the hippocampus using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 61 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 45 years of age. After controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume, total minutes of weekly exercise correlated significantly with volume of the right hippocampus. Findings highlight the relationship between regular physical exercise and brain structure during early to middle adulthood.

  5. Health and population effects of rare gene knockouts in adult humans with related parents

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Vagheesh M.; Hunt, Karen A.; Mason, Dan; Baker, Christopher L.; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Barnes, Michael R.; Barnett, Anthony H.; Bates, Chris; Bellary, Srikanth; Bockett, Nicholas A.; Giorda, Kristina; Griffiths, Christopher J.; Hemingway, Harry; Jia, Zhilong; Kelly, M. Ann; Khawaja, Hajrah A.; Lek, Monkol; McCarthy, Shane; McEachan, Rosie; O’Donnell-Luria, Anne; Paigen, Kenneth; Parisinos, Constantinos A.; Sheridan, Eamonn; Southgate, Laura; Tee, Louise; Thomas, Mark; Xue, Yali; Schnall-Levin, Michael; Petkov, Petko M.; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Maher, Eamonn R.; Trembath, Richard C.; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Wright, John; Durbin, Richard; van Heel, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Examining complete gene knockouts within a viable organism can inform on gene function. We sequenced the exomes of 3,222 British Pakistani-heritage adults with high parental relatedness, discovering 1,111 rare-variant homozygous genotypes with predicted loss of gene function (knockouts) in 781 genes. We observed 13.7% fewer than expected homozygous knockout genotypes, implying an average load of 1.6 recessive-lethal-equivalent LOF variants per adult. Linking genetic data to lifelong health records, knockouts were not associated with clinical consultation or prescription rate. In this dataset we identified a healthy PRDM9 knockout mother, and performed phased genome sequencing on her, her child and controls, which showed meiotic recombination sites localised away from PRDM9-dependent hotspots. Thus, natural LOF variants inform upon essential genetic loci, and demonstrate PRDM9 redundancy in humans. PMID:26940866

  6. Cyclophilin D-Sensitive Mitochondrial Permeability Transition in Adult Human Brain and Liver Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Morota, Saori; Chen, Li; Matsuyama, Nagahisa; Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Nakajima, Satoshi; Tanoue, Tadashi; Omi, Akibumi; Shibasaki, Futoshi; Shimazu, Motohide; Ikeda, Yukio; Uchino, Hiroyuki; Elmér, Eskil

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) is considered to be a major cause of cell death under a variety of pathophysiological conditions of the central nervous system (CNS) and other organs. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic knockout of the matrix protein cyclophilin D (CypD) prevents mPT and cell degeneration in several models of brain injury. If these findings in animal models are translatable to human disease, pharmacological inhibition of mPT offers a promising therapeutic target. The objective of this study was to validate the presence of a CypD-sensitive mPT in adult human brain and liver mitochondria. In order to perform functional characterization of human mitochondria, fresh tissue samples were obtained during hemorrhage or tumor surgery and mitochondria were rapidly isolated. Mitochondrial calcium retention capacity, a quantitative assay for mPT, was significantly increased by the CypD inhibitor cyclosporin A in both human brain and liver mitochondria, whereas thiol-reactive compounds and oxidants sensitized mitochondria to calcium-induced mPT. Brain mitochondria underwent swelling upon calcium overload, which was reversible upon calcium removal. To further explore mPT of human mitochondria, liver mitochondria were demonstrated to exhibit several classical features of the mPT phenomenon, such as calcium-induced loss of membrane potential and respiratory coupling, as well as release of the pro-apoptotic protein cytochrome c. We concluded that adult viable human brain and liver mitochondria possess an active CypD-sensitive mPT. Our findings support the rationale of CypD and mPT inhibition as pharmacological targets in acute and chronic neurodegeneration. PMID:21121808

  7. Inventory of Research on Adult Human Resource Development in Canada. Inventaire de la Recherche sur le Developpement des Ressources Humaines Adultes au Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Garnet T.; Caldwell, George

    This bilingual directory of research (1963-68) in the development of adult human resources in Canada indicates types of projects undertaken, principal objectives, institutions involved, amounts and sources of funding. It also shows which areas of research have been well covered, those with little or no coverage, and those which might be given a…

  8. Naïve adult stem cells isolation from primary human fibroblast cultures.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Vera; Roedl, Daniela; Ring, Johannes; Djabali, Karima

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, several adult stem cell populations have been identified in human skin (1-4). The isolation of multipotent adult dermal precursors was first reported by Miller F. D laboratory (5, 6). These early studies described a multipotent precursor cell population from adult mammalian dermis (5). These cells--termed SKPs, for skin-derived precursors-- were isolated and expanded from rodent and human skin and differentiated into both neural and mesodermal progeny, including cell types never found in skin, such as neurons (5). Immunocytochemical studies on cultured SKPs revealed that cells expressed vimentin and nestin, an intermediate filament protein expressed in neural and skeletal muscle precursors, in addition to fibronectin and multipotent stem cell markers (6). Until now, the adult stem cells population SKPs have been isolated from freshly collected mammalian skin biopsies. Recently, we have established and reported that a population of skin derived precursor cells could remain present in primary fibroblast cultures established from skin biopsies (7). The assumption that a few somatic stem cells might reside in primary fibroblast cultures at early population doublings was based upon the following observations: (1) SKPs and primary fibroblast cultures are derived from the dermis, and therefore a small number of SKP cells could remain present in primary dermal fibroblast cultures and (2) primary fibroblast cultures grown from frozen aliquots that have been subjected to unfavorable temperature during storage or transfer contained a small number of cells that remained viable (7). These rare cells were able to expand and could be passaged several times. This observation suggested that a small number of cells with high proliferation potency and resistance to stress were present in human fibroblast cultures (7). We took advantage of these findings to establish a protocol for rapid isolation of adult stem cells from primary fibroblast cultures that are

  9. Derivation of Neural Stem Cells from Human Adult Peripheral CD34+ Cells for an Autologous Model of Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tongguang; Choi, Elliot; Monaco, Maria Chiara G.; Campanac, Emilie; Medynets, Marie; Do, Thao; Rao, Prashant; Johnson, Kory R.; Elkahloun, Abdel G.; Von Geldern, Gloria; Johnson, Tory; Subramaniam, Sriram; Hoffman, Dax; Major, Eugene; Nath, Avindra

    2013-01-01

    Proinflammatory factors from activated T cells inhibit neurogenesis in adult animal brain and cultured human fetal neural stem cells (NSC). However, the role of inhibition of neurogenesis in human neuroinflammatory diseases is still uncertain because of the difficulty in obtaining adult NSC from patients. Recent developments in cell reprogramming suggest that NSC may be derived directly from adult fibroblasts. We generated NSC from adult human peripheral CD34+ cells by transfecting the cells with Sendai virus constructs containing Sox2, Oct3/4, c-Myc and Klf4. The derived NSC could be differentiated to glial cells and action potential firing neurons. Co-culturing NSC with activated autologous T cells or treatment with recombinant granzyme B caused inhibition of neurogenesis as indicated by decreased NSC proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Thus, we have established a unique autologous in vitro model to study the pathophysiology of neuroinflammatory diseases that has potential for usage in personalized medicine. PMID:24303066

  10. Cortical surface area and cortical thickness in the precuneus of adult humans.

    PubMed

    Bruner, E; Román, F J; de la Cuétara, J M; Martin-Loeches, M; Colom, R

    2015-02-12

    The precuneus has received considerable attention in the last decade, because of its cognitive functions, its role as a central node of the brain networks, and its involvement in neurodegenerative processes. Paleoneurological studies suggested that form changes in the deep parietal areas represent a major character associated with the origin of the modern human brain morphology. A recent neuroanatomical survey based on shape analysis suggests that the proportions of the precuneus are also a determinant source of overall brain geometrical differences among adult individuals, influencing the brain spatial organization. Here, we evaluate the variation of cortical thickness and cortical surface area of the precuneus in a sample of adult humans, and their relation with geometry and cognition. Precuneal thickness and surface area are not correlated. There is a marked individual variation. The right precuneus is thinner and larger than the left one, but there are relevant fluctuating asymmetries, with only a modest correlation between the hemispheres. Males have a thicker cortex but differences in cortical area are not significant between sexes. The surface area of the precuneus shows a positive allometry with the brain surface area, although the correlation is modest. The dilation/contraction of the precuneus, described as a major factor of variability within adult humans, is associated with absolute increase/decrease of its surface, but not with variation in thickness. Precuneal thickness, precuneal surface area and precuneal morphology are not correlated with psychological factors such as intelligence, working memory, attention control, and processing speed, stressing further possible roles of this area in supporting default mode functions. Beyond gross morphology, the processes underlying the large phenotypic variation of the precuneus must be further investigated through specific cellular analyses, aimed at considering differences in cellular size, density

  11. Development of a Physiologically Based Model to Describe the Pharmacokinetics of Methylphenidate in Juvenile and Adult Humans and Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Morris, Suzanne M.; Gearhart, Jeffery M.; Ruark, Christopher D.; Paule, Merle G.; Slikker, William; Mattison, Donald R.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Doerge, Daniel R.; Young, John F.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    The widespread usage of methylphenidate (MPH) in the pediatric population has received considerable attention due to its potential effect on child development. For the first time a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model has been developed in juvenile and adult humans and nonhuman primates to quantitatively evaluate species- and age-dependent enantiomer specific pharmacokinetics of MPH and its primary metabolite ritalinic acid. The PBPK model was first calibrated in adult humans using in vitro enzyme kinetic data of MPH enantiomers, together with plasma and urine pharmacokinetic data with MPH in adult humans. Metabolism of MPH in the small intestine was assumed to account for the low oral bioavailability of MPH. Due to lack of information, model development for children and juvenile and adult nonhuman primates primarily relied on intra- and interspecies extrapolation using allometric scaling. The juvenile monkeys appear to metabolize MPH more rapidly than adult monkeys and humans, both adults and children. Model prediction performance is comparable between juvenile monkeys and children, with average root mean squared error values of 4.1 and 2.1, providing scientific basis for interspecies extrapolation of toxicity findings. Model estimated human equivalent doses in children that achieve similar internal dose metrics to those associated with pubertal delays in juvenile monkeys were found to be close to the therapeutic doses of MPH used in pediatric patients. This computational analysis suggests that continued pharmacovigilance assessment is prudent for the safe use of MPH. PMID:25184666

  12. Development of a physiologically based model to describe the pharmacokinetics of methylphenidate in juvenile and adult humans and nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Morris, Suzanne M; Gearhart, Jeffery M; Ruark, Christopher D; Paule, Merle G; Slikker, William; Mattison, Donald R; Vitiello, Benedetto; Twaddle, Nathan C; Doerge, Daniel R; Young, John F; Fisher, Jeffrey W

    2014-01-01

    The widespread usage of methylphenidate (MPH) in the pediatric population has received considerable attention due to its potential effect on child development. For the first time a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model has been developed in juvenile and adult humans and nonhuman primates to quantitatively evaluate species- and age-dependent enantiomer specific pharmacokinetics of MPH and its primary metabolite ritalinic acid. The PBPK model was first calibrated in adult humans using in vitro enzyme kinetic data of MPH enantiomers, together with plasma and urine pharmacokinetic data with MPH in adult humans. Metabolism of MPH in the small intestine was assumed to account for the low oral bioavailability of MPH. Due to lack of information, model development for children and juvenile and adult nonhuman primates primarily relied on intra- and interspecies extrapolation using allometric scaling. The juvenile monkeys appear to metabolize MPH more rapidly than adult monkeys and humans, both adults and children. Model prediction performance is comparable between juvenile monkeys and children, with average root mean squared error values of 4.1 and 2.1, providing scientific basis for interspecies extrapolation of toxicity findings. Model estimated human equivalent doses in children that achieve similar internal dose metrics to those associated with pubertal delays in juvenile monkeys were found to be close to the therapeutic doses of MPH used in pediatric patients. This computational analysis suggests that continued pharmacovigilance assessment is prudent for the safe use of MPH. PMID:25184666

  13. Understanding and Managing Learning Disabilities in Adults. Professional Practices in Adult Education and Human Resource Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Dale R.

    This book reviews learning disabilities (LD) in adults and makes suggestions for helping adults cope with these disabilities. Each chapter covers a type of learning disability or related syndrome or explains characteristics of the brain. Chapter 1 explains several types of specific learning disabilities that make classroom performance difficult…

  14. Isolation of Novel Multipotent Neural Crest-Derived Stem Cells from Adult Human Inferior Turbinate

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Stefan; Widera, Darius; Qunneis, Firas; Müller, Janine; Zander, Christin; Greiner, Johannes; Strauss, Christina; Lüningschrör, Patrick; Heimann, Peter; Schwarze, Hartmut; Ebmeyer, Jörg; Sudhoff, Holger; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J.; Greber, Boris; Zaehres, Holm; Schöler, Hans; Kaltschmidt, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Adult human neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) are of extraordinary high plasticity and promising candidates for the use in regenerative medicine. Here we describe for the first time a novel neural crest-derived stem cell population within the respiratory epithelium of human adult inferior turbinate. In contrast to superior and middle turbinates, high amounts of source material could be isolated from human inferior turbinates. Using minimally-invasive surgery methods isolation is efficient even in older patients. Within their endogenous niche, inferior turbinate stem cells (ITSCs) expressed high levels of nestin, p75NTR, and S100. Immunoelectron microscopy using anti-p75 antibodies displayed that ITSCs are of glial origin and closely related to nonmyelinating Schwann cells. Cultivated ITSCs were positive for nestin and S100 and the neural crest markers Slug and SOX10. Whole genome microarray analysis showed pronounced differences to human ES cells in respect to pluripotency markers OCT4, SOX2, LIN28, and NANOG, whereas expression of WDR5, KLF4, and c-MYC was nearly similar. ITSCs were able to differentiate into cells with neuro-ectodermal and mesodermal phenotype. Additionally ITSCs are able to survive and perform neural crest typical chain migration in vivo when transplanted into chicken embryos. However ITSCs do not form teratomas in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Finally, we developed a separation strategy based on magnetic cell sorting of p75NTR positive ITSCs that formed larger neurospheres and proliferated faster than p75NTR negative ITSCs. Taken together our study describes a novel, readily accessible source of multipotent human NCSCs for potential cell-replacement therapy. PMID:22128806

  15. Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium, uranium and neptunium in fed and fasted adult baboons: Application to humans

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Oldham, R.D.; Moretti, E.S. ); Cohen, N.; Ralston, L.G.; Ayres, L. )

    1992-03-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) absorption values of plutonium, uranium, and neptunium were determined in fed and fasted adult baboons. A dual isotope method of determining GI absorption, which does not require animal sacrifice, was validated and shown to compare well with the sacrifice method (summation of oral isotope in urine with that in tissues at sacrifice). For all three elements, mean GI absorption values were significantly high (5- to 50-fold) in 24-hour (h)-fasted animals than in fed animals, and GI absorption values for baboons agreed well with those for humans.

  16. Innate Immunity in Human Embryonic Stem Cells: Comparison with Adult Human Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Badiger, Rekha; Paul-Clark, Mark; Moreno, Laura; Lendvai, Zsuzsanna; Wright, Jamie S.; Ali, Nadire N.; Harding, Sian E.; Mitchell, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of human disease with human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived cells is now close to reality, but little is known of their responses to physiological and pathological insult. The ability of cells to respond via activation of Toll like receptors (TLR) is critical in innate immune sensing in most tissues, but also extends to more general danger sensing, e.g. of oxidative stress, in cardiomyocytes. We used biomarker release and gene-array analysis to compare responses in hESC before and after differentiation, and to those in primary human endothelial cells. The presence of cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells was confirmed in differentiated cultures by immunostaining, FACS-sorting and, for cardiomyocytes, beating activity. Undifferentiated hESC did not respond with CXCL8 release to Gram positive or Gram negative bacteria, or a range of PAMPs (pathogen associated molecular patterns) for TLRs 1-9 (apart from flagellin, an activator of TLR5). Surprisingly, lack of TLR-dependent responses was maintained over 4 months of differentiation of hESC, in cultures which included cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. In contrast, primary cultures of human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) demonstrated responses to a broad range of PAMPs. Expression of downstream TLR signalling pathways was demonstrated in hESC, and IL-1β, TNFα and INFγ, which bypass the TLRs, stimulated CXCL8 release. NFκB pathway expression was also present in hESC and NFκB was able to translocate to the nucleus. Low expression levels of TLRs were detected in hESC, especially TLRs 1 and 4, explaining the lack of response of hESC to the main TLR signals. TLR5 levels were similar between differentiated hESC and HAEC, and siRNA knockdown of TLR5 abolished the response to flagellin. These findings have potential implications for survival and function of grafted hESC-derived cells. PMID:20463927

  17. Adult human neural crest-derived cells for articular cartilage repair.

    PubMed

    Pelttari, Karoliina; Pippenger, Benjamin; Mumme, Marcus; Feliciano, Sandra; Scotti, Celeste; Mainil-Varlet, Pierre; Procino, Alfredo; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Schwamborn, Thomas; Jakob, Marcel; Cillo, Clemente; Barbero, Andrea; Martin, Ivan

    2014-08-27

    In embryonic models and stem cell systems, mesenchymal cells derived from the neuroectoderm can be distinguished from mesoderm-derived cells by their Hox-negative profile--a phenotype associated with enhanced capacity of tissue regeneration. We investigated whether developmental origin and Hox negativity correlated with self-renewal and environmental plasticity also in differentiated cells from adults. Using hyaline cartilage as a model, we showed that adult human neuroectoderm-derived nasal chondrocytes (NCs) can be constitutively distinguished from mesoderm-derived articular chondrocytes (ACs) by lack of expression of specific HOX genes, including HOXC4 and HOXD8. In contrast to ACs, serially cloned NCs could be continuously reverted from differentiated to dedifferentiated states, conserving the ability to form cartilage tissue in vitro and in vivo. NCs could also be reprogrammed to stably express Hox genes typical of ACs upon implantation into goat articular cartilage defects, directly contributing to cartilage repair. Our findings identify previously unrecognized regenerative properties of HOX-negative differentiated neuroectoderm cells in adults, implying a role for NCs in the unmet clinical challenge of articular cartilage repair. An ongoing phase 1 clinical trial preliminarily indicated the safety and feasibility of autologous NC-based engineered tissues for the treatment of traumatic articular cartilage lesions. PMID:25163479

  18. Human herpesvirus 6-related fulminant myocarditis and hepatitis in an immunocompetent adult with fatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yilan L; Parker, Mark E; Nuovo, Gerard; Miller, Joel B

    2009-05-01

    A 59-year-old previously healthy man had flulike symptoms of fever and diarrhea for a week, which worsened despite treatment with antibiotics. After admission, his medical condition rapidly deteriorated with renal failure, heart failure, and a marked increase of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase. The patient died of a cardiac arrhythmia 3 days after the admission. The autopsy showed diffuse myocarditis with a granulocytic and monocytic infiltrate, necrotizing arteritis of the coronary arteries, and fulminant hepatitis, with microvesicular steatosis and necrosis. Cell-free serum showed high copies of human herpesvirus 6 B variant DNA by polymerase chain reaction. Human herpesvirus 6 B was identified in the heart, liver, lung, and spleen by immunohistochemistry. No parvovirus B19 was evident in the heart by immunohistochemistry. Human herpesvirus 6 is increasingly found in association with myocarditis in immunocompromised patients; however, histopathologic features and the clinical severity of this disease have not yet been clearly defined. Only 4 to 5 cases of human herpesvirus 6 fulminant myocarditis have been reported, all in young children or immunosuppressed patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case in the English literature of human herpesvirus 6 fulminant myocarditis and hepatitis in an immunocompetent adult with a fatal outcome. In addition, several pathologic features of our case have not been previously reported. PMID:19144379

  19. Human herpesvirus 7: antigenic properties and prevalence in children and adults.

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, L S; Rodriguez, W J; Balachandran, N; Frenkel, N

    1991-01-01

    The recent isolation of human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) from activated CD4+ T lymphocytes of a healthy individual raises questions regarding the prevalence of this virus in humans and its immunological relationship to previously characterized human herpesviruses. We report that HHV-7 is a ubiquitous virus which is immunologically distinct from the highly prevalent T-lymphotropic HHV-6. Thus, (i) only two of six monoclonal antibodies to HHV-6 cross-reacted with HHV-7-infected cells, (ii) Western immunoblot analyses of viral proteins revealed different patterns for HHV-6- and HHV-7-infected cells, (iii) tests of sequential serum samples from children revealed seroconversion to HHV-6 without concomitant seroconversion to HHV-7, and (iv) in some instances HHV-7 infection occurred in the presence of high titers of HHV-6 antibodies, suggesting the lack of apparent protection of children seropositive for HHV-6 against subsequent infection with HHV-7. On the basis of the analyses of sera from children and adults it can be concluded that HHV-7 is a prevalent human herpesvirus which, like other human herpesviruses, infects during childhood. The age of infection appears to be somewhat later than the very early age documented for HHV-6. Images PMID:1656093

  20. Proteome Mapping of Adult Zebrafish Marrow Neutrophils Reveals Partial Cross Species Conservation to Human Peripheral Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sachin Kumar; Sethi, Sachin; Aravamudhan, Sriram; Krüger, Marcus; Grabher, Clemens

    2013-01-01

    Neutrophil granulocytes are pivotal cells within the first line of host defense of the innate immune system. In this study, we have used a gel-based LC-MS/MS approach to explore the proteome of primary marrow neutrophils from adult zebrafish. The identified proteins originated from all major cellular compartments. Gene ontology analysis revealed significant association of proteins with different immune-related network and pathway maps. 75% of proteins identified in neutrophils were identified in neutrophils only when compared to neutrophil-free brain tissue. Moreover, cross-species comparison with human peripheral blood neutrophils showed partial conservation of immune-related proteins between human and zebrafish. This study provides the first zebrafish neutrophil proteome and may serve as a valuable resource for an understanding of neutrophil biology and innate immunity. PMID:24019943

  1. Skeletal 212Pb retention following 224Ra injection: extrapolation of animal data to adult humans.

    PubMed

    Schlenker, R A

    1988-04-01

    Two methods of interspecies extrapolation, one based on a correlation of skeletal 212Pb/224Ra with body weight, the other based on the mechanistic relationship between skeletal 212Pb/224Ra and reciprocal bone surface-to-volume ratio, lead to the conclusion that the retention of 212Pb in the adult human skeleton is approximately complete a few days after injection. The correlation-based method gives most probable values for 212Pb/224Ra of 1.0 and 1.1 at 2 d and 7 d after injection, compared with values of 1.05 and 1.27 expected at these same times if the retention of 212Pb were complete from the time of injection and if no 212Pb were in the injection solution. The range of values corresponding to one geometric standard error on either side of the most probable value is 0.87 to 1.21 at 2 d post-injection. With the method based on the reciprocal bone surface-to-volume ratio, the best estimate of 212Pb/224Ra at 2 d after injection is 0.88, equal to the value observed in young adult beagles. An alternative interpretation of the results of this latter method leads to the conclusion that retention is complete, with 212Pb/224Ra equal to 1.0 for a 212Pb-free injection solution and 1.1 for a solution containing 212Pb in secular equilibrium with 224Ra. This work, which uses 224Ra daughter product retention data from mice, rats and dogs following 224Ra injection, provides a scientific foundation for retention assumptions made in the calculation of mean skeletal dose for adult humans. There now appear to be few uncertainties in these latter dose values, stemming from inaccurate retention assumptions; but substantial uncertainties remain in the mean skeletal dose values for juveniles and in the endosteal tissue doses regardless of age. Risk coefficients such as those in the BEIR III report that give the lifetime probability of bone tumor induction per unit mean skeletal dose may be correct for adult humans but are probably too low for juveniles due to overestimation of juvenile

  2. Learning new color names produces rapid increase in gray matter in the intact adult human cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Veronica; Niu, Zhendong; Kay, Paul; Zhou, Ke; Mo, Lei; Jin, Zhen; So, Kwok-Fai; Tan, Li Hai

    2011-01-01

    The human brain has been shown to exhibit changes in the volume and density of gray matter as a result of training over periods of several weeks or longer. We show that these changes can be induced much faster by using a training method that is claimed to simulate the rapid learning of word meanings by children. Using whole-brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) we show that learning newly defined and named subcategories of the universal categories green and blue in a period of 2 h increases the volume of gray matter in V2/3 of the left visual cortex, a region known to mediate color vision. This pattern of findings demonstrates that the anatomical structure of the adult human brain can change very quickly, specifically during the acquisition of new, named categories. Also, prior behavioral and neuroimaging research has shown that differences between languages in the boundaries of named color categories influence the categorical perception of color, as assessed by judgments of relative similarity, by response time in alternative forced-choice tasks, and by visual search. Moreover, further behavioral studies (visual search) and brain imaging studies have suggested strongly that the categorical effect of language on color processing is left-lateralized, i.e., mediated by activity in the left cerebral hemisphere in adults (hence “lateralized Whorfian” effects). The present results appear to provide a structural basis in the brain for the behavioral and neurophysiologically observed indices of these Whorfian effects on color processing. PMID:21464316

  3. Adult human arterial smooth muscle cells in primary culture. Modulation from contractile to synthetic phenotype.

    PubMed

    Thyberg, J; Nilsson, J; Palmberg, L; Sjölund, M

    1985-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells were isolated enzymatically from adult human arteries, grown in primary culture in medium containing 10% whole blood serum, and studied by transmission electron microscopy and [3H]thymidine autoradiography. In the intact arterial wall and directly after isolation, each smooth muscle cell had a nucleus with a wide peripheral zone of condensed chromatin and a cytoplasm dominated by myofilament bundles with associated dense bodies. After 1-2 days of culture, the cells had attached to the substrate and started to spread out. At the same time, a characteristic fine-structural modification took place. It included nuclear enlargement, dispersion of the chromatin and formation of large nucleoli. Moreover, myofilament bundles disappeared and an extensive rough endoplasmic reticulum and a large Golgi complex were organized in the cytoplasm. This morphological transformation of the cells was completed in 3-4 days. It was accompanied by initiation of DNA replication and mitosis. The observations demonstrate that adult human arterial smooth muscle cells, when cultivated in vitro, pass through a phenotypic modulation of the same type as arterial smooth muscle cells from experimental animals. This modulation gives the cells morphological and functional properties resembling those of the modified smooth muscle cells found in fibroproliferative lesions of atherosclerosis. Further studies of the regulation of smooth muscle phenotype and growth may provide important clues for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. PMID:3967287

  4. The Human Adult Skeletal Muscle Transcriptional Profile Reconstructed by a Novel Computational Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bortoluzzi, Stefania; d'Alessi, Fabio; Romualdi, Chiara; Danieli, Gian Antonio

    2000-01-01

    By applying a novel software tool, information on 4080 UniGene clusters was retrieved from three adult human skeletal muscle cDNA libraries, which were selected for being neither normalized nor subtracted. Reconstruction of a transcriptional profile of the corresponding tissue was attempted by a computational approach, classifying each transcript according to its level of expression. About 25% of the transcripts accounted for about 80% of the detected transcriptional activity, whereas most genes showed a low level of expression. This in silico transcriptional profile was then compared with data obtained by a SAGE study. A fairly good agreement between the two methods was observed. About 400 genes, highly expressed in skeletal muscle or putatively skeletal muscle-specific, may represent the minimal set of genes needed to determine the tissue specificity. These genes could be used as a convenient reference to monitor major changes in the transcriptional profile of adult human skeletal muscle in response to different physiological or pathological conditions, thus providing a framework for designing DNA microarrays and initiating biological studies. PMID:10720575

  5. Adult human nasal mesenchymal-like stem cells restore cochlear spiral ganglion neurons after experimental lesion.

    PubMed

    Bas, Esperanza; Van De Water, Thomas R; Lumbreras, Vicente; Rajguru, Suhrud; Goss, Garrett; Hare, Joshua M; Goldstein, Bradley J

    2014-03-01

    A loss of sensory hair cells or spiral ganglion neurons from the inner ear causes deafness, affecting millions of people. Currently, there is no effective therapy to repair the inner ear sensory structures in humans. Cochlear implantation can restore input, but only if auditory neurons remain intact. Efforts to develop stem cell-based treatments for deafness have demonstrated progress, most notably utilizing embryonic-derived cells. In an effort to bypass limitations of embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells that may impede the translation to clinical applications, we sought to utilize an alternative cell source. Here, we show that adult human mesenchymal-like stem cells (MSCs) obtained from nasal tissue can repair spiral ganglion loss in experimentally lesioned cochlear cultures from neonatal rats. Stem cells engraft into gentamicin-lesioned organotypic cultures and orchestrate the restoration of the spiral ganglion neuronal population, involving both direct neuronal differentiation and secondary effects on endogenous cells. As a physiologic assay, nasal MSC-derived cells engrafted into lesioned spiral ganglia demonstrate responses to infrared laser stimulus that are consistent with those typical of excitable cells. The addition of a pharmacologic activator of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway concurrent with stem cell treatment promoted robust neuronal differentiation. The availability of an effective adult autologous cell source for inner ear tissue repair should contribute to efforts to translate cell-based strategies to the clinic. PMID:24172073

  6. Long-Term Culture of Genome-Stable Bipotent Stem Cells from Adult Human Liver

    PubMed Central

    Huch, Meritxell; Gehart, Helmuth; van Boxtel, Ruben; Hamer, Karien; Blokzijl, Francis; Verstegen, Monique M.A.; Ellis, Ewa; van Wenum, Martien; Fuchs, Sabine A.; de Ligt, Joep; van de Wetering, Marc; Sasaki, Nobuo; Boers, Susanne J.; Kemperman, Hans; de Jonge, Jeroen; Ijzermans, Jan N.M.; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E.S.; Hoekstra, Ruurdtje; Strom, Stephen; Vries, Robert R.G.; van der Laan, Luc J.W.; Cuppen, Edwin; Clevers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Summary Despite the enormous replication potential of the human liver, there are currently no culture systems available that sustain hepatocyte replication and/or function in vitro. We have shown previously that single mouse Lgr5+ liver stem cells can be expanded as epithelial organoids in vitro and can be differentiated into functional hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. We now describe conditions allowing long-term expansion of adult bile duct-derived bipotent progenitor cells from human liver. The expanded cells are highly stable at the chromosome and structural level, while single base changes occur at very low rates. The cells can readily be converted into functional hepatocytes in vitro and upon transplantation in vivo. Organoids from α1-antitrypsin deficiency and Alagille syndrome patients mirror the in vivo pathology. Clonal long-term expansion of primary adult liver stem cells opens up experimental avenues for disease modeling, toxicology studies, regenerative medicine, and gene therapy. PMID:25533785

  7. Psychometric testing of the Revised Humane Caring Scale for adult patients in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Goh, Mien Li; Ang, Emily N K; Chan, Yiong-Huak; He, Hong-Gu; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we examined the validity and reliability of the Revised Humane Caring Scale as used by adult patients in a tertiary hospital in Singapore. A three-phase descriptive quantitative study was conducted. In phase I, an expert panel of nurses and inpatients examined the content validity of the scale; phase II comprised a pilot study on 20 patients; and in phase III, a large-scale study on 235 patients was implemented to test the internal consistency of the scale. The results revealed that the content validity index of the scale ranged from 0.856 to 1, and the scale had a high inter-rater agreement kappa value of 0.940. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.798 to 0.877 in phase II, and from 0.579 to 0.760 in phase III, respectively. The Revised Humane Caring Scale revealed good content validity and an acceptable level of internal consistency. The scale is an acceptable measurement tool for evaluating adult patients' satisfaction during hospitalization. PMID:25783792

  8. Human amniotic epithelial cells are reprogrammed more efficiently by induced pluripotency than adult fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Easley, Charles A; Miki, Toshio; Castro, Carlos A; Ozolek, John A; Minervini, Crescenzio F; Ben-Yehudah, Ahmi; Schatten, Gerald P

    2012-06-01

    Cellular reprogramming from adult somatic cells into an embryonic cell-like state, termed induced pluripotency, has been achieved in several cell types. However, the ability to reprogram human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs), an abundant cell source derived from discarded placental tissue, has only recently been investigated. Here we show that not only are hAECs easily reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (AE-iPSCs), but hAECs reprogram faster and more efficiently than adult and neonatal somatic dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, AE-iPSCs express higher levels of NANOG and OCT4 compared to human foreskin fibroblast iPSCs (HFF1-iPSCs) and express decreased levels of genes associated with differentiation, including NEUROD1 and SOX17, markers of neuronal differentiation. To elucidate the mechanism behind the higher reprogramming efficiency of hAECs, we analyzed global DNA methylation, global histone acetylation, and the mitochondrial DNA A3243G point mutation. Whereas hAECs show no differences in global histone acetylation or mitochondrial point mutation accumulation compared to adult and neonatal dermal fibroblasts, hAECs demonstrate a decreased global DNA methylation compared to dermal fibroblasts. Likewise, quantitative gene expression analyses show that hAECs endogenously express OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC, all four factors used in cellular reprogramming. Thus, hAECs represent an ideal cell type for testing novel approaches for generating clinically viable iPSCs and offer significant advantages over postnatal cells that more likely may be contaminated by environmental exposures and infectious agents. PMID:22686477

  9. BCRP protein levels do not differ regionally in adult human livers, but decline in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Riches, Zoe; Abanda, Ngu; Collier, Abby C

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the ontogeny and variability of the BCRP (ABCG2) transporter in healthy human liver. Levels of BCRP mRNA and protein were determined with q-RT-PCR and western blot in a cohort of 87 human livers aged from 7 days to 87 years. A study of the regional expression of BCRP within adult livers was also performed in a nested cohort of 14 individuals with multiple samples per person collected from pre-selected sites. Levels of BCRP mRNA were not significantly different at any age, but protein levels for BCRP were lower in the elderly compared with adults (p < 0.001) and children (p < 0.05). The intra-liver levels of BCRP protein ranged approximately 6.5-fold and inter-liver BCRP protein varied 8.5-fold in the cohort. No differences in BCRP mRNA or protein were observed with sex or ethnicity, although higher levels of BCRP mRNA were observed in livers from overweight individuals (Body Mass Index ≥ 25-29.9) as compared to underweight or ideal weight individuals. There were no differences in the levels of BCRP mRNA or protein in different regions of the large lobe (n = 3 regions), small lobe (n = 3 regions), directly adjacent to the portal vein or directly adjacent to the common bile duct. This indicates that BCRP researchers can source tissue from all parts of the adult liver without artificial bias in their results. Lower BCRP protein expression in the elderly may be associated with compromised xeno- and endobiotic transport. PMID:26462791

  10. Body size and human energy requirements: Reduced mass-specific total energy expenditure in tall adults.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian resting energy expenditure (REE) increases as approximately weight(0.75) while mass-specific REE scales as approximately weight(-0.25). Energy needs for replacing resting losses are thus less relative to weight (W) in large compared with small mammals, a classic observation with biological implications. Human weight scales as approximately height(2) and tall adults thus have a greater weight than their short counterparts. However, it remains unknown if mass-specific energy requirements are less in tall adults; allometric models linking total energy expenditure (TEE) and weight with height (H) are lacking. We tested the hypothesis that mass-specific energy requirements scale inversely to height in adults by evaluating TEE (doubly labeled water) data collected by the National Academy of Sciences. Activity energy expenditure (AEE) was calculated from TEE, REE (indirect calorimetry), and estimated diet-induced energy expenditure. Main analyses focused on nonmorbidly obese subjects < or =50 yrs of age with non-negative AEE values (n = 404), although results were directionally similar for all samples. Allometric models, including age as a covariate, revealed significantly (P < 0.05) greater REE, AEE, and TEE as a function of height (range H(1.5-1.7)) in both men and women. TEE/W scaled negatively to height ( approximately H(-0.7), P < 0.01) with predicted mass-specific TEE (kcal/kg/d) at +/-2 SD for US height lower in tall compared with short men (40.3 vs. 46.5) and women (37.7 vs. 42.7). REE/W also scaled negatively to height in men (P < 0.001) and women (P < 0.01). Results were generally robust across several different analytic strategies. These observations reveal previously unforeseen associations between human stature and energy requirements that have implications for modeling efforts and provide new links to mammalian biology as a whole. PMID:19856424

  11. High individual consistency in fear of humans throughout the adult lifespan of rural and urban burrowing owls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrete, Martina; Tella, José L.

    2013-12-01

    Human-induced rapid environmental changes challenge individuals by creating evolutionarily novel scenarios, where species encounter novel enemies, the new species sometimes being humans themselves. However, little is known about how individuals react to human presence, specifically whether they are able to habituate to human presence, as frequently assumed, or are selected based on their fear of humans. We tested whether fear of humans (measured as flight initiation distance in a diurnal owl) is reduced through habituation to human presence (plasticity) or whether it remains unchanged throughout the individuals' life. Results show an unusually high level of individual consistency in fear of humans throughout the adult lifespan of both rural (r = 0.96) and urban (r = 0.90) birds, lending no support to habituation. Further research should assess the role of inter-individual variability in fear of humans in shaping the distribution of individuals and species in an increasingly humanized world.

  12. High individual consistency in fear of humans throughout the adult lifespan of rural and urban burrowing owls.

    PubMed

    Carrete, Martina; Tella, José L

    2013-01-01

    Human-induced rapid environmental changes challenge individuals by creating evolutionarily novel scenarios, where species encounter novel enemies, the new species sometimes being humans themselves. However, little is known about how individuals react to human presence, specifically whether they are able to habituate to human presence, as frequently assumed, or are selected based on their fear of humans. We tested whether fear of humans (measured as flight initiation distance in a diurnal owl) is reduced through habituation to human presence (plasticity) or whether it remains unchanged throughout the individuals' life. Results show an unusually high level of individual consistency in fear of humans throughout the adult lifespan of both rural (r = 0.96) and urban (r = 0.90) birds, lending no support to habituation. Further research should assess the role of inter-individual variability in fear of humans in shaping the distribution of individuals and species in an increasingly humanized world. PMID:24343659

  13. Purification and cultivation of human pituitary growth hormone secreting cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    A multiphase study was conducted to examine the properties of growth hormone cells. Topics investigated included: (1) to determine if growth hormone (GH) cells contained within the rat pituitary gland can be separated from the other hormone producing cell types by continuous flow electrophoresis (CFE); (2) to determine what role, if any, gravity plays in the electrophoretic separation of GH cells; (3) to compare in vitro GH release from rat pituitary cells previously exposed to microgravity conditions vs release from cells not exposed to microgravity; (4) to determine if the frequency of different hormone producing pituitary cell types contained in cell suspensions can be quantitated by flow cytometry; and (5) to determine if GH contained within the human post mortem pituitary gland can be purified by CFE. Specific experimental procedures and results are included.

  14. Dysregulation of cell death machinery in the prefrontal cortex of human alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Sofia; Ekström, Tomas J.; Marinova, Zoya; Ökvist, Anna; Sheedy, Donna; Garrick, Therese; Harper, Clive; Kuzmin, Alexander; Yakovleva, Tatjana; Bakalkin, Georgy

    2012-01-01

    In human alcoholics, the cell density is decreased in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and other brain areas. This may be due to persistent activation of cell death pathways. To address this hypothesis, we examined the status of cell death machinery in the dorsolateral PFC in alcoholics. Protein and mRNA expression levels of several key pro- and anti-apoptotic genes were compared in post-mortem samples of 14 male human alcoholics and 14 male controls. The findings do not support the hypothesis. On the contrary, they show that several components of intrinsic apoptotic pathway are decreased in alcoholics. No differences were evident in the motor cortex, which is less damaged in alcoholics and was analysed for comparison. Thus, cell death mechanisms may be dysregulated by inhibition of intrinsic apoptotic pathway in the PFC in human alcoholics. This inhibition may reflect molecular adaptations that counteract alcohol neurotoxicity in cells that survive after many years of alcohol exposure and withdrawal. PMID:18937880

  15. Evidence for the recruitment of autophagic vesicles in human brain after stroke.

    PubMed

    Frugier, Tony; Taylor, Juliet M; McLean, Catriona; Bye, Nicole; Beart, Philip M; Devenish, Rodney J; Crack, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Autophagy is a homeostatic process for recycling proteins and organelles that is increasingly being proposed as a therapeutic target for acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases, including stroke. Confirmation that autophagy is present in the human brain after stroke is imperative before prospective therapies can begin the translational process into clinical trials. Our current study using human post-mortem tissue observed an increase in staining in microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1; also known as p62) and the increased appearance of autophagic vesicles after stroke. These data confirm that alterations in autophagy take place in the human brain after stroke and suggest that targeting autophagic processes after stroke may have clinical significance. PMID:26930584

  16. Examining the relationship between childhood animal cruelty motives and recurrent adult violent crimes toward humans.

    PubMed

    Overton, Joshua C; Hensley, Christopher; Tallichet, Suzanne E

    2012-03-01

    Few researchers have studied the predictive ability of childhood animal cruelty motives as they are associated with later recurrent violence toward humans. Based on a sample of 180 inma