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Sample records for adult postnatal day

  1. Postnatal day 2 to 11 constitutes a 5-HT-sensitive period impacting adult mPFC function.

    PubMed

    Rebello, Tahilia J; Yu, Qinghui; Goodfellow, Nathalie M; Caffrey Cagliostro, Martha K; Teissier, Anne; Morelli, Emanuela; Demireva, Elena Y; Chemiakine, Alexei; Rosoklija, Gorazd B; Dwork, Andrew J; Lambe, Evelyn K; Gingrich, Jay A; Ansorge, Mark S

    2014-09-10

    Early-life serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] signaling modulates brain development, which impacts adult behavior, but 5-HT-sensitive periods, neural substrates, and behavioral consequences remain poorly understood. Here we identify the period ranging from postnatal day 2 (P2) to P11 as 5-HT sensitive, with 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) blockade increasing anxiety- and depression-like behavior, and impairing fear extinction learning and memory in adult mice. Concomitantly, P2-P11 5-HTT blockade causes dendritic hypotrophy and reduced excitability of infralimbic (IL) cortex pyramidal neurons that normally promote fear extinction. By contrast, the neighboring prelimbic (PL) pyramidal neurons, which normally inhibit fear extinction, become more excitable. Excitotoxic IL but not PL lesions in adult control mice reproduce the anxiety-related phenotypes. These findings suggest that increased 5-HT signaling during P2-P11 alters adult mPFC function to increase anxiety and impair fear extinction, and imply a differential role for IL and PL neurons in regulating affective behaviors. Together, our results support a developmental mechanism for the etiology and pathophysiology of affective disorders and fear-related behaviors. PMID:25209278

  2. Postnatal Day 2 to 11 Constitutes a 5-HT-Sensitive Period Impacting Adult mPFC Function

    PubMed Central

    Rebello, Tahilia J.; Yu, Qinghui; Goodfellow, Nathalie M.; Caffrey Cagliostro, Martha K.; Teissier, Anne; Morelli, Emanuela; Demireva, Elena Y.; Chemiakine, Alexei; Rosoklija, Gorazd B.; Dwork, Andrew J.; Lambe, Evelyn K.; Ansorge, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Early-life serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] signaling modulates brain development, which impacts adult behavior, but 5-HT-sensitive periods, neural substrates, and behavioral consequences remain poorly understood. Here we identify the period ranging from postnatal day 2 (P2) to P11 as 5-HT sensitive, with 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) blockade increasing anxiety- and depression-like behavior, and impairing fear extinction learning and memory in adult mice. Concomitantly, P2–P11 5-HTT blockade causes dendritic hypotrophy and reduced excitability of infralimbic (IL) cortex pyramidal neurons that normally promote fear extinction. By contrast, the neighboring prelimbic (PL) pyramidal neurons, which normally inhibit fear extinction, become more excitable. Excitotoxic IL but not PL lesions in adult control mice reproduce the anxiety-related phenotypes. These findings suggest that increased 5-HT signaling during P2–P11 alters adult mPFC function to increase anxiety and impair fear extinction, and imply a differential role for IL and PL neurons in regulating affective behaviors. Together, our results support a developmental mechanism for the etiology and pathophysiology of affective disorders and fear-related behaviors. PMID:25209278

  3. Methamphetamine exposure from postnatal day 11 to 20 causes impairments in both behavioral strategies and spatial learning in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael T; Vorhees, Charles V; Boon, Francis; Saber, Andrea J; Cain, Donald P

    2002-12-27

    Spatial learning and memory deficits in a water maze have been observed in adult animals exposed to a regimen of 4 daily doses of d-methamphetamine (MA) at 2 h intervals from postnatal day 11 to 20. An interpretational issue for these long-term effects of MA is whether they are truly spatial deficits or are secondary to alterations in sensorimotor systems. In this experiment, we evaluated the effects of a pretraining procedure shown to minimize the influence of drug-induced sensorimotor deficits. Animals within a litter were treated with MA or saline. Animals were either pretrained for nonspatial task requirements in the water maze (i.e., swimming and platform climbing) or were nai;ve to the task. Animals that received the pretraining did better than the nai;ve animals. The nai;ve MA animals performed worse than the nai;ve control animals as previously observed. By contrast, no difference in search time was noted between pretrained MA- and SAL-treated animals during the acquisition phase of testing. When the platform was relocated in a novel position, spatial learning was impaired for MA animals, regardless of pretraining. No increase in the number of platform nonrecognition events (swimovers, deflections, or jump-offs) occurred among pretrained or nai;ve groups compared to controls. These data suggest that sensorimotor deficits do not account for the spatial learning and memory deficits in animals exposed neonatally to MA. PMID:12470867

  4. Postnatal glucocorticoid exposure alters the adult phenotype.

    PubMed

    He, Jing; Varma, Amit; Weissfeld, Lisa A; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2004-07-01

    We examined the effect of six doses of dexamethasone (Dex) administered daily (2-7 days of age) to postnatal rats on body weight gain, food and water intake, peripheral hormonal/metabolic milieu, and hypothalamic neuropeptides that regulate food intake. We observed a Dex-induced acute (3 days of age) suppression of endogenous corticosterone and an increase in circulating leptin concentrations that were associated with a decrease in body weight in males and females. Followup during the suckling, postsuckling, and adult stages (7-120 days of age) revealed hypoleptinemia in males and females, and hypoinsulinemia, a relative increase in the glucose-to-insulin ratio, and a larger increase in skeletal muscle glucose transporter (GLUT 4) concentrations predominantly in the males, reflective of a catabolic state associated with a persistent decrease in body weight gain. The increase in the glucose-to-insulin ratio and hyperglycemia was associated with an increase in water intake. In addition, the changes in the hormonal/metabolic milieu were associated with an increase in hypothalamic neuropeptide Y content in males and females during the suckling phase, which persisted only in the 120-day-old female with a transient postnatal decline in alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and corticotropin-releasing factor. This increase in neuropeptide Y (NPY) during the suckling phase in males and females was associated with a subsequent increase in adult food intake that outweighed the demands of body weight gain. In contrast to the adult hypothalamic findings, cerebral ventricular dilatation was more prominent in adult males. We conclude that postnatal Dex treatment causes permanent sex-specific changes in the adult phenotype, setting the stage for future development of diabetes (increased glucose:insulin ratio), obesity (increased NPY and food intake), and neurological impairment (loss of cerebral volume). PMID:15001431

  5. Immunosuppression in Early Postnatal Days Induces Persistent and Allergen-Specific Immune Tolerance to Asthma in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jin; Lu, Yong; Wang, Libo

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory condition with high morbidity, and effective treatments for asthma are limited. Allergen-specific immunotherapy can only induce peripheral immune tolerance and is not sustainable. Exploring new therapeutic strategies is of great clinical importance. Recombinant adenovirus (rAdV) was used as a vector to make cells expressing cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4-immunoglobulin (CTLA4Ig) a soluble CTLA4 immunoglobulin fusion protein. Dendritic cells (DCs) were modified using the rAdVs together with allergens. Then these modified DCs were transplanted to mice before allergen sensitization. The persistence and specificity of immune tolerance were evaluated in mice challenged with asthma allergens at 3 and 7 months. DCs modified by CTLA4Ig showed increased IL-10 secretion, decreased IL-12 secretion, and T cell stimulation in vitro. Mice treated with these DCs in the early neonatal period developed tolerance against the allergens that were used to induce asthma in the adult stage. Asthma symptoms, lung damage, airway reactivity, and inflammatory response all improved. Humoral immunity indices showed that this therapeutic strategy strongly suppressed mice immune responses and was maintained for as long as 7 months. Furthermore, allergen cross-sensitization and challenge experiments demonstrated that this immune tolerance was allergen-specific. Treatment with CTLA4Ig modified DCs in the early neonatal period, inducing persistent and allergen-specific immune tolerance to asthma in adult mice. Our results suggest that it may be possible to develop a vaccine for asthma. PMID:25860995

  6. Immunosuppression in early postnatal days induces persistent and allergen-specific immune tolerance to asthma in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jin; Lu, Yong; Wang, Libo

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory condition with high morbidity, and effective treatments for asthma are limited. Allergen-specific immunotherapy can only induce peripheral immune tolerance and is not sustainable. Exploring new therapeutic strategies is of great clinical importance. Recombinant adenovirus (rAdV) was used as a vector to make cells expressing cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4-immunoglobulin (CTLA4Ig) a soluble CTLA4 immunoglobulin fusion protein. Dendritic cells (DCs) were modified using the rAdVs together with allergens. Then these modified DCs were transplanted to mice before allergen sensitization. The persistence and specificity of immune tolerance were evaluated in mice challenged with asthma allergens at 3 and 7 months. DCs modified by CTLA4Ig showed increased IL-10 secretion, decreased IL-12 secretion, and T cell stimulation in vitro. Mice treated with these DCs in the early neonatal period developed tolerance against the allergens that were used to induce asthma in the adult stage. Asthma symptoms, lung damage, airway reactivity, and inflammatory response all improved. Humoral immunity indices showed that this therapeutic strategy strongly suppressed mice immune responses and was maintained for as long as 7 months. Furthermore, allergen cross-sensitization and challenge experiments demonstrated that this immune tolerance was allergen-specific. Treatment with CTLA4Ig modified DCs in the early neonatal period, inducing persistent and allergen-specific immune tolerance to asthma in adult mice. Our results suggest that it may be possible to develop a vaccine for asthma. PMID:25860995

  7. Adult Day Services

    MedlinePlus

    A Smart Choice Adult Day Services Comparison At-a-Glance 1 Adult Day Services Assisted Living Home Care Nursing Homes Live at home with family ... supervision Nursing care available as needed during the day Flexibility to receive care only on days when ...

  8. Sex differences in anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity following prenatal and postnatal methamphetamine exposure in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hrubá, L; Schutová, B; Šlamberová, R

    2012-01-18

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of prenatal and postnatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure on behavior and anxiety in adult male and female rats. Mothers were daily exposed to injection of MA (5 mg/kg) or saline (S): prior to impregnation and throughout gestation and lactation periods. On postnatal day 1, pups were cross-fostered so that each mother raised 6 saline-exposed pups and 6 MA-exposed pups. Based on the prenatal and postnatal exposure 4 experimental groups (S/S, S/MA, MA/S, MA/MA) were tested in the Open field (OF) and in the Elevated plus maze (EPM) in adulthood. Locomotion, exploration, immobility and comforting behavior were evaluated in the OF, while anxiety was assessed in the EPM. While prenatal MA exposure did not affect behavior and anxiety in adulthood, postnatal MA exposure (i.e. MA administration to lactating mothers) induced long-term changes. Specifically, adult female rats in diestrus and adult males postnatally exposed to MA via breast milk (S/MA and MA/MA) had decreased locomotion and exploratory behavior in the OF and showed increased anxiety-like behavior in the EPM when compared to female rats in diestrus or males postnatally exposed to saline (S/S and MA/S). In adult females in proestrus, postnatal exposure to MA affected only exploratory behavior in the OF when compared to rats in proestrus postnatally exposed to saline. Thus, the present study shows that postnatal exposure to MA via breast milk impairs behavior in unfamiliar environment and anxiety-like behavior of adult male and female rats more than prenatal MA exposure. PMID:21884713

  9. Expression of Npas4 mRNA in Telencephalic Areas of Adult and Postnatal Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Damborsky, Joanne C.; Slaton, G. Simona; Winzer-Serhan, Ursula H.

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor neuronal PAS domain-containing protein 4 (Npas4) is an inducible immediate early gene which regulates the formation of inhibitory synapses, and could have a significant regulatory role during cortical circuit formation. However, little is known about basal Npas4 mRNA expression during postnatal development. Here, postnatal and adult mouse brain sections were processed for isotopic in situ hybridization using an Npas4 specific cRNA antisense probe. In adults, Npas4 mRNA was found in the telencephalon with very restricted or no expression in diencephalon or mesencephalon. In most telencephalic areas, including the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON), piriform cortex, neocortex, hippocampus, dorsal caudate putamen (CPu), septum and basolateral amygdala nucleus (BLA), basal Npas4 expression was detected in scattered cells which exhibited strong hybridization signal. In embryonic and neonatal brain sections, Npas4 mRNA expression signals were very low. Starting at postnatal day 5 (P5), transcripts for Npas4 were detected in the AON, CPu and piriform cortex. At P8, additional Npas4 hybridization was found in CA1 and CA3 pyramidal layer, and in primary motor cortex. By P13, robust mRNA expression was located in layers IV and VI of all sensory cortices, frontal cortex and cingulate cortex. After onset of expression, postnatal spatial mRNA distribution was similar to that in adults, with the exception of the CPu, where Npas4 transcripts became gradually restricted to the most dorsal part. In conclusion, the spatial distribution of Npas4 mRNA is mostly restricted to telencephalic areas, and the temporal expression increases with developmental age during postnatal development, which seem to correlate with the onset of activity-driven excitatory transmission. PMID:26633966

  10. Idiopathic neonatal giant cell hepatitis presenting with acute hepatic failure on postnatal day one.

    PubMed

    Correa, Kimberley K; Nanjundiah, Prathiba; Wirtschafter, David D; Alshak, Najeeb S

    2002-01-01

    We report a term male infant presenting on postnatal day 1 with fulminant hepatic failure. Described congenital infection, metabolic disorders, and cardiovascular etiologies of acute neonatal liver failure were assessed and eliminated. A liver biopsy on postnatal day 10 showed neonatal giant cell hepatitis (NGCH) with an unusual degree of fibrosis for this early postnatal age. NGCH is a clinical diagnosis of cholestatic disorders of unknown etiology in the newborn, and, to our knowledge, has not been previously associated with immediate neonatal hepatic failure. The giant cell transformation is a common response to a variety of insults and only rarely occurs beyond the neonatal period. Most cases present with cholestatic jaundice and varying degrees of coagulopathy, and, many, as in this case, show progressive resolution. PMID:11948391

  11. Postnatal and adult neurogenesis in the development of human disease.

    PubMed

    Danzer, Steve C

    2008-10-01

    The mammalian brain contains a population of neurons that are continuously generated from late embryogenesis through adulthood-after the generation of almost all other neuronal types. This brain region-the hippocampal dentate gyrus-is in a sense, therefore, persistently immature. Postnatal and adult neurogenesis is likely an essential feature of the dentate, which is critical for learning and memory. Protracted neurogenesis after birth would allow the new cells to develop in conjunction with external events-but it may come with a price: while neurogenesis in utero occurs in a protected environment, children and adults are exposed to any number of hazards, such as toxins and infectious agents. Mature neurons might be resistant to such exposures, but new neurons may be vulnerable. Consistent with this prediction, in adult rodents seizures disrupt the integration of newly generated granule cells, whereas mature granule cells are comparatively unaffected. Significantly, abnormally interconnected cells may contribute to epileptogenesis and/or associated cognitive and memory deficits. Finally, studies increasingly indicate that new granule cells are extremely sensitive to a host of endogenous and exogenous factors, raising the possibility that disrupted granule cell integration may be a common feature of many neurological diseases. PMID:18997123

  12. Evidence for Hippocampus-Dependent Contextual Learning at Postnatal Day 17 in the Rat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Jennifer A.; Burman, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term memory for fear of an environment (contextual fear conditioning) emerges later in development (postnatal day; PD 23) than long-term memory for fear of discrete stimuli (PD 17). As contextual, but not explicit cue, fear conditioning relies on the hippocampus; this has been interpreted as evidence that the hippocampus is not fully…

  13. Oral methylphenidate alleviates the fine motor dysfunction caused by chronic postnatal manganese exposure in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Beaudin, Stéphane A; Strupp, Barbara J; Lasley, Stephen M; Fornal, Casimir A; Mandal, Shyamali; Smith, Donald R

    2015-04-01

    Developmental manganese (Mn) exposure is associated with motor dysfunction in children and animal models, but little is known about the underlying neurochemical mechanisms or the potential for amelioration by pharmacotherapy. We investigated whether methylphenidate (MPH) alleviates fine motor dysfunction due to chronic postnatal Mn exposure, and whether Mn exposure impairs brain extracellular dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum in adult animals. Rats were orally exposed to 0 or 50 mg Mn/kg/day from postnatal day 1 until the end of the study (PND 145). The staircase test was used to assess skilled forelimb function. Oral MPH (2.5 mg/kg/day) was administered daily 1 h before staircase testing for 16 days. DA and NE levels were measured by dual probe microdialysis. Results show that Mn exposure impaired reaching and grasping skills and the evoked release of DA and NE in the PFC and striatum of adult rats. Importantly, oral MPH treatment fully alleviated the fine motor deficits in the Mn-exposed animals, but did not affect forelimb skills of control rats not exposed to Mn. These results suggest that catecholaminergic hypofunctioning in the PFC and striatum may underlie the Mn-induced fine motor dysfunction, and that oral MPH pharmacotherapy is an effective treatment approach for alleviating this dysfunction in adult animals. The therapeutic potential of MPH for the treatment of motor dysfunction in Mn-exposed children and adults appears promising pending further characterization of MPH efficacy in other functional areas (eg, attention) believed to be affected by developmental Mn exposure. PMID:25601986

  14. Oral Methylphenidate Alleviates the Fine Motor Dysfunction Caused by Chronic Postnatal Manganese Exposure in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Strupp, Barbara J.; Lasley, Stephen M.; Fornal, Casimir A.; Mandal, Shyamali; Smith, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental manganese (Mn) exposure is associated with motor dysfunction in children and animal models, but little is known about the underlying neurochemical mechanisms or the potential for amelioration by pharmacotherapy. We investigated whether methylphenidate (MPH) alleviates fine motor dysfunction due to chronic postnatal Mn exposure, and whether Mn exposure impairs brain extracellular dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum in adult animals. Rats were orally exposed to 0 or 50 mg Mn/kg/day from postnatal day 1 until the end of the study (PND 145). The staircase test was used to assess skilled forelimb function. Oral MPH (2.5 mg/kg/day) was administered daily 1 h before staircase testing for 16 days. DA and NE levels were measured by dual probe microdialysis. Results show that Mn exposure impaired reaching and grasping skills and the evoked release of DA and NE in the PFC and striatum of adult rats. Importantly, oral MPH treatment fully alleviated the fine motor deficits in the Mn-exposed animals, but did not affect forelimb skills of control rats not exposed to Mn. These results suggest that catecholaminergic hypofunctioning in the PFC and striatum may underlie the Mn-induced fine motor dysfunction, and that oral MPH pharmacotherapy is an effective treatment approach for alleviating this dysfunction in adult animals. The therapeutic potential of MPH for the treatment of motor dysfunction in Mn-exposed children and adults appears promising pending further characterization of MPH efficacy in other functional areas (eg, attention) believed to be affected by developmental Mn exposure. PMID:25601986

  15. Chronic early postnatal scream sound stress induces learning deficits and NMDA receptor changes in the hippocampus of adult mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lili; Han, Bo; Zhao, Xiaoge; Mi, Lihua; Song, Qiang; Wang, Jue; Song, Tusheng; Huang, Chen

    2016-04-13

    Chronic scream sounds during adulthood affect spatial learning and memory, both of which are sexually dimorphic. The long-term effects of chronic early postnatal scream sound stress (SSS) during postnatal days 1-21 (P1-P21) on spatial learning and memory in adult mice as well as whether or not these effects are sexually dimorphic are unknown. Therefore, the present study examines the performance of adult male and female mice in the Morris water maze following exposure to chronic early postnatal SSS. Hippocampal NR2A and NR2B levels as well as NR2A/NR2B subunit ratios were tested using immunohistochemistry. In the Morris water maze, stress males showed greater impairment in spatial learning and memory than background males; by contrast, stress and background females performed equally well. NR2B levels in CA1 and CA3 were upregulated, whereas NR2A/NR2B ratios were downregulated in stressed males, but not in females. These data suggest that chronic early postnatal SSS influences spatial learning and memory ability, levels of hippocampal NR2B, and NR2A/NR2B ratios in adult males. Moreover, chronic early stress-induced alterations exert long-lasting effects and appear to affect performance in a sex-specific manner. PMID:27015584

  16. Early postnatal nutrition determines adult physical activity and energy expenditure in female mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decades of research in rodent models has shown that early postnatal overnutrition induces excess adiposity and other components of metabolic syndrome that persist into adulthood. The specific biologic mechanisms explaining the persistence of these effects, however, remain unknown. On postnatal day 1...

  17. Hepatic isometallothioneins in mice: induction in adults and postnatal ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Kershaw, W C; Lehman-McKeeman, L D; Klaassen, C D

    1990-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to quantitate hepatic metallothionein-I (MT-I) and metallothionein-II (MT-II) in adult mice pretreated with various dosages of selected inorganic and organic compounds and in nonchemically treated neonatal mice. Male CF-1 mice received Zn (0.38-6.0 mmol/kg, sc), Cd (5-80 mumol/kg, sc), dexamethasone (10-1000 mumol/kg, sc), or ethanol (60-180 mmol/kg, po). Liver cytosol was prepared 24 hr after the administration of each compound. In another experiment, liver cytosols were prepared from male and female neonates 1 to 35 days after parturition. MT-I and MT-II in liver cytosols were isolated by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography and quantitated by atomic absorption spectrometry. Hepatic MT-I and MT-II concentrations in adult controls were 5.1 +/- 1.3 and 3.7 +/- 1.0 micrograms/g liver, respectively. All compounds increased hepatic MT levels in a dose-dependent manner over a narrow range of dosages. The lowest dosages of Zn, Cd, dexamethasone, and ethanol that produced a significant increase in total MT content (MT-I plus MT-II) were 0.38, 0.005, 0.3, and 90 mmol/kg, respectively. Maximal induction of total MT following the highest dosages of Zn, Cd, ethanol, and dexamethasone was 58, 34, 24, and 13 times the control value (8.8 +/- 2.4 micrograms total MT/g liver), respectively. The relationship between dose and hepatic MT content was linear following ethanol administration and log-linear following Zn, Cd, and dexamethasone administration. The ratio of MT-I/MT-II was approximately 2.4 following all dosages of metals. Following low and high dosages of organic compounds, the ratio of MT-I/MT-II was approximately 1.0 and 1.5, respectively. Total MT concentration in livers of 1- to 14-day-old mice was approximately 40 times that observed in adult liver (5.5 +/- 1.6 micrograms total MT/g liver) and returned toward adult levels 21 days after parturition. The ratio of MT-I/MT-II was approximately 1.8 during Postpartum Days 1 through 14

  18. Effects of postnatal alcohol exposure on hippocampal gene expression and learning in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Moon, Jihye; Ryu, Jinhyun; Jeong, Joo Yeon; Roh, Gu Seob; Kim, Hyun Joon; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Choi, Wan Sung; Kang, Sang Soo

    2016-04-28

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a condition resulting from excessive drinking by pregnant women. Symptoms of FAS include abnormal facial features, stunted growth, intellectual deficits and attentional dysfunction. Many studies have investigated FAS, but its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. This study evaluated the relationship between alcohol exposure during the synaptogenesis period in postnatal mice and subsequent cognitive function in adult mice. We delivered two injections, separated by 2 h, of ethanol (3 g/kg, ethanol/saline, 20% v/v) to ICR mice on postnatal day 7. After 10 weeks, we conducted a behavioral test, sacrificed the animals, harvested brain tissue and analyzed hippocampal gene expression using a microarray. In ethanol-treated mice, there was a reduction in brain size and decreased neuronal cell number in the cortex, and also cognitive impairment. cDNA microarray results indicated that 1,548 genes showed a > 2-fold decrease in expression relative to control, whereas 974 genes showed a > 2-fold increase in expression relative to control. Many of these genes were related to signal transduction, synaptogenesis and cell membrane formation, which are highlighted in our findings. PMID:26960969

  19. Effect of prenatal programming and postnatal rearing on glomerular filtration rate in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, German; Elmaghrabi, Ayah; Salley, Jordan; Siddique, Khurrum; Gattineni, Jyothsna

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether a prenatal low-protein diet programs a decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and an increase in systolic blood pressure (BP). In addition, we examined whether altering the postnatal nutritional environment of nursing neonatal rats affected GFR and BP when rats were studied as adults. Pregnant rats were fed a normal (20%) protein diet or a low-protein diet (6%) during the last half of pregnancy until birth, when rats were fed a 20% protein diet. Mature adult rats from the prenatal low-protein group had systolic hypertension and a GFR of 0.38 ± 0.03 versus 0.57 ± 0.05 ml·min−1·100 g body wt−1 in the 20% group (P < 0.01). In cross-fostering experiments, mothers continued on the same prenatal diet until weaning. Prenatal 6% protein rats cross-fostered to a 20% mother on day 1 of life had a GFR of 0.53 ± 0.05 ml·min−1·100 g body wt−1, which was not different than the 20% group cross-fostered to a different 20% mother (0.45 ± 0.04 ml·min−1·100 g body wt−1). BP in the 6% to 20% group was comparable with the 20% to 20% group. Offspring of rats fed either 20% or 6% protein diets during pregnancy and cross-fostered to a 6% mother had elevated BP but a comparable GFR normalized to body weight as the 20% to 20% control group. Thus, a prenatal low-protein diet causes hypertension and a reduction in GFR in mature adult offspring, which can be modified by postnatal rearing. PMID:25537745

  20. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on the 14th-18th days of gestation on postnatal growth and development in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1988-11-01

    Thirty-nine pregnant adult Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to one of three exposure groups: 0, 0.75, or 1.50 Gy X-radiation total exposure. Animals were exposed from the 14th to the 18th days of gestation at 0, 0.15, or 0.30 Gy per day. At term, 15 rats were killed and morphologic analyses were completed. Twenty-four rats were allowed to deliver their offspring. On the first day of postnatal life, litters were reduced to a maximum of eight pups per litter, with equal numbers of male and female offspring wherever possible. A total of 187 pups were observed for the age of acquisition of five reflexes (air righting, surface righting, visual placing, negative geotaxis, auditory startle) and the appearance of four physiologic markers (pinna detachment, eye opening, vaginal opening, testes descent). There was significant dose-related weight reduction in term fetuses and offspring throughout the 86-day postnatal period. Postnatal growth rate (g gained/day) was unaffected. Adult offspring brain and gonadal weight and organ weight:body weight ratios were reduced. Using the PAC50 methodology, dose-related alterations occurred in the acquisition of several reflexes. All physiologic markers exhibited a dose-related delay in appearance. These results indicate that fractionated exposure to X-radiation during the fetal period in the rat results in dose-dependent alterations in postnatal growth and physiologic development. These studies are important for our understanding of the long-range effects of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation late in gestation.

  1. Toxicity Evaluation of Bisphenol A Administered by Gavage to Sprague Dawley Rats From Gestation Day 6 Through Postnatal Day 90

    PubMed Central

    Delclos, K. Barry; Camacho, Luísa; Lewis, Sherry M.; Vanlandingham, Michelle M.; Latendresse, John R.; Olson, Greg R.; Davis, Kelly J.; Patton, Ralph E.; da Costa, Gonçalo Gamboa; Woodling, Kellie A.; Bryant, Matthew S.; Chidambaram, Mani; Trbojevich, Raul; Juliar, Beth E.; Felton, Robert P.; Thorn, Brett T.

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume industrial chemical to which there is widespread human oral exposure. Guideline studies used to set regulatory limits detected adverse effects only at doses well above human exposures and established a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 5 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day. However, many reported animal studies link BPA to potentially adverse effects on multiple organ systems at doses below the NOAEL. The primary goals of the subchronic study reported here were to identify adverse effects induced by orally (gavage) administered BPA below the NOAEL, to characterize the dose response for such effects and to determine doses for a subsequent chronic study. Sprague Dawley rat dams were dosed daily from gestation day 6 until the start of labor, and their pups were directly dosed from day 1 after birth to termination. The primary focus was on seven equally spaced BPA doses (2.5–2700 μg/kg bw/day). Also included were a naïve control, two doses of ethinyl estradiol (EE2) to demonstrate the estrogen responsiveness of the animal model, and two high BPA doses (100,000 and 300,000 μg/kg bw/day) expected from guideline studies to produce adverse effects. Clear adverse effects of BPA, including depressed gestational and postnatal body weight gain, effects on the ovary (increased cystic follicles, depleted corpora lutea, and antral follicles), and serum hormones (increased serum estradiol and prolactin and decreased progesterone), were observed only at the two high doses of BPA. BPA-induced effects partially overlapped those induced by EE2, consistent with the known weak estrogenic activity of BPA. PMID:24496637

  2. Adult Behavior in Male Mice Exposed to E-Cigarette Nicotine Vapors during Late Prenatal and Early Postnatal Life

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dani; Aherrera, Angela; Lopez, Armando; Neptune, Enid; Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Klein, Jonathan D.; Chen, Gang; Lazarus, Philip; Collaco, Joseph M.; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine exposure has been associated with an increased likelihood of developing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in offspring of mothers who smoked during pregnancy. The goal of this study was to determine if exposure to E-cigarette nicotine vapors during late prenatal and early postnatal life altered behavior in adult mice. Methods Timed-pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2.4% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG) or 0% nicotine /PG once a day from gestational day 15 until delivery. After delivery, offspring and mothers were exposed to E-cigarette vapors for an additional 14 days from postnatal day 2 through 16. Following their last exposure serum cotinine levels were measured in female juvenile mice. Male mice underwent behavioral testing at 14 weeks of age to assess sensorimotor, affective, and cognitive functional domains. Results Adult male mice exposed to 2.4% nicotine/PG E-cigarette vapors had significantly more head dips in the zero maze test and higher levels of rearing activity in the open field test compared to 0% nicotine/PG exposed mice and untreated controls. In the water maze test after reversal training, the 2.4% nicotine/PG mice spent more than 25% of time in the new location whereas the other groups did not. Conclusion Adult male mice exhibited increased levels of activity in the zero maze and open field tests when exposed to E-cigarette vapor containing nicotine during late prenatal and early postnatal life. These findings indicate that nicotine exposure from E-cigarettes may cause persistent behavioral changes when exposure occurs during a period of rapid brain growth. PMID:26372012

  3. Ghrelin stimulates milk intake by affecting adult type feeding behaviour in postnatal rats.

    PubMed

    Piao, H; Hosoda, H; Kangawa, K; Murata, T; Narita, K; Higuchi, T

    2008-03-01

    The influence of ghrelin on feeding behaviour during infancy is unknown. To determine whether ghrelin influences milk intake in rat pups, newborn rats received a single i.p. injection of either rat ghrelin (100 microg/kg) or rabbit anti-ghrelin immunoglobulin G (100 microg/kg) every 5 days from postpartum day 5 to day 30 (P5-P30). Milk intake was then assessed by body weight gain following a 2-h suckling period. Ghrelin significantly increased weight gain relative to vehicle-injected controls in P20, P25 and P30 pups, but not in younger animals. Similarly, after 8 h of milk restriction, anti-ghrelin injections significantly decreased weight gain in P25 and P30, but not in younger pups. Interestingly, however, ghrelin did increase independent feeding in P10 and P15 pups using a paradigm in which pups consumed milk from a milk-soaked paper towel. We therefore conclude that ghrelin stimulates milk intake at an early postnatal stage, primarily by affecting adult-type feeding behaviour. PMID:18194428

  4. Differential Effects of Ethanol on Bid, tBid and Bax:tBid Interactions in Postnatal Day 4 and Postnatal Day 7 Rat Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, Marieta Barrow; Paiva, Michael; Kubovec, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to ethanol during central nervous system (CNS) development can lead to a wide array of neuroanatomical, behavioral and cognitive abnormalities, broadly subsumed under the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) classification. One mode of ethanol-induced interference in the normal developmental program appears to be through induction of apoptotic processes mediated by the Bcl-2 family of survival-regulatory proteins. The present series of studies investigated the role of the Bcl-2-related, pro-apoptotic Bid protein, and its truncated, apoptotically active fragment, tBid, in developmental ethanol neurotoxicity. Methods Protein analyses were made via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) in neonatal rat cerebellum, of basal Bid, and of Bid and tBid, following ethanol exposure via vapor inhalation, at an age of peak ethanol sensitivity in this region (postnatal day 4 [P4]) and a later age of relative resistance (P7). ELISA analyses were also made of Bax:tBid heterodimers, a process which activates Bax, essential for its apoptotic functioning. Finally, in vitro assessments of the importance of tBid to ethanol neurotoxicity were made in cultured cerebellar granule cells, using a specific tBid inhibitor. Results Basal levels of Bid were higher at P4 compared to P7, possibly contributing to the differential sensitivity. Ethanol exposure elicited further increases in cytosolic Bid and mitochondrial tBid when administration was at P4, but not at P7. Bax:tBid heterodimers were markedly increased by ethanol exposure on P4, an increase which persisted even two-hours after termination of treatment. Similar effects were not seen at P7. The in vitro analyses revealed that tBid inhibition provided complete protection against ethanol-induced cell death, and depressed ethanol-mediated cytochrome-c release. Conclusions These results suggest that Bid/tBid may be important elements in ethanol-mediated neurotoxicity during CNS development. The molecular processes

  5. Lack of behavioral sensitization to repeated cocaine administration from postnatal days 1 to 10.

    PubMed

    Meyer, J S; Yacht, A C

    1993-09-01

    This research determined whether sensitization (or tolerance) to the behavioral effects of cocaine in rat pups would occur following repeated cocaine administration. Rats were injected daily with 20 mg/kg of cocaine HCl s.c. from postnatal day 1 to day 10, injected with saline vehicle only, or left untreated during this period. On day 11, animals from each group were challenged with either 0, .625, 1.25, or 2.50 mg/kg of cocaine and their behavioral responses were recorded. Prior cocaine treatment did not influence the acute effects of cocaine on ultrasonic vocalizations or on any observed motor responses. In contrast, the cocaine- and saline-treated pups differed in a similar manner from the untreated control group on several behavioral measures. These results indicate that the sensitizing effects of repeated cocaine administration are not manifested during the neonatal period. However, the stimulation (stress) of handling and injection may alter the subsequent responsivity of infant rats to a cocaine challenge. PMID:8225794

  6. Transient postnatal fluoxetine leads to decreased brain arachidonic acid metabolism and cytochrome P450 4A in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Ramadan, Epolia; Blanchard, Helene; Cheon, Yewon; Fox, Meredith A.; Chang, Lisa; Chen, Mei; Ma, Kaizong; Rapoport, Stanley I.; Basselin, Mireille

    2014-01-01

    Fetal and perinatal exposure to selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has been reported to alter childhood behavior, while transient early exposure in rodents is reported to alter their behavior and decrease brain extracellular 5-HT in adulthood. Since 5-HT2A/2C receptor-mediated neurotransmission can involve G-protein coupled activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), releasing arachidonic acid (ARA) from synaptic membrane phospholipid, we hypothesized that transient postnatal exposure to fluoxetine would decrease brain ARA metabolism in adult mice. Brain ARA incorporation coefficients k* and rates Jin were quantitatively imaged following intravenous [1-14C]ARA infusion of unanesthetized adult mice that had been injected daily with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg i.p.) or saline during postnatal days P4–P21. Expression of brain ARA metabolic enzymes and other relevant markers also was measured. On neuroimaging, k* and Jin was decreased widely in early fluoxetine- compared to saline-treated adult mice. Of the enzymes measured, cPLA2 activity was unchanged, while Ca2+-independent iPLA2 activity was increased. There was a significant 74% reduced protein level of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A, which can convert ARA to 20-HETE. Reduced brain ARA metabolism in adult mice transiently exposed to postnatal fluoxetine, and a 74% reduction in CYP4A protein, suggest long-term effects independent of drug presence in brain ARA metabolism, and in CYP4A metabolites. Comparable changes in humans might contribute to reported altered behavior following early SSRI. PMID:24529827

  7. Diabetes and Adult Day Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabelko, Holly I.; DeCoster, Vaughn A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a profile of individuals with diabetes who receive services in adult day centers. This exploratory study uses an administrative data set (N = 280) from five programs in central Ohio to examine four areas: demographics, health and mental health, financial and social resources, and disenrollment status. Older…

  8. Adult Olfactory Bulb Interneuron Phenotypes Identified by Targeting Embryonic and Postnatal Neural Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Figueres-Oñate, Maria; López-Mascaraque, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Neurons are generated during embryonic development and in adulthood, although adult neurogenesis is restricted to two main brain regions, the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles generates neural stem/progenitor cells that continually provide the olfactory bulb (OB) with new granule or periglomerular neurons, cells that arrive from the SVZ via the rostral migratory stream. The continued neurogenesis and the adequate integration of these newly generated interneurons is essential to maintain homeostasis in the olfactory bulb, where the differentiation of these cells into specific neural cell types is strongly influenced by temporal cues. Therefore, identifying the critical features that control the generation of adult OB interneurons at either pre- or post-natal stages is important to understand the dynamic contribution of neural stem cells. Here, we used in utero and neonatal SVZ electroporation along with a transposase-mediated stable integration plasmid, in order to track interneurons and glial lineages in the OB. These plasmids are valuable tools to study the development of OB interneurons from embryonic and post-natal SVZ progenitors. Accordingly, we examined the location and identity of the adult progeny of embryonic and post-natally transfected progenitors by examining neurochemical markers in the adult OB. These data reveal the different cell types in the olfactory bulb that are generated in function of age and different electroporation conditions. PMID:27242400

  9. Adult Olfactory Bulb Interneuron Phenotypes Identified by Targeting Embryonic and Postnatal Neural Progenitors.

    PubMed

    Figueres-Oñate, Maria; López-Mascaraque, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Neurons are generated during embryonic development and in adulthood, although adult neurogenesis is restricted to two main brain regions, the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles generates neural stem/progenitor cells that continually provide the olfactory bulb (OB) with new granule or periglomerular neurons, cells that arrive from the SVZ via the rostral migratory stream. The continued neurogenesis and the adequate integration of these newly generated interneurons is essential to maintain homeostasis in the olfactory bulb, where the differentiation of these cells into specific neural cell types is strongly influenced by temporal cues. Therefore, identifying the critical features that control the generation of adult OB interneurons at either pre- or post-natal stages is important to understand the dynamic contribution of neural stem cells. Here, we used in utero and neonatal SVZ electroporation along with a transposase-mediated stable integration plasmid, in order to track interneurons and glial lineages in the OB. These plasmids are valuable tools to study the development of OB interneurons from embryonic and post-natal SVZ progenitors. Accordingly, we examined the location and identity of the adult progeny of embryonic and post-natally transfected progenitors by examining neurochemical markers in the adult OB. These data reveal the different cell types in the olfactory bulb that are generated in function of age and different electroporation conditions. PMID:27242400

  10. Postnatal manganese exposure does not alter dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity in adult and adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Sanders A; Mohd-Yusof, Alena; Kaplan, Graham J; Abdulla, Zuhair I; Lee, Ryan J; Crawford, Cynthia A

    2013-04-15

    Administering manganese chloride (Mn) to rats on postnatal day (PD) 1-21 causes long-term reductions in dopamine transporter levels in the dorsal striatum, as well as a persistent increase in D1 and D2 receptor concentrations. Whether dopamine autoreceptors change in number or sensitivity is uncertain, although D2S receptors, which may be presynaptic in origin, are elevated in Mn-exposed rats. The purpose of this study was to determine if early Mn exposure causes long-term changes in dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity that persist into adolescence and adulthood. To this end, male rats were exposed to Mn on PD 1-21 and autoreceptor functioning was tested 7 or 70 days later by measuring (a) dopamine synthesis (i.e., DOPA accumulation) in the dorsal striatum after quinpirole or haloperidol treatment and (b) behavioral responsiveness after low-dose apomorphine treatment. Results showed that low doses (i.e., "autoreceptor" doses) of apomorphine (0.06 and 0.12 mg/kg) decreased the locomotor activity of adolescent and adult rats, while higher doses increased locomotion. The dopamine synthesis experiment also produced classic autoreceptor effects, because quinpirole decreased dorsal striatal DOPA accumulation; whereas, haloperidol increased DOPA levels in control rats, but not in rats given the nerve impulse inhibitor γ-butyrolactone. Importantly, early Mn exposure did not alter autoreceptor sensitivity when assessed in early adolescence or adulthood. The lack of Mn-induced effects was evident in both the dopamine synthesis and behavioral experiments. When considered together with past studies, it is clear that early Mn exposure alters the functioning of various dopaminergic presynaptic mechanisms, while dopamine autoreceptors remain unimpaired. PMID:23458069

  11. Postnatal manganese exposure does not alter dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity in adult and adolescent male rats

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Sanders A.; Mohd-Yusof, Alena; Kaplan, Graham J.; Abdulla, Zuhair I.; Lee, Ryan J.; Crawford, Cynthia A.

    2013-01-01

    Administering manganese chloride (Mn) to rats on postnatal day (PD) 1–21 causes long-term reductions in dopamine transporter levels in the dorsal striatum, as well as persistent increases in D1 and D2 receptor concentrations. Whether dopamine autoreceptors change in number or sensitivity is uncertain, although D2S receptors, which may be presynaptic in origin, are elevated in Mn-exposed rats. The purpose of this study was to determine if early Mn exposure causes long-term changes in dopamine autoreceptor sensitivity that persist into adolescence and adulthood. To this end, male rats were exposed to Mn on PD 1–21 and autoreceptor functioning was tested 7 or 70 days later by measuring (a) dopamine synthesis (i.e., DOPA accumulation) in the dorsal striatum after quinpirole or haloperidol treatment and (b) behavioral responsiveness after low-dose apomorphine treatment. Results showed that low doses (i.e., “autoreceptor” doses) of apomorphine (0.06 and 0.12 mg/kg) decreased the locomotor activity of adolescent and adult rats, while higher doses increased locomotion. The dopamine synthesis experiment also produced classic autoreceptor effects, because quinpirole decreased dorsal striatal DOPA accumulation; whereas, haloperidol increased DOPA levels in control rats, but not in rats given the nerve impulse inhibitor γ-butyrolactone. Importantly, early Mn exposure did not alter autoreceptor sensitivity when assessed in early adolescence or adulthood. The lack of Mn-induced effects was evident in both the dopamine synthesis and behavioral experiments. When considered together with past studies, it is clear that early Mn exposure alters the functioning of various dopaminergic presynaptic mechanisms, while dopamine autoreceptors remain unimpaired. PMID:23458069

  12. ESRP2 controls an adult splicing programme in hepatocytes to support postnatal liver maturation.

    PubMed

    Bhate, Amruta; Parker, Darren J; Bebee, Thomas W; Ahn, Jaegyoon; Arif, Waqar; Rashan, Edrees H; Chorghade, Sandip; Chau, Anthony; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Anakk, Sayeepriyadarshini; Carstens, Russ P; Xiao, Xinshu; Kalsotra, Auinash

    2015-01-01

    Although major genetic networks controlling early liver specification and morphogenesis are known, the mechanisms responsible for postnatal hepatic maturation are poorly understood. Here we employ global analyses of the mouse liver transcriptome to demonstrate that postnatal remodelling of the liver is accompanied by large-scale transcriptional and post-transcriptional transitions that are cell-type-specific and temporally coordinated. Combining detailed expression analyses with gain- and loss-of-function studies, we identify epithelial splicing regulatory protein 2 (ESRP2) as a conserved regulatory factor that controls the neonatal-to-adult switch of ∼20% of splice isoforms in mouse and human hepatocytes. The normal shift in splicing coincides tightly with dramatic postnatal induction of ESRP2 in hepatocytes. We further demonstrate that forced expression of ESRP2 in immature mouse and human hepatocytes is sufficient to drive a reciprocal shift in splicing and causes various physiological abnormalities. These findings define a direct role for ESRP2 in the generation of conserved repertoires of adult splice isoforms that facilitate terminal differentiation and maturation of hepatocytes. PMID:26531099

  13. β-defensins and the epididymis: contrasting influences of prenatal, postnatal, and adult scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Camilla M; Silva, Erick JR; Hinton, Barry T; Avellar, Maria Christina W

    2016-01-01

    β-defensins are components of host defense, with antimicrobial and pleiotropic immuno-modulatory properties. Research over the last 15 years has demonstrated abundant expression of a variety of β-defensins in the postnatal epididymis of different species. A gradient of region- and cell-specific expression of these proteins is observed in the epithelium of the postnatal epididymis. Their secretion into the luminal fluid and binding to spermatozoa as they travel along the epididymis has suggested their involvement in reproduction-specific tasks. Therefore, continuous attention has been given to various β-defensins for their role in sperm function and fertility. Although β-defensins are largely dependent on androgens, the underlying mechanisms regulating their expression and function in the epididymis are not well understood. Recent investigation has pointed out to a new and interesting scenario where β-defensins emerge with a different expression pattern in the Wolffian duct, the embryonic precursor of the epididymis, as opposed to the adult epididymis, thereby redefining the concept concerning the multifunctional roles of β-defensins in the developing epididymis. In this review, we summarize some current views of β-defensins in the epididymis highlighting our most recent data and speculations on their role in the developing epididymis during the prenatal-to-postnatal transition, bringing attention to the many unanswered questions in this research area that may contribute to a better understanding of epididymal biology and male fertility. PMID:26763543

  14. Adult Neuropsychological Performance Following Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Vieira, Veronica; Aschengrau, Ann

    2012-01-01

    This population-based retrospective cohort study examined adult performance on a battery of neuropsychological tests in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and a Geographic Information System (GIS). Results of crude and multivariate analyses among 35 exposed and 28 unexposed subjects showed no association between prenatal and early postnatal exposure and decrements on tests that assess abilities in the domains of omnibus intelligence, academic achievement or language. The results were suggestive of an association between prenatal and early postnatal PCE exposure and diminished performance on tests that assessed abilities in the domains of visuospatial functioning, learning and memory, motor, attention and mood. Because the sample size was small, most findings were not statistically significant. Future studies with larger sample sizes should be conducted to further define the neuropsychological consequences of early developmental PCE exposure. PMID:22522125

  15. Postnatal high-fat diet leads to spatial deficit, obesity, and central and peripheral inflammation in prenatal dexamethasone adult offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chih-Sung; Li, Shih-Wen; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Yu, Hong-Ren; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Tain, You-Lin; Su, Chung-Hao; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-08-01

    Synthetic glucocorticoids are frequently used in clinical practice for treating pregnant women at risk of preterm delivery, but their long-term effects on the infant brain are largely unknown. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were administered vehicle or dexamethasone between gestational days 14 and 21. Male offspring were then weaned onto either a standard chow or a high-fat diet. The postnatal levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in the plasma, liver, and brain were examined, as well as the possible effects of prenatal dexamethasone on cognition. We found that a postnatal high-fat diet led to spatial deficits detected by the Morris water maze in adult offspring administered dexamethasone prenatally. The spatial deficit was accompanied by decreased IGF-1 mRNA and increased ADMA levels in the dorsal hippocampus. In peripheral systems, a postnatal high-fat diet resulted in decreased plasma IGF-1, increased plasma corticosterone, increased concentrations of transaminases, TNF-α mRNA, and ADMA in the liver, and associated obesity in adult offspring administered prenatal dexamethasone. In conclusion, a postnatal high-fat diet led to spatial deficits, obesity, and altered levels of IGF-1, TNF-α, and ADMA in the plasma, liver, or brain. PMID:27272689

  16. Pre and post-natal antigen exposure can program the stress axis of adult zebra finches: evidence for environment matching.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Loren; Grindstaff, Jennifer L

    2015-03-01

    Both maternal exposure to stressors and exposure of offspring to stressors during early life can have lifelong effects on the physiology and behavior of offspring. Stress exposure can permanently shape an individual's phenotype by influencing the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is responsible for the production and regulation of glucocorticoids such as corticosterone (CORT). In this study we used captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to examine the effects of matching and mismatching maternal and early post-natal exposure to one of two types of antigens or a control on HPA axis reactivity in adult offspring. Prior to breeding, adult females were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or a control. Offspring of females in each of the three treatments were themselves exposed to LPS, KLH or a control injection at 5 and 28days post-hatch. When offspring were at least 18months of age, standardized capture and restraint stress tests were conducted to determine the impact of the treatments on adult stress responsiveness. We found significant interaction effects between maternal and offspring treatments on stress-induced CORT levels, and evidence in support of the environment matching hypothesis for KLH-treated birds, not LPS-treated birds. KLH-treated offspring of KLH-treated mothers exhibited reduced stress-induced CORT levels, whereas LPS-treated or control offspring of KLH-treated mothers exhibited elevated stress-induced CORT levels. Although the treatment effects on baseline CORT were non-significant, the overall pattern was similar to the effects observed on stress-induced CORT levels. Our results highlight the complex nature of HPA axis programming, and to our knowledge, provide the first evidence that a match or mismatch between pre and post-natal antigen exposure can have life-long consequences for HPA axis function. PMID:25535860

  17. Pre and post-natal antigen exposure can program the stress axis of adult zebra finches: evidence for environment matching

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Loren; Grindstaff, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Both maternal exposure to stressors and exposure of offspring to stressors during early life can have lifelong effects on the physiology and behavior of offspring. Stress exposure can permanently shape an individual’s phenotype by influencing the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is responsible for the production and regulation of glucocorticoids such as corticosterone (CORT). In this study we used captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to examine the effects of matching and mismatching maternal and early post-natal exposure to one of two types of antigens or a control on HPA axis reactivity in adult offspring. Prior to breeding, adult females were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or a control. Offspring of females in each of the three treatments were themselves exposed to LPS, KLH or a control injection at 5 and 28 days post-hatch. When offspring were at least 18 months of age, standardized capture and restraint stress tests were conducted to determine the impact of the treatments on adult stress responsiveness. We found significant interaction effects between maternal and offspring treatments on stress-induced CORT levels, and evidence in support of the environment matching hypothesis for KLH-treated birds not LPS-treated birds. KLH-treated offspring of KLH-treated mothers exhibited reduced stress-induced CORT levels, whereas LPS-treated or control offspring of KLH-treated mothers exhibited elevated stress-induced CORT levels. Although the treatment effects on baseline CORT were non-significant, the overall pattern was similar to the effects observed on stress-induced CORT levels. Our results highlight the complex nature of HPA axis programming, and to our knowledge, provide the first evidence that a match or mismatch between pre and post-natal antigen exposure can have life-long consequences for HPA axis function. PMID:25535860

  18. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adult day health care... (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.160 Adult day health care requirements. As a condition for receiving a grant and grant funds under this part for an adult day health...

  19. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adult day health care... (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.160 Adult day health care requirements. As a condition for receiving a grant and grant funds under this part for an adult day health...

  20. Postnatal masculinization alters the HPA axis phenotype in the adult female rat

    PubMed Central

    Seale, JV; Wood, SA; Atkinson, HC; Harbuz, MS; Lightman, SL

    2005-01-01

    The ability of postnatal testosterone propionate (TP) to masculinize both behaviour and gonadal cyclicity in the female rat is well documented. We have investigated whether postnatal androgen also has an organizational effect on another sexually dimorphic neuroendocrine system – the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Female rats were exposed to a single injection of testosterone propionate (TP) or oil within 24 h of birth. As adults, rats were either ovariectomized and given 17β-oestradiol replacement (OVXE2) or sham ovariectomized with cholesterol implants (SHOVX). An automated sampling system collected blood from unanaesthetized adult female rats every 10 min over a 24-h period, during a mild psychological stress (noise) and following an immunological lipopolysaccharide stress (LPS). Neonatal TP-treated SHOVX rats had a significant reduction in the number, height, frequency and amplitude of corticosterone pulses over the basal 24-h period, compared to both the neonatal oil-treated and TP-treated OVXE2 animals. The corticosterone response to both noise and LPS was also significantly decreased for the TP-treated SHOVX females. Three hours post-LPS administration, TP females had significantly lower values of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) and anterior pituitary proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNAs and greater PVN glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA expression compared to the oil-treated controls. E2 replacement in adult TP rats normalized all the mRNA levels, except for PVN GR mRNA which did fall towards the levels of the oil-control animals. A single injection of TP within 24 h of birth disrupts the development of the characteristic female pattern of corticosterone secretion and the normal female HPA response to stress, resulting in a pattern similar to that seen in males. These effects can be reversed by E2 treatment in the adult TP female rat. PMID:15611026

  1. The effect of in vivo hydrocortisone administration on the labelling index and size of chromaffin tissue in the postnatal and adult mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Monkhouse, W S

    1986-01-01

    Hydrocortisone administration in vivo to neonatal mice for seven days led to a significant increase in both the size and the labelling index of extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue (as represented by the para-aortic body) of 8 days old mice. In untreated animals at this age, the para-aortic body was in most cases too small to obtain a valid labelling index. In the para-aortic bodies of 14 days old, 21 days old and adult mice, the extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue was too dispersed to obtain values for either volumetric analysis or labelling indices, and hydrocortisone was without significant effect in promoting a hyperplastic response. In the postnatal adrenal medulla at all ages studied, hydrocortisone had no effect on the medullary size or on the labelling indices of either adrenaline- or noradrenaline-storing cells, although it led to a marked diminution of adrenocortical volume. The relative proportion of adrenaline-storing cells increased between the values for 8 days old animals and those for adults; this was unaffected by hydrocortisone. The cortico-medullary ratio remained unchanged from the eighth postnatal day onwards. The results are discussed and related to those of other workers. It is suggested that factors as yet unknown might modulate the response to corticosteroids of developing intra- and extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:3693040

  2. Immunohistochemical localization of keratin 5 in the submandibular gland in adult and postnatal developing mice.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Miyuki; Nakata, Hiroki; Kumchantuek, Tewarat; Sakulsak, Natthiya; Iseki, Shoichi

    2016-03-01

    Keratin 5 (K5) is a marker of basal progenitor cells in the epithelia of a number of organs. During prenatal development of the submandibular gland (SMG) in mice, K5(+) progenitor cells in the developing epithelia play important roles in its organogenesis. Although K5(+) cells are also present in the adult mouse SMG and may function in tissue regeneration, their histological localization has not yet investigated in detail. In the present study, we examined the immunohistochemical localization of K5 in the SMG in adult and postnatal developing mice. At birth, K5 immunoreactivity was detected in the entire duct system, in which it was localized in the basal cells of a double-layered epithelium, but was not detected in the terminal tubule or myoepithelial cells. At postnatal weeks 1-3, with the development of intercalated ducts (ID), striated ducts (SD), and excretory ducts (ED), K5-immunoreactive basal cells were gradually restricted to the ED and the proximal double-layered portions of the ID connecting to the SD. At the same time, K5 immunoreactivity appeared in myoepithelial cells, in which its positive ratio gradually increased. In adults, K5 immunoreactivity was localized to most myoepithelial cells, most basal cells in the ED, and a small number of ID cells at the boundary between the ID and SD in the female SMG or between the ID and granular convoluted tubules in the male SMG. These results suggest that K5 is a marker of differentiated myoepithelial cells and duct progenitor cells in the mouse SMG. PMID:26671786

  3. Strain dependent effects of conditioned fear in adult C57Bl/6 and Balb/C mice following postnatal exposure to chlorpyrifos: relation to expression of brain acetylcholinesterase mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Oriel, Sarit; Kofman, Ora

    2015-01-01

    Following reports of emotional psychopathology in children and adults exposed to organophosphates, the effects of postnatal chlorpyrifos (CPF) on fear-conditioning and depression-like behaviors were tested in adult mice. Concomitant changes in expression of mRNA for synaptic and soluble splice variants of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were examined in mouse pups and adults of the Balb/C and C57Bl/6 (B6) strains, which differ in their behavioral and hormonal stress response. Mice were injected subcutaneously with 1 mg/kg CPF on postnatal days 4–10 and tested as adults for conditioned fear, sucrose preference, and forced swim. Acetylcholinesterase activity was assessed in the brains of pups on the first and last day of treatment. Expression of soluble and synaptic AChE mRNA was assessed in brains of treated pups and fear-conditioned adults using real-time PCR. Adult Balb/C mice exposed postnatally to CPF showed exacerbated fear-conditioning and impaired active avoidance. Adult B6 mice exposed postnatally to CPF showed a more specific fear response to tones and less freezing in the inter-tone intervals, in contrast to the vehicle-pretreated mice. Chlorpyrifos also attenuated sweet preference and enhanced climbing in the forced swim test. Chlorpyrifos-treated mice had increased expression of both synaptic and readthrough AChE transcripts in the hippocampus of Balb/C mice and decreased expression in the amygdala following fear-conditioning. In conclusion, postnatal CPF had long-term effects on fear and depression, as well as on expression of AChE mRNA. These changes may be related to alteration in the interaction between hippocampus and amygdala in regulating negative emotions. PMID:25972795

  4. Transgenic APP expression during postnatal development causes persistent locomotor hyperactivity in the adult

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Transgenic mice expressing disease-associated proteins have become standard tools for studying human neurological disorders. Transgenes are often expressed using promoters chosen to drive continuous high-level expression throughout life rather than temporal and spatial fidelity to the endogenous gene. This approach has allowed us to recapitulate diseases of aging within the two-year lifespan of the laboratory mouse, but has the potential for creating aberrant phenotypes by mechanisms unrelated to the human disorder. Results We show that overexpression of the Alzheimer’s-related amyloid precursor protein (APP) during early postnatal development leads to severe locomotor hyperactivity that can be significantly attenuated by delaying transgene onset until adulthood. Our data suggest that exposure to transgenic APP during maturation influences the development of neuronal circuits controlling motor activity. Both when matched for total duration of APP overexpression and when matched for cortical amyloid burden, animals exposed to transgenic APP as juveniles are more active in locomotor assays than animals in which APP overexpression was delayed until adulthood. In contrast to motor activity, the age of APP onset had no effect on thigmotaxis in the open field as a rough measure of anxiety, suggesting that the interaction between APP overexpression and brain development is not unilateral. Conclusions Our findings indicate that locomotor hyperactivity displayed by the tet-off APP transgenic mice and several other transgenic models of Alzheimer’s disease may result from overexpression of mutant APP during postnatal brain development. Our results serve as a reminder of the potential for unexpected interactions between foreign transgenes and brain development to cause long-lasting effects on neuronal function in the adult. The tet-off APP model provides an easy means of avoiding developmental confounds by allowing transgene expression to be delayed until the

  5. Altered engagement of autobiographical memory networks in adult offspring of postnatally depressed mothers.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Birthe; Murray, Lynne; Moutsiana, Christina; Fearon, Pasco; Cooper, Peter J; Halligan, Sarah L; Johnstone, Tom

    2016-07-01

    Maternal depression is associated with increased risk for offspring mood and anxiety disorders. One possible impact of maternal depression during offspring development is on the emotional autobiographical memory system. We investigated the neural mechanisms of emotional autobiographical memory in adult offspring of mothers with postnatal depression (N=16) compared to controls (N=21). During fMRI, recordings of participants describing one pleasant and one unpleasant situation with their mother and with a companion, were used as prompts to re-live the situations. Compared to controls we predicted the PND offspring would show: greater activation in medial and posterior brain regions implicated in autobiographical memory and rumination; and decreased activation in lateral prefrontal cortex and decreased connectivity between lateral prefrontal and posterior regions, reflecting reduced control of autobiographical recall. For negative situations, we found no group differences. For positive situations with their mothers, PND offspring showed higher activation than controls in left lateral prefrontal cortex, right frontal pole, cingulate cortex and precuneus, and lower connectivity of right middle frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, thalamus and lingual gyrus with the posterior cingulate. Our results are consistent with adult offspring of PND mothers having less efficient prefrontal regulation of personally relevant pleasant autobiographical memories. PMID:27208693

  6. Range of motion (ROM) restriction influences quipazine-induced stepping behavior in postnatal day one and day ten rats.

    PubMed

    Strain, Misty M; Brumley, Michele R

    2014-11-01

    Previous research has shown that neonatal rats can adapt their stepping behavior in response to sensory feedback in real-time. The current study examined real-time and persistent effects of ROM (range of motion) restriction on stepping in P1 and P10 rats. On the day of testing, rat pups were suspended in a sling. After a 5-min baseline, they were treated with the serotonergic receptor agonist quipazine (3.0mg/kg) or saline (vehicle control). Half of the pups had a Plexiglas plate placed beneath them at 50% of limb length to induce a period of ROM restriction during stepping. The entire test session included a 5-min baseline, 15-min ROM restriction, and 15-min post-ROM restriction periods. Following treatment with quipazine, there was an increase in both fore- and hindlimb total movement and alternated steps in P1 and P10 pups. P10 pups also showed more synchronized steps than P1 pups. During the ROM restriction period, there was a suppression of forelimb movement and synchronized steps. We did not find evidence of persistent effects of ROM restriction on the amount of stepping. However, real-time and persistent changes in intralimb coordination occurred. Developmental differences also were seen in the time course of stepping between P1 and P10 pups, with P10 subjects showing show less stepping than younger pups. These results suggest that sensory feedback modulates locomotor activity during the period of development in which the neural mechanisms of locomotion are undergoing rapid development. PMID:25151623

  7. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adult day health care requirements. 59.160 Section 59.160 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.160 Adult day health care requirements. As a condition...

  8. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adult day health care requirements. 59.160 Section 59.160 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.160 Adult day health care requirements. As a condition...

  9. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adult day health care requirements. 59.160 Section 59.160 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.160 Adult day health care requirements. As a condition...

  10. Adult Day Care--Extended Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bert Kruger

    This pamphlet describes a multi-purpose day-care center for the elderly in Abilene, Texas which is intended to fill the "extended family" role of offering companionship, medical attention, and other aspects of concern to older persons in the community. The goals of the program are as follows: (1) to keep individuals out of institutions as long as…

  11. Organizational influence of the postnatal testosterone surge on the circadian rhythm of core body temperature of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Zuloaga, Damian G; McGivern, Robert F; Handa, Robert J

    2009-05-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus coordinates physiological and behavioral circadian rhythms such as activity, body temperature, and hormone secretion. Circadian rhythms coordinated by the SCN often show sex differences arising from both organizational and activational effects of gonadal hormones. In males, little is known about the organizational role of testosterone on the circadian regulation of core body temperature (CBT) in adulthood. To explore this, we castrated or sham-operated male rats on the day of birth, and at 4 months of age, implanted them with transmitters that measured CBT rhythms under a 12:12 light/dark cycle. This study revealed a significantly earlier rise in CBT during the light phase in neonatally castrated males. Subsequently, we found that treating neonatally castrated males with testosterone propionate (TP) in adulthood did not reverse the effect of neonatal castration, thus indicating an organizational role for testosterone. In contrast, a single injection of TP at the time of neonatal surgery, to mimic the postnatal surge of testosterone, coupled with TP treatment in adulthood, normalized the circadian rise in CBT. In a final study we examined CBT circadian rhythms in intact adult male and female rats and detected no differences in the rise of CBT during the light phase, although there was a greater overall elevation in female CBT. Together, results of these studies reveal an early organizational role of testosterone in males on the timing of the circadian rise of CBT, a difference that does not appear to reflect "defeminization". PMID:19272357

  12. (+/-)3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) dose-dependently impairs spatial learning in the morris water maze after exposure of rats to different five-day intervals from birth to postnatal day twenty.

    PubMed

    Vorhees, Charles V; Schaefer, Tori L; Skelton, Matthew R; Grace, Curtis E; Herring, Nicole R; Williams, Michael T

    2009-01-01

    During postnatal days (PD) 11-20, (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) treatment impairs egocentric and allocentric learning, and reduces spontaneous locomotor activity; however, it does not have these effects during PD 1-10. How the learning impairments relate to the stress hyporesponsive period (SHRP) is unknown. To test this association, the preweaning period was subdivided into 5-day periods from PD 1-20. Separate pups within each litter were injected subcutaneously with 0, 10, 15, 20, or 25 mg/kg MDMA x4/day on PD 1-5, 6-10, 11-15, or 16-20, and tested as adults. The 3 highest MDMA dose groups showed reduced locomotor activity during the first 10 min (of 60 min), especially in the PD 1-5 and 6-10 dosing regimens. MDMA groups in all dosing regimens showed impaired allocentric learning in the Morris water maze (on acquisition and reversal, all MDMA groups were affected; on the small platform phase, the 2 high-dose groups were affected). No effects of MDMA were found on anxiety (elevated zero maze), novel object recognition, or egocentric learning (although a nonsignificant trend was observed). The Morris maze results did not support the idea that the SHRP is critical to the effects of MDMA on allocentric learning. However, since no effects on egocentric learning were found, but were apparent after PD 11-20 treatment, the results show that these 2 forms of learning have different exposure-duration sensitivities. PMID:19372692

  13. Reduced linoleic acid intake in early postnatal life improves metabolic outcomes in adult rodents following a Western-style diet challenge.

    PubMed

    Oosting, Annemarie; Kegler, Diane; van de Heijning, Bert J M; Verkade, Henkjan J; van der Beek, Eline M

    2015-09-01

    The global increase in dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake has been suggested to contribute to the rise in obesity incidence. We hypothesized that reduced n-6 PUFA intake during early postnatal life improves adult body composition and metabolic phenotype upon a Western diet challenge. Male offspring of C57Bl/6j mice and Wistar rats were subjected to a control diet (CTRL; 3.16 En% linoleic acid [LA]) or a low n-6 PUFA diet (low LA; 1.36 En% LA) from postnatal days (PNs) 2 to 42. Subsequently, all animals were switched to a Western-style diet (2.54 En% LA) until PN98. We monitored body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and glucose homeostasis by an intravenous glucose and insulin tolerance test in rats and by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in mice. At PN98, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, and adipokines were measured and adipocyte number and size were analyzed. In mice, the postnatal low-LA diet decreased fat accumulation during the adult Western-style diet challenge (-27% compared with CTRL, P < .001). Simultaneously, it reduced fasting triglyceride levels and lowered fasting resistin and leptin levels. In rats, the low-LA diet did not affect adult body composition, but decreased the number of retroperitoneal adipocytes and increased the number of large adipocytes. In conclusion, lowering dietary n-6 PUFA intake in early life protected against detrimental effects of an obesogenic diet in adulthood on metabolic homeostasis and fat mass accumulation. PMID:26239950

  14. [Comparative study of the long-term behavioral effects of noopept and piracetam in adult male rats and female rats in postnatal period].

    PubMed

    Voronina, T A; Guzevatykh, L S; Trofimov, S S

    2005-01-01

    Adult male and female rats were treated with the peptide nootrope drug noopept (daily dose, 0.1 mg/kg) and piracetam (200 mg/kg). In the period from 8th to 20th day, both drugs (cognitive enhancers) suppressed the horizontal and vertical activity and the anxiety in test animals as compared to the control group treated with 0.9 % aqueous NaCl solution. Early postnatal injections of the nootropes influenced neither the morphology development nor the behavior of adult female rats in the plus maze, extrapolational escape, passive avoidance, and pain sensitivity threshold tests. Animals in the "intact" group (having received neither drugs not physiological solution, that is, developing in a poor sensor environment), showed less pronounced habituation in the open field test as compared to the control and drug treated groups. PMID:15934357

  15. Histology Atlas of the Developing Mouse Hepatobiliary Hemolymphatic Vascular System with Emphasis on Embryonic Days 11.5-18.5 and Early Postnatal Development.

    PubMed

    Swartley, Olivia M; Foley, Julie F; Livingston, David P; Cullen, John M; Elmore, Susan A

    2016-07-01

    A critical event in embryo development is the proper formation of the vascular system, of which the hepatobiliary system plays a pivotal role. This has led researchers to use transgenic mice to identify the critical steps involved in developmental disorders associated with the hepatobiliary vascular system. Vascular development is dependent upon normal vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and the transformation of vessels into their adult counterparts. Any alteration in vascular development has the potential to cause deformities or embryonic death. Numerous publications describe specific stages of vascular development relating to various organs, but a single resource detailing the stage-by-stage development of the vasculature pertaining to the hepatobiliary system has not been available. This comprehensive histology atlas provides hematoxylin & eosin and immunohistochemical-stained sections of the developing mouse blood and lymphatic vasculature with emphasis on the hepatobiliary system between embryonic days (E) 11.5-18.5 and the early postnatal period. Additionally, this atlas includes a 3-dimensional video representation of the E18.5 mouse venous vasculature. One of the most noteworthy findings of this atlas is the identification of the portal sinus within the mouse, which has been erroneously misinterpreted as the ductus venosus in previous publications. Although the primary purpose of this atlas is to identify normal hepatobiliary vascular development, potential embryonic abnormalities are also described. PMID:26961180

  16. Changes in adrenoceptors and monoamine metabolism in neonatal and adult rat brain after postnatal exposure to the antihypertensive labetalol.

    PubMed Central

    Erdtsieck-Ernste, E. B.; Feenstra, M. G.; Botterblom, M. H.; De Barrios, J.; Boer, G. J.

    1992-01-01

    1. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the acute (single injection), direct (chronic treatment) and the long-lasting effects after exposure to the alpha 1/beta-adrenoceptor antagonist labetalol during rat brain development on adrenoceptors and monoamine metabolism. 2. In 10-day-old rat pups, subcutaneously administered labetalol (10 mg kg-1) passed the blood-brain barrier, reaching a level of 2.1 micrograms g-1 tissue in the brain 90 min after injection. 3. Chronic labetalol treatment (10 mg kg-1, s.c., twice daily) during the first 10 days of life significantly increased alpha 1-adrenoceptor binding in the hypothalamus (+39%), but not in the occipital cortex. 4. This chronic postnatal labetalol treatment did not result in long-lasting changes in alpha 1- and beta-receptors measured on day 60. 5. A single labetalol injection (10 mg kg-1, s.c.) on postnatal day 10 significantly increased noradrenaline (NA) metabolism in all brain regions tested (+25 to 105%), but had no effects on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or dopamine metabolism. 6. Chronic labetalol treatment between postnatal (PN) days 1 and 10 also increased NA metabolism on PN 10 (3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG)/NA, +20 to 100%), suggesting that tolerance to the acute effect of labetalol did not occur. A slight increase in 5-HT metabolism (20%) was induced by the chronic labetalol treatment in the hippocampus and meso-limbic system. 7. In general, long-lasting effects on NA metabolism could not be detected on day 60 more than one month after the treatment. However, 5-HT metabolism was significantly increased in all four brain regions measured (+20 to 70%). 8. We conclude that chronic labetalol exposure during early postnatal rat brain development does not cause long-lasting changes in beta-receptor number or NA metabolism, but appears to be critical for the rate of 5-HT metabolism in later life. PMID:1596689

  17. Postnatal manganese exposure alters dopamine transporter function in adult rats: Potential impact on nonassociative and associative processes.

    PubMed

    McDougall, S A; Reichel, C M; Farley, C M; Flesher, M M; Der-Ghazarian, T; Cortez, A M; Wacan, J J; Martinez, C E; Varela, F A; Butt, A E; Crawford, C A

    2008-06-23

    In the present study, we examined whether exposing rats to a high-dose regimen of manganese chloride (Mn) during the postnatal period would depress presynaptic dopamine functioning and alter nonassociative and associative behaviors. To this end, rats were given oral supplements of Mn (750 microg/day) on postnatal days (PD) 1-21. On PD 90, dopamine transporter (DAT) immunoreactivity and [3H]dopamine uptake were assayed in the striatum and nucleus accumbens, while in vivo microdialysis was used to measure dopamine efflux in the same brain regions. The effects of postnatal Mn exposure on nigrostriatal functioning were evaluated by assessing rotorod performance and amphetamine-induced stereotypy in adulthood. In terms of associative processes, both cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) and sucrose-reinforced operant responding were examined. Results showed that postnatal Mn exposure caused persistent declines in DAT protein expression and [3H]dopamine uptake in the striatum and nucleus accumbens, as well as long-term reductions in striatal dopamine efflux. Rotorod performance did not differ according to exposure condition, however Mn-exposed rats did exhibit substantially more amphetamine-induced stereotypy than vehicle controls. Mn exposure did not alter performance on any aspect of the CPP task (preference, extinction, or reinstatement testing), nor did Mn affect progressive ratio responding (a measure of motivation). Interestingly, acquisition of a fixed ratio task was impaired in Mn-exposed rats, suggesting a deficit in procedural learning. In sum, these results indicate that postnatal Mn exposure causes persistent declines in various indices of presynaptic dopaminergic functioning. Mn-induced alterations in striatal functioning may have long-term impact on associative and nonassociative behavior. PMID:18485605

  18. Adult day care: promoting quality of life for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Hunter, S

    1992-02-01

    1. Adult day care allows elderly clients to continue to be a part of their family. The program promotes maintenance of joint mobility, challenges the mind, and allows the client to be a productive part of the community. 2. As director of an adult day care center, it is the RN's responsibility to ensure quality of care for all clients. This includes providing inservice education, establishing quality assurance monitoring, and individualizing care plans for each client. 3. For appropriate placement in day care, the client must be oriented, cooperative, and able to comprehend communication. Physical endurance must allow the client to remain out of bed during the day, and the staff must be able to manage physical handicaps. PMID:1538082

  19. LACK OF FUNCTIONAL GABAB RECEPTORS ALTERS Kiss1, Gnrh1 AND Gad1 mRNA EXPRESSION IN THE MEDIAL BASAL HYPOTHALAMUS AT POSTNATAL DAY 4

    PubMed Central

    Di Giorgio, Noelia P.; Catalano, Paolo N.; López, Paula V.; González, Betina; Semaan, Sheila J.; López, Gabriela C.; Kauffman, Alexander S.; Rulli, Susana B.; Somoza, Gustavo M.; Bettler, Bernhard; Libertun, Carlos; Lux-Lantos, Victoria A.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Adult mice lacking functional GABAB receptors (GABAB1KO) show altered Gnrh1 and Gad1 expressions in the preoptic area-anterior hypothalamus (POA-AH) and females display disruption of cyclicity and fertility. Here we addressed whether sexual differentiation of the brain and the proper wiring of the GnRH and kisspeptin systems were already disturbed in postnatal day 4 (PND4) GABAB1KO mice. Methods PND4 wild type (WT) and GABAB1KO mice of both sexes were sacrificed; tissues were collected to determine mRNA expression (qPCR), amino acids (HPLC), and hormones (RIA and/or IHC). Results GnRH neuron number (IHC) did not differ among groups in olfactory bulbs or OVLT-POA. Gnrh1 mRNA (qPCR) in POA-AH was similar among groups. Gnrh1 mRNA in medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) was similar in WTs but was increased in GABAB1KO females compared to GABAB1KO males. Hypothalamic GnRH (RIA) was sexually different in WTs (males > females) but this sex difference was lost in GABAB1KOs; the same pattern was observed when analyzing only the MBH, but not in the POA-AH. Arcuate nucleus Kiss1 mRNA (micropunch-qPCR) was higher in WT females than in WT males and GABAB1KO females. Gad1 mRNA in MBH was increased in GABAB1KO females compared to GABAB1KO males. Serum LH and gonadal estradiol content were also increased in GABAB1KOs. Conclusion We demonstrate that GABABRs participate in the sexual differentiation of the ARC/MBH, because sex differences in several reproductive genes, such as Gad1, Kiss1 and Gnrh1, are critically disturbed in GABAB1KO mice at PND4, probably altering the organization and development of neural circuits governing the reproductive axis. PMID:24080944

  20. Adult Day Care for Alzheimer's Patients and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Dan; Suzuki, Thelma

    1983-01-01

    Harbor Area Adult Day Care Center has operated for two years with a primary purpose of providing respite care to families caring for a relative with Alzheimer's disease or related disorders. The rationale, history, program, staffing, funding, and experience for the first two years of the project are provided. (Author/RC)

  1. Adult Day Care and Medical and Hospital Claims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Neena L.; Blandford, Audrey A.

    1987-01-01

    Examined effect of adult day care (ADC) on utilization of health care practitioner and inpatient hospital services. Data from three separate ADC studies revealed that, when operative for some time, ADC may result in dramatic decreases in hospital inpatient stays. Findings warrant further research. (Author/NB)

  2. Postnatal Expression of Neurotrophic Factors Accessible to Spiral Ganglion Neurons in the Auditory System of Adult Hearing and Deafened Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Erin M.

    2014-01-01

    Spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) receive input from cochlear hair cells and project from the cochlea to the cochlear nucleus. After destruction of hair cells with aminoglycoside antibiotics or noise, SGNs gradually die. It has been assumed that SGN death is attributable to loss of neurotrophic factors (NTFs) derived from hair cells or supporting cells in the organ of Corti (OC). We used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to assay NTF expression—neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), BDNF, GDNF, neurturin, artemin, and CNTF—in the OC and cochlear nucleus at various ages from postnatal day 0 (P0) to P90 in control hearing and neonatally deafened rats. NT-3, neurturin, and CNTF were most abundant in the postnatal hearing OC; CNTF and neurturin most abundant in the cochlear nucleus. In the OC, NT-3 and CNTF showed a postnatal increase in expression approximately concomitant with hearing onset. In rats deafened by daily kanamycin injections (from P8 to P16), surviving inner hair cells were evident at P16 but absent by P19, with most postsynaptic boutons lost before P16. NT-3 and CNTF, which normally increase postnatally, had significantly reduced expression in the OC of deafened rats, although CNTF was expressed throughout the time that SGNs were dying. In contrast, neurturin expression was constant, unaffected by deafening or by age. CNTF and neurturin expression in the cochlear nucleus was unaffected by deafening or age. Thus, NTFs other than NT-3 are available to SGNs even as they are dying after deafening, apparently conflicting with the hypothesis that SGN death is attributable to lack of NTFs. PMID:25253857

  3. Early postnatal effects of noopept and piracetam on declarative and procedural memory of adult male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Trofimov, S S; Voronina, T A; Guzevatykh, L S

    2005-06-01

    We studied the effect of a new nootropic dipeptide Noopept and reference nootropic preparation piracetam injected subcutaneously on days 8-20 of life on learning of alternative feeding response in a 6-arm-maze in male and female rats. Early postnatal administration of Noopept disturbed the dynamics of learning by parameters of declarative and procedural memory. Piracetam impaired learning by parameters of procedural, but not declarative memory (only in males). Both preparations decreased the ratio of successfully learned males (but not females). The observed effects were not associated with changes in locomotor activity. PMID:16224581

  4. Sleep characteristics of Veterans Affairs Adult Day Health Care participants.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jaime M; Martin, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Addressing sleep disturbance can help to slow functional decline, delay nursing home admission, and improve overall health among older adults; however, sleep is not widely studied in high-risk older adults such as Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) participants. Sixty-eight ADHC participants were interviewed for sleep disturbance using a 28-item screening questionnaire. More than two thirds (n = 48, 70.6%) reported one or more characteristics of poor sleep, and 38% of participants met basic criteria for insomnia. Individuals with insomnia attended ADHC less frequently, reported worse sleep quality and shorter sleep duration, and were more likely to endorse trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, and waking up too early (ps < 0.001). Research is needed to better understand perceptions, predictors, and outcomes of sleep disturbance within ADHC participants. PMID:24654988

  5. Within-day and between-day Reproducibility of Baroreflex Sensitivity in Healthy Adult Males.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, L J; De Ste Croix, M; James, D V B

    2016-06-01

    Within-day and between-day reproducibility of supine and tilt baroreflex sensitivity were investigated utilising sequence and spectral indices in 46 healthy adult males employing 3 repeat measures; baseline, +60 min and +24 h. Reproducibility was assessed via the 95% limits of agreement and by the technical error of the measurement. For spectral parameters, the limits of agreement indicated same day was marginally better than between-day reproducibility. For sequence parameters, between-day had marginally better agreement than same-day reproducibility. Tilt markedly improved reproducibility across all outcome measures. Precision expressed by the technical error of the measurement for all spectral outcomes was good in both supine and tilt baroreflex sensitivity (<6%). Precision was lower, but acceptable, for sequence baroreflex sensitivity outcomes in both positions (<11%). Baroreflex sensitivity transfer gain provided the best agreement and reproducibility during supine and tilt conditions. These findings suggest time and spectral techniques may be employed to assess within-day and between-day baroreflex sensitivity changes in healthy individuals. The inclusion of a tilt manoeuvre may improve the reproducibility of the outcome measure, which may aid in the detection of modest baroreflex sensitivity changes in studies employing limited sample sizes. PMID:26928916

  6. Day-to-day Variability in Nap Duration Predicts Medical Morbidity in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dautovich, Natalie D.; Kay, Daniel B.; Perlis, Michael L.; Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Rowe, Meredeth A.; McCrae, Christina S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objectives for the present study were to: 1) examine within-person variability of nap duration and 2) assess how variability in nap duration is related to the number of health conditions in a sample of older adults. For highly variable behaviors such as sleep, it is important to consider fluctuations within the person instead of solely comparing averages of behaviors across persons. Methods Data were drawn from a previous study examining sleep in 103 community-dwelling older adults. Subjective estimates of napping behavior were obtained from sleep diaries and objective estimates of napping behavior were obtained using actigraphy. Both measures were collected for 14 consecutive days. The sampled data were aggregated in terms of: 1) average daily time spent napping and 2) average within-person fluctuations in daily nap duration. The health measure consisted of the number of self-reported health conditions. Results Both the objective and subjective measures revealed that there was considerable day-to-day fluctuation in nap duration and that variability in nap duration, not mean duration, uniquely predicted the number of health conditions, [b=.03, b*=.26, t(100)= 2.71, p = .01]. Conclusions Duration of napping in the elderly is a highly variable behavior, fluctuating as much within- as between-person. Further, variability in nap duration from day-to-day is predictive of greater medical morbidity, suggesting that clinicians should assess for inconsistencies in nap behavior in addition to duration, frequency, and timing. PMID:22369491

  7. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.61 General requirements for adult day health care program. Adult day health care must be...

  8. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.61 General requirements for adult day health care program. Adult day health care must be...

  9. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.61 General requirements for adult day health care program. Adult day health care must be...

  10. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.61 General requirements for adult day health care program. Adult day health care must be...

  11. Early postnatal exposure to methylphenidate alters stress reactivity and increases hippocampal ectopic granule cells in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Torres-Reveron, Annelyn; Gray, Jason D; Melton, Jay T; Punsoni, Michael; Tabori, Nora E; Ward, Mary J; Frys, Kelly; Iadecola, Costantino; Milner, Teresa A

    2009-03-16

    To mimic clinical treatment with methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin) for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), rat pups were injected with MPH (5 mg/kg, i.p.) or placebo twice daily during their nocturnal active phase from postnatal day (PND) 7-35. Thirty-nine days after the last MPH administration (PND 76), four litters of rats experienced stressful conditions during the 2003 New York City blackout. MPH-treated rats that endured the blackout lost more weight and regained it at a slower pace than controls (p<0.05; N=7-11 per group). Furthermore, MPH-treated rats had elevated systolic arterial blood pressure (from 115.6+/-1.2 to 126+/-1.8 mmHg; p<0.05), assessed on PND 130 by tail cuff plethysmography. Immunocytochemical studies of transmitter systems in the brain demonstrated rearrangements of catecholamine and neuropeptide Y fibers in select brain regions at PND 135, which did not differ between blackout and control groups. However, MPH-treated rats that endured the blackout had more ectopic granule cells in the hilus of the dorsal hippocampal dentate gyrus compared to controls at PND 135 (p<0.05; N=6 per group). These findings indicate that early postnatal exposure to high therapeutic doses of MPH can have long lasting effects on the plasticity of select brain regions and can induce changes in the reactivity to stress that persist into adulthood. PMID:19100815

  12. Postnatal dysregulation of Notch signal disrupts dendrite development of adult-born neurons in the hippocampus and contributes to memory impairment

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xue-Feng; Gao, Xiang; Ding, Xin-Chun; Fan, Ming; Chen, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in the Notch pathway are involved in a number of neurologic diseases associated with mental retardation or/and dementia. The mechanisms by which Notch dysregulation are associated with mental retardation and dementia are poorly understood. We found that Notch1 is highly expressed in the adult-born immature neurons in the hippocampus of mice. Retrovirus mediated knockout of notch1 in single adult-born immature neurons decreases mTOR signaling and compromises their dendrite morphogenesis. In contrast, overexpression of Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD), to constitutively activate Notch signaling in single adult-born immature neurons, promotes mTOR signaling and increases their dendrite arborization. Using a unique genetic approach to conditionally and selectively knockout notch 1 in the postnatally born immature neurons in the hippocampus decreases mTOR signaling, compromises their dendrite morphogenesis, and impairs spatial learning and memory. Conditional overexpression of NICD in the postnatally born immature neurons in the hippocampus increases mTOR signaling and promotes dendrite arborization. These data indicate that Notch signaling plays a critical role in dendrite development of immature neurons in the postnatal brain, and dysregulation of Notch signaling in the postnatally born neurons disrupts their development and thus contributes to the cognitive deficits associated with neurological diseases. PMID:27173138

  13. Postnatal dysregulation of Notch signal disrupts dendrite development of adult-born neurons in the hippocampus and contributes to memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xue-Feng; Gao, Xiang; Ding, Xin-Chun; Fan, Ming; Chen, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in the Notch pathway are involved in a number of neurologic diseases associated with mental retardation or/and dementia. The mechanisms by which Notch dysregulation are associated with mental retardation and dementia are poorly understood. We found that Notch1 is highly expressed in the adult-born immature neurons in the hippocampus of mice. Retrovirus mediated knockout of notch1 in single adult-born immature neurons decreases mTOR signaling and compromises their dendrite morphogenesis. In contrast, overexpression of Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD), to constitutively activate Notch signaling in single adult-born immature neurons, promotes mTOR signaling and increases their dendrite arborization. Using a unique genetic approach to conditionally and selectively knockout notch 1 in the postnatally born immature neurons in the hippocampus decreases mTOR signaling, compromises their dendrite morphogenesis, and impairs spatial learning and memory. Conditional overexpression of NICD in the postnatally born immature neurons in the hippocampus increases mTOR signaling and promotes dendrite arborization. These data indicate that Notch signaling plays a critical role in dendrite development of immature neurons in the postnatal brain, and dysregulation of Notch signaling in the postnatally born neurons disrupts their development and thus contributes to the cognitive deficits associated with neurological diseases. PMID:27173138

  14. NEURODEVELOPMENT. Adult cortical plasticity depends on an early postnatal critical period.

    PubMed

    Greenhill, Stuart D; Juczewski, Konrad; de Haan, Annelies M; Seaton, Gillian; Fox, Kevin; Hardingham, Neil R

    2015-07-24

    Development of the cerebral cortex is influenced by sensory experience during distinct phases of postnatal development known as critical periods. Disruption of experience during a critical period produces neurons that lack specificity for particular stimulus features, such as location in the somatosensory system. Synaptic plasticity is the agent by which sensory experience affects cortical development. Here, we describe, in mice, a developmental critical period that affects plasticity itself. Transient neonatal disruption of signaling via the C-terminal domain of "disrupted in schizophrenia 1" (DISC1)—a molecule implicated in psychiatric disorders—resulted in a lack of long-term potentiation (LTP) (persistent strengthening of synapses) and experience-dependent potentiation in adulthood. Long-term depression (LTD) (selective weakening of specific sets of synapses) and reversal of LTD were present, although impaired, in adolescence and absent in adulthood. These changes may form the basis for the cognitive deficits associated with mutations in DISC1 and the delayed onset of a range of psychiatric symptoms in late adolescence. PMID:26206934

  15. Novel Action of FSH on Stem Cells in Adult Mammalian Ovary Induces Postnatal Oogenesis and Primordial Follicle Assembly.

    PubMed

    Bhartiya, Deepa; Parte, Seema; Patel, Hiren; Sriraman, Kalpana; Zaveri, Kusum; Hinduja, Indira

    2016-01-01

    Adult mammalian ovary has been under the scanner for more than a decade now since it was proposed to harbor stem cells that undergo postnatal oogenesis during reproductive period like spermatogenesis in testis. Stem cells are located in the ovary surface epithelium and exist in adult and menopausal ovary as well as in ovary with premature failure. Stem cells comprise two distinct populations including spherical, very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs which express nuclear OCT-4 and other pluripotent and primordial germ cells specific markers) and slightly bigger ovarian germ stem cells (OGSCs with cytoplasmic OCT-4 which are equivalent to spermatogonial stem cells in the testes). These stem cells have the ability to spontaneously differentiate into oocyte-like structures in vitro and on exposure to a younger healthy niche. Bone marrow may be an alternative source of these stem cells. The stem cells express FSHR and respond to FSH by undergoing self-renewal, clonal expansion, and initiating neo-oogenesis and primordial follicle assembly. VSELs are relatively quiescent and were recently reported to survive chemotherapy and initiate oogenesis in mice when exposed to FSH. This emerging understanding and further research in the field will help evolving novel strategies to manage ovarian pathologies and also towards oncofertility. PMID:26635884

  16. Novel Action of FSH on Stem Cells in Adult Mammalian Ovary Induces Postnatal Oogenesis and Primordial Follicle Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Bhartiya, Deepa; Parte, Seema; Patel, Hiren; Sriraman, Kalpana; Zaveri, Kusum; Hinduja, Indira

    2016-01-01

    Adult mammalian ovary has been under the scanner for more than a decade now since it was proposed to harbor stem cells that undergo postnatal oogenesis during reproductive period like spermatogenesis in testis. Stem cells are located in the ovary surface epithelium and exist in adult and menopausal ovary as well as in ovary with premature failure. Stem cells comprise two distinct populations including spherical, very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs which express nuclear OCT-4 and other pluripotent and primordial germ cells specific markers) and slightly bigger ovarian germ stem cells (OGSCs with cytoplasmic OCT-4 which are equivalent to spermatogonial stem cells in the testes). These stem cells have the ability to spontaneously differentiate into oocyte-like structures in vitro and on exposure to a younger healthy niche. Bone marrow may be an alternative source of these stem cells. The stem cells express FSHR and respond to FSH by undergoing self-renewal, clonal expansion, and initiating neo-oogenesis and primordial follicle assembly. VSELs are relatively quiescent and were recently reported to survive chemotherapy and initiate oogenesis in mice when exposed to FSH. This emerging understanding and further research in the field will help evolving novel strategies to manage ovarian pathologies and also towards oncofertility. PMID:26635884

  17. QuickStats: Percentage of Adult Day Services Center Participants, by Selected Diagnoses

    MedlinePlus

    ... MMWR ) MMWR Share Compartir QuickStats: Percentage of Adult Day Services Center Participants,* by Selected Diagnoses † — National Study ... which is the estimated number of enrolled adult day services center participants in the United States on ...

  18. Gene Test Might One Day Gauge Alzheimer's Risk in Younger Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159737.html Gene Test Might One Day Gauge Alzheimer's Risk in Younger Adults But doctors say the ... day be able to predict the risk for Alzheimer's disease in young adults, a new study suggests. ...

  19. Early postnatal motor experience shapes the motor properties of C57BL/6J adult mice.

    PubMed

    Serradj, Nadjet; Picquet, Florence; Jamon, Marc

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the long-term consequences of early motor training on the muscle phenotype and motor output of middle-aged C57BL/6J mice. Neonatal mice were subjected to a variety of motor training procedures, for 3 weeks during the period of acquisition of locomotion. These procedures are widely used for motor training in adults; they include enriched environment, forced treadmill, chronic centrifugation, and hindlimb suspension. At 9 months, the mice reared in the enriched environment showed a slower type of fibre in slow muscles and a faster type in fast muscles, improved performance in motor tests, and a modified gait and body posture while walking. The proportion of fibres in the postural muscles of centrifuged mice did not change, but these mice showed improved resistance to fatigue. The suspended mice showed increased persistence of immature hybrid fibres in the tibialis, with a slower shift in the load-bearing soleus, without any behavioural changes. The forced treadmill was very stressful for the mice, but had limited effects on motor output, although a slower profile was observed in the tibialis. These results support the hypothesis that motor experience during a critical period of motor development shapes muscle phenotype and motor output. The different impacts of the various training procedures suggest that motor performance in adults can be optimized by appropriate training during a defined period of motor development. PMID:23869740

  20. Gestation and breastfeeding in schistosomotic mothers differently modulate the immune response of adult offspring to postnatal Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    PubMed

    Santos, Patrícia d'Emery Alves; Lorena, Virgínia Maria Barros de; Fernandes, Érica de Souza; Sales, Iana Rafaela Fernandes; Nascimento, Wheverton Ricardo Correia do; Gomes, Yara de Miranda; Albuquerque, Mônica Camelo Pessoa de Azevedo; Costa, Vlaudia Maria Assis; Souza, Valdênia Maria Oliveira de

    2016-02-01

    Schistosoma mansoni antigens in the early life alter homologous and heterologous immunity during postnatal infections. We evaluate the immunity to parasite antigens and ovalbumin (OA) in adult mice born/suckled by schistosomotic mothers. Newborns were divided into: born (BIM), suckled (SIM) or born/suckled (BSIM) in schistosomotic mothers, and animals from noninfected mothers (control). When adults, the mice were infected and compared the hepatic granuloma size and cellularity. Some animals were OA + adjuvant immunised. We evaluated hypersensitivity reactions (HR), antibodies levels (IgG1/IgG2a) anti-soluble egg antigen and anti-soluble worm antigen preparation, and anti-OA, cytokine production, and CD4+FoxP3+T-cells by splenocytes. Compared to control group, BIM mice showed a greater quantity of granulomas and collagen deposition, whereas SIM and BSIM presented smaller granulomas. BSIM group exhibited the lowest levels of anti-parasite antibodies. For anti-OA immunity, immediate HR was suppressed in all groups, with greater intensity in SIM mice accompanied of the remarkable level of basal CD4+FoxP3+T-cells. BIM and SIM groups produced less interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-g. In BSIM, there was higher production of IL-10 and IFN-g, but lower levels of IL-4 and CD4+FoxP3+T-cells. Thus, pregnancy in schistosomotic mothers intensified hepatic fibrosis, whereas breastfeeding diminished granulomas in descendants. Separately, pregnancy and breastfeeding could suppress heterologous immunity; however, when combined, the responses could be partially restored in infected descendants. PMID:26872339

  1. Gestation and breastfeeding in schistosomotic mothers differently modulate the immune response of adult offspring to postnatal Schistosoma mansoni infection

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Patrícia d‘Emery Alves; de Lorena, Virgínia Maria Barros; Fernandes, Érica de Souza; Sales, Iana Rafaela Fernandes; do Nascimento, Wheverton Ricardo Correia; Gomes, Yara de Miranda; Albuquerque, Mônica Camelo Pessoa de Azevedo; Costa, Vlaudia Maria Assis; de Souza, Valdênia Maria Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni antigens in the early life alter homologous and heterologous immunity during postnatal infections. We evaluate the immunity to parasite antigens and ovalbumin (OA) in adult mice born/suckled by schistosomotic mothers. Newborns were divided into: born (BIM), suckled (SIM) or born/suckled (BSIM) in schistosomotic mothers, and animals from noninfected mothers (control). When adults, the mice were infected and compared the hepatic granuloma size and cellularity. Some animals were OA + adjuvant immunised. We evaluated hypersensitivity reactions (HR), antibodies levels (IgG1/IgG2a) anti-soluble egg antigen and anti-soluble worm antigen preparation, and anti-OA, cytokine production, and CD4+FoxP3+T-cells by splenocytes. Compared to control group, BIM mice showed a greater quantity of granulomas and collagen deposition, whereas SIM and BSIM presented smaller granulomas. BSIM group exhibited the lowest levels of anti-parasite antibodies. For anti-OA immunity, immediate HR was suppressed in all groups, with greater intensity in SIM mice accompanied of the remarkable level of basal CD4+FoxP3+T-cells. BIM and SIM groups produced less interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-g. In BSIM, there was higher production of IL-10 and IFN-g, but lower levels of IL-4 and CD4+FoxP3+T-cells. Thus, pregnancy in schistosomotic mothers intensified hepatic fibrosis, whereas breastfeeding diminished granulomas in descendants. Separately, pregnancy and breastfeeding could suppress heterologous immunity; however, when combined, the responses could be partially restored in infected descendants. PMID:26872339

  2. Adult cardiorenal benefits from postnatal fish oil supplement in rat offspring of low-protein pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Catta-Preta, Mariana; Oliveira, Daniel Alves; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa

    2006-12-23

    We investigated the effect of fish oil (FO) treatment on cardiorenal structure of adult offspring from low-protein pregnancies. Three month old offspring were assigned to eight groups (four male groups and four female groups, n=8 each) (NP=normal-protein diet, LP=low-protein diet): NP, LP, NP plus FO, and LP plus FO. Left ventricle and kidney were analyzed with light microscopy and stereology. The both sexes of LP offspring showed 30% lower birth weights than the respective NP offspring and high blood pressure (BP) levels in adulthood which was efficiently reduced by FO treatment. In the heart, FO treated the cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, the vascularization impairment, and decreased the cardiomyocyte loss usually observed in adult LP offspring. In the kidney, FO treated, in the male, the imbalance of the cortex-to-medulla ratio observed in both sexes of LP offspring, and reduced the glomeruli loss in the LP offspring. The positive correlation between the number of cardiomyocyte nuclei later in life and the body mass (BM) at birth was significant only in both sexes of LP offspring and this correlation disappeared in LP plus fish oil offspring. The positive correlation between the number of glomeruli later in life and the BM at birth was significant in NP male offspring and in both sexes of LP offspring. In conclusion, FO supplement, which is a rich source of n-3 fatty acids (DHA and EPA), has beneficial effects on BP control and cardiac and renal adverse remodeling usually seen in offspring of the LP pregnancies. PMID:17020772

  3. Gene Test Might One Day Gauge Alzheimer's Risk in Younger Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159737.html Gene Test Might One Day Gauge Alzheimer's Risk in Younger Adults But doctors ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A gene test may one day be able to predict the risk for Alzheimer's ...

  4. Postnatal consequences of prenatal cocaine exposure and myocardial apoptosis: does cocaine in utero imperil the adult heart?

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Qingping

    2005-01-01

    Cocaine use is common among pregnant women with a history of substance abuse, and has been shown to cause abnormalities in the heart during fetal and postnatal development. However, mechanisms underlying the detrimental effects of cocaine on the developing heart are not fully understood. In this issue, Bae and Zhang show that prenatal cocaine exposure increases the susceptibility of the postnatal heart to ischemia and reperfusion injury. Their results suggest that myocardial apoptosis induced by cocaine during fetal development may represent one of the mechanisms by which prenatal cocaine exposure exerts its long-term, deleterious consequences on postnatal cardiac function. PMID:15685202

  5. Effect of Gestational Diabetes on Purkinje and Granule Cells Distribution of the Rat Cerebellum in 21 and 28 days of Postnatal Life

    PubMed Central

    Razi, Elahe Mirarab; Ghafari, Soraya; Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is associated with nervous system alterations in both human and animal models. This study was done to determine the effect of gestational diabetes on the Purkinje and granular cells in the cerebellum of rat offspring. Methods: 10 Wistar rats Dams were randomly allocated in control and diabetic group. The experimental group received 40 mg/kg/body weight of streptozotocin (STZ) at the first day of gestation and control groups received saline injection intraperitoneally (IP). Six male offsprings of gestational diabetic mothers and control dams, at the 21, 28 postnatal days were randomly scarified and coronal sections of cerebellum (6 micrometer) serially collected. The neurons were stained with cresyl violet. Results: The Purkinje cells density in the apex and depth of cerebellum in P21, in the experimental group was reduced 23% and 15% in comparison with the control group (P<0.001). The granular cells density in the experimental group was reduced 19.58% and 18.3% in comparison with the controls (P<0.001). The Purkinje cells density of cerebellum in P28, in the diabetic group reduced to 22.12% and 12.62% in comparison with the control group (P<0.001). The granular cells density in the diabetic group reduced 17.14% and 16.12% in comparison with the control group (P<0.001). Discussion: The Purkinje and granular cells significantly reduced in gestational diabetes rat offspring.

  6. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.61 General requirements for adult...

  7. Postnatal testosterone exposure results in insulin resistance, enlarged mesenteric adipocytes, and an atherogenic lipid profile in adult female rats: comparisons with estradiol and dihydrotestosterone.

    PubMed

    Alexanderson, Camilla; Eriksson, Elias; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Lystig, Theodore; Gabrielsson, Britt; Lönn, Malin; Holmäng, Agneta

    2007-11-01

    Postnatal events contribute to features of the metabolic syndrome in adulthood. In this study, postnatally administered testosterone reduced insulin sensitivity and increased the mesenteric fat depot, the size of mesenteric adipocytes, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, and the atherogenic index in adult female rats. To assess the involvement of estrogen and androgen receptors in these programming effects, we compared testosterone-exposed rats to rats exposed to estradiol or dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Estradiol-treated rats had lower insulin sensitivity than testosterone-treated rats and, like those rats, had enlarged mesenteric adipocytes and increased triglyceride levels. DHT also reduced insulin sensitivity but did not mimic the other metabolic effects of testosterone. All treated rats were probably anovulatory, but only those treated with testosterone had reduced testosterone levels. This study confirms our previous finding that postnatal administration of testosterone reduces insulin sensitivity in adult female rats and shows that this effect is accompanied by unfavorable changes in mesenteric fat tissue and in serum lipid levels. The findings in the estradiol and DHT groups suggest that estrogen receptors exert stronger metabolic programming effects than androgen receptors. Thus, insults such as sex hormone exposure in early life may have long-lasting effects, thereby creating a predisposition to disturbances in insulin sensitivity, adipose tissue, and lipid profile in adulthood. PMID:17656458

  8. Early postnatal treatment with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor or 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostagandin J2 prevents prenatal dexamethasone and postnatal high saturated fat diet induced programmed hypertension in adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Lu, Pei-Chen; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Yu, Hong-Ren; Lin, Yu-Ju; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Tsai, Ching-Chou; Huang, Li-Tung; Tain, You-Lin

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) exposure, postnatal high-fat (HF) intake, and arachidonic acid pathway are closely related to hypertension. We tested whether a soluble epoxide hydrolase (SEH) inhibitor, 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA) or 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostagandin J2 (15dPGJ2) therapy can rescue programmed hypertension in the DEX+HF two-hit model. Four groups of Sprague Dawley rats were studied: control, DEX+HF, AUDA, and 15dPGJ2. Dexamethasone (0.1mg/kg body weight) was intraperitoneally administered to pregnant rats from gestational day 16-22. Male offspring received high-fat diet (D12331, Research Diets) from weaning to 4 months of age. In AUDA group, mother rats received 25mg/L in drinking water during lactation. In the 15dPGJ2 group, male offspring received 15dPGJ2 1.5mg/kg BW by subcutaneous injection once daily for 1 week after birth. We found postnatal HF diet aggravated prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension, which was similarly prevented by early treatment with AUDA or 15dPGJ2. The beneficial effects of AUDA and 15d-PGJ2 therapy include inhibition of SEH, increases of renal angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) and angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) protein levels, and restoration of nitric oxide bioavailability. Better understanding of the impact of arachidonic acid pathway in the two-hit model will help prevent programmed hypertension in children exposed to corticosteroids and postnatal HF intake. PMID:27210044

  9. The effects of stress during early postnatal periods on behavior and hippocampal neuroplasticity markers in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    van der Kooij, M A; Grosse, J; Zanoletti, O; Papilloud, A; Sandi, C

    2015-12-17

    Infancy is a critical period for brain development. Emerging evidence indicates that stress experienced during that period can have long-term programming effects on the brain and behavior. However, whether different time periods represent different vulnerabilities to the programming of different neurobehavioral domains is not yet known. Disrupted maternal care is known to interfere with neurodevelopmental processes and may lead to the manifestation of behavioral abnormalities in adulthood. Mouse dams confronted with insufficient bedding/nesting material have been shown to provide fragmented maternal care to their offspring. Here, we compared the impact of this model of early-life stress (ELS) during different developmental periods comprising either postnatal days (PNDs) 2-9 (ELS-early) or PND 10-17 (ELS-late) on behavior and hippocampal cell adhesion molecules in male mice in adulthood. ELS-early treatment caused a permanent reduction in bodyweight, whereas this reduction only occurred transiently during juvenility in ELS-late mice. Anxiety was only affected in ELS-late mice, while cognition and sociability were equally impaired in both ELS-treated groups. We analyzed hippocampal gene expression of the γ2 subunit of the GABAa receptor (Gabrg2) and of genes encoding cell adhesion molecules. Gabrg2 expression was increased in the ventral hippocampus in ELS-late-treated animals and was correlated with anxiety-like behavior in the open-field (OF) test. ELS-early-treated animals exhibited an increase in nectin-1 expression in the dorsal hippocampus, and this increase was associated with the social deficits seen in these animals. Our findings highlight the relevance of developmental age on stress-induced long-term behavioral alterations. They also suggest potential links between early stress-induced alterations in hippocampal Gabrg2 expression and the developmental programming of anxiety and between changes in hippocampal nectin-1 expression and stress-induced social

  10. Long-Term (Postnatal Day 70) Outcome and Safety of Intratracheal Transplantation of Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Neonatal Hyperoxic Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, So Yoon; Chang, Yun Sil; Kim, Soo Yoon; Sung, Dong Kyung; Kim, Eun Sun; Rime, So Yub; Yu, Wook Joon; Choi, Soo Jin; Oh, Won Il

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to evaluate the long-term effects and safety of intratracheal (IT) transplantation of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) in neonatal hyperoxic lung injury at postnatal day (P)70 in a rat model. Materials and Methods Newborn Sprague Dawley rat pups were subjected to 14 days of hyperoxia (90% oxygen) within 10 hours after birth and allowed to recover at room air until sacrificed at P70. In the transplantation groups, hUCB-MSCs (5×105) were administered intratracheally at P5. At P70, various organs including the heart, lung, liver, and spleen were histologically examined, and the harvested lungs were assessed for morphometric analyses of alveolarization. ED-1, von Willebrand factor, and human-specific nuclear mitotic apparatus protein (NuMA) staining in the lungs and the hematologic profile of blood were evaluated. Results Impaired alveolar and vascular growth, which evidenced by an increased mean linear intercept and decreased amount of von Willebrand factor, respectively, and the hyperoxia-induced inflammatory responses, as evidenced by inflammatory foci and ED-1 positive alveolar macrophages, were attenuated in the P70 rat lungs by IT transplantation of hUCB-MSCs. Although rare, donor cells with human specific NuMA staining were persistently present in the P70 rat lungs. There were no gross or microscopic abnormal findings in the heart, liver, or spleen, related to the MSCs transplantation. Conclusion The protective and beneficial effects of IT transplantation of hUCB-MSCs in neonatal hyperoxic lung injuries were sustained for a prolonged recovery period without any long-term adverse effects up to P70. PMID:23364976

  11. Elk3 deficiency causes transient impairment in post-natal retinal vascular development and formation of tortuous arteries in adult murine retinae.

    PubMed

    Weinl, Christine; Wasylyk, Christine; Garcia Garrido, Marina; Sothilingam, Vithiyanjali; Beck, Susanne C; Riehle, Heidemarie; Stritt, Christine; Roux, Michel J; Seeliger, Mathias W; Wasylyk, Bohdan; Nordheim, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    Serum Response Factor (SRF) fulfills essential roles in post-natal retinal angiogenesis and adult neovascularization. These functions have been attributed to the recruitment by SRF of the cofactors Myocardin-Related Transcription Factors MRTF-A and -B, but not the Ternary Complex Factors (TCFs) Elk1 and Elk4. The role of the third TCF, Elk3, remained unknown. We generated a new Elk3 knockout mouse line and showed that Elk3 had specific, non-redundant functions in the retinal vasculature. In Elk3(-/-) mice, post-natal retinal angiogenesis was transiently delayed until P8, after which it proceeded normally. Interestingly, tortuous arteries developed in Elk3(-/-) mice from the age of four weeks, and persisted into late adulthood. Tortuous vessels have been observed in human pathologies, e.g. in ROP and FEVR. These human disorders were linked to altered activities of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the affected eyes. However, in Elk3(-/-) mice, we did not observe any changes in VEGF or several other potential confounding factors, including mural cell coverage and blood pressure. Instead, concurrent with the post-natal transient delay of radial outgrowth and the formation of adult tortuous arteries, Elk3-dependent effects on the expression of Angiopoietin/Tie-signalling components were observed. Moreover, in vitro microvessel sprouting and microtube formation from P10 and adult aortic ring explants were reduced. Collectively, these results indicate that Elk3 has distinct roles in maintaining retinal artery integrity. The Elk3 knockout mouse is presented as a new animal model to study retinal artery tortuousity in mice and human patients. PMID:25203538

  12. Elk3 Deficiency Causes Transient Impairment in Post-Natal Retinal Vascular Development and Formation of Tortuous Arteries in Adult Murine Retinae

    PubMed Central

    Weinl, Christine; Wasylyk, Christine; Garcia Garrido, Marina; Sothilingam, Vithiyanjali; Beck, Susanne C.; Riehle, Heidemarie; Stritt, Christine; Roux, Michel J.; Seeliger, Mathias W.; Wasylyk, Bohdan; Nordheim, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    Serum Response Factor (SRF) fulfills essential roles in post-natal retinal angiogenesis and adult neovascularization. These functions have been attributed to the recruitment by SRF of the cofactors Myocardin-Related Transcription Factors MRTF-A and -B, but not the Ternary Complex Factors (TCFs) Elk1 and Elk4. The role of the third TCF, Elk3, remained unknown. We generated a new Elk3 knockout mouse line and showed that Elk3 had specific, non-redundant functions in the retinal vasculature. In Elk3(−/−) mice, post-natal retinal angiogenesis was transiently delayed until P8, after which it proceeded normally. Interestingly, tortuous arteries developed in Elk3(−/−) mice from the age of four weeks, and persisted into late adulthood. Tortuous vessels have been observed in human pathologies, e.g. in ROP and FEVR. These human disorders were linked to altered activities of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the affected eyes. However, in Elk3(−/−) mice, we did not observe any changes in VEGF or several other potential confounding factors, including mural cell coverage and blood pressure. Instead, concurrent with the post-natal transient delay of radial outgrowth and the formation of adult tortuous arteries, Elk3-dependent effects on the expression of Angiopoietin/Tie-signalling components were observed. Moreover, in vitro microvessel sprouting and microtube formation from P10 and adult aortic ring explants were reduced. Collectively, these results indicate that Elk3 has distinct roles in maintaining retinal artery integrity. The Elk3 knockout mouse is presented as a new animal model to study retinal artery tortuousity in mice and human patients. PMID:25203538

  13. Exposure to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on postnatal days 11-20 induces reference but not working memory deficits in the Morris water maze in rats: implications of prior learning.

    PubMed

    Vorhees, Charles V; Reed, Tracy M; Skelton, Matthew R; Williams, Michael T

    2004-01-01

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in previous experiments has been shown to induce long-term spatial and sequential learning and memory deficits in adult offspring after exposure to the drug on postnatal (P) days 11-20, but not after exposure on P1-10. Herein we further tested for the effects of MDMA (0, 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg x 2/day) after exposure on P11-20 on reference and working memory in the Morris water maze (MWM), on reference memory in the Barnes maze, and on cued learning in the visible platform version of the MWM. The MWM and Barnes mazes were counterbalanced such that half the litters received the MWM-first and the other half received the Barnes maze first. Effects on MWM performance as a function of test order were observed. For animals that received the Barnes maze first, spatial MWM learning and memory trends were seen but they were not significantly different between MDMA groups and saline controls. For those receiving the MWM-first, there are consistent impairments on all measures in the MDMA groups compared to controls on MWM performance (latency, path length, and cumulative distance from the goal). On probe trials, MDMA animals receiving the MWM-first showed increased distance from the target site compared to controls. There were no MDMA effects seen on cued trials in the MWM or on straight channel swimming trials regardless of test order, indicating that MDMA had no effects on swimming ability or on the skills needed to learn the MWM. Similarly, there were no effects of MDMA on MWM working memory regardless of test order. No MDMA effects on the Barnes maze were found regardless of test order, however, the interpretation of this finding was compromised by the poor performance of the animals on this task. PMID:15380825

  14. Integrating Behavioral Psychology Services into Adult Day Programming for Individuals with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Linda A.

    2010-01-01

    Many individuals with dementia and problem behavior are served in nursing home settings long before health issues necessitate constant medical care. Alternative community-based adult day health care programs allow individuals with dementia to remain in their home with their families at a substantially reduced cost; however, many adult day programs…

  15. Validity of a Self-Administered 3-Day Physical Activity Recall in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jennifer L.; Dinger, Mary K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Most physical activity recall questionnaires assess activity over a 7-day period. However, questionnaires have been validated in adolescents and adults using shorter recall timeframes. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of a self-administered 3-day physical activity recall instrument (3DR) in young adults.…

  16. Postnatal changes in the distribution and morphology of rat substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Tepper, J M; Damlama, M; Trent, F

    1994-05-01

    Significant changes in the neurophysiology and neuropharmacology of nigral dopaminergic neurons take place in the first postnatal month. In order to correlate these changes with the postnatal development of dopaminergic neuron morphology and substantia nigra cytoarchitecture, brains from Sprague-Dawley rat pups of age postnatal days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 and adult rats were sectioned and processed for tyrosine hydroxylase immunocytochemistry. At postnatal day 1, pars compacta and pars reticulata were not clearly delineated; tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons and a dense plexus of fibers were scattered throughout the substantia nigra. By day 7 the density of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons decreased markedly in ventral substantia nigra, and a dopaminergic pars compacta and a non-dopaminergic pars reticulata could be more clearly distinguished. By day 14 the substantia nigra appeared essentially as it does in the adult. Cell counts during development revealed that the number of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons/section in both pars compacta and pars reticulata decreased significantly from postnatal day 1 to postnatal day 14, while those in pars lateralis did not change. Tyrosine hydroxylase-positive somatic size increased modestly but significantly from postnatal day 1 to day 14 as did the diameter of the proximal and distal dendrites. However, even at day 1, the morphology of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons appeared essentially the same as in adults. Dendritic arborizations were well developed. The dendrites were non-varicose and modestly branched, with some of the longer ventrally directed dendrites passing through pars reticulata into the crus cerebri.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7915412

  17. Spousal caregiving when the adult day services center is closed.

    PubMed

    Campell, D D; Travis, S S

    1999-08-01

    Of those spousal caregivers who identified a time when they most needed assistance, morning or afternoon time periods appeared to be most problematic. Spousal caregivers who reported receiving respite time on the weekends identified adult children as the informal support person most often available. However, more than half of the caregivers reported having no respite time during the weekend. Differences in the ways spousal caregivers spent their respite time on the weekends, if available, varied by gender, length of tenure as a caregiver, and age. PMID:10461273

  18. Associations between Relationship Status and Day-to-Day Health Behaviors and Weight among Diverse Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Bauer, Katherine W.; MacLehose, Rich; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous research has shown strong positive associations between physical and psychological health outcomes and being in a committed relationship, such as marriage, however little research has investigated whether being in a committed relationship is protective for day-to-day health behaviors such as dietary patterns and physical activity. The main aim of this paper is to examine associations between relationship status and day-to-day health behaviors (e.g. dietary intake, physical activity) and weight status among a diverse cohort of young adults. Methods This cross-sectional study utilized data from Project EAT-III, a 10-year longitudinal population-based study (n = 1853) of Midwest young adults. Young adult participants had an average age of 25.3, and were 45% male and 55% female. Participants were socio economically and racially/ethnically diverse, including 48.4% white, 18.6% African American, 5.9% Hispanic, 19.6% Asian, 3.3% Native American, and 4.2% mixed or other race/ethnicity. Results Results indicated that married men were more likely to be overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25) compared to single/casually dating and committed dating/engaged men. Married women were more likely to eat breakfast ≥ 5 times per week compared to women in other relationship categories. No differences were observed in young adults’ other health behaviors by relationship status. There were no significant interactions by race/ethnicity. Discussion Relationship status seems largely unrelated to young adults’ participation in physical activity and dietary behaviors. However, findings suggest that being married may be a risk factor for overweight/obesity in young adult men and may be a protective factor for other health-related behaviors associated with overweight/obesity such as eating breakfast for young adult women. PMID:24417654

  19. A single early postnatal estradiol injection affects morphology and gene expression of the ovary and parametrial adipose tissue in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Alexanderson, Camilla; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Kullberg, Joel; Nilsson, Staffan; Levin, Max; Cajander, Stefan; Lönn, Lars; Lönn, Malin; Holmäng, Agneta

    2010-10-01

    Events during early life can affect reproductive and metabolic functions in adulthood. We evaluated the programming effects of a single early postnatal estradiol injection (within 3h after birth) in female rats. We assessed ovarian and parametrial adipose tissue morphology, evaluated gene expression related to follicular development and adipose tissue metabolism, and developed a non-invasive volumetric estimation of parametrial adipose tissue by magnetic resonance imaging. Estradiol reduced ovarian weight, increased antral follicle size and number of atretic antral follicles, and decreased theca interna thickness in atretic antral follicles. Adult estradiol-injected rats also had malformed vaginal openings and lacked corpora lutea, confirming anovulation. Estradiol markedly reduced parametrial adipose tissue mass. Adipocyte size was unchanged, suggesting reduced adipocyte number. Parametrial adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase activity was increased. In ovaries, estradiol increased mRNA expression of adiponectin, complement component 3, estrogen receptor α, and glucose transporter 3 and 4; in parametrial adipose tissue, expression of complement component 3 was increased, expression of estrogen receptor α was decreased, and expression of leptin, lipoprotein lipase, and hormone-sensitive lipase was unaffected. These findings suggest that early postnatal estradiol exposure of female rats result in long-lasting effects on the ovary and parametrial adipose tissue at adult age. PMID:19857573

  20. DNA methylation markers in the postnatal developing rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Rebecca K.; Stringfellow, Sara A.; Glover, Matthew E.; Wagle, Anjali A.; Clinton, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    In spite of intense interest in how altered epigenetic processes including DNA methylation may contribute to psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, there is a limited understanding of how methylation processes change during early postnatal brain development. The present study used in situ hybridization to assess mRNA expression for the three major DNA methyltranserases (DNMTs) – DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b – in the developing rat brain at seven developmental timepoints: postnatal days (P) 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 75. We also assessed 5-methylcytosine levels (an indicator of global DNA methylation) in selected brain regions during the first three postnatal weeks. DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b mRNAs are widely expressed throughout the adult and postnatal developing rat brain. Overall, DNMT mRNA levels reached their highest point in the first week of life and gradually decreased over the first three postnatal weeks within the hippocampus, amygdala, striatum, cingulate and lateral septum. Global DNA methylation levels did not follow this developmental pattern; methylation levels gradually increased over the first three postnatal weeks in the hippocampus, and remained stable in the developing amygdala and prefrontal cortex. Our results contribute to a growing understanding of how DNA methylation markers unfold in the developing brain, and highlight how these developmental processes may differ within distinct brain regions. PMID:23954679

  1. Impact of AT2 Receptor Deficiency on Postnatal Cardiovascular Development

    PubMed Central

    Biermann, Daniel; Heilmann, Andreas; Didié, Michael; Schlossarek, Saskia; Wahab, Azadeh; Grimm, Michael; Römer, Maria; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Sultan, Karim R.; Steenpass, Anna; Ergün, Süleyman; Donzelli, Sonia; Carrier, Lucie; Ehmke, Heimo; Zimmermann, Wolfram H.; Hein, Lutz; Böger, Rainer H.; Benndorf, Ralf A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The angiotensin II receptor subtype 2 (AT2 receptor) is ubiquitously and highly expressed in early postnatal life. However, its role in postnatal cardiac development remained unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Hearts from 1, 7, 14 and 56 days old wild-type (WT) and AT2 receptor-deficient (KO) mice were extracted for histomorphometrical analysis as well as analysis of cardiac signaling and gene expression. Furthermore, heart and body weights of examined animals were recorded and echocardiographic analysis of cardiac function as well as telemetric blood pressure measurements were performed. Moreover, gene expression, sarcomere shortening and calcium transients were examined in ventricular cardiomyocytes isolated from both genotypes. KO mice exhibited an accelerated body weight gain and a reduced heart to body weight ratio as compared to WT mice in the postnatal period. However, in adult KO mice the heart to body weight ratio was significantly increased most likely due to elevated systemic blood pressure. At postnatal day 7 ventricular capillarization index and the density of α-smooth muscle cell actin-positive blood vessels were higher in KO mice as compared to WT mice but normalized during adolescence. Echocardiographic assessment of cardiac systolic function at postnatal day 7 revealed decreased contractility of KO hearts in response to beta-adrenergic stimulation. Moreover, cardiomyocytes from KO mice showed a decreased sarcomere shortening and an increased peak Ca2+ transient in response to isoprenaline when stimulated concomitantly with angiotensin II. Conclusion The AT2 receptor affects postnatal cardiac growth possibly via reducing body weight gain and systemic blood pressure. Moreover, it moderately attenuates postnatal vascularization of the heart and modulates the beta adrenergic response of the neonatal heart. These AT2 receptor-mediated effects may be implicated in the physiological maturation process of the heart. PMID:23144713

  2. Use of adult day care service centers in an ethnically diverse sample of older adults.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ellen L; Friedemann, Marie-Luise; Mauro, Ana C

    2014-03-01

    Our nation is aging and unprepared to meet the needs of community-dwelling seniors and their caregivers. This study explored the perceived need for and use of adult day care services (ADS) in a low-income population. A random sample of 537 patient-caregiver dyads were recruited in home care agencies, and separate in-home surveys were conducted. Patients and caregivers were primarily women and 50.2% were of Hispanic origin. Although half (n = 267/537, 49.7%) of the caregivers had a perceived need for using ADS, only 19.1% of these caregivers used these services, mostly in the context of severe patient cognitive impairment. There were no racial or ethnic differences among ADS users and nonusers. The overall low use of ADS in a growing ethnically diverse senior population with a perceived need for services warrants further investigation and action as states seek to decrease nursing home placement and find solutions for our looming caregiving crisis. PMID:24652954

  3. 7 CFR 226.19a - Adult day care center provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Operational Provisions... requirements set forth in this part. (8) Adult day care centers shall collect and maintain documentation of the... require key operational staff, as defined by the State agency, to attend Program training prior to...

  4. 7 CFR 226.19a - Adult day care center provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Operational Provisions... requirements set forth in this part. (8) Adult day care centers shall collect and maintain documentation of the... require key operational staff, as defined by the State agency, to attend Program training prior to...

  5. The Effect of the Postnatal Environment on Altered Fetal Programming of Adult Vascular Function in Mice Lacking Endothelial Nitic Oxide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Shannon M.; Makhlouf, Michel; Hankins, Gary D.V.; Anderson, Garland D.; Saade, George R.; Longo, Monica

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate vascular reactivity in heterozygous and homozygous offspring with a genetic predisposition for hypertension after postnatal cross fostering to mothers with the opposite genetic inheritance of the NOS3 knockout allele. Study design: Homozygous NOS3 knockout (C57BL/6J-NOS3−/−KO) and wild-type mice (NOS3+/+WT) were bred to obtain heterozygous litters with a paternally-derived (NOS3+/−pat) or maternally-derived (NOS3+/−mat) knockout allele. After delivery, heterozygous and homozygous litters were cross fostered to a mother with the opposite NOS3 gene status. Carotid arteries were placed in a wire myograph for isometric tension recording using contractile and relaxant agents. Statistical analysis with One-Way ANOVA and Neuman-Keuls post-hoc testing was performed. Results: Increased sensitivity to phenylephrine and absent relaxation to acetycholine in NOS3+/−mat was reversed with cross-fostering and vasorelaxation to isoproteronol was increased. Contraction to calcium was increased in the cross fostered paternally-derived and wild-type litters. Conclusion: Postnatal interventions may favorably alter the adult vascular profile resulting from an abnormal intrauterine environment. PMID:17403420

  6. Sexually dimorphic effects of postnatal treatment on the development of activity-based anorexia in adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Stephanie D; Grant, Virginia L

    2009-12-01

    Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a marked feature of anorexia nervosa. Using a modified version of the activity-based animal model of anorexia nervosa, we examine whether factors known to affect HPA axis activity influence the development of activity-based anorexia (ABA). Male and female rats were subjected to maternal separation or handling procedures during the first two postnatal weeks and tested in a mild version of the ABA paradigm, comprised of 2-hr daily running wheel access followed by 1-hr food access, either in adolescence or adulthood. Compared to handled females, maternally separated females demonstrated greater increases in wheel running and a more pronounced running-induced suppression of food intake during adolescence, but not in adulthood. In contrast, it was only in adulthood that wheel running produced more prolonged anorexic effects in maternally separated than in handled males. These findings highlight the interplay between early postnatal treatment, sex of the animal, and developmental age on running, food intake, and rate of body weight loss in a mild version of the ABA paradigm. PMID:19757457

  7. Dorsal Raphe Serotonin Neurons in Mice: Immature Hyperexcitability Transitions to Adult State during First Three Postnatal Weeks Suggesting Sensitive Period for Environmental Perturbation

    PubMed Central

    Rood, Benjamin D.; Calizo, Lyngine H.; Piel, David; Spangler, Zachary P.; Campbell, Kaitlin

    2014-01-01

    Trauma during early life is a major risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders and suggests that the developing brain may be particularly sensitive to perturbation. Increased vulnerability most likely involves altering neural circuits involved in emotional regulation. The role of serotonin in emotional regulation is well established, but little is known about the postnatal development of the raphe where serotonin is made. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recording and immunohistochemistry, we tested whether serotonin circuitry in the dorsal and median raphe was functionally mature during the first 3 postnatal weeks in mice. Serotonin neurons at postnatal day 4 (P4) were hyperexcitable. The increased excitability was due to depolarized resting membrane potential, increased resistance, increased firing rate, lack of 5-HT1A autoreceptor response, and lack of GABA synaptic activity. Over the next 2 weeks, membrane resistance decreased and resting membrane potential hyperpolarized due in part to potassium current activation. The 5-HT1A autoreceptor-mediated inhibition did not develop until P21. The frequency of spontaneous inhibitory and excitatory events increased as neurons extended and refined their dendritic arbor. Serotonin colocalized with vGlut3 at P4 as in adulthood, suggesting enhanced release of glutamate alongside enhanced serotonin release. Because serotonin affects circuit development in other brain regions, altering the developmental trajectory of serotonin neuron excitability and release could have many downstream consequences. We conclude that serotonin neuron structure and function change substantially during the first 3 weeks of life during which external stressors could potentially alter circuit formation. PMID:24695701

  8. Staff Morale in Day Care Centres for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascha, Katerina

    2007-01-01

    Background: Levels of burnout, job satisfaction and intended turnover of staff working in day care centres for adults with intellectual disabilities are investigated in relation to role clarity, staff support and supervision, and coping strategies used by staff. Materials and methods: Thirty six direct-care staff of four day care centres in the UK…

  9. Measuring Physical Activity with Pedometers in Older Adults with Intellectual Disability: Reactivity and Number of Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa; Van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen

    2012-01-01

    The minimum number of days of pedometer monitoring needed to estimate valid average weekly step counts and reactivity was investigated for older adults with intellectual disability. Participants (N = 268) with borderline to severe intellectual disability ages 50 years and older were instructed to wear a pedometer for 14 days. The outcome measure…

  10. Child Nutrition Programs: Child and Adult Care Food Program. Family Day Care Home Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This handbook details requirements for family day care homes in Oklahoma for providing child nutrition through the Child and Adult Care Food Program. The handbook includes contact information for state consultants. The basic responsibilities for sponsors of family day care home child nutrition programs are outlined, and the sponsoring organization…

  11. Long-Term Impacts of Foetal Malnutrition Followed by Early Postnatal Obesity on Fat Distribution Pattern and Metabolic Adaptability in Adult Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Khanal, Prabhat; Johnsen, Lærke; Axel, Anne Marie Dixen; Hansen, Pernille Willert; Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft; Lyckegaard, Nette Brinch; Nielsen, Mette Olaf

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether over- versus undernutrition in late foetal life combined with obesity development in early postnatal life have differential implications for fat distribution and metabolic adaptability in adulthood. Twin-pregnant ewes were fed NORM (100% of daily energy and protein requirements), LOW (50% of NORM) or HIGH (150%/110% of energy/protein requirements) diets during the last trimester. Postnatally, twin-lambs received obesogenic (HCHF) or moderate (CONV) diets until 6 months of age, and a moderate (obesity correcting) diet thereafter. At 2½ years of age (adulthood), plasma metabolite profiles during fasting, glucose, insulin and propionate (in fed and fasted states) tolerance tests were examined. Organ weights were determined at autopsy. Early obesity development was associated with lack of expansion of perirenal, but not other adipose tissues from adolescence to adulthood, resulting in 10% unit increased proportion of mesenteric of intra-abdominal fat. Prenatal undernutrition had a similar but much less pronounced effect. Across tolerance tests, LOW-HCHF sheep had highest plasma levels of cholesterol, urea-nitrogen, creatinine, and lactate. Sex specific differences were observed, particularly with respect to fat deposition, but direction of responses to early nutrition impacts were similar. However, prenatal undernutrition induced greater metabolic alterations in adult females than males. Foetal undernutrition, but not overnutrition, predisposed for adult hypercholesterolaemia, hyperureaemia, hypercreatinaemia and hyperlactataemia, which became manifested only in combination with early obesity development. Perirenal expandability may play a special role in this context. Differential nutrition recommendations may be advisable for individuals with low versus high birth weights. PMID:27257993

  12. Long-Term Impacts of Foetal Malnutrition Followed by Early Postnatal Obesity on Fat Distribution Pattern and Metabolic Adaptability in Adult Sheep.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Prabhat; Johnsen, Lærke; Axel, Anne Marie Dixen; Hansen, Pernille Willert; Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft; Lyckegaard, Nette Brinch; Nielsen, Mette Olaf

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether over- versus undernutrition in late foetal life combined with obesity development in early postnatal life have differential implications for fat distribution and metabolic adaptability in adulthood. Twin-pregnant ewes were fed NORM (100% of daily energy and protein requirements), LOW (50% of NORM) or HIGH (150%/110% of energy/protein requirements) diets during the last trimester. Postnatally, twin-lambs received obesogenic (HCHF) or moderate (CONV) diets until 6 months of age, and a moderate (obesity correcting) diet thereafter. At 2½ years of age (adulthood), plasma metabolite profiles during fasting, glucose, insulin and propionate (in fed and fasted states) tolerance tests were examined. Organ weights were determined at autopsy. Early obesity development was associated with lack of expansion of perirenal, but not other adipose tissues from adolescence to adulthood, resulting in 10% unit increased proportion of mesenteric of intra-abdominal fat. Prenatal undernutrition had a similar but much less pronounced effect. Across tolerance tests, LOW-HCHF sheep had highest plasma levels of cholesterol, urea-nitrogen, creatinine, and lactate. Sex specific differences were observed, particularly with respect to fat deposition, but direction of responses to early nutrition impacts were similar. However, prenatal undernutrition induced greater metabolic alterations in adult females than males. Foetal undernutrition, but not overnutrition, predisposed for adult hypercholesterolaemia, hyperureaemia, hypercreatinaemia and hyperlactataemia, which became manifested only in combination with early obesity development. Perirenal expandability may play a special role in this context. Differential nutrition recommendations may be advisable for individuals with low versus high birth weights. PMID:27257993

  13. Brain Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Directs the Transition from Stem Cells to Mature Neurons During Postnatal/Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Estévez, Vanesa; Oueslati-Morales, Carlos O; Li, Lingling; Pickel, James; Morales, Aixa V; Vicario-Abejón, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    The specific actions of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and the role of brain-derived IGF-I during hippocampal neurogenesis have not been fully defined. To address the influence of IGF-I on the stages of hippocampal neurogenesis, we studied a postnatal/adult global Igf-I knockout (KO) mice (Igf-I(-/-) ) and a nervous system Igf-I conditional KO (Igf-I(Δ/Δ) ). In both KO mice we found an accumulation of Tbr2(+) -intermediate neuronal progenitors, some of which were displaced in the outer granule cell layer (GCL) and the molecular layer (ML) of the dentate gyrus (DG). Similarly, more ectopic Ki67(+) - cycling cells were detected. Thus, the GCL was disorganized with significant numbers of Prox1(+) -granule neurons outside this layer and altered morphology of radial glial cells (RGCs). Dividing progenitors were also generated in greater numbers in clonal hippocampal stem cell (HPSC) cultures from the KO mice. Indeed, higher levels of Hes5 and Ngn2, transcription factors that maintain the stem and progenitor cell state, were expressed in both HPSCs and the GCL-ML from the Igf-I(Δ/Δ) mice. To determine the impact of Igf-I deletion on neuronal generation in vivo, progenitors in Igf-I(-/-) and Igf-I(+/+) mice were labeled with a GFP-expressing vector. This revealed that in the Igf-I(-/-) mice more GFP(+) -immature neurons were formed and they had less complex dendritic trees. These findings indicate that local IGF-I plays critical roles during postnatal/adult hippocampal neurogenesis, regulating the transition from HPSCs and progenitors to mature granule neurons in a cell stage-dependent manner. Stem Cells 2016;34:2194-2209. PMID:27144663

  14. Measuring physical activity with pedometers in older adults with intellectual disability: reactivity and number of days.

    PubMed

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa; Van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen

    2012-08-01

    The minimum number of days of pedometer monitoring needed to estimate valid average weekly step counts and reactivity was investigated for older adults with intellectual disability. Participants (N  =  268) with borderline to severe intellectual disability ages 50 years and older were instructed to wear a pedometer for 14 days. The outcome measure was steps per day. Reactivity was investigated with repeated measures analysis of variance, and monitoring frame was assessed by comparing combinations of days with average weekly step counts (with intraclass correlation coefficients [ICCs] and regression analyses). No reactivity was present. Any combination of 4 days resulted in ICCs of 0.96 or higher and 90% of explained variance. The study concludes that any 4 days of wearing a pedometer is sufficient to validly measure physical activity in older adults with intellectual disability. PMID:22861135

  15. How many steps/day are enough? For older adults and special populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Older adults and special populations (living with disability and/or chronic illness that may limit mobility and/or physical endurance) can benefit from practicing a more physically active lifestyle, typically by increasing ambulatory activity. Step counting devices (accelerometers and pedometers) offer an opportunity to monitor daily ambulatory activity; however, an appropriate translation of public health guidelines in terms of steps/day is unknown. Therefore this review was conducted to translate public health recommendations in terms of steps/day. Normative data indicates that 1) healthy older adults average 2,000-9,000 steps/day, and 2) special populations average 1,200-8,800 steps/day. Pedometer-based interventions in older adults and special populations elicit a weighted increase of approximately 775 steps/day (or an effect size of 0.26) and 2,215 steps/day (or an effect size of 0.67), respectively. There is no evidence to inform a moderate intensity cadence (i.e., steps/minute) in older adults at this time. However, using the adult cadence of 100 steps/minute to demark the lower end of an absolutely-defined moderate intensity (i.e., 3 METs), and multiplying this by 30 minutes produces a reasonable heuristic (i.e., guiding) value of 3,000 steps. However, this cadence may be unattainable in some frail/diseased populations. Regardless, to truly translate public health guidelines, these steps should be taken over and above activities performed in the course of daily living, be of at least moderate intensity accumulated in minimally 10 minute bouts, and add up to at least 150 minutes over the week. Considering a daily background of 5,000 steps/day (which may actually be too high for some older adults and/or special populations), a computed translation approximates 8,000 steps on days that include a target of achieving 30 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and approximately 7,100 steps/day if averaged over a week. Measured directly and

  16. Identification of proliferative progenitors associated with prominent postnatal growth of the pons

    PubMed Central

    Lindquist, Robert A.; Guinto, Cristina D.; Rodas-Rodriguez, Jose L.; Fuentealba, Luis C.; Tate, Matthew C.; Rowitch, David H.; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The pons controls crucial sensorimotor and autonomic functions. In humans, it grows sixfold postnatally and is a site of paediatric gliomas; however, the mechanisms of pontine growth remain poorly understood. We show that the murine pons quadruples in volume postnatally; growth is fastest during postnatal days 0–4 (P0–P4), preceding most myelination. We identify three postnatal proliferative compartments: ventricular, midline and parenchymal. We find no evidence of postnatal neurogenesis in the pons, but each progenitor compartment produces new astroglia and oligodendroglia; the latter expand 10- to 18-fold postnatally, and are derived mostly from the parenchyma. Nearly all parenchymal progenitors at P4 are Sox2+Olig2+, but by P8 a Sox2− subpopulation emerges, suggesting a lineage progression from Sox2+ ‘early' to Sox2− ‘late' oligodendrocyte progenitor. Fate mapping reveals that >90% of adult oligodendrocytes derive from P2–P3 Sox2+ progenitors. These results demonstrate the importance of postnatal Sox2+Olig2+ progenitors in pontine growth and oligodendrogenesis. PMID:27188978

  17. Identification of proliferative progenitors associated with prominent postnatal growth of the pons.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Robert A; Guinto, Cristina D; Rodas-Rodriguez, Jose L; Fuentealba, Luis C; Tate, Matthew C; Rowitch, David H; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The pons controls crucial sensorimotor and autonomic functions. In humans, it grows sixfold postnatally and is a site of paediatric gliomas; however, the mechanisms of pontine growth remain poorly understood. We show that the murine pons quadruples in volume postnatally; growth is fastest during postnatal days 0-4 (P0-P4), preceding most myelination. We identify three postnatal proliferative compartments: ventricular, midline and parenchymal. We find no evidence of postnatal neurogenesis in the pons, but each progenitor compartment produces new astroglia and oligodendroglia; the latter expand 10- to 18-fold postnatally, and are derived mostly from the parenchyma. Nearly all parenchymal progenitors at P4 are Sox2(+)Olig2(+), but by P8 a Sox2(-) subpopulation emerges, suggesting a lineage progression from Sox2(+) 'early' to Sox2(-) 'late' oligodendrocyte progenitor. Fate mapping reveals that >90% of adult oligodendrocytes derive from P2-P3 Sox2(+) progenitors. These results demonstrate the importance of postnatal Sox2(+)Olig2(+) progenitors in pontine growth and oligodendrogenesis. PMID:27188978

  18. 7 CFR 226.19a - Adult day care center provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... participating in the Program must serve one or more of the following meal types—breakfast, lunch, supper, and... agreement between the center and school. The center shall maintain responsibility for all Program... document compliance with such requirements. (7) An adult day care center may obtain meals from a...

  19. 7 CFR 226.19a - Adult day care center provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... participating in the Program must serve one or more of the following meal types—breakfast, lunch, supper, and... agreement between the center and school. The center shall maintain responsibility for all Program... document compliance with such requirements. (7) An adult day care center may obtain meals from a...

  20. 7 CFR 226.19a - Adult day care center provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... participating in the Program must serve one or more of the following meal types—breakfast, lunch, supper, and... agreement between the center and school. The center shall maintain responsibility for all Program... document compliance with such requirements. (7) An adult day care center may obtain meals from a...

  1. Social and Environmental Infantilization of Aged Persons: Observations in Two Adult Day Care Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salari, Sonia Miner; Rich, Melinda

    2001-01-01

    Examines the social environments, staff behavior and social interaction of 72 elderly clients in adult day care centers, using qualitative research techniques. When the staff and environment were more infantilizing, provided less autonomy and fewer opportunities for privacy regulation, clients had lower social interaction with peers. In contrast,…

  2. Use of Adult Day Care Centers: Do They Offset Utilization of Health Care Services?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iecovich, Esther; Biderman, Aya

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Based on the medical offset effect, the goal of the study was to examine the extent to which users and nonusers of adult day care centers (ADCC) differ in frequency of use of out-patient health services (visits to specialists) and in-patient health services (number of hospital admissions, length of hospitalizations, and visits to…

  3. Adult Day Health Center Participation and Health-Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Eva M.; Sands, Laura P.; Weiss, Sara; Dowling, Glenna; Covinsky, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between Adult Day Health Center (ADHC) participation and health-related quality of life. Design and Methods: Case-controlled prospective study utilizing the Medical Outcomes Survey Form 36 (SF-36) to compare newly enrolled participants from 16 ADHC programs with comparable…

  4. Impact of Adult Day Services on Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Femia, Elia E.; Zarit, Steven H.; Stephens, Mary Ann Parris; Greene, Rick

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored whether adult day service (ADS) use was associated with reductions in behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in individuals with dementia. Design and Methods: We used a quasi-experimental design to compare a group of 133 persons with dementia (PWDs) who initially enrolled in an ADS program to a…

  5. 78 FR 45176 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2013 Through June 30, 2014 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service...-risk afterschool care centers, and adult day care centers; the food service payment rates for meals...

  6. Protein Expression Dynamics During Postnatal Mouse Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Laeremans, Annelies; Van de Plas, Babs; Clerens, Stefan; Van den Bergh, Gert; Arckens, Lutgarde; Hu, Tjing-Tjing

    2013-01-01

    We explored differential protein expression profiles in the mouse forebrain at different stages of postnatal development, including 10-day (P10), 30-day (P30), and adult (Ad) mice, by large-scale screening of proteome maps using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. Mass spectrometry analysis resulted in the identification of 251 differentially expressed proteins. Most molecular changes were observed between P10 compared to both P30 and Ad. Computational ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) confirmed these proteins as crucial molecules in the biological function of nervous system development. Moreover, IPA revealed Semaphorin signaling in neurons and the protein ubiquitination pathway as essential canonical pathways in the mouse forebrain during postnatal development. For these main biological pathways, the transcriptional regulation of the age-dependent expression of selected proteins was validated by means of in situ hybridization. In conclusion, we suggest that proteolysis and neurite outgrowth guidance are key biological processes, particularly during early brain maturation. PMID:25157209

  7. Adaptations of young adult rat cortical bone to 14 days of spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vailas, A. C.; Vanderby, R., Jr.; Martinez, D. A.; Ashman, R. B.; Ulm, M. J.; Grindeland, R. E.; Durnova, G. N.; Kaplanskii, A.

    1992-01-01

    To determine whether mature humeral cortical bone would be modified significantly by an acute exposure to weightlessness, adult rats (110 days old) were subjected to 14 days of microgravity on the COSMOS 2044 biosatellite. There were no significant changes in peak force, stiffness, energy to failure, and displacement at failure in the flight rats compared with ground-based controls. Concentrations and contents of hydroxyproline, calcium, and mature stable hydroxylysylpyridinoline and lysylpyridinoline collagen cross-links remained unchanged after spaceflight. Bone lengths, cortical and endosteal areas, and regionl thicknesses showed no significant differences between flight animals and ground controls. The findings suggest that responsiveness of cortical bone to microgravity is less pronounced in adult rats than in previous spaceflight experiments in which young growing animals were used. It is hypothesized that 14 days of spaceflight may not be sufficient to impact the biochemical and biomechanical properties of cortical bone in the mature rat skeleton.

  8. Gestational and Early Postnatal Exposure to Simulated High Altitude Does Not Modify Postnatal Body Mass Growth Trajectory in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Champin, Graciela M.; Bozzini, Clarisa; Alippi, Rosa M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Bozzini, Carlos E, Graciela M. Champin, Clarisa Bozzini, and Rosa M. Alippi. Gestational and Early Postnatal Exposure to Simulated High Altitude Does Not Modify Postnatal Body Mass Growth Trajectory in the Rat. High Alt Med Biol 15:418–421, 2014.—Postnatal hypoxia blunts body mass growth. It is also known that the quality of the fetal environment can influence the subsequent adult phenotype. The main purpose of the study was to determine whether gestational hypoxia and early postnatal hypoxia are able to blunt growth when the offspring is raised under normoxia. Hypobaric hypoxia was induced in simulated high altitude (SHA) chambers in which air was maintained at 380 mmHg (5450 m). Mature Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes were divided in normoxic (NX) and hypoxic (HX) groups and, in the case of the HX group, maintained for 1 month at 5450 m. Mating was then allowed under NX or HX conditions. Offspring were NX-NX, NX-HX, HX-HX, or HX-NX: the first term indicates NX or HX during both gestation and the first 30 days of life; the second term indicates NX or HX during postnatal life between days 30 and 133. Body mass (g) was measured periodically and body mass growth rate (BMGR, g/d) was estimated between days 33 and 65 of postnatal life. Results can be summarized as follows: 1) BM was significantly higher in NX than in HX rats at weaning; 2) BMGR was not significantly different between NX-NX and HX-NX rats, and between HX-HX and NX-HX animals; and 3) BMGR was significantly higher in rats living under NX conditions than in those living under HX conditions during postnatal life. Data suggest that that hypobaric hypoxia during gestational and early postnatal development of rats does not alter the regulation of body mass growth in rats when compared to that seen under sea-level conditions. PMID:25184739

  9. Effects of Fourteen-Day Bed Rest on Trunk Stabilizing Functions in Aging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sarabon, Nejc; Rosker, Jernej

    2015-01-01

    Bed rest has been shown to have detrimental effects on structural and functional characteristics of the trunk muscles, possibly affecting trunk and spinal stability. This is especially important in populations such as aging adults with often altered trunk stabilizing functions. This study examined the effects of a fourteen-day bed rest on anticipatory postural adjustments and postural reflex responses of the abdominal wall and back muscles in sixteen adult men. Postural activation of trunk muscles was measured using voluntary quick arm movement and sudden arm loading paradigm. Measurements were conducted prior to the bed rest, immediately after, and fourteen days after the bed rest. Immediately after the bed rest, latencies of anticipatory postural adjustments showed significant shortening, especially for the obliquus internus and externus muscles. After a fourteen-day recuperation period, anticipatory postural adjustments reached a near to complete recovery. On the contrary, reactive response latencies increased from pre-bed-rest to both post-bed-rest measurement sessions. Results indicate an important effect of bed rest on stabilizing functions of the trunk muscles in elderly adults. Moreover, there proved to be a significant deterioration of postural reactive responses that outlasted the 14-day post-bed-rest rehabilitation. PMID:26601104

  10. Postnatal development and neoplastic disease pattern in NMRI mice after combined treatment with ethylnitrosourea and X-irradiation on different days of the fetal period.

    PubMed

    Wiggenhauser, A; Schmahl, W

    1987-06-01

    Mice were X-irradiated on day 14, 15 or 16 of gestation with 1.0 Gy. This did not result in an increased tumour frequency in the offspring until 12 months. Mice treated with ethylnitrosourea (ENU) (45 mg/kg) on these gestation days developed a significantly increased tumour frequency in the lungs and liver, and in the ovaries after treatment on day 15 of gestation. Additionally this experiment was the first to show that ENU treatment on gestation day 14, 15 or 16 results in haemangiosarcomas of the subcutis at a low incidence (2.0, 2.4, 2.6 per cent). After combined treatment with these two agents in the sequence X+ENU and an interval of 4 h, a significantly increased incidence rate of animals with tumours was observed in the offspring treated on gestation day 14 or 16. Moreover, the treatment on gestation day 16 exhibited the highest tumour frequency per examined animal (5.7) of all treatment groups. This result is due to a relatively uniform increase of all tumor types. Within this pattern, the frequency of liver tumours was most marked. The diagnosed liver tumours were significantly augmented after X+ENU treatment on day 16. In the reverse sequence (ENU+X), the total tumour outcome was not significantly altered compared with the effects of ENU alone. However, detailed analysis also showed a significant augmentation of the liver tumour frequency with treatment on day 15. PMID:3496295

  11. Cholinergic Circuit Control of Postnatal Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Asrican, Brent; Paez-Gonzalez, Patricia; Erb, Joshua; Kuo, Chay T.

    2016-01-01

    New neuron addition via continued neurogenesis in the postnatal/adult mammalian brain presents a distinct form of nervous system plasticity. During embryonic development, precise temporal and spatial patterns of neurogenesis are necessary to create the nervous system architecture. Similar between embryonic and postnatal stages, neurogenic proliferation is regulated by neural stem cell (NSC)-intrinsic mechanisms layered upon cues from their local microenvironmental niche. Following developmental assembly, it remains relatively unclear what may be the key driving forces that sustain continued production of neurons in the postnatal/adult brain. Recent experimental evidence suggests that patterned activity from specific neural circuits can also directly govern postnatal/adult neurogenesis. Here, we review experimental findings that revealed cholinergic modulation, and how patterns of neuronal activity and acetylcholine release may differentially or synergistically activate downstream signaling in NSCs. Higher-order excitatory and inhibitory inputs regulating cholinergic neuron firing, and their implications in neurogenesis control are also considered. PMID:27468423

  12. 26Al incorporation into the brain of rat fetuses through the placental barrier and subsequent metabolism in postnatal development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, Sakae; Nagai, Hisao; Kakimi, Shigeo; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2010-04-01

    Aluminium (Al) inhibits prenatal and postnatal development of the brain. We used 26Al as a tracer, and measured 26Al incorporation into rat fetuses through the placental barrier by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). From day 15 to day 18 of gestation, 26AlCl 3 was subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats. Considerable amounts of 26Al were measured in the tissues of newborn rats immediately after birth. The amounts of 26Al in the liver and kidneys decreased rapidly during postnatal development. However, approximately 15% of 26Al incorporated into the brain of fetuses remained in the brain of adult rats 730 days after birth.

  13. Long-term (30 days) toxicity of NiO nanoparticles for adult zebrafish Danio rerio

    PubMed Central

    Kovrižnych, Jevgenij A.; Zeljenková, Dagmar; Rollerová, Eva; Szabová, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Nickel oxide in the form of nanoparticles (NiO NPs) is extensively used in different industrial branches. In a test on adult zebrafish, the acute toxicity of NiO NPs was shown to be low, however longlasting contact with this compound can lead to its accumulation in the tissues and to increased toxicity. In this work we determined the 30-day toxicity of NiO NPs using a static test for zebrafish Danio rerio. We found the 30-day LC50 value to be 45.0 mg/L, LC100 (minimum concentration causing 100% mortality) was 100.0 mg/L, and LC0 (maximum concentration causing no mortality) was 6.25 mg/L for adult individuals of zebrafish. Considering a broad use of Ni in the industry, NiO NPs chronic toxicity may have a negative impact on the population of aquatic organisms and on food web dynamics in aquatic systems. PMID:26038672

  14. Pre- and postnatal enzyme analysis for infantile, late infantile and adult neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN1 and CLN2).

    PubMed

    Van Diggelen, O P; Keulemans, J L; Kleijer, W J; Thobois, S; Tilikete, C; Voznyi, Y V

    2001-01-01

    The recent development of simple, fluorogenic enzyme assays for infantile and late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL and LINCL; CLN1 and CLN2) has greatly facilitated the diagnostic process for these diseases. In leucocytes and fibroblasts from INCL (n = 38) patients we found profound deficiencies of palmitoyl-protein thioesterase I (PPT1), the residual activity was < 5% of mean control activity. In fibroblasts from LINCL patients we found a similar deficiency of tripeptidyl-peptidase I activity (TPP-I), with < 2% activity in 16 patients. The residual TPP-I activity in leucocytes from LINCL patients seemed substantially higher. We also showed the feasibility of reliable prenatal enzyme analysis. In five first-trimester and two second-trimester prenatal analyses for INCL, four affected foetuses were detected (PPT activity 3-6%). Two first trimester pregnancies at risk for LINCL were analysed and a clear TPP-I deficiency was detected in both cases (TPP-I activity 3-4%). The first patient with adult neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (ANCL) due to a deficiency of PPT is presented; her present age is 53 years and the onset of the disease was at 38 years with psychiatric symptoms. PMID:11588995

  15. Adult Day Care: Its Impact on the Utilization of Other Health Care Services and on Quality of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Neena L.; Blandford, Audrey

    The Adult Day Care Program (ADC) in the Province of Manitoba is a health and social service program providing socialization and recreation in a supportive environment to those who, without this intervention, might deteriorate in physical or mental health function. To examine the impact of adult day care on the utilization of other health care…

  16. 75 FR 41793 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ..., 2009, at 74 FR 34295. Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) Lunch and Centers Breakfast supper \\1... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2010 Through June 30, 2011 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition...

  17. 76 FR 43254 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ..., 2010, at 75 FR 41793. Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) [Per meal rates in whole or fractions... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2011 Through June 30, 2012 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition...

  18. Rates and determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breast feeding at 42 days postnatal in six low and middle-income countries: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Early initiation of breastfeeding after birth and exclusive breastfeeding through six months of age confers many health benefits for infants; both are crucial high impact, low-cost interventions. However, determining accurate global rates of these crucial activities has been challenging. We use population-based data to describe: (1) rates of early initiation of breastfeeding (defined as within 1 hour of birth) and of exclusive breastfeeding at 42 days post-partum; and (2) factors associated with failure to initiate early breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding at 42 days post-partum. Methods Prospectively collected data from women and their live-born infants enrolled in the Global Network’s Maternal and Newborn Health Registry between January 1, 2010-December 31, 2013 included women-infant dyads in 106 geographic areas (clusters) at 7 research sites in 6 countries (Kenya, Zambia, India [2 sites], Pakistan, Argentina and Guatemala). Rates and risk factors for failure to initiate early breastfeeding were investigated for the entire cohort and rates and risk factors for failure to maintain exclusive breastfeeding was assessed in a sub-sample studied at 42 days post-partum. Result A total of 255,495 live-born women-infant dyads were included in the study. Rates and determinants for the exclusive breastfeeding sub-study at 42 days post-partum were assessed from among a sub-sample of 105,563 subjects. Although there was heterogeneity by site, and early initiation of breastfeeding after delivery was high, the Pakistan site had the lowest rates of early initiation of breastfeeding. The Pakistan site also had the highest rate of lack of exclusive breastfeeding at 42 days post-partum. Across all regions, factors associated with failure to initiate early breastfeeding included nulliparity, caesarean section, low birth weight, resuscitation with bag and mask, and failure to place baby on the mother’s chest after delivery. Factors associated with failure to

  19. ACUTE POSTNATAL EXPOSURE TO TRIETHYLTIN IN THE RAT: EFFECTS ON SPECIFIC PROTEIN COMPOSITION OF SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS FROM DEVELOPING AND ADULT BRAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The morphological maturation of the central nervous system is characterized by onto-genetic changes in protein associated with specific developmental processes. In this investigation the authors examined the effects of acute postnatal administration of triethyltin (TET) on the on...

  20. The 14-day repeated dose liver micronucleus test with methapyrilene hydrochloride using young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kenji; Ochi, Akimu; Koda, Akira; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Doi, Takaaki

    2015-03-01

    The repeated dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay using young adult rats has the potential to detect genotoxic hepatocarcinogens that can be integrated into a general toxicity study. The assay methods were thoroughly validated by 19 Japanese facilities. Methapyrilene hydrochloride (MP), known to be a non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, was examined in the present study. MP was dosed orally at 10, 30 and 100mg/kg/day to 6-week-old male Crl:CD (SD) rats daily for 14 days. Treatment with MP resulted in an increase in micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs) with a dosage of only 100mg/kg/day. At this dose level, cytotoxicity followed by regenerative cell growth was noted in the liver. These findings suggest that MP may induce clastogenic effects indirectly on the liver or hepatotoxicity of MP followed by regeneration may cause increase in spontaneous incidence of MNHEPs. PMID:24768639

  1. Maternal dietary loads of α-tocopherol depress protein kinase C signaling and synaptic plasticity in rat postnatal developing hippocampus and promote permanent deficits in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Betti, Michele; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Minelli, Andrea; Floridi, Alessandro; Lattanzi, Davide; Ciuffoli, Stefano; Bucherelli, Corrado; Prospero, Emilia; Frontini, Andrea; Santarelli, Lory; Baldi, Elisabetta; Benetti, Fernando; Galli, Francesco; Cuppini, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) supplementation has been tested as prophylaxis against gestational disorders associated with oxidative damage. However, recent evidence showing that high maternal α-tocopherol intake can adversely affect offspring development raises concerns on the safety of vitamin E extradosages during pregnancy. Besides acting as an antioxidant, α-tocopherol depresses cell proliferation and modulates cell signaling through inhibiting protein kinase C (PKC), a kinase that is deeply involved in neural maturation and plasticity. Possible effects of α-tocopherol loads in the maturing brain, where PKC dysregulation is associated to developmental dysfunctions, are poorly known. Here, supranutritional doses of α-tocopherol were fed to pregnant and lactating dams to evaluate the effects on PKC signaling and morphofunctional maturation in offspring hippocampus. Results showed that maternal supplementation potentiates hippocampal α-tocopherol incorporation in offspring and leads to marked decrease of PKC phosphorylation throughout postnatal maturation, accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of growth-associated protein-43 and myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate, two PKC substrates involved in neural development and plasticity. Although processes of neuronal maturation, synapse formation and targeting appeared unaffected, offspring of supplemented mothers displayed a marked reduction of long-term synaptic plasticity in juvenile hippocampus. Interestingly, this impairment persisted in adulthood, when a deficit in hippocampus-dependent, long-lasting spatial memory was also revealed. In conclusion, maternal supplementation with elevated doses of α-tocopherol can influence cell signaling and synaptic plasticity in developing hippocampus and promotes permanent adverse effects in adult offspring. The present results emphasize the need to evaluate the safety of supranutritional maternal intake of α-tocopherol in humans. PMID:20382010

  2. Effect of vitamin C deficiency during postnatal development on adult behavior: functional phenotype of Gulo-/- knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Curran, C P; Nebert, D W; Patel, K V; Williams, M T; Vorhees, C V

    2012-04-01

    Organisms using oxygen for aerobic respiration require antioxidants to balance the production of reactive oxygen species during metabolic processes. Various species--including humans and other primates--suffer mutations in the GULO gene encoding L-gulono-γ-lactone oxidase; GULO is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of ascorbate, an important cellular antioxidant. Animals lacking the ability to synthesize vitamin C develop scurvy without dietary supplementation. The Gulo-/- knockout (KO) mouse requires oral supplemental vitamin C; without this supplementation the animal dies with a scorbutic condition within several weeks. Vitamin C is known to be most abundant in the brain, where it is believed to play important roles in neuroprotection, neurotransmission and neuromodulation. We therefore hypothesized that ascorbate deficiency in Gulo-/- KO mice might lead to an abnormal behavioral phenotype. We established the amount of ascorbate in the drinking water (220 ppm) necessary for generating a chronic low-ascorbate status in the brain, yet clinically the mice appeared healthy throughout 100 days postpartum at which time all behavioral-phenotyping tests were completed. Compared with Gulo+/+ wild-type littermates, ascorbate-deficient Gulo-/- mice were found to be less active in moving in their environment; when in water, these mice swam more slowly in some tests, consistent with a mild motor deficit. We found no evidence of cognitive, anxiety or sensorimotor-gating problems. Despite being less active, Gulo-/- mice exhibited exaggerated hyperactivity to the dopaminergic agonist methamphetamine. The subnormal movement, combined with hypersensitivity to a dopamine agonist, point to developmental ascorbate deficiency causing long-term striatal dysfunction. PMID:22296218

  3. Why carers use adult day respite: a mixed method case study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We need to improve our understanding of the complex interactions between family carers’ emotional relationships with care-recipients and carers use of support services. This study assessed carer’s expectations and perceptions of adult day respite services and their commitment to using services. Methods A mixed-method case study approach was used with psychological contract providing a conceptual framework. Data collection was situated within an organisational case study, and the total population of carers from the organisation’s day respite service were approached. Fifty respondents provided quantitative and qualitative data through an interview survey. The conceptual framework was expanded to include Maslow’s hierarchy of needs during analysis. Results Carers prioritised benefits for and experiences of care-recipients when making day respite decisions. Respondents had high levels of trust in the service and perceived that the major benefits for care-recipients were around social interaction and meaningful activity with resultant improved well-being. Carers wanted day respite experiences to include all levels of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs from the provision of physiological care and safety through to the higher levels of belongingness, love and esteem. Conclusion The study suggests carers need to trust that care-recipients will have quality experiences at day respite. This study was intended as a preliminary stage for further research and while not generalizable it does highlight key considerations in carers’ use of day respite services. PMID:24906239

  4. Increasing Steps/Day Predicts Improvement in Physical Function and Pain Interference in Adults with Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Kaleth, Anthony S.; Slaven, James E.; Ang, Dennis C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the concurrent and predictive associations between the number of steps taken per day (steps/day) and clinical outcomes in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Methods 199 adults with FM [mean age = 46.1 yr; 95% females] enrolled in a randomized clinical trial wore a hip-mounted accelerometer for 1 week and completed self-report measures of physical function [Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire-Physical Impairment (FIQ-PI), SF-36 physical component score (SF-36 PCS)], pain intensity and interference (Brief Pain Inventory; BPI), and depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-8; PHQ-8) as part of their baseline and follow-up assessments. Associations of steps/day with self-report clinical measures were evaluated from baseline to week 12 using multivariate regression models adjusted for demographic and baseline covariates. Results Study participants were primarily sedentary, averaging 4,019 ± 1,530 steps/day. Our findings demonstrate a linear relationship between the change in steps/day and improvement in health outcomes for FM. Incremental increases on the order of 1,000 steps/day were significantly associated with (and predictive of) improvements in FIQ-PI, SF-36 PCS, BPI pain interference, and PHQ-8 (all p<0.05). Although higher step counts were associated with lower FIQ and BPI pain intensity scores, these were not statistically significant. Conclusion Step counts is an easily obtained and understood objective measure of daily physical activity. An exercise prescription that includes recommendations to gradually accumulate at least 5,000 additional steps/day may result in clinically significant improvements in outcomes relevant to patients with FM. Future studies are needed to elucidate the dose-response relationship between steps/day and patient outcomes in FM. PMID:25049001

  5. Prenatal and early postnatal lead exposure in mice: neuroimaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Lindquist, Diana M.; Beckwith, Travis; Sánchez-Martín, Francisco Javier; Landero-Figueroa, Julio; Puga, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood lead exposure has been linked to adult gray matter loss accompanied by changes in myelination and neurochemistry noninvasively revealed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods. However, the extent, duration and timing of lead exposure required to produce such imaging changes in humans are difficult to ascertain. Methods To determine if such changes are related to early exposure to low levels of lead, we treated mouse dams with 0, 3, or 30 ppm of lead acetate in drinking water for 2 months prior to mating through gestation until weaning of the offspring at post-natal day 21. Two male and two female pups from each litter were imaged at post-natal day 60. Volumetric, diffusion tensor imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measurements were obtained using a seven Tesla Bruker animal MRI scanner. Results Postnatal blood lead levels were identical between groups at the time of imaging. No effects of lead exposure were detected in the volumetric or MRS data. Mean diffusivity in the hippocampus showed significant effects of lead exposure and gender. Conclusions These data suggest that low-level, gestational lead exposure in a mouse model produces minimal changes observed by MRI. PMID:26435914

  6. Older Adults with Dementia Are Sedentary for Most of the Day

    PubMed Central

    Volkers, Karin M.; Blankevoort, Christiaan G.; Scherder, Erik J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Self-reported data suggest that older adults with dementia are inactive. The purpose of the present study was to objectively assess the physical activity (PA) levels of community-dwelling and institutionalized ambulatory patients with dementia, and to compare with the PA levels of cognitive healthy older adults. Methods We used actigraphy to assess the PA levels in institutionalized (n = 83, age: 83.0 ± 7.6, Mini-Mental-State Examination (MMSE): 15.5 ± 6.5) and community-dwelling dementia patients (n = 37, age: 77.3 ± 5.6, MMSE-score: 20.8 ± 4.8), and healthy older adults (n = 26, age: 79.5 ± 5.6, MMSE-score: 28.2 ± 1.6). We characterized PA levels based on the raw data and classified <100 counts/min as sedentary behavior. Results Institutionalized dementia patients had the lowest daily PA levels (1.69 ± 1.33 counts/day), spent 72.1% of the day sedentary, and were most active between 8:00 and 9:00 am. Institutionalized vs. community-dwelling dementia patients had 23.5% lower daily PA levels (difference M = 0.52, p = .004) and spent 9.3% longer in sedentariness (difference M = 1.47, p = .032). Community-dwelling dementia patients spent 66.0% of the day sedentary and were most active between 9:00 to 10:00 am with a second peak between 14:00 to 15:00. Community-dwelling dementia patients vs healthy older adults’ daily PA levels and sedentary time were 21.6% lower and 8.9% longer, respectively (difference M = 0.61, p = .007; difference M = 1.29, p = .078). Conclusions Institutionalized and community-dwelling dementia patients are sedentary for most of the day and the little PA they perform is of lower intensity compared to their healthy peers. Their highest PA peak is when they get out of bed in the morning. In addition, it seems that institutionalized living is associated with lower PA levels in dementia patients. These are the first results that objectively characterize institutionalized as well as community-dwelling dementia patients’ PA levels

  7. Maternal Forced Swimming Reduces Cell Proliferation in the Postnatal Dentate Gyrus of Mouse Offspring.

    PubMed

    Wasinski, Frederick; Estrela, Gabriel R; Arakaki, Aline M; Bader, Michael; Alenina, Natalia; Klempin, Friederike; Araújo, Ronaldo C

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise positively affects the metabolism and induces proliferation of precursor cells in the adult brain. Maternal exercise likewise provokes adaptations early in the offspring. Using a high-intensity swimming protocol that comprises forced swim training before and during pregnancy, we determined the effect of maternal swimming on the mouse offspring's neurogenesis. Our data demonstrate decreased proliferation in sublayers of the postnatal dentate gyrus in offspring of swimming mother at postnatal day (P) 8 accompanied with decreased survival of newly generated cells 4 weeks later. The reduction in cell numbers was predominantly seen in the hilus and molecular layer. At P35, the reduced amount of cells was also reflected by a decrease in the population of newly generated immature and mature neurons of the granule cell layer. Our data suggest that forced maternal swimming at high-intensity has a negative effect on the neurogenic niche development in postnatal offspring. PMID:27621701

  8. Maternal Forced Swimming Reduces Cell Proliferation in the Postnatal Dentate Gyrus of Mouse Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Wasinski, Frederick; Estrela, Gabriel R.; Arakaki, Aline M.; Bader, Michael; Alenina, Natalia; Klempin, Friederike; Araújo, Ronaldo C.

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise positively affects the metabolism and induces proliferation of precursor cells in the adult brain. Maternal exercise likewise provokes adaptations early in the offspring. Using a high-intensity swimming protocol that comprises forced swim training before and during pregnancy, we determined the effect of maternal swimming on the mouse offspring's neurogenesis. Our data demonstrate decreased proliferation in sublayers of the postnatal dentate gyrus in offspring of swimming mother at postnatal day (P) 8 accompanied with decreased survival of newly generated cells 4 weeks later. The reduction in cell numbers was predominantly seen in the hilus and molecular layer. At P35, the reduced amount of cells was also reflected by a decrease in the population of newly generated immature and mature neurons of the granule cell layer. Our data suggest that forced maternal swimming at high-intensity has a negative effect on the neurogenic niche development in postnatal offspring. PMID:27621701

  9. Neurobehavioral Performance in Young Adults Living on a 28-h Day for 6 Weeks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung H.; Wang, Wei; Silva, Edward J.; Chang, Anne-Marie; Scheuermaier, Karine D.; Cain, Sean W.; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Performance on many cognitive tasks varies with time awake and with circadian phase, and the forced desynchrony (FD) protocol can be used to separate these influences on performance. Some performance tasks show practice effects, whereas the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) has been reported not to show such effects. We aimed to compare performance on the PVT and on an addition test (ADD) across a 6-week FD study, to determine whether practice effects were present and to analyze the circadian and wake-dependent modulation of the 2 measures. Design and Setting: A 47-day FD study conducted at the Brigham and Women's Hospital General Clinical Research Center. Participants: Eleven healthy adults (mean age: 24.4 years, 2 women). Measurements and Results: For 2 baseline days and across 6 weeks of FD, we gave a test battery (ADD, PVT, self-rating of effort and performance) every 2 hours. During FD, there was a significant (P < 0.0001) improvement in ADD performance (more correct calculations completed), whereas PVT performance (mean reaction time, fastest 10% reaction times, lapses) significantly (P < 0.0001) declined week by week. Subjective ratings of PVT performance indicated that subjects felt their performance improved across the study (P < 0.0001), but their rating of whether they could have performed better with greater effort did not change across the study (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The decline in PVT performance suggests a cumulative effect of sleep loss across the 6-week study. Subjects did not accurately detect their declining PVT performance, and a motivational factor could not explain this decline. Citation: Lee JH; Wang W; Silva EJ; Chang AM; Scheuermaier KD; Cain SW; Duffy JF. Neurobehavioral performance in young adults living on a 28-h day for 6 weeks. SLEEP 2009;32(7):905-913. PMID:19639753

  10. Look at Me! Does the Adult Truly See and Respond to the Child in Finnish Day-Care Centres?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalliala, Marjatta

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the Kangaroo research project was to enhance the well-being of children under three years of age in Finnish day-care centres. In this experimental intervention study adults were encouraged to take a more sensitive and active role especially during "free play." In six Kangaroo groups and five control groups adults (N = 28) and children…

  11. Early life stress increases anxiety-like behavior in Balbc mice despite a compensatory increase in levels of postnatal maternal care

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lan; David, Aisha; Duman, Ron S.; Anisman, Hymie; Kaffman, Arie

    2010-01-01

    A better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which early life stress (ELS) modifies brain development and adult behavior is necessary for diagnosing and treating psychopathology associated with exposure to ELS. For historical reasons most of the work in rodents has been done in rats and attempts to establish robust and reproducible paradigms in the mouse have proven to be challenging. Here we show that under normal rearing conditions, increased levels of postnatal maternal care are associated with a decrease in anxiety-like behavior in BALB/cByj offspring. Brief daily pup-dam separation (BDS) during the postnatal period was associated with increased postnatal maternal care but was surprisingly associated with increased anxiety-like behavior in adult offspring, providing the first example in which offspring receiving higher levels of postnatal maternal care are more anxious in adulthood. Plasma corticosterone levels were elevated in BDS pups even three hours after the pups were reunited with the dam, suggesting that this paradigm represents a form of early life stress. We also show that levels of total RNA and DNA in the hippocampus reach a peak at postnatal day 14 and that exposure to BDS seems to inhibit this developmental growth spurt. We propose that exposure to stress during the postnatal period overrides the ability of high levels of postnatal maternal care to program anxiety-like behavior by inhibiting the normal growth spurt that characterizes this period. PMID:20096699

  12. Effect of seven days of spaceflight on hindlimb muscle protein, RNA and DNA in adult rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of seven days of spaceflight on skeletal muscle (soleus, gastrocnemius, EDL) content of protein, RNA and DNA were determined in adult rats. Whereas total protein contents were reduced in parallel with muscle weights, myofibrillar protein appeared to be more affected. There were no significant changes in absolute DNA contents, but a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in DNA concentration (microgram/milligram) in soleus muscles from flight rats. Absolute RNA contents were significantly (P less than 0.025) decreased in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of flight rats, with RNA concentrations reduced 15-30 percent. These results agree with previous ground-based observations on the suspended rat with unloaded hindlimbs and support continued use of this model.

  13. [Novel calretinin-positive cells with polymorphous spines in the mouse forebrain during early postnatal ontogenesis].

    PubMed

    Revishchin, A V; Okhotin, V E; Pavlova, G V

    2009-01-01

    Using an immunocytochemical method for calretinin (CR) detection, we have earlier described (Morfologiya, 2009 v. 135. No. 3, p. 7-19) the population of previously unknown mono- and bipolar cells with polymorphous spines (PS) covering their cell bodies and processes, in adult mice forebrain structures adjacent to anterior horn of lateral ventricle. CR-positive spiny (CR+PS) cells were negative to GAD67 and were detected in the white matter and in layers V and VI of frontal area of dorsomedial cortex close to the cingulum, in in rostro-dorsal part of the caudate nucleus-putamen complex, anterior olfactory nucleus and in subependymal layer of the dorso-lateral angle of the lateral ventricle. In this work, the distribution of these cells in 7-day-old mice was studied. Comparative topographical analysis of definitive and early CR+PS cells demonstrated that in 7-day-old mice CR+PS cells were absent from the areas of their localization in adult animals - anterior olfactory nucleus, cortical plate and inner portion of neostriatum. Meanwhile, some CR+PS-like cells were detected in 7-day-old mice inside the rostral migratory route, close to neostriatum anterior boundary, along the dorsal border between neostriatum and corpus callosum, subependymal layer of lateral wall of the lateral ventricle, and in the cingulum area. These findings are indicative of the possible postnatal appearance of CR+PS cells. To test this hypothesis, the experiments were conducted in which bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered to the mice on their postnatal days 2-4 with the subsequent study of the brain sections of these animals sacrificed on their postnatal day 20. Double immunolabeling of these sections for CR and BrdU has detected the presence of CR+PS cells that contained postnatally administered BrdU. These results strongly suggest that, at least, some portion of CR+PS cells have their mitosis postnatally. It may be assumed, that CR+PS cells migrate to the sites of their distribution in

  14. 76 FR 44573 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service Payment Rates, and Administrative Reimbursement Rates for Sponsoring Organizations of Day Care Homes for the Period July 1,...

  15. The Relationship Between Nurse Staffing and 30-Day Readmission for Adults With Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Giuliano, Karen K.; Danesh, Valerie; Funk, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to better understand the relationship between nurse staffing and 30-day excess readmission ratios for patients with heart failure in the top US adult cardiology and heart surgery hospitals. BACKGROUND Heart failure is the most common cause of hospitalization for patients older than 65 years and is the most frequent diagnosis associated with 30-day hospital readmission in the United States. METHODS A secondary data analysis was conducted using nurse staffing data from 661 cardiology and heart surgery hospitals from the 2013 US News & World Report “Best Hospitals” survey. These data were combined with excess readmission ratios from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Hospital Compare database from 2013. An independent-samples t test was used to compare staffing (low/high) and excess hospital readmissions rates. RESULTS A significant difference (P = .021) was found between the low nurse staffing group (n = 358) and the high nurse staffing group (n = 303). Hospitals with a lower nurse staffing index had a significantly higher excess readmission rate. CONCLUSION These data provide further support to the body of research showing a positive relationship between nurse staffing and positive outcomes. PMID:26579974

  16. Postnatal changes in fatty acids composition of brown adipose tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, T.; Ogawa, K.; Kuroshima, A.

    1992-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that thermogenic activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is higher during the early postnatal period, decreasing towards a low adult level. The present study examined postnatal changes in the lipid composition of BAT. BAT from pre-weaning rats at 4 and 14 days old showed the following differences in lipid composition compared to that from adults of 12 weeks old. (i) Relative weight of interscapular BAT to body weight was markedly greater. (ii) BAT-triglyceride (TG) level was lower, while BAT-phospholipid (PL)level was higher. (iii) In TG fatty acids (FA) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PU; mol %), arachidonate index (AI), unsaturation index (UI) and PU/saturated FA (SA) were higher; rare FA such as eicosadienoate, bishomo- γ-linolenic acid and lignoceric acid in mol % were also higher. (iv) In PL-FA monounsaturated FA (MU) in mol % was lower; PU mol %, AI and UI were higher. These features in BAT of pre-weaning rats resembled those in the cold-acclimated adults, suggesting a close relationship of the PL-FA profile to high activity of BAT.

  17. Training unemployed women for adult day care in Izmir, Turkey: a program evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Shereen; Oğlak, Sema

    2014-01-01

    The proportion of older people in Turkey is increasing steadily with a subsequent growth of long-term care (LTC) needs. There is a scarcity of formal care provisions for residential and particularly nonresidential settings. Thus, formal caregiving is not meeting LTC needs nor attracting workers as a labor option. The authors examine the hypothesis that LTC may offer work opportunities for women unfamiliar with caregiving as an occupation, and also examine the need and acceptance of different types of LTC beyond residential care. The authors evaluate an innovative project introducing these two elements to 76 women in İzmir, Turkey, using an analysis framework that incorporates factors related to applications and progression; management assessment; trainees' self-assessment reflecting on their views on aging; and older people's perception of the experience and its impact on their well-being. Trainees reported a major positive shift in their attitudes toward working in LTC and toward the aging process. Users reported discovering a new dimension to care, which directly affected their quality of life. Overall, this community-based initiative appeared effective in enhancing the awareness of the concept of adult day centers providing a social model of care, and appears promising in addressing the growing need for formal LTC in Turkey. PMID:23701487

  18. Postnatal development of retrosplenial projections to the parahippocampal region of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Sugar, Jørgen; Witter, Menno P

    2016-01-01

    The rat parahippocampal region (PHR) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) are cortical areas important for spatial cognition. In PHR, head-direction cells are present before eye-opening, earliest detected in postnatal day (P)11 animals. Border cells have been recorded around eye-opening (P16), while grid cells do not obtain adult-like features until the fourth postnatal week. In view of these developmental time-lines, we aimed to explore when afferents originating in RSC arrive in PHR. To this end, we injected rats aged P0-P28 with anterograde tracers into RSC. First, we characterized the organization of RSC-PHR projections in postnatal rats and compared these results with data obtained in the adult. Second, we described the morphological development of axonal plexus in PHR. We conclude that the first arriving RSC-axons in PHR, present from P1 onwards, already show a topographical organization similar to that seen in adults, although the labeled plexus does not obtain adult-like densities until P12. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13925.001 PMID:27008178

  19. Task Specific Frequencies of Neck Motion Measured in Healthy Young Adults over a 5 Day Period

    PubMed Central

    Cobian, Daniel G.; Sterling, Andrew C.; Anderson, Paul A.; Heiderscheit, Bryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Observational cohort design. Objective To quantify the frequencies and magnitudes of neck motion during daily activities in healthy subjects. Summary of Background Data Previous studies have measured the maximum excursions during re-created ADLs in lab settings, but there is a lack of information available on frequencies and excursions of neck motion with ADLs in non-artificial settings. Methods Ten healthy young adults were fitted with a portable motion measurement device that recorded movement about each primary axis. Participants were instructed to wear the unit continuously over a 5-day period and record their daily activities with corresponding times. After the collection period, subjects' activity logs were analyzed and data were partitioned into five categories which provided the most primary representation of ADLs: athletics, work, travel, sleep, and miscellaneous. Each category was further divided into increasingly specific activities (e.g. running and walking). Frequency of motions within 5° increments was determined and an hourly rate was calculated for each activity. Median motion about each axis for each activity was also determined. Results The total number of movements per hour for all axes, regardless of amplitude, was highest during athletic activity and lowest during sleeping. The majority of movements (92% of athletic activity, 90% of work) required less than 25° of lateral bending, while greater range of movement requirements were observed for flexion-extension and axial rotation. The median range of motion along all axes was highest for athletic activity and lowest for sleeping. Conclusions The results of this study provide a baseline of the frequency and magnitude of neck motion during normal ADLs for the specified population. These findings can assist physicians and physical therapists in determining the extent of disability and identifying activities that will likely be problematic for patients with limited cervical motion

  20. Meal Replacement Beverage Twice a Day in Overweight and Obese Adults (MDRC2012-001).

    PubMed

    Frestedt, Joy L; Young, Lindsay R; Bell, Margie

    2012-11-01

    This open label, single arm, prospective, interventional, weight loss trial evaluated a meal replacement beverage (Right Size(®) Smoothie) used to replace breakfast and lunch each day for 12 weeks (7 clinic visits) as part of a calorie-restricted diet in overweight and obese adults. A total of 155 individuals were screened, 55 enrolled and 28 completed this 12 week study. Subjects were obese (mean weight: 206 pounds and BMI: 32.7 kg/m(2)) and the mean age was 40 years including 42 (76.4%) female and 13 (23.6%) male volunteers. The modified Intent to Treat and Completer groups lost an average of 10.6 and 13.8 pounds and reduced their average BMI by 1.7 and 2.2 kg/m(2) respectively during this 12 week trial. The Per Protocol group lost 15.2 pounds and 2.4 kg/m(2) and the Optimal Weight Loss group lost 18.5 pounds and 2.9 kg/m(2). Using the Satiety Labeled Intensity Magnitude scale (SLIM) questionnaire, subjects reported feeling relatively hungry before they consumed the beverage, then feeling relatively full 15 minutes following the beverage with the sensation of some fullness lasting more than 2 hours and then feeling relatively hungry again at 3 hours after consuming the beverage. Study subjects reported significant improvements in physical functioning, general health, vitality and mental health as well as increased cognitive restraint of eating, reduced disinhibition and reduced hunger during the trial. The study beverages were well tolerated and no Serious Adverse Events (SAE) reported. This study suggests the study beverage aids in weight loss by helping to curb hunger during a reduced calorie diet program. PMID:23236298

  1. Recruiting Older Adults into a Physical Activity Promotion Program: "Active Living Every Day" Offered in a Naturally Occurring Retirement Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Mary; Neufeld, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores recruitment strategies based on the transtheoretical model (TTM) with older adults living in a naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) to encourage enrollment in a physical activity promotion program, "Active Living Every Day" (ALED). Reasons for participation or nonparticipation are identified. Design and…

  2. Prevalence of Behavior Disorder and Disturbance to Family and Staff in a Sample of Adult Day Health Care Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teresi, Jeanne A.; Holmes, Douglas; Dichter, Elizabeth; Koren, Mary Jane; Ramirez, Mildred; Fairchild, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Reports on the prevalence of behavior disorders in a sample of residents (N=360) in adult day health care programs. Findings indicate relatively high rates of behavior disorders. Most prevalent were the affective disorders (seeking reassurance, depression, crying) and verbal-vocal agitation. Differences between formal and informal caregivers'…

  3. "One Day I Will Make It": A Study of Adult Student Persistence in Library Literacy Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Kristin E.; Cuban, Sondra; Comings, John P.

    2005-01-01

    Although research indicates that adults with low literacy skills need 100 to 150 hours of instruction to advance one grade level, adults in literacy programs participate in instruction for an average of only 70 hours per year. The Wallace Foundation launched the Literacy in Libraries Across America (LILAA) initiative in 1996 to help library-based…

  4. Central myelin gene expression during postnatal development in rats exposed to nicotine gestationally.

    PubMed

    Cao, Junran; Dwyer, Jennifer B; Gautier, Nicole M; Leslie, Frances M; Li, Ming D

    2013-10-11

    Abnormal myelin gene expression in the central nervous system (CNS) is associated with many mental illnesses, including psychiatric disorders and drug addiction. We have previously shown that prenatal exposure to nicotine, the major psychoactive component in cigarette smoke, alters myelin gene expression in the CNS of adolescent rats. To examine whether this effect is specific for adolescents, we examined myelin gene expression in the CNS of juveniles and adults. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with nicotine (3 mg/kg/day; GN) or saline (GS) via osmotic mini pumps from gestational days 4-18. Both male and female offspring were sacrificed at postnatal day P20-21 (juveniles), P35-36 (adolescents), or P59-60 (adults). Three limbic brain regions, the prefrontal cortex (PFC), caudate putamen (CPu), and nucleus accumbens (NAc), were dissected. The expression of genes encoding major myelin components was evaluated using quantitative RT-PCR. We found that GN altered myelin gene expression in juveniles with brain region and sex differences. The pattern of alteration was different from that observed in adolescents. Although these genes were expressed normally in male adults, we observed decreased expression in GN-treated female adults, especially in the CPu. Thus, GN altered myelin gene expression throughout postnatal development and adulthood. The effect on adolescents was quite different from that at other ages, which correlated with the unique symptoms of many psychiatric disorders during adolescence. PMID:23962570

  5. Neonatal hyperoxic lung injury favorably alters adult right ventricular remodeling response to chronic hypoxia exposure

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Kara N.; Cucci, Anthony R.; Fisher, Amanda J.; Albrecht, Marjorie; Frump, Andrea; Tursunova, Roziya; Gao, Yong; Brown, Mary Beth; Petrache, Irina; Tepper, Robert S.; Ahlfeld, Shawn K.

    2015-01-01

    The development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) requires multiple pulmonary vascular insults, yet the role of early oxygen therapy as an initial pulmonary vascular insult remains poorly defined. Here, we employ a two-hit model of PH, utilizing postnatal hyperoxia followed by adult hypoxia exposure, to evaluate the role of early hyperoxic lung injury in the development of later PH. Sprague-Dawley pups were exposed to 90% oxygen during postnatal days 0–4 or 0–10 or to room air. All pups were then allowed to mature in room air. At 10 wk of age, a subset of rats from each group was exposed to 2 wk of hypoxia (Patm = 362 mmHg). Physiological, structural, and biochemical endpoints were assessed at 12 wk. Prolonged (10 days) postnatal hyperoxia was independently associated with elevated right ventricular (RV) systolic pressure, which worsened after hypoxia exposure later in life. These findings were only partially explained by decreases in lung microvascular density. Surprisingly, postnatal hyperoxia resulted in robust RV hypertrophy and more preserved RV function and exercise capacity following adult hypoxia compared with nonhyperoxic rats. Biochemically, RVs from animals exposed to postnatal hyperoxia and adult hypoxia demonstrated increased capillarization and a switch to a fetal gene pattern, suggesting an RV more adept to handle adult hypoxia following postnatal hyperoxia exposure. We concluded that, despite negative impacts on pulmonary artery pressures, postnatal hyperoxia exposure may render a more adaptive RV phenotype to tolerate late pulmonary vascular insults. PMID:25659904

  6. Neonatal hyperoxic lung injury favorably alters adult right ventricular remodeling response to chronic hypoxia exposure.

    PubMed

    Goss, Kara N; Cucci, Anthony R; Fisher, Amanda J; Albrecht, Marjorie; Frump, Andrea; Tursunova, Roziya; Gao, Yong; Brown, Mary Beth; Petrache, Irina; Tepper, Robert S; Ahlfeld, Shawn K; Lahm, Tim

    2015-04-15

    The development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) requires multiple pulmonary vascular insults, yet the role of early oxygen therapy as an initial pulmonary vascular insult remains poorly defined. Here, we employ a two-hit model of PH, utilizing postnatal hyperoxia followed by adult hypoxia exposure, to evaluate the role of early hyperoxic lung injury in the development of later PH. Sprague-Dawley pups were exposed to 90% oxygen during postnatal days 0-4 or 0-10 or to room air. All pups were then allowed to mature in room air. At 10 wk of age, a subset of rats from each group was exposed to 2 wk of hypoxia (Patm = 362 mmHg). Physiological, structural, and biochemical endpoints were assessed at 12 wk. Prolonged (10 days) postnatal hyperoxia was independently associated with elevated right ventricular (RV) systolic pressure, which worsened after hypoxia exposure later in life. These findings were only partially explained by decreases in lung microvascular density. Surprisingly, postnatal hyperoxia resulted in robust RV hypertrophy and more preserved RV function and exercise capacity following adult hypoxia compared with nonhyperoxic rats. Biochemically, RVs from animals exposed to postnatal hyperoxia and adult hypoxia demonstrated increased capillarization and a switch to a fetal gene pattern, suggesting an RV more adept to handle adult hypoxia following postnatal hyperoxia exposure. We concluded that, despite negative impacts on pulmonary artery pressures, postnatal hyperoxia exposure may render a more adaptive RV phenotype to tolerate late pulmonary vascular insults. PMID:25659904

  7. Without Speaking, Youth Enters Adult Work Scene, Copes with Autism a Day at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patti

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the story of Chad Roberts of Canton, Georgia, who is proving himself a promising employee day by day. He works several jobs in increments of up to 90 minutes. Some days, he completes bulk mailings at a law firm. On others, he's at local restaurants stocking the wait staff stations with supplies. The community-based vocational…

  8. Post-natal imprinting: evidence from marsupials.

    PubMed

    Stringer, J M; Pask, A J; Shaw, G; Renfree, M B

    2014-08-01

    Genomic imprinting has been identified in therian (eutherian and marsupial) mammals but not in prototherian (monotreme) mammals. Imprinting has an important role in optimising pre-natal nutrition and growth, and most imprinted genes are expressed and imprinted in the placenta and developing fetus. In marsupials, however, the placental attachment is short-lived, and most growth and development occurs post-natally, supported by a changing milk composition tailor-made for each stage of development. Therefore there is a much greater demand on marsupial females during post-natal lactation than during pre-natal placentation, so there may be greater selection for genomic imprinting in the mammary gland than in the short-lived placenta. Recent studies in the tammar wallaby confirm the presence of genomic imprinting in nutrient-regulatory genes in the adult mammary gland. This suggests that imprinting may influence infant post-natal growth via the mammary gland as it does pre-natally via the placenta. Similarly, an increasing number of imprinted genes have been implicated in regulating feeding and nurturing behaviour in both the adult and the developing neonate/offspring in mice. Together these studies provide evidence that genomic imprinting is critical for regulating growth and subsequently the survival of offspring not only pre-natally but also post-natally. PMID:24595366

  9. Effect of placental restriction and neonatal exendin-4 treatment on postnatal growth, adult body composition, and in vivo glucose metabolism in the sheep.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Schultz, Christopher G; De Blasio, Miles J; Peura, Anita M; Heinemann, Gary K; Harryanto, Himawan; Hunter, Damien S; Wooldridge, Amy L; Kind, Karen L; Giles, Lynne C; Simmons, Rebecca A; Owens, Julie A; Gatford, Kathryn L

    2015-09-15

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases the risk of adult type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. Neonatal exendin-4 treatment can prevent diabetes in the IUGR rat, but whether this will be effective in a species where the pancreas is more mature at birth is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of neonatal exendin-4 administration after experimental restriction of placental and fetal growth on growth and adult metabolic outcomes in sheep. Body composition, glucose tolerance, and insulin secretion and sensitivity were assessed in singleton-born adult sheep from control (CON; n = 6 females and 4 males) and placentally restricted pregnancies (PR; n = 13 females and 7 males) and in sheep from PR pregnancies that were treated with exendin-4 as neonates (daily sc injections of 1 nmol/kg exendin-4; PR + exendin-4; n = 11 females and 7 males). Placental restriction reduced birth weight (by 29%) and impaired glucose tolerance in the adult but did not affect adult adiposity, insulin secretion, or insulin sensitivity. Neonatal exendin-4 suppressed growth during treatment, followed by delayed catchup growth and unchanged adult adiposity. Neonatal exendin-4 partially restored glucose tolerance in PR progeny but did not affect insulin secretion or sensitivity. Although the effects on glucose tolerance are promising, the lack of effects on adult body composition, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity suggest that the neonatal period may be too late to fully reprogram the metabolic consequences of IUGR in species that are more mature at birth than rodents. PMID:26219868

  10. New calretinin-positive cells with polymorphous spines in the mouse forebrain during early postnatal ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Revishchin, A V; Okhotin, V E; Pavlova, G V

    2010-10-01

    Immunohistochemical studies of calretinin (CR) in forebrain structures adjacent to the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle in adult mice allowed us to detect a population of previously unknown mono- and bipolar cells whose bodies and processes were coated with polymorphous spines (PS) (Morfologiya, 135, No. 3, 7-19 (2009)). CR-positive spiny (CR(+)PS) cells did not contain GAD67 and were located in the white matter and layers V-VI of the frontal area of the dorsomedial cortex close to the cingulum, the rostrodorsal part of the caudate-putamen, the anterior olfactory nucleus, and the subependyma of the dorsolateral angle of the lateral ventricle. We report here studies of the distribution of these cells in seven-day-old mice. Comparative topographic analysis of definitive and early CR(+)PS cells showed that in seven-day-old mice, CR(+)PS cells were absent from the sites at which they were seen in adults, i.e., the anterior olfactory cortex, the cortical plate, and the inner part of the neostriatum. In addition, small numbers of CR(+)PS-like cells were seen at this age within the dorsal migration pathway, at the anterior margin of the neostriatum, along the dorsal border of the neostriatum with the corpus callosum, in the subependymal layer of the lateral wall of the lateral ventricle, and in the cingulum area. These data demonstrate that CR(+)PS cells may have a postnatal origin. Experiments to verify this hypothesis were performed using postnatal administration of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to mice aged 2-4 days, followed by assessment of brain sections fixed at age 20 days. Double immunolabeling of sections for CR and BrdU demonstrated the presence of CR(+)PS cells containing postnatally supplied BrdU. These data provide evidence that at least some CR(+)PS cells undergo mitosis at postnatal age. In all probability, during the period from 7 to 20 days of postnatal development, CR(+)PS cells migrate to the sites that they occupy in adult animals. PMID:20721693

  11. Loss of Matriptase Suppression Underlies Spint1 Mutation-Associated Ichthyosis and Postnatal Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Roman; Kosa, Peter; List, Karin; Bugge, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor-1 (HAI)-1 is an epithelial Kunitz-type transmembrane serine protease inhibitor that is encoded by the SPINT1 gene. HAI-1 displays potent inhibitory activity toward a large number of trypsin-like serine proteases. HAI-1 was recently shown to play an essential role in postnatal epithelial homeostasis. Thus, Spint1-deficient mice were found to display severe growth retardation and are unable to survive beyond postnatal day 16. The mice present histologically with overt hyperkeratosis of the forestomach, hyperkeratosis and acanthosis of the epidermis, and hypotrichosis associated with abnormal cuticle development. In this study, we show that loss of inhibition of a proteolytic pathway that is dependent on the type II transmembrane serine protease, matriptase, underlies the detrimental effects of postnatal Spint1 deficiency. Matriptase and HAI-1 precisely co-localize in all tissues that are affected by the Spint1 disruption. Spint1-deficient mice that have low matriptase levels, caused by a hypomorphic mutation in the St14 gene that encodes matriptase, not only survived the neonatal period but were healthy and displayed normal long-term survival. Furthermore, a detailed histological analysis of neonatal, young adult, as well as aged mice did not reveal any abnormalities in Spint1-deficent mice that have low matriptase levels. This study identifies matriptase suppression as an essential function of HAI-1 in postnatal tissue homeostasis. PMID:19389929

  12. Postnatal development of echolocation abilities in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus): temporal organization.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Livio; Gnone, Guido; Pessani, Daniela

    2013-03-01

    In spite of all the information available on adult bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) biosonar, the ontogeny of its echolocation abilities has been investigated very little. Earlier studies have reported that neonatal dolphins can produce both whistles and burst-pulsed sounds just after birth and that early-pulsed sounds are probably a precursor of echolocation click trains. The aim of this research is to investigate the development of echolocation signals in a captive calf, born in the facilities of the Acquario di Genova. A set of 81 impulsive sounds were collected from birth to the seventh postnatal week and six additional echolocation click trains were recorded when the dolphin was 1 year old. Moreover, behavioral observations, concurring with sound production, were carried out by means of a video camera. For each sound we measured five acoustic parameters: click train duration (CTD), number of clicks per train, minimum, maximum, and mean click repetition rate (CRR). CTD and number of clicks per train were found to increase with age. Maximum and mean CRR followed a decreasing trend with dolphin growth starting from the second postnatal week. The calf's first head scanning movement was recorded 21 days after birth. Our data suggest that in the bottlenose dolphin the early postnatal weeks are essential for the development of echolocation abilities and that the temporal features of the echolocation click trains remain relatively stable from the seventh postnatal week up to the first year of life. PMID:23362088

  13. Postnatal growth rates covary weakly with embryonic development rates and do not explain adult mortality probability among songbirds on four continents.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas E; Oteyza, Juan C; Mitchell, Adam E; Potticary, Ahva L; Lloyd, Penn

    2015-03-01

    Growth and development rates may result from genetic programming of intrinsic processes that yield correlated rates between life stages. These intrinsic rates are thought to affect adult mortality probability and longevity. However, if proximate extrinsic factors (e.g., temperature, food) influence development rates differently between stages and yield low covariance between stages, then development rates may not explain adult mortality probability. We examined these issues based on study of 90 songbird species on four continents to capture the diverse life-history strategies observed across geographic space. The length of the embryonic period explained little variation (ca. 13%) in nestling periods and growth rates among species. This low covariance suggests that the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic influences on growth and development rates differs between stages. Consequently, nestling period durations and nestling growth rates were not related to annual adult mortality probability among diverse songbird species within or among sites. The absence of a clear effect of faster growth on adult mortality when examined in an evolutionary framework across species may indicate that species that evolve faster growth also evolve physiological mechanisms for ameliorating costs on adult mortality. Instead, adult mortality rates of species in the wild may be determined more strongly by extrinsic environmental causes. PMID:25674692

  14. Postnatal growth rates covary weakly with embryonic development rates and do not explain adult mortality probability among songbirds on four continents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Thomas E.; Oteyza, Juan C.; Mitchell, Adam E.; Potticary, Ahva L.; Lloyd, P.

    2016-01-01

    Growth and development rates may result from genetic programming of intrinsic processes that yield correlated rates between life stages. These intrinsic rates are thought to affect adult mortality probability and longevity. However, if proximate extrinsic factors (e.g., temperature, food) influence development rates differently between stages and yield low covariance between stages, then development rates may not explain adult mortality probability. We examined these issues based on study of 90 songbird species on four continents to capture the diverse life-history strategies observed across geographic space. The length of the embryonic period explained little variation (ca. 13%) in nestling periods and growth rates among species. This low covariance suggests that the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic influences on growth and development rates differs between stages. Consequently, nestling period durations and nestling growth rates were not related to annual adult mortality probability among diverse songbird species within or among sites. The absence of a clear effect of faster growth on adult mortality when examined in an evolutionary framework across species may indicate that species that evolve faster growth also evolve physiological mechanisms for ameliorating costs on adult mortality. Instead, adult mortality rates of species in the wild may be determined more strongly by extrinsic environmental causes.

  15. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging in an adult cohort following prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Janulewicz, Patricia A; Killiany, Ronald J; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Aschengrau, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This population-based retrospective cohort study examined Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and Geographic Information System (GIS) methodology. Brain imaging was performed on 26 exposed and 16 unexposed subjects. Scans were acquired on a Philips 3T whole body scanner using the ADNI T1-weighted MP-RAGE scan. The scans were processed by FreeSurfer version 4.3.1 software to obtain measurements of specific brain regions. There were no statistically significant differences between exposed and unexposed subjects on the measures of white matter hypointensities (β: 127.5mm(3), 95% CI: -259.1, 1514.0), white matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral white matter: β: 21230.0mm(3), 95% CI: -4512.6, 46971.7) or gray matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral gray matter: β: 11976.0mm(3), 95% CI: -13657.2, 37609.3). The results of this study suggest that exposure to PCE during gestation and early childhood, at the levels observed in this population, is not associated with alterations in the brain structures studied. PMID:23571160

  16. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging in an Adult Cohort Following Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Janulewicz, Patricia A; Killiany, Ronald J; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Aschengrau, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This population-based retrospective cohort study examined Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and Geographic Information System (GIS) methodology. Brain imaging was performed on 26 exposed and 16 unexposed subjects. Scans were acquired on a Philips 3T whole body scanner using the ADNI T1-weighted MP-RAGE scan. The scans were processed by FreeSurfer version 4.3.1 software to obtain measurements of specific brain regions. There were no statistically significant differences between exposed and unexposed subjects on measures of white matter hypointensities (β: 127.5 mm3, 95% CI: −259.1, 1514.0), white matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral white matter: β: 21230.0 mm3, 95% CI: −4512.6, 46971.7) or gray matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral gray matter: β: 11976.0 mm3, 95% CI: −13657.2, 37609.3). The results of this study suggest that exposure to PCE during gestation and early childhood, at the levels observed in this population, is not associated with alterations in the brain structures studied. PMID:23571160

  17. Comparison of older adults' steps per day using NL-1000 pedometer and two GT3X+ accelerometer filters.

    PubMed

    Barreira, Tiago V; Brouillette, Robert M; Foil, Heather C; Keller, Jeffrey N; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the steps/d derived from the ActiGraph GT3X+ using the manufacturer's default filter (DF) and low-frequency-extension filter (LFX) with those from the NL-1000 pedometer in an older adult sample. Fifteen older adults (61-82 yr) wore a GT3X+ (24 hr/day) and an NL-1000 (waking hours) for 7 d. Day was the unit of analysis (n = 86 valid days) comparing (a) GT3X+ DF and NL-1000 steps/d and (b) GT3X+ LFX and NL-1000 steps/d. DF was highly correlated with NL-1000 (r = .80), but there was a significant mean difference (-769 steps/d). LFX and NL-1000 were highly correlated (r = .90), but there also was a significant mean difference (8,140 steps/d). Percent difference and absolute percent difference between DF and NL-1000 were -7.4% and 16.0%, respectively, and for LFX and NL-1000 both were 121.9%. Regardless of filter used, GT3X+ did not provide comparable pedometer estimates of steps/d in this older adult sample. PMID:23170752

  18. MAINTENANCE OF TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION BY PURIFIED ADULT RAT LEYDIG CELLS FOR THREE DAYS IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using a preparation of highly purified, adult rat Leydig cells and conditions of culture which we found to optimize testosterone production during 24 h, we sought to maintain optimal testosterone production for 3 d. eydig cells cultured on Cytodex 3 beads at 19% O2 in Dulbecco's ...

  19. Prenatal Exposure to Lamotrigine: Effects on Postnatal Development and Behaviour in Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Sathiya, Sekar; Ganesh, Murugan; Kalaivani, Periyathambi; Ranju, Vijayan; Janani, Srinivasan; Pramila, Bakthavachalam; Saravana Babu, Chidambaram

    2014-01-01

    Use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in pregnancy warrants various side effects and also deleterious effects on fetal development. The present study was carried out to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to lamotrigine (LTG) on postnatal development and behavioural alterations of offspring. Adult male and female Sprague Dawley rats weighing 150–180 g b. wt. were allowed to copulate and pregnancy was confirmed by vaginal cytology. Pregnant rats were treated with LTG (11.5, 23, and 46 mg/kg, p.o) from gestational day 3 (GND 3) and this treatment continued till postnatal day 11 (PND 11). Offspring were separated from their dam on day 21 following parturition. LTG, at 46 mg/kg, p.o, produced severe clinical signs of toxicity leading to death of dam between GND 15 and 17. LTG, at 11.5 and 23 mg/kg, p.o, showed significant alterations in offspring's incisors eruption and vaginal opening when compared to age matched controls. LTG (23 mg/kg, p.o) exposed female offspring expressed hyperactive behaviour and decreased GABA-A receptor expression when compared to control rats. These results reveal that prenatal exposure to LTG may impart differential postnatal behavioural alterations between male and female rats which paves way for further investigations. PMID:24967313

  20. Postnatal treadmill exercise alleviates short-term memory impairment by enhancing cell proliferation and suppressing apoptosis in the hippocampus of rat pups born to diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Hoon; Sung, Yun-Hee; Lee, Hee-Hyuk; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Bo-Kyun

    2014-01-01

    During pregnancy, diabetes mellitus exerts detrimental effects on the development of the fetus, especially the central nervous system. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of postnatal treadmill exercise on short-term memory in relation with cell proliferation and apoptosis in the hippocampus of rat pups born to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic maternal rats. Adult female rats were mated with male rats for 24 h. Two weeks after mating, the pregnant female rats were divided into two groups: control group and STZ injection group. The pregnant rats in the STZ injection group were administered 40 mg/kg of STZ intraperitoneally. After birth, the rat pups were divided into the following four groups: control group, control with postnatal exercise group, maternal STZ-injection group, and maternal STZ-injection with postnatal exercise group. The rat pups in the postnatal exercise groups were made to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day, 5 times per week for 2 weeks beginning 4 weeks after birth. The rat pups born to diabetic rats were shown to have short-term memory impairment with suppressed cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Postnatal treadmill exercise alleviated short-term memory impairment by increased cell proliferation and suppressed apoptosis in the rat pups born to diabetic rats. These findings indicate that postnatal treadmill exercise may be used as a valuable strategy to ameliorate neurodevelopmental problems in children born to diabetics. PMID:25210695

  1. A day-centered approach to modeling cortisol: Diurnal cortisol profiles and their associations among U.S. adults

    PubMed Central

    Dmitrieva, Natalia O.; Almeida, David M.; Dmitrieva, Julia; Loken, Eric; Pieper, Carl F.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Diurnal cortisol is a marker of HPA-axis activity that may be one of the biological mechanisms linking stressors to age-related health declines. The current study identified day-centered profiles of diurnal cortisol among 1,101 adults living in the United States. Participants took part in up to four consecutive days of salivary cortisol collection, assessed at waking, 30 minutes post-waking, before lunch, and before bedtime. Growth Mixture Modeling with latent time basis was used to estimate common within-day trajectories of diurnal cortisol among 2,894 cortisol days. The 3-class solution provided the best model fit, showing that the majority of study days (73%) were characterized by a Normative cortisol pattern, with a robust cortisol awakening response (CAR), a steep negative diurnal slope, coupled with low awakening and bedtime levels. Relative to this profile, diurnal cortisol on the remainder of days appeared either Elevated throughout the day (20% of days) or Flattened (7% of days). Relative to the Normative trajectory, the Elevated trajectory was distinguished by a higher morning cortisol level, whereas the Flattened trajectory was characterized by a high bedtime level, with weaker CAR and diurnal slope parameters. Relative to the Normative profile, Elevated profile membership was associated with older age and cigarette smoking. Greater likelihood of the Flattened cortisol pattern was observed among participants who were older, male, smoked cigarettes, used medications that are known to affect cortisol output, and reported poorer health. The current study demonstrates the value of a day-centered Growth Mixture Modeling approach to the study of diurnal cortisol, showing that deviations from the classic robust rhythm of diurnal cortisol are associated with older age, male sex, use of medications previously shown to affect cortisol levels, poorer health behaviors, and poorer self-reported health. PMID:23770247

  2. Exercise of linguistic control by speakers in an adult day treatment program.

    PubMed

    Domingo, R A; Barrow, M B; Amato, J

    1998-08-01

    Ability of adults with mental retardation to exhibit linguistic "control" in informal settings within peer and staff dyads was evaluated. Results revealed that they produced significantly more utterances with staff than with peers in informal settings. However, they did not exhibit significant amounts of directives or questions, the two types of verbal control bids studied. Staff members used significantly more directives and questions as bids for control in non-peer settings than did the speakers with mental retardation in comparable peer interactions. Findings are consistent with observations of "learned helplessness" or prompt reliance within the population of persons with mental retardation. Results suggest that both staff members and adults with mental retardation have preconceived ideas on how to conduct themselves in daily interactions. PMID:9713185

  3. Marijuana use motives: concurrent relations to frequency of past 30-day use and anxiety sensitivity among young adult marijuana smokers.

    PubMed

    Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Zvolensky, Michael J; Bernstein, Amit

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation examined two theoretically relevant aspects of marijuana motives using the Marijuana Motives Measure (MMM) [Simons, J., Correia, C. J., Carey, K. B., & Borsari, B. E. (1998). Validating a five-factor marijuana motives measure: Relations with use, problems, and alcohol motives. Journal of Counseling Psychology 45, 265-273] among 141 (78 female) young adults (M(age)=20.17, S.D.=3.34). The first objective was to evaluate the incremental validity of marijuana motives in relation to frequency of past 30-day use after controlling for the theoretically relevant factors of the number of years using marijuana (lifetime), current levels of alcohol, as well as tobacco smoking use. As expected, coping, enhancement, social, and expansion motives each were uniquely and significantly associated with past 30-day marijuana use over and above the covariates; conformity motives were not a significant predictor. A second aim was to explore whether coping, but no other marijuana motive, was related to the emotional vulnerability individual difference factor of anxiety sensitivity (fear of anxiety). As hypothesized, after controlling for number of years using marijuana (lifetime), past 30-day marijuana use, current levels of alcohol consumption, and cigarettes smoked per day, anxiety sensitivity was incrementally and uniquely related to coping motives for marijuana use, but not other motives. These results are discussed in relation to the clinical implications of better understanding the role of motivation for marijuana use among emotionally vulnerable young adults. PMID:16647822

  4. Dynamic changes of the neurogenic potential in the rat cochlear nucleus during post-natal development.

    PubMed

    Rak, Kristen; Völker, Johannes; Frenz, Silke; Scherzed, Agmal; Radeloff, Andreas; Hagen, Rudolf; Mlynski, Robert

    2013-05-01

    Neuronal stem cells have been described in the post-natal cochlear nucleus recently. The aim of the study was to analyse the neurogenic potential in the cochlear nucleus from the early post-natal days until adulthood. Cochlear nuclei from Sprague-Dawley rats from post-natal day P3 up to P40 were examined. Neurosphere assays showed persistent neurosphere formation from the early post-natal days until adulthood. The numbers of generated neurospheres were fewer in older ages. Neurospheres were smaller, but displayed the same pattern of neuronal stem cell markers. The markers GFAP, MBP and ß-III Tubulin showed differentiation of dissociated cells from the neurospheres in all cells of the neuronal lineage. BrdU incorporation could be detected, in an age-dependent decrease, in whole-mount experiments of the cochlear nucleus on all examined days. BrdU co-labelled with Atoh1 and ß-III Tubulin. In addition, gene expression and cellular distribution studies of the neuronal stem cell markers displayed an age-dependent reduction in both quantity and numbers. The presented results display a possible neurogenic potential until adulthood in the cochlear nucleus by in vitro and in vivo experiments. The fact that this potential is highest at a critical period of development reveals possible functional importance for the development of the cochlear nucleus and the auditory function. The persistent neurogenic potential displayed until adulthood could be a neurogenic niche in the adult cochlear nucleus, which might be used for potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:23455726

  5. Cell proliferation and cell death are disturbed during prenatal and postnatal brain development after uranium exposure.

    PubMed

    Legrand, M; Elie, C; Stefani, J; N Florès; Culeux, C; Delissen, O; Ibanez, C; Lestaevel, P; Eriksson, P; Dinocourt, C

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is more susceptible to neurotoxic compounds than adult brain. It is also well known that disturbances during brain development cause neurological disorders in adulthood. The brain is known to be a target organ of uranium (U) exposure and previous studies have noted that internal U contamination of adult rats induces behavioral disorders as well as affects neurochemistry and neurophysiological properties. In this study, we investigated whether depleted uranium (DU) exposure affects neurogenesis during prenatal and postnatal brain development. We examined the structural morphology of the brain, cell death and finally cell proliferation in animals exposed to DU during gestation and lactation compared to control animals. Our results showed that DU decreases cell death in the cortical neuroepithelium of gestational day (GD) 13 embryos exposed at 40mg/L and 120mg/L and of GD18 fetuses exposed at 120mg/L without modification of the number of apoptotic cells. Cell proliferation analysis showed an increase of BrdU labeling in the dentate neuroepithelium of fetuses from GD18 at 120mg/L. Postnatally, cell death is increased in the dentate gyrus of postnatal day (PND) 0 and PND5 exposed pups at 120mg/L and is associated with an increase of apoptotic cell number only at PND5. Finally, a decrease in dividing cells is observed in the dentate gyrus of PND21 rats developmentally exposed to 120mg/L DU, but not at PND0 and PND5. These results show that DU exposure during brain development causes opposite effects on cell proliferation and cell death processes between prenatal and postnatal development mainly at the highest dose. Although these modifications do not have a major impact in brain morphology, they could affect the next steps of neurogenesis and thus might disrupt the fine organization of the neuronal network. PMID:26506049

  6. Behavioral and cognitive changes after early postnatal lesions of the rat mediodorsal thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Ouhaz, Zakaria; Ba-M’hamed, Saadia; Mitchell, Anna S.; Elidrissi, Abdeslem; Bennis, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Early insults to the thalamus result in functional and/or structural abnormalities in the cerebral cortex. However, differences in behavioral and cognitive changes after early insult are not well characterized. The present study assessed whether early postnatal damage to mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD), reciprocally interconnected with the prefrontal cortex, causes behavioral and cognitive alterations in young adult rats. Rat pups at postnatal day 4 received bilateral electrolytic lesion of MD, or a MD Sham lesion or were anesthetized controls; on recovery they were returned to their mothers until weaning. Seven weeks later, all rats were tested with the following behavioral and cognitive paradigms: T-maze test, open field test, actimetry, elevated plus maze test, social interactions test and passive avoidance test. Rats with bilateral MD damage presented with disrupted recognition memory, deficits in shifting response rules, significant hypoactivity, increased anxiety-like behavior, deficits in learning associations as well as decreased locomotor activity, and reduced social interactions compared to MD Sham lesion and anesthetized Control rats. The lesion also caused significant decreases in pyramidal cell density in three frontal cortex regions: medial infralimbic cortex, dorsolateral anterior cortex, and cingulate Cg1 cortex. The present findings suggest a functional role for MD in the postnatal maturation of affective behavior. Further some of the behavioral and cognitive alterations observed in these young adult rats after early MD lesion are reminiscent of those present in major psycho-affective disorders, such as schizophrenia in humans. PMID:26079768

  7. The combined effect of sleep and time of day on emotion decoding from dynamic visual cues in older adults.

    PubMed

    Tsokanaki, Paraskevi; Moraitou, Despina; Papantoniou, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that night sleep is a decisive factor for the effective functioning of the human body and mind. In addition to the role of sleep, older adults report that they are "morning types" and that their cognitive and emotional abilities seem to be at a higher level in the morning hours. In this vein, this study is aimed at examining the effect of sleep combined with the "time of day" condition on a specific ability that is crucial for interpersonal communication, namely, emotion recognition, in older adults. Specifically, the study compared older adults' performance in decoding emotions from ecologically valid, dynamic visual cues, in two conditions: "early in the morning and after night sleep", and "in the afternoon and after many hours since night sleep". An emotion recognition task was administered twice to 37 community-dwelling older adults. The results showed a statistically significant higher performance in the morning in decoding all emotions presented, compared to the afternoon condition. Pleasant surprise, sadness, and anxiety were revealed as the most difficult emotions to be recognized in the afternoon condition. PMID:27621639

  8. Evaluating the Functional Utility of Congregate Day Treatment Activities for Adults with Severe Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Dennis H.; Parsons, Marsha B.; Green, Carolyn W.

    2001-01-01

    Observations in 100 congregated community and institutional day-program sites for individuals with severe disabilities indicated that approximately half of consumer time was spent in purposeful activity, 75 percent of which was age-appropriate. In 20 percent of the sites most activity was age-inappropriate. Recommended program evaluation and…

  9. THIRTY-DAY HOSPITAL READMISSION RATE AMONG ADULTS LIVING WITH HIV

    PubMed Central

    BERRY, Stephen A.; FLEISHMAN, John A.; YEHIA, Baligh R.; KORTHUIS, P. Todd; AGWU, Allison L.; MOORE, Richard D.; GEBO, Kelly A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Thirty-day hospital readmission rate is receiving increasing attention as a quality of care indicator. The objective of this study was to determine readmission rates and to identify factors associated with readmission among persons living with HIV. Design Prospective multicenter observational cohort. Setting Nine U.S. HIV clinics affiliated through the HIV Research Network. Subjects Patients engaged in HIV care during 2005–2010. Main outcome measure(s) Readmission rate was defined as the proportion of hospitalizations followed by a readmission within 30 days. Factors in multivariate analyses included diagnostic categories, patient demographic and clinical characteristics, and having an outpatient follow-up visit. Results Among 11,651 total index hospitalizations, the 30-day readmission rate was 19.3%. AIDS defining illnesses (ADI, 9.6% of index hospitalizations) and non-AIDS defining infections (26.4% of index hospitalizations) had readmission rates of 26.2% and 16.6%, respectively. Factors independently associated with readmission included lower CD4 count (AOR 1.80 [1.53, 2.11] for CD4 <50 vs. ≥351 cells/μl), longer length of stay (1.77 [1.53, 2.04] for ≥9 days vs. 1–3 days), and several diagnostic categories including ADI. Having an outpatient follow-up clinic visit was not associated with lower readmission risk (AHR 0.98 [0.88, 1.08]). Conclusions The 19.3% readmission rate exceeds the 13.2% rate reported for the general population of 18–64 year-olds. HIV providers may use the 19.3% rate as a basis of comparison. Policymakers may consider the impact of HIV when estimating expected readmissions for a hospital or region. Preventing or recovering from severe immune dysfunction may be the most important factor to reducing readmissions. PMID:23612008

  10. Connecting the disconnected: adult day care for people with AIDS in New York City.

    PubMed

    Smith, M Y; Knickman, J R; Oppenheimer, L M

    1992-11-01

    Despite pressing need, the development of a continuum of long-term-care services for people with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been hampered by the dearth of information on the characteristics and service needs of patients eligible for such care. This article presents findings from a process evaluation of an outpatient day care program for people with AIDS in New York City. The AIDS clients were highly functional but had a diverse range of needs and problems related to housing, substance abuse, medical care, and social support. The majority of clients reported being very satisfied with the level of staff support and with the overall program. The findings of the study suggest that day care is a valuable addition to the continuum of services and that the creative dissemination of this program may improve the delivery of services to people with AIDS. PMID:1478553

  11. In utero dimethadione exposure causes postnatal disruption in cardiac structure and function in the rat.

    PubMed

    Aasa, Kristiina L; Purssell, Elizabeth; Adams, Michael A; Ozolinš, Terence R S

    2014-12-01

    In utero exposure of rat embryos to dimethadione (DMO), the N-demethylated teratogenic metabolite of the anticonvulsant trimethadione, induces a high incidence of cardiac heart defects including ventricular septal defects (VSDs). The same exposure regimen also leads to in utero cardiac functional deficits, including bradycardia, dysrhythmia, and a reduction in cardiac output (CO) and ejection fraction that persist until parturition (10 days after the final dose). Despite a high rate of spontaneous postnatal VSD closure, we hypothesize that functional sequelae will persist into adulthood. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were administered six 300 mg/kg doses of DMO, one every 12 h in mid-pregnancy beginning on the evening of gestation day 8. Postnatal cardiac function was assessed in control (CTL) and DMO-exposed offspring using radiotelemetry and ultrasound at 3 and 11 months of age, respectively. Adult rats exposed to DMO in utero had an increased incidence of arrhythmia, elevated blood pressure and CO, greater left ventricular volume and elevated locomotor activity versus CTL. The mean arterial pressure of DMO-exposed rats was more sensitive to changes in dietary salt load compared with CTL. Importantly, most treated rats had functional deficits in the absence of a persistent structural defect. It was concluded that in utero DMO exposure causes cardiovascular deficits that persist into postnatal life in the rat, despite absence of visible structural anomalies. We speculate this is not unique to DMO, suggesting possible health implications for infants with unrecognized gestational chemical exposures. PMID:25239635

  12. Specific allogeneic unresponsiveness in the adult host: present-day experimental models

    SciTech Connect

    Rapaport, F.T.; Bachvaroff, R.J.; Cronkite, E.; Chanana, A.; Sato, T.; Asari, H.; Waltzer, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    As part of a long-term intensive effort to apply the induction of adult allogensic unresponsiveness to the transplantation problem, two techniques to control the variability in the persistence of immunologically competent postthymic cells iin the treated host and/or the inoculum of autologous marrow returned to the host after irradiation are described. The first consisted of exposing the peripheral blood of prospective recipients to a 5-week course of extra-corporeal irradiation (ECIB), the other of exposing the stored autologous marrow scheduled to repopulate a given recipient to methyl-prednisolone (MPd) and DNase prior to renifusion into the recipient. Serial analysis of bone marrow cell samples at various intervals before and after treatment was undertaken. The significance of the disappearance of a particular population of nonnuclear cells from the samples, and the association of such disappearance with increased success in the induction of allogeneic unresponsiveness is discussed. (ACR)

  13. An Idiographic Examination of Day-to-Day Patterns of Substance Use Craving, Negative Affect, and Tobacco Use among Young Adults in Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Yao; Wiebe, Richard P.; Cleveland, H. Harrington; Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Harris, Kitty S.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological constructs, such as negative affect and substance use cravings that closely predict relapse, show substantial intraindividual day-to-day variability. This intraindividual variability of relevant psychological states combined with the "one day at a time" nature of sustained abstinence warrant a day-to-day investigation of substance…

  14. In utero and postnatal exposure to arsenic alters pulmonary structure and function

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, R. Clark Chau, Binh; Sarihan, Priyanka; Witten, Mark L.; Pivniouk, Vadim I.; Chen, Guan Jie

    2009-02-15

    In addition to cancer endpoints, arsenic exposures can also lead to non-cancerous chronic lung disease. Exposures during sensitive developmental time points can contribute to the adult disease. Using a mouse model, in utero and early postnatal exposures to arsenic (100 ppb or less in drinking water) were found to alter airway reactivity to methacholine challenge in 28 day old pups. Removal of mice from arsenic exposure 28 days after birth did not reverse the alterations in sensitivity to methacholine. In addition, adult mice exposed to similar levels of arsenic in drinking water did not show alterations. Therefore, alterations in airway reactivity were irreversible and specific to exposures during lung development. These functional changes correlated with protein and gene expression changes as well as morphological structural changes around the airways. Arsenic increased the whole lung levels of smooth muscle actin in a dose dependent manner. The level of smooth muscle mass around airways was increased with arsenic exposure, especially around airways smaller than 100 {mu}m in diameter. This increase in smooth muscle was associated with alterations in extracellular matrix (collagen, elastin) expression. This model system demonstrates that in utero and postnatal exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic can irreversibly alter pulmonary structure and function in the adults.

  15. Post-natal myogenic and adipogenic developmental

    PubMed Central

    Konings, Gonda; van Weeghel, Michel; van den Hoogenhof, Maarten MG; Gijbels, Marion; van Erk, Arie; Schoonderwoerd, Kees; van den Bosch, Bianca; Dahlmans, Vivian; Calis, Chantal; Houten, Sander M; Misteli, Tom

    2011-01-01

    A-type lamins are a major component of the nuclear lamina. Mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes the A-type lamins A and C, cause a set of phenotypically diverse diseases collectively called laminopathies. While adult LMNA null mice show various symptoms typically associated with laminopathies, the effect of loss of lamin A/C on early post-natal development is poorly understood. Here we developed a novel LMNA null mouse (LMNAGT−/−) based on genetrap technology and analyzed its early post-natal development. We detect LMNA transcripts in heart, the outflow tract, dorsal aorta, liver and somites during early embryonic development. Loss of A-type lamins results in severe growth retardation and developmental defects of the heart, including impaired myocyte hypertrophy, skeletal muscle hypotrophy, decreased amounts of subcutaneous adipose tissue and impaired ex vivo adipogenic differentiation. These defects cause death at 2 to 3 weeks post partum associated with muscle weakness and metabolic complications, but without the occurrence of dilated cardiomyopathy or an obvious progeroid phenotype. Our results indicate that defective early post-natal development critically contributes to the disease phenotypes in adult laminopathies. PMID:21818413

  16. Factors Affecting the Involvement of Day Centre Care Staff in the Delivery of Physiotherapy to Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: An Exploratory Study in One London Borough

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, M. -J.; Kitchen, S. S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Physiotherapists for adults with intellectual disabilities often work in day centres, relying on care staff to support programmes. This study investigates factors affecting physiotherapy delivery in 4 day centres in one London borough. Materials and Method: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with day centre care staff,…

  17. Postnatal development of the nociceptive withdrawal reflexes in the rat: a behavioural and electromyographic study.

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, H; Schouenborg, J

    1996-01-01

    1. The postnatal development of nociceptive withdrawal reflexes was studied. In awake intact rats, forelimb, hindlimb and tail reflexes were recorded on videotape. In decerebrate spinal rats, electromyography (EMG) was used to record nociceptive withdrawal reflexes in musculi extensor digitorum longus (EDL), peronei, gastrocnemius-soleus (G-S) and biceps posterior-semitendinosus (BP-ST). Thermal (short-lasting CO2 laser pulses) and mechanical stimulation were used. 2. In adults, nociceptive withdrawal reflexes were typically well directed and reflex pathways to single hindlimb muscles had functionally adapted receptive fields. By contrast, at postnatal day (P) 1-7, the nociceptive withdrawal reflexes were often inappropriate, sometimes producing movements towards the stimulation, and EMG recordings revealed unadapted variable receptive fields. With increasing age, the nociceptive withdrawal reflexes progressively became well directed, thus producing localized withdrawal. Both withdrawal movements and spatial organization of the receptive fields were adult-like at P20-25. 3. Up to P25, reflex thresholds were more or less constant in both intact awake rats and spinal decerebrate rats, except in G-S in which no nociceptive withdrawal reflexes were evoked from P20 on. After P25, mechanical, but not thermal, thresholds increased dramatically. 4. EMG recordings revealed that during the first three postnatal weeks, the latency of the CO2 laser-evoked nociceptive withdrawal reflexes decreased significantly in peronei and BP-ST, but not in EDL, and thereafter increased significantly in peronei, BP-ST and EDL. The magnitude of the nociceptive withdrawal reflexes in these muscles increased markedly between P7 and P20 and showed little change thereafter. 5. Possible mechanisms underlying the postnatal tuning of the nociceptive withdrawal reflexes are discussed. PMID:8735709

  18. Should we brush twice a day? Determinants of dental health among young adults in Finland.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Lien; Häkkinen, Unto; Knuuttila, Matti; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2008-02-01

    We explore the determinants of dental ill-health as measured by the occurrence of caries. A recursive bivariate probit model that was derived from health production and demand theory is employed to model caries, while taking account of dental care use. The data are from a follow-up questionnaire used in a longitudinal study of the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort, with respondents aged 31 (n = 5020). The factors controlled for relate to family background and health behavior during their youth, current socioecononomic variables and dental health stock. The total effects on the occurrence of caries of the explanatory variables are computed. Among females, factors increasing caries are body mass index and intake of alcohol, sugar and soft drinks, and those reducing caries are birth weight and adolescent school achievement. Among males, caries is positively related to the metropolitan residence and negatively related to education and healthy diet. Smoking increases caries, whereas dental care use, regular dental attendance and brushing teeth at least twice a day decrease caries. To promote oral health, attention should focus on policies to improve dental health education and to reduce the impacts of common risk factors. PMID:17645280

  19. Neurobehavioral Toxicity of a Repeated Exposure (14 Days) to the Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Fluorene in Adult Wistar Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Peiffer, Julie; Cosnier, Frédéric; Grova, Nathalie; Nunge, Hervé; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Decret, Marie-Josèphe; Cossec, Benoît; Rychen, Guido; Appenzeller, Brice M. R.; Schroeder, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Fluorene is one of the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air and may contribute to the neurobehavioral alterations induced by the environmental exposure of humans to PAHs. Since no data are available on fluorene neurotoxicity, this study was conducted in adult rats to assess the behavioral toxicity of repeated fluorene inhalation exposure. Male rats (n = 18/group) were exposed nose-only to 1.5 or 150 ppb of fluorene 6 hours/day for 14 consecutive days, whereas the control animals were exposed to non-contaminated air. At the end of the exposure, animals were tested for activity and anxiety in an open-field and in an elevated-plus maze, for short-term memory in a Y-maze, and for spatial learning in an eight-arm maze. The results showed that the locomotor activity and the learning performances of the animals were unaffected by fluorene. In parallel, the fluorene-exposed rats showed a lower level of anxiety than controls in the open-field, but not in the elevated-plus maze, which is probably due to a possible difference in the aversive feature of the two mazes. In the same animals, increasing blood and brain levels of fluorene monohydroxylated metabolites (especially the 2-OH fluorene) were detected at both concentrations (1.5 and 150 ppb), demonstrating the exposure of the animals to the pollutant and showing the ability of this compound to be metabolized and to reach the cerebral compartment. The present study highlights the possibility for a 14-day fluorene exposure to induce some specific anxiety-related behavioral disturbances, and argues in favor of the susceptibility of the adult brain when exposed to volatile fluorene. PMID:23977039

  20. Tear Lacritin Levels by Age, Sex, and Time of Day in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Kyle; Gandia, Natasha C.; Wilburn, Jennifer K.; Bower, Kraig S.; Sia, Rose K.; Ryan, Denise S.; Deaton, Michael L.; Still, Katherine M.; Vassilev, Veronica C.; Laurie, Gordon W.; McKown, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Several small proteomic studies suggest that the prosecretory tear protein lacritin may be selectively downregulated in dry eye syndrome and in blepharitis, yet little information is available about normal baseline levels. This study assessed lacritin levels in tears from healthy individuals and addressed whether they differ according to sex, age, or time of day. Methods. Rabbit antibodies against lacritin N-terminal peptide EDASSDSTGADPAQEAGTS (Pep Lac N-Term) were generated and characterized against human recombinant lacritin and N-65 truncation mutant. Basal tears were collected from 66 healthy individuals ranging in age from 18 to 52 years, and at four times during one 24-hour period from 34 other individuals. Lacritin levels were then analyzed by ELISA and Western blotting. Results. Anti-Pep Lac N-Term bound lacritin, but not truncation mutant N-65 that lacks the N-terminal antigenic site. Tear lacritin levels followed a normal distribution with a mean of 4.2 ± 1.17 ng/100 ng total tear protein. Levels differed little by age or sex, and decreased slightly between 4 and 8 hours in a 24-hour cycle. Tear-blocking effects were minimal, as suggested by spiking of tears with recombinant lacritin. Conclusions. Anti-Pep Lac N-Term–detectable lacritin comprises ∼4.2 ng/100 ng total tear protein in healthy individuals, with no significant differences between males and females or among individuals between 18 and 52 years old. Levels decrease slightly in the late afternoon. These findings provide a baseline for future immunodiagnostic studies of lacritin in dry eye and other ocular diseases. PMID:22918641

  1. Long term effects of maternal protein restriction on postnatal lung alveoli development of rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Farid, S A; Mahmoud, O M; Salem, N A; Abdel-Alrahman, G; Hafez, G A

    2015-01-01

    Poor nutrition of women during pregnancy causes reduction in foetal growth and can adversely affect the development of the foetal lungs. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of maternal protein restriction on the postnatal lung development in neonatal period, and on lung structure in adult rat offspring. Female virgin Sprague-Dawley albino rats (more than 200 g) were used. One male rat was introduced into a cage with one female for matting. Once the pregnancy was confirmed, pregnant rats were divided into two main groups; each consists of 6 female as follow: 1 - normally nourished group; 2 - protein deficient group. After delivery, offspring were subdivided into three groups: 1 day after delivery, 2 weeks and 2 months postnatal. Rat body and lung weight were recorded and ratio of lung weight to body weight was assessed. Total plasma protein and serum albumin were assessed for all groups. Lung tissue stained with H&E for histological and morphometric analysis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate the number of cells positive for pulmonary surfactant protein A. Our results showed that protein restriction interfere with neonatal and postnatal lung development resulting in morphological and morphometric changes of normal lung development. We concluded that protein deficiency lead to developmental retardation of lung. PMID:26620509

  2. Computerized spatial navigation training during 14 days of bed rest in healthy older adult men: Effect on gait performance.

    PubMed

    Marusic, Uros; Kavcic, Voyko; Giordani, Bruno; Gerževič, Mitja; Meeusen, Romain; Pišot, Rado

    2015-06-01

    Prolonged physical inactivity or bed rest (BR) due to illness or other factors can result in significant declines in physical health and even cognitive functions. Based on random selection, 7 healthy older adult men received computerized spatial navigation training, while 8 served as active controls during 14-day BR. Greater post-BR declines were seen in normal and complex (dual-task) walking for the control as compared to intervention group, suggesting that computerized spatial navigation training can successfully moderate detrimental BR effects. Findings underline the generalization of cognitive-based intervention to the motor domain and potentially support their use to supplement BR interventions (e.g., exercise and nutrition). PMID:25938245

  3. Postnatal development of the bronchiolar club cells of distal airways in the mouse lung: stereological and molecular biological studies.

    PubMed

    Karnati, Srikanth; Graulich, Tilman; Oruqaj, Gani; Pfreimer, Susanne; Seimetz, Michael; Stamme, Cordula; Mariani, Thomas J; Weissmann, Norbert; Mühlfeld, Christian; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline

    2016-06-01

    Club (Clara) cells are nonciliated secretory epithelial cells present in bronchioles of distal pulmonary airways. So far, no information is available on the postnatal differentiation of club cells by a combination of molecular biological, biochemical, and stereological approaches in the murine lung. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the changes in the club cell secretory proteins (CC10, surfactant proteins A, B and D) and club cell abundance within the epithelium of bronchioles of distal airways during the postnatal development of the mouse lung. Perfusion-fixed murine lungs of three developmental stages (newborn, 15-day-old and adult) were used. Frozen, unfixed lungs were used for cryosectioning and subsequent laser-assisted microdissection of bronchiolar epithelial cells and RT-PCR analyses. High resolution analyses of the three-dimensional structures and composition of lung airways were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. Finally, using design-based stereology, the total and average club cell volume and the volume of secretory granules were quantified by light and transmission electron microscopy. Our results reveal that murine club cells are immature at birth and differentiate postnatally. Further, increase of the club cell volume and number of intracellular granules are closely correlated to the total lung volume enlargement. However, secretory granule density was only increased within the first 15 days of postnatal development. The differentiation is accompanied by a decrease in glycogen content, and a close positive relationship between CC10 expression and secretory granule abundance. Taken together, our data are consistent with the concept that the morphological and functional differentiation of club cells is a postnatal phenomenon. PMID:26796206

  4. Postnatal sulfur dioxide exposure reversibly alters parasympathetic regulation of heart rate.

    PubMed

    Woerman, Amanda L; Mendelowitz, David

    2013-08-01

    Perinatal sulfur dioxide exposure disrupts parasympathetic regulation of cardiovascular activity. Here, we examine the relative risks of prenatal versus postnatal exposure to the air pollutant and the reversibility of the cardiovascular effects. Two groups of animals were used for this study. For prenatal exposure, pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams were exposed to 5 parts per million sulfur dioxide for 1 hour daily throughout gestation and with their pups after birth to medical-grade air through 6 days postnatal. For postnatal exposure, dams were exposed to air, and after delivery along with their pups to 5 parts per million sulfur dioxide through postnatal day 6. ECGs were recorded from pups on postnatal day 5 to examine changes in heart rate. Whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology was used to examine changes in neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons in the nucleus ambiguus on sulfur dioxide exposure. Postnatal sulfur dioxide exposure diminished glutamatergic neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons by 40.9% and increased heart rate, whereas prenatal exposure altered neither of these properties. When postnatal exposure concluded on postnatal day 5, excitatory neurotransmission remained decreased through day 6 and returned to basal levels by day 7. ECGs showed that heart rate remained elevated through day 6 and recovered by day 7. On activation of the parasympathetic diving reflex, the response was significantly blunted by postnatal sulfur dioxide exposure through day 7 but recovered by day 8. Postnatal, but not prenatal, exposure to sulfur dioxide can disrupt parasympathetic regulation of cardiovascular activity. Neonates can recover from these effects within 2 to 3 days of discontinued exposure. PMID:23774227

  5. Postnatal Sulfur Dioxide Exposure Reversibly Alters Parasympathetic Regulation of Heart Rate

    PubMed Central

    Woerman, Amanda L.; Mendelowitz, David

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal sulfur dioxide exposure disrupts parasympathetic regulation of cardiovascular activity. Here, we examine the relative risks of prenatal versus postnatal exposure to the air pollutant, and the reversibility of the cardiovascular effects. Two groups of animals were used for this study. For prenatal exposure, pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams were exposed to 5 parts per million sulfur dioxide for 1 hour daily throughout gestation, and with their pups upon birth to medical-grade air through 6 days postnatal. For postnatal exposure, dams were exposed to air, and upon delivery along with their pups to 5 parts per million sulfur dioxide through postnatal day 6. Electrocardiograms were recorded from pups on postnatal day 5 to examine changes in heart rate. Whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology was used to examine changes in neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons upon sulfur dioxide exposure. Postnatal sulfur dioxide exposure diminished glutamatergic neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons by 40.9% and increased heart rate, whereas prenatal exposure altered neither of these properties. When postnatal exposure concluded on postnatal day 5, excitatory neurotransmission remained decreased through day 6, and returned to basal levels by day 7. Electrocardiograms showed that heart rate remained elevated through day 6 and recovered by day 7. Upon activation of the parasympathetic diving reflex, the response was significantly blunted by postnatal sulfur dioxide exposure through day 7 but recovered by day 8. Postnatal, but not prenatal, exposure to sulfur dioxide can disrupt parasympathetic regulation of cardiovascular activity. Neonates can recover from these effects within 2–3 days of discontinued exposure. PMID:23774227

  6. Spatial distributions of AQP5 and AQP0 in embryonic and postnatal mouse lens development

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Rosica S.; Schey, Kevin L.; Donaldson, Paul J.; Grey, Angus C.

    2015-01-01

    The expression of the water channel protein aquaporin (AQP)-5 in adult rodent and human lenses was recently reported using immunohistochemistry, molecular biology, and mass spectrometry techniques, confirming a second transmembrane water channel that is present in lens fibre cells in addition to the abundant AQP0 protein. Interestingly, the sub-cellular distribution and level of post-translational modification of both proteins changes with fibre cell differentiation and location in the adult rodent lens. This study compares the sub-cellular distribution of AQP0 and AQP5 during embryonic and postnatal fibre cell development in the mouse lens to understand how the immunolabelling patterns for both AQPs observed in adult lens are first established. Immunohistochemistry was used to map the cellular and sub-cellular distribution of AQP5 and AQP0 throughout the lens in cryosections from adult (6 weeks to 8 months) and postnatal (0-2 weeks) mouse lenses and in sections from paraffin embedded mouse embryos (E10-E19). All sections were imaged by fluorescence confocal microscopy. Using antibodies directed against the C-terminus of each AQP, AQP5 was abundantly expressed early in development, being found in the cytoplasm of cells of the lens vesicle and surrounding tissues (E10), while AQP0 was detected later (E11), and only in the membranes of elongating primary fibre cells. During the course of subsequent embryonic and postnatal development the pattern of cytoplasmic AQP5 and membranous AQP0 labelling was maintained until postnatal day 6 (P6). From P6 AQP5 labelling became progressively more membranous initially in the lens nucleus and then later in all regions of the lens, while AQP0 labelling was abruptly lost in the lens nucleus due to C-terminal truncation. Our results show that the spatial distribution patterns of AQP0 and AQP5 observed in the adult lens are established during a narrow window of post natal development (P6-P15) that precedes eye opening and coincides

  7. Alternate day fasting impacts the brain insulin-signaling pathway of young adult male C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianghua; E, Lezi; Wang, Wenfang; Frontera, Jennifer; Zhu, Hao; Wang, Wen-Tung; Lee, Phil; Choi, In Young; Brooks, William M; Burns, Jeffrey M; Aires, Daniel; Swerdlow, Russell H

    2011-04-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) has recognized health benefits that may extend to brain. We examined how DR affects bioenergetics-relevant enzymes and signaling pathways in the brains of C57BL/6 mice. Five-month-old male mice were placed in ad libitum or one of two repeated fasting and refeeding (RFR) groups, an alternate day (intermittent fed; IF) or alternate day plus antioxidants (blueberry, pomegranate, and green tea extracts) (IF + AO) fed group. During the 24-h fast blood glucose levels initially fell but stabilized within 6 h of starting the fast, thus avoiding frank hypoglycemia. DR in general appeared to enhance insulin sensitivity. After six weeks brain AKT and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta phosphorylation were lower in the RFR mice, suggesting RFR reduced brain insulin-signaling pathway activity. Pathways that mediate mitochondrial biogenesis were not activated; AMP kinase phosphorylation, silent information regulator 2 phosphorylation, peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha levels, and cytochrome oxidase subunit 4 levels did not change. ATP levels also did not decline, which suggests the RFR protocols did not directly impact brain bioenergetics. Antioxidant supplementation did not affect the brain parameters we evaluated. Our data indicate in young adult male C57BL/6 mice, RFR primarily affects brain energy metabolism by reducing brain insulin signaling, which potentially results indirectly as a consequence of reduced peripheral insulin production. PMID:21244426

  8. Alternate Day Fasting Impacts the Brain Insulin Signaling Pathway of Young Adult Male C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jianghua; Lezi, E; Wang, WenFang; Frontera, Jennifer; Zhu, Hao; Wang, Wen-Tung; Lee, Sang-Pil; Choi, In Young; Brooks, William M.; Burns, Jeffrey M.; Aires, Daniel; Swerdlow, Russell H.

    2011-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) has recognized health benefits that may extend to brain. We examined how DR affects bioenergetics-relevant enzymes and signaling pathways in the brains of C57BL/6 mice. Five month-old male mice were placed in ad libitum (AL) or one of two repeated fasting and refeeding (RFR) groups, an alternate day (intermittent fed; IF) or alternate day plus antioxidants (blueberry, pomegranate, and green tea extracts) (IF+AO) fed group. During the 24 hour fast blood glucose levels initially fell but stabilized within 6 hours of starting the fast, thus avoiding frank hypoglycemia. DR in general appeared to enhance insulin sensitivity. After six weeks brain AKT and GSK3β phosphorylation were lower in the RFR mice, suggesting RFR reduced brain insulin signaling pathway activity. Pathways that mediate mitochondrial biogenesis were not activated; AMPK phosphorylation, SIRT1 phosphorylation, PGC1a levels, and COX4 levels did not change. ATP levels also did not decline, which suggests the RFR protocols did not directly impact brain bioenergetics. Antioxidant supplementation did not affect the brain parameters we evaluated. Our data indicate in young adult male C57BL/6 mice, RFR primarily affects brain energy metabolism by reducing brain insulin signaling, which potentially results indirectly as a consequence of reduced peripheral insulin production. PMID:21244426

  9. Sex-Dependent Changes in Striatal Dopamine Transport in Preadolescent Rats Exposed Prenatally and/or Postnatally to Methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Sirova, Jana; Kristofikova, Zdenka; Vrajova, Monika; Fujakova-Lipski, Michaela; Ripova, Daniela; Klaschka, Jan; Slamberova, Romana

    2016-08-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is the most commonly used psychostimulant drug, the chronic abuse of which leads to neurodegenerative changes in the brain. The global use of MA is increasing, including in pregnant women. Since MA can cross both placental and haematoencephalic barriers and is also present in maternal milk, children of chronically abused mothers are exposed prenatally as well as postnatally. Women seem to be more vulnerable to some aspects of MA abuse than men. MA is thought to exert its effects among others via direct interactions with dopamine transporters (DATs) in the brain tissue. Sexual dimorphism of the DAT system could be a base of sex-dependent actions of MA observed in behavioural and neurochemical studies. Possible sex differences in the DATs of preadolescent offspring exposed to MA prenatally and/or postnatally have not yet been evaluated. We examined the striatal synaptosomal DATs (the activity and density of surface expressed DATs and total DAT expression) in preadolescent male and female Wistar rats (31-35-day old animals) exposed prenatally and/or postnatally to MA (daily 5 mg/kg, s.c. to mothers during pregnancy and lactation). To distinguish between specific and nonspecific effects of MA on DATs, we also evaluated the in vitro effects of lipophilic MA on the fluidity of striatal membranes isolated from preadolescent and young adult rats of both sexes. We observed similar changes in the DATs of preadolescent rats exposed prenatally or postnatally (MA-mediated drop in the reserve pool but no alterations in surface-expressed DATs). However, prenatal exposure evoked significant changes in males and postnatal exposure in females. A significant decrease in the activity of surface-expressed DATs was found only in postnatally exposed females sensitized to MA via prenatal exposure. MA applied in vitro increased the fluidity of striatal membranes of preadolescent female but not male rats. In summary, DATs of preadolescent males are more sensitive to

  10. Adult Day Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... care Physical therapy Recreation Respite care Socialization Supervision Transportation Medication management Back to top Center Operations Centers ... social activities. They may also help to arrange transportation to and from the center. Back to top ...

  11. Prenatal stimulation and postnatal testosterone affects infanticide in female rats.

    PubMed

    Miley, W M; Blustein, J; Kennedy, K

    1982-04-01

    Prenatal handling, prenatal stress, and early postnatal exogeneous testosterone were examined in female rats for their effects on rat pup-killing and pup retrieval. During each of the last 5 days of pregnancy. Long-Evans rats received either 3 minutes of handling, 45 minutes of restraint and intense illumination or remained untouched. Half of the offspring of each group received testosterone from Day 1 after birth to Day 30. In adulthood, animals that received handling prenatally and testosterone postnatally killed pups more rapidly than any other group and a larger proportion did so than in the control groups. Animals not manipulated at any time retrieved pups more rapidly and a larger proportion did so than the combined other groups. The study suggests that prenatal handling interacts with testosterone presented immediately postnatally to increase infanticide in female rats. A variety of perinatal manipulations seem to suppress pup retrieval. PMID:7200619

  12. Epileptic activity during early postnatal life in the AY-9944 model of atypical absence epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seungmoon; Jeong, Yong; Jeon, Daejong

    2015-05-01

    Atypical absence epilepsy (AAE) is an intractable disorder characterized by slow spike-and-wave discharges in electroencephalograms (EEGs) and accompanied by severe cognitive dysfunction and neurodevelopmental or neurological deficits in humans. Administration of the cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor AY-9944 (AY) during the postnatal developmental period induces AAE in animals; however, the neural mechanism of seizure development remains largely unknown. In this study, we characterized the cellular manifestations of AY-induced AAE in the mouse. Treatment of brain slices with AY increased membrane excitability of hippocampal CA1 neurons. AY treatment also increased input resistance of CA1 neurons during early postnatal days (PND) 5-10. However, these effects were not observed during late PND (14-21) or in adulthood (7-10 weeks). Notably, AY treatment elicited paroxysmal depolarizing shift (PDS)-like epileptiform discharges during the early postnatal period, but not during late PND or in adults. The PDS-like events were not compromised by application of glutamate or GABA receptor antagonists. However, the PDS-like events were abolished by blockage of voltage-gated Na(+) channels. Hippocampal neurons isolated from an in vivo AY model of AAE showed similar PDS-like epileptiform discharges. Further, AY-treated neurons from T-type Ca(2+) channel α1G knockout (Cav3.1(-/-)) mice, which do not exhibit typical absence seizures, showed similar PDS-like epileptiform discharges. These results demonstrate that PDS-like epileptiform discharges during the early postnatal period are dependent upon Na(+) channels and are involved in the generation of AY-induced AAE, which is distinct from typical absence epilepsy. Our findings may aid our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of clinical AAE in individuals, such as those with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. PMID:25890840

  13. Postnatal maturation of GABAergic transmission in the rat basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, David E; Ryan, Steven J; Hazra, Rimi; Guo, Ji-Dong; Rainnie, Donald G

    2013-08-01

    Many psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and autism spectrum disorders, have early ages of onset and high incidence in juveniles. To better treat and prevent these disorders, it is important to first understand normal development of brain circuits that process emotion. Healthy and maladaptive emotional processing involve the basolateral amygdala (BLA), dysfunction of which has been implicated in numerous psychiatric disorders. Normal function of the adult BLA relies on a fine balance of glutamatergic excitation and GABAergic inhibition. Elsewhere in the brain GABAergic transmission changes throughout development, but little is known about the maturation of GABAergic transmission in the BLA. Here we used whole cell patch-clamp recording and single-cell RT-PCR to study GABAergic transmission in rat BLA principal neurons at postnatal day (P)7, P14, P21, P28, and P35. GABAA currents exhibited a significant twofold reduction in rise time and nearly 25% reduction in decay time constant between P7 and P28. This corresponded with a shift in expression of GABAA receptor subunit mRNA from the α2- to the α1-subunit. The reversal potential for GABAA receptors transitioned from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing with age, from around -55 mV at P7 to -70 mV by P21. There was a corresponding shift in expression of opposing chloride pumps that influence the reversal, from NKCC1 to KCC2. Finally, we observed short-term depression of GABAA postsynaptic currents in immature neurons that was significantly and gradually abolished by P28. These findings reveal that in the developing BLA GABAergic transmission is highly dynamic, reaching maturity at the end of the first postnatal month. PMID:23719209

  14. Expression of klotho mRNA and protein in rat brain parenchyma from early postnatal development into adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Clinton, Sarah M.; Glover, Matthew E.; Maltare, Astha; Laszczyk, Ann M.; Mehi, Stephen J.; Simmons, Rebecca K.; King, Gwendalyn D.

    2013-01-01

    Without the age-regulating protein klotho, mouse lifespan is shortened and the rapid onset of age-related disorders occurs. Conversely, overexpression of klotho extends mouse lifespan. Klotho is most abundant in kidney and expressed in a limited number of other organs, including the brain, where klotho levels are highest in choroid plexus. Reports vary on where klotho is expressed within the brain parenchyma, and no data is available as to whether klotho levels change across postnatal development. We used in situ hybridization to map klotho mRNA expression in the developing and adult rat brain and report moderate, widespread expression across grey matter regions. mRNA expression levels in cortex, hippocampus, caudate putamen, and amygdala decreased during the second week of life and then gradually rose to adult levels by postnatal day 21. Immunohistochemistry revealed a protein expression pattern similar to the mRNA results, with klotho protein expressed widely throughout the brain. Klotho protein co-localized with both the neuronal marker NeuN, as well as, oligodendrocyte marker olig2. These results provide the first anatomical localization of klotho mRNA and protein in rat brain parenchyma and demonstrate that klotho levels vary during early postnatal development. PMID:23838326

  15. Recovery from sports-related concussion: Days to return to neurocognitive baseline in adolescents versus young adults

    PubMed Central

    Zuckerman, Scott L.; Lee, Young M.; Odom, Mitchell J.; Solomon, Gary S.; Forbes, Jonathan A.; Sills, Allen K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sports-related concussions (SRC) among high school and collegiate athletes represent a significant public health concern. The Concussion in Sport Group (CIS) recommended greater caution regarding return to play with children and adolescents. We hypothesized that younger athletes would take longer to return to neurocognitive baseline than older athletes after a SRC. Methods: Two hundred adolescent and young adult athletes who suffered a SRC were included in our clinical research cohort. Of the total participants, 100 were assigned to the 13-16 year age group and 100 to the 18-22 year age group and were matched on the number of prior concussions. Each participant completed baseline and postconcussion neurocognitive testing using the Immediate Post-Concussion assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) test battery. Return to baseline was defined operationally as post-concussion neurocognitive and symptom scores being equivalent to baseline using reliable change index (RCI) criteria. For each group, the average number of days to return to cognitive and symptom baseline were calculated. Independent sample t-tests were used to compare the mean number of days to return to baseline. Results: Significant differences were found for days to return to baseline between 13-16 year olds and 18-22 year olds in three out of four neurocognitive measures and on the total symptom score. The average number of days to return to baseline was greater for 13-16 year olds than for 18-22 year olds on the following variables: Verbal memory (7.2 vs. 4.7, P = 0.001), visual memory (7.1 vs. 4.7, P = 0.002), reaction time (7.2 vs. 5.1 P = 0.01), and postconcussion symptom scale (8.1 vs. 6.1, P = 0.026). In both groups, greater than 90% of athletes returned to neurocognitive and symptom baseline within 1 month. Conclusions: Our results in this clinical research study show that in SRC, athletes 13-16 years old take longer to return to their neurocognitive and symptom baselines than

  16. Endogenous oestrogens do not regulate endothelial nitric oxide production in early postnatal rats.

    PubMed

    Sofronova, Svetlana I; Gaynullina, Dina K; Martyanov, Andrey A; Tarasova, Olga S

    2015-10-15

    Previously we showed that endothelium of 1-2-weeks old rats exerts an anticontractile effect due to spontaneous NO production which correlates with a higher eNOS expression level compared to adult rats. Oestrogens are powerful regulators of eNOS expression and activity in arterial endothelium. This study tested the hypothesis that anticontractile influence of endothelium in young rats is regulated by endogenous oestrogens. Wistar rats were daily treated with ICI 182,780 or letrozole (oestrogen receptor antagonist and aromatase inhibitor, respectively; s.c., 1mg/kg/day) from the second postnatal day, control pups received vehicle injections. At the age of 10-12-days we studied contraction of saphenous arteries using wire myography. ELISA and qPCR were used to evaluate blood sex steroids levels and mRNA expression in arterial tissue, respectively. Ten-12 days old male rats compared to adult male rats demonstrated 78% higher serum 17β-oestradiol concentration and several-fold increase in mRNA contents of oestrogen receptors (ERα and GPER1). However, treatments with ICI 182,780 or letrozole did not affect arterial sensitivity to methoxamine (α1-adrenoceptor agonist) in 10-12-days old males. The blockade of NO-synthase with L-NNA caused tonic contraction and potentiated the response to methoxamine, these effects were similar in control and both treated groups. The sensitivity of endothelium-denuded saphenous arteries to NO-donor DEA/NO did not differ between control and treated groups as well. In addition, treatments with ICI 182,780 or letrozole did not change eNOS expression level in arterial tissue. Our results suggest that endogenous oestrogens do not regulate anticontractile effect of NO during early postnatal development in rats. PMID:26415981

  17. QuickStats: Percentages* of Residential Care Communities and Adult Day Services Centers That Provided(†) Selected Services - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, a greater percentage of residential care communities than adult day service centers provided five of seven selected services. The majority of residential care communities provided pharmacy services (82%); followed by transportation for social activities (79%); physical, occupational, or speech therapy (69%); hospice (62%); skilled nursing (59%); and mental health services (52%). Fewer than half provided social work services (48%). The majority of adult day services centers provided transportation for social activities (69%); skilled nursing (66%); and social work (52%). %). Fewer than half provided physical, occupational, or speech therapy (49%). One third or less provided mental health (33%), pharmacy (27%), and hospice services (12%). PMID:27607333

  18. Small particles disrupt postnatal airway development

    PubMed Central

    Lee, DongYoub; Wallis, Chris; Schelegle, Edward S.; Van Winkle, Laura S.; Plopper, Charles G.; Fanucchi, Michelle V.; Kumfer, Ben; Kennedy, Ian M.; Chan, Jackie K. W.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing numbers of epidemiologic studies associate air pollution exposure in children with decreased lung function development. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of exposure to combustion-generated fine [230 and 212 nm number mean aerodynamic particle diameter (NMAD)] to ultrafine (73 nm NMAD) particles differing in elemental (EC) and organic (OC) carbon content on postnatal airway development in rats. Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed from postnatal day 7 through 25, and lung function and airway architecture were evaluated 81 days of age. In a separate group of rats, cell proliferation was examined after a single particle exposure at 7 days of age. Early life exposure to 73 nm high OC/EC particles altered distal airway architecture and resulted in subtle changes in lung mechanics. Early life exposure to 212 nm high OC/EC particles did not alter lung architecture but did alter lung mechanics in a manner suggestive of central airway changes. In contrast, early life exposure to 230 nm low OC/EC particles did not alter lung architecture or mechanics. A single 6-h exposure to 73 nm high OC/EC particle decreased airway cell proliferation, whereas 212 nm high OC/EC particles increased it and 230 nm low OC/EC particles did not. The early life exposure to ultrafine, high OC/EC particles results in persistent alterations in distal airway architecture that is characterized by an initial decrease in airway cell proliferation. PMID:20634362

  19. Calcium-binding protein parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons in the rat olfactory bulb. 2. Postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, K; Heizmann, C W; Kosaka, T

    1994-01-01

    The laminar development of the external plexiform layer (EPL) in the rat main olfactory bulb and the postnatal development of parvalbumin-immunoreactive [PV(+)] neurons mainly located in this layer were studied in animals at postnatal week 1-4 at a light microscopic level. The EPL in the adult olfactory bulb consists of two sublayers, the inner sublayer (ISL) and the outer sublayer (OSL). The ISL was already developed well even at postnatal day 7 (P7), whereas the OSL was first recognized at P10 as a thin zone consisting of more or less loosely packed large-sized and small-to-medium-sized somata subjacent to the glomerular layer (GL). The OSL increased in thickness and came to occupy nearly one-third to -half of the EPL at P14. PV(+) neurons first appeared at P10 mainly in the inner border of EPL. Only a few PV(+) neurons were scattered in the EPL at P10, but they increased remarkably in number during P14-21. Some of these PV(+) neurons at P10 had an intensely immunoreactive soma, extending relatively long processes with varicosities and/or spines. At P14, PV(+) neurons were located not only in the ISL but also at the border between the ISL and OSL, but in the OSL proper they were rarely observed. These PV(+) neurons showed branched and complicated processes with numerous varicosities and spines, displaying more mature features than those in previous stages. Even at P14 many of these PV(+) neurons appeared to exhibit some characteristic structural features of those in the adult stage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7925803

  20. The yield of early postnatal ultrasound scan in neonates with documented antenatal hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Maayan-Metzger, Ayala; Lotan, Danny; Jacobson, Jeffrey M; Raviv-Zilka, Lisa; Ben-Shlush, Aviva; Kuint, Jacob; Mor, Yoram

    2011-09-01

    We retrospectively assessed the yield of early postnatal ultrasound scans in neonates with documented antenatal hydronephrosis. We reviewed recording data of prenatal renal ultrasound for 178 newborn infants and the results of renal ultrasound performed during the first days of life. Of 119 infants with prenatal diagnosis of mild hydronephrosis (renal pelvic diameter <10 mm), 116 (97.5%) had postnatal ultrasound results showing normal or mild hydronephrosis. Prenatal diagnosis of severe hydronephrosis (renal pelvic diameter >20 mm; 10 infants) was correlated with high incidence (90%) of moderate and severe postnatal hydronephrosis. Prenatal diagnosis of moderate hydronephrosis (renal pelvic diameter 10 to 20 mm) resulted in moderate postnatal hydronephrosis in 20% and improvement in 80% of the newborn infants. Our evidence supports the option of delaying postnatal renal ultrasound in infants with prenatal diagnosis of mild hydronephrosis (renal pelvic diameter <10 mm). This strategy can safely reduce the number of early postnatal studies and consequently significantly decrease hospitals' inpatient workload. PMID:21494995

  1. Fast and efficient: postnatal growth and energy expenditure in an Arctic-breeding waterbird, the Red-throated Loon (Gavia stellata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rizzolo, Daniel; Schmutz, Joel A.; Speakman, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental conditions can exert a strong influence on the growth and energy demands of chicks. We hypothesized that postnatal growth in a cold, aquatic environment would require a high level of energy metabolism in semiprecocial Red-throated Loon (Gavia stellata) chicks. We measured body-mass growth and daily energy expenditure (DEE) of free-ranging chicks in the Arctic. We used daily gains in body mass and DEE to estimate daily metabolizable energy (DME, kJ day-1) and total metabolizable energy (TME, kJ chick-1). Chicks gained body mass quickly, with a logistic growth rate constant 57% greater than the allometric prediction, yet were at only 60% of adult body mass at fledging. Males grew at a rate similar to that of females but for a slightly longer duration and so reached an asymptotic body mass 23% greater, and tarsus length 8% longer, than that of females. Chick growth performance was similar between first- and second-hatched chicks within broods of 2, which suggests that food availability was not limited. DEE increased in proportion to body mass, and DME peaked at 1,214 kJ day-1 on day 25 posthatching. Over the average 49-day postnatal period, TME was 49.0 MJ, which is within the range of error of the allometric prediction. Parents provided 58.6 MJ as food to meet this energy requirement. Given this chick energy requirement and the range of energy content of prey observed in the chick diet, selecting prey with higher energy content would greatly reduce adult provisioning effort. Red-throated Loon chicks did not have a high postnatal energy requirement, but rather grew quickly and fledged at a small size-with the effect of reducing the length of the postnatal period and, consequently, parental energy investment in chicks.

  2. Histochemical study of magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) minor salivary glands during postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Samar, M E; Avila, R E; De Fabro, S P; Porfirio, V; Esteban, F J; Pedrosa, J A; Peinado, M A

    1999-02-01

    The histological and histochemical features of the minor salivary glands during postnatal development have been generally associated with the type of food ingested. However, recent studies support the fact that these salivary glands develop independently of the diet; in fact, minor salivary glands have similar morphological and histochemical characteristics in adult individuals of species with different diet regimens. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize the developmental morphology of the penguin minor salivary glands and to contrast them with minor salivary glands of other species. The tongue, palatine, and mouth cavity (bottom) minor salivary glands of newborn, 1- to 20-day-old, and adult magellanic penguins were studied with hematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, alcian blue, toluidine blue, and lectin histochemistry. Minor salivary glands were present at all ages, although they were only moderately developed in animals less than 15 days old. After this age, glands were abundant in all age groups; in addition, cells from the glandular epithelium were functionally mature and secreted mucins. Nevertheless, in newborn to 15-day-old penguins, mucins were located only at the apical cytoplasm of mucous cells. In all ages, mucous cells displayed periodic acid-Schiff-positive, alcianophilic, and metachromatic reactions; among mucous cells, other orthochromatic cells appeared interspersed. From 15 days on, histochemical reactions became more intense until adulthood, and the cytoplasm of secretory cells was filled with glycoproteins and sulfomucins. Moreover, lectins bound to different oligosaccharides in mucous cells, depending on the stage of maturation of the glands. In conclusion, penguin minor salivary glands are already present at birth, and show progressive and quantitative increases in mucous secretion during postnatal development. These changes are necessary not only for nutrient ingestion, but also for nonimmune protection of the buccal cavity

  3. A New Measure for Assessing Executive Function across a Wide Age Range: Children and Adults Find "Happy-Sad" More Difficult than "Day-Night"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen; Sayfan, Liat; Monsour, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments examined 4- to 11-year-olds' and adults' performance (N = 350) on two variants of a Stroop-like card task: the "day-night task" (say "day" when shown a moon and "night" when shown a sun) and a new "happy-sad task" (say "happy" for a sad face and "sad" for a happy face). Experiment 1 featured colored cartoon drawings. In Experiment…

  4. Prenatal immunotoxicant exposure and postnatal autoimmune disease.

    PubMed Central

    Holladay, S D

    1999-01-01

    Reports in humans and rodents indicate that immune development may be altered following perinatal exposure to immunotoxic compounds, including chemotherapeutics, corticosteroids, polycyclic hydrocarbons, and polyhalogenated hydrocarbons. Effects from such exposure may be more dramatic or persistent than following exposure during adult life. For example, prenatal exposure to the insecticide chlordane or to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[(italic)a(/italic)]pyrene produces what appears to be lifelong immunosuppression in mice. Whether prenatal immunotoxicant exposure may predispose the organism to postnatal autoimmune disease remains largely unknown. In this regard, the therapeutic immunosuppressant cyclosporin A (CsA) crosses the placenta poorly. However, lethally irradiated rodents exposed to CsA postsyngeneic bone marrow transplant (i.e., during re-establishment of the immune system) develop T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease, suggesting this drug may produce a fundamental disruption in development of self-tolerance by T cells. The environmental contaminant 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-(italic)p(/italic)-dioxin (TCDD) crosses the placenta and produces fetal thymic effects (italic)in vivo(/italic) similar to effects of CsA in fetal thymic organ culture, including inhibited thymocyte maturation and reduced expression of thymic major histocompatability complex class II molecules. These observations led to the suggestion that gestational exposure to TCDD may interfere with normal development of self-tolerance. Possibly supporting this hypothesis, when mice predisposed to development of autoimmune disease were treated with TCDD during gestation, postnatal autoimmunity was exacerbated. Similar results have been reported for mice exposed to diethylstilbestrol during development. These reports suggest that prenatal exposure to certain immunotoxicants may play a role in postnatal expression of autoimmunity. PMID:10502532

  5. The Association Between Sleep and Physical Function Among Older Veterans in an Adult Day Health Care Program

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yeonsu; Dzierzewski, Joseph; Fung, Constance H.; Rodriguez, Juan C.; Jouldjian, Stella; Mitchell, Michael; Josephson, Karen R.; Alessi, Cathy A.; Martin, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine whether sleep disturbance is associated with poor physical function in older veterans in an adult day health care (ADHC) program. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING One ADHC program in a Veterans Affairs Ambulatory Care Center. PARTICIPANTS Older veterans (N = 50) who were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a sleep intervention program and provided complete baseline data. MEASUREMENTS Participant characteristics (e.g., age, depression, relationship to caregiver, pain, comorbidity) were collected using appropriate questionnaires. Physical function was measured using the total score of activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental ADLs (IADLs) from the Older Americans Resources and Services Multidimensional Functional Assessment Questionnaire. Sleep was assessed subjectively (by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Insomnia Severity Index) and objectively (by wrist actigraphy). RESULTS As expected, participants required substantial assistance with ADLs and IADLs. A regression model showed that participant characteristics (i.e., marital status, use of sleep medication, comorbidity, and posttraumatic stress disorder) and living arrangement (i.e., living with a spouse and/or others) were significantly associated with poor physical function. Poorer objective sleep (i.e., total sleep time, total numbers of awakenings, and total wake time) was significantly associated with poor physical function, accounting for a significant proportion of the variance above and beyond participant characteristics. CONCLUSION Objective measures of nighttime sleep disturbance were associated with poor physical function among older veterans in an ADHC program. Further research is needed to determine whether interventions to improve sleep will delay functional decline in this vulnerable population. PMID:26200520

  6. Methamphetamine exposure during early postnatal development in rats: I. Acoustic startle augmentation and spatial learning deficits.

    PubMed

    Vorhees, C V; Ahrens, K G; Acuff-Smith, K D; Schilling, M A; Fisher, J E

    1994-04-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) induces neurotransmitter reductions and neurotoxicity at high doses in adult animals, but its effects on early brain development and behavior have received less attention. In this experiment the effects of MA exposure during a period equivalent to the human third trimester were examined. Rats (Sprague-Dawley CD) were injected subcutaneously with d-MA (30 mg/kg b.i.d.) early in postnatal development (days 1-10), later (postnatal days 11-20), or with water during both of these periods. Both early and later MA-exposed offspring exhibited augmented acoustic startle and impaired performance in a complex multiple-T water maze. Only the early MA exposure group showed a persistent deficit in weight while only the later MA exposure group showed impaired learning in the Morris hidden platform maze. Effects on locomoter activity are reported in the accompanying article. It was concluded that the effects of MA are both long lasting and stage dependent and involve cognitive as well as arousal functions. PMID:7855197

  7. Topical Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Activators Accelerate Postnatal Stratum Corneum Acidification

    PubMed Central

    Fluhr, Joachim W.; Man, Mao-Qiang; Hachem, Jean-Pierre; Crumrine, Debra; Mauro, Theodora M.; Elias, Peter M.; Feingold, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that pH declines from between 6 and 7 at birth to adult levels (pH 5.0–5.5) over 5–6 days in neonatal rat stratum corneum (SC). As a result, at birth, neonatal epidermis displays decreased permeability barrier homeostasis and SC integrity, improving days 5–6. We determined here whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activators accelerate postnatal SC acidification. Topical treatment with two different PPARα activators, clofibrate and WY14643, accelerated the postnatal decline in SC surface pH, whereas treatment with PPARγ activators did not and a PPARβ/δ activator had only a modest effect. Treatment with clofibrate significantly accelerated normalization of barrier function. The morphological basis for the improvement in barrier function in PPARα-treated animals includes accelerated secretion of lamellar bodies and enhanced, postsecretory processing of secreted lamellar body contents into mature lamellar membranes. Activity of β-glucocerebrosidase increased after PPARα-activator treatment. PPARα activator also improved SC integrity, which correlated with an increase in corneodesmosome density and increased desmoglein-1 content, with a decline in serine protease activity. Topical treatment of newborn animals with a PPARα activator increased secretory phospholipase A2 activity, which likely accounts for accelerated SC acidification. Thus, PPARα activators accelerate neonatal SC acidification, in parallel with improved permeability homeostasis and SC integrity/cohesion. Hence, PPARα activators might be useful to prevent or treat certain common neonatal dermatoses. PMID:18704104

  8. Lack of toxic effect of technical azadirachtin during postnatal development of rats.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, M K; Raizada, R B

    2007-03-01

    Azadirachtin, a biopesticide has been evaluated for its possible toxic effects during postnatal development of rats over two generations. Rats were fed 100, 500 and 1000ppm technical azadirachtin through diet which is equivalent to 5, 25 and 50mg/kg body weight of rats. Technical azadirachtin has not produced any adverse effects on reproductive function and data were comparable to control animals over two generations. There were no toxicological effect in parent rats as evidenced by clinical signs of toxicity, enzymatic parameters like AST, ALT, ALP, S. bilirubin, S. cholesterol, total protein and histopathology of liver, brain, kidney and testes/ovary. The litters of F(1B) and F(2B) generations were devoid of any morphological, visceral and teratological changes. The percent cumulative loss and growth index of pups were also comparable to respective controls in successive growth period of 0, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days in two generations. There were no major malformations in fetuses while some insignificant minor skeletal variations like missing 5th sternebrae and bipartite thoracic centre found were not compound or dose related. No significant pathomorphological changes were observed in liver, kidney, brain and gonads of F(2B) pups. In conclusion rats fed technical azadirachtin showed no evidence of cumulative effects on postnatal development and reproductive performance over two generations. Absence of any major adverse reproductive effects in adults as well as in 21 days old pups of F(2B) generation suggest the safe use of technical azadirachtin as a biopesticide. PMID:17084955

  9. Comparison of GT3X accelerometer and Yamax pedometer steps/day in a free-living sample of overweight and obese adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to compare steps/day detected by the YAMAX SW-200 pedometer versus the Actigraph GT3X accelerometer in free-living adults. Daily YAMAX and GT3X steps were collected from a sample of 23 overweight and obese participants (78% female; age = 52.6 +/- 8.4 yr.; BMI = 31.0 +/-...

  10. Geophysical variables and behavior: CIII. Days with sudden infant deaths and cardiac arrhythmias in adults share a factor with PC1 geomagnetic pulsations: implications for pursuing mechanism.

    PubMed

    Persinger, M A; O'Connor, R P

    2001-06-01

    If geomagnetic-mediated stimuli trigger many sudden infant deaths, then the days in which they and hospital admissions for cardiac arrhythmias for adults occur should share a similar source of variance. Factor analyses of the days in which a sudden infant death occurred in Ontario or adults were admitted for one of eight categories of cardiac crisis in the Sudbury (Ontario) Region for the year 1984 supported the hypothesis. This factor, with which infant deaths and adult cardiac arrhythmias each shared about 40% of their variance, also shared about 40% of the variance with a factor with which about 35% of the variance in daily occurrence of geomagnetic pulsations (0.2 Hz to 5 Hz) was associated. These results are consistent with the important role of geomagnetic variables in the occurrence of transient electrical anomalies in brain function rather than cardiac blood flow. PMID:11453188

  11. An intrauterine catch-up growth regimen increases food intake and post-natal growth in rats.

    PubMed

    Baik, M; Rajasekar, P; Lee, M S; Kim, J; Kwon, D-H; Kang, W; Nguyen, T H; Vu, T-T T

    2014-12-01

    Nutritional conditions during the intrauterine stage are an important developmental programming factor that can affect the growth and metabolic status during foetal development and permanently alter the phenotypes of newborn offspring and adults. This study was performed to examine the effects of intrauterine catch-up growth (IUCG) on food intake, post-natal body growth and the metabolic status of offspring and growing rats. Control pregnant rats were fed ad libitum during the entire gestation period. For the IUCG regimen, pregnant rats were fed 50% of the food of the controls from pregnancy days 4 through 11 (8 days), followed by ad libitum feeding from pregnancy days 12 through parturition. The birth weight of offspring was not affected by the IUCG regimen. At weaning, offspring from each treatment group were assigned to two groups and given either a normal diet or high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks until 103 days of age. In the normal diet group, the IUCG offspring showed a 9.0% increase (P < 0.05) in total food intake, were 11.2% heavier (p < 0.05) at 103 days of age and had an 11.0% greater (p < 0.05) daily weight gain compared with control offspring. The IUCG regimen did not affect body glucose and lipid metabolism. After exposure to the HFD, the IUCG regimen has not exacerbated metabolic disorders. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the IUCG nutritional regimen during pregnancy can increase the food intake and post-natal body growth of offspring without inducing metabolic disorders such as obesity and insulin resistance. The IUCG nutritional regimen might be used to improve the food intake and post-natal body growth of domestic animals. PMID:24495271

  12. 3‐day treatment with azithromycin 1.5% eye drops versus 7‐day treatment with tobramycin 0.3% for purulent bacterial conjunctivitis: multicentre, randomised and controlled trial in adults and children

    PubMed Central

    Cochereau, Isabelle; Meddeb‐Ouertani, Amel; Khairallah, Moncef; Amraoui, Abdelouahed; Zaghloul, Khalid; Pop, Mihai; Delval, Laurent; Pouliquen, Pascale; Tandon, Radhika; Garg, Prashant; Goldschmidt, Pablo; Bourcier, Tristan

    2007-01-01

    Aim To compare the efficacy and safety of Azyter, azithromycin 1.5% eye drops, for 3 days with tobramycin 0.3% for 7 days to treat purulent bacterial conjunctivitis. Methods This was a multicentre, randomised, investigator‐masked study including 1043 children and adults with purulent bacterial conjunctivitis. Patients received either azithromycin 1.5% twice‐daily for 3 days or tobramycin 0.3%, 1 drop every two hours for 2 days, then four times daily for 5 days. Clinical signs were evaluated and cultures obtained at D0, D3 and D9 (where D refers to “day”). Primary variable was the clinical cure at the Test‐of‐Cure (TOC)‐visit (D9±1), for patients with D0‐positive cultures. The cure was defined as: bulbar conjunctival injection and discharge scores of 0. Results Among 471 patients with D0‐positivity in the per protocol set, 87.8% of the azithromycin 1.5% group and 89.4% of the tobramycin group were clinically cured at the TOC‐visit. Azithromycin was non‐inferior to tobramycin for clinical and bacteriological cure. Clinical cure was significantly higher with azithromycin 1.5% at D3. The safety profile of azithromycin was satisfactory with a good patient and investigator's acceptability. Conclusions Azithromycin 1.5% for 3 days was as effective and as safe as tobramycin for 7 days. Furthermore, more azithromycin than tobramycin patients presented an early clinical cure at Day 3. Due to its twice daily dosing regimen for 3 days, azithromycin represents a step forward in the management of purulent bacterial conjunctivitis, especially in children. PMID:17050578

  13. 5-Hydroxytryptophan during critical postnatal period improves cognitive performances and promotes dendritic spine maturation in genetic mouse model of phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Andolina, Diego; Conversi, David; Cabib, Simona; Trabalza, Antonio; Ventura, Rossella; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Pascucci, Tiziana

    2011-01-01

    Although phenylketonuria (PKU) is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation, the cellular mechanisms underlying impaired brain function are still unclear. Using PAHenu2 mice (ENU2), the genetic mouse model of PKU, we previously demonstrated that high phenylalanine levels interfere with brain tryptophan hydroxylase activity by reducing the availability of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), crucial for maturation of neuronal connectivity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), around the third postnatal week, a critical period for cortical maturation. 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), the product of tryptophan hydroxylation, is known to be a better treatment to increase brain 5-HT levels. In this study we investigated the role of 5-HT during the early postnatal period in cognitive disturbances and in cortical dendritic alterations of PKU subjects by restoring temporarily (postnatal days 14–21) physiological brain levels of 5-HT in ENU2 through 5-HTP treatment. In adult ENU2 mice early 5-HTP treatment reverses cognitive deficits in spatial and object recognition tests accompanied by an increase in spine maturation of pyramidal neurons in layer V of the prelimbic/infralimbic area of the PFC, although locomotor deficits are not recovered by treatment. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that mental retardation in PKU depends on reduced availability of brain 5-HT during critical developmental periods that interferes with cortical maturation and point to 5-HTP supplementation as a highly promising additional tool to heal PKU patients. PMID:21040618

  14. Adult medulloblastoma, from spongioblastoma cerebelli to the present day: a review of treatment and the integration of molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Shonka, Nicole; Brandes, Alba; De Groot, John F

    2012-11-01

    Although they represent the most common malignant brain tumor in the pediatric population, medulloblastomas are rare in adults, with an incidence of 0.5 per million. With only one exception, all of the prospective clinical trials in this disease have been done in the pediatric population, and therefore therapy for adult medulloblastoma has been either extrapolated from the pediatric literature or based on retrospective reviews. A growing body of literature underscores the genetic similarities between adult and pediatric disease, which may allow tailored therapy directed towards specific molecular pathways and may have an impact on clinical outcomes. Here we present the history, staging system, and treatment of medulloblastoma, reviewing the prognostic value and clinical application of molecular subtyping while highlighting the differences between adult and pediatric disease. PMID:23330353

  15. TOXICITY OF MERCURIC CHLORIDE TO THE DEVELOPING RAT KIDNEY. 3. DISTRIBUTION AND ELIMINATION OF MERCURY DURING POSTNATAL MATURATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercuric chloride is a potent nephrotoxin in the adult rat, but has little effect on newborns. Nephrotoxicity increases with postnatal maturation. The study assesses the changes in tissue distribution and excretion of Hg during postnatal development. Sprague Dawley rats were inje...

  16. Transient and persistent expression of NT-3/HDNF mRNA in the rat brain during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Friedman, W J; Ernfors, P; Persson, H

    1991-06-01

    Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) is closely related to two known neurotrophic agents, NGF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and acts upon overlapping, yet distinct, populations of peripheral ganglia. NT-3 mRNA expression in the adult rat brain is largely confined to the hippocampus. In this study, we have used in situ hybridization to examine expression of this novel neurotrophic factor during postnatal development. The striking observation was made that NT-3 mRNA was transiently expressed at high levels in the cingulate cortex during the first 2 weeks of age. In the hippocampus, the adult pattern of expression, in the CA2, medial CA1, and granule layer of the dentate gyrus, was detected at all ages examined. However, there were two major differences in NT-3 mRNA expression in the developing hippocampus: Labeled cells were detected in the hilar region of the dentate gyrus at postnatal day 1 (P1) and 1 week that were absent by 2 weeks of age. Further, the caudal hippocampus, which has a lower intensity of labeling than the rostral region in the adult, was devoid of NT-3-expressing cells in the P1 and 1-week-old rat brain. These data indicate a substantial plasticity in NT-3 mRNA expression and suggest that the spectrum of neurons supported by NT-3 during development is partially different from that in the mature rat brain. PMID:2045877

  17. Postnatal Evaluation and Outcome of Prenatal Hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi-Bojd, Simin; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Ansari-Moghadam, Alireza; Rashidi, Somaye

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prenatal hydronephrosis (PNH) is dilation in urinary collecting system and is the most frequent neonatal urinary tract abnormality with an incidence of 1% to 5% of all pregnancies. PNH is defined as anteroposterior diameter (APD) of renal pelvis ≥ 4 mm at gestational age (GA) of < 33 weeks and APD ≥ 7 mm at GA of ≥ 33 weeks to 2 months after birth. All patients need to be evaluated after birth by postnatal renal ultrasonography (US). In the vast majority of cases, watchful waiting is the only thing to do; others need medical or surgical therapy. Objectives: There is a direct relationship between APD of renal pelvis and outcome of PNH. Therefore we were to find the best cutoff point APD of renal pelvis which leads to surgical outcome. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective cohort study we followed 200 patients 1 to 60 days old with diagnosis of PNH based on before or after birth ultrasonography; as a prenatal or postnatal detected, respectively. These patients were referred to the nephrology clinic in Zahedan Iran during 2011 to 2013. The first step of investigation was a postnatal renal US, by the same expert radiologist and classifying the patients into 3 groups; normal, mild/moderate and severe. The second step was to perform voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) for mild/moderate to severe cases at 4 - 6 weeks of life. Tc-diethylene triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) was the last step and for those with normal VCUG who did not show improvement in follow-up examination, US to evaluate obstruction and renal function. Finally all patients with mild/moderate to severe PNH received conservative therapy and surgery was preserved only for progressive cases, obstruction or renal function ≤35%. All patients’ data and radiologic information was recorded in separate data forms, and then analyzed by SPSS (version 22). Results: 200 screened PNH patients with male to female ratio 3.5:1 underwent first postnatal control US, of whom 65% had normal, 18% mild

  18. Maternal Melatonin Therapy Rescues Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Induced Programmed Hypertension in Male Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Yu, Hong-Ren; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Hsu, Chien-Ning; Lin, Yu-Ju; Kuo, Kuang-Che; Huang, Li-Tung

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) exposure and high-fat (HF) intake are linked to hypertension. We examined whether maternal melatonin therapy prevents programmed hypertension synergistically induced by prenatal DEX plus postnatal HF in adult offspring. We also examined whether DEX and melatonin causes renal programming using next-generation RNA sequencing (NGS) technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg) or vehicle from gestational day 16 to 22. In the melatonin-treatment groups (M), rats received 0.01% melatonin in drinking water during their entire pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were assigned to five groups: control, DEX, HF, DEX+HF, and DEX+HF+M. Male offspring in the HF group were fed a HF diet from weaning to 4 months of age. Prenatal DEX and postnatal HF diet synergistically induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring, which melatonin prevented. Maternal melatonin treatment modified over 3000 renal transcripts in the developing offspring kidney. Our NGS data indicate that PPAR signaling and fatty acid metabolism are two significantly regulated pathways. In addition, maternal melatonin therapy elicits longstanding alterations on renal programming, including regulation of the melatonin signaling pathway and upregulation of Agtr1b and Mas1 expression in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), to protect male offspring against programmed hypertension. Postnatal HF aggravates prenatal DEX induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring, which melatonin prevented. The protective effects of melatonin on programmed hypertension is associated with regulation of the RAS and melatonin receptors. The long-term effects of maternal melatonin therapy on renal transcriptome require further clarification. PMID:26696906

  19. Effects of postnatal stress on the development of type 1 diabetes in bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus).

    PubMed

    Freimanis, Tonny; Heller, Knud E; Schønecker, Bryan; Bildsøe, Mogens

    2003-01-01

    Wild bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) kept in the laboratory under barren housing conditions develop high incidences of type 1 diabetes mellitus due to beta cell-specific lysis in association with the appearance of GAD65, IA-2, and insulin autoantibodies. Wild-caught and immediately analyzed voles show no histological signs of diabetes, and the disease may therefore be induced by circumstances related to the housing of the animals in captivity. We tested the possibility that postnatal stress by either maternal separation or water immersion at different intervals would induce diabetes in adult bank voles. We found that low-frequent stress during the first 21 days of life increases, whereas high-frequent stress markedly reduces, the incidence of type 1 diabetes in adulthood. These results differentiate the role of early-experienced stress on subsequent type 1 diabetes development and emphasize that the bank vole may serve as a useful new animal model for the disease. PMID:12745667

  20. Early postnatal stress alters place conditioning to both mu- and kappa-opioid agonists.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Clifford C; Holtzman, Stephen G

    2008-04-01

    Clinical literature has established a link between early childhood incidents of neglect and trauma and adult problems with substance abuse. In rats, such early life stress has been modeled using a maternal separation (MS) paradigm in which rat pups were removed from their mothers for a few hours daily during the first two postnatal weeks. In this study, we used the MS model to investigate the effects of early postnatal stress on place conditioning to both mu- and kappa-opioid agonists in male and female Long-Evans rats. Offspring of both rearing conditions [MS or nonhandled (NH)] were conditioned using a biased procedure to saline, the mu-opioid agonist morphine (3.0, 5.6, and 10 mg/kg s.c.), or the kappa-opioid agonist spiradoline (0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg) for 3 days, followed by a drug-free place-conditioning test 24 h later. Saline was administered in the morning, 30 min before confinement in one compartment, whereas morphine or spiradoline was administered in a similar manner 6 h later in the opposite compartment. MS offspring spent significantly more time in the morphine-paired compartment than NH offspring, indicating a greater place preference for the mu-opioid agonist. In the case of spiradoline, NH offspring spent significantly less time in the spiradoline-paired compartment, indicating a greater aversion to the kappa-opioid agonist in these animals than in MS offspring. These findings indicate that early postnatal stress can significantly alter the rewarding or aversive value of mu- and kappa-opioid agonists when measured using place conditioning. PMID:18203949

  1. Postnatal TLR2 activation impairs learning and memory in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Madar, Ravit; Rotter, Aviva; Waldman Ben-Asher, Hiba; Mughal, Mohamed R; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Wood, W H; Becker, K G; Mattson, Mark P; Okun, Eitan

    2015-08-01

    Neuroinflammation in the central nervous system is detrimental for learning and memory, as evident form epidemiological studies linking developmental defects and maternal exposure to harmful pathogens. Postnatal infections can also induce neuroinflammatory responses with long-term consequences. These inflammatory responses can lead to motor deficits and/or behavioral disabilities. Toll like receptors (TLRs) are a family of innate immune receptors best known as sensors of microbial-associated molecular patterns, and are the first responders to infection. TLR2 forms heterodimers with either TLR1 or TLR6, is activated in response to gram-positive bacterial infections, and is expressed in the brain during embryonic development. We hypothesized that early postnatal TLR2-mediated neuroinflammation would adversely affect cognitive behavior in the adult. Our data indicate that postnatal TLR2 activation affects learning and memory in adult mice in a heterodimer-dependent manner. TLR2/6 activation improved motor function and fear learning, while TLR2/1 activation impaired spatial learning and enhanced fear learning. Moreover, developmental TLR2 deficiency significantly impairs spatial learning and enhances fear learning, stressing the involvement of the TLR2 pathway in learning and memory. Analysis of the transcriptional effects of TLR2 activation reveals both common and unique transcriptional programs following heterodimer-specific TLR2 activation. These results imply that adult cognitive behavior could be influenced in part, by activation or alterations in the TLR2 pathway at birth. PMID:26021559

  2. Postnatal TLR2 activation impairs learning and memory in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Madar, Ravit; Rotter, Aviva; Ben-Asher, Hiba Waldman; Mughal, Mohamed R.; Arumugam, Thiruma V.; Wood, WH; Becker, KG; Mattson, Mark P.; Okun, Eitan

    2015-01-01

    Neuroinflammation in the central nervous system is detrimental for learning and memory, as evident form epidemiological studies linking developmental defects and maternal exposure to harmful pathogens. Postnatal infections can also induce neuroinflammatory responses with long-term consequences. These inflammatory responses can lead to motor deficits and/or behavioral disabilities. Toll like receptors (TLRs) are a family of innate immune receptors best known as sensors of microbial-associated molecular patterns, and are the first responders to infection. TLR2 forms heterodimers with either TLR1 or TLR6, is activated in response to gram-positive bacterial infections, and is expressed in the brain during embryonic development. We hypothesized that early postnatal TLR2-mediated neuroinflammation would adversely affect cognitive behavior in the adult. Our data indicate that postnatal TLR2 activation affects learning and memory in adult mice in a heterodimer-dependent manner. TLR2/6 activation improved motor function and fear learning, while TLR2/1 activation impaired spatial learning and enhanced fear learning. Moreover, developmental TLR2 deficiency significantly impairs spatial learning and enhances fear learning, stressing the involvement of the TLR2 pathway in learning and memory. Analysis of the transcriptional effects of TLR2 activation reveals both common and unique transcriptional programs following heterodimer-specific TLR2 activation. These results imply that adult cognitive behavior could be influenced in part, by activation or alterations in the TLR2 pathway at birth. PMID:26021559

  3. Reported energy intake by weight status, day and estimated energy requirement among adults: NHANES 2003-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To describe energy intake reporting by gender, weight status, and interview sequence and to compare reported intakes to the Estimated Energy Requirement at different levels of physical activity. Methods: Energy intake was self-reported by 24-hour recall on two occasions (day 1 and day 2)...

  4. Decrease and disappearance of intramural neurons in the rat bladder during post-natal development.

    PubMed

    Alian, M; Gabella, G

    1996-11-01

    While confirming previous results that the bladder of adult female rats is devoid of intramural neurons, we show that during postnatal development some intramural neurons are present. There is about 200 of them per bladder at birth, and their number progressively decreases during post-natal life. In this strain of rats some neurons are still present at 12 weeks of age, and in one animal (out of five) there were still 25 neurons at 20 weeks of age. PMID:8945738

  5. Ontogeny of the O2-sensitive pathway in medulla oblongata of postnatal rat.

    PubMed

    White, L D; Lawson, E E; Millhorn, D E

    1994-10-01

    Fos protein, the product of the immediate early gene c-fos, has been used as a metabolic marker to map the O2 chemosensory pathway activated by hypoxia in the adult rat (Erickson and Millhorn, Brain Res. 567: 11-24, 1991). The current study provides evidence that the O2 chemoreceptor pathway develops during the first postnatal month. Rats at postnatal ages (P) 3, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days were exposed for 3 h to 21% (control) or 10% (hypoxia) O2. Pups were transcardially fixed, brain stems were frozen, sectioned, then reacted with Fos primary antibody, a secondary antibody, avidin-biotin peroxidase, then Ni-DAB as chromogen. Cells showing Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI) under control and hypoxic conditions were counted in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and the ventrolateral medulla (VLM). In both areas there was initially a low basal level of Fos-LI, a peak at P10 and a decline to P28. At all ages there was a significant increase in the number of Fos-LI cells in pups exposed to hypoxia. The high basal level of Fos expression at P10 and the high induced level at P14 may correlate with periods of terminal differentiation and maximum synaptogenesis, respectively. PMID:7817045

  6. Effect of energy repletion on dynamic aspects of protein metabolism of malnourished adolescent and young adult patients with cystic fibrosis during the first 12 days of treatment.

    PubMed

    Pencharz, P; Hill, R; Archibald, E

    1986-01-01

    The short-term effect of nutritional rehabilitation on whole body protein metabolism of six malnourished (energy depleted) adolescent and young adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients was examined during the first 12 days of treatment. Refeeding was accomplished using continuous nasogastric administration of an elemental diet. Intakes were 1.65 SD 0.3 g protein/kg/day and 85.3 SD 19.2 kcal/kg/day. Turnover measurements were carried out on four occasions, during the control period on a normal diet and days 4, 8, and 12 on the elemental diet. In response to refeeding, whole body amino nitrogen flux (Q) fell consistently over the study (p less than 0.05). Protein synthesis (S) and breakdown (B) also fell but their values did not reach statistical significance. On the other hand, there was a prompt increase in ratios S/Q and B/Q in response to tube feeding discernible on days 4 and 8 (p less than 0.05), but which returned to baseline by day 12. We conclude that malnourished CF patients who are still eating well have increased rates of protein turnover. There is a prompt response of protein metabolism to energy repletion with a progressive decline in rates during the first 12 days of treatment. PMID:3755167

  7. Changes in the expression of ion channels, connexins and Ca2+-handling proteins in the sino-atrial node during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Allah, Eman Abd; Tellez, James O; Yanni, Joseph; Nelson, Thomas; Monfredi, Oliver; Boyett, Mark R; Dobrzynski, Halina

    2011-04-01

    There are important postnatal changes in the sino-atrial node (SAN), the pacemaker of the heart. Compared with the neonate, the adult has a slower intrinsic heart rate and a longer SAN action potential. These changes may be due to differences in ion channel expression. Consequently, we investigated postnatal developmental changes in the expression of ion channels and Ca(2+)-handling proteins in the SAN to see whether this is indeed the case. Using quantitative PCR, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we investigated the expression of ion channels, Ca(2+)-handling proteins and connexins in the SAN from neonatal (2-7 days of age) and adult (∼6 months of age) New Zealand White rabbits. The spontaneous beating rate of adult SAN preparations was 21% slower than that of neonatal preparations. During postnatal development, quantitative PCR revealed a significant decline in the SAN of the following mRNAs: HCN4 (major isoform responsible for I(f)), Na(V)1.5 (responsible for I(Na)), Ca(V)1.3 (in part responsible for I(Ca,L)) and NCX1 (responsible for inward I(NaCa)). These declines could be responsible for the slowing of the pacemaker during postnatal development. There was a significant decline during development in mRNA for delayed rectifier K(+) channel subunits (K(V)1.5, responsible for I(K,ur), K(V)LQT1 and minK, responsible for I(K,s), and ERG, responsible for I(K,r)) and this could explain the prolongation of the action potential. In situ hybridization confirmed the changes observed by quantitative PCR. In addition, immunohistochemistry revealed hypertrophy of nodal cells during postnatal development. Moreover, there were complex changes in the expression of Ca(2+)-handling proteins with age. In summary, there are significant postnatal changes in the expression of ion channels and Ca(2+)-handling proteins in the SAN that could explain the established changes in heart rate and action potential duration that occur during normal development. PMID:21278078

  8. Maternal in utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects the blood pressure of adult male offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez–Arguelles, D.B.; McIntosh, M.; Rohlicek, C.V.; Culty, M.; Zirkin, B.R.; Papadopoulos, V.

    2013-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used industrially to add flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers and is ubiquitously found in the environment, with evidence of prenatal, perinatal and early infant exposure in humans. In utero exposure to DEHP decreases circulating testosterone levels in the adult rat. In addition, DEHP reduces the expression of the angiotensin II receptors in the adrenal gland, resulting in decreased circulating aldosterone levels. The latter may have important effects on water and electrolyte balance as well as systemic arterial blood pressure. Therefore, we determined the effects of in utero exposure to DEHP on systemic arterial blood pressure in the young (2 month-old) and older (6.5 month-old) adult rats. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were exposed from gestational day 14 until birth to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day. Blood pressure, heart rate, and activity data were collected using an intra-aortal transmitter in the male offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60 and PND200. A low (0.01%) and high-salt (8%) diet was used to challenge the animals at PND200. In utero exposure to DEHP resulted in reduced activity at PND60. At PND200, systolic and diastolic systemic arterial pressures as well as activity were reduced in response to DEHP exposure. This is the first evidence showing that in utero exposure to DEHP has cardiovascular and behavioral effects in the adult male offspring. Highlights: ► In utero exposure to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day decreases activity at postnatal day 60. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases aldosterone levels at postnatal day 200. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases systolic blood pressure at postnatal day 200. ► An 8% salt diet recovers the decreased blood pressure at postnatal day 200.

  9. The combined effect of sleep and time of day on emotion decoding from dynamic visual cues in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Tsokanaki, Paraskevi; Moraitou, Despina; Papantoniou, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that night sleep is a decisive factor for the effective functioning of the human body and mind. In addition to the role of sleep, older adults report that they are “morning types” and that their cognitive and emotional abilities seem to be at a higher level in the morning hours. In this vein, this study is aimed at examining the effect of sleep combined with the “time of day” condition on a specific ability that is crucial for interpersonal communication, namely, emotion recognition, in older adults. Specifically, the study compared older adults’ performance in decoding emotions from ecologically valid, dynamic visual cues, in two conditions: “early in the morning and after night sleep”, and “in the afternoon and after many hours since night sleep”. An emotion recognition task was administered twice to 37 community-dwelling older adults. The results showed a statistically significant higher performance in the morning in decoding all emotions presented, compared to the afternoon condition. Pleasant surprise, sadness, and anxiety were revealed as the most difficult emotions to be recognized in the afternoon condition. PMID:27621639

  10. Coverage, quality of and barriers to postnatal care in rural Hebei, China: a mixed method study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Postnatal care is an important link in the continuum of care for maternal and child health. However, coverage and quality of postnatal care are poor in low- and middle-income countries. In 2009, the Chinese government set a policy providing free postnatal care services to all mothers and their newborns in China. Our study aimed at exploring coverage, quality of care, reasons for not receiving and barriers to providing postnatal care after introduction of this new policy. Methods We carried out a mixed method study in Zhao County, Hebei Province, China from July to August 2011. To quantify the coverage, quality of care and reasons for not using postnatal care, we conducted a household survey with 1601 caregivers of children younger than two years of age. We also conducted semi-structured interviews with 24 township maternal and child healthcare workers to evaluate their views on workload, in-service training and barriers to postnatal home visits. Results Of 1442 (90% of surveyed caregivers) women who completed the postnatal care survey module, 8% received a timely postnatal home visit (within one week after delivery) and 24% of women received postnatal care within 42 days after delivery. Among women who received postnatal care, 37% received counseling or guidance on infant feeding and 32% on cord care. 24% of women reported that the service provider checked jaundice of their newborns and 18% were consulted on danger signs and thermal care of their newborns. Of 991 mothers who did not seek postnatal care within 42 days after birth, 65% of them said that they did not knew about postnatal care and 24% of them thought it was unnecessary. Qualitative findings revealed that staff shortages and inconvenient transportation limited maternal and child healthcare workers in reaching out to women at home. In addition, maternal and child healthcare workers said that in-service training was inadequate and more training on postnatal care, hands-on practice, and

  11. Postnatal development in Andersen's leaf-nosed bat Hipposideros pomona: flight, wing shape, and wing bone lengths.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ai-Qing; Jin, Long-Ru; Shi, Li-Min; Sun, Ke-Ping; Berquist, Sean W; Liu, Ying; Feng, Jiang

    2011-04-01

    Postnatal changes in flight development, wing shape and wing bone lengths of 56 marked neonate Hipposideros pomona were investigated under natural conditions in southwest China. Flight experiments showed that pups began to flutter with a short horizontal displacement at 10 days and first took flight at 19 days, with most achieving sustained flight at 1 month old. Analysis of covariance on wingspan, wing area, and the other seven wing characteristics between 'pre-flight' and 'post-volancy' periods supports the hypothesis that growth had one 'pre-flight' trajectory and a different 'post-volancy' trajectory in bats. Wingspan, handwing length and area, armwing length and area, and total wing area increased linearly until the age of first flight, after which the growth rates decreased (all P < 0.001). Wing loading declined linearly until day 19 before ultimately decreasing to adult levels (P < 0.001). Additionally, the relationship of different pairwise combinations of bony components composing span-wise length and chord-wise length was evaluated to test the hypothesis that compensatory growth of wing bones in H. pomona occurred in both 'pre-flight' and 'post-volancy' periods. The frequency of short-long and long-short pairs was significantly greater than that of short-short, long-long pairs in most pairs of bone elements in adults. The results indicate that a bone 'shorter than expected' would be compensated by a bone or bones 'longer than expected', suggesting compensatory growth in H. pomona. The pairwise comparisons conducted in adults were also performed in young bats during 'pre-flight' and 'post-volancy' periods, demonstrating that compensatory growth occurred throughout postnatal ontogeny. PMID:21435853

  12. Enriched environment has limited capacity for the correction of hippocampal memory-dependent schizoid behaviors in rats with early postnatal NMDAR dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Melik, Enver; Babar, Emine; Kocahan, Sayad; Guven, Mustafa; Akillioglu, Kubra

    2014-04-01

    Pre- and early postnatal stress can cause dysfunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and thereby promote the development of hippocampus memory-dependent schizoid abnormalities of navigation in space, time, and knowledge. An enriched environment improves mental abilities in humans and animals. Whether an enriched environment can prevent the development of schizoid symptoms induced by neonatal NMDAR dysfunction was the central question of our paper. The experimental animals were Wistar rats. Early postnatal NMDAR dysfunction was created by systemic treatment of rat pups with the NMDAR antagonist MK-801 at PD10-20 days. During the development period (PD21-90 days), the rats were reared in cognitively and physically enriched cages. Adult age rats were tested on navigation based on pattern separation and episodic memory in the open field and on auto-hetero-associations based on episodic and semantic memory in a step-through passive avoidance task. The results showed that postnatal NMDAR antagonism caused abnormal behaviors in both tests. An enriched environment prevented deficits in the development of navigation in space based on pattern separation and hetero-associations based on semantic memory. However, an enriched environment was unable to rescue navigation in space and auto-associations based on episodic memory. These data may contribute to the understanding that an enriched environment has a limited capacity for therapeutic interventions in protecting the development of schizoid syndromes in children and adolescents. PMID:24184288

  13. Treating Adult Asthma Exacerbations With a 2-Day Course of Dexamethasone in the Emergency Department: New Protocols to Improve Compliance.

    PubMed

    Evans, Dian Dowling; Clinton Shedd, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    The Research to Practice column is intended to improve the research critique skills of the advanced practice registered nurse and emergency nurse (RN) and to assist with the translation of research into practice. For each column, a topic and a research study are selected. The stage is set with a case presentation. The research article is then reviewed and critiqued, and the findings are discussed in relation to the case presented. In the current column, we examine the findings of from their article, titled "Two Days of Dexamethasone Versus 5 Days of Prednisone in the Treatment of Acute Asthma: A Randomized Controlled Trial." PMID:27482988

  14. Transitory and activity-dependent expression of neurogranin in olfactory bulb tufted cells during mouse postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Gribaudo, S; Bovetti, S; Friard, O; Denorme, M; Oboti, L; Fasolo, A; De Marchis, S

    2012-10-01

    Neurogranin (Ng) is a brain-specific postsynaptic calmodulin-binding protein involved in synaptic activity-dependent plasticity. In the adult olfactory bulb (OB), Ng is expressed by a large population of GABAergic interneurons in the granule cell layer. We show here that, during postnatal development, Ng is also expressed by OB neurons in the superficial external plexiform layer (sEPL) and glomerular layer (GL). These Ng-positive neurons display morphological and neurochemical features of superficial and external tufted cells. Ng expression in these cells is transient during OB development: few elements express Ng at postnatal day (P) 5, increasing in number and reaching a peak at P10, then progressively decreasing. At P30, Ng is rarely detectable in these neurons. Ng expression in developing tufted cells is also modulated at the cellular level: at earlier stages, Ng labeling is distributed throughout the cell body and dendritic arborization in the GL, but, at P20, when the glomerular circuits are fully matured, Ng becomes restricted to the soma and proximal portion of tufted cell apical dendrites. We show that olfactory deprivation at early postnatal stages induces a strong increase in Ng-positive tufted cells from P10 to P20, whereas no changes have been observed following olfactory deprivation in adult mice. These findings demonstrate that Ng expression in sEPL-GL is restricted to developmental stages and indicate its activity-dependent regulation in a time window critical for glomerular circuit development, suggesting a role for Ng in maturation and dendritic remodeling of tufted cells. PMID:22592880

  15. Fourteen days of bed rest induces a decline in satellite cell content and robust atrophy of skeletal muscle fibers in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Arentson-Lantz, Emily J; English, Kirk L; Paddon-Jones, Douglas; Fry, Christopher S

    2016-04-15

    Bed rest, a ground-based spaceflight analog, induces robust atrophy of skeletal muscle, an effect that is exacerbated with increasing age. We examined the effect of 14 days of bed rest on skeletal muscle satellite cell content and fiber type atrophy in middle-aged adults, an understudied age demographic with few overt signs of muscle aging that is representative of astronauts who perform long-duration spaceflight. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis of healthy middle-aged adults [n= 7 (4 male, 3 female); age: 51 ± 1 yr] before (Pre-BR) and after (Post-BR) 14 days of bed rest. Immunohistochemical analyses were used to quantify myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform expression, cross-sectional area (CSA), satellite cell and myonuclear content, and capillary density. Peak oxygen consumption, knee extensor strength, and body composition were also measured Pre-BR and Post-BR. Post-BR MyHC type 2a fiber percentage was reduced, and mean CSA decreased in all fiber types (-24 ± 5%;P< 0.05). Satellite cell content was also reduced Post-BR (-39 ± 9%;P< 0.05), and the change in satellite cell content was significantly correlated with the change in mean fiber CSA (r(2)= 0.60;P< 0.05). A decline in capillary density was observed Post-BR (-23 ± 6%;P< 0.05), and Post-BR capillary content was significantly associated with Post-BR peak aerobic capacity (r(2)= 0.59;P< 0.05). A subtle decline in myonuclear content occurred during bed rest (-5 ± 1%;P< 0.05). The rapid maladaptation of skeletal muscle to 14 days of mechanical unloading in middle-aged adults emphasizes the need for robust countermeasures to preserve muscle function in astronauts. PMID:26796754

  16. Systematic Evaluation of Key L-Carnitine Homeostasis Mechanisms during Postnatal Development in Rat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The conditionally essential nutrient, L-carnitine, plays a critical role in a number of physiological processes vital to normal neonatal growth and development. We conducted a systematic evaluation of the developmental changes in key L-carnitine homeostasis mechanisms in the postnatal rat to better understand the interrelationship between these pathways and their correlation to ontogenic changes in L-carnitine levels during postnatal development. Methods mRNA expression of heart, kidney and intestinal L-carnitine transporters, liver γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase (Bbh) and trimethyllysine hydroxylase (Tmlh), and heart carnitine palmitoyltransferase (Cpt) were measured using quantitative RT-PCR. L-Carnitine levels were determined by HPLC-UV. Cpt and Bbh activity were measured by a spectrophotometric method and HPLC, respectively. Results Serum and heart L-carnitine levels increased with postnatal development. Increases in serum L-carnitine correlated significantly with postnatal increases in renal organic cation/carnitine transporter 2 (Octn2) expression, and was further matched by postnatal increases in intestinal Octn1 expression and hepatic γ-Bbh activity. Postnatal increases in heart L-carnitine levels were significantly correlated to postnatal increases in heart Octn2 expression. Although cardiac high energy phosphate substrate levels remained constant through postnatal development, creatine showed developmental increases with advancing neonatal age. mRNA levels of Cpt1b and Cpt2 significantly increased at postnatal day 20, which was not accompanied by a similar increase in activity. Conclusions Several L-carnitine homeostasis pathways underwent significant ontogenesis during postnatal development in the rat. This information will facilitate future studies on factors affecting the developmental maturation of L-carnitine homeostasis mechanisms and how such factors might affect growth and development. PMID:22805277

  17. Hypothermia after chronic mild stress exposure in rats with a history of postnatal maternal separations.

    PubMed

    Mrdalj, Jelena; Lundegaard Mattson, Ase; Murison, Robert; Konow Jellestad, Finn; Milde, Anne Marita; Pallesen, Ståle; Ursin, Reidun; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Grønli, Janne

    2014-03-01

    The circadian system develops and changes in a gradual and programmed process over the lifespan. Early in life, maternal care represents an important zeitgeber and thus contributes to the development of circadian rhythmicity. Exposure to early life stress may affect circadian processes and induce a latent circadian disturbance evident after exposure to later life stress. Disturbance of the normal regulation of circadian rhythmicity is surmised to be an etiological factor in depression. We used postnatal maternal separation in rats to investigate how the early life environment might modify the circadian response to later life unpredictable and chronic stress. During postnatal days 2-14, male Wistar rats (n = 8 per group) were daily separated from their mothers for a period of either 180 min (long maternal separation; LMS) or 10 min (brief maternal separation; BMS). In adulthood, rats were exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS) for 4 weeks. Body temperature, locomotor activity and heart rate were measured and compared before and after CMS exposure. LMS offspring showed a delayed body temperature acrophase compared to BMS offspring. Otherwise, adult LMS and BMS offspring demonstrated similar diurnal rhythms of body temperature, locomotor activity and heart rate. Exposure to CMS provoked a stronger and longer lasting hypothermia in LMS rats than in BMS rats. The thermoregulatory response appears to be moderated by maternal care following reunion, an observation made in the LMS group only. The results show that early life stress (LMS) in an early developmental stage induced a thermoregulatory disturbance evident upon exposure to unpredictable adult life stressors. PMID:24156523

  18. The Postnatal Role of Sox9 in Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Stephen P.; Liang, Shoudan; Akdemir, Kadir C; de Crombrugghe, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Sox9 is an essential transcription factor for the differentiation of the chondrocytic lineage during embryonic development. To test whether Sox9 continues to play a critical role in cartilaginous tissues in the adult mice, we used an inducible, genetic strategy to disrupt the Sox9 gene postnatally in these tissues. The postnatal inactivation of Sox9 led to stunted growth characterized by decreased proliferation, increased cell death, and de-differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes. Upon postnatal Sox9 inactivation in the articular cartilage, the sulfated proteoglycan and aggrecan content of the uncalcified cartilage were rapidly depleted and the degradation of aggrecan was accompanied by higher ADAMTS5 immunostaining and increased detection of the aggrecan neoepitope, NITEGE. In spite of the severe loss of Collagen 2a1 mRNA, the Collagen II protein persisted in the articular cartilage, and no histopathological signs of osteoarthritis were observed. The homeostasis of the intervertebral disk (IVD) was dramatically altered upon Sox9 depletion, resulting in disk compression and subsequent degeneration. Inactivation of Sox9 in the IVD markedly reduced the expression of several genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins, as well as some of the enzymes responsible for their posttranslational modification. Furthermore, the loss of Sox9 in the IVD decreased the expression of cytokines, cell surface receptors, and ion channels suggesting that Sox9 coordinates a large genetic program that is instrumental for the proper homeostasis of the cells contained in the intervertebral disk postnatally. Our results indicate that Sox9 has an essential role in the physiological control of cartilaginous tissues in adult mice. PMID:22777888

  19. Experimental evidence showing that no mitotically active female germline progenitors exist in postnatal mouse ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua; Zheng, Wenjing; Shen, Yan; Adhikari, Deepak; Ueno, Hiroo; Liu, Kui

    2012-01-01

    It has been generally accepted for more than half a century that, in most mammalian species, oocytes cannot renew themselves in postnatal or adult life, and that the number of oocytes is already fixed in fetal or neonatal ovaries. This assumption, however, has been challenged over the past decade. In this study, we have taken an endogenous genetic approach to this question and generated a multiple fluorescent Rosa26rbw/+;Ddx4-Cre germline reporter mouse model for in vivo and in vitro tracing of the development of female germline cell lineage. Through live cell imaging and de novo folliculogenesis experiments, we show that the Ddx4-expressing cells from postnatal mouse ovaries did not enter mitosis, nor did they contribute to oocytes during de novo folliculogenesis. Our results provide evidence that supports the traditional view that no postnatal follicular renewal occurs in mammals, and no mitotically active Ddx4-expressing female germline progenitors exist in postnatal mouse ovaries. PMID:22778414

  20. Identification and characterization of a non-satellite cell muscle resident progenitor during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kathryn J; Pannérec, Alice; Cadot, Bruno; Parlakian, Ara; Besson, Vanessa; Gomes, Edgar R; Marazzi, Giovanna; Sassoon, David A

    2010-03-01

    Satellite cells are resident myogenic progenitors in postnatal skeletal muscle involved in muscle postnatal growth and adult regenerative capacity. Here, we identify and describe a population of muscle-resident stem cells, which are located in the interstitium, that express the cell stress mediator PW1 but do not express other markers of muscle stem cells such as Pax7. PW1(+)/Pax7(-) interstitial cells (PICs) are myogenic in vitro and efficiently contribute to skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo as well as generating satellite cells and PICs. Whereas Pax7 mutant satellite cells show robust myogenic potential, Pax7 mutant PICs are unable to participate in myogenesis and accumulate during postnatal growth. Furthermore, we found that PICs are not derived from a satellite cell lineage. Taken together, our findings uncover a new and anatomically identifiable population of muscle progenitors and define a key role for Pax7 in a non-satellite cell population during postnatal muscle growth. PMID:20118923

  1. Intoxication with Bourbon versus Vodka: Effects on Hangover, Sleep and Next-Day Neurocognitive Performance in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Howland, Jonathan; Arnedt, J. Todd; Almeida, Alissa B.; Greece, Jacey; Minsky, Sara; Kempler, Carrie S.; Sales, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Background This study assessed the effects of heavy drinking with high or low congener beverages on next-day neurocognitive performance, and the extent to which these effects were mediated by alcohol-related sleep disturbance or alcoholic beverage congeners, and correlated with the intensity of hangover. Methods Healthy heavy drinkers age 21–33 (n = 95) participated in two drinking nights after an acclimatization night. They drank to a mean of 0.11 g% BrAC on vodka or bourbon one night with matched placebo the other night, randomized for type and order. Polysomnography recordings were made overnight; self-report and neurocognitive measures were assessed the next morning. Results After alcohol, people had more hangover and more decrements in tests requiring both sustained attention and speed. Hangover correlated with poorer performance on these measures. Alcohol decreased sleep efficiency and REM sleep, and increased wake time and next-day sleepiness. Alcohol effects on sleep correlated with hangover but did not mediate the effects on performance. No effect of beverage congeners was found except on hangover severity, with people feeling worse after bourbon. Virtually no sex differences appeared. Conclusions Since drinking to this level affects complex cognitive abilities, safety could be affected, with implications for driving and for safety sensitive occupations. Congener content affects only how people feel the next day so does not increase risk. The sleep disrupting effects of alcohol did not account for the impaired performance so other mechanisms of effect need to be sought. Since hangover symptoms correlate with impaired performance, these might be contributing to the impairment. PMID:20028364

  2. Interactions of time of day and sleep with between-session habituation and extinction memory in young adult males

    PubMed Central

    Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Tracy, Lauren E.; Rubin, Zoe; Mollica, Adrian G.; Ellenbogen, Jeffrey M.; Bianchi, Matt T.; Milad, Mohammed R.; Pitman, Roger K.; Orr, Scott P.

    2014-01-01

    Within-session habituation and extinction learning co-occur as do subsequent consolidation of habituation (i.e., between-session habituation) and extinction memory. We sought to determine if, as we predicted: (1) between-session habituation is greater across a night of sleep vs. a day awake; (2) time-of-day accounts for differences; (3) between-session habituation predicts consolidation of extinction memory; (4) sleep predicts between-session habituation and/or extinction memory. Participants (N=28) completed 4–5 sessions alternating between mornings and evenings over 3 successive days (2 nights) with session 1 in either the morning (N=13) or evening (N=15). Twelve participants underwent laboratory polysomnography. During 4 sessions, participants completed a loud-tone habituation protocol while skin-conductance response (SCR), blink-startle electromyography (EMG), heart-rate acceleration (HRA) and deceleration (HRD) were recorded. For sessions 1 and 2, between-session habituation of EMG, SCR and HRD was greater across sleep. SCR and HRD were generally lower in the morning. Between-session habituation of SCR for sessions 1 and 2 was positively related to intervening (first night) slow wave sleep. In the evening before night 2, participants also underwent fear conditioning and extinction learning phases of a second protocol. Extinction recall was tested the following morning. Extinction recall was predicted only by between-session habituation of SCR across the same night (second night) and by intervening REM. We conclude that: 1) sleep augments between-session habituation, as does morning testing; 2) extinction recall is predicted by concurrent between-session habituation; and 3) both phenomena may be influenced by sleep. PMID:24481663

  3. Interactions of time of day and sleep with between-session habituation and extinction memory in young adult males.

    PubMed

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Tracy, Lauren E; Rubin, Zoe; Mollica, Adrian G; Ellenbogen, Jeffrey M; Bianchi, Matt T; Milad, Mohammed R; Pitman, Roger K; Orr, Scott P

    2014-05-01

    Within-session habituation and extinction learning co-occur as do subsequent consolidation of habituation (i.e., between-session habituation) and extinction memory. We sought to determine whether, as we predicted: (1) between-session habituation is greater across a night of sleep versus a day awake; (2) time-of-day accounts for differences; (3) between-session habituation predicts consolidation of extinction memory; (4) sleep predicts between-session habituation and/or extinction memory. Participants (N = 28) completed 4-5 sessions alternating between mornings and evenings over 3 successive days (2 nights) with session 1 in either the morning (N = 13) or evening (N = 15). Twelve participants underwent laboratory polysomnography. During 4 sessions, participants completed a loud-tone habituation protocol, while skin conductance response (SCR), blink startle electromyography (EMG), heart-rate acceleration and heart-rate deceleration (HRD) were recorded. For sessions 1 and 2, between-session habituation of EMG, SCR and HRD was greater across sleep. SCR and HRD were generally lower in the morning. Between-session habituation of SCR for sessions 1 and 2 was positively related to intervening (first night) slow wave sleep. In the evening before night 2, participants also underwent fear conditioning and extinction learning phases of a second protocol. Extinction recall was tested the following morning. Extinction recall was predicted only by between-session habituation of SCR across the same night (second night) and by intervening REM. We conclude that: (1) sleep augments between-session habituation, as does morning testing; (2) extinction recall is predicted by concurrent between-session habituation; and (3) both phenomena may be influenced by sleep. PMID:24481663

  4. Oligodendrogenesis and myelinogenesis during postnatal development effect of glatiramer acetate.

    PubMed

    From, Renana; Eilam, Raya; Bar-Lev, Dekel D; Levin-Zaidman, Smadar; Tsoory, Michael; LoPresti, Patrizia; Sela, Michael; Arnon, Ruth; Aharoni, Rina

    2014-04-01

    Myelinogenesis in the mammal nervous system occurs predominantly postnatally. Glatiramer acetate (GA), a drug for the treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS), has been shown to induce immunomodulation and neuroprotection in the inflamed CNS in MS and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here we investigated whether GA can affect myelinogenesis and oligodendrogenesis in the developing nervous system under nonpathological conditions. Towards this end we studied myelination in mice injected daily by GA, at postnatal Days 7-21. Immunohistological and ultrastructural analyses revealed significant elevation in the number of myelinated axons as well as in the thickness of the myelin encircling them and their resulting g-ratios, in spinal cords of GA-injected mice compared with their PBS-injected littermates, at postnatal Day 14. Elevation in myelinated axons was detected also in the peripheral ventral roots of the motor nerves. GA induced also an increase in axonal diameter, implying an effect on the overall development of the nervous system. A prominent elevation in the amount of progenitor oligodendrocytes and their BrdU incorporation, as well as in mature oligodendrocytes indicated that the effect of GA is linked to increased proliferation and differentiation along the oligodendroglial maturation cascade. In addition, elevation in insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was found in the white matter of the GA-injected mice. Furthermore, a functional advantage in rotating rod test was exhibited by GA-injected mice over their littermates at postnatal Day 21. These cumulative findings corroborate the beneficial effect of GA on oligodendrogenesis and myelination. PMID:24481644

  5. Postnatal growth of corticospinal axons in the spinal cord of developing mice.

    PubMed

    Gianino, S; Stein, S A; Li, H; Lu, X; Biesiada, E; Ulas, J; Xu, X M

    1999-02-01

    The corticospinal tract (CST) plays an important role in the control of voluntary movements. Although the development of the CST has been studied extensively in other species, limited information is available on its development in mice. In the present study, the growth of corticospinal axons was characterized in developing mice using Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L). Our results indicate that the leading CST axons reach the 8th cervical segment at postnatal day (PD) 2, the 7th thoracic segment at PD4, the 13th thoracic segment at PD7, and the 5th lumbar segment at PD9. The arrival of corticospinal axons at the distal lumbar cord at PD9 was further confirmed by retrograde tracing using fast blue (FB). A waiting period of 2-3 days exists after the leading CST axons pass a particular segment before sending collaterals into the gray matter of that segment. The CST continues to increase in size in lower thoracic and lumbar areas up to PD14 when its adult appearance is achieved. In this study, the date of animal's sacrifice was used as the specific postnatal date to demonstrate the growth of the CST. This definition gives a more reliable indication of the exact location of the CST at a specific developmental time point since the CST continues to grow after tracer injections and since the dye is transported much faster than axonal growth. We suggest that these findings can be used as a template for studies on both normal and transgenic mice where some developmental significance is given to the CST. PMID:9878731

  6. Effects of Prenatal Irradiation with an Accelerated Heavy-Ion Beam on Postnatal Development in Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Fujita, K.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    Effects on postnatal neurophysiological development in offspring were studied following exposure of pregnant Wistar rats to accelerated neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV mu m at a dose range from 0 1 Gy to 2 0Gy on the 15th day of gestation The age at which four physiologic markers appeared and five reflexes were acquired was examined prior to weaning Gain in body weight was monitored until the offspring were 3 months old Male offspring were evaluated as young adults using two behavioral tests The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp measured for the same biological end points were studied for comparison Our previous study on carbon-ion beams with a LET value of about 13 keV mu m was also cited to elucidate a possible LET-related effect For most of the endpoints at early age significant alteration was even observed in offspring prenatally received 0 1 Gy of accelerated neon ions while neither X rays nor carbon-ions under the same dose resulted in such a significant alteration compared to that from the sham-irradiated dams All offspring whose mothers received 2 0 Gy died prior to weaning Offspring from dams irradiated with accelerated neon ions generally showed higher incidences of prenatal death and preweaning mortality markedly delayed accomplishment in their physiological markers and reflexes and gain in body weight compared to those exposed to X-rays or carbon ions at doses of 0 1 to 1 5 Gy Significantly reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight at postnatal ages of 30 60 and 90 days were also observed

  7. Dopamine Receptor and Gα(olf) Expression in DYT1 Dystonia Mouse Models during Postnatal Development

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; McCarthy, Deirdre M.; Sharma, Nutan; Bhide, Pradeep G.

    2015-01-01

    Background DYT1 dystonia is a heritable, early-onset generalized movement disorder caused by a GAG deletion (ΔGAG) in the DYT1 gene. Neuroimaging studies and studies using mouse models suggest that DYT1 dystonia is associated with dopamine imbalance. However, whether dopamine imbalance is key to DYT1 or other forms of dystonia continues to be debated. Methodology/Principal Findings We used Dyt1 knock out (Dyt1 KO), Dyt1 ΔGAG knock-in (Dyt1 KI), and transgenic mice carrying one copy of the human DYT1 wild type allele (DYT1 hWT) or human ΔGAG mutant allele (DYT1 hMT). D1R, D2R, and Gα(olf) protein expression was analyzed by western blot in the frontal cortex, caudate-putamen and ventral midbrain in young adult (postnatal day 60; P60) male mice from all four lines; and in the frontal cortex and caudate putamen in juvenile (postnatal day 14; P14) male mice from the Dyt1 KI and KO lines. Dopamine receptor and Gα(olf) protein expression were significantly decreased in multiple brain regions of Dyt1 KI and Dyt1 KO mice and not significantly altered in the DYT1 hMT or DYT1 hWT mice at P60. The only significant change at P14 was a decrease in D1R expression in the caudate-putamen of the Dyt1 KO mice. Conclusion/Significance We found significant decreases in key proteins in the dopaminergic system in multiple brain regions of Dyt1 KO and Dyt1 KI mouse lines at P60. Deletion of one copy of the Dyt1 gene (KO mice) produced the most pronounced effects. These data offer evidence that impaired dopamine receptor signaling may be an early and significant contributor to DYT1 dystonia pathophysiology. PMID:25860259

  8. Effect of Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Genes (CHRN) on Longitudinal Cigarettes per Day in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies have sought to identify specific genetic markers associated with cigarettes per day (CPD) during adolescence and young adulthood, the period of greatest vulnerability for the development of nicotine dependence. Methods: We used a longitudinal design to investigate the effect of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRN) subunit genes on CPD from 15 to 21 years of age in young smokers of European descent (N = 439, 59% female). The number of CPD typically smoked during the previous 30 days was self-reported. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from CHRN genes were genotyped using DNA extracted from saliva samples collected at the 5-year assessment. Mixed-model analyses of SNP effects were computed across age at the time of assessment using log-transformed CPD as the phenotype. Data from the 1000 Genomes Project were used to clarify the architecture of CHRN genes to inform SNP selection and interpretation of results. Results: CPD was associated with a CHRNB3A6 region tagged by rs2304297, with CHRNA5A3B4 haplotype C (tagged by rs569207), and with the CHRNA2 SNP rs2271920, ps < .004. The reliability of single-SNP associations was supported by the correspondence between a more extensive set of SNP signals and the underlying genetic architecture. The 3 signals identified in this study appear to make independent contributions to CPD, and their combined effect accounts for 5.5% of the variance in log-transformed CPD. Conclusions: Level of CPD during adolescence and young adulthood is associated with CHRNB3A6, CHRNA5A3B4, and CHRNA2. PMID:23943838

  9. Estimation of Trans Fatty Acid Intake in Japanese Adults Using 16-Day Diet Records Based on a Food Composition Database Developed for the Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Mai; Sasaki, Satoshi; Murakami, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Todoriki, Hidemi; Miura, Ayako; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2010-01-01

    Background The Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan do not include information on trans fatty acids. Previous studies estimating trans fatty acid intake among Japanese have limitations regarding the databases utilized and diet assessment methodologies. We developed a comprehensive database of trans fatty acid food composition, and used this database to estimate intake among a Japanese population. Methods The database was developed using analytic values from the literature and nutrient analysis software encompassing foods in the US, as well as values estimated from recipes or nutrient compositions. We collected 16-day diet records from 225 adults aged 30 to 69 years living in 4 areas of Japan. Trans fatty acid intake was estimated based on the database and the 16-day diet records. Results Mean total fat and trans fatty acid intake was 56.9 g/day (27.7% total energy) and 1.7 g/day (0.8% total energy), respectively, for women and 66.8 g/day (25.5% total energy) and 1.7 g/day (0.7% total energy) for men. Trans fatty acid intake accounted for greater than 1% of total energy intake, which is the maximum recommended according to the World Health Organization, in 24.4% of women and 5.7% of men, and was particularly high among women living in urban areas and those aged 30–49 years. The largest contributors to trans fatty acid intake were confectionaries in women and fats and oils in men. Conclusions Although mean trans fatty acid intake was below the maximum recommended intake of the World Health Organization, intake among subgroups was of concern. Further public health efforts to reduce trans fatty acid intake should be encouraged. PMID:20037259

  10. Discerning Neurogenic vs. Non-Neurogenic Postnatal Lateral Ventricular Astrocytes via Activity-Dependent Input

    PubMed Central

    Adlaf, Elena W.; Mitchell-Dick, Aaron; Kuo, Chay T.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout development, neural stem cells (NSCs) give rise to differentiated neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes which together modulate perception, memory, and behavior in the adult nervous system. To understand how NSCs contribute to postnatal/adult brain remodeling and repair after injury, the lateral ventricular (LV) neurogenic niche in the rodent postnatal brain serves as an excellent model system. It is a specialized area containing self-renewing GFAP+ astrocytes functioning as NSCs generating new neurons throughout life. In addition to this now well-studied regenerative process, the LV niche also generates differentiated astrocytes, playing an important role for glial scar formation after cortical injury. While LV NSCs can be clearly distinguished from their neuroblast and oligodendrocyte progeny via molecular markers, the astrocytic identity of NSCs has complicated their distinction from terminally-differentiated astrocytes in the niche. Our current models of postnatal/adult LV neurogenesis do not take into account local astrogenesis, or the possibility that cellular markers may be similar between non-dividing GFAP+ NSCs and their differentiated astrocyte daughters. Postnatal LV neurogenesis is regulated by NSC-intrinsic mechanisms interacting with extracellular/niche-driven cues. It is generally believed that these local effects are responsible for sustaining neurogenesis, though behavioral paradigms and disease states have suggested possibilities for neural circuit-level modulation. With recent experimental findings that neuronal stimulation can directly evoke responses in LV NSCs, it is possible that this exciting property will add a new dimension to identifying postnatal/adult NSCs. Here, we put forth a notion that neural circuit-level input can be a distinct characteristic defining postnatal/adult NSCs from non-neurogenic astroglia. PMID:27047330

  11. Hippo signaling impedes adult heart regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Heallen, Todd; Morikawa, Yuka; Leach, John; Tao, Ge; Willerson, James T.; Johnson, Randy L.; Martin, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure due to cardiomyocyte loss after ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States in large part because heart muscle regenerates poorly. The endogenous mechanisms preventing mammalian cardiomyocyte regeneration are poorly understood. Hippo signaling, an ancient organ size control pathway, is a kinase cascade that inhibits developing cardiomyocyte proliferation but it has not been studied postnatally or in fully mature adult cardiomyocytes. Here, we investigated Hippo signaling in adult cardiomyocyte renewal and regeneration. We found that unstressed Hippo-deficient adult mouse cardiomyocytes re-enter the cell cycle and undergo cytokinesis. Moreover, Hippo deficiency enhances cardiomyocyte regeneration with functional recovery after adult myocardial infarction as well as after postnatal day eight (P8) cardiac apex resection and P8 myocardial infarction. In damaged hearts, Hippo mutant cardiomyocytes also have elevated proliferation. Our findings reveal that Hippo signaling is an endogenous repressor of adult cardiomyocyte renewal and regeneration. Targeting the Hippo pathway in human disease might be beneficial for the treatment of heart disease. PMID:24255096

  12. Intermittent (every-other-day) drinking induces rapid escalation of ethanol intake and preference in adolescent and adult C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Melendez, Roberto I.

    2010-01-01

    Background Using adult C57BL/6J (B6) mice, we previously developed a procedure that causes a progressive increase in ethanol intake and preference (i.e., alcohol escalation effect) following weekly (intermittent) access to ethanol (Melendez et al. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 30, 2006). A limitation of this procedure is that it requires many weeks of testing, which limits its use to study ethanol escalation (i.e., binge-like drinking) during adolescence. Previous studies have shown that intermittent every-other-day (EOD) access to ethanol is sufficient to induce ethanol escalation in rats. The objective of this study was to verify if EOD access is sufficient to induce escalated levels of ethanol intake and preference in adult and adolescent B6 mice. Methods Male B6 mice received free-choice 24 hr access to 15% ethanol and water on an EOD or daily basis for 2 weeks. Food and water was available at all times. Using adult mice, Experiment 1 characterized the induction of ethanol escalation following EOD access at 6 (i.e., drinking in the dark) and 24 hr intervals, whereas Experiment 2 determined if daily drinking reverses escalation induced by EOD drinking. Experiment 3 compared ethanol-drinking capacity following daily versus EOD drinking in adolescent (P30–45) and adult (P70–85) mice. Results Experiment 1 revealed that EOD drinking leads to a significant (nearly two-fold) increase in ethanol intake and preference over mice given daily access. Experiment 2 demonstrated that EOD-elicited escalation is blocked and subsequently reversed following daily drinking. Experiment 3 revealed that ethanol drinking was greater in adolescent mice compared to adults following daily drinking and EOD (escalated) drinking. Although the escalated levels of ethanol intake were greater in adolescent mice, the rate or onset of escalation was comparable between both age groups. Conclusions This study is the first to demonstrate that EOD drinking leads to escalation of ethanol intake and

  13. Prenatal and postnatal factors increase risk of severe ROP.

    PubMed

    Anaya-Alaminos, Roberto; García-Serrano, José Luis; Cantero-Hinojosa, Jesús

    2014-04-01

    To determine that slower weight premature twins have more risk to develop severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) than the higher weight twins. We know that the lower weight twins had less optimal intra-uterine environments than their higher weight twins. We screened 94 consecutive premature twins for ROP. We compared the lower weight twins (n = 47) against their higher weight twins (n = 47). The risk of severe ROP (ROP stage 3 or greater) was significantly higher in the lower weight twin group (p < 0.006). In the same way, in the lower weight twin group the non-perfused area of the temporal retinal artery was higher than that of the other group (an average of 1.2 diameters of the optic nerve head), in the 4-6 postnatal weeks (p < 0.004). The lower weight twin group have an increased risk of severe ROP associated with bacteremia (p = 0.045), or a weight gain less than 7 g per day in the 4-6 postnatal weeks (p = 0.013) or a supplementary postnatal oxygen >4 days (p = 0.007) compared to the higher weight twin group. We confirm Dr. Lee's work that less optimal prenatal factors, in preterm twins, increase the risk of severe ROP. PMID:23796013

  14. Adaptive Immune Regulation of Mammary Postnatal Organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Plaks, Vicki; Boldajipour, Bijan; Linnemann, Jelena R; Nguyen, Nguyen H; Kersten, Kelly; Wolf, Yochai; Casbon, Amy-Jo; Kong, Niwen; van den Bijgaart, Renske J E; Sheppard, Dean; Melton, Andrew C; Krummel, Matthew F; Werb, Zena

    2015-09-14

    Postnatal organogenesis occurs in an immune competent environment and is tightly controlled by interplay between positive and negative regulators. Innate immune cells have beneficial roles in postnatal tissue remodeling, but roles for the adaptive immune system are currently unexplored. Here we show that adaptive immune responses participate in the normal postnatal development of a non-lymphoid epithelial tissue. Since the mammary gland (MG) is the only organ developing predominantly after birth, we utilized it as a powerful system to study adaptive immune regulation of organogenesis. We found that antigen-mediated interactions between mammary antigen-presenting cells and interferon-γ (IFNγ)-producing CD4+ T helper 1 cells participate in MG postnatal organogenesis as negative regulators, locally orchestrating epithelial rearrangement. IFNγ then affects luminal lineage differentiation. This function of adaptive immune responses, regulating normal development, changes the paradigm for studying players of postnatal organogenesis and provides insights into immune surveillance and cancer transformation. PMID:26321127

  15. A proteomic approach to understand MMP-3-driven developmental processes in the postnatal cerebellum: Chaperonin CCT6A and MAP kinase as contributing factors.

    PubMed

    Van Hove, Inge; Verslegers, Mieke; Hu, Tjing-Tjing; Carden, Martin; Arckens, Lutgarde; Moons, Lieve

    2015-09-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) deficiency in mice was previously reported to result in a transiently retarded granule cell migration at postnatal day 8 (P8) and a sustained disturbed arborization of Purkinje cell dendrites from P8 on, concomitant with a delayed synapse formation between granule cells and Purkinje cells and resulting in mild deficits in motor performance in adult animals. However, the molecular mechanisms by which MMP-3 contributes to proper development of the cerebellar cortex during the first postnatal weeks remains unknown. In this study, we used a functional proteomics approach to investigate alterations in protein expression in postnatal cerebella of wild-type versus MMP-3 deficient mice, and to further elucidate MMP-3-dependent pathways and downstream targets in vivo. At P8, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry identified 20 unique proteins with a different expression between the two genotypes. Subsequent "Ingenuity Pathway Analysis" and Western blotting indicate that the chaperonin containing T-complex polypeptide 1, subunit 6A and the MAP kinase signaling pathway play a key role in the MMP-3-dependent regulation of neurite outgrowth and neuronal migration in the developing brain. PMID:25652596

  16. Sleep-waking states develop independently in the isolated forebrain and brain stem following early postnatal midbrain transection in cats.

    PubMed

    Villablanca, J R; de Andrés, I; Olmstead, C E

    2001-01-01

    We report the effects of permanently separating the immature forebrain from the brain stem upon sleeping and waking development. Kittens ranging from postnatal 9 to 27 days of age sustained a mesencephalic transection and were maintained for up to 135 days. Prior to postnatal day 40, the electroencephalogram of the isolated forebrain and behavioral sleep-wakefulness of the decerebrate animal showed the immature patterns of normal young kittens. Thereafter, the isolated forebrain showed alternating sleep-wakefulness electrocortical rhythms similar to the corresponding normal patterns of intact, mature cats. Olfactory stimuli generally changed forebrain sleeping into waking activity, and in cats with the section behind the third nerve nuclei, normal correlates of eye movements-pupillary activity with electrocortical rhythms were present. Behind the transection, decerebrate animals showed wakefulness, and after 20 days of age displayed typical behavioral episodes of rapid eye movements sleep and, during these periods, the pontine recordings showed ponto-geniculo-occipital waves, which are markers for this sleep stage, together with muscle atonia and rapid lateral eye movements. Typically, but with remarkable exceptions suggesting humoral interactions, the sleep-waking patterns of the isolated forebrain were dissociated from those of the decerebrate animal. These results were very similar to our previous findings in midbrain-transected adult cats. However, subtle differences suggested greater functional plasticity in the developing versus the adult isolated forebrain. We conclude that behavioral and electroencephalographic patterns of non-rapid eye movement sleep and of rapid eye movement sleep states mature independently in the forebrain and the brain stem, respectively, after these structures are separated early postnatally. In terms of waking, the findings strengthen our concept that in higher mammals the rostral brain can independently support wakefulness

  17. Water Intake in a Sample of Greek Adults Evaluated with the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) and a Seven-Day Diary.

    PubMed

    Athanasatou, Adelais; Malisova, Olga; Kandyliari, Aikaterini; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Awareness on the importance of hydration in health has created an unequivocal need to enrich knowledge on water intake of the general population and on the contribution of beverages to total water intake. We evaluated in the past water intake in a sample of Greek adults using two approaches. In study A, volunteers completed the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ), a food frequency questionnaire, designed to evaluate water intake (n = 1092; 48.1% males; 43 ± 18 years). In study B, a different population of volunteers recorded water, beverage, and food intake in seven-day diaries (n = 178; 51.1% males; 37 ± 12 years). Herein, data were reanalyzed with the objective to reveal the contribution of beverages in total water intake with these different methodologies. Beverage recording was grouped in the following categories: Hot beverages; milk; fruit and vegetable juices; caloric soft drinks; diet soft drinks; alcoholic drinks; other beverages; and water. Total water intake and water intake from beverages was 3254 (SE 43) mL/day and 2551 (SE 39) mL/day in study A; and 2349 (SE 59) mL/day and 1832 (SE 56) mL/day in study B. In both studies water had the highest contribution to total water intake, approximately 50% of total water intake, followed by hot beverages (10% of total water intake) and milk (5% of total water intake). These two approaches contribute information on water intake in Greece and highlight the contribution of different beverages; moreover, they point out differences in results obtained from different methodologies attributed to limitations in their use. PMID:27626443

  18. Anxiety sensitivity in relation to quit day dropout among adult daily smokers recruited to participate in a self-guided cessation attempt.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Kirsten J; Farris, Samantha G; Hogan, Julianna B D; Grover, Kristin W; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS; fear of anxiety and internal sensations) has been implicated in a variety of aspects of smoking, including difficulties achieving and maintaining abstinence during tobacco cessation. However, research has yet to evaluate whether AS impacts premature termination of initiating a quit attempt. Therefore, the aim of the present investigation was to explore the extent to which AS was associated with tobacco cessation dropout, as indexed by attendance on the scheduled quit day visit. Participants included 84 adult daily cigarette smokers (61.7% male; Mage=34.6years, SD=13.9), who were recruited to participate in a self-guided quit attempt (an attempt to quit smoking without professional or pharmacological aid). Results indicated that after controlling for the effects of participant sex, race, current (past month) psychological disorder, cigarettes smoked per day, number of years as a regular smoker, and pre-quit levels of motivation to quit, AS significantly predicted increased odds of study dropout prior to attending the scheduled quit day. These findings suggest that AS may be a mechanism involved with challenges in the initiation of quitting. PMID:26896560

  19. Postnatal genome editing partially restores dystrophin expression in a mouse model of muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Long, Chengzu; Amoasii, Leonela; Mireault, Alex A; McAnally, John R; Li, Hui; Sanchez-Ortiz, Efrain; Bhattacharyya, Samadrita; Shelton, John M; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N

    2016-01-22

    CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing holds clinical potential for treating genetic diseases, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. To correct DMD by skipping mutant dystrophin exons in postnatal muscle tissue in vivo, we used adeno-associated virus-9 (AAV9) to deliver gene-editing components to postnatal mdx mice, a model of DMD. Different modes of AAV9 delivery were systematically tested, including intraperitoneal at postnatal day 1 (P1), intramuscular at P12, and retro-orbital at P18. Each of these methods restored dystrophin protein expression in cardiac and skeletal muscle to varying degrees, and expression increased from 3 to 12 weeks after injection. Postnatal gene editing also enhanced skeletal muscle function, as measured by grip strength tests 4 weeks after injection. This method provides a potential means of correcting mutations responsible for DMD and other monogenic disorders after birth. PMID:26721683

  20. Day to Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurecki, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    A clean, healthy and safe school provides students, faculty and staff with an environment conducive to learning and working. However, budget and staff reductions can lead to substandard cleaning practices and unsanitary conditions. Some school facility managers have been making the switch to a day-schedule to reduce security and energy costs, and…

  1. Restructuring of Pancreatic Islets and Insulin Secretion in a Postnatal Critical Window

    PubMed Central

    Aguayo-Mazzucato, Cristina; Sanchez-Soto, Carmen; Godinez-Puig, Victoria; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel; Hiriart, Marcia

    2006-01-01

    Function and structure of adult pancreatic islets are determined by early postnatal development, which in rats corresponds to the first month of life. We analyzed changes in blood glucose and hormones during this stage and their association with morphological and functional changes of alpha and beta cell populations during this period. At day 20 (d20), insulin and glucose plasma levels were two- and six-fold higher, respectively, as compared to d6. Interestingly, this period is characterized by physiological hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, where peripheral insulin resistance and a high plasmatic concentration of glucagon are also observed. These functional changes were paralleled by reorganization of islet structure, cell mass and aggregate size of alpha and beta cells. Cultured beta cells from d20 secreted the same amount of insulin in 15.6 mM than in 5.6 mM glucose (basal conditions), and were characterized by a high basal insulin secretion. However, beta cells from d28 were already glucose sensitive. Understanding and establishing morphophysiological relationships in the developing endocrine pancreas may explain how events in early life are important in determining adult islet physiology and metabolism. PMID:17183663

  2. The Long-Term Economic Impact of in Utero and Postnatal Exposure to Malaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreca, Alan I.

    2010-01-01

    I use an instrumental-variables identification strategy and historical data from the United States to estimate the long-term economic impact of in utero and postnatal exposure to malaria. My research design matches adults in the 1960 Decennial Census to the malaria death rate in their respective state and year of birth. To address potential…

  3. Low ambient temperature during early postnatal development fails to cause a permanent induction of brown adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chabowska-Kita, Agnieszka; Trabczynska, Anna; Korytko, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, Monika M.; Kozak, Leslie P.

    2015-01-01

    The brown adipocyte phenotype (BAP) in white adipose tissue (WAT) is transiently induced in adult mammals in response to reduced ambient temperature. Since it is unknown whether a cold challenge can permanently induce brown adipocytes (BAs), we reared C57BL/6J (B6) and AxB8/PgJ (AxB8) mice at 17 or 29°C from birth to weaning, to assess the BAP in young and adult mice. Energy balance measurements showed that 17°C reduced fat mass in the preweaning mice by increasing energy expenditure and suppressed diet-induced obesity in adults. Microarray analysis of global gene expression of inguinal fat (ING) from 10-day-old (D) mice indicates that expression at 17°C vs. 29°C was not different. Between 10 and 21 days of age, the BAP was induced coincident with morphologic remodeling of ING and marked changes in expression of neural development genes (e.g., Akap 12 and Ngfr). Analyses of Ucp1 mRNA and protein showed that 17°C transiently increased the BAP in ING from 21D mice; however, BAs were unexpectedly present in mice reared at 29°C. The involution of the BAP in WAT occurred after weaning in mice reared at 23°C. Therefore, the capacity to stimulate thermogenically competent BAs in WAT is set by a temperature-independent, genetically controlled program between birth and weaning.—Chabowska-Kita, A., Trabczynska, A., Korytko, A., Kaczmarek, M. M., Kozak, L. P. Low ambient temperature during early postnatal development fails to cause a permanent induction of brown adipocytes. PMID:25896784

  4. Postnatal Organic Causes of Mental Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, G. G.

    1962-01-01

    A study of 1137 retarded children from Western Ontario revealed 129 (11.3%) in whom retardation was first noted after a specific postnatal event. Eighty-three of these were boys. The most common cause of postnatal cerebral injury in this series was a syndrome of unknown etiology characterized by the sudden onset of fever, convulsions and coma which occurred in 45 patients. The nature of this syndrome is discussed and the necessity for early treatment emphasized. Other postnatal causes of retardation are classified according to frequency, as encephalitis, accidents, meningitis and a miscellaneous group consisting of epilepsy and tumours. PMID:13907577

  5. [Postnatal growth patterns in eight species of herons and egrets (Ciconiiformes: Ardeidae)].

    PubMed

    Avila, Dennis Denis

    2011-06-01

    Avian postnatal growth has received considerable attention and its ecological implications have been deeply analyzed. In this current paper, I describe the patterns of culmen and tarsus growth, as well as of weight gain patterns in eight species of herons and egrets (Aves: Ardeidae) found in the Birama Swamp in Eastern Cuba. Between 1998 and 2006,714 nestlings of the following species were measured every two days: Butorides virescens, Bubulcus ibis, Egretta thula, E. tricolor, E. caerulea, E. rufescens, Ardea alba and Nycticorax nycticorax. Logistic and Gompertz equations were adjusted to data using non-lineal regression models with adult values as the asymptote. For each species, the following were determined and recorded: growth rate, age at inflexion, instantaneous growth rates at each age interval, and time taken to reach 90% of adult size. Reported hatchling sizes were similar in other localities, with a variation coefficient ranging between 10-19%. At hatch, each species exhibited differing sizes relative to adult values. In all cases, Gompertz equations were best fitted to explain more variance and lesser residuals. Rates of weight change and tarsus growth were alometrically related to the log of adult weight. Two main growth processes were identified: a physical extension in dimensions of each measurement reflecting inter-specific morphometric differences, and a lineal increase of the growth period from Green Heron to Great Egret. The Black-crowned Night Heron, Cattle Egret and Reddish Egret exhibited some unique measurement characteristics in comparison to the remaining members of the family. All results support the hypothesis that hypermorphosis, as the main evolutionary process in the microevolution of Ardeidae, is caused by a delayed final moment of growth. PMID:21721238

  6. Myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) expression is affected by exercise in postnatal chicken skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huadong; Li, Diyan; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Xiaoling; Liu, Yiping; Yang, Zhiqin; Zhu, Qing

    2015-05-01

    The MyoD1, MyoG, Myf5, and Mrf4 proteins belong to the family of muscle regulatory factors (MRFs) and play important roles in skeletal muscle hyperplasia and hypertrophy. We hypothesized that exercise would affect MRF mRNA and protein abundance in postnatal chicken skeletal muscle driving molecular changes that could ultimately lead to increased muscle fiber diameter. At day (d) 43, twelve hundred chickens with similar body weight were randomly assigned to cage, pen, and free-range groups. The MRF mRNA abundance was measured in the pectoralis major and thigh muscle at d56, d70, and d84, and the protein levels of MRFs were determined from the thigh muscle at d84. The results showed no significant difference in mRNA of the MRFs among the three groups at d56 (P>0.05). At d84, chicken in the pen and free-range group showed higher MyoD1, MyoG, Myf5, and Mrf4 mRNA abundance compared to the caged chickens (P<0.05). Free-range chickens had higher Mrf4 and MyoG expression than those in penned ones (P<0.05). Protein abundances of all four factors were lowest in the caged group, and Mrf4 and MyoG protein quantities were greatest in free-range chickens (P<0.05), but Myf5 and MyoD1 protein abundance did not differ between penned and caged groups. The results suggested that exercise up-regulated MRF expression in the postnatal skeletal muscles, which led to an increase in muscle fiber diameter, and eventually affected the meat quality of the skeletal muscles in adult chickens. PMID:25701607

  7. Early postnatal nociceptive stimulation results in deficits of spatial memory in male rats.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Cristiane; Antonio, Bruno; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela Menezes; Hamani, Clement; Guinsburg, Ruth; Covolan, Luciene

    2015-11-01

    Prematurely-born infants are exposed to multiple invasive procedures while in the intensive care unit. Newborn rats and humans have similar behavioral responses to noxious stimulation. Previous studies have shown that early noxious stimuli may alter dentate gyrus neurogenesis and the behavioral repertoire of adult rats. We evaluated the late effects of noxious stimulation administered during different phases of development on two spatial memory tests; object recognition (OR) and Morris water maze (WM) tests. Noxious stimulation was induced by an intra-plantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) on postnatal (P) day 1 (group P1) or 8 (P8). Control animals were not stimulated. Behavioral tests were conducted on P60 in both male and female animals. In the WM, three domains were evaluated: acquisition, probe trial performance and reversal re-acquisition. The number of Nissl stained cells in the dentate granule cell layer was assessed by stereological counting. The OR test revealed that P1 male rats had poor long-term memory compared to the control and P8 groups. In the WM, no short- or long-term memory differences were detected between early postnatal-stimulated male and female rats and their respective controls. However, the ability to find the hidden platform in a new position was reduced in P1 male rats. The number of dentate granule cells in P8 males was higher than in all other groups. This study demonstrates that noxious stimulation on P1 results in spatial learning deficits in male animals, but does not disrupt the development of the hippocampus-dependent strategies of learning and memory. PMID:26348792

  8. Postnatal growth and age estimation in Scotophilus kuhlii.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiang-Fan; Huang, Shang-Shang; Lu, Dau-Jye; Shen, Tsung-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Adequate postnatal growth is important for young bats to develop skilled sensory and locomotor abilities, which are highly associated with their survival once independent. This study investigated the postnatal growth and development of Scotophilus kuhlii in captivity. An empirical growth curve was established, and the postnatal growth rate was quantified to derive an age-predictive equation. By further controlling the fostering conditions of twins, the differences in the development patterns between pups that received maternal care or were hand-reared were analyzed to determine whether the latter developed in the same manner as their maternally reared counterparts. Our results indicate that both forearm length and body mass increased rapidly and linearly during the first 4 weeks, after which the growth rate gradually decreased to reach a stable level. The first flight occurred at an average age of 39 days with a mean forearm length and body mass of 92.07% and 70.52% of maternal size, respectively. The developmental pattern of hand-reared pups, although similar to that of their maternally reared twin siblings, displayed a slightly faster growth rate in the 4th and 5th weeks. The heavier body mass of hand-reared pups during the pre-fledging period may cause higher wing loading, potentially influencing the flight performance and survival of the bats once independent. PMID:26600428

  9. RHEB1 expression in embryonic and postnatal mouse.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qi; Smart, James L; Clement, Joachim H; Wang, Yingming; Derkatch, Alex; Schubert, Harald; Danilchik, Michael V; Marks, Daniel L; Fedorov, Lev M

    2016-05-01

    Ras homolog enriched in brain (RHEB1) is a member within the superfamily of GTP-binding proteins encoded by the RAS oncogenes. RHEB1 is located at the crossroad of several important pathways including the insulin-signaling pathways and thus plays an important role in different physiological processes. To understand better the physiological relevance of RHEB1 protein, the expression pattern of RHEB1 was analyzed in both embryonic (at E3.5-E16.5) and adult (1-month old) mice. RHEB1 immunostaining and X-gal staining were used for wild-type and Rheb1 gene trap mutant mice, respectively. These independent methods revealed similar RHEB1 expression patterns during both embryonic and postnatal developments. Ubiquitous uniform RHEB1/β-gal and/or RHEB1 expression was seen in preimplantation embryos at E3.5 and postimplantation embryos up to E12.5. Between stages E13.5 and E16.5, RHEB1 expression levels became complex: In particular, strong expression was identified in neural tissues, including the neuroepithelial layer of the mesencephalon, telencephalon, and neural tube of CNS and dorsal root ganglia. In addition, strong expression was seen in certain peripheral tissues including heart, intestine, muscle, and urinary bladder. Postnatal mice have broad spatial RHEB1 expression in different regions of the cerebral cortex, subcortical regions (including hippocampus), olfactory bulb, medulla oblongata, and cerebellum (particularly in Purkinje cells). Significant RHEB1 expression was also viewed in internal organs including the heart, intestine, urinary bladder, and muscle. Moreover, adult animals have complex tissue- and organ-specific RHEB1 expression patterns with different intensities observed throughout postnatal development. Its expression level is in general comparable in CNS and other organs of mouse. Thus, the expression pattern of RHEB1 suggests that it likely plays a ubiquitous role in the development of the early embryo with more tissue-specific roles in later

  10. Revealing tact within postnatal care.

    PubMed

    Smythe, Elizabeth; Payne, Deborah; Wilson, Sally; Paddy, Ann; Heard, Kate

    2014-02-01

    In this article, we explore the nature of good postnatal care through a hermeneutic unpacking of the notion of tact, drawing on the philosophical writings of Heidegger, Gadamer, and van Manen. The tactful encounters considered were from a hermeneutic research study within a small, rural birthing center in New Zealand. Insights drawn from the analysis were as follows: the openness of listening, watching and being attuned that builds a positive mode of engagement, recognizing that the distance the woman needs from her nurse/midwife is a call of tact, that tact is underpinned by a spirit of care, within tact there are moods and tact might require firmness, and that all of these factors come together to build trust. We conclude that the attunement of tact requires that the staff member has time to spend with a woman, enough energy to engage, and a spirit of care. Women know that tactful practice builds their confidence and affects their mothering experience. Tact cannot be assumed; it needs to be nurtured and sheltered. PMID:24448102

  11. Early postnatal development of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) expression, TRH receptor binding, and TRH responses in neurons of rat brainstem.

    PubMed

    Bayliss, D A; Viana, F; Kanter, R K; Szymeczek-Seay, C L; Berger, A J; Millhorn, D E

    1994-02-01

    We investigated the postnatal development of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-containing raphe system in the brainstem of neonatal rats. Postnatal changes in TRH expression in nucleus (n.) raphe obscurus (ROb) and n. raphe pallidus (RPa) were evaluated by in situ hybridization using an 35S-labeled oligonucleotide probe complementary to TRH precursor mRNA. TRH mRNA expression was low at birth [postnatal day 0 (P0)], but was clearly evident by P7 and increased from that time to reach sustained high levels from P14 to P28. Consistent with this postnatal increase in TRH expression, we found increases in the density of TRH-immunoreactive (IR) fibers, which are derived from ROb and RPa, in the hypoglossal nucleus (nXII). TRH-IR fibers in nXII were very sparse at P0, but increased markedly over the first 2 postnatal weeks. The change in TRH innervation of nXII was closely matched by concomitant increases in 3H-methyl-TRH binding in nXII; specific TRH binding increased from very low levels at birth to high levels of P14. Finally, we recorded intracellularly the electrophysiological responses to TRH of hypoglossal motoneurons (HMs; n = 42) of neonatal rats (P0-P21) in a brainstem slice preparation. The response of neonatal HMs to TRH, in contrast to adult HMs, was highly variable. In some neonatal HMs, even at P0, TRH caused a depolarization with a decrease in input conductance (GN) that was characteristic of the response of all adult HMs. However, in other neonatal HMs, TRH was either without effect or caused a slight depolarization with no apparent change in GN, responses that were unlike those of adult HMs. A response was considered typical (i.e., "adult-like") if GN decreased to < 85% of control. The percentage of cells responding in a typical manner increased progressively from 25% at P0-P2 to 100% after P11. In addition, we found that the density of TRH-sensitive current (normalized to cell capacitance) increased with postnatal age in HMs that responded in a

  12. Disrupting effect of androgens in postnatal female domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Demaldé, Lucía; Lopez Merlo, Mariana; Vercellini, Rosario; Barbeito, Claudio G; Fernandez, Patricia; Gobello, Cristina

    2016-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that in domestic cats, postnatal androgens induce sterility, the aims of this study were to describe the reproductive effects and the clinical safety of a postnatal administration of a long term release androgen in this species. Thirteen newborn littermate female kittens were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups within the first 24h of birth: testosterone enanthate 12.5mg sc (TE; n=8) or Placebo (PL; n=5). The animals were subsequently assessed for fecal sexual hormones until puberty was attained and subsequently when matings occurred. After 21 days, ovulation and gestation were diagnosed. All queens were subsequently ovario-hysterectomized. Fecal testosterone concentrations differed between the treatment groups throughout the study period (P<0.05) being greater during the first 2 postnatal weeks in those of the TE group (P<0.01). Fecal estradiol was not affected by treatment (P>0.1). While all the females were receptive during the pubertal estrus (P>0.1), two TE (2/8) compared with all (5/5) females of the PL group had ovulations (P<0.05). Only one (1/2) compared with three (3/5) of the queens of the TE and PL groups, respectively became pregnant. All kittens of the TE group had transient clitoral enlargement. Anovulatory TE-treated cats had no corpus luteum, and a significant diminution of the endometrial glands as well as of the height of the uterine epithelium. It is concluded that, in domestic cats, a single postnatal supra-physiological dose of testosterone caused a large proportion of queens to be anovulatory and there were also histological endometrial abnormalities that also occurred with this treatment that were accompanied by mild and transient side effects. PMID:27305841

  13. Brief postnatal exposure to phenobarbital impairs passive avoidance learning and sensorimotor gating in rats.

    PubMed

    Gutherz, Samuel B; Kulick, Catherine V; Soper, Colin; Kondratyev, Alexei; Gale, Karen; Forcelli, Patrick A

    2014-08-01

    Phenobarbital is the most commonly utilized drug for the treatment of neonatal seizures. However, mounting preclinical evidence suggests that even brief exposure to phenobarbital in the neonatal period can induce neuronal apoptosis, alterations in synaptic development, and long-lasting changes in behavioral functions. In the present report, we treated neonatal rat pups with phenobarbital and evaluated behavior in adulthood. Pups were treated initially with a loading dose (80 mg/kg) on postnatal day (P)7 and with a lower dose (40 mg/kg) on P8 and P9. We examined sensorimotor gating (prepulse inhibition), passive avoidance, and conditioned place preference for cocaine when the animals reached adulthood. Consistent with our previous reports, we found that three days of neonatal exposure to phenobarbital significantly impaired prepulse inhibition compared with vehicle-exposed control animals. Using a step-though passive avoidance paradigm, we found that animals exposed to phenobarbital as neonates and tested as adults showed significant deficits in passive avoidance retention compared with matched controls, indicating impairment in associative memory and/or recall. Finally, we examined place preference conditioning in response to cocaine. Phenobarbital exposure did not alter the normal conditioned place preference associated with cocaine exposure. Our findings expand the profile of behavioral toxicity induced by phenobarbital. PMID:25112558

  14. Prenatal and postnatal cocaine exposure predict teen cocaine use

    PubMed Central

    Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Hannigan, John H.; Greenwald, Mark K.; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Partridge, Robert T.; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n = 316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use. PMID:20609384

  15. Differential expression of neurotrophins in postnatal C57BL/6 mice striatum

    PubMed Central

    Zermeño, V.; Espindola, S.; Mendoza, E.; Hernández-Echeagaray, E.

    2009-01-01

    Neurotrophin expression in early stages of development is crucial for brain assembly and function. In particular, postnatal expression of neurotrophins has not been well documented in the neostriatum and in general neurotrophins or their receptor mRNA's are normally reported, but not protein expression. In the present study, immunocytochemical expression of BDNF, NT-3 and NT-4/5 was characterized in striatal tissue of C57BL/6 mice at postnatal days 10th (P10), 21st (P21), 42nd (P42) and 80th (P80). We found that the expression of BDNF diminished along the postnatal time course we evaluated, while staining for NT-4 increased up to age P42 and remained constant, thereafter in the cell's soma. In contrast, NT-3 was first expressed in the neostriatal bundles and later on, in neostriatal cell somas. These results provide information about differences in the spatial and temporal expression of each neurotrophin in the neostriatum during the first 80th postnatal days. RT-PCR procedures were also carried out to further determine whether protein levels of neurotrophins observed in the neostriatum were under control of gene expression. All neurotrophin mRNAs were expressed and only mRNABDNF was reduced during the postnatal evaluated days. Differences in temporal expression of neurotrophins may be related to the heterochronic development of neostriatal cell populations, but also with the specificity of each neurotrophin modulating different neuronal targets. PMID:19173033

  16. Adrenal response of male rats exposed to prenatal stress and early postnatal stimulation.

    PubMed

    Liaudat, A C; Rodríguez, N; Chen, S; Romanini, M C; Vivas, A; Rolando, A; Gauna, H; Mayer, N

    2015-01-01

    Stress in pregnant rats caused by chronic immobilization alters the pattern of secretion of corticosterone and modifies the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) of the fetus. Early postnatal handling, however, may reverse the effects of increased secretion of corticosterone. We investigated the effects of prenatal stress and postnatal handling on the activity of the HPA axis of male offspring of stressed female rats. Male 90-day-old rats from four groups were investigated: prenatally stressed animals without postnatal handling, prenatally stressed animals with postnatal handling, unstressed control animals with postnatal handling, and unstressed control animals without postnatal handling. After sacrifice, the adrenal glands were weighed to determine the adrenal-somatic index. Apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL assay and active caspase-3 expression. We found that the adrenal gland cortex:medulla ratio increased in animals with prenatal stress and that eventually the stress caused apoptosis. Handling newborns to simulate maternal activity ameliorated some of the negative effects of prenatal stress. PMID:25867787

  17. Sex-dependent actions of amyloid beta peptides on hippocampal choline carriers of postnatal rats.

    PubMed

    Kristofiková, Z; Rícný, J; Kozmiková, I; Rípová, D; Zach, P; Klaschka, J

    2006-03-01

    It is suggested that amyloid beta peptides (Abeta) play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease but their physiological function is still unknown. However, low pM-nM concentrations mediate a hypofunction of a basal forebrain cholinergic system without marked signs of neurotoxicity. In this study, we compared in vitro effects of soluble nonaggregated human Abeta 1-40 and 1-42 either on synaptosomal hemicholinium-3 sensitive choline carriers or on membrane fluidity in hippocampi of male and female Wistar rats aged 7 and 14 days or 2-3 months. The results indicate age- and sex-dependent effects mediated by peptides at nM concentrations but no significant differences between both fragments. Namely, opposite actions were observed in 14-day (the increase in the choline uptake and membrane fluidity) when compared to 7-day old and adult males (the mild drops). Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis revealed that the enhancement of the high-affinity choline transport in 14-day old males occurs via alterations in K (M )and the change was accompanied by a mild increase in the specific binding of [3H]hemicholinium-3. On the other hand, no age-dependent differences were found in females. Rat Abeta 1-40 mediated similar effects on 14-day old rats as the corresponding human fragment. Moreover, higher levels of soluble peptides were detected in immature when compared to mature male brains by means of competitive ELISA. Our study indicates that Abeta could play a role in postnatal sexual differentiation of hippocampal cholinergic system. PMID:16733811

  18. Apoptosis Process in Mouse Leydig Cells during Postnatal Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salles Faria, Maria José; Simões, Zilá Paulino; Luz; Orive Lunardi, Laurelucia; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2003-02-01

    The development of Leydig cells in mammals has been widely described as a biphasic pattern with two temporally mature Leydig cell populations, fetal stage followed by the adult generation beginning at puberty. In the present study, mouse Leydig cells were examined for apoptosis during postnatal testis development using electron microscopy and in situ DNA fragmentation by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase staining (TdT). Both the morphological study and the DNA fragmentation analysis showed that cellular death by apoptosis did not occur in Leydig cells during the neonatal, prepubertal, puberty, and adult periods. From these results, we suggest that the remaining fetal Leydig cells in the neonatal testis are associated with the involution or degeneration processes. In contrast, in the prepubertal and puberty stages, fragmentation of apoptotic DNA was detected in germ cells present in some seminiferous tubules.

  19. Early postnatal development of rat brain is accompanied by generation of lipofuscin-like pigments.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Jiří; Ivica, Joško; Kagan, Dmytro; Svoboda, Petr

    2011-01-01

    The increased generation of free radicals results in the formation of fluorescent end-products of lipid peroxidation, lipofuscin-like pigments (LFPs). The authors observed that LFPs are generated in rat brain after a normal birth during 5 postnatal days. The experimental design of the study comprised 10 groups of animals. The authors measured prenatal values 1 day and 7 days before birth, and then the animals were sampled on postnatal day 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 25, 35, and 90. Maximum LFP concentration is achieved on the postnatal day 2. Starting from postnatal day 10, LFP concentration returns to prenatal values. A new rise in LFP concentration is observed at 3 months of age. This is associated with the beginning of the aging process. LFPs were characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy using tridimensional excitation spectra, synchronous spectra and their derivatives, and HPLC with fluorescence detection. It was possible to discern several tens of fluorescent compounds of unknown structure that are generated and metabolized during early development. The authors suggest that LFPs are formed after respiratory burst of microglia phagocytosing apoptotic cells. PMID:20957411

  20. Blocking glucocorticoid receptors at adolescent age prevents enhanced freezing between repeated cue-exposures after conditioned fear in adult mice raised under chronic early life stress.

    PubMed

    Arp, J Marit; Ter Horst, Judith P; Loi, Manila; den Blaauwen, Jan; Bangert, Eline; Fernández, Guillén; Joëls, Marian; Oitzl, Melly S; Krugers, Harm J

    2016-09-01

    Early life adversity can have long-lasting impact on learning and memory processes and increase the risk to develop stress-related psychopathologies later in life. In this study we investigated (i) how chronic early life stress (ELS) - elicited by limited nesting and bedding material from postnatal day 2 to 9 - affects conditioned fear in adult mice and (ii) whether these effects can be prevented by blocking glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) at adolescent age. In adult male and female mice, ELS did not affect freezing behavior to the first tone 24h after training in an auditory fear-conditioning paradigm. Exposure to repeated tones 24h after training also resulted in comparable freezing behavior in ELS and control mice, both in males and females. However, male (but not female) ELS compared to control mice showed significantly more freezing behavior between the tone-exposures, i.e. during the cue-off periods. Intraperitoneal administration of the GR antagonist RU38486 during adolescence (on postnatal days 28-30) fully prevented enhanced freezing behavior during the cue-off period in adult ELS males. Western blot analysis revealed no effects of ELS on hippocampal expression of glucocorticoid receptors, neither at postnatal day 28 nor at adult age, when mice were behaviorally tested. We conclude that ELS enhances freezing behavior in adult mice in a potentially safe context after cue-exposure, which can be normalized by brief blockade of glucocorticoid receptors during the critical developmental window of adolescence. PMID:27246249

  1. Spaceflight affects postnatal development of the aortic wall in rats.

    PubMed

    Katsuda, Shin-ichiro; Yamasaki, Masao; Waki, Hidefumi; Miyake, Masao; O-ishi, Hirotaka; Katahira, Kiyoaki; Nagayama, Tadanori; Miyamoto, Yukako; Hasegawa, Masamitsu; Wago, Haruyuki; Okouchi, Toshiyasu; Shimizu, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated effect of microgravity environment during spaceflight on postnatal development of the rheological properties of the aorta in rats. The neonate rats were randomly divided at 7 days of age into the spaceflight, asynchronous ground control, and vivarium control groups (8 pups for one dam). The spaceflight group rats at 9 days of age were exposed to microgravity environment for 16 days. A longitudinal wall strip of the proximal descending thoracic aorta was subjected to stress-strain and stress-relaxation tests. Wall tensile force was significantly smaller in the spaceflight group than in the two control groups, whereas there were no significant differences in wall stress or incremental elastic modulus at each strain among the three groups. Wall thickness and number of smooth muscle fibers were significantly smaller in the spaceflight group than in the two control groups, but there were no significant differences in amounts of either the elastin or collagen fibers among the three groups. The decreased thickness was mainly caused by the decreased number of smooth muscle cells. Plastic deformation was observed only in the spaceflight group in the stress-strain test. A microgravity environment during spaceflight could affect postnatal development of the morphological and rheological properties of the aorta. PMID:25210713

  2. Spaceflight Affects Postnatal Development of the Aortic Wall in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Masao; Waki, Hidefumi; Miyake, Masao; Nagayama, Tadanori; Miyamoto, Yukako; Wago, Haruyuki; Okouchi, Toshiyasu; Shimizu, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated effect of microgravity environment during spaceflight on postnatal development of the rheological properties of the aorta in rats. The neonate rats were randomly divided at 7 days of age into the spaceflight, asynchronous ground control, and vivarium control groups (8 pups for one dam). The spaceflight group rats at 9 days of age were exposed to microgravity environment for 16 days. A longitudinal wall strip of the proximal descending thoracic aorta was subjected to stress-strain and stress-relaxation tests. Wall tensile force was significantly smaller in the spaceflight group than in the two control groups, whereas there were no significant differences in wall stress or incremental elastic modulus at each strain among the three groups. Wall thickness and number of smooth muscle fibers were significantly smaller in the spaceflight group than in the two control groups, but there were no significant differences in amounts of either the elastin or collagen fibers among the three groups. The decreased thickness was mainly caused by the decreased number of smooth muscle cells. Plastic deformation was observed only in the spaceflight group in the stress-strain test. A microgravity environment during spaceflight could affect postnatal development of the morphological and rheological properties of the aorta. PMID:25210713

  3. Regulation of an antisense RNA with the transition of neonatal to IIb myosin heavy chain during postnatal development and hypothyroidism in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Pandorf, Clay E; Jiang, Weihua; Qin, Anqi X; Bodell, Paul W; Baldwin, Kenneth M; Haddad, Fadia

    2012-04-01

    Postnatal development of fast skeletal muscle is characterized by a transition in expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms, from primarily neonatal MHC at birth to primarily IIb MHC in adults, in a tightly coordinated manner. These isoforms are encoded by distinct genes, which are separated by ∼17 kb on rat chromosome 10. The neonatal-to-IIb MHC transition is inhibited by a hypothyroid state. We examined RNA products [mRNA, pre-mRNA, and natural antisense transcript (NAT)] of developmental and adult-expressed MHC genes (embryonic, neonatal, I, IIa, IIx, and IIb) at 2, 10, 20, and 40 days after birth in normal and thyroid-deficient rat neonates treated with propylthiouracil. We found that a long noncoding antisense-oriented RNA transcript, termed bII NAT, is transcribed from a site within the IIb-Neo intergenic region and across most of the IIb MHC gene. NATs have previously been shown to mediate transcriptional repression of sense-oriented counterparts. The bII NAT is transcriptionally regulated during postnatal development and in response to hypothyroidism. Evidence for a regulatory mechanism is suggested by an inverse relationship between IIb MHC and bII NAT in normal and hypothyroid-treated muscle. Neonatal MHC transcription is coordinately expressed with bII NAT. A comparative phylogenetic analysis also suggests that bII NAT-mediated regulation has been a conserved trait of placental mammals for most of the eutherian evolutionary history. The evidence in support of the regulatory model implicates long noncoding antisense RNA as a mechanism to coordinate the transition between neonatal and IIb MHC during postnatal development. PMID:22262309

  4. Histochemical study of retinal photoreceptors development during pre- and postnatal period and their association with retinal pigment epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Vahid; Vojoudi, Elham; Fazel, Alireza; Ebrahimzadeh-bideskan, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of this study was to evaluate distribution and changes of glycoconjugates of retinal photoreceptors during both pre- and postnatal development. Materials and Methods: Tissue sections from days 15 to 20 of Wistar rat embryos and 1 to 12 postnatal days of rat newborns including developing eye were prepared for lectinhistochemistry technique. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled lectins including Vicia villosa (VVA), peanut agglutinin (PNA), Maclura pomifera (MPA) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-ІІ) were used. Alcian blue (pH 2.5) was used for counterstaining. Results: Interphotoreceptor matrix (IPM) plays a crucial role in photoreceptors differentiation and acts as a mediator in interactions between photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Specific cell surface glycoconjugates secreted from cone cells could help us to distinguish these cells from rod photoreceptors. Our results for the first time revealed the strong reaction of cone photoreceptors with the cone-specific lectin (PNA) at postnatal day 12 (P12). Postnatal day 12 can be determined as the final differentiation of cone photoreceptors. Conclusion: According to our findings, we suggest that the generation of the eye photoreceptors begins from pre- natal period and their final differentiations will continue to postnatal period. Glycoconjugates including (β-D-Gal [1-3]-D-GalNac) and (β-D-Gal) terminal sugars play a critical role in the pre- and postnatal development and differentiation of retinal photoreceptors. PMID:25429338

  5. Preferential development of neuropeptide Y/GABA circuit in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus in postnatal rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoping; Fukami, Tatsuya; Li, Tie; Desai, Mina; Ross, Michael G

    2016-03-15

    The hypothalamus, which plays a critical role in regulation of energy homeostasis, is formed during the perinatal period and thus vulnerable to fetal/newborn environmental conditions. We investigated synaptogenesis and neurotransmission of neurons in arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) during the postnatal period using immunohistochemical and electrophysiological methods. Our results show that the density of neuropeptide Y (NPY) fibers increases abruptly after the second postnatal week. NPY and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) immunoreactive fibers/varicosities puncta are mutually juxtaposed to perikarya of both neurons with increasing NPY and decreasing POMC apposition until the third postnatal week. The frequencies of spontaneous GABAergic inhibitory and glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents (sIPSC and sEPSC) increase with age, with action potential dependent sIPSCs predominant during first postnatal week and sEPSCs thereafter. The presynaptic function of ARH synapses appears to reach adult levels around the age of weaning, while the postsynaptic receptors are still undergoing modification, evidenced by changes of frequencies, amplitudes and deactivation kinetics of PSCs. The number of NPY fibers juxtaposed to NPY neurons is correlated with the frequency of postsynaptic currents, suggesting that NPY/GABA release may facilitate maturation of synapses on their innervated neurons. Our results indicate that a neural circuit in ARH with a stronger NPY/GABAergic tone undergoes significant development during the postnatal period, which may be important for the maturation and/or remodeling of ARH neural circuits. PMID:26790345

  6. Postnatal Male Germ Cell Expression of Cre Recombinase in Tex101-iCre Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Zhenmin; Lin, Jing; Li, Xian; Li, Shengqiang; Zhou, Huaxin; Araki, Yoshihiko; Lan, Zi-Jian

    2010-01-01

    We have generated a transgenic mouse line which expresses improved Cre recombinase (iCre) under the control of the testis-expressed gene 101 (Tex101) promoter. This transgenic mouse line was named Tex101-iCre. Using the floxed ROSA reporter mice, we found that robust Cre recombinase activity was detected in postnatal testes with weak or no activity in other tissues. Within the testis, Cre recombinase was active in spermatogenic cells as early as the prospermatogonia stage at day 1 after birth. In 30- and 60-day-old mice, positive Cre recombinase activity was detected not only in prospermatogonia but also in spermatogenic cells at later stages of spermatogenesis. There was little or no Cre activity in interstitial cells. Breeding wild-type females with homozygous floxed fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (Fgfr2) males carrying the Tex101-iCre transgene did not produce any progeny with the floxed Fgfr2 allele. All of the progeny inherited a recombined Fgfr2 allele, indicating that complete deletion of the floxed Fgfr2 allele can be achieved in the male germline by Tex101-iCre mice. Furthermore, FGFR2 protein was not detected in spermatocytes and spermatids of adult Fgfr2fl/fl;Tex101-iCre mice. Taken together, our results suggest that the Tex101-iCre mouse line allows the inactivation of a floxed gene in spermatogenic cells in adult mice, which will facilitate the functional characterization of genes in normal spermatogenesis and male fertility. PMID:20853429

  7. Five-day, low-level laser therapy for sports-related lower extremity periostitis in adult men: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng-Chiang; Ku, Chih-Hung; Hsu, Wei-Chun; Hu, Yu-An; Shyu, Jia-Fwu; Chang, Shin-Tsu

    2014-07-01

    Periostitis in the lower leg caused by overexercise is a universal problem in athletes and runners. The purpose of this study was to observe the functional improvement of the lower limbs upon rehabilitation low-level laser therapy (LLLT). All medical data were gathered from enrolled adults with sports-related lower leg pain. A total of 54 patients underwent triple-phase bone scans using skeletal nuclear scintigraphy, which confirmed periostitis in their lower limbs. The patients were then randomly divided into two groups: one group received laser therapy (N = 29) and the other group (N = 25) received an equivalent placebo treatment (a drug or physical therapy). Treatment protocol commenced with rehabilitation intervention and LLLT was performed three times daily for 5 days at a dosage of 1.4 J/cm(2). A Likert-type pain scale was used to evaluate the severity of pain. Balance function, including postural stability testing (PST) and limits of stability (LOS), was also performed to evaluate the function outcome. Patients experienced a significant improvement in pain by day 2 or day 5 after starting LLLT, but here was no significant difference in pain scale between the measurements before (baseline) and after LLLT. Comparing the PST, the group differences of dynamic vs. static testings ranged from -18.54 to -50.22 (compared 12, 8, 4, 3, 2, 1 to 0, all p < 0.0001), and the PST after LLLT were 3.73 units (p = 0.0258) lower than those of before LLLT. Comparing the LOS, the group differences of dynamic vs. static testing were similar to those in PST, and the relationship between LOS and groups only varied with the direction control during dynamic testing in direction at backward/right vs. right (p < 0.0001). LLLT had a positive effect on proprioception in patients with lower limb periostitis. Larger, better controlled studies are needed to determine what specific effects LLLT has on the function of proprioception. PMID:24622816

  8. FGF-2 signal promotes proliferation of cerebellar progenitor cells and their oligodendrocytic differentiation at early postnatal stage

    SciTech Connect

    Naruse, Masae; Shibasaki, Koji; Ishizaki, Yasuki

    2015-08-07

    The origins and developmental regulation of cerebellar oligodendrocytes are largely unknown, although some hypotheses of embryonic origins have been suggested. Neural stem cells exist in the white matter of postnatal cerebellum, but it is unclear whether these neural stem cells generate oligodendrocytes at postnatal stages. We previously showed that cerebellar progenitor cells, including neural stem cells, widely express CD44 at around postnatal day 3. In the present study, we showed that CD44-positive cells prepared from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum gave rise to neurospheres, while CD44-negative cells prepared from the same cerebellum did not. These neurospheres differentiated mainly into oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, suggesting that CD44-positive neural stem/progenitor cells might generate oligodendrocytes in postnatal cerebellum. We cultured CD44-positive cells from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum in the presence of signaling molecules known as mitogens or inductive differentiation factors for oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Of these, only FGF-2 promoted survival and proliferation of CD44-positive cells, and these cells differentiated into O4+ oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, we examined the effect of FGF-2 on cerebellar oligodendrocyte development ex vivo. FGF-2 enhanced proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and increased the number of O4+ and CC1+ oligodendrocytes in slice cultures. These results suggest that CD44-positive cells might be a source of cerebellar oligodendrocytes and that FGF-2 plays important roles in their development at an early postnatal stage. - Highlights: • CD44 is expressed in cerebellar neural stem/progenitor cells at postnatal day 3 (P3). • FGF-2 promoted proliferation of CD44-positive progenitor cells from P3 cerebellum. • FGF-2 promoted oligodendrocytic differentiation of CD44-positive progenitor cells. • FGF-2 increased the number of oligodendrocytes in P3 cerebellar slice culture.

  9. eHealth Technology Competencies for Health Professionals Working in Home Care to Support Older Adults to Age in Place: Outcomes of a Two-Day Collaborative Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Ansam; Woolrych, Ryan D; Sixsmith, Andrew; Kearns, William D

    2013-01-01

    Background The demand for care is increasing, whereas in the near future the number of people working in professional care will not match with the demand for care. eHealth technology can help to meet the growing demand for care. Despite the apparent positive effects of eHealth technology, there are still barriers to technology adoption related to the absence of a composite set of knowledge and skills among health care professionals regarding the use of eHealth technology. Objective The objective of this paper is to discuss the competencies required by health care professionals working in home care, with eHealth technologies such as remote telecare and ambient assisted living (AAL), mobile health, and fall detection systems. Methods A two-day collaborative workshop was undertaken with academics across multiple disciplines with experience in working on funded research regarding the application and development of technologies to support older people. Results The findings revealed that health care professionals working in home care require a subset of composite skills as well as technology-specific competencies to develop the necessary aptitude in eHealth care. This paper argues that eHealth care technology skills must be instilled in health care professionals to ensure that technologies become integral components of future care delivery, especially to support older adults to age in place. Educating health care professionals with the necessary skill training in eHealth care will improve service delivery and optimise the eHealth care potential to reduce costs by improving efficiency. Moreover, embedding eHealth care competencies within training and education for health care professionals ensures that the benefits of new technologies are realized by casting them in the context of the larger system of care. These care improvements will potentially support the independent living of older persons at home. Conclusions This paper describes the health care professionals

  10. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate during pregnancy in rat and mouse. II: postnatal evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The postnatal effects of in utero exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, C8F17SO3-) were evaluated in the rat and mouse. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given 1, 2, 3, 5, or 10 mg/kg PFOS daily by gavage from gestation day (GD) 2 to GD 21; pregnant CD-1 mice were treated ...

  11. Browning attenuates murine white adipose tissue expansion during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Lasar, D; Julius, A; Fromme, T; Klingenspor, M

    2013-05-01

    During postnatal development of mice distinct white adipose tissue depots display a transient appearance of brown-like adipocytes. These brite (brown in white) adipocytes share characteristics with classical brown adipocytes including a multilocular appearance and the expression of the thermogenic protein uncoupling protein 1. In this study, we compared two inbred mouse strains 129S6sv/ev and C57BL6/N known for their different propensity to diet-induced obesity. We observed transient browning in retroperitoneal and inguinal adipose tissue depots of these two strains. From postnatal day 10 to 20 the increase in the abundance of multilocular adipocytes and uncoupling protein 1 expression was higher in 129S6sv/ev than in C57BL6/N pups. The parallel increase in the mass of the two fat depots was attenuated during this browning period. Conversely, epididymal white and interscapular brown adipose tissue displayed a steady increase in mass during the first 30 days of life. In this period, 129S6sv/ev mice developed a significantly higher total body fat mass than C57BL6/N. Thus, while on a local depot level a high number of brite cells is associated with the attenuation of adipose tissue expansion the strain comparison reveals no support for a systemic impact on energy balance. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brown and White Fat: From Signaling to Disease. PMID:23376694

  12. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the expression of estrogen receptors in the postnatal mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, N; Andersson, S; Lathe, R; Fan, X; Alonso-Magdalena, P; Schwend, T; Nalvarte, I; Warner, M; Gustafsson, J-A

    2009-02-01

    This study reports on the spatiotemporal dynamics of the expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) in the mouse central nervous system (CNS) during the early postnatal and the peripubertal period. At postnatal day 7 (P7), neurons with strong nuclear immunostaining for both ERalpha and ERbeta1 were widely distributed throughout the brain. Sucrose density gradient sedimentation followed by western blotting supported the histochemical evidence for high levels of both ERs at P7. Over the following 2 days, there was a rapid downregulation of ERs. At P9, ERalpha expression was visible only in the hypothalamic area. Decline in ERbeta1 expression was slower than that of ERalpha, and ERalpha-negative, ERbeta1-positive cells were observed in the dentate gyrus and walls of third ventricle. Between P14 and P35, ERs were undetectable except for the hypothalamic area. As before P7, the ovary does not produce estrogen but does produce 5alpha-androstane-3beta, 17beta-diol (3betaAdiol), an estrogenic metabolite of dihydrotestosterone, we examined the effects of high levels of 3betaAdiol in the postnatal period. We used CYP7B1 knockout mice which cannot hydroxylate and inactivate 3betaAdiol. The brains of these mice are abnormally large with reduced apoptosis. In the early postnatal period, there was 1-week delay in the timing of the reduction in ER expression in the brain. These data reveal that the time when ERs might be activated in the brain is limited to the first 8 postnatal days. In addition, the importance of aromatase has to be reconsidered as the alternative estrogen, 3betaAdiol, is important in neuronal function in the postnatal brain. PMID:18982005

  13. Cardiac myosin binding protein C regulates postnatal myocyte cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianming; Burgon, Patrick G; Wakimoto, Hiroko; Onoue, Kenji; Gorham, Joshua M; O'Meara, Caitlin C; Fomovsky, Gregory; McConnell, Bradley K; Lee, Richard T; Seidman, J G; Seidman, Christine E

    2015-07-21

    Homozygous cardiac myosin binding protein C-deficient (Mybpc(t/t)) mice develop dramatic cardiac dilation shortly after birth; heart size increases almost twofold. We have investigated the mechanism of cardiac enlargement in these hearts. Throughout embryogenesis myocytes undergo cell division while maintaining the capacity to pump blood by rapidly disassembling and reforming myofibrillar components of the sarcomere throughout cell cycle progression. Shortly after birth, myocyte cell division ceases. Cardiac MYBPC is a thick filament protein that regulates sarcomere organization and rigidity. We demonstrate that many Mybpc(t/t) myocytes undergo an additional round of cell division within 10 d postbirth compared with their wild-type counterparts, leading to increased numbers of mononuclear myocytes. Short-hairpin RNA knockdown of Mybpc3 mRNA in wild-type mice similarly extended the postnatal window of myocyte proliferation. However, adult Mybpc(t/t) myocytes are unable to fully regenerate the myocardium after injury. MYBPC has unexpected inhibitory functions during postnatal myocyte cytokinesis and cell cycle progression. We suggest that human patients with homozygous MYBPC3-null mutations develop dilated cardiomyopathy, coupled with myocyte hyperplasia (increased cell number), as observed in Mybpc(t/t) mice. Human patients, with heterozygous truncating MYBPC3 mutations, like mice with similar mutations, have hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, the mechanism leading to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in heterozygous MYBPC3(+/-) individuals is myocyte hypertrophy (increased cell size), whereas the mechanism leading to cardiac dilation in homozygous Mybpc3(-/-) mice is primarily myocyte hyperplasia. PMID:26153423

  14. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the postnatal developing primate brain transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Bakken, Trygve E.; Miller, Jeremy A.; Luo, Rui; Bernard, Amy; Bennett, Jeffrey L.; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Bertagnolli, Darren; Parikshak, Neelroop N.; Smith, Kimberly A.; Sunkin, Susan M.; Amaral, David G.; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Lein, Ed S.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental changes in the temporal and spatial regulation of gene expression drive the emergence of normal mature brain function, while disruptions in these processes underlie many neurodevelopmental abnormalities. To solidify our foundational knowledge of such changes in a primate brain with an extended period of postnatal maturation like in human, we investigated the whole-genome transcriptional profiles of rhesus monkey brains from birth to adulthood. We found that gene expression dynamics are largest from birth through infancy, after which gene expression profiles transition to a relatively stable state by young adulthood. Biological pathway enrichment analysis revealed that genes more highly expressed at birth are associated with cell adhesion and neuron differentiation, while genes more highly expressed in juveniles and adults are associated with cell death. Neocortex showed significantly greater differential expression over time than subcortical structures, and this trend likely reflects the protracted postnatal development of the cortex. Using network analysis, we identified 27 co-expression modules containing genes with highly correlated expression patterns that are associated with specific brain regions, ages or both. In particular, one module with high expression in neonatal cortex and striatum that decreases during infancy and juvenile development was significantly enriched for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-related genes. This network was enriched for genes associated with axon guidance and interneuron differentiation, consistent with a disruption in the formation of functional cortical circuitry in ASD. PMID:25954031

  15. Cardiac myosin binding protein C regulates postnatal myocyte cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jianming; Burgon, Patrick G.; Wakimoto, Hiroko; Onoue, Kenji; Gorham, Joshua M.; O’Meara, Caitlin C.; Fomovsky, Gregory; McConnell, Bradley K.; Lee, Richard T.; Seidman, J. G.; Seidman, Christine E.

    2015-01-01

    Homozygous cardiac myosin binding protein C-deficient (Mybpct/t) mice develop dramatic cardiac dilation shortly after birth; heart size increases almost twofold. We have investigated the mechanism of cardiac enlargement in these hearts. Throughout embryogenesis myocytes undergo cell division while maintaining the capacity to pump blood by rapidly disassembling and reforming myofibrillar components of the sarcomere throughout cell cycle progression. Shortly after birth, myocyte cell division ceases. Cardiac MYBPC is a thick filament protein that regulates sarcomere organization and rigidity. We demonstrate that many Mybpct/t myocytes undergo an additional round of cell division within 10 d postbirth compared with their wild-type counterparts, leading to increased numbers of mononuclear myocytes. Short-hairpin RNA knockdown of Mybpc3 mRNA in wild-type mice similarly extended the postnatal window of myocyte proliferation. However, adult Mybpct/t myocytes are unable to fully regenerate the myocardium after injury. MYBPC has unexpected inhibitory functions during postnatal myocyte cytokinesis and cell cycle progression. We suggest that human patients with homozygous MYBPC3-null mutations develop dilated cardiomyopathy, coupled with myocyte hyperplasia (increased cell number), as observed in Mybpct/t mice. Human patients, with heterozygous truncating MYBPC3 mutations, like mice with similar mutations, have hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, the mechanism leading to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in heterozygous MYBPC3+/− individuals is myocyte hypertrophy (increased cell size), whereas the mechanism leading to cardiac dilation in homozygous Mybpc3−/− mice is primarily myocyte hyperplasia. PMID:26153423

  16. Congenital pulmonary airway malformations: from prenatal diagnosis to postnatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Pelizzo, Gloria; Costanzo, Federico; Andreatta, Erika; Calcaterra, Valeria

    2016-08-01

    Congenital pulmonary airway malformations (CPAMs) include cystic and non-cystic lung lesions. These represent about 30-40% of developmental lung bud anomaly lesions mainly diagnosed during pregnancy or in newborn infants; or sometimes they remain undetected until adult life. The malformation usually presents as a sporadic, non-hereditary lung abnormality, with no predilection for the right or left lung, sex or race. CPAMs vary in their histological features, epidemiological and clinical presentation, severity and prognosis, supporting the embryologic hypothesis of arrested lung growth during branching morphogenesis. The existence of "hybrid" forms underline the possible common pathogenic mechanism involved in the development of different lesion types; a genetic role has also been proposed in abnormal lung development. Influence of the natural history on pre and postnatal management is relevant. Surgical resection is the standard of therapy for symptomatic CPAMs, while the management of asymptomatic cases remains controversial. The potential risk of infection and malignancy in CPAMs justifies complete surgical resection in the first year of life; while long term follow-up is required in children who do not undergo surgery. A multidisciplinary team including gynecologists, neonatologists, radiologists, pediatricians and pediatric surgeons is recommended in pre, postnatal management and in the postsurgical follow-up of all children with CPAMs. PMID:26365821

  17. Adult rat brain is sensitive to thyroid hormone. Regulation of RC3/neurogranin mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez, M A; Rodriguez-Peña, A; Ibarrola, N; Morreale de Escobar, G; Bernal, J

    1992-01-01

    The mammalian brain is considered to be poorly responsive to thyroid hormone after the so called "critical periods" of brain development, which occur in the rat before postnatal days 15-20. In a previous work (Muñoz, A., A. Rodriguez-Peña, A. Perez-Castillo, B. Ferreiro, J.G. Sutcliffe, and J. Bernal. 1991. Mol. Endocrinol. 5:273-280) we have identified one neuronal gene, RC3, whose expression is influenced by early neonatal hypothyroidism and thyroid hormone treatment. In the present work we show that adult-onset hypothyroidism leads to a reversible decrease of RC3 mRNA. Rats thyroidectomized on postnatal day 40 and killed three months later showed a decreased RC3 mRNA concentration in the cerebral cortex and striatum. The same effect was observed in animals made hypothyroid on postnatal day 32 and killed on postnatal day 52. RC3 expression was normal when hypothyroid animals were treated with T4 five days before being killed. In contrast, the mRNA encoding myelin proteolipid protein showed no changes in either experimental situation. RC3 mRNA levels were not affected by food restriction demonstrating that the effect of hypothyroidism was not related to the lack of weight gain. The control of RC3 mRNA is so far the only molecular event known to be regulated by thyroid hormone once the critical periods of brain development are over and could represent a molecular correlate for the age-independent, reversible alterations induced by hypothyroidism in the adult brain. Images PMID:1379612

  18. Maternal Dexamethasone Exposure Alters Synaptic Inputs to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons in the Early Postnatal Rat

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Wei Ling; Idris, Marshita Mohd; Kevin, Felix Suresh; Soga, Tomoko; Parhar, Ishwar S.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal dexamethasone [(DEX); a glucocorticoid receptor agonist] exposure delays pubertal onset and alters reproductive behavior in the adult offspring. However, little is known whether maternal DEX exposure affects the offspring’s reproductive function by disrupting the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal function in the brain. Therefore, this study determined the exposure of maternal DEX on the GnRH neuronal spine development and synaptic cluster inputs to GnRH neurons using transgenic rats expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of GnRH promoter. Pregnant females were administered with DEX (0.1 mg/kg) or vehicle (VEH, water) daily during gestation day 13–20. Confocal imaging was used to examine the spine density of EGFP–GnRH neurons by three-dimensional rendering and synaptic cluster inputs to EGFP–GnRH neurons by synapsin I immunohistochemistry on postnatal day 0 (P0) males. The spine morphology and number on GnRH neurons did not change between the P0 males following maternal DEX and VEH treatment. The number of synaptic clusters within the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) was decreased by maternal DEX exposure in P0 males. Furthermore, the number and levels of synaptic cluster inputs in close apposition with GnRH neurons was decreased following maternal DEX exposure in the OVLT region of P0 males. In addition, the postsynaptic marker molecule, postsynaptic density 95, was observed in GnRH neurons following both DEX and VEH treatment. These results suggest that maternal DEX exposure alters neural afferent inputs to GnRH neurons during early postnatal stage, which could lead to reproductive dysfunction during adulthood.

  19. Chronic neonatal nicotine exposure increases mRNA expression of neurotrophic factors in the postnatal rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Son, Jong-Hyun; Winzer-Serhan, Ursula H

    2009-06-30

    Nicotine, the psychoactive ingredient in tobacco, can be neuroprotective but the mechanism is unknown. In the adult hippocampus, chronic nicotine can increase expression of growth factors which could contribute to nicotine's neuroprotective effects. During development, nicotine could also increase expression of neurotrophic factors. Therefore, we determined whether chronic neonatal nicotine (CNN) exposure increased mRNA expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve-growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Nicotine (6 mg/kg/day in milk formula) or milk formula (controls) were delivered in three daily doses via oral gastric intubation to rat pups from postnatal day (P)1 to P8, and then sacrificed. Brains were processed for in situ hybridization using specific (35)S-labeled cRNA probes. At P8, CNN had a significant stimulant treatment effect on the expression of BDNF, FGF-2, NT-3 and IGF-1 [p<0.01], but not NGF. Specifically, BDNF mRNA expression, detected in CA1, CA3 stratum (s.) pyramidal and granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus (DG), was increased by 27.4%, 23.26% and 27.3%, respectively. FGF-2 mRNA expression, detected in neurons and astrocytes in CA1 s. radiatum, CA2 and CA3 s. pyramidale, and molecular layer of the DG, was increased by 34.0%, 8.9%, 31.0% and 23.1%, respectively. NT-3 mRNA expression in CA2 s. pyramidale was increased by 80.0%, and CNN increased the number of IGF-1-expressing cells in CA1 (18.0%), CA3 (20.9%) and DG (17.7%). Thus, nicotine exposure during early postnatal development differentially up-regulated expression of neurotrophic factor mRNAs in the hippocampus, which could increase neurotrophic tone and alter developmental processes. PMID:19410565

  20. Toward postnatal reversal of ocular congenital malformations

    PubMed Central

    Sahel, José-Alain; Marazova, Katia

    2013-01-01

    Aniridia is a panocular disorder that severely affects vision in early life. Most cases are caused by dominantly inherited mutations or deletions of the PAX6 gene, which encodes a transcription factor that is essential for the development of the eye and the central nervous system. In this issue of the JCI, Gregory-Evans and colleagues demonstrate that early postnatal topical administration of an ataluren-based formulation reverses congenital malformations in the postnatal mouse eye, providing evidence that manipulation of PAX6 after birth may lead to corrective tissue remodeling. These findings offer hope that ataluren administration could be a therapeutic paradigm applicable to some major congenital eye defects. PMID:24355915

  1. Achieving the salt intake target of 6 g/day in the current food supply in free-living adults using two dietary education strategies.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Dani-Maree; Clifton, Peter M; Keogh, Jennifer B

    2010-05-01

    There are national targets for salt intake of 6 g salt/day in Australia and the United States. Despite this, there is limited knowledge about the effectiveness of dietary education in reducing salt intake to this level. The objective of this study was to investigate whether dietary education enabled a reduction in salt consumption. In an 8-week parallel study, 49 healthy free-living adults were recruited from the Adelaide community by newspaper advertisement. In a randomized parallel design, participants received dietary education to choose foods identified by either Australia's National Heart Foundation Tick symbol or by the Food Standards Australia and New Zealand's low-salt guideline of 120 mg sodium/100 g food. Sodium excretion was assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium collections at baseline and weeks 4 and 8. Participants' experiences of following the education strategies were recorded by self-administered questionnaire. These data were collected between August and October 2008. Forty-three participants completed the study. After 8 weeks, urinary sodium excretion decreased from 121+/-50 to 106+/-47 mmol/24 hours (7.3+/-3.0 to 6.4+/-2.8 g salt/24 hours) in the Tick group and from 132+/-44 to 98+/-50 mmol/24 hours (7.9+/-2.6 to 6.0+/-3.0 g salt/24 hours) in the Food Standards Australia New Zealand group (P<0.05, with no between-group difference). Barriers to salt reduction were limited variety and food choice, difficulty when eating out, and increased time associated with identifying foods. In conclusion, dietary sodium reduction is possible among free-living individuals who received dietary advice. PMID:20430138

  2. Behavioral changes in preweaning and adult rats exposed prenatally to low ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, S.

    1986-04-01

    Seven behavioral tests were used to evaluate the postnatal behavior of rats after exposure on gestational Day 15 to 0, 25, 50, 75, or 125 r, whole body irradiation of the pregnant rat. Three tests were administered in the first 2 postnatal weeks (righting reflex, negative geotaxis, and reflex suspension); three tests were administered on postnatal Day 21 (modified open field, spatial maze, and continuous corridor). As adults, the rats were retested with the same tests as at 21 days and also in the running wheel. Dose-response decreases in body weight were greater in the younger rats. Some behavioral tests were not altered by irradiation, while others showed clear dose-response relationships, starting as low as 25 r. The early changes were characterized by light body weight, delays in behavioral development and hypoactivity, followed by recovery of some parameters with maturation. Eventually hyperactivity developed in adult rats after gestational irradiation. However, it cannot be concluded that either morphological or behavioral tests are more sensitive than neonatal body weight change for detection of damage from gestational irradiation.

  3. Postnatal Phencyclidine (PCP) as a Neurodevelopmental Animal Model of Schizophrenia Pathophysiology and Symptomatology: A Review.

    PubMed

    Grayson, B; Barnes, S A; Markou, A; Piercy, C; Podda, G; Neill, J C

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction and negative symptoms of schizophrenia remain an unmet clinical need. Therefore, it is essential that new treatments and approaches are developed to recover the cognitive and social impairments that are seen in patients with schizophrenia. These may only be discovered through the use of carefully validated, aetiologically relevant and translational animal models. With recent renewed interest in the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia, postnatal administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists such as phencyclidine (PCP) has been proposed as a model that can mimic aspects of schizophrenia pathophysiology. The purpose of the current review is to examine the validity of this model and compare it with the adult subchronic PCP model. We review the ability of postnatal PCP administration to produce behaviours (specifically cognitive deficits) and neuropathology of relevance to schizophrenia and their subsequent reversal by pharmacological treatments. We review studies investigating effects of postnatal PCP on cognitive domains in schizophrenia in rats. Morris water maze and delayed spontaneous alternation tasks have been used for working memory, attentional set-shifting for executive function, social novelty discrimination for selective attention and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle for sensorimotor gating. In addition, we review studies on locomotor activity and neuropathology. We also include two studies using dual hit models incorporating postnatal PCP and two studies on social behaviour deficits following postnatal PCP. Overall, the evidence we provide supports the use of postnatal PCP to model cognitive and neuropathological disturbances of relevance to schizophrenia. To date, there is a lack of evidence to support a significant advantage of postnatal PCP over the adult subchronic PCP model and full advantage has not been taken of its neurodevelopmental component. When thoroughly characterised, it is likely

  4. Chronic maternal morphine alters calbindin D-28k expression pattern in postnatal mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Mithbaokar, Pratibha; Fiorito, Filomena; Della Morte, Rossella; Maharajan, Veeramani; Costagliola, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The distribution pattern of calbindin (CB)-D28k-expressing neurons results to be altered in several brain regions of chronic morphine exposed adult mice. In this study, the influence of chronic maternal exposure to morphine on the distribution pattern of CB-D28k-expressing neurons in the brain of mouse offspring was investigated. Females of CD-1 mice were daily administered with saline or morphine for 7 days before mating, during the whole gestation period, and until 21 day post-partum. Their offspring were sacrificed on postnatal day 18, and the brains were examined by histology using cresyl violet and by immunohistochemistry using a rabbit polyclonal anti-CB-D28k antibody. Histology revealed no significant differences in the distribution pattern and the number of neurons between the offspring forebrain of the control group of mice and the two groups of mice treated with different doses of morphine. However, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the number of CB-D28k-immunoreactive neurons remarkably decreased in the cingulate cortex, in the layers II-IV of the parietal cortex and in all regions of the hippocampus, while it increased in the layers V-VI of the parietal cortex and in the subicular region of the offspring brain of morphine treated mice. Overall, our findings demonstrate that maternal exposure to morphine alters the pattern of CB-D28k-expressing neuron pattern in specific regions of murine developing brain, in a layer- and dose-dependent way, thus suggesting that these alterations might represent a mechanism by which morphine modifies the functional aspects of developing brain. PMID:26418221

  5. Dose-dependent effects of perinatal hypothyroidism on postnatal testicular development in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kenichi; Kubota, Hisayo; Hojo, Rieko; Miyagawa, Muneyuki

    2014-01-01

    The role of thyroid hormones in gonad development remains incompletely understood. We examined the dose-related effects of perinatal hypothyroidism induced by a reversible goitrogen, 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU), on reproductive development in male rat offspring. Timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered PTU (0, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg/day) by gavage from gestational day 15 through postnatal day 20. We observed a significant dose-dependent decrease in body weight in offspring with PTU exposure up to 13 weeks of age, but body weight became comparable among groups by 26 weeks of age. Testicular weight tended to be lower up to 7 weeks but was higher after 13 weeks of age. Epididymis weight was not different among the groups at any age. Plasma concentrations of thyroxine and triiodothyronine in the PTU groups were significantly lower at 3 weeks of age but recovered to normal levels by 26 weeks of age. No dose-related trend in plasma testosterone concentrations was found. Seminiferous tubules were larger at 13 and 26 weeks of age with PTU exposure. The number of Sertoli cells was significantly higher from 3 through 26 weeks of age. The number of Leydig cells was significantly lower up to 7 weeks of age but was comparable among groups from 13 weeks of age onwards. Thus, transient gestational and lactational thyroid hormone suppression induced small testes in early life but led to paradoxical dose-dependent testicular enlargement in adults as indicated partly by larger seminiferous tubules with numerous Sertoli cells in male rat offspring. PMID:25392277

  6. Comparison of Birth-and Conception-Based Definitions of Postnatal Age in Developmental and Reproductive Rodent Toxicity Studies: lnfluence of Gestation Length on Measurements of Offspring Body Weight and Puberty in Controls

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most laboratories conducting developmental and reproductive toxicity studies in rodents assign age by defining postnatal day (PND) 0 or 1 as the day of birth (DOB); i.e., gestation length affects PND and the timing of postnatal measurements. Some laboratories, however, define age...

  7. Controlled targeting of tyrosine hydroxylase protein toward processes of locus coeruleus neurons during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Bezin, L; Diaz, J J; Marcel, D; Le Cavorsin, M; Madjar, J J; Pujol, J F; Weissmann, D

    1997-10-15

    Dendrites of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons laying within the pericoerulean neuropil (PCA) organize the major site where tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is present throughout postnatal development. Those dendrites constitute the neuronal compartment in which TH levels increase beyond postnatal day (P) 21 or after RU24722-induced TH expression. Distal LC dendrites are present in the PCA by at least P20 but are devoid of TH and can rapidly accumulate TH protein when gene induction is triggered. Contrasting with the increase in TH levels within LC perikarya and dendrites, TH-mRNA concentration remains constant in LC perikarya from P4 to P42. Thus, supposing TH synthesis and degradation are also constant, any change in TH levels targeted toward axons might be balanced by a shift in the TH deposition within LC dendrites. This mechanism may be crucial in functions that the different processes of LC neurons have at critical steps of postnatal ontogeny. PMID:9406914

  8. Postnatal development of the myenteric glial network and its modulation by butyrate.

    PubMed

    Cossais, François; Durand, Tony; Chevalier, Julien; Boudaud, Marie; Kermarrec, Laetitia; Aubert, Philippe; Neveu, Isabelle; Naveilhan, Philippe; Neunlist, Michel

    2016-06-01

    The postnatal period is crucial for the development of gastrointestinal (GI) functions. The enteric nervous system is a key regulator of GI functions, and increasing evidences indicate that 1) postnatal maturation of enteric neurons affect the development of GI functions, and 2) microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids can be involved in this maturation. Although enteric glial cells (EGC) are central regulators of GI functions, the postnatal evolution of their phenotype remains poorly defined. We thus characterized the postnatal evolution of EGC phenotype in the colon of rat pups and studied the effect of short-chain fatty acids on their maturation. We showed an increased expression of the glial markers GFAP and S100β during the first postnatal week. As demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, a structured myenteric glial network was observed at 36 days in the rat colons. Butyrate inhibited EGC proliferation in vivo and in vitro but had no effect on glial marker expression. These results indicate that the EGC myenteric network continues to develop after birth, and luminal factors such as butyrate endogenously produced in the colon may affect this development. PMID:27056724

  9. Relation of nitrite to structural and mechanical adaptation of arteries during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Guo, Xiaomei; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2008-12-01

    Mammalian arteries undergo rapid remodeling during postnatal growth and development. The high wall shear stress at birth is an important mediator of postnatal endothelial nitric oxide (NO) and consequently of growth and remodeling. The objective of this study was to quantify the NO production in relation to geometric and mechanical remodeling of aorta and pulmonary artery during postnatal development. Fifty-one C57BL/6 mice aged from 1 to 33 days were divided into 8 age groups for measurements of nitrite (NO(x)). Systematic measurements of NO(x) in each rings were made in the main pulmonary artery and primary branch as well as along the length of aorta using the combination of a diazo coupling method and high-performance liquid chromatography. The NO(x) data on the aorta were correlated with data on the geometry (diameter, wall thickness) and mechanical properties (stress, strain, elastic modulus) in the same strain of mice under the same conditions. Our findings show postnatal age and vessel size affects the NO production; i.e., the NO(x) decreased with age and diameter. Furthermore, there is a significant positive correlation between strain and NO(x) but negative correlation between both wall thickness and elastic modulus and NO(x) levels. These findings suggest an important interplay between NO(x) and geometric and mechanical remodeling during postnatal growth and development. PMID:18807188

  10. Sex, but not repeated maternal separation during the first postnatal week, influences novel object exploration and amphetamine sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Hensleigh, E; Smedley, L; Pritchard, L M

    2011-03-01

    Sensation seeking and early life stress are both risk factors for developing substance use disorders. Neural adaptations resulting from early life stress may mediate individual differences in novelty responsiveness, and, in turn, contribute to drug abuse vulnerability. Animal models also demonstrate associations between novelty responsiveness or early life stress and increased sensitivity to psychostimulants. We investigated whether repeated maternal separation affects responses to novelty during adolescence and to amphetamine during adulthood, and whether maternal separation alters the relationship between these behavioral variables. Rat pups underwent separation (180 min/day) or control procedures (15 min/day) on postnatal days (PND) 2-8. Novel object exploration and amphetamine response were tested at PND 38 and 60, respectively. Adolescent males were less active in a novel environment and approached novel objects more frequently than females, but adult females showed greater amphetamine-induced locomotion. Maternal separation did not affect novelty responsiveness or amphetamine sensitivity. Locomotor activity in an inescapable, novel environment during adolescence predicted amphetamine-induced locomotor activity during adulthood in maternally separated rats, but not in controls. The results of this study suggest that adolescent responses to novelty may be particularly predictive of future substance abuse among survivors of early life trauma. Furthermore, sex differences in novelty and amphetamine responsiveness may complicate the relationship between these behavioral variables. PMID:20886535

  11. Validation of Edinburgh postnatal depression scale for adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Logsdon, M Cynthia; Usui, Wayne M; Nering, Michael

    2009-12-01

    The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale has widespread use internationally with adult women, but few psychometric properties have been described for samples of adolescent mothers. The purpose of this paper is to validate the psychometric properties of the EPDS in a sample of adolescent mothers (n = 149) in a southern, urban area of the United States. Internal consistency reliability was .88. Principal components analysis supported a two factor structure accounting for 60% of variance. Results of item response theory analysis suggest that the EPDS and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale have similar psychometric properties. This data can be used to provide evidence of construct validity of the EPDS. The study provides a foundation for further psychometric testing of the instrument. PMID:19639384

  12. Neuronal Expression of Muscle LIM Protein in Postnatal Retinae of Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Evgeny; Leibinger, Marco; Andreadaki, Anastasia; Fischer, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Muscle LIM protein (MLP) is a member of the cysteine rich protein family and has so far been regarded as a muscle-specific protein that is mainly involved in myogenesis and the organization of cytoskeletal structure in myocytes, respectively. The current study demonstrates for the first time that MLP expression is not restricted to muscle tissue, but is also found in the rat naive central nervous system. Using quantitative PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses we detected MLP in the postnatal rat retina, specifically in the somas and dendritic arbors of cholinergic amacrine cells (AC) of the inner nuclear layer and the ganglion cell layer (displaced AC). Induction of MLP expression started at embryonic day 20 and peaked between postnatal days 7 and 14. It subsequently decreased again to non-detectable protein levels after postnatal day 28. MLP was identified in the cytoplasm and dendrites but not in the nucleus of AC. Thus, retinal MLP expression correlates with the morphologic and functional development of cholinergic AC, suggesting a potential role of this protein in postnatal maturation and making MLP a suitable marker for these neurons. PMID:24945278

  13. Leukemia inhibitory factor regulates the timing of oligodendrocyte development and myelination in the postnatal optic nerve

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Tomoko; Lee, Philip R.; Baba, Hiroko; Fields, R. Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) promotes the survival of oligodendrocytes both in vitro and in an animal model of multiple sclerosis, but the possible role of LIF signaling in myelination during normal development has not been investigated. We find that LIF-/- mice have a pronounced myelination defect in optic nerve at postnatal day 10. Myelin basic protein (MBP)- and proteolipid protein (PLP)-positive myelin was evident throughout the optic nerve in the wild-type mice, but staining was present only at the chiasmal region in LIF-/- mice of the same age. Further experiments suggest that the myelination defect was a consequence of a delay in maturation of oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) population. The number of Olig2-positive cells was dramatically decreased in optic nerve of LIF-/- mice, and the distribution of Olig2-positive cells was restricted to the chiasmal region of the nerve in a steep gradient toward the retina. Gene expression profiling and cell culture experiments revealed that OPCs from P10 optic nerve of LIF-/- mice remained in a highly proliferative immature stage compared with littermate controls. Interestingly, by postnatal day 14, MBP immunostaining in the LIF-/- optic nerve was comparable to that of LIF+/+ mice. These results suggest that, during normal development of mouse optic nerve, there is a defined developmental time window when LIF is required for correct myelination. Myelination seems to recover by postnatal day 14, so LIF is not necessary for the completion of myelination during postnatal development. PMID:19598242

  14. Encoding of mechanical nociception differs in the adult and infant brain

    PubMed Central

    Fabrizi, Lorenzo; Verriotis, Madeleine; Williams, Gemma; Lee, Amy; Meek, Judith; Olhede, Sofia; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Newborn human infants display robust pain behaviour and specific cortical activity following noxious skin stimulation, but it is not known whether brain processing of nociceptive information differs in infants and adults. Imaging studies have emphasised the overlap between infant and adult brain connectome architecture, but electrophysiological analysis of infant brain nociceptive networks can provide further understanding of the functional postnatal development of pain perception. Here we hypothesise that the human infant brain encodes noxious information with different neuronal patterns compared to adults. To test this we compared EEG responses to the same time-locked noxious skin lance in infants aged 0–19 days (n = 18, clinically required) and adults aged 23–48 years (n = 21). Time-frequency analysis revealed that while some features of adult nociceptive network activity are present in infants at longer latencies, including beta-gamma oscillations, infants display a distinct, long latency, noxious evoked 18-fold energy increase in the fast delta band (2–4 Hz) that is absent in adults. The differences in activity between infants and adults have a widespread topographic distribution across the brain. These data support our hypothesis and indicate important postnatal changes in the encoding of mechanical pain in the human brain. PMID:27345331

  15. Encoding of mechanical nociception differs in the adult and infant brain.

    PubMed

    Fabrizi, Lorenzo; Verriotis, Madeleine; Williams, Gemma; Lee, Amy; Meek, Judith; Olhede, Sofia; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Newborn human infants display robust pain behaviour and specific cortical activity following noxious skin stimulation, but it is not known whether brain processing of nociceptive information differs in infants and adults. Imaging studies have emphasised the overlap between infant and adult brain connectome architecture, but electrophysiological analysis of infant brain nociceptive networks can provide further understanding of the functional postnatal development of pain perception. Here we hypothesise that the human infant brain encodes noxious information with different neuronal patterns compared to adults. To test this we compared EEG responses to the same time-locked noxious skin lance in infants aged 0-19 days (n = 18, clinically required) and adults aged 23-48 years (n = 21). Time-frequency analysis revealed that while some features of adult nociceptive network activity are present in infants at longer latencies, including beta-gamma oscillations, infants display a distinct, long latency, noxious evoked 18-fold energy increase in the fast delta band (2-4 Hz) that is absent in adults. The differences in activity between infants and adults have a widespread topographic distribution across the brain. These data support our hypothesis and indicate important postnatal changes in the encoding of mechanical pain in the human brain. PMID:27345331

  16. Postnatal Testosterone Concentrations and Male Social Development

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Gerianne M.

    2014-01-01

    Converging evidence from over 40 years of behavioral research indicates that higher testicular androgens in prenatal life and at puberty contribute to the masculinization of human behavior. However, the behavioral significance of the transient activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis in early postnatal life remains largely unknown. Although early research on non-human primates indicated that suppression of the postnatal surge in testicular androgens had no measurable effects on the later expression of the male behavioral phenotype, recent research from our laboratory suggests that postnatal testosterone concentrations influence male infant preferences for larger social groups and temperament characteristics associated with the later development of aggression. In later assessment of gender-linked behavior in the second year of life, concentrations of testosterone at 3–4 months of age were unrelated to toy choices and activity levels during toy play. However, higher concentrations of testosterone predicted less vocalization in toddlers and higher parental ratings on an established screening measure for autism spectrum disorder. These findings suggest a role of the transient activation of the HPG axis in the development of typical and atypical male social relations and suggest that it may be useful in future research on the exaggerated rise in testosterone secretion in preterm infants or exposure to hormone disruptors in early postnatal life to include assessment of gender-relevant behavioral outcomes, including childhood disorders with sex-biased prevalence rates. PMID:24600437

  17. Stressors during Pregnancy and the Postnatal Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    1989-01-01

    Some infants experience unusual stress from pregnancy through the postnatal period and are especially called upon to exercise coping responses. Discusses unusual stressors, how the infant naturally copes with them, and how caregivers can provide assistance. Reviews studies on stress-relieving intervention techniques. (NH)

  18. Radiology of postnatal skeletal development. Pt. 7

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.A.; Phillips, S.B.

    1983-02-01

    Twenty-four pairs of scapulae from fetal specimens and 35 pairs of scapulae from postnatal cadavers ranging in age from full-term neonates to 14 years, were studied morphologically and roentgenographically. Air-cartilage interfacing was used to demonstrate both the osseous and cartilaginous contours. When the entire chondro-osseous dimensions, rather than just the osseous dimensions, were measured, the scapula had a height-width ratio ranging from 1.36 to 1.52 (average 1.44) during most of fetal development. The exceptions were three stillborns with camptomelic, thanatophoric, and achondrogenic dwarfism in which the ratio averaged 0.6. At no time during fetal development was the glenoid cavity convex; it always had a concave articular surface. However, the osseous subchrondral countour was often flat or slightly convex. In the postnatal period the height-width ratio averaged 1.49. The ratio remained virtually unchanged throughout skeletal growth and maturation. In a patient with unilateral Sprengel's deformity the ratio for the normal side was 1.5, while the abnormal was 1.0. The cartilaginous glenoid cavity was always concave during postnatal development, even in the specimens with major structural deformities, although the subchondral osseous contour was usually flat or convex during the first few years of postnatal development. Ossification of the coracoid process began with the development of a primary center at three to four months. A bipolar physis was present between the primary coracoid center and the primary scapular center until late adolescence.

  19. GABAergic transmission and enhanced modulation by opioids and endocannabinoids in adult rat rostral ventromedial medulla

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-Hua; Suchland, Katherine L; Ingram, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) play critical and complex roles in pain modulation. Recent studies have shown that electrical stimulation of the RVM produces pain facilitation in young animals (postnatal (PN) day < 21) but predominantly inhibits pain behaviours in adults. The cellular mechanisms underlying these changes in RVM modulation of pain behaviours are not known. This is in part because whole-cell patch-clamp studies in RVM to date have been in young (PN day < 18) animals because the organization and abundance of myelinated fibres in this region make the RVM a challenging area for whole-cell patch-clamp recording in adults. Several neurotransmitter systems, including GABAergic neurotransmission, undergo developmental changes that mature by PN day 21. Thus, we focused on optimizing whole-cell patch-clamp recordings for RVM neurons in animals older than PN day 30 and compared the results to animals at PN day 10–21. Our results demonstrate that the probability of GABA release is lower and that opioid and endocannabinoid effects are more evident in adult rats (mature) compared to early postnatal (immature) rats. Differences in these properties of RVM neurons may contribute to the developmental changes in descending control of pain from the RVM to the spinal cord. PMID:25556797

  20. Failure of a single dose of medroxyprogesterone acetate to induce uterine infertility in postnatally treated domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Lopez Merlo, M; Faya, M; Blanco, P G; Carransa, A; Barbeito, C; Gobello, C

    2016-03-01

    In mice and sheep, neonatal administration of progesterone or progestins inhibited development of uterine glands. The aims of the present study were (1) to describe uterine gland development on postnatal Days 6 to 8 and (2) to evaluate the effects of a single postnatal administration of a progestin on reproduction and adult uterine glands morphology and function in domestic cats. Necropsy was performed on three 1-week-old female cats which had died unrelated to this study. Ten female kittens were randomly assigned within the first 24 hours of birth to: medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg/animal subcutaneously (MPA; n = 6) or placebo (PLC; n = 4) and followed up until puberty when they were mated. Twenty-four days after the end of estrus, ovulation and pregnancy were diagnosed by serum progesterone measurement and ultrasonography, respectively. Then, all the cats were ovariohysterectomized. After necropsy or surgery, the excised organs were histologically evaluated. Seven queens ovulated (4 of 6 MPA and 3 of 4 PLC; P > 0.1) and were pregnant (P > 0.1). Four MPA cats presented endometrial hyperplasia and one of them developed a pyometra. The 1-week-old females presented uterine glands in the stage of budding and incipient penetration of the glandular epithelium into the underlying stroma. The MPA-treated queens revealed that the area occupied by uterine glands per square-micrometer (0.55 ± 0.2 vs. 0.49 ± 0.2; P > 0.1) and the height of the glandular epithelium (μm; 24.5 ± 6.7 vs. 24.4 ± 7.2; P > 0.1) did not differ from those of the PLC group. Neither significant gross nor microscopical differences were also found for ovaries (P > 0.1). It is concluded that 1-week-old kittens had an incipient stage of uterine gland development and that a single postnatal supraphysiological dose of MPA did not alter uterine adenogenesis in this species. Furthermore, this treatment seemed to predispose to uterine disease without prevention of fertility. PMID:26534826

  1. Postnatal growth defects in mice with constitutive depletion of central serotonin.

    PubMed

    Narboux-Nême, Nicolas; Angenard, Gaelle; Mosienko, Valentina; Klempin, Friederike; Pitychoutis, Pothitos M; Deneris, Evan; Bader, Michael; Giros, Bruno; Alenina, Natalia; Gaspar, Patricia

    2013-01-16

    Although the trophic actions of serotonin (5-HT) are well established, only few developmental defects have been reported in mouse strains with constitutive hyposerotonergia. We analyzed postnatal growth and cortical development in three different mutant mouse strains with constitutive reductions in central 5-HT levels. We compared two previously published mouse strains with severe (-95%) depletions of 5-HT, the tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph) 2(-/-) mouse line and VMAT2(sert-cre) mice, with a new strain, in which VMAT2 deletion is driven by Pet1 (VMAT2(pet1-cre)) in 5-HT raphe neurons leading to partial (-75%) reduction in brain 5-HT levels. We find that normal embryonic growth and postnatal growth retardation are common features of all these mouse strains. Postnatal growth retardation varied from mild to severe according to the extent of the brain 5-HT reduction and gender. Normal growth was reinstated in VMAT2(sert-cre) mice by reconstituting central 5-HT stores. Growth abnormalities could not be linked to altered food intake or temperature control. Morphological study of the cerebral cortex over postnatal development showed a delayed maturation of the upper cortical layers in the VMAT2(sert-cre) and Tph2(-/-) mice, but not in the VMAT2(pet1-cre) mice. No changes in layer-specific gene expression or morphological alterations of barrel cortex development were found. Overall, these observations sustain the notion that central 5-HT signaling is required for the preweaning growth spurt of mouse pups. Brain development appeared to be immune to severe central 5-HT depletion for its overall growth during prenatal life, whereas reduced brain growth and delayed cortical maturation development occurred during postnatal life. Reduced developmental 5-HT signaling during postnatal development might modulate the function and fine structure of neural circuits in ways that affect adult behavior. PMID:23336056

  2. Effects of 0. 6-Gy prenatal X irradiation on postnatal neurophysiologic development in the Wistar rat

    SciTech Connect

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1986-04-01

    Forty-one pregnant Wistar strain rats were irradiated with 0.6-Gy X rays or were sham irradiated on the 9th or 17th days of gestation to determine if this dosage level would result in alterations in postnatal neurophysiologic development. Half of the mothers were sacrificed at term, and the developmental status of 221 newborns was evaluated. The remaining mothers delivered and raised their litters. The 161 offspring were observed for the age of attainment of the following physiologic parameters: pinna detachment, eye opening, testes opening. Offspring were also tested for the acquisition of the following selected reflexes: surface righting, negative geotaxis, auditory startle, air righting, and visual placing. Term fetal weight was lower than the controls in the group irradiated on the 9th day but was recuperable postnatally. None of the 9 developmental tests performed postnatally were abnormal in the animals irradiated on the 9th day. Thus, at least with regard to these measures, the surviving embryos exposed during the all-or-none period could not be differentiated from the controls. Offspring irradiated on the 17th day exhibited retarded growth which persisted during neonatal life. The three-day-mean neonatal weight was significantly lower in the group irradiated on the 17th day compared to controls. There were no significant maternal body weight or organ/weight differences between the groups. Rats exposed in utero on the 17th day had a significantly delayed acquisition of air righting. These results demonstrate that 0.6-Gy in utero irradiation on the 17th day of gestation can cause subtle alterations in growth and development of the Wistar strain rat during postnatal life.

  3. Pre- and Post-Natal Maternal Depressive Symptoms in Relation with Infant Frontal Function, Connectivity, and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Soe, Ni Ni; Wen, Daniel J.; Poh, Joann S.; Li, Yue; Broekman, Birit F. P.; Chen, Helen; Chong, Yap Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Gluckman, Peter D.; Meaney, Michael J.; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Qiu, Anqi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between pre- and early post-natal maternal depression and their changes with frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) activity and functional connectivity in 6- and 18-month olds, as well as externalizing and internalizing behaviors in 24-month olds (n = 258). Neither prenatal nor postnatal maternal depressive symptoms independently predicted neither the frontal EEG activity nor functional connectivity in 6- and 18-month infants. However, increasing maternal depressive symptoms from the prenatal to postnatal period predicted greater right frontal activity and relative right frontal asymmetry amongst 6-month infants but these finding were not observed amongst 18-month infants after adjusted for post-conceptual age on the EEG visit day. Subsequently increasing maternal depressive symptoms from the prenatal to postnatal period predicted lower right frontal connectivity within 18-month infants but not among 6-month infants after controlling for post-conceptual age on the EEG visit day. These findings were observed in the full sample and the female sample but not in the male sample. Moreover, both prenatal and early postnatal maternal depressive symptoms independently predicted children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors at 24 months of age. This suggests that the altered frontal functional connectivity in infants born to mothers whose depressive symptomatology increases in the early postnatal period compared to that during pregnancy may reflect a neural basis for the familial transmission of phenotypes associated with mood disorders, particularly in girls. PMID:27073881

  4. Different transfer of nociceptive sensitivity from rats with postnatal hippocampal lesions to control rats.

    PubMed

    Yamamotová, Anna; Franek, Miloslav; Vaculín, Simon; St'astný, Frantisek; Bubeníková-Valesová, Vera; Rokyta, Richard

    2007-07-01

    Hippocampal lesions in newborn rats alter the development of mechanisms involved in the processing of nociception. The hippocampal lesion was induced by the bilateral infusion, into the lateral cerebral ventricles, of 0.25 microL of saline containing either 0.25 micromol quinolinic acid (QUIN) and/or 0.25 micromol N-acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamate (NAAG) on postnatal day 12. The same amount of sterile saline was injected into the sham-operated animals (group SHAM). It was expected that the QUIN- and NAAG-lesioned rats would exhibit some differences in thermal pain perception; however, we wanted to know if the control rats would exhibit, at least in part, similar changes in pain perception as their chemically lesioned siblings with which they were housed. Young adult NAAG-injured rats exhibited increased withdrawal latencies in the tail-flick and plantar tests, whereas young adult QUIN-injured animals exhibited only marginally decreased latencies. Nociceptive responses in the SHAM rats paralleled the littermates that had been neonatally treated with QUIN or NAAG, i.e. the responses in the SHAM(QUIN) group decreased, whereas the responses in the SHAM(NAAG) group increased. No significant changes in nociception were observed in intact animals, regardless of which group they were housed with. Our results show that social factors, which were originally demonstrated only for the pain behavior, may also influence basal nociceptive sensitivity in rats. We concluded that the "sham operation" may have had a long-term, nonspecific impact on nociceptive behavior by inducing behavioral mimicry of other animals. PMID:17623020

  5. Postnatal development of the exocrine pancreas in suckling goat kids.

    PubMed

    Lopez, V; Martínez-Victoria, E; Yago, M D; Lupiani, M J; Mañas, M

    1997-04-01

    A total of 25 preruminant Granadina breed goats were used. They were bottle-fed goat milk ad libitum from postnatal day 3 to 28. Until the age of 3 d, kids were fed colostrum. Body weight, pancreas weight, total protein concentration, enzyme activities in pancreatic tissue and hormone concentrations (cortisol, gastrin, T3 and T4) were determined at 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 d of age. Our results show that the rates of pancreatic synthesis and secretion of chymotrypsin are well developed at birth in the kid, and may compensate for possible deficiencies in gastric and/or enterocytes intracellular proteolysis. In week 4, there was a marked increase in amylase activity, change that can be attributed to the beginning of the transitional period known as weaning. The significant increase in circulating concentration of cortisol during week 4 suggests the involvement of corticosteroid as a mediator of pancreatic development at weaning. Changes in blood levels of this hormone are believed to be important in the expression of amylase in the neonatal period. However, T3-T4 blood levels remained unchanged from d 3 to 28, suggesting that, in the kid, these hormones appear to have no clear influence upon the postnatal development of the exocrine pancreas. PMID:9255407

  6. Effects of postnatal estrogen manipulations on juvenile alloparental behavior.

    PubMed

    Perry, Adam N; Sue Carter, C; Cushing, Bruce S

    2015-09-01

    Sex- and species-specific patterns of estrogen receptor (ER)-α expression are established early in development, which may contribute to sexual differentiation of behavior and determine male social organization. The current study investigated the effects of ERα and ERβ activation during the second postnatal week on subsequent alloparental behavior and ERα expression in juvenile prairie voles. Male and female pups were treated daily with 17β-estradiol (E2, ERα/ERβ agonist), PPT (selective ERα agonist), DPN (selective ERβ agonist), or the oil vehicle on postnatal days (PD) 8-14. Alloparental behavior and ERα expression were examined at PD21. PPT treatment inhibited prosocial motivation in males and increased pup-directed aggression in both sexes. E2 and DPN had no apparent effect on behavior in either sex. PPT-treated males had increased ERα expression in the medial preoptic area (MPN), medial amygdala (MEApd) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTpr). DPN treatment also increased ERα expression in males, but only in the BSTpr. Female ERα expression was unaffected by treatment. These results support the hypothesis that ERα activation in early life is associated with less prosocial patterns of central ERα expression and alloparental behavior in males. The lack of an effect of E2 on behavior suggests that ERβ may antagonize the effects of ERα on alloparental behavior. The results in DPN-treated males suggest that ERα in the MEApd, and not the BSTpr, may be a primary determinant of alloparental behavior in males. PMID:26222494

  7. The septal organ of the rat during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Elke; Farbman, Albert I

    2003-09-01

    The septal organ of Masera (SO) is a small, isolated patch of olfactory epithelium, located in the ventral part of the nasal septum. We investigated in this systematic study the postnatal development of the SO in histological sections of rats at various ages from the day of birth (P1) to P666. The SO-area increases to a maximum at P66-P105, just as the animals reach sexual maturity, and decreases thereafter, significantly however only in males, indicating a limited neurogenetic capacity for regeneration. In contrast, the main olfactory epithelium area continues to expand beyond P300. The modified respiratory epithelium ('zwischen epithelium') separating the SO and the main olfactory epithelium contains a few olfactory neurons up to age P66. Its length increases postnatally so that the SO becomes more ventral to the OE. Although the position of the SO relative to other anatomical landmarks changes with development it is consistently located just posterior to the opening of the nasopalatine duct (NPAL). Thus, a possible function of the SO is in sensing chemicals in fluids entering the mouth by licking and then delivered to the nasal cavity via the NPAL; therefore the SO may be involved in social/sexual behavior as is the vomeronasal organ (VNO). We suggest that the SO is a separate accessory olfactory organ with properties somewhat different from both OE and VNO and may exist only in species where the NPAL does not open into the VNO. PMID:14578120

  8. Expression studies of neuronatin in prenatal and postnatal rat pituitary.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Naoko; Higuchi, Masashi; Yoshida, Saishu; Yako, Hideji; Chen, Mo; Ueharu, Hiroki; Nishimura, Naoto; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2016-05-01

    The pituitary gland, an indispensable endocrine organ that synthesizes and secretes pituitary hormones, develops with the support of many factors. Among them, neuronatin (NNAT), which was discovered in the neonatal mouse brain as a factor involved in neural development, has subsequently been revealed to be coded by an abundantly expressing gene in the pituitary gland but its role remains elusive. We analyze the expression profile of Nnat and the localization of its product during rat pituitary development. The level of Nnat expression was high during the embryonic period but remarkably decreased after birth. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that NNAT appeared in the SOX2-positive stem/progenitor cells in the developing pituitary primordium on rat embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5) and later in the majority of SOX2/PROP1 double-positive cells on E13.5. Thereafter, during pituitary embryonic development, Nnat expression was observed in some stem/progenitor cells, proliferating cells and terminally differentiating cells. In postnatal pituitaries, NNAT-positive cells decreased in number, with most coexpressing Sox2 or Pit1, suggesting a similar role for NNAT to that during the embryonic period. NNAT was widely localized in mitochondria, peroxisomes and lysosomes, in addition to the endoplasmic reticulum but not in the Golgi. The present study thus demonstrated the variability in expression of NNAT-positive cells in rat embryonic and postnatal pituitaries and the intracellular localization of NNAT. Further investigations to obtain functional evidence for NNAT are a prerequisite. PMID:26613603

  9. Kindergarten: All Day Every Day?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oelerich, Marjorie L.

    This paper reports findings that all-day every-day educational programs have positive effects on kindergarten children. Also included is a Minnesota Association for Childhood Education (MACE) position paper which advocates the provision of full-day kindergarten programs and details seven criteria that a quality full-day program must meet. Efforts…

  10. The Relationship between Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Cognitive, Neuropsychological, and Behavioral Deficits: A Critical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchetti, Domenic V.; Kaufman, Alan S.; Sparrow, Sara S.

    2004-01-01

    Our purpose in this report is to evaluate scientifically that body of literature relating the effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) upon neurobehavioral, health-related, and cognitive deficits in neonates, developing infants, children, and adults. The data derive from seven cohorts: six cohorts of mothers…

  11. Docosahexaenoic Acid Rescues Synaptogenesis Impairment and Long-Term Memory Deficits Caused by Postnatal Multiple Sevoflurane Exposures.

    PubMed

    Tao, Guorong; Luo, Yan; Xue, Qingsheng; Li, Guohui; Tan, Yongchang; Xiao, Jinglei; Yu, Buwei

    2016-01-01

    Sevoflurane exposures were demonstrated to induce neurotoxicity in the developing brain in both human and animal studies. However, there is no effective approach to reverse it. The present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to prevent sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity. P6 (postnatal 6 days) mice were administrated DHA after exposure to 3% sevoflurane for two hours daily in three consecutive days. Molecular expressions of synaptic makers (PSD95, synaptophysin) and synaptic morphological changes were investigated by Western blot analysis and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, Morris water maze test was used to assess spatial memory of mice at P31 (postnatal 31 days). DHA restored sevoflurane-induced decreased level of PSD95 and synaptophysin expressions and increased PSD areas and also improved long-term spatial memory. These results suggest that DHA could rescue synaptogenesis impairment and long-term memory deficits in postnatal caused by multiple sevoflurane exposures. PMID:27597963

  12. Docosahexaenoic Acid Rescues Synaptogenesis Impairment and Long-Term Memory Deficits Caused by Postnatal Multiple Sevoflurane Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Guorong; Luo, Yan; Xue, Qingsheng; Li, Guohui; Tan, Yongchang

    2016-01-01

    Sevoflurane exposures were demonstrated to induce neurotoxicity in the developing brain in both human and animal studies. However, there is no effective approach to reverse it. The present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to prevent sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity. P6 (postnatal 6 days) mice were administrated DHA after exposure to 3% sevoflurane for two hours daily in three consecutive days. Molecular expressions of synaptic makers (PSD95, synaptophysin) and synaptic morphological changes were investigated by Western blot analysis and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Meanwhile, Morris water maze test was used to assess spatial memory of mice at P31 (postnatal 31 days). DHA restored sevoflurane-induced decreased level of PSD95 and synaptophysin expressions and increased PSD areas and also improved long-term spatial memory. These results suggest that DHA could rescue synaptogenesis impairment and long-term memory deficits in postnatal caused by multiple sevoflurane exposures. PMID:27597963

  13. Investigation into the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on postnatal spine development and expression of synaptophysin and PSD95 in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Elibol-Can, Birsen; Kilic, Ertugrul; Yuruker, Sinan; Jakubowska-Dogru, Ewa

    2014-04-01

    Ethanol is known as a potent teratogen responsible for the fetal alcohol syndrome characterized by cognitive deficits especially pronounced in juveniles but ameliorating in adults. Since the mechanisms of these deficits and following partial recovery are not fully elucidated, the aim of the present study was to investigate the process of synaptogenesis in the hippocampus over the first two months of life in control and fetal-alcohol rats. Ethanol was delivered to the pregnant dams by intragastric intubation throughout 7-21 gestation days at the daily dose of 6g/kg generating a mean blood alcohol level of 246.6±40.9mg/dl on gestation day 20. The spine densities as well as the expression of pre- and postsynaptic proteins, synaptophysin (SYP) and PSD-95 protein, were evaluated for three distinct hippocampal regions: CA1, CA2+3, and DG and four postnatal days: PD1, PD10, PD30 and PD60, independently. Our results confirmed an intensive synaptogenesis within the brain spurt period (first 10 postnatal days), however, the temporal pattern of changes in the SYP and PSD-95 expression was different. The ethanol exposure during half of the 1st and the whole 2nd human trimester equivalent resulted in an overall trend toward lower values of synaptic indices at PD1 with a fast recovery from these deficits observed already at PD10. At PD30, around the age when the most pronounced behavioral deficits have been previously reported in juvenile fetal-alcohol subjects, no significant changes were found in either the hippocampal levels of synaptic proteins or in the spine density in principal hippocampal neurons. PMID:24365761

  14. The impact of early postnatal environmental enrichment on maternal care and offspring behaviour following weaning.

    PubMed

    Li, Ki Angel; Lund, Emilie Torp; Voigt, Jörg-Peter W

    2016-01-01

    The early postnatal period is a sensitive period in rodents as behavioural systems are developing and maturing during this time. However, relatively little information is available about the impact of environmental enrichment on offspring behaviour if enrichment is implemented only during this period. Here, environmental enrichment was provided from postnatal day 1 until weaning. On post-natal day 9, maternal behaviour and nonmaternal behaviour of the dam was observed. Nursing time in the enriched group was reduced but dams showed more non-maternal appetitive behaviours. Offspring were exposed to either the open field or the elevated plus maze (EPM) after weaning. In the open field, rats from the enriched group approached the more aversive inner zone of the open field later than control rats. Offspring from the enriched group made fewer entries into the inner zone and spent less time in this part of the arena. Enrichment had no impact on behaviour in the EPM. The present study provides evidence that postnatal enrichment can interfere with maternal behaviour in rats and can possibly lead to increased anxiety in the offspring. The findings suggest that enrichment procedures can have potentially unintended effects, interfering with the development of emotional behaviours in rats. PMID:26562657

  15. Spaceflight induces changes in the synaptic circuitry of the postnatal developing neocortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeFelipe, J.; Arellano, J. I.; Merchan-Perez, A.; Gonzalez-Albo, M. C.; Walton, K.; Llinas, R.

    2002-01-01

    The establishment of the adult pattern of neocortical circuitry depends on various intrinsic and extrinsic factors, whose modification during development can lead to alterations in cortical organization and function. We report the effect of 16 days of spaceflight [Neurolab mission; from postnatal day 14 (P14) to P30] on the neocortical representation of the hindlimb synaptic circuitry in rats. As a result, we show, for the first time, that development in microgravity leads to changes in the number and morphology of cortical synapses in a laminar-specific manner. In the layers II/III and Va, the synaptic cross-sectional lengths were significantly larger in flight animals than in ground control animals. Flight animals also showed significantly lower synaptic densities in layers II/III, IV and Va. The greatest difference was found in layer II/III, where there was a difference of 344 million synapses per mm(3) (15.6% decrease). Furthermore, after a 4 month period of re-adaptation to terrestrial gravity, some changes disappeared (i.e. the alterations were transient), while conversely, some new differences also appeared. For example, significant differences in synaptic density in layers II/III and Va after re-adaptation were no longer observed, whereas in layer IV the density of synapses increased notably in flight animals (a difference of 185 million synapses per mm(3) or 13.4%). In addition, all the changes observed only affected asymmetrical synapses, which are known to be excitatory. These results indicates that terrestrial gravity is a necessary environmental parameter for normal cortical synaptogenesis. These findings are fundamental in planning future long-term spaceflights.

  16. Cerebellum neurotransmission during postnatal development: [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] vs cisplatin and neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Piccolini, Valeria Maria; Esposito, Alessandra; Dal Bo, Veronica; Insolia, Violetta; Bottone, Maria Grazia; De Pascali, Sandra Angelica; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo; Bernocchi, Graziella

    2015-02-01

    Several chemotherapeutic drugs are known to cause neurotoxicity. Platinum-based agents in use or in clinical trials display neurotoxic potential accompanied by neurological complications; recent studies have identified a large number of behavioural issues in paediatric oncology patients. To understand the toxicity of platinum drugs at the molecular and cellular levels, this study compares the possible cytotoxic effects of an older platinum compound, cisplatin and a new platinum compound, [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)], on the CNS of postnatally developing rats, which is much more vulnerable to injury than the CNS of adult rats. Since several drugs interact with neurotransmitters during neuronal maturation, we performed immunostainings with antibodies raised against markers of glutamate and GABA, the major neurotransmitters in the cerebellum. After a single injection of cisplatin at postnatal day 10 (PD10), the labelling of Purkinje cells with the neurotransmitter markers evidenced alterations between PD11 and PD30, i.e. atrophy of the dendrite tree, changes in the distribution of synaptic contacts of parallel and climbing fibres, delay in the elimination of transient synapses on cell soma and severely impaired pinceau formation at the axon hillock. After treatment with [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)], the sole relevant change concerned the timing of climbing fibres elimination; the transient synapses disappearance on the Purkinje cell soma was delayed in some cells; instead, the growth of Purkinje cell dendrite tree was normal as was the formation of inhibitory synaptic contacts on these neurons. These findings add new evidence not only on the lower neurotoxicity of [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] vs cisplatin but also on the involvement of neurotransmitters and relative synaptic connections in the maturation of central nerve tissue. PMID:25450526

  17. Postnatal changes in glucose transporter 3 expression in the dentate gyrus of the C57BL/6 mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyo Young; Yim, Hee Sun; Yoo, Dae Young; Kim, Jong Whi; Chung, Jin Young; Seong, Je Kyung; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Kim, Dae Won

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we observed the ontogenetic changes in glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) immunoreactivity, a major neuronal GLUT, in the dentate gyrus of mouse brains at various ages: postnatal day (P) 1, 7, 14, 28, and 56. At P1, cresyl violet staining showed abundant neurons in the dentate gyrus, whereas the granule cell layer was ill-defined. At P7, the granule cell layer was observed, and cresyl violet-positive cells were dispersed throughout the polymorphic layer. At P14, the granule cell layer was well-defined, and cresyl violet positive cells were detected abundantly in the polymorphic layer. At P28 and P56, cresyl violet-positive cells were observed in the granule cell layer, as well as in the polymorphic layer. At P1, GLUT3 immunoreactivity was detected in the dentate gyrus. At P7, GLUT3 immunoreactive cells were scattered in the polymorphic and molecular layer. However, at P14, GLUT3 immunoreactivity was observed in the polymorphic layer as well as subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. At P28, GLUT3 immunoreactivity was detected in the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus. At P56, GLUT3 immunoreactivity was observed predominantly in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. GLUT3 immunoreactive cells were mainly colocalized with doublecortin, which is a marker for differentiated neuroblasts, in the polymorphic layer and subgranular zone of dentate gyrus at P14 and P56. These results suggest that the expression of GLUT3 is closely associated with postnatal development of the dentate gyrus and adult neurogenesis. PMID:27051437

  18. Sex Specific Expression of Estrogen Receptors α and β and Kiss1 in the Postnatal Rat Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jinyan; Patisaul, Heather B.

    2012-01-01

    The rodent amygdaloid complex is composed of numerous subnuclei important for the sex specific regulation of sociosexual behavior. Although estrogen receptors (ERs) are critical for organizing functional and cytoarchitectural sex differences in these subnuclei, a detailed developmental profile of ER expression in the amygdaloid complex is not available. Moreover, the kisspeptin gene (Kiss1) was recently identified in the adult amygdala, but it remains unknown if it is expressed during development. To fill these data gaps, rat brains (5–7/group) were assessed on postnatal days (PNDs) 0, 2, 4, 7 and 19 for ER alpha (ERα; Esr1), beta (ERβ; Esr2) and Kiss1 expression using in situ hybridization. Expression was quantified in the posterodorsal portion of the medial amygdala MePD, lateral (PLCo) and medial (PMCo) components of the posterior cortical nucleus, and the amygdalohippocampal area (AHi). ERα expression was high throughout the amygdala at birth, but sexually dimorphic only in the AHi. ERα expression in the MePD and the PLCo showed a U-shaped expression pattern over time. In the PMCo, ERα expression decreased from PND 2 and remained low through PND 19. Sexually dimorphic expression of ERβ in the MePD was observed on PND 0, with higher levels in females, but reversed by PND 4 due to declining levels in females. No Kiss1 signal was observed in the postnatal amygdala, suggesting that expression arises after puberty. These data reveal that ER expression is region specific within the neonatal amygdala. These differences likely contribute to sex differences in sociosexual behavior across the lifespan. PMID:22791648

  19. An enhanced postnatal autoimmune profile in 24 week-old C57BL/6 mice developmentally exposed to TCDD

    SciTech Connect

    Mustafa, A.; Holladay, S.D.; Goff, M.; Witonsky, S.G.; Kerr, R.; Reilly, C.M.; Sponenberg, D.P.; Gogal, R.M.

    2008-10-01

    Developmental exposure of mice to the environmental contaminant and AhR agonist, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), causes persistent postnatal suppression of T cell-mediated immune responses. The extent to which prenatal TCDD may induce or exacerbate postnatal autoimmune disease remains unknown. In the present study, time-pregnant high affinity AhR C57BL/6 mice received a single oral administration of 0, 2.5, or 5 {mu}g/kg TCDD on gestation day (gd) 12. Offspring of these mice (n = 5/gender/treatment) were evaluated at 24 weeks-of-age and showed considerable immune dysregulation that was often gender-specific. Decreased thymic weight and percentages of CD4{sup +}CD8{sup +} thymocytes, and increased CD4{sup +}CD8{sup -} thymocytes, were present in the female but not male offspring. Males but not females showed decreased CD4{sup -}CD8{sup +} T cells, and increased V{beta}3{sup +} and V{beta}17a{sup +} T cells, in the spleen. Males but not females also showed increased percentages of bone marrow CD24{sup -}B220{sup +} B cell progenitors. Antibody titers to dsDNA, ssDNA and cardiolipin displayed increasing trends in both male and female mice, reaching significance for anti-dsDNA in both genders and for ssDNA in males at 5 {mu}g/kg TCDD. Immunofluorescent staining of IgG and C3 deposition in kidney glomeruli increased in both genders of prenatal TCDD-exposed mice, suggestive of early stages of autoimmune glomerulonephritis. Collectively, these results show that exposure to TCDD during immune system development causes persistent humoral immune dysregulation as well as altered cell-mediated responses, and induces an adult profile of changes suggestive of increased risk for autoimmune disease.

  20. KCC2-mediated regulation of respiration-related rhythmic activity during postnatal development in mouse medulla oblongata.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Akihito; Shimizu-Okabe, Chigusa; Arata, Akiko; Konishi, Shiro; Fukuda, Atsuo; Takayama, Chitoshi

    2015-03-19

    GABA acts as inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult central nervous system but as excitatory neurotransmitter during early postnatal development. This shift in GABA's action from excitation to inhibition is caused by a decrease in intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl(-)]i), which in turn is caused by changes in the relative expression levels of the K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter (KCC2) and the Na(+), K(+)-2Cl(-) co-transporter (NKCC1) proteins. Previous studies have used slices containing the medullary pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC) to record respiration-related rhythmic activity (RRA) from the hypoglossal nucleus (12 N). The role of GABAergic transmission in the regulation of medullary RRA neonatally, however, is yet to be determined. Here, we examined how GABA and chloride co-transporters contribute to RRA during development in the 12 N where inspiratory neurons reside. We recorded extracellular RRA in medullary slices obtained from postnatal day (P) 0-7 mice. RRA was induced by soaking slices in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) containing 8mM-K(+). Application of GABA significantly increased the frequency of RRA after P3, whereas application of a KCC2 blocker (R (+)-[(2-n-butyl-6,7-dichloro-2-cyclopentyl-2,3-dihydro-1-oxo-1H-indenyl-5-yl)oxy]acetic acid (DIOA)) significantly decreased the frequency of RRA after P1. In addition, dense KCC2 immunolabeling was seen in the superior longitudinalis (SL) of the 12 N, which is responsible for retraction of the tongue, from P0 and P7. These results indicate that GABA administration can increase RRA frequency during the first week following birth. This in turn suggests that decreasing [Cl(-)]i levels caused by increasing KCC2 levels in the 12 N could play important roles in regulating the frequency of RRA during development. PMID:25596421

  1. Meis1 Is Required for the Maintenance of Postnatal Thymic Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hirayama, Takehiro; Asano, Yusuke; Iida, Hajime; Watanabe, Takeshi; Nakamura, Takuro; Goitsuka, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    Most epithelial tissues retain stem/progenitor cells to maintain homeostasis of the adult tissues; however, the existence of a thymic epithelial cell (TEC) progenitor capable of maintaining homeostasis of the postnatal thymus remains unclear. Here, we show that a cell population expressing high levels of Meis1, a homeodomain transcription factor, is enriched in TECs with an immature cellular phenotype. These TECs selectively express genes involved in embryonic thymic organogenesis and epithelial stem cell maintenance, and also have the potential to proliferate and differentiate into mature TEC populations. Furthermore, postnatal inactivation of Meis1 in TECs caused disorganization of the thymic architecture, which ultimately leads to premature disappearance of the thymus. There was an age-associated reduction in the proportion of the TEC population expressing high levels of Meis1, which may also be related to thymic involution. These findings indicate that Meis1 is potentially involved in the maintenance of postnatal TECs with progenitor activity that is required for homeostasis of the postnatal thymus. PMID:24594519

  2. Clonidine Treatment Delays Postnatal Motor Development and Blocks Short-Term Memory in Young Mice

    PubMed Central

    Calvino-Núñez, Cristina; Domínguez-del-Toro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    During the development of the nervous system, the perinatal period is particularly sensitive as neuronal connections are still forming in the brain of the neonate. Alpha2-adrenergic receptors are overexpressed temporarily in proliferative zones in the developing brain, reaching a peak during the first postnatal week of life. Both stimulation and blocking of these receptors during this period alter the development of neural circuits, affecting synaptic connectivity and neuronal responses. They even affect motor and cognitive skills later on in the adult. It's especially important to look for the early neurological consequences resulting from such modifications, because they may go unnoticed. The main objective of the present study has been to reaffirm the importance of the maturation of alpha-adrenergic system in mice, by carrying out a comprehensive examination of motor, behavioral and cognitive effects in neonates, during early postnatal development, following chronic administration of the drug Clonidine, an alpha2 adrenergic system agonist. Our study shows that mice treated postnatally with clonidine present a temporal delay in the appearance of developmental markers, a slow execution of vestibular reflexes during first postnatal week of life and a blockade of the short term memory in the novel object recognition task. Shortly after the treatment the startle response is hyperreactive. PMID:25531525

  3. Isolation, Expansion and Transplantation of Postnatal Murine Progenitor Cells of the Enteric Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Dettmann, Heike Monika; Zhang, Ying; Wronna, Nadine; Kraushaar, Udo; Guenther, Elke; Mohr, Roland; Neckel, Peter Helmut; Mack, Andreas; Fuchs, Joerg; Just, Lothar; Obermayr, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem or progenitor cells have been proposed to restore gastrointestinal function in patients suffering from congenital or acquired defects of the enteric nervous system. Various, mainly embryonic cell sources have been identified for this purpose. However, immunological and ethical issues make a postnatal cell based therapy desirable. We therefore evaluated and quantified the potential of progenitor cells of the postnatal murine enteric nervous system to give rise to neurons and glial cells in vitro. Electrophysiological analysis and BrdU uptake studies provided direct evidence that generated neurons derive from expanded cells in vitro. Transplantation of isolated and expanded postnatal progenitor cells into the distal colon of adult mice demonstrated cell survival for 12 weeks (end of study). Implanted cells migrated within the gut wall and differentiated into neurons and glial cells, both of which were shown to derive from proliferated cells by BrdU uptake. This study indicates that progenitor cells isolated from the postnatal enteric nervous system might have the potential to serve as a source for a cell based therapy for neurogastrointestinal motility disorders. However, further studies are necessary to provide evidence that the generated cells are capable to positively influence the motility of the diseased gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24871092

  4. Hominins do not share a common postnatal facial ontogenetic shape trajectory.

    PubMed

    Cobb, S N; O'Higgins, P

    2004-05-15

    This paper examines the hypothesis raised by recent studies that postnatal trajectories of shape change in the facial skeleton are parallel between, at least, chimpanzees, modern humans and also fossil hominins, specifically australopithecines and possibly Neanderthals. In contrast, other studies point to divergences in postnatal shape trajectories within diverse groups of primates. As such there is some debate regarding the relative contributions of pre and postnatal ontogeny to adult morphological differences. This paper presents a series of geometric morphometric studies of the ontogeny of facial shape in hominins with the specific aim of resolving these issues. The results indicate that many differences in facial shape between hominins are established prenatally, however highly significant divergences of postnatal facial ontogeny are found among living hominins. Our studies point to possible differences between the shape ontogeny of the Australopithecus africanus face and that of African apes on the one hand and humans on the other. However, sampling experiments indicate that the small sample size of available specimens of A. africanus does not permit any conclusions to be drawn regarding comparative shape ontogeny of the face. PMID:15211688

  5. Sudden Unexpected Postnatal Collapse of the Newborn.

    PubMed

    Ferrarello, Debi; Carmichael, Tanya

    2016-01-01

    Sudden unexpected postnatal collapse is a rare but devastating neonatal event. A well-appearing, full-term newborn with Agpar scores of eight or more suddenly crashes, often with full respiratory and cardiac arrest. Up to half of newborns with sudden unexpected postnatal collapse die, with many survivors suffering serious neurological damage. The first 2 hours of life are the hours of greatest risk, coinciding with the time frame when nurses encourage breastfeeding and uninterrupted skin-to-skin contact between women and newborns. Nursing assessments and measures to promote neonates' optimal transition to extrauterine life through skin-to-skin contact and early breastfeeding while decreasing the risk of this catastrophic event are described. Nursing surveillance to promote optimal transition in a safe environment is essential, and birth facilities should allocate staffing resources accordingly. PMID:27287353

  6. Postnatal Treatment in Antenatally Diagnosed Meconium Peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, S; Andrei, B; Oancea, M; Licsandru, E; Ivanov, M; Marcu, V; Popa-Stanila, R; Mocanu, M

    2015-01-01

    Meconium peritonitis is a rare prenatal disease with an increased rate of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period. Distinctive features revealed by prenatal and postnatal ultrasoundmay be present: abdominal calcifications, ascites, polyhydramnios, meconium pseudocyst, echogenic mass and dilated bowel or intestinal obstruction. Establishing clear postnatal treatment and prognosis is difficult because of the heterogeneity of the results obtained by ultrasound. The aim of the study is to determine how prenatal diagnosis of meconium peritonitis is associated with perinatal management and further evolution. Clinical results are different depending on the presence of antenatal diagnosis of meconium peritonitis and its form, which can be mild or severe. Surgical treatment and management of meconium peritonitis depend on the clinical presentation of the newborn. Meconium peritonitis diagnosed prenatally differs from that of the newborn, not only concerning the mortality rates but also through reduced morbidity and overall better prognosis. PMID:26713828

  7. Alterations in central monoamine systems after postnatal lead acetate treatment in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Luthman, J. Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO ); Lindqvist, E.; Olson, L. ); Gerhardt, G.A.; Hoffer, B.H. )

    1994-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of postnatal lead exposure on central monoamine systems. Newborn male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 1 or 8 mg/kg lead acetate intraperitoneally for 20 days postnatally. Two groups of control rats received sodium acetate, or sodium acetate in oversized litters to compensate for lead-induced malnutrition in the high lead dose group, while nontreated animals also served as controls. At Day 21 or 51 regional tissue levels of monoamines were determined using HPLC techniques. No major changes were seen after the lead exposures in the levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin, or metabolites of dopamine and serotonin, when compared to respective control groups. On the other hand, in the control group given sodium acetate in oversized litters some alterations of the monoamine levels were observed in frontal cortex and striatum at Day 21 compared to controls. At Day 51, the striatal homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels were higher in the low lead dose group compared to those in the controls, No other changes in the monoamine levels were seen at Day 51. At 50-70 days postnatally, potassium-stimulated dopamine overflow was studied in striatum with in vivo chronoamperometry. In the high lead dose group the amplitudes of signals were lower in both the dorsal and ventral striatum compared to the controls, while no difference was seen in the clearance time of dopamine. The capacity of the dopamine terminals to respond to repeated stimulation was not affected by the lead exposure. Thus, the steady-state levels of monoamines were essentially unaltered after postnatal lead exposure in rats, while functional aspects of striatal dopamine transmission were affected after exposure to the higher dose of lead. These findings support the hypothesis that lead-induced changes in motor skills and exploratory behavior may be related to altered dopamine neurotransmission. 77 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Alterations in nuclear envelope invaginations in axotomized fetal and early postnatal hamster facial motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Clark, P; Jones, K J; LaVelle, A

    1992-07-24

    In this study, changes in the amount of nuclear envelope invaginations (NEI) were morphometrically assessed after axotomy during late fetal and early postnatal developmental stages in hamster facial motoneurons. These changes were expressed as boundary density or BA (length of nuclear envelope per unit area of nucleus). Axotomy-induced changes in nuclear area and perimeter were also quantitatively determined. At 17 h after axotomy in the fetal operative series, no changes in any of the parameters were seen. At 1 day postoperative (dpo) in newborn, 2 and 4 postnatal day animals, the boundary densities of the total and invaginated portion of the nuclear envelope increased significantly. No corresponding qualitative changes were observed. At 2 dpo in 4 and 7 postnatal day animals, there were significant increases in the boundary densities of both invaginated and total nuclear envelope and a decrease in nuclear area. These changes were not seen at 2 dpo in the 9-day operative series. At 4 dpo in 7 and 9 postnatal day animals, scalloping of the normally smooth nuclear profile, as well as a flattening and elongation in nuclear shape, occurred. These qualitative changes in the 7 and 9 day operated groups were also accompanied by significant changes in all the measured parameters. The boundary density of the invaginated, non-invaginated and total nuclear envelope increased; whereas, nuclear area and perimeter decreased. These results argue against the generally held hypothesis that an increase in nuclear envelope invaginations is indicative of an allied increase in cellular metabolism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1521315

  9. Haematopoiesis in snakes (Ophidia) in early postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Dabrowski, Z; Sano Martins, I S; Tabarowski, Z; Witkowska-Pelc, E; Spadacci Morena, D D; Spodaryk, K; Podkowa, D

    2007-05-01

    The occurrence of haematopoiesis has been studied in various parts of the spine and in the ribs in four species of snakes (Boa constrictor L., Elaphe guttata L., Lamprophis fulaginosus Boie., Bothrops jararaca Wied.) from hatching until 150 days of postnatal development. Marrow spaces are formed by chondrolysis with various time frames depending on the studied species. Marrow cells egress to the general circulation in two ways: via migration through the endothelial cells lining the venous sinuses or by the rupture of protrusions. Erythroblasts are present in the lumen of marrow sinuses suggesting their final maturation there. Various relationships of the spleen to the pancreas have been found. No myelopoietic foci occur in the spleen, liver or kidney of any of the studied species. However, erythropoiesis (sparse islets) has been observed in Bothrops jararaca spleen. PMID:17225172

  10. Genetic disorders associated with postnatal microcephaly.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, Laurie E; Paciorkowski, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Several genetic disorders are characterized by normal head size at birth, followed by deceleration in head growth resulting in postnatal microcephaly. Among these are classic disorders such as Angelman syndrome and MECP2-related disorder (formerly Rett syndrome), as well as more recently described clinical entities associated with mutations in CASK, CDKL5, CREBBP, and EP300 (Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome), FOXG1, SLC9A6 (Christianson syndrome), and TCF4 (Pitt-Hopkins syndrome). These disorders can be identified clinically by phenotyping across multiple neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral realms, and enough data are available to recognize these postnatal microcephaly disorders as separate diagnostic entities in their own right. A second diagnostic grouping, comprised of Warburg MICRO syndrome, Cockayne syndrome, and Cerebral-oculo-facial skeletal syndrome, share similar features of somatic growth failure, ophthalmologic, and dysmorphologic features. Many postnatal microcephaly syndromes are caused by mutations in genes important in the regulation of gene expression in the developing forebrain and hindbrain, although important synaptic structural genes also play a role. This is an emerging group of disorders with a fascinating combination of brain malformations, specific epilepsies, movement disorders, and other complex neurobehavioral abnormalities. PMID:24839169

  11. Side-stream tobacco smoke-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in early postnatal period is involved nerve growth factor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z-X; Hunter, D D; Batchelor, T P; Dey, R D

    2016-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that children are more susceptible to adverse respiratory effects of passive smoking than adults. The goal of this study is to elucidate the possible neural mechanism induced by exposure to passive smoking during early life. Postnatal day (PD) 2 and PD 21 mice were exposed to side-stream tobacco smoke (SS), a surrogate to secondhand smoke, or filtered air (FA) for 10 consecutive days. Pulmonary function, substance P (SP) airway innervation, neurotrophin gene expression in lung and nerve growth factor (NGF) release in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were measured at different times after the last SS or FA exposure. Exposure to SS significantly altered pulmonary function in PD2, accompanied with an enhanced SP innervation in airway. However, exposure to SS during the later developmental period (PD21) did not appear to affect pulmonary function and SP innervation of the airways. Interestingly, SS exposure in PD2 group significantly induced an increased gene expression on NGF, and decreased NGF receptor P75 in lung; parallel with high levels of NGF protein in BAL. Furthermore, pretreatment with NGF antibody significantly diminished SS-induced airway hyperresponsivenss and the increased SP airway innervation in the PD2 group. These findings suggest that enhanced NGF released in the lung contributes to SS-enhanced SP tracheal innervation and airway responsiveness in early life. PMID:26638730

  12. Development of regulation of the cardiac chronotropic function in albino rats during the early postnatal ontogeny according to the results of spectral analysis of heart rhythm variability.

    PubMed

    Kurjanova, E V; Teplyj, D L; Zereninova, N V

    2012-04-01

    Regulation of the cardiac chronotropic function was studied by spectral analysis of cardiac rhythm variability in HF, LF, and VLF bands in rats at various stages of the early postnatal ontogeny. The inadequacy of the regulatory mechanisms during the first days of life manifested by low power of all waves (particularly HF) in the cardiac rhythm variability spectrum. On day 14 of life, the cardiointerval variability was formed by HF waves, their low power together with increasing heart rate indicating more intense sympathetic effects. On day 21 of life, a potent elevation of the VLF power reflected a stronger centralization of regulation from higher autonomic centers. The age of 28 days was characterized by a sharp increase of HF activity and could be regarded as the turning point in the development of parasympathetic effects and activity of the autonomic regulation contour. From the age of 35 days, the wave power and the proportion of the spectral components of cardiac rhythm variability in albino rats corresponded to the adult pattern; a trend to the central regulation predominance and to greater rigidity of cardiac rhythm formed only with the onset of sexual maturation. PMID:22803162

  13. Characterization of piRNAs across postnatal development in mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Ghosheh, Yanal; Seridi, Loqmane; Ryu, Taewoo; Takahashi, Hazuki; Orlando, Valerio; Carninci, Piero; Ravasi, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are responsible for maintaining the genome stability by silencing retrotransposons in germline tissues– where piRNAs were first discovered and thought to be restricted. Recently, novel functions were reported for piRNAs in germline and somatic cells. Using deep sequencing of small RNAs and CAGE of postnatal development of mouse brain, we identified piRNAs only in adult mouse brain. These piRNAs have similar sequence length as those of MILI-bound piRNAs. In addition, we predicted novel candidate regulators and putative targets of adult brain piRNAs. PMID:27112104

  14. Binge ethanol exposure in late gestation induces ethanol aversion in the dam but enhances ethanol intake in the offspring and affects their postnatal learning about ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Chotro, M. Gabriela; Arias, Carlos; Spear, Norman E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies show that exposure to 1 or 2 g/kg ethanol during the last days of gestation increases ethanol acceptance in infant rats. We tested whether prenatal exposure to 3 g/kg, a relatively high ethanol dose, generates an aversion to ethanol in both the dam and offspring, and whether this prenatal experience affects the expression of learning derived from ethanol exposure postnatally. The answer was uncertain, since postnatal administration of a 3 g/kg ethanol dose induces an aversion to ethanol after postnatal day 10 but increases ethanol acceptance when administered during the first postnatal week. In the present study pregnant rats received intragastric administrations of water or ethanol (3 g/kg) on gestation days 17-20. On postnatal days 7-8 or 10-11 the offspring were administered water or ethanol (3 g/kg). Intake of ethanol and water, locomotor activity in an open-field and ethanol odor preference were evaluated in the pups, while the mothers were evaluated in terms of ethanol intake. Results indicated an aversion to ethanol in dams that had been administered ethanol during gestation, despite a general increase in ethanol intake observed in their pups relative to controls. The prenatal ethanol exposure also potentiated the increase in ethanol intake observed after intoxication on postnatal days 7-8. Ethanol intoxication on postnatal days 10-11 reduced ethanol consumption; this ethanol aversion was still evident in infant rats exposed prenatally to ethanol despite their general increase in ethanol intake. No effects of prenatal ethanol exposure were observed in terms of motor activity or odor preference. It is concluded that prenatal exposure to ethanol, even in a dose that induces ethanol aversion in the gestating dam, increases ethanol intake in infant rats and that this experience modulates age-related differences in subsequent postnatal learning about ethanol. PMID:19801275

  15. Family Day Care Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Coordinated Child Care (4-C) in Dane County, Inc., Madison, WI.

    This handbook provides both general and specific information on child development and child care to help adults who are providing child care in their homes. Information is presented in six sections which describe: (1) the family day care system, the occupation of caregiver, and the development of relationships; (2) development of a health program,…

  16. Postnatal oogenesis in humans: a review of recent findings

    PubMed Central

    Virant-Klun, Irma

    2015-01-01

    In spite of generally accepted dogma that the total number of follicles and oocytes is established in human ovaries during the fetal period of life rather than forming de novo in adult ovaries, some new evidence in the field challenges this understanding. Several studies have shown that different populations of stem cells, such as germinal stem cells and small round stem cells with diameters of 2 to 4 μm, that resembled very small embryonic-like stem cells and expressed several genes related to primordial germ cells, pluripotency, and germinal lineage are present in adult human ovaries and originate in ovarian surface epithelium. These small stem cells were pushed into the germinal direction of development and formed primitive oocyte-like cells in vitro. Moreover, oocyte-like cells were also formed in vitro from embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. This indicates that postnatal oogenesis is not excluded. It is further supported by the occurrence of mesenchymal stem cells that can restore the function of sterilized ovaries and lead to the formation of new follicles and oocytes in animal models. Both oogenesis in vitro and transplantation of stem cell-derived “oocytes” into the ovarian niche to direct their natural maturation represent a big challenge for reproductive biomedicine in the treatment of female infertility in the future and needs to be explored and interpreted with caution, but it is still very important for clinical practice in the field of reproductive medicine. PMID:25848307

  17. Postnatal depression and socio-cultural practices among postnatal mothers in Kota Bahru, Kelantan, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Azidah, A K; Shaiful, B I; Rusli, N; Jamil, M Y

    2006-03-01

    This is a cross sectional study to determine the relationship of postnatal depression (PND) and socio-cultural practices post-delivery among women in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Four hundred and twenty one pregnant women were screened for depression between 36 - 42 weeks of pregnancy, 1 week and 4 - 6 weeks postpartum using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The women also completed questionnaires on socio-demography, psychosocial support and traditional postnatal care. The prevalence of PND at 4-6 weeks postpartum was 20.7%. Depressive symptoms at the end of pregnancy (p<0.05) and one week postpartum (p<0.05), worry about the baby (p<0.05), use of traditional medication (p<0.05) and traditional massage (p<0.05) were significantly associated with PND. PMID:16708738

  18. Dinosaur Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Sandra; Baptiste, H. Prentice

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they capitalized on their first-grade students' love of dinosaurs by hosting a fun-filled Dinosaur Day in their classroom. On Dinosaur Day, students rotated through four dinosaur-related learning stations that integrated science content with art, language arts, math, and history in a fun and time-efficient…

  19. CEMI Days

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    CEMI Days are an important channel of engagement between DOE and the manufacturing industry to identify challenges and opportunities for increasing U.S. manufacturing competitiveness. CEMI Days that are held at manufacturing companies’ facilities can include tours of R&D operations or other points of interest determined by the host company.

  20. Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merro, John; And Others

    Interviews on the quality of day care in the United States are presented in this transcript of a program broadcast in the National Public Radio weekly series, "Options in Education." Writers, day care center personnel and others describe and evaluate the current situation. Federal legislation concerning children is examined, and researchers…

  1. Estrogen Sensitivity of Target Genes and Expression of Nuclear Receptor Co-Regulators in Rat Prostate after Pre- and Postnatal Exposure to the Ultraviolet Filter 4-Methylbenzylidene Camphor

    PubMed Central

    Durrer, Stefan; Ehnes, Colin; Fuetsch, Michaela; Maerkel, Kirsten; Schlumpf, Margret; Lichtensteiger, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Background and objectives In previous studies, we found that the ultraviolet filter 4-methyl-benzylidene camphor (4-MBC) exhibits estrogenic activity, is a preferential estrogen receptor (ER)-β ligand, and interferes with development of female reproductive organs and brain of both sexes in rats. Here, we report effects on male development. Methods 4-MBC (0.7, 7, 24, 47 mg/kg/day) was administered in chow to the parent generation before mating, during gestation and lactation, and to offspring until adulthood. mRNA was determined in prostate lobes by real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and protein was determined by Western blot analysis. Results 4-MBC delayed male puberty, decreased adult prostate weight, and slightly increased testis weight. Androgen receptor (AR), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), ER-α, and ER-β expression in prostate were altered at mRNA and protein levels, with stronger effects in dorsolateral than ventral prostate. To assess sensitivity of target genes to estrogens, offspring were castrated on postnatal day 70, injected with 17β-estradiol (E2; 10 or 50 μg/kg, sc) or vehicle on postnatal day 84, and sacrificed 6 hr later. Acute repression of AR and IGF-1 mRNAs by E2, studied in ventral prostate, was reduced by 4-MBC exposure. This was accompanied by reduced co-repressor N-CoR (nuclear receptor co-repressor) protein in ventral and dorsolateral prostate, whereas steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) protein levels were unaffected. Conclusions Our data indicate that 4-MBC affects development of male reproductive functions and organs, with a lowest observed adverse effect level of 0.7 mg/kg. Nuclear receptor coregulators were revealed as targets for endocrine disruptors, as shown for N-CoR in prostate and SRC-1 in uterus. This may have widespread effects on gene regulation. PMID:18174949

  2. Postnatal Development of the Amygdala: A Stereological Study in Macaque Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Chareyron, Loïc J.; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Amaral, David G.; Lavenex, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal development of the amygdala has been linked to several neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia and autism. However, the postnatal development of the amygdala is not easily explored at the cellular level in humans. Here we performed a stereological analysis of the macaque monkey amygdala in order to characterize the cellular changes underlying its normal structural development in primates. The lateral, basal, and accessory basal nuclei exhibited the same developmental pattern, with a large increase in volume between birth and 3 months of age, followed by slower growth continuing beyond 1 year of age. In contrast, the medial nucleus was near adult size at birth. At birth, the volume of the central nucleus was half of the adult value; this nucleus exhibited significant growth even after 1 year of age. Neither neuronal soma size, nor neuron or astrocyte numbers changed during postnatal development. In contrast, oligodendrocyte numbers increased substantially, in parallel with an increase in amygdala volume, after 3 months of age. At birth, the paralaminar nucleus contained a large pool of immature neurons that gradually developed into mature neurons, leading to a late increase in the volume of this nucleus. Our findings revealed that distinct amygdala nuclei exhibit different developmental profiles and that the amygdala is not fully mature for some time postnatally. We identified different periods during which pathogenic factors might lead to the abnormal development of distinct amygdala circuits, which may contribute to different human neurodevelopmental disorders associated with alterations of amygdala structure and functions. PMID:22173686

  3. Epigenetic repression of cardiac progenitor gene expression by Ezh2 is required for postnatal cardiac homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Olguín, Paul; Huang, Yu; Li, Xue; Christodoulou, Danos; Seidman, Christine E.; Seidman, J.G.; Tarakhovsky, Alexander; Bruneau, Benoit G.

    2011-01-01

    Adult-onset diseases can be associated with in utero events, but mechanisms for this remain unknown1,2. The polycomb histone methyltransferase, Ezh2, stabilizes transcription by depositing repressive marks during development that persist into adulthood3–9, but its function in postnatal organ homeostasis is unknown. We show that Ezh2 stabilizes cardiac gene expression and prevents cardiac pathology by repressing the homeodomain transcription factor Six1, which functions in cardiac progenitors but is stably silenced upon cardiac differentiation10. Ezh2 deletion in cardiac progenitors caused postnatal myocardial pathology and destabilized cardiac gene expression with activation of Six1-dependent skeletal muscle genes. Six1 induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and skeletal muscle gene expression. Furthermore, genetically reducing Six1 levels rescued the pathology of Ezh2-deficient hearts. Thus, Ezh2-mediated repression of Six1 in differentiating cardiac progenitors is essential for stable postnatal heart gene expression and homeostasis. Our results suggest that epigenetic dysregulation in embryonic progenitor cells predisposes to adult disease and dysregulated stress responses. PMID:22267199

  4. Effects of microgravity on myogenic factor expressions during postnatal development of rat skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inobe, Manabu; Inobe, Ikuko; Adams, Gregory R.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.; Takeda, Shin'Ichi

    2002-01-01

    To clarify the role of gravity in the postnatal development of skeletal muscle, we exposed neonatal rats at 7 days of age to microgravity. After 16 days of spaceflight, tibialis anterior, plantaris, medial gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles were removed from the hindlimb musculature and examined for the expression of MyoD-family transcription factors such as MyoD, myogenin, and MRF4. For this purpose, we established a unique semiquantitative method, based on RT-PCR, using specific primers tagged with infrared fluorescence. The relative expression of MyoD in the tibialis anterior and plantaris muscles and that of myogenin in the plantaris and soleus muscles were significantly reduced (P < 0.001) in the flight animals. In contrast, MRF4 expression was not changed in any muscle. These results suggest that MyoD and myogenin, but not MRF4, are sensitive to gravity-related stimuli in some skeletal muscles during postnatal development.

  5. Postnatal epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells in bioengineered amelogenesis and dentinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nan; Zhou, Jian; Chen, Mo; Schiff, Michael D; Lee, Chang H; Kong, Kimi; Embree, Mildred C; Zhou, Yanheng; Mao, Jeremy J

    2014-02-01

    Rodent incisors provide a classic model for studying epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in development. However, postnatal stem/progenitor cells in rodent incisors have not been exploited for tooth regeneration. Here, we characterized postnatal rat incisor epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells and found that they formed enamel- and dentin-like tissues in vivo. Epithelium and mesenchyme cells were harvested separately from the apical region of postnatal 4-5 day rat incisors. Epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes were confirmed by immunocytochemistry, CFU assay and/or multi-lineage differentiation. CK14+, Sox2+ and Lgr5+ epithelium stem cells from the cervical loop enhanced amelogenin and ameloblastin expression upon BMP4 or FGF3 stimulation, signifying their differentiation towards ameloblast-like cells, whereas mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells upon BMP4, BMP7 and Wnt3a treatment robustly expressed Dspp, a hallmark of odontoblastic differentiation. We then control-released microencapsulated BMP4, BMP7 and Wnt3a in transplants of epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells in the renal capsule of athymic mice in vivo. Enamel and dentin-like tissues were generated in two integrated layers with specific expression of amelogenin and ameloblastin in the newly formed, de novo enamel-like tissue, and DSP in dentin-like tissue. These findings suggest that postnatal epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells can be primed towards bioengineered tooth regeneration. PMID:24345734

  6. Improved behavioral performance of rats after pre- and postnatal administration of vasopressin.

    PubMed

    Ermisch, A; Bigl, H; Koch, M; Barth, T; Sterba, G

    1987-08-01

    In two separate and independent experimental series it was studied, whether 8-arginine-vasopressin (AVP) or 8-lysine-vasopressin (LVP) administered daily in microgram amounts to pregnant rats, and/or to their offspring postnatally for 30 days, induce alterations that can be registered by a behavioral test. The realization of the test used, a foot-shock motivated brightness discrimination (BD) reaction, includes learning and memory processes. There is one general result of the two experimental series, which include 263 rats divided up in different combinations of pretreatment. Vasopressin (VP), AVP or LVP, pre- and postnatally administered, induces a significantly improved BD performance of approximately 40%, compared to the control groups. The improvement is detectable in different ages of the offspring, in females as well as in males. A smaller though also significant improvement was observed when AVP or LVP was injected only postnatally. The critical period in which the peptides are able to induce the alterations measured probably includes prenatal and postnatal periods in the lives of the rats. What molecular interactions actually underly the improved behavioral performance remain to be clarified. PMID:3666057

  7. Pre- and postnatal exposure to ambient levels of urban particulate matter (PM(2.5)) affects mice spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pires, Adriana; de Melo, Elizabeth Neves; Mauad, Thais; Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilário; de Siqueira Bueno, Heloisa Maria

    2011-03-01

    This work characterizes the effects of ambient levels of urban particulate matter (PM(2.5)) from the city of Sao Paulo on spermatogenesis using mice exposed during the embryo-fetal and/or postnatal phases of development. Parental generations (BALB/c mice) were exposed to air pollution in chambers with or without filtering PM(2.5) for 4 months. Animals were mated, and half of the 1-day-old offspring were moved between chambers, which yielded prenatal and postnatal groups. Remaining offspring comprised the non-exposed and pre+postnatal exposed groups. After 90 days, the animals were sacrificed for testis collection and weighing. Optical microscopy was used for the morphometric analyses of the cell counts, spermatogenic cycle, proliferation, and apoptosis. Prenatally exposed animals presented reduced body and testicular weight with an increased gonadosomatic index (GSI). Testicular volume also decreased, as well as the tubular diameter in testes of the same animals. Proliferation, apoptosis, and spermatogenic cycle analyses showed no significant differences among groups. However, the tubules at stage VII of pre- and postnatal animals presented a reduced number of elongated spermatids. Pre+postnatal group presented higher spermatid head retention at stages VIII-XII. These results show that ambient levels of PM(2.5) from Sao Paulo city affect spermatogenesis by damaging sperm production. PMID:21456956

  8. Prenatal exposure to maternal voluntary exercise during pregnancy provides protection against mild chronic postnatal hypoxia in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, Maziar Mohammad; Foroutan, Tahereh; Safari, Manouchehr; Sadighi-Moghaddam, Bizhan; Emami-Abarghoie, Mitra; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Postnatal hypoxia is a main cause of neuronal damage in newborn. However, our understanding of the possible preventive or therapeutic methods to reduce the harmful effects of hypoxia is still primary. Pregnant rats were provided with running wheels during their pregnancy. On PND4 (postnatal day 4)to PND8, the rat pups were exposed to postnatal chronic hypoxia (11% O(2), 89% N(2)) in an air-tight plastic chamber for a period of six hours per day. The number of neurons and also angiogenesis in hippocampus were studied. Postnatal exposure to mild hypoxia decreased the number of the neurons in all studied regions of the hippocampus CA1, CA3 (cornu ammonis), DG(dentate gyrus) and SUB(cubiculum) in rat pups. In other words the number of the neurons in rat pups born from voluntary exercise group was not significantly less than control group in CA1, CA3 and DG regions. So maternal Voluntary exercise during pregnancy increases the blood vessel density in the DG region of the hippocampus of the rat pups. In this study for the first time we provide evidences that show the protective effect of maternal voluntary exercise during pregnancy on rat offspring against postnatal hypoxia. We revealed that maternal exercise during pregnancy increases the hippocampal neuron number and angiogenesis in offspring. PMID:22186335

  9. Career Day

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's 2013 Career Days was a joint collaboration between NASA Langley and the Newport News Shipbuilding where 600 high school students from Virginia took on two design challenges -- designing a ca...

  10. Necrotizing fasciitis: a case of hip disarticulation in a postnatal intravenous drug abuser

    PubMed Central

    Rajeswari, J; Smith, N A; Glass, K; Howarth, F

    2009-01-01

    An interesting case of necrotizing fasciitis of the leg following emergency caesarian section in a known intravenous drug user. Postnatal day two she developed pain and swelling in the left leg. In view of her previous history, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was the initial diagnosis. But, due to clinically worsening symptoms and no response to anticoagulation, further investigations were done which showed necrotizing fasciitis. Due to disease progression, a hip disarticulation was performed and the patient went on to full recovery.

  11. Umbilical cord blood transplantation for adults using tacrolimus with two-day very-short-term methotrexate for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Saito, Bungo; Hattori, Norimichi; Yamamoto, Kohei; Arai, Nana; Kawaguchi, Yukiko; Fujiwara, Shun; Kabasawa, Nobuyuki; Tsukamoto, Hiroyuki; Uto, Yui; Ariizumi, Hirotsugu; Yanagisawa, Kouji; Nakamaki, Tsuyoshi

    2016-08-01

    Cord blood transplantation (CBT) is an alternative approach to allogeneic stem cell transplantation. However, CBT is associated with issues including pre-engraftment immune reaction (PIR), engraftment syndrome (ES), and graft failure (GF). Tacrolimus (TAC) and short-term methotrexate (sMTX: days 1, 3, 6, and/or 11) are used for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis during CBT; however, sMTX does not accelerate neutrophil engraftment. Therefore, we hypothesized that lower doses of sMTX [very-short-term MTX (vsMTX): 10 and 7mg/m(2) on days 1 and 3, respectively] with TAC reduce the risk of GF without increasing post-transplantation immune reactions during CBT. We retrospectively analyzed 40 patients who received TAC with vsMTX for GVHD prophylaxis. PIR and ES developed in 4 patients. The cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraft at day 60 was 92.5%. No cases of primary graft failure were noted. The cumulative incidence of grades II-III GVHD was 48.1% at day 100, and the cumulative 100-day incidence of nonrelapse mortality was 12.5%. This study suggests that TAC with vsMTX reduces the risk of PIR and ES during CBT and stimulates neutrophil engraftment, but may be associated with slightly higher aGVHD compared with calcineurin inhibitor and sMTX. Therefore, we recommend vsMTX plus TAC as an option for GVHD prophylaxis during CBT. PMID:27376545

  12. Hydronephrosis: prenatal and postnatal evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dennis B; Armstrong, William R; Maizels, Max

    2014-09-01

    Antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH) is one of the most frequently detected abnormalities found on routine prenatal ultrasounds, affecting 1% to 4.5% of all pregnancies. Despite its prevalence, there continues to be uncertainty regarding the clinical impact after birth. Prognosis depends on the severity of the dilation. Expectant prenatal management is the rule with fetal intervention rarely needed in a few select cases. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction and vesicoureteral reflux are the most common postnatal diagnoses. A renal and bladder ultrasound is essential in the follow-up of patients with ANH and helps dictate further investigation with voiding cystourethrography and/or diuretic renography. PMID:25155734

  13. Postnatal male germ-cell expression of cre recombinase in Tex101-iCre transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhenmin; Lin, Jing; Li, Xian; Li, Shengqiang; Zhou, Huaxin; Araki, Yoshihiko; Lan, Zi-Jian

    2010-12-01

    We have generated a transgenic mouse line that expresses improved Cre recombinase (iCre) under the control of the testis-expressed gene 101 (Tex101) promoter. This transgenic mouse line was named Tex101-iCre. Using the floxed ROSA reporter mice, we found that robust Cre recombinase activity was detected in postnatal testes with weak or no activity in other tissues. Within the testis, Cre recombinase was active in spermatogenic cells as early as the prospermatogonia stage at day 1 after birth. In 30- and 60-day-old mice, positive Cre recombinase activity was detected not only in prospermatogonia but also in spermatogenic cells at later stages of spermatogenesis. There was little or no Cre activity in interstitial cells. Breeding wild-type females with homozygous floxed fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (Fgfr2) males carrying the Tex101-iCre transgene did not produce any progeny with the floxed Fgfr2 allele. All the progeny inherited a recombined Fgfr2 allele, indicating that complete deletion of the floxed Fgfr2 allele by Tex101-iCre can be achieved in the male germline. Furthermore, FGFR2 protein was not detected in spermatocytes and spermatids of adult Fgfr2(fl/fl) ;Tex101-iCre mice. Taken together, our results suggest that the Tex101-iCre mouse line allows the inactivation of a floxed gene in spermatogenic cells in adult mice, which will facilitate the functional characterization of genes in normal spermatogenesis and male fertility. PMID:20853429

  14. Early Postnatal Parathion Exposure in Rats Causes Sex-Selective Cognitive Impairment and Neurotransmitter Defects Which Emerge in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Edward D.; Timofeeva, Olga A.; Yang, Liwei; Petro, Ann; Ryde, Ian T.; Wrench, Nicola; Seidler, Frederic J.; Slotkin, Theodore A.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental exposure of rats to the organophosphate (OP) pesticides leads to altered neurobehavioral function in juvenile and young adult stages. The current study was conducted to determine whether effects of neonatal parathion exposure on cognitive performance persist in older adult and aged rats, and the relationship of behavioral changes to underlying cholinergic and serotonergic mechanisms. We administered parathion to rat pups on postnatal days 1–4, at doses spanning the threshold for the initial signs of systemic toxicity and for barely-detectable cholinesterase inhibition (0.1 or 0.2 mg/kg/day). Beginning at 14 months of age and continuing until 19 months, the rats were trained in the 16-arm radial maze. Controls showed the normal sex difference in this spatial learning and memory task, with the males committing significantly fewer working memory errors than females. Neonatal parathion exposure eliminated the sex difference primarily by causing impairment in males. In association with the effects on cognitive performance, neonatal parathion exposure elicited widespread abnormalities in indices of serotonergic and cholinergic synaptic function, characterized by upregulation of 5HT2 receptors and the 5HT transporter, deficits in choline acetyltransferase activity and nicotinic cholinergic receptors, and increases in hemicholinium-3 binding to the presynaptic choline transporter. Within-animal correlations between behavior and neurochemistry indicated a specific correlation between working memory performance and hippocampal hemicholinium-3 binding; parathion exposure destroyed this relationship. Like the behavioral effects, males showed greater effects of parathion on neurochemical parameters. This study demonstrates the sex-selective, long-term behavioral alterations caused by otherwise nontoxic neonatal exposure to parathion, with effects persisting into the beginning of senescence. PMID:20015457

  15. An Enhanced Pre- and Postnatal Development Study in Cynomolgus Monkeys with Tabalumab: A Human IgG4 Monoclonal Antibody.

    PubMed

    Breslin, William J; Hilbish, Kim G; Martin, Jennifer A; Halstead, Carolyn A; Newcomb, Deanna L; Chellman, Gary J

    2015-06-01

    Tabalumab, a human IgG4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) with neutralizing activity against both soluble and membrane B-cell activating factor (BAFF), has been under development for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential adverse effects of maternal tabalumab exposure on pregnancy, parturition, and lactation of the mothers and on the growth, viability, and development of the offspring through postnatal day (PND) 204. Tabalumab was administered by subcutaneous injection to presumed pregnant cynomolgus monkeys (16-19 per group) every 2 weeks from gestation day (GD) 20 to 22 until parturition at doses of 0, 0.3, or 30 mg/kg. Evaluations in mothers and infants included clinical signs, body weight, toxicokinetics, blood lymphocyte phenotyping, T-cell-dependent antibody response (infants only), antitherapeutic antibody (ATA), organ weights (infants only), and gross and microscopic histopathology. Infants were also examined for external and visceral morphologic and neurobehavioral development. There were no adverse tabalumab-related effects on maternal or infant endpoints. An expected pharmacological decrease in peripheral blood B-lymphocytes occurred in adults and infants; however, B-cell recovery was evident by PND154 in adults and infants at 0.3 mg/kg and by PND204 in infants at 30 mg/kg. At 30 mg/kg, a reduced IgM antibody response to T-cell-dependent antigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) was observed following primary immunization. Following secondary KLH immunization, all infants in both dose groups mounted anti-KLH IgM and IgG antibody responses similar to control. Placental and mammary transfer of tabalumab was demonstrated. In conclusion, the no-observed-adverse-effect level for maternal and developmental toxicity was 30 mg/kg, the highest dose tested. Exposures at 30 mg/kg provide a margin of safety of 16× the anticipated clinical exposure. PMID:26195230

  16. Recurrent 3-day cycles of water deprivation for over a month depress mating behaviour but not semen characteristics of adult rams.

    PubMed

    Khnissi, S; Lassoued, N; Rekik, M; Ben Salem, H

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of water deprivation (WD) on reproductive traits of rams. Ten mature rams were used and allocated to two groups balanced for body weight. Control (C) rams had free access to drinking water, while water-restricted rams (WD) were deprived from water for 3 consecutive days and early on the morning of day 4, they had ad libitum access to water for 24 h, similar to C animals. The experiment lasted 32 days, that is eight 4-day cycles of water deprivation and subsequent watering. Feed and water intake were significantly affected by water deprivation; in comparison with C rams, WD rams reduced their feed intake by 18%. During the watering day of the deprivation cycle, WD rams consumed more water than C rams on the same day (11.8 (SD = 3.37) and 8.4 (SD = 1.92) l respectively; p < 0.05). Glucose, total protein and creatinine were increased as a result of water deprivation. However, testosterone levels were lowered as a result of water deprivation and average values were 10.9 and 6.2 (SEM 1.23) ng/ml for C and WD rams respectively (p < 0.05). Semen traits were less affected by treatment; WD rams consistently had superior sperm concentrations than C animals; and statistical significances were reached in cycles 5 and 8 of water deprivation. Several mating behaviour traits were modified as a result of water deprivation. When compared to controls, WD rams had a more prolonged time to first mount attempt (p < 0.001), their frequency of mount attempts decreased [6.8 vs. 5.2 (SEM 0.1); p < 0.001] and their flehmen reaction intensity was negatively affected (p < 0.05). Water deprivation may have practical implications reducing the libido and therefore the serving capacity of rams under field conditions. PMID:25916259

  17. Antenatal hydronephrosis with postnatal resolution: how long are postnatal studies warranted?

    PubMed

    Gatti, J M; Broecker, B H; Scherz, H C; Perez-Brayfield, M R; Kirsch, A J

    2001-06-01

    We present 2 cases of antenatal hydronephrosis with initial normalization of postnatal studies. Both patients experienced late-onset (6 and 22 months) hydronephrosis secondary to ureteropelvic junction obstruction, necessitating surgical intervention. These cases raise questions about the need for late follow-up imaging in patients with apparent resolution of hydronephrosis diagnosed antenatally. PMID:11377338

  18. Postnatal exposure to MK801 induces selective changes in GAD67 or parvalbumin.

    PubMed

    Turner, Christopher Paul; DeBenedetto, Danielle; Ware, Emily; Stowe, Robert; Lee, Andrew; Swanson, John; Walburg, Caroline; Lambert, Alexandra; Lyle, Melissa; Desai, Priyanka; Liu, Chun

    2010-03-01

    Brain injury during the last trimester to the first 1-4 years in humans is now thought to trigger an array of intellectual and emotional problems later in life, including disorders such as schizophrenia. In adult schizophrenic brains, there is a specific loss of neurons that co-express glutamic acid decarboxylase-parvalbumin (GAD67-PV). Loss of this phenotype is thought to occur in mature animals previously exposed to N-methyl-D: -aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists during late gestation or at postnatal day 7 (P7). However, in similarly treated animals, we have previously shown that GAD67 and PV are unaltered in the first 24 h. To more precisely define when changes in these markers first occur, we exposed rat pups (P7 or P6-P10) to the NMDAR antagonist MK801 and at P11 co-stained brain sections for GAD67 or PV. In the cingulate cortex, we found evidence for a reduction in PV (GAD67 levels were very low to undetectable). In contrast, in the somatosensory cortex, we found that expression of GAD67 was reduced, but PV remained stable. Further, repeated but not single doses of MK801 were necessary to see such changes. Thus, depending on the region, NMDAR antagonism appears to influence expression of PV or GAD67, but not both. These observations could not have been predicted by previous studies and raise important questions as to how the GAD67-PV phenotype is lost once animals reach maturity. More importantly, such differential effects may be of great clinical importance, given that cognitive deficits are seen in children exposed to anesthetics that act by blocking the NMDAR. PMID:19885653

  19. Selective ablation of pillar and deiters' cells severely affects cochlear postnatal development and hearing in mice.

    PubMed

    Mellado Lagarde, Marcia M; Cox, Brandon C; Fang, Jie; Taylor, Ruth; Forge, Andrew; Zuo, Jian

    2013-01-23

    Mammalian auditory hair cells (HCs) are inserted into a well structured environment of supporting cells (SCs) and acellular matrices. It has been proposed that when HCs are irreversibly damaged by noise or ototoxic drugs, surrounding SCs seal the epithelial surface and likely extend the survival of auditory neurons. Because SCs are more resistant to damage than HCs, the effects of primary SC loss on HC survival and hearing have received little attention. We used the Cre/loxP system in mice to specifically ablate pillar cells (PCs) and Deiters' cells (DCs). In Prox1CreER(T2)+/-;Rosa26(DTA/+) (Prox1DTA) mice, Cre-estrogen receptor (CreER) expression is driven by the endogenous Prox1 promoter and, in presence of tamoxifen, removes a stop codon in the Rosa26(DTA/+) allele and induces diphtheria toxin fragment A (DTA) expression. DTA produces cell-autonomous apoptosis. Prox1DTA mice injected with tamoxifen at postnatal days 0 (P0) and P1 show significant DC and outer PC loss at P2-P4, that reaches ∼70% by 1 month. Outer HC loss follows at P14 and is almost complete at 1 month, while inner HCs remain intact. Neural innervation to the outer HCs is disrupted in Prox1DTA mice and auditory brainstem response thresholds in adults are 40-50 dB higher than in controls. The hearing deficit correlates with loss of cochlear amplification. Remarkably, in Prox1DTA mice, the auditory epithelium preserves the ability to seal the reticular lamina and spiral ganglion neuron counts are normal, a key requirement for cochlear implant success. In addition, our results show that cochlear SC pools should be appropriately replenished during HC regeneration strategies. PMID:23345230

  20. Effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to the UV-filter Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) on the reproductive, auditory and neurological development of rat offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Hougaard, Karin Sorig; Christiansen, Sofie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Nellemann, Christine; Lund, Soren Peter; Hass, Ulla

    2011-02-01

    Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) is a frequently used UV-filter in sunscreens and other cosmetics. The aim of the present study was to address the potential endocrine disrupting properties of OMC, and to investigate how OMC induced changes in thyroid hormone levels would be related to the neurological development of treated offspring. Groups of 14-18 pregnant Wistar rats were dosed with 0, 500, 750 or 1000 mg OMC/kg bw/day during gestation and lactation. Serum thyroxine (T{sub 4}), testosterone, estradiol and progesterone levels were measured in dams and offspring. Anogenital distance, nipple retention, postnatal growth and timing of sexual maturation were assessed. On postnatal day 16, gene expression in prostate and testes, and weight and histopathology of the thyroid gland, liver, adrenals, prostate, testes, epididymis and ovaries were measured. After weaning, offspring were evaluated in a battery of behavioral and neurophysiological tests, including tests of activity, startle response, cognitive and auditory function. In adult animals, reproductive organ weights and semen quality were investigated. Thyroxine (T{sub 4}) levels showed a very marked decrease during the dosing period in all dosed dams, but were less severely affected in the offspring. On postnatal day 16, high dose male offspring showed reduced relative prostate and testis weights, and a dose-dependent decrease in testosterone levels. In OMC exposed female offspring, motor activity levels were decreased, while low and high dose males showed improved spatial learning abilities. The observed behavioral changes were probably not mediated solely by early T{sub 4} deficiencies, as the observed effects differed from those seen in other studies of developmental hypothyroxinemia. At eight months of age, sperm counts were reduced in all three OMC-dosed groups, and prostate weights were reduced in the highest dose group. Taken together, these results indicate that perinatal OMC-exposure can affect both the

  1. The structural alteration of gut microbiota in low-birth-weight mice undergoing accelerated postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Tang, Huang; Wang, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Chenhong; Zhang, Menghui; Zhao, Yufeng; Zhao, Liping; Shen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The transient disruption of gut microbiota in infancy by antibiotics causes adult adiposity in mice. Accelerated postnatal growth (A) leads to a higher risk of adult metabolic syndrome in low birth-weight (LB) humans than in normal birth-weight (NB) individuals, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we set up an experiment using LB + A mice, NB + A mice, and control mice with NB and normal postnatal growth. At 24 weeks of age (adulthood), while NB + A animals had a normal body fat content and glucose tolerance compared with controls, LB + A mice exhibited excessive adiposity and glucose intolerance. In infancy, more fecal bacteria implicated in obesity were increased in LB + A pups than in NB + A pups, including Desulfovibrionaceae, Enterorhabdus, and Barnesiella. One bacterium from the Lactobacillus genus, which has been implicated in prevention of adult adiposity, was enhanced only in NB + A pups. Besides, LB + A pups, but not NB + A pups, showed disrupted gut microbiota fermentation activity. After weaning, the fecal microbiota composition of LB + A mice, but not that of NB + A animals, became similar to that of controls by 24 weeks. In infancy, LB + A mice have a more dysbiotic gut microbiome compared to NB + A mice, which might increase their risk of adult metabolic syndrome. PMID:27277748

  2. The structural alteration of gut microbiota in low-birth-weight mice undergoing accelerated postnatal growth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingjing; Tang, Huang; Wang, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Chenhong; Zhang, Menghui; Zhao, Yufeng; Zhao, Liping; Shen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The transient disruption of gut microbiota in infancy by antibiotics causes adult adiposity in mice. Accelerated postnatal growth (A) leads to a higher risk of adult metabolic syndrome in low birth-weight (LB) humans than in normal birth-weight (NB) individuals, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we set up an experiment using LB + A mice, NB + A mice, and control mice with NB and normal postnatal growth. At 24 weeks of age (adulthood), while NB + A animals had a normal body fat content and glucose tolerance compared with controls, LB + A mice exhibited excessive adiposity and glucose intolerance. In infancy, more fecal bacteria implicated in obesity were increased in LB + A pups than in NB + A pups, including Desulfovibrionaceae, Enterorhabdus, and Barnesiella. One bacterium from the Lactobacillus genus, which has been implicated in prevention of adult adiposity, was enhanced only in NB + A pups. Besides, LB + A pups, but not NB + A pups, showed disrupted gut microbiota fermentation activity. After weaning, the fecal microbiota composition of LB + A mice, but not that of NB + A animals, became similar to that of controls by 24 weeks. In infancy, LB + A mice have a more dysbiotic gut microbiome compared to NB + A mice, which might increase their risk of adult metabolic syndrome. PMID:27277748

  3. Usp9x-deficiency disrupts the morphological development of the postnatal hippocampal dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Sabrina; Premarathne, Susitha; Harvey, Tracey J; Iyer, Swati; Dixon, Chantelle; Alexander, Suzanne; Burne, Thomas H J; Wood, Stephen A; Piper, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Within the adult mammalian brain, neurogenesis persists within two main discrete locations, the subventricular zone lining the lateral ventricles, and the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Neurogenesis within the adult dentate gyrus contributes to learning and memory, and deficiencies in neurogenesis have been linked to cognitive decline. Neural stem cells within the adult dentate gyrus reside within the subgranular zone (SGZ), and proteins intrinsic to stem cells, and factors within the niche microenvironment, are critical determinants for development and maintenance of this structure. Our understanding of the repertoire of these factors, however, remains limited. The deubiquitylating enzyme USP9X has recently emerged as a mediator of neural stem cell identity. Furthermore, mice lacking Usp9x exhibit a striking reduction in the overall size of the adult dentate gyrus. Here we reveal that the development of the postnatal SGZ is abnormal in mice lacking Usp9x. Usp9x conditional knockout mice exhibit a smaller hippocampus and shortened dentate gyrus blades from as early as P7. Moreover, the analysis of cellular populations within the dentate gyrus revealed reduced stem cell, neuroblast and neuronal numbers and abnormal neuroblast morphology. Collectively, these findings highlight the critical role played by USP9X in the normal morphological development of the postnatal dentate gyrus. PMID:27181636

  4. Usp9x-deficiency disrupts the morphological development of the postnatal hippocampal dentate gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Oishi, Sabrina; Premarathne, Susitha; Harvey, Tracey J.; Iyer, Swati; Dixon, Chantelle; Alexander, Suzanne; Burne, Thomas H. J.; Wood, Stephen A.; Piper, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Within the adult mammalian brain, neurogenesis persists within two main discrete locations, the subventricular zone lining the lateral ventricles, and the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Neurogenesis within the adult dentate gyrus contributes to learning and memory, and deficiencies in neurogenesis have been linked to cognitive decline. Neural stem cells within the adult dentate gyrus reside within the subgranular zone (SGZ), and proteins intrinsic to stem cells, and factors within the niche microenvironment, are critical determinants for development and maintenance of this structure. Our understanding of the repertoire of these factors, however, remains limited. The deubiquitylating enzyme USP9X has recently emerged as a mediator of neural stem cell identity. Furthermore, mice lacking Usp9x exhibit a striking reduction in the overall size of the adult dentate gyrus. Here we reveal that the development of the postnatal SGZ is abnormal in mice lacking Usp9x. Usp9x conditional knockout mice exhibit a smaller hippocampus and shortened dentate gyrus blades from as early as P7. Moreover, the analysis of cellular populations within the dentate gyrus revealed reduced stem cell, neuroblast and neuronal numbers and abnormal neuroblast morphology. Collectively, these findings highlight the critical role played by USP9X in the normal morphological development of the postnatal dentate gyrus. PMID:27181636

  5. Cohesion to the Group and Its Association with Attendance and Early Treatment Response in an Adult Day-Hospital Program for Eating Disorders: A Preliminary Clinical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crino, Natalie; Djokvucic, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Treatment outcome studies demonstrate that day-hospital programs are effective in the treatment of eating disorders. Few descriptions are available on the specifics of treatment, particularly the process of therapy. The group therapy modality is thought to provide important therapeutic benefits. The present study aimed to examine the association…

  6. A Description of Title IV-A Infant and Toddler Day Care, 1974-1975: Adult-Child Interactions and Care Room Activities. Report No. 7641.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silbermann, David

    This report is concerned with the development and use of the Infant/Toddler Interaction and Activity Profile in 13 day care centers in Philadelphia. The Profile and its development are described and methods of data collection and analysis are explained briefly. Findings are reported in four major areas: (1) basic data characteristics, offering a…

  7. Comparison of a Full Food-Frequency Questionnaire with the Three-Day Unweighted Food Records in Young Polish Adult Women: Implications for Dietary Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Kowalkowska, Joanna; Slowinska, Malgorzata A.; Slowinski, Dariusz; Dlugosz, Anna; Niedzwiedzka, Ewa; Wadolowska, Lidia

    2013-01-01

    The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the food record (FR) are among the most common methods used in dietary research. It is important to know that is it possible to use both methods simultaneously in dietary assessment and prepare a single, comprehensive interpretation. The aim of this study was to compare the energy and nutritional value of diets, determined by the FFQ and by the three-day food records of young women. The study involved 84 female students aged 21–26 years (mean of 22.2 ± 0.8 years). Completing the FFQ was preceded by obtaining unweighted food records covering three consecutive days. Energy and nutritional value of diets was assessed for both methods (FFQ-crude, FR-crude). Data obtained for FFQ-crude were adjusted with beta-coefficient equaling 0.5915 (FFQ-adjusted) and regression analysis (FFQ-regressive). The FFQ-adjusted was calculated as FR-crude/FFQ-crude ratio of mean daily energy intake. FFQ-regressive was calculated for energy and each nutrient separately using regression equation, including FFQ-crude and FR-crude as covariates. For FR-crude and FFQ-crude the energy value of diets was standardized to 2000 kcal (FR-standardized, FFQ-standardized). Methods of statistical comparison included a dependent samples t-test, a chi-square test, and the Bland-Altman method. The mean energy intake in FFQ-crude was significantly higher than FR-crude (2740.5 kcal vs. 1621.0 kcal, respectively). For FR-standardized and FFQ-standardized, significance differences were found in the mean intake of 18 out of 31 nutrients, for FR-crude and FFQ-adjusted in 13 out of 31 nutrients and FR-crude and FFQ-regressive in 11 out of 31 nutrients. The Bland-Altman method showed an overestimation of energy and nutrient intake by FFQ-crude in comparison to FR-crude, e.g., total protein was overestimated by 34.7 g/day (95% Confidence Interval, CI: −29.6, 99.0 g/day) and fat by 48.6 g/day (95% CI: −36.4, 133.6 g/day). After regressive transformation of FFQ, the

  8. Prenatal hydronephrosis: postnatal evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Vemulakonda, Vijaya; Yiee, Jenny; Wilcox, Duncan T

    2014-08-01

    Congenital hydronephrosis is one of the most common anomalies identified on antenatal ultrasound. The underlying etiology of congenital hydronephrosis is multifold, ranging from transient hydronephrosis in utero to clinically significant congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. While traditional management of hydronephrosis was aimed at relieving symptoms, the advent of routine prenatal ultrasound has led to a shift in the goal of treatment to prevention of renal injury in the asymptomatic patient. However, despite this focus on renal preservation, the diagnostic criteria for identification of children "at risk" for renal damage that can be alleviated by surgical treatment remain a subject of debate. Both antenatal and postnatal imaging studies have been evaluated as indicators for potential reversible renal damage and have been used as potential indicators of the need for surgical intervention. The aim of this review is to discuss the current literature regarding the role of postnatal clinical and radiographic evaluation to identify children who may benefit from early surgical intervention. PMID:24927968

  9. Fetal and postnatal ovine mesenteric vascular reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Jayasree; Gugino, Sylvia F.; Nielsen, Lori C.; Caty, Michael G.; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Intestinal circulation and mesenteric arterial (MA) reactivity may play a role in preparing the fetus for enteral nutrition. We hypothesized that MA vasoreactivity changes with gestation and vasodilator pathways predominate in the postnatal period. METHODS Small distal MA rings (0.5-mm diameter) were isolated from fetal (116-d, 128-d, 134-d, and 141-d gestation, term ~ 147 d) and postnatal lambs. Vasoreactivity was evaluated using vasoconstrictors (norepinephrine (NE) after pretreatment with propranolol and endothelin-1(ET-1)) and vasodilators (NO donors A23187 and s-nitrosopenicillamine (SNAP)). Protein and mRNA assays for receptors and enzymes (endothelin receptor A, alpha-adrenergic receptor 1A (ADRA1A), endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), and phosphodiesterase5 (PDE5)) were performed in mesenteric arteries. RESULTS MA constriction to NE and ET-1 peaked at 134 d. Relaxation to A23187 and SNAP was maximal after birth. Basal eNOS activity was low at 134 d. ADRA1A mRNA and protein increasedsignificantlyat134danddecreasedpostnatally.sGC and PDE5 protein increased from 134 to 141 d. CONCLUSION Mesenteric vasoconstriction predominates in late-preterm gestation (134 d; the postconceptional age with the highest incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)) followed by a conversion to vasodilatory influences near the time of full-term birth. Perturbations in this ontogenic mechanism, including preterm birth, may be a risk factor for NEC. PMID:26672733

  10. Developmental programming: postnatal estradiol modulation of prenatally organized reproductive neuroendocrine function in sheep.

    PubMed

    Puttabyatappa, Muraly; Cardoso, Rodolfo C; Herkimer, Carol; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2016-08-01

    Gestational testosterone (TS) excess, acting via both the androgenic and estrogenic pathways, advances puberty and disrupts the neuroendocrine estradiol (E2) feedback and periovulatory hormonal dynamics in female sheep. These prenatally programmed defects may be subject to postnatal modifications by continued organizational and/or activational effects of steroids. This study investigated (1) the organizational contribution of prenatal estrogen excess and (2) the impact of postnatal exposure to E2 in modulating the effects of prenatal androgen excess (TS and dihydrotestosterone (DHT)) on puberty, neuroendocrine feedback mechanisms, and periovulatory hormonal dynamics in sheep. Pregnant Suffolk sheep were treated with TS, DHT, E2, or E2 plus DHT (ED) from days 30 to 90 of gestation. A subset of the control (C), TS, and DHT female offspring received a constant-release E2 implant postnatally. Findings revealed that (1) prenatal E2-treatment failed to reproduce the neuroendocrine disruptions predicted to be programmed by the estrogenic pathway and (2) prenatal E2D-treatment did not adequately replicate the reproductive neuroendocrine defects induced by prenatal TS excess. More importantly, continuous postnatal E2-treatment, while delaying the onset of puberty and reducing the inhibitory effects of E2 on tonic luteinizing hormone (LH) release, failed to amplify the E2-positive feedback and periovulatory defects induced by prenatal TS-treatment. Our results indicate that disruptions in E2-positive feedback mechanisms and periovulatory gonadotropin secretion induced by prenatal TS-treatment are programmed predominantly during the prenatal life with postnatal exposure to E2 excess not contributing further to these disruptions. PMID:27222598

  11. Estimated in vivo postnatal surface growth patterns of the ovine main pulmonary artery and ascending aorta.

    PubMed

    Fata, Bahar; Gottlieb, Danielle; Mayer, John E; Sacks, Michael S

    2013-07-01

    Delineating the normal postnatal development of the pulmonary artery (PA) and ascending aorta (AA) can inform our understanding of congenital abnormalities, as well as pulmonary and systolic hypertension. We thus conducted the following study to delineate the PA and AA postnatal growth deformation characteristics in an ovine model. MR images were obtained from endoluminal surfaces of 11 animals whose ages ranged from 1.5 months/15.3 kg mass (very young) to 12 months/56.6 kg mass (adult). A bicubic Hermite finite element surface representation was developed for the each artery from each animal. Under the assumption that the relative locations of surface points were retained during growth, the individual animal surface fits were subsequently used to develop a method to estimate the time-evolving local effective surface growth (relative to the youngest measured animal) in the end-diastolic state. Results indicated that the spatial and temporal surface growth deformation patterns of both arteries, especially in the circumferential direction, were heterogeneous, leading to an increase in taper and increase in cross-sectional ellipticity of the PA. The longitudinal PA growth stretch of a large segment on the posterior wall reached 2.57 ± 0.078 (mean ± SD) at the adult stage. In contrast, the longitudinal growth of the AA was smaller and more uniform (1.80 ± 0.047). Interestingly, a region of the medial wall of both arteries where both arteries are in contact showed smaller circumferential growth stretches-specifically 1.12 ± 0.012 in the PA and 1.43 ± 0.071 in the AA at the adult stage. Overall, our results indicated that contact between the PA and AA resulted in increasing spatial heterogeneity in postnatal growth, with the PA demonstrating the greatest changes. Parametric studies using simplified geometric models of curved arteries during growth suggest that heterogeneous effective surface growth deformations must occur to account for the

  12. Inspire Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohach, Barbara M.; Meade, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    The authors collaborated on hosting a "Spring Inspire Day." planned and delivered by preservice elementary teachers as a social studies/science methods project. Projects that have authentic application opportunities can make learning meaningful for prospective teachers as well as elementary students. With the impetus for an integrated…

  13. Perinatal Resveratrol Supplementation to Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Dams Mitigates the Development of Hypertension in Adult Offspring.

    PubMed

    Care, Alison S; Sung, Miranda M; Panahi, Sareh; Gragasin, Ferrante S; Dyck, Jason R B; Davidge, Sandra T; Bourque, Stephane L

    2016-05-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether perinatal maternal resveratrol (Resv)-a phytoalexin known to confer cardiovascular protection-could prevent the development of hypertension and improve vascular function in adult spontaneously hypertensive rat offspring. Dams were fed either a control or Resv-supplemented diet (4 g/kg diet) from gestational day 0.5 until postnatal day 21. Indwelling catheters were used to assess blood pressure and vascular function in vivo; wire myography was used to assess vascular reactivity ex vivo. Perinatal Resv supplementation in dams had no effect on fetal body weights, albeit continued maternal treatment postnatally resulted in growth restriction in offspring by postnatal day 21; growth restriction was no longer evident after 5 weeks of age. Maternal perinatal Resv supplementation prevented the onset of hypertension in adult offspring (-18 mm Hg;P=0.007), and nitric oxide synthase inhibition (withl-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester) normalized these blood pressure differences, suggesting improved nitric oxide bioavailability underlies the hemodynamic alterations in the Resv-treated offspring. In vivo and ex vivo, vascular responses to methylcholine were not different between treatment groups, but prior treatment withl-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester attenuated the vasodilation in untreated, but not Resv-treated adult offspring, suggesting a shift toward nitric oxide-independent vascular control mechanisms in the treated group. Finally, bioconversion of the inactive precursor big endothelin-1 to active endothelin-1 in isolated mesenteric arteries was reduced in Resv-treated offspring (-28%;P<0.05), and this difference could be normalized byl-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester treatment. In conclusion, perinatal maternal Resv supplementation mitigated the development of hypertension and causes persistent alterations in vascular responsiveness in spontaneously hypertensive rats. PMID:26928803

  14. Perinatal Exposure to Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Triggers Profound Defects in T Cell Differentiation and Function in Fetal and Postnatal Stages of Life, Including Decreased Responsiveness to HIV Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Lombard, Catherine; Hegde, Venkatesh L.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi

    2011-01-01

    Marijuana abuse is very prominent among pregnant women. Although marijuana cannabinoids have been shown to exert immunosuppression in adults, virtually nothing is known about the effects of marijuana use during pregnancy on the developing immune system of the fetus and during postnatal life. We noted that murine fetal thymus expressed high levels of the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Moreover, perinatal exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) had a profound effect on the fetus as evidenced by a decrease in thymic cellularity on gestational days 16, 17, and 18 and postgestational day 1 and marked alterations in T cell subpopulations. These outcomes were reversed by CB1/CB2 antagonists, suggesting that THC-mediated these effects through cannabinoid receptors. Thymic atrophy induced in the fetus correlated with caspase-dependent apoptosis in thymocytes. Thymic atrophy was the result of direct action of THC and not based on maternal factors inasmuch as THC was able to induce T cell apoptosis in vitro in fetal thymic organ cultures. It is noteworthy that perinatal exposure to THC also had a profound effect on the immune response during postnatal life. Peripheral T cells from such mice showed decreased proliferative response to T cell mitogen as well as both T cell and antibody response to HIV-1 p17/p24/gp120 antigens. Together, our data demonstrate for the first time that perinatal exposure to THC triggers profound T cell dysfunction, thereby suggesting that the offspring of marijuana abusers who have been exposed to THC in utero may be at a higher risk of exhibiting immune dysfunction and contracting infectious diseases including HIV. PMID:21831965

  15. Intrinsic religiousness and spirituality as predictors of mental health and positive psychological functioning in Latter-Day Saint adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Peter W; Allen, G E Kawika; Fischer, Lane; Richards, P Scott; Morgan, David T; Potts, Richard W

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the relationships between religiousness and spirituality and various indicators of mental health and positive psychosocial functioning in three separate samples of college students. A total of 898 students at Brigham Young University participated in the three studies. The students ranged in age from 17 to 26 years old, with the average age of 20.9 across all three samples. Our results indicate that intrinsic religiousness, spiritual maturity, and self-transcendence were significantly predictive of better mental health and positive functioning, including lower levels of depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsiveness, and higher levels of global self-esteem, identity integration, moral self-approval, and meaning in life. Intrinsic religiousness was not predictive of shame, perfectionism, and eating disorder symptoms. These findings are consistent with many prior studies that have found religiousness and spirituality to be positively associated with better mental health and positive psychosocial functioning in adolescents and young adults. PMID:25854319

  16. Effect of Lycopersicon esculentum extract on apoptosis in the rat cerebellum, following prenatal and postnatal exposure to an electromagnetic field.

    PubMed

    Köktürk, Sibel; Yardimoglu, Melda; Celikozlu, Saadet D; Dolanbay, Elif Gelenli; Cimbiz, Ali

    2013-07-01

    The expansion of mobile phone technology has raised concerns regarding the effect of 900-MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure on the central nervous system. At present, the developing human brain is regularly exposed to mobile telephones, pre- and postnatally. Several studies have demonstrated the acute effects of EMF exposure during pre- or postnatal periods; however, the chronic effects of EMF exposure are less understood. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the chronic effects of EMF on the pre- and postnatal rat cerebellum. The control group was maintained in the same conditions as the experimental groups, without the exposure to EMF. In the EMF1 group, the rats were exposed to EMF during pre- and postnatal periods (until postnatal day 80). In the EMF2 group, the rats were also exposed to EMF pre- and postnatally; in addition, however, they were provided with a daily oral supplementation of Lycopersicon esculentum extract (∼2 g/kg). The number of caspase-3-labeled Purkinje neurons and granule cells present in the rats in the control and experimental groups were then counted. The neurodegenerative changes were studied using cresyl violet staining, and these changes were evaluated. In comparison with the control animals, the EMF1 group demonstrated a significant increase in the number of caspase-3-labeled Purkinje neurons and granule cells present in the cerebellum (P<0.001). However, in comparison with the EMF1 group, the EMF2 group exhibited significantly fewer caspase-3-labeled Purkinje neurons and granule cells in the cerebellum. In the EMF1 group, the Purkinje neurons were revealed to have undergone dark neuron degenerative changes. However, the presence of dark Purkinje neurons was reduced in the EMF2 group, compared with the EMF1 group. The results indicated that apoptosis and neurodegeneration in rats exposed to EMF during pre- and postnatal periods may be reduced with Lycopersicon esculentum extract therapy. PMID:23935717

  17. Effects of prenatal propofol exposure on postnatal development in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Xiong, Ming; Alhashem, Hussain M; Zhang, Yong; Tilak, Vasanti; Patel, Anuradha; Siegel, Allan; Ye, Jiang Hong; Bekker, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical studies suggest that propofol may cause damage to immature neurons. However, the effect of maternal propofol exposure on the neuronal development of the offspring is largely unknown. In this study, pregnant rats were assigned to receive continuous infusion of saline (control) or propofol for 1 h (1HP) or 2 h (2HP) on gestational day 18. An additional group (lipid) was assigned to receive continuous infusion of intralipid fat emulsion (vehicle of propofol) for 2 h. Pups were then tested on the appearance and progression of sensory and physical motor abilities between postnatal day 1 (P1) and P28. The brain and body weights of pups from 2HP group on P10 were significantly lower than those from the saline control group, although they were the same in all four groups at birth (P0). Pups from 1HP and 2HP groups, but not lipid group, showed slower maturation of eyes (delayed opening) and several neurological reflexes (hindlimb reflex, righting reflex); they also showed delayed improvement in execution on gait reflex and inclined board tests. The forelimb reflex and negative geotaxis were also delayed in 2HP group. All parameters examined except body weight of 2HP pups recovered to normal levels by P28. We conclude that administration of propofol to pregnant rats leads to retardation in physical and neurological reflex development in their offspring. PMID:24726880

  18. Sexually dimorphic effects of neonatal immune system activation with lipopolysaccharide on the behavioural response to a homotypic adult immune challenge.

    PubMed

    Tenk, Christine M; Kavaliers, Martin; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Research has shown that acute immune activation during the early postnatal period with the Gram-negative endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), alters a variety of physiological and behavioural processes in the adult animal. For example, neonatal LPS exposure affects disease susceptibility later in life, though these effects appear to be modulated by time of exposure, sex, and immune stimulus. The current study examined sex differences in the effect of neonatal LPS treatment on the locomotor activity response to adult LPS administration. Male and female Long-Evans rats were treated systemically with either LPS (50 microg/kg) or saline (0.9%) on postnatal days 3 and 5. Later in adulthood (postnatal day 92), all animals were subjected to an adult LPS challenge and were injected (i.p.) with 200 microg/kg LPS. Two hours after injection, animals were placed in a non-novel open-field and locomotor activity was assessed for 30 min. Body weights were determined both at the time of injection and 24h later to examine LPS-induced weight loss. Adult males treated neonatally with LPS exhibited significantly less horizontal and vertical activity in response to the LPS challenge relative to males treated neonatally with saline. This effect was not observed in females. Thus, the current study provides important evidence of sexual dimorphism in the long-term effects of neonatal LPS exposure on the responses to an adult homotypic immune challenge in rats. These findings have potential clinical significance given that neonatal exposure to pathogens is a fairly common occurrence and Gram-negative bacteria are a common cause of neonatal bacterial infections. PMID:18280690

  19. Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Cigarette Smoke Decreases BDNF/TrkB Signaling and Increases Abnormal Behaviors Later in Life

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lan; Kish, Vincent L.; Benders, Katherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoke exposure during prenatal and early postnatal periods increases the incidence of a variety of abnormal behaviors later in life. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible critical period of susceptibility to cigarette smoke exposure and evaluate the possibe effects of cigarette smoke during early life on brain-derived neurotrophic factor/neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling in the brain. Methods: Three different age of imprinting control region mice were exposed to cigarette smoke or filtered air for 10 consecutive days beginning on either gestational day 7 by maternal exposure, or postnatal days 2 or 21 by direct inhalation. A series of behavioral profiles and neurotrophins in brain were measured 24 hours after mice received acute restraint stress for 1 hour on postnatal day 59. Results: Cigarette smoke exposure in gestational day 7 and postnatal day 2 produced depression-like behaviors as evidenced by significantly increased immobility in both tail suspension and forced-swim test. Increased entry latencies, but not ambulation in the open field test, were also observed in the gestational day 7 and postnatal day 2 cigarette smoke exposure groups. Genetic analysis showed that gestational day 7 cigarette smoke exposure significantly altered mRNA level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tyrosine kinase receptor B in the hippocampus. However, behavioral profiles and brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling were not significantly changed in PND21 cigarette smoke exposure group compared with FA group. Conclusions: These results suggest that a critical period of susceptibility to cigarette smoke exposure exists in the prenatal and early postnatal period, which results a downregulation in brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling in the hippocampus and enhances depression-like behaviors later in life. PMID:26503133

  20. Metabolic imprinting by prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal overnutrition: a review.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Jennifer Shine; Rosenfeld, Charles R

    2011-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that metabolic programming is one of the critical factors contributing to the etiology of obesity as well as concurrent increase in related chronic diseases (e.g., type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease). Metabolic programming is the phenomenon whereby a nutritional stress/stimulus applied during critical periods of early development permanently alters an organism's physiology and metabolism, the consequences of which are often observed much later in life. The idea of metabolic programming originated from the fetal origins hypothesis proposed by Barker in which he suggested that disproportionate size at birth of the newborn due to an adverse intrauterine environment correlated well with an increased risk of adult-onset ill health outcomes (type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease). The fetal origins hypothesis, proposed by Barker, suggests that adequate nutrition during fetal development is critical. Overnutrition is a form of malnutrition that has increased in the United States over the past several decades in which nutrients are oversupplied relative to the amounts required for normal growth, development, and metabolism. Evidence for the effects of maternal obesity and overnutrition on metabolic programming is reviewed during critical prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal periods. PMID:21769766

  1. Pre- and early postnatal nongenetic determinants of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ozanne, Susan E; Hales, C Nick

    2002-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed strong and internationally reproducible links between early growth restriction and subsequent risk of developing type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome (glucose intolerance, hypertension and hypertriglyceridaemia). This effect can exist independently of genetic factors. There is also direct evidence that poor maternal nutrition and maternal smoking cause both a reduction in birthweight and subsequent loss of glucose tolerance. High rates of growth in childhood may add to these effects. The 'thrifty phenotype' hypothesis attempts to explain these associations in terms of an altered programming of growth and metabolism that aids survival both pre- and postnatally. Type 2 diabetes is envisaged as a consequence of a clash of this programming with adult obesity. Tests of this hypothesis in animal models have shown that both the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes can result from early growth restriction in rats consequent upon rat dams being fed a reduced protein, isocaloric diet (in which the protein is replaced by an equal quantity of nonprotein energy). A variety of other models of early growth restriction in rats lead to a similar phenotype. Several structural and gene expression changes have been shown in many tissues, including pancreas, liver, kidney, muscle and adipose tissue. Changes in gene expression include those concerned with hormone receptors, signalling and glycolytic enzymes. Many important questions remain for future research. PMID:14987383

  2. Explaining postnatal growth plasticity in a generalist brood parasite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remeš, Vladimír

    2010-03-01

    Selection of a particular host has clear consequences for the performance of avian brood parasites. Experimental studies showed that growth rate and fledging mass of brood parasites varied between host species independently of the original host species. Finding correlates of this phenotypic plasticity in growth is important for assessing adaptiveness and potential fitness consequences of host choice. Here, I analyzed the effects of several host characteristics on growth rate and fledging mass of the young of brown-headed cowbird ( Molothrus ater), a generalist, non-evicting brood parasite. Cowbird chicks grew better in fast-developing host species and reached higher fledging mass in large hosts with fast postnatal development. A potential proximate mechanism linking fast growth and high fledging mass of cowbird with fast host development is superior food supply in fast-developing foster species. So far, we know very little about the consequences of the great plasticity in cowbird growth for later performance of the adult parasite. Thus, cowbird species could become interesting model systems for investigating the role of plasticity and optimization in the evolution of growth rate in birds.

  3. Postnatal acquisition of endotoxin tolerance in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lotz, Michael; Gütle, Dominique; Walther, Sabrina; Ménard, Sandrine; Bogdan, Christian; Hornef, Mathias W

    2006-04-17

    The role of innate immune recognition by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in vivo is ill-defined. Here, we used highly enriched primary IECs to analyze Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and mechanisms that prevent inappropriate stimulation by the colonizing microflora. Although the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor complex TLR4/MD-2 was present in fetal, neonatal, and adult IECs, LPS-induced nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation and chemokine (macrophage inflammatory protein 2 [MIP-2]) secretion was only detected in fetal IECs. Fetal intestinal macrophages, in contrast, were constitutively nonresponsive to LPS. Acquisition of LPS resistance was paralleled by a spontaneous activation of IECs shortly after birth as illustrated by phosphorylation of IkappaB-alpha and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB p65 in situ as well as transcriptional activation of MIP-2. Importantly, the spontaneous IEC activation occurred in vaginally born mice but not in neonates delivered by Caesarean section or in TLR4-deficient mice, which together with local endotoxin measurements identified LPS as stimulatory agent. The postnatal loss of LPS responsiveness of IECs was associated with a posttranscriptional down-regulation of the interleukin 1 receptor-associated kinase 1, which was essential for epithelial TLR4 signaling in vitro. Thus, unlike intestinal macrophages, IECs acquire TLR tolerance immediately after birth by exposure to exogenous endotoxin to facilitate microbial colonization and the development of a stable intestinal host-microbe homeostasis. PMID:16606665

  4. [Effect of ladasten on antenatal and postnatal development].

    PubMed

    Bugaeva, L I; Denisova, T D; Spasov, A A

    2012-01-01

    Positive effects of ladasten on both antenatal and postnatal development have been established in experiments on pregnant female rats. Under the action of this drug, the number of resorption events decreases and process of antenatal development of fetuses is activated. In the postnatal period, increased weight gain and accelerated physical development has been observed in the progeny of rats treated with ladasten. PMID:22702107

  5. Postnatal Support for Mothers of Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skotko, Brian; Bedia, Ricardo Canal

    2005-01-01

    Delivering and receiving a postnatal diagnosis of Down syndrome is not an easy experience for most physicians or parents. In this study, 467 mothers of children with Down syndrome in Spain completed a survey about the postnatal support services they received immediately following the diagnosis of their child. Mothers reported feeling anxious,…

  6. Postnatal Depression. A Review. EUR/HFA Target 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This document contains three reports on postnatal depression. The first, "The Maternity Blues," by Flemming Warborg Larsen, presents a literature review on the topic. It concludes that most women look back at the "blues" as an episode that was brief, unpleasant, and difficult to explain. The second report, "Postnatal Depressions," by Lene Lier,…

  7. Multicenter Study of Decitabine Administered Daily for 5 Days Every 4 Weeks to Adults With Myelodysplastic Syndromes: The Alternative Dosing for Outpatient Treatment (ADOPT) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Steensma, David P.; Baer, Maria R.; Slack, James L.; Buckstein, Rena; Godley, Lucy A.; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Albitar, Maher; Larsen, Julie S.; Arora, Sujata; Cullen, Michael T.; Kantarjian, Hagop

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Decitabine, a DNA-targeted hypomethylating agent, is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for treatment of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) on a schedule of 15 mg/m2 administered via intravenous (IV) infusion every 8 hours for 3 days. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of an alternative dosing regimen administered on an outpatient basis in academic and community-based practices. Patients and Methods Patients were treated with decitabine 20 mg/m2 by IV infusion daily for 5 consecutive days every 4 weeks. Eligible patients were ≥ 18 years of age and had MDS (de novo or secondary) of any French-American-British (FAB) subtype and an International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) score ≥ 0.5. The primary end point was the overall response rate (ORR) by International Working Group (IWG 2006) criteria; secondary end points included cytogenetic responses, hematologic improvement (HI), response duration, survival, and safety. Results Ninety-nine patients were enrolled; the ORR was 32% (17 complete responses [CR] plus 15 marrow CRs [mCRs]), and the overall improvement rate was 51%, which included 18% HI. Similar response rates were observed in all FAB subtypes and IPSS risk categories. Among patients who improved, 82% demonstrated responses by the end of cycle 2. Among 33 patients assessable for a cytogenetic response, 17 (52%) experienced cytogenetic CR (n = 11) or partial response (n = 6). Conclusion Decitabine given on a 5-day schedule provided meaningful clinical benefit for patients with MDS, with more than half demonstrating improvement. This suggests that decitabine can be administered in an outpatient setting with comparable efficacy and safety to the United States Food and Drug Administration–approved inpatient regimen. PMID:19528372

  8. Efficacy of a live attenuated vaccine in classical swine fever virus postnatally persistently infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-González, Sara; Perez-Simó, Marta; Muñoz, Marta; Bohorquez, José Alejandro; Rosell, Rosa; Summerfield, Artur; Domingo, Mariano; Ruggli, Nicolas; Ganges, Llilianne

    2015-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) causes major losses in pig farming, with various degrees of disease severity. Efficient live attenuated vaccines against classical swine fever virus (CSFV) are used routinely in endemic countries. However, despite intensive vaccination programs in these areas for more than 20 years, CSF has not been eradicated. Molecular epidemiology studies in these regions suggests that the virus circulating in the field has evolved under the positive selection pressure exerted by the immune response to the vaccine, leading to new attenuated viral variants. Recent work by our group demonstrated that a high proportion of persistently infected piglets can be generated by early postnatal infection with low and moderately virulent CSFV strains. Here, we studied the immune response to a hog cholera lapinised virus vaccine (HCLV), C-strain, in six-week-old persistently infected pigs following post-natal infection. CSFV-negative pigs were vaccinated as controls. The humoral and interferon gamma responses as well as the CSFV RNA loads were monitored for 21 days post-vaccination. No vaccine viral RNA was detected in the serum samples and tonsils from CSFV postnatally persistently infected pigs for 21 days post-vaccination. Furthermore, no E2-specific antibody response or neutralising antibody titres were shown in CSFV persistently infected vaccinated animals. Likewise, no of IFN-gamma producing cell response against CSFV or PHA was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the absence of a response to vaccination in CSFV persistently infected pigs. PMID:26159607

  9. Early Postnatal Exposure to Ultrafine Particulate Matter Air Pollution: Persistent Ventriculomegaly, Neurochemical Disruption, and Glial Activation Preferentially in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Joshua L.; Liu, Xiufang; Pelkowski, Sean; Palmer, Brian; Conrad, Katherine; Oberdörster, Günter; Weston, Douglas; Mayer-Pröschel, Margot

    2014-01-01

    Background: Air pollution has been associated with adverse neurological and behavioral health effects in children and adults. Recent studies link air pollutant exposure to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes, including increased risk for autism, cognitive decline, ischemic stroke, schizophrenia, and depression. Objectives: We sought to investigate the mechanism(s) by which exposure to ultrafine concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) adversely influences central nervous system (CNS) development. Methods: We exposed C57BL6/J mice to ultrafine (< 100 nm) CAPs using the Harvard University Concentrated Ambient Particle System or to filtered air on postnatal days (PNDs) 4–7 and 10–13, and the animals were euthanized either 24 hr or 40 days after cessation of exposure. Another group of males was exposed at PND270, and lateral ventricle area, glial activation, CNS cytokines, and monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitters were quantified. Results: We observed ventriculomegaly (i.e., lateral ventricle dilation) preferentially in male mice exposed to CAPs, and it persisted through young adulthood. In addition, CAPs-exposed males generally showed decreases in developmentally important CNS cytokines, whereas in CAPs-exposed females, we observed a neuroinflammatory response as indicated by increases in CNS cytokines. We also saw changes in CNS neurotransmitters and glial activation across multiple brain regions in a sex-dependent manner and increased hippocampal glutamate in CAPs-exposed males. Conclusions: We observed brain region– and sex-dependent alterations in cytokines and neurotransmitters in both male and female CAPs-exposed mice. Lateral ventricle dilation (i.e., ventriculomegaly) was observed only in CAPs-exposed male mice. Ventriculomegaly is a neuropathology that has been associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcome, autism, and schizophrenia. Our findings suggest alteration of developmentally important neurochemicals and lateral ventricle dilation may be

  10. Ketamine Affects the Neurogenesis of the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus in 7-Day-Old Rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, He; Liu, Cun-Ming; Sun, Jie; Hao, Ting; Xu, Chun-Mei; Wang, Dan; Wu, Yu-Qing

    2016-08-01

    Ketamine has been reported to cause neonatal neurotoxicity via a neuronal apoptosis mechanism; however, no in vivo research has reported whether ketamine could affect postnatal neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). A growing number of experiments suggest that postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis is the foundation of maintaining normal hippocampus function into adulthood. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of ketamine on hippocampal neurogenesis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: the control group (equal volume of normal saline), and the ketamine-anesthesia group (40 mg/kg ketamine in four injections at 1 h intervals). The S-phase marker 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered after ketamine exposure to postnatal day 7 (PND-7) rats, and the neurogenesis in the hippocampal DG was assessed using single- or double-immunofluorescence staining. The expression of GFAP in the hippocampal DG was measured by western blot analysis. Spatial reference memory was tested by Morris water maze at 2 months after PND-7 rats exposed to ketamine treatment. The present results showed that neonatal ketamine exposure significantly inhibited neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation, decreased astrocytic differentiation, and markedly enhanced neuronal differentiation. The disruptive effect of ketamine on the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs lasted at least 1 week and disappeared by 2 weeks after ketamine exposure. Moreover, the migration of newborn neurons in the granule cell layer and the growth of astrocytes in the hippocampal DG were inhibited by ketamine on PND-37 and PND-44. Finally, ketamine caused a deficit in hippocampal-dependent spatial reference memory tasks at 2 months old. Our results suggested that ketamine may interfere with hippocampal neurogenesis and long-term neurocognitive function in PND-7 rats. These findings may provide a new perspective to explain the adult neurocognitive dysfunction induced by neonatal

  11. Spread patterns and effectiveness for surgery after ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block in adult day-case patients scheduled for umbilical hernia repair

    PubMed Central

    Manassero, Alberto; Bossolasco, Matteo; Meineri, Maurizio; Ugues, Susanna; Liarou, Chrysoula; Bertolaccini, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: We conducted a prospective study to examine the local anesthetic (LA) spread and the effectiveness for surgical anesthesia of ultrasound (US)-guided rectus sheath block (RSB) in adult patients undergoing umbilical hernia repair. Material and Methods: Thirty patients received at T-10 level a bilateral US-guided injection of 20 mL levobupivacaine 0.375% + epinephrine 5 μg/mL behind the rectus muscle to detach it from its sheath. Anesthetic spread into the rectus sheath was evaluated ultrasonographically at T-9 and T-11 levels and scored from 0 to 4. The RSB was defined effective for surgical anesthesia if it was able to guarantee an anesthetic level sufficient for surgery without any mepivacaine supplementation. Results: Overall, the block was effective for surgical anesthesia in 53.3% of patients (95% confidence interval, ±17.8). In the remaining patients, anesthesia supplementation was needed at cutaneous incision, whereas manipulation of the muscle and fascial planes was painless. No patients required general anesthesia. LA spreads as advocated (to T-9 and to T-11 bilaterally = spread score 4) in 8/30 patients (26.6%); in these cases, the block was 75% effective for surgery. The anesthetic spread was most negatively influenced by increased body mass index. Postoperative analgesia was excellent in 97% of patients. Conclusion: Use of RSB as an anesthetic management of umbilical herniorrhaphy is recommended only with anesthetic supplementation at the incision site. PMID:26330714

  12. Antenatally diagnosed hydronephrosis: current postnatal management.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Michael T; Merguerian, Paul A; Koyle, Martin

    2013-03-01

    The issue of antenatal hydronephrosis has become a routine component for the care of a pregnant woman despite limited evidence of a clinical benefit. The genitourinary tract represents the most commonly detected organ system with identified abnormalities, with antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH), being the most notable and common finding. ANH represents a spectrum, with most cases being a trivial and inconsequential finding on maternal fetal ultrasound. However, there is a correlation with increased grades of ANH being associated with increased severity of urinary tract pathology. Most patients can be managed expectantly with appropriate evaluation commenced postnatally based on severity of ANH and proper parental counseling and education. The purpose of this review was to assess current literature and guidelines pertaining to ANH and incorporate our practical interpretations of their significance. PMID:23325322

  13. E2f8 mediates tumor suppression in postnatal liver development.

    PubMed

    Kent, Lindsey N; Rakijas, Jessica B; Pandit, Shusil K; Westendorp, Bart; Chen, Hui-Zi; Huntington, Justin T; Tang, Xing; Bae, Sooin; Srivastava, Arunima; Senapati, Shantibhusan; Koivisto, Christopher; Martin, Chelsea K; Cuitino, Maria C; Perez, Miguel; Clouse, Julian M; Chokshi, Veda; Shinde, Neelam; Kladney, Raleigh; Sun, Daokun; Perez-Castro, Antonio; Matondo, Ramadhan B; Nantasanti, Sathidpak; Mokry, Michal; Huang, Kun; Machiraju, Raghu; Fernandez, Soledad; Rosol, Thomas J; Coppola, Vincenzo; Pohar, Kamal S; Pipas, James M; Schmidt, Carl R; de Bruin, Alain; Leone, Gustavo

    2016-08-01

    E2F-mediated transcriptional repression of cell cycle-dependent gene expression is critical for the control of cellular proliferation, survival, and development. E2F signaling also interacts with transcriptional programs that are downstream of genetic predictors for cancer development, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we evaluated the function of the atypical repressor genes E2f7 and E2f8 in adult liver physiology. Using several loss-of-function alleles in mice, we determined that combined deletion of E2f7 and E2f8 in hepatocytes leads to HCC. Temporal-specific ablation strategies revealed that E2f8's tumor suppressor role is critical during the first 2 weeks of life, which correspond to a highly proliferative stage of postnatal liver development. Disruption of E2F8's DNA binding activity phenocopied the effects of an E2f8 null allele and led to HCC. Finally, a profile of chromatin occupancy and gene expression in young and tumor-bearing mice identified a set of shared targets for E2F7 and E2F8 whose increased expression during early postnatal liver development is associated with HCC progression in mice. Increased expression of E2F8-specific target genes was also observed in human liver biopsies from HCC patients compared to healthy patients. In summary, these studies suggest that E2F8-mediated transcriptional repression is a critical tumor suppressor mechanism during postnatal liver development. PMID:27454291

  14. Ontogeny, postnatal development and ageing of endocrine pancreas in Bubalus bubalis

    PubMed Central

    LUCINI, C.; CASTALDO, L.; LAI, O.; DE VICO, G.

    1998-01-01

    The ontogenesis, postnatal development and ageing of the endocrine pancreas in mammals have not been extensively studied. In order to improve understanding of this organ, we studied the buffalo pancreas during fetal and postnatal development. Glucagon, insulin and somatostatin immunoreactive cells (i.c.) were first seen in 2-mo-old embryos. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) i.c. were observed during the 3rd month of gestation. The early embryo pancreas was almost totally composed of endocrine tissue. The endocrine portion only slightly increased in mass with animal growth, whereas the exocrine portion noticeably increased in mass during the late fetal and postnatal periods. In adults, therefore, the exocrine portion was more evident than the endocrine portion. Three types of islet were observed in fetal and young buffalos: small, large and PP-islets. The small islets were composed of insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and PP i.c. The large islets were primarily composed of insulin i.c. and a few glucagon, somatostatin and PP i.c. The PP islets were mostly composed of PP i.c. with a few somatostatin, insulin and glucagon i.c. The number of large islets greatly diminished by adulthood. Glucagon, insulin, somatostatin and PP i.c. were also seen scattered in the exocrine parenchyma and along the duct epithelium. In the duct epithelium, these cells were either single or grouped, and they sometimes formed a protrusion projecting towards the connective tissue. These morphological features were primarily observed in fetuses and young buffalos. PMID:9688507

  15. Postnatal development of GABAergic signalling in the rat lateral geniculate nucleus: presynaptic dendritic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Perreault, Marie-Claude; Qin, Yi; Heggelund, Paul; Zhu, J Julius

    2003-01-01

    Diverse forms of GABAergic inhibition are found in the mature brain. To understand how this diversity develops, we studied the changes in morphology of inhibitory interneurons and changes in interneuron-mediated synaptic transmission in the rat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). We found a steady expansion of the dendritic tree of interneurons over the first three postnatal weeks. During this period, the area around a thalamocortical cell from which GABAA inhibition could be elicited also expanded. Dendritic branching and burst firing in interneurons evolved more slowly. The distal dendrites of interneurons began to branch extensively after the third week, and at the same time burst firing appeared. The appearance of burst firing and an elaborated dendritic tree were accompanied by a pronounced GABAB inhibition of thalamocortical cells. Thus, GABA inhibition of thalamocortical cells developed from one type of GABAA inhibition (spatially restricted) in the young animal into two distinct types of GABAA inhibition (short- and long-range) and GABAB inhibition in the adult animal. The close temporal relationships between the development of the diverse forms of inhibition and the postnatal changes in morphology of local GABAergic interneurons in the dLGN suggest that postnatal dendritic maturation is an important presynaptic factor for the developmental time course of the various types of feedforward inhibition in thalamus. PMID:12509484

  16. Postnatal Hematopoiesis and Gut Microbiota in NOD Mice Deviate from C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Damlund, Dina Silke Malling; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Hasselby, Jane Preuss; Wiese, Maria; Lundsager, Mia; Buschard, Karsten Stig; Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal studies in different mouse strains reveal that early life colonization affects the development of adaptive immunity in mice. The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse spontaneously develops autoimmune diabetes, but neonatal studies of NOD mice are lacking. We hypothesized that NOD mice deviate from another much used mouse strain, C57BL/6, with respect to postnatal microbiota and/or hematopoiesis and compared this in newborn mice of dams housed under the same conditions. A distinct bacteria profile rich in staphylococci was found at postnatal days (PND) 1–4 in NOD mice. Furthermore, a distinct splenic cell profile high in a granulocytic phenotype was evident in the neonatal NOD mice whereas neonatal C57BL/6 mice showed a profile rich in monocytes. Neonatal expression of Reg3g and Muc2 in the gut was deviating in NOD mice and coincided with fewer bacteria attaching to the Mucosal surface in NOD compared to C57BL/6 mice. PMID:26783537

  17. [Morphological features of the rat stellate ganglion during early postnatal development].

    PubMed

    Korzina, M B; Korobkin, A A; Vasil'eva, O A; Masliukov, P M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the anatomical characteristics of the stellate ganglion (SG) and the morphometric characteristics of its neurons in rats of different age groups (newborn, 10-, 20-, 30-, 60- and 180-day-old) using anatomical and histological methods. The results obtained indicated that in rats since birth there were three variants of branch origin from the medial margin of SG. No differences were observed in these variants between right and left SG. The sizes of both SG and its neurons increased during the first two months of postnatal development. The density of neurons in SG sections decreased from the moment of birth until the six months of age. The number of SG neurons did not change significantly in the postnatal ontogenesis. Thus, SG in rats is anatomically formed by the moment of birth, while the sizes and morphometric characteristics of SG neurons become finally stabilized by the second month of age. PMID:20572389

  18. Validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in non-postnatal women.

    PubMed

    Cox, J L; Chapman, G; Murray, D; Jones, P

    1996-07-29

    This paper reports the validation of the EPDS against a Research Diagnostic Criteria diagnosis of Major and Minor depression. The EPDS was administered to non-postnatal women with older children (mean age of youngest child 3 years 9 months) and to postnatal women (baby aged 6 months). All who scored 9 or above and one third of low scorers were interviewed, using Goldberg's Clinical Interview Schedule. The study confirmed good user acceptability of the EPDS when administered as a postal questionnaire (92% response rate). The EPDS was found to have satisfactory sensitivity (79%) and specificity (85%). Our findings suggest that the EPDS take a place alongside other screening scales for depression in Community samples. It is proposed that when used in these settings it is referred to as the Edinburgh Depression Scale. PMID:8856422

  19. The Role of Endothelin System in Renal Structure and Function during the Postnatal Development of the Rat Kidney.

    PubMed

    Albertoni Borghese, María F; Ortiz, María C; Balonga, Sabrina; Moreira Szokalo, Rocío; Majowicz, Mónica P

    2016-01-01

    Renal development in rodents, unlike in humans, continues during early postnatal period. We aimed to evaluate whether the pharmacological inhibition of Endothelin system during this period affects renal development, both at structural and functional level in male and female rats. Newborn rats were treated orally from postnatal day 1 to 20 with vehicle or bosentan (Actelion, 20 mg/kg/day), a dual endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA). The animals were divided in 4 groups: control males, control females, ERA males and ERA females. At day 21, we evaluated renal function, determined the glomerular number by a maceration method and by morphometric analysis and evaluated possible structural renal alterations by three methods: 〈alpha〉-Smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) immunohistochemistry, Masson's trichrome and Sirius red staining. The pharmacological inhibition of Endothelin system with a dual ERA during the early postnatal period of the rat did not leads to renal damage in the kidneys of male and female rats. However, ERA administration decreased the number of glomeruli, the juxtamedullary filtration surface area and the glomerular filtration rate and increased the proteinuria. These effects could predispose to hypertension or renal diseases in the adulthood. On the other hand, these effects were more pronounced in male rats, suggesting that there are sex differences that could be greater later in life. These results provide evidence that Endothelin has an important role in rat renal postnatal development. However these results do not imply that the same could happen in humans, since human renal development is complete at birth. PMID:26872270

  20. Identification of the hemangioblast in postnatal life.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, Elvira; Valtieri, Mauro; Coppola, Simona; Botta, Rosanna; Gabbianelli, Marco; Lulli, Valentina; Marziali, Giovanna; Masella, Barbara; Müller, Robert; Sgadari, Cecilia; Testa, Ugo; Bonanno, Giuseppina; Peschle, Cesare

    2002-11-01

    Postnatal CD34(+) cells expressing vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (KDR) generate hematopoietic or endothelial progeny in different in vitro and in vivo assays. Hypothetically, CD34(+)KDR(+) cells may comprise hemangioblasts bipotent for both lineages. This hypothesis is consistent with 2 series of experiments. In the first series, in clonogenic culture permissive for hematopoietic and endothelial cell growth, CD34(+)KDR(+) cells generate large hemato-endothelial (Hem-End) colonies (5% of seeded cells), whereas CD34(+)KDR(-) cells do not. Limiting-dilution analysis indicates that Hem-End colonies are clonally generated by single hemangioblasts. Sibling cells generated by a hemangioblast, replated in unicellular culture, produce either hematopoietic or Hem-End colonies, depending on the specific culture conditions. Identification of endothelial cells was based on the expression of VE-cadherin and endothelial markers and with lack of CD45 and hematopoietic molecules, as evaluated by immunofluorescence, immunocytochemistry, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, endothelial cells were functionally identified using low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake and tube-formation assays. In the second series, to evaluate the self-renewal capacity of hemangioblasts, single CD34(+)KDR(+) cells were grown in 3-month extended long-term culture (ELTC) through 3 serial culture rounds-that is, blast cells generated in unicellular ELTC were reseeded for a subsequent round of unicellular ELTC. After 9 months, 10% blasts from tertiary ELTC functioned as hemangioblasts and generated macroscopic Hem-End colonies in clonogenic culture. These studies identified postnatal hemangioblasts in a CD34(+)KDR(+) cell subset, endowed with long-term proliferative potential and bilineage differentiation capacity. Although exceedingly rare, hemangioblasts may represent the lifetime source/reservoir for primitive hematopoietic and endothelial progenitors. PMID

  1. Early influences of nutrition on postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Berthold; Beyer, Jeanette; Brands, Brigitte; Demmelmair, Hans; Grote, Veit; Haile, Gudrun; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Rzehak, Peter; Socha, Piotr; Weber, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Health and nutrition modulate postnatal growth. The availability of amino acids and energy, and insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) regulates early growth through the mTOR pathway. Amino acids and glucose also stimulate the secretion of IGF-I and insulin. Postnatal growth induces lasting, programming effects on later body size and adiposity in animals and in human observational studies. Rapid weight gain in infancy and the first 2 years was shown to predict increased obesity risk in childhood and adulthood. Breastfeeding leads to lesser high weight gain in infancy and reduces obesity risk in later life by about 20%, presumably partly due to the lower protein supply with human milk than conventional infant formula. In a large randomized clinical trial, we tested the hypothesis that reduced infant formula protein contents lower insulin-releasing amino acid concentrations and thereby decrease circulating insulin and IGF-I levels, resulting in lesser early weight gain and reduced later obesity risk (the 'Early Protein Hypothesis'). The results demonstrate that lowered protein in infant formula induces similar - but not equal - metabolic and endocrine responses and normalizes weight and BMI relative to breastfed controls at the age of 2 years. The results available should lead to enhanced efforts to actively promote, protect and support breastfeeding. For infants that are not breastfed or not fully breastfed, the use of infant formulas with lower protein contents but high protein quality appears preferable. Cows' milk as a drink provides high protein intake and should be avoided in infancy. PMID:23502135

  2. Myosin heavy chain expression in rabbit masseter muscle during postnatal development.

    PubMed Central

    Bredman, J J; Weijs, W A; Korfage, H A; Brugman, P; Moorman, A F

    1992-01-01

    The expression of isoforms of myosin heavy chain (MHC) during postnatal development was studied in the masseter muscle of the rabbit. Evidence is presented that in addition to adult fast and slow myosin, the rabbit masseter contains neonatal and 'cardiac' alpha-MHC. During postnatal growth myosin transitions take place from neonatal and fast (IIA, IIA/IIB--referring to a fibre containing both IIA and IIB MHCs) MHC to adult 'cardiac' alpha-MHC and I/alpha-MHC. Since there is a temporary population of fibres containing IIA/alpha-MHC during the first 4 wk of development with a peak in the 3rd to 4th wk, the transition from IIA-MHC to alpha-MHC may occur in these IIA/alpha-MHC-containing fibres. The appearance of 'cardiac' alpha-MHC coincides with the timing of weaning, suggesting that the changes in MHC content, that probably result in a transition to a lower speed of contraction, have functional significance related to weaning. The finding of neonatal MHC in adult rabbits indicates that the masseter develops at a rate and in a way that is distinct from most other skeletal muscles. A spatiotemporal variation in expression of myosin isozymes within the masseter was observed, with many fibres containing more than one myosin type, indicating developmentally regulated spatial differences in function. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 7 PMID:1387129

  3. Ephrin-A3 promotes and maintains slow muscle fiber identity during postnatal development and reinnervation.

    PubMed

    Stark, Danny A; Coffey, Nathan J; Pancoast, Hannah R; Arnold, Laura L; Walker, J Peyton D; Vallée, Joanne; Robitaille, Richard; Garcia, Michael L; Cornelison, D D W

    2015-12-01

    Each adult mammalian skeletal muscle has a unique complement of fast and slow myofibers, reflecting patterns established during development and reinforced via their innervation by fast and slow motor neurons. Existing data support a model of postnatal "matching" whereby predetermined myofiber type identity promotes pruning of inappropriate motor axons, but no molecular mechanism has yet been identified. We present evidence that fiber type-specific repulsive interactions inhibit innervation of slow myofibers by fast motor axons during both postnatal maturation of the neuromuscular junction and myofiber reinnervation after injury. The repulsive guidance ligand ephrin-A3 is expressed only on slow myofibers, whereas its candidate receptor, EphA8, localizes exclusively to fast motor endplates. Adult mice lacking ephrin-A3 have dramatically fewer slow myofibers in fast and mixed muscles, and misexpression of ephrin-A3 on fast myofibers followed by denervation/reinnervation promotes their respecification to a slow phenotype. We therefore conclude that Eph/ephrin interactions guide the fiber type specificity of neuromuscular interactions during development and adult life. PMID:26644518

  4. Ephrin-A3 promotes and maintains slow muscle fiber identity during postnatal development and reinnervation

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Danny A.; Coffey, Nathan J.; Pancoast, Hannah R.; Arnold, Laura L.; Walker, J. Peyton D.; Vallée, Joanne; Robitaille, Richard; Garcia, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Each adult mammalian skeletal muscle has a unique complement of fast and slow myofibers, reflecting patterns established during development and reinforced via their innervation by fast and slow motor neurons. Existing data support a model of postnatal "matching" whereby predetermined myofiber type identity promotes pruning of inappropriate motor axons, but no molecular mechanism has yet been identified. We present evidence that fiber type–specific repulsive interactions inhibit innervation of slow myofibers by fast motor axons during both postnatal maturation of the neuromuscular junction and myofiber reinnervation after injury. The repulsive guidance ligand ephrin-A3 is expressed only on slow myofibers, whereas its candidate receptor, EphA8, localizes exclusively to fast motor endplates. Adult mice lacking ephrin-A3 have dramatically fewer slow myofibers in fast and mixed muscles, and misexpression of ephrin-A3 on fast myofibers followed by denervation/reinnervation promotes their respecification to a slow phenotype. We therefore conclude that Eph/ephrin interactions guide the fiber type specificity of neuromuscular interactions during development and adult life. PMID:26644518

  5. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study assessing the efficacy and tolerability of desvenlafaxine 10 and 50 mg/day in adult outpatients with major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In an effort to establish the lowest effective dose of desvenlafaxine (administered as desvenlafaxine succinate), we assessed the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of 10- and 50-mg/day desvenlafaxine vs placebo for the treatment of major depressive disorder. Methods Adult outpatients with DSM-IV–defined major depressive disorder and a 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17) total score ≥20 were randomly assigned to receive placebo or desvenlafaxine (10 or 50 mg/day) after a 6- to 14-day single-blind placebo lead-in period in an 8-week, phase 3, fixed-dose trial. The primary efficacy measure was change from baseline in the HAM-D17 score analyzed using analysis of covariance. Efficacy analyses were conducted with the intent-to-treat population, using the last observation carried forward. Results The intent-to-treat population included 673 patients. Change from baseline to final evaluation in adjusted HAM-D17 total scores was not significantly different comparing desvenlafaxine 10 mg/day (-9.28) and desvenlafaxine 50 mg/day (-8.92) with placebo (-8.42). There were no differences among treatment groups in the rates of treatment response or remission. Discontinuations due to adverse events occurred in 1.8%, 0.9%, and 1.8% of patients in the placebo and desvenlafaxine 10- and 50-mg/day groups, respectively. Overall rates of treatment-emergent adverse events with both doses were similar to placebo. Conclusions Both doses of desvenlafaxine failed to separate from placebo. However, in a companion study reported separately, desvenlafaxine 50 mg, but not 25 mg, separated from placebo. Taken together, these studies suggest that 50 mg is the minimum effective dose of desvenlafaxine for the treatment of major depressive disorder. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00863798 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00863798?term=00863798&rank=1. PMID:23517291

  6. Female sexual behavior, estrous cycle and gene expression in sexually dimorphic brain regions after pre- and postnatal exposure to endocrine active UV filters.

    PubMed

    Faass, Oliver; Schlumpf, Margret; Reolon, Sasha; Henseler, Manuel; Maerkel, Kirsten; Durrer, Stefan; Lichtensteiger, Walter

    2009-03-01

    The developing female brain represents a potential target for estrogenic environmental chemicals because it depends on estrogen but is exposed to low endogenous estrogen levels, thus facilitating competition by exogenous estrogen receptor (ER) agonists. We investigated effects of two estrogenic UV filters, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) and 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC). 4-MBC has been detected in human milk, indicating potential exposure of fetus and infant. The two chemicals were administered in chow to rats of the parent generation before mating, during pregnancy and lactation, and to their offspring until adulthood. Female sexual behavior was recorded on videotape in adult female offspring on proestrus evening at the beginning of the dark phase. 4-MBC (7 and 24mg/kg bw/day) and 3-BC (2.4 and 7mg/kg bw/day) reduced proceptive behavior (jump and ear wiggling) and receptive behavior (lordosis quotient), and increased rejection behavior towards the male. Estrous cycles were not affected by 4-MBC but disturbed by 3-BC. mRNAs encoding for genes involved in female sexual behavior, ERalpha, ERbeta, progesterone receptor (PR) and steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1), were measured by real-time RT-PCR in ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) and medial preoptic area of adult male and female offspring (studied in diestrus) after pre- and postnatal exposure to 3-BC (0.24, 0.7, 2.4 and 7mg/kg bw/day). Gene expression was affected in a sex- and region-specific manner. PR mRNA in female VMH was reduced to male levels at dose levels of 2.4 and 7mg/kg bw/day 3-BC. Our data demonstrate that female sexual behavior represents a sensitive target of endocrine disrupters and point to an involvement of PR in VMH. PMID:19150460

  7. Valentine's Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02174 Valentine's Day

    This isolated mesa [lower left center of the image] has an almost heart-shaped margin. Happy Valentine's Day from Mars.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 29.4N, Longitude 79.1E. 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. Quantitative changes of nitrergic neurons during postnatal development of chicken myenteric plexus*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ping; Gandahi, Jameel Ahmed; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Lin-li; Bian, Xun-guang; Wu, Li; Liu, Yi; Chen, Qiu-sheng

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Information regarding the development of the enteric nervous system (ENS) is important for understanding the functional abnormalities of the gut. Because fertilized chicken eggs provide easy access to embryos, chicken models have been widely used to study embryonic development of myenteric plexus; however, no study has been focused on the postnatal period. The aim of this study was to perform a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the nitrergic neurons in the myenteric plexus of developing chickens in the postnatal period. Methods: Whole-mount preparations of the myenteric plexus were made in 7-d, 15-d, and 40-d old (adult) chickens of either sex (n=15). The myenteric plexus was studied after nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry using light microscopy, digital photography, and Image-Pro Plus 6.0 software. The numbers of positively stained neurons and ganglia were counted in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum, and colon in the different age groups. Data were expressed as mean±standard deviation (SD), and statistical analysis was performed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Results: The positively stained neurons showed various morphologies and staining intensities, and formed bead-shaped and U-shaped arrangements in the myenteric plexus. The densities of neurons and ganglia increased with age. However, the number of positive neurons per ganglion increased. The number of NADPH-d-positive neurons was highest in the colon, followed by the ileum, the jejunum, the duodenum, and the caeca in all age groups. Conclusions: Developmental changes in the myenteric plexus of chickens continue in the postnatal period, indicating that the maturation process of the gastrointestinal function is gradual. In addition, no significant difference is happening among different intestinal segments during postnatal development, suggesting that the function of different intestinal segments had been determined after

  9. Spexin is expressed in the carotid body and is upregulated by postnatal hyperoxia exposure.

    PubMed

    Porzionato, Andrea; Rucinski, Marcin; Macchi, Veronica; Stecco, Carla; Sarasin, Gloria; Sfriso, Maria M; Di Giulio, Camillo; Malendowicz, Ludwik K; De Caro, Raffaele

    2012-01-01

    Spexin is a recently identified peptide which is expressed in many different endocrine and nervous tissues. Due to the absence of data regarding spexin expression in the carotid body, the first aim of the present study was to investigate, through immunohistochemistry and Real-Time PCR, the expression and distribution of spexin in the rat and human carotid body. Moreover, the carotid body is known to undergo various structural and functional modifications in response to hyperoxic stimuli during the first postnatal period. Thus, we also evaluated if hyperoxia during the first postnatal weeks may produce changes in the spexin expression. Materials consisted of carotid bodies obtained at autopsy from five human adult subjects and sampled from 10 six-weeks old Sprague-Dawley rats. Five rats were maintained in normoxia for the first six postnatal weeks; five rats were exposed to 60% hyperoxia for 2 weeks and then maintained in normoxia for other 4 weeks. Diffuse anti-spexin immunoreactivity was found in type I cells of both humans and rats. No spexin immunoreactivity was visible in the type II cells. Hyperoxia exposure during the first 2 weeks of postnatal life caused a reduction of volume in the carotid body still apparent after 4 weeks of normoxia. Using real-time PCR, spexin expression was 6-7 times higher in hyperoxia-exposed rats than in normoxia-exposed ones. The expression of spexin in type I cells suggests a possible modulator role in peripheral chemoreception. Moreover, the ascertained role of spexin in the regulation of cell proliferation in other tissues (e.g., adrenal gland cortex) suggests a possible role of spexin also in the hyperoxia-induced plasticity of the carotid body. PMID:23080164

  10. Morphology of non-sensory epithelium during post-natal development of the rabbit vomeronasal organ.

    PubMed

    Elgayar, S A M; Eltony, S A; Othman, M A

    2014-08-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO), because of its ability to detect pheromones, has an important role in many social and sexual behaviours in mammals. It also mediates defensive behaviours through detection of protein pheromone homologues. A detailed morphological description of the post-natal development of the 'non-sensory' epithelium (NSE) of the female rabbit is recorded. Histological techniques were used to study the NSE of the VNO in post-natal development of female rabbits. The study focused on the following post-natal ages: newborn, 1 week, 2 weeks and 1 month (five animals each) beside to two adult animals. The rabbit VNO was surrounded externally by bony capsule and internally by cartilaginous capsule. NSE was pseudostratified columnar partially ciliated epithelium without goblet cells. In addition to basal cells, NSE contained ciliated and three types of non-ciliated columnar cells (dark, pale and light). At birth, dark cells may have primary cilia. By 1 month, the cytoplasm became lighter with less free ribosomes. The pale cells had electron-lucent cytoplasm, which contained a few organelles. Mitotic figures were observed in basal and columnar cells, particularly during the first 2 weeks of post-natal development. Light columnar cells were common during the first week. Numerous leucocytes and a few nerve endings were detected intra-epithelial. Scanning electron microscope revealed a gradual increase in height of microvilli of non-ciliated cells. Ciliated cells had cilia and microvilli. Cells were arranged singly, in clumps or in a dense population of cells. The rabbit VNO-NSE had a unique morphological structure. PMID:23931650

  11. Youth Field Day Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    Youth field days expose children to outdoor activities, land use ethics, and habitat conservation and encourage adults to be mentors in these areas. A typical youth field day could have programs in archery, fishing, boating, shooting, or safety. The event requires a diverse steering committee that usually includes sporting clubs and state…

  12. Transient increase of interleukin-1β after prolonged febrile seizures promotes adult epileptogenesis through long-lasting upregulating endocannabinoid signaling

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Bo; Tang, Yangshun; Chen, Bin; Xu, Cenglin; Wang, Yi; Dai, Yunjian; Wu, Dengchang; Zhu, Junmin; Wang, Shuang; Zhou, Yudong; Shi, Liyun; Hu, Weiwei; Zhang, Xia; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    It remains unclear how infantile febrile seizures (FS) enhance adult seizure susceptibility. Here we showed that the transient increase of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) after prolonged FS promoted adult seizure susceptibility, which was blocked by interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) within a critical time window. Postnatal administered IL-1β alone mimicked the effect of FS on adult seizure susceptibility. IL-1R1 knockout mice were not susceptible to adult seizure after prolonged FS or IL-1β treatment. Prolonged FS or early-life IL-1β treatment increased the expression of cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R) for over 50 days, which was blocked by IL-1Ra or was absent in IL-1R1 knockout mice. CB1R antagonist, knockdown and endocannabinoid synthesis inhibitor abolished FS or IL-1β-enhanced seizure susceptibility. Thus, this work identifies a pathogenic role of postnatal IL-1β/IL-1R1 pathway and subsequent prolonged prominent increase of endocannabinoid signaling in adult seizure susceptibility following prolonged FS, and highlights IL-1R1 as a potential therapeutic target for preventing the development of epilepsy after infantile FS. PMID:26902320

  13. Postnatal Leptin Promotes Organ Maturation and Development in IUGR Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Attig, Linda; Brisard, Daphné; Larcher, Thibaut; Mickiewicz, Michal; Guilloteau, Paul; Boukthir, Samir; Niamba, Claude-Narcisse; Gertler, Arieh; Djiane, Jean; Monniaux, Danielle; Abdennebi-Najar, Latifa

    2013-01-01

    Babies with intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at increased risk for experiencing negative neonatal outcomes due to their general developmental delay. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a short postnatal leptin supply on the growth, structure, and functionality of several organs at weaning. IUGR piglets were injected from day 0 to day 5 with either 0.5 mg/kg/d leptin (IUGRLep) or saline (IUGRSal) and euthanized at day 21. Their organs were collected, weighed, and sampled for histological, biochemical, and immunohistochemical analyses. Leptin induced an increase in body weight and the relative weights of the liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, and small intestine without any changes in triglycerides, glucose and cholesterol levels. Notable structural and functional changes occurred in the ovaries, pancreas, and secondary lymphoid organs. The ovaries of IUGRLep piglets contained less oogonia but more oocytes enclosed in primordial and growing follicles than the ovaries of IUGRSal piglets, and FOXO3A staining grade was higher in the germ cells of IUGRLep piglets. Within the exocrine parenchyma of the pancreas, IUGRLep piglets presented a high rate of apoptotic cells associated with a higher trypsin activity. In the spleen and the Peyer’s patches, B lymphocyte follicles were much larger in IUGRLep piglets than in IUGRSal piglets. Moreover, IUGRLep piglets showed numerous CD79+cells in well-differentiated follicle structures, suggesting a more mature immune system. This study highlights a new role for leptin in general developmental processes and may provide new insight into IUGR pathology. PMID:23741353

  14. Maternal reproductive experience enhances early postnatal outcome following gestation and birth of rats in hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, A. E.; Baer, L. A.; Daunton, N. G.; Wade, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    A major goal of space life sciences research is to broaden scientific knowledge of the influence of gravity on living systems. Recent spaceflight and centrifugation studies demonstrate that reproduction and ontogenesis in mammals are amenable to study under gravitational conditions that deviate considerably from those typically experienced on Earth (1 x g). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that maternal reproductive experience determines neonatal outcome following gestation and birth under increased (hyper) gravity. Primigravid and bigravid female rats and their offspring were exposed to 1.5 x g centrifugation from Gestational Day 11 either through birth or through the first postnatal week. On the day of birth, litter sizes were identical across gravity and parity conditions, although significantly fewer live neonates were observed among hypergravity-reared litters born to primigravid dams than among those born to bigravid dams (82% and 94%, respectively; 1.0 x g controls, 99%). Within the hypergravity groups, neonatal mortality was comparable across parity conditions from Postnatal Day 1 through Day 7, at which time litter sizes stabilized. Maternal reproductive experience ameliorated neonatal losses during the first 24 h after birth but not on subsequent days, and neonatal mortality was associated with changes in maternal care patterns. These results indicate that repeated maternal reproductive experience affords protection against neonatal losses during exposure to increased gravity. Differential mortality of neonates born to primigravid versus bigravid dams denotes gravitational load as one environmental mechanism enabling the expression of parity-related variations in birth outcome.

  15. Role of thyroxine on postnatal development of ileal active bile salt transport

    SciTech Connect

    Heubi, J.E.

    1986-08-01

    The role of thyroid hormone on the postnatal development of ileal active taurocholate transport uptake was measured by an in vitro incubation technique in Sprague-Dawley rats. In 16-day-old rats treated with pharmacological doses of L-thyroxine ileal active transport appeared precociously whose K/sub m/ was 1.60 +/- 0.48 mM and V/sub app/ was 8.09 +/- 1.14 nmol min mg dry wt , while age-matched shams had only passive diffusion of taurocholate. To determine whether enhanced endogenous secretion of thyroxine was capable of stimulating development of ileal active taurocholate transport, thyrotrophic stimulating hormone (TSH) was given on days 10-13, with uptake measured on day 16. Following TSH treatment, only passive transport for taurocholate was observed in the ileum; uptake rates were consistently higher than those for untreated controls at each study concentration. Thyroidectomy performed at age 14 days with uptake measured at age 21 days did not ablate development of ileal active transport but resulted in a significant reduction in the V/sub app/ and a significant increase in K/sub m/ compared with age-matched controls. Thyroid hormone does not appear to be obligatory for the postnatal development of ileal active taurocholate transport.

  16. Hydrology day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel-Seytoux, H. J.

    Registration for the Hydrology Day sponsored by the Front Range Branch of AGU on April 23 at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, Colorado, totaled 121 participants, of whom 61 were students.Thirty-one individuals joined the Front Range Branch. Three students from Colorado State University won the awards for best paper in their category: Thomas W. Anzia (Sr.), ‘A Comprehensive Table of Standard Deviates for Confidence Limits on Extreme Events’ Victor Nazareth (M.S.), ‘Aquifer Properties from Single-Hole Aquifer Tests’ and Roy W. Koch (Ph.D.), ‘A Physically Based Derivation of the Distribution of Excess Precipitation.’ Judges for the awards were Dr. Bittinger, Resource Consultants, Fort Collins; George Leavesley and Daniel Bauer, USGS, Water Resources Division, Denver; Scott Tucker, Executive Director, Denver Urban Drainage and Flood Control District; Charles Brendecke, Department of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder.

  17. Peri- and Postnatal Effects of Prenatal Adenoviral VEGF Gene Therapy in Growth-Restricted Sheep.

    PubMed

    Carr, David J; Wallace, Jacqueline M; Aitken, Raymond P; Milne, John S; Martin, John F; Zachary, Ian C; Peebles, Donald M; David, Anna L

    2016-06-01

    Uterine artery (UtA) adenovirus (Ad) vector-mediated overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) enhances uterine blood flow in normal sheep pregnancy and increases fetal growth in the overnourished adolescent sheep model of fetal growth restriction (FGR). Herein, we examined its impact on gestation length, neonatal survival, early postnatal growth and metabolism. Singleton-bearing ewes were evenly allocated to receive Ad.VEGF-A165 (5 × 10(10) particles/ml, 10 ml, n = 17) or saline (10 ml, n = 16) injected into each UtA at laparotomy (0.6 gestation). Fetal growth was serially monitored (blind) by ultrasound until delivery. Lambs were weighed and blood was sampled weekly and a glucose tolerance test performed (68-day postnatal age). Hepatic DNA/RNA was extracted at necropsy (83-day postnatal age) to examine methylation status of eight somatotropic axis genes. IGF1 mRNA and protein expression were measured by RT-PCR and radioimmunoassay, respectively. All pregnancies remained viable following Ad.VEGF-A165 treatment. Fetal abdominal circumference and renal volume were greater in the Ad.VEGF-A165 group compared with the saline group at 21/28 days (P ≤ 0.04) postinjection. At delivery, gestation length (P = 0.07), lamb birthweight (P = 0.08), umbilical girth (P = 0.06), and plasma glucose (P = 0.09) tended to be greater in Ad.VEGF-A165-treated lambs. Levels of neonatal intervention required to ensure survival was equivalent between groups. Absolute postnatal growth rate (P = 0.02), insulin area under the curve (P = 0.04) and carcass weight at necropsy (P = 0.04) were increased by Ad.VEGF-A165 treatment. There was no impact on markers of insulin sensitivity or methylation/expression of key genes involved in somatic growth. Ad.VEGF-A165 gene therapy increased fetal growth in a sheep FGR model, and lambs continued to thrive during the neonatal and early postnatal period. PMID:27103444

  18. Development of the adult neurogenic niche in the hippocampus of mice

    PubMed Central

    Nicola, Zeina; Fabel, Klaus; Kempermann, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    When does adult hippocampal neurogenesis begin? We describe the development of the neurogenic niche in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. We did so from the perspective of the situation in the adult. Ontogeny of the dentate gyrus is complex and results in an ectopic neurogenic niche that lifelong generates new granule cells. Neurogenesis during the fetal and early postnatal periods builds the dentate gyrus and gives way to activity-dependent “adult” neurogenesis. We used markers most relevant to adult neurogenesis research to describe this transition: Nestin, Sox2, BLBP, GFAP, Tbr2, Doublecortin (DCX), NeuroD1 and Prox1. We found that massive changes and a local condensation of proliferating precursor cells occurs between postnatal day 7 (P7), near the peak in proliferation, and P14. Before and around P7, the spatial distribution of cells and the co-localization of markers were distinct from the situation in the adult. Unlike the adult SGZ, the marker pair Nestin/Sox2 and the radial glial marker BLBP were not overlapping during embryonic development, presumably indicating different types of radial glia-like cells. Before P7 GFAP-positive cells in the hilus lacked the radial orientation that is characteristic of the adult type-1 cells. DCX, which is concentrated in type-2b and type-3 progenitor cells and early postmitotic neurons in the adult, showed diffuse expression before P7. Intermediate progenitor cell marker Tbr2 became restricted to the SGZ but was found in the granule cell layer (GCL) and hilus before. Lineage markers NeuroD1 and Prox1 confirmed this pattern. We conclude that the neurogenic niche of adult neurogenesis is in place well before true adulthood. This might indicate that consistent with the hypothesized function of adult neurogenesis in activity-dependent plasticity, the early transition from postnatal neurogenesis to adult neurogenesis coincides with the time, when the young mice start to become active themselves

  19. Postnatal development under conditions of simulated weightlessness and space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, K.

    1998-01-01

    The adaptability of the developing nervous system to environmental influences and the mechanisms underlying this plasticity has recently become a subject of interest in space neuroscience. Ground studies on neonatal rats using the tail suspension model of weightlessness have shown that the force of gravity clearly influences the events underlying the postnatal development of motor function. These effects depend on the age of the animal, duration of the perturbation and the motor function studied. A nine-day flight study has shown that a dam and neonates can develop under conditions of space flight. The motor function of the flight animals after landing was consistent with that seen in the tail suspension studies, being marked by limb joint extension. However, there were expected differences due to: (1) the unloading of the vestibular system in flight, which did not occur in the ground-based experiments; (2) differences between flight and suspension durations; and (3) the inability to evaluate motor function during the flight. The next step is to conduct experiments in space with the flexibility and rigor that is now limited to ground studies: an opportunity offered by the International Space Station. Copyright 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  20. Atrial natriuretic factor and postnatal diuresis in respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Rozycki, H J; Baumgart, S

    1991-01-01

    To find out if atrial natriuretic factor plays a part in the control of urine output during the initiation alone or throughout postnatal diuresis in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome, atrial natriuretic factor concentrations and clinical and renal variables were measured prospectively three times during the first three days of life in 13 premature infants. Atrial natriuretic factor concentrations rose significantly between the first and second sample times as did the urine output and output:input ratio. By the time that the third sample was taken, atrial natriuretic factor concentration had decreased significantly since the second sample had been taken, while urine flow was maintained. All subjects initiated a spontaneous diuresis that was related to the second concentration of atrial natriuretic factor. With partial correlation analysis a significant relationship was shown between the concentration of atrial natriuretic factor and the maintenance of urine output throughout the study period. Individual hormone concentrations did not, however, correlate with simultaneous renal variables. Changes in the concentrations of atrial natriuretic factor coincided with initiation of spontaneous diuresis in babies with respiratory distress syndrome, and may have a role in the complex mechanisms that maintain this diuresis. PMID:1825462

  1. Dopamine D3 Receptor Mediates Preadolescent Stress-Induced Adult Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Joon H.; Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that repeated stressful experiences during childhood increases the likelihood of developing depression- and anxiety-related disorders in adulthood; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We subjected drd3-EGFP and drd3-null mice to daily, two hour restraint stress episodes over a five day period during preadolescence (postnatal day 35 to 39), followed by social isolation. When these mice reached adulthood (post-natal day > 90), we assessed locomotor behavior in a novel environment, and assessed depression-related behavior in the Porsolt Forced Swim test. We also measured the expression and function of dopamine D3 receptor in limbic brain areas such as hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and amygdala in control and stressed drd3-EGFP mice in adulthood. Adult male mice subjected to restraint stress during preadolescence exhibited both anxiety- and depression-related behaviors; however, adult female mice subjected to preadolescent restraint stress exhibited only depression-related behaviors. The development of preadolescent stress-derived psychiatric disorders was blocked by D3 receptor selective antagonist, SB 277011-A, and absent in D3 receptor null mice. Adult male mice that experienced stress during preadolescence exhibited a loss of D3 receptor expression and function in the amygdala but not in hippocampus or nucleus accumbens. In contrast, adult female mice that experienced preadolescent stress exhibited increased D3 receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens but not in amygdala or hippocampus. Our results suggest that the dopamine D3 receptor is centrally involved in the etiology of adult anxiety- and depression-related behaviors that arise from repeated stressful experiences during childhood. PMID:26619275

  2. Risk of Childhood Overweight after Exposure to Tobacco Smoking in Prenatal and Early Postnatal Life

    PubMed Central

    Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Andersen, Camilla Schou; Dalgård, Christine; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between exposure to mothers smoking during prenatal and early postnatal life and risk of overweight at age 7 years, while taking birth weight into account. Methods From the Danish National Birth Cohort a total of 32,747 families were identified with available information on maternal smoking status in child's pre- and postnatal life and child's birth weight, and weight and height at age 7 years. Outcome was overweight according to the International Obesity Task Force gender and age specific body mass index. Smoking exposure was categorized into four groups: no exposure (n = 25,076); exposure only during pregnancy (n = 3,343); exposure only postnatally (n = 140); and exposure during pregnancy and postnatally (n = 4,188). Risk of overweight according to smoking status as well as dose-response relationships were estimated by crude and adjusted odds ratios using logistic regression models. Results Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, or both during pregnancy and postnatally were both significantly associated with overweight at 7 years of age (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.15–1.48, and OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.58–1.97, respectively). Analyses excluding children with low birth weight (<2,500 gram) revealed similar results. A significant prenatal dose-response relationship was found. Per one additional cigarette smoked per day an increase in risk of overweight was observed (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01–1.03). When adjusting for quantity of smoking during pregnancy, prolonged exposure after birth further increased the risk of later overweight in the children (OR 1.28, 95% CI:1.09–1.50) compared with exposure only in the prenatal period. Conclusions Mother's perinatal smoking increased child's OR of overweight at age 7 years irrespective of birth weight, and with higher OR if exposed both during pregnancy and in early postnatal life. Clear dose-response relationships were observed, which emphasizes the need for prevention of

  3. Mild to moderate postnatal hydronephrosis--grading systems and management.

    PubMed

    Timberlake, Matthew D; Herndon, C D Anthony

    2013-11-01

    No universal guidelines exist for the management of patients with mild to moderate antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH). Unsurprisingly, practice patterns vary considerably with respect to recommendations for postnatal evaluation and follow-up imaging schedule. Although some clinical tools are available to specifically grade ANH and postnatal hydronephrosis, these are commonly used interchangeably with varying degrees of success. A universal classification system and nomenclature are needed to best identify patients at risk of renal deterioration, UTI and need for surgical intervention. We present our own approach to postnatal risk stratification and management, including recommendations regarding serial ultrasonography schedule, prophylactic antibiotics, voiding cystourethrogram and renal scintigraphy. PMID:23958828

  4. Developing electrical properties of postnatal mouse lumbar motoneurons

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Jacques; Filipchuk, Anton; Pambo-Pambo, Arnaud; Amendola, Julien; Borisovna Kulagina, Iryna; Guéritaud, Jean-Patrick

    2015-01-01

    We studied the rapid changes in electrical properties of lumbar motoneurons between postnatal days 3 and 9 just before mice weight-bear and walk. The input conductance and rheobase significantly increased up to P8. A negative correlation exists between the input resistance (Rin) and rheobase. Both parameters are significantly correlated with the total dendritic surface area of motoneurons, the largest motoneurons having the lowest Rin and the highest rheobase. We classified the motoneurons into three groups according to their discharge firing patterns during current pulse injection (transient, delayed onset, sustained). The delayed onset firing type has the highest rheobase and the fastest action potential (AP) whereas the transient firing group has the lowest rheobase and the less mature AP. We found 32 and 10% of motoneurons with a transient firing at P3–P5 and P8, respectively. About 20% of motoneurons with delayed onset firing were detected at P8. At P9, all motoneurons exhibit a sustained firing. We defined five groups of motoneurons according to their discharge firing patterns in response to ascending and descending current ramps. In addition to the four classical types, we defined a fifth type called transient for the quasi-absence of discharge during the descending phase of the ramp. This transient type represents about 40% between P3–P5 and tends to disappear with age. Types 1 and 2 (linear and clockwise hysteresis) are the most preponderant at P6–P7. Types 3 and 4 (prolonged sustained and counter clockwise hysteresis) emerge at P8–P9. The emergence of types 3 and 4 probably depends on the maturation of L type calcium channels in the dendrites of motoneurons. No correlation was found between groups defined by step or triangular ramp of currents with the exception of transient firing patterns. Our data support the idea that a switch in the electrical properties of lumbar motoneurons might exist in the second postnatal week of life in mice. PMID

  5. A method for longitudinal, transcranial imaging of blood flow and remodeling of the cerebral vasculature in postnatal mice

    PubMed Central

    Letourneur, Annelise; Chen, Victoria; Waterman, Gar; Drew, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the weeks following birth, both the brain and the vascular network that supplies it undergo dramatic alteration. While studies of the postnatal evolution of the pial vasculature and blood flow through its vessels have been previously done histologically or acutely, here we describe a neonatal reinforced thin‐skull preparation for longitudinally imaging the development of the pial vasculature in mice using two‐photon laser scanning microscopy. Starting with mice as young as postnatal day 2 (P2), we are able to chronically image cortical areas >1 mm2, repeatedly for several consecutive days, allowing us to observe the remodeling of the pial arterial and venous networks. We used this method to measure blood velocity in individual vessels over multiple days, and show that blood flow through individual pial venules was correlated with subsequent diameter changes. This preparation allows the longitudinal imaging of the developing mammalian cerebral vascular network and its physiology. PMID:25524276

  6. Transplacental arsenic plus postnatal 12-O-teradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate exposures associated with hepatocarcinogenesis induce similar aberrant gene expression patterns in male and female mouse liver

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jie . E-mail: Liu6@niehs.nih.gov; Xie Yaxiong; Merrick, B. Alex; Shen Jun; Ducharme, Danica M.K.; Collins, Jennifer; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.; Logsdon, Daniel; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2006-06-15

    Our prior work shows that in utero arsenic exposure alone is a complete transplacental carcinogen, producing hepatocellular carcinoma in adult male offspring but not in females. In a follow-up study to potentially promote arsenic-initiated tumors, mice were exposed to arsenic (85 ppm) from gestation day 8 to 18 and then exposed to 12-O-teradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a well-known tumor promoter after weaning. The dermal application of TPA (2 {mu}g/0.1 ml acetone, twice/week for 21 weeks) after transplacental arsenic did not further increase arsenic-induced liver tumor formation in adult males but significantly increased liver tumor formation in adult females. Thus, for comparison, liver tumors and normal liver samples taken from adult male and female mice at necropsy were analyzed for aberrant gene/protein expression by microarray, real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Arsenic/TPA treatment resulted in increased expression of {alpha}-fetoprotein, k-ras, c-myc, estrogen receptor-{alpha}, cyclin D1, cdk2na, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, cytokeratin-8, cytokeratin-18, glutathione S-transferases and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in liver and liver tumors from both male and female mice. Arsenic/TPA also decreased the expression of BRCA1, betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, CYP7B1, CYP2F2 and insulin-like growth factor-1 in normal and cancerous livers. Alterations in these gene products were associated with arsenic/TPA-induced liver tumors, regardless of sex. Thus, transplacental arsenic plus postnatal TPA exposure induced similar aberrant gene expression patterns in male and female mouse liver, which are persistent and potentially important to the mechanism of arsenic initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis.

  7. Regional structural and biomechanical alterations of the ovine main pulmonary artery during postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Fata, Bahar; Carruthers, Christopher A; Gibson, Gregory; Watkins, Simon C; Gottlieb, Danielle; Mayer, John E; Sacks, Michael S

    2013-02-01

    The engineering foundation for novel approaches for the repair of congenital defects that involve the main pulmonary artery (PA) must rest on an understanding of changes in the structure-function relationship that occur during postnatal maturation. In the present study, we quantified the postnatal growth patterns in structural and biomechanical behavior in the ovine PA in the juvenile and adult stages. The biaxial mechanical properties and collagen and elastin fiber architecture were studied in four regions of the PA wall, with the collagen recruitment of the medial region analyzed using a custom biaxial mechanical-multiphoton microscopy system. Circumferential residual strain was also quantified at the sinotubular junction and bifurcation locations, which delimit the PA. The PA wall demonstrated significant mechanical anisotropy, except in the posterior region where it was nearly isotropic. Overall, we observed only moderate changes in regional mechanical properties with growth. We did observe that the medial and lateral locations experience a moderate increase in anisotropy. There was an average of about 24% circumferential residual stain present at the luminal surface in the juvenile stage that decreased to 16% in the adult stage with a significant decrease at the bifurcation, implying that the PA wall remodels toward the bifurcation with growth. There were no measurable changes in collagen and elastin content of the tunica media with growth. On average, the collagen fiber recruited more rapidly with strain in the adult compared to the juvenile. Interestingly, the PA thickness remained constant with growth. When this fact is combined with the observed stable overall mechanical behavior and increase in vessel diameter with growth, a simple Laplace Law wall stress estimate suggests an increase in effective PA wall stress with postnatal maturation. This observation is contrary to the accepted theory of maintenance of homeostatic stress levels in the regulation of

  8. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... included in the designation of business day, as in § 300.148(d)(1)(ii)). (c)(1) School day means any day... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day....

  9. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... included in the designation of business day, as in § 300.148(d)(1)(ii)). (c)(1) School day means any day... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day....

  10. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... included in the designation of business day, as in § 300.148(d)(1)(ii)). (c)(1) School day means any day... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day....

  11. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... included in the designation of business day, as in § 300.148(d)(1)(ii)). (c)(1) School day means any day... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day....

  12. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... included in the designation of business day, as in § 300.148(d)(1)(ii)). (c)(1) School day means any day... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day....

  13. RhoE deficiency alters postnatal subventricular zone development and the number of calbindin-expressing neurons in the olfactory bulb of mouse.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Lurbe, Begoña; González-Granero, Susana; Mocholí, Enric; Poch, Enric; García-Manzanares, María; Dierssen, Mara; Pérez-Roger, Ignacio; García-Verdugo, José M; Guasch, Rosa M; Terrado, José

    2015-11-01

    The subventricular zone represents an important reservoir of progenitor cells in the adult brain. Cells from the subventricular zone migrate along the rostral migratory stream and reach the olfactory bulb, where they originate different types of interneurons. In this work, we have analyzed the role of the small GTPase RhoE/Rnd3 in subventricular zone cell development using mice-lacking RhoE expression. Our results show that RhoE null mice display a remarkable postnatal broadening of the subventricular zone and caudal rostral migratory stream. This broadening was caused by an increase in progenitor proliferation, observed in the second postnatal week but not before, and by an altered migration of the cells, which appeared in disorganized cell arrangements that impaired the appropriate contact between cells in the rostral migratory stream. In addition, the thickness of the granule cell layer in the olfactory bulb was reduced, although the density of granule cells did not differ between wild-type and RhoE null mice. Finally, the lack of RhoE expression affected the olfactory glomeruli inducing a severe reduction of calbindin-expressing interneurons in the periglomerular layer. This was already evident in the newborns and even more pronounced 15 days later when RhoE null mice displayed 89% less cells than control mice. Our results indicate that RhoE has pleiotropic functions on subventricular cells because of its role in proliferation and tangential migration, affecting mainly the development of calbindin-expressing cells in the olfactory bulb. PMID:25009316

  14. Partial requirement of endothelin receptor B in spiral ganglion neurons for postnatal development of hearing.

    PubMed

    Ida-Eto, Michiru; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Iida, Machiko; Yajima, Ichiro; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Takaiwa, Kazutaka; Kimitsuki, Takashi; Sone, Michihiko; Nakashima, Tsutomu; Tsuzuki, Toyonori; Komune, Shizuo; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Kato, Masashi

    2011-08-26

    Impairments of endothelin receptor B (Ednrb/EDNRB) cause the development of Waardenburg-Shah syndrome with congenital hearing loss, hypopigmentation, and megacolon disease in mice and humans. Hearing loss in Waardenburg-Shah syndrome has been thought to be caused by an Ednrb-mediated congenital defect of melanocytes in the stria vascularis (SV) of inner ears. Here we show that Ednrb expressed in spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in inner ears is required for postnatal development of hearing in mice. Ednrb protein was expressed in SGNs from WT mice on postnatal day 19 (P19), whereas it was undetectable in SGNs from WT mice on P3. Correspondingly, Ednrb homozygously deleted mice (Ednrb(-/-) mice) with congenital hearing loss showed degeneration of SGNs on P19 but not on P3. The congenital hearing loss involving neurodegeneration of SGNs as well as megacolon disease in Ednrb(-/-) mice were markedly improved by introducing an Ednrb transgene under control of the dopamine β-hydroxylase promoter (Ednrb(-/-);DBH-Ednrb mice) on P19. Neither defects of melanocytes nor hypopigmentation in the SV and skin in Ednrb(-/-) mice was rescued in the Ednrb(-/-);DBH-Ednrb mice. Thus, the results of this study indicate a novel role of Ednrb expressed in SGNs distinct from that in melanocytes in the SV contributing partially to postnatal hearing development. PMID:21715336

  15. Postnatal behavioral and inflammatory alterations in female pups prenatally exposed to valproic acid.

    PubMed

    Kazlauskas, Nadia; Campolongo, Marcos; Lucchina, Luciana; Zappala, Cecilia; Depino, Amaicha Mara

    2016-10-01

    In Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), a bias to a higher incidence in boys than in girls has been reported. With the aim to identify biological mechanisms acting in female animals that could underlie this bias, we used an extensively validated mouse model of ASD: the prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA). We found postnatal behavioral alterations in female VPA pups: a longer latency in righting reflex at postnatal day (P) 3, and a delay in the acquisition of the acoustic startle response. We also analyzed the density of glial cells in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum, in VPA and control animals. Female VPA pups showed alterations in the density of astrocytes and microglial cells between P21 and P42, with specific dynamics in each brain region. We also found a decrease in histone 3 acetylation in the cerebellum of female VPA pups at P14, suggesting that the changes in glial cell density could be due to alterations in the epigenetic developmental program. Finally, no differences in maternal behavior were found. Our results show that female VPA pups exhibit behavioral and inflammatory alterations postnatally, although they have been reported to have normal levels of sociability in adulthood. With our work, we contribute to the understanding of biological mechanisms underlying different effects of VPA on male and female rodents, and we hope to help elucidate whether there are factors increasing susceptibility to ASD in boys and/or resilience in girls. PMID:27337090

  16. Spatial and Age-Dependent Hair Cell Generation in the Postnatal Mammalian Utricle.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhen; Kelly, Michael C; Yu, Dehong; Wu, Hao; Lin, Xi; Chi, Fang-Lu; Chen, Ping

    2016-04-01

    Loss of vestibular hair cells is a common cause of balance disorders. Current treatment options for bilateral vestibular dysfunction are limited. During development, atonal homolog 1 (Atoh1) is sufficient and necessary for the formation of hair cells and provides a promising gene target to induce hair cell generation in the mammals. In this study, we used a transgenic mouse line to test the age and cell type specificity of hair cell induction in the postnatal utricle in mice. We found that forced Atoh1 expression in vivo can induce hair cell formation in the utricle from postnatal days 1 to 21, while the efficacy of hair cell induction is progressively reduced as the animals become older. In the utricle, the induction of hair cells occurs both within the sensory region and in cells in the transitional epithelium next to the sensory region. Within the sensory epithelium, the central region, known as the striola, is most subjective to the induction of hair cell formation. Furthermore, forced Atoh1 expression can promote proliferation in an age-dependent manner that mirrors the progressively reduced efficacy of hair cell induction in the postnatal utricle. These results suggest that targeting both cell proliferation and Atoh1 in the utricle striolar region may be explored to induce hair cell regeneration in mammals. The study also demonstrates the usefulness of the animal model that provides an in vivo Atoh1 induction model for vestibular regeneration studies. PMID:25666161

  17. Postnatal alterations in GABAB receptor tone produce sensorimotor gating deficits and protein level differences in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Monica M; Heaney, Chelcie F; Murtishaw, Andrew S; Sabbagh, Jonathan J; Magcalas, Christy M; Kinney, Jefferson W

    2015-04-01

    The GABA transmitter system plays a vital role in modulating synaptic formation and activity during development. The GABAB receptor subtype in particular has been implicated in cell migration, promotion of neuronal differentiation, neurite outgrowth, and synapse formation but it's role in development is not well characterized. In order to investigate the effects of brief alterations in GABAB signaling in development, we administered to rats the GABAB agonist baclofen (2.0mg/kg) or antagonist phaclofen (0.3mg/kg) on postnatal days 7, 9, and 12, and evaluated sensorimotor gating in adulthood. We also examined tissue for changes in multiple proteins associated with GABAB receptor function and proteins associated with synapse formation. Our data indicate that early postnatal alterations to GABAB receptor-mediated signaling produced sex differences in sensorimotor gating in adulthood. Additionally, we found differences in GABAB receptor subunits and kalirin protein levels in the brain versus saline treated controls. Our data demonstrate that a subtle alteration in GABAB receptor function in early postnatal life induces changes that persist into adulthood. PMID:25314921