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Sample records for adult postnatal day

  1. Postnatal day 7 ethanol treatment causes persistent reductions in adult mouse brain volume and cortical neurons with sex specific effects on neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Leon G; Oguz, Ipek; Lee, Joohwi; Styner, Martin; Crews, Fulton T

    2012-09-01

    Ethanol treatment on postnatal day seven (P7) causes robust brain cell death and is a model of late gestational alcohol exposure (Ikonomidou et al., 2000). To investigate the long-term effects of P7 ethanol treatment on adult brain, mice received either two doses of saline or ethanol on P7 (2.5 g/kg, s.c., 2 h apart) and were assessed as adults (P82) for brain volume (using postmortem MRI) and cellular architecture (using immunohistochemistry). Adult mice that received P7 ethanol had reduced MRI total brain volume (4%) with multiple brain regions being reduced in both males and females. Immunohistochemistry indicated reduced frontal cortical parvalbumin immunoreactive (PV + IR) interneurons (18-33%) and reduced Cux1+IR layer II pyramidal neurons (15%) in both sexes. Interestingly, markers of adult hippocampal neurogenesis differed between sexes, with only ethanol treated males showing increased doublecortin and Ki67 expression (52 and 57% respectively) in the dentate gyrus, consistent with increased neurogenesis compared to controls. These findings suggest that P7 ethanol treatment causes persistent reductions in adult brain volume and frontal cortical neurons in both males and females. Increased adult neurogenesis in males, but not females, is consistent with differential adaptive responses to P7 ethanol toxicity between the sexes. One day of ethanol exposure, e.g. P7, causes persistent adult brain dysmorphology.

  2. Immunosuppression in early postnatal days induces persistent and allergen-specific immune tolerance to asthma in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jin; Lu, Yong; Wang, Libo

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory condition with high morbidity, and effective treatments for asthma are limited. Allergen-specific immunotherapy can only induce peripheral immune tolerance and is not sustainable. Exploring new therapeutic strategies is of great clinical importance. Recombinant adenovirus (rAdV) was used as a vector to make cells expressing cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4-immunoglobulin (CTLA4Ig) a soluble CTLA4 immunoglobulin fusion protein. Dendritic cells (DCs) were modified using the rAdVs together with allergens. Then these modified DCs were transplanted to mice before allergen sensitization. The persistence and specificity of immune tolerance were evaluated in mice challenged with asthma allergens at 3 and 7 months. DCs modified by CTLA4Ig showed increased IL-10 secretion, decreased IL-12 secretion, and T cell stimulation in vitro. Mice treated with these DCs in the early neonatal period developed tolerance against the allergens that were used to induce asthma in the adult stage. Asthma symptoms, lung damage, airway reactivity, and inflammatory response all improved. Humoral immunity indices showed that this therapeutic strategy strongly suppressed mice immune responses and was maintained for as long as 7 months. Furthermore, allergen cross-sensitization and challenge experiments demonstrated that this immune tolerance was allergen-specific. Treatment with CTLA4Ig modified DCs in the early neonatal period, inducing persistent and allergen-specific immune tolerance to asthma in adult mice. Our results suggest that it may be possible to develop a vaccine for asthma.

  3. Adult Day Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Adult Day Care Adult Day Care Centers are designed to provide care and ... adults who need assistance or supervision during the day. Programs offer relief to family members and caregivers, ...

  4. Adult Day Services

    MedlinePlus

    A Smart Choice Adult Day Services Comparison At-a-Glance 1 Adult Day Services Assisted Living Home Care Nursing Homes Live at home with family ... supervision Nursing care available as needed during the day Flexibility to receive care only on days when ...

  5. The postnatal origin of adult neural stem cells and the effects of glucocorticoids on their genesis.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Martínez, Sylvia; Trejo, José L

    2015-02-15

    The relevance of adult neurogenesis in hippocampal function is well documented, as is the potential impact stress has on the adult neurogenic niche. Adult born neurons are generated from neural precursors in the dentate gyrus (DG), although the point in postnatal development that these cell precursors originate is not known. This is particularly relevant if we consider the effects stress may have on the development of neural precursors, and whether such effects on adult neurogenesis and behavior may persist in the long-term. We have analyzed the proportion of neural precursors in the adult murine hippocampus born on specific days during postnatal development using a dual birth-dating analysis, and we assessed their sensitivity to dexamethasone (DEX) on the peak day of cell generation. We also studied the consequences of postnatal DEX administration on adult hippocampal-dependent behavior. Postnatal day 6 (P6) is a preferred period for proliferating neural stem cells (NSCs) to become the precursors that remain in a proliferative state throughout adulthood. This window is independent of gender, the cell's location in the DG granule cell layer or their rostro-caudal position. DEX administration at P6 reduces the size of the adult NSC pool in the DG, which is correlated with poor learning/memory capacity and increased anxiety-like behavior. These results indicate that aNSCs are generated non-uniformly during postnatal development, with peak generation on day P6, and that stress receptor activation during the key period of postnatal NSC generation has a profound impact on both adult hippocampal neurogenesis and behavior.

  6. The day of your surgery - adult

    MedlinePlus

    Same-day surgery - adult; Ambulatory surgery - adult; Surgical procedure - adult; Preoperative care - day of surgery ... meet with them at an appointment before the day of surgery or on the same day of ...

  7. Early postnatal stress alters the extinction of context-dependent conditioned fear in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Machiko; Togashi, Hiroko; Konno, Kohtaro; Koseki, Hiroyo; Hirata, Riki; Izumi, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Taku; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro

    2008-05-01

    Fear extinction is hypothesized to be a learning process based on a new inhibitory memory. The present study was conducted to elucidate the effect of early postnatal stress on the extinction of context-dependent fear memory in adult rats, with a focus on the serotonergic system. Extinction was estimated by the expression of freezing behavior during repeated extinction trials (i.e., repeated exposure to contextual fear conditioning) on consecutive days. The decrease in fear expression was attenuated in adult rats that had been subjected to footshock (FS) at the third postnatal week (3wFS), but not in those exposed to footshock at the second postnatal week (2wFS). The decreased attenuation of freezing behavior observed in 3wFS was abolished by repeated treatment with the partial N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist D-cycloserine (15 mg/kg, i.p., for 4 days), which has been shown to facilitate cue-dependent extinction. Repeated treatment with the serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine-1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor agonist tandospirone (1 mg/kg, i.p., for 4 days) prevented the expression of freezing behavior in 3wFS, whereas diazepam treatment (1 mg/kg, i.p., for 4 days) in 3wFS did not. These results suggest that exposure to early postnatal stress at the third week is responsible for attenuating extinction of contextual fear conditioning and is mediated by a serotonergic 5-HT(1A) receptor mechanism. In other words, exposure to traumatic events during the early postnatal period might precipitate long-lasting alterations in synaptic function that underlie extinction processes of context-dependent fear memory.

  8. Postnatal ethanol exposure disrupts signal detection in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Woolfrey, Kevin M; Hunt, Pamela S; Burk, Joshua A

    2005-01-01

    Human prenatal ethanol exposure that occurs during a period of increased synaptogenesis known as the "brain growth spurt" has been associated with significant impairments in attention, learning, and memory. The present experiment assessed whether administration of ethanol during the brain growth spurt in the rat, which occurs shortly after birth, disrupts attentional performance. Rats were administered 5.25 g/kg/day ethanol via intragastric intubation from postnatal days (PD) 4-9, sham-intubation, or no intubation (naïve). Beginning at PD 90, animals were trained to asymptotic performance in a two-lever attention task that required discrimination of brief visual signals from trials with no signal presentation. Finally, manipulations of background noise and inter-trial interval duration were conducted. Early postnatal ethanol administration did not differentially affect acquisition of the attention task. However, after rats were trained to asymptotic performance levels, those previously exposed to ethanol demonstrated a deficit in detection of signals but not of non-signals compared to sham-intubated and naïve rats. The signal detection deficit persisted whenever these animals were re-trained in the standard task, but further task manipulations failed to interact with ethanol pretreatment. The present data support the hypothesis that early postnatal ethanol administration disrupts aspects of attentional processing in the rat.

  9. Behavioural and biochemical effects in the adult rat after prolonged postnatal administration of clozapine.

    PubMed

    Cuomo, V; Cagiano, R; Mocchetti, I; Coen, E; Cattabeni, F; Racagni, G

    1983-01-01

    Rats were administered 10 mg/kg SC of clozapine (C) or vehicle solution (S) daily from day 1 after birth until 20 days of age. At 60 days of age (40 days after the postnatal treatment with C or S was interrupted) the stereotyped behaviour and the effects on locomotor activity elicited by apomorphine in S- and C-pretreated rats were investigated. The intensity of stereotyped behaviour as well as the decrement in locomotion induced by apomorphine (0.5--1 mg/kg SC) were not influenced by chronic C administration during development. Finally, at 80 days of age (60 days after the postnatal treatment with C or S was interrupted) rats were subjected to a differential reinforcement of low rates schedule (DRL15s). The results indicate that the acquisition of the DRL task performance criterion (Rs/Rf less than or equal to 2.5) was significantly more rapid in S-pretreated rats than in C-pretreated ones. In parallel biochemical experiments, homovanillic acid (HVA) content was measured in striatum in rats at 60 days of age (40 days after the postnatal treatment with C or S was interrupted). The results indicate that even if an acute challenge dose of 10 mg/kg C shows a certain degree of tolerance a single dose of 20 mg/kg C is still able to increase striatal HVA concentration in chronic C-pretreated animals. These data indicate that early postnatal administration of a non-cataleptogenic neuroleptic, like C, induces, in the adult rat, behavioural and biochemical changes which significantly differ from those elicited by a cataleptogenic neuroleptic, like haloperidol.

  10. Expression of Npas4 mRNA in Telencephalic Areas of Adult and Postnatal Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Damborsky, Joanne C.; Slaton, G. Simona; Winzer-Serhan, Ursula H.

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor neuronal PAS domain-containing protein 4 (Npas4) is an inducible immediate early gene which regulates the formation of inhibitory synapses, and could have a significant regulatory role during cortical circuit formation. However, little is known about basal Npas4 mRNA expression during postnatal development. Here, postnatal and adult mouse brain sections were processed for isotopic in situ hybridization using an Npas4 specific cRNA antisense probe. In adults, Npas4 mRNA was found in the telencephalon with very restricted or no expression in diencephalon or mesencephalon. In most telencephalic areas, including the anterior olfactory nucleus (AON), piriform cortex, neocortex, hippocampus, dorsal caudate putamen (CPu), septum and basolateral amygdala nucleus (BLA), basal Npas4 expression was detected in scattered cells which exhibited strong hybridization signal. In embryonic and neonatal brain sections, Npas4 mRNA expression signals were very low. Starting at postnatal day 5 (P5), transcripts for Npas4 were detected in the AON, CPu and piriform cortex. At P8, additional Npas4 hybridization was found in CA1 and CA3 pyramidal layer, and in primary motor cortex. By P13, robust mRNA expression was located in layers IV and VI of all sensory cortices, frontal cortex and cingulate cortex. After onset of expression, postnatal spatial mRNA distribution was similar to that in adults, with the exception of the CPu, where Npas4 transcripts became gradually restricted to the most dorsal part. In conclusion, the spatial distribution of Npas4 mRNA is mostly restricted to telencephalic areas, and the temporal expression increases with developmental age during postnatal development, which seem to correlate with the onset of activity-driven excitatory transmission. PMID:26633966

  11. Substratum preferences of motor and sensory neurons in postnatal and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Perez, Francisco; Alé, Albert; Santos, Daniel; Barwig, Christina; Freier, Thomas; Navarro, Xavier; Udina, Esther

    2016-02-01

    After peripheral nerve injuries, damaged axons can regenerate but functional recovery is limited by the specific reinnervation of targets. In this study we evaluated if motor and sensory neurites have a substrate preference for laminin and fibronectin in postnatal and adult stages. In postnatal dorsal root ganglia (DRG) explants, sensory neurons extended longer neurites on collagen matrices enriched with laminin (~50%) or fibronectin (~35%), whereas motoneurons extended longer neurites (~100%) in organotypic spinal cord slices embedded in fibronectin-enriched matrix. An increased percentage of parvalbumin-positive neurites (presumptive proprioceptive) vs. neurofilament-positive neurites was also found in DRG in fibronectin-enriched matrix. To test if the different preference of neurons for extracellular matrix components was maintained in vivo, these matrices were used to fill a chitosan guide to repair a 6-mm gap in the sciatic nerve of adult rats. However, the number of regenerating motor and sensory neurons after 1 month was similar between groups. Moreover, none of the retrotraced sensory neurons in DRG was positive for parvalbumin, suggesting that presumptive proprioceptive neurons had poor regenerative capabilities compared with other peripheral neurons. Using real-time PCR we evaluated the expression of α5β1 (receptor for fibronectin) and α7β1 integrin (receptor for laminin) in spinal cord and DRG 2 days after injury. Postnatal animals showed a higher increase of α5β1 integrin, whereas both integrins were similarly expressed in adult neurons. Therefore, we conclude that motor and sensory axons have a different substrate preference at early postnatal stages but this difference is lost in the adult.

  12. Evidence for Hippocampus-Dependent Contextual Learning at Postnatal Day 17 in the Rat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Jennifer A.; Burman, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term memory for fear of an environment (contextual fear conditioning) emerges later in development (postnatal day; PD 23) than long-term memory for fear of discrete stimuli (PD 17). As contextual, but not explicit cue, fear conditioning relies on the hippocampus; this has been interpreted as evidence that the hippocampus is not fully…

  13. Postnatal and adult neurogenesis in the development of human disease.

    PubMed

    Danzer, Steve C

    2008-10-01

    The mammalian brain contains a population of neurons that are continuously generated from late embryogenesis through adulthood-after the generation of almost all other neuronal types. This brain region-the hippocampal dentate gyrus-is in a sense, therefore, persistently immature. Postnatal and adult neurogenesis is likely an essential feature of the dentate, which is critical for learning and memory. Protracted neurogenesis after birth would allow the new cells to develop in conjunction with external events-but it may come with a price: while neurogenesis in utero occurs in a protected environment, children and adults are exposed to any number of hazards, such as toxins and infectious agents. Mature neurons might be resistant to such exposures, but new neurons may be vulnerable. Consistent with this prediction, in adult rodents seizures disrupt the integration of newly generated granule cells, whereas mature granule cells are comparatively unaffected. Significantly, abnormally interconnected cells may contribute to epileptogenesis and/or associated cognitive and memory deficits. Finally, studies increasingly indicate that new granule cells are extremely sensitive to a host of endogenous and exogenous factors, raising the possibility that disrupted granule cell integration may be a common feature of many neurological diseases.

  14. Postnatal Proteasome Inhibition Induces Neurodegeneration and Cognitive Deficiencies in Adult Mice: A New Model of Neurodevelopment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Granados, Rocío; Fontán-Lozano, Ángela; Aguilar-Montilla, Francisco Javier; Carrión, Ángel Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Defects in the ubiquitin-proteasome system have been related to aging and the development of neurodegenerative disease, although the effects of deficient proteasome activity during early postnatal development are poorly understood. Accordingly, we have assessed how proteasome dysfunction during early postnatal development, induced by administering proteasome inhibitors daily during the first 10 days of life, affects the behaviour of adult mice. We found that this regime of exposure to the proteasome inhibitors MG132 or lactacystin did not produce significant behavioural or morphological changes in the first 15 days of life. However, towards the end of the treatment with proteasome inhibitors, there was a loss of mitochondrial markers and activity, and an increase in DNA oxidation. On reaching adulthood, the memory of mice that were injected with proteasome inhibitors postnatally was impaired in hippocampal and amygdala-dependent tasks, and they suffered motor dysfunction and imbalance. These behavioural deficiencies were correlated with neuronal loss in the hippocampus, amygdala and brainstem, and with diminished adult neurogenesis. Accordingly, impairing proteasome activity at early postnatal ages appears to cause morphological and behavioural alterations in adult mice that resemble those associated with certain neurodegenerative diseases and/or syndromes of mental retardation. PMID:22174927

  15. Effects of synchronous and asynchronous embryo transfer on postnatal development, adult health, and behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    López-Cardona, Angela P; Fernández-González, Raúl; Pérez-Crespo, Miriam; Alén, Francisco; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodriguez; Orio, Laura; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso

    2015-10-01

    Asynchronous embryo transfer (ET) is a common assisted reproduction technique used in several species, but its biological effects on postnatal and early development remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether asynchronous ET produces long-term effects in mice. Postnatal development, animal weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP), relative organ weight (liver, spleen, kidneys, heart, lungs, brain, and testicles), and behavior (assessed in open-field and elevated plus maze tests) were assessed in CD1 mice produced by different ET procedures: 1) the transfer of Day 3.5 (D3.5) blastocysts to the uterus (BL-UT); 2) the transfer of D3.5 blastocysts to the oviduct (BL-OV); or 3) the transfer of D0.5 zygotes to the oviduct (Z-OV). In vivo conceived animals served as controls (CT). The transfer of blastocysts to the uterus or zygotes to the oviduct was defined as synchronous, and transfer of blastocysts to the oviduct was defined as asynchronous. Both synchronous and asynchronous ET resulted in increased weight at birth that normalized thereafter with the exception of asynchronous ET females. In this group, female BL-OV, a clear lower body weight was recorded along postnatal life when compared with controls (P < 0.05). No effects on animal weight were produced during postnatal development in the synchronous ET groups (BL-UT, Z-OV, and CT). Both synchronous and asynchronous ET had impacts on adult (Wk 30) organ weight. SBP was modified in animals derived from blastocyst but not zygote ET. Effects on behavior (anxiety in the plus maze) were only detected in the BL-UT group (P < 0.05). Our findings indicate that zygotes are less sensitive than blastocysts to ET and that both synchronous and asynchronous blastocyst ET may have long-term consequences on health, with possible impacts on weight, arterial pressure, relative organ weight, and behavior.

  16. Early postnatal nutrition determines adult physical activity and energy expenditure in female mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decades of research in rodent models has shown that early postnatal overnutrition induces excess adiposity and other components of metabolic syndrome that persist into adulthood. The specific biologic mechanisms explaining the persistence of these effects, however, remain unknown. On postnatal day 1...

  17. Chronic early postnatal scream sound stress induces learning deficits and NMDA receptor changes in the hippocampus of adult mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lili; Han, Bo; Zhao, Xiaoge; Mi, Lihua; Song, Qiang; Wang, Jue; Song, Tusheng; Huang, Chen

    2016-04-13

    Chronic scream sounds during adulthood affect spatial learning and memory, both of which are sexually dimorphic. The long-term effects of chronic early postnatal scream sound stress (SSS) during postnatal days 1-21 (P1-P21) on spatial learning and memory in adult mice as well as whether or not these effects are sexually dimorphic are unknown. Therefore, the present study examines the performance of adult male and female mice in the Morris water maze following exposure to chronic early postnatal SSS. Hippocampal NR2A and NR2B levels as well as NR2A/NR2B subunit ratios were tested using immunohistochemistry. In the Morris water maze, stress males showed greater impairment in spatial learning and memory than background males; by contrast, stress and background females performed equally well. NR2B levels in CA1 and CA3 were upregulated, whereas NR2A/NR2B ratios were downregulated in stressed males, but not in females. These data suggest that chronic early postnatal SSS influences spatial learning and memory ability, levels of hippocampal NR2B, and NR2A/NR2B ratios in adult males. Moreover, chronic early stress-induced alterations exert long-lasting effects and appear to affect performance in a sex-specific manner.

  18. Counseling Services in Adult Day Care Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaki, Gamal; Zaki, Sylvia

    Federal support for adult day care centers began in the United States approximately 10 years ago. To examine the counseling practices in the adult day care centers across the country and to explore how the services are affected by the staffing patterns at these centers, 135 centers completed a questionnaire. The questionnaire addressed…

  19. Structural changes in the adult rat auditory system induced by brief postnatal noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Ouda, Ladislav; Burianová, Jana; Balogová, Zuzana; Lu, Hui Pin; Syka, Josef

    2016-01-01

    In previous studies (Grécová et al., Eur J Neurosci 29:1921-1930, 2009; Bures et al., Eur J Neurosci 32:155-164, 2010), we demonstrated that after an early postnatal short noise exposure (8 min 125 dB, day 14) changes in the frequency tuning curves as well as changes in the coding of sound intensity are present in the inferior colliculus (IC) of adult rats. In this study, we analyze on the basis of the Golgi-Cox method the morphology of neurons in the IC, the medial geniculate body (MGB) and the auditory cortex (AC) of 3-month-old Long-Evans rats exposed to identical noise at postnatal day 14 and compare the results to littermate controls. In rats exposed to noise as pups, the mean total length of the neuronal tree was found to be larger in the external cortex and the central nucleus of the IC and in the ventral division of the MGB. In addition, the numerical density of dendritic spines was decreased on the branches of neurons in the ventral division of the MGB in noise-exposed animals. In the AC, the mean total length of the apical dendritic segments of pyramidal neurons was significantly shorter in noise-exposed rats, however, only slight differences with respect to controls were observed in the length of basal dendrites of pyramidal cells as well as in the neuronal trees of AC non-pyramidal neurons. The numerical density of dendritic spines on the branches of pyramidal AC neurons was lower in exposed rats than in controls. These findings demonstrate that early postnatal short noise exposure can induce permanent changes in the development of neurons in the central auditory system, which apparently represent morphological correlates of functional plasticity.

  20. The impact of postnatal environment on opioid peptides in young and adult male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Lisa; Oreland, Sadia; Hoffmann, Pernilla; Nylander, Ingrid

    2008-04-01

    Early environmental influences can change the neuronal development and thereby affect behavior in adult life. The aim in the present study was to thoroughly examine the impact of early environmental factors on endogenous opioids by using a rodent maternal separation (MS) model. The endogenous opioid peptide system is not fully developed at birth, and short- and/or long-term alterations may occur in these neural networks in animals exposed to manipulation of the postnatal environment. Rat pups were subjected to one of five rearing conditions; 15 min (MS15) litter (l) or individual (i), 360 min (MS360) l or i daily MS, or housed under normal animal facility rearing (AFR) conditions during postnatal days 1-21. Measurements of immunoreactive (ir) Met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 (MEAP) and dynorphin B (DYNB) peptide levels in the pituitary gland and in a number of brain areas, were performed at three and 10 weeks of age, respectively. MS-induced changes were more pronounced in ir MEAP levels, especially in individually separated rats at three weeks of age and in litter-separated rats at 10 weeks of age. The enkephalin and dynorphin systems have different developmental patterns, dynorphin appearing earlier, which may point at a more sensitive enkephalin system during the early postnatal weeks. The results provide evidence that opioid peptides are sensitive for early environmental factors and show that the separation conditions are critical and also result in changes manifesting at different time points. MS-induced effects were observed in areas related to stress, drug reward and dependence mechanisms. By describing effects on opioid peptides, the study addresses the possible role of a deranged endogenous opioid system in the previously described behavioral consequences of MS.

  1. Effects of postnatal alcohol exposure on hippocampal gene expression and learning in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Moon, Jihye; Ryu, Jinhyun; Jeong, Joo Yeon; Roh, Gu Seob; Kim, Hyun Joon; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Choi, Wan Sung; Kang, Sang Soo

    2016-04-28

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a condition resulting from excessive drinking by pregnant women. Symptoms of FAS include abnormal facial features, stunted growth, intellectual deficits and attentional dysfunction. Many studies have investigated FAS, but its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. This study evaluated the relationship between alcohol exposure during the synaptogenesis period in postnatal mice and subsequent cognitive function in adult mice. We delivered two injections, separated by 2 h, of ethanol (3 g/kg, ethanol/saline, 20% v/v) to ICR mice on postnatal day 7. After 10 weeks, we conducted a behavioral test, sacrificed the animals, harvested brain tissue and analyzed hippocampal gene expression using a microarray. In ethanol-treated mice, there was a reduction in brain size and decreased neuronal cell number in the cortex, and also cognitive impairment. cDNA microarray results indicated that 1,548 genes showed a > 2-fold decrease in expression relative to control, whereas 974 genes showed a > 2-fold increase in expression relative to control. Many of these genes were related to signal transduction, synaptogenesis and cell membrane formation, which are highlighted in our findings.

  2. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on the 14th-18th days of gestation on postnatal growth and development in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1988-11-01

    Thirty-nine pregnant adult Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to one of three exposure groups: 0, 0.75, or 1.50 Gy X-radiation total exposure. Animals were exposed from the 14th to the 18th days of gestation at 0, 0.15, or 0.30 Gy per day. At term, 15 rats were killed and morphologic analyses were completed. Twenty-four rats were allowed to deliver their offspring. On the first day of postnatal life, litters were reduced to a maximum of eight pups per litter, with equal numbers of male and female offspring wherever possible. A total of 187 pups were observed for the age of acquisition of five reflexes (air righting, surface righting, visual placing, negative geotaxis, auditory startle) and the appearance of four physiologic markers (pinna detachment, eye opening, vaginal opening, testes descent). There was significant dose-related weight reduction in term fetuses and offspring throughout the 86-day postnatal period. Postnatal growth rate (g gained/day) was unaffected. Adult offspring brain and gonadal weight and organ weight:body weight ratios were reduced. Using the PAC50 methodology, dose-related alterations occurred in the acquisition of several reflexes. All physiologic markers exhibited a dose-related delay in appearance. These results indicate that fractionated exposure to X-radiation during the fetal period in the rat results in dose-dependent alterations in postnatal growth and physiologic development. These studies are important for our understanding of the long-range effects of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation late in gestation.

  3. Toxicity Evaluation of Bisphenol A Administered by Gavage to Sprague Dawley Rats From Gestation Day 6 Through Postnatal Day 90

    PubMed Central

    Delclos, K. Barry; Camacho, Luísa; Lewis, Sherry M.; Vanlandingham, Michelle M.; Latendresse, John R.; Olson, Greg R.; Davis, Kelly J.; Patton, Ralph E.; da Costa, Gonçalo Gamboa; Woodling, Kellie A.; Bryant, Matthew S.; Chidambaram, Mani; Trbojevich, Raul; Juliar, Beth E.; Felton, Robert P.; Thorn, Brett T.

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume industrial chemical to which there is widespread human oral exposure. Guideline studies used to set regulatory limits detected adverse effects only at doses well above human exposures and established a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 5 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day. However, many reported animal studies link BPA to potentially adverse effects on multiple organ systems at doses below the NOAEL. The primary goals of the subchronic study reported here were to identify adverse effects induced by orally (gavage) administered BPA below the NOAEL, to characterize the dose response for such effects and to determine doses for a subsequent chronic study. Sprague Dawley rat dams were dosed daily from gestation day 6 until the start of labor, and their pups were directly dosed from day 1 after birth to termination. The primary focus was on seven equally spaced BPA doses (2.5–2700 μg/kg bw/day). Also included were a naïve control, two doses of ethinyl estradiol (EE2) to demonstrate the estrogen responsiveness of the animal model, and two high BPA doses (100,000 and 300,000 μg/kg bw/day) expected from guideline studies to produce adverse effects. Clear adverse effects of BPA, including depressed gestational and postnatal body weight gain, effects on the ovary (increased cystic follicles, depleted corpora lutea, and antral follicles), and serum hormones (increased serum estradiol and prolactin and decreased progesterone), were observed only at the two high doses of BPA. BPA-induced effects partially overlapped those induced by EE2, consistent with the known weak estrogenic activity of BPA. PMID:24496637

  4. Early postnatal caloric restriction protects adult male intrauterine growth-restricted offspring from obesity.

    PubMed

    Garg, Meena; Thamotharan, Manikkavasagar; Dai, Yun; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Shin, Bo-Chul; Stout, David; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2012-06-01

    Postnatal ad libitum caloric intake superimposed on intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with adult-onset obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We hypothesized that this paradigm of prenatal nutrient deprivation-induced programming can be reversed with the introduction of early postnatal calorie restriction. Ten-month-old male rats exposed to either prenatal nutrient restriction with ad libitum postnatal intake (IUGR), pre- and postnatal nutrient restriction (IPGR), or postnatal nutrient restriction limited to the suckling phase (50% from postnatal [PN]1 to PN21) (PNGR) were compared with age-matched controls (CON). Visceral adiposity, metabolic profile, and insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were examined. The 10-month-old male IUGR group had a 1.5- to 2.0-fold increase in subcutaneous and visceral fat (P < 0.0002) while remaining euglycemic, insulin sensitive, inactive, and exhibiting metabolic inflexibility (Vo(2)) versus CON. The IPGR group remained lean, euglycemic, insulin sensitive, and active while maintaining metabolic flexibility. The PNGR group was insulin sensitive, similar to IPGR, but less active while maintaining metabolic flexibility. We conclude that IUGR resulted in obesity without insulin resistance and energy metabolic perturbations prior to development of glucose intolerance and T2DM. Postnatal nutrient restriction superimposed on IUGR was protective, restoring metabolic normalcy to a lean and active phenotype.

  5. Early postnatal GFAP-expressing cells produce multilineage progeny in cerebrum and astrocytes in cerebellum of adult mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhibao; Wang, Xijuan; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Yihui; Lu, Hong; Teng, Junfang; Wang, Wei

    2013-09-26

    Early postnatal GFAP-expressing cells are thought to be immature astrocytes. However, it is not clear if they possess multilineage capacity and if they can generate different lineages (astrocytes, neurons and oligodendrocytes) in the brain of adult mice. In order to identify the fate of astroglial cells in the postnatal brain, hGFAP-Cre-ER(T2) transgenic mice were crossed with the R26R Cre reporter mouse strains which exhibit constitutive expression of β-galactosidase (β-gal). Mice carrying the hGFAP-Cre-ER(T2)/R26R transgene were treated with Tamoxifen to induce Cre recombination in astroglial cells at postnatal (P) day 6 and Cre recombinase-expressing cells were identified by X-gal staining. Immunohistochemical staining was used to identify the type(s) of these reporter-tagged cells. Sixty days after recombination, X-gal-positive cells in different cerebral regions of the adult mice expressed the astroglial markers Blbp and GFAP, the neuronal marker NeuN, the oligodendrocyte precursor cell marker NG2 and the mature oligodendrocyte marker CC1. X-gal-positive cells in the cerebellum coexpressed the astroglial marker Blbp, but not the granule cell marker NeuN, Purkinje cell marker Calbindin or oligodendrocyte precursor cell marker NG2. Our genetic fate mapping data demonstrated that early postnatal GFAP-positive cells possessed multilineage potential and eventually differentiated into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the cerebrum and into astrocytes (including Bergmann glia) in the cerebellum of adult mice.

  6. Diabetes and Adult Day Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabelko, Holly I.; DeCoster, Vaughn A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a profile of individuals with diabetes who receive services in adult day centers. This exploratory study uses an administrative data set (N = 280) from five programs in central Ohio to examine four areas: demographics, health and mental health, financial and social resources, and disenrollment status. Older…

  7. Adult Olfactory Bulb Interneuron Phenotypes Identified by Targeting Embryonic and Postnatal Neural Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Figueres-Oñate, Maria; López-Mascaraque, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Neurons are generated during embryonic development and in adulthood, although adult neurogenesis is restricted to two main brain regions, the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles generates neural stem/progenitor cells that continually provide the olfactory bulb (OB) with new granule or periglomerular neurons, cells that arrive from the SVZ via the rostral migratory stream. The continued neurogenesis and the adequate integration of these newly generated interneurons is essential to maintain homeostasis in the olfactory bulb, where the differentiation of these cells into specific neural cell types is strongly influenced by temporal cues. Therefore, identifying the critical features that control the generation of adult OB interneurons at either pre- or post-natal stages is important to understand the dynamic contribution of neural stem cells. Here, we used in utero and neonatal SVZ electroporation along with a transposase-mediated stable integration plasmid, in order to track interneurons and glial lineages in the OB. These plasmids are valuable tools to study the development of OB interneurons from embryonic and post-natal SVZ progenitors. Accordingly, we examined the location and identity of the adult progeny of embryonic and post-natally transfected progenitors by examining neurochemical markers in the adult OB. These data reveal the different cell types in the olfactory bulb that are generated in function of age and different electroporation conditions. PMID:27242400

  8. Postnatal Loss of Hap1 Reduces Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Causes Adult Depressive-Like Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Jianxing; Yan, Sen; Li, Shi-Hua; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a serious mental disorder that affects a person’s mood, thoughts, behavior, physical health, and life in general. Despite our continuous efforts to understand the disease, the etiology of depressive behavior remains perplexing. Recently, aberrant early life or postnatal neurogenesis has been linked to adult depressive behavior; however, genetic evidence for this is still lacking. Here we genetically depleted the expression of huntingtin-associated protein 1 (Hap1) in mice at various ages or in selective brain regions. Depletion of Hap1 in the early postnatal period, but not later life, led to a depressive-like phenotype when the mice reached adulthood. Deletion of Hap1 in adult mice rendered the mice more susceptible to stress-induced depressive-like behavior. Furthermore, early Hap1 depletion impaired postnatal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and reduced the level of c-kit, a protein expressed in neuroproliferative zones of the rodent brain and that is stabilized by Hap1. Importantly, stereotaxically injected adeno-associated virus (AAV) that directs the expression of c-kit in the hippocampus promoted postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis and ameliorated the depressive-like phenotype in conditional Hap1 KO mice, indicating a link between postnatal-born hippocampal neurons and adult depression. Our results demonstrate critical roles for Hap1 and c-kit in postnatal neurogenesis and adult depressive behavior, and also suggest that genetic variations affecting postnatal neurogenesis may lead to adult depression. PMID:25875952

  9. Effects of Postnatal Enriched Environment in a Model of Parkinson's Disease in Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Jungling, Adel; Reglodi, Dora; Karadi, Zsofia Nozomi; Horvath, Gabor; Farkas, Jozsef; Gaszner, Balazs; Tamas, Andrea

    2017-02-14

    Environmental enrichment is a widespread neuroprotective strategy during development and also in the mature nervous system. Several research groups have described that enriched environment in adult rats has an impact on the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of our present study was to examine the effects of early, postnatal environmental enrichment after 6-hydroxydopamine-induced (6-OHDA) lesion of the substantia nigra in adulthood. Newborn Wistar rats were divided into control and enriched groups according to their environmental conditions. For environmental enrichment, during the first five postnatal weeks animals were placed in larger cages and exposed to intensive complex stimuli. Dopaminergic cell loss, and hypokinetic and asymmetrical signs were evaluated after inducing PD with unilateral injections of 6-OHDA in three-month-old animals. Treatment with 6-OHDA led to a significant cell loss in the substantia nigra of control animals, however, postnatal enriched circumstances could rescue the dopaminergic cells. Although there was no significant difference in the percentage of surviving cells between 6-OHDA-treated control and enriched groups, the slightly less dopaminergic cell loss in the enriched group compared to control animals resulted in less severe hypokinesia. Our investigation is the first to provide evidence for the neuroprotective effect of postnatal enriched environment in PD later in life.

  10. Effects of Postnatal Enriched Environment in a Model of Parkinson’s Disease in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jungling, Adel; Reglodi, Dora; Karadi, Zsofia Nozomi; Horvath, Gabor; Farkas, Jozsef; Gaszner, Balazs; Tamas, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is a widespread neuroprotective strategy during development and also in the mature nervous system. Several research groups have described that enriched environment in adult rats has an impact on the progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The aim of our present study was to examine the effects of early, postnatal environmental enrichment after 6-hydroxydopamine-induced (6-OHDA) lesion of the substantia nigra in adulthood. Newborn Wistar rats were divided into control and enriched groups according to their environmental conditions. For environmental enrichment, during the first five postnatal weeks animals were placed in larger cages and exposed to intensive complex stimuli. Dopaminergic cell loss, and hypokinetic and asymmetrical signs were evaluated after inducing PD with unilateral injections of 6-OHDA in three-month-old animals. Treatment with 6-OHDA led to a significant cell loss in the substantia nigra of control animals, however, postnatal enriched circumstances could rescue the dopaminergic cells. Although there was no significant difference in the percentage of surviving cells between 6-OHDA-treated control and enriched groups, the slightly less dopaminergic cell loss in the enriched group compared to control animals resulted in less severe hypokinesia. Our investigation is the first to provide evidence for the neuroprotective effect of postnatal enriched environment in PD later in life. PMID:28216584

  11. Enduring behavioural and biochemical effects in the adult rat after prolonged postnatal administration of haloperidol.

    PubMed

    Cuomo, V; Cagiano, R; Coen, E; Mocchetti, I; Cattabeni, F; Racagni, G

    1981-01-01

    Rats were administered 0.5 mg/kg SC of haloperidol (H) or saline (S) daily from day 1 after birth until 20 days of age. At 60 days of age (40 days after the postnatal treatment with H or S was interrupted) the stereotyped behaviour and the effects on locomotor activity elicited by apomorphine in S- and H-pretreated rats were investigated. The intensity of apomorphine (0.5--1 mg/kg, SC)-induced stereotyped behaviour was significantly greater in the H-pretreated group than in S-pretreated animals and this was accompanied by a much more marked reduction of locomotor activity in H-pretreated than in S-pretreated rats. Finally, at 80 days of age (60 days after the postnatal treatment with H or S was interrupted) rats were subjected to a Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates schedule (DRL 15-s). The results indicate that the acquisition of the DRL task performance criterion (Rs/Rf less than or equal to 2.5) was significantly more rapid on S-pretreated rats than in H-pretreated ones. In parallel biochemical experiments, acute H produced smaller increases in dopamine turnover in chronic H-treated rats compared with S-treated controls. These data indicate that H treatment in neonatal rats induces behavioural and biochemical changes which can be observed up to 60 days after H withdrawal.

  12. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adult day health care... (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.160 Adult day health care requirements. As a condition for receiving a grant and grant funds under this part for an adult day health...

  13. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adult day health care... (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.160 Adult day health care requirements. As a condition for receiving a grant and grant funds under this part for an adult day health...

  14. β-defensins and the epididymis: contrasting influences of prenatal, postnatal, and adult scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Camilla M; Silva, Erick JR; Hinton, Barry T; Avellar, Maria Christina W

    2016-01-01

    β-defensins are components of host defense, with antimicrobial and pleiotropic immuno-modulatory properties. Research over the last 15 years has demonstrated abundant expression of a variety of β-defensins in the postnatal epididymis of different species. A gradient of region- and cell-specific expression of these proteins is observed in the epithelium of the postnatal epididymis. Their secretion into the luminal fluid and binding to spermatozoa as they travel along the epididymis has suggested their involvement in reproduction-specific tasks. Therefore, continuous attention has been given to various β-defensins for their role in sperm function and fertility. Although β-defensins are largely dependent on androgens, the underlying mechanisms regulating their expression and function in the epididymis are not well understood. Recent investigation has pointed out to a new and interesting scenario where β-defensins emerge with a different expression pattern in the Wolffian duct, the embryonic precursor of the epididymis, as opposed to the adult epididymis, thereby redefining the concept concerning the multifunctional roles of β-defensins in the developing epididymis. In this review, we summarize some current views of β-defensins in the epididymis highlighting our most recent data and speculations on their role in the developing epididymis during the prenatal-to-postnatal transition, bringing attention to the many unanswered questions in this research area that may contribute to a better understanding of epididymal biology and male fertility. PMID:26763543

  15. Adult Neuropsychological Performance Following Prenatal and Early Postnatal Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Janulewicz, Patricia A; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Vieira, Veronica; Aschengrau, Ann

    2012-01-01

    This population-based retrospective cohort study examined adult performance on a battery of neuropsychological tests in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and a Geographic Information System (GIS). Results of crude and multivariate analyses among 35 exposed and 28 unexposed subjects showed no association between prenatal and early postnatal exposure and decrements on tests that assess abilities in the domains of omnibus intelligence, academic achievement or language. The results were suggestive of an association between prenatal and early postnatal PCE exposure and diminished performance on tests that assessed abilities in the domains of visuospatial functioning, learning and memory, motor, attention and mood. Because the sample size was small, most findings were not statistically significant. Future studies with larger sample sizes should be conducted to further define the neuropsychological consequences of early developmental PCE exposure. PMID:22522125

  16. Olfactory experience modulates immature neuron development in postnatal and adult guinea pig piriform cortex.

    PubMed

    He, X; Zhang, X-M; Wu, J; Fu, J; Mou, L; Lu, D-H; Cai, Y; Luo, X-G; Pan, A; Yan, X-X

    2014-02-14

    Immature neurons expressing doublecortin (DCX+) are present around cortical layer II in various mammals including guinea pigs and humans, especially enriched in the paleocortex. However, little is known whether and how functional experience affects the development of this population of neurons. We attempted to explore a modulation by experience to layer II DCX+ cells in the primary olfactory cortex in postnatal and adult guinea pigs. Neonatal and 1-year-old guinea pigs were subjected to unilateral naris-occlusion, followed 1 and 2months later by morphometry of DCX+ cells in the piriform cortex. DCX+ somata and processes were reduced in the deprived relative to the non-deprived piriform cortex in both age groups at the two surviving time points. The number of DCX+ cells was decreased in the deprived side relative to internal control at 1 and 2months in the youths and at 2months in the adults post-occlusion. The mean somal area of DCX+ cells showed a trend of decrease in the deprived side relative to the internal control in the youths. In addition, DCX+ cells in the deprived side exhibited a lower frequency of colocalization with the neuron-specific nuclear antigen (NeuN) relative to counterparts. These results suggest that normal olfactory experience is required for the maintenance and development of DCX+ immature neurons in postnatal and adult guinea pig piriform cortex.

  17. Fgf10-expressing tanycytes add new neurons to the appetite/energy-balance regulating centers of the postnatal and adult hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Haan, Niels; Goodman, Timothy; Najdi-Samiei, Alaleh; Stratford, Christina M; Rice, Ritva; El Agha, Elie; Bellusci, Saverio; Hajihosseini, Mohammad K

    2013-04-03

    Increasing evidence suggests that neurogenesis occurs in the postnatal and adult mammalian hypothalamus. However, the identity and location of the putative progenitor cells is under much debate, and little is known about the dynamics of neurogenesis in unchallenged brain. Previously, we postulated that Fibroblast growth factor 10-expressing (Fgf10(+)) tanycytes constitute a population of progenitor cells in the mouse hypothalamus. Here, we show that Fgf10(+) tanycytes express markers of neural stem/progenitor cells, divide late into postnatal life, and can generate both neurons and astrocytes in vivo. Stage-specific lineage-tracing of Fgf10(+) tanycytes using Fgf10-creERT2 mice, reveals robust neurogenesis at postnatal day 28 (P28), lasting as late as P60. Furthermore, we present evidence for amplification of Fgf10-lineage traced neural cells within the hypothalamic parenchyma itself. The neuronal descendants of Fgf10(+) tanycytes predominantly populate the arcuate nucleus, a subset of which express the orexigenic neuronal marker, Neuropeptide-Y, and respond to fasting and leptin-induced signaling. These studies provide direct evidence in support of hypothalamic neurogenesis during late postnatal and adult life, and identify Fgf10(+) tanycytes as a source of parenchymal neurons with putative roles in appetite and energy balance.

  18. Pre and post-natal antigen exposure can program the stress axis of adult zebra finches: evidence for environment matching

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Loren; Grindstaff, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Both maternal exposure to stressors and exposure of offspring to stressors during early life can have lifelong effects on the physiology and behavior of offspring. Stress exposure can permanently shape an individual’s phenotype by influencing the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is responsible for the production and regulation of glucocorticoids such as corticosterone (CORT). In this study we used captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to examine the effects of matching and mismatching maternal and early post-natal exposure to one of two types of antigens or a control on HPA axis reactivity in adult offspring. Prior to breeding, adult females were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or a control. Offspring of females in each of the three treatments were themselves exposed to LPS, KLH or a control injection at 5 and 28 days post-hatch. When offspring were at least 18 months of age, standardized capture and restraint stress tests were conducted to determine the impact of the treatments on adult stress responsiveness. We found significant interaction effects between maternal and offspring treatments on stress-induced CORT levels, and evidence in support of the environment matching hypothesis for KLH-treated birds not LPS-treated birds. KLH-treated offspring of KLH-treated mothers exhibited reduced stress-induced CORT levels, whereas LPS-treated or control offspring of KLH-treated mothers exhibited elevated stress-induced CORT levels. Although the treatment effects on baseline CORT were non-significant, the overall pattern was similar to the effects observed on stress-induced CORT levels. Our results highlight the complex nature of HPA axis programming, and to our knowledge, provide the first evidence that a match or mismatch between pre and post-natal antigen exposure can have life-long consequences for HPA axis function. PMID:25535860

  19. Pioglitazone in adult rats reverses immediate postnatal overfeeding-induced metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory alterations.

    PubMed

    Boullu-Ciocca, S; Tassistro, V; Dutour, A; Grino, M

    2015-12-01

    Immediate postnatal overfeeding in rats, obtained by reducing the litter size, results in early-onset obesity. Such experimental paradigm programs overweight, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, increased adipose glucocorticoid metabolism [up-regulation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1)], and overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines in mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT) in adulthood. We studied the effects of pioglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, treatment on the above-mentioned overfeeding-induced alterations. Nine-month-old rats normofed or overfed during the immediate postnatal period were given pioglitazone (3 mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks. Pioglitazone stimulated weight gain and induced a redistribution of adipose tissue toward epididymal location with enhanced plasma adiponectin. Treatment normalized postnatal overfeeding-induced metabolic alterations (increased fasting insulinemia and free fatty acids) and mesenteric overexpression of GR, 11β-HSD11, CD 68, and proinflammatory cytokines mRNAs, including plasminogen-activator inhibitor type 1. Mesenteric GR mRNA levels correlated positively with mesenteric proinflammatory cytokines mRNA concentrations. In vitro incubation of MAT obtained from overfed rats demonstrated that pioglitazone induced a down-regulation of GR gene expression and normalized glucocorticoid-induced stimulation of 11β-HSD1 and plasminogen-activator inhibitor type 1 mRNAs. Our data show for the first time that the metabolic, endocrine, and inflammatory alterations induced by early-onset postnatal obesity can be reversed by pioglitazone at the adulthood. They demonstrate that pioglitazone, in addition to its well-established effect on adipose tissue redistribution and adiponectin secretion, reverses programing-induced adipose GR, 11β-HSD1, and proinflammatory cytokines overexpression, possibly through a GR-dependent mechanism.

  20. Early postnatal maternal deprivation in rats induces memory deficits in adult life that can be reversed by donepezil and galantamine.

    PubMed

    Benetti, Fernando; Mello, Pâmela Billig; Bonini, Juliana Sartori; Monteiro, Siomara; Cammarota, Martín; Izquierdo, Iván

    2009-02-01

    Early postnatal maternal deprivation is known to cause long-lasting neurobiological effects. Here, we investigated whether some of the cognitive aspects of these deficits might be related to a disruption of the cholinergic system. Pregnant Wistar rats were individually housed and maintained on a 12:12h light/dark cycle with food and water freely available. The mothers were separated from their pups for 3h per day from postnatal day 1 (PND-1) to PND-10. To do that, the dams were moved to a different cage and the pups maintained in the original home cage, which was transferred to a different room kept at 32 degrees C. After they reached 120-150 days of age, maternal-deprived and non-deprived animals were either sacrificed for brain acetylcholinesterase measurement, or trained and tested in an object recognition task and in a social recognition task as described by Rossato et al. (2007) [Rossato, J.I., Bevilaqua, L. R.M., Myskiw, J.C., Medina, J.H., Izquierdo, I., Cammarota, M. 2007. On the role hippocampal synthesis in the consolidation and reconsolidation of object recognition memory. Learn. Mem. 14, 36-46] and Lévy et al. (2003) [Lévy, F., Melo. A.I., Galef. B.G. Jr., Madden, M., Fleming. A.S. 2003. Complete maternal deprivation affects social, but not spatial, learning in adult rats. Dev. Psychobiol. 43, 177-191], respectively. There was increased acetylcholinesterase activity in hippocampus and perirhinal cortex of the deprived animals. In addition, they showed a clear impairment in memory of the two recognition tasks measured 24h after training. Oral administration of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, donepezil or galantamine (1mg/kg) 30min before training reversed the memory impairments caused by maternal deprivation. The findings suggest that maternal deprivation affects memory processing at adulthood through a change in brain cholinergic systems.

  1. Blockade of NMDA receptors in postnatal period decreased density of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive axonal arbors in the medial prefrontal cortex of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Wedzony, K; Fijał, K; Chocyk, A

    2005-06-01

    Malfunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission in postnatal period is considered to be a risk factor for development of schizophrenia. Thus, the present study investigates the impact of NMDA receptor blockade in the postnatal period on the density of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive axonal arbors in the rat medial prefrontal cortex. Behavioral experiments revealed that adult rats (60 days old) treated in the postnatal period with a competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors, CGP 40116 (1.25 mg/kg on days 1, 3, 6, 9; 2.5 mg/kg on days 12, 15, 18; and finally 5 mg/kg on day 21, all injections s.c.), showed enhancement of the locomotor activity stimulated by quinpirole (0.3 mg/kg s.c.) and amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg s.c.), which suggests development of functional supersensitivity of dopaminergic systems. It has been found that CGP 40116, given in postnatal period decreased the density of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive axonal arbors in the medial prefrontal cortex of adult animals. The decrease was observed in superficial (II/III) and deep (V/VI) layers of the medial prefrontal cortex, while the average length of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive axonal arbors was increased in both superficial and deep cortical layers. Changes in the density of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive axonal arbors have not been followed by a significant decrease in the content of tyrosine hydroxylase protein measured by Western blot. Thus, NMDA receptor blockade in the early period of life evokes changes in architecture of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive axonal arbors and that malfunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission, in early period of life may produce anatomical changes which resemble those observed in the brains of schizophrenics.

  2. Airway ion transport on the first postnatal day in infants delivered vaginally or by elective cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Erol A; Shaw, Nigel J; Wallace, Helen L; Subhedar, Nimish V; Southern, Kevin W

    2003-07-01

    To determine airway ion transport in term infants on the first day of postnatal life, and to test the hypothesis that infants born without labor have reduced sodium absorption, we measured nasal potential difference using a modified perfusion protocol suitable for newborn infants. We examined maximal stable baseline potential difference, the change after perfusion with 10(-4) M amiloride (Deltaamil), and the change after perfusion with a zero-chloride solution (Deltazero Cl-) in infants born after elective cesarean section (n = 21) or normal labor (n = 20). Maximal stable baseline potential difference was not different in the two cohorts (-24.0 mV, range -9 to -64 mV versus -25.5 mV, range -6 to -44 mV). The majority of infants in both cohorts showed a substantial fall in potential difference after amiloride perfusion, and there was little capacity for chloride secretion. These results demonstrate a fluid absorptive pattern in the airways on the first postnatal day. In these well infants, the ion transport phenotype was not dependent on the presence or absence of labor.

  3. The effect of in vivo hydrocortisone administration on the labelling index and size of chromaffin tissue in the postnatal and adult mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Monkhouse, W S

    1986-01-01

    Hydrocortisone administration in vivo to neonatal mice for seven days led to a significant increase in both the size and the labelling index of extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue (as represented by the para-aortic body) of 8 days old mice. In untreated animals at this age, the para-aortic body was in most cases too small to obtain a valid labelling index. In the para-aortic bodies of 14 days old, 21 days old and adult mice, the extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue was too dispersed to obtain values for either volumetric analysis or labelling indices, and hydrocortisone was without significant effect in promoting a hyperplastic response. In the postnatal adrenal medulla at all ages studied, hydrocortisone had no effect on the medullary size or on the labelling indices of either adrenaline- or noradrenaline-storing cells, although it led to a marked diminution of adrenocortical volume. The relative proportion of adrenaline-storing cells increased between the values for 8 days old animals and those for adults; this was unaffected by hydrocortisone. The cortico-medullary ratio remained unchanged from the eighth postnatal day onwards. The results are discussed and related to those of other workers. It is suggested that factors as yet unknown might modulate the response to corticosteroids of developing intra- and extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:3693040

  4. Range of motion (ROM) restriction influences quipazine-induced stepping behavior in postnatal day one and day ten rats.

    PubMed

    Strain, Misty M; Brumley, Michele R

    2014-11-01

    Previous research has shown that neonatal rats can adapt their stepping behavior in response to sensory feedback in real-time. The current study examined real-time and persistent effects of ROM (range of motion) restriction on stepping in P1 and P10 rats. On the day of testing, rat pups were suspended in a sling. After a 5-min baseline, they were treated with the serotonergic receptor agonist quipazine (3.0mg/kg) or saline (vehicle control). Half of the pups had a Plexiglas plate placed beneath them at 50% of limb length to induce a period of ROM restriction during stepping. The entire test session included a 5-min baseline, 15-min ROM restriction, and 15-min post-ROM restriction periods. Following treatment with quipazine, there was an increase in both fore- and hindlimb total movement and alternated steps in P1 and P10 pups. P10 pups also showed more synchronized steps than P1 pups. During the ROM restriction period, there was a suppression of forelimb movement and synchronized steps. We did not find evidence of persistent effects of ROM restriction on the amount of stepping. However, real-time and persistent changes in intralimb coordination occurred. Developmental differences also were seen in the time course of stepping between P1 and P10 pups, with P10 subjects showing show less stepping than younger pups. These results suggest that sensory feedback modulates locomotor activity during the period of development in which the neural mechanisms of locomotion are undergoing rapid development.

  5. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... it is co-located in a nursing home, domiciliary, or other care facility, must have its own separate... (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.160 Adult day health care... necessary to accommodate an increased quality of care for patients, an adult day health care...

  6. 38 CFR 59.160 - Adult day health care requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... it is co-located in a nursing home, domiciliary, or other care facility, must have its own separate... (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.160 Adult day health care... necessary to accommodate an increased quality of care for patients, an adult day health care...

  7. Adult Day Care--Extended Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bert Kruger

    This pamphlet describes a multi-purpose day-care center for the elderly in Abilene, Texas which is intended to fill the "extended family" role of offering companionship, medical attention, and other aspects of concern to older persons in the community. The goals of the program are as follows: (1) to keep individuals out of institutions…

  8. Adult Day Care--Extended Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bert K.

    This booklet reports on a community project in Texas involving a day care center for senior citizens. It contains an analysis of successes and failures in attempting to satisfy the project's goals of: (l) keeping individuals out of institutions as long as possible; (2) providing social contact and enrichment experiences; (3) making the burden…

  9. Strain dependent effects of conditioned fear in adult C57Bl/6 and Balb/C mice following postnatal exposure to chlorpyrifos: relation to expression of brain acetylcholinesterase mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Oriel, Sarit; Kofman, Ora

    2015-01-01

    Following reports of emotional psychopathology in children and adults exposed to organophosphates, the effects of postnatal chlorpyrifos (CPF) on fear-conditioning and depression-like behaviors were tested in adult mice. Concomitant changes in expression of mRNA for synaptic and soluble splice variants of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were examined in mouse pups and adults of the Balb/C and C57Bl/6 (B6) strains, which differ in their behavioral and hormonal stress response. Mice were injected subcutaneously with 1 mg/kg CPF on postnatal days 4–10 and tested as adults for conditioned fear, sucrose preference, and forced swim. Acetylcholinesterase activity was assessed in the brains of pups on the first and last day of treatment. Expression of soluble and synaptic AChE mRNA was assessed in brains of treated pups and fear-conditioned adults using real-time PCR. Adult Balb/C mice exposed postnatally to CPF showed exacerbated fear-conditioning and impaired active avoidance. Adult B6 mice exposed postnatally to CPF showed a more specific fear response to tones and less freezing in the inter-tone intervals, in contrast to the vehicle-pretreated mice. Chlorpyrifos also attenuated sweet preference and enhanced climbing in the forced swim test. Chlorpyrifos-treated mice had increased expression of both synaptic and readthrough AChE transcripts in the hippocampus of Balb/C mice and decreased expression in the amygdala following fear-conditioning. In conclusion, postnatal CPF had long-term effects on fear and depression, as well as on expression of AChE mRNA. These changes may be related to alteration in the interaction between hippocampus and amygdala in regulating negative emotions. PMID:25972795

  10. Ectopic Atoh1 expression drives Merkel cell production in embryonic, postnatal and adult mouse epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Ostrowski, Stephen M.; Wright, Margaret C.; Bolock, Alexa M.; Geng, Xuehui; Maricich, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cells are mechanosensitive skin cells whose production requires the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Atoh1. We induced ectopic Atoh1 expression in the skin of transgenic mice to determine whether Atoh1 was sufficient to create additional Merkel cells. In embryos, ectopic Atoh1 expression drove ectopic expression of the Merkel cell marker keratin 8 (K8) throughout the epidermis. Epidermal Atoh1 induction in adolescent mice similarly drove widespread K8 expression in glabrous skin of the paws, but in the whisker pads and body skin ectopic K8+ cells were confined to hair follicles and absent from interfollicular regions. Ectopic K8+ cells acquired several characteristics of mature Merkel cells in a time frame similar to that seen during postnatal development of normal Merkel cells. Although ectopic K8+ cell numbers decreased over time, small numbers of these cells remained in deep regions of body skin hair follicles at 3 months post-induction. In adult mice, greater numbers of ectopic K8+ cells were created by Atoh1 induction during anagen versus telogen and following disruption of Notch signaling by conditional deletion of Rbpj in the epidermis. Our data demonstrate that Atoh1 expression is sufficient to produce new Merkel cells in the epidermis, that epidermal cell competency to respond to Atoh1 varies by skin location, developmental age and hair cycle stage, and that the Notch pathway plays a key role in limiting epidermal cell competency to respond to Atoh1 expression. PMID:26138479

  11. Ectopic Atoh1 expression drives Merkel cell production in embryonic, postnatal and adult mouse epidermis.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Stephen M; Wright, Margaret C; Bolock, Alexa M; Geng, Xuehui; Maricich, Stephen M

    2015-07-15

    Merkel cells are mechanosensitive skin cells whose production requires the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Atoh1. We induced ectopic Atoh1 expression in the skin of transgenic mice to determine whether Atoh1 was sufficient to create additional Merkel cells. In embryos, ectopic Atoh1 expression drove ectopic expression of the Merkel cell marker keratin 8 (K8) throughout the epidermis. Epidermal Atoh1 induction in adolescent mice similarly drove widespread K8 expression in glabrous skin of the paws, but in the whisker pads and body skin ectopic K8+ cells were confined to hair follicles and absent from interfollicular regions. Ectopic K8+ cells acquired several characteristics of mature Merkel cells in a time frame similar to that seen during postnatal development of normal Merkel cells. Although ectopic K8+ cell numbers decreased over time, small numbers of these cells remained in deep regions of body skin hair follicles at 3 months post-induction. In adult mice, greater numbers of ectopic K8+ cells were created by Atoh1 induction during anagen versus telogen and following disruption of Notch signaling by conditional deletion of Rbpj in the epidermis. Our data demonstrate that Atoh1 expression is sufficient to produce new Merkel cells in the epidermis, that epidermal cell competency to respond to Atoh1 varies by skin location, developmental age and hair cycle stage, and that the Notch pathway plays a key role in limiting epidermal cell competency to respond to Atoh1 expression.

  12. Receptor for advanced glycation end products contributes to postnatal pulmonary development and adult lung maintenance program in mice.

    PubMed

    Fineschi, Silvia; De Cunto, Giovanna; Facchinetti, Fabrizio; Civelli, Maurizio; Imbimbo, Bruno P; Carnini, Chiara; Villetti, Gino; Lunghi, Benedetta; Stochino, Stefania; Gibbons, Deena L; Hayday, Adrian; Lungarella, Giuseppe; Cavarra, Eleonora

    2013-02-01

    The role of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in promoting the inflammatory response through activation of NF-κB pathway is well established. Recent findings indicate that RAGE may also have a regulative function in apoptosis, as well as in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and adhesion. Unlike other organs, lung tissue in adulthood and during organ development shows relatively high levels of RAGE expression. Thus a role for the receptor in lung organogenesis and homeostasis may be proposed. To evaluate the role of RAGE in lung development and adult lung homeostasis, we generated hemizygous and homozygous transgenic mice overexpressing human RAGE, and analyzed their lungs from the fourth postnatal day to adulthood. Moderate RAGE hyperexpression during lung development influenced secondary septation, resulting in an impairment of alveolar morphogenesis and leading to significant changes in morphometric parameters such as airspace number and the size of alveolar ducts. An increase in alveolar cell apoptosis and a decrease in cell proliferation were demonstrated by the terminal deoxy-nucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling reaction, active caspase-3, and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry. Alterations in elastin organization and deposition and in TGF-β expression were observed. In homozygous mice, the hyperexpression of RAGE resulted in histological changes resembling those changes characterizing human bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). RAGE hyperexpression in the adult lung is associated with an increase of the alveolar destructive index and persistent inflammatory status leading to "destructive" emphysema. These results suggest an important role for RAGE in both alveolar development and lung homeostasis, and open new doors to working hypotheses on the pathogenesis of BPD and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  13. [Comparative study of the long-term behavioral effects of noopept and piracetam in adult male rats and female rats in postnatal period].

    PubMed

    Voronina, T A; Guzevatykh, L S; Trofimov, S S

    2005-01-01

    Adult male and female rats were treated with the peptide nootrope drug noopept (daily dose, 0.1 mg/kg) and piracetam (200 mg/kg). In the period from 8th to 20th day, both drugs (cognitive enhancers) suppressed the horizontal and vertical activity and the anxiety in test animals as compared to the control group treated with 0.9 % aqueous NaCl solution. Early postnatal injections of the nootropes influenced neither the morphology development nor the behavior of adult female rats in the plus maze, extrapolational escape, passive avoidance, and pain sensitivity threshold tests. Animals in the "intact" group (having received neither drugs not physiological solution, that is, developing in a poor sensor environment), showed less pronounced habituation in the open field test as compared to the control and drug treated groups.

  14. Changes in adrenoceptors and monoamine metabolism in neonatal and adult rat brain after postnatal exposure to the antihypertensive labetalol.

    PubMed Central

    Erdtsieck-Ernste, E. B.; Feenstra, M. G.; Botterblom, M. H.; De Barrios, J.; Boer, G. J.

    1992-01-01

    1. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the acute (single injection), direct (chronic treatment) and the long-lasting effects after exposure to the alpha 1/beta-adrenoceptor antagonist labetalol during rat brain development on adrenoceptors and monoamine metabolism. 2. In 10-day-old rat pups, subcutaneously administered labetalol (10 mg kg-1) passed the blood-brain barrier, reaching a level of 2.1 micrograms g-1 tissue in the brain 90 min after injection. 3. Chronic labetalol treatment (10 mg kg-1, s.c., twice daily) during the first 10 days of life significantly increased alpha 1-adrenoceptor binding in the hypothalamus (+39%), but not in the occipital cortex. 4. This chronic postnatal labetalol treatment did not result in long-lasting changes in alpha 1- and beta-receptors measured on day 60. 5. A single labetalol injection (10 mg kg-1, s.c.) on postnatal day 10 significantly increased noradrenaline (NA) metabolism in all brain regions tested (+25 to 105%), but had no effects on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or dopamine metabolism. 6. Chronic labetalol treatment between postnatal (PN) days 1 and 10 also increased NA metabolism on PN 10 (3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG)/NA, +20 to 100%), suggesting that tolerance to the acute effect of labetalol did not occur. A slight increase in 5-HT metabolism (20%) was induced by the chronic labetalol treatment in the hippocampus and meso-limbic system. 7. In general, long-lasting effects on NA metabolism could not be detected on day 60 more than one month after the treatment. However, 5-HT metabolism was significantly increased in all four brain regions measured (+20 to 70%). 8. We conclude that chronic labetalol exposure during early postnatal rat brain development does not cause long-lasting changes in beta-receptor number or NA metabolism, but appears to be critical for the rate of 5-HT metabolism in later life. PMID:1596689

  15. In utero and lactational exposure to ammonium perchlorate in drinking water: effects on developing deer mice at postnatal day 21.

    PubMed

    Thuett, Kerry A; Roots, Ellen H; Mitchell, Lisa P; Gentles, B Angella; Anderson, Todd A; Smith, Ernest E

    2002-08-09

    The effects of in utero and lactational exposure to ammonium perchlorate (AP), a component of rocket fuel and a thyroid toxicant, on developing deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were evaluated. Breeding pairs were dosed continuously with 0, 1 nM, 1 micro M, or 1 mM AP in drinking water, from cohabitation until pups were euthanized at postnatal day (PND) 21. Pups from the second litter were used for evaluation in this study. No significant differences were observed in any analysis performed when litter means were used in statistical analysis. All reported significant differences occurred when statistical analysis was performed on individual pup data. Body weights were significantly different between treatments at PND 5 and PND 20, with the 1- micro M body weights being lower than that of controls. Body weight and liver weight in the 1-mM group were significantly higher than the 1- micro M weights at PND 21 when analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). However, there were no significant differences in liver weights when analyzed with body weight as the covariate. Heart weights were significantly different between males and females. Male heart weights in the 1- microM and 1-mM groups were significantly lower than in controls when analyzed by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with body weight as the covariate. Litter size and survival percentage were not significantly different among treatments. Although significant differences were observed only when the individual pup was used as the experimental unit, these data suggest that AP exposure at different concentrations may variably alter body weight and male heart weight during mammalian development.

  16. Postnatal exposure to a high-carbohydrate diet interferes epigenetically with thyroid hormone receptor induction of the adult male rat skeletal muscle glucose transporter isoform 4 expression.

    PubMed

    Raychaudhuri, Nupur; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Srinivasan, Malathi; Mahmood, Saleh; Patel, Mulchand S; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2014-10-01

    Early life nutritional intervention causes adult-onset insulin resistance and obesity in rats. Thyroid hormone receptor (TR), in turn, transcriptionally enhances skeletal muscle Glut4 expression. We tested the hypothesis that reduced circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone and T4 concentrations encountered in postnatal (PN4-PN24) high-carbohydrate (HC) milk formula-fed versus the mother-fed controls (MF) would epigenetically interfere with TR induction of adult (100 days) male rat skeletal muscle Glut4 expression, thereby providing a molecular mechanism mediating insulin resistance. We observed increased DNA methylation of the CpG island with enhanced recruitment of Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b and MeCP2 in the glut4 promoter region along with reduced acetylation of histone (H)2A.Z and H4 particularly at the H4.lysine (K)16 residue, which was predominantly mediated by histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4). This was followed by enhanced recruitment of heterochromatin protein 1β to the glut4 promoter with increased Suv39H1 methylase concentrations. These changes reduced TR binding of the T3 response element of the glut4 gene (TREs; -473 to -450 bp) detected qualitatively in vivo (electromobility shift assay) and quantified ex vivo (chromatin immunoprecipitation). In addition, the recruitment of steroid receptor coactivator and CREB-binding protein to the glut4 promoter-protein complex was reduced. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed the interaction between TR and CBP to be reduced and HDAC4 to be enhanced in HC versus MF groups. These molecular changes were associated with diminished skeletal muscle Glut4 mRNA and protein concentrations. We conclude that early postnatal exposure to HC diet epigenetically reduced TR induction of adult male skeletal muscle Glut4 expression, uncovering novel molecular mechanisms contributing to adult insulin resistance and obesity.

  17. Adult Day Care for Alzheimer's Patients and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Dan; Suzuki, Thelma

    1983-01-01

    Harbor Area Adult Day Care Center has operated for two years with a primary purpose of providing respite care to families caring for a relative with Alzheimer's disease or related disorders. The rationale, history, program, staffing, funding, and experience for the first two years of the project are provided. (Author/RC)

  18. p38α MAPK regulates adult muscle stem cell fate by restricting progenitor proliferation during postnatal growth and repair.

    PubMed

    Brien, Patrick; Pugazhendhi, Dhamayanthi; Woodhouse, Samuel; Oxley, David; Pell, Jennifer M

    2013-08-01

    Stem cell function is essential for the maintenance of adult tissue homeostasis. Controlling the balance between self-renewal and differentiation is crucial to maintain a receptive satellite cell pool capable of responding to growth and regeneration cues. The mitogen-activated protein kinase p38α has been implicated in the regulation of these processes but its influence in adult muscle remains unknown. Using conditional satellite cell p38α knockout mice we have demonstrated that p38α restricts excess proliferation in the postnatal growth phase while promoting timely myoblast differentiation. Differentiation was still able to occur in the p38α-null satellite cells, however, but was delayed. An absence of p38α resulted in a postnatal growth defect along with the persistence of an increased reservoir of satellite cells into adulthood. This population was still capable of responding to cardiotoxin-induced injury, resulting in complete, albeit delayed, regeneration, with further enhancement of the satellite cell population. Increased p38γ phosphorylation accompanied the absence of p38α, and inhibition of p38γ ex vivo substantially decreased the myogenic defect. We have used genome-wide transcriptome analysis to characterize the changes in expression that occur between resting and regenerating muscle, and the influence p38α has on these expression profiles. This study provides novel evidence for the fundamental role of p38α in adult muscle homeostasis in vivo.

  19. Postnatal functional inactivation of the entorhinal cortex or ventral subiculum has different consequences for latent inhibition-related striatal dopaminergic responses in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Meyer, F; Peterschmitt, Y; Louilot, A

    2009-05-01

    Latent inhibition has been found to be disrupted in patients with acute schizophrenia. Striatal dopaminergic dysregulation is commonly acknowledged in schizophrenia. This disease may be consecutive to a functional disconnection between integrative regions, stemming from neurodevelopmental failures. Various anomalies suggesting early abnormal brain development have been described in the entorhinal cortex (ENT) and ventral subiculum (SUB) of patients. This study examines the consequences of a neonatal transitory blockade of the left ENT or left SUB for latent inhibition-related dopamine responses in the anterior part of the dorsal striatum using in-vivo voltammetry in freely moving adult rats. Reversible inactivation of both structures in different animals was achieved by local microinjection of tetrodotoxin (TTX) at postnatal day 8. Results obtained during the retention session of a three-stage latent inhibition protocol showed that the functional neonatal disconnection of the ENT or SUB caused the behavioural latent inhibition expression in pre-exposed (PE)-TTX-conditioned adult rats to disappear. After postnatal inactivation of the SUB, PE-TTX-conditioned rats displayed a reversal of the latent inhibition-related striatal dopamine responses, whereas after neonatal blockade of the ENT, dopamine changes in PE-TTX-conditioned rats monitored in the anterior striatum were between those observed in PE-phosphate-buffered-saline-conditioned and non-PE-TTX-conditioned animals. These data suggest that neonatal functional inactivation of the SUB disrupts latent inhibition-related striatal dopamine responses in adult animals more than that of the ENT. They may help improve understanding of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  20. Sleep characteristics of Veterans Affairs Adult Day Health Care participants.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Jaime M; Martin, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Addressing sleep disturbance can help to slow functional decline, delay nursing home admission, and improve overall health among older adults; however, sleep is not widely studied in high-risk older adults such as Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) participants. Sixty-eight ADHC participants were interviewed for sleep disturbance using a 28-item screening questionnaire. More than two thirds (n = 48, 70.6%) reported one or more characteristics of poor sleep, and 38% of participants met basic criteria for insomnia. Individuals with insomnia attended ADHC less frequently, reported worse sleep quality and shorter sleep duration, and were more likely to endorse trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, and waking up too early (ps < 0.001). Research is needed to better understand perceptions, predictors, and outcomes of sleep disturbance within ADHC participants.

  1. Chronic exposure of adult, postnatal and in utero rat models to low-dose 137Cesium: impact on circulating biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Manens, Line; Grison, Stéphane; Bertho, Jean-Marc; Lestaevel, Philippe; Guéguen, Yann; Benderitter, Marc; Aigueperse, Jocelyne; Souidi, Maâmar

    2016-01-01

    The presence of 137Cesium (137Cs) in the environment after nuclear accidents at Chernobyl and more recently Fukushima Daiichi raises many health issues for the surrounding populations chronically exposed through the food chain. To mimic different exposure situations, we set up a male rat model of exposure by chronic ingestion of a 137Cs concentration likely to be ingested daily by residents of contaminated areas (6500 Bq.l−1) and tested contaminations lasting 9 months for adult, neonatal and fetal rats. We tested plasma and serum biochemistry to identify disturbances in general indicators (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and electrolytes) and in biomarkers of thyroid, heart, brain, bone, kidney, liver and testis functions. Analysis of the general indicators showed increased levels of cholesterol (+26%), HDL cholesterol (+31%), phospholipids B (+15%) and phosphorus (+100%) in the postnatal group only. Thyroid, heart, brain, bone and kidney functions showed no blood changes in any model. The liver function evaluation showed changes in total bilirubin (+67%) and alkaline phosphatase (–11%) levels, but only for the rats exposed to 137Cs intake in adulthood. Large changes in 17β-estradiol (–69%) and corticosterone (+36%) levels affected steroidogenesis, but only in the adult model. This study showed that response profiles differed according to age at exposure: lipid metabolism was most radiosensitive in the postnatal model, and steroid hormone metabolism was most radiosensitive in rats exposed in adulthood. There was no evidence of deleterious effects suggesting a potential impact on fertility or procreation. PMID:27466399

  2. Creatine kinase isoenzymes in serum from cord blood and the blood of healthy full-term infants during the first three postnatal days.

    PubMed

    Jedeikin, R; Makela, S K; Shennan, A T; Rowe, R D; Ellis, G

    1982-02-01

    Isoenzymes of creatine kinase (ATP:creatine phosphotransferase; EC 2.7.3.2; CK) were measured by electrophoresis in serum from cord blood and skin-puncture blood taken from 45 healthy full-term infants during the first three postnatal days. Mean total CK activities (in U/L at 30 degrees C) were 185 in cord samples, 536 in samples taken between 5--8 h postnatally, 494 between 24--33 h, and 288 in the 72-100 h samples. Values for all three isoenzymes increased to a peak over this period, with the highest values generally being found in the samples taken 5--33 h after birth; the subsequent decline was most rapid for CK-BB. Serum CK isoenzymes in cord samples and those taken at 72--100 h in the 11 babies delivered by cesarian section did not differ significantly from those of babies delivered vaginally. However the postnatal increases in total CK, CK-MM, and CK-MB (but not in CK-BB) were significantly greater in those patients born by vaginal delivery. The reasons for the increases in CK isoenzymes after birth are not clear, but our results and reported studies on the ontogeny of CK suggest that CK-MB cannot be regarded as a "cardiac-specific" isoenzyme in the neonatal period.

  3. Glial glycine transporter 1 function is essential for early postnatal survival but dispensable in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Eulenburg, Volker; Retiounskaia, Marina; Papadopoulos, Theofilos; Gomeza, Jesús; Betz, Heinrich

    2010-07-01

    The glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) is expressed in astrocytes and selected neurons of the mammalian CNS. In newborn mice, GlyT1 is crucial for efficient termination of glycine-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission. Furthermore, GlyT1 has been implicated in the regulation of excitatory N-methyl-D-asparate (NMDA) receptors. To evaluate whether glial and neuronal GlyT1 have distinct roles at inhibitory synapses, we inactivated the GlyT1 gene cell type-specifically using mice carrying floxed GlyT1 alleles GlyT1((+)/+)). GlyT1((+)/(+)) mice expressing Cre recombinase in glial cells developed severe neuromotor deficits during the first postnatal week, which mimicked the phenotype of conventional GlyT1 knock-out mice and are consistent with glycinergic over-inhibition. In contrast, Cre-mediated inactivation of the GlyT1 gene in neuronal cells did not result in detectable motor impairment. Notably, some animals deficient for glial GlyT1 survived the first postnatal week and did not develop neuromotor deficits throughout adulthood, although GlyT1 expression was efficiently reduced. Thus, glial GlyT1 is critical for the regulation of glycine levels at inhibitory synapses only during early postnatal life.

  4. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.61 General requirements for adult day health care program. Adult day health care must be...

  5. 7 CFR 226.19a - Adult day care center provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adult day care center provisions. 226.19a Section 226... § 226.19a Adult day care center provisions. (a) Adult day care centers may participate in the Program... auspices of a for-profit sponsoring organization. Adult day care centers participating as...

  6. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.61 General requirements for adult day health care program. Adult day health care must be...

  7. 7 CFR 226.19a - Adult day care center provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adult day care center provisions. 226.19a Section 226... § 226.19a Adult day care center provisions. (a) Adult day care centers may participate in the Program... auspices of a for-profit sponsoring organization. Adult day care centers participating as...

  8. 7 CFR 226.19a - Adult day care center provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adult day care center provisions. 226.19a Section 226... § 226.19a Adult day care center provisions. (a) Adult day care centers may participate in the Program... auspices of a for-profit sponsoring organization. Adult day care centers participating as...

  9. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.61 General requirements for adult day health care program. Adult day health care must be...

  10. 7 CFR 226.19a - Adult day care center provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adult day care center provisions. 226.19a Section 226... § 226.19a Adult day care center provisions. (a) Adult day care centers may participate in the Program... auspices of a for-profit sponsoring organization. Adult day care centers participating as...

  11. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adult day health care program. 52.61 Section 52.61 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52.61 General requirements for adult day health care program. Adult day health care must be...

  12. Postnatal exposure to flutamide affects CDH1 and CTNNB1 gene expression in adult pig epididymis and prostate and alters metabolism of testosterone.

    PubMed

    Gorowska, E; Zarzycka, M; Chojnacka, K; Bilinska, B; Hejmej, A

    2014-03-01

    In both epididymis and prostate the dynamic cross-talk between the cells is hormonally regulated and, in part, through direct cell-to-cell interactions. Functionality of the male reproductive organs may be affected by exposure to specific chemicals, so-called 'reprotoxicants'. In this study we tested whether early postnatal and prepubertal exposure to anti-androgen flutamide altered the expression of adherens junction genes encoding E-cadherin (CDH1) and β-catenin (CTNNB1) in adult pig epididymis and prostate. In addition, the expression of mRNAs and proteins for 5α-reductase (ST5AR2) and aromatase (CYP19A1) were examined to show whether flutamide alters metabolism of testosterone. Thus, flutamide was injected into male piglets between Days 2 and 10 and between Days 90 and 98 postnatally (PD2 and PD90; 50 mg/kg bw), tissues that were obtained on postnatal Day 270. To assess the expression of the genes and proteins, real-time RT-PCR and Western blot were performed respectively. Moreover, adherens junction proteins were localized by immunohistochemistry. In response to flutamide, CDH1 and CTNNB1 expressions were down-regulated along the epididymis, mostly in PD2 group (p < 0.001, p < 0.01). In the prostate, CDH1 mRNA and protein expressions were significantly down-regulated (p < 0.01), whereas CTNNB1 mRNA was slightly up-regulated in both flutamide-treated groups. CTNNB1 protein level was markedly elevated in both PD2 (p < 0.001) and PD90 (p < 0.01) groups. In the epididymis, the expression of ST5AR2 and CYP19A1 was down- and up-regulated, respectively (p < 0.05), whereas in the prostate evident decrease in CYP19A1 expression (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, p < 0.05) was demonstrated. In both tissues, membranous immunolocalization of CTNNB1 suggests its involvement in cell-cell adhesion. Overall, flutamide administration resulted in suppression of androgen action in the epididymis and prostate leading to deregulation of CDH1 and CTNNB1 gene expressions which is probably

  13. Early postnatal stress alters extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in the corticolimbic system modulating emotional circuitry in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Shuhei; Saito, Yasuhiro; Yanagawa, Yoshiki; Otani, Satoru; Hiraide, Sachiko; Shimamura, Kei-ichi; Matsumoto, Machiko; Togashi, Hiroko

    2012-01-01

    The present study elucidated whether early life stress alters the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway that underlies fear retrieval and fear extinction based on a contextual fear conditioning paradigm, using a juvenile stress model. Levels of phospho-ERK (pERK), the active form of ERK, increased after fear retrieval in the hippocampal CA1 region but not in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). ERK activation in the CA1 following fear retrieval was not observed in adult rats who received aversive footshock (FS) stimuli during the second postnatal period (2wFS), which exhibited low levels of freezing. In fear extinction, pERK levels in the CA1 were increased by repeated extinction trials, but they were not altered after extinction retrieval. In contrast, pERK levels in the mPFC did not change during extinction training, but were enhanced after extinction retrieval. These findings were compatible in part with electrophysiological data showing that synaptic transmission in the CA1 field and mPFC was enhanced during extinction training and extinction retrieval, respectively. ERK activation in the CA1 and mPFC associated with extinction processes did not occur in rats that received FS stimuli during the third postnatal period (3wFS), which exhibited sustained freezing behavior. The repressed ERK signaling and extinction deficit observed in the 3wFS group were ameliorated by treatment with the partial N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist D-cycloserine. These findings suggest that early postnatal stress induced the downregulation of ERK signaling in distinct brain regions through region-specific regulation, which may lead to increased behavioral abnormalities or emotional vulnerabilities in adulthood.

  14. HOXA5 localization in postnatal and adult mouse brain is suggestive of regulatory roles in postmitotic neurons.

    PubMed

    Lizen, Benoit; Hutlet, Bertrand; Bissen, Diane; Sauvegarde, Deborah; Hermant, Maryse; Ahn, Marie-Thérèse; Gofflot, Françoise

    2017-04-01

    Hoxa5 is a member of the Hox gene family, which plays critical roles in successive steps of the central nervous system formation during embryonic and fetal development. Hoxa5 expression in the adult mouse brain has been reported, suggesting that this gene may be functionally required in the brain after birth. To provide further insight into the Hoxa5 expression pattern and potential functions in the brain, we have characterized its neuroanatomical profile from embryonic stages to adulthood. While most Hox mapping studies have been based solely on transcript analysis, we extended our analysis to HOXA5 protein localization in adulthood using specific antibodies. Our results show that Hoxa5 expression appears in the most caudal part of the hindbrain at fetal stages, where it is maintained until adulthood. In the medulla oblongata and pons, we detected Hoxa5 expression in many precerebellar neurons and in several nuclei implicated in the control of autonomic functions. In these territories, the HOXA5 protein is present solely in neurons, specifically in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic, glutamatergic, and catecholaminergic neurons. Finally, we also detected Hoxa5 transcripts, but not the HOXA5 protein, in the thalamus and the cortex, from postnatal stages to adult stages, and in the cerebellum at adulthood. We provide evidence that some larger variants of Hoxa5 transcripts are present in these territories. Our mapping analysis allowed us to build hypotheses regarding HOXA5 functions in the nervous system after birth, such as a potential role in the establishment and refinement/plasticity of precerebellar circuits during postnatal and adult life. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1155-1175, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Alternate-day dosing of itraconazole in healthy adult cats.

    PubMed

    Middleton, S M; Kubier, A; Dirikolu, L; Papich, M G; Mitchell, M A; Rubin, S I

    2016-02-01

    The current available formulations of itraconazole are not ideal for dosing in cats. The capsular preparation often does not allow for accurate dosing, the oral solution is difficult to administer and poorly tolerated, and the bioavailability of compounded formulations has been shown to be poor in other species. The aim of this study was to evaluate every other day dosing of 100 mg itraconazole capsule in healthy adult cats. Ten healthy adult cats received a 100 mg capsule of itraconazole orally every 48 h for 8 weeks. Peak and trough serum concentrations of itraconazole were measured weekly using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Physical examination, complete blood count (CBC), and chemistry profiles were performed weekly. The dosage regimen achieved average therapeutic trough concentrations (>0.5 μg/mL) within 3 weeks. The protocol yielded no adverse effects in 8 of the 10 study cats, with affected cats recovering fully with discontinuation of the drug and supportive care. At 8 weeks, an average peak concentration of 1.79 ± 0.952 μg/mL (95% CI: 0.996-2.588) and an average trough concentration of 0.761 ± 0.540 μg/mL (95% CI: 0.314-1.216) were achieved. Overall, a 100 mg every other day oral dosage regimen for itraconazole in cats yielded serum concentrations with minimal fluctuation and with careful monitoring may be considered for treatment of cats with systemic fungal disease.

  16. Enhancing Quality of Life of Families Who Use Adult Day Services: Short- and Long-Term Effects of the Adult Day Services Plus Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitlin, Laura N.; Reever, Karen; Dennis, Marie P.; Mathieu, Esther; Hauck, Walter W.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the short- and long-term effects of Adult Day Services Plus (ADS Plus), a low-cost care management intervention designed to enhance family caregiver well-being, increase service utilization, and decrease nursing home placement of impaired older adults enrolled in adult day care. Design and Methods: We used a…

  17. Postnatal development of phrenic motoneurons in the cat.

    PubMed

    Cameron, W E; Brozanski, B S; Guthrie, R D

    1990-01-01

    The postnatal growth of phrenic motoneurons in the cat was studied using retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The mean somal surface area of these developing motoneurons increased 2.5 times from day 3 to adult while the mean somal volume increased four-fold. This change in mean somal surface area during postnatal development was found to be correlated with the change in mean axonal conduction velocity measured from phrenic motoneurons.

  18. Significant long-term, but not short-term, hippocampal-dependent memory impairment in adult rats exposed to alcohol in early postnatal life.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, Molly J; Lindquist, Derick H

    2014-09-01

    In rodents, ethanol exposure in early postnatal life is known to induce structural and functional impairments throughout the brain, including the hippocampus. Herein, rat pups were administered one of three ethanol doses over postnatal days (PD) 4-9, a period of brain development comparable to the third trimester of human pregnancy. As adults, control and ethanol rats were trained and tested in a variant of hippocampal-dependent one-trial context fear conditioning. In Experiment 1, subjects were placed into a novel context and presented with an immediate footshock (i.e., within ∼8 sec). When re-exposed to the same context 24 hr later low levels of conditioned freezing were observed. Context pre-exposure 24 hr prior to the immediate shock reversed the deficit in sham-intubated and unintubated control rats, enhancing freezing behavior during the context retention test. Even with context pre-exposure, however, significant dose-dependent reductions in contextual freezing were seen in ethanol rats. In Experiment 2, the interval between context pre-exposure and the immediate shock was shortened to 2 hr, in addition to the standard 24 hr. Ethanol rats trained with the 2 hr, but not 24 hr, interval displayed retention test freezing levels roughly equal to controls. Results suggest the ethanol rats can encode a short-term context memory and associate it with the aversive footshock 2 hr later. In the 24 hr ethanol rats the short-term context memory is poorly transferred or consolidated into long-term memory, we propose, impeding the memory's subsequent retrieval and association with shock.

  19. QuickStats: Percentage of Adult Day Services Center Participants, by Selected Diagnoses

    MedlinePlus

    ... MMWR ) MMWR Share Compartir QuickStats: Percentage of Adult Day Services Center Participants,* by Selected Diagnoses † — National Study ... which is the estimated number of enrolled adult day services center participants in the United States on ...

  20. 38 CFR 52.61 - General requirements for adult day health care program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) PER DIEM FOR ADULT DAY HEALTH CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES Standards § 52... knowledge and skills necessary to manage care requirements in the home. Adult day health care is...

  1. Postnatal dysregulation of Notch signal disrupts dendrite development of adult-born neurons in the hippocampus and contributes to memory impairment

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xue-Feng; Gao, Xiang; Ding, Xin-Chun; Fan, Ming; Chen, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in the Notch pathway are involved in a number of neurologic diseases associated with mental retardation or/and dementia. The mechanisms by which Notch dysregulation are associated with mental retardation and dementia are poorly understood. We found that Notch1 is highly expressed in the adult-born immature neurons in the hippocampus of mice. Retrovirus mediated knockout of notch1 in single adult-born immature neurons decreases mTOR signaling and compromises their dendrite morphogenesis. In contrast, overexpression of Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD), to constitutively activate Notch signaling in single adult-born immature neurons, promotes mTOR signaling and increases their dendrite arborization. Using a unique genetic approach to conditionally and selectively knockout notch 1 in the postnatally born immature neurons in the hippocampus decreases mTOR signaling, compromises their dendrite morphogenesis, and impairs spatial learning and memory. Conditional overexpression of NICD in the postnatally born immature neurons in the hippocampus increases mTOR signaling and promotes dendrite arborization. These data indicate that Notch signaling plays a critical role in dendrite development of immature neurons in the postnatal brain, and dysregulation of Notch signaling in the postnatally born neurons disrupts their development and thus contributes to the cognitive deficits associated with neurological diseases. PMID:27173138

  2. Glial glucokinase expression in adult and post-natal development of the hypothalamic region.

    PubMed

    Millán, Carola; Martínez, Fernando; Cortés-Campos, Christian; Lizama, Isabel; Yañez, Maria Jose; Llanos, Paula; Reinicke, Karin; Rodríguez, Federico; Peruzzo, Bruno; Nualart, Francisco; García, Maria Angeles

    2010-05-25

    It has recently been proposed that hypothalamic glial cells sense glucose levels and release lactate as a signal to activate adjacent neurons. GK (glucokinase), the hexokinase involved in glucose sensing in pancreatic beta-cells, is also expressed in the hypothalamus. However, it has not been clearly determined if glial and/or neuronal cells express this protein. Interestingly, tanycytes, the glia that cover the ventricular walls of the hypothalamus, are in contact with CSF (cerebrospinal fluid), the capillaries of the arcuate nucleus and adjacent neurons; this would be expected for a system that can detect and communicate changes in glucose concentration. Here, we demonstrated by Western-blot analysis, QRT-PCR [quantitative RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR)] and in situ hybridization that GK is expressed in tanycytes. Confocal microscopy and immuno-ultrastructural analysis revealed that GK is localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm of beta1-tanycytes. Furthermore, GK expression increased in these cells during the second week of post-natal development. Based on this evidence, we propose that tanycytes mediate, at least in part, the mechanism by which the hypothalamus detects changes in glucose concentrations.

  3. Impact of birth weight and postnatal diet on the gut microbiota of young adult guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Al, Kait; Sarr, Ousseynou; Dunlop, Kristyn; Gloor, Gregory B.; Reid, Gregor; Regnault, Timothy R.H.

    2017-01-01

    Background The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota is essential to metabolic health, and the prevalence of the Western diet (WD) high in fat and sugar is increasing, with evidence highlighting a negative interaction between the GIT and WD, resulting in liver dysfunction. Additionally, an adverse in utero environment such as placental insufficiency resulting in low birth weight (LBW) offspring, contributes to an increased risk of metabolic diseases such as fatty liver infiltration and liver dysfunction in later life. We sought to understand the potential interactive effects of exposure to a WD upon growing LBW offspring. We postulated that LBW offspring when challenged with a poor postnatal diet, would display an altered microbiota and more severe liver metabolic dysfunction. Methods The fecal microbiota of normal birth weight (NBW) and LBW young guinea pig offspring, weaned onto either a control diet (CD) or WD was determined with 16S rRNA gene next generation sequencing at young adulthood following the early rapid growth phase after weaning. A liver blood chemistry profile was also performed. Results The life-long consumption of WD following weaning into young adulthood resulted in increased total cholesterol, triglycerides and alanine aminotransferase levels in association with an altered GIT microbiota when compared to offspring consuming CD. Neither birth weight nor sex were associated with any significant changes in microbiota alpha diversity, by measuring the Shannon’s diversity index. One hundred forty-eight operational taxonomic units were statistically distinct between the diet groups, independent of birth weight. In the WD group, significant decreases were detected in Barnesiella, Methanobrevibacter smithii and relatives of Oscillospira guillermondii, while Butyricimonas and Bacteroides spp. were increased. Discussion These results describe the GIT microbiota in a guinea pig model of LBW and WD associated metabolic syndrome and highlight several WD

  4. The postnatal growth of motoneurons at three levels of the cat neuraxis.

    PubMed

    Cameron, W E; Fang, H; Brozanski, B S; Guthrie, R D

    1989-10-09

    The postnatal growth of motoneuron cell bodies located in the brainstem, cervical and lumbosacral spinal cord was investigated using retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase in kittens ages 2, 12, 30, 55, 82 and 114 postnatal days and in an adult. The motoneurons innervating an extrinsic tongue muscle, the genioglossus, reached their adult size by eight weeks after birth. In contrast, the phrenic motoneurons innervating the diaphragm achieved adult size by 12 weeks and the motoneurons innervating the medial gastrocnemius muscle continued to grow beyond the twelfth postnatal week. The sizes of these motoneurons relative to one another remained constant during periods of development.

  5. Day-to-day dynamics of experience--cortisol associations in a population-based sample of older adults.

    PubMed

    Adam, Emma K; Hawkley, Louise C; Kudielka, Brigitte M; Cacioppo, John T

    2006-11-07

    In 156 older adults, day-to-day variations in cortisol diurnal rhythms were predicted from both prior-day and same-day experiences, to examine the temporal ordering of experience-cortisol associations in naturalistic environments. Diary reports of daily psychosocial, emotional, and physical states were completed at bedtime on each of three consecutive days. Salivary cortisol levels were measured at wakeup, 30 min after awakening, and at bedtime each day. Multilevel growth curve modeling was used to estimate diurnal cortisol profiles for each person each day. The parameters defining those profiles (wakeup level, diurnal slope, and cortisol awakening response) were predicted simultaneously from day-before and same-day experiences. Prior-day feelings of loneliness, sadness, threat, and lack of control were associated with a higher cortisol awakening response the next day, but morning awakening responses did not predict experiences of these states later the same day. Same-day, but not prior-day, feelings of tension and anger were associated with flatter diurnal cortisol rhythms, primarily because of their association with higher same-day evening cortisol levels. Although wakeup cortisol levels were not predicted by prior-day levels of fatigue and physical symptoms, low wakeup cortisol predicted higher levels of fatigue and physical symptoms later that day. Results are consistent with a dynamic and transactional function of cortisol as both a transducer of psychosocial and emotional experience into physiological activation and an influence on feelings of energy and physical well-being.

  6. Semaphorin 5A inhibits synaptogenesis in early postnatal- and adult-born hippocampal dentate granule cells

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Yuntao; Wang, Shih-Hsiu; Song, Juan; Mironova, Yevgeniya; Ming, Guo-li; Kolodkin, Alex L; Giger, Roman J

    2014-01-01

    Human SEMAPHORIN 5A (SEMA5A) is an autism susceptibility gene; however, its function in brain development is unknown. In this study, we show that mouse Sema5A negatively regulates synaptogenesis in early, developmentally born, hippocampal dentate granule cells (GCs). Sema5A is strongly expressed by GCs and regulates dendritic spine density in a cell-autonomous manner. In the adult mouse brain, newly born Sema5A−/− GCs show an increase in dendritic spine density and increased AMPA-type synaptic responses. Sema5A signals through PlexinA2 co-expressed by GCs, and the PlexinA2-RasGAP activity is necessary to suppress spinogenesis. Like Sema5A−/− mutants, PlexinA2−/− mice show an increase in GC glutamatergic synapses, and we show that Sema5A and PlexinA2 genetically interact with respect to GC spine phenotypes. Sema5A−/− mice display deficits in social interaction, a hallmark of autism-spectrum-disorders. These experiments identify novel intra-dendritic Sema5A/PlexinA2 interactions that inhibit excitatory synapse formation in developmentally born and adult-born GCs, and they provide support for SEMA5A contributions to autism-spectrum-disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04390.001 PMID:25313870

  7. Early postnatal motor experience shapes the motor properties of C57BL/6J adult mice.

    PubMed

    Serradj, Nadjet; Picquet, Florence; Jamon, Marc

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the long-term consequences of early motor training on the muscle phenotype and motor output of middle-aged C57BL/6J mice. Neonatal mice were subjected to a variety of motor training procedures, for 3 weeks during the period of acquisition of locomotion. These procedures are widely used for motor training in adults; they include enriched environment, forced treadmill, chronic centrifugation, and hindlimb suspension. At 9 months, the mice reared in the enriched environment showed a slower type of fibre in slow muscles and a faster type in fast muscles, improved performance in motor tests, and a modified gait and body posture while walking. The proportion of fibres in the postural muscles of centrifuged mice did not change, but these mice showed improved resistance to fatigue. The suspended mice showed increased persistence of immature hybrid fibres in the tibialis, with a slower shift in the load-bearing soleus, without any behavioural changes. The forced treadmill was very stressful for the mice, but had limited effects on motor output, although a slower profile was observed in the tibialis. These results support the hypothesis that motor experience during a critical period of motor development shapes muscle phenotype and motor output. The different impacts of the various training procedures suggest that motor performance in adults can be optimized by appropriate training during a defined period of motor development.

  8. Gestation and breastfeeding in schistosomotic mothers differently modulate the immune response of adult offspring to postnatal Schistosoma mansoni infection

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Patrícia d‘Emery Alves; de Lorena, Virgínia Maria Barros; Fernandes, Érica de Souza; Sales, Iana Rafaela Fernandes; do Nascimento, Wheverton Ricardo Correia; Gomes, Yara de Miranda; Albuquerque, Mônica Camelo Pessoa de Azevedo; Costa, Vlaudia Maria Assis; de Souza, Valdênia Maria Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni antigens in the early life alter homologous and heterologous immunity during postnatal infections. We evaluate the immunity to parasite antigens and ovalbumin (OA) in adult mice born/suckled by schistosomotic mothers. Newborns were divided into: born (BIM), suckled (SIM) or born/suckled (BSIM) in schistosomotic mothers, and animals from noninfected mothers (control). When adults, the mice were infected and compared the hepatic granuloma size and cellularity. Some animals were OA + adjuvant immunised. We evaluated hypersensitivity reactions (HR), antibodies levels (IgG1/IgG2a) anti-soluble egg antigen and anti-soluble worm antigen preparation, and anti-OA, cytokine production, and CD4+FoxP3+T-cells by splenocytes. Compared to control group, BIM mice showed a greater quantity of granulomas and collagen deposition, whereas SIM and BSIM presented smaller granulomas. BSIM group exhibited the lowest levels of anti-parasite antibodies. For anti-OA immunity, immediate HR was suppressed in all groups, with greater intensity in SIM mice accompanied of the remarkable level of basal CD4+FoxP3+T-cells. BIM and SIM groups produced less interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-g. In BSIM, there was higher production of IL-10 and IFN-g, but lower levels of IL-4 and CD4+FoxP3+T-cells. Thus, pregnancy in schistosomotic mothers intensified hepatic fibrosis, whereas breastfeeding diminished granulomas in descendants. Separately, pregnancy and breastfeeding could suppress heterologous immunity; however, when combined, the responses could be partially restored in infected descendants. PMID:26872339

  9. Gestation and breastfeeding in schistosomotic mothers differently modulate the immune response of adult offspring to postnatal Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    PubMed

    Santos, Patrícia d'Emery Alves; Lorena, Virgínia Maria Barros de; Fernandes, Érica de Souza; Sales, Iana Rafaela Fernandes; Nascimento, Wheverton Ricardo Correia do; Gomes, Yara de Miranda; Albuquerque, Mônica Camelo Pessoa de Azevedo; Costa, Vlaudia Maria Assis; Souza, Valdênia Maria Oliveira de

    2016-02-01

    Schistosoma mansoni antigens in the early life alter homologous and heterologous immunity during postnatal infections. We evaluate the immunity to parasite antigens and ovalbumin (OA) in adult mice born/suckled by schistosomotic mothers. Newborns were divided into: born (BIM), suckled (SIM) or born/suckled (BSIM) in schistosomotic mothers, and animals from noninfected mothers (control). When adults, the mice were infected and compared the hepatic granuloma size and cellularity. Some animals were OA + adjuvant immunised. We evaluated hypersensitivity reactions (HR), antibodies levels (IgG1/IgG2a) anti-soluble egg antigen and anti-soluble worm antigen preparation, and anti-OA, cytokine production, and CD4+FoxP3+T-cells by splenocytes. Compared to control group, BIM mice showed a greater quantity of granulomas and collagen deposition, whereas SIM and BSIM presented smaller granulomas. BSIM group exhibited the lowest levels of anti-parasite antibodies. For anti-OA immunity, immediate HR was suppressed in all groups, with greater intensity in SIM mice accompanied of the remarkable level of basal CD4+FoxP3+T-cells. BIM and SIM groups produced less interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-g. In BSIM, there was higher production of IL-10 and IFN-g, but lower levels of IL-4 and CD4+FoxP3+T-cells. Thus, pregnancy in schistosomotic mothers intensified hepatic fibrosis, whereas breastfeeding diminished granulomas in descendants. Separately, pregnancy and breastfeeding could suppress heterologous immunity; however, when combined, the responses could be partially restored in infected descendants.

  10. Postnatal stem/progenitor cells derived from the dental pulp of adult chimpanzee

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Pei-Hsun; Snyder, Brooke; Fillos, Dimitri; Ibegbu, Chris C; Huang, Anderson Hsien-Cheng; Chan, Anthony WS

    2008-01-01

    Background Chimpanzee dental pulp stem/stromal cells (ChDPSCs) are very similar to human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hBMSCs) as demonstrated by the expression pattern of cell surface markers and their multipotent differentiation capability. Results ChDPSCs were isolated from an incisor and a canine of a forty-seven year old female chimpanzee. A homogenous population of ChDPSCs was established in early culture at a high proliferation rate and verified by the expression pattern of thirteen cell surface markers. The ChDPSCs are multipotent and were capable of differentiating into osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages under appropriate in vitro culture conditions. ChDPSCs also express stem cell (Sox-2, Nanog, Rex-1, Oct-4) and osteogenic (Osteonectin, osteocalcin, osteopontin) markers, which is comparable to reported results of rhesus monkey BMSCs (rBMSCs), hBMSCs and hDPSCs. Although ChDPSCs vigorously proliferated during the initial phase and gradually decreased in subsequent passages, the telomere length indicated that telomerase activity was not significantly reduced. Conclusion These results demonstrate that ChDPSCs can be efficiently isolated from post-mortem teeth of adult chimpanzees and are multipotent. Due to the almost identical genome composition of humans and chimpanzees, there is an emergent need for defining the new role of chimpanzee modeling in comparative medicine. Teeth are easy to recover at necropsy and easy to preserve prior to the retrieval of dental pulp for stem/stromal cells isolation. Therefore, the establishment of ChDPSCs would preserve and maximize the applications of such a unique and invaluable animal model, and could advance the understanding of cellular functions and differentiation control of adult stem cells in higher primates. PMID:18430234

  11. Variation in Adult Day Services Center Participant Characteristics, by Center Ownership: United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Park-Lee, Eunice; Harris-Kojetin, Lauren D; Rome, Vincent; Lendon, Jessica P

    2015-12-01

    More than one-quarter million participants were enrolled in adult day services centers in the United States on the day of data collection in 2014. The number of for-profit adult day services centers has grown in recent years. In 2012, 40% of adult day services centers were for-profit, serving more than one-half of all participants. This report presents the most current national estimates of selected characteristics of participants in adult day services centers and compares these characteristics by center ownership type. State-level estimates for the characteristics presented in this report are available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nsltcp/nsltcp_products.htm.

  12. Early postnatal treatment with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor or 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostagandin J2 prevents prenatal dexamethasone and postnatal high saturated fat diet induced programmed hypertension in adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Lu, Pei-Chen; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Yu, Hong-Ren; Lin, Yu-Ju; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Tsai, Ching-Chou; Huang, Li-Tung; Tain, You-Lin

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) exposure, postnatal high-fat (HF) intake, and arachidonic acid pathway are closely related to hypertension. We tested whether a soluble epoxide hydrolase (SEH) inhibitor, 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA) or 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostagandin J2 (15dPGJ2) therapy can rescue programmed hypertension in the DEX+HF two-hit model. Four groups of Sprague Dawley rats were studied: control, DEX+HF, AUDA, and 15dPGJ2. Dexamethasone (0.1mg/kg body weight) was intraperitoneally administered to pregnant rats from gestational day 16-22. Male offspring received high-fat diet (D12331, Research Diets) from weaning to 4 months of age. In AUDA group, mother rats received 25mg/L in drinking water during lactation. In the 15dPGJ2 group, male offspring received 15dPGJ2 1.5mg/kg BW by subcutaneous injection once daily for 1 week after birth. We found postnatal HF diet aggravated prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension, which was similarly prevented by early treatment with AUDA or 15dPGJ2. The beneficial effects of AUDA and 15d-PGJ2 therapy include inhibition of SEH, increases of renal angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) and angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) protein levels, and restoration of nitric oxide bioavailability. Better understanding of the impact of arachidonic acid pathway in the two-hit model will help prevent programmed hypertension in children exposed to corticosteroids and postnatal HF intake.

  13. Variations in the postnatal maternal environment in mice: effects on maternal behaviour and behavioural and endocrine responses in the adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Coutellier, Laurence; Friedrich, Anne-Christin; Failing, Klaus; Würbel, Hanno

    2008-01-28

    According to the maternal mediation hypothesis, brain and behavioural development in rodents is affected by environment-dependent variations in maternal care. Thus, it has been shown that early handling results in reduced behavioural and neuroendocrine responses to stressors and that these effects are associated with increased maternal care received during infancy. To investigate this further in mice, we chose a less artificial paradigm that is not confounded by human manipulation and reflects a more natural form of early environmental variation. We housed lactating C57BL/6 dams and their litters in cage systems composed of a nest cage (NC) and a foraging cage (FC) connected by a tunnel, and varied the dams' access to food by providing food either in the NC (NC dams) or FC (FC dams) until postnatal day 14. FC dams were more frequently observed in the FC than NC dams, and although the frequency of the dams being in physical contact with the pups did not differ between the two treatments, FC dams showed lower levels of active nursing than NC dams during the first week of lactation. These environment-dependent variations in maternal behaviour had sex-specific effects on the adult offspring's behavioural and HPA responses to stressors and altered their social behaviour in the home cage, with NC offspring showing higher levels of socio-positive behaviours than FC offspring. These results provide further independent evidence for the maternal mediation hypothesis and demonstrate that even subtle variations of the maternal environment can affect maternal care and induce persistent changes in offspring phenotype.

  14. The effects of stress during early postnatal periods on behavior and hippocampal neuroplasticity markers in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    van der Kooij, M A; Grosse, J; Zanoletti, O; Papilloud, A; Sandi, C

    2015-12-17

    Infancy is a critical period for brain development. Emerging evidence indicates that stress experienced during that period can have long-term programming effects on the brain and behavior. However, whether different time periods represent different vulnerabilities to the programming of different neurobehavioral domains is not yet known. Disrupted maternal care is known to interfere with neurodevelopmental processes and may lead to the manifestation of behavioral abnormalities in adulthood. Mouse dams confronted with insufficient bedding/nesting material have been shown to provide fragmented maternal care to their offspring. Here, we compared the impact of this model of early-life stress (ELS) during different developmental periods comprising either postnatal days (PNDs) 2-9 (ELS-early) or PND 10-17 (ELS-late) on behavior and hippocampal cell adhesion molecules in male mice in adulthood. ELS-early treatment caused a permanent reduction in bodyweight, whereas this reduction only occurred transiently during juvenility in ELS-late mice. Anxiety was only affected in ELS-late mice, while cognition and sociability were equally impaired in both ELS-treated groups. We analyzed hippocampal gene expression of the γ2 subunit of the GABAa receptor (Gabrg2) and of genes encoding cell adhesion molecules. Gabrg2 expression was increased in the ventral hippocampus in ELS-late-treated animals and was correlated with anxiety-like behavior in the open-field (OF) test. ELS-early-treated animals exhibited an increase in nectin-1 expression in the dorsal hippocampus, and this increase was associated with the social deficits seen in these animals. Our findings highlight the relevance of developmental age on stress-induced long-term behavioral alterations. They also suggest potential links between early stress-induced alterations in hippocampal Gabrg2 expression and the developmental programming of anxiety and between changes in hippocampal nectin-1 expression and stress-induced social

  15. Early Postnatal Lesion of the Medial Dorsal Nucleus Leads to Loss of Dendrites and Spines in Adult Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Marmolejo, Naydu; Paez, Jesse; Levitt, Jonathan B.; Jones, Liesl B.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that the medial dorsal nucleus (MD) of the thalamus influences pyramidal cell development in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in an activity-dependent manner. The MD is reciprocally connected to the PFC. Many psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, affect the PFC, and one of the most consistent findings in schizophrenia is a decrease in volume and neuronal number in the MD. Therefore, understanding the role the MD plays in the development of the PFC is important and may help in understanding the progression of psychiatric disorders that have their root in development. Focusing on the interplay between the MD and the PFC, this study examined the hypothesis that the MD plays a role in the dendritic development of pyramidal cells in the PFC. Unilateral electrolytic lesions of the MD in Long-Evans rat pups were made on postnatal day 4 (P4), and the animals developed to P60. We then examined dendritic morphology by examining MAP2 immunostaining and by using Golgi techniques to determine basilar dendrite number and spine density. Additionally, we examined pyramidal cell density in cingulate area 1 (Cg1), prelimbic region, and dorsolateral anterior cortex, which receive afferents from the MD. Thalamic lesions caused a mean MD volume decrease of 12.4% which led to a significant decrease in MAP2 staining in both superficial and deep layers in all 3 cortical areas. The lesions also caused a significant decrease in spine density and in the number of primary and secondary basilar dendrites on superficial and deep layer pyramidal neurons in all 3 regions. No significant difference was observed in pyramidal cell density in any of the regions or layers, but a nonsignificant increase in cell density was observed in 2 regions. Our data are thus consistent with the hypothesis that the MD plays a role in the development of the PFC and, therefore, may be a good model to begin to examine neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. PMID:23406908

  16. Integrating Behavioral Psychology Services into Adult Day Programming for Individuals with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Linda A.

    2010-01-01

    Many individuals with dementia and problem behavior are served in nursing home settings long before health issues necessitate constant medical care. Alternative community-based adult day health care programs allow individuals with dementia to remain in their home with their families at a substantially reduced cost; however, many adult day programs…

  17. Validity of a Self-Administered 3-Day Physical Activity Recall in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Jennifer L.; Dinger, Mary K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Most physical activity recall questionnaires assess activity over a 7-day period. However, questionnaires have been validated in adolescents and adults using shorter recall timeframes. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of a self-administered 3-day physical activity recall instrument (3DR) in young adults.…

  18. Elk3 deficiency causes transient impairment in post-natal retinal vascular development and formation of tortuous arteries in adult murine retinae.

    PubMed

    Weinl, Christine; Wasylyk, Christine; Garcia Garrido, Marina; Sothilingam, Vithiyanjali; Beck, Susanne C; Riehle, Heidemarie; Stritt, Christine; Roux, Michel J; Seeliger, Mathias W; Wasylyk, Bohdan; Nordheim, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    Serum Response Factor (SRF) fulfills essential roles in post-natal retinal angiogenesis and adult neovascularization. These functions have been attributed to the recruitment by SRF of the cofactors Myocardin-Related Transcription Factors MRTF-A and -B, but not the Ternary Complex Factors (TCFs) Elk1 and Elk4. The role of the third TCF, Elk3, remained unknown. We generated a new Elk3 knockout mouse line and showed that Elk3 had specific, non-redundant functions in the retinal vasculature. In Elk3(-/-) mice, post-natal retinal angiogenesis was transiently delayed until P8, after which it proceeded normally. Interestingly, tortuous arteries developed in Elk3(-/-) mice from the age of four weeks, and persisted into late adulthood. Tortuous vessels have been observed in human pathologies, e.g. in ROP and FEVR. These human disorders were linked to altered activities of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the affected eyes. However, in Elk3(-/-) mice, we did not observe any changes in VEGF or several other potential confounding factors, including mural cell coverage and blood pressure. Instead, concurrent with the post-natal transient delay of radial outgrowth and the formation of adult tortuous arteries, Elk3-dependent effects on the expression of Angiopoietin/Tie-signalling components were observed. Moreover, in vitro microvessel sprouting and microtube formation from P10 and adult aortic ring explants were reduced. Collectively, these results indicate that Elk3 has distinct roles in maintaining retinal artery integrity. The Elk3 knockout mouse is presented as a new animal model to study retinal artery tortuousity in mice and human patients.

  19. Postnatal ontogenesis of molecular clock in mouse striatum.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yanning; Liu, Shu; Li, Ning; Xu, Shengli; Zhang, Yanli; Chan, Piu

    2009-04-06

    Striatum is an important brain area whose function is related to motor, emotion and motivation. Interestingly, biological and physiological circadian rhythms have been found in the striatum extensively, suggesting molecular clock machinery works efficiently therein. However, the striatal expression profiles of clock genes have not been characterized systematically. In addition, little is known about when the expression rhythms start during postnatal ontogenesis. In the present study, 24 h mRNA oscillations of 6 principle clock genes (Bmal1, Clock, Npas2, Cry1, Per1 and Rev-erb alpha) were examined in mouse striatum, at early postnatal stage (postnatal day 3), pre-weaning stage (postnatal day 14) and in adult (postnatal day 60). At P3, no daily oscillation was found for all clock genes. At P14, a significant time effect was identified only for Rev-erb alpha and Npas2. At P60, the daily oscillations of these clock genes were at least borderline significant, with peak time at Circadian time (CT) 01 for Bmal1, Clock, Npas2 and Cry1; at CT 13 for Per1; and at CT 07 for Rev-erb alpha. In addition, the overall mean mRNA levels of these clock genes also underwent a dynamic change postnatally. For Bmal1, Clock, Npas2, Per1 and Rev-erb alpha, the expression level increased throughout the postnatal ontogenesis from P3, P14 to P60. For Cry1, however, the abundance at P3 and P60 were similar while that at P14 was much lower. In conclusion, the striatal molecular clock machinery, although works efficiently in adult, develops gradually after birth in mice.

  20. Cannabinoid-opioid interactions in drug discrimination and self-administration: effect of maternal, postnatal, adolescent and adult exposure to the drugs.

    PubMed

    Spano, M S; Fadda, P; Fratta, W; Fattore, L

    2010-04-01

    Cannabinoids and opioids are known to strictly interact in many physiological and pathological functions, including addiction. The endogenous opioid system is significantly influenced by maternal or perinatal cannabinoid exposure, major changes concerning operant behaviour in adult animals. Copious data suggests that adolescence is also a particularly sensitive period of life not only for the initiation of abusing illicit drugs, but also for the effects that these drugs exert on the neural circuitries leading to drug dependence. This paper examines the role played by the age of drug exposure in the susceptibility to discriminative and reinforcing effects of both cannabinoids and opioids. We first revisited evidence of alterations in the density and functionality of mu-opioid and CB1 cannabinoid receptors in reward-related brain regions caused by either maternal, postnatal, adolescent or adult exposure to opioids and cannabinoids. Then, we reviewed behavioural evidence of the long-term consequences of exposure to opioids and cannabinoids during gestation, postnatal period, adolescence or adulthood, focusing mostly on drug discrimination and self-administration studies. Overall, evidence confirms a neurobiological convergence of the cannabinoid and opioid systems that is manifest at both receptor and behavioural levels. Although discrepant results have been reported, some data support the gateway hypothesis that adolescent cannabis exposure contributes to greater opioid intake in adulthood. However, it should be kept into consideration that in humans genetic, environmental, and social factors could influence the direct neurobiological effects of early cannabis exposure to the progression to adult drug abuse.

  1. Disposition of acetaminophen at 4, 6, and 8 g/day for 3 days in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Gelotte, C K; Auiler, J F; Lynch, J M; Temple, A R; Slattery, J T

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the disposition and tolerability of 1, 1.5, and 2 g acetaminophen every 6 h for 3 days. Group I healthy adults received acetaminophen (4 then 6 g/day) or placebo; Group II received acetaminophen (4 then 8 g/day) or placebo. Acetaminophen and metabolites were measured in plasma and urine. Hepatic aminotransferases were measured daily. At steady state, acetaminophen concentrations were surprisingly lower than predicted from single-dose data, although sulfate formation clearance (fCL) was lower as expected, indicating cofactor depletion with possible sulfotransferase saturation. In contrast, glucuronide fCL was unexpectedly higher, strongly suggesting glucuronosyltransferase induction. This is the first evidence that acetaminophen induces its own glucuronidation. No dose-dependent differences were detected in fCL of thiol metabolites formed via cytochrome P4502E1. Hepatic aminotransferases stayed within reference ranges, and the incidence and frequency of adverse events were similar for acetaminophen and placebo. Although dose-dependence of acetaminophen disposition was reported previously, this study shows a novel finding of time-dependent disposition during repeated dosing. Unexpected increases in glucuronide fCL more than offset decreases in sulfate fCL, thus increasing acetaminophen clearance overall. Thiol metabolite fCL remained constant up to 8 g/day. These findings have important implications in short-term (3 day) tolerability of supratherapeutic acetaminophen doses in healthy adults.

  2. A Comparative Analysis of the Functional Disability Levels of Adult Day Care, Adult Day Health and ICF-Level Nursing Home Elderly in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashida, Cullen T.

    This study compared the functional disability levels of participants in adult day centers with patients in intermediate care facilities (ICFs). A three-page questionnaire measuring demographics, social resources, physical health, mental health, and activities of daily living as assessed by the Activities of Daily Living scale and the Instrumental…

  3. Thyroid hormones and fear learning but not anxiety are affected in adult apoE transgenic mice exposed postnatally to decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209).

    PubMed

    Reverte, Ingrid; Pujol, Andreu; Domingo, José L; Colomina, Maria Teresa

    2014-06-22

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a family of industrial chemicals used as flame retardants. The fully brominated deca-BDE (BDE-209) is the most used and its potential risk for humans is controversial. The ability of PBDEs to target nervous and endocrine systems suggests multiple enduring effects after perinatal exposure. Cognitive and motor behavior alterations have been reported after developmental exposure to PBDEs, including BDE-209, whereas very little work has been carried out on anxiety and emotional learning. We have previously reported long-term effects of postnatal BDE-209 exposure on spatial memory dependent upon apolipoprotein E (apoE) polymorphism and age. ApoE is involved in lipid transport and its different polymorphisms (ε2, ε3, ε4) confer different vulnerabilities to neurodegeneration, cognitive impairment and anxiety. In the present study we assessed the long term effects of early exposure to BDE-209 on anxiety, fear learning and thyroid hormone levels in mice carrying different apoE polymorphisms (ε2, ε3, ε4). BDE-209 (0, 10 and 30 mg/kg) was orally administered on postnatal day 10 (PND 10). At 4 and 12 months of age mice were tested in an open field (OF) and an elevated zero maze (EZM). Fear conditioning and thyroid hormone levels were evaluated in mice at 5-6 months of age. Postnatal exposure to BDE-209 impaired cued fear learning in apoE2 and apoE3 mice. Levels of thyroid hormones were increased in apoE3 female mice exposed to BDE-209. Our findings indicate long lasting effects of BDE-209 on emotional learning and thyroid hormone levels after a single postnatal exposure.

  4. Variation in Operating Characteristics of Adult Day Services Centers, by Center Ownership: United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Rome, Vincent; Harris-Kojetin, Lauren D; Park-Lee, Eunice

    2015-12-01

    More than one-quarter of a million participants were enrolled in 4,800 adult day services centers in the United States in 2014. Unlike other long-term care providers, such as nursing homes, home health agencies, hospices, and residential care communities, the majority of adult day services centers are nonprofit. However, for-profit ownership of adult day services centers has increased, from 27% in 2010 to 40% in 2012, and more recently to 44% in 2014. This report presents the most current national estimates of selected adult day services center operating characteristics, and compares these characteristics by center ownership. State estimates for the characteristics presented in this data brief are available online at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/ nsltcp/nsltcp_products.htm.

  5. Learning to breathe: habituation of Hering-Breuer inflation reflex emerges with postnatal brainstem maturation.

    PubMed

    Dutschmann, Mathias; Bautista, Tara G; Mörschel, Michael; Dick, Thomas E

    2014-05-01

    The Hering-Breuer (HBR) reflex is considered a major regulatory feedback for the generation and patterning of respiratory activity. While HBR is important in neonates, its significance in adults is controversial. Previous experiments that investigated the plasticity of entrainment of the respiratory rhythm by vagal input demonstrated postnatal changes in HBR plasticity. Here we analyzed postnatal changes in the plasticity of HBR by mimicking the classic lung inflation tests with repetitive tonic vagal stimulation across different postnatal stages in an in situ perfused brainstem preparation of rat. The study shows that neonates stereotypically exhibit HBR stimulus-dependent prolongation of expiration while juvenile preparations (>postnatal day 16) showed significant habituation of HBR following repetitive stimulation. Subsequent experiments employing physiological lung inflation tests in situ confirmed HBR habituation in juveniles. We conclude that postnatal emergence of HBR habituation explains the weak contribution and high activation threshold of HBR in the regulation of eupnea.

  6. Altered water-maze search behavior in adult guinea pigs following chronic prenatal ethanol exposure: lack of mitigation by postnatal fluoxetine treatment.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Teresa D; Brien, James F; Reynolds, James N; Dringenberg, Hans C

    2008-08-22

    Ingestion of ethanol during pregnancy can result in teratogenic effects in humans, including significant and long-lasting neurobehavioral deficits. Similar results are seen in guinea pigs with chronic prenatal ethanol exposure (CPEE) via maternal ethanol administration, which produces deficits in Morris water-maze performance and impaired hippocampal functioning (e.g., decreased long-term potentiation, LTP). In this study, we tested whether postnatal treatment with fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, decreases some of the neurobehavioral impairments produced by CPEE. Timed, pregnant guinea pigs received oral administration of ethanol (4g/kg maternal body weight) or isocaloric sucrose pair feeding (control) for 5 days/week throughout gestation. Offspring of the CPEE and control groups were randomly assigned to receive either fluoxetine (10mg/kg body weight/day) or saline intraperitoneally from postnatal day 10 to 48. Subsequent behavioral tests in the Morris water-maze revealed a significant increase in thigmotaxic swimming in CPEE offspring without apparent signs of impairment in spatial mapping of the hidden escape platform. Measures of hippocampal short- and long-term plasticity (paired-pulse facilitation, frequency facilitation, and LTP) were unaffected by CPEE, consistent with the behavioral data indicating normal hippocampal functioning. Postnatal fluoxetine administration resulted in a significant loss of body weight, but did not affect the increased thigmotaxic swimming following CPEE. These results indicate that changes in search strategies in the water-maze might be a highly sensitive index of CPEE-induced neurobehavioral toxicity that can occur in the absence of significant hippocampal dysfunction. Further, these data demonstrate that fluoxetine, at the selected treatment regime, does not mitigate the thigmotaxic swimming response to CPEE in the guinea pig.

  7. Civic Engagement for Older Adults With Functional Limitations: Piloting an Intervention for Adult Day Health Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabelko-Schoeny, Holly; Anderson, Keith A.; Spinks, Katie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Past research has demonstrated the importance of civic engagement for older adults, yet previous studies have not focused specifically on the potential benefits of civic engagement for older adults with functional limitations. This pilot study explored the feasibility and effectiveness of an intervention designed to promote civic…

  8. Measuring Physical Activity with Pedometers in Older Adults with Intellectual Disability: Reactivity and Number of Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa; Van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen

    2012-01-01

    The minimum number of days of pedometer monitoring needed to estimate valid average weekly step counts and reactivity was investigated for older adults with intellectual disability. Participants (N = 268) with borderline to severe intellectual disability ages 50 years and older were instructed to wear a pedometer for 14 days. The outcome measure…

  9. Staff Morale in Day Care Centres for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascha, Katerina

    2007-01-01

    Background: Levels of burnout, job satisfaction and intended turnover of staff working in day care centres for adults with intellectual disabilities are investigated in relation to role clarity, staff support and supervision, and coping strategies used by staff. Materials and methods: Thirty six direct-care staff of four day care centres in the UK…

  10. Time-of-Day-Dependent Enhancement of Adult Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Fukada, Yoshitaka

    2008-01-01

    Background Adult neurogenesis occurs in specific regions of the mammalian brain such as the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In the neurogenic region, neural progenitor cells continuously divide and give birth to new neurons. Although biological properties of neurons and glia in the hippocampus have been demonstrated to fluctuate depending on specific times of the day, it is unclear if neural progenitors and neurogenesis in the adult brain are temporally controlled within the day. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we demonstrate that in the dentate gyrus of the adult mouse hippocampus, the number of M-phase cells shows a day/night variation throughout the day, with a significant increase during the nighttime. The M-phase cell number is constant throughout the day in the subventricular zone of the forebrain, another site of adult neurogenesis, indicating the daily rhythm of progenitor mitosis is region-specific. Importantly, the nighttime enhancement of hippocampal progenitor mitosis is accompanied by a nighttime increase of newborn neurons. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus occurs in a time-of-day-dependent fashion, which may dictate daily modifications of dentate gyrus physiology. PMID:19048107

  11. A novel accelerometer-based method to describe day-to-day exposure to potentially osteogenic vertical impacts in older adults: findings from a multi-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hannam, K; Deere, K C; Hartley, A; Clark, E M; Coulson, J; Ireland, A; Moss, C; Edwards, M H; Dennison, E; Gaysin, T; Cooper, R; Wong, A; McPhee, J S; Cooper, C; Kuh, D; Tobias, J H

    2017-03-01

    This observational study assessed vertical impacts experienced in older adults as part of their day-to-day physical activity using accelerometry and questionnaire data. Population-based older adults experienced very limited high-impact activity. The accelerometry method utilised appeared to be valid based on comparisons between different cohorts and with self-reported activity.

  12. Dorsal raphe serotonin neurons in mice: immature hyperexcitability transitions to adult state during first three postnatal weeks suggesting sensitive period for environmental perturbation.

    PubMed

    Rood, Benjamin D; Calizo, Lyngine H; Piel, David; Spangler, Zachary P; Campbell, Kaitlin; Beck, Sheryl G

    2014-04-02

    Trauma during early life is a major risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders and suggests that the developing brain may be particularly sensitive to perturbation. Increased vulnerability most likely involves altering neural circuits involved in emotional regulation. The role of serotonin in emotional regulation is well established, but little is known about the postnatal development of the raphe where serotonin is made. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recording and immunohistochemistry, we tested whether serotonin circuitry in the dorsal and median raphe was functionally mature during the first 3 postnatal weeks in mice. Serotonin neurons at postnatal day 4 (P4) were hyperexcitable. The increased excitability was due to depolarized resting membrane potential, increased resistance, increased firing rate, lack of 5-HT1A autoreceptor response, and lack of GABA synaptic activity. Over the next 2 weeks, membrane resistance decreased and resting membrane potential hyperpolarized due in part to potassium current activation. The 5-HT1A autoreceptor-mediated inhibition did not develop until P21. The frequency of spontaneous inhibitory and excitatory events increased as neurons extended and refined their dendritic arbor. Serotonin colocalized with vGlut3 at P4 as in adulthood, suggesting enhanced release of glutamate alongside enhanced serotonin release. Because serotonin affects circuit development in other brain regions, altering the developmental trajectory of serotonin neuron excitability and release could have many downstream consequences. We conclude that serotonin neuron structure and function change substantially during the first 3 weeks of life during which external stressors could potentially alter circuit formation.

  13. How many steps/day are enough? For older adults and special populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Older adults and special populations (living with disability and/or chronic illness that may limit mobility and/or physical endurance) can benefit from practicing a more physically active lifestyle, typically by increasing ambulatory activity. Step counting devices (accelerometers and pedometers) offer an opportunity to monitor daily ambulatory activity; however, an appropriate translation of public health guidelines in terms of steps/day is unknown. Therefore this review was conducted to translate public health recommendations in terms of steps/day. Normative data indicates that 1) healthy older adults average 2,000-9,000 steps/day, and 2) special populations average 1,200-8,800 steps/day. Pedometer-based interventions in older adults and special populations elicit a weighted increase of approximately 775 steps/day (or an effect size of 0.26) and 2,215 steps/day (or an effect size of 0.67), respectively. There is no evidence to inform a moderate intensity cadence (i.e., steps/minute) in older adults at this time. However, using the adult cadence of 100 steps/minute to demark the lower end of an absolutely-defined moderate intensity (i.e., 3 METs), and multiplying this by 30 minutes produces a reasonable heuristic (i.e., guiding) value of 3,000 steps. However, this cadence may be unattainable in some frail/diseased populations. Regardless, to truly translate public health guidelines, these steps should be taken over and above activities performed in the course of daily living, be of at least moderate intensity accumulated in minimally 10 minute bouts, and add up to at least 150 minutes over the week. Considering a daily background of 5,000 steps/day (which may actually be too high for some older adults and/or special populations), a computed translation approximates 8,000 steps on days that include a target of achieving 30 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and approximately 7,100 steps/day if averaged over a week. Measured directly and

  14. Long-Term Impacts of Foetal Malnutrition Followed by Early Postnatal Obesity on Fat Distribution Pattern and Metabolic Adaptability in Adult Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Khanal, Prabhat; Johnsen, Lærke; Axel, Anne Marie Dixen; Hansen, Pernille Willert; Kongsted, Anna Hauntoft; Lyckegaard, Nette Brinch; Nielsen, Mette Olaf

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether over- versus undernutrition in late foetal life combined with obesity development in early postnatal life have differential implications for fat distribution and metabolic adaptability in adulthood. Twin-pregnant ewes were fed NORM (100% of daily energy and protein requirements), LOW (50% of NORM) or HIGH (150%/110% of energy/protein requirements) diets during the last trimester. Postnatally, twin-lambs received obesogenic (HCHF) or moderate (CONV) diets until 6 months of age, and a moderate (obesity correcting) diet thereafter. At 2½ years of age (adulthood), plasma metabolite profiles during fasting, glucose, insulin and propionate (in fed and fasted states) tolerance tests were examined. Organ weights were determined at autopsy. Early obesity development was associated with lack of expansion of perirenal, but not other adipose tissues from adolescence to adulthood, resulting in 10% unit increased proportion of mesenteric of intra-abdominal fat. Prenatal undernutrition had a similar but much less pronounced effect. Across tolerance tests, LOW-HCHF sheep had highest plasma levels of cholesterol, urea-nitrogen, creatinine, and lactate. Sex specific differences were observed, particularly with respect to fat deposition, but direction of responses to early nutrition impacts were similar. However, prenatal undernutrition induced greater metabolic alterations in adult females than males. Foetal undernutrition, but not overnutrition, predisposed for adult hypercholesterolaemia, hyperureaemia, hypercreatinaemia and hyperlactataemia, which became manifested only in combination with early obesity development. Perirenal expandability may play a special role in this context. Differential nutrition recommendations may be advisable for individuals with low versus high birth weights. PMID:27257993

  15. Transcriptome Dynamics and Potential Roles of Sox6 in the Postnatal Heart

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jie; Sinha, Neelima R.; Hagiwara, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    The postnatal heart undergoes highly coordinated developmental processes culminating in the complex physiologic properties of the adult heart. The molecular mechanisms of postnatal heart development remain largely unexplored despite their important clinical implications. To gain an integrated view of the dynamic changes in gene expression during postnatal heart development at the organ level, time-series transcriptome analyses of the postnatal hearts of neonatal through adult mice (P1, P7, P14, P30, and P60) were performed using a newly developed bioinformatics pipeline. We identified functional gene clusters by principal component analysis with self-organizing map clustering which revealed organized, discrete gene expression patterns corresponding to biological functions associated with the neonatal, juvenile and adult stages of postnatal heart development. Using weighted gene co-expression network analysis with bootstrap inference for each of these functional gene clusters, highly robust hub genes were identified which likely play key roles in regulating expression of co-expressed, functionally linked genes. Additionally, motivated by the role of the transcription factor Sox6 in the functional maturation of skeletal muscle, the role of Sox6 in the postnatal maturation of cardiac muscle was investigated. Differentially expressed transcriptome analyses between Sox6 knockout (KO) and control hearts uncovered significant upregulation of genes involved in cell proliferation at postnatal day 7 (P7) in the Sox6 KO heart. This result was validated by detecting mitotically active cells in the P7 Sox6 KO heart. The current report provides a framework for the complex molecular processes of postnatal heart development, thus enabling systematic dissection of the developmental regression observed in the stressed and failing adult heart. PMID:27832192

  16. Adult Day Health Center Participation and Health-Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Eva M.; Sands, Laura P.; Weiss, Sara; Dowling, Glenna; Covinsky, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between Adult Day Health Center (ADHC) participation and health-related quality of life. Design and Methods: Case-controlled prospective study utilizing the Medical Outcomes Survey Form 36 (SF-36) to compare newly enrolled participants from 16 ADHC programs with comparable…

  17. Use of Adult Day Care Centers: Do They Offset Utilization of Health Care Services?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iecovich, Esther; Biderman, Aya

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Based on the medical offset effect, the goal of the study was to examine the extent to which users and nonusers of adult day care centers (ADCC) differ in frequency of use of out-patient health services (visits to specialists) and in-patient health services (number of hospital admissions, length of hospitalizations, and visits to…

  18. Impact of Adult Day Services on Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Femia, Elia E.; Zarit, Steven H.; Stephens, Mary Ann Parris; Greene, Rick

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored whether adult day service (ADS) use was associated with reductions in behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in individuals with dementia. Design and Methods: We used a quasi-experimental design to compare a group of 133 persons with dementia (PWDs) who initially enrolled in an ADS program to a…

  19. CD44 and TLR4 mediate hyaluronic acid regulation of Lgr5+ stem cell proliferation, crypt fission, and intestinal growth in postnatal and adult mice.

    PubMed

    Riehl, Terrence E; Santhanam, Srikanth; Foster, Lynne; Ciorba, Matthew; Stenson, William F

    2015-12-01

    Hyaluronic acid, a glycosaminoglycan in the extracellular matrix, binds to CD44 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). We previously addressed the role of hyaluronic acid in small intestinal and colonic growth in mice. We addressed the role of exogenous hyaluronic acid by giving hyaluronic acid intraperitoneally and the role of endogenous hyaluronic acid by giving PEP-1, a peptide that blocks hyaluronic acid binding to its receptors. Exogenous hyaluronic acid increased epithelial proliferation but had no effect on intestinal length. PEP-1 resulted in a shortened small intestine and colon and diminished epithelial proliferation. In the current study, we sought to determine whether the effects of hyaluronic acid on growth were mediated by signaling through CD44 or TLR4 by giving exogenous hyaluronic acid or PEP-1 twice a week from 3-8 wk of age to wild-type, CD44(-/-), and TLR4(-/-) mice. These studies demonstrated that signaling through both CD44 and TLR4 were important in mediating the effects of hyaluronic acid on growth in the small intestine and colon. Extending our studies to early postnatal life, we assessed the effects of exogenous hyaluronic acid and PEP-1 on Lgr5(+) stem cell proliferation and crypt fission. Administration of PEP-1 to Lgr5(+) reporter mice from postnatal day 7 to day 14 decreased Lgr5(+) cell proliferation and decreased crypt fission. These studies indicate that endogenous hyaluronic acid increases Lgr5(+) stem cell proliferation, crypt fission, and intestinal lengthening and that these effects are dependent on signaling through CD44 and TLR4.

  20. MeCP2 is critical for maintaining mature neuronal networks and global brain anatomy during late stages of postnatal brain development and in the mature adult brain.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh Vu Chuong; Du, Fang; Felice, Christy A; Shan, Xiwei; Nigam, Aparna; Mandel, Gail; Robinson, John K; Ballas, Nurit

    2012-07-18

    Mutations in the X-linked gene, methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (Mecp2), underlie a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders, most commonly, Rett Syndrome (RTT), a severe autism spectrum disorder that affects approximately one in 10,000 female live births. Because mutations in the Mecp2 gene occur in the germ cells with onset of neurological symptoms occurring in early childhood, the role of MeCP2 has been ascribed to brain maturation at a specific developmental window. Here, we show similar kinetics of onset and progression of RTT-like symptoms in mice, including lethality, if MeCP2 is removed postnatally during the developmental stage that coincides with RTT onset, or adult stage. For the first time, we show that brains that lose MeCP2 at these two different stages are actively shrinking, resulting in higher than normal neuronal cell density. Furthermore, we show that mature dendritic arbors of pyramidal neurons are severely retracted and dendritic spine density is dramatically reduced. In addition, hippocampal astrocytes have significantly less complex ramified processes. These changes accompany a striking reduction in the levels of several synaptic proteins, including CaMKII α/β, AMPA, and NMDA receptors, and the synaptic vesicle proteins Vglut and Synapsin, which represent critical modifiers of synaptic function and dendritic arbor structure. Importantly, the mRNA levels of these synaptic proteins remains unchanged, suggesting that MeCP2 likely regulates these synaptic proteins post-transcriptionally, directly or indirectly. Our data suggest a crucial role for MeCP2 in post-transcriptional regulation of critical synaptic proteins involved in maintaining mature neuronal networks during late stages of postnatal brain development.

  1. Adaptations of young adult rat cortical bone to 14 days of spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vailas, A. C.; Vanderby, R., Jr.; Martinez, D. A.; Ashman, R. B.; Ulm, M. J.; Grindeland, R. E.; Durnova, G. N.; Kaplanskii, A.

    1992-01-01

    To determine whether mature humeral cortical bone would be modified significantly by an acute exposure to weightlessness, adult rats (110 days old) were subjected to 14 days of microgravity on the COSMOS 2044 biosatellite. There were no significant changes in peak force, stiffness, energy to failure, and displacement at failure in the flight rats compared with ground-based controls. Concentrations and contents of hydroxyproline, calcium, and mature stable hydroxylysylpyridinoline and lysylpyridinoline collagen cross-links remained unchanged after spaceflight. Bone lengths, cortical and endosteal areas, and regionl thicknesses showed no significant differences between flight animals and ground controls. The findings suggest that responsiveness of cortical bone to microgravity is less pronounced in adult rats than in previous spaceflight experiments in which young growing animals were used. It is hypothesized that 14 days of spaceflight may not be sufficient to impact the biochemical and biomechanical properties of cortical bone in the mature rat skeleton.

  2. 76 FR 43254 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2011 Through June 30, 2012 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service...-risk afterschool care centers, and adult day care centers; the food service payment rates for meals...

  3. 78 FR 45176 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2013 Through June 30, 2014 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service...-risk afterschool care centers, and adult day care centers; the food service payment rates for meals...

  4. 75 FR 41793 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2010 Through June 30, 2011 AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service...-risk afterschool care centers, and adult day care centers; the food service payment rates for meals...

  5. Pre- and/or postnatal protein restriction developmentally programs affect and risk assessment behaviors in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Castro, L A; Rodriguez, J S; Rodríguez-González, G L; Chavira, R; Bautista, C J; McDonald, T J; Nathanielsz, P W; Zambrano, E

    2012-02-14

    Developmental programming resulting from a suboptimal intrauterine environment can predispose offspring to a wide-range of lifelong health complications. Little is known about the effects maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and/or lactation has on offspring neurodevelopment. We hypothesized that maternal isocaloric low protein diet during pregnancy and/or lactation would negatively influence male offspring affect and risk assessment behaviors as measured by elevated plus maze and open field tests. Control mothers received 20% casein (C) and restricted mothers (R) 10% casein to provide four groups: CC, RR, CR, and RC (first letter pregnancy diet and second letter lactation diet) to evaluate effects of maternal diet on offspring risk assessment, anxiety and exploratory behaviors. Elevated plus maze results showed an effect of pre- and/or postnatal diet manipulation in open arm time (p<0.05) with increases seen in the RR (157±22.7s), CR (137±23.2s) and RC (146.8±10.8s) offspring relative to CC (52±8.6s) offspring. This behavior indicates decreased avoidance (less anxiety) and increased exploration by experimental groups. However, in the open field test the RR (17±4.2 entries) offspring entered the center zone less than the CC (35±6.6 entries) offspring thus exhibiting increased anxiety with no other groups showing effects. Elevated levels of corticosterone were measured before, during and after immobilization in the RR compared to CC offspring. These findings show protein restriction during critical periods of development negatively program offspring behavior. The underlying anatomical structures affected remain to be elucidated.

  6. Connexin expression in electrically coupled postnatal rat brain neurons

    PubMed Central

    Venance, Laurent; Rozov, Andrei; Blatow, Maria; Burnashev, Nail; Feldmeyer, Dirk; Monyer, Hannah

    2000-01-01

    Electrical coupling by gap junctions is an important form of cell-to-cell communication in early brain development. Whereas glial cells remain electrically coupled at postnatal stages, adult vertebrate neurons were thought to communicate mainly via chemical synapses. There is now accumulating evidence that in certain neuronal cell populations the capacity for electrical signaling by gap junction channels is still present in the adult. Here we identified electrically coupled pairs of neurons between postnatal days 12 and 18 in rat visual cortex, somatosensory cortex, and hippocampus. Notably, coupling was found both between pairs of inhibitory neurons and between inhibitory and excitatory neurons. Molecular analysis by single-cell reverse transcription–PCR revealed a differential expression pattern of connexins in these identified neurons. PMID:10944183

  7. Effects of Fourteen-Day Bed Rest on Trunk Stabilizing Functions in Aging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sarabon, Nejc; Rosker, Jernej

    2015-01-01

    Bed rest has been shown to have detrimental effects on structural and functional characteristics of the trunk muscles, possibly affecting trunk and spinal stability. This is especially important in populations such as aging adults with often altered trunk stabilizing functions. This study examined the effects of a fourteen-day bed rest on anticipatory postural adjustments and postural reflex responses of the abdominal wall and back muscles in sixteen adult men. Postural activation of trunk muscles was measured using voluntary quick arm movement and sudden arm loading paradigm. Measurements were conducted prior to the bed rest, immediately after, and fourteen days after the bed rest. Immediately after the bed rest, latencies of anticipatory postural adjustments showed significant shortening, especially for the obliquus internus and externus muscles. After a fourteen-day recuperation period, anticipatory postural adjustments reached a near to complete recovery. On the contrary, reactive response latencies increased from pre-bed-rest to both post-bed-rest measurement sessions. Results indicate an important effect of bed rest on stabilizing functions of the trunk muscles in elderly adults. Moreover, there proved to be a significant deterioration of postural reactive responses that outlasted the 14-day post-bed-rest rehabilitation. PMID:26601104

  8. Identification of proliferative progenitors associated with prominent postnatal growth of the pons

    PubMed Central

    Lindquist, Robert A.; Guinto, Cristina D.; Rodas-Rodriguez, Jose L.; Fuentealba, Luis C.; Tate, Matthew C.; Rowitch, David H.; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The pons controls crucial sensorimotor and autonomic functions. In humans, it grows sixfold postnatally and is a site of paediatric gliomas; however, the mechanisms of pontine growth remain poorly understood. We show that the murine pons quadruples in volume postnatally; growth is fastest during postnatal days 0–4 (P0–P4), preceding most myelination. We identify three postnatal proliferative compartments: ventricular, midline and parenchymal. We find no evidence of postnatal neurogenesis in the pons, but each progenitor compartment produces new astroglia and oligodendroglia; the latter expand 10- to 18-fold postnatally, and are derived mostly from the parenchyma. Nearly all parenchymal progenitors at P4 are Sox2+Olig2+, but by P8 a Sox2− subpopulation emerges, suggesting a lineage progression from Sox2+ ‘early' to Sox2− ‘late' oligodendrocyte progenitor. Fate mapping reveals that >90% of adult oligodendrocytes derive from P2–P3 Sox2+ progenitors. These results demonstrate the importance of postnatal Sox2+Olig2+ progenitors in pontine growth and oligodendrogenesis. PMID:27188978

  9. Protein Expression Dynamics During Postnatal Mouse Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Laeremans, Annelies; Van de Plas, Babs; Clerens, Stefan; Van den Bergh, Gert; Arckens, Lutgarde; Hu, Tjing-Tjing

    2013-01-01

    We explored differential protein expression profiles in the mouse forebrain at different stages of postnatal development, including 10-day (P10), 30-day (P30), and adult (Ad) mice, by large-scale screening of proteome maps using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. Mass spectrometry analysis resulted in the identification of 251 differentially expressed proteins. Most molecular changes were observed between P10 compared to both P30 and Ad. Computational ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) confirmed these proteins as crucial molecules in the biological function of nervous system development. Moreover, IPA revealed Semaphorin signaling in neurons and the protein ubiquitination pathway as essential canonical pathways in the mouse forebrain during postnatal development. For these main biological pathways, the transcriptional regulation of the age-dependent expression of selected proteins was validated by means of in situ hybridization. In conclusion, we suggest that proteolysis and neurite outgrowth guidance are key biological processes, particularly during early brain maturation. PMID:25157209

  10. Fine structural aspects of postnatal development of feline lung.

    PubMed

    al-Tikriti, M S; Henry, R W; Eiler, H; Schultz, T W; Breider, M A; Cullens, W C

    1991-12-01

    Lung development was studied in late prenatal, 1-, 7-, 14-, and 21-days postnatal and adult cats. Cats were born with a few alveoli, and the lungs appeared to have patches of primitive air spaces (saccules). The saccules of prenatal kittens were thick walled, very cellular, and lined by type II pneumocytes. Eosinophils were observed in the septum, intraepithelially, and in the alveolar space of growing cats. Secondary septa were flanked by a double capillary network and divided saccules into multiple shallow alveoli. Septation was irregular and time dependent and not completed by day 231 of postnatal life. Elastic fibers accumulated at the tip of the septa, seemingly playing an important role in alveolar formation. Type II pneumocytes were located at the base of the secondary septa in growing cats, thus strengthening secondary septa to withstand the stresses of respiration. Pores of Kohn were not observed in growing cats.

  11. The adult day care workforce in England at a time of policy change: implications for learning disability support services.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Shereen; Manthorpe, Jill

    2010-06-01

    More people will receive personal budgets to pay for social care services in England. Such people may or may not continue using services such as adult day care centres. Many day centres are under threat of closure. These trends will affect those working in adult day care. This article examines the profile of this workforce, using recent NMDS-SC data and applying multinomial statistical modelling. We identified nearly 6000 adult day care workers, over half supporting adults with learning disability. The results of the analysis show significant variations between the adult day care, residential care and domiciliary workforces. At the personal level, day care workers are significantly older and less ethnically diverse than other workers. They tend to have been working in the sector for longer, and their work patterns are more stable. The findings are discussed within the context of policy changes affecting learning disabilities and social care workforce strategies.

  12. [The administration of interleukin-1beta during early postnatal develop ment impairs FGF2, but not TIMP1, mRNA expression in brain structures of adult rats].

    PubMed

    Trofimov, A N; Zubareva, O E; Shvarts, A P; Ishchenko, A M; Klimenko, V M

    2014-09-01

    According to the Neurodevelopmental hypothesis, the long-lasting cognitive deficit in schizophrenia and other types of neuropathology may occur by injurious factors, such as hypoxia, traumas, infections that take place during pre- and postnatal development, at least at early stages. These pathological conditions are often associated with the high production of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1B (IL-1B) by the cells of immune and nervous systems. We investigated the expression of genes involved in the neuroplastic regulation (Fgf2 and Timp2) in medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal and ventral regions of hippocampus of adult rats that were treated with IL-1beta between P15 and P21. The learning impairment in IL-1beta-treated rats is accompanied by lower FGF-2 mRNA levels in medial prefrontal cortex and ventral (not dorsal) hippocampus, but TIMP-1 was not affected. No differences in TIMP-1 and FGF-2 mRNA expressions were observed in untrained IL-1beta-treated when compared to control rats.

  13. Exposure to ethinylestradiol during prenatal development and postnatal supplementation with testosterone causes morphophysiological alterations in the prostate of male and female adult gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Ana Paula Silva; Biancardi, Manoel Francisco; Góes, Rejane Maira; dos Santos, Fernanda Alcântara; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Steroids perform significant functions in prostatic development and growth, so that interferences of this equilibrium may predispose the gland to the development of diseases during the life. Embryonic and neonatal exposure to xenoestrogens, many of them with endocrine-disrupting potential, has been related to the induction of disturbances in reproductive system organs. Thus, this study aimed to analyse morphological and immunocytochemical aspects of prostate in both male and female adult gerbils either exposed to ethinylestradiol during the prenatal phase (pregnant females received 10 μg/kg, by gavage) (EE group) or exposed to testosterone (1 mg/kg) during the postnatal period (EE/T group). Serological analysis revealed a rise in estradiol levels in adult males and females of the EE group. A higher incidence of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) was observed in the male and female prostate of the treated groups, besides an increase in collagen and reticular fibres. Immunocytochemistry showed an increase in prostatic epithelial cells immunoreactive to AR and a presence of a smooth muscle layer, evidenced by α actin, in injured regions this way absent in prostatic epithelial buds. These pieces of evidence suggest that the alterations verified in the prostate in adulthood of both sexes may be due to the high oestrogen levels. Either males or females of the EE/T group showed normalized estradiol levels, although prostatic lesions could be observed. While the prostatic gland of male gerbils was more affected than the female prostate, this study showed that the exposure to EE during this critical period of development disrupts the prostate of both sexes in terms of prostatic lesions. PMID:21314741

  14. In Vivo Transplantation of Neurosphere-Like Bodies Derived from the Human Postnatal and Adult Enteric Nervous System: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hetz, Susan; Acikgoez, Ali; Voss, Ulrike; Nieber, Karen; Holland, Heidrun; Hegewald, Cindy; Till, Holger; Metzger, Roman; Metzger, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the in vitro characterization of human adult enteric neural progenitor cells have opened new possibilities for cell-based therapies in gastrointestinal motility disorders. However, whether these cells are able to integrate within an in vivo gut environment is still unclear. In this study, we transplanted neural progenitor-containing neurosphere-like bodies (NLBs) in a mouse model of hypoganglionosis and analyzed cellular integration of NLB-derived cell types and functional improvement. NLBs were propagated from postnatal and adult human gut tissues. Cells were characterized by immunohistochemistry, quantitative PCR and subtelomere fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). For in vivo evaluation, the plexus of murine colon was damaged by the application of cationic surfactant benzalkonium chloride which was followed by the transplantation of NLBs in a fibrin matrix. After 4 weeks, grafted human cells were visualized by combined in situ hybridization (Alu) and immunohistochemistry (PGP9.5, GFAP, SMA). In addition, we determined nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-positive neurons and measured hypertrophic effects in the ENS and musculature. Contractility of treated guts was assessed in organ bath after electrical field stimulation. NLBs could be reproducibly generated without any signs of chromosomal alterations using subtelomere FISH. NLB-derived cells integrated within the host tissue and showed expected differentiated phenotypes i.e. enteric neurons, glia and smooth muscle-like cells following in vivo transplantation. Our data suggest biological effects of the transplanted NLB cells on tissue contractility, although robust statistical results could not be obtained due to the small sample size. Further, it is unclear, which of the NLB cell types including neural progenitors have direct restoring effects or, alternatively may act via ‘bystander’ mechanisms in vivo. Our findings provide further evidence that NLB transplantation can be considered as

  15. In vivo transplantation of neurosphere-like bodies derived from the human postnatal and adult enteric nervous system: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hetz, Susan; Acikgoez, Ali; Voss, Ulrike; Nieber, Karen; Holland, Heidrun; Hegewald, Cindy; Till, Holger; Metzger, Roman; Metzger, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the in vitro characterization of human adult enteric neural progenitor cells have opened new possibilities for cell-based therapies in gastrointestinal motility disorders. However, whether these cells are able to integrate within an in vivo gut environment is still unclear. In this study, we transplanted neural progenitor-containing neurosphere-like bodies (NLBs) in a mouse model of hypoganglionosis and analyzed cellular integration of NLB-derived cell types and functional improvement. NLBs were propagated from postnatal and adult human gut tissues. Cells were characterized by immunohistochemistry, quantitative PCR and subtelomere fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). For in vivo evaluation, the plexus of murine colon was damaged by the application of cationic surfactant benzalkonium chloride which was followed by the transplantation of NLBs in a fibrin matrix. After 4 weeks, grafted human cells were visualized by combined in situ hybridization (Alu) and immunohistochemistry (PGP9.5, GFAP, SMA). In addition, we determined nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-positive neurons and measured hypertrophic effects in the ENS and musculature. Contractility of treated guts was assessed in organ bath after electrical field stimulation. NLBs could be reproducibly generated without any signs of chromosomal alterations using subtelomere FISH. NLB-derived cells integrated within the host tissue and showed expected differentiated phenotypes i.e. enteric neurons, glia and smooth muscle-like cells following in vivo transplantation. Our data suggest biological effects of the transplanted NLB cells on tissue contractility, although robust statistical results could not be obtained due to the small sample size. Further, it is unclear, which of the NLB cell types including neural progenitors have direct restoring effects or, alternatively may act via 'bystander' mechanisms in vivo. Our findings provide further evidence that NLB transplantation can be considered as

  16. On Site Training for Adult Day Care Program Aides that Meet State Certification Requirements and National Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medley, Pamilea

    This document describes a practicum that was conducted to develop a training program appropriate for adult day care program aides that would meet Oklahoma state certification requirements and national standards. The training curriculum for use in delivering onsite competency-based training to students studying to become adult day care program…

  17. The 14-day repeated dose liver micronucleus test with methapyrilene hydrochloride using young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kenji; Ochi, Akimu; Koda, Akira; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Doi, Takaaki

    2015-03-01

    The repeated dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay using young adult rats has the potential to detect genotoxic hepatocarcinogens that can be integrated into a general toxicity study. The assay methods were thoroughly validated by 19 Japanese facilities. Methapyrilene hydrochloride (MP), known to be a non-genotoxic hepatocarcinogen, was examined in the present study. MP was dosed orally at 10, 30 and 100mg/kg/day to 6-week-old male Crl:CD (SD) rats daily for 14 days. Treatment with MP resulted in an increase in micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs) with a dosage of only 100mg/kg/day. At this dose level, cytotoxicity followed by regenerative cell growth was noted in the liver. These findings suggest that MP may induce clastogenic effects indirectly on the liver or hepatotoxicity of MP followed by regeneration may cause increase in spontaneous incidence of MNHEPs.

  18. Multiple Family Groups for Adult Cancer Survivors and Their Families: A 1-Day Workshop Model

    PubMed Central

    STEINGLASS, PETER; OSTROFF, JAMIE S.; STEINGLASS, ABBE STAHL

    2015-01-01

    With marked advances in early detection and aggressive multimodality treatment, many adult cancers are now associated with good prognoses for disease-free survival. A burgeoning literature examining posttreatment quality-of-life issues has highlighted the numerous challenges experienced by patients and families in the aftermath of cancer treatment, further underscoring a need for new family-based psychosocial support interventions for cancer survivors and their families. This paper describes the clinical protocol for one such intervention, a 1-day “workshop” version of a multiple family group (MFG) for head and neck cancer survivors and their families. Data are reported from our experiences in running five 1-day workshops. Families uniformly reported that they were highly satisfied with their MFG participation, leading us to conclude that the abbreviated 1-day MFG model we are advocating is a promising family-focused support intervention for cancer survivors and their families. PMID:21884077

  19. Characteristics of older adults rehospitalized within 7 and 30 days of discharge: implications for nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Hain, Debra J; Tappen, Ruth; Diaz, Sanya; Ouslander, Joseph G

    2012-08-01

    Rehospitalization within 30 days consumes a significant portion of health care costs; therefore, interventions aimed at reducing the risk of rehospitalization are needed. A retrospective study was conducted examining rehospitalization rates and diagnoses according to discharge location and comparing characteristics of older adults within 7 and 30 days of discharge from a community hospital. Data on rehospitalization for Medicare fee-for-service patients (75 and older) over a 12-month period were obtained from the information technology department of a not-for-profit community hospital. A total of 6,809 patients were discharged, with 12% rehospitalized within 30 days. Skilled nursing facilities had the highest rehospitalization rates (15%), followed by home with home health care (13%) and then home with self-care (8%). The highest rehospitalization rates were in areas where nursing has a strong presence, suggesting that nurses can play an important role in the development of interventions aimed at reducing rehospitalizations.

  20. Cholinergic circuit control of postnatal neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Asrican, Brent; Paez-Gonzalez, Patricia; Erb, Joshua; Kuo, Chay T.

    2016-01-01

    abstract New neuron addition via continued neurogenesis in the postnatal/adult mammalian brain presents a distinct form of nervous system plasticity. During embryonic development, precise temporal and spatial patterns of neurogenesis are necessary to create the nervous system architecture. Similar between embryonic and postnatal stages, neurogenic proliferation is regulated by neural stem cell (NSC)-intrinsic mechanisms layered upon cues from their local microenvironmental niche. Following developmental assembly, it remains relatively unclear what may be the key driving forces that sustain continued production of neurons in the postnatal/adult brain. Recent experimental evidence suggests that patterned activity from specific neural circuits can also directly govern postnatal/adult neurogenesis. Here, we review experimental findings that revealed cholinergic modulation, and how patterns of neuronal activity and acetylcholine release may differentially or synergistically activate downstream signaling in NSCs. Higher-order excitatory and inhibitory inputs regulating cholinergic neuron firing, and their implications in neurogenesis control are also considered. PMID:27468423

  1. 26Al incorporation into the brain of rat fetuses through the placental barrier and subsequent metabolism in postnatal development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, Sakae; Nagai, Hisao; Kakimi, Shigeo; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2010-04-01

    Aluminium (Al) inhibits prenatal and postnatal development of the brain. We used 26Al as a tracer, and measured 26Al incorporation into rat fetuses through the placental barrier by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). From day 15 to day 18 of gestation, 26AlCl 3 was subcutaneously injected into pregnant rats. Considerable amounts of 26Al were measured in the tissues of newborn rats immediately after birth. The amounts of 26Al in the liver and kidneys decreased rapidly during postnatal development. However, approximately 15% of 26Al incorporated into the brain of fetuses remained in the brain of adult rats 730 days after birth.

  2. Maternal dietary loads of α-tocopherol depress protein kinase C signaling and synaptic plasticity in rat postnatal developing hippocampus and promote permanent deficits in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Betti, Michele; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Minelli, Andrea; Floridi, Alessandro; Lattanzi, Davide; Ciuffoli, Stefano; Bucherelli, Corrado; Prospero, Emilia; Frontini, Andrea; Santarelli, Lory; Baldi, Elisabetta; Benetti, Fernando; Galli, Francesco; Cuppini, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) supplementation has been tested as prophylaxis against gestational disorders associated with oxidative damage. However, recent evidence showing that high maternal α-tocopherol intake can adversely affect offspring development raises concerns on the safety of vitamin E extradosages during pregnancy. Besides acting as an antioxidant, α-tocopherol depresses cell proliferation and modulates cell signaling through inhibiting protein kinase C (PKC), a kinase that is deeply involved in neural maturation and plasticity. Possible effects of α-tocopherol loads in the maturing brain, where PKC dysregulation is associated to developmental dysfunctions, are poorly known. Here, supranutritional doses of α-tocopherol were fed to pregnant and lactating dams to evaluate the effects on PKC signaling and morphofunctional maturation in offspring hippocampus. Results showed that maternal supplementation potentiates hippocampal α-tocopherol incorporation in offspring and leads to marked decrease of PKC phosphorylation throughout postnatal maturation, accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of growth-associated protein-43 and myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate, two PKC substrates involved in neural development and plasticity. Although processes of neuronal maturation, synapse formation and targeting appeared unaffected, offspring of supplemented mothers displayed a marked reduction of long-term synaptic plasticity in juvenile hippocampus. Interestingly, this impairment persisted in adulthood, when a deficit in hippocampus-dependent, long-lasting spatial memory was also revealed. In conclusion, maternal supplementation with elevated doses of α-tocopherol can influence cell signaling and synaptic plasticity in developing hippocampus and promotes permanent adverse effects in adult offspring. The present results emphasize the need to evaluate the safety of supranutritional maternal intake of α-tocopherol in humans.

  3. Effects of in utero and lactational ammonium perchlorate exposure on thyroid gland histology and thyroid and sex hormones in developing deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus) through postnatal day 21.

    PubMed

    Thuett, Kerry A; Roots, Ellen H; Mitchell, Lisa P; Gentles, Burnella A; Anderson, Todd; Kendall, Ronald J; Smith, Ernest E

    2002-12-27

    Thyroid gland hormone levels and histology and sex hormone levels in developing deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were measured following in utero and lactational exposure to ammonium perchlorate (AP), a component of rocket fuel and a thyroid toxicant. Breeding pairs were dosed continuously with 0, 1 nM, 1 micro M, or 1 mM concentrations of AP in drinking water from the time of cohabitation until pups from the third litter were weaned. Pups from the second litter were used for evaluation in this study. The active (colloid-containing) thyroid follicle number per unit area was significantly different between treatment groups. The 1-nM and 1-mM treatment groups had significantly fewer active follicles per unit area than did controls. The 1-mM treatment group also had significantly fewer active follicles than the 1- micro M and the 1-nM treatment groups. Total T(4) concentrations were significantly increased in the 1-nM and 1- micro M groups compared to the controls. No significant difference was observed in total T(3) concentrations. None of the 1-mM plasma had concentrations of total testosterone above the detection limit, and only one of the 1- micro M samples was above the detection limit of the assay. All estradiol concentrations were below the detection limits of the assay. In contrast to the situation in adult rodents, it appears that AP increases thyroid hormone production in developing deer mice and produces variable effects with increasing concentrations.

  4. Tracking Healthy Days -- a window on the health of older adults.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, David G; Kobau, Rosemarie; Zack, Matthew M; Zahran, Hatice S

    2005-07-01

    In collaboration with its partners in the public health and aging services communities, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Health Care and Aging Studies Branch has developed and validated a brief set of health-related quality of life (CDC HRQOL) measures for tracking the perceived physical and mental health of adults over time. For the past 12 years, these measures -- also called the Healthy Days measures -- have been used in an expanding set of population health surveys, surveillance systems, performance report cards, and evaluation studies, and they have provided useful disease and disability burden data to inform decision making and provide new insights for prevention research. Although now used continuously to assess health-related quality of life for Americans aged 12 years and older, the measures and population data have been especially valuable in applications affecting older adults, for which health-related quality of life is an outcome of primary importance. The CDC HRQOL measures are recommended to public health and social service professionals as a feasible way to assess perceived physical and mental health needs of older adults and to document the effects of policies and interventions.

  5. Degree-day prediction of adult emergence of Photinus carolinus (Coleoptera: Lampyridae).

    PubMed

    Faust, Lynn F; Weston, Paul A

    2009-10-01

    The synchronous display of the firefly Photinus carolinus Green in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park has been enjoyed by park visitors and studied by scientists and naturalists for the past 17 yr. A degree-day model is presented offering a means of more accurately predicting the display season of P. carolinus to facilitate advance planning required for researchers and the management of the thousands of nightly visitors who come to witness the peak firefly display. A modified growing degree-day (mGDD) model (base 50 degrees F, starting date 1 March) (centigrade equivalent base 10 degrees C, denoted mGDDC) provided the best fit to phenology data collected over a 15-yr period. The predictive model yielded the following values for P. carolinus phenology: male emergence, 838.6 mGDD (range, 776-922)/465.9 mGDDC (range, 431-512); "good" display, 992.5 mGDD (range, 931-1075)/551.4 mGDDC (range, 517-597); female emergence, 1068.8 mGDD (range, 956-1224)/593.8 mGDDC (range, 531-680); and peak male display, 1094.2 mGDD (range, 1020-1182)/607.9 mGDDC (range, 567-657). The accuracy and range limits of using calendar dates versus degree-day values are presented. Additional degree-day values are provided for 14 other local firefly and 1 phengodid species to broaden the applicability of using degree-days to aid in prediction of adult firefly seasons.

  6. Postnatal growth of genioglossal motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Brozanski, B S; Guthrie, R D; Volk, E A; Cameron, W E

    1989-01-01

    The postnatal growth of kitten genioglossal motoneurons were examined in six different age groups (newborn, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks and adult) using the technique of retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The cell bodies of 100-150 motoneurons in each age group were analyzed in a transverse plane of section using standard techniques. Somatic genioglossal motoneuron growth occurred primarily along the major axis, which increased from 25.2 microns to 41.3 microns between birth and 8 weeks of postnatal age, after which time there was no further increase in either major or minor dimension of the cell body. The form factor decreased from 0.94 to 0.80 from birth to adulthood indicating an increased eccentricity of the cell body. The number of primary dendrites visible with this technique remained constant throughout the postnatal period. Calculated somal surface area increased in a linear fashion from birth through 8 weeks of postnatal life. There was no further increase in surface area beyond this age. The rate of increase in somal surface area with age was significantly different from both the rate of increase of animal weight and animal surface area with age. The correlations between the demonstrated immature genioglossal morphology and its cellular electrophysiology or integrated respiratory function remain unknown. The recent demonstration of decreased activation of the genioglossus muscle following airway occlusion in premature infants with apnea suggests that the relationships between developing genioglossal motoneuron structure and function warrant further investigation.

  7. Consuming a multi-ingredient thermogenic supplement for 28 days is apparently safe in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Roxanne M.; Joy, Jordan M.; Falcone, Paul H.; Mosman, Matt M.; Kim, Michael P.; Moon, Jordan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Thermogenic (TRM) supplements are often used by people seeking to decrease body weight. Many TRM supplements are formulated with multiple ingredients purported to increase energy expenditure and maximize fat loss. However, in the past some TRM ingredients have been deemed unsafe and removed from the market. Therefore, it is important to verify the safety of multi-ingredient TRM supplements with chronic consumption. Objective To assess the safety of daily consumption of a multi-ingredient TRM supplement over a 28-day period in healthy adults. Design Twenty-three recreationally active adults (11M, 12F; 27.1±5.4 years, 171.6±9.6 cm, 76.8±16.1 kg, 26±5 BMI) were randomly assigned either to consume a multi-ingredient TRM supplement (SUP; n=9) or remain unsupplemented (CRL; n=14) for 28 days. Participants maintained their habitual dietary and exercise routines for the duration of the study. Fasting blood samples, resting blood pressure, and heart rate were taken before and after the supplementation period. Samples were analyzed for complete blood counts, comprehensive metabolic, and lipid panels. Results Significant (p<0.05) group by time interactions were present for diastolic BP, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), chloride, CO2, globulin, albumin:globulin (A/G), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Dependent t-tests conducted on significant variables revealed significant (p<0.05) within-group differences in SUP for diastolic BP (+6.2±5.3 mmHG), creatinine (+0.09±0.05 mg/dL), eGFR (−11.2±5.8 mL/min/1.73), globulin (−0.29±0.24 g/dL), A/G (+0.27±0.23), and HDL (−5.0±5.5 mg/dL), and in CRL for CO2 (−1.9±1.5 mmol/L) between time points. Each variable remained within the accepted physiological range. Conclusion Results of the present study support the clinical safety of a multi-ingredient TRM containing caffeine, green tea extract, and cayenne powder. Although there were statistically significant (p<0.05) intragroup

  8. Look at Me! Does the Adult Truly See and Respond to the Child in Finnish Day-Care Centres?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalliala, Marjatta

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the Kangaroo research project was to enhance the well-being of children under three years of age in Finnish day-care centres. In this experimental intervention study adults were encouraged to take a more sensitive and active role especially during "free play." In six Kangaroo groups and five control groups adults (N = 28) and…

  9. Caffeine Enhances Memory Performance in Young Adults during Their Non-optimal Time of Day

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Stephanie M.; Buckley, Timothy P.; Baena, Elsa; Ryan, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Many college students struggle to perform well on exams in the early morning. Although students drink caffeinated beverages to feel more awake, it is unclear whether these actually improve performance. After consuming coffee (caffeinated or decaffeinated), college-age adults completed implicit and explicit memory tasks in the early morning and late afternoon (Experiment 1). During the morning, participants ingesting caffeine demonstrated a striking improvement in explicit memory, but not implicit memory. Caffeine did not alter memory performance in the afternoon. In Experiment 2, participants engaged in cardiovascular exercise in order to examine whether increases in physiological arousal similarly improved memory. Despite clear increases in physiological arousal, exercise did not improve memory performance compared to a stretching control condition. These results suggest that caffeine has a specific benefit for memory during students’ non-optimal time of day – early morning. These findings have real-world implications for students taking morning exams. PMID:27895607

  10. Effect of seven days of spaceflight on hindlimb muscle protein, RNA and DNA in adult rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of seven days of spaceflight on skeletal muscle (soleus, gastrocnemius, EDL) content of protein, RNA and DNA were determined in adult rats. Whereas total protein contents were reduced in parallel with muscle weights, myofibrillar protein appeared to be more affected. There were no significant changes in absolute DNA contents, but a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in DNA concentration (microgram/milligram) in soleus muscles from flight rats. Absolute RNA contents were significantly (P less than 0.025) decreased in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of flight rats, with RNA concentrations reduced 15-30 percent. These results agree with previous ground-based observations on the suspended rat with unloaded hindlimbs and support continued use of this model.

  11. Neonatal manipulation of oxytocin alters oxytocin levels in the pituitary of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Young, E; Carter, C S; Cushing, B S; Caldwell, J D

    2005-07-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) and its OT antagonists (OTA) in infant rats affect their behavior as adults. In this study we attempted to determine whether treating rats on the day of birth (postnatal day 1) with OT or OTA would affect brain OT levels of these rats as adults. Rat pups were injected with OT (3 microg), OTA (0.3 microg) or saline vehicle ip on postnatal day 1. As 60-day-old adults, treated rats were killed, and the OT content in their medial preoptic areas (MPOAs), medial hypothalami (MH) and pituitaries were assayed. In females, treatment with OTA on postnatal day 1 significantly decreased pituitary OT levels as adults. In males, by contrast, treatment with OTA on postnatal day 1 resulted in increased pituitary OT levels when they become adults compared to male rats treated with OT on postnatal day 1. There were no significant effects of neonatal treatment on OT levels in either the MH or MPOA. Day 1 postnatal treatment with OT or OTA had a long-term sexually dimorphic effect on OT levels in the pituitary.

  12. The Relationship Between Nurse Staffing and 30-Day Readmission for Adults With Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Giuliano, Karen K.; Danesh, Valerie; Funk, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to better understand the relationship between nurse staffing and 30-day excess readmission ratios for patients with heart failure in the top US adult cardiology and heart surgery hospitals. BACKGROUND Heart failure is the most common cause of hospitalization for patients older than 65 years and is the most frequent diagnosis associated with 30-day hospital readmission in the United States. METHODS A secondary data analysis was conducted using nurse staffing data from 661 cardiology and heart surgery hospitals from the 2013 US News & World Report “Best Hospitals” survey. These data were combined with excess readmission ratios from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Hospital Compare database from 2013. An independent-samples t test was used to compare staffing (low/high) and excess hospital readmissions rates. RESULTS A significant difference (P = .021) was found between the low nurse staffing group (n = 358) and the high nurse staffing group (n = 303). Hospitals with a lower nurse staffing index had a significantly higher excess readmission rate. CONCLUSION These data provide further support to the body of research showing a positive relationship between nurse staffing and positive outcomes. PMID:26579974

  13. Maternal Forced Swimming Reduces Cell Proliferation in the Postnatal Dentate Gyrus of Mouse Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Wasinski, Frederick; Estrela, Gabriel R.; Arakaki, Aline M.; Bader, Michael; Alenina, Natalia; Klempin, Friederike; Araújo, Ronaldo C.

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise positively affects the metabolism and induces proliferation of precursor cells in the adult brain. Maternal exercise likewise provokes adaptations early in the offspring. Using a high-intensity swimming protocol that comprises forced swim training before and during pregnancy, we determined the effect of maternal swimming on the mouse offspring's neurogenesis. Our data demonstrate decreased proliferation in sublayers of the postnatal dentate gyrus in offspring of swimming mother at postnatal day (P) 8 accompanied with decreased survival of newly generated cells 4 weeks later. The reduction in cell numbers was predominantly seen in the hilus and molecular layer. At P35, the reduced amount of cells was also reflected by a decrease in the population of newly generated immature and mature neurons of the granule cell layer. Our data suggest that forced maternal swimming at high-intensity has a negative effect on the neurogenic niche development in postnatal offspring. PMID:27621701

  14. 76 FR 44573 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care... Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2011 Through June 30, 2012 Correction In notice document 2011... page 43255, the table labeled ``Administrative Reimbursement Rates for Sponsoring Organizations of...

  15. Day-to-day variations in the amplitude of the soil temperature cycle and impact on adult eclosion timing of the onion fly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Watari, Yasuhiko

    2016-12-01

    The onion fly Delia antiqua advances its eclosion timing with decreasing temperature amplitude to compensate for a depth-dependent phase delay of the zeitgeber. To elucidate whether or not naturally occurring day-to-day variations in the amplitude of soil temperature cycle disturb this compensatory response, we monitored daily variations in the temperature amplitude in natural soils and evaluated the impact on adult eclosion timing. Our results indicated that both median and variance of the soil temperature amplitude become smaller as depth increases. Insertion of a larger temperature fluctuation into the thermoperiod with smaller temperature amplitude induced a stronger phase delay, while insertion of a smaller temperature fluctuation into the thermoperiod with larger temperature amplitude had a weaker phase-advancing effect. It is therefore expected that larger diurnal temperature fluctuations disturb the compensatory response, particularly if they occur at deeper locations, while smaller temperature fluctuations do so only at shallower locations. Under natural conditions, however, the probability of occurrence of smaller or larger temperature fluctuations in shallower or deeper soils, respectively, is relatively small. Thus, naturally occurring day-to-day variations in the temperature amplitude rarely disturb the compensatory response, thereby having a subtle or negligible impact on adult eclosion timing.

  16. Postnatal expression of myosin isoforms in the genioglossus and diaphragm muscles.

    PubMed

    Brozanski, B S; Daood, M J; Watchko, J F; LaFramboise, W A; Guthrie, R D

    1993-04-01

    We studied the expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC) and native myosin isoforms in the genioglossus (GG) and costal diaphragm (DIA) muscles of the rat during postnatal development using both denaturing and nondenaturing gel electrophoresis. Primary myotubes in both fast and slow muscles homogeneously express slow as well as embryonic myosin. Since the adult GG is comprised primarily of fast MHC isoforms, whereas the adult DIA is characterized by a mixture of MHC slow and fast isoforms, we hypothesized that the GG and DIA would be subject to different temporal patterns of MHC isoform expression during postnatal development. Native myosin and MHC gels demonstrated a persistence of neonatal MHC (MHC neo) on day 25 in the GG, whereas this isoform was not detected beyond day 21 in the DIA. The MHC phenotype in GG of the adult demonstrated a predominance of MHC 2X (35% +/- 8) and MHC 2B (45% +/- 10) with a smaller proportion of MHC 2A (19% +/- 5). In contrast, the MHC phenotype in adult DIA was characterized by approximately equal proportions of MHC slow (25% +/- 3), MHC 2A (34% +/- 10), and MHC 2X (31% +/- 12) with a small percentage of MHC 2B (9% +/- 7). These data suggest that postnatal regulation of MHC expression in the GG and DIA is muscle specific.

  17. Measuring Physical Activity with Hip Accelerometry among U.S. Older Adults: How Many Days Are Enough?

    PubMed Central

    Dale, William; Lauderdale, Diane S.; Waite, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Accelerometers are increasingly used in research. Four to 7 days of monitoring is preferred to estimate average activity but may be burdensome for older adults. We aimed to investigate: 1) 7-day accelerometry protocol adherence, 2) demographic predictors of adherence, 3) day of the week effect, and 4) average activity calculated from 7 versus fewer days among older adults. Methods We used the 2003–2006 older adult hip accelerometry data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) sample. We determined proportions with 1–7 valid (10–20 hours) wear days and identified wear day correlates using ordinal logistic regression. We determined the day of week effect on 5 accelerometry measures (counts per minute, CPM; % sedentary behavior; % light-lifestyle activity; % moderate-vigorous activity, MVPA; total activity counts) using multivariate linear regression and compared averages estimated over 2 or 3 versus 7 days using correlations, linear regression, and Bland-Altman plots. Results Among 2,208 participants aged 65+, 85% of participants had ≥2 and 44% had 7 valid wear days. Increasing age (p = 0.01) and non-white race (p < 0.001) were associated with fewer days. Daily CPM, % MVPA, and total daily activity counts were similar Monday through Saturday, but significantly lower on Sundays (p < 0.001). Daily % sedentary behavior and % light-lifestyle activity were significantly different on Saturdays (p = 0.04–0.045) and Sundays (p < 0.001) compared to weekdays. Among participants with 7 valid days, 2 or 3 day averages were highly correlated with 7 day averages for all 5 accelerometry measures (2 versus 7 days: r = 0.90–0.93, 3 versus 7 days: r = 0.94–0.96). Conclusions Protocols of 2–3 days, adjusting for Sundays (average CPM, % moderate-vigorous activity, and average total daily activity counts) or weekends (% sedentary behavior and % light-lifestyle activity), give reliable estimates of older adult activity. PMID:28081249

  18. Deletion of neurturin impairs development of cholinergic nerves and heart rate control in postnatal mouse hearts.

    PubMed

    Downs, Anthony M; Jalloh, Hawa B; Prater, Kayla J; Fregoso, Santiago P; Bond, Cherie E; Hampton, Thomas G; Hoover, Donald B

    2016-05-01

    The neurotrophic factor neurturin is required for normal cholinergic innervation of adult mouse heart and bradycardic responses to vagal stimulation. Our goals were to determine effects of neurturin deletion on development of cardiac chronotropic and dromotropic functions, vagal baroreflex response, and cholinergic nerve density in nodal regions of postnatal mice. Experiments were performed on postnatal C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and neurturin knockout (KO) mice. Serial electrocardiograms were recorded noninvasively from conscious pups using an ECGenie apparatus. Mice were treated with atenolol to evaluate and block sympathetic effects on heart rate (HR) and phenylephrine (PE) to stimulate the baroreflex. Immunohistochemistry was used to label cholinergic nerves in paraffin sections. WT and KO mice showed similar age-dependent increases in HR and decreases in PR interval between postnatal days (P) 2.5 and 21. Treatment with atenolol reduced HR significantly in WT and KO pups at P7.5. PE caused a reflex bradycardia that was significantly smaller in KO pups. Cholinergic nerve density was significantly less in nodal regions of P7.5 KO mice. We conclude that cholinergic nerves have minimal influence on developmental changes in HR and PR, QRS, and QTc intervals in mouse pups. However, cholinergic nerves mediate reflex bradycardia by 1 week postnatally. Deletion of neurturin impairs cholinergic innervation of the heart and the vagal efferent component of the baroreflex early during postnatal development.

  19. Postnatal changes in fatty acids composition of brown adipose tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, T.; Ogawa, K.; Kuroshima, A.

    1992-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that thermogenic activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is higher during the early postnatal period, decreasing towards a low adult level. The present study examined postnatal changes in the lipid composition of BAT. BAT from pre-weaning rats at 4 and 14 days old showed the following differences in lipid composition compared to that from adults of 12 weeks old. (i) Relative weight of interscapular BAT to body weight was markedly greater. (ii) BAT-triglyceride (TG) level was lower, while BAT-phospholipid (PL)level was higher. (iii) In TG fatty acids (FA) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PU; mol %), arachidonate index (AI), unsaturation index (UI) and PU/saturated FA (SA) were higher; rare FA such as eicosadienoate, bishomo- γ-linolenic acid and lignoceric acid in mol % were also higher. (iv) In PL-FA monounsaturated FA (MU) in mol % was lower; PU mol %, AI and UI were higher. These features in BAT of pre-weaning rats resembled those in the cold-acclimated adults, suggesting a close relationship of the PL-FA profile to high activity of BAT.

  20. Meal Replacement Beverage Twice a Day in Overweight and Obese Adults (MDRC2012-001)

    PubMed Central

    Frestedt, Joy L; Young, Lindsay R; Bell, Margie

    2012-01-01

    This open label, single arm, prospective, interventional, weight loss trial evaluated a meal replacement beverage (Right Size® Smoothie) used to replace breakfast and lunch each day for 12 weeks (7 clinic visits) as part of a calorie-restricted diet in overweight and obese adults. A total of 155 individuals were screened, 55 enrolled and 28 completed this 12 week study. Subjects were obese (mean weight: 206 pounds and BMI: 32.7 kg/m2) and the mean age was 40 years including 42 (76.4%) female and 13 (23.6%) male volunteers. The modified Intent to Treat and Completer groups lost an average of 10.6 and 13.8 pounds and reduced their average BMI by 1.7 and 2.2 kg/m2 respectively during this 12 week trial. The Per Protocol group lost 15.2 pounds and 2.4 kg/m2 and the Optimal Weight Loss group lost 18.5 pounds and 2.9 kg/m2. Using the Satiety Labeled Intensity Magnitude scale (SLIM) questionnaire, subjects reported feeling relatively hungry before they consumed the beverage, then feeling relatively full 15 minutes following the beverage with the sensation of some fullness lasting more than 2 hours and then feeling relatively hungry again at 3 hours after consuming the beverage. Study subjects reported significant improvements in physical functioning, general health, vitality and mental health as well as increased cognitive restraint of eating, reduced disinhibition and reduced hunger during the trial. The study beverages were well tolerated and no Serious Adverse Events (SAE) reported. This study suggests the study beverage aids in weight loss by helping to curb hunger during a reduced calorie diet program. PMID:23236298

  1. Meal Replacement Beverage Twice a Day in Overweight and Obese Adults (MDRC2012-001).

    PubMed

    Frestedt, Joy L; Young, Lindsay R; Bell, Margie

    2012-11-01

    This open label, single arm, prospective, interventional, weight loss trial evaluated a meal replacement beverage (Right Size(®) Smoothie) used to replace breakfast and lunch each day for 12 weeks (7 clinic visits) as part of a calorie-restricted diet in overweight and obese adults. A total of 155 individuals were screened, 55 enrolled and 28 completed this 12 week study. Subjects were obese (mean weight: 206 pounds and BMI: 32.7 kg/m(2)) and the mean age was 40 years including 42 (76.4%) female and 13 (23.6%) male volunteers. The modified Intent to Treat and Completer groups lost an average of 10.6 and 13.8 pounds and reduced their average BMI by 1.7 and 2.2 kg/m(2) respectively during this 12 week trial. The Per Protocol group lost 15.2 pounds and 2.4 kg/m(2) and the Optimal Weight Loss group lost 18.5 pounds and 2.9 kg/m(2). Using the Satiety Labeled Intensity Magnitude scale (SLIM) questionnaire, subjects reported feeling relatively hungry before they consumed the beverage, then feeling relatively full 15 minutes following the beverage with the sensation of some fullness lasting more than 2 hours and then feeling relatively hungry again at 3 hours after consuming the beverage. Study subjects reported significant improvements in physical functioning, general health, vitality and mental health as well as increased cognitive restraint of eating, reduced disinhibition and reduced hunger during the trial. The study beverages were well tolerated and no Serious Adverse Events (SAE) reported. This study suggests the study beverage aids in weight loss by helping to curb hunger during a reduced calorie diet program.

  2. Prevalence of Behavior Disorder and Disturbance to Family and Staff in a Sample of Adult Day Health Care Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teresi, Jeanne A.; Holmes, Douglas; Dichter, Elizabeth; Koren, Mary Jane; Ramirez, Mildred; Fairchild, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Reports on the prevalence of behavior disorders in a sample of residents (N=360) in adult day health care programs. Findings indicate relatively high rates of behavior disorders. Most prevalent were the affective disorders (seeking reassurance, depression, crying) and verbal-vocal agitation. Differences between formal and informal caregivers'…

  3. Recruiting Older Adults into a Physical Activity Promotion Program: "Active Living Every Day" Offered in a Naturally Occurring Retirement Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Mary; Neufeld, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores recruitment strategies based on the transtheoretical model (TTM) with older adults living in a naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) to encourage enrollment in a physical activity promotion program, "Active Living Every Day" (ALED). Reasons for participation or nonparticipation are identified. Design and…

  4. Laminin regulates postnatal oligodendrocyte production by promoting oligodendrocyte progenitor survival in the subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Relucio, Jenne; Menezes, Michael J; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Colognato, Holly

    2012-10-01

    The laminin family of extracellular matrix proteins are expressed broadly during embryonic brain development, but are enriched at ventricular and pial surfaces where laminins mediate radial glial attachment during corticogenesis. In the adult brain, however, laminin distribution is restricted, yet is found within the vascular basal lamina and associated fractones of the ventricular zone (VZ)-subventricular zone (SVZ) stem cell niche, where laminins regulate adult neural progenitor cell proliferation. It remains unknown, however, if laminins regulate the wave of oligodendrogenesis that occurs in the neonatal/early postnatal VZ-SVZ. Here we report that Lama2, the gene that encodes the laminin α2-subunit, regulates postnatal oligodendrogenesis. At birth, Lama2-/- mice had significantly higher levels of dying oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in the OPC germinal zone of the dorsal SVZ. This translated into fewer OPCs, both in the dorsal SVZ well as in an adjacent developing white matter tract, the corpus callosum. In addition, intermediate progenitor cells that give rise to OPCs in the Lama2-/- VZ-SVZ were mislocalized and proliferated nearer to the ventricle surface. Later, delays in oligodendrocyte maturation (with accompanying OPC accumulation), were observed in the Lama2-/- corpus callosum, leading to dysmyelination by postnatal day 21. Together these data suggest that prosurvival laminin interactions in the developing postnatal VZ-SVZ germinal zone regulate the ability, or timing, of oligodendrocyte production to occur appropriately.

  5. Postnatal Development of the Corticospinal Tract in the Reeler Mouse.

    PubMed

    Namikawa, Tomohiro; Kikkawa, Satoshi; Inokuchi, Go; Terashima, Toshio

    2015-12-03

    Corticospinal tract (CST) neurons are dislocated in the motor cortex of Reelin-deficient mouse, reeler. In the present study, we examined whether postnatal axonal growth arising from these dislocated CST neurons are normal or not with use of anterograde tracer, DiI and retrograde tracer, HRP. A single injection of DiI into the motor cortex of the normal and reeler mice was made during postnatal period and 8-24 hours later, the animals were sacrificed to examine DiI-labeled CST axons at the lower medulla and spinal cord. Both in the normal and reeler mice, CST axons arrived at the pyramidal decussation and entered into the contralateral spinal cord around on postnatal day (P) 0.5, and descend in the ventral area of the contralateral dorsal funiculus at C2 level on P2, at C8 level on P3, at the mid-thoracic level on P4, and at the upper lumbar level on P8. The similar results were also demonstrated by the retrograde labeling of CST neurons with injection of HRP into the C1 level or upper lumbar enlargement. Next, we examined CaMKIIα expression in the CST axons of the adult normal and reeler mice. CaMKIIα-immunopositive fibers were recognized throughout the CST pathway from the internal capsule to the dorsal funiculus of the spinal cord both in the normal and reeler mice. The present study has demonstrated that ectopic location of cell bodies of reeler CST neurons do not affect postnatal development of CST axons in the spinal cord.

  6. Development of mucociliary transport in the postnatal ferret trachea.

    PubMed

    Voter, K Z; Leigh, M W; Boat, T F; Carson, J L; Wood, R E

    1992-10-01

    Little is known of the developmental aspects of mucociliary transport. Previous studies have documented that newborn ferret trachea has very few ciliated cells but numerous immature secretory cells in the epithelium and only rudimentary submucosal glands. Rapid and complete maturation occurs in the first postnatal month. This study examines mucociliary transport during this period of rapid maturation. We made direct observations of particle movement across the epithelium of ferret tracheas. No mucus transport could be demonstrated on the first day of life. Transport was discernible, although sporadic and slow, by 7 days and reached adult levels (10.7 +/- 3.7 mm/min) by 28 postnatal days. The emergence of transport capability correlated well with previously described developmental changes in ciliation, mucus secretion, and ion permeability and transport. Threshold mucus transport occurred at 1 wk of age when 20-25% of the surface cells are ciliated. The neonatal ferret appears to be a useful model for assessing integrated epithelial structure-function relationships that are important not only during early development but also during repair after airway injury involving deciliation.

  7. Postnatal development of retrosplenial projections to the parahippocampal region of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Sugar, Jørgen; Witter, Menno P

    2016-01-01

    The rat parahippocampal region (PHR) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) are cortical areas important for spatial cognition. In PHR, head-direction cells are present before eye-opening, earliest detected in postnatal day (P)11 animals. Border cells have been recorded around eye-opening (P16), while grid cells do not obtain adult-like features until the fourth postnatal week. In view of these developmental time-lines, we aimed to explore when afferents originating in RSC arrive in PHR. To this end, we injected rats aged P0-P28 with anterograde tracers into RSC. First, we characterized the organization of RSC-PHR projections in postnatal rats and compared these results with data obtained in the adult. Second, we described the morphological development of axonal plexus in PHR. We conclude that the first arriving RSC-axons in PHR, present from P1 onwards, already show a topographical organization similar to that seen in adults, although the labeled plexus does not obtain adult-like densities until P12. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13925.001 PMID:27008178

  8. Without Speaking, Youth Enters Adult Work Scene, Copes with Autism a Day at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patti

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the story of Chad Roberts of Canton, Georgia, who is proving himself a promising employee day by day. He works several jobs in increments of up to 90 minutes. Some days, he completes bulk mailings at a law firm. On others, he's at local restaurants stocking the wait staff stations with supplies. The community-based vocational…

  9. Postnatal ontogeny of the circadian expression of the adrenal clock genes and corticosterone rhythm in male rats.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Roa, Silvia Liliana; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Martins, Clarissa Silva; Antonini, Sonir Rauber; de Castro, Margaret; Moreira, Ayrton Custódio

    2017-01-25

    The postnatal synchronization of the circadian variation of the adrenal clock genes in mammals remains unknown. We evaluated the postnatal ontogeny of daily variation of clock genes (Clock/Bmal1/Per1/Per2/Per3/Cry1/Cry2/Rorα/Rev-Erbα) and steroidogenesis-related genes (Star and Mc2r) in rat adrenals and its relationship with the emergence of plasma corticosterone rhythm using Cosinor analysis. Plasma corticosterone circadian rhythm was detected from postnatal day (P) P1, with morning acrophase, between zeitgeber time (ZT) ZT0 and ZT2. From P14, there was a nocturnal acrophase of corticosterone at ZT20, which was associated with pups' eye opening. Since P3 there was a circadian variation of the mRNA expression of Bmal1, Per2, Per3, Cry1 genes with morning acrophase whereas Rev-Erbα had nocturnal acrophase. From P14, Bmal1, Per2, Per3, Cry1 acrophases advanced by approximately 10h, as compared to early neonatal days, becoming vespertine-nocturnal. In all postnatal ages, Per2 and Cry1 circadian profiles were synchronized in phase while Bmal1 was in antiphase with the circadian rhythm of plasma corticosterone. Adult-like Star circadian rhythm profile was observed only from P21. In conclusion, our original data demonstrated a progressive postnatal maturation of the circadian variation of the adrenal clock genes in synchrony with the development of the corticosterone circadian rhythm in rats.

  10. Safety and cost savings of an improved three-day rule for stool culture in hospitalised children and adults.

    PubMed

    Seyler, L; Lalvani, A; Collins, L; Goddard, L; Bowler, I C J W

    2007-10-01

    Stools sent for culture from patients after three days of hospitalisation have a low yield (<1%) for bacterial enteric pathogens (BEP), excluding Clostridium difficile, and are expensive to process. A 'three-day rule' for rejection of specimens has previously been validated in adults. We evaluated a three-day rule for paediatric stool samples by retrospective review of all stool culture results from 1995 to 2002. Excluding C. difficile, yield for BEP in samples sent within three days following admission was 97/3751 (2.59%) compared with 3/1511 (0.2%) in samples sent more than three days after admission. The criteria for culture would have been met if the rule had been applied for these three samples. We prospectively evaluated potential savings if the rule were applied for both children and adults over a two-month period in 2000. Savings were greater for adults than for children. Of 490 stools from children, 38 (7.8%) samples did not meet the criteria for culture and of 206 stools from adult patients, 64 (31%) did not meet the criteria for culture. We implemented the rule between 1 March 2003 and 31 March 2006. A total of 14 439 stool samples were received from inpatients requesting culture for BEP, excluding C. difficile. Of these, 5744 (39.8%) were rejected because the criteria for culture were not met. This was estimated as an annual saving of 11,848 pounds to the Trust laboratory. If extrapolated to all NHS Trusts, the potential savings could be in the order of 1.18 million pounds annually.

  11. Relative importance of prenatal and postnatal androgen action in determining growth of the penis and anogenital distance in the rat before, during and after puberty.

    PubMed

    van den Driesche, S; Scott, H M; MacLeod, D J; Fisken, M; Walker, M; Sharpe, R M

    2011-12-01

    Experimental animal studies show that measurement of anogenital distance (AGD) and/or penis length may provide lifelong 'read-outs' of foetal androgen exposure during the masculinization programming window (MPW). However, variation in postnatal androgen exposure may complicate interpretation of such measurements. This is important to clarify if such measurements are to be applied to humans. The present aim was to evaluate effects of prenatal and/or postnatal manipulation of androgen production/action on growth of AGD and the penis in rats. Pregnant rats were treated daily before (e13.5-e21.5) and after birth (postnatal days 1-15) with either vehicle, 500 mg/kg di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) or 100 mg/kg flutamide (postnatal only) in prenatal + postnatal treatment combinations (N = 6 treatment combinations); DBP impairs androgen production whereas flutamide impairs androgen action. Male offspring were killed on postnatal day 8 (prepuberty), 25 (early puberty) or 90 (adulthood) when AGD was measured, the penis dissected out and its weight and length measured; plasma testosterone and ventral prostate weight were measured at day 90 to assess endogenous androgen exposure. In controls, penis length, girth and AGD increased 2.2-, 5.3-and 5.9-fold respectively from day 8 to day 90. Significant inhibition of penis growth and final length and girth was induced by treatments that inhibited postnatal androgen action. Conversely, growth and ultimate (adult) AGD was inhibited by prenatal inhibition of androgen production whereas postnatal androgen inhibition had negligible effect. Nevertheless, AGD and penis length were highly correlated at every age (R(2) > 0.33; p < 0.0001). However, altered endogenous androgen exposure may confound interpretation of changes in adults exposed prenatally/postnatally to DBP/flutamide. We conclude that AGD provides a lifelong guide to prenatal androgen exposure (in the MPW) whereas penis size reflects both prenatal + postnatal androgen exposure. At

  12. 7 CFR 226.19a - Adult day care center provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... beneficiaries. Menus and any other nutritional records required by the State agency shall be maintained to... day care centers shall have Federal, State or local licensing or approval to provide day care services... participate in the Program during the renewal process, unless the State agency has information which...

  13. Cannabis Withdrawal, Posttreatment Abstinence, and Days to First Cannabis Use Among Emerging Adults in Substance Use Treatment: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jordan P.; Smith, Douglas C.; Morphew, Jason W.; Lei, Xinrong; Zhang, Saijun

    2015-01-01

    Very little prospective research investigates how cannabis withdrawal is associated with treatment outcomes, and this work has not used the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) thresholds for cannabis withdrawal. The sample included 110 emerging adults entering outpatient substance use treatment who were heavy cannabis users with no other drug use and limited alcohol use. We used survival analyses to predict days to first use of cannabis and logistic regression to predict whether participants were abstinent and living in the community at 3 months. Those meeting criteria for cannabis withdrawal were more likely to return to use sooner than those not meeting criteria for cannabis withdrawal. However, the presence of cannabis withdrawal was not a significant predictor of 3-month abstinence. Emerging adults with DSM-5 cannabis withdrawal may have difficulty initiating abstinence in the days following their intake assessment, implying the need for strategies to mitigate their more rapid return to cannabis use. PMID:26877548

  14. Developmental Expression of Inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate Receptor in the Post-Natal Rat Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Liu, W. J.; Yang, J.

    2015-01-01

    Inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) has been established to be essential for hearing. However, the expression of IP3R in the cochlea in the period of auditory development remains unknown. We investigated the expression of IP3R in the developing rat cochlea using immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We observed its presence in the developing rat cochlea, and changes in IP3R protein expressions from the early post-natal period to adult. At birth (postnatal day 0, P0), IP3R expression was only found in Hensen’s cell. IP3R immunoreactivity first appeared in the sensory hair cells in the organ of Corti at P2. This localization was confirmed by means of double-labeling experiments with Myosin VIIA, a marker for cochlear hair cells. Colocalization of IP3R and Myosin VIIA from P2 to the second post-natal week suggested early expression of IP3R in developing inner and outer hair cells. Claudius’ cells near the spiral ligament were labelled for IP3R from P8 onwards. Transient IP3R expression was observed in the stria vascularis in early post-natal rat from P4 to P8. Spiral ganglion neurons also exhibited weaker IP3R fluorescence signals during post-natal development. The results of RT-PCR demonstrated that all three IP3R isoforms (IP3R1, IP3R2, and IP3R3) were present in rat cochlea during four different developmental stages of cochlea, from P0 to P28. Present immunohistochemical evidence for both change and maintenance of expression of IP3R during post-natal development of the rat cochlea indicated the possible involvement of IP3R-mediated calcium signaling in cochlear development. PMID:26150157

  15. Selective Endothelin-B Receptor Stimulation Increases Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in the Rat Brain during Postnatal Development.

    PubMed

    Leonard, M G; Prazad, P; Puppala, B; Gulati, A

    2015-11-01

    Endothelin, vascular endothelial growth factor and nerve growth factor play important roles in development of the central nervous system. ET(B) receptors have been shown to promote neurovascular remodeling in the adult ischemic brain through an increase in VEGF and NGF. It is possible that ET(B) receptors may be involved in postnatal development of the brain through VEGF and NGF. In the present study, the brains of male rat pups on postnatal days 1, 7, 14 and 28 were analyzed for expression of ET(B) receptors, VEGF and NGF. In order to determine the effect of ET(B) receptor stimulation, a separate group of pups were administered saline or ET(B) receptor agonist, IRL-1620, on day 21, and their brains were analyzed on day 28. The intensity of ET(B) receptor and VEGF staining in the vasculature as well as the number of blood vessels of normal pups increased with age and was significantly higher on postnatal day 14 compared to day 1 and day 7. In contrast, both ET(B) and NGF staining intensity in the cortex and subventricular zones decreased (P<0.01) at postnatal day 14 compared to earlier time points. Stimulation of ET(B) receptors resulted in a significant increase in VEGF and ET(B) intensity both in the vasculature and the brain (P<0.05), however, IRL-1620 did not produce any change in NGF expression. Results indicate that ET(B) receptors appear to play a role in the development of the CNS and selective stimulation of ET(B) receptors enhances VEGF but not NGF in the postnatal rat brain.

  16. Postnatal Morphine Administration Alters Hippocampal Development in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Traudt, Christopher M.; Tkac, Ivan; Ennis, Kathleen M.; Sutton, Leah M.; Mammel, Daniel M.; Rao, Raghavendra

    2011-01-01

    Morphine is frequently used as an analgesic and sedative in preterm infants. Adult rats exposed to morphine have altered hippocampal neurochemical profile and decreased neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. To evaluate whether neonatal rats are similarly affected, rat pups were injected twice daily with 2 mg/kg of morphine or normal saline from postnatal days 3 to 7. On postnatal day 8, the hippocampal neurochemical profile was determined using in vivo 1H NMR spectroscopy. The mRNA and protein concentrations of specific analytes were measured in hippocampus, and cell division in dentate gyrus was assessed using bromodeoxyuridine. The concentrations of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), taurine and myo-insotol were decreased, while glutathione, phosphoethanolamine and choline-containing compounds concentrations were increased in morphine-exposed rats relative to control rats. Morphine decreased glutamic acid decarboxylase enzyme levels and myelin basic protein mRNA expression in the hippocampus. Bromodeoxyuridine labeling in the dentate gyrus was decreased by 60-70% in morphine-exposed rats. These results suggest that recurrent morphine administration during brain development alters hippocampal structure. PMID:21971612

  17. Postnatal morphine administration alters hippocampal development in rats.

    PubMed

    Traudt, Christopher M; Tkac, Ivan; Ennis, Kathleen M; Sutton, Leah M; Mammel, Daniel M; Rao, Raghavendra

    2012-01-01

    Morphine is frequently used as an analgesic and sedative in preterm infants. Adult rats exposed to morphine have an altered hippocampal neurochemical profile and decreased neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. To evaluate whether neonatal rats are similarly affected, rat pups were injected twice daily with 2 mg/kg morphine or normal saline from postnatal days 3 to 7. On postnatal day 8, the hippocampal neurochemical profile was determined using in vivo (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The mRNA and protein concentrations of specific analytes were measured in hippocampus, and cell division in dentate gyrus was assessed using bromodeoxyuridine. The concentrations of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), taurine, and myo-insotol were decreased, whereas concentrations of glutathione, phosphoethanolamine, and choline-containing compounds were increased in morphine-exposed rats relative to control rats. Morphine decreased glutamic acid decarboxylase enzyme levels and myelin basic protein mRNA expression in the hippocampus. Bromodeoxyuridine labeling in the dentate gyrus was decreased by 60-70% in morphine-exposed rats. These results suggest that recurrent morphine administration during brain development alters hippocampal structure.

  18. Green Care Farms: An Innovative Type of Adult Day Service to Stimulate Social Participation of People With Dementia.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Simone R; Stoop, Annerieke; Molema, Claudia C M; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Hop, Peter J W M; Baan, Caroline A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of day services at green care farms (GCFs) in terms of social participation for people with dementia. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people with dementia who attended day services at a GCF (GCF group, n = 21), were on a waiting list (WL) for day services at a GCF (WL group, n = 12), or attended day services in a regular day care facility (RDCF group, n = 17) and with their family caregivers. Results: People with dementia in the GCF and WL group were primarily males, with an average age of 71 and 76 years, respectively, who almost all had a spousal caregiver. People with dementia in the RDCF group were mostly females with an average age of 85 years, most of whom had a non-spousal caregiver. For both the GCF and RDCF groups, it was indicated that day services made people with dementia feel part of society. The most important domains of social participation addressed by RDCFs were social interactions and recreational activities. GCFs additionally addressed the domains "paid employment" and "volunteer work." Conclusion: GCFs are valuable in terms of social participation for a particular group of people with dementia. Matching characteristics of adult day services (ADS) centers to the preferences and capacities of people with dementia is of importance. Diversity in ADS centers is therefore desirable.

  19. Postnatal expression of myosin isoforms in an expiratory muscle--external abdominal oblique.

    PubMed

    Watchko, J F; Daood, M J; Vazquez, R L; Brozanski, B S; LaFramboise, W A; Guthrie, R D; Sieck, G C

    1992-11-01

    We studied the postnatal expression of heavy-chain (MHC) and native myosin isoforms in an expiratory abdominal muscle of the rat, the external abdominal oblique (EO). Moreover, we contrasted EO myosin expression with that of the costal diaphragm (DIA) to draw inspiratory vs. expiratory muscle comparisons during development. Examination of MHC gels demonstrated a mature phenotype of slow and adult fast myosin isoforms at an earlier age in the EO (day 60) than in the DIA [day > 115 (adult)]. The mature MHC phenotype of the EO was characterized by a preponderance of MHC 2B, whereas the DIA was characterized by approximately equal portions of MHC slow, MHC 2A, and MHC 2X. During early postnatal development, there was a delay in the expression of MHC 2A in the EO compared with the DIA. However, MHC 2B, expressed later in development in both muscles, was noted in the EO before the DIA. We conclude that 1) the EO mature myosin phenotype is characterized by a preponderance of fast myosin isoforms and 2) the EO and DIA muscles are subject to different temporal patterns of isoform expression during postnatal development.

  20. Temporary Depletion of Microglia during the Early Postnatal Period Induces Lasting Sex-Dependent and Sex-Independent Effects on Behavior in Rats

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Microglia are the primary immune cells of the brain and function in multiple ways to facilitate proper brain development. However, our current understanding of how these cells influence the later expression of normal behaviors is lacking. Using the laboratory rat, we administered liposomal clodronate centrally to selectively deplete microglia in the developing postnatal brain. We then assessed a range of developmental, juvenile, and adult behaviors. Liposomal clodronate treatment on postnatal days 0, 2, and 4 depleted microglia with recovery by about 10 days of age and induced a hyperlocomotive phenotype, observable in the second postnatal week. Temporary microglia depletion also increased juvenile locomotion in the open field test and decreased anxiety-like behaviors in the open field and elevated plus maze. These same rats displayed reductions in predator odor–induced avoidance behavior, but increased their risk assessment behaviors compared with vehicle-treated controls. In adulthood, postnatal microglia depletion resulted in significant deficits in male-specific sex behaviors. Using factor analysis, we identified two underlying traits—behavioral disinhibition and locomotion—as being significantly altered by postnatal microglia depletion. These findings further implicate microglia as being critically important to the development of juvenile and adult behavior. PMID:27957532

  1. A day-centered approach to modeling cortisol: Diurnal cortisol profiles and their associations among U.S. adults

    PubMed Central

    Dmitrieva, Natalia O.; Almeida, David M.; Dmitrieva, Julia; Loken, Eric; Pieper, Carl F.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Diurnal cortisol is a marker of HPA-axis activity that may be one of the biological mechanisms linking stressors to age-related health declines. The current study identified day-centered profiles of diurnal cortisol among 1,101 adults living in the United States. Participants took part in up to four consecutive days of salivary cortisol collection, assessed at waking, 30 minutes post-waking, before lunch, and before bedtime. Growth Mixture Modeling with latent time basis was used to estimate common within-day trajectories of diurnal cortisol among 2,894 cortisol days. The 3-class solution provided the best model fit, showing that the majority of study days (73%) were characterized by a Normative cortisol pattern, with a robust cortisol awakening response (CAR), a steep negative diurnal slope, coupled with low awakening and bedtime levels. Relative to this profile, diurnal cortisol on the remainder of days appeared either Elevated throughout the day (20% of days) or Flattened (7% of days). Relative to the Normative trajectory, the Elevated trajectory was distinguished by a higher morning cortisol level, whereas the Flattened trajectory was characterized by a high bedtime level, with weaker CAR and diurnal slope parameters. Relative to the Normative profile, Elevated profile membership was associated with older age and cigarette smoking. Greater likelihood of the Flattened cortisol pattern was observed among participants who were older, male, smoked cigarettes, used medications that are known to affect cortisol output, and reported poorer health. The current study demonstrates the value of a day-centered Growth Mixture Modeling approach to the study of diurnal cortisol, showing that deviations from the classic robust rhythm of diurnal cortisol are associated with older age, male sex, use of medications previously shown to affect cortisol levels, poorer health behaviors, and poorer self-reported health. PMID:23770247

  2. Effect of placental restriction and neonatal exendin-4 treatment on postnatal growth, adult body composition, and in vivo glucose metabolism in the sheep

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong; Schultz, Christopher G.; De Blasio, Miles J.; Peura, Anita M.; Heinemann, Gary K.; Harryanto, Himawan; Hunter, Damien S.; Wooldridge, Amy L.; Kind, Karen L.; Giles, Lynne C.; Simmons, Rebecca A.; Owens, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases the risk of adult type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. Neonatal exendin-4 treatment can prevent diabetes in the IUGR rat, but whether this will be effective in a species where the pancreas is more mature at birth is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of neonatal exendin-4 administration after experimental restriction of placental and fetal growth on growth and adult metabolic outcomes in sheep. Body composition, glucose tolerance, and insulin secretion and sensitivity were assessed in singleton-born adult sheep from control (CON; n = 6 females and 4 males) and placentally restricted pregnancies (PR; n = 13 females and 7 males) and in sheep from PR pregnancies that were treated with exendin-4 as neonates (daily sc injections of 1 nmol/kg exendin-4; PR + exendin-4; n = 11 females and 7 males). Placental restriction reduced birth weight (by 29%) and impaired glucose tolerance in the adult but did not affect adult adiposity, insulin secretion, or insulin sensitivity. Neonatal exendin-4 suppressed growth during treatment, followed by delayed catchup growth and unchanged adult adiposity. Neonatal exendin-4 partially restored glucose tolerance in PR progeny but did not affect insulin secretion or sensitivity. Although the effects on glucose tolerance are promising, the lack of effects on adult body composition, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity suggest that the neonatal period may be too late to fully reprogram the metabolic consequences of IUGR in species that are more mature at birth than rodents. PMID:26219868

  3. Effect of placental restriction and neonatal exendin-4 treatment on postnatal growth, adult body composition, and in vivo glucose metabolism in the sheep.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Schultz, Christopher G; De Blasio, Miles J; Peura, Anita M; Heinemann, Gary K; Harryanto, Himawan; Hunter, Damien S; Wooldridge, Amy L; Kind, Karen L; Giles, Lynne C; Simmons, Rebecca A; Owens, Julie A; Gatford, Kathryn L

    2015-09-15

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases the risk of adult type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. Neonatal exendin-4 treatment can prevent diabetes in the IUGR rat, but whether this will be effective in a species where the pancreas is more mature at birth is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of neonatal exendin-4 administration after experimental restriction of placental and fetal growth on growth and adult metabolic outcomes in sheep. Body composition, glucose tolerance, and insulin secretion and sensitivity were assessed in singleton-born adult sheep from control (CON; n = 6 females and 4 males) and placentally restricted pregnancies (PR; n = 13 females and 7 males) and in sheep from PR pregnancies that were treated with exendin-4 as neonates (daily sc injections of 1 nmol/kg exendin-4; PR + exendin-4; n = 11 females and 7 males). Placental restriction reduced birth weight (by 29%) and impaired glucose tolerance in the adult but did not affect adult adiposity, insulin secretion, or insulin sensitivity. Neonatal exendin-4 suppressed growth during treatment, followed by delayed catchup growth and unchanged adult adiposity. Neonatal exendin-4 partially restored glucose tolerance in PR progeny but did not affect insulin secretion or sensitivity. Although the effects on glucose tolerance are promising, the lack of effects on adult body composition, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity suggest that the neonatal period may be too late to fully reprogram the metabolic consequences of IUGR in species that are more mature at birth than rodents.

  4. Postnatal development of echolocation abilities in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus): temporal organization.

    PubMed

    Favaro, Livio; Gnone, Guido; Pessani, Daniela

    2013-03-01

    In spite of all the information available on adult bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) biosonar, the ontogeny of its echolocation abilities has been investigated very little. Earlier studies have reported that neonatal dolphins can produce both whistles and burst-pulsed sounds just after birth and that early-pulsed sounds are probably a precursor of echolocation click trains. The aim of this research is to investigate the development of echolocation signals in a captive calf, born in the facilities of the Acquario di Genova. A set of 81 impulsive sounds were collected from birth to the seventh postnatal week and six additional echolocation click trains were recorded when the dolphin was 1 year old. Moreover, behavioral observations, concurring with sound production, were carried out by means of a video camera. For each sound we measured five acoustic parameters: click train duration (CTD), number of clicks per train, minimum, maximum, and mean click repetition rate (CRR). CTD and number of clicks per train were found to increase with age. Maximum and mean CRR followed a decreasing trend with dolphin growth starting from the second postnatal week. The calf's first head scanning movement was recorded 21 days after birth. Our data suggest that in the bottlenose dolphin the early postnatal weeks are essential for the development of echolocation abilities and that the temporal features of the echolocation click trains remain relatively stable from the seventh postnatal week up to the first year of life.

  5. Early postnatal B cell ontogeny and antibody repertoire maturation in the opossum, Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinxin; Sharp, Alana R; Miller, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    Marsupials are a lineage of mammals noted for giving birth to highly altricial young, which complete much of their "fetal" development externally attached to a teat. Postnatal B cell ontogeny and diversity was investigated in a model marsupial species, the gray short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica. The results support the initiation of B cell development late in gestation and progressing into the first two weeks of postnatal life. Transcription of CD79a and CD79b was detected in embryonic tissue prior to birth, while immunoglobulin heavy chain locus transcription was not detected until the first postnatal 24 hours. Transcription of the Ig light chains was not detected until postnatal day 7 at the earliest. The predicted timing of the earliest appearance of mature B cells and completion of gene rearrangements is consistent with previous analyses on the timing of endogenous antibody responses in newborn marsupials. The diversity of early B cell IgH chains is limited, as has been seen in fetal humans and mice, but lacks bias in the gene segments used to encode the variable domains. Newborn light chain diversity is, from the start, comparable to that of the adult, consistent with an earlier hypothesis that light chains contribute extensively to antibody diversity in this species.

  6. Postnatal growth rates covary weakly with embryonic development rates and do not explain adult mortality probability among songbirds on four continents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Thomas E.; Oteyza, Juan C.; Mitchell, Adam E.; Potticary, Ahva L.; Lloyd, P.

    2016-01-01

    Growth and development rates may result from genetic programming of intrinsic processes that yield correlated rates between life stages. These intrinsic rates are thought to affect adult mortality probability and longevity. However, if proximate extrinsic factors (e.g., temperature, food) influence development rates differently between stages and yield low covariance between stages, then development rates may not explain adult mortality probability. We examined these issues based on study of 90 songbird species on four continents to capture the diverse life-history strategies observed across geographic space. The length of the embryonic period explained little variation (ca. 13%) in nestling periods and growth rates among species. This low covariance suggests that the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic influences on growth and development rates differs between stages. Consequently, nestling period durations and nestling growth rates were not related to annual adult mortality probability among diverse songbird species within or among sites. The absence of a clear effect of faster growth on adult mortality when examined in an evolutionary framework across species may indicate that species that evolve faster growth also evolve physiological mechanisms for ameliorating costs on adult mortality. Instead, adult mortality rates of species in the wild may be determined more strongly by extrinsic environmental causes.

  7. Postnatal growth rates covary weakly with embryonic development rates and do not explain adult mortality probability among songbirds on four continents.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas E; Oteyza, Juan C; Mitchell, Adam E; Potticary, Ahva L; Lloyd, Penn

    2015-03-01

    Growth and development rates may result from genetic programming of intrinsic processes that yield correlated rates between life stages. These intrinsic rates are thought to affect adult mortality probability and longevity. However, if proximate extrinsic factors (e.g., temperature, food) influence development rates differently between stages and yield low covariance between stages, then development rates may not explain adult mortality probability. We examined these issues based on study of 90 songbird species on four continents to capture the diverse life-history strategies observed across geographic space. The length of the embryonic period explained little variation (ca. 13%) in nestling periods and growth rates among species. This low covariance suggests that the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic influences on growth and development rates differs between stages. Consequently, nestling period durations and nestling growth rates were not related to annual adult mortality probability among diverse songbird species within or among sites. The absence of a clear effect of faster growth on adult mortality when examined in an evolutionary framework across species may indicate that species that evolve faster growth also evolve physiological mechanisms for ameliorating costs on adult mortality. Instead, adult mortality rates of species in the wild may be determined more strongly by extrinsic environmental causes.

  8. Energy and macronutrient intake over the course of the day of German adults: A DEDIPAC-study.

    PubMed

    Wittig, Friederike; Hummel, Eva; Wenzler, Germaine; Heuer, Thorsten

    2017-03-16

    The aim of the study was to analyze the energy and macronutrient intake over the course of the day of selected population groups in Germany defined by sex, age, BMI, SES, and diet quality. The study was based on food consumption data from the German National Nutrition Survey II (2005-2007) assessed by two 4-day dietary weighing records of 662 women and men aged between 18 and 80 years. Energy and macronutrient intake were calculated using the German Nutrient Database 3.02 and summarized for the periods 'morning', 'midday', 'afternoon', 'evening', and 'night'. Generalized estimating equation models were used to examine differences in energy and macronutrient intake. For women and men, a three-main-meal pattern ('morning', 'midday', and 'evening') was observed, indicated as peaks in energy intake at 08:00 to 09:00, 13:00 and 19:00 o'clock. The distributions of carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake mirror the distribution of energy intake over the course of the day. The highest energy intake was found in the 'evening' period, especially in young adults, overweight persons, persons with a high SES, and men with a low diet quality. Women of the oldest age group showed a similar energy intake across the three-main-meals in contrast to young adults, who had lower peaks in the 'morning' and 'midday' periods as well as a shift to later meal times. Young adults seem to have a higher variability in energy intake and a less distinct meal pattern, while seniors have a more structured day. Because a high energy intake in the 'evening' period is associated with negative health-related factors, the distribution of energy intake should be considered by recommendations for a healthy nutritional behavior.

  9. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging in an adult cohort following prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Janulewicz, Patricia A; Killiany, Ronald J; White, Roberta F; Martin, Brett M; Winter, Michael R; Weinberg, Janice M; Aschengrau, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This population-based retrospective cohort study examined Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain in relation to prenatal and early postnatal exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Subjects were identified through birth records from 1969 through 1983. Exposure was modeled using pipe network information from town water departments, a PCE leaching and transport algorithm, EPANet water flow modeling software, and Geographic Information System (GIS) methodology. Brain imaging was performed on 26 exposed and 16 unexposed subjects. Scans were acquired on a Philips 3T whole body scanner using the ADNI T1-weighted MP-RAGE scan. The scans were processed by FreeSurfer version 4.3.1 software to obtain measurements of specific brain regions. There were no statistically significant differences between exposed and unexposed subjects on the measures of white matter hypointensities (β: 127.5mm(3), 95% CI: -259.1, 1514.0), white matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral white matter: β: 21230.0mm(3), 95% CI: -4512.6, 46971.7) or gray matter volumes (e.g. total cerebral gray matter: β: 11976.0mm(3), 95% CI: -13657.2, 37609.3). The results of this study suggest that exposure to PCE during gestation and early childhood, at the levels observed in this population, is not associated with alterations in the brain structures studied.

  10. Dientamoeba fragilis is more prevalent than Giardia duodenalis in children and adults attending a day care centre in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Crotti, D; D'Annibale, M L; Fonzo, G; Lalle, M; Cacciò, S M; Pozio, E

    2005-06-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a well recognised enteropathogen, while Dientamoeba fragilis is rarely detected and consequently it is not recognised as an important human pathogen. In 2002-2003, a survey has been carried out on enteroparasites in faecal samples of outpatients attending a day care centre in the town of Perugia (Central Italy). To improve the detection level, at least three samples from each patient were collected at different days and within two hours from defecation. The coproparasitological examination has been carried out by direct microscopic examination, faecal concentration, and Giemsa and modified Ziehl-Nielsen stainings of faecal smears. The genotypes of Giardia duodenalis isolates were determined by PCR of the beta-giardin gene. Of 1,989 enrolled people (966 children, 1,023 adults), 165 persons (8.3%; 153 adults, 15.0%; 12 children, 1.2%), were positive for parasites, but only 1 12 adults (73.2% of those infected) and eight children (66.7% of those infected) harboured D. fragilis and G. duodenalis. Both the Assemblages A and B were detected in 18 G. duodenalis isolates examined at the beta-giardin gene. The higher prevalence of D. fragilis infections than that of G. duodenalis is probably related to the method used, a procedure, which is rarely followed in laboratories for the diagnosis of enteric parasites. These epidemiological data suggest that when faecal samples are examined after a period of time and without Giemsa staining, most D. fragilis infections goes undetected.

  11. Connecting the disconnected: adult day care for people with AIDS in New York City.

    PubMed

    Smith, M Y; Knickman, J R; Oppenheimer, L M

    1992-11-01

    Despite pressing need, the development of a continuum of long-term-care services for people with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been hampered by the dearth of information on the characteristics and service needs of patients eligible for such care. This article presents findings from a process evaluation of an outpatient day care program for people with AIDS in New York City. The AIDS clients were highly functional but had a diverse range of needs and problems related to housing, substance abuse, medical care, and social support. The majority of clients reported being very satisfied with the level of staff support and with the overall program. The findings of the study suggest that day care is a valuable addition to the continuum of services and that the creative dissemination of this program may improve the delivery of services to people with AIDS.

  12. Daily Stressors and Adult Day Service Use by Family Caregivers: Effects on Depressive Symptoms, Positive Mood and DHEA-S

    PubMed Central

    Zarit, Steven H.; Whetzel, Courtney A.; Kim, Kyungmin; Femia, Elia E.; Almeida, David M.; Rovine, Michael J.; Klein, Laura Cousino

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study examines effects of daily use of adult day services (ADS) programs by caregivers of individuals with dementia (IWD) on a salivary biomarker of stress reactivity, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), and whether these effects on DHEA-S are associated with daily variability in positive mood and depressive symptoms. Design We used a daily diary design of 8 consecutive days with alternation of intervention (ADS) and non-intervention days to evaluate within- and between-person effects of the intervention. Setting Caregivers were interviewed daily by telephone at home. Participants 151 family caregivers of IWD who were using ADS. Measurements Saliva samples were collected from caregivers 5 times a day for 8 consecutive days and were assayed for DHEA-S. Daily telephone interviews assessed daily stressors and mood. Results DHEA-S levels were significantly higher on days following ADS use. Daily DHEA-S levels covaried significantly with daily positive mood, but not depressive symptoms. Conclusions These results demonstrate an association of ADS use by family caregivers and higher DHEA-S levels on the next day. Prior research has found that higher DHEA-S levels are protective against the physiological damaging effects of stressor exposure and may reduce risks of illness. Regular use of ADS may help reduce depletion of DHEA-S and allow the body to mount a protective and restorative response to the physiological demands of caregiving. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine DHEA-S levels across the day in connection with an intervention that affected daily exposure to stressors. PMID:24566240

  13. The influence of time of day on static and dynamic postural control in normal adults.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong Hyun; Choi, Yong Won; Nam, Seok Hyun; Lee, Myoung Hee

    2014-03-01

    [Purpose] We attempted to determine whether static and dynamic postural control ability fluctuated depending on the influence of the time of day (9 am, 1 pm, and 5 pm), and at which time point postural balance performance was best in healthy individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four healthy subjects participated in this study. The static and dynamic postural balance test was conducted during three sessions (i.e., at 9 am, 1 pm, and 5 pm) with a counterbalanced order for prevention of learning effects. As outcome measurements, AP distance, ML distance, and velocity moment were adopted in the static balance test, and the performance time and total distance were measured in the dynamic balance test. [Results] For the static postural balance test, COP distance was shorter and COP velocity was slower at 9 am compared with those at 1 and 5 pm. In particular, the COP distance at 9 am was statistically different from that at 13 pm. During the dynamic postural balance test, performance time and total distance were influenced by the time of day, as the best performance was observed in the morning. [Conclusion] This study found that static and dynamic postural balance abilities were greatest in the morning and worst at 1 pm. Understanding of the mechanism of the time-of-day effect on postural balance will be helpful for assessment and treatment of postural balance by physical therapists and in making desirable clinical decisions.

  14. Specific allogeneic unresponsiveness in the adult host: present-day experimental models

    SciTech Connect

    Rapaport, F.T.; Bachvaroff, R.J.; Cronkite, E.; Chanana, A.; Sato, T.; Asari, H.; Waltzer, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    As part of a long-term intensive effort to apply the induction of adult allogensic unresponsiveness to the transplantation problem, two techniques to control the variability in the persistence of immunologically competent postthymic cells iin the treated host and/or the inoculum of autologous marrow returned to the host after irradiation are described. The first consisted of exposing the peripheral blood of prospective recipients to a 5-week course of extra-corporeal irradiation (ECIB), the other of exposing the stored autologous marrow scheduled to repopulate a given recipient to methyl-prednisolone (MPd) and DNase prior to renifusion into the recipient. Serial analysis of bone marrow cell samples at various intervals before and after treatment was undertaken. The significance of the disappearance of a particular population of nonnuclear cells from the samples, and the association of such disappearance with increased success in the induction of allogeneic unresponsiveness is discussed. (ACR)

  15. An Idiographic Examination of Day-to-Day Patterns of Substance Use Craving, Negative Affect, and Tobacco Use among Young Adults in Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Yao; Wiebe, Richard P.; Cleveland, H. Harrington; Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Harris, Kitty S.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological constructs, such as negative affect and substance use cravings that closely predict relapse, show substantial intraindividual day-to-day variability. This intraindividual variability of relevant psychological states combined with the "one day at a time" nature of sustained abstinence warrant a day-to-day investigation of substance…

  16. Suppression of active sleep by chronic treatment with chlorimipramine during early postnatal development: effects upon adult sleep and behavior in the rat.

    PubMed

    Mirmiran, M; van de Poll, N E; Corner, M A; van Oyen, H G; Bour, H L

    1981-01-05

    In an attempt to study the possible role of active sleep in brain development, male rats were injected twice daily with chlorimipramine, a potent monoamine reuptake blocker, from 1 week to 3 weeks of postnatal age. AS was reduced to less than 10% of total sleep time, the level found in mature rats. Most of the AS reduction was compensated for by quiet sleep but a slight increase in wakefulness also occurred, owing to brief interruptions of sleep at times when AS was expected. In adulthood, the AS-deprived rats showed a higher percentage of AS than did the controls, due to an increase in frequency and duration of AS epochs. Moreover, many of the epochs contained abnormally frequent and strong jerky body movements and rapid-eye-movements, reminiscent of neonatal AS patterns. In addition, the amplitude of hippocampal theta waves during AS was greater than in control rats. The chlorimipramine-treated rats also showed behavioral abnormalities in later life. On the open field test exploratory behavior was much reduced, while increased rearing and defecation occurred. Masculine sexual performance was severely deficient, primarily due to the low level of intromissions and ejaculations. Experimental animals performed less efficiently than controls on a temporal learning task (differential reinforcement of low response rate) and responded more rapidly on a spatial task (left-right alternation learning). These results demonstrate that early interference with the functioning of monoaminergic systems can have long-lasting physiological and behavioral consequences. Furthermore, they are consistent with the hypothesis that AS is an important factor in normal brain development.

  17. Postnatal treadmill exercise alleviates short-term memory impairment by enhancing cell proliferation and suppressing apoptosis in the hippocampus of rat pups born to diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Hoon; Sung, Yun-Hee; Lee, Hee-Hyuk; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Bo-Kyun

    2014-08-01

    During pregnancy, diabetes mellitus exerts detrimental effects on the development of the fetus, especially the central nervous system. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of postnatal treadmill exercise on short-term memory in relation with cell proliferation and apoptosis in the hippocampus of rat pups born to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic maternal rats. Adult female rats were mated with male rats for 24 h. Two weeks after mating, the pregnant female rats were divided into two groups: control group and STZ injection group. The pregnant rats in the STZ injection group were administered 40 mg/kg of STZ intraperitoneally. After birth, the rat pups were divided into the following four groups: control group, control with postnatal exercise group, maternal STZ-injection group, and maternal STZ-injection with postnatal exercise group. The rat pups in the postnatal exercise groups were made to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day, 5 times per week for 2 weeks beginning 4 weeks after birth. The rat pups born to diabetic rats were shown to have short-term memory impairment with suppressed cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Postnatal treadmill exercise alleviated short-term memory impairment by increased cell proliferation and suppressed apoptosis in the rat pups born to diabetic rats. These findings indicate that postnatal treadmill exercise may be used as a valuable strategy to ameliorate neurodevelopmental problems in children born to diabetics.

  18. Cell proliferation and cell death are disturbed during prenatal and postnatal brain development after uranium exposure.

    PubMed

    Legrand, M; Elie, C; Stefani, J; N Florès; Culeux, C; Delissen, O; Ibanez, C; Lestaevel, P; Eriksson, P; Dinocourt, C

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is more susceptible to neurotoxic compounds than adult brain. It is also well known that disturbances during brain development cause neurological disorders in adulthood. The brain is known to be a target organ of uranium (U) exposure and previous studies have noted that internal U contamination of adult rats induces behavioral disorders as well as affects neurochemistry and neurophysiological properties. In this study, we investigated whether depleted uranium (DU) exposure affects neurogenesis during prenatal and postnatal brain development. We examined the structural morphology of the brain, cell death and finally cell proliferation in animals exposed to DU during gestation and lactation compared to control animals. Our results showed that DU decreases cell death in the cortical neuroepithelium of gestational day (GD) 13 embryos exposed at 40mg/L and 120mg/L and of GD18 fetuses exposed at 120mg/L without modification of the number of apoptotic cells. Cell proliferation analysis showed an increase of BrdU labeling in the dentate neuroepithelium of fetuses from GD18 at 120mg/L. Postnatally, cell death is increased in the dentate gyrus of postnatal day (PND) 0 and PND5 exposed pups at 120mg/L and is associated with an increase of apoptotic cell number only at PND5. Finally, a decrease in dividing cells is observed in the dentate gyrus of PND21 rats developmentally exposed to 120mg/L DU, but not at PND0 and PND5. These results show that DU exposure during brain development causes opposite effects on cell proliferation and cell death processes between prenatal and postnatal development mainly at the highest dose. Although these modifications do not have a major impact in brain morphology, they could affect the next steps of neurogenesis and thus might disrupt the fine organization of the neuronal network.

  19. Factors Affecting the Involvement of Day Centre Care Staff in the Delivery of Physiotherapy to Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: An Exploratory Study in One London Borough

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, M. -J.; Kitchen, S. S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Physiotherapists for adults with intellectual disabilities often work in day centres, relying on care staff to support programmes. This study investigates factors affecting physiotherapy delivery in 4 day centres in one London borough. Materials and Method: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with day centre care staff,…

  20. Behavioral and cognitive changes after early postnatal lesions of the rat mediodorsal thalamus.

    PubMed

    Ouhaz, Zakaria; Ba-M'hamed, Saadia; Mitchell, Anna S; Elidrissi, Abdeslem; Bennis, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    Early insults to the thalamus result in functional and/or structural abnormalities in the cerebral cortex. However, differences in behavioral and cognitive changes after early insult are not well characterized. The present study assessed whether early postnatal damage to mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD), reciprocally interconnected with the prefrontal cortex, causes behavioral and cognitive alterations in young adult rats. Rat pups at postnatal day 4 received bilateral electrolytic lesion of MD, or a MD Sham lesion or were anesthetized controls; on recovery they were returned to their mothers until weaning. Seven weeks later, all rats were tested with the following behavioral and cognitive paradigms: T-maze test, open field test, actimetry, elevated plus maze test, social interactions test and passive avoidance test. Rats with bilateral MD damage presented with disrupted recognition memory, deficits in shifting response rules, significant hypoactivity, increased anxiety-like behavior, deficits in learning associations as well as decreased locomotor activity, and reduced social interactions compared to MD Sham lesion and anesthetized Control rats. The lesion also caused significant decreases in pyramidal cell density in three frontal cortex regions: medial infralimbic cortex, dorsolateral anterior cortex, and cingulate Cg1 cortex. The present findings suggest a functional role for MD in the postnatal maturation of affective behavior. Further some of the behavioral and cognitive alterations observed in these young adult rats after early MD lesion are reminiscent of those present in major psycho-affective disorders, such as schizophrenia in humans.

  1. Psychometric Properties of 7- and 30-Day Versions of the PROMIS Emotional Distress Item Banks in an Australian Adult Sample.

    PubMed

    Batterham, Philip J; Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Calear, Alison L

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the PROMIS depression, anxiety, and anger item banks in a large Australian population-based sample. The study tested for unidimensionality; evaluated invariance across age, gender, and education; assessed local independence; and tested item bank scores as an indicator for clinical criteria. In addition, equivalence of the 7-day time frame against an alternative 30-day time frame was assessed. A sample of 3,175 Australian adults were recruited into the study through online advertising. All three item banks showed strong evidence of unidimensionality and parsimony, with no items showing local dependence. All items were invariant across age, gender, and education. The item banks were accurate in detecting clinical criteria for major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and panic disorder, although legacy measures designed for this purpose sometimes performed marginally better. Responses to the 30-day time frame were highly consistent with the original 7-day time frame. The study provided support for the validity of the PROMIS emotional distress item banks as measures of depression, anxiety, and anger in the Australian population, supporting the generalizability of the measures. The time frame chosen for assessing mental health outcomes using these item banks should be based on pragmatic considerations.

  2. Developmental profiling of postnatal dentate gyrus progenitors provides evidence for dynamic cell-autonomous regulation

    PubMed Central

    Gilley, Jennifer A.; Yang, Cui-Ping; Kernie, Steven G.

    2009-01-01

    The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the most prominent regions in the postnatal mammalian brain where neurogenesis continues throughout life. There is tremendous speculation regarding the potential implications of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, though it remains unclear to what extent this ability becomes attenuated during normal aging, and what genetic changes in the progenitor population ensue over time. Using defined elements of the nestin promoter, we developed a transgenic mouse that reliably labels neural stem and early progenitors with green fluorescent protein (GFP). Using a combination of immunohistochemical and flow cytometry techniques, we characterized the progenitor cells within the dentate gyrus and created a developmental profile from postnatal day 7 (P7) until 6 months of age. In addition, we demonstrate that the proliferative potential of these progenitors is controlled at least in part by cell-autonomous cues. Finally, in order to identify what may underlie these differences, we performed stem cell-specific microarrays on GFP-expressing sorted cells from isolated P7 and postnatal day 28 (P28) dentate gyrus. We identified several differentially expressed genes that may underlie the functional differences that we observe in neurosphere assays from sorted cells and differentiation assays at these different ages. These data suggest that neural progenitors from the dentate gyrus are differentially regulated by cell-autonomous factors that change over time. PMID:20014381

  3. Lipidomics reveals dramatic lipid compositional changes in the maturing postnatal lung

    PubMed Central

    Dautel, Sydney E.; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Clair, Geremy; Sontag, Ryan L.; Weitz, Karl K.; Shukla, Anil K.; Nguyen, Son N.; Kim, Young-Mo; Zink, Erika M.; Luders, Teresa; Frevert, Charles W.; Gharib, Sina A.; Laskin, Julia; Carson, James P.; Metz, Thomas O.; Corley, Richard A.; Ansong, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Lung immaturity is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. Understanding the molecular mechanisms driving normal lung development could provide insights on how to ameliorate disrupted development. While transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of normal lung development have been previously reported, characterization of changes in the lipidome is lacking. Lipids play significant roles in the lung, such as dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine in pulmonary surfactant; however, many of the roles of specific lipid species in normal lung development, as well as in disease states, are not well defined. In this study, we used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to investigate the murine lipidome during normal postnatal lung development. Lipidomics analysis of lungs from post-natal day 7, day 14 and 6–8 week mice (adult) identified 924 unique lipids across 21 lipid subclasses, with dramatic alterations in the lipidome across developmental stages. Our data confirmed previously recognized aspects of post-natal lung development and revealed several insights, including in sphingolipid-mediated apoptosis, inflammation and energy storage/usage. Complementary proteomics, metabolomics and chemical imaging corroborated these observations. This multi-omic view provides a unique resource and deeper insight into normal pulmonary development. PMID:28145528

  4. Synchronized Progression of Prestin Expression and Auditory Brainstem Response during Postnatal Development in Rats

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Prestin is the motor protein expressed in the cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs) of mammalian inner ear. The electromotility of OHCs driven by prestin is responsible for the cochlear amplification which is required for normal hearing in adult animals. Postnatal expression of prestin and activity of OHCs may contribute to the maturation of hearing in rodents. However, the temporal and spatial expression of prestin in cochlea during the development is not well characterized. In the present study, we examined the expression and function of prestin from the OHCs in apical, middle, and basal turns of the cochleae of postnatal rats. Prestin first appeared at postnatal day 6 (P6) for basal turn, P7 in middle turn, and P9 for apical turn of cochlea. The expression level increased progressively over the next few days and by P14 reached the mature level for all three segments. By comparison with the time course of the development of auditory brainstem response for different frequencies, our data reveal that prestin expression synchronized with the hearing development. The present study suggests that the onset time of hearing may require the expression of prestin and is determined by the mature function of OHCs. PMID:28097024

  5. Androgen Signaling Disruption during Fetal and Postnatal Development Affects Androgen Receptor and Connexin 43 Expression and Distribution in Adult Boar Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Hejmej, Anna; Górowska, Ewelina; Kotula-Balak, Małgorzata; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Zarzycka, Marta; Zając, Justyna; Bilińska, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    To date, limited knowledge exists regarding the role of the androgen signaling during specific periods of development in the regulation of androgen receptor (AR) and connexin 43 (Cx43) in adult prostate. Therefore, in this study we examined mRNA and protein expression, and tissue distribution of AR and Cx43 in adult boar prostates following fetal (GD20), neonatal (PD2), and prepubertal (PD90) exposure to an antiandrogen flutamide (50 mg/kg bw). In GD20 and PD2 males we found the reduction of the luminal compartment, inflammatory changes, decreased AR and increased Cx43 expression, and altered localization of both proteins. Moreover, enhanced apoptosis and reduced proliferation were detected in the prostates of these animals. In PD90 males the alterations were less evident, except that Cx43 expression was markedly upregulated. The results presented herein indicate that in boar androgen action during early fetal and neonatal periods plays a key role in the maintenance of normal phenotype and functions of prostatic cells at adulthood. Furthermore, we demonstrated that modulation of Cx43 expression in the prostate could serve as a sensitive marker of hormonal disruption during different developmental stages. PMID:24151599

  6. Post-natal myogenic and adipogenic developmental

    PubMed Central

    Konings, Gonda; van Weeghel, Michel; van den Hoogenhof, Maarten MG; Gijbels, Marion; van Erk, Arie; Schoonderwoerd, Kees; van den Bosch, Bianca; Dahlmans, Vivian; Calis, Chantal; Houten, Sander M; Misteli, Tom

    2011-01-01

    A-type lamins are a major component of the nuclear lamina. Mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes the A-type lamins A and C, cause a set of phenotypically diverse diseases collectively called laminopathies. While adult LMNA null mice show various symptoms typically associated with laminopathies, the effect of loss of lamin A/C on early post-natal development is poorly understood. Here we developed a novel LMNA null mouse (LMNAGT−/−) based on genetrap technology and analyzed its early post-natal development. We detect LMNA transcripts in heart, the outflow tract, dorsal aorta, liver and somites during early embryonic development. Loss of A-type lamins results in severe growth retardation and developmental defects of the heart, including impaired myocyte hypertrophy, skeletal muscle hypotrophy, decreased amounts of subcutaneous adipose tissue and impaired ex vivo adipogenic differentiation. These defects cause death at 2 to 3 weeks post partum associated with muscle weakness and metabolic complications, but without the occurrence of dilated cardiomyopathy or an obvious progeroid phenotype. Our results indicate that defective early post-natal development critically contributes to the disease phenotypes in adult laminopathies. PMID:21818413

  7. In utero and postnatal exposure to arsenic alters pulmonary structure and function

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, R. Clark Chau, Binh; Sarihan, Priyanka; Witten, Mark L.; Pivniouk, Vadim I.; Chen, Guan Jie

    2009-02-15

    In addition to cancer endpoints, arsenic exposures can also lead to non-cancerous chronic lung disease. Exposures during sensitive developmental time points can contribute to the adult disease. Using a mouse model, in utero and early postnatal exposures to arsenic (100 ppb or less in drinking water) were found to alter airway reactivity to methacholine challenge in 28 day old pups. Removal of mice from arsenic exposure 28 days after birth did not reverse the alterations in sensitivity to methacholine. In addition, adult mice exposed to similar levels of arsenic in drinking water did not show alterations. Therefore, alterations in airway reactivity were irreversible and specific to exposures during lung development. These functional changes correlated with protein and gene expression changes as well as morphological structural changes around the airways. Arsenic increased the whole lung levels of smooth muscle actin in a dose dependent manner. The level of smooth muscle mass around airways was increased with arsenic exposure, especially around airways smaller than 100 {mu}m in diameter. This increase in smooth muscle was associated with alterations in extracellular matrix (collagen, elastin) expression. This model system demonstrates that in utero and postnatal exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic can irreversibly alter pulmonary structure and function in the adults.

  8. Evidence for high levels of androgen in peripheral plasma during postnatal development in a marsupial: the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica).

    PubMed

    Fadem, B H; Harder, J D

    1992-01-01

    Plasma samples were assayed for androgen in gray short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica) on the day of birth and at selected ages through adulthood. Levels of androgen in mixed-sex plasma pools of animals 4 and 8 days of age were higher than in either sex at all other ages examined. At postnatal Days 16, 30, and 60 (weaning), levels of androgen were equivalent in males and females and as high as in adult males. In both sexes, androgen levels were lower at postnatal Day 84 (juveniles) than at younger ages; after puberty, levels were significantly higher in males than in females. These findings are discussed with respect to similarities and differences between marsupials and eutherians in hormonal environment during the perinatal period and with respect to the possible role of androgens in sexual differentiation of the gray opossum brain.

  9. Postnatal neurophysiologic effects of prenatal X-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Jensh, R P; Eisenman, L M; Brent, R L

    1995-02-01

    Histological and neurophysiological effects of in utero irradiation were examined following exposure of pregnant Wistar rat to 2.0 Gy X-irradiation or sham-irradiated on the 17th day of gestation. The 234 newborns were monitored for the age of appearance of four selected physiologic markers and the age of acquisition of five selected reflexes. Offspring were evaluated as young adults using selected behavioural tests. Postnatal growth was monitored weekly. Selected offspring were autopsied to determine the presence of morphologic central nervous system alterations. The results indicated that 2.0 Gy X-irradiation during the foetal period in rat gestation caused permanent alterations in the mature adult organism, which include non-recuperable growth retardation, morphologic changes in the brain such as microcephaly, abnormal cerebellar cortical cellular patterns, and alterations in the cell architecture of the hippocampus; diminished attainment of selected reflexes; alterations in the appearance of selected physiologic markers; and changes in adult test performance indicating significant hyperactivity among the irradiated offspring. Such exposure to X-irradiation during this period results in behavioural and morphologic alterations, which persist throughout life.

  10. Morphological properties of mouse retinal ganglion cells during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Julie L; Van Der List, Deborah; Chalupa, Leo M

    2007-08-20

    Quantitative methods were used to assess dendritic stratification and other structural features of developing mouse retinal ganglion cells from birth to after eye opening. Cells were labeled by transgenic expression of yellow fluorescent protein, DiOlistics or diffusion of DiI, and subsequently imaged in three dimensions on a confocal microscope followed by morphometric analysis of 13 different structural properties. At postnatal day 1 (P1), the dendrites of all cells ramified across the vertical extent of the inner plexiform layer (IPL). By P3/4, dendrites were largely confined to different strata of the IPL. The stratification of dendrites initially reflected a retraction of widely ramifying dendritic processes, but for the most part this was due to the subsequent vertical expansion of the IPL. By P8, distinct cell classes could be recognized, although these had not yet attained adult-like properties. The structural features differentiating cell classes were found to follow three different developmental trends. The mean values of one set of morphological parameters were essentially unchanged throughout postnatal development; another set of measures showed a rapid rise with age to adult values; and a third set of measures first increased with age and later decreased, with the regressive events initiated around the time of eye opening. These findings suggest that the morphological development of retinal ganglion cells is regulated by diverse factors operating during different but overlapping time periods. Our results also suggest that dendritic stratification may be more highly specified in the developing mammalian retina than has been previously realized.

  11. Serum dopamine-beta-hydroxylase activity in rat during post-natal development.

    PubMed

    Lamprecht, F; Wooten, G F

    1976-01-01

    Rat serum dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) activity is quite high in the immediate post-natal period reaching peak activity (75 units) at 16 days of age. Activity then decreases rapidly over the following weeks to approach adult levels (10 units) by seven weeks of age. Also, specific activity of DBH in heart increased rapidly during the first 2 1/2 weeks of life attaining adult levels by 18 days of age. In contrast, heart weight and total DBH activity in whole heart increased in a coordinate fashion at a relatively constant rate throughout the first seven weeks of life. Serum levels of non-copper sensitive endogenous inhibitor (s) of DBH increased throughout the first seven weeks of life while no change in copper sensitive inhibition was observed. Also, the rapid phase of decrease in serum DBH activity corresponded to the period of the most rapid increase in body weight.

  12. In vitro translation of RNA to lactase during postnatal development of rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jaspreet; Kaur, Kamaljit; Mahmood, Akhtar; Mahmood, Safrun

    2005-03-01

    mRNA levels encoding lactase were detected by Northern blot analysis using two different probes in developing rat intestine. Probe I and probe II corresponding to second half of prolactase gene showed a 6.8 kb mRNA transcript in 7, 14, 21 and 30 day old rat intestine. There was no change in quantity of lactase mRNA detected using probe II, but hybridization with probe I showed a progressive decrease in mRNA transcript encoding lactase with age. At day 7 and 14 of postnatal development, the lactase mRNA was quite high, but it reduced upon weaning. The in vitro translation products of RNA detected by Western blot analysis using brush border lactase antibodies showed several isoforms of lactase antigen with molecular weight ranging from 100-220 kDa. Analysed at days 7 and 30 of postnatal development, lactase isoforms of molecular weight 130 kDa and 220 kDa were similar to those found in purified brush border membranes. The translation of RNA to 220 kDa lactase protein was high in 7 and 14 day old pups, but it was markedly reduced in 30 day old animals. These findings support the contention that translation of mRNA to lactase is impaired in weaned animals, which may also be responsible for the maturational decline in lactase activity in adult rat intestine.

  13. Expression of tranferrin receptors in the pineal gland of postnatal and adult rats and its alteration in hypoxia and melatonin treatment.

    PubMed

    Kaur, C; Sivakumar, V; Ling, E A

    2007-02-01

    Transferrin receptors (Tfrc) are membrane bound glycoproteins which function to mediate cellular uptake of iron from transferrin. We examined expression of Tfrc in the pineal gland of rats of different ages from 1 day to 12 weeks. The mRNA and protein expression of Tfrc increased up to 6 weeks of age and decreased in 12 week rats. Tfrc immunoreactivity was observed on pinealocytes and macrophages/microglia. By immunoelectron microscopy, the immunoreaction in pinealocytes was observed in the cytosol, on mitochondria and plasma membrane whereas in macrophages/microglia it was localized on the plasma membrane in 1-day to 2-week old rats. In older rats, the immunoreaction product in pinealocytes was associated with the plasma membrane and mitochondria only. Iron localization was observed in pinealocytes as well as macrophages/microglia. It is suggested that Tfrc are required for uptake of iron for cell proliferation and maturation in the pineal gland upto 6 weeks of age. The significance of Tfrc expression on mitochondria is speculative. They may be involved in iron transport to the mitochondria or for regulation of the secretory activity of pinealocytes. The TfrcmRNA and protein expression increased significantly in response to hypoxia in 12-week rats and this coincided with intense iron staining of the pinealocytes and macrophages/microglia. It is concluded that increased expression of Tfrc in response to hypoxia leads to excess cellular uptake of iron which may be damaging to the cells. Melatonin administration in hypoxic rats may prove to be beneficial as it reduced the Tfrc expression.

  14. Postnatal development of bile secretory physiology in the dog

    SciTech Connect

    Tavoloni, N.; Jones, M.J.; Berk, P.D.

    1985-04-01

    To determine whether bile formation in the dog is an immature process at birth, several determinants of bile secretion were studied in anesthetized, bile duct-cannulated puppies of 0-42 days of age and adult dogs. Basal canalicular bile flow rate, estimated by /sup 14/C-erythritol biliary clearance, averaged 0.182 microliter/min/g liver in 0-3 day-old puppies and increased to 0.324 and 0.461 microliter/min/g in puppies 7-21 and 28-42 days of age, respectively. Calculated ductular bile water reabsorption (/sup 14/C-erythritol biliary clearance-bile flow) was virtually absent in 0-3 day-old puppies, and averaged 0.017 and 0.092 microliter/min/g in puppies of 7-21 and 28-42 days of age, respectively. In adult dogs, ductular bile water reabsorption was 0.132 microliter/min/g. These functional deficiencies of the newborn dog were associated with an increased biliary permeability to /sup 3/H-inulin which could not be accounted for solely by an increased solute diffusion due to the lower rate of canalicular bile flow. Administration of taurocholate up to 2000 nmol/min/kg produced in all animals a similar increase in canalicular bile flow and bile acid excretion, and was not associated with changes in ductular bile water reabsorption rate. These findings are interpreted to indicate that, in the dog, bile secretory function is immature at birth and develops during postnatal life.

  15. Spatial distributions of AQP5 and AQP0 in embryonic and postnatal mouse lens development

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Rosica S.; Schey, Kevin L.; Donaldson, Paul J.; Grey, Angus C.

    2015-01-01

    The expression of the water channel protein aquaporin (AQP)-5 in adult rodent and human lenses was recently reported using immunohistochemistry, molecular biology, and mass spectrometry techniques, confirming a second transmembrane water channel that is present in lens fibre cells in addition to the abundant AQP0 protein. Interestingly, the sub-cellular distribution and level of post-translational modification of both proteins changes with fibre cell differentiation and location in the adult rodent lens. This study compares the sub-cellular distribution of AQP0 and AQP5 during embryonic and postnatal fibre cell development in the mouse lens to understand how the immunolabelling patterns for both AQPs observed in adult lens are first established. Immunohistochemistry was used to map the cellular and sub-cellular distribution of AQP5 and AQP0 throughout the lens in cryosections from adult (6 weeks to 8 months) and postnatal (0-2 weeks) mouse lenses and in sections from paraffin embedded mouse embryos (E10-E19). All sections were imaged by fluorescence confocal microscopy. Using antibodies directed against the C-terminus of each AQP, AQP5 was abundantly expressed early in development, being found in the cytoplasm of cells of the lens vesicle and surrounding tissues (E10), while AQP0 was detected later (E11), and only in the membranes of elongating primary fibre cells. During the course of subsequent embryonic and postnatal development the pattern of cytoplasmic AQP5 and membranous AQP0 labelling was maintained until postnatal day 6 (P6). From P6 AQP5 labelling became progressively more membranous initially in the lens nucleus and then later in all regions of the lens, while AQP0 labelling was abruptly lost in the lens nucleus due to C-terminal truncation. Our results show that the spatial distribution patterns of AQP0 and AQP5 observed in the adult lens are established during a narrow window of post natal development (P6-P15) that precedes eye opening and coincides

  16. Orexin-A and orexin-B during the postnatal development of the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Stoyanova, Irina I; Rutten, Wim L C; le Feber, Joost

    2010-01-01

    Orexin-A and orexin-B are hypothalamic neuropeptides isolated from a small group of neurons in the hypothalamus, which project their axons to all major parts of the central nervous system. Despite the extensive information about orexin expression and function at different parts of the nervous system in adults, data about the development and maturation of the orexin system in the brain are a bit contradictory and insufficient. A previous study has found expression of orexins in the hypothalamus after postnatal day 15 only, while others report orexins detection at embryonic stages of brain formation. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of orexin-A and orexin-B neuronal cell bodies and fibers in the brain at three different postnatal stages: 1-week-, 2-week-old and adult rats. By means of immunohistochemical techniques, we demonstrated that a small subset of cells in the lateral hypothalamus, and the perifornical and periventricular areas were orexin-A and orexin-B positive not only in 2-week-old and adult rats but also in 1-week-old animals. In addition, orexin-A and orexin-B expressing neuronal varicosities were found in many other brain regions. These results suggest that orexin-A and orexin-B play an important role in the early postnatal brain development. The widespread distribution of orexinergic projections through all these stages may imply an involvement of the two neurotransmitters in a large variety of physiological and behavioral processes also including higher brain functions like learning and memory.

  17. Sex-Dependent Changes in Striatal Dopamine Transport in Preadolescent Rats Exposed Prenatally and/or Postnatally to Methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Sirova, Jana; Kristofikova, Zdenka; Vrajova, Monika; Fujakova-Lipski, Michaela; Ripova, Daniela; Klaschka, Jan; Slamberova, Romana

    2016-08-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is the most commonly used psychostimulant drug, the chronic abuse of which leads to neurodegenerative changes in the brain. The global use of MA is increasing, including in pregnant women. Since MA can cross both placental and haematoencephalic barriers and is also present in maternal milk, children of chronically abused mothers are exposed prenatally as well as postnatally. Women seem to be more vulnerable to some aspects of MA abuse than men. MA is thought to exert its effects among others via direct interactions with dopamine transporters (DATs) in the brain tissue. Sexual dimorphism of the DAT system could be a base of sex-dependent actions of MA observed in behavioural and neurochemical studies. Possible sex differences in the DATs of preadolescent offspring exposed to MA prenatally and/or postnatally have not yet been evaluated. We examined the striatal synaptosomal DATs (the activity and density of surface expressed DATs and total DAT expression) in preadolescent male and female Wistar rats (31-35-day old animals) exposed prenatally and/or postnatally to MA (daily 5 mg/kg, s.c. to mothers during pregnancy and lactation). To distinguish between specific and nonspecific effects of MA on DATs, we also evaluated the in vitro effects of lipophilic MA on the fluidity of striatal membranes isolated from preadolescent and young adult rats of both sexes. We observed similar changes in the DATs of preadolescent rats exposed prenatally or postnatally (MA-mediated drop in the reserve pool but no alterations in surface-expressed DATs). However, prenatal exposure evoked significant changes in males and postnatal exposure in females. A significant decrease in the activity of surface-expressed DATs was found only in postnatally exposed females sensitized to MA via prenatal exposure. MA applied in vitro increased the fluidity of striatal membranes of preadolescent female but not male rats. In summary, DATs of preadolescent males are more sensitive to

  18. Short- and long-term effects of combined pre- and postnatal ethanol exposure (three trimester equivalency) on the development of myelin and axons in rat optic nerve.

    PubMed

    Phillips, D E; Krueger, S K; Rydquist, J E

    1991-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a combined gestational and 10 day postnatal alcohol exposure (human three trimester equivalency) on the development of myelin and axons in rat optic nerve. Rats were exposed during gestation via liquid diet, then their artificially reared pups were further exposed for 10 postnatal days via an ethanol-containing diet fed by gastrostomy. Control animals from pair-fed dams were artificially reared for 10 days on pair-fed isocaloric diets. Anesthetized animals were perfused with fixative on gestational days (G) 15 and 20 and postnatal days (P) 5, 10, 15, 20, and 90, then optic nerve tissues prepared for electron microscopy. Optic nerve cross-sectional areas were generally less from G20 through P90 in ethanol exposed animals. Counts of the number of myelinated nerve fibers per unit area and of the numbers of fibers in different stages of myelin development revealed that alcohol exposure caused a delay in myelin acquisition at 10 and 15 days that was compensated for at 20 and 90 days. Myelin thickness as a function of axon diameter was decreased in the alcohol exposed animals from 10 through 90 days, indicating a permanent reduction in the relative thickness of myelin. These results show that alcohol exposure for all of gestation and 10 postnatal days in the rat (human three trimester equivalency) causes a permanent reduction in myelin thickness along with a delay in myelin acquisition in the optic nerve. Such alterations in developing and adult myelin could help to explain some of the neurological and visual dysfunctions associated with developmental alcohol exposures.

  19. Expression and localization of caveolins during postnatal development in rat heart: implication of thyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Philippe; Oliviéro, Patricia; Marotte, Françoise; Kolar, Frantisek; Ostadal, Bohuslav; Samuel, Jane-Lise

    2005-07-01

    Caveolins modulate signaling pathways involved in cardiac development. Caveolin-1 exists in two isoforms: the beta-isoform derivates from an alternative translational start site that creates a protein truncated by 31 amino acids, mainly expressed in endothelial cells, whereas caveolin-3 is present in muscle cells. Our aim was to define caveolin distribution and expression during cardiac postnatal development using immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Caveolin-3 sarcolemmal labeling appeared as dotted lines from days 1 to 5 and as continuous lines after 14 days of age. Caveolin-3 expression, low at birth, increased (4-fold) to reach a maximum (P < 0.05) by day 5 and then decreased to stabilize in adults. Total caveolin-1 and its alpha-isoform were codistributed at birth in endothelial and smooth muscle cells; afterward, only the caveolin-1alpha labeling became limited to endothelium. Quantitative analysis indicated a similar temporal pattern of both total caveolin-1 and caveolin-1alpha expression, suggesting that caveolin-1alpha and -1beta are coregulated; the caveolin-1alpha levels increased fourfold by day 5 to reach a maximum by day 14 (P < 0.05). Tyrosine-14-caveolin-1 phosphorylation, low at birth, increased suddenly around day 14 (8-fold vs. day 1) and returning afterward to basal level. Because the T3/T4 level is maximal by day 14, caveolin-1 expression/phosphorylation profiles were analyzed in hypothyroid heart. The levels of caveolin-1alpha and consequently tyrosine-14-caveolin-1 phosphorylation, but not that of caveolin-3, decreased (50%) in hypothyroid 14-day-old rats. Our data demonstrate that, during postnatal cardiac growth, 1) caveolins are distinctly regulated, and 2) thyroid hormones are involved in caveolin-1alpha expression.

  20. Expression of klotho mRNA and protein in rat brain parenchyma from early postnatal development into adulthood.

    PubMed

    Clinton, Sarah M; Glover, Matthew E; Maltare, Astha; Laszczyk, Ann M; Mehi, Stephen J; Simmons, Rebecca K; King, Gwendalyn D

    2013-08-21

    Without the age-regulating protein klotho, mouse lifespan is shortened and the rapid onset of age-related disorders occurs. Conversely, overexpression of klotho extends mouse lifespan. Klotho is most abundant in kidney and expressed in a limited number of other organs, including the brain, where klotho levels are highest in choroid plexus. Reports vary on where klotho is expressed within the brain parenchyma, and no data is available as to whether klotho levels change across postnatal development. We used in situ hybridization to map klotho mRNA expression in the developing and adult rat brain and report moderate, widespread expression across grey matter regions. mRNA expression levels in cortex, hippocampus, caudate putamen, and amygdala decreased during the second week of life and then gradually rose to adult levels by postnatal day 21. Immunohistochemistry revealed a protein expression pattern similar to the mRNA results, with klotho protein expressed widely throughout the brain. Klotho protein co-localized with both the neuronal marker NeuN, as well as, oligodendrocyte marker olig2. These results provide the first anatomical localization of klotho mRNA and protein in rat brain parenchyma and demonstrate that klotho levels vary during early postnatal development.

  1. A new measure for assessing executive function across a wide age range: children and adults find happy-sad more difficult than day-night.

    PubMed

    Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen; Sayfan, Liat; Monsour, Michael

    2011-05-01

    Two experiments examined 4- to 11-year-olds' and adults' performance (N = 350) on two variants of a Stroop-like card task: the day-night task (say 'day' when shown a moon and 'night' when shown a sun) and a new happy-sad task (say 'happy' for a sad face and 'sad' for a happy face). Experiment 1 featured colored cartoon drawings. In Experiment 2, the happy-sad task featured photographs, and pictures for both measures were gray scale. All age groups made more errors and took longer to respond to the happy-sad versus the day-night versions. Unlike the day-night task, the happy-sad task did not suffer from ceiling effects, even in adults. The happy-sad task provides a methodological advance for measuring executive function across a wide age range.

  2. The Association Between Sleep and Physical Function Among Older Veterans in an Adult Day Health Care Program

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yeonsu; Dzierzewski, Joseph; Fung, Constance H.; Rodriguez, Juan C.; Jouldjian, Stella; Mitchell, Michael; Josephson, Karen R.; Alessi, Cathy A.; Martin, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine whether sleep disturbance is associated with poor physical function in older veterans in an adult day health care (ADHC) program. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING One ADHC program in a Veterans Affairs Ambulatory Care Center. PARTICIPANTS Older veterans (N = 50) who were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a sleep intervention program and provided complete baseline data. MEASUREMENTS Participant characteristics (e.g., age, depression, relationship to caregiver, pain, comorbidity) were collected using appropriate questionnaires. Physical function was measured using the total score of activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental ADLs (IADLs) from the Older Americans Resources and Services Multidimensional Functional Assessment Questionnaire. Sleep was assessed subjectively (by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Insomnia Severity Index) and objectively (by wrist actigraphy). RESULTS As expected, participants required substantial assistance with ADLs and IADLs. A regression model showed that participant characteristics (i.e., marital status, use of sleep medication, comorbidity, and posttraumatic stress disorder) and living arrangement (i.e., living with a spouse and/or others) were significantly associated with poor physical function. Poorer objective sleep (i.e., total sleep time, total numbers of awakenings, and total wake time) was significantly associated with poor physical function, accounting for a significant proportion of the variance above and beyond participant characteristics. CONCLUSION Objective measures of nighttime sleep disturbance were associated with poor physical function among older veterans in an ADHC program. Further research is needed to determine whether interventions to improve sleep will delay functional decline in this vulnerable population. PMID:26200520

  3. A New Measure for Assessing Executive Function across a Wide Age Range: Children and Adults Find "Happy-Sad" More Difficult than "Day-Night"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen; Sayfan, Liat; Monsour, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments examined 4- to 11-year-olds' and adults' performance (N = 350) on two variants of a Stroop-like card task: the "day-night task" (say "day" when shown a moon and "night" when shown a sun) and a new "happy-sad task" (say "happy" for a sad face and "sad" for a happy face). Experiment 1 featured colored cartoon drawings. In Experiment…

  4. Fear extinction in 17 day old rats is dependent on metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 signaling.

    PubMed

    Ganella, Despina E; Thangaraju, Pushbalela; Lawrence, Andrew J; Kim, Jee Hyun

    2016-02-01

    We used pharmacological modulation of the mGlu5 receptor to investigate its role in the extinction of conditioned fear throughout development. In postnatal day (P) 17 rats, the positive allosteric modulator CDPPB facilitated, while the negative allosteric modulator MTEP impaired extinction. These drugs had no such effects on P24 or adult rats. These results establish a changing importance of mGlu5 in extinction of conditioned fear at distinct stages of development.

  5. Differences in sleep complaints in adults with varying levels of bed days residing in extended care facilities for chronic disease management.

    PubMed

    Fox, Mary T; Sidani, Souraya; Brooks, Dina

    2010-05-01

    This cohort study examined differences in perceived insomnia and daytime sleepiness in 67 adults residing in extended care facilities for chronic disease management who had varying levels of bed days. One bed day was defined as spending 24 hours in bed. Planned pairwise comparisons, using Bonferroni adjustment, were made between participants who spent 0 (n = 21), 2 to 4 (n = 23), and 5 to 7 (n = 23) days in bed during 1 week of monitoring. Participants who spent 5 to 7 days in bed had significantly greater insomnia than those who spent 2 to 4 days in bed. No group differences were found in daytime sleepiness. Based on the findings, nurses may assess subjective insomnia and explore sleep hygiene strategies, such as increasing time out of bed with patients who have high levels of 5 to 7 bed days.

  6. Maturation of the inhibitory response of growth hormone secretion to ether stress in postnatal rat.

    PubMed

    Strbák, V; Jurcovicová, J; Vigas, M

    1985-05-01

    To study the maturation of inhibitory influences on growth hormone (GH) secretion the effect of ether stress on plasma GH levels was studied during postnatal ontogenesis in female rats. Ether stress did not affect plasma GH levels in 1-day-old pups. A distinct decrease of plasma GH was found in 3- and 9-day-old pups, and the response was prevented by treatment of 3-day-old animals with somatostatin antiserum. No effect of ether stress on plasma GH was noted in 12-, 15-, 18- and 21-day-old rats. Treatment of intact 12-day-old pups with the somatostatin antiserum increased plasma GH level under basal conditions. The inhibitory effect of ether stress on plasma GH was noted again at the age 30 days and in adult animals. It is concluded that the hypothalamus of 3-day-old rats is able to release enough somatostatin to inhibit GH secretion after stress. At the period 12-18 days a phase of pituitary refractoriness was noted: ether stress as well as TRH injection (our previous observation) fail to affect plasma GH in female pups, probably due to high somatostatin secretion under basal conditions and (or) low capacity of pituitary to release GH. It is suggested that regulation of GH secretion is not mature until after the 21st day of life.

  7. Comparison of GT3X accelerometer and Yamax pedometer steps/day in a free-living sample of overweight and obese adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to compare steps/day detected by the YAMAX SW-200 pedometer versus the Actigraph GT3X accelerometer in free-living adults. Daily YAMAX and GT3X steps were collected from a sample of 23 overweight and obese participants (78% female; age = 52.6 +/- 8.4 yr.; BMI = 31.0 +/-...

  8. Thyroliberin (TRH) induced growth hormone (GH) release: test of maturation of hypothalamo-pituitary axis in postnatal rat.

    PubMed

    Strbák, V; Jurcovicová, J; Vigas, M

    1981-12-01

    Small doses of TRH elicit GH release from rat pituitary provided the pituitary lacks CNS influences (e.g. in vitro or in ectopic pituitaries). We have found previously that hypothalamic regulation of TSH secretion matures between the 5th and 12th postnatal day. Therefore the possibility of TRH induced GH release was investigated in neonatal rats. GH concentration was measured by RIA at 10 min after s.c. TRH administration (4.1 pmol g-1 BW) into female Wistar rats at the age 3, 9, 12, 15, 21, 30 and 100 days. Control animals were injected the same volume (1 microliter g-1 BW) of saline. Serum GH in saline treated animals gradually decreased during postnatal ontogenesis. The TRH induced increase of serum GH level decreased during maturation: the most marked response was found at 3 days, it was somewhat lessened but still significant at 9 days and was absent in 12, 15, 30 days old and adult animals. Surprisingly, in 21 days old animals the increase of GH after TRH administration was again present. We conclude that the ability of TRH to elicit GH release in newborn rats may depend on the maturity of the hypothalamo-pituitary axis. The effect of hypothalamic somatostatin is likely to inhibit such a response at the pituitary level in older rats.

  9. Detrimental effects of postnatal exposure to propofol on memory and hippocampal LTP in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Lin; Chen, Xin; Wang, Zhi-Ping

    2015-10-05

    Acute effects of propofol on memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in adult animals were reported. However, long-term effect of early postnatal application of propofol on memory was not totally disclosed. In this study, experiments were designed to verify the mechanisms underlying the long-term detrimental effects of propofol on memory and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. A consecutive propofol protocol from postnatal day 7 was applied to model anesthesia, long term memory and hippocampal synaptic plasticity were detected 2 months later. Our results showed that repeated propofol exposure in early phase affect the memory in the adult phase. Through recording the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) at Schaffer colletaral-CA1 synapses, both of basal synaptic transmission and hippocampal LTP were decreased after propofol application. While LTD induced by low frequency stimulation and 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (3,5-DHPG) were not affected. Through analyzing the ultrastructure of dendrite in CA1 region, we found that propofol application decreased the spine density, which was consistent with the decrease of PSD-95 expression. In addition, p-AKT level was reduced after first propofol application. Intracerebroventricular injection of Akt inhibitor could mimic the propofol effects on basal synaptic transmission, hippocampal LTP and memory. Taken together, these results suggested that propofol possibly decreased AKT signaling pathway to restrict the spine development, finally leading to hippocampal LTP impairment and memory deficit.

  10. Postnatal development of intrinsic GABAergic rhythms in mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Wong, T; Zhang, X L; Asl, M Nassiri; Wu, C P; Carlen, P L; Zhang, L

    2005-01-01

    The local circuitry of the mammalian limbic cortices, including the hippocampus, is capable of generating spontaneous rhythmic activities of 0.5-4 Hz when isolated in vitro. These rhythmic activities are mediated by synchronous inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in pyramidal neurons as the result of repeated discharges of inhibitory interneurons. As such, they are thought to represent an intrinsic inhibitory rhythm. It is unknown at present whether such a rhythm occurs in the immature rodent hippocampus and, if so, the postnatal time window in which it develops. We explored these issues using our recently developed whole mouse hippocampal isolate preparation in vitro. We found that spontaneous rhythmic field potentials started to emerge in mouse hippocampal isolates around postnatal day 10, stabilized after postnatal day 15 and persisted into adulthood. In postnatal days 11-14 mouse hippocampi, the properties of these rhythmic potentials were in keeping with a CA3-driven, IPSP-based intrinsic network activity. The lack of spontaneous field rhythm in neonatal (postnatal days 2-7) hippocampi cannot be attributed to the excitatory activities mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA-A) receptors, as chloride-dependent hyperpolarizing inhibitory postsynaptic potentials were detectable in neonatal pyramidal neurons at voltages near resting potentials and pharmacological antagonisms of GABA-A receptors produced robust epileptiform discharges in neonatal hippocampi. High frequency afferent stimulation or applications of 4-aminopyridine at low micromolar concentrations failed to induce persistent field rhythm in neonatal hippocampi, suggesting that an overall weak glutamatergic drive is not the sole causing factor. We suggest that the inhibitory postsynaptic potential-based spontaneous rhythmic field potentials develop in a discrete time window during the second postnatal week in the mouse hippocampus due to a fine-tuning in the structure and function of CA3

  11. Fast and efficient: postnatal growth and energy expenditure in an Arctic-breeding waterbird, the Red-throated Loon (Gavia stellata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rizzolo, Daniel; Schmutz, Joel A.; Speakman, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental conditions can exert a strong influence on the growth and energy demands of chicks. We hypothesized that postnatal growth in a cold, aquatic environment would require a high level of energy metabolism in semiprecocial Red-throated Loon (Gavia stellata) chicks. We measured body-mass growth and daily energy expenditure (DEE) of free-ranging chicks in the Arctic. We used daily gains in body mass and DEE to estimate daily metabolizable energy (DME, kJ day-1) and total metabolizable energy (TME, kJ chick-1). Chicks gained body mass quickly, with a logistic growth rate constant 57% greater than the allometric prediction, yet were at only 60% of adult body mass at fledging. Males grew at a rate similar to that of females but for a slightly longer duration and so reached an asymptotic body mass 23% greater, and tarsus length 8% longer, than that of females. Chick growth performance was similar between first- and second-hatched chicks within broods of 2, which suggests that food availability was not limited. DEE increased in proportion to body mass, and DME peaked at 1,214 kJ day-1 on day 25 posthatching. Over the average 49-day postnatal period, TME was 49.0 MJ, which is within the range of error of the allometric prediction. Parents provided 58.6 MJ as food to meet this energy requirement. Given this chick energy requirement and the range of energy content of prey observed in the chick diet, selecting prey with higher energy content would greatly reduce adult provisioning effort. Red-throated Loon chicks did not have a high postnatal energy requirement, but rather grew quickly and fledged at a small size-with the effect of reducing the length of the postnatal period and, consequently, parental energy investment in chicks.

  12. Neuroendocrine responses to social isolation and paternal deprivation at different postnatal ages in Mandarin voles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Ruiyong; Kong, Lingzhe; Feng, Weige; Cao, Yan; Tai, Fadao; Zhang, Xia

    2014-09-01

    Neonatal isolation and paternal deprivation have long lasting effects on the behavior and neuroendocrine system at adulthood. Whether these effects at adulthood are induced by neonatal changes in relevant neuroendocrine parameters lead by these early-life social experiences is not well understood. Whether monogamous rodents exhibit a stress hypo-responsive period (SHRP) also remains unclear. Using the monogamous mandarin vole, we found that 30 min of isolation did not affect levels of corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) at postnatal days 8, 10, and 12 displaying a SHRP, but increased these at postnatal days 4, 14, 16, and 18. Isolation increased vasopressin (AVP)-ir neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) from postnatal days 4 to 12, and up-regulated oxytocin (OT)-ir neurons in the PVN at postnatal days 4 and 8 and SON at postnatal day 4. Paternally deprived pups showed increase in ACTH and CORT after 30 min of social isolation from postnatal days 8 to 14, increase in AVP-ir neurons in the PVN from postnatal days 10 to 14, reduction in OT-ir neurons in the PVN from postnatal days 10 to 14 and in the SON at postnatal days 12 and 14. These results indicate that monogamous mandarin voles display a short SHRP which can be disrupted by paternal deprivation. Central AVP and OT levels may also be altered by paternal deprivation and social isolation. We propose that changes in these neuroendocrine parameters induced by early-life social experiences such as those tested here persist and result.

  13. Peri, pre and postnatal morphine exposure: exposure-induced effects and sex differences in the behavioural consequences in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Timár, Julia; Sobor, Melinda; Király, Kornél P; Gyarmati, Susanna; Riba, Pál; Al-Khrasani, Mahmoud; Fürst, Susanna

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated the behavioural consequences of peri, pre and postnatal morphine (MO) exposure in rats. From gestational day 1 dams were treated with either saline or MO subcutaneously once a day (5 mg/kg on the first 2 days, 10 mg/kg subsequently). Spontaneous locomotor activity in a new environment (habituation) and antinociceptive effects of MO were measured separately in male and female pups after weaning and also in late adolescence or adulthood. The rewarding effect of MO was assessed by conditioned place preference in adult animals. Both exposure-induced and sex differences were observed. A significant delay in habituation to a new environment and decreased sensitivity to the antinociceptive effect of MO were found in male offspring of MO-treated dams. In contrast, the place preference induced by MO was enhanced in the MO-exposed adult animals and this effect was more marked in females. Prenatal exposure to MO resulted in more marked changes than the postnatal exposure through maternal milk. The results indicate that a medium MO dose administered once-daily results in long-term consequences in offspring and may make them more vulnerable to MO abuse in adulthood.

  14. Prenatal immunotoxicant exposure and postnatal autoimmune disease.

    PubMed Central

    Holladay, S D

    1999-01-01

    Reports in humans and rodents indicate that immune development may be altered following perinatal exposure to immunotoxic compounds, including chemotherapeutics, corticosteroids, polycyclic hydrocarbons, and polyhalogenated hydrocarbons. Effects from such exposure may be more dramatic or persistent than following exposure during adult life. For example, prenatal exposure to the insecticide chlordane or to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[(italic)a(/italic)]pyrene produces what appears to be lifelong immunosuppression in mice. Whether prenatal immunotoxicant exposure may predispose the organism to postnatal autoimmune disease remains largely unknown. In this regard, the therapeutic immunosuppressant cyclosporin A (CsA) crosses the placenta poorly. However, lethally irradiated rodents exposed to CsA postsyngeneic bone marrow transplant (i.e., during re-establishment of the immune system) develop T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease, suggesting this drug may produce a fundamental disruption in development of self-tolerance by T cells. The environmental contaminant 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-(italic)p(/italic)-dioxin (TCDD) crosses the placenta and produces fetal thymic effects (italic)in vivo(/italic) similar to effects of CsA in fetal thymic organ culture, including inhibited thymocyte maturation and reduced expression of thymic major histocompatability complex class II molecules. These observations led to the suggestion that gestational exposure to TCDD may interfere with normal development of self-tolerance. Possibly supporting this hypothesis, when mice predisposed to development of autoimmune disease were treated with TCDD during gestation, postnatal autoimmunity was exacerbated. Similar results have been reported for mice exposed to diethylstilbestrol during development. These reports suggest that prenatal exposure to certain immunotoxicants may play a role in postnatal expression of autoimmunity. PMID:10502532

  15. Oral Prenatal and Postnatal Development Study of WR238605 Succinate in Rats. Volume 2 of 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-18

    washing on any cohabitation day) HT = Hematoma NP = Not pregnant |A = Decreased activity N-2 ORAL DRENATAL AND POSTNATAL DEVELOPMENT STUDY OF WR238605...N = Normal SP- = Sperm negative (i.e.. sperm not observed in the vaginal washing on any cohabitation day) HT = Hematoma NP = Not pregnant JA...washing on any cohabitation day) |A = NP = Not pregnant N-4 Palpated pregnant Normal • Hematoma i Decreased activity ORAL PRENATAL AND POSTNATAL

  16. Post-natal development of type 1 cannabinoid receptor immunoreactivity in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Yury M; Freund, Tamás F

    2003-09-01

    Type 1 cannabinoid receptors, selectively located on axon terminals of GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampus, are known to be involved in endocannabinoid-mediated retrograde synaptic signalling. The question arises whether type 1 cannabinoid receptors appear on these axons during early post-natal life, when GABAergic transmission is still depolarizing, and whether there are any developmental changes in the cellular or subcellular expression pattern. Here we demonstrate, using single and double immunocytochemical methods at the light and electron microscopic levels, that type 1 cannabinoid receptors are expressed only on the membrane of axon terminals and pre-terminal axons but not on the soma-dendritic membrane at all examined timepoints between post-natal days 0 and 20, similar to the adult distribution. All type 1 cannabinoid receptor-positive boutons formed symmetric synapses. Granular labelling in the somata was already strong at post-natal day 0 and corresponded to multivesicular bodies, lysosomes, Golgi apparatus and rough endoplasmic reticulum. The type 1 cannabinoid receptor-positive axons were shown to originate largely from cholecystokinin-immunoreactive basket and bistratified neurons throughout the hippocampus (90% of all type 1 cannabinoid receptor-containing cells) and dentate gyrus (70% of all type 1 cannabinoid receptor-containing cells). The remaining cells have not been identified but probably belong to the somatostatin- and/or neuropeptide Y-containing subsets, as cholecystokinin-negative, type 1 cannabinoid receptor-positive axons have been observed in strata moleculare and lacunosum-moleculare of the dentate gyrus and CA1-3, respectively, where these neurons are known to arborize. No cell types were found that expressed type 1 cannabinoid receptors transiently at some developmental stage. We conclude that the cellular and subcellular pattern of type 1 cannabinoid receptor expression during early post-natal life is similar to the adult

  17. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in ependymal cells during early postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Soygüder, Zafer; Karadağ, Hüseyin; Nazli, Mümtaz

    2004-03-01

    Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) immunoreactivity was observed in ependymal cell layer of the central canal of spinal cord of neonatal rats (2-20 days old). Neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity was present in postnatal day 2 and this immunoreactivity gradually disappeared by postnatal day 16. The progressive decrease in nNOS staining with the increasing postnatal age may suggest that nNOS staining paralleled the maturation of the central canal and may also suggest that nNOS activity plays a role in the development of the ependymal cells.

  18. Cellular basis of differential limb growth in postnatal gray short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica).

    PubMed

    Beiriger, Anastasia; Sears, Karen E

    2014-06-01

    While growth has been studied extensively in invertebrates, the mechanisms by which it is controlled in vertebrates, particularly in mammals, remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigate the cellular basis of differential limb growth in postnatal Monodelphis domestica, the gray short-tailed opossum, to gain insights into the mechanisms regulating mammalian growth. Opossums are an ideal model for the study of growth because they are born with relatively large, well-developed forelimbs and small hind limbs that must "catch up" to the forelimb before the animal reaches adulthood. Postnatal Days 1-17 were identified as a key period of growth for the hind limbs, during which they undergo accelerated development and nearly quadruple in length. Histology performed on fore- and hind limbs from this period indicates a higher rate of cellular differentiation in the long bones of the hind limbs. Immunohistochemical assays indicate that cellular proliferation is also occurring at a significantly greater rate in the long bones of the hind limb at 6 days after birth. Taken together, these results suggest that a faster rate of cellular proliferation and differentiation in the long bones of the hind limb relative to those of the forelimb generates a period of accelerated growth through which the adult limb phenotype of M. domestica is achieved. Assays for gene expression suggest that the molecular basis of this differential growth differs from that previously identified for differential pre-natal growth in opossum fore- and hind limbs.

  19. Topical Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Activators Accelerate Postnatal Stratum Corneum Acidification

    PubMed Central

    Fluhr, Joachim W.; Man, Mao-Qiang; Hachem, Jean-Pierre; Crumrine, Debra; Mauro, Theodora M.; Elias, Peter M.; Feingold, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that pH declines from between 6 and 7 at birth to adult levels (pH 5.0–5.5) over 5–6 days in neonatal rat stratum corneum (SC). As a result, at birth, neonatal epidermis displays decreased permeability barrier homeostasis and SC integrity, improving days 5–6. We determined here whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activators accelerate postnatal SC acidification. Topical treatment with two different PPARα activators, clofibrate and WY14643, accelerated the postnatal decline in SC surface pH, whereas treatment with PPARγ activators did not and a PPARβ/δ activator had only a modest effect. Treatment with clofibrate significantly accelerated normalization of barrier function. The morphological basis for the improvement in barrier function in PPARα-treated animals includes accelerated secretion of lamellar bodies and enhanced, postsecretory processing of secreted lamellar body contents into mature lamellar membranes. Activity of β-glucocerebrosidase increased after PPARα-activator treatment. PPARα activator also improved SC integrity, which correlated with an increase in corneodesmosome density and increased desmoglein-1 content, with a decline in serine protease activity. Topical treatment of newborn animals with a PPARα activator increased secretory phospholipase A2 activity, which likely accounts for accelerated SC acidification. Thus, PPARα activators accelerate neonatal SC acidification, in parallel with improved permeability homeostasis and SC integrity/cohesion. Hence, PPARα activators might be useful to prevent or treat certain common neonatal dermatoses. PMID:18704104

  20. Sexually dimorphic effects of postnatal allopregnanolone on the development of anxiety behavior after early deprivation.

    PubMed

    Zimmerberg, Betty; Kajunski, Elizabeth W

    2004-07-01

    Stress early in life exerts persistent detrimental effects on brain development. In this experiment, a rodent model of child neglect, early deprivation (ED), was used to investigate the role of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone [AlloP; 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP)] in the development of anxiety behavior. Subjects were either undisturbed controls or ED: separated individually for 6 h per day from postnatal day (PN) 2 to 6. Control and ED subjects were also either noninjected, vehicle-injected or injected with 5 mg/kg AlloP prior to the isolation. At PN 7, responses to 2.5 or 5 microg icv injections of AlloP were determined for separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs). Tolerance to the USV-reducing effect of daily AlloP was seen in control but not ED pups, and daily AlloP reversed the expected ED suppression of USVs. As adults, controls treated with postnatal AlloP were less anxious than all other groups on the elevated plus maze. ED counteracted this effect. Male controls showed a reversal of the typical sex difference. There were no effects on open-field activity. These results suggest that the neonatal brain is responsive to alterations in AlloP levels, and that neuroactive progesterone metabolites may play a role in mediating the development of stress-related sex differences.

  1. Effect of Indoor Temperature on Physical Performance in Older Adults during Days with Normal Temperature and Heat Waves

    PubMed Central

    Lindemann, Ulrich; Stotz, Anja; Beyer, Nina; Oksa, Juha; Skelton, Dawn A.; Becker, Clemens; Rapp, Kilian; Klenk, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Indoor temperature is relevant with regard to mortality and heat-related self-perceived health problems. The aim of this study was to describe the association between indoor temperature and physical performance in older adults. Eighty-one older adults (84% women, mean age 80.9 years, standard deviation 6.53) were visited every four weeks from May to October 2015 and additionally during two heat waves in July and August 2015. Indoor temperature, habitual gait speed, chair-rise performance and balance were assessed. Baseline assessment of gait speed was used to create two subgroups (lower versus higher gait speed) based on frailty criteria. The strongest effect of increasing temperature on habitual gait speed was observed in the subgroup of adults with higher gait speed (−0.087 m/s per increase of 10 °C; 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.136; −0.038). The strongest effects on timed chair-rise and balance performance were observed in the subgroup of adults with lower gait speed (2.03 s per increase of 10 °C (95% CI: 0.79; 3.28) and −3.92 s per increase of 10 °C (95% CI: −7.31; −0.52), respectively). Comparing results of physical performance in absentia of a heat wave and during a heat wave, habitual gait speed was negatively affected by heat in the total group and subgroup of adults with higher gait speed, chair-rise performance was negatively affected in all groups and balance was not affected. The study provides arguments for exercise interventions in general for older adults, because a better physical fitness might alleviate impediments of physical capacity and might provide resources for adequate adaptation in older adults during heat stress. PMID:28216585

  2. Postnatal cardiopulmonary adaptations to high altitude.

    PubMed

    Huicho, Luis

    2007-09-30

    Postnatal cardiopulmonary adaptations to high altitude constitute a key component of any set of responses developed to face high altitude hypoxia. Such responses are required ultimately to meet the energy demands necessary for adequate functioning at cell and organism level. After a brief insight on general and cardiopulmonary comparative studies in growing and adult organisms, differences and possible explanations for varying cardiopulmonary pathology, pulmonary artery hypertension, persistent right ventricular predominance and subacute high altitude pulmonary hypertension in different populations of children living at high altitude are discussed. Potential long-term implications of early chronic hypoxic exposure on later diseases are also presented. It is hoped that this review will help the practicing physician working at high altitude to make informed decisions concerning individual pediatric patients, specifically with regard to diagnosis and management of altitude-related cardiopulmonary pathology. Finally, plausibility and the knowledge-base of public health interventions to reduce the risks posed by suboptimal or inadequate postnatal cardiopulmonary responses to high altitude are discussed.

  3. Post-natal growth in the rat pineal gland: a stereological study.

    PubMed

    Erbagci, H; Kizilkan, N; Ozbag, D; Erkilic, S; Kervancioglu, P; Canan, S; Gumusburun, E

    2012-10-01

    The purpose was to observe the changes in a rat pineal gland using stereological techniques during lactation and post-weaning periods. Thirty Wistar albino rats were studied during different post-natal periods using light microscopy. Pineal gland volume was estimated using the Cavalieri Method. Additionally, the total number of pinealocytes was estimated using the optical fractionator technique. Pineal gland volume displayed statistically significant changes between lactation and after weaning periods. A significant increase in pineal gland volume was observed from post-natal day 10 to post-natal day 90. The numerical density of pinealocytes became stabilized during lactation and decreased rapidly after weaning. However, the total number of pinealocytes continuously increased during post-natal life of all rats in the study. However, this increment was not statistically significant when comparing the lactation and after weaning periods. The increase in post-natal pineal gland volume may depend on increment of immunoreactive fibres, capsule thickness or new synaptic bodies.

  4. An intrauterine catch-up growth regimen increases food intake and post-natal growth in rats.

    PubMed

    Baik, M; Rajasekar, P; Lee, M S; Kim, J; Kwon, D-H; Kang, W; Nguyen, T H; Vu, T-T T

    2014-12-01

    Nutritional conditions during the intrauterine stage are an important developmental programming factor that can affect the growth and metabolic status during foetal development and permanently alter the phenotypes of newborn offspring and adults. This study was performed to examine the effects of intrauterine catch-up growth (IUCG) on food intake, post-natal body growth and the metabolic status of offspring and growing rats. Control pregnant rats were fed ad libitum during the entire gestation period. For the IUCG regimen, pregnant rats were fed 50% of the food of the controls from pregnancy days 4 through 11 (8 days), followed by ad libitum feeding from pregnancy days 12 through parturition. The birth weight of offspring was not affected by the IUCG regimen. At weaning, offspring from each treatment group were assigned to two groups and given either a normal diet or high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks until 103 days of age. In the normal diet group, the IUCG offspring showed a 9.0% increase (P < 0.05) in total food intake, were 11.2% heavier (p < 0.05) at 103 days of age and had an 11.0% greater (p < 0.05) daily weight gain compared with control offspring. The IUCG regimen did not affect body glucose and lipid metabolism. After exposure to the HFD, the IUCG regimen has not exacerbated metabolic disorders. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the IUCG nutritional regimen during pregnancy can increase the food intake and post-natal body growth of offspring without inducing metabolic disorders such as obesity and insulin resistance. The IUCG nutritional regimen might be used to improve the food intake and post-natal body growth of domestic animals.

  5. Changes in fine structure of pericytes and novel desmin-immunopositive perivascular cells during postnatal development in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Jindatip, Depicha; Fujiwara, Ken; Horiguchi, Kotaro; Tsukada, Takehiro; Kouki, Tom; Yashiro, Takashi

    2013-09-01

    Pericytes are perivascular cells associated with capillaries. We previously demonstrated that pericytes, identified by desmin immunohistochemistry, produce type I and III collagens in the anterior pituitary gland of adult rats. In addition, we recently used desmin immunoelectron microscopy to characterize a novel type of perivascular cell, dubbed a desmin-immunopositive perivascular cell, in the anterior pituitary. These two types of perivascular cells differ in fine structure. The present study attempted to characterize the morphological features of pituitary pericytes and novel desmin-immunopositive perivascular cells during postnatal development, in particular their role in collagen synthesis. Desmin immunostaining revealed numerous perivascular cells at postnatal day 5 (P5) and P10. Transmission electron microscopy showed differences in the fine structure of the two cell types, starting at P5. Pericytes had well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus at P5 and P10. The novel desmin-immunopositive perivascular cells exhibited dilated cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum at P5-P30. In addition, during early postnatal development in the gland, a number of type I and III collagen-expressing cells were observed, as were high expression levels of these collagen mRNAs. We conclude that pituitary pericytes and novel desmin-immunopositive perivascular cells contain well-developed cell organelles and that they actively synthesize collagens during the early postnatal period.

  6. Breaking up of prolonged sitting over three days sustains, but does not enhance, lowering of postprandial plasma glucose and insulin in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Robyn N; Kingwell, Bronwyn A; Robinson, Carol; Hammond, Louise; Cerin, Ester; Shaw, Jonathan E; Healy, Genevieve N; Hamilton, Marc T; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W

    2015-07-01

    To compare the cumulative (3-day) effect of prolonged sitting on metabolic responses during a mixed meal tolerance test (MTT), with sitting that is regularly interrupted with brief bouts of light-intensity walking. Overweight/obese adults (n=19) were recruited for a randomized, 3-day, outpatient, cross-over trial involving: (1) 7-h days of uninterrupted sitting (SIT); and (2) 7-h days of sitting with light-intensity activity breaks [BREAKS; 2-min of treadmill walking (3.2 km/h) every 20 min (total: 17 breaks/day)]. On days 1 and 3, participants underwent a MTT (75 g of carbohydrate, 50 g of fat) and the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was calculated from hourly blood samples. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were adjusted for gender, body mass index (BMI), energy intake, treatment order and pre-prandial values to determine effects of time, condition and time × condition. The glucose iAUC was 1.3 ± 0.5 and 1.5 ± 0.5 mmol·h·l(-1) (mean differences ± S.E.M.) higher in SIT compared with BREAKS on days 1 and 3 respectively (condition effect: P=0.001), with no effect of time (P=0.48) or time × condition (P=0.8). The insulin iAUC was also higher on both days in SIT (day 1: ∆151 ± 73, day 3: ∆91 ± 73 pmol·h·l(-1), P=0.01), with no effect of time (P=0.52) or time × condition (P=0.71). There was no between-treatment difference in triglycerides (triacylglycerols) iAUC. There were significant between-condition effects but no temporal change in metabolic responses to MTT, indicating that breaking up of sitting over 3 days sustains, but does not enhance, the lowering of postprandial glucose and insulin.

  7. Postnatal expression of the plasticity-related nerve growth factor-induced gene A (NGFI-A) protein in the superficial layers of the rat superior colliculus: relation to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function.

    PubMed

    Giraldi-Guimarães, A; de Bittencourt-Navarrete, R E; Nascimento, I C C; Salazar, P R; Freitas-Campos, D; Mendez-Otero, R

    2004-01-01

    Immediate early gene expression in the CNS is induced by sensory stimulation and seems to be involved in long-term synaptic plasticity. We have used an immunohistochemical method to detect the nerve growth factor-induced gene A (NGFI-A) protein expression in the superficial layers of the rat superior colliculus during postnatal development. Our goal was to correlate the expression of this candidate plasticity protein with developmental events, especially the activity-dependent refinement of the retinocollicular and corticocollicular pathways. We have also investigated the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor dependence of the NGFI-A expression. Animals of various postnatal ages were used. Postnatal day (P) 12 and older animals were submitted to a protocol of dark adaptation followed by light stimulation. NGFI-A expression was never observed during the first 2 postnatal weeks. The first stained cells were observed at P15, 2 days after eye opening (P13). The highest number of stained cells was observed at the end of the third postnatal week (P22). Adult-like level of expression was reached at P30, since at this age, the number of stained cells was comparable to that found in adult rats (P90). Both P22 animals submitted to an acute treatment with MK-801 (i.p. injection) and adult animals submitted to chronic intracranial infusion of a MK-801 presented a clear decrease in the NGFI-A expression in response to light stimulation. These results suggest that the NGFI-A expression is dependent on the NMDA receptor activation, and the observed pattern of expression is in close agreement with previous descriptions of the changes in the NMDA receptor-mediated visual activity in the developing rat superior colliculus (SC). Our results suggest that the plasticity-related NGFI-A protein might play a role in the developmental plasticity of the superficial layers of the rat SC after eye opening.

  8. Postnatal effects of prenatal insult

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.M.; Newman, L.M.; Schmidt, R.R.

    1988-03-01

    Exogenous agents may perturb development during the embryonic period and adversely affect the formation of organs. However, adverse effects on development are not limited to the embryonic period nor are the manifestations restricted solely to outright gross structural malformation, but may instead be expressed as a decrement or abberration of postnatal function. Susceptibility to altered development may extend well into the postnatal period. Studies of functional parameters in several organ systems have demonstrated the broad-based susceptibility, subtlety of expression and potential of long-lasting effects of altered development assessed by physiologic assays. Adverse effects on functional development, whether in the CNS, reproductive, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, respiratory, or immune systems, etc., merit continuing investigation. From the viewpoint of risk estimation and hazard detection, evaluations of postnatal functional parameters may be relevant for several reasons. First, such parameters may serve as low-dose triggers. Second, they may be useful as a focal point for epidemiological studies. Finally, a more thorough understanding of the degree and magnitude of such postnatal functional deficits is needed since an adverse maternal effect may be transient, considered acceptable, or unperceived, but the effect on the conceptus may be permanent and severe. The immune and respiratory systems are discussed as two examples of how subtle and protean adverse effects on functional development may be.

  9. Postnatal intermittent hypoxia and developmental programming of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats: the role of reactive oxygen species and L-Ca2+ channels.

    PubMed

    Soukhova-O'Hare, Galia K; Ortines, Roger V; Gu, Yan; Nozdrachev, Alexander D; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Gozal, David

    2008-07-01

    Obstructive and central apneas during sleep are associated with chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) and increased cardiovascular morbidity. Spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to CIH during postnatal days 4 to 30 develop exaggerated hypertension as adults. We hypothesized that reactive oxygen species and altered L-Ca(2+) channel activity may underlie the postnatal programming of exaggerated blood pressure and cardiac remodeling. Newborn male spontaneously hypertensive rats were exposed to CIH (10% and 21% O(2) alternating every 90 seconds, 12 h/d, for postnatal days 4 to 30) or normoxia (room air). In each condition, spontaneously hypertensive rats received daily (SC) 1 of 3 treatments: L-calcium channel blocker nifedipine (5 mg/kg), superoxide dismutase mimetic MnTMPyP pentachloride (10 mg/kg), or vehicle (polyethylene glycol). Blood pressure was evaluated monthly for 6 months after birth, and echocardiographic assessments were conducted at 6 months of age. CIH vehicle-treated rats presented higher systolic blood pressure (187+/-5 mm Hg) as compared with normoxic vehicle treated controls (163+/-2 mm Hg; P<0.001). Postnatal CIH elicited marked increases in left ventricular wall thickness in a pattern of concentric hypertrophy with augmented systolic contractility. The treatment with nifedipine in the CIH group attenuated blood pressure (159+/-2 mm Hg; P<0.001) and normalized left ventricular wall thickness and systolic function, whereas the treatment with SOD mimetic decreased blood pressure (165+/-2 mm Hg; P<0.001) and reduced left ventricular wall thickness without changes in the systolic function. We conclude that Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species-mediated signaling during intermittent hypoxia are critical mechanisms underlying postnatal programming of an increased severity of hypertension and hypertrophic cardiac remodeling in a genetically susceptible rodent model.

  10. Ion channels in postnatal neurogenesis: potential targets for brain repair.

    PubMed

    Swayne, Leigh Anne; Wicki-Stordeur, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    Neural stem and progenitor cells (NSC/NPCs) are unspecialized cells found in the adult peri-ventricular and sub-granular zones that are capable of self-renewal, migration, and differentiation into new neurons through the remarkable process of postnatal neurogenesis. We are now beginning to understand that the concerted action of ion channels, multi-pass transmembrane proteins that allow passage of ions across otherwise impermeable cellular membranes tightly regulate this process. Specific ion channels control proliferation, differentiation and survival. Furthermore, they have the potential to be highly selective drug targets due to their complex structures. As such, these proteins represent intriguing prospects for control and optimization of postnatal neurogenesis for neural regeneration following brain injury or disease. Here, we concentrate on ion channels identified in adult ventricular zone NSC/NPCs that have been found to influence the stages of neurogenesis. Finally, we outline the potential of these channels to elicit repair, and highlight the outstanding challenges.

  11. The effects of prenatal and postnatal (via nursing) exposure to alcohol in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Nekvasil, N.; Baggio, C. )

    1992-02-26

    Pregnant and post-partum rats were given daily doses of 20% alcohol during days 13-21 gestation and postnatal days 3-12, respectively. Following exposure, all rat pups, were tested for balance, blood pressure, right and left cerebral hemisphere weights, and cerebellar weight. Results were grouped according to exposure and gender. The postnatal group was the only one to demonstrate difficulties with balance. The mean arterial pressure in males exposed postnatally was significantly lower than the control and prenatal males. Females exposed postnatally had a significantly higher blood pressure than control females. Within the postnatal group, males had a significantly lower blood pressure than the females. Prenatal and control females differed significantly for left cerebral hemisphere (LCH) weight with the prenatal weighing less. Male pups exposed prenatally had significantly heavier LCH than the postnatal and control males. For both males and females, postnatal LCH weights did not differ from those of the control pups. Within the prenatal group, the LCH weight in females was significantly lower than in males. Mean cerebellar weights were significantly lower in postnatal animals compared to control animals. A major finding of this study is that the effect of alcohol exposure on rat pups depends on gender and developmental age.

  12. The combined effect of sleep and time of day on emotion decoding from dynamic visual cues in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Tsokanaki, Paraskevi; Moraitou, Despina; Papantoniou, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that night sleep is a decisive factor for the effective functioning of the human body and mind. In addition to the role of sleep, older adults report that they are “morning types” and that their cognitive and emotional abilities seem to be at a higher level in the morning hours. In this vein, this study is aimed at examining the effect of sleep combined with the “time of day” condition on a specific ability that is crucial for interpersonal communication, namely, emotion recognition, in older adults. Specifically, the study compared older adults’ performance in decoding emotions from ecologically valid, dynamic visual cues, in two conditions: “early in the morning and after night sleep”, and “in the afternoon and after many hours since night sleep”. An emotion recognition task was administered twice to 37 community-dwelling older adults. The results showed a statistically significant higher performance in the morning in decoding all emotions presented, compared to the afternoon condition. Pleasant surprise, sadness, and anxiety were revealed as the most difficult emotions to be recognized in the afternoon condition. PMID:27621639

  13. Postnatal Evaluation and Outcome of Prenatal Hydronephrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi-Bojd, Simin; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Ansari-Moghadam, Alireza; Rashidi, Somaye

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prenatal hydronephrosis (PNH) is dilation in urinary collecting system and is the most frequent neonatal urinary tract abnormality with an incidence of 1% to 5% of all pregnancies. PNH is defined as anteroposterior diameter (APD) of renal pelvis ≥ 4 mm at gestational age (GA) of < 33 weeks and APD ≥ 7 mm at GA of ≥ 33 weeks to 2 months after birth. All patients need to be evaluated after birth by postnatal renal ultrasonography (US). In the vast majority of cases, watchful waiting is the only thing to do; others need medical or surgical therapy. Objectives: There is a direct relationship between APD of renal pelvis and outcome of PNH. Therefore we were to find the best cutoff point APD of renal pelvis which leads to surgical outcome. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective cohort study we followed 200 patients 1 to 60 days old with diagnosis of PNH based on before or after birth ultrasonography; as a prenatal or postnatal detected, respectively. These patients were referred to the nephrology clinic in Zahedan Iran during 2011 to 2013. The first step of investigation was a postnatal renal US, by the same expert radiologist and classifying the patients into 3 groups; normal, mild/moderate and severe. The second step was to perform voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) for mild/moderate to severe cases at 4 - 6 weeks of life. Tc-diethylene triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) was the last step and for those with normal VCUG who did not show improvement in follow-up examination, US to evaluate obstruction and renal function. Finally all patients with mild/moderate to severe PNH received conservative therapy and surgery was preserved only for progressive cases, obstruction or renal function ≤35%. All patients’ data and radiologic information was recorded in separate data forms, and then analyzed by SPSS (version 22). Results: 200 screened PNH patients with male to female ratio 3.5:1 underwent first postnatal control US, of whom 65% had normal, 18% mild

  14. Early postnatal diazepam exposure alters sex differences in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Segovia, S; Pérez-Laso, C; Rodríguez-Zafra, M; Calés, J M; Del Abril, A; De Blas, M R; Collado, P; Valencia, A; Guillamón, A

    1991-06-01

    The volume and neuron number of the sexually dimorphic accessory olfactory bulb and locus coeruleus are altered by early postnatal exposure (from the day of birth to postnatal day 16) to diazepam. After diazepam treatment, both volume and neuron number were decreased in the male accessory olfactory bulb and in the female locus coeruleus. These results indicate that early postnatal diazepam administration can bear gender-dependent teratogenic effects upon sexually dimorphic nuclei and suggest that endogenous benzodiazepines may be involved in the sexual differentiation of the brain.

  15. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the rat forebrain and upper brain stem during postnatal development: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kim, J K; Jeon, S M; Lee, K M; Park, E S; Cho, H J

    2007-05-25

    The present study was undertaken to characterize the regional and temporal patterns of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the rat forebrain and upper brain stem during postnatal development using an immunohistochemical approach. Results indicated that BDNF-immunoreactive (IR) cells could be divided into three groups based on their postnatal developmental patterns: (group 1) BDNF-IR cells were first detected between postnatal days (PND) 1 and 7, and thereafter they increased in number and remained stable during later stages of ontogeny; (group 2) BDNF-IR cells progressively increased in number with age, and then decreased in adults; (group 3) numerous BDNF-IR cells detected between PND 1 and 7 showed a dramatic reductions in number with few IR cells in adults. In contrast, the developmental pattern of most BDNF-IR fibers differed from that of IR neurons, i.e. they appeared between PND 1-28 and thereafter continued to increase in number showing a maximum level in adults. Additionally, BDNF-IR cells in the superficial layer of the neocortex and IR fibers in the stratum oriens of CA2 first appeared as late as PND 28 and in adults, respectively. After colchicine treatment, reexpression or a marked increase in the number of BDNF-IR neurons was observed in many areas of the adult brain where a progressive decrease in BDNF-IR cell numbers during development and scant or some IR neurons in adults were shown. These results showed both transient and persistent expression of BDNF in various regions of the developing rat brain.

  16. Maternal Melatonin Therapy Rescues Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Induced Programmed Hypertension in Male Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Yu, Hong-Ren; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Hsu, Chien-Ning; Lin, Yu-Ju; Kuo, Kuang-Che; Huang, Li-Tung

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) exposure and high-fat (HF) intake are linked to hypertension. We examined whether maternal melatonin therapy prevents programmed hypertension synergistically induced by prenatal DEX plus postnatal HF in adult offspring. We also examined whether DEX and melatonin causes renal programming using next-generation RNA sequencing (NGS) technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg) or vehicle from gestational day 16 to 22. In the melatonin-treatment groups (M), rats received 0.01% melatonin in drinking water during their entire pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were assigned to five groups: control, DEX, HF, DEX+HF, and DEX+HF+M. Male offspring in the HF group were fed a HF diet from weaning to 4 months of age. Prenatal DEX and postnatal HF diet synergistically induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring, which melatonin prevented. Maternal melatonin treatment modified over 3000 renal transcripts in the developing offspring kidney. Our NGS data indicate that PPAR signaling and fatty acid metabolism are two significantly regulated pathways. In addition, maternal melatonin therapy elicits longstanding alterations on renal programming, including regulation of the melatonin signaling pathway and upregulation of Agtr1b and Mas1 expression in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), to protect male offspring against programmed hypertension. Postnatal HF aggravates prenatal DEX induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring, which melatonin prevented. The protective effects of melatonin on programmed hypertension is associated with regulation of the RAS and melatonin receptors. The long-term effects of maternal melatonin therapy on renal transcriptome require further clarification. PMID:26696906

  17. Additional studies of sheep haemopexin: genetic control, frequencies and postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Stratil, A; Bobák, P; Margetín, M; Glasnák, V

    1989-01-01

    This study presents evidence that sheep haemopexin phenotypes are genetically controlled by three alleles, HpxA, HpxB1 and HpxB2, of a single autosomal locus. Frequencies of two alleles, HpxA and HpxB (HpxB encompasses two isoalleles, HpxB1 and HpxB2), were studied in eight sheep breeds in Czechoslovakia. The frequency of the HpxA allele was highest (ranging from 0.81 in Merino to 1.0 in East Friesian sheep). Qualitative and quantitative changes in haemopexin during postnatal development were studied by starch gel electrophoresis and rocket immunoelectrophoresis respectively. In electrophoresis, 1- or 2-day-old lambs had two very weak zones corresponding in mobility to two slower zones of adult animals. Later, the third more anodic zone appeared and gradually increased in intensity. In 1-month-old lambs the patterns were practically identical with those of adult animals. Using rocket immunoelectrophoresis, the level of haemopexin shortly after birth was practically zero. It rose sharply till the sixth day of life; then the level continued to rise slowly till about 1 month of age. The mean haemopexin level in adult sheep was 64.5 +/- 18.26 (SD) mg/100ml serum, ranging from 30.5 to 116.5 mg/100ml.

  18. Structural Changes in Large Intestinal Aggregated Lymphoid Follicles in Wistar Rats During Postnatal Ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Tikhonov, E A

    2015-09-01

    Quantitative evaluation of aggregated lymphoid follicles in various compartments of the large intestine was carried out in Wistar rats of different age: newborn (3-4 days), prepubertal (20-30 days), adult (2-3 months), and old (16-18 months). No aggregated lymphoid tissue was detected in the large intestinal mucosa of newborn animals. The cecum of prepubertal, adult, and old animals contained solitary patches with 7-9 follicles. Higher percentage of aggregated lymphoid tissue, associated with colonic mucosa, was explained by enlargement of the lymphoid patch area and of the number of solitary lymphoid follicles during the postnatal ontogenesis. The mean area of a patch in the distal part of the colon in prepubertal, adult, and old animals was 3.2, 2.5, and 2.2 times larger than in the medial part of the intestine, the number of follicles per patch was 2.8, 2.8, and 2.5 times higher, respectively. The differences were significant only for the two younger groups.

  19. NR2B subunit-dependent long-term potentiation enhancement in the rat cortical auditory system in vivo following masking of patterned auditory input by white noise exposure during early postnatal life.

    PubMed

    Hogsden, Jennifer L; Dringenberg, Hans C

    2009-08-01

    The composition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits influences the degree of synaptic plasticity expressed during development and into adulthood. Here, we show that theta-burst stimulation of the medial geniculate nucleus reliably induced NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) of field postsynaptic potentials recorded in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of urethane-anesthetized rats. Furthermore, substantially greater levels of LTP were elicited in juvenile animals (30-37 days old; approximately 55% maximal potentiation) than in adult animals (approximately 30% potentiation). Masking patterned sound via continuous white noise exposure during early postnatal life (from postnatal day 5 to postnatal day 50-60) resulted in enhanced, juvenile-like levels of LTP (approximately 70% maximal potentiation) relative to age-matched controls reared in unaltered acoustic environments (approximately 30%). Rats reared in white noise and then placed in unaltered acoustic environments for 40-50 days showed levels of LTP comparable to those of adult controls, indicating that white noise rearing results in a form of developmental arrest that can be overcome by subsequent patterned sound exposure. We explored the mechanisms mediating white noise-induced plasticity enhancements by local NR2B subunit antagonist application in A1. NR2B subunit antagonists (Ro 25-6981 or ifenprodil) completely reversed white noise-induced LTP enhancement at concentrations that did not affect LTP in adult or age-matched controls. We conclude that white noise exposure during early postnatal life results in the maintenance of juvenile-like, higher levels of plasticity in A1, an effect that appears to be critically dependent on NR2B subunit activation.

  20. Spontaneous cluster activity in the inferior olivary nucleus in brainstem slices from postnatal mice.

    PubMed

    Rekling, Jens C; Jensen, Kristian H R; Jahnsen, Henrik

    2012-04-01

    A distinctive property of the cerebellar system is olivocerebellar modules, where synchronized electrical activity in neurons in the inferior olivary nucleus (IO) evokes organized activity in the cerebellar cortex. However, the exact function of these modules, and how they are developed, is still largely unknown. Here we show that the IO in in vitro slices from postnatal mice spontaneously generates clusters of neurons with synchronous Ca(2+) transients. Neurons in the principal olive (PO), and the vestibular-related dorsomedial cell column (dmcc), showed an age-dependent increase in spontaneous calcium transients. The spatiotemporal activity pattern was occasionally organized in clusters of co-active neighbouring neurons,with regular (16 min-1) and irregular (2-3 min(-1)) repeating cluster activity in the dmcc and PO, respectively. IO clusters had a diameter of 100-170 μm, lasted~1 s, and increased in occurrence from postnatal day P5.5 to P12.5, followed by a sharp drop to near zero at P15.5. IO clusters were overlapping, and comprised nearly identical neurons at some time points, and a varied subset of neurons at others. Some neurons had hub-like properties, being co-active with many other neighbours, and some were co-active with separate clusters at different times. The coherence between calcium transients in IO neurons decreased with Euclidean distance between the cells reaching low values at 100-200 μm distances. Intracellular recordings from IO neurons during cluster formation revealed the presence of spikelet-like potentials, suggesting that electrical coupling between neighbouring IO neurons may serve as a synchronizing mechanism. In conclusion, the IO shows spontaneous cluster activity under in vitro conditions, coinciding with a critical postnatal period in olivocerebellar development. We propose that these clusters may be forerunners of the ensembles of IO neurons shown to be co-active in adult animals spontaneously and during motor acts.

  1. Cyclic-AMP regulates postnatal development of neural and behavioral responses to NaCl in rats

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jie; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Phan, Tam-Hao T.; Heck, Gerard L.; DeSimone, John A.; West, David; Mahavadi, Sunila; Hojati, Deanna; Murthy, Karnam S.; Rhyu, Mee-Ra; Spielman, Andrew I.; Özdener, Mehmet Hakan

    2017-01-01

    During postnatal development rats demonstrate an age-dependent increase in NaCl chorda tympani (CT) responses and the number of functional apical amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na+ channels (ENaCs) in salt sensing fungiform (FF) taste receptor cells (TRCs). Currently, the intracellular signals that regulate the postnatal development of salt taste have not been identified. We investigated the effect of cAMP, a downstream signal for arginine vasopressin (AVP) action, on the postnatal development of NaCl responses in 19–23 day old rats. ENaC-dependent NaCl CT responses were monitored after lingual application of 8-chlorophenylthio-cAMP (8-CPT-cAMP) under open-circuit conditions and under ±60 mV lingual voltage clamp. Behavioral responses were tested using 2 bottle/24h NaCl preference tests. The effect of [deamino-Cys1, D-Arg8]-vasopressin (dDAVP, a specific V2R agonist) was investigated on ENaC subunit trafficking in rat FF TRCs and on cAMP generation in cultured adult human FF taste cells (HBO cells). Our results show that in 19–23 day old rats, the ENaC-dependent maximum NaCl CT response was a saturating sigmoidal function of 8-CPT-cAMP concentration. 8-CPT-cAMP increased the voltage-sensitivity of the NaCl CT response and the apical Na+ response conductance. Intravenous injections of dDAVP increased ENaC expression and γ-ENaC trafficking from cytosolic compartment to the apical compartment in rat FF TRCs. In HBO cells dDAVP increased intracellular cAMP and cAMP increased trafficking of γ- and δ-ENaC from cytosolic compartment to the apical compartment 10 min post-cAMP treatment. Control 19–23 day old rats were indifferent to NaCl, but showed clear preference for appetitive NaCl concentrations after 8-CPT-cAMP treatment. Relative to adult rats, 14 day old rats demonstrated significantly less V2R antibody binding in circumvallate TRCs. We conclude that an age-dependent increase in V2R expression produces an AVP-induced incremental increase in cAMP that

  2. Sonic hedgehog signaling in the postnatal brain.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Ihrie, Rebecca A

    2014-09-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is a pleiotropic factor in the developing central nervous system (CNS), driving proliferation, specification, and axonal targeting in multiple sites within the forebrain, hindbrain, and spinal cord. Studies in embryonic CNS have shown how gradients of this morphogen are translated by neuroepithelial precursors to determine the types of neurons and glial cells they produce [1,2]. Shh also has a well-characterized role as a mitogen for specific progenitor cell types in neural development [3,4]. As we begin to appreciate that Shh continues to act in the adult brain, a central question is what functional role this ligand plays when major morphogenetic and proliferative processes are no longer in operation. A second fundamental question is whether similar signaling mechanisms operate in embryonic and adult CNS. In the two major germinal zones of the adult brain, Shh signaling modulates the self-renewal and specification of astrocyte-like primary progenitors, frequently referred to as neural stem cells (NSCs). It also may regulate the response of the mature brain to injury, as Shh signaling has been variously proposed to enhance or inhibit the development of a reactive astrocyte phenotype. The identity of cells producing the Shh ligand, and the conditions that trigger its release, are also areas of growing interest; both germinal zones in the adult brain contain Shh-responsive cells but do not autonomously produce this ligand. Here, we review recent findings revealing the function of this fascinating pathway in the postnatal and adult brain, and highlight ongoing areas of investigation into its actions long past the time when it shapes the developing brain.

  3. Postnatal morphological and lectin histochemical observation of the submucosal glands of rat nasopharynx.

    PubMed

    Hakami, Zaki; Wakisaka, Satoshi

    2016-09-01

    The development of submucosal glands of rat nasopharynx was studied with respect to their morphological maturation and glycoprotein alterations during the postnatal period. This study examined the histological morphology with hematoxylin-eosin and the binding pattern of lectins, soybean agglutinin (SBA), Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I), peanut agglutinin (PNA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), and succinylated WGA (sucWGA) on frozen sections from newborn into adulthood. At birth, nasopharyngeal glands consisted of rudimentary secretory units which by postnatal day 3 (PN3) showed the characteristic features of salivary glands comprised of mixed mucous and serous cells. With maturation, serous cells increased in number and were arranged in clusters. Lectin reactivity at birth was detected at the acinar cell basal membranes for DBA, SBA, VVA, UEA-1 and PNA. At PN3, lectins labeled the apical cytoplasm and basolateral membranes of mucous cells and progressively with maturation, extended from the apical to basal portions of the cytoplasm with variable reactivity of VVA, PNA and sucWGA. Serous cells were labeled by UEA-1 starting from PN10 and also by PNA in adults. Ducts showed variable lectin reaction on the luminal membrane with strong reactivity of DBA and UEA-1 at PN21. Taken together, lectin histochemistry indicated the transitional occurrence of glycoproteins depending on the stage of maturation of the glands. Moreover, these results emphasize the difference in the morphology and lectin histochemistry between the nasopharyngeal and palatine glands.

  4. Post-natal development of the Reeler mouse cerebellum: An ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Claudia; Aimar, Patrizia; Alasia, Silvia; Lossi, Laura

    2014-07-01

    Reelin, an extracellular protein promoting neuronal migration in brain areas with a laminar architecture, is missing in the Reeler mouse (reelin(-/-)). Several studies indicate that the protein is also necessary for correct dendritic outgrowth and synapse formation in the adult forebrain. By transmission electron microscopy, we characterize the development and synaptic organization of the cerebellar cortex in Reeler mice and wild type control littermates at birth, postnatal day (P) 5, 7, 10 and 15. Ultrastructural analysis shows deep alterations in cortical architecture and mispositioning of the Purkinje neurons (Pns), which remain deeply embedded in a central cellular mass within the white matter, with highly immature features. Quantitative examination shows that Reeler mice display: (i) a lower density of granule cells and a higher density of Pns, from P10; (ii) a lower density of synaptic contacts between Pn dendrites and parallel or climbing fibers, from P5; (iii) a lower density of synaptic contacts between basket cells and Pns, from P5; and (iv) a lower density of mossy fiber rosettes, from P10. Our results demonstrate that Reelin profoundly affects the structure and synaptic connectivity of post-natal mouse cerebellum.

  5. Molecular and functional heterogeneity of early postnatal porcine satellite cell populations is associated with bioenergetic profile

    PubMed Central

    Miersch, Claudia; Stange, Katja; Hering, Silvio; Kolisek, Martin; Viergutz, Torsten; Röntgen, Monika

    2017-01-01

    During postnatal development, hyperplastic and hypertrophic processes of skeletal muscle growth depend on the activation, proliferation, differentiation, and fusion of satellite cells (SC). Therefore, molecular and functional SC heterogeneity is an important component of muscle plasticity and will greatly affect long-term growth performance and muscle health. However, its regulation by cell intrinsic and extrinsic factors is far from clear. In particular, there is only minor information on the early postnatal period which is critical for muscle maturation and the establishment of adult SC pools. Here, we separated two SC subpopulations (P40/50, P50/70) from muscle of 4-day-old piglets. Our results characterize P40/50 as homogeneous population of committed (high expression of Myf5), fast-proliferating muscle progenitors. P50/70 constituted a slow-proliferating phenotype and contains high numbers of differentiated SC progeny. During culture, P50/70 is transformed to a population with lower differentiation potential that contains 40% Pax7-positive cells. A reversible state of low mitochondrial activity that results from active down-regulation of ATP-synthase is associated with the transition of some of the P50/70 cells to this more primitive fate typical for a reserve cell population. We assume that P40/50 and P50/70 subpopulations contribute unequally in the processes of myofiber growth and maintenance of the SC pool. PMID:28344332

  6. Molecular and functional heterogeneity of early postnatal porcine satellite cell populations is associated with bioenergetic profile.

    PubMed

    Miersch, Claudia; Stange, Katja; Hering, Silvio; Kolisek, Martin; Viergutz, Torsten; Röntgen, Monika

    2017-03-27

    During postnatal development, hyperplastic and hypertrophic processes of skeletal muscle growth depend on the activation, proliferation, differentiation, and fusion of satellite cells (SC). Therefore, molecular and functional SC heterogeneity is an important component of muscle plasticity and will greatly affect long-term growth performance and muscle health. However, its regulation by cell intrinsic and extrinsic factors is far from clear. In particular, there is only minor information on the early postnatal period which is critical for muscle maturation and the establishment of adult SC pools. Here, we separated two SC subpopulations (P40/50, P50/70) from muscle of 4-day-old piglets. Our results characterize P40/50 as homogeneous population of committed (high expression of Myf5), fast-proliferating muscle progenitors. P50/70 constituted a slow-proliferating phenotype and contains high numbers of differentiated SC progeny. During culture, P50/70 is transformed to a population with lower differentiation potential that contains 40% Pax7-positive cells. A reversible state of low mitochondrial activity that results from active down-regulation of ATP-synthase is associated with the transition of some of the P50/70 cells to this more primitive fate typical for a reserve cell population. We assume that P40/50 and P50/70 subpopulations contribute unequally in the processes of myofiber growth and maintenance of the SC pool.

  7. Developmental programming of long non-coding RNAs during postnatal liver maturation in mice.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lai; Paulson, Ariel; Li, Hua; Piekos, Stephanie; He, Xi; Li, Linheng; Zhong, Xiao-Bo

    2014-01-01

    The liver is a vital organ with critical functions in metabolism, protein synthesis, and immune defense. Most of the liver functions are not mature at birth and many changes happen during postnatal liver development. However, it is unclear what changes occur in liver after birth, at what developmental stages they occur, and how the developmental processes are regulated. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in organ development and cell differentiation. Here, we analyzed the transcriptome of lncRNAs in mouse liver from perinatal (day -2) to adult (day 60) by RNA-Sequencing, with an attempt to understand the role of lncRNAs in liver maturation. We found around 15,000 genes expressed, including about 2,000 lncRNAs. Most lncRNAs were expressed at a lower level than coding RNAs. Both coding RNAs and lncRNAs displayed three major ontogenic patterns: enriched at neonatal, adolescent, or adult stages. Neighboring coding and non-coding RNAs showed the trend to exhibit highly correlated ontogenic expression patterns. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that some lncRNAs enriched at neonatal ages have their neighbor protein coding genes also enriched at neonatal ages and associated with cell proliferation, immune activation related processes, tissue organization pathways, and hematopoiesis; other lncRNAs enriched at adolescent ages have their neighbor protein coding genes associated with different metabolic processes. These data reveal significant functional transition during postnatal liver development and imply the potential importance of lncRNAs in liver maturation.

  8. CD90 and CD105 expression in the mouse ovary and testis at different stages of postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Tepekoy, Filiz; Ozturk, Saffet; Sozen, Berna; Ozay, Recep S; Akkoyunlu, Gokhan; Demir, Necdet

    2015-12-01

    CD90 (i.e., THY1) and CD105 (i.e., endoglin) are glycoproteins known as mesenchymal stem cell markers that are expressed in various cell types including male and female gonadal cells. We aimed to determine ovarian and testicular expression of CD90 and CD105 in various cell types during postnatal development in mice. The present study was carried out on male (C57BL/6) and female (Balb/C) mice during critical stages of gonadal development. Immunohistochemical localization of CD90 and CD105 was determined in the ovaries obtained at postnatal days (PND) -1, -7, -21 and -60 and in the testes obtained at PND6, -8, -16, -20, -29, -32 and -88. The relative expression of CD90 and CD105 was evaluated by ImageJ software and data were analyzed by analysis of variance. The relative expression of CD90 and CD105 varied during postnatal development and increased significantly in the adult ovary (PND60) and testis (PND88) compared to the early postnatal gonads. In the ovaries, the expression of CD90 was significantly higher in somatic cells in comparison to germ cell compartments. In the testis, CD90 expression was greater in germ cells and Sertoli cells compared to other cell types. Expression of CD105 was higher in germ cells than somatic cells of both the ovary and testis. In addition to different expression of CD90 and CD105 during various developmental stages, also their altered expression in particular cell types suggests specific roles of these glycoproteins in physiological processes of mouse gonads.

  9. Synergistic effects of prenatal hypoxia and postnatal high-fat diet in the development of cardiovascular pathology in young rats.

    PubMed

    Rueda-Clausen, Christian F; Morton, Jude S; Dolinsky, Vernon W; Dyck, Jason R B; Davidge, Sandra T

    2012-08-15

    We have previously shown that adult offspring exposed to a prenatal hypoxic insult leading to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are more susceptible to cardiovascular pathologies. Our objectives were to evaluate the interaction between hypoxia-induced IUGR and postnatal diet in the early development of cardiovascular pathologies. Furthermore, we sought to determine whether the postnatal administration of resveratrol could prevent the development of cardiovascular disorders associated with hypoxia-induced IUGR. On day 15 of pregnancy, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to hypoxia (11.5% oxygen), to induce IUGR, or normal oxygen (control) groups. For study A, male offspring (3 wk of age) were randomly assigned a low-fat (LF, <10% fat) or a high-fat (HF, 45% fat) diet. For study B, offspring were randomized to either HF or HF+resveratrol diets. After 9 wk, cardiac and vascular functions were evaluated. Prenatal hypoxia and HF diet were associated with an increased myocardial susceptibility to ischemia. Blood pressure, in vivo cardiac function, and ex vivo vascular function were not different among experimental groups; however, hypoxia-induced IUGR offspring had lower resting heart rates. Our results suggest that prenatal insults can enhance the susceptibility to a second hit such as myocardial ischemia, and that this phenomenon is exacerbated, in the early stages of life by nutritional stressors such as a HF diet. Supplementing HF diets with resveratrol improved cardiac tolerance to ischemia in offspring born IUGR but not in controls. Thus we conclude that the additive effect of prenatal (hypoxia-induced IUGR) and postnatal (HF diet) factors can lead to the earlier development of cardiovascular pathology in rats, and postnatal resveratrol supplementation prevented the deleterious cardiovascular effects of HF diet in offspring exposed to prenatal hypoxia.

  10. Deregulated Cardiac Specific MicroRNAs in Postnatal Heart Growth

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Pujiao; Wang, Hongbao; Xie, Yuan; Zhou, Jinzhe

    2016-01-01

    The heart is recognized as an organ that is terminally differentiated by adulthood. However, during the process of human development, the heart is the first organ with function in the embryo and grows rapidly during the postnatal period. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs), as regulators of gene expression, play important roles during the development of multiple systems. However, the role of miRNAs in postnatal heart growth is still unclear. In this study, by using qRT-PCR, we compared the expression of seven cardiac- or muscle-specific miRNAs that may be related to heart development in heart tissue from mice at postnatal days 0, 3, 8, and 14. Four miRNAs—miR-1a-3p, miR-133b-3p, miR-208b-3p, and miR-206-3p—were significantly decreased while miR-208a-3p was upregulated during the postnatal heart growth period. Based on these results, GeneSpring GX was used to predict potential downstream targets by performing a 3-way comparison of predictions from the miRWalk, PITA, and microRNAorg databases. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis were used to identify potential functional annotations and signaling pathways related to postnatal heart growth. This study describes expression changes of cardiac- and muscle-specific miRNAs during postnatal heart growth and may provide new therapeutic targets for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:28105427

  11. Deregulated Cardiac Specific MicroRNAs in Postnatal Heart Growth.

    PubMed

    Yu, Pujiao; Wang, Hongbao; Xie, Yuan; Zhou, Jinzhe; Yao, Jianhua; Che, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The heart is recognized as an organ that is terminally differentiated by adulthood. However, during the process of human development, the heart is the first organ with function in the embryo and grows rapidly during the postnatal period. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs), as regulators of gene expression, play important roles during the development of multiple systems. However, the role of miRNAs in postnatal heart growth is still unclear. In this study, by using qRT-PCR, we compared the expression of seven cardiac- or muscle-specific miRNAs that may be related to heart development in heart tissue from mice at postnatal days 0, 3, 8, and 14. Four miRNAs-miR-1a-3p, miR-133b-3p, miR-208b-3p, and miR-206-3p-were significantly decreased while miR-208a-3p was upregulated during the postnatal heart growth period. Based on these results, GeneSpring GX was used to predict potential downstream targets by performing a 3-way comparison of predictions from the miRWalk, PITA, and microRNAorg databases. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis were used to identify potential functional annotations and signaling pathways related to postnatal heart growth. This study describes expression changes of cardiac- and muscle-specific miRNAs during postnatal heart growth and may provide new therapeutic targets for cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Outdoor PM2.5, Ambient Air Temperature, and Asthma Symptoms in the Past 14 Days among Adults with Active Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Mirabelli, Maria C.; Vaidyanathan, Ambarish; Flanders, W. Dana; Qin, Xiaoting; Garbe, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Relationships between air quality and health are well-described, but little information is available about the joint associations between particulate air pollution, ambient temperature, and respiratory morbidity. Objectives: We evaluated associations between concentrations of particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) and exacerbation of existing asthma and modification of the associations by ambient air temperature. Methods: Data from 50,356 adult respondents to the Asthma Call-back Survey from 2006–2010 were linked by interview date and county of residence to estimates of daily averages of PM2.5 and maximum air temperature. Associations between 14-day average PM2.5 and the presence of any asthma symptoms during the 14 days leading up to and including the interview date were evaluated using binomial regression. We explored variation by air temperature using similar models, stratified into quintiles of the 14-day average maximum temperature. Results: Among adults with active asthma, 57.1% reported asthma symptoms within the past 14 days, and 14-day average PM2.5 ≥ 7.07 μg/m3 was associated with an estimated 4–5% higher asthma symptom prevalence. In the range of 4.00–7.06 μg/m3 of PM2.5, each 1-μg/m3 increase was associated with a 3.4% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 5.7] increase in symptom prevalence; across categories of temperature from 1.1 to 80.5°F, each 1-μg/m3 increase was associated with increased symptom prevalence (1.1–44.4°F: 7.9%; 44.5–58.6°F: 6.9%; 58.7–70.1°F: 2.9%; 70.2–80.5°F: 7.3%). Conclusions: These results suggest that each unit increase in PM2.5 may be associated with an increase in the prevalence of asthma symptoms, even at levels as low as 4.00–7.06 μg/m3. Citation: Mirabelli MC, Vaidyanathan A, Flanders WD, Qin X, Garbe P. 2016. Outdoor PM2.5, ambient air temperature, and asthma symptoms in the past 14 days among adults with active asthma. Environ Health Perspect 124:1882–1890;

  13. A Single Session of Low-Intensity Exercise Is Sufficient to Enhance Insulin Sensitivity Into the Next Day in Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Newsom, Sean A.; Everett, Allison C.; Hinko, Alexander; Horowitz, Jeffrey F.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a relatively modest session of exercise on insulin sensitivity and fatty acid uptake the next day in obese adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eleven sedentary obese adults (male/female: 3/8; BMI 37 ± 1 kg/m2; peak oxygen uptake [VO2peak] 20 ± 1 mL/kg/min) completed three experimental trials. On two of these occasions, subjects exercised to expend 350 kcal in the afternoon. These two exercise trials were identical except for the exercise intensity (50% VO2peak [EX50] and 65% VO2peak [EX65]) and the duration of exercise necessary to expend 350 kcal (EX50 = ∼70 min; EX65 = ∼55 min). Subjects also completed a control trial (CON), without exercise. The next morning, we measured insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp) and whole-body fatty acid uptake (palmitate rate of disappearance from plasma [Rd]). RESULTS Exercise increased insulin sensitivity the next day, but whereas the 35% improvement after EX50 compared with CON was statistically significant (P = 0.01), the 20% improvement after EX65 was not (P = 0.17). Despite nearly identical values between CON and EX65 (P = 0.88), systemic fatty acid uptake was lower after EX50 compared with EX65 (P = 0.02), but not quite significant compared with CON (P = 0.07). Importantly, the change in fatty acid uptake after exercise compared with CON was negatively correlated with the change in insulin sensitivity for all trials (r = −0.60, P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS A relatively modest single session of exercise in obese adults improved insulin sensitivity the next day, and a reduction in systemic fatty acid uptake in the several hours after exercise may be important for this effect. PMID:23757424

  14. Glycine receptor heterogeneity in rat spinal cord during postnatal development.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, C M; Hoch, W; Betz, H

    1988-01-01

    Two different isoforms of the inhibitory glycine receptor were identified during postnatal development of rat spinal cord. A neonatal form characterized by low strychnine binding affinity, altered antigenicity, and a ligand binding subunit differing in mol. wt (49 kd) from that of the adult receptor (48 kd) predominates at birth (70% of the total receptor protein). Separation from the adult form could be achieved by either use of a selective antibody or glycine gradient elution of 2-aminostrychnine affinity columns. Both isoforms co-purify with the mol. wt 93 kd peripheral membrane protein of the postsynaptic glycine receptor complex. Images PMID:2850172

  15. Maternal in utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects the blood pressure of adult male offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez–Arguelles, D.B.; McIntosh, M.; Rohlicek, C.V.; Culty, M.; Zirkin, B.R.; Papadopoulos, V.

    2013-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used industrially to add flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers and is ubiquitously found in the environment, with evidence of prenatal, perinatal and early infant exposure in humans. In utero exposure to DEHP decreases circulating testosterone levels in the adult rat. In addition, DEHP reduces the expression of the angiotensin II receptors in the adrenal gland, resulting in decreased circulating aldosterone levels. The latter may have important effects on water and electrolyte balance as well as systemic arterial blood pressure. Therefore, we determined the effects of in utero exposure to DEHP on systemic arterial blood pressure in the young (2 month-old) and older (6.5 month-old) adult rats. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were exposed from gestational day 14 until birth to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day. Blood pressure, heart rate, and activity data were collected using an intra-aortal transmitter in the male offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60 and PND200. A low (0.01%) and high-salt (8%) diet was used to challenge the animals at PND200. In utero exposure to DEHP resulted in reduced activity at PND60. At PND200, systolic and diastolic systemic arterial pressures as well as activity were reduced in response to DEHP exposure. This is the first evidence showing that in utero exposure to DEHP has cardiovascular and behavioral effects in the adult male offspring. Highlights: ► In utero exposure to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day decreases activity at postnatal day 60. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases aldosterone levels at postnatal day 200. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases systolic blood pressure at postnatal day 200. ► An 8% salt diet recovers the decreased blood pressure at postnatal day 200.

  16. Intoxication with Bourbon versus Vodka: Effects on Hangover, Sleep and Next-Day Neurocognitive Performance in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Howland, Jonathan; Arnedt, J. Todd; Almeida, Alissa B.; Greece, Jacey; Minsky, Sara; Kempler, Carrie S.; Sales, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Background This study assessed the effects of heavy drinking with high or low congener beverages on next-day neurocognitive performance, and the extent to which these effects were mediated by alcohol-related sleep disturbance or alcoholic beverage congeners, and correlated with the intensity of hangover. Methods Healthy heavy drinkers age 21–33 (n = 95) participated in two drinking nights after an acclimatization night. They drank to a mean of 0.11 g% BrAC on vodka or bourbon one night with matched placebo the other night, randomized for type and order. Polysomnography recordings were made overnight; self-report and neurocognitive measures were assessed the next morning. Results After alcohol, people had more hangover and more decrements in tests requiring both sustained attention and speed. Hangover correlated with poorer performance on these measures. Alcohol decreased sleep efficiency and REM sleep, and increased wake time and next-day sleepiness. Alcohol effects on sleep correlated with hangover but did not mediate the effects on performance. No effect of beverage congeners was found except on hangover severity, with people feeling worse after bourbon. Virtually no sex differences appeared. Conclusions Since drinking to this level affects complex cognitive abilities, safety could be affected, with implications for driving and for safety sensitive occupations. Congener content affects only how people feel the next day so does not increase risk. The sleep disrupting effects of alcohol did not account for the impaired performance so other mechanisms of effect need to be sought. Since hangover symptoms correlate with impaired performance, these might be contributing to the impairment. PMID:20028364

  17. Interactions of time of day and sleep with between-session habituation and extinction memory in young adult males.

    PubMed

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Tracy, Lauren E; Rubin, Zoe; Mollica, Adrian G; Ellenbogen, Jeffrey M; Bianchi, Matt T; Milad, Mohammed R; Pitman, Roger K; Orr, Scott P

    2014-05-01

    Within-session habituation and extinction learning co-occur as do subsequent consolidation of habituation (i.e., between-session habituation) and extinction memory. We sought to determine whether, as we predicted: (1) between-session habituation is greater across a night of sleep versus a day awake; (2) time-of-day accounts for differences; (3) between-session habituation predicts consolidation of extinction memory; (4) sleep predicts between-session habituation and/or extinction memory. Participants (N = 28) completed 4-5 sessions alternating between mornings and evenings over 3 successive days (2 nights) with session 1 in either the morning (N = 13) or evening (N = 15). Twelve participants underwent laboratory polysomnography. During 4 sessions, participants completed a loud-tone habituation protocol, while skin conductance response (SCR), blink startle electromyography (EMG), heart-rate acceleration and heart-rate deceleration (HRD) were recorded. For sessions 1 and 2, between-session habituation of EMG, SCR and HRD was greater across sleep. SCR and HRD were generally lower in the morning. Between-session habituation of SCR for sessions 1 and 2 was positively related to intervening (first night) slow wave sleep. In the evening before night 2, participants also underwent fear conditioning and extinction learning phases of a second protocol. Extinction recall was tested the following morning. Extinction recall was predicted only by between-session habituation of SCR across the same night (second night) and by intervening REM. We conclude that: (1) sleep augments between-session habituation, as does morning testing; (2) extinction recall is predicted by concurrent between-session habituation; and (3) both phenomena may be influenced by sleep.

  18. Periodization of the early postnatal development in the rat with particular attention to the weaning period.

    PubMed

    Ošt'ádalová, I; Babický, A

    2012-01-01

    The early postnatal period is characterized by a great plasticity with critical windows in which any inadequate insult or intervention may be able to influence both positively and adversely postnatal growth and development. After birth the rat littermates enter the presuckling period (initial 6 hours terminated by the first nursing), characterized by transition from the amniotic fluid to the air, by the changes of the ambient temperature, by the termination of placental nutrition and by oxidative stress. After this stage the suckling period initiates and the littermates start to consume milk of their mothers. Comsumption of milk culminates on day 15, then decreases and terminates on postnatal day 28. The end of the suckling period and the onset of physiological weaning is determined by the moment when the youngs for the first time consume the solid food together with milk (postnatal day 17 in rats). On day 19 the first intake of drinking water occurs. The weaning period terminates by the last consumption of maternal milk - on postnatal day 28. It is necessary to stress that the duration of early postnatal periods is independent of the changes of body weight. The precise knowledge of individual ontogenetic periods critical for further development is crucial for the prediction and explanation of reactions to various pathogenetic stimuli both under experimental conditions and in clinical medicine.

  19. Vancomycin MIC Does Not Predict 90-Day Mortality, Readmission, or Recurrence in a Prospective Cohort of Adults with Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Clemenzi-Allen, Angelo; Gahbauer, Alice; Deck, Daniel; Imp, Brandon; Vittinghoff, Eric; Chambers, Henry F.; Doernberg, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is a tremendous health burden. Previous studies examining the association of vancomycin MIC and outcomes in patients with SAB have been inconclusive. This study evaluated the association between vancomycin MICs and 30- or 90-day mortality in individuals with SAB. This was a prospective cohort study of adults presenting from 2008 to 2013 with a first episode of SAB. Subjects were identified by an infection surveillance system. The main predictor was vancomycin MIC by MicroScan. The primary outcomes were death at 30 and 90 days, and secondary outcomes included recurrence, readmission, or a composite of death, recurrence, and readmission at 30 and 90 days. Covariates included methicillin susceptibility, demographics, illness severity, comorbidities, infectious source, and antibiotic use. Cox proportional-hazards models with propensity score adjustment were used to estimate 30- and 90-day outcomes. Of 429 unique first episodes of SAB, 11 were excluded, leaving 418 individuals for analysis. Eighty-three (19.9%) participants had a vancomycin MIC of 2 μg/ml. In the propensity-adjusted Cox model, a vancomycin MIC of 2 μg/ml compared to <2 μg/ml was not associated with a greater hazard of mortality or composite outcome of mortality, readmission, and recurrence at either 30 days (hazard ratios [HRs] of 0.86 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.41, 1.80] [P = 0.70] and 0.94 [95% CI, 0.55, 1.58] [P = 0.80], respectively) or 90 days (HRs of 0.91 [95% CI, 0.49, 1.69] [P = 0.77] and 0.69 [95% CI, 0.46, 1.04] [P = 0.08], respectively) after SAB diagnosis. In a prospective cohort of patients with SAB, vancomycin MIC was not associated with 30- or 90-day mortality or a composite of mortality, disease recurrence, or hospital readmission. PMID:27324762

  20. Effects of in utero or suckling exposure to cerium (citrate) on the postnatal developmental of the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    D'Agostino, R.B.; Lown, B.A.; Morganti, J.B.; Massaro, E.J.

    1982-09-01

    Gravid female mice received either a single subcutaneous dose of cerium citrate (80 mg Ce/kg) or an equivalent (in citrate) dose of sodium citrate on day 7 or 12 of gestation or on day 2 postpartum. To separate effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure, a cross-fostering design was employed. The weight and gross activity of the neonates were assessed on day 8 or 13 postpartum. Open-field behavioral parameters, accelerating rotarod performance, and passive avoidance learning were assessed on day 60-65 postpartum. Maternal offspring retrival latency was measured on day 3 postpartum. Maternal offspring retrieval latency was measured on day 3 postpartum. Analyses revealed that neonatal weight was reduced both in offspring exposed to Ce in utero and in the offspring of mothers receiving Ce during lactation/suckling. Ce also appeared to affect maternal/offspring interaction: pups exposed prenatally to Ce were retrieved in less time than control pups. Except for an increased frequency of rearings in the open field of adult offspring exposed to Ce in utero, Ce exposure had no apparent effect on behavioral parameters, either in neonatal or adult offspring.

  1. Postnatal development in Andersen's leaf-nosed bat Hipposideros pomona: flight, wing shape, and wing bone lengths.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ai-Qing; Jin, Long-Ru; Shi, Li-Min; Sun, Ke-Ping; Berquist, Sean W; Liu, Ying; Feng, Jiang

    2011-04-01

    Postnatal changes in flight development, wing shape and wing bone lengths of 56 marked neonate Hipposideros pomona were investigated under natural conditions in southwest China. Flight experiments showed that pups began to flutter with a short horizontal displacement at 10 days and first took flight at 19 days, with most achieving sustained flight at 1 month old. Analysis of covariance on wingspan, wing area, and the other seven wing characteristics between 'pre-flight' and 'post-volancy' periods supports the hypothesis that growth had one 'pre-flight' trajectory and a different 'post-volancy' trajectory in bats. Wingspan, handwing length and area, armwing length and area, and total wing area increased linearly until the age of first flight, after which the growth rates decreased (all P < 0.001). Wing loading declined linearly until day 19 before ultimately decreasing to adult levels (P < 0.001). Additionally, the relationship of different pairwise combinations of bony components composing span-wise length and chord-wise length was evaluated to test the hypothesis that compensatory growth of wing bones in H. pomona occurred in both 'pre-flight' and 'post-volancy' periods. The frequency of short-long and long-short pairs was significantly greater than that of short-short, long-long pairs in most pairs of bone elements in adults. The results indicate that a bone 'shorter than expected' would be compensated by a bone or bones 'longer than expected', suggesting compensatory growth in H. pomona. The pairwise comparisons conducted in adults were also performed in young bats during 'pre-flight' and 'post-volancy' periods, demonstrating that compensatory growth occurred throughout postnatal ontogeny.

  2. Enriched environment has limited capacity for the correction of hippocampal memory-dependent schizoid behaviors in rats with early postnatal NMDAR dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Melik, Enver; Babar, Emine; Kocahan, Sayad; Guven, Mustafa; Akillioglu, Kubra

    2014-04-01

    Pre- and early postnatal stress can cause dysfunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and thereby promote the development of hippocampus memory-dependent schizoid abnormalities of navigation in space, time, and knowledge. An enriched environment improves mental abilities in humans and animals. Whether an enriched environment can prevent the development of schizoid symptoms induced by neonatal NMDAR dysfunction was the central question of our paper. The experimental animals were Wistar rats. Early postnatal NMDAR dysfunction was created by systemic treatment of rat pups with the NMDAR antagonist MK-801 at PD10-20 days. During the development period (PD21-90 days), the rats were reared in cognitively and physically enriched cages. Adult age rats were tested on navigation based on pattern separation and episodic memory in the open field and on auto-hetero-associations based on episodic and semantic memory in a step-through passive avoidance task. The results showed that postnatal NMDAR antagonism caused abnormal behaviors in both tests. An enriched environment prevented deficits in the development of navigation in space based on pattern separation and hetero-associations based on semantic memory. However, an enriched environment was unable to rescue navigation in space and auto-associations based on episodic memory. These data may contribute to the understanding that an enriched environment has a limited capacity for therapeutic interventions in protecting the development of schizoid syndromes in children and adolescents.

  3. Evaluating the effects of diffused lavender in an adult day care center for patients with dementia in an effort to decrease behavioral issues: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Moorman Li, Robin; Gilbert, Brian; Orman, Anna; Aldridge, Petra; Leger-Krall, Sue; Anderson, Clare; Hincapie Castillo, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To evaluate the effects of diffused lavender on the frequency of behavioral issues [BIs], defined as a composite of restlessness/wandering [RW], agitation [AGT], anger [ANG], and anxiety [ANX] in an adult day care center. Secondary objectives evaluate systematic differences on the frequency of BIs between age cohorts, gender, and individual behaviors. Design: Pre-post quasi-experimental study. Setting: Private nonprofit adult day care center for patients with dementia. Participants: Elderly patients older than 65 years of age with a clinical diagnosis of dementia, who require daytime monitoring. Intervention: Lavender aromatherapy twice a day for 20 min during a two-month period during active clinic days. Measurements: Behavioral issues were recorded using the behavior/intervention monthly flow record during the pre- and post-intervention periods. Results: There was no significant difference on frequency of BIs between pre-intervention and post-intervention periods (p = .06). There was a significant difference between pre-intervention and post-intervention total number of AGT occurrences (129 vs. 25; p value < .01). There was no significant difference between age cohorts for computed difference of RW, ANG, and ANX issues. There was a significant difference between age cohorts for computed difference of AGT (p value = .04) as the 70–85 age cohort showed less agitation compared to the 85–100 age cohort. Conclusion: The use of diffused lavender twice daily has shown to reduce the frequency of agitation in elderly patients with dementia, especially in the 70–85 age cohort. Though diffused lavender did not show statistical differences in the frequency of other behaviors (restlessness/wander, anger, anxiety), the study population may have been too small to find a difference. PMID:28265482

  4. A prospective study of prenatal and postnatal development of thymus of Deshi chicken.

    PubMed

    Khalil, M; Khan, Z I; Khalil, M; Islam, R

    2003-01-01

    Thymus was one of the primary lymphoid organs along with the bursa in birds. The growth of the thymus of deshi chicken (Gallus Domesticus) from prenatal embryonic day fifteen (ED15) to postnatal day ninety (D90) were studied. In macroscopic study, it was found as a paired, lobulated gland, one half of which was located on either side of the neck. Each half consists of six to eight, flattened, ovoid to elongated, pale white to yellowish white lobes of varing size and shape of lymphoid tissue lying in the sub-dermal connective tissue of the neck. Histologically, the thymus of deshi chicken at embryonic day fifteen was covered by a very thin connective tissue capsule from which septa arises and divides the gland into lobes and lobules. The lobules were homogenous, small in size and the cortex and medulla were demarcated. Lobules have developing Hassall's corpuscles and they were of uniform shape and size. The lobules become well developed with advancing age. The cortex gradually becomes thicker and was packed with large lymphocytes. Hassall's corpuscles became larger and there number increases at postnatal period (D90) in the medulla of the thymus. The growth and development of thymus at each stage of the study period were found to be significantly high. The present finding of thymus of deshi chicken was found similar to the adult hybrid chicken. The study also indicates that the chicken thymic cell population, structure & functions was similar to the human thymus histologically. It was also found that the chicken embryo allows easy experimental access to all the stages of the thymic development so the present study will be helpful for experimentation on lymphoid organs and to understand pathophysiology of immunological diseases of human.

  5. Foveal cone density shows a rapid postnatal maturation in the marmoset monkey

    PubMed Central

    SPRINGER, ALAN D.; TROILO, DAVID; POSSIN, DANIEL; HENDRICKSON, ANITA E.

    2015-01-01

    The spatial and temporal pattern of cone packing during marmoset foveal development was explored to understand the variables involved in creating a high acuity area. Retinal ages were between fetal day (Fd) 125 and 6 years. Cone density was determined in wholemounts using a new hexagonal quantification method. Wholemounts were labeled immunocytochemically with rod markers to identify reliably the foveal center. Cones were counted in small windows and density was expressed as cones × 103/mm2 (K). Two weeks before birth (Fd 125–130), cone density had a flat distribution of 20–30 K across the central retina encompassing the fovea. Density began to rise at postnatal day 1 (Pd 1) around, but not in, the foveal center and reached a parafoveal peak of 45–55 K by Pd 10. Between Pd 10 and 33, there was an inversion such that cone density at the foveal center rose rapidly, reaching 283 K by 3 months and 600 K by 5.4 months. Peak foveal density then diminished to 440 K at 6 months and older. Counts done in sections showed the same pattern of low foveal density up to Pd 1, a rapid rise from Pd 30 to 90, followed by a small decrease into adulthood. Increasing foveal cone density was accompanied by 1) a reduction in the amount of Müller cell cytoplasm surrounding each cone, 2) increased stacking of foveal cone nuclei into a mound 6–10 deep, and 3) a progressive narrowing of the rod-free zone surrounding the fovea. Retaining foveal cones in a monolayer precludes final foveal cone densities above 60 K. However, high foveal adult cone density (300 K) can be achieved by having cone nuclei stack into columns and without reducing their nuclear diameter. Marmosets reach adult peak cone density by 3–6 months postnatal, while macaques and humans take much longer. Early weaning and an arboreal environment may require rapid postnatal maturation of the marmoset fovea. PMID:22192504

  6. Neurologic function during developmental and adult stages in Dab1(scm) (scrambler) mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Jacquelin, C; Strazielle, C; Lalonde, R

    2012-01-01

    Homozygous Dab1(scm) mouse mutants with cell ectopias in cerebellar cortex, hippocampus, and neocortex were compared to non-ataxic controls on the SHIRPA primary screening battery on postnatal days 8, 15, and 22, as well as in the adult period. Dab1(scm) mutants were distinguished from non-ataxic controls as early as postnatal day 8 based on body tremor, gait anomalies, and body weight. On postnatal day 15, motor coordination deficits were evident on horizontal bar and inclined or vertical grid tests in association with a weaker grip strength. Likewise, mutants were distinguished from controls on drop righting and hindpaw clasping tests. Further differences were detected on postnatal day 22 in the form of fewer visual placing, touch escape, trunk curl, freezing, and vocalization responses, as well as squares traversed in the open-field. Evaluation at the adult age demonstrated similar impairments, indicative of permanent motor alterations. Neuronal metabolic activity was estimated by cytochrome oxidase histochemistry on cerebellar sections. Cerebellar cortical layers and efferent deep nuclei of Dab1(scm) mice appeared hypometabolic relative to non-ataxic mice despite normal metabolism in both regular and ectopic Purkinje cells.

  7. Evaluation of in vivo genotoxicity by thioacetamide in a 28-day repeated-dose liver micronucleus assay using male young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Sui, Hajime; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi

    2015-03-01

    The repeated-dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay has the potential to detect liver carcinogens and can be integrated into general toxicological studies. In this study, thioacetamide (TAA) was tested in 14- and 28-day RDLMN assays to assess the performance of the assay. The test substance, TAA, was administered orally to 6-week-old male Crl:CD (SD) rats once daily for 14 or 28 days at a dosage of 5, 10 or 20mg/kg/day. Hepatocytes were collected approximately 24h after the last TAA administration, and the incidence of micronuclei was assessed. In this study, bone marrow micronucleus assays were also conducted in the same animals. The 14- and 28-day RDLMN assays indicated that none of the TAA dosages significantly increased the proportion of micronucleated hepatocytes. Bone marrow micronucleus assays with TAA also provided negative results. It is known that TAA is a liver carcinogen in mice and rats. In the previous genotoxic studies, the Ames test and the chromosomal aberration test using CHL/IU cells have yielded negative results [1-4]. The liver micronucleus assay using young adult rats singly dosed with TAA (75 and 150mg/kg) also produced negative results [5]. TAA gave positive results only in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assays [6,7].

  8. Adult-Derived Human Liver Stem/Progenitor Cells Infused 3 Days Postsurgery Improve Liver Regeneration in a Mouse Model of Extended Hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Astrid; Prigent, Julie; Lombard, Catherine; Rosseels, Valérie; Daujat-Chavanieu, Martine; Breckpot, Karine; Najimi, Mustapha; Deblandre, Gisèle; Sokal, Etienne M

    2017-02-16

    There is growing evidence that cell therapy constitutes a promising strategy for liver regenerative medicine. In the setting of hepatic cancer treatments, cell therapy could prove a useful therapeutic approach for managing the acute liver failure that occurs following extended hepatectomy. In this study, we examined the influence of delivering adult-derived human liver stem/progenitor cells (ADHLSCs) at two different early time points in an immunodeficient mouse model (Rag2-/-IL2Rγ-/-) that had undergone a 70% hepatectomy procedure. The hepatic mesenchymal cells were intrasplenically infused either immediately after surgery (n = 26) or following a critical 3-day period (n = 26). We evaluated the cells' capacity to engraft at day 1 and day 7 following transplantation by means of human Alu qPCR quantification, along with histological assessment of human albumin and α-smooth muscle actin. In addition, cell proliferation (anti-mouse and human Ki-67 staining) and murine liver weight were measured in order to evaluate liver regeneration. At day 1 posttransplantation, the ratio of human to mouse cells was similar in both groups, whereas 1 week posttransplantation this ratio was significantly improved (p < 0.016) in mice receiving ADHLSC injection at day 3 posthepatectomy (1.7%), compared to those injected at the time of surgery (1%). On the basis of liver weight, mouse liver regeneration was more extensive 1 week posttransplantation in mice transplanted with ADHLSCs (+65.3%) compared to that of mice from the sham vehicle group (+42.7%). In conclusion, infusing ADHLSCs 3 days after extensive hepatectomy improves the cell engraftment and murine hepatic tissue regeneration, thereby confirming that ADHLSCs could be a promising cell source for liver cell therapy and hepatic tissue repair.

  9. Cross-fostering effect on postnatal development of rat pups exposed to methamphetamine during gestation and preweaning periods.

    PubMed

    Pometlová, Marie; Hrubá, Lenka; Slamberová, Romana; Rokyta, Richard

    2009-04-01

    There are studies showing that drug abuse during pregnancy may have a long-term effect on progeny of drug-abusing mothers. Our previous work demonstrated that prenatal and/or postnatal methamphetamine injections impair maternal behavior. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of prenatal methamphetamine or stress exposure and postnatal breeding on postnatal development of rat pups. Female rats were injected with methamphetamine (5 mg/kg daily) or physiological saline prior, during and after gestation. Absolute controls did not receive any injections. On postnatal day 1, pups were cross-fostered so that each mother received some of her own and some of the pups from the mothers with the other two treatments. Pups were weighted daily for the entire lactation period. Postural motor reaction development was examined daily by righting reflex between postnatal day 1 and 12. On postnatal day 15 homing test examining pups' nest-seeking behavior was performed. On postnatal day 23 rotarod and bar-holding tests were used to investigate sensorimotor coordination of pups. We demonstrated that prenatal methamphetamine exposure impairs performance of sensorimotor tests (righting reflex on surface and rotarod test). Moreover, the effect of methamphetamine as well as the effect of prenatal stress induced by saline injections was affected by postnatal breeding conditions in sensorimotor tests as well as in the test of homing. Our results support the hypothesis that the variation in rat maternal care could serve as a mechanism for a nongenomic behavioral mode of transmission of traits.

  10. The reliability of the quantitative timed up and go test (QTUG) measured over five consecutive days under single and dual-task conditions in community dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Smith, Erin; Walsh, Lorcan; Doyle, Julie; Greene, Barry; Blake, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The timed up and go (TUG) test is a commonly used assessment in older people with variations including the addition of a motor or cognitive dual-task, however in high functioning older adults it is more difficult to assess change. The quantified TUG (QTUG) uses inertial sensors to detect test and gait parameters during the test. If it is to be used in the longitudinal assessment of older adults, it is important that we know which parameters are reliable and under which conditions. This study aims to examine the relative reliability of the QTUG over five consecutive days under single, motor and cognitive dual-task conditions. Twelve community dwelling older adults (10 females, mean age 74.17 (3.88)) performed the QTUG under three conditions for five consecutive days. The relative reliability of each of the gait parameters was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC 3,1) and standard error of measurement (SEM). Five of the measures demonstrated excellent reliability (ICC>0.70) under all three conditions (time to complete test, walk time, number of gait cycles, number of steps and return from turn time). Measures of variability and turn derived parameters demonstrated weak reliability under all three conditions (ICC=0.05-0.49). For the most reliable parameters under single-task conditions, the addition of a cognitive task resulted in a reduction in reliability suggesting caution when interpreting results under these conditions. Certain sensor derived parameters during the QTUG test may provide an additional resource in the longitudinal assessment of older people and earlier identification of falls risk.

  11. Postnatal blues: a risk factor for postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Henshaw, C; Foreman, D; Cox, J

    2004-01-01

    Postnatal blues have been regarded as brief, benign and without clinical significance. However, several studies have proposed a link between blues and subsequent depression but have methodological problems. We report a prospective, controlled study of postpartum women with severe blues which uses systematically devised and validated instruments for that purpose which tests the hypothesis that severe blues increases the risk of depression in the six months following childbirth. 206 first-time mothers were recruited in late pregnancy. Blues status was defined using the Blues Questionnaire and those with severe blues and their controls who had no blues (matched for age, marital status and social class) were followed for 6 months with postal Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. RDC diagnoses were made following SADS-L interview at the end of the protocol. Backwards stepwise Cox regression analysis found severe blues and past history of depression to be independent predictors each raising the risk by almost 3 times. Depression in those with severe blues onset sooner after delivery and lasted longer. The difference was largely accounted for by major depression. Severe postpartum blues are identified as an independent risk factor for subsequent postpartum depression. Screening and intervention programs could be devised.

  12. Day to Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurecki, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    A clean, healthy and safe school provides students, faculty and staff with an environment conducive to learning and working. However, budget and staff reductions can lead to substandard cleaning practices and unsanitary conditions. Some school facility managers have been making the switch to a day-schedule to reduce security and energy costs, and…

  13. Estrogen in peripheral plasma during postnatal development in gray short-tailed opossums.

    PubMed

    Fadem, B H; Harder, J D

    1992-09-01

    Plasma samples obtained from gray short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica) at selected ages through adulthood were assayed for estrogen (E). Levels of E in one mixed-sex plasma pool of animals aged postnatal day (pd) 4 and one of two mixed-sex plasma pools of animals aged pd 8 were over 300 pg/ml. On pd 16, E levels in males and females averaged 30 and 47 pg/ml, respectively. While no significant sex differences in E levels were seen on pd 30 or pd 60, mean E levels for animals on pd 30 were significantly higher (275 pg/ml in males and 181 pg/ml in females) than on pd 60 (78 pg/ml in males and 85 pg/ml in females) or pd 145 (adults). In adult animals, estrogen levels in females averaged 54 pg/ml; all adult male E levels were below the limit of sensitivity of the assay. Maternal E levels, which did not vary significantly by age of litter, averaged 10 pg/ml overall. These findings are discussed with respect to possible significance of high E levels in developing marsupials for sexual differentiation and general brain development.

  14. Methylphenidate treatment increases Na(+), K (+)-ATPase activity in the cerebrum of young and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Emilene B S; Matté, Cristiane; Ferreira, Andréa G K; Gomes, Karin M; Comim, Clarissa M; Mattos, Cristiane; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L; Wyse, Angela T S

    2009-12-01

    Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant used for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Na(+), K(+)-ATPase is a membrane-bound enzyme necessary to maintain neuronal excitability. Considering that methylphenidate effects on central nervous system metabolism are poorly known and that Na(+), K(+)-ATPase is essential to normal brain function, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of this drug on Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in the cerebrum of young and adult rats. For acute administration, a single injection of methylphenidate (1.0, 2.0, or 10.0 mg/Kg) or saline was given to rats on postnatal day 25 or postnatal day 60, in the young and adult groups, respectively. For chronic administration, methylphenidate (1.0, 2.0, or 10.0 mg/Kg) or saline injections were given to young rats starting at postnatal day 25 once daily for 28 days. In adult rats, the same regimen was performed starting at postnatal day 60. Our results showed that acute methylphenidate administration increased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and striatum of young and adult rats. In young rats, chronic administration of methylphenidate also enhanced Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, but not in striatum. When tested in adult rats, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity was increased in all cerebral structures studied. The present findings suggest that increased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity may be associated with neuronal excitability caused by methylphenidate.

  15. Water Intake in a Sample of Greek Adults Evaluated with the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) and a Seven-Day Diary

    PubMed Central

    Athanasatou, Adelais; Malisova, Olga; Kandyliari, Aikaterini; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Awareness on the importance of hydration in health has created an unequivocal need to enrich knowledge on water intake of the general population and on the contribution of beverages to total water intake. We evaluated in the past water intake in a sample of Greek adults using two approaches. In study A, volunteers completed the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ), a food frequency questionnaire, designed to evaluate water intake (n = 1092; 48.1% males; 43 ± 18 years). In study B, a different population of volunteers recorded water, beverage, and food intake in seven-day diaries (n = 178; 51.1% males; 37 ± 12 years). Herein, data were reanalyzed with the objective to reveal the contribution of beverages in total water intake with these different methodologies. Beverage recording was grouped in the following categories: Hot beverages; milk; fruit and vegetable juices; caloric soft drinks; diet soft drinks; alcoholic drinks; other beverages; and water. Total water intake and water intake from beverages was 3254 (SE 43) mL/day and 2551 (SE 39) mL/day in study A; and 2349 (SE 59) mL/day and 1832 (SE 56) mL/day in study B. In both studies water had the highest contribution to total water intake, approximately 50% of total water intake, followed by hot beverages (10% of total water intake) and milk (5% of total water intake). These two approaches contribute information on water intake in Greece and highlight the contribution of different beverages; moreover, they point out differences in results obtained from different methodologies attributed to limitations in their use. PMID:27626443

  16. Anxiety sensitivity in relation to quit day dropout among adult daily smokers recruited to participate in a self-guided cessation attempt.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Kirsten J; Farris, Samantha G; Hogan, Julianna B D; Grover, Kristin W; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-07-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS; fear of anxiety and internal sensations) has been implicated in a variety of aspects of smoking, including difficulties achieving and maintaining abstinence during tobacco cessation. However, research has yet to evaluate whether AS impacts premature termination of initiating a quit attempt. Therefore, the aim of the present investigation was to explore the extent to which AS was associated with tobacco cessation dropout, as indexed by attendance on the scheduled quit day visit. Participants included 84 adult daily cigarette smokers (61.7% male; Mage=34.6years, SD=13.9), who were recruited to participate in a self-guided quit attempt (an attempt to quit smoking without professional or pharmacological aid). Results indicated that after controlling for the effects of participant sex, race, current (past month) psychological disorder, cigarettes smoked per day, number of years as a regular smoker, and pre-quit levels of motivation to quit, AS significantly predicted increased odds of study dropout prior to attending the scheduled quit day. These findings suggest that AS may be a mechanism involved with challenges in the initiation of quitting.

  17. Oligodendrogenesis and myelinogenesis during postnatal development effect of glatiramer acetate.

    PubMed

    From, Renana; Eilam, Raya; Bar-Lev, Dekel D; Levin-Zaidman, Smadar; Tsoory, Michael; LoPresti, Patrizia; Sela, Michael; Arnon, Ruth; Aharoni, Rina

    2014-04-01

    Myelinogenesis in the mammal nervous system occurs predominantly postnatally. Glatiramer acetate (GA), a drug for the treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS), has been shown to induce immunomodulation and neuroprotection in the inflamed CNS in MS and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here we investigated whether GA can affect myelinogenesis and oligodendrogenesis in the developing nervous system under nonpathological conditions. Towards this end we studied myelination in mice injected daily by GA, at postnatal Days 7-21. Immunohistological and ultrastructural analyses revealed significant elevation in the number of myelinated axons as well as in the thickness of the myelin encircling them and their resulting g-ratios, in spinal cords of GA-injected mice compared with their PBS-injected littermates, at postnatal Day 14. Elevation in myelinated axons was detected also in the peripheral ventral roots of the motor nerves. GA induced also an increase in axonal diameter, implying an effect on the overall development of the nervous system. A prominent elevation in the amount of progenitor oligodendrocytes and their BrdU incorporation, as well as in mature oligodendrocytes indicated that the effect of GA is linked to increased proliferation and differentiation along the oligodendroglial maturation cascade. In addition, elevation in insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was found in the white matter of the GA-injected mice. Furthermore, a functional advantage in rotating rod test was exhibited by GA-injected mice over their littermates at postnatal Day 21. These cumulative findings corroborate the beneficial effect of GA on oligodendrogenesis and myelination.

  18. Effects of Prenatal Irradiation with an Accelerated Heavy-Ion Beam on Postnatal Development in Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Fujita, K.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    Effects on postnatal neurophysiological development in offspring were studied following exposure of pregnant Wistar rats to accelerated neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV mu m at a dose range from 0 1 Gy to 2 0Gy on the 15th day of gestation The age at which four physiologic markers appeared and five reflexes were acquired was examined prior to weaning Gain in body weight was monitored until the offspring were 3 months old Male offspring were evaluated as young adults using two behavioral tests The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp measured for the same biological end points were studied for comparison Our previous study on carbon-ion beams with a LET value of about 13 keV mu m was also cited to elucidate a possible LET-related effect For most of the endpoints at early age significant alteration was even observed in offspring prenatally received 0 1 Gy of accelerated neon ions while neither X rays nor carbon-ions under the same dose resulted in such a significant alteration compared to that from the sham-irradiated dams All offspring whose mothers received 2 0 Gy died prior to weaning Offspring from dams irradiated with accelerated neon ions generally showed higher incidences of prenatal death and preweaning mortality markedly delayed accomplishment in their physiological markers and reflexes and gain in body weight compared to those exposed to X-rays or carbon ions at doses of 0 1 to 1 5 Gy Significantly reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight at postnatal ages of 30 60 and 90 days were also observed

  19. Epigenetic Upregulation of Corticotrophin-Releasing Hormone Mediates Postnatal Maternal Separation-Induced Memory Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Aiyun; Nie, Wenying; Li, Haixia; Hou, Yuhua; Yu, Zhen; Fan, Qing; Sun, Ruopeng

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidences demonstrated that early postnatal maternal separation induced remarkable social and memory defects in the adult rodents. Early-life stress induced long-lasting functional adaptation of neuroendocrine hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, including neuropeptide corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the brain. In the present study, a significantly increased hippocampal CRH was observed in the adult rats with postnatal maternal separation, and blockade of CRHR1 signaling significantly attenuated the hippocampal synaptic dysfunction and memory defects in the modeled rats. Postnatal maternal separation enduringly increased histone H3 acetylation and decreased cytosine methylation in Crh promoter region, resulting from the functional adaptation of several transcriptional factors, in the hippocampal CA1 of the modeled rats. Enriched environment reversed the epigenetic upregulation of CRH, and ameliorated the hippocampal synaptic dysfunction and memory defects in the adult rats with postnatal maternal separation. This study provided novel insights into the epigenetic mechanism underlying postnatal maternal separation-induced memory deficiency, and suggested environment enrichment as a potential approach for the treatment of this disorder. PMID:24718660

  20. Mediating effect of Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) and family network on Quality of Life among low-income older Korean immigrants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bum Jung

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the direct and indirect effects of Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) and family network on Quality of Life (QOL) for low-income older Korean immigrants in Los Angeles County, CA. A cross-sectional survey of low-income older Korean immigrants who use ADHC programs was conducted. Self-reported measures included sociocultural characteristics, acculturation, cognitive function, family network, utilization of ADHC, and QOL. The study found that for QOL, two variables had only direct effects: years in ADHC and acculturation. Family network was directly associated with QOL and indirectly associated with it through the variable "years in ADHC." Our findings indicate that a strong family network is positively associated with more years of attendance in ADHC, and with higher QOL scores. Thus, policy makers and practitioners should be aware of the positive association among social networks, attendance in ADHC, and higher QOL among low-income older Korean immigrants.

  1. The Effect of Congenital and Postnatal Hypothyroidism on Depression-Like Behaviors in Juvenile Rats

    PubMed Central

    Özgür, Erdoğan; Gürbüz Özgür, Börte; Aksu, Hatice; Cesur, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate depression-like behaviors of juvenile rats with congenital and postnatal hypothyroidism. Methods: Twenty-seven newborn rat pups were used. First, 6-month-old Wistar Albino female rats were impregnated. Methimazole (0.025% wt/vol) was given to dam rats from the first day of pregnancy until postnatal 21 days (P21) to generate pups with congenital hypothyroidism (n=8), whereas in the postnatal hypothyroidism group (n=10), methimazole was given from P0 to P21. In the control group (n=9), dam rats were fed ad libitum and normal tap water. Offspring were fed with breast milk from their mothers. The behavioral parameters were measured with the juvenile forced swimming test (JFST). The procedure of JFST consisted of two sessions in two consecutive days: the 15-minute pre-test on day 1 and the 5-minute test on day 2. Results: Increased immobility and decreased climbing duration were observed in both congenital and postnatal hypothyroidism groups. Decreased swimming duration was detected in the postnatal hypothyroidism group. Both hypothyroidism groups had a lower body weight gain compared with the control group, while the congenital hypothyroidism group had the lowest body weight. Conclusion: Our results showed that hypothyroidism had negative effects on depression-like behavior as well as on growth and development. Both congenital and postnatal hypothyroidism caused an increase in immobility time in JFST. New studies are required to understand the differing results on depression-like behavior between congenital and postnatal hypothyroidism. PMID:27611926

  2. Family dynamics and postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Tammentie, T; Tarkka, M-T; Astedt-Kurki, P; Paavilainen, E; Laippala, P

    2004-04-01

    Research has shown that postnatal depression (PND) affects 10-15% of mothers in Western societies. PND is not easily identified and therefore it often remains undetected. Untreated depression has a detrimental effect on the mother and child and the entire family. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the state of family dynamics after delivery and whether the mother's PND was associated with family dynamics. The study used a survey covering the catchment area of one Finnish university hospital. Both primi- and multiparas took part and data were collected using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) for mothers and the Family Dynamics Measure II (FDM II) for both mothers and fathers. The data were analysed using SPSS statistical programme and frequency and percentage distributions, means and standard deviations were examined. Correlations were analysed using Spearman's correlation coefficients. The significance of any differences between mothers' and fathers' scores was determined with a paired t-test. Of the families participating in the study (373 mothers and 314 partners), 13% of the mothers suffered from PND symptoms (EPDS score of 13 or more). As a whole, family dynamics in the families participating in the study were reported to be rather good. However, mothers having depressive symptoms reported more negative family dynamics compared with other families. With the exception of individuation, mothers having depressive symptoms reported more negative family dynamics than their partners. With the exception of role reciprocity, non-depressed mothers reported more positive family dynamics than their partners. Knowledge of the association of mothers' PND with family dynamics could help to develop nursing care at maternity and child welfare clinics and maternity hospitals. Depressed mothers and their families need support to be able to make family dynamics as good as possible.

  3. A lasting effect of postnatal sevoflurane anesthesia on the composition of NMDA receptor subunits in rat prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Shen, Fengyan; Xu, Daojie; Zhao, Xuan

    2016-11-01

    Sevoflurane is widely used in pediatric anesthesia and studies have shown that it is capable of inducing neurodegeneration and subsequent cognitive disorders in the developing brain. However, the evidence that anesthetics are toxic to the human brain is insufficient. N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, critical for learning and memory, display expression changes with age and can be modulated by inhalation anesthetics. Generally, NMDA receptor (NR) type 1 is expressed at birth, peaks around the third postnatal week, and then declines slightly to adult levels. NR2Bs slowly decrease and NR2As gradually increase during postnatal development. These developmental switches of NMDA receptor subunits composition mark the transition from immature to adult neural processing and allow for the final maturation of associative learning abilities. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of repeated sevoflurane anesthesia on NMDA receptor subunits composition in the developing rat brain and related behavioral disorders. Six-day-old male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly allocated into either a control group (group con) or a sevoflurane group (group sevo). Group sevo inhaled 2.1% sevoflurane carried by 70% oxygen for 2h each day from postnatal day (PND) 6 to PND 8. The same procedure, without applying the sevoflurane, was executed in group con. The membrane protein expression of NR1, NR2A and NR2B in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus was assessed at the end of the three days of anesthesia and at PND 21. An open field test was carried out to assess spontaneous locomotion on PNDs 21, 28 and 35. Y maze performance was used to assess attention and working memory on PND 28. Sevoflurane induced upregulation of NR1 and NR2B in the PFC at the end of anesthesia. On PND 21, NR1 and NR2B receptors were significantly increased whereas NR2A receptors were significantly decreased in the PFC in group sevo. Sevoflurane-treated rats showed hyper-locomotion and impairment of

  4. HIV-positive nigerian adults harbor significantly higher serum lumefantrine levels than HIV-negative individuals seven days after treatment for Plasmodium falciparum infection.

    PubMed

    Chijioke-Nwauche, Ifeyinwa; van Wyk, Albert; Nwauche, Chijioke; Beshir, Khalid B; Kaur, Harparkash; Sutherland, Colin J

    2013-09-01

    Management of coinfection with malaria and HIV is a major challenge to public health in developing countries, and yet potential drug-drug interactions between antimalarial and antiviral regimens have not been adequately investigated in people with both infections. Each of the constituent components of artemether-lumefantrine, the first-line regimen for malaria treatment in Nigeria, and nevirapine, a major component of highly active antiretroviral therapy, are drugs metabolized by the cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme system, which is also known to be induced by nevirapine. We examined potential interactions between lumefantrine and nevirapine in 68 HIV-positive adults, all of whom were diagnosed with asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections by microscopy. Post hoc PCR analysis confirmed the presence of P. falciparum in only a minority of participants. Day 7 capillary blood levels of lumefantrine were significantly higher in HIV-positive participants than in 99 HIV-negative controls (P = 0.0011). Associations between day 7 levels of lumefantrine and risk of persistent parasitemia could not be evaluated due to inadequate power. Further investigations of the impact of nevirapine on in vivo malaria treatment outcomes in HIV-infected patients are thus needed.

  5. Postnatal onset of retinal degeneration by loss of embryonic Ezh2 repression of Six1

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Naihong; Cheng, Lin; Cho, Kinsang; Malik, Muhammad Taimur A.; Xiao, Lirong; Guo, Chenying; Yu, Honghua; Zhu, Ruilin; Rao, Rajesh C.; Chen, Dong Feng

    2016-01-01

    Some adult-onset disorders may be linked to dysregulated embryonic development, yet the mechanisms underlying this association remain poorly understood. Congenital retinal degenerative diseases are blinding disorders characterized by postnatal degeneration of photoreceptors, and affect nearly 2 million individuals worldwide, but ∼50% do not have a known mutation, implicating contributions of epigenetic factors. We found that embryonic deletion of the histone methyltransferase (HMT) Ezh2 from all retinal progenitors resulted in progressive photoreceptor degeneration throughout postnatal life, via derepression of fetal expression of Six1 and its targets. Forced expression of Six1 in the postnatal retina was sufficient to induce photoreceptor degeneration. Ezh2, although enriched in the embryonic retina, was not present in the mature retina; these data reveal an Ezh2-mediated feed-forward pathway that is required for maintaining photoreceptor homeostasis in the adult and suggest novel targets for retinal degeneration therapy. PMID:27677711

  6. Prenatal exposure to ethanol affects postnatal neurogenesis in thalamus.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Sandra M; Miller, Michael W

    2010-06-01

    The number of neurons in the ventrobasal thalamus (VB) in the adolescent rat is unaffected by prenatal exposure to ethanol. This is in sharp contrast to other parts of the trigeminal-somatosensory system, which exhibit 30-35% fewer neurons after prenatal ethanol exposure. The present study tested the hypothesis that prenatal ethanol exposure affects dynamic changes in the numbers of VB neurons; such changes reflect the sum of cell proliferation and death. Neuronal number in the VB was determined during the first postnatal month in the offspring of pregnant Long-Evans rats fed an ethanol-containing diet or pair-fed an isocaloric non-alcoholic liquid diet. Offspring were examined between postnatal day (P) 1 and P30. The size of the VB and neuronal number were determined stereologically. Prenatal exposure to ethanol did not significantly alter neuronal number on any individual day, nor was the prenatal generation of VB neurons affected. Interestingly, prenatal ethanol exposure did affect the pattern of the change in neuronal number over time; total neuronal number was stable in the ethanol-treated pups after P12, but it continued to rise in the controls until P21. In addition, the rate of cell proliferation during the postnatal period was greater in ethanol-treated animals. Thus, the rate of neuronal acquisition is altered by ethanol, and by deduction, there appears to be less ethanol-induced neuronal loss in the VB. A contributor to these changes is a latent effect of ethanol on postnatal neurogenesis in the VB and the apparent survival of new neurons.

  7. Influences of prenatal and postnatal fraternity size on ovarian development in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, B W; Rutledge, J J

    1988-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to test effects of prenatal and postnatal fraternity size (size of litter in which an individual develops prenatally or is reared postnatally) on ovarian development in mice. Fraternity size treatments were created by standardizing sizes of prenatal and postnatal fraternities in which mice were gestated and reared. Prenatal fraternity size was standardized by surgery on Day 9 of gestation to 6, 10, and 14 fetuses. Postnatal fraternity size was standardized by randomly assigning pups to litters of 5, 10, or 15 pups within 24 h of birth. Female pups were killed at either 3 or 20 wk of age and right ovaries were prepared for histology. Follicles were classified by size and morphology, and numbers of follicles in each class were tabulated. Interaction of postnatal fraternity size and age was observed for number of antral follicles (p less than 0.05). Mice reared in small postnatal fraternities had more antral follicles at weaning (3 wk) and fewer antral follicles at maturity (20 wk of age) than mice reared in large postnatal fraternities. No effect of either prenatal or postnatal fraternity size on other follicle populations was observed (p greater than 0.20). Numbers of Type 2 (primordial), Type 3a, and Type 3b follicles changed with age (p less than 0.01); numbers of primordial follicles declined with age, but numbers of Type 3a and 3b follicles increased. A hypothesis of a negative association between postnatal fraternity size and number of antral follicles at 3 wk of age was supported, but a hypothesis of a positive association between fraternity size and number of primordial follicles was not supported.

  8. Embryonic and Postnatal Expression of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor mRNA in Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Eiki; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2017-01-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a member of the basic helix-loop-helix-Per-Arnt-Sim transcription factor family, plays a critical role in the developing nervous system of invertebrates and vertebrates. Dioxin, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, avidly binds to this receptor, and maternal exposure to dioxin has been shown to impair higher brain functions and dendritic morphogenesis, possibly via an AhR-dependent mechanism. However, there is little information on AhR expression in the developing mammalian brain. To address this issue, the present study analyzed AhR mRNA expression in the brains of embryonic, juvenile, and adult mice by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and in situ hybridization. In early brain development (embryonic day 12.5), AhR transcript was detected in the innermost cortical layer. The mRNA was also expressed in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, olfactory bulb, and rostral migratory stream on embryonic day 18.5, postnatal days 3, 7, and 14, and in 12-week-old (adult) mice. Hippocampal expression was abundant in the CA1 and CA3 pyramidal and dentate gyrus granule cell layers, where expression level of AhR mRNA in 12-week old is higher than that in 7-day old. These results reveal temporal and spatial patterns of AhR mRNA expression in the mouse brain, providing the information that may contribute to the elucidation of the physiologic and toxicologic significance of AhR in the developing brain. PMID:28223923

  9. Effects of different degrees of insulin resistance on endothelial function in obese adults undergoing alternate day fasting.

    PubMed

    Hoddy, Kristin K; Bhutani, Surabhi; Phillips, Shane A; Varady, Krista A

    2016-10-27

    BACKGROUND: Obesity can have deleterious effects on insulin sensitivity leading to endothelial dysfunction. Whether alternate day fasting (ADF) can ameliorate insulin sensitivity in a way that improves endothelial function remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the impact of ADF on endothelium dependent flow mediated dilation (FMD) in obese subjects with different degrees of insulin resistance. METHODS: Obese non-diabetic adults (n = 54) participated in an 8-week ADF protocol (25% energy intake "fast day", alternated with ad libitum intake "feast day"). Subjects were divided into tertiles according to degree of insulin resistance based on HOMA-IR (Homeostatic model assessment-Insulin resistance): tertile 1 (0.8-2.4), tertile 2 (2.5-3.6), tertile 3 (3.7-12.4). RESULTS: Body weight decreased (P < 0.001) by 4% in each tertile. Fat mass, lean mass, and visceral fat mass also decreased (P < 0.001) similarly in each tertile. After 8 weeks of ADF, FMD and adiponectin differed (P < 0.05) between tertile 1 (3±0%; 26±23%) versus tertile 3 (-3±0%; -13±10%). Changes in leptin did not differ between tertiles (tertile 1: -23±7%; tertile 2: -20±7%; tertile 3: -9±7%). Fasting glucose did not change in any tertile. Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR differed (P < 0.05) between tertile 1 (10±11%; 11±11%) versus tertile 3 (-27±8%; -30±9%). Plasma lipids, blood pressure and heart rate did not change in any tertile. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that ADF may be effective for decreasing insulin resistance in insulin resistant subjects, but these changes have no effect on endothelial function.

  10. Heart rate variability in kittens during early postnatal ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Fateev, M M; Nikolaeva, T N; Dashichev, K V; Olendar, N V

    2009-06-01

    Heart rate variability in awake kittens under resting conditions was studied during the following periods of postnatal ontogeny: newborn animals, 10-day-old animals (eye opening), 20-day-old animals (rise on the legs), and 30-day-old animals (control). Newborn animals were characterized by high activity of the sympathoadrenal system due to birth stress. The effect of stress factors increased in 10-day-old kittens, which was related to the start of functioning of distant receptors and delivery of new environmental information into the brain. The acquisition of upright posture and locomotion on the limbs were accompanied by activation of the vagus nerve in kittens. Significant changes in temporal, geometric, and spectral characteristics illustrate an increase in adaptability of the organism and possibility for independent living (particularly, by the 30th day of life).

  11. Developmental schedule of the postnatal rat testis determined by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Malkov, M; Fisher, Y; Don, J

    1998-07-01

    Analysis of the biochemical events and the genes expressed at various postnatal developmental stages in the testis of mammals is of great importance for understanding spermatogenesis in general and meiosis in particular. A prerequisite for such an analysis is the characterization of a detailed developmental schedule of the postnatal testis. In this study we used four-parameter flow cytometry analysis to determine a detailed testicular developmental schedule in rats as compared to mice. A dot plot of forward-scatter/side-scatter of testicular cell suspensions from mature animals revealed 7 distinct subpopulations within the testis. These, when analyzed by fluorescence parameters, were divided into 4 levels of fluorescence: cells containing 4d DNA, 2d DNA, and 2 levels of haploid cells. Observing the acquisition pattern of these subpopulations during postnatal development, we were able to suggest the following developmental schedule for the rat. At postnatal Days 6-7, the testis contains somatic cells and spermatogonia cells only. By Days 13-14, leptotene spermatocytes appear; by Days 17-18, zygotene spermatocytes are present; by Days 19-20 and Days 22-23, early and late pachytene spermatocytes, respectively, are seen. Haploid round spermatids first appear at Days 24-25 and elongating spermatids by Days 30-31; by Day 36, elongated spermatozoa can be found.

  12. Developmental pharmacology and toxicology: biotransformation of drugs and other xenobiotics during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    of which was given 10 years later by the Nebert group (Atlas et al. 1977). Functional heterogeneity was demonstrated by differential development and inducibility by glucocorticoids also for UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (Wishart, 1978): in the rat the increased fetal glucocorticoid activity between days 17 and 20 of gestation triggers the surge to adult or higher than adult activities. This cluster of the so-called late fetal glucuronyltransferase group is distinctly different from the neonatal or postnatal cluster with peak values after birth and a pronounced inducibility by 3-methylcholanthrene, but not by steroids. These different transferase clusters can be differentiated by different substrates, too. To get an overview on the postnatal development of the most important phase I and phase II reactions and also for the heme biosynthetic pathway as a prerequisite for the P450 synthesis, a compilation of literature data similar to a score was constructed with the aim to recognize parallel developments, possible common control and regulation mechanisms, cp. Klinger et al. 1987, cp. also Figs. 1-3. Evidently different developmental patterns can be observed, direct connections or dependencies cannot be detected. Thus different concentrations resp. activities of different P450 forms during ontogenetic development are influenced by many factors on the transscriptional and posttransscriptional level. Reviews on concepts and therories of development and aging have been published by several authors respectively editors (cp. Klinger, 1996). But there is no convincing concept or proof on the molecular-biological basis of an internal clock which regulates and controls individual development, aging and death.

  13. Prenatal stress alters microglial development and distribution in postnatal rat brain.

    PubMed

    Gómez-González, Beatriz; Escobar, Alfonso

    2010-03-01

    Stress affects microglial function and viability during adulthood and early postnatal life; however, it is unknown whether stress to the pregnant dam might alter offspring microglia. The effects of prenatal stress on microglial development and distribution in the postnatal brain were studied using Wistar rats. Prenatal stress consisting of 20 min of forced swimming occurred on embryonic days 10-20. On postnatal days 1 and 10, stressed and control pups were killed. Microglia were identified using Griffonia simplicifolia lectin and quantified in the whole encephalon. In addition, plasma corticosterone was measured in dams at embryonic day 20, and in pups on postnatal days 1 and 10. At postnatal day 1, there was an increase in number of ramified microglia in the parietal, entorhinal and frontal cortices, septum, basal ganglia, thalamus, medulla oblongata and internal capsule in the stressed pups as compared to controls, but also there was a reduction of amoeboid microglia and the total number of microglia in the corpus callosum. By postnatal day 10, there were no differences in the morphologic type or the distribution of microglia between the prenatal stress and control groups, except in the corpus callosum; where prenatal stress decreased the number of ramified microglia. The stress procedure was effective in producing plasma rise in corticosterone levels of pregnant rats at embryonic day 20 when compared to same age controls. Prenatal stress reduced the number of immature microglia and promoted an accelerated microglial differentiation into a ramified form. These findings may be related to an increase in plasma corticosterone in the pregnant dam.

  14. The nature of the decrease in blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier exchange during postnatal brain development in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Habgood, M D; Knott, G W; Dziegielewska, K M; Saunders, N R

    1993-01-01

    1. The blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) exchange of a wide range of passively transported lipid insoluble compounds (0.43-5.4 nm molecular radius) has been investigated in rats at different stages of postnatal development (2 days old to adult). A novel 'litter-based' model for investigating blood-CSF barrier exchange in immature animals is described. 2. At each age investigated there was a clear inverse correlation between molecular radius and blood-CSF barrier exchange, in addition to an overall decrease in blood-CSF barrier exchange with increasing age. 3. The decrease in blood-CSF barrier exchange with age was not consistent with a reduction in pore diameters, nor does it appear to be due to an increase in the CSF sink effect with age. It seems likely to be due to a relative decrease in the number of a population of large diameter pores. PMID:8254533

  15. Expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in the mouse neocortex and posterior piriform cortices during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Lingling; Wang, Jiutao; An, Lei; Hu, Xinde; Xie, Jiongfang; Yan, Runchuan; Chen, Shulin; Zhao, Shanting

    2014-11-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) functions as a pleiotropic protein, participating in a vast array of cellular and biological processes. Abnormal expression of MIF has been implicated in many neurological diseases, including Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, Alzheimer's Disease, stroke, and neuropathic pain. However, the expression patterns of mif transcript and MIF protein from the early postnatal period through adulthood in the mouse brain are still poorly understood. We therefore investigated the temporal and spatial expression of MIF in the mouse neocortex during postnatal development in detail and partially in posterior piriform cortices (pPC). As determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), mif transcript gradually increased during development, with the highest level noted at postnatal day 30 (P30) followed by a sharp decline at P75. In contrast, Western blotting results showed that MIF increased constantly from P7 to P75. The highest level of MIF was at P75, while the lowest level of MIF was at P7. Immunofluorescence histochemistry revealed that MIF-immunoreactive (ir) cells were within the entire depth of the developed neocortex, and MIF was heterogeneously distributed among cortical cells, especially at P7, P14, P30, and P75; MIF was abundant in the pyramidal layer within pPC. Double immunostaining showed that all the mature neurons were MIF-ir and all the intensely stained MIF-ir cells were parvalbumin positive (Pv +) at adult. Moreover, it was demonstrated that MIF protein localized in the perikaryon, processes, presynaptic structures, and the nucleus in neurons. Taken together, the developmentally regulated expression and the subcellular localization of MIF should form a platform for an analysis of MIF neurodevelopmental biology and MIF-related nerve diseases.

  16. The Long-Term Economic Impact of in Utero and Postnatal Exposure to Malaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barreca, Alan I.

    2010-01-01

    I use an instrumental-variables identification strategy and historical data from the United States to estimate the long-term economic impact of in utero and postnatal exposure to malaria. My research design matches adults in the 1960 Decennial Census to the malaria death rate in their respective state and year of birth. To address potential…

  17. Postnatal lung and metabolic development in two marsupial and four eutherian species

    PubMed Central

    Szdzuy, Kirsten; Zeller, Ulrich; Renfree, Marilyn; Tzschentke, Barbara; Janke, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Two marsupial species (Monodelphis domestica, Macropus eugenii) and four eutherian species (Mesocricetus auratus, Suncus murinus, Tupaia belangeri and Cavia aperea) were examined to compare and contrast the timing of lung and metabolic development during the postnatal maturation of the mammalian respiratory apparatus. Using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, the lung structural changes were correlated with indirect calorimetry to track the metabolic development. Marsupial and eutherian species followed the same pattern of mammalian lung development, but differed in the developmental pace. In the two newborn marsupial species, the lung parenchyma was at the early terminal sac stage, with large terminal air sacs, and the lung developed slowly. In contrast, the newborn eutherian species had more advanced lungs at the late terminal sac stage in altricial species (M. auratus, S. murinus) and at the alveolar stage in precocial species (T. belangeri, C. aperea). Postnatal lung development proceeded rapidly in eutherian species. The marsupial species had a low metabolic rate at birth and achieved adult metabolism late in postnatal development. In contrast, newborn eutherian species had high metabolic rates and reached adult metabolism during the first week of life. The time course of the metabolic development is thus tightly linked to the structural differentiation of the lungs and the timing of postnatal lung development. These differences in the neonatal lung structure and the timing of postnatal lung maturation between marsupial and eutherian species reflect their differing reproductive strategies. PMID:18179474

  18. Exposure of pregnant rats to uranium and restraint stress: effects on postnatal development and behavior of the offspring.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Domènec J; Bellés, Montserrat; Albina, Maria L; Gómez, Mercedes; Linares, Victoria; Domingo, José L

    2006-12-07

    The effects on postnatal development and behavior were assessed in the offspring of female rats concurrently exposed to uranium (U) and restraint stress. Adult female rats were administered uranyl acetate dihydrate (UAD) in the drinking water at doses of 0, 40 and 80 mg/(kg day) for 4 weeks before mating with untreated males, as well as during pregnancy and lactation. One-half of female rats in each group were concurrently subjected to restraint (2h/day). On gestation day 14, one-half of restrained and unrestrained rats were sacrificed in order to evaluate maternal toxicity and gestational parameters. Pups were evaluated for physical development, neuromotor maturation, and behavior. Uranium concentrations were also determined in various tissues of dams and fetuses. In all uranium-treated groups, the highest concentrations of this element were found in kidney and bone, being considerably higher than those in brain. Uranium levels in tissues of dam or fetuses were not significantly affected by restraint. No significant interactions between uranium and restraint could be observed in maternal toxicity. Moreover, no relevant effects of uranium, maternal restraint, or their combination were noted on developmental landmarks in the offspring. In the passive avoidance test, at 40 and 80 mg UAD/(kg day) restraint significantly modified passive avoidance acquisition (T1) and retention time (T2) 24h later. However, no significant differences were observed on the Morris water maze test. The results of the present study indicate that, in general terms, exposure of female rats to UAD before mating with untreated males, as well as during gestation and lactation, did not cause relevant dose-related adverse effects on postnatal development and behavior of the offspring. The influence of stress was very limited.

  19. Quantitative analyses of cellularity and proliferative activity reveals the dynamics of the central canal lining during postnatal development of the rat.

    PubMed

    Alexovič Matiašová, Anna; Ševc, Juraj; Tomori, Zoltán; Gombalová, Zuzana; Gedrová, Štefánia; Daxnerová, Zuzana

    2017-02-15

    According to previous opinion, the derivation of neurons and glia from the central canal (CC) lining of the spinal cord in rodents should occur in the embryonic period. Reports of the mitotic activity observed in the lining during postnatal development have often been contradictory, and proliferation was ascribed to the generation of ependymocytes, which are necessary for the elongation of CC walls. Our study quantifies the intensity of proliferation and determines the cellularity of the CC lining in reference to lumbar spinal segment L4 during the postnatal development of rats. The presence of dividing cells peaks in the CC lining on postnatal day 8 (P8), with division occurring in 19.2% ± 3.2% of cells. In adult rats, 3.6% ± 0.9% of cells still proliferate, whereas, in mice, 10.3% ± 2.3% of cells at P8 and only 0.6% ± 0.2% of cells in the CC lining in adulthood are proliferating. In the rat, the length of the cell cycle increases from 100.3 ± 35.7 hours at P1 to 401.4 ± 80.6 hours at P43, with a sudden extension between P15 and P22. Despite the intensive proliferation, the total cellularity of the CC lining at the L4 spinal segment significantly descended in from P8 to P15. According to our calculations, the estimated cellularity was significantly higher compared with the measured cellularity of the CC lining at P15. Our results indicate that CC lining serves as a source of cells beyond ependymal cells during the first postnatal weeks of the rat. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:693-707, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Postnatal Excitability Development and Innervation by Functional Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) Terminals in Neurons of the Rat Spinal Sacral Dorsal Commissural Nucleus: an Electrophysiological Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kun

    2016-11-01

    The sacral dorsal commissural nucleus (SDCN) in the spinal cord receives both somatic and visceral primary afferents. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels are preferentially expressed in certain fine primary afferents. However, knowledge of the SDCN neurons postnatal excitability development and their contacts with TRPV1 fibers remains elusive. Here, whole-cell recordings were conducted in spinal cord slices to evaluate the postnatal development of SDCN neurons and their possible contacts with functional TRPV1-expressing terminals. SDCN neurons in neonatal (postnatal day (P) 1-2), young (P8-10), and adult rats (P35-40) have different electrophysiological properties. SDCN neurons in neonatal rats have higher frequency of spontaneous firing, higher resting membrane potential, and lower presynaptic glutamate release probability. However, no difference in quantal release was found. At all developmental stages, TRPV1 activation with the selective agonist capsaicin increases glutamate release in the presence of tetrodotoxin, which blocks action potential-dependent and polysynaptic neurotransmission, indicating that functional TRPV1 fibers innervate SDCN neurons directly. Capsaicin-induced presynaptic glutamate release onto SDCN neurons depends on external Ca(2+) influx through TRPV1 channels; voltage-dependent calcium channels had a slighter impact. In contrast, capsaicin blocked C fiber-evoked synaptic transmission, indicating that TRPV1 activation has opposite effects on spontaneous asynchronous and action potential-dependent synchronous glutamate release. These data indicate that excitability of SDCN neurons undergoes a developmental shift, and these neurons receive functional TRPV1 terminals from early postnatal stage. The opposite action of capsaicin on asynchronous and synchronous glutamate release should be taken into account when TRPV1 channels are considered as therapeutic targets.

  1. RASGRF2 controls nuclear migration in postnatal retinal cone photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Jimeno, David; Gómez, Carmela; Calzada, Nuria; de la Villa, Pedro; Lillo, Concepción; Santos, Eugenio

    2016-02-15

    Detailed immunocytochemical analyses comparing wild-type (WT), GRF1-knockout (KO), GRF2-KO and GRF1/2 double-knockout (DKO) mouse retinas uncovered the specific accumulation of misplaced, 'ectopic' cone photoreceptor nuclei in the photoreceptor segment (PS) area of retinas from GRF2-KO and GRF1/2-DKO, but not of WT or GRF1-KO mice. Localization of ectopic nuclei in the PS area of GRF2-depleted retinas occurred postnatally and peaked between postnatal day (P)11 and P15. Mechanistically, the generation of this phenotype involved disruption of the outer limiting membrane and intrusion into the PS layer by cone nuclei displaying significant perinuclear accumulation of signaling molecules known to participate in nuclear migration and cytoskeletal reorganization, such as PAR3, PAR6 and activated, phosphorylated forms of PAK, MLC2 and VASP. Electroretinographic recordings showed specific impairment of cone-mediated retinal function in GRF2-KO and GRF1/2-DKO retinas compared with WT controls. These data identify defective cone nuclear migration as a novel phenotype in mouse retinas lacking GRF2 and support a crucial role of GRF2 in control of the nuclear migration processes required for proper postnatal development and function of retinal cone photoreceptors.

  2. Maternal perinatal undernutrition alters postnatal development of chromaffin cells in the male rat adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Molendi-Coste, Olivier; Laborie, Christine; Scarpa, Maria Cristina; Montel, Valérie; Vieau, Didier; Breton, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Numerous data suggest that the development of the sympathoadrenal system is highly sensitive to the perinatal environment. We previously reported that maternal perinatal food restriction by 50% (FR50) altered chromaffin cell (CC) organization and activity in offspring at weaning. This study investigated the effects of FR50 on the postnatal time course of CC functional and structural adaptations. FR50 pups exhibited smaller and more abundant scattered clusters of noradrenergic CCs as early as postnatal day 7 (P7), indicating that morphological changes took place earlier during development. At birth, the adrenaline release was defective in FR50 pups, suggesting that maternal FR50 impaired the non-neurogenic control of catecholamine release. At P4, the catecholamine release in response to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia was also absent in FR50 pups. This was associated with the reduction of adrenal catecholamine contents, indicating that the failure to synthesize catecholamine might lead to impaired secretion. We hypothesized that maternal FR50 accelerated the functional connections between CCs and splanchnic nerve endings, leading to the premature loss of the non-neurogenic response. Acetylcholine-containing synaptic endings seemed more precociously functional in FR50 pups, as suggested by increased levels of acetylcholine esterase activity at P14. At P7, insulin-induced hypoglycaemia caused preferential adrenaline release associated with increased catecholamine contents in both groups. However, the response was accentuated in FR50 pups. At P14, the insulin challenge increased plasma levels of adrenaline in control rats, whereas it markedly enhanced the circulating level of both catecholamines in FR50 pups. We demonstrated that maternal FR50 leads to developmentally impaired noradrenergic CC aggregation and advanced splanchnic neurotransmission maturation associated with altered medulla activity in response to metabolic stress. This might contribute to the long

  3. Early postnatal nociceptive stimulation results in deficits of spatial memory in male rats.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Cristiane; Antonio, Bruno; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela Menezes; Hamani, Clement; Guinsburg, Ruth; Covolan, Luciene

    2015-11-01

    Prematurely-born infants are exposed to multiple invasive procedures while in the intensive care unit. Newborn rats and humans have similar behavioral responses to noxious stimulation. Previous studies have shown that early noxious stimuli may alter dentate gyrus neurogenesis and the behavioral repertoire of adult rats. We evaluated the late effects of noxious stimulation administered during different phases of development on two spatial memory tests; object recognition (OR) and Morris water maze (WM) tests. Noxious stimulation was induced by an intra-plantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) on postnatal (P) day 1 (group P1) or 8 (P8). Control animals were not stimulated. Behavioral tests were conducted on P60 in both male and female animals. In the WM, three domains were evaluated: acquisition, probe trial performance and reversal re-acquisition. The number of Nissl stained cells in the dentate granule cell layer was assessed by stereological counting. The OR test revealed that P1 male rats had poor long-term memory compared to the control and P8 groups. In the WM, no short- or long-term memory differences were detected between early postnatal-stimulated male and female rats and their respective controls. However, the ability to find the hidden platform in a new position was reduced in P1 male rats. The number of dentate granule cells in P8 males was higher than in all other groups. This study demonstrates that noxious stimulation on P1 results in spatial learning deficits in male animals, but does not disrupt the development of the hippocampus-dependent strategies of learning and memory.

  4. Myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) expression is affected by exercise in postnatal chicken skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huadong; Li, Diyan; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Xiaoling; Liu, Yiping; Yang, Zhiqin; Zhu, Qing

    2015-05-01

    The MyoD1, MyoG, Myf5, and Mrf4 proteins belong to the family of muscle regulatory factors (MRFs) and play important roles in skeletal muscle hyperplasia and hypertrophy. We hypothesized that exercise would affect MRF mRNA and protein abundance in postnatal chicken skeletal muscle driving molecular changes that could ultimately lead to increased muscle fiber diameter. At day (d) 43, twelve hundred chickens with similar body weight were randomly assigned to cage, pen, and free-range groups. The MRF mRNA abundance was measured in the pectoralis major and thigh muscle at d56, d70, and d84, and the protein levels of MRFs were determined from the thigh muscle at d84. The results showed no significant difference in mRNA of the MRFs among the three groups at d56 (P>0.05). At d84, chicken in the pen and free-range group showed higher MyoD1, MyoG, Myf5, and Mrf4 mRNA abundance compared to the caged chickens (P<0.05). Free-range chickens had higher Mrf4 and MyoG expression than those in penned ones (P<0.05). Protein abundances of all four factors were lowest in the caged group, and Mrf4 and MyoG protein quantities were greatest in free-range chickens (P<0.05), but Myf5 and MyoD1 protein abundance did not differ between penned and caged groups. The results suggested that exercise up-regulated MRF expression in the postnatal skeletal muscles, which led to an increase in muscle fiber diameter, and eventually affected the meat quality of the skeletal muscles in adult chickens.

  5. [Postnatal growth patterns in eight species of herons and egrets (Ciconiiformes: Ardeidae)].

    PubMed

    Avila, Dennis Denis

    2011-06-01

    Avian postnatal growth has received considerable attention and its ecological implications have been deeply analyzed. In this current paper, I describe the patterns of culmen and tarsus growth, as well as of weight gain patterns in eight species of herons and egrets (Aves: Ardeidae) found in the Birama Swamp in Eastern Cuba. Between 1998 and 2006,714 nestlings of the following species were measured every two days: Butorides virescens, Bubulcus ibis, Egretta thula, E. tricolor, E. caerulea, E. rufescens, Ardea alba and Nycticorax nycticorax. Logistic and Gompertz equations were adjusted to data using non-lineal regression models with adult values as the asymptote. For each species, the following were determined and recorded: growth rate, age at inflexion, instantaneous growth rates at each age interval, and time taken to reach 90% of adult size. Reported hatchling sizes were similar in other localities, with a variation coefficient ranging between 10-19%. At hatch, each species exhibited differing sizes relative to adult values. In all cases, Gompertz equations were best fitted to explain more variance and lesser residuals. Rates of weight change and tarsus growth were alometrically related to the log of adult weight. Two main growth processes were identified: a physical extension in dimensions of each measurement reflecting inter-specific morphometric differences, and a lineal increase of the growth period from Green Heron to Great Egret. The Black-crowned Night Heron, Cattle Egret and Reddish Egret exhibited some unique measurement characteristics in comparison to the remaining members of the family. All results support the hypothesis that hypermorphosis, as the main evolutionary process in the microevolution of Ardeidae, is caused by a delayed final moment of growth.

  6. Disrupting effect of androgens in postnatal female domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Demaldé, Lucía; Lopez Merlo, Mariana; Vercellini, Rosario; Barbeito, Claudio G; Fernandez, Patricia; Gobello, Cristina

    2016-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that in domestic cats, postnatal androgens induce sterility, the aims of this study were to describe the reproductive effects and the clinical safety of a postnatal administration of a long term release androgen in this species. Thirteen newborn littermate female kittens were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups within the first 24h of birth: testosterone enanthate 12.5mg sc (TE; n=8) or Placebo (PL; n=5). The animals were subsequently assessed for fecal sexual hormones until puberty was attained and subsequently when matings occurred. After 21 days, ovulation and gestation were diagnosed. All queens were subsequently ovario-hysterectomized. Fecal testosterone concentrations differed between the treatment groups throughout the study period (P<0.05) being greater during the first 2 postnatal weeks in those of the TE group (P<0.01). Fecal estradiol was not affected by treatment (P>0.1). While all the females were receptive during the pubertal estrus (P>0.1), two TE (2/8) compared with all (5/5) females of the PL group had ovulations (P<0.05). Only one (1/2) compared with three (3/5) of the queens of the TE and PL groups, respectively became pregnant. All kittens of the TE group had transient clitoral enlargement. Anovulatory TE-treated cats had no corpus luteum, and a significant diminution of the endometrial glands as well as of the height of the uterine epithelium. It is concluded that, in domestic cats, a single postnatal supra-physiological dose of testosterone caused a large proportion of queens to be anovulatory and there were also histological endometrial abnormalities that also occurred with this treatment that were accompanied by mild and transient side effects.

  7. [BREASTFEEDING AND FORMATION OF POSTNATAL ANXIETY].

    PubMed

    Klymenko, V A; Lupaltsova, O S

    2015-01-01

    This article has been performed the investigation of psychological characteristics in mothers with the breastfeeding, the mixed feeding, the artificial feeding. There has been identified factors of the unfavourable prognosis for the postnatal anxiety.

  8. Strongyloides ratti: transplantation of adults recovered from the small intestine at different days after infection into the colon of naive and infection-primed Wistar rats, and the effect of antioxidant treatment on large intestinal parasitism.

    PubMed

    Shintoku, Y; Takagi, H; Kadosaka, T; Nagaoka, F; Kondo, S; Itoh, M; Honda, S; Kimura, E

    2011-07-01

    Strongyloides ratti (Nagoya strain) is unique in that a portion of adults parasitizing the small intestine withstands 'worm expulsion', which starts at around day 8 post-infection (p.i.) by host immunity, and establishes in the large intestine after day 19 p.i. To investigate the mechanism, adults obtained from the small intestine at day 7 or 19 p.i. were transplanted into the colon of infection-primed immune rats. Adults obtained at day 7 p.i. were rejected quickly, whereas those obtained at day 19 p.i. could establish infection. Moreover, the body length and the number of intrauterine eggs increased in the large intestine. In a separate experiment, large intestinal parasitism was abolished by the treatment of host rats with an anti-oxidant, butylated hydroxyanisole. These results indicate that small intestinal adults between days 7 and 19 p.i. acquired the ability to parasitize the large intestine of immune rats, and that free radicals produced by the host may have played a significant role in the process.

  9. Interleukin-1 mediates long-term hippocampal dentate granule cell loss following postnatal viral infection.

    PubMed

    Orr, Anna G; Sharma, Anup; Binder, Nikolaus B; Miller, Andrew H; Pearce, Bradley D

    2010-05-01

    Viral infections of the developing CNS can cause long-term neuropathological sequela through undefined mechanisms. Proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1beta have gained attention in mediating neurodegeneration in corticohippocampal structures due to a variety of insults in adults, though there is less information on the developing brain. Little is known concerning the spatial-temporal pattern of IL-1beta induction in the developing hippocampus following live virus infection, and there are few studies addressing the long-term consequences of this cytokine induction. We report that infection of rats with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus on postnatal day 4 induces IL-1beta protein in select regions of the hippocampus on 6, 15, 21, and 45 days after infection. This infection resulted in a 71% reduction of dentate granule cell neurons by the time the rats reached mid-adulthood. We further investigated the causative role of IL-1 in this dentate granule cell loss by blocking IL-1 activity using an IL-1ra-expressing adenoviral vector administered at the time of infection. Blockade of IL-1 abrogated the infection-associated neuron loss in this vivo model. Considering that IL-1 can be triggered by multiple perinatal insults, our findings suggest that early therapy with anti-inflammatory agents that block IL-1 may be effective for reducing adulthood neuropathology.

  10. Postnatal expression of nerve growth factor receptors in the rat testis.

    PubMed

    Djakiew, D; Pflug, B; Dionne, C; Onoda, M

    1994-08-01

    Because nerve growth factor beta (NGF beta) and its corresponding receptors have been implicated in the paracrine regulation of spermatogenesis, we examined the postnatal developmental expression of the low- and high-affinity NGF receptors in the rat testis, and localized their expression to specific testicular cell types. The neurotropin receptors consist of a low-affinity p75 nerve growth factor receptor (LNGFR) and a family of high-affinity tyrosine receptor kinases (trk). Both the p75 LNGFR gene product and the trk receptor gene product were detected in immature rat testes, with maximal expression in 10- and 20-day-old rats. Expression of the testicular p75 LNGFR and the trk receptor progressively declined in older animals so that they were barely detectable in 90-day-old adult rats. The 75-kDa LNGFR was detected in membrane fractions of Sertoli cells, whereas the p75 LNGFR was not detected by Western blot in membrane fractions of round spermatids and primary spermatocytes. Interestingly, microsomal fractions of peritubular myoid cells were immunoreactive for a 65-kDa band on Western blots with the p75 LNGFR monoclonal antibody. Immunoblot analysis of the trk receptor in cell lysates of isolated cell types was inconclusive. Excess NGF beta and round spermatid protein, which is known to contain a NGF-like protein, were both capable of displacing the binding of 125I-NGF beta from the surface of Sertoli cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Prenatal and postnatal cocaine exposure predict teen cocaine use.

    PubMed

    Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa M; Hannigan, John H; Greenwald, Mark K; Janisse, James; Patterson, Grace; Huestis, Marilyn A; Partridge, Robert T; Ager, Joel; Sokol, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical studies have identified alterations in cocaine and alcohol self-administration and behavioral responses to pharmacological challenges in adolescent offspring following prenatal exposure. To date, no published human studies have evaluated the relation between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal adolescent cocaine use. Human studies of prenatal cocaine-exposed children have also noted an increase in behaviors previously associated with substance use/abuse in teens and young adults, specifically childhood and teen externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, and attention problems. Despite these findings, human research has not addressed prior prenatal exposure as a potential predictor of teen drug use behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relations between prenatal cocaine exposure and teen cocaine use in a prospective longitudinal cohort (n=316) that permitted extensive control for child, parent and community risk factors. Logistic regression analyses and Structural Equation Modeling revealed that both prenatal exposure and postnatal parent/caregiver cocaine use were uniquely related to teen use of cocaine at age 14 years. Teen cocaine use was also directly predicted by teen community violence exposure and caregiver negativity, and was indirectly related to teen community drug exposure. These data provide further evidence of the importance of prenatal exposure, family and community factors in the intergenerational transmission of teen/young adult substance abuse/use.

  12. Five-day, low-level laser therapy for sports-related lower extremity periostitis in adult men: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng-Chiang; Ku, Chih-Hung; Hsu, Wei-Chun; Hu, Yu-An; Shyu, Jia-Fwu; Chang, Shin-Tsu

    2014-07-01

    Periostitis in the lower leg caused by overexercise is a universal problem in athletes and runners. The purpose of this study was to observe the functional improvement of the lower limbs upon rehabilitation low-level laser therapy (LLLT). All medical data were gathered from enrolled adults with sports-related lower leg pain. A total of 54 patients underwent triple-phase bone scans using skeletal nuclear scintigraphy, which confirmed periostitis in their lower limbs. The patients were then randomly divided into two groups: one group received laser therapy (N = 29) and the other group (N = 25) received an equivalent placebo treatment (a drug or physical therapy). Treatment protocol commenced with rehabilitation intervention and LLLT was performed three times daily for 5 days at a dosage of 1.4 J/cm(2). A Likert-type pain scale was used to evaluate the severity of pain. Balance function, including postural stability testing (PST) and limits of stability (LOS), was also performed to evaluate the function outcome. Patients experienced a significant improvement in pain by day 2 or day 5 after starting LLLT, but here was no significant difference in pain scale between the measurements before (baseline) and after LLLT. Comparing the PST, the group differences of dynamic vs. static testings ranged from -18.54 to -50.22 (compared 12, 8, 4, 3, 2, 1 to 0, all p < 0.0001), and the PST after LLLT were 3.73 units (p = 0.0258) lower than those of before LLLT. Comparing the LOS, the group differences of dynamic vs. static testing were similar to those in PST, and the relationship between LOS and groups only varied with the direction control during dynamic testing in direction at backward/right vs. right (p < 0.0001). LLLT had a positive effect on proprioception in patients with lower limb periostitis. Larger, better controlled studies are needed to determine what specific effects LLLT has on the function of proprioception.

  13. Expression of CatSper family transcripts in the mouse testis during post-natal development and human ejaculated spermatozoa: relationship to sperm motility.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Gang; Ding, Xiao-Fang; Liao, Ai-Hua; Kong, Xiang-Bing; Xiong, Cheng-Liang

    2007-05-01

    CatSper is a unique sperm cation channel-like protein family exclusively expressed in the testis and plays important roles in sperm functions. The temporal expression profiles of CatSper1-4 mRNAs in the mouse testis during post-natal development through adulthood were investigated using real-time RT-PCR. The CatSper2 transcript was present in the testis of the 8-day-old mice, and was repressed in the adult testis after two sharp up-regulations at day 18 and 35. CatSper1 and CatSper3, 4 mRNAs were detectable in the testis of 18-day and 15-day-old mice, respectively. After sharp up-regulation at day 25 and 35, respectively, they were maximal at the adult testis stage. The differences between the temporal expression profiles of the CatSper transcripts in post-natal mouse testis development suggest different regulation to their transcription, and potentially contribute to the possibility of forming heteromeric channels among these four CatSper family members. CatSper1-3 transcripts were identified to be present in the human ejaculated spermatozoa by RT-PCR. Significantly higher levels of CatSper2 and CatSper3 mRNAs revealed by real-time RT-PCR were observed in the high-motile spermatozoa than in the low-motile fraction and suggests that CatSper2 and CatSper3 transcripts in the human ejaculated spermatozoa could be the potential targets for further study and male infertility screening.

  14. Antenatal anxiety disorder as a predictor of postnatal depression: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Helen F; Murray, Lynne; Royal-Lawson, Melanie; Cooper, Peter J

    2011-03-01

    Previous research has implicated high levels of antenatal anxiety as a predictor of postnatal depression, but there is a paucity of evidence on the relationship between the various forms of anxiety and postnatal depression. A longitudinal study of 246 mothers (56 with antenatal generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), 68 with antenatal generalised social phobia, 28 with both disorders in the antenatal period, and 94 with no antenatal GAD or social phobia) allowed us to explore whether antenatal social phobia and GAD predict high Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) scores (probable depression >12) at 10-14 days, 10-12 weeks, 10 months, 14 months, and 24 months postnatally. We found that, after accounting for the presence of other antenatal anxiety disorders, antenatal depression, maternal age at child's birth, socio-economic status and ethnicity in the models, antenatal GAD independently predicted depression at all time points after delivery. A less robust relationship was found for antenatal social phobia, which predicted postnatal depression at only 10 months after birth. One possibility consistent with our findings is that there may be differences in the timing of postnatal depression with different forms of antenatal anxiety disorders.

  15. Apoptosis Process in Mouse Leydig Cells during Postnatal Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salles Faria, Maria José; Simões, Zilá Paulino; Luz; Orive Lunardi, Laurelucia; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2003-02-01

    The development of Leydig cells in mammals has been widely described as a biphasic pattern with two temporally mature Leydig cell populations, fetal stage followed by the adult generation beginning at puberty. In the present study, mouse Leydig cells were examined for apoptosis during postnatal testis development using electron microscopy and in situ DNA fragmentation by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase staining (TdT). Both the morphological study and the DNA fragmentation analysis showed that cellular death by apoptosis did not occur in Leydig cells during the neonatal, prepubertal, puberty, and adult periods. From these results, we suggest that the remaining fetal Leydig cells in the neonatal testis are associated with the involution or degeneration processes. In contrast, in the prepubertal and puberty stages, fragmentation of apoptotic DNA was detected in germ cells present in some seminiferous tubules.

  16. Postnatal change in sulcal length asymmetry in cerebrum of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kazuhito; Sawada, Kazuhiko; Fukunishi, Katsuhiro; Noritaka, Imai; Sakata-Haga, Hiromi; Yoshihiro, Fukui

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the timing of the onset of adult-type sulcal length asymmetry during postnatal development of the male cynomolgus monkey cerebrum. The monkey brain has already reached adult size by 3 months of age, although the body weight only represents 1/8 of the adult body weight by that time. The fronto-occipital length and the cerebral width also reached adult levels by that postnatal age with no left/right bias. Consistently, lengths of the major primary sulci reached adult levels by 3 months of age, and then decreased slightly in sexually mature monkeys (4-6.5 years of age). Asymmetry quotient analysis showed that sulcal length asymmetry patterns gradually changed during postnatal development. The male adult pattern of sulcal length asymmetry was acquired after 24 months of age. In particular, age-dependent rightward lateralization of the arcuate sulcal length was revealed during cerebral maturation by three-way ANOVA. The results suggest that the regional difference in cerebral maturation from adolescence to young adulthood modifies the sulcal morphology with characteristic asymmetric patterns in male cynomolgus monkeys.

  17. Pre- and early-postnatal nutrition modify gene and protein expressions of muscle energy metabolism markers and phospholipid Fatty Acid composition in a muscle type specific manner in sheep.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lei; Kongsted, Anna H; Ghoreishi, Seyed M; Takhtsabzy, Tasnim K; Friedrichsen, Martin; Hellgren, Lars I; Kadarmideen, Haja N; Vaag, Allan; Nielsen, Mette O

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that undernutrition in late fetal life reduced whole-body insulin sensitivity in adult sheep, irrespective of dietary exposure in early postnatal life. Skeletal muscle may play an important role in control of insulin action. We therefore studied a range of putative key muscle determinants of insulin signalling in two types of skeletal muscles (longissimus dorsi (LD) and biceps femoris (BF)) and in the cardiac muscle (ventriculus sinister cordis (VSC)) of sheep from the same experiment. Twin-bearing ewes were fed either 100% (NORM) or 50% (LOW) of their energy and protein requirements during the last trimester of gestation. From day-3 postpartum to 6-months of age (around puberty), twin offspring received a high-carbohydrate-high-fat (HCHF) or a moderate-conventional (CONV) diet, whereafter all males were slaughtered. Females were subsequently raised on a moderate diet and slaughtered at 2-years of age (young adults). The only long-term consequences of fetal undernutrition observed in adult offspring were lower expressions of the insulin responsive glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1α (PGC1α) mRNA in BF, but increased PGC1α expression in VSC. Interestingly, the HCHF diet in early postnatal life was associated with somewhat paradoxically increased expressions in LD of a range of genes (but not proteins) related to glucose uptake, insulin signalling and fatty acid oxidation. Except for fatty acid oxidation genes, these changes persisted into adulthood. No persistent expression changes were observed in BF and VSC. The HCHF diet increased phospholipid ratios of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in all muscles, even in adults fed identical diets for 1½ years. In conclusion, early postnatal, but not late gestation, nutrition had long-term consequences for a number of determinants of insulin action and metabolism in LD. Tissues other than muscle may account for reduced whole

  18. Effects of a 10-Day Intensive Health Promotion Program Combining Diet and Physical Activity on Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Blood Factors of Young Adults: A Randomized Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Soon; Lee, Jae Koo; Yeun, Young Ran

    2017-04-11

    BACKGROUND A lifestyle characterized by poor eating habits and physical inactivity is a risk factor for multiple lifestyle diseases in young adults. This study assessed the effects of implementing an intensive 10-day health promotion program combining diet and physical activities on body composition, physical fitness, and biochemical parameters of young adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this randomized pilot study, 30 female undergraduate students were randomly allocated to an intervention and a control group. The health promotion program consisted of unlimited amounts of vegetarian food; aerobic, flexibility, and strength exercises (3 hours/day); lectures on health (3 hours/day); massage practice (2 hours/day); and healthy cooking practice (1 hour/day). The effects of the intervention were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. RESULTS The intensive 10-day health promotion program significantly reduced body weight, body mass index, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood glucose, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. At the same time, participants demonstrated increased back muscle, leg muscle, and grip strength; waist and shoulder flexibility; balance; and cardiorespiratory endurance. CONCLUSIONS The intensive 10-day health promotion program is a viable intervention for improving body composition, physical fitness, glycemic control, and blood lipid levels in young adults.

  19. Aquaporin-4 expression contributes to decreases in brain water content during mouse postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiumiao; Gao, Junying; Ding, Jiong; Hu, Gang; Xiao, Ming

    2013-05-01

    The water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is implicated to facilitate water efflux from the brain parenchyma into the blood and CSF, playing a critical role in maintaining brain water homeostasis. Nevertheless, its contribution to decreases in brain water content during postnatal development remains unknown. A quantitative Western blot analysis was performed to investigate developmental expression of AQP4 in the whole mouse brain and showed that AQP4 expression level in 1 week-old brain was only 21.3% of that in the adult brain, but significantly increased to 67.4% of the adult level by 2 weeks after birth. Statistical analysis demonstrated that increased AQP4 expression partially relates to decreased brain water content in postnatal mice (r(2)=0.92 and P=0.002). Moreover, AQP4 null mice had greater brain water content than littermate controls from 2 weeks up to adult age. Consistently, mature pattern of AQP4 localization at the brain-blood and brain-CSF interfaces were completed at approximately at 2 weeks after birth. In addition, AQP4 expression in the brain stem and hypothalamus was earlier than that in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum, suggesting a brain regional variation in developmental expression of AQP4. These results characterize the developmental feature of AQP4 expression in the postnatal brain and provide direct evidence for a role of AQP4 in postnatal brain water uptake.

  20. Effects of different degrees of insulin resistance on endothelial function in obese adults undergoing alternate day fasting

    PubMed Central

    Hoddy, Kristin K.; Bhutani, Surabhi; Phillips, Shane A.; Varady, Krista A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity can have deleterious effects on insulin sensitivity leading to endothelial dysfunction. Whether alternate day fasting (ADF) can ameliorate insulin sensitivity in a way that improves endothelial function remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the impact of ADF on endothelium dependent flow mediated dilation (FMD) in obese subjects with different degrees of insulin resistance. METHODS: Obese non-diabetic adults (n = 54) participated in an 8-week ADF protocol (25% energy intake “fast day”, alternated with ad libitum intake “feast day”). Subjects were divided into tertiles according to degree of insulin resistance based on HOMA-IR (Homeostatic model assessment-Insulin resistance): tertile 1 (0.8–2.4), tertile 2 (2.5–3.6), tertile 3 (3.7–12.4). RESULTS: Body weight decreased (P < 0.001) by 4% in each tertile. Fat mass, lean mass, and visceral fat mass also decreased (P < 0.001) similarly in each tertile. After 8 weeks of ADF, FMD and adiponectin differed (P < 0.05) between tertile 1 (3±0%; 26±23%) versus tertile 3 (–3±0%; –13±10%). Changes in leptin did not differ between tertiles (tertile 1: –23±7%; tertile 2: –20±7%; tertile 3: –9±7%). Fasting glucose did not change in any tertile. Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR differed (P < 0.05) between tertile 1 (10±11%; 11±11%) versus tertile 3 (–27±8%; –30±9%). Plasma lipids, blood pressure and heart rate did not change in any tertile. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that ADF may be effective for decreasing insulin resistance in insulin resistant subjects, but these changes have no effect on endothelial function. PMID:28035343

  1. Effects of postnatal bromocriptine injection on thyroid function and prolactinemia of rats at adulthood.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Janaine C; Lisboa, Patricia C; de Oliveira, Elaine; Peixoto-Silva, Nayara; Nobre, Jessica L; Fraga, Mabel C; Manhães, Alex C; Moura, Egberto G

    2016-10-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that maternal prolactin inhibition at the end of lactation, using bromocriptine (BRO), leads to an increase in leptin transfer via milk and induces the adult progeny to present hypothyroidism, leptin resistance and metabolic syndrome (obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, lower HDL). To test if these alterations are due to direct BRO action on the pups, in the present study we evaluated the long-term effects of direct injection of BRO (0.1μg/once daily) in male Wistar rats from postnatal (PN) day 1 to 10 (early treatment) or from PN11 to 20 (late treatment) on: food intake, body mass, cardiovascular parameters, hormone profile, hypothalamic leptin signaling, glucose homeostasis and thyroid hormone-dependent proteins. The respective controls were injected with methanol-saline. Offspring were killed at adulthood (PN180). Adult PN1-10 BRO-treated animals had lower food intake, hypoprolactinemia, lower leptin action (lower OBR-b, STAT-3 and SOCS-3 mRNA levels in the arcuate nucleus), lower TRH-TSH-thyroid axis as well as lower thyroid hormone markers. On the other hand, adult animals that were BRO-treated during the PN11-20 period showed hyperphagia, higher blood pressure, higher prolactinemia and OBR-b, higher TRH and plasma T3, hypercorticosteronemia as well as higher Dio2 and UCP1 mRNA expression in the brown adipose tissue. Glucose homeostasis was not changed treatment in either period. Our data show that early and late dopamine overexposure during lactation induces diverse metabolic disturbances later in life, increasing the risk of thyroid dysfunction and, consequently, changes in prolactinemia.

  2. Transcriptomic analysis of the developing and adult mouse cochlear sensory epithelia.

    PubMed

    Smeti, Ibtihel; Assou, Said; Savary, Etienne; Masmoudi, Saber; Zine, Azel

    2012-01-01

    The adult mammalian cochlea lacks regenerative ability and the irreversible degeneration of cochlear sensory hair cells leads to permanent hearing loss. Previous data show that early postnatal cochlea harbors stem/progenitor-like cells and shows a limited regenerative/repair capacity. These properties are progressively lost later during the postnatal development. Little is known about the genes and pathways that are potentially involved in this difference of the regenerative/repair potentialities between early postnatal and adult mammalian cochlear sensory epithelia (CSE). The goal of our study is to investigate the transcriptomic profiles of these two stages. We used Mouse Genome 430 2.0 microarray to perform an extensive analysis of the genes expressed in mouse postnatal day-3 (P3) and adult CSE. Statistical analysis of microarray data was performed using SAM (Significance Analysis of Microarrays) software. We identified 5644 statistically significant differentially expressed transcripts with a fold change (FC) >2 and a False Discovery Rate (FDR) ≤0.05. The P3 CSE signature included 3,102 transcripts, among which were known genes in the cochlea, but also new transcripts such as, Hmga2 (high mobility group AT-hook 2) and Nrarp (Notch-regulated ankyrin repeat protein). The adult CSE overexpressed 2,542 transcripts including new transcripts, such as Prl (Prolactin) and Ar (Androgen receptor), that previously were not known to be expressed in the adult cochlea. Our comparative study revealed important genes and pathways differentially expressed between the developing and adult CSE. The identification of new candidate genes would be useful as potential markers of the maintenance or the loss of stem cells and regenerative/repair ability during mammalian cochlear development.

  3. Postnatal changes in the number of serotonin-immunoreactive cells in midbrain raphe nuclei of male rats.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Moriizumi, Tetsuji; Shimogawa, Yuji; Yamanouchi, Korehito

    2014-09-01

    To clarify the developmental changes in serotonergic neurons in the subdivisions of the dorsal (DR) and median raphe (MR) nuclei before puberty, the extent of the nuclei and the number of serotonin (5-HT) immunoreactive (ir) cells were measured in 5-, 15-, and 30-day-old rats and 8-week-old (adult) castrated male rats. The brains were fixed and 50 μm frozen sections prepared. After immunostaining for 5-HT, the number of 5-HT-ir cells in a 0.2 × 0.2 mm frame in the dorsal, ventral and lateral subdivisions of the DR (dDR, vDR and lDR, respectively) and MR were counted. Total numbers of 5-HT-ir cells counted in the frame of three sections in each rat were expressed as the number of cells per cubic millimeter (density). The results indicated that the densities of 5-HT-ir cells in the MR were almost the same in all age groups. On the other hand, among the subdivisions of the DR, the mean density of 5-HT-ir cells in 15-day-old rats was higher than that in the 5-day-old group in the lDR only. The area of the three sections of the DR and of the MR was also measured. The area of the DR in 15-day-old rats was found to be twice that in the 5-day-old rats, and differed from the area in 30-day-old rats and adults. There were no differences among the age groups in the areas of the MR. The results indicate that the expression of 5-HT in the lDR and extent of the DR increased to adult levels from days 5 to 15 after birth. In the dDR, vDR and MR, expression of 5-HT at postnatal day 5 was at adult levels already.

  4. FGF-2 signal promotes proliferation of cerebellar progenitor cells and their oligodendrocytic differentiation at early postnatal stage

    SciTech Connect

    Naruse, Masae; Shibasaki, Koji; Ishizaki, Yasuki

    2015-08-07

    The origins and developmental regulation of cerebellar oligodendrocytes are largely unknown, although some hypotheses of embryonic origins have been suggested. Neural stem cells exist in the white matter of postnatal cerebellum, but it is unclear whether these neural stem cells generate oligodendrocytes at postnatal stages. We previously showed that cerebellar progenitor cells, including neural stem cells, widely express CD44 at around postnatal day 3. In the present study, we showed that CD44-positive cells prepared from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum gave rise to neurospheres, while CD44-negative cells prepared from the same cerebellum did not. These neurospheres differentiated mainly into oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, suggesting that CD44-positive neural stem/progenitor cells might generate oligodendrocytes in postnatal cerebellum. We cultured CD44-positive cells from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum in the presence of signaling molecules known as mitogens or inductive differentiation factors for oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Of these, only FGF-2 promoted survival and proliferation of CD44-positive cells, and these cells differentiated into O4+ oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, we examined the effect of FGF-2 on cerebellar oligodendrocyte development ex vivo. FGF-2 enhanced proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and increased the number of O4+ and CC1+ oligodendrocytes in slice cultures. These results suggest that CD44-positive cells might be a source of cerebellar oligodendrocytes and that FGF-2 plays important roles in their development at an early postnatal stage. - Highlights: • CD44 is expressed in cerebellar neural stem/progenitor cells at postnatal day 3 (P3). • FGF-2 promoted proliferation of CD44-positive progenitor cells from P3 cerebellum. • FGF-2 promoted oligodendrocytic differentiation of CD44-positive progenitor cells. • FGF-2 increased the number of oligodendrocytes in P3 cerebellar slice culture.

  5. Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate during pregnancy in rat and mouse. II: postnatal evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The postnatal effects of in utero exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, C8F17SO3-) were evaluated in the rat and mouse. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given 1, 2, 3, 5, or 10 mg/kg PFOS daily by gavage from gestation day (GD) 2 to GD 21; pregnant CD-1 mice were treated ...

  6. Nitrergic neurons during early postnatal development of the prefrontal cortex in the rat: histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Hvizdosova, Natalia; Tomasova, Lenka; Bolekova, Adriana; Kolesar, Dalibor; Kluchova, Darina

    2014-06-01

    The presence of nitrergic cells in the prefrontal cortex has been confirmed, however little is known about the postnatal development of these cells. Nitrergic neurons were studied histochemically by using NADPH-diaphorase staining in the prefrontal cortex of male Wistar rats from postnatal day 7-21 (P7-21). Neuronal NADPH-diaphorase is a nitric oxide synthase that provides a specific histochemical marker for neurons producing nitric oxide (NO). NO acts as a neurotransmitter and intracellular signaling molecule in the nervous system. We observed in 7 day old rats NADPH-d containing neurons that were intensely stained. These neurons were bipolar with a short dendrite with average length of 23 μm. During the second postnatal week, the neurons were mainly bipolar and were rarely multipolar. By P14 the cells were located primarily in cortical layers III-VI. Nitrergic neurons of the 21 day old rats were histochemically identified as multipolar cells with long radial extending dendrites. Dendrites of neurons in 14 and 21 day old rats were a similar length with an average of 57 μm. These results suggest that nitrergic neurons differentiate during a relatively short period of time and reach their structural maturity by the end of the second week of postnatal development.

  7. Congenital lung lesions: Postnatal management and outcome.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Dakshesh H; Rasiah, Shree Vishna

    2015-08-01

    Antenatal diagnosis of lung lesion has become more accurate resulting in dilemma and controversies of its antenatal and postnatal management. Majority of antenatally diagnosed congenital lung lesions are asymptomatic in the neonatal age group. Large lung lesions cause respiratory compromise and inevitably require urgent investigations and surgery. The congenital lung lesion presenting with hydrops requires careful postnatal management of lung hypoplasia and persistent pulmonary hypertension. Preoperative stabilization with gentle ventilation with permissive hypercapnia and delayed surgery similar to congenital diaphragmatic hernia management has been shown to result in good outcome. The diagnostic investigations and surgical management of the asymptomatic lung lesions remain controversial. Postnatal management and outcome of congenital cystic lung lesions are discussed.

  8. Adolescents exhibit behavioral differences from adults during instrumental learning and extinction.

    PubMed

    Sturman, David A; Mandell, Daniel R; Moghaddam, Bita

    2010-02-01

    Adolescence is associated with the development of brain regions linked to cognition and emotion. Such changes are thought to contribute to the behavioral and neuropsychiatric vulnerabilities of this period. We compared adolescent (Postnatal Days 28-42) and adult (Postnatal Day 60+) rats as they performed a simple instrumental task and extinction. Rats were trained to poke into a hole for a food-pellet reinforcer. After six days of training, rats underwent extinction sessions in which the previously rewarded behavior was no longer reinforced. During extinction, we examined the effects of continued presentation of a cue light and food restriction. Adults and adolescents exhibited similar performance during training, although adolescents made more task-irrelevant pokes, consistent with increased exploration. Adults made more premature pokes, which could indicate a more exclusive focus on the task. During extinction, adolescents made more perseverative (previously reinforced) pokes than adults. This behavior was strongly modulated by the combination of motivational factors present (food restriction and cue light), indicating that adolescents were differentially sensitive to them. Furthermore, food restriction induced greater open-field activity in adolescents but not in adults. Thus, as the neural circuitry of motivated behavior develops substantially during adolescence, so too does the behavioral sensitivity to motivational factors. Understanding how such factors differently affect adolescents may shed light on mechanisms that lead to the development of disorders that are manifested during this period.

  9. Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Decrease Interferon Gamma Production through an Age-Dependent Histone Modification in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Hung, Pi-Lien; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Overexposure to prenatal glucocorticoid (GC) disturbs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A high-fat (HF) diet is a major environmental factor that can cause metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal GC plus a postnatal HF diet could alter immune programming in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline at 14–21 days of gestation. Male offspring were then divided into four groups: vehicle, prenatal dexamethasone exposure, postnatal HF diet (VHF), and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus a postnatal HF diet (DHF). The rats were sacrificed and adaptive immune function was evaluated. Compared to the vehicle, the DHF group had lower interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by splenocytes at postnatal day 120. Decreases in H3K9 acetylation and H3K36me3 levels at the IFN-γ promoter correlated with decreased IFN-γ production. The impaired IFN-γ production and aberrant site-specific histone modification at the IFN-γ promoter by prenatal dexamethasone treatment plus a postnatal HF diet resulted in resilience at postnatal day 180. Prenatal dexamethasone and a postnatal HF diet decreased IFN-γ production through a site-specific and an age-dependent histone modification. These findings suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to GC and a postnatal environment exert effects on fetal immunity programming. PMID:27669212

  10. Morphologic maturation of tachykinin peptide-expressing cells in the postnatal rabbit retina.

    PubMed

    Casini, G; Trasarti, L; Andolfi, L; Bagnoli, P

    1997-04-18

    Tachykinin (TK) peptides, which include substance P, neurokinin A, two neurokinin A-related peptides and neurokinin B, are widely present in the nervous system, including the retina, where they act as neurotransmitters/modulators as well as growth factors. In the present study, we investigated the maturation of TK-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the rabbit retina with the aim of further contributing to the knowledge of the development of transmitter-identified retinal cell populations. In the adult retina, the pattern of TK immunostaining is consistent with the presence of TK peptides in amacrine, displaced amacrine, interplexiform and ganglion cells. In the newborn retina, intensely immunostained TK-IR somata are located in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) and in the inner nuclear layer (INL) adjacent to the inner plexiform layer (IPL). They are characterized by an oval-shaped cell body originating a single process without ramifications. TK-IR processes are occasionally observed in the IPL and in the outer plexiform layer (OPL). Long TK-IR fiber bundles are observed in the ganglion cell axon layer. TK-IR profiles resembling small somata are rarely observed in the INL adjacent to the OPL. At postnatal day (PND) 2, some TK-IR cells display more complex morphologic features, including processes with secondary ramifications. Long TK-IR processes in the IPL are often seen to terminate with growth cones. Between PND 6 and PND 11 (eye opening), there is a dramatic increase in the number of immunolabeled processes with growth cones both in the IPL and in the OPL and the mature lamination of TK-IR fibers in laminae 1, 3 and 5 of the IPL is established. TK-IR cells attain mature morphological characteristics and the rare, putative TK-IR somata in the distal INL are no longer observed. After eye opening, growth cones are not present and the pattern typical of the adult is reached. These observations indicate that the development of TK-IR cells can be divided into an early phase

  11. The Postnatal Development of Spinal Sensory Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Maria; Jennings, Ernest

    1999-07-01

    The mechanisms by which infants and children process pain should be viewed within the context of a developing sensory nervous system. The study of the neurophysiological properties and connectivity of sensory neurons in the developing spinal cord dorsal horn of the intact postnatal rat has shed light on the way in which the newborn central nervous system analyzes cutaneous innocuous and noxious stimuli. The receptive field properties and evoked activity of newborn dorsal horn cells to single repetitive and persistent innocuous and noxious inputs are developmentally regulated and reflect the maturation of excitatory transmission within the spinal cord. These changes will have an important influence on pain processing in the postnatal period.

  12. Maternal Dexamethasone Exposure Alters Synaptic Inputs to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurons in the Early Postnatal Rat

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Wei Ling; Idris, Marshita Mohd; Kevin, Felix Suresh; Soga, Tomoko; Parhar, Ishwar S.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal dexamethasone [(DEX); a glucocorticoid receptor agonist] exposure delays pubertal onset and alters reproductive behavior in the adult offspring. However, little is known whether maternal DEX exposure affects the offspring’s reproductive function by disrupting the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal function in the brain. Therefore, this study determined the exposure of maternal DEX on the GnRH neuronal spine development and synaptic cluster inputs to GnRH neurons using transgenic rats expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of GnRH promoter. Pregnant females were administered with DEX (0.1 mg/kg) or vehicle (VEH, water) daily during gestation day 13–20. Confocal imaging was used to examine the spine density of EGFP–GnRH neurons by three-dimensional rendering and synaptic cluster inputs to EGFP–GnRH neurons by synapsin I immunohistochemistry on postnatal day 0 (P0) males. The spine morphology and number on GnRH neurons did not change between the P0 males following maternal DEX and VEH treatment. The number of synaptic clusters within the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) was decreased by maternal DEX exposure in P0 males. Furthermore, the number and levels of synaptic cluster inputs in close apposition with GnRH neurons was decreased following maternal DEX exposure in the OVLT region of P0 males. In addition, the postsynaptic marker molecule, postsynaptic density 95, was observed in GnRH neurons following both DEX and VEH treatment. These results suggest that maternal DEX exposure alters neural afferent inputs to GnRH neurons during early postnatal stage, which could lead to reproductive dysfunction during adulthood. PMID:27630615

  13. Morphometric studies on the structural development of the lung in Macaca fascicularis during fetal and postnatal life.

    PubMed Central

    Hislop, A; Howard, S; Fairweather, D V

    1984-01-01

    The structural development of the normal monkey lung (Macaca fascicularis) from 61 days of gestation to 14 days postnatal age has been described using quantitative morphometric techniques. The lung of the adult monkey has also been studied. The airway and arterial branching pattern has been traced using serial sections. The alveolar number and size have been estimated and the structure of the arteries after postmortem arterial injection has been assessed. Comparison of lung morphology in monkey and man shows that there are similarities in segmental arrangement, structure and branching pattern of airways, in arterial structure and in changes in the arteries after birth. Although there are differences in the number of lobes, the number of generations of different types of airways and the number and size of alveoli, the overall structure in the monkey is more similar to that in man than is the structure of the lung in species such as sheep, pig or rat. During fetal life the monkey lung passes through the same stages of development as the human fetus but at birth the monkey has a full complement of airways and mature alveoli. Postnatal growth of airways and alveoli is due to increase in size rather than to multiplication. In man there is an increase in the number of alveoli and alveolar ducts after birth as well as an increase in size. Despite the differences between the species it seems appropriate to use the monkey in experimental studies on the lung. Images Fig. 1 (cont.) Fig. 1 Fig. 4 (cont.) Fig. 4 PMID:6706842

  14. Dynamics of the mouse brain cortical synaptic proteome during postnatal brain development

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Lozano, Miguel A.; Klemmer, Patricia; Gebuis, Titia; Hassan, Chopie; van Nierop, Pim; van Kesteren, Ronald E.; Smit, August B.; Li, Ka Wan

    2016-01-01

    Development of the brain involves the formation and maturation of numerous synapses. This process requires prominent changes of the synaptic proteome and potentially involves thousands of different proteins at every synapse. To date the proteome analysis of synapse development has been studied sparsely. Here, we analyzed the cortical synaptic membrane proteome of juvenile postnatal days 9 (P9), P15, P21, P27, adolescent (P35) and different adult ages P70, P140 and P280 of C57Bl6/J mice. Using a quantitative proteomics workflow we quantified 1560 proteins of which 696 showed statistically significant differences over time. Synaptic proteins generally showed increased levels during maturation, whereas proteins involved in protein synthesis generally decreased in abundance. In several cases, proteins from a single functional molecular entity, e.g., subunits of the NMDA receptor, showed differences in their temporal regulation, which may reflect specific synaptic development features of connectivity, strength and plasticity. SNARE proteins, Snap 29/47 and Stx 7/8/12, showed higher expression in immature animals. Finally, we evaluated the function of Cxadr that showed high expression levels at P9 and a fast decline in expression during neuronal development. Knock down of the expression of Cxadr in cultured primary mouse neurons revealed a significant decrease in synapse density. PMID:27748445

  15. Early postnatal genistein administration permanently affects nitrergic and vasopressinergic systems in a sex-specific way.

    PubMed

    Ponti, G; Rodriguez-Gomez, A; Farinetti, A; Marraudino, M; Filice, F; Foglio, B; Sciacca, G; Panzica, G C; Gotti, S

    2017-03-27

    Genistein (GEN) is a natural xenoestrogen (isoflavonoid) that may interfere with the development of estrogen-sensitive neural circuits. Due to the large and increasing use of soy-based formulas for babies (characterized by a high content of GEN), there are some concerns that this could result in an impairment of some estrogen-sensitive neural circuits and behaviors. In a previous study, we demonstrated that its oral administration to female mice during late pregnancy and early lactation induced a significant decrease of nitric oxide synthase-positive cells in the amygdala of their male offspring. In the present study, we have used a different experimental protocol mimicking, in mice, the direct precocious exposure to GEN. Mice pups of both sexes were fed either with oil, estradiol or GEN from birth to postnatal day 8. Nitric oxide synthase and vasopressin neural systems were analyzed in adult mice. Interestingly, we observed that GEN effect was time specific (when compared to our previous study), sex specific, and not always comparable to the effects of estradiol. This last observation suggests that GEN may act through different intracellular pathways. Present results indicate that the effect of natural xenoestrogens on the development of the brain may be highly variable: a plethora of neuronal circuits may be affected depending on sex, time of exposure, intracellular pathway involved, and target cells. This raises concern on the possible long-term effects of the use of soy-based formulas for babies, which may be currently underestimated.

  16. Neonatal treatment with lipopolysaccharide differentially affects adult anxiety responses in the light-dark test and taste neophobia test in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Tenk, Christine M; Kavaliers, Martin; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter

    2013-05-01

    Neonatal administration of the bacterial cell wall component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to alter a variety of behavioural and physiological processes in the adult rat, including altering adult anxiety-like behaviour. Research conducted to date, however, has produced conflicting findings with some results demonstrating increases in adult anxiety-like behaviour while others report decreases or no changes in anxiety-like behaviour. Thus, the current study conducted additional evaluation of the effects of neonatal LPS exposure on adult anxiety-like behaviours by comparing the behavioural outcomes in the more traditional light-dark test, together with the less common hyponeophagia to sucrose solution paradigm. Male and female Long-Evans rats were treated systemically with either LPS (50μg/kg) or saline (0.9%) on postnatal days 3 and 5. Animals were then tested in the light-dark apparatus on postnatal day 90 for 30min. Next, following 5 days of habituation to distilled water delivery in Lickometer drinking boxes, animal were tested for neophagia to a 10% sucrose solution (0.3M) for 30min daily on postnatal days 96 and 97. In the light-dark test, neonatal LPS treatment decreased adult anxiety-like behaviour in females, but not males. In contrast, neonatal exposure to LPS did not influence adult anxiety-like behaviour as measured by hyponeophagia, but altered the licking patterns of drinking displayed towards a novel, palatable sucrose solution in adult males and females, in a manner that may reflect a decrease in situational anxiety. The current study supports the idea that neonatal LPS treatment results in highly specific alterations of adult anxiety-like behaviour, the nature of which seems to depend not only on the measure of anxiety behaviour used, but also possibly, on the degree of anxiety experienced during the behavioural test.

  17. Behavioral changes in preweaning and adult rats exposed prenatally to low ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, S.

    1986-04-01

    Seven behavioral tests were used to evaluate the postnatal behavior of rats after exposure on gestational Day 15 to 0, 25, 50, 75, or 125 r, whole body irradiation of the pregnant rat. Three tests were administered in the first 2 postnatal weeks (righting reflex, negative geotaxis, and reflex suspension); three tests were administered on postnatal Day 21 (modified open field, spatial maze, and continuous corridor). As adults, the rats were retested with the same tests as at 21 days and also in the running wheel. Dose-response decreases in body weight were greater in the younger rats. Some behavioral tests were not altered by irradiation, while others showed clear dose-response relationships, starting as low as 25 r. The early changes were characterized by light body weight, delays in behavioral development and hypoactivity, followed by recovery of some parameters with maturation. Eventually hyperactivity developed in adult rats after gestational irradiation. However, it cannot be concluded that either morphological or behavioral tests are more sensitive than neonatal body weight change for detection of damage from gestational irradiation.

  18. Chronic maternal morphine alters calbindin D-28k expression pattern in postnatal mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Mithbaokar, Pratibha; Fiorito, Filomena; Della Morte, Rossella; Maharajan, Veeramani; Costagliola, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The distribution pattern of calbindin (CB)-D28k-expressing neurons results to be altered in several brain regions of chronic morphine exposed adult mice. In this study, the influence of chronic maternal exposure to morphine on the distribution pattern of CB-D28k-expressing neurons in the brain of mouse offspring was investigated. Females of CD-1 mice were daily administered with saline or morphine for 7 days before mating, during the whole gestation period, and until 21 day post-partum. Their offspring were sacrificed on postnatal day 18, and the brains were examined by histology using cresyl violet and by immunohistochemistry using a rabbit polyclonal anti-CB-D28k antibody. Histology revealed no significant differences in the distribution pattern and the number of neurons between the offspring forebrain of the control group of mice and the two groups of mice treated with different doses of morphine. However, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the number of CB-D28k-immunoreactive neurons remarkably decreased in the cingulate cortex, in the layers II-IV of the parietal cortex and in all regions of the hippocampus, while it increased in the layers V-VI of the parietal cortex and in the subicular region of the offspring brain of morphine treated mice. Overall, our findings demonstrate that maternal exposure to morphine alters the pattern of CB-D28k-expressing neuron pattern in specific regions of murine developing brain, in a layer- and dose-dependent way, thus suggesting that these alterations might represent a mechanism by which morphine modifies the functional aspects of developing brain.

  19. The effects of adults' affective expression and direction of visual gaze on 12-month-olds' visual preferences for an object following a 5-minute, 1-day, or 1-month delay.

    PubMed

    Flom, Ross; Johnson, Sarah

    2011-03-01

    Between 12- and 14 months of age infants begin to use another's direction of gaze and affective expression in learning about various objects and events. What is not well understood is how long infants' behaviour towards a previously unfamiliar object continues to be influenced following their participation in circumstances of social referencing. In this experiment, we examined infants' sensitivity to an adult's direction of gaze and their visual preference for one of two objects following a 5-min, 1-day, or 1-month delay. Ninety-six 12-month-olds participated. For half of the infants during habituation (i.e., familiarization), the adults' direction of gaze was directed towards an unfamiliar object (look condition). For the remaining half of the infants during habituation, the adults' direction of gaze was directed away from the unfamiliar object (look-away condition). All infants were habituated to two events. One event consisted of an adult looking towards (look condition) or away from (look-away condition) an object while facially and vocally conveying a positive affective expression. The second event consisted of the same adult looking towards or away from a different object while conveying a disgusted affective expression. Following the habituation phase and a 5-min, 1-day, or 1-month delay, infants' visual preference was assessed. During the visual preference phase, infants saw the two objects side by side where the adult conveying the affective expression was not visible. Results of the visual preference phase indicate that infants in the look condition showed a significant preference for object previously paired with the positive affect following a 5-min and 1-day delay. No significant visual preference was found in the look condition following a 1-month delay. No significant preferences were found at any retention interval in the look-away condition. Results are discussed in terms of early learning, social referencing, and early memory.

  20. Nociceptin and meiosis during spermatogenesis in postnatal testes.

    PubMed

    Eto, Ko

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylated Rec8, a key component of cohesin, mediates the association and disassociation, "dynamics," of chromosomes occurring in synaptonemal complex formation, crossover recombination, and sister chromatid cohesion during meiosis in germ cells. Yet, the extrinsic factors triggering meiotic chromosome dynamics remained unclear. In postnatal testes, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) acts directly on somatic Sertoli cells to activate gene expression via an intracellular signaling pathway composed of cAMP, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), and cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), and promotes germ cell development and spermatogenesis indirectly. Yet, the paracrine factors mediating the FSH effects to germ cells remained elusive. We have shown that nociceptin, known as a neuropeptide, is upregulated by FSH signaling through cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway in Sertoli cells of postnatal murine testes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation from Sertoli cells demonstrated that CREB phosphorylated at Ser133 associates with prepronociceptin gene encoding nociceptin. Analyses with Sertoli cells and testes revealed that both prepronociceptin mRNA and the nociceptin peptide are induced after FSH signaling is activated. In addition, the nociceptin peptide is induced in testes after 9 days post partum following FSH surge. Thus, our findings may identify nociceptin as a novel paracrine mediator of the FSH effects in the regulation of spermatogenesis; however, very little has known about the functional role of nociceptin in spermatogenesis. We have shown that nociceptin induces Rec8 phosphorylation, triggering chromosome dynamics, during meiosis in spermatocytes of postnatal murine testes. The nociceptin receptor Oprl-1 is exclusively expressed in the plasma membrane of testicular germ cells, mostly spermatocytes. Treatment of testes with nociceptin resulted in a rapid phosphorylation of Rec8. Injection of nociceptin into mice stimulated Rec8 phosphorylation and meiotic chromosome

  1. Comparison of Birth-and Conception-Based Definitions of Postnatal Age in Developmental and Reproductive Rodent Toxicity Studies: lnfluence of Gestation Length on Measurements of Offspring Body Weight and Puberty in Controls

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most laboratories conducting developmental and reproductive toxicity studies in rodents assign age by defining postnatal day (PND) 0 or 1 as the day of birth (DOB); i.e., gestation length affects PND and the timing of postnatal measurements. Some laboratories, however, define age...

  2. Critical role of androgen receptor in the postnatal period in male sexual behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shunji; Ohoya, Miku; Takanami, Keiko; Matsuda, Ken Ichi; Kawata, Mitsuhiro

    2015-11-16

    Gonadal hormones have a developmental role in organization of the nervous system that regulates sexually dimorphic behavior. It is well known that androgen secreted from testes in the perinatal period is converted to estrogen by aromatase in rodent brain, and that estrogen and its receptor play a pivotal role in masculinization of brain structure and function. Treatment with flutamide, an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, during the perinatal period inhibits development of malespecific brain structure and function, suggesting that androgen signaling via AR also influences brain masculinization. In this study, we investigated which stage during the postnatal period is critical for androgen signaling in brain masculinization. The postnatal period was designated as postnatal days (PD) 0-22, and divided into stages I (PD 0-7), II (PD 8-14), and III (PD 15-22). Newborn male rats were given flutamide subcutaneously in each stage. After adulthood, the effects of postnatal flutamide treatment on brain masculinization were evaluated byanalysis of male sexual behavior. Continuous inhibition of AR throughout stages I and II caused a robust reduction of the intromission ratio and ejaculation frequency compared with other groups. AR inhibition in stage I, II, or III did not cause any change. AR inhibition had no effect onmount behavior. These results show that stage-specific AR activation in the first two postnatal weeks may contribute to brain masculinization mediating male sexual behavior in adulthood.

  3. [Postnatal development of zinc levels in the epididymis and testis in rats under normal and experimental conditions].

    PubMed

    Delongeas, J L; Hutin, M F; Burnel, D; Grignon, G

    1987-01-01

    Postnatal testicular and epididymal zinc concentration in the rat was investigated by means of differential pulse polarography. The zinc concentration increased gradually from birth to day 90 in the testis and up to day 60-90 in the epididymis with an abrupt increase on day 21. No marked variation in the zinc content was observed all along the epididymal duct. Experimental castration and efferent duct ligation were carried out in order to assess the influence of blood-borne and luminal androgens on epididymal zinc content. In prepubertal rats, unilateral castration and efferent duct ligation did not affect the zinc content of the epididymis. Moreover, zinc concentration was not affected by bilateral castration which induced very low plasma testosterone levels. These results suggested that epididymal zinc content did not depend upon endocrine testicular secretions, especially androgens. On the other hand, in adult rats efferent duct ligation and cryptorchidism resulted in about 50 and 70% reduction, respectively of the testicular and epididymal zinc content. A correlation was found between the absence of testicular fluid and spermatozoa or the alteration of germ cells and the decrease in epididymal and testicular zinc content.

  4. Tandem insults of prenatal ischemia plus postnatal raised intrathoracic pressure in a novel rat model of encephalopathy of prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Koltz, Michael T.; Tosun, Cigdem; Kurland, David B.; Coksaygan, Turhan; Castellani, Rudolph J.; Ivanova, Svetlana; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J. Marc

    2012-01-01

    Object Encephalopathy of prematurity (EP) is common in preterm, low birth weight infants who require postnatal mechanical ventilation. The worst types of EP are the hemorrhagic forms, including choroid plexus, germinal matrix, periventricular, and intraventricular hemorrhages. Survivors exhibit life-long cognitive, behavioral, and motor abnormalities. Available preclinical models do not fully recapitulate the salient features of hemorrhagic EP encountered in humans. In this study, the authors evaluated a novel model using rats that featured tandem insults of transient prenatal intrauterine ischemia (IUI) plus transient postnatal raised intrathoracic pressure (RIP). Methods Timed-pregnant Wistar rats were anesthetized and underwent laparotomy on embryonic Day 19. Intrauterine ischemia was induced by clamping the uterine and ovarian vasculature for 20 minutes. Natural birth occurred on embryonic Day 22. Six hours after birth, the pups were subjected to an episode of RIP, induced by injecting glycerol (50%, 13 µl/g intraperitoneally). Control groups included naive, sham surgery, and IUI alone. Pathological, histological, and behavioral analyses were performed on pups up to postnatal Day 52. Results Compared with controls, pups subjected to IUI+RIP exhibited significant increases in postnatal mortality and hemorrhages in the choroid plexus, germinal matrix, and periventricular tissues as well as intraventricularly. On postnatal Days 35–52, they exhibited significant abnormalities involving complex vestibulomotor function and rapid spatial learning. On postnatal Day 52, the brain and body mass were significantly reduced. Conclusions Tandem insults of IUI plus postnatal RIP recapitulate many features of the hemorrhagic forms of EP found in humans, suggesting that these insults in combination may play important roles in pathogenesis. PMID:22132923

  5. Stressors during Pregnancy and the Postnatal Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    1989-01-01

    Some infants experience unusual stress from pregnancy through the postnatal period and are especially called upon to exercise coping responses. Discusses unusual stressors, how the infant naturally copes with them, and how caregivers can provide assistance. Reviews studies on stress-relieving intervention techniques. (NH)

  6. Recipient twin limb ischemia with postnatal onset.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Roland Spencer

    2007-02-01

    After the occurrence of 3 local cases of limb ischemia in newborn twins, we reviewed the literature to investigate this combination systematically. This review reveals a distinct condition: postnatal onset limb ischemia affecting recipient twins in twin-twin transfusion syndrome.

  7. Radiology of postnatal skeletal development. Pt. 7

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.A.; Phillips, S.B.

    1983-02-01

    Twenty-four pairs of scapulae from fetal specimens and 35 pairs of scapulae from postnatal cadavers ranging in age from full-term neonates to 14 years, were studied morphologically and roentgenographically. Air-cartilage interfacing was used to demonstrate both the osseous and cartilaginous contours. When the entire chondro-osseous dimensions, rather than just the osseous dimensions, were measured, the scapula had a height-width ratio ranging from 1.36 to 1.52 (average 1.44) during most of fetal development. The exceptions were three stillborns with camptomelic, thanatophoric, and achondrogenic dwarfism in which the ratio averaged 0.6. At no time during fetal development was the glenoid cavity convex; it always had a concave articular surface. However, the osseous subchrondral countour was often flat or slightly convex. In the postnatal period the height-width ratio averaged 1.49. The ratio remained virtually unchanged throughout skeletal growth and maturation. In a patient with unilateral Sprengel's deformity the ratio for the normal side was 1.5, while the abnormal was 1.0. The cartilaginous glenoid cavity was always concave during postnatal development, even in the specimens with major structural deformities, although the subchondral osseous contour was usually flat or convex during the first few years of postnatal development. Ossification of the coracoid process began with the development of a primary center at three to four months. A bipolar physis was present between the primary coracoid center and the primary scapular center until late adolescence.

  8. Failure of a single dose of medroxyprogesterone acetate to induce uterine infertility in postnatally treated domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Lopez Merlo, M; Faya, M; Blanco, P G; Carransa, A; Barbeito, C; Gobello, C

    2016-03-01

    In mice and sheep, neonatal administration of progesterone or progestins inhibited development of uterine glands. The aims of the present study were (1) to describe uterine gland development on postnatal Days 6 to 8 and (2) to evaluate the effects of a single postnatal administration of a progestin on reproduction and adult uterine glands morphology and function in domestic cats. Necropsy was performed on three 1-week-old female cats which had died unrelated to this study. Ten female kittens were randomly assigned within the first 24 hours of birth to: medroxyprogesterone acetate 10 mg/animal subcutaneously (MPA; n = 6) or placebo (PLC; n = 4) and followed up until puberty when they were mated. Twenty-four days after the end of estrus, ovulation and pregnancy were diagnosed by serum progesterone measurement and ultrasonography, respectively. Then, all the cats were ovariohysterectomized. After necropsy or surgery, the excised organs were histologically evaluated. Seven queens ovulated (4 of 6 MPA and 3 of 4 PLC; P > 0.1) and were pregnant (P > 0.1). Four MPA cats presented endometrial hyperplasia and one of them developed a pyometra. The 1-week-old females presented uterine glands in the stage of budding and incipient penetration of the glandular epithelium into the underlying stroma. The MPA-treated queens revealed that the area occupied by uterine glands per square-micrometer (0.55 ± 0.2 vs. 0.49 ± 0.2; P > 0.1) and the height of the glandular epithelium (μm; 24.5 ± 6.7 vs. 24.4 ± 7.2; P > 0.1) did not differ from those of the PLC group. Neither significant gross nor microscopical differences were also found for ovaries (P > 0.1). It is concluded that 1-week-old kittens had an incipient stage of uterine gland development and that a single postnatal supraphysiological dose of MPA did not alter uterine adenogenesis in this species. Furthermore, this treatment seemed to predispose to uterine disease without prevention of fertility.

  9. GABAergic transmission and enhanced modulation by opioids and endocannabinoids in adult rat rostral ventromedial medulla

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-Hua; Suchland, Katherine L; Ingram, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) play critical and complex roles in pain modulation. Recent studies have shown that electrical stimulation of the RVM produces pain facilitation in young animals (postnatal (PN) day < 21) but predominantly inhibits pain behaviours in adults. The cellular mechanisms underlying these changes in RVM modulation of pain behaviours are not known. This is in part because whole-cell patch-clamp studies in RVM to date have been in young (PN day < 18) animals because the organization and abundance of myelinated fibres in this region make the RVM a challenging area for whole-cell patch-clamp recording in adults. Several neurotransmitter systems, including GABAergic neurotransmission, undergo developmental changes that mature by PN day 21. Thus, we focused on optimizing whole-cell patch-clamp recordings for RVM neurons in animals older than PN day 30 and compared the results to animals at PN day 10–21. Our results demonstrate that the probability of GABA release is lower and that opioid and endocannabinoid effects are more evident in adult rats (mature) compared to early postnatal (immature) rats. Differences in these properties of RVM neurons may contribute to the developmental changes in descending control of pain from the RVM to the spinal cord. PMID:25556797

  10. Encoding of mechanical nociception differs in the adult and infant brain

    PubMed Central

    Fabrizi, Lorenzo; Verriotis, Madeleine; Williams, Gemma; Lee, Amy; Meek, Judith; Olhede, Sofia; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Newborn human infants display robust pain behaviour and specific cortical activity following noxious skin stimulation, but it is not known whether brain processing of nociceptive information differs in infants and adults. Imaging studies have emphasised the overlap between infant and adult brain connectome architecture, but electrophysiological analysis of infant brain nociceptive networks can provide further understanding of the functional postnatal development of pain perception. Here we hypothesise that the human infant brain encodes noxious information with different neuronal patterns compared to adults. To test this we compared EEG responses to the same time-locked noxious skin lance in infants aged 0–19 days (n = 18, clinically required) and adults aged 23–48 years (n = 21). Time-frequency analysis revealed that while some features of adult nociceptive network activity are present in infants at longer latencies, including beta-gamma oscillations, infants display a distinct, long latency, noxious evoked 18-fold energy increase in the fast delta band (2–4 Hz) that is absent in adults. The differences in activity between infants and adults have a widespread topographic distribution across the brain. These data support our hypothesis and indicate important postnatal changes in the encoding of mechanical pain in the human brain. PMID:27345331

  11. Evaluation of postnatal growth of preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Bertino, Enrico; Di Nicola, Paola; Giuliani, Francesca; Coscia, Alessandra; Varalda, Alessia; Occhi, Luciana; Rossi, Claudia

    2011-10-01

    The past two decades have seen a progressive improvement in the survival rates of preterm infants, especially in neonates <30 weeks of gestational age. These neonates constitute the large majority of the population in neonatal intensive care units. The correct evaluation of postnatal growth of these babies is nowadays of primary concern, although the definition of their optimal postnatal growth pattern is still controversial. Concerns have also been raised about the strategies to monitor their growth, specifically in relation to the charts used. At present the available charts in clinical practice are fetal growth charts, neonatal anthropometric charts and postnatal growth charts for term infants. None of these, for different reasons, is suitable to correctly evaluate preterm infant growth. An international multicentric project has recently started a study aiming at building a prescriptive standard for the evaluation of postnatal growth of preterm infants and it will be available in the next years providing a population that is conceptually as close as possible to the prescriptive approach used for the construction of the WHO infant and child growth standards. At present, while an international longitudinal standard for evaluating preterm infant postnatal growth is lacking, in Italy the best compromise in clinical practice is likely to be as follows: new Italian INeS (Italian Neonatal Study) charts up to term; International longitudinal charts WHO 2006 or CDC 2002 from term to two years; finally the Italian Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes (SIEDP) 2006 growth charts could be suitable for monitoring the growth of these infants from two years up to 20 years of age.

  12. Effects of 0. 6-Gy prenatal X irradiation on postnatal neurophysiologic development in the Wistar rat

    SciTech Connect

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1986-04-01

    Forty-one pregnant Wistar strain rats were irradiated with 0.6-Gy X rays or were sham irradiated on the 9th or 17th days of gestation to determine if this dosage level would result in alterations in postnatal neurophysiologic development. Half of the mothers were sacrificed at term, and the developmental status of 221 newborns was evaluated. The remaining mothers delivered and raised their litters. The 161 offspring were observed for the age of attainment of the following physiologic parameters: pinna detachment, eye opening, testes opening. Offspring were also tested for the acquisition of the following selected reflexes: surface righting, negative geotaxis, auditory startle, air righting, and visual placing. Term fetal weight was lower than the controls in the group irradiated on the 9th day but was recuperable postnatally. None of the 9 developmental tests performed postnatally were abnormal in the animals irradiated on the 9th day. Thus, at least with regard to these measures, the surviving embryos exposed during the all-or-none period could not be differentiated from the controls. Offspring irradiated on the 17th day exhibited retarded growth which persisted during neonatal life. The three-day-mean neonatal weight was significantly lower in the group irradiated on the 17th day compared to controls. There were no significant maternal body weight or organ/weight differences between the groups. Rats exposed in utero on the 17th day had a significantly delayed acquisition of air righting. These results demonstrate that 0.6-Gy in utero irradiation on the 17th day of gestation can cause subtle alterations in growth and development of the Wistar strain rat during postnatal life.

  13. Dinosaur Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Sandra; Baptiste, H. Prentice

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they capitalized on their first-grade students' love of dinosaurs by hosting a fun-filled Dinosaur Day in their classroom. On Dinosaur Day, students rotated through four dinosaur-related learning stations that integrated science content with art, language arts, math, and history in a fun and time-efficient…

  14. CEMI Days

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    CEMI Days are an important channel of engagement between DOE and the manufacturing industry to identify challenges and opportunities for increasing U.S. manufacturing competitiveness. CEMI Days that are held at manufacturing companies’ facilities can include tours of R&D operations or other points of interest determined by the host company.

  15. Pre- and Post-Natal Maternal Depressive Symptoms in Relation with Infant Frontal Function, Connectivity, and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Soe, Ni Ni; Wen, Daniel J.; Poh, Joann S.; Li, Yue; Broekman, Birit F. P.; Chen, Helen; Chong, Yap Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Gluckman, Peter D.; Meaney, Michael J.; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Qiu, Anqi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between pre- and early post-natal maternal depression and their changes with frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) activity and functional connectivity in 6- and 18-month olds, as well as externalizing and internalizing behaviors in 24-month olds (n = 258). Neither prenatal nor postnatal maternal depressive symptoms independently predicted neither the frontal EEG activity nor functional connectivity in 6- and 18-month infants. However, increasing maternal depressive symptoms from the prenatal to postnatal period predicted greater right frontal activity and relative right frontal asymmetry amongst 6-month infants but these finding were not observed amongst 18-month infants after adjusted for post-conceptual age on the EEG visit day. Subsequently increasing maternal depressive symptoms from the prenatal to postnatal period predicted lower right frontal connectivity within 18-month infants but not among 6-month infants after controlling for post-conceptual age on the EEG visit day. These findings were observed in the full sample and the female sample but not in the male sample. Moreover, both prenatal and early postnatal maternal depressive symptoms independently predicted children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors at 24 months of age. This suggests that the altered frontal functional connectivity in infants born to mothers whose depressive symptomatology increases in the early postnatal period compared to that during pregnancy may reflect a neural basis for the familial transmission of phenotypes associated with mood disorders, particularly in girls. PMID:27073881

  16. Pre- and Post-Natal Maternal Depressive Symptoms in Relation with Infant Frontal Function, Connectivity, and Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Soe, Ni Ni; Wen, Daniel J; Poh, Joann S; Li, Yue; Broekman, Birit F P; Chen, Helen; Chong, Yap Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Gluckman, Peter D; Meaney, Michael J; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Qiu, Anqi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between pre- and early post-natal maternal depression and their changes with frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) activity and functional connectivity in 6- and 18-month olds, as well as externalizing and internalizing behaviors in 24-month olds (n = 258). Neither prenatal nor postnatal maternal depressive symptoms independently predicted neither the frontal EEG activity nor functional connectivity in 6- and 18-month infants. However, increasing maternal depressive symptoms from the prenatal to postnatal period predicted greater right frontal activity and relative right frontal asymmetry amongst 6-month infants but these finding were not observed amongst 18-month infants after adjusted for post-conceptual age on the EEG visit day. Subsequently increasing maternal depressive symptoms from the prenatal to postnatal period predicted lower right frontal connectivity within 18-month infants but not among 6-month infants after controlling for post-conceptual age on the EEG visit day. These findings were observed in the full sample and the female sample but not in the male sample. Moreover, both prenatal and early postnatal maternal depressive symptoms independently predicted children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors at 24 months of age. This suggests that the altered frontal functional connectivity in infants born to mothers whose depressive symptomatology increases in the early postnatal period compared to that during pregnancy may reflect a neural basis for the familial transmission of phenotypes associated with mood disorders, particularly in girls.

  17. Fate choice of post-natal mesoderm progenitors: skeletal versus cardiac muscle plasticity.

    PubMed

    Costamagna, Domiziana; Quattrocelli, Mattia; Duelen, Robin; Sahakyan, Vardine; Perini, Ilaria; Palazzolo, Giacomo; Sampaolesi, Maurilio

    2014-02-01

    Regenerative medicine for skeletal and cardiac muscles still constitutes a fascinating and ambitious frontier. In this perspective, understanding the possibilities of intrinsic cell plasticity, present in post-natal muscles, is vital to define and improve novel therapeutic strategies for acute and chronic diseases. In addition, many somatic stem cells are now crossing the boundaries of basic/translational research to enter the first clinical trials. However, it is still an open question whether a lineage switch between skeletal and cardiac adult myogenesis is possible. Therefore, this review focuses on resident somatic stem cells of post-natal skeletal and cardiac muscles and their plastic potential toward the two lineages. Furthermore, examples of myogenic lineage switch in adult stem cells are also reported and discussed.

  18. Study of prenatal and postnatal development of spleen of Gallus Domesticus (deshi chicken).

    PubMed

    Khalil, M; Sultana, S Z; Rahman, M; Mannan, S; Ahmed, S; Ara, Z G; Sultana, Z R; Chowdhury, A I

    2009-07-01

    Spleen is one of the secondary or peripheral lymphoid organs along with cecal tonsils in birds. The growth of the spleen of Gallus Domesticus (deshi chicken) from prenatal embryonic day fifteen (ED15) to postnatal day ninety (D90) were studied. In macroscopic study it was found that the shape of the spleen was rounded with slightly flattened from side to side at its middle part at prenatal period (ED15, ED18) and becomes rounded at postnatal stages of the deshi chicken (D90). Regarding position it lies close to the right side of the junction between proventriculus and gizzard and was similar in prenatal and postnatal stages. The result of the present study revealed that the mean diameter and weight of the spleen in deshi chicken gradually increases with increase of age, which were 2.00+/-0.136mm and 0.007+/-0.00gm respectively at ED15 stage and it reaches upto 10.40+/-0.331mm and .303+/-0.004gm respectively at day 90 (D90). It was observed that the differences of diameter & weight of the spleen between different ages were statistically significant (p<0.01). Histologically the spleen was surrounded by thin capsule in prenatal life, which gradually becomes thicker in postnatal life. The splenic pulps were not differentiated into white and red pulp on 15th day of embryonic life (ED15) but they were gradually differentiated into white and red pulp in the late prenatal (ED18) and postnatal period. The growth and development of spleen at each stage of the study period were found to be significantly high. Present study indicates that chicken splenic cell population, structure and function were similar to human spleen histologically. It was also found that the chicken embryo allows easy experimental access to all the stages of the splenic development, so the present study will be helpful for experimentation on lymphoid organs and to understand pathophysiology of immunological diseases of human.

  19. Effects of Postnatal Estrogen Manipulations on Juvenile Alloparental Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Adam N.; Carter, C. Sue; Cushing, Bruce S.

    2015-01-01

    Sex- and species-specific patterns of estrogen receptor (ER)-α expression are established early in development, which may contribute to sexual differentiation of behavior and determine male social organization. The current study investigated the effects of ERα and ERβ activation during the second postnatal week on subsequent alloparental behavior and ERα expression in juvenile prairie voles. Male and female pups were treated daily with 17β-estradiol (E2, ERα/ERβ agonist), PPT (selective ERα agonist), DPN (selective ERβ agonist), or the oil vehicle on postnatal days (PD) 8-14. Alloparental behavior and ERα expression were examined at PD21. PPT treatment inhibited prosocial motivation in males and increased pup-directed aggression in both sexes. E2 and DPN had no apparent effect on behavior in either sex. PPT-treated males had increased ERα expression in the medial preoptic area (MPN), medial amygdala (MEApd) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTpr). DPN treatment also increased ERα expression in males, but only in the BSTpr. Female ERα expression was unaffected by treatment. These results support the hypothesis that ERα activation in early life is associated with less prosocial patterns of central ERα expression and alloparental behavior in males. The lack of an effect of E2 on behavior suggests that ERβ may antagonize the effects of ERα on alloparental behavior. The results in DPN-treated males suggest that ERα in the MEApd, and not the BSTpr, may be a primary determinant of alloparental behavior in males. PMID:26222494

  20. Effects of postnatal estrogen manipulations on juvenile alloparental behavior.

    PubMed

    Perry, Adam N; Sue Carter, C; Cushing, Bruce S

    2015-09-01

    Sex- and species-specific patterns of estrogen receptor (ER)-α expression are established early in development, which may contribute to sexual differentiation of behavior and determine male social organization. The current study investigated the effects of ERα and ERβ activation during the second postnatal week on subsequent alloparental behavior and ERα expression in juvenile prairie voles. Male and female pups were treated daily with 17β-estradiol (E2, ERα/ERβ agonist), PPT (selective ERα agonist), DPN (selective ERβ agonist), or the oil vehicle on postnatal days (PD) 8-14. Alloparental behavior and ERα expression were examined at PD21. PPT treatment inhibited prosocial motivation in males and increased pup-directed aggression in both sexes. E2 and DPN had no apparent effect on behavior in either sex. PPT-treated males had increased ERα expression in the medial preoptic area (MPN), medial amygdala (MEApd) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTpr). DPN treatment also increased ERα expression in males, but only in the BSTpr. Female ERα expression was unaffected by treatment. These results support the hypothesis that ERα activation in early life is associated with less prosocial patterns of central ERα expression and alloparental behavior in males. The lack of an effect of E2 on behavior suggests that ERβ may antagonize the effects of ERα on alloparental behavior. The results in DPN-treated males suggest that ERα in the MEApd, and not the BSTpr, may be a primary determinant of alloparental behavior in males.

  1. Combined pre- and postnatal environmental enrichment programs the HPA axis differentially in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Welberg, L; Thrivikraman, K V; Plotsky, P M

    2006-06-01

    Experimental environmental enrichment (EE) is usually applied in adulthood or immediately after weaning, with robust effects on physiology and behaviour. To investigate the effects of EE earlier in life, female rats were maintained under moderate enrichment during pregnancy and, together with their pups, during lactation until weaning. A separate group of dams housed under standard conditions during pregnancy and lactation served as controls. Dams housed under EE exhibited fewer nursing episodes and were off the nest more often, but the frequency of pup licking was not affected on postnatal days 3-5. EE effects on hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to an acute stressor were determined in adult male and female offspring with and without previous exposure to the chronic stressor of constant light. In female offspring, chronic stress significantly increased basal corticosterone (CORT) levels, but not if rats had been exposed to early EE. Furthermore, while control females exposed to chronic stress showed a greatly reduced adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) response to an acute stressor, EE females did not display this desensitization. There was no significant effect of EE on basal ACTH and CORT levels in adult male offspring, nor did it alter their response to acute stress. Maternal licking frequency was moderately but significantly correlated with net corticosterone increases in response to acute stress, the direction of the correlation crucially depending on the offspring's sex and stress conditions. This study shows that EE during pregnancy and lactation has long-lasting effects on reactivity to acute and chronic stress in offspring and that these effects are dependent on the offspring's sex but not greatly on early postpartum maternal behaviour.

  2. Muscle growth and fiber type composition in hind limb muscles during postnatal development in pigs.

    PubMed

    Wank, Veit; Fischer, Martin S; Walter, Bernd; Bauer, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    Rapid postnatal development in pigs is reflected by differentiation in skeletal muscle. This process depends on muscle function and demands, but a comprehensive overview of individual developmental characteristics of quickly growing leg muscles in pigs is still missing. This study focused on the development of 10 hind limb muscles in pigs. To determine these changes in mass, fiber type patterns and fiber diameters were analyzed 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56 and 400 days after birth. Generally, the proportion of slow fibers increased from birth to 8 weeks. Thereafter, only minor changes in muscle fiber type composition were observed. The majority of the muscles contained less then 10% slow-twitch fibers at birth, increasing to between 12 (Musculus vastus lateralis) and 38% (M. gastrocnemius medialis) in adult pigs. By contrast, postural muscles already had 20-30% slow fibers at birth, and this contribution increased up to 65% in adults (i.e. M. vastus intermedius). From birth to the 2nd week, only in slow fibers could activity of oxidative enzymes be detected. A differentiation of fast-twitch fibers into subtypes with high (comparable to type IIA) and low oxidative metabolism (equivalent to type IIB) occurred between the 2nd and 4th week of life. The ratio between type II fibers with high and low oxidative enzyme activity did not change markedly through development in any muscle, although there was a trend towards an increasing proportion of type IIA fibers in the soleus. In the majority of the muscles investigated, the fast-twitch fibers with low oxidative metabolism (IIB) obtained the largest cross-sectional area. In contrast, at birth no remarkable differences in the diameter of fast and slow fibers were found. The rapid increase in muscle mass compared to body mass reflects the high performance in meat production of the cross pig investigated.

  3. Interrelationships of Prenatal and Postnatal Growth, Hormones, Diet and Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    interrelationships, we hypothesized that insulin resistance will be positively associated with breast cancer. Further, we hypothesized that genetic susceptibility...and adolescent/adult diet and physical activity will modify the effect of insulin resistance on breast cancer. Specific aims were: (1) to undergo... insulin resistance -breast cancer relationship, and (3) to obtain fending to conduct a cohort study of the association between prenatal and postnatal

  4. Interrelationships of Prenatal and Postnatal Growth, Hormones, Diet, and Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    interrelationships, we hypothesized that insulin resistance will be positively associated with breast cancer. Further, we hypothesized that genetic susceptibility...and adolescent/adult diet and physical activity will modify the effect of insulin resistance on breast cancer. Specific aims were: 1) to undergo... insulin resistance -breast cancer relationship, and 3) to obtain finding to conduct a cohort study of the association between prenatal and postnatal growth

  5. Interrelationship of Prenatal and Postnatal Growth, Hormones, Diet and Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    interrelationships, we hypothesized that insulin resistance will be positively associated with breast cancer. Further, we hypothesized that genetic susceptibility...and adolescent/adult diet and physical activity will modify the effect of insulin resistance on breast cancer. Specific aims were: 1) to undergo... insulin resistance -breast cancer relationship, and 3) to obtain funding to conduct a cohort study of the association between prenatal and postnatal growth

  6. [Effects of lindane upon the reproductive function in four generations running in the quail. Studies of gonads and müllerian tract in embryos, one day chicken and adults (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Lutz-Ostertag, Y

    1981-01-01

    The effect of lindane commercial solution spraying on quail eggs is studied in four generations running issued from a single parental strain. Observations have been made on fourteen-day embryos, one-day chicken and also two-or eight-month adults quail. The results lead to conclude that pathogenous effects of lindane on gonads and müllerian tract are slowly annuled through successive generations when the experimental procedure consists in treating only the parental eggs. Conversely, following pesticide administration repeated at every generation, the action becomes cumulative and the ratio of aberrations increases. In ovarian and testicular tissues there are cyto-histopathological modifications. Many gonocytes are abnormal and cannot divide. Some of these cells degenerate at the meiotic prophase. Egg production and fertility in adults depend on these phenomenons.

  7. Career Day

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's 2013 Career Days was a joint collaboration between NASA Langley and the Newport News Shipbuilding where 600 high school students from Virginia took on two design challenges -- designing a ca...

  8. Post-natal stress-induced endocrine and metabolic alterations in mice at adulthood involve different pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, Stefano; Campana, Gabriele; Vella, Stefano; Fortuna, Andrea; Galietta, Gabriella; Guarino, Irene; Costa, Loredana; Capasso, Anna; Renzi, Paolo; Frajese, Giovanni V; Franconi, Flavia; Loizzo, Alberto; Spampinato, Santi

    2010-11-01

    In previous investigations we added a physical stress (mild pain) to the "classical" post-natal psychological stress in male mice, and we found that this combination produced a series of dysmetabolic signs very similar to mild human type-2 diabetes. Here, for the first time we demonstrate that within this diabetes model at least two groups of signs depend on the unbalance of two different endogenous systems. Newborn male mice were daily exposed to stressful procedures for 21 days (brief mother separation plus sham injection). Other groups underwent the same procedure, and also received naloxone (Na) to block μ-δ endogenous receptors, or a phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide (AS) directed against pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-mRNA [to block adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)- and POMC-derived opioid peptides]. Adult mice which received only post-natal stress increased body weight (+7.5%), abdominal overweight (+74%), fasting glycemia (+43%), plasma corticosterone (+110%), plasma (+169%) and pituitary (+153%) ACTH levels. Conversely, hypothalamic ACTH and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) were reduced (-70% and -75%, respectively). Neonatal AS administration reverted all parameters to control values. Neonatal naloxone had little or no influence on glucose, corticosterone, ACTH, CRH levels, whereas it prevented body overweight and abdominal overweight. We conclude that, within this type-2 diabetes model in male mice at least two endocrino-neurohumoral systems are damaged, one concerning the opioid system, and the other concerning HPA hormones. The use of the two drugs was of primary importance to demonstrate this statement, and to demonstrate that these two groups of signs could be defined as "separate entities" following our complex post-natal stress model.

  9. The Relationship between Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Cognitive, Neuropsychological, and Behavioral Deficits: A Critical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchetti, Domenic V.; Kaufman, Alan S.; Sparrow, Sara S.

    2004-01-01

    Our purpose in this report is to evaluate scientifically that body of literature relating the effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) upon neurobehavioral, health-related, and cognitive deficits in neonates, developing infants, children, and adults. The data derive from seven cohorts: six cohorts of mothers…

  10. Investigation into the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on postnatal spine development and expression of synaptophysin and PSD95 in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Elibol-Can, Birsen; Kilic, Ertugrul; Yuruker, Sinan; Jakubowska-Dogru, Ewa

    2014-04-01

    Ethanol is known as a potent teratogen responsible for the fetal alcohol syndrome characterized by cognitive deficits especially pronounced in juveniles but ameliorating in adults. Since the mechanisms of these deficits and following partial recovery are not fully elucidated, the aim of the present study was to investigate the process of synaptogenesis in the hippocampus over the first two months of life in control and fetal-alcohol rats. Ethanol was delivered to the pregnant dams by intragastric intubation throughout 7-21 gestation days at the daily dose of 6g/kg generating a mean blood alcohol level of 246.6±40.9mg/dl on gestation day 20. The spine densities as well as the expression of pre- and postsynaptic proteins, synaptophysin (SYP) and PSD-95 protein, were evaluated for three distinct hippocampal regions: CA1, CA2+3, and DG and four postnatal days: PD1, PD10, PD30 and PD60, independently. Our results confirmed an intensive synaptogenesis within the brain spurt period (first 10 postnatal days), however, the temporal pattern of changes in the SYP and PSD-95 expression was different. The ethanol exposure during half of the 1st and the whole 2nd human trimester equivalent resulted in an overall trend toward lower values of synaptic indices at PD1 with a fast recovery from these deficits observed already at PD10. At PD30, around the age when the most pronounced behavioral deficits have been previously reported in juvenile fetal-alcohol subjects, no significant changes were found in either the hippocampal levels of synaptic proteins or in the spine density in principal hippocampal neurons.

  11. RhoE deficiency alters postnatal subventricular zone development and the number of calbindin-expressing neurons in the olfactory bulb of mouse.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Lurbe, Begoña; González-Granero, Susana; Mocholí, Enric; Poch, Enric; García-Manzanares, María; Dierssen, Mara; Pérez-Roger, Ignacio; García-Verdugo, José M; Guasch, Rosa M; Terrado, José

    2015-11-01

    The subventricular zone represents an important reservoir of progenitor cells in the adult brain. Cells from the subventricular zone migrate along the rostral migratory stream and reach the olfactory bulb, where they originate different types of interneurons. In this work, we have analyzed the role of the small GTPase RhoE/Rnd3 in subventricular zone cell development using mice-lacking RhoE expression. Our results show that RhoE null mice display a remarkable postnatal broadening of the subventricular zone and caudal rostral migratory stream. This broadening was caused by an increase in progenitor proliferation, observed in the second postnatal week but not before, and by an altered migration of the cells, which appeared in disorganized cell arrangements that impaired the appropriate contact between cells in the rostral migratory stream. In addition, the thickness of the granule cell layer in the olfactory bulb was reduced, although the density of granule cells did not differ between wild-type and RhoE null mice. Finally, the lack of RhoE expression affected the olfactory glomeruli inducing a severe reduction of calbindin-expressing interneurons in the periglomerular layer. This was already evident in the newborns and even more pronounced 15 days later when RhoE null mice displayed 89% less cells than control mice. Our results indicate that RhoE has pleiotropic functions on subventricular cells because of its role in proliferation and tangential migration, affecting mainly the development of calbindin-expressing cells in the olfactory bulb.

  12. Morphometric examination of the equine adult and foal lung.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Laura; Montgomery, Julia B; Schneider, Jan Philipp; Townsend, Hugh G G; Ochs, Matthias; Singh, Baljit

    2014-10-01

    To understand the mechanisms of airway inflammation associated with equine diseases such as Rhodococcus equi infection, we must identify baseline "normal" structural characteristics of the horse lung. To develop a detailed understanding of the morphology of the horse lung, we adapted and applied stereological methods to the lungs from healthy adult horses (N = 4) and 1-day (N = 5) and 30-day (N = 5) old foals. The left lung was fixed in situ by intrabronchial instillation of glutaraldehyde/paraformaldehyde fixative at 25 cm H2 O column and sampled using a fractionator design followed by embedding in glycol methacrylate. The lung was characterized into parenchyma and non-parenchyma, where median parenchymal density was 81.0% in 1-day-old foals, 84.4% in 30-day-old foals and 93.7% in adult lungs. The median volume density of alveolar airspace per lung was 45.9% in 1-day-old, 55.5% in 30-day and 66.9% in adult horse lungs. The median alveolar surface area increased with age, from 205.3 m(2) , 258.2 m(2) , and 629.9 m(2) in 1-day-old foals, 30-day-old foals, and adults, respectively. While the median alveolar surface density decreased with age, the mean linear intercept (mean free distance within acinar airspaces) increased with age. Alveolar surface area was greater than endothelial surface area within each lung. The ratio between alveolar and endothelial surface density remains unchanged with age. The median endothelium surface area was 106.2 m(2) in 1-day, 147.5 m(2) in 30-day, and 430 m(2) in adult lungs. The data suggest the foal lung is functionally developed and postnatal lung development and remodelling is driven by alveolar expansion paralleled with angiogenesis.

  13. Effects of prenatal exposure to WIFI Signal (2.45GHz) on postnatal development and behavior in rat: Influence of maternal restraint.

    PubMed

    Othman, Haifa; Ammari, Mohamed; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh

    2017-03-10

    The present study was carried out to investigate the potential combined influence of maternal restraint stress (and 2.45GHz WiFi signal exposure on postnatal development and behavior in the offspring of exposed rats. 24 pregnant albino Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: Control, WiFi-exposed, restrained and both WiFi-exposed and restrained groups. Each of WiFi exposure and restraint occurred 2h/day along gestation till parturition. The pups were evaluated for physical development and neuromotor maturation. Moreover, elevated plus maze test, open field activity and stationary beam test were also determined on postnatal days 28, 30 and 31, respectively. After behavioral tests, the rats were anesthetized and their brains were removed for biochemical analysis. Our main findings showed no detrimental effects on gestation progress and outcomes at delivery in all groups. Subsequently, WiFi and restraint, per se and mainly in concert altered physical development of pups with slight differences between genders. Behaviorally, the gestational WiFi irradiation, restraint and especially the associated treatment affected the neuromotor maturation mainly in male progeny. At adult age, we noticed anxiety, motor deficit and exploratory behavior impairment in male offspring co-exposed to WiFi radiation and restraint, and in female progeny subjected to three treatments. The biochemical investigation showed that, all three treatments produced global oxidative stress in brain of both sexes. As for serum biochemistry, phosphorus, magnesium, glucose, triglycerides and calcium levels were disrupted. Taken together, prenatal WiFi radiation and restraint, alone and combined, provoked several behavioral and biochemical impairments at both juvenile and adult age of the offspring.

  14. Spaceflight induces changes in the synaptic circuitry of the postnatal developing neocortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeFelipe, J.; Arellano, J. I.; Merchan-Perez, A.; Gonzalez-Albo, M. C.; Walton, K.; Llinas, R.

    2002-01-01

    The establishment of the adult pattern of neocortical circuitry depends on various intrinsic and extrinsic factors, whose modification during development can lead to alterations in cortical organization and function. We report the effect of 16 days of spaceflight [Neurolab mission; from postnatal day 14 (P14) to P30] on the neocortical representation of the hindlimb synaptic circuitry in rats. As a result, we show, for the first time, that development in microgravity leads to changes in the number and morphology of cortical synapses in a laminar-specific manner. In the layers II/III and Va, the synaptic cross-sectional lengths were significantly larger in flight animals than in ground control animals. Flight animals also showed significantly lower synaptic densities in layers II/III, IV and Va. The greatest difference was found in layer II/III, where there was a difference of 344 million synapses per mm(3) (15.6% decrease). Furthermore, after a 4 month period of re-adaptation to terrestrial gravity, some changes disappeared (i.e. the alterations were transient), while conversely, some new differences also appeared. For example, significant differences in synaptic density in layers II/III and Va after re-adaptation were no longer observed, whereas in layer IV the density of synapses increased notably in flight animals (a difference of 185 million synapses per mm(3) or 13.4%). In addition, all the changes observed only affected asymmetrical synapses, which are known to be excitatory. These results indicates that terrestrial gravity is a necessary environmental parameter for normal cortical synaptogenesis. These findings are fundamental in planning future long-term spaceflights.

  15. mRNA N6-methyladenosine methylation of postnatal liver development in pig

    PubMed Central

    He, Mengnan; Che, Tiandong; Jin, Long; Deng, Lamei; Tian, Shilin; Li, Yan; Lu, Hongfeng; Li, Xuewei; Jiang, Zhi; Li, Diyan; Li, Mingzhou

    2017-01-01

    N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is a ubiquitous reversible epigenetic RNA modification that plays an important role in the regulation of post-transcriptional protein coding gene expression. Liver is a vital organ and plays a major role in metabolism with numerous functions. Information concerning the dynamic patterns of mRNA m6A methylation during postnatal development of liver has been long overdue and elucidation of this information will benefit for further deciphering a multitude of functional outcomes of mRNA m6A methylation. Here, we profile transcriptome-wide m6A in porcine liver at three developmental stages: newborn (0 day), suckling (21 days) and adult (2 years). About 33% of transcribed genes were modified by m6A, with 1.33 to 1.42 m6A peaks per modified gene. m6A was distributed predominantly around stop codons. The consensus motif sequence RRm6ACH was observed in 78.90% of m6A peaks. A negative correlation (average Pearson’s r = -0.45, P < 10−16) was found between levels of m6A methylation and gene expression. Functional enrichment analysis of genes consistently modified by m6A methylation at all three stages showed genes relevant to important functions, including regulation of growth and development, regulation of metabolic processes and protein catabolic processes. Genes with higher m6A methylation and lower expression levels at any particular stage were associated with the biological processes required for or unique to that stage. We suggest that differential m6A methylation may be important for the regulation of nutrient metabolism in porcine liver. PMID:28267806

  16. Kinetic characterization of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases in brain nerve terminals during rat postnatal development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanojević, I.; Drakulić, D.; Petrović, S.; Milošević, M.; Jovanović, N.; Horvat, A.

    2011-12-01

    A family of enzymes named ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDases) catalyzes the termination of ATP and ADP actions. Three different NTPDases (NTPDase 1-3), differing in their preference for a substrate, have been localized in the brain of adult mammals. The goal of our study was to clarify ATP and ADP hydrolyzing activities and kinetic parameters of NTPDases in synaptic plasma membranes (SPM) isolated from 15-, 30-, 60- and 90-days-old female rat brains. ATP and ADP hydrolysis were maximal in the presence of Mg2+ and showed insensitivity to ion-transporting ATPase inhibitors. The pronounced increase in both, ATP and ADP hydrolysis, were found in the SPM isolated from rats in the first month of life, stayed at the same level in the second month, and then decreased in adulthood. Kinetic analysis are also developmental-dependent, and together with the rate of ATP:ADP hydrolysis, point that all three NTPDases are present in SPM isolated from different developmental stages, with different, developmental-dependent proportion of activities. The lowest velocity and the highest affinity were observed for ATP hydrolyses, while the highest velocity and lowest affinity were detected for ADP hydrolyses in SPM isolated from 15-day old rats. Since specific ATP and ADP hydrolysis were lowest in this stage, we concluded that velocity is crucial for ATPase-, while affinity is for ADPase-part of NTPDases. Increased NTPDases activities, changes in their hydrolysis velocity and substrates affinities during rat postnatal development indicate involvement of adenine nucleotides in processes implicated to neuronal maturation and augmented neuroprotection.

  17. Melatonin secretion during postnatal development in wild and domestic female lambs.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Brunet, A; Santiago-Moreno, J; Chemineau, P; Malpaux, B; López-Sebastián, A

    2010-05-01

    This study examines the patterns of melatonin secretion during postnatal development in wild (mouflon; n = 7) and domestic (Spanish Merino; n = 6) female lambs under their natural photoperiod conditions. The aim was to determine whether these types of sheep which differ in the timing of puberty, also differ in the establishment of daily melatonin secretory rhythms and/or in the nocturnal plasma melatonin secretion. In addition, the time when the lambs first reached nocturnal levels of melatonin similar to adults was also evaluated. For this purpose, the melatonin secretion in lambs was compared with those of their mothers. A day/night (D/N) difference in plasma melatonin concentration was noticed as early as 1 day after birth in the Merino female lambs (D: 5.9 +/- 1.0 pg/ml compared to N: 22.0 +/- 3.3 pg/ml; p < 0.05), and by 1 week after birth in the mouflon female lambs (D: 4.9 +/- 0.3 pg/ml compared to N: 56.9 +/- 15.3 pg/ml; p < 0.05). An effect of the genotype (p < 0.05) and age (p < 0.01) was detected on mean nocturnal plasma melatonin concentrations, which were lower in the Merino than in the mouflon lambs. Night-time plasma concentration of melatonin was also high in mouflon than in Merino mothers (p < 0.05). No differences were detected between the wild genotype and the domestic one in the time when the lambs first reached nocturnal levels of melatonin similar to those of their mothers.

  18. An enhanced postnatal autoimmune profile in 24 week-old C57BL/6 mice developmentally exposed to TCDD

    SciTech Connect

    Mustafa, A.; Holladay, S.D.; Goff, M.; Witonsky, S.G.; Kerr, R.; Reilly, C.M.; Sponenberg, D.P.; Gogal, R.M.

    2008-10-01

    Developmental exposure of mice to the environmental contaminant and AhR agonist, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), causes persistent postnatal suppression of T cell-mediated immune responses. The extent to which prenatal TCDD may induce or exacerbate postnatal autoimmune disease remains unknown. In the present study, time-pregnant high affinity AhR C57BL/6 mice received a single oral administration of 0, 2.5, or 5 {mu}g/kg TCDD on gestation day (gd) 12. Offspring of these mice (n = 5/gender/treatment) were evaluated at 24 weeks-of-age and showed considerable immune dysregulation that was often gender-specific. Decreased thymic weight and percentages of CD4{sup +}CD8{sup +} thymocytes, and increased CD4{sup +}CD8{sup -} thymocytes, were present in the female but not male offspring. Males but not females showed decreased CD4{sup -}CD8{sup +} T cells, and increased V{beta}3{sup +} and V{beta}17a{sup +} T cells, in the spleen. Males but not females also showed increased percentages of bone marrow CD24{sup -}B220{sup +} B cell progenitors. Antibody titers to dsDNA, ssDNA and cardiolipin displayed increasing trends in both male and female mice, reaching significance for anti-dsDNA in both genders and for ssDNA in males at 5 {mu}g/kg TCDD. Immunofluorescent staining of IgG and C3 deposition in kidney glomeruli increased in both genders of prenatal TCDD-exposed mice, suggestive of early stages of autoimmune glomerulonephritis. Collectively, these results show that exposure to TCDD during immune system development causes persistent humoral immune dysregulation as well as altered cell-mediated responses, and induces an adult profile of changes suggestive of increased risk for autoimmune disease.

  19. KCC2-mediated regulation of respiration-related rhythmic activity during postnatal development in mouse medulla oblongata.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Akihito; Shimizu-Okabe, Chigusa; Arata, Akiko; Konishi, Shiro; Fukuda, Atsuo; Takayama, Chitoshi

    2015-03-19

    GABA acts as inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult central nervous system but as excitatory neurotransmitter during early postnatal development. This shift in GABA's action from excitation to inhibition is caused by a decrease in intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl(-)]i), which in turn is caused by changes in the relative expression levels of the K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter (KCC2) and the Na(+), K(+)-2Cl(-) co-transporter (NKCC1) proteins. Previous studies have used slices containing the medullary pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC) to record respiration-related rhythmic activity (RRA) from the hypoglossal nucleus (12 N). The role of GABAergic transmission in the regulation of medullary RRA neonatally, however, is yet to be determined. Here, we examined how GABA and chloride co-transporters contribute to RRA during development in the 12 N where inspiratory neurons reside. We recorded extracellular RRA in medullary slices obtained from postnatal day (P) 0-7 mice. RRA was induced by soaking slices in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) containing 8mM-K(+). Application of GABA significantly increased the frequency of RRA after P3, whereas application of a KCC2 blocker (R (+)-[(2-n-butyl-6,7-dichloro-2-cyclopentyl-2,3-dihydro-1-oxo-1H-indenyl-5-yl)oxy]acetic acid (DIOA)) significantly decreased the frequency of RRA after P1. In addition, dense KCC2 immunolabeling was seen in the superior longitudinalis (SL) of the 12 N, which is responsible for retraction of the tongue, from P0 and P7. These results indicate that GABA administration can increase RRA frequency during the first week following birth. This in turn suggests that decreasing [Cl(-)]i levels caused by increasing KCC2 levels in the 12 N could play important roles in regulating the frequency of RRA during development.

  20. Hominins do not share a common postnatal facial ontogenetic shape trajectory.

    PubMed

    Cobb, S N; O'Higgins, P

    2004-05-15

    This paper examines the hypothesis raised by recent studies that postnatal trajectories of shape change in the facial skeleton are parallel between, at least, chimpanzees, modern humans and also fossil hominins, specifically australopithecines and possibly Neanderthals. In contrast, other studies point to divergences in postnatal shape trajectories within diverse groups of primates. As such there is some debate regarding the relative contributions of pre and postnatal ontogeny to adult morphological differences. This paper presents a series of geometric morphometric studies of the ontogeny of facial shape in hominins with the specific aim of resolving these issues. The results indicate that many differences in facial shape between hominins are established prenatally, however highly significant divergences of postnatal facial ontogeny are found among living hominins. Our studies point to possible differences between the shape ontogeny of the Australopithecus africanus face and that of African apes on the one hand and humans on the other. However, sampling experiments indicate that the small sample size of available specimens of A. africanus does not permit any conclusions to be drawn regarding comparative shape ontogeny of the face.

  1. Postnatal Treatment in Antenatally Diagnosed Meconium Peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, S; Andrei, B; Oancea, M; Licsandru, E; Ivanov, M; Marcu, V; Popa-Stanila, R; Mocanu, M

    2015-01-01

    Meconium peritonitis is a rare prenatal disease with an increased rate of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period. Distinctive features revealed by prenatal and postnatal ultrasoundmay be present: abdominal calcifications, ascites, polyhydramnios, meconium pseudocyst, echogenic mass and dilated bowel or intestinal obstruction. Establishing clear postnatal treatment and prognosis is difficult because of the heterogeneity of the results obtained by ultrasound. The aim of the study is to determine how prenatal diagnosis of meconium peritonitis is associated with perinatal management and further evolution. Clinical results are different depending on the presence of antenatal diagnosis of meconium peritonitis and its form, which can be mild or severe. Surgical treatment and management of meconium peritonitis depend on the clinical presentation of the newborn. Meconium peritonitis diagnosed prenatally differs from that of the newborn, not only concerning the mortality rates but also through reduced morbidity and overall better prognosis.

  2. The influence of prenatal and postnatal fraternity size on reproduction in mice.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, B W; Rutledge, J J

    1987-05-01

    Effects of prenatal and postnatal fraternity size (size of litter in which an individual is reared) on age at vaginal opening, growth, and subsequent litter production were examined by rearing mice in standardized prenatal and postnatal fraternities in a 3 X 3 factorial design. Prenatal fraternity size was standardized by reducing litters of 14 or more to either 14, 10, or 6 fetuses on Day 9 of gestation. Postnatal fraternity size was standardized by assigning pups randomly to nurse in litters of 5, 10, or 15 pups within 24 h of birth. Both prenatal and postnatal fraternity size affected growth of the mice (p = 0.02 and p less than 0.01, respectively) with mice reared in small fraternities attaining greater weights throughout the study. Prenatal fraternity size had a negative linear effect on litter size at second parity and tended to have a positive linear effect on age at vaginal opening. Postnatal fraternity size affected age at vaginal opening (p less than 0.01), litter size at first parity (p less than 0.01), and litter size at second parity (p = 0.03). These effects were positive and linear for age at vaginal opening (p less than 0.01; small fraternity size associated with younger age at vaginal opening) and negative and linear for litter size at first and second parity (p less than 0.01 and p = 0.10, respectively; smaller fraternity size associated with larger litter size). There was no interaction between prenatal and postnatal fraternity size effects on age at vaginal opening or litter size (p greater than 0.20).

  3. The early postnatal nonhuman primate neocortex contains self-renewing multipotent neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Homman-Ludiye, Jihane; Merson, Tobias D; Bourne, James A

    2012-01-01

    The postnatal neocortex has traditionally been considered a non-neurogenic region, under non-pathological conditions. A few studies suggest, however, that a small subpopulation of neural cells born during postnatal life can differentiate into neurons that take up residence within the neocortex, implying that postnatal neurogenesis could occur in this region, albeit at a low level. Evidence to support this hypothesis remains controversial while the source of putative neural progenitors responsible for generating new neurons in the postnatal neocortex is unknown. Here we report the identification of self-renewing multipotent neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from the postnatal day 14 (PD14) marmoset monkey primary visual cortex (V1, striate cortex). While neuronal maturation within V1 is well advanced by PD14, we observed cells throughout this region that co-expressed Sox2 and Ki67, defining a population of resident proliferating progenitor cells. When cultured at low density in the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and/or fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), dissociated V1 tissue gave rise to multipotent neurospheres that exhibited the ability to differentiate into neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. While the capacity to generate neurones and oligodendrocytes was not observed beyond the third passage, astrocyte-restricted neurospheres could be maintained for up to 6 passages. This study provides the first direct evidence for the existence of multipotent NPCs within the postnatal neocortex of the nonhuman primate. The potential contribution of neocortical NPCs to neural repair following injury raises exciting new possibilities for the field of regenerative medicine.

  4. Alterations in central monoamine systems after postnatal lead acetate treatment in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Luthman, J. Univ. of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO ); Lindqvist, E.; Olson, L. ); Gerhardt, G.A.; Hoffer, B.H. )

    1994-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of postnatal lead exposure on central monoamine systems. Newborn male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 1 or 8 mg/kg lead acetate intraperitoneally for 20 days postnatally. Two groups of control rats received sodium acetate, or sodium acetate in oversized litters to compensate for lead-induced malnutrition in the high lead dose group, while nontreated animals also served as controls. At Day 21 or 51 regional tissue levels of monoamines were determined using HPLC techniques. No major changes were seen after the lead exposures in the levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin, or metabolites of dopamine and serotonin, when compared to respective control groups. On the other hand, in the control group given sodium acetate in oversized litters some alterations of the monoamine levels were observed in frontal cortex and striatum at Day 21 compared to controls. At Day 51, the striatal homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels were higher in the low lead dose group compared to those in the controls, No other changes in the monoamine levels were seen at Day 51. At 50-70 days postnatally, potassium-stimulated dopamine overflow was studied in striatum with in vivo chronoamperometry. In the high lead dose group the amplitudes of signals were lower in both the dorsal and ventral striatum compared to the controls, while no difference was seen in the clearance time of dopamine. The capacity of the dopamine terminals to respond to repeated stimulation was not affected by the lead exposure. Thus, the steady-state levels of monoamines were essentially unaltered after postnatal lead exposure in rats, while functional aspects of striatal dopamine transmission were affected after exposure to the higher dose of lead. These findings support the hypothesis that lead-induced changes in motor skills and exploratory behavior may be related to altered dopamine neurotransmission. 77 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Postnatal development, maturation and aging in the mouse cochlea and their effects on hair cell regeneration.

    PubMed

    Walters, Bradley J; Zuo, Jian

    2013-03-01

    The organ of Corti in the mammalian inner ear is comprised of mechanosensory hair cells (HCs) and nonsensory supporting cells (SCs), both of which are believed to be terminally post-mitotic beyond late embryonic ages. Consequently, regeneration of HCs and SCs does not occur naturally in the adult mammalian cochlea, though recent evidence suggests that these cells may not be completely or irreversibly quiescent at earlier postnatal ages. Furthermore, regenerative processes can be induced by genetic and pharmacological manipulations, but, more and more reports suggest that regenerative potential declines as the organ of Corti continues to age. In numerous mammalian systems, such effects of aging on regenerative potential are well established. However, in the cochlea, the problem of regeneration has not been traditionally viewed as one of aging. This is an important consideration as current models are unable to elicit widespread regeneration or full recovery of function at adult ages yet regenerative therapies will need to be developed specifically for adult populations. Still, the advent of gene targeting and other genetic manipulations has established mice as critically important models for the study of cochlear development and HC regeneration and suggests that auditory HC regeneration in adult mammals may indeed be possible. Thus, this review will focus on the pursuit of regeneration in the postnatal and adult mouse cochlea and highlight processes that occur during postnatal development, maturation, and aging that could contribute to an age-related decline in regenerative potential. Second, we will draw upon the wealth of knowledge pertaining to age related senescence in tissues outside of the ear to synthesize new insights and potentially guide future research aimed at promoting HC regeneration in the adult cochlea.

  6. Developmental origin of postnatal cardiomyogenic progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan-Hung; Lai, Ling-Ping; Huang, Shih-Yun; Lin, Yi-Shuan; Wu, Shinn-Chih; Chou, Chih-Jen; Lin, Jiunn-Lee

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To trace the cell origin of the cells involved in postnatal cardiomyogenesis. Materials & methods: Nkx2.5 enhancer-eGFP (Nkx2.5 enh-eGFP) mice were used to test the cardiomyogenic potential of Nkx2.5 enhancer-expressing cells. By analyzing Cre excision of activated Nkx2.5-eGFP+ cells from different lineage-Cre/Nkx2.5 enh-eGFP/ROSA26 reporter mice, we traced the developmental origin of Nkx2.5 enhancer-expressing cells. Results: Nkx2.5 enhancer-expressing cells could differentiate into striated cardiomyocytes both in vitro and in vivo. Nkx2.5-eGFP+ cells increased remarkably after experimental myocardial infarction (MI). The post-MI Nkx2.5-eGFP+ cells originated from the embryonic epicardial cells, not from the pre-existing cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, cardiac neural crest cells or perinatal/postnatal epicardial cells. Conclusion: Postnatal Nkx2.5 enhancer-expressing cells are cardiomyogenic progenitor cells and originate from embryonic epicardium-derived cells. PMID:28031967

  7. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Postnatal Growth-Restricted Preterm Infants with Postnatal Head-Sparing

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Jeffrey M.; Bann, Carla M.; Stoll, Barbara J.; D’Angio, Carl T.; Bell, Edward F.; Duncan, Andrea F.; Guillet, Ronnie

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare neurodevelopmental outcomes in postnatal growth-restricted infants born < 29 weeks with and without postnatal head-sparing. Study Design We analyzed developmental outcomes at 2 years of age among postnatally growth-restricted infants with and without head-sparing. The primary outcome was Bayley III cognitive composite score; secondary outcomes included Bayley III motor composite score, moderate/severe cerebral palsy, GMFCS level ≥2, and presence or absence of neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI). Results Of 1098 infants evaluated at 18–22 months, 658 were postnatally growth-restricted, of whom 301 had head-sparing. In the multivariate model including independent risk factors for poor growth and poor developmental outcome, infants with head-sparing had higher adjusted motor composite scores (mean difference 4.65, p<0.01), but no differences in other neurodevelopmental outcomes. Conclusion Postnatal head-sparing is associated with improved neurodevelopmental outcome in extremely preterm infants, specifically Bayley III motor scores, but whether beneficial effects of PHS persist later in life is unknown. PMID:27629374

  8. Capitol Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Stennis Space Center Director Gene Goldman visits with Mississippi Gov. Haley Barbour during NASA Day at the Capitol activities on Feb. 19. During the visit, Goldman presented the governor with a model of the J-2X rocket engine currently in development. Stennis engineers did early component testing for the new engine.

  9. Inspire Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohach, Barbara M.; Meade, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    The authors collaborated on hosting a "Spring Inspire Day." planned and delivered by preservice elementary teachers as a social studies/science methods project. Projects that have authentic application opportunities can make learning meaningful for prospective teachers as well as elementary students. With the impetus for an integrated…

  10. Postnatal changes in somatic gamma-aminobutyric acid signalling in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Tyzio, Roman; Minlebaev, Marat; Rheims, Sylvain; Ivanov, Anton; Jorquera, Isabelle; Holmes, Gregory L; Zilberter, Yuri; Ben-Ari, Yehezkiel; Khazipov, Rustem

    2008-05-01

    During postnatal development of the rat hippocampus, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) switches its action on CA3 pyramidal cells from excitatory to inhibitory. To characterize the underlying changes in the GABA reversal potential, we used somatic cell-attached recordings of GABA(A) and N-methyl-D-aspartate channels to monitor the GABA driving force and resting membrane potential, respectively. We found that the GABA driving force is strongly depolarizing during the first postnatal week. The strength of this depolarization rapidly declines with age, although GABA remains slightly depolarizing, by a few millivolts, even in adult neurons. Reduction in the depolarizing GABA driving force was due to a progressive negative shift of the reversal potential of GABA currents. Similar postnatal changes in GABA signalling were also observed using the superfused hippocampus preparation in vivo, and in the hippocampal interneurons in vitro. We also found that in adult pyramidal cells, somatic GABA reversal potential is maintained at a slightly depolarizing level by bicarbonate conductance, chloride-extrusion and chloride-loading systems. Thus, the postnatal excitatory-to-inhibitory switch in somatic GABA signalling is associated with a negative shift of the GABA reversal potential but without a hyperpolarizing switch in the polarity of GABA responses. These results also suggest that in adult CA3 pyramidal cells, somatic GABAergic inhibition takes place essentially through shunting rather than hyperpolarization. Apparent hyperpolarizing GABA responses previously reported in the soma of CA3 pyramidal cells are probably due to cell depolarization during intracellular or whole-cell recordings.

  11. Postnatal development of the reproductive system in the grey short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica.

    PubMed

    Mackay, S; Xie, Q; Ullmann, S L; Gilmore, D P; Payne, A P

    2004-05-01

    Postnatal phenotypic sex differentiation has been investigated in a laboratory marsupial, Monodelphis domestica, as part of a larger study to resolve apparent discrepancies between eutherian and marsupial mammals. These include the formation of sex-specific structures in marsupials prior to gonadal differentiation and the retention in both sexes of structures which are sex-specific in eutherians. The time-course and nature of differentiation was investigated in 131 specimens ranging in age from the day of birth to 56 days. Patent wolffian ducts extend to the urogenital sinus in both sexes at birth, while müllerian ducts are identified on day 1 and grow in a cranio-caudal direction to reach the urogenital sinus on day 6. The male müllerian duct shows signs of regression at its cranial end on day 10 and throughout its length on day 12; its lumen has completely disappeared by day 15. By this time the epididymis and vas deferens have developed from the wolffian duct; their histological differentiation occurs between days 26 and 56. Prostatic buds are identifiable in tissue surrounding the male urethra on day 14. In the female, the wolffian duct is larger than the müllerian duct until day 14; thereafter the wolffian duct begins to regress at its cranial end, disappearing by day 17, whereas the müllerian duct begins to enlarge, converging with its fellow at the urogenital sinus by day 19. Lateral vaginae, vaginal culs-de-sac, uteri and oviducts have differentiated from the müllerian ducts by day 25. Gonads of both sexes are elongated in shape at birth, attached along the medial aspect of the large mesonephroi in the abdominal cavity. However, from day 3 onwards the testis becomes more rounded than the ovary. Degeneration of the male mesonephros begins about day 10 and is almost completed by day 19; the female mesonephros is still relatively large at day 14 though it too has almost disappeared by day 19. By postnatal day 13 the abdominal phase of testis descent is

  12. Age-dependent changes in the proteome following complete spinal cord transection in a postnatal South American opossum (Monodelphis domestica).

    PubMed

    Noor, Natassya M; Steer, David L; Wheaton, Benjamin J; Ek, C Joakim; Truettner, Jessie S; Dietrich, W Dalton; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Richardson, Samantha J; Smith, A Ian; VandeBerg, John L; Saunders, Norman R

    2011-01-01

    Recovery from severe spinal injury in adults is limited, compared to immature animals who demonstrate some capacity for repair. Using laboratory opossums (Monodelphis domestica), the aim was to compare proteomic responses to injury at two ages: one when there is axonal growth across the lesion and substantial behavioural recovery and one when no axonal growth occurs. Anaesthetized pups at postnatal day (P) 7 or P28 were subjected to complete transection of the spinal cord at thoracic level T10. Cords were collected 1 or 7 days after injury and from age-matched controls. Proteins were separated based on isoelectric point and subunit molecular weight; those whose expression levels changed following injury were identified by densitometry and analysed by mass spectrometry. Fifty-six unique proteins were identified as differentially regulated in response to spinal transection at both ages combined. More than 50% were cytoplasmic and 70% belonged to families of proteins with characteristic binding properties. Proteins were assigned to groups by biological function including regulation (40%), metabolism (26%), inflammation (19%) and structure (15%). More changes were detected at one than seven days after injury at both ages. Seven identified proteins: 14-3-3 epsilon, 14-3-3 gamma, cofilin, alpha enolase, heart fatty acid binding protein (FABP3), brain fatty acid binding protein (FABP7) and ubiquitin demonstrated age-related differential expression and were analysed by qRT-PCR. Changes in mRNA levels for FABP3 at P7+1day and ubiquitin at P28+1day were statistically significant. Immunocytochemical staining showed differences in ubiquitin localization in younger compared to older cords and an increase in oligodendrocyte and neuroglia immunostaining following injury at P28. Western blot analysis supported proteomic results for ubiquitin and 14-3-3 proteins. Data obtained at the two ages demonstrated changes in response to injury, compared to controls, that were different for

  13. Low-intensity and moderate exercise training improves autonomic nervous system activity imbalanced by postnatal early overfeeding in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Postnatal early overfeeding and physical inactivity are serious risk factors for obesity. Physical activity enhances energy expenditure and consumes fat stocks, thereby decreasing body weight (bw). This study aimed to examine whether low-intensity and moderate exercise training in different post-weaning stages of life is capable of modulating the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and inhibiting perinatal overfeeding-induced obesity in rats. Methods The obesity-promoting regimen was begun two days after birth when the litter size was adjusted to 3 pups (small litter, SL) or to 9 pups (normal litter, NL). The rats were organized into exercised groups as follows: from weaning until 90-day-old, from weaning until 50-day-old, or from 60- until 90-days-old. All experimental procedures were performed just one day after the exercise training protocol. Results The SL-no-exercised (SL-N-EXE) group exhibited excess weight and increased fat accumulation. We also observed fasting hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in these rats. In addition, the SL-N-EXE group exhibited an increase in the vagus nerve firing rate, whereas the firing of the greater splanchnic nerve was not altered. Independent of the timing of exercise and the age of the rats, exercise training was able to significantly blocks obesity onset in the SL rats; even SL animals whose exercise training was stopped at the end of puberty, exhibited resistance to obesity progression. Fasting glycemia was maintained normal in all SL rats that underwent the exercise training, independent of the period. These results demonstrate that moderate exercise, regardless of the time of onset, is capable on improve the vagus nerves imbalanced tonus and blocks the onset of early overfeeding-induced obesity. Conclusions Low-intensity and moderate exercise training can promote the maintenance of glucose homeostasis, reduces the large fat pad stores associated to improvement of the ANS activity in adult rats that were

  14. Maternal screening for early postnatal vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Vivilaki, V G; Dafermos, V; Patelarou, Ev; Bick, D; Syngelaki, Ar; Tsopelas, N D; Bitsios, P; Petridou, E T; Vgontzas, Al N; Lionis, Chr

    2016-01-01

    Research has highlighted the wide impact of maternal mental health problems during and beyond the postpartum period and the public health role of community health professionals in early detection of women who may be at risk. This paper aims to describe, explore and test an a priori hypothesised conceptual model of postnatal experience, identifying the relationships between postnatal mental vulnerability and postnatal adjustment to maternal roles and attitudes, marital/partner-relationship and sense of coherence. Three validated self-report questionnaires (WAST, MAMA, SOC) measuring the variables of the encompassing framework and EPDS were administered in random order. The conceptual models were tested using the software IBM SPSS Statistics and LISREL and the tests performed were: Student's ttest, chi-square tests, Explanatory factor analysis using a Varimax rotation Principal Components Method, Confirmatory analysis -known as structural equation modelling- of principal components. Psychometric scores indicate high correlation between WAST, MAMA, SOC and EPDS. An exploratory factor analysis confirmed the role of SOC, specific MAMA subscales (maternal roles and attitudes, body image, sex, breasts, nausea) and WAST (relationship tension and emotional and physical abuse) subscales (KMO measure of sampling adequacy=0.735 and Bartlett's test of sphericity=184,786, df=36, p<0.0005). The latent variables confirmed with SEM were marital relationship, maternity experience and self-efficacy (Chi-square=28.45, df=24, P-value=0.24, RMSEA=0.046 p<0.05). Marital Relationship (Factor I: Eigenvalue=3.066) concerning lack of or disappointment with partner support, poor marital relationship and emotional/physical abuse has been associated with high levels of postpartum anxiety and depression. Maternity Experience (Factor II: Eigenvalue=1.280) representing postnatal roles and attitudes towards their infant can be as useful as mood changes for evaluation of mothers. Self

  15. Binge ethanol exposure in late gestation induces ethanol aversion in the dam but enhances ethanol intake in the offspring and affects their postnatal learning about ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Chotro, M. Gabriela; Arias, Carlos; Spear, Norman E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies show that exposure to 1 or 2 g/kg ethanol during the last days of gestation increases ethanol acceptance in infant rats. We tested whether prenatal exposure to 3 g/kg, a relatively high ethanol dose, generates an aversion to ethanol in both the dam and offspring, and whether this prenatal experience affects the expression of learning derived from ethanol exposure postnatally. The answer was uncertain, since postnatal administration of a 3 g/kg ethanol dose induces an aversion to ethanol after postnatal day 10 but increases ethanol acceptance when administered during the first postnatal week. In the present study pregnant rats received intragastric administrations of water or ethanol (3 g/kg) on gestation days 17-20. On postnatal days 7-8 or 10-11 the offspring were administered water or ethanol (3 g/kg). Intake of ethanol and water, locomotor activity in an open-field and ethanol odor preference were evaluated in the pups, while the mothers were evaluated in terms of ethanol intake. Results indicated an aversion to ethanol in dams that had been administered ethanol during gestation, despite a general increase in ethanol intake observed in their pups relative to controls. The prenatal ethanol exposure also potentiated the increase in ethanol intake observed after intoxication on postnatal days 7-8. Ethanol intoxication on postnatal days 10-11 reduced ethanol consumption; this ethanol aversion was still evident in infant rats exposed prenatally to ethanol despite their general increase in ethanol intake. No effects of prenatal ethanol exposure were observed in terms of motor activity or odor preference. It is concluded that prenatal exposure to ethanol, even in a dose that induces ethanol aversion in the gestating dam, increases ethanol intake in infant rats and that this experience modulates age-related differences in subsequent postnatal learning about ethanol. PMID:19801275

  16. Cohesion to the Group and Its Association with Attendance and Early Treatment Response in an Adult Day-Hospital Program for Eating Disorders: A Preliminary Clinical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crino, Natalie; Djokvucic, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Treatment outcome studies demonstrate that day-hospital programs are effective in the treatment of eating disorders. Few descriptions are available on the specifics of treatment, particularly the process of therapy. The group therapy modality is thought to provide important therapeutic benefits. The present study aimed to examine the association…

  17. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day. (a) Day means calendar day unless otherwise indicated as business day or school day. (b) Business...

  18. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day. (a) Day means calendar day unless otherwise indicated as business day or school day. (b) Business...

  19. Postnatal development of renal function: micropuncture and clearance studies in the dog

    PubMed Central

    Horster, Michael; Valtin, Heinz

    1971-01-01

    Postnatal renal development was studied in dogs between 2 and 77 days. Single, superficial nephrons were evaluated by micropuncture, concurrently with measurements of total renal function and morphometric analyses in the same animals. Glomerular filtration rate for the entire kidney increased linearly from 0.13 ml/min per g kidney weight at 2 days to 0.91 at 77 days. Extraction of p-aminohippurate increased from about 20 to 80%, and renal plasma flow per g kidney weight, measured as Cpah/Epah, increased threefold during the same period. Filtration fraction increased to the mature value during the first half of the postnatal period studied. The clearance of urea per unit of renal mass increased with age, whereas the fraction of filtered urea reabsorbed declined during the early part of the postnatal period. The pattern of fractional urea reabsorption may be due mainly to increased medullary recycling of urea and to a rise in the reabsorption of water from the medullary collecting duct. Urine osmolality was higher than plasma from birth onward and rose with age. Osmolal equality of collecting duct fluid and medullary interstitium reflected mature vasopressin (ADH)-induced water permeability. The rise in urinary concentration was predominantly due to increasing medullary sequestration of urea. Glomerular filtration rate of the superficial nephron increased from 3.2 nl/min at 21 days, when subcapsular nephrons were uniformly patent, to 23.1 at 77 days. Despite this rise in filtered load, fractional reabsorption of sodium and water in superficial proximal tubules was constant and at the mature level from the onset of intratubular perfusion. Changes in arterial plasma protein concentration, in filtration fraction, and in the hydrostatic pressure gradient between proximal tubule and peritubular capillary may interact to maintain glomerulotubular balance. The data, together with results of an accompanying morphological study, demonstrate a sequence of coordinated changes

  20. Postnatal caffeine treatment affects differently two pentylenetetrazol seizure models in rats.

    PubMed

    Tchekalarova, Jana; Kubová, Hana; Mares, Pavel

    2009-09-01

    Effects of repeated postnatal administration of caffeine (10 and 20mg/kg s.c. daily from P7 to P11) were studied in two models of epileptic seizures characterized by spike-and-wave EEG rhythm in 18- and 25-day-old rats. Rhythmic metrazol activity (RMA, model of human absences) was induced by low dose of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, 20mg/kg or 40mg/kg, i.p.) and minimal clonic seizures (model of human myoclonic seizures) by two successive doses of PTZ (20 and 40mg/kg i.p.). Early postnatal caffeine treatment resulted in significant changes of RMA only in 18-day-old rats. Anticonvulsant effects were observed in RMA episodes elicited by the 20-mg/kg dose of PTZ in both caffeine groups whereas latency of RMA episodes induced by the 40-mg/kg dose was shortened and their duration was prolonged. No changes were found in 25-day-old animals. Incidence, EEG and motor pattern of minimal clonic seizures were not changed. Some animals in both control age groups exhibited transition to generalized tonic-clonic seizures. This type of seizures never appeared in caffeine-treated 25-day-old animals. Mixed effects of postnatal caffeine exposure were demonstrated; these predominantly anticonvulsant effects are age- and model-specific.

  1. Postnatal alterations of GABA receptor profiles in the rat superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Clark, S E; Garret, M; Platt, B

    2001-01-01

    Midbrain sections taken from Sprague-Dawley rats of varying ages within the first four postnatal weeks were used to determine, immunocytochemically, putative changes of GABA(A) receptor beta2/3 subunits, GABA(B) receptor (R1a and R1b splice variants), and GABA(C) receptor rho1 subunit expression and distribution in the superficial, visual layers of the superior colliculus. Immunoreactivity for the GABA(A) receptor beta2/3 subunits was found in the superficial grey layer from birth. The labelling changed with age, with an overall continuous reduction in the number of cells labelled and a significant increase in the labelling intensity distribution (neuropil vs soma). Further analysis revealed an initial increase in the labelling intensity between postnatal days 0 and 7 in parallel with an overall reduction of labelled neurones. This was followed by a significant decrease in labelling intensity distribution between postnatal days 7 and 16, and a subsequent increase in intensity between postnatal days 16 and 28. The labelling profiles for GABA(B) receptors (R1a and R1b splice variants) and GABA(C) receptors (rho1 subunit) showed similar patterns. Both receptors could be found in the superficial layers of the superior colliculus from birth, and the intensity and distribution of labelling remained constant during the first postnatal month. However, the cell body count showed a significant decrease between postnatal days 7 and 16. These changes may be related to the time-point of eye opening, which occurred approximately two weeks after birth. For all three receptor types, the cell body count remained constant after postnatal day 16. By four weeks of age, there was no significant difference between the cell numbers obtained for the different receptors. Both GABA itself and neurofilament labelling were also obtained in the superficial superior colliculus at birth. Neurofilament, although found at birth, showed very little ordered arrangement until 16days after birth. When

  2. Role of Neurotrophins on Postnatal Neurogenesis in the Thalamus: Prenatal Exposure to Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Sandra M.; Miller, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    A second wave of neuronal generation occurs in the ventrobasal nucleus of the rat thalamus (VB) during the first three postnatal weeks. The present study tested the hypotheses (1) that postnatal neurogenesis in the VB is neurotrophin-regulated and (2) that ethanol-induced changes in this proliferation are mediated by neurotrophins. The first studies examined the effects of neurotrophins on the numbers of cycling cells in ex vivo preparations of the VB from three-day-old rats. The proportion of cycling (Ki-67-positive) VB cells was higher in cultured thalamic slices treated with neurotrophins than in controls. Interestingly, this increase occurred with nerve growth factor (NGF) alone or with a combination of NGF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), but not with BDNF alone. Based on these data, the VBs from young offspring of pregnant rats fed an ethanol-containing or an isocaloric non-alcoholic liquid diet were examined between postnatal day (P) 1 and P31. Studies used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and immunoblots to explore the effects of ethanol on the expression of neurotrophins, their receptors, and representative signaling proteins. Ethanol altered the expression of neurotrophins and receptors throughout the first postnatal month. Expression of NGF increased, but there was no change in the expression of BDNF. The high affinity receptors (TrkA and TrkB) were unchanged but ethanol decreased expression of the low affinity receptor, p75. One downstream signaling protein, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), decreased but Akt expression was unchanged. Thus, postnatal cell proliferation in the VB of young rat pups is neurotrophin-responsive and is affected by ethanol. PMID:21277941

  3. Expression Pattern of Thyroid Hormone Transporters in the Postnatal Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Julia; Heuer, Heike

    2014-01-01

    For a comprehensive description of the tissue-specific thyroidal state under normal as well as under pathophysiological conditions it is of utmost importance to include thyroid hormone (TH) transporters in the analysis as well. The current knowledge of the cell-specific repertoire of TH transporters, however, is still rather limited, although several TH transporting proteins have been identified. Here, we describe the temporal and spatial distribution pattern of the most prominent TH transporters in the postnatal mouse brain. For that purpose, we performed radioactive in situ hybridization studies in order to analyze the cellular mRNA expression pattern of the monocarboxylate transporters Mct8 and Mct10, the L-type amino acid transporters Lat1 and Lat2 as well as the organic anion transporting peptide Oatp1c1 at different postnatal time points. Highest TH transporter expression levels in the CNS were observed at postnatal day 6 and 12, while hybridization signal intensities visibly declined after the second postnatal week. The only exception was Mct10 for which the strongest signals could be observed in white matter regions at postnatal day 21 indicating that this transporter is preferentially expressed in mature oligodendrocytes. Whereas Mct8 and Lat2 showed an overlapping neuronal mRNA expression pattern in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and in the hypothalamus, Oatp1c1 and Lat1 specific signals were most prominent in capillary endothelial cells throughout the CNS. In the choroid plexus, expression of three transporters (Mct8, Lat2, and Oatp1c1) could be detected, whereas in other brain areas (e.g., striatum, thalamus, and brain stem nuclei) only one of the transporter candidates appeared to be present. Overall, our study revealed a distinct mRNA distribution pattern for each of the TH transporter candidates. Further studies will reveal to which extent these transporters contribute to the cell-specific TH uptake and efflux in the mouse CNS. PMID:24994998

  4. Postnatal development of fiber type composition in rabbit jaw and leg muscles.

    PubMed

    Korfage, J A M; Helmers, R; Matignon, M de Goüyon; van Wessel, T; Langenbach, G E J; van Eijden, T M G J

    2009-01-01

    We examined the difference in fiber type composition and cross-sectional areas during postnatal development in male rabbit jaw muscles and compared these with changes in leg muscles. The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) content of the fibers was determined by immunohistochemistry. No fiber type difference was found between the jaw muscles in 20-week-old rabbits. However, the way this adult fiber type composition was reached differed between the muscles. The deep temporalis, medial pterygoid, and superficial masseter displayed an increase in alpha fibers during early and a decrease during late postnatal development. Other jaw muscles displayed an increase in alpha fibers during early development only. In contrast, alpha fibers were not found in the soleus, in which fiber type changes were completed at week 4. The gastrocnemius muscle did not change its fiber type composition. Initially, fibers in jaw-opening muscles had larger cross-sectional areas than in other muscles, but they increased less during development. Although there were no large differences in the fiber type composition of muscles in young adult rabbits, large differences were found in the jaw muscles, but not in the leg muscles, during development. In part, these developmental changes in fiber percentages within the jaw muscles can be explained by functional modifications in this muscle group. In the present study, the deep temporalis, medial pterygoid, and superficial masseter showed the most dramatic percent changes in fibers during postnatal development.

  5. Pericytes in the myovascular niche promote post-natal myofiber growth and satellite cell quiescence.

    PubMed

    Kostallari, Enis; Baba-Amer, Yasmine; Alonso-Martin, Sonia; Ngoh, Pamela; Relaix, Frederic; Lafuste, Peggy; Gherardi, Romain K

    2015-04-01

    The satellite cells, which serve as adult muscle stem cells, are both located beneath myofiber basement membranes and closely associated with capillary endothelial cells. We observed that 90% of capillaries were associated with pericytes in adult mouse and human muscle. During post-natal growth, newly formed vessels with their neuroglial 2 proteoglycan (NG2)-positive pericytes became progressively associated with the post-natal muscle stem cells, as myofibers increased in size and satellite cells entered into quiescence. In vitro, human muscle-derived pericytes promoted myogenic cell differentiation through insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and myogenic cell quiescence through angiopoietin 1 (ANGPT1). Diphtheria toxin-induced ablation of muscle pericytes in growing mice led both to myofiber hypotrophy and to impaired establishment of stem cells quiescence. Similar effects were observed following conditional in vivo deletion of pericyte Igf1 and Angpt1 genes, respectively. Our data therefore demonstrate that, by promoting post-natal myogenesis and stem cell quiescence, pericytes play a key role in the microvascular niche of satellite cells.

  6. Intrinsic religiousness and spirituality as predictors of mental health and positive psychological functioning in Latter-Day Saint adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Peter W; Allen, G E Kawika; Fischer, Lane; Richards, P Scott; Morgan, David T; Potts, Richard W

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the relationships between religiousness and spirituality and various indicators of mental health and positive psychosocial functioning in three separate samples of college students. A total of 898 students at Brigham Young University participated in the three studies. The students ranged in age from 17 to 26 years old, with the average age of 20.9 across all three samples. Our results indicate that intrinsic religiousness, spiritual maturity, and self-transcendence were significantly predictive of better mental health and positive functioning, including lower levels of depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsiveness, and higher levels of global self-esteem, identity integration, moral self-approval, and meaning in life. Intrinsic religiousness was not predictive of shame, perfectionism, and eating disorder symptoms. These findings are consistent with many prior studies that have found religiousness and spirituality to be positively associated with better mental health and positive psychosocial functioning in adolescents and young adults.

  7. Effects of microgravity on myogenic factor expressions during postnatal development of rat skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inobe, Manabu; Inobe, Ikuko; Adams, Gregory R.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.; Takeda, Shin'Ichi

    2002-01-01

    To clarify the role of gravity in the postnatal development of skeletal muscle, we exposed neonatal rats at 7 days of age to microgravity. After 16 days of spaceflight, tibialis anterior, plantaris, medial gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles were removed from the hindlimb musculature and examined for the expression of MyoD-family transcription factors such as MyoD, myogenin, and MRF4. For this purpose, we established a unique semiquantitative method, based on RT-PCR, using specific primers tagged with infrared fluorescence. The relative expression of MyoD in the tibialis anterior and plantaris muscles and that of myogenin in the plantaris and soleus muscles were significantly reduced (P < 0.001) in the flight animals. In contrast, MRF4 expression was not changed in any muscle. These results suggest that MyoD and myogenin, but not MRF4, are sensitive to gravity-related stimuli in some skeletal muscles during postnatal development.

  8. Recruitment of early postnatal parvalbumin-positive hippocampal interneurons by GABAergic excitation.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Jonas-Frederic; Bartos, Marlene

    2010-01-06

    GABAergic synaptic inputs targeting cortical principal cells undergo marked changes in their functional properties from depolarizing at early postnatal life to hyperpolarizing at mature stages. In contrast, the nature of GABA(A) receptor-mediated signaling in interneurons during maturation of neuronal networks is controversial. By using gramicidin perforated-patch and whole-cell recordings from LIM homeobox 6 (Lhx6)-positive dentate gyrus perisomatic-targeting parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (PV-INs), we show that signaling at first formed GABAergic synapses at postnatal day 3 (P3) is excitatory and switches to shunting during the course of the first to second postnatal week. GABAergic synaptic inputs at P3-P6 reliably evoke action potentials in 65% of Lhx6-EGFP-expressing perisomatic-targeting cells and boost spike induction upon conjoint activation of glutamatergic fibers. Thus, GABAergic inputs change their functional role during maturation. They facilitate the recruitment of perisomatic-targeting INs in early postnatal circuits when network connectivity and synaptic glutamate receptor-mediated excitation are low and control spike timing at later stages when connectivity and glutamate-mediated drive are high.

  9. Changing numbers of neuronal and non-neuronal cells underlie postnatal brain growth in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Bandeira, Fabiana; Lent, Roberto; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2009-01-01

    The rat brain increases >6× in mass from birth to adulthood, presumably through the addition of glial cells and increasing neuronal size, without the addition of neurons. To test this hypothesis, here we investigate quantitatively the postnatal changes in the total number of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the developing rat brain, and examine how these changes correlate with brain growth. Total numbers of cells were determined with the isotropic fractionator in the brains of 53 Wistar rats, from birth to young adulthood. We find that at birth, >90% of the cells in the rat brain are neurons. Following a dormant period of ≈3 days after birth, the net number of neurons in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and remaining tissue (excluding cerebellum and olfactory bulb) doubles during the first week, then is reduced by 70% during the second postnatal week, concurrently with net gliogenesis. A second round of net addition of 6 million neurons is observed in the cerebral cortex over the following 2 weeks. During the first postnatal week, brain growth relates mainly to increased numbers of neurons of larger average size. In the second and third weeks, it correlates with increased numbers of non-neuronal cells that are smaller in size than the preexisting neurons. Postnatal rat brain development is thus characterized by dramatic changes in the cellular composition of the brain, whose growth is governed by different combinations of cell addition and loss, and changes in average cell size during the first months after birth. PMID:19666520

  10. Profiling analysis of long non-coding RNAs in early postnatal mouse hearts

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiongshan; Han, Qi; Luo, Hongqin; Pan, Xiaodong; Ji, Yan; Yang, Yao; Chen, Hanying; Wang, Fangjie; Lai, Wenjing; Guan, Xiao; Zhang, Qi; Tang, Yuan; Chu, Jianhong; Yu, Jianhua; Shou, Weinian; Deng, Youcai; Li, Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian cardiomyocytes undergo a critical hyperplastic-to-hypertrophic growth transition at early postnatal age, which is important in establishing normal physiological function of postnatal hearts. In the current study, we intended to explore the role of long non-coding (lnc) RNAs in this transitional stage. We analyzed lncRNA expression profiles in mouse hearts at postnatal day (P) 1, P7 and P28 via microarray. We identified 1,146 differentially expressed lncRNAs with more than 2.0-fold change when compared the expression profiles of P1 to P7, P1 to P28, and P7 to P28. The neighboring genes of these differentially expressed lncRNAs were mainly involved in DNA replication-associated biological processes. We were particularly interested in one novel cardiac-enriched lncRNA, ENSMUST00000117266, whose expression was dramatically down-regulated from P1 to P28 and was also sensitive to hypoxia, paraquat, and myocardial infarction. Knockdown ENSMUST00000117266 led to a significant increase of neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes in G0/G1 phase and reduction in G2/M phase, suggesting that ENSMUST00000117266 is involved in regulating cardiomyocyte proliferative activity and is likely associated with hyperplastic-to-hypertrophic growth transition. In conclusion, our data have identified a large group of lncRNAs presented in the early postnatal mouse heart. Some of these lncRNAs may have important functions in cardiac hyperplastic-to-hypertrophic growth transition. PMID:28266538

  11. Sensory and motor characterization in the postnatal valproate rat model of autism.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Stacey; Millette, Alexandre; Devine, Darragh P

    2012-01-01

    Although autism is diagnosed according to three core features of social deficits, communication impairments, and repetitive or stereotyped behaviors, other behavioral features such as sensory and motor impairments are present in more than 70% of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Exposure of rat pups to the teratogen valproate during sensitive periods of brain development has been shown to elicit behavioral features associated with autism diagnosis and has been proposed as a valid animal model of the disorder. The purpose of this study was to characterize sensory and motor performance in rats postnatally treated with valproate. Thirty-four rat pups were injected with either valproate (150 mg/kg) or saline on postnatal days 6-12. Auditory and tactile startle as well as auditory sensory gating was assessed during both the juvenile and adolescent stages of development; motor testing was conducted during late adolescence and included a sunflower seed eating task and a vermicelli handling task. Valproate-treated rats were underresponsive to auditory stimuli, showed deficits in auditory sensory gating, and demonstrated impairments in motor speed and performance. These findings suggest that postnatal valproate treatment elicits sensory and motor features often seen in individuals with ASD. Further, the hyposensitivity seen in postnatally valproate-treated rats contrasted with hypersensitivity previously reported in prenatally valproate-exposed rats. This suggests that timing of teratogenic exposure during early brain development may be important to consider when investigating the neurobiological basis of sensorimotor impairments in ASD.

  12. Liquid flow across the epithelium of the artificially perfused lung of fetal and postnatal sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Ramsden, C A; Markiewicz, M; Walters, D V; Gabella, G; Parker, K A; Barker, P M; Neil, H L

    1992-01-01

    1. The lungs of five fetal (133-140 days gestation) and thirty-four postnatal (2-240 days) sheep were artificially perfused in situ with warmed and oxygenated sheep blood. In postnatal animals the airspace of the lung was filled with liquid similar in composition to fetal lung liquid. In fetal and postnatal animals luminal liquid volume was measured by the impermeant tracer technique. 2. Under resting conditions the pulmonary epithelium of fetal animals secreted liquid at a mean (+/- S.E.M.) rate of 2.0 (+/- 0.4) ml (kg body weight)-1 h-1, those of postnantal animals absorbed liquid at -1.8 (+/- 0.2) ml (kg body weight)-1 h-1. 3. Addition of 2,4-dinitrophenol to achieve a concentration of 1.5 x 10(-3) M in the perfusing blood in postnatal animals caused complete cessation of liquid absorption. 4. Light and electron microscopic examination of the lung after periods of up to 6 h of artificial perfusion showed no evidence of epithelial damage. From 3 h onwards, liquid accumulation was evident in the perivascular spaces. 5. Addition of adrenaline to the perfusate in fetal animals caused absorption of liquid to occur at a mean rate of -2.9 (+/- 1.3) ml (kg body weight)-1 h-1. In postnatal animals adrenaline caused the rate of liquid absorption to increase from a mean rate of -1.4 (+/- 0.2) to -2.2 (+/- 0.3) ml (kg body weight)-1 h-1. 6. In the fetus addition of amiloride (0.8 x 10(-4) M) to the luminal fluid blocked adrenaline-induced liquid absorption and caused secretion to occur at 1.3 (+/- 0.3) ml (kg body weight)-1 h-1. 7. In postnatal animals the response to amiloride was age dependent. In newborn lambs (2-14 days) amiloride blocked liquid absorption and caused secretion of liquid to occur in seven out of eight animals at a mean rate of 0.9 (+/- 0.3) ml (kg body weight)-1 h-1 (n = 8). In older animals (15-240 days) the characteristic response to amiloride was slowing of the rate of liquid absorption (mean rate of absorption,-0.2 (+/- 0.09) ml (kg body weight)-1 h

  13. Roles of Notch1 Signaling in Regulating Satellite Cell Fates Choices and Postnatal Skeletal Myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shan, Tizhong; Xu, Ziye; Wu, Weiche; Liu, Jiaqi; Wang, Yizhen

    2016-12-12

    Adult skeletal muscle stem cells, also called satellite cells, are indispensable for the growth, maintenance, and regeneration of the postnatal skeletal muscle. Satellite cells, predominantly quiescent in mature resting muscles, are activated after skeletal muscle injury or degeneration. Notch1 signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that plays crucial roles in satellite cells homeostasis and postnatal skeletal myogenesis and regeneration. Activation of Notch1 signaling promotes the muscle satellite cells quiescence and proliferation, but inhibits differentiation of muscle satellite cells. Notably, the new roles of Notch1 signaling during late-stage of skeletal myogenesis including in post-differentiation myocytes and post-fusion myotubes have been recently reported. Here, we mainly review and discuss the regulatory roles of Notch1 in regulating satellite cell fates choices and skeletal myogenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of pre- and postnatal manganese exposure on brain histamine content in a rodent model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Brus, Ryszard; Jochem, Jerzy; Nowak, Przemysław; Adwent, Marta; Boroń, Dariusz; Brus, Halina; Kostrzewa, Richard M

    2012-02-01

    Rats lesioned shortly after birth with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA; 134 μg icv) represent a near-ideal model of severe Parkinson's disease because of the near-total destruction of nigrostriatal dopaminergic fibers. There are scarce data that in Parkinson's disease, activity of the central histaminergic system is increased. The element manganese, an essential cofactor for many enzymatic reactions, itself in toxic amount, replicates some clinical features similar to those of Parkinson's disease. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of neonatal manganese exposure on 6-OHDA modeling of Parkinson's disease in rats, and to determine effects on histamine content in the brain of these rats in adulthood. Manganese (MnCl₂·4H₂O; 10,000 ppm) was included in the drinking water of pregnant Wistar rats from the time of conception until the 21st day after delivery, the age when neonatal rats were weaned. Control rats consumed tap water. Other groups of neonatal rat pups, on the 3rd day after birth, were pretreated with desipramine (20 mg/kg ip 1 h) prior to bilateral icv administration of 6-OHDA (60 or 134 μg) or its vehicle saline-ascorbic (0.1%) (control). At 2 months after birth, in rats lesioned with 60 or 134 μg 6-OHDA, endogenous striatal dopamine (DA) content was reduced, respectively, by 92 and 98% (HPLC/ED), while co-exposure of these groups to perinatal manganese did not magnify the DA depletion. However, there was prominent enhancement of histamine content in frontal cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and medulla oblongata of adult rat brain after 6-OHDA (60 and 134 μg) injection on the day 3rd postnatal day. These findings indicate that histamine and the central histaminergic system are altered in the brain of rats lesioned to model Parkinson's disease, and that manganese enhances effects of 6-OHDA on histamine in brain.

  15. The postnatal maturation of efferent tubules in the rat: a light and electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Francavilla, S; Moscardelli, S; Bruno, B; Barcellona, P S; De Martino, C

    1986-07-01

    The postnatal maturation of the epithelium and tubule wall of efferent tubules in the rat was investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy, from birth to 50 days of age, when sperms were released from the seminiferous tubules and appeared in the genital duct. At the end of the first week of life, an endocytotic apparatus is differentiated in the epithelial cells. During the third week of life, efferent tubules developed specializations for the transport of sperms and fluids, namely the appearance of ciliated elements interspersed among the principal cells of the epithelium, and differentiation of myoid elements in the tubule wall. The appearance of specializations related to endocytosis and fluid transport across the epithelium preceded the canalization of the seminiferous cords which, in fact, is reported to appear at the end of the second week of life in the rat, along with the initial secretion of testicular fluid. This suggested that the maturation of efferent tubules is not triggered by the passage of testicular fluid, as surmised for the postnatal differentiation of caput epididymis. The postnatal maturation of efferent tubules was almost complete 35 days after birth. The appearance of sperms in the genital duct of 50-day-old animals was not associated with any remarkable structural change.

  16. Postnatal developmental expression of regulator of G protein signaling 14 (RGS14) in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Evans, Paul R; Lee, Sarah E; Smith, Yoland; Hepler, John R

    2014-01-01

    Regulator of G protein signaling 14 (RGS14) is a multifunctional scaffolding protein that integrates G protein and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. In the adult mouse brain, RGS14 mRNA and protein are found almost exclusively in hippocampal CA2 neurons. We have shown that RGS14 is a natural suppressor of CA2 synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. However, the protein distribution and spatiotemporal expression patterns of RGS14 in mouse brain during postnatal development are unknown. Here, using a newly characterized monoclonal anti-RGS14 antibody, we demonstrate that RGS14 protein immunoreactivity is undetectable at birth (P0), with very low mRNA expression in the brain. However, RGS14 protein and mRNA are upregulated during early postnatal development, with protein first detected at P7, and both increasing over time until reaching highest sustained levels throughout adulthood. Our immunoperoxidase data demonstrate that RGS14 protein is expressed in regions outside of hippocampal CA2 during development including the primary olfactory areas, the anterior olfactory nucleus and piriform cortex, and the olfactory associated orbital and entorhinal cortices. RGS14 is also transiently expressed in neocortical layers II/III and V during postnatal development. Finally, we show that RGS14 protein is first detected in the hippocampus at P7, with strongest immunoreactivity in CA2 and fasciola cinerea and sporadic immunoreactivity in CA1; labeling intensity in hippocampus increases until adulthood. These results show that RGS14 mRNA and protein are upregulated throughout postnatal mouse development, and RGS14 protein exhibits a dynamic localization pattern that is enriched in hippocampus and primary olfactory cortex in the adult mouse brain.

  17. Developmental changes in the expression of ATP7A during a critical period in postnatal neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Niciu, M J; Ma, X-M; El Meskini, R; Ronnett, G V; Mains, R E; Eipper, B A

    2006-01-01

    ATP7A is a P-type ATPase that transports copper from cytosol into the secretory pathway for loading onto cuproproteins or efflux. Mutations in Atp7a cause Menkes disease, a copper-deficiency disorder fatal in the postnatal period due to severe neurodegeneration. Early postnatal copper injections are known to diminish degenerative changes in some human patients and mice bearing mutations in Atp7a. In situ hybridization studies previously demonstrated that ATP7A transcripts are expressed widely in the brain. ATP7A-specific antibody was used to study the neurodevelopmental expression and localization of ATP7A protein in the mouse brain. Based on immunoblot analyses, ATP7A expression is most abundant in the early postnatal period, reaching peak levels at P4 in neocortex and cerebellum. In the developing and adult brain, ATP7A levels are greatest in the choroid plexus/ependymal cells of the lateral and third ventricles. ATP7A expression decreases in most neuronal subpopulations from birth to adulthood. In contrast, ATP7A expression increases in CA2 hippocampal pyramidal and cerebellar Purkinje neurons. ATP7A is expressed in a subset of astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes, tanycytes and endothelial cells. ATP7A is largely localized to the trans-Golgi network, adopting the cell-specific and developmentally-regulated morphology of this organelle. The presence of ATP7A in the axons of postnatal, but not adult, optic nerve suggests stage-specific roles for this enzyme. In sum, the precisely-regulated neurodevelopmental expression of ATP7A correlates well with the limited therapeutic window for effective treatment of Menkes disease.

  18. Postnatal development of glycine receptor subunits α1, α2, α3, and β immunoreactivity in multiple brain stem respiratory-related nuclear groups of the rat

    PubMed Central

    LIU, QIULI; WONG-RILEY, MARGARET T.T.

    2013-01-01

    The respiratory system is immature at birth and significant development occurs postnatally. A critical period of respiratory development occurs in rats around postnatal days 12-13, when enhanced inhibition dominates over suppressed excitation. The mechanisms underlying the heightened inhibition are not fully understood. The present study tested our hypothesis that the inhibition is marked by a switch in glycine receptor subunits from neonatal to adult form around the critical period. An in-depth immunohistochemical and single neuron optical densitometric study was undertaken on four respiratory-related nuclear groups (the pre-Bötzinger complex, nucleus ambiguus, hypoglossal nucleus, and ventrolateral subnucleus of solitary tract nucleus), and a non-respiratory cuneate nucleus in P2-21 rats. Our data revealed that in the respiratory-related nuclear groups: (1) the expressions of GlyRα2 and GlyRα3 were relatively high at P2, but declined after 1-1½ weeks to their lowest levels at P21; (2) the expression of GlyRα1 increased with age and reached significance at P12; and (3) the expression of GlyRβ rose from P2 to P12 followed by a slight decline until P21. No distinct increase in GlyRα1 at P12 was noted in the cuneate nucleus. Thus, there is a switch in dominance of expression from neonatal GlyRα2/α3 to the adult GlyRα1 and a heightened expression of GlyRα1 around the critical period in all respiratory-related nuclear groups, thereby supporting enhanced inhibition at that time. The rise in the expression of GlyRβ around P12 indicates that it plays an important role in forming the mature heteropentameric glycine receptors in these brain stem nuclear groups. PMID:24080401

  19. Postnatal temporal, spatial and modality tuning of nociceptive cutaneous flexion reflexes in human infants.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Laura; Fabrizi, Lorenzo; Patten, Deborah; Worley, Alan; Meek, Judith; Boyd, Stewart; Slater, Rebeccah; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous flexion reflexes are amongst the first behavioural responses to develop and are essential for the protection and survival of the newborn organism. Despite this, there has been no detailed, quantitative study of their maturation in human neonates. Here we use surface electromyographic (EMG) recording of biceps femoris activity in preterm (<37 weeks gestation, GA) and term (≥ 37 weeks GA) human infants, less than 14 days old, in response to tactile, punctate and clinically required skin-breaking lance stimulation of the heel. We show that all infants display a robust and long duration flexion reflex (>4 seconds) to a single noxious skin lance which decreases significantly with gestational age. This reflex is not restricted to the stimulated limb: heel lance evokes equal ipsilateral and contralateral reflexes in preterm and term infants. We further show that infant flexion withdrawal reflexes are not always nociceptive specific: in 29% of preterm infants, tactile stimulation evokes EMG activity that is indistinguishable from noxious stimulation. In 40% of term infants, tactile responses are also present but significantly smaller than nociceptive reflexes. Infant flexion reflexes are also evoked by application of calibrated punctate von Frey hairs (vFh), 0.8-17.2 g, to the heel. Von Frey hair thresholds increase significantly with gestational age and the magnitude of vFh evoked reflexes are significantly greater in preterm than term infants. Furthermore flexion reflexes in both groups are sensitized by repeated vFh stimulation. Thus human infant flexion reflexes differ in temporal, modality and spatial characteristics from those in adults. Reflex magnitude and tactile sensitivity decreases and nociceptive specificity and spatial organisation increases with gestational age. Strong, relatively non-specific, reflex sensitivity in early life may be important for driving postnatal activity dependent maturation of targeted spinal cord sensory circuits.

  20. Selective ablation of pillar and deiters' cells severely affects cochlear postnatal development and hearing in mice.

    PubMed

    Mellado Lagarde, Marcia M; Cox, Brandon C; Fang, Jie; Taylor, Ruth; Forge, Andrew; Zuo, Jian

    2013-01-23

    Mammalian auditory hair cells (HCs) are inserted into a well structured environment of supporting cells (SCs) and acellular matrices. It has been proposed that when HCs are irreversibly damaged by noise or ototoxic drugs, surrounding SCs seal the epithelial surface and likely extend the survival of auditory neurons. Because SCs are more resistant to damage than HCs, the effects of primary SC loss on HC survival and hearing have received little attention. We used the Cre/loxP system in mice to specifically ablate pillar cells (PCs) and Deiters' cells (DCs). In Prox1CreER(T2)+/-;Rosa26(DTA/+) (Prox1DTA) mice, Cre-estrogen receptor (CreER) expression is driven by the endogenous Prox1 promoter and, in presence of tamoxifen, removes a stop codon in the Rosa26(DTA/+) allele and induces diphtheria toxin fragment A (DTA) expression. DTA produces cell-autonomous apoptosis. Prox1DTA mice injected with tamoxifen at postnatal days 0 (P0) and P1 show significant DC and outer PC loss at P2-P4, that reaches ∼70% by 1 month. Outer HC loss follows at P14 and is almost complete at 1 month, while inner HCs remain intact. Neural innervation to the outer HCs is disrupted in Prox1DTA mice and auditory brainstem response thresholds in adults are 40-50 dB higher than in controls. The hearing deficit correlates with loss of cochlear amplification. Remarkably, in Prox1DTA mice, the auditory epithelium preserves the ability to seal the reticular lamina and spiral ganglion neuron counts are normal, a key requirement for cochlear implant success. In addition, our results show that cochlear SC pools should be appropriately replenished during HC regeneration strategies.

  1. Widespread neuronal degeneration in rats following oral administration of methylmercury during the postnatal developing phase: a model of fetal-type minamata disease.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, M; Wakabayashi, K; Kakita, A; Hitoshi Takahashi; Adachi, T; Nakano, A

    1998-02-16

    The neurotoxicity of methylmercury (MeHg) treatment during the postnatal developing phase in rats was studied. Rats on postnatal day 1 were orally administered 5 mg/kg/day methylmercury chloride (MMC) for more than 30 consecutive days. Body weight loss began 26 days after MMC was administered, and severe paralysis of the hind-limbs and unsteadiness appeared subsequently. Histopathologically, the widespread neuronal degeneration was observed in the cerebral neocortex, neostriatum, red nucleus, brainstem, cerebellum and spinal dorsal root ganglia on day 32. The widespread distribution of the lesions was quite similar to that in fetal cases of MeHg intoxication in Minamata, Japan. These findings suggest that MMC treatment during the postnatal development phase in rats produce a good model of fetal-type Minamata disease.

  2. Effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to the UV-filter Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) on the reproductive, auditory and neurological development of rat offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Hougaard, Karin Sorig; Christiansen, Sofie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Nellemann, Christine; Lund, Soren Peter; Hass, Ulla

    2011-02-01

    Octyl Methoxycinnamate (OMC) is a frequently used UV-filter in sunscreens and other cosmetics. The aim of the present study was to address the potential endocrine disrupting properties of OMC, and to investigate how OMC induced changes in thyroid hormone levels would be related to the neurological development of treated offspring. Groups of 14-18 pregnant Wistar rats were dosed with 0, 500, 750 or 1000 mg OMC/kg bw/day during gestation and lactation. Serum thyroxine (T{sub 4}), testosterone, estradiol and progesterone levels were measured in dams and offspring. Anogenital distance, nipple retention, postnatal growth and timing of sexual maturation were assessed. On postnatal day 16, gene expression in prostate and testes, and weight and histopathology of the thyroid gland, liver, adrenals, prostate, testes, epididymis and ovaries were measured. After weaning, offspring were evaluated in a battery of behavioral and neurophysiological tests, including tests of activity, startle response, cognitive and auditory function. In adult animals, reproductive organ weights and semen quality were investigated. Thyroxine (T{sub 4}) levels showed a very marked decrease during the dosing period in all dosed dams, but were less severely affected in the offspring. On postnatal day 16, high dose male offspring showed reduced relative prostate and testis weights, and a dose-dependent decrease in testosterone levels. In OMC exposed female offspring, motor activity levels were decreased, while low and high dose males showed improved spatial learning abilities. The observed behavioral changes were probably not mediated solely by early T{sub 4} deficiencies, as the observed effects differed from those seen in other studies of developmental hypothyroxinemia. At eight months of age, sperm counts were reduced in all three OMC-dosed groups, and prostate weights were reduced in the highest dose group. Taken together, these results indicate that perinatal OMC-exposure can affect both the

  3. The structural alteration of gut microbiota in low-birth-weight mice undergoing accelerated postnatal growth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingjing; Tang, Huang; Wang, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Chenhong; Zhang, Menghui; Zhao, Yufeng; Zhao, Liping; Shen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The transient disruption of gut microbiota in infancy by antibiotics causes adult adiposity in mice. Accelerated postnatal growth (A) leads to a higher risk of adult metabolic syndrome in low birth-weight (LB) humans than in normal birth-weight (NB) individuals, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we set up an experiment using LB + A mice, NB + A mice, and control mice with NB and normal postnatal growth. At 24 weeks of age (adulthood), while NB + A animals had a normal body fat content and glucose tolerance compared with controls, LB + A mice exhibited excessive adiposity and glucose intolerance. In infancy, more fecal bacteria implicated in obesity were increased in LB + A pups than in NB + A pups, including Desulfovibrionaceae, Enterorhabdus, and Barnesiella. One bacterium from the Lactobacillus genus, which has been implicated in prevention of adult adiposity, was enhanced only in NB + A pups. Besides, LB + A pups, but not NB + A pups, showed disrupted gut microbiota fermentation activity. After weaning, the fecal microbiota composition of LB + A mice, but not that of NB + A animals, became similar to that of controls by 24 weeks. In infancy, LB + A mice have a more dysbiotic gut microbiome compared to NB + A mice, which might increase their risk of adult metabolic syndrome. PMID:27277748

  4. Properties of persistent postnatal cortical subplate neurons.

    PubMed

    Torres-Reveron, Juan; Friedlander, Michael J

    2007-09-12

    Subplate (SP) neurons are important for the proper development of thalamocortical innervation. They are necessary for formation of ocular dominance and orientation columns in visual cortex. During the perinatal period, many SP neurons die. The surviving cohort forms interstitial cells in the white matter (WM) and a band of horizontally oriented cells below layer VI (layer VIb, layer VII, or subplate cells). Although the function of embryonic SP neurons has been well established, the functional roles of WM and postnatal SP cells are not known. We used a combination of anatomical, immunohistochemical, and electrophysiological techniques to explore the dendritic morphology, neurotransmitter phenotype, intrinsic electrophysiological, and synaptic input properties of these surviving cells in the rat visual cortex. The density of SP and WM cells significantly decreases during the first month of life. Both populations express neuronal markers and have extensive dendritic arborizations within the SP, WM, and to the overlying visual cortex. Some intrinsic electrophysiological properties of SP and WM cells are similar: each generates high-frequency slowly adapting trains of action potentials in response to a sustained depolarization. However, SP cells exhibit greater frequency-dependent action potential broadening than WM neurons. Both cell types receive predominantly AMPA/kainate receptor-mediated excitatory synaptic input that undergoes paired-pulse facilitation as well as NMDA receptor and GABAergic input. Synaptic inputs to these cells can also undergo long-term synaptic plasticity. Thus, surviving SP and WM cells are functional electrogenic neurons integrated within the postnatal visual cortical circuit.

  5. Fetal and postnatal ovine mesenteric vascular reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Jayasree; Gugino, Sylvia F.; Nielsen, Lori C.; Caty, Michael G.; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Intestinal circulation and mesenteric arterial (MA) reactivity may play a role in preparing the fetus for enteral nutrition. We hypothesized that MA vasoreactivity changes with gestation and vasodilator pathways predominate in the postnatal period. METHODS Small distal MA rings (0.5-mm diameter) were isolated from fetal (116-d, 128-d, 134-d, and 141-d gestation, term ~ 147 d) and postnatal lambs. Vasoreactivity was evaluated using vasoconstrictors (norepinephrine (NE) after pretreatment with propranolol and endothelin-1(ET-1)) and vasodilators (NO donors A23187 and s-nitrosopenicillamine (SNAP)). Protein and mRNA assays for receptors and enzymes (endothelin receptor A, alpha-adrenergic receptor 1A (ADRA1A), endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), and phosphodiesterase5 (PDE5)) were performed in mesenteric arteries. RESULTS MA constriction to NE and ET-1 peaked at 134 d. Relaxation to A23187 and SNAP was maximal after birth. Basal eNOS activity was low at 134 d. ADRA1A mRNA and protein increasedsignificantlyat134danddecreasedpostnatally.sGC and PDE5 protein increased from 134 to 141 d. CONCLUSION Mesenteric vasoconstriction predominates in late-preterm gestation (134 d; the postconceptional age with the highest incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)) followed by a conversion to vasodilatory influences near the time of full-term birth. Perturbations in this ontogenic mechanism, including preterm birth, may be a risk factor for NEC. PMID:26672733

  6. Supplementation with fish oil and coconut fat prevents prenatal stress-induced changes in early postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Borsonelo, Elizabethe C; Suchecki, Deborah; Calil, Helena Maria; Galduróz, José Carlos F

    2011-08-01

    Adequate development of the central nervous system depends on prenatal and postnatal factors. On one hand, prenatal stress (PNS) has been implicated in impaired development of the offspring. On other hand, nutritional factors during pregnancy and lactation can influence fetal and postnatal growth. This study assessed the postnatal development of rat offspring exposed to PNS, which consisted of restraint and bright lights, 3 times/day, from days 14 to 20 of pregnancy, whose mothers were fed different diets during pregnancy and lactation: regular diet, diet supplemented with coconut fat or fish oil. When pregnancy was confirmed, they were distributed into control (CTL) or PNS groups. At birth, PNS males and females weighed less than those in the group CTL. At 21 days of age, this alteration was no longer observed with fish oil and coconut fat groups. PNS and coconut fat diet induced increased locomotor activity in 13 day old male and female pups, and this effect was prevented by fish oil supplementation only in females. In conclusion, postnatal development from birth to weaning was influenced by PNS and diet and some of those alterations were prevented by coconut fat and fish oil.

  7. Early postnatal stress suppresses the developmental trajectory of hippocampal pyramidal neurons: the role of CRHR1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Yang, Xiao-Dun; Liao, Xue-Mei; Xie, Xiao-Meng; Su, Yun-Ai; Li, Ji-Tao; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Si, Tian-Mei

    2016-12-01

    Adverse experiences early in life hamper the development and maturation of the hippocampus, but how early-life stress perturbs the developmental trajectory of the hippocampus across various life stages and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be investigated. In this study, we stressed male mice from postnatal day 2 (P2) to P9, and examined the potential role of CRHR1 in postnatal stress-induced structural remodeling of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons directly after stress (P9), in mid-adolescence (P35) and in adulthood (P90). We found that early-life stress exposure significantly reduced apical dendritic arborization and spine density in CA3 neurons on P9 and P90. Moreover, postnatally stressed neurons underwent increased pruning of spines, especially thin spines, between P35 and P90. These stress-induced immediate and long-term structural abnormalities could be abolished by daily systemic administration of the CRHR1 antagonist antalarmin (20 µg/g of body weight) during stress exposure. However, such treatment strategy failed to attenuate the deleterious stress effects in mid-adolescence on P35. We then extended antalarmin treatment until the end of the second postnatal week, and found that prolonged blockade of CRHR1 could prevent the mid-term impact of early postnatal stress on structural remodeling of CA3 neurons. Our study characterized the influences of early-life stress on the developmental trajectory of hippocampal pyramidal neurons, and highlighted the critical role of CRHR1 in modulating these negative outcomes evoked by early-life stress.

  8. Youth Field Day Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    Youth field days expose children to outdoor activities, land use ethics, and habitat conservation and encourage adults to be mentors in these areas. A typical youth field day could have programs in archery, fishing, boating, shooting, or safety. The event requires a diverse steering committee that usually includes sporting clubs and state…

  9. Effect of timing of first postnatal care home visit on neonatal mortality in Bangladesh: a observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Saifuddin; Arifeen, Shams El; Darmstadt, Gary L; Rosecrans, Amanda M; Mannan, Ishtiaq; Rahman, Syed M; Begum, Nazma; Mahmud, Arif B A; Seraji, Habibur R; Williams, Emma K; Winch, Peter J; Santosham, Mathuram; Black, Robert E

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of the timing of first postnatal home visit by community health workers on neonatal mortality. Design Analysis of prospectively collected data using time varying discrete hazard models to estimate hazard ratios for neonatal mortality according to day of first postnatal home visit. Data source Data from a community based trial of neonatal care interventions conducted in Bangladesh during 2004-5. Main outcome measure Neonatal mortality. Results 9211 live births were included. Among infants who survived the first day of life, neonatal mortality was 67% lower in those who received a visit on day one than in those who received no visit (adjusted hazard ratio 0.33, 95% confidence interval 0.23 to 0.46; P<0.001). For those infants who survived the first two days of life, receiving the first visit on the second day was associated with a 64% lower neonatal mortality than in those who did not receive a visit (adjusted hazard ratio 0.36, 0.23 to 0.55; P<0.001). First visits on any day after the second day of life were not associated with reduced mortality. Conclusions In developing countries, especially where home delivery with unskilled attendants is common, postnatal home visits within the first two days of life by trained community health workers can significantly reduce neonatal mortality. PMID:19684100

  10. Expression of fragile X mental retardation protein in neurons and glia of the developing and adult mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Gholizadeh, Shervin; Halder, Sebok Kumar; Hampson, David R

    2015-01-30

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited form of mental retardation and autism. It is caused by a reduction or elimination of the expression of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Because fragile X syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder, it is important to fully document the cell type expression in the developing CNS to provide a better understanding of the molecular function of FMRP, and the pathogenesis of the syndrome. We investigated FMRP expression in the brain using double-labeling immunocytochemistry and cell type markers for neurons (NeuN), astrocytes (S100β), microglia (Iba-1), and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (NG2). The hippocampus, striatum, cingulate cortex, retrosplenial cortex, corpus callosum and cerebellum were assessed in wild-type C57/BL6 mice at postnatal days 0, 10, 20, and adult. Our results demonstrate that FMRP is ubiquitously expressed in neurons at all times and brain regions studied, except for corpus callosum where FMRP was predominantly present in astrocytes at all ages. FMRP expression in Iba-1 and NG2-positive cells was detected at postnatal day 0 and 10 and gradually decreased to very low or undetectable levels in postnatal day 20 and adult mice. Our results reveal that in addition to continuous and extensive expression in neurons in the immature and mature brain, FMRP is also present in astrocytes, oligodendrocyte precursor cells, and microglia during the early and mid-postnatal developmental stages of brain maturation. Prominent expression of FMRP in glia during these crucial stages of brain development suggests an important contribution to normal brain function, and in its absence, to the fragile X phenotype.

  11. Ketamine Affects the Neurogenesis of the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus in 7-Day-Old Rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, He; Liu, Cun-Ming; Sun, Jie; Hao, Ting; Xu, Chun-Mei; Wang, Dan; Wu, Yu-Qing

    2016-08-01

    Ketamine has been reported to cause neonatal neurotoxicity via a neuronal apoptosis mechanism; however, no in vivo research has reported whether ketamine could affect postnatal neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). A growing number of experiments suggest that postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis is the foundation of maintaining normal hippocampus function into adulthood. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of ketamine on hippocampal neurogenesis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups: the control group (equal volume of normal saline), and the ketamine-anesthesia group (40 mg/kg ketamine in four injections at 1 h intervals). The S-phase marker 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered after ketamine exposure to postnatal day 7 (PND-7) rats, and the neurogenesis in the hippocampal DG was assessed using single- or double-immunofluorescence staining. The expression of GFAP in the hippocampal DG was measured by western blot analysis. Spatial reference memory was tested by Morris water maze at 2 months after PND-7 rats exposed to ketamine treatment. The present results showed that neonatal ketamine exposure significantly inhibited neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation, decreased astrocytic differentiation, and markedly enhanced neuronal differentiation. The disruptive effect of ketamine on the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs lasted at least 1 week and disappeared by 2 weeks after ketamine exposure. Moreover, the migration of newborn neurons in the granule cell layer and the growth of astrocytes in the hippocampal DG were inhibited by ketamine on PND-37 and PND-44. Finally, ketamine caused a deficit in hippocampal-dependent spatial reference memory tasks at 2 months old. Our results suggested that ketamine may interfere with hippocampal neurogenesis and long-term neurocognitive function in PND-7 rats. These findings may provide a new perspective to explain the adult neurocognitive dysfunction induced by neonatal

  12. Intake of up to 3 Eggs per Day Is Associated with Changes in HDL Function and Increased Plasma Antioxidants in Healthy, Young Adults.

    PubMed

    DiMarco, Diana M; Norris, Gregory H; Millar, Courtney L; Blesso, Christopher N; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2017-03-01

    Background: HDL function may be more important than HDL concentration in determining risk for cardiovascular disease. In addition, HDL is a carrier of carotenoids and antioxidant enzymes, which protect HDL and LDL particles against oxidation.Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the impact of consuming 0-3 eggs/d on LDL and HDL particle size, HDL function, and plasma antioxidants in a young, healthy population.Methods: Thirty-eight healthy men and women [age 18-30 y, body mass index (in kg/m(2)) 18.5-29.9] participated in this 14-wk crossover intervention. Subjects underwent a 2-wk washout (0 eggs/d) followed by sequentially increasing intake of 1, 2, and 3 eggs/d for 4 wk each. After each period, fasting blood was collected for analysis of lipoprotein subfractions, plasma apolipoprotein (apo) concentration, lutein and zeaxanthin concentration, and activities of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, cholesteryl ester transfer protein, and paraoxonase-1.Results: Compared with intake of 0 eggs/d, consuming 1-3 eggs/d resulted in increased large-LDL (21-37%) and large-HDL (6-13%) particle concentrations, plasma apoAI (9-15%), and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity (5-15%) (P < 0.05 for all biomarkers). Intake of 2-3 eggs/d also promoted an 11% increase in apoAII (P < 0.05) and a 20-31% increase in plasma lutein and zeaxanthin (P < 0.05), whereas intake of 3 eggs/d resulted in a 9-16% increase in serum paraoxonase-1 activity compared with intake of 1-2 eggs/d (P < 0.05). Egg intake did not affect cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity.Conclusions: Intake of 1 egg/d was sufficient to increase HDL function and large-LDL particle concentration; however, intake of 2-3 eggs/d supported greater improvements in HDL function as well as increased plasma carotenoids. Overall, intake of ≤3 eggs/d favored a less atherogenic LDL particle profile, improved HDL function, and increased plasma antioxidants in young, healthy adults. This trial was

  13. Perinatal Resveratrol Supplementation to Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Dams Mitigates the Development of Hypertension in Adult Offspring.

    PubMed

    Care, Alison S; Sung, Miranda M; Panahi, Sareh; Gragasin, Ferrante S; Dyck, Jason R B; Davidge, Sandra T; Bourque, Stephane L

    2016-05-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether perinatal maternal resveratrol (Resv)--a phytoalexin known to confer cardiovascular protection--could prevent the development of hypertension and improve vascular function in adult spontaneously hypertensive rat offspring. Dams were fed either a control or Resv-supplemented diet (4 g/kg diet) from gestational day 0.5 until postnatal day 21. Indwelling catheters were used to assess blood pressure and vascular function in vivo; wire myography was used to assess vascular reactivity ex vivo. Perinatal Resv supplementation in dams had no effect on fetal body weights, albeit continued maternal treatment postnatally resulted in growth restriction in offspring by postnatal day 21; growth restriction was no longer evident after 5 weeks of age. Maternal perinatal Resv supplementation prevented the onset of hypertension in adult offspring (-18 mm Hg; P=0.007), and nitric oxide synthase inhibition (with L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester) normalized these blood pressure differences, suggesting improved nitric oxide bioavailability underlies the hemodynamic alterations in the Resv-treated offspring. In vivo and ex vivo, vascular responses to methylcholine were not different between treatment groups, but prior treatment with L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester attenuated the vasodilation in untreated, but not Resv-treated adult offspring, suggesting a shift toward nitric oxide-independent vascular control mechanisms in the treated group. Finally, bioconversion of the inactive precursor big endothelin-1 to active endothelin-1 in isolated mesenteric arteries was reduced in Resv-treated offspring (-28%; P<0.05), and this difference could be normalized by L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester treatment. In conclusion, perinatal maternal Resv supplementat