Science.gov

Sample records for adult pregnant women

  1. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Katarina; Heydenreich, Juliane; Schutz, Yves; Renaud, Anne; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    "Metabolic Equivalent" (MET) represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O₂/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry) were measured in adolescent males (n = 50) and females (n = 50), women during pregnancy (gestation week 35-41, n = 46), women 24-53 weeks postpartum (n = 27), and active men (n = 30), and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h) was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h), with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h) and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h) adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard. PMID:27447667

  2. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Katarina; Heydenreich, Juliane; Schutz, Yves; Renaud, Anne; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    “Metabolic Equivalent” (MET) represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O2/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry) were measured in adolescent males (n = 50) and females (n = 50), women during pregnancy (gestation week 35–41, n = 46), women 24–53 weeks postpartum (n = 27), and active men (n = 30), and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h) was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h), with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h) and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h) adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard. PMID:27447667

  3. Unlike pregnant adult women, pregnant adolescent girls cannot maintain glycine flux during late pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jean W; Thame, Minerva M; Gibson, Raquel; Baker, Tameka M; Tang, Grace J; Chacko, Shaji K; Jackson, Alan A; Jahoor, Farook

    2016-03-14

    During pregnancy, glycine and serine become more important because they are the primary suppliers of methyl groups for the synthesis of fetal DNA, and more glycine is required for fetal collagen synthesis as pregnancy progresses. In an earlier study, we reported that glycine flux decreased by 39% from the first to the third trimester in pregnant adolescent girls. As serine is a primary precursor for glycine synthesis, the objective of this study was to measure and compare glycine and serine fluxes and inter-conversions in pregnant adolescent girls and adult women in the first and third trimesters. Measurements were made after an overnight fast by continuous intravenous infusions of 2H2-glycine and 15N-serine in eleven adolescent girls (17·4 (se 0·1) years of age) and in ten adult women (25·8 (se 0·5) years of age) for 4 h. Adolescent girls had significantly slower glycine flux and they made less glycine from serine in the third (P<0·05) than in the first trimester. Baby birth length was significantly shorter of adolescent girls (P=0·04) and was significantly associated with third trimester glycine flux. These findings suggest that the pregnant adolescent cannot maintain glycine flux in late pregnancy compared with early pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine. It is possible that the inability to maintain glycine synthesis makes her fetus vulnerable to impaired cartilage synthesis, and thus linear growth.

  4. Vaccinations for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and neonatal benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and health care provider resources. PMID:25560127

  5. Vaccinations for Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, Geeta K.; Heine, R. Phillips

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician–gynecologists are well-suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease–related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and infant benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and provider resources. PMID:25560127

  6. Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Pregnant Women & Influenza (Flu) Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook ...

  7. Unhappiness with the Fetal Gender is associated with Depression in Adult Pregnant Women Attending Prenatal Care in a Public Hospital in Durango, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Depression during pregnancy has been scantily studied in Mexican women. We aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of depression in adult pregnant women attending a public hospital in the northern Mexican city of Durango, Mexico. Through a cross-sectional study design, we assessed depression in 270 adult pregnant women attended for prenatal care in a public hospital using a validated Mexican version of the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale in pregnancy and further confirmation by a psychiatric evaluation using the DSM-IV criteria for depression. Prevalence association with socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics of the pregnant women was also investigated. Of the 270 pregnant women studied, 101 (37.4%) had EPDS scores equal to or higher than nine. Depression was confirmed in 56 (20.7%) women. Of them, 42 suffered from minor depression and 14 from major depression. Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial characteristics of the women showed that depression was associated with depression before pregnancy (OR = 3.36; 95% CI: 1.20-9.40; P=0.02), anxiety during pregnancy (OR = 9.38; 95% CI: 1.87-46.96; P=0.006), smoking (OR = 25.05; 95% CI: 1.77-353.07; P=0.01), unhappy with the fetal sex (OR = 8.53; 95% CI: 2.46-29.48; P<0.001), and unintended pregnancy (OR = 2.90; 95% CI: 1.07-7.86; P=0.03). Results indicate that about one fifth of the pregnant women studied had confirmed depression. This is the first report of an association of prenatal depression with unhappiness with the fetal sex. Factors associated with prenatal depression found in this study may help for the optimal design of preventive measures against prenatal depression.

  8. Dietary behaviour of pregnant versus non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Wim; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates dietary behaviour and the perceived role of food for health of pregnant versus non-pregnant women. Data were collected between 15 January 2003 and 15 March 2003 in Belgium. One hundred and forty-eight pregnant and 130 non-pregnant women aged between 20 and 40 years completed a self-administered questionnaire about their dietary behaviour and nutritional attitudes. Both sub-samples match with respect to individual factors such as relevant socio-demographics and general food perceptions. Pregnant women report higher consumption of fruits, which results in a better score for fibre intake. They also report higher consumption of beef and dairy products, as well as a higher fat intake. No difference in fish consumption between pregnant and non-pregnant women is observed. In line with recommendations, pregnant women report reduced consumption of food products with heightened safety-related risks, lower use of alcohol and tobacco, and safer food handling practices. Reduced intake of raw vegetables for food safety reasons is not compensated by higher intake of cooked vegetables. Pregnant women also report a lower frequency of moderate physical activity. Most differences in food choice by pregnant versus non-pregnant women pertain to the avoidance of specific, potentially harmful food groups. A substantial share of pregnant women does not follow upon recommendations with respect to alcohol use and exposure to tobacco. Personal medical sources for pregnant women and personal social sources for non-pregnant women are reported as the most attended sources of diet-related information. The perceived role of food for health is not different between pregnant and non-pregnant women, and there were no significant interaction effects between pregnancy and presence of children, which indicates that the observed differences in dietary behaviour can be attributed to the state of being pregnant. PMID:17005297

  9. Toxoplasmosis and Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... mouth after changing a litter box, or while gardening without gloves. Fruits and vegetables may have contact ... pregnant. Keep outdoor sandboxes covered. Wear gloves when gardening and during contact with soil or sand because ...

  10. Online Medicine for Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Davidesko, Sharon; Segal, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess the use of cell phones and email as means of communication between pregnant women and their gynecologists and family physicians. Study Design. A cross-sectional study of pregnant women at routine followup. One hundred and twenty women participated in the study. Results. The mean age was 27.4 ± 3.4 years. One hundred nineteen women owned a cell phone and 114 (95%) had an email address. Seventy-two women (60%) had their gynecologist's cell phone number and 50 women (42%) had their family physician's cell phone number. More women contacted their gynecologist via cell phone or email during pregnancy compared to their family physician (P = 0.005 and 0.009, resp.). Most preferred to communicate with their physician via cell phone at predetermined times, but by email at any time during the day (P < 0.0001). They would use cell phones for emergencies or unusual problems but preferred email for other matters (P < 0.0001). Conclusions. Pregnant women in the Negev region do not have a preference between the use of cell phones or email for medical consultation with their gynecologist or family physician. The provision of the physician's cell phone numbers or email address together with the provision of guidelines and resources could improve healthcare services. PMID:25132848

  11. [Adverse drug reactions in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Isabelle; Cabou, Cendrine; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Damase-Michel, Christine

    2007-01-01

    A Prospective pharmacovigilance survey of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in pregnant women was performed in collaboration with gynaecologists and obstetricians of Midi-Pyrenees area (south west of france). The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of adverse drug reactions in pregnant women. The incidence of ADRs in pregnant women was low: 0.3%. Moreover, a retrospective pharmacoepidemiological study was conducted to characterize ADRs in pregnant women. Reports of ADRs collected in the Midi-Pyrenees pharmacovigilance centre from 1982 to 2002 were used: type of ADRs, drugs involved and potential risk factors were compared for pregnant women and for age-matched non pregnant women. Forty seven and 94 reports of ADRs were collected in pregnant and non-pregnant women respectively. Anaphylactic reactions were only observed in pregnant women (3 cases, p = 0.04). We observed 1 ADR related stillbirth (due to anaphylactic reaction) in pregnant women. Drugs for gynaecological and cardiovascular systems were more frequently involved in ADRs in pregnant women than in controls. ADRs mainly occurred during the third trimester of pregnancy. The incidence of ADRs is very low in pregnant women. However, one must pay attention on the risk of anaphylactic reactions in pregnant women. PMID:18206108

  12. CDC Updates Zika Guidelines for Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160052.html CDC Updates Zika Guidelines for Pregnant Women Any sex partner, male ... News) -- U.S. health officials on Monday updated their Zika virus guidelines, saying that pregnant women could contract ...

  13. 42 CFR 435.116 - Pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pregnant women. 435.116 Section 435.116 Public..., AND AMERICAN SAMOA Mandatory Coverage Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 19, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Pregnant women. (a) Basis. This section implements sections...

  14. 42 CFR 435.116 - Pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pregnant women. 435.116 Section 435.116 Public..., AND AMERICAN SAMOA Mandatory Coverage Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 19, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Pregnant women. (a) Basis. This section implements sections...

  15. [Nutrition of pregnant women: consequences for fetal growth and adult diseases].

    PubMed

    Weber, M; Ayoubi, J-M; Picone, O

    2015-01-01

    The developmental origins of human adult disease are thought to be secondary to a perturbation of the embryonic or fetal development, which leads to metabolic disorders such as diabetes or hypertension at adulthood. Maternal undernutrition or overnutrition, repeated glucocorticosteroids administered to the mother, or placental dysfunction are the most frequently considered causal factors. Therefore, it is necessary that the pediatrician is aware of these phenomena, as this knowledge may contribute to the prevention of adult diseases. Little is known yet, however, on the pathophysiological or epigenetic mechanisms that lead to theses observations, and more studies are needed both in humans and animal models. PMID:25440770

  16. A new threat to pregnant women's autonomy.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, D

    1987-01-01

    Courts and legislatures are increasingly being called upon to restrict the autonomy of pregnant women by requiring them to behave in ways that others determine are best for the fetuses they carry. The state should not attempt to transform pregnant women into ideal baby-making machines. Pregnant women make decisions about their behavior in the context of the rest of their lives, with all the attendant complexities and pressures. Our interest in helping future children by improving prenatal care would best be furthered by helping pregnant women to make informed, less constrained choices, not by punishing women or depriving them of choices altogether.

  17. 1: Infections in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Gwendolyn L

    2002-03-01

    Some infections are more serious in pregnant than non-pregnant women because of the potential for vertical transmission to the fetus or infant (eg, varicella, rubella, cytomegalovirus infection, toxoplasmosis and listeriosis). Pre-pregnancy or routine antenatal screening for presence of, or susceptibility to, some of these infections and appropriate management can prevent adverse fetal or perinatal outcomes; screening should include rubella IgG, hepatitis B surface antigen, serological tests for syphilis and HIV antibody. If certain other vertically transmissible infections are suspected because of a positive antenatal test result, confirmatory tests for maternal and, if indicated, fetal infection are essential before intervention is considered (eg, cytomegalovirus infection). For some vertically transmissible infections that are not readily preventable, appropriate management of maternal infection can reduce fetal damage (eg, toxoplasmosis). PMID:11999241

  18. Doula birth support for incarcerated pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Carole; Bell, Janice

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide trained labor support (doulas) to pregnant women in jail. A multiagency intervention project provided doula birth services to pregnant women in urban jails. Program evaluation included interviews with women and written satisfaction surveys of providers and correctional officers. A convenience sample of 18 incarcerated women received doula services. A doula visited each woman in jail antepartum to review expectations for labor and birth; during hospitalization, the doula provided continuous support throughout labor and birth. Doulas visited women postpartum to review birth events. Surveys administered to providers and officers demonstrated high satisfaction with the program. Qualitative interviews with 14 women indicated unanimous support for the services and documented women's major concerns. Findings support offering doula services to all pregnant women in custody and expanding doula services to include early and comprehensive intervention coordinated by nurses.

  19. Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... shot. Top of Page Can pregnant women with egg allergies get vaccinated? Most people who have an ... reaction following a flu shot. Special Consideration Regarding Egg Allergy The recommendations for vaccination of people with ...

  20. [Cartography of healthcare for pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da; Costa, Milena Silva; Matsue, Regina Yoshie; Sousa, Girliani Silva de; Catrib, Ana Maria Fontenelle; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza

    2012-03-01

    This work uses cartography as a method for mapping the trajectory of primary healthcare provided to pregnant women. The scope of the study comprises 9 Basic Healthcare Units located in the city of Juazeiro do Norte in the State of Ceará. In all, fifteen women in the 37th to 39th week of pregnancy were selected. Interviews were conducted with these women during the period from January to June 2010. The cartographic findings were depicted in stages in the flowchart, which exposed lacunas in prenatal healthcare, such as the low number of oncotic cytology exams conducted and the lack of educational counseling. Nevertheless, in the interviews, a significant number of pregnant women expressed satisfaction with the prenatal care provided. The good relationships developed between the healthcare professionals and the pregnant women were the main reason that led them to continue the treatment. This fact reinforces the importance of dialogue between these two actors for the success of prenatal healthcare.

  1. Designing Drug Trials: Considerations for Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Sheffield, Jeanne S.; Siegel, David; Mirochnick, Mark; Heine, R. Phillips; Nguyen, Christine; Bergman, Kimberly L.; Savic, Rada M.; Long, Jill; Dooley, Kelly E.; Nesin, Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Clinical pharmacology studies that describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in pregnant women are critical for informing on the safe and effective use of drugs during pregnancy. That being said, multiple factors have hindered the ability to study drugs in pregnant patients. These include concerns for maternal and fetal safety, ethical considerations, the difficulty in designing appropriate trials to assess the study objectives, and funding limitations. This document summarizes the recommendations of a panel of experts convened by the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. These experts were charged with reviewing the issues related to the development of preclinical and clinical drug studies in pregnant women and to develop strategies for addressing these issues. These findings may also be utilized in the development of future drug studies involving pregnant women and their fetus/neonate. PMID:25425722

  2. Population Pharmacokinetics of Abacavir in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Préta, Laure-Helene; Valade, Elodie; Pannier, Emmanuelle; Urien, Saik; Hirt, Déborah

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, a population approach was used to describe abacavir (ABC) pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected pregnant and nonpregnant women. A total of 266 samples from 150 women were obtained. No covariate effect (from age, body weight, pregnancy, or gestational age) on ABC pharmacokinetics was found. Thus, it seems unnecessary to adapt the ABC dosing regimen during pregnancy. PMID:25070097

  3. Protection for pregnant women in employment.

    PubMed

    Potrykus, C

    1994-03-01

    October 19 is the deadline for employers to implement improvements in maternity rights laid down by the Trade Union Reform and Employment Rights Act (TURERA) and the European directive to protect pregnant women's health and safety at work. Christina Potrykus outlines what the government and, separately, the general Whitley council have in store for women employees.

  4. Everyday life memory deficits in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Cuttler, Carrie; Graf, Peter; Pawluski, Jodi L; Galea, Liisa A M

    2011-03-01

    Converging evidence indicates that pregnant women report experiencing problems with memory, but the results of studies using objective measures are ambiguous. The present study investigated potential reason(s) for the discrepancy between findings of subjective and objective memory deficits, as well as potential source(s) of pregnant women's problems with memory. Sixty-one pregnant and 24 nonpregnant women completed a series of memory tests which included field and laboratory measures of prospective memory. Three standardized questionnaires were used to assess subjective aspects of memory. The influence of cortisol, depressed mood, anxiety, physical symptoms, sleep/fatigue, and busyness on pregnancy-related deficits was also examined. The findings revealed objective pregnancy-related deficits on two of the field measures of prospective memory. Pregnancy-related subjective deficits were also detected on all of the questionnaires. In contrast, no objective pregnancy-related deficits were found on the laboratory measures of memory. Increased physical symptoms accounted for one of the objective deficits in memory, while depressed mood and physical symptoms accounted for two of the subjective memory deficits. Collectively, these findings suggest that pregnant women experience everyday life problems with memory that are not readily detected in the laboratory environment. The predominant use of laboratory tests may explain the myriad of previous failures to detect objective deficits in pregnant women's memory.

  5. Gestational thrombocytopenia among pregnant Ghanaian women

    PubMed Central

    Olayemi, Edeghonghon; Akuffo, Frederick William

    2012-01-01

    Background Thrombocytopenia is a common problem during pregnancy that is not frequently detected and as a result is often inappropriately managed. The obvious concern with thrombocytopenia during pregnancy is the risk of significant bleeding at the time of delivery. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of gestational thrombocytopenia in pregnant women reporting for ante-natal care at a Ghanaian primary health care centre. Methods Platelet count was evaluated in 300 blood samples from pregnant women and 100 non pregnant female blood donors. The platelet counts were performed using Sysmex KX-21N automated hematology analyzer. The study design was cross sectional. Proportions were analyzed for statistical significance with the Chi square, Odds ratio was also calculated Results The prevalence of thrombocytopenia in pregnant women in this study was 15.3% compared with 4% in controls. This was statistically significant with a P value of 0.003. Odds ratio was 4.31 (95% CI: 1.52-12.04). Most cases of thrombocytopenia were mild (76%), only 4% of the women with thrombocytopenia had severe thrombocytopenia. Conclusion The frequency of thrombocytopenia in this study was higher than that reported from more developed parts of the world. This may be due to undetected malaria infection in our patients. Pregnant women should be routinely screened for thrombocytopenia. Those found to be thrombocytopenic should have both thick and thin blood films done to exclude the presence of malaria parasites. PMID:22891092

  6. Urinary bisphenol A concentrations in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Callan, Anna Carita; Hinwood, Andrea Lee; Heffernan, Amy; Eaglesham, Geoff; Mueller, Jochen; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-11-01

    Bisphenol A is a chemical that is present in a number of products and types of food packaging. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A may cause behavioural changes in young children. The aim of this study was to investigate exposure to bisphenol A in pregnant Australian women as a surrogate of neonatal exposure. First morning void urine samples were collected from 26 pregnant women at around week 38 of gestation. Bisphenol A was detectable in 85% of the samples analysed. The median concentration in this group of women was 2.41μg/L with a range of Women experiencing their first pregnancy had slightly higher urinary bisphenol A concentrations, as did women with a pre-pregnancy BMI of <25, however these relationships did not reach significance. This study provides the first information on bisphenol A exposure in Australia and reveals that pregnant women have measured biological concentrations of urinary bisphenol A similar to those reported for pregnant women in other developed countries. Given the potential impacts of prenatal bisphenol A exposure, further research in this area is warranted.

  7. Correlates of Stress among Pregnant Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Marushka Leanne; Pekow, Penelope S.; Dole, Nancy; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Prenatal psychosocial stress has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, even after controlling for known risk factors. This paper aims to evaluate correlates of high perceived stress among Hispanic women, a group with elevated rates of stress during pregnancy. Methods We conducted this analysis among 1426 pregnant Hispanic women using data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study conducted in Western Massachusetts. Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) validated in English and Spanish was administered in early (mean=12.4 wks gestation), mid (mean=21.3 wks gestation) and late (mean=30.8 wks gestation) pregnancy at which time bilingual interviewers collected data on socio-demographic, acculturation, behavioral, and psychosocial factors. High perceived stress was defined as a PSS score>30. Results Young maternal age (odds ratio (OR) =0.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-0.9 for <19 vs. 19-23yrs), pre-pregnancy consumption of alcohol (OR=2.2; 95% CI 1.4-3.5 for >12 drinks/mo. vs. none) and smoking (OR=2.2; 95% CI 1.3-3.7 for >10 cigarettes/day vs. none) were associated with high perceived stress during early pregnancy. Furthermore, higher annual household income (OR=0.4; 95% CI 0.1-0.9 for >$30,000 vs. <$15,000), greater number of adults in the household (OR=1.8; 95% CI 1.1-3.0 for ≥3 vs. 1) and language preference (OR=0.6; 95% CI 0.4-0.9 for Spanish vs. English) were associated with high stress during mid-pregnancy. Likewise, annual household income was inversely associated with high stress during late pregnancy. Conclusion Our results have important implications for incorporation of routine screening for psychosocial stress during prenatal visits and implementation of psychosocial counseling services for women at high risk. PMID:23010861

  8. Medical risk: implicating poor pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Handwerker, L

    1994-03-01

    Since 1987 the United States courts have increasingly relied on medical testimony to prosecute women labeled 'high risk' for failure to comply with medical advice when their fetuses or babies die. Drawing on fieldwork in a public prenatal clinic in Northern California, it is argued that risk does not represent scientific certainty. While the assessment and management of risk is not standardized or consistently applied in the clinic, health care providers and the legal system make decisions as if risk is unambiguous 'fact'. Consequently, labeling poor pregnant women 'high risk', implicitly and explicitly makes them accountable if they are unable to change their behavior as prescribed by health professionals. Through an examination of the dilemmas facing poor pregnant women seeking prenatal care, this paper suggests how attempts to prosecute women may discourage rather than encourage them to seek care. Overall, there is a need for understanding the complexities of risk and its usages in medical and legal settings.

  9. Sympathetic baroreflex gain in normotensive pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Usselman, Charlotte W.; Skow, Rachel J.; Matenchuk, Brittany A.; Chari, Radha S.; Julian, Colleen G.; Stickland, Michael K.; Davenport, Margie H.

    2015-01-01

    Muscle sympathetic nerve activity is increased during normotensive pregnancy while mean arterial pressure is maintained or reduced, suggesting baroreflex resetting. We hypothesized spontaneous sympathetic baroreflex gain would be reduced in normotensive pregnant women relative to nonpregnant matched controls. Integrated muscle sympathetic burst incidence and total sympathetic activity (microneurography), blood pressure (Finometer), and R-R interval (ECG) were assessed at rest in 11 pregnant women (33 ± 1 wk gestation, 31 ± 1 yr, prepregnancy BMI: 23.5 ± 0.9 kg/m2) and 11 nonpregnant controls (29 ± 1 yr; BMI: 25.2 ± 1.7 kg/m2). Pregnant women had elevated baseline sympathetic burst incidence (43 ± 2 vs. 33 ± 2 bursts/100 heart beats, P = 0.01) and total sympathetic activity (1,811 ± 148 vs. 1,140 ± 55 au, P < 0.01) relative to controls. Both mean (88 ± 3 vs. 91 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.4) and diastolic (DBP) (72 ± 3 vs. 73 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.7) pressures were similar between pregnant and nonpregnant women, respectively, indicating an upward resetting of the baroreflex set point with pregnancy. Baroreflex gain, calculated as the linear relationship between sympathetic burst incidence and DBP, was reduced in pregnant women relative to controls (−3.7 ± 0.5 vs. −5.4 ± 0.5 bursts·100 heart beats−1·mmHg−1, P = 0.03), as was baroreflex gain calculated with total sympathetic activity (−294 ± 24 vs. −210 ± 24 au·100 heart beats−1·mmHg−1; P = 0.03). Cardiovagal baroreflex gain (sequence method) was not different between nonpregnant controls and pregnant women (49 ± 8 vs. 36 ± 8 ms/mmHg; P = 0.2). However, sympathetic (burst incidence) and cardiovagal gains were negatively correlated in pregnant women (R = −0.7; P = 0.02). Together, these data indicate that the influence of the sympathetic nervous system over arterial blood pressure is reduced in normotensive pregnancy, in terms of both long-term and beat-to-beat regulation of arterial pressure

  10. Telephone smoking cessation quitline use among pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Bombard, Jennifer M; Farr, Sherry L; Dietz, Patricia M; Tong, Van T; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-08-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers' use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18-44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006-2008. We examined self-reported 30-day quit rates 7 months after enrollment among 246 pregnant and 4,123 non-pregnant women and, within groups, used Chi-square tests to compare quit rates by type of service received. The majority of pregnant and non-pregnant callers, respectively, smoked ≥10 cigarettes per day (62 %; 83 %), had recently attempted to quit (55 %; 58 %), smoked 5 or minutes after waking (59 %; 55 %), and lived with a smoker (63 %; 48 %). Of callers, 24.3 % of pregnant and 36.4 % of non-pregnant women were uninsured. Pregnant callers heard about the quitline most often from a health care provider (50 %) and non-pregnant callers most often through mass media (59 %). Over half of pregnant (52 %) and non-pregnant (57 %) women received self-help materials only, the remainder received counseling. Self-reported quit rates at 7 months after enrollment in the subsample were 26.4 % for pregnant women and 22.6 % for non-pregnant women. Quitlines provide needed services for pregnant and non-pregnant smokers, many of whom are uninsured. Smokers should be encouraged to access counseling services.

  11. Serum silicon concentrations in pregnant women and newborn babies.

    PubMed

    Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Anderson, Simon H C; Lakasing, Lorin; Sripanyakorn, Supannee; Ratcliffe, Sarah; Powell, Jonathan J

    2013-12-14

    Earlier studies in animals have suggested an essential role for Si in connective tissues, but such works have not been replicated per se. Nonetheless, a study conducted in 2000 has reported that Si may be essential during pregnancy for the growing fetus, since serum Si concentrations in infants were approximately 300 % higher than those in older children and adults and serum Si concentrations in pregnant women were approximately 300 % lower than those in age-matched non-pregnant controls. To reproduce these potentially important findings, in the present study, serum Si concentrations were measured in fourteen pregnant women (15-24 weeks of gestation) and compared with those of seventeen non-pregnant, non-lactating female controls. Serum Si concentrations were also measured in fourteen full-term mothers at the time of delivery and in the umbilical cord (UC) vein and artery where possible. Fasting serum Si concentrations in pregnant women were not significantly different from those of the female controls and showed little change with advancing gestation (r 0·2). Mean serum Si concentrations in the UC vein samples were 52 % higher, while those in the UC artery samples were 235 % higher than those in the maternal forearm vein samples, although data were widely spread and differences were not significant. Mean maternal forearm vein Si concentrations at delivery were 50 % lower than those of pregnant women and female controls, but, again, these were not significant. Overall, we note that there are significant analytical challenges in comparing baseline Si levels between different groups; notwithstanding, our findings cannot confirm a reduction in fasting serum Si levels during pregnancy, but, equally, we cannot rule out higher serum Si levels in newborns than in their mothers, and further work is required. PMID:23702224

  12. Syphilis in pregnant women in Zambia.

    PubMed Central

    Ratnam, A V; Din, S N; Hira, S K; Bhat, G J; Wacha, D S; Rukmini, A; Mulenga, R C

    1982-01-01

    Because of the high incidence of congenital syphilis at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia, the potential risks of congenital infection and fetal loss due to syphilis were assessed by screening 202 antenatal patients, 340 pregnant women admitted to the hospital whose pregnancies ended in either spontaneous abortion or stillbirth, and 469 consecutive babies delivered at the hospital. Primary serological screening was performed with the rapid plasma reagin test, and reactive sera were confirmed by the Treponema pallidum haemagglutination test. In all cases detailed histories were obtained and patients were examined for clinical signs of syphilis. The TPHA test result was reactive in 12.5% of antenatal patients and in 42% of women who aborted in the later half of pregnancy. Among 469 consecutive babies delivered at the hospital, 30 had reactive results to the TPHA test; of these two were stillborn and four had signs of congenital syphilis at birth. Thus, syphilis appears to affect adversely an appreciably high number of pregnant women in Zambia. For this reason a special campaign to screen adequately and treat pregnant women and neonates is needed. PMID:6756542

  13. Perinatal Needs of Pregnant, Incarcerated Women

    PubMed Central

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    Pregnant prisoners have health-care needs that are minimally met by prison systems. Many of these mothers have high-risk pregnancies due to the economic and social problems that led them to be incarcerated: poverty, lack of education, inadequate health care, and substance abuse. Lamaze educators and doulas have the opportunity to replicate model programs that provide these women and their children with support, information, and empowering affirmation that improve parenting outcomes and decrease recidivism. PMID:19252687

  14. [Low back pain in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Majchrzycki, Marian; Mrozikiewicz, Przemysław M; Kocur, Piotr; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Hoffmann, Marcin; Stryła, Wanda; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2010-11-01

    Pain of lumbosacral segment of the vertebral column and the pelvis concerns about 45% of all pregnant women. The change of the body posture during pregnancy is the result of gravity centre relocation, which affects the musculosceletal system. Development of the joint, ligament and myofascial dysfunctions, as well as the pain in the lumbosacral segment and the pelvis, are the most common reasons of spine pain. The aim of this review is to present the current state of knowledge about lumbar spine pain in pregnant women with special focus on the pain connected with muscular, joint and ligament disorders. Pregnancy is a serious burden for the female osteo-skeletal system. Lumbar pain with different location and intensification is the negative consequence of the position changes during pregnancy. Pharmacotherapy could be useful only in cases of intensive low back pain, with possible application of small spectrum of drugs that are safe during pregnancy. Physical therapy including manual therapy exercises, massage and techniques of local anesthesia are alternative methods in case of low back pain in pregnant women.

  15. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The State is required to, in accordance with this section, ensure that each pregnant woman in the State...

  16. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The State is required to, in accordance with this section, ensure that each pregnant woman in the State...

  17. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The State is required to, in accordance with this section, ensure that each pregnant woman in the State...

  18. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The State is required to, in accordance with this section, ensure that each pregnant woman in the State...

  19. [Psychotherapy for pregnant women with psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Müldner-Nieckowski, Łukasz; Cyranka, Katarzyna; Smiatek-Mazgaj, Bogna; Mielimąka, Michał; Sobański, Jerzy; Rutkowski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is a major life change for many women. The related biological changes, especially complications in its course and in the course of delivery, carry a risk of developing a variety of psychological problems and mental disorders. However, their treatment is challenging due to the teratogenic effects of most psychoactive drugs and specific requirements for entering different psychotherapeutic programs. Mental disorders during pregnancy are undoubtedly an important issue for both gynecology and psychiatry. There is still a discussion considering the question whether psychotherapy during pregnancy is safe, although no scientifically valid data contradicting the safety of psychotherapy during pregnancy has been published so far. Together with psychotherapy - as a treatment of choice - clinicians approve some other relatively safe treatment methods for psychiatric disorders in pregnant women. Light therapy, limited pharmacotherapy, ECT are included. The goal of this paper is to review current opinions of clinicians and researches concerning possibilities, indications and outcome of psychological treatments as a way to help pregnant women who suffer from different psychiatric conditions, and also because this subject is not yet present in Polish psychiatric journals.

  20. Identifying and helping battered pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Parker, B; McFarlane, J

    1991-01-01

    This article highlights strategies in identifying and helping battered pregnant women. Studies report that 40-60% of battered women were abused during pregnancy inflicted in the form of blows to the abdomen, injuries to the breasts and genitals, and sexual assault. Because battering during pregnancy has been a prevalent occurrence, assessment during prenatal visits is most critical. This paper outlines several assessment approaches in dealing with battered pregnant women in specific circumstances, giving important consideration to her safety due to the potential risk of homicide. A Danger Assessment tool is utilized in assessing for potential homicide. Intervening with victims of abuse is difficult. The role of the nurse is to assist in the development of problem-solving and decision-making skills while the woman is still in extreme confusion or feeling of conflicting loyalties. Routine assessment for physical and sexual abuse during the prenatal period is recommended in order to prevent further abuse thus promoting maternal-child well being. PMID:2056861

  1. Smoking in Rural and Underserved Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Handley, Marilyn Cooper; Avery, Daniel M

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the persistent problem of smoking, especially as it relates to the rural and underserved population. The negative effects of smoking and disparities in health that occur as a result are highlighted. The article reviews the general state of smoking in the United States and discusses health-related issues and concerns of individuals who continue to smoke. The report explores individuals' rationale for smoking, barriers to cessation, and general knowledge related to the outcomes of smoking during pregnancy. The conclusions highlight the need for providers to provide information and interventions to reduce the smoking rates of pregnant women.

  2. Smoking in Rural and Underserved Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Handley, Marilyn Cooper; Avery, Daniel M

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the persistent problem of smoking, especially as it relates to the rural and underserved population. The negative effects of smoking and disparities in health that occur as a result are highlighted. The article reviews the general state of smoking in the United States and discusses health-related issues and concerns of individuals who continue to smoke. The report explores individuals' rationale for smoking, barriers to cessation, and general knowledge related to the outcomes of smoking during pregnancy. The conclusions highlight the need for providers to provide information and interventions to reduce the smoking rates of pregnant women. PMID:26333611

  3. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Taghipour, Ali; Sadat Borghei, Narjes; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Keramat, Afsaneh; Jabbari Nooghabi, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through random cluster sampling, a total number of 160 pregnant women were selected from 10 urban medical centers and clinics as primary centers. We used Spritzer’s Psychological empowerment scale. Suitable sampling based on Nunally and Bernstein was followed in the model. The relationships between the dependent variables were then examined by means of path analysis using Amos 18. Results: The psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers (PEPW) model is impacted by individual factors, such as marriage age and employment, including some subjectively rated factors such as marital satisfaction and experience of violence. The PEPW model was deemed appropriate as optimum conditions indicators of goodness of fit; low index of χ2/df shows little difference between the conceptual model and observed data, while RMSEA value indicated the goodness of fit. Other indicators such as CMIN=0.957, CMIN/DF=0.957, P-CLOSE=0.418, χ2=0.957 and probability level=0.328 the fact that the model is ideal. The mothers’ employment had the highest coefficient in the PEPW path model .731 (0.443, 0.965) bootstrap confidence intervals by 95%, and with a p-value of less than 0.05. Conclusions: The mothers’ employment is the most important factor in psychological empowerment, but it cannot be addressed quickly. Programming to increase marital satisfaction followed by a decrease in family violence and prevention of early marriage are necessary for promotion of psychological empowerment during pregnancy. PMID

  4. Some Pregnant Women Still Travel to Zika-Affected Areas

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160025.html Some Pregnant Women Still Travel to Zika-Affected Areas 41 New York City moms-to- ... women from New York City are traveling to Zika-affected areas and then getting tested when they ...

  5. Smallpox Vaccination Information for Women Who Are Pregnant or Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccination Information for Women Who Are Pregnant or Breastfeeding What is smallpox vaccine? The smallpox vaccine helps ... people can take to protect themselves from smallpox. Breastfeeding Is smallpox vaccine safe for women who are ...

  6. Determinants of measles seroprevalence among pregnant women in Paris, France.

    PubMed

    Bodilis, H; Goffinet, F; Krivine, A; Andrieu, T; Anselem, O; Tsatsaris, V; Rozenberg, F; Launay, O

    2014-08-01

    Non-immune pregnant women are at risk of severe measles. As the measles vaccination is contraindicated during pregnancy, women should be vaccinated before conception or during the postpartum period. Nevertheless, measles serology is not recommended during pregnancy in France, and there are no data available concerning measles susceptibility and its associated risk factors among pregnant women. The socio-demographic determinants of measles seronegativity have been identified in a prospective cohort of 826 pregnant women in Paris, France. Measles seronegativity was 10.41% (95% CI 8.32-12.50). Women from higher socio-economic groups, born in France after 1980, were more frequently seronegative.

  7. Antiviral Treatment among Pregnant Women with Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lin; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Schillie, Sarah F.; Murphy, Trudy V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To describe the antiviral treatment patterns for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) among pregnant and nonpregnant women. Methods. Using 2011 MarketScan claims, we calculated the rates of antiviral treatment among women (aged 10–50 years) with CHB. We described the pattern of antiviral treatment during pregnancy and ≥1 month after delivery. Results. We identified 6274 women with CHB during 2011. Among these, 64 of 507 (12.6%) pregnant women and 1151 of 5767 (20.0%) nonpregnant women received antiviral treatment (P < 0.01). Pregnant women were most commonly prescribed tenofovir (73.4%) and lamivudine (21.9%); nonpregnant women were most commonly prescribed tenofovir (50.2%) and entecavir (41.3%) (P < 0.01). Among 48 treated pregnant women with an identifiable delivery date, 16 (33.3%) were prescribed an antiviral before pregnancy and continued treatment for at least one month after delivery; 14 (29.2%) started treatment during the third trimester and continued at least one month after delivery. Conclusion. Among this insured population, pregnant women with CHB received an antiviral significantly less often than nonpregnant women. The most common antiviral prescribed for pregnant women was tenofovir. These data provide a baseline for assessing changes in treatment patterns with anticipated increased use of antivirals to prevent breakthrough perinatal hepatitis B virus infection. PMID:25548510

  8. Values and beliefs about consequences related to smoking among pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Näsman, P; Ortendahl, M

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to test a model based on the product of value and belief, called expected utility (EU), on the addictive behaviour of smoking. A total of 40 pregnant and 40 non-pregnant women over a period of 2 weeks performed judgements on values and beliefs about consequences related to smoking for the conditions of continuing and stopping smoking. There were no differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women in the EU of smoking. Differences in expected utility between the conditions of continuing and stopping smoking were larger for health consequences compared with psychological and social consequences and consequences related to pregnancy. Expected utility gives a good description of judgements over time. Values as well as beliefs related to health consequences should be stressed in smoking cessation programmes, especially among pregnant women.

  9. Protein turnover and 3-methylhistidine excretion in non-pregnant, pregnant and gestational diabetic women

    SciTech Connect

    Fitch, W.L.; King, J.C.

    1986-03-01

    Protein turnover was studied in nine non-pregnant (NP) women, eight pregnant (P) and two gestational diabetic (GDM) women. Whole body protein turnover, synthesis and catabolism rates were measured using a single oral dose of /sup 15/N-glycine followed by measurement of enrichment of urinary ammonia. Urinary 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion was measured for three consecutive days, including the day of the protein turnover study. Whole body protein turnover and synthesis rates did not differ between the P and NP women, although the synthesis rates tended to be higher in the P group. Gestational diabetic women appeared to have considerably higher rates of both turnover and synthesis. Pregnant women excreted significantly more urinary 3MH than did non-pregnant women. GDM women appeared to have lower 3MH excretion than the P women. Correlation between 3MH excretion and protein turnover rates was nearly significant (p = .06) in the NP women, but was poorly correlated (p = .43) in the P women, suggesting that muscles may be a less important site of whole body protein turnover in pregnancy than in the non-pregnant state.

  10. [Specific features of emergency dental care in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Anisimova, E N; Axamit, L A; Manukhina, E I; Letunova, N Yu; Golikova, A M; Fedotova, T M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the algorithm of safe emergency dental care in pregnant patients. Eighty-five pregnant women aged 20-35 were included in the study. The paper presents elaborated state-of-the-art guidelines for emergency dental care in pregnant patients. Articaine 4% with epinephrine 1:200,000 is recommended as a choice agent for local anesthesia in these patients. PMID:27239992

  11. Gestational thrombocytopaenia among pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ajibola, Sarah Oluwatayo; Akinbami, Akinsegun; Rabiu, Kabiru; Adewunmi, Adeniyi; Dosunmu, Adedoyin; Adewumi, Adediran; Osikomaiya, Bodunrin; Ismail, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thrombocytopaenia is a common haematologic abnormality during pregnancy. Pregnant women with thrombocytopenia have a higher risk of bleeding excessively during or after childbirth, particularly if they need to have a caesarean section or other surgical intervention during pregnancy, labour or in the puperium. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gestational thrombocytopaenia among pregnant women reporting for antenatal care at tertiary health care centres in Lagos. Materials and Methods: Platelet count was analyzed in 274 consecutive pregnant women who gave informed consent and 70 non-pregnant female staff of the hospitals. Platelet count was performed on each sample using the Sysmex KN-21N automated haematology analyzer. The study design was cross-sectional, proportions were analyzed for statistical significance with the chi-square, and Odds ratio was also calculated. Thrombocytopaenia is classically defined as a platelet count of less than 150 × 109/L.34 Counts from 100 to 150 × 109/L are considered mildly depressed, 50 to 100 × 109/L are moderately depressed and less than 50 × 109/L are severely depressed. Results: Thirty-four (13.5%) pregnant women were thrombocytopaenic compared with three (4.3%) non-pregnant women. This was statistically significant; P = 0.03; Odds ratio: 3.5 (95% CI 1.03-11.82). Out of the 37 pregnant women who were thrombocytopaenic, most of them (78%) had mild thrombocytopenia, only 6% had severe thrombocytopaenia. Conclusion: The prevalence of gestational thrombocytopaenia in this study was 13.5%. Although majority of the pregnant women had mild thrombocytopaenia, healthcare providers should screen all pregnant women routinely for thrombocytopaenia to avoid excessive bleeding during or after childbirth. PMID:24791048

  12. Psychophysiology and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom profile in pregnant African-American women with trauma exposure

    PubMed Central

    Rothbaum, Alex O.; Corwin, Elizabeth; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J.; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    While female sex is a robust risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), pregnant women are an understudied population in regards to PTSD symptom expression profiles. Because circulating hormones during pregnancy affect emotionality, we assessed whether pregnant women would have increased expression of the intermediate phenotypes of hyperarousal and fear-potentiated startle (FPS) compared to non-pregnant women. We examined PTSD symptom profiles in pregnant (n=207) and non-pregnant women (n= 370). In a second study, FPS responses were assessed in 15 pregnant and 24 non-pregnant women. All participants were recruited from the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at a public hospital serving a primarily African-American, low socioeconomic status, inner-city population. Our results indicate that overall PTSD symptoms were not different between the groups of women. However, pregnant women reported being more hypervigilant (p=0.036) than non-pregnant women. In addition, pregnant women showed increased FPS to a safety signal compared to non-pregnant women (p=0.024). FPS to a safety signal in pregnant women was significantly correlated with PTSD hyperarousal symptoms (r=0.731, p<0.001). Furthermore, discrimination between danger and safety signals was present in non-pregnant women (p=0.008), but not in pregnant women (p=0.895). Together, these data suggest that pregnant women show clinical and psychophysiological hyperarousal compared to non-pregnant women, and support screening for PTSD and assessment of PTSD risk in pregnant women. PMID:25278341

  13. Pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of vitamin D3 (70,000 IU) in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Improvements in antenatal vitamin D status may have maternal-infant health benefits. To inform the design of prenatal vitamin D3 trials, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study of single-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in women of reproductive age. Methods A single oral vitamin D3 dose (70,000 IU) was administered to 34 non-pregnant and 27 pregnant women (27 to 30 weeks gestation) enrolled in Dhaka, Bangladesh (23°N). The primary pharmacokinetic outcome measure was the change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration over time, estimated using model-independent pharmacokinetic parameters. Results Baseline mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 54 nmol/L (95% CI 47, 62) in non-pregnant participants and 39 nmol/L (95% CI 34, 45) in pregnant women. Mean peak rise in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration above baseline was similar in non-pregnant and pregnant women (28 nmol/L and 32 nmol/L, respectively). However, the rate of rise was slightly slower in pregnant women (i.e., lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 2 and higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 21 versus non-pregnant participants). Overall, average 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 19 nmol/L above baseline during the first month. Supplementation did not induce hypercalcemia, and there were no supplement-related adverse events. Conclusions The response to a single 70,000 IU dose of vitamin D3 was similar in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Dhaka and consistent with previous studies in non-pregnant adults. These preliminary data support the further investigation of antenatal vitamin D3 regimens involving doses of ≤70,000 IU in regions where maternal-infant vitamin D deficiency is common. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00938600) PMID:23268736

  14. Pyelonephritis (acute) in non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pyelonephritis is usually caused by ascent of bacteria (most often Escherichia coli) from the bladder, and is more likely in people with structural or functional urinary tract abnormalities. The prognosis is good if pyelonephritis is treated appropriately, but complications include renal abscess, renal impairment, and septic shock. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of antibiotic treatments for acute pyelonephritis in non-pregnant women with uncomplicated infection? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to November 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found four studies that met our inclusion criteria. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics (intravenous), antibiotics (oral), and antibiotics (switch therapy). PMID:25373019

  15. CDC: Pregnant Women Should Avoid Southeast Asia Due to Zika

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnant Women Should Avoid Southeast Asia Due to Zika Meanwhile, French report shows virus can infect sperm ... 30, 2016 FRIDAY, Sept. 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Zika continues to extend its reach around the globe, ...

  16. Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir If ... often. If you are a parent with a young infant who has been evacuated from your home, ...

  17. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or fetuses may...

  18. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or fetuses may...

  19. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or fetuses may...

  20. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or fetuses may...

  1. Industry Perspective of Drug Development for Pregnant/Breastfeeding Women.

    PubMed

    Korth-Bradley, J M

    2016-07-01

    As part of drug development, drug companies conduct experiments to gather data about the potential toxicity of medications in pregnant and lactating animals. Increasingly, physiologically based pharmacokinetic models are developed to simulate drug concentrations in pregnant and lactating women. As these women are not usually included in clinical trials, targeted postapproval safety monitoring, registries, or clinical studies may be performed to gather safety and efficacy information about drug use in these special populations. PMID:27082822

  2. Circulating IGF1 and IGF2 and SNP genotypes in men and pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Gatford, K L; Heinemann, G K; Thompson, S D; Zhang, J V; Buckberry, S; Owens, J A; Dekker, G A; Roberts, C T

    2014-09-01

    Circulating IGFs are important regulators of prenatal and postnatal growth, and of metabolism and pregnancy, and change with sex, age and pregnancy. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes coding for these hormones associate with circulating abundance of IGF1 and IGF2 in non-pregnant adults and children, but whether this occurs in pregnancy is unknown. We therefore investigated associations of plasma IGF1 and IGF2 with age and genotype at candidate SNPs previously associated with circulating IGF1, IGF2 or methylation of the INS-IGF2-H19 locus in men (n=134), non-pregnant women (n=74) and women at 15 weeks of gestation (n=98). Plasma IGF1 concentrations decreased with age (P<0.001) and plasma IGF1 and IGF2 concentrations were lower in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women or men (each P<0.001). SNP genotypes in the INS-IGF2-H19 locus were associated with plasma IGF1 (IGF2 rs680, IGF2 rs1004446 and IGF2 rs3741204) and IGF2 (IGF2 rs1004446, IGF2 rs3741204 and H19 rs217727). In single SNP models, effects of IGF2 rs680 were similar between groups, with higher plasma IGF1 concentrations in individuals with the GG genotype when compared with GA (P=0.016), or combined GA and AA genotypes (P=0.003). SNPs in the IGF2 gene associated with IGF1 or IGF2 were in linkage disequilibrium, hence these associations could reflect other genotype variations within this region or be due to changes in INS-IGF2-H19 methylation previously associated with some of these variants. As IGF1 in early pregnancy promotes placental differentiation and function, lower IGF1 concentrations in pregnant women carrying IGF2 rs680 A alleles may affect placental development and/or risk of pregnancy complications. PMID:25117571

  3. Choroidal thickness in pregnant women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ru; Kuang, Guo-Ping; Luo, Di-Xian; Lu, Xiao-He

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate choroidal thickness in pregnant women and compare the measurements with those of normal nonpregnant women. METHODS Using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), choroidal thickness was measured at the fovea and at 1 mm and 3 mm superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal to the fovea in both healthy pregnant women and nonpregnant women. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and the demographic and ocular parameters. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using fixed-effects model when Meta-analyses were conducted. RESULTS Comparison of choroidal thickness between the groups showed that it was significantly greater in healthy pregnant women's eyes than in normal nonpregnant women's eyes at all locations except at 3 mm superior and 3 mm temporal from the fovea (P<0.05). The mean SFCT was 344.13±50.94 µm in healthy pregnant women's eyes and 315.03±60.57 µm in normal nonpregnant women's eyes, with a statistically significant difference (P=0.008). Pearson correlation analysis showed that age and axial length were significantly related to SFCT in healthy pregnant women, normal nonpregnant women, and all subjects. The results of our cross-sectional study were consistent with the results of the further Meta-analysis, with a pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) of 33.66 µm (95% CI: 26.16 to 41.15) for SFCT. CONCLUSION Our results, along with the comprehensive Meta-analysis, suggest that choroidal thickness in healthy pregnant women is greater than that in normal nonpregnant women. PMID:27588276

  4. Inability of newborns' or pregnant women's monocytes to suppress pokeweed mitogen-induced responses

    SciTech Connect

    Durandy, A.; Fischer, A.; Griscelli, C.

    1982-02-01

    Although an excess of human adult blood adherent cells inhibits the pokeweed mitogen- (PWM) induced normal adult lymphocyte proliferation and B cell maturation into immunoglobulin-containing cells (ICC), adherent cells collected from newborn infants or pregnant women at time of delivery were unable to exert a similar suppressor activity. After activation by Concanavalin A (Con A), newborns' and pregnant women's adherent cells acquired a suppressor activity comparable to that of control adult adherent cells. The adherent suppressor cell was shown to be radioresistant (3000 rad), indicating its probable monocytic orgin. Both monocyte-suppressor activities (MSA) observed in adulthood (spontaneously) and in the neonatal period (after activation) were dependent on prostaglandin E/sub 2/ (PGE/sub 2/) secretion, because they were abolished by indomethacin or a specific anti-PGE/sub 2/ anti-serum. Expression of MSA appeared to be under a negative regulation exerted by naturally occurring T suppressor lymphocytes present in the blood of newborns or pregnant women, because incubation of adult monocytes or Con A-activated newborn monocytes with newborns' or pregnant women's T lymphocytes resulted in a dramatic decrease of their MSA. These results strongly suggest that the lack of MSA in the neonatal period and in late pregnancy is a consequence of activation of T suppressor lymphocytes.

  5. Supporting pregnant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women to quit smoking: views of antenatal care providers and pregnant indigenous women.

    PubMed

    Passey, Megan E; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W; Stirling, Janelle M

    2014-12-01

    To assess support for 12 potential smoking cessation strategies among pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers. Cross-sectional surveys of staff and women in antenatal services providing care for Indigenous women in the Northern Territory and New South Wales, Australia. Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which each of a list of possible strategies would be helpful in supporting pregnant Indigenous women to quit smoking. Current smokers (n = 121) were less positive about the potential effectiveness of most of the 12 strategies than the providers (n = 127). For example, family support was considered helpful by 64 % of smokers and 91 % of providers; between 56 and 62 % of smokers considered advice and support from midwives, doctors or Aboriginal Health Workers likely to be helpful, compared to 85-90 % of providers. Rewards for quitting were considered helpful by 63 % of smokers and 56 % of providers, with smokers rating them more highly and providers rating them lower, than most other strategies. Quitline was least popular for both. This study is the first to explore views of pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers on strategies to support smoking cessation. It has identified strategies which are acceptable to both providers and Indigenous women, and therefore have potential for implementation in routine care. Further research to explore their feasibility in real world settings, uptake by pregnant women and actual impact on smoking outcomes is urgently needed given the high prevalence of smoking among pregnant Indigenous women.

  6. Clostridium difficile carriage in healthy pregnant women in China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Guang-yong; Li, Na; Chen, Yun-Bo; Lv, Tao; Shen, Ping; Gu, Si-Lan; Fang, Yun-Hui; Li, Lan-Juan

    2016-02-01

    Infection with Clostridium difficile has been shown to have particularly poor outcomes for pregnant women, including an increased risk of death. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence, genotypic distribution, and characterization of C. difficile strains isolated from pregnant women without diarrhea in China. As part of this study, 3.7% (37 out of 1009) of samples acquired from pregnant females tested positive for C. difficile. Of these positive samples, 27.0% (10) were toxigenic isolates containing both toxin A and toxin B genes (A+B+), 13.5% (5) of the variant strains contained the toxin B gene (A-B+) only, while the rest were non-toxigenic isolates (59.5%, 22 isolates). Among the non-pregnant women without diarrhea tested, 1.4% (9 of 651) contained toxigenic isolates (all of which were A+B+). Sixteen different sequence types (STs) were isolated during the course of this study. ST-37 (ribotype 017) and ST-54 (ribotype 012) were the most frequent toxigenic types observed in pregnant women. All strains showed susceptibility to the antibiotics metronidazole and vancomycin. The resistance rates of toxigenic C. difficile strains isolated from pregnant females to clindamycin, erythromycin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, and rifampicin were 20%, 46.7%, 13.6%, 46.7% and 13.3%, respectively. There was no significant difference between resistance rates of toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains with respect to their susceptibility to these antibiotics. However, when compared with the same data from non-pregnant women, toxigenic strains from pregnant women showed lower resistance rates to clindamycin (P < 0.05).

  7. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... on eating seafood while you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Learn more from the link below. Check with ... or concern. Food safety advice while you are breastfeeding your baby: Follow the food safety advice for ...

  8. Deoxynivalenol Exposure Assessment for Pregnant Women in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nurshad; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Al Nahid, Abdullah; Rahman, Mustafizur; Degen, Gisela H

    2015-10-01

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a contaminant of crops worldwide and known to cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. A small survey reported the presence of DON in maize samples in Bangladesh, but these data are insufficient to assess human exposure, and also, biomonitoring data are still scarce. The present study applied biomarker analysis to investigate the DON exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women living in a rural (n = 32) and in a suburban (n = 22) area of the country. Urines were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronic acid conjugates and to immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to LC-MS/MS analysis of DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1. The limits of detection (LOD) for DON and DOM-1 in urine were 0.16 ng/mL and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. DOM-1 was not detected in any of the urines, whilst DON was detectable in 52% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.18-7.16 ng/mL and a mean DON concentration of 0.86 ± 1.57 ng/mL or 2.14 ± 4.74 ng/mg creatinine. A significant difference in mean urinary DON levels was found between the rural (0.47 ± 0.73 ng/mL) and suburban (1.44 ± 2.20 ng/mL) cohort, which may be related to different food habits in the two cohorts. Analysis of food consumption data for the participants did not show significant correlations between their intake of typical staple foods and DON levels in urine. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON were used to estimate daily mycotoxin intake in the cohort: the mean DON intake was 0.05 µg/kg b.w., and the maximum intake was 0.46 µg/kg b.w., values lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1 µg/kg b.w. These first results indicate a low dietary exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh to DON. Nonetheless, further biomonitoring studies in children and in adult cohorts from other parts of the country are of interest to gain more insight into DON exposure in the

  9. Deoxynivalenol Exposure Assessment for Pregnant Women in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Nurshad; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Nahid, Abdullah Al; Rahman, Mustafizur; Degen, Gisela H.

    2015-01-01

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a contaminant of crops worldwide and known to cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. A small survey reported the presence of DON in maize samples in Bangladesh, but these data are insufficient to assess human exposure, and also, biomonitoring data are still scarce. The present study applied biomarker analysis to investigate the DON exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women living in a rural (n = 32) and in a suburban (n = 22) area of the country. Urines were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronic acid conjugates and to immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to LC-MS/MS analysis of DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1. The limits of detection (LOD) for DON and DOM-1 in urine were 0.16 ng/mL and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. DOM-1 was not detected in any of the urines, whilst DON was detectable in 52% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.18–7.16 ng/mL and a mean DON concentration of 0.86 ± 1.57 ng/mL or 2.14 ± 4.74 ng/mg creatinine. A significant difference in mean urinary DON levels was found between the rural (0.47 ± 0.73 ng/mL) and suburban (1.44 ± 2.20 ng/mL) cohort, which may be related to different food habits in the two cohorts. Analysis of food consumption data for the participants did not show significant correlations between their intake of typical staple foods and DON levels in urine. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON were used to estimate daily mycotoxin intake in the cohort: the mean DON intake was 0.05 µg/kg b.w., and the maximum intake was 0.46 µg/kg b.w., values lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1 µg/kg b.w. These first results indicate a low dietary exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh to DON. Nonetheless, further biomonitoring studies in children and in adult cohorts from other parts of the country are of interest to gain more insight into DON exposure in

  10. Deoxynivalenol Exposure Assessment for Pregnant Women in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nurshad; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Al Nahid, Abdullah; Rahman, Mustafizur; Degen, Gisela H

    2015-09-24

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a contaminant of crops worldwide and known to cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. A small survey reported the presence of DON in maize samples in Bangladesh, but these data are insufficient to assess human exposure, and also, biomonitoring data are still scarce. The present study applied biomarker analysis to investigate the DON exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women living in a rural (n = 32) and in a suburban (n = 22) area of the country. Urines were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronic acid conjugates and to immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to LC-MS/MS analysis of DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1. The limits of detection (LOD) for DON and DOM-1 in urine were 0.16 ng/mL and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. DOM-1 was not detected in any of the urines, whilst DON was detectable in 52% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.18-7.16 ng/mL and a mean DON concentration of 0.86 ± 1.57 ng/mL or 2.14 ± 4.74 ng/mg creatinine. A significant difference in mean urinary DON levels was found between the rural (0.47 ± 0.73 ng/mL) and suburban (1.44 ± 2.20 ng/mL) cohort, which may be related to different food habits in the two cohorts. Analysis of food consumption data for the participants did not show significant correlations between their intake of typical staple foods and DON levels in urine. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON were used to estimate daily mycotoxin intake in the cohort: the mean DON intake was 0.05 µg/kg b.w., and the maximum intake was 0.46 µg/kg b.w., values lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1 µg/kg b.w. These first results indicate a low dietary exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh to DON. Nonetheless, further biomonitoring studies in children and in adult cohorts from other parts of the country are of interest to gain more insight into DON exposure in the

  11. Half of U.S. Women Weigh Too Much Before Getting Pregnant

    MedlinePlus

    ... of U.S. Women Weigh Too Much Before Getting Pregnant Excess weight puts mom and baby at risk, ... 4 percent of women were underweight before becoming pregnant. About 46 percent of women started their pregnancies ...

  12. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  13. Health seeking behavior among pregnant women in rural Haiti.

    PubMed

    White, Kari; Small, Maria; Frederic, Rikerdy; Joseph, Gabriel; Bateau, Reginald; Kershaw, Trace

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to further knowledge of health care seeking behavior among pregnant women in rural Haiti. Eighty-two pregnant women were interviewed to assess care seeking behaviors during pregnancy, satisfaction with services, reliance on social networks, and management of pregnancy-related illness. Twenty-five percent reported not seeking care in the formal health sector for a pregnancy-related illness; 32% delayed seeking care. Women relied primarily on their husbands and mothers for health care advice during pregnancy and times of illness, and coped with illness by lying down. Strategies for improving awareness and health care access are discussed. PMID:17060181

  14. Immunization of pregnant women: Future of early infant protection

    PubMed Central

    Faucette, Azure N; Pawlitz, Michael D; Pei, Bo; Yao, Fayi; Chen, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Children in early infancy do not mount effective antibody responses to many vaccines against commons infectious pathogens, which results in a window of increased susceptibility or severity infections. In addition, vaccine-preventable infections are among the leading causes of morbidity in pregnant women. Immunization during pregnancy can generate maternal immune protection as well as elicit the production and transfer of antibodies cross the placenta and via breastfeeding to provide early infant protection. Several successful vaccines are now recommended to all pregnant women worldwide. However, significant gaps exist in our understanding of the efficacy and safety of other vaccines and in women with conditions associated with increased susceptible to high-risk pregnancies. Public acceptance of maternal immunization remained to be improved. Broader success of maternal immunization will rely on the integration of advances in basic science in vaccine design and evaluation and carefully planned clinical trials that are inclusive to pregnant women. PMID:26366844

  15. Nursing care of low-income battered Hispanic pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Torres, S

    1993-01-01

    Nurses working with pregnant Hispanic women can create barriers in the health care system by not understanding or accepting the variety of ways in which the Hispanic culture perceives and treats pregnancy. This article describes nursing care of low-income, battered Hispanic pregnant women within the context of the Hispanic culture and discusses clinical and nursing implications for interventions. To deliver effective culturally competent care to battered Hispanic pregnant women, nurses need to have a thorough understanding of the variables that influence the health care of Hispanics in the United States, such as the scope of wife abuse in the Hispanic population, sociodemographic characteristics of the Hispanic population in the United States, Hispanic women's access to health care, pregnancy in the Hispanic population, and health care practices of Hispanics in the United States. This will facilitate screening, education, and guidance without upsetting the often precarious security of this period.

  16. Exposure of pregnant women to tap water related activities

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, S; Nieuwenhuijsen, M; Ferrier, H; Steer, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: Evidence for an association between exposure of pregnant women to chlorination disinfection by-products and adverse birth outcomes is inconsistent and inconclusive. Aims: To evaluate the use of a questionnaire in a population of pregnant women to assess their exposure to water, examine the validity of the questionnaire by a seven day diary, and to obtain a better understanding of the exposure of pregnant women to water in Central London. Methods: A total of 147 pregnant women were asked to complete a questionnaire. Information was requested on their exposure to water from cooking and washing up, showering and bathing, food and drink, and swimming. Demographic and socioeconomic information were also recorded. For validation purposes, women were asked to complete a seven day diary at home. Results: The average exposure duration was 338.5 min/week for cooking and washing up, 172.2 min/week for bathing and showering, and 67.9 min/month for swimming. The total fluid intake was 18.9 l/week of which, on average, 18% was cold tap water; 30% of this tap water was consumed outside the home. The correlation between questionnaire and diary data was generally good to very good, although women tended to overestimate their exposure in the questionnaire compared to the diary. Conclusions: Information was obtained on the daily exposure of pregnant women in Central London to chlorinated water at home, work, and elsewhere. The questionnaire was found to be a valid method to assess the exposure of pregnant women to water and the response rate was higher than for diaries. PMID:15090668

  17. Nutritional status and weight gain in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri; Fujimori, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study described the nutritional status of 228 pregnant women and the influence of this on birth weight. This is a retrospective study, developed in a health center in the municipality of São Paulo, with data obtained from medical records. Linear regression analysis was carried out. An association was verified between the initial and final nutritional status (p<0.001). The mean of total weight gain in the pregnant women who began the pregnancy underweight was higher compared those who started overweight/obese (p=0.005). Weight gain was insufficient for 43.4% of the pregnant women with adequate initial weight and for 36.4% of all the pregnant women studied. However, 37.1% of those who began the pregnancy overweight/obese finished with excessive weight gain, a condition that ultimately affected almost a quarter of the pregnant women. Anemia and low birth weight were uncommon, however, in the linear regression analysis, birth weight was associated with weight gain (p<0.05). The study highlights the importance of nutritional care before and during pregnancy to promote maternal-infant health.

  18. Is Passive Smoking Associated With Sleep Disturbance Among Pregnant Women?

    PubMed Central

    Ohida, Takashi; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Harano, Satoru; Tanihata, Takeo; Takemura, Shinji; Wada, Kiyoshi; Kanda, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Kenji; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    Study Objective: Pregnant women suffer from sleep disturbance, which may be aggravated by passive smoking. In this study we investigated the effects of passive smoking on sleep disturbance during pregnancy. Design: Two cross-sectional questionnaire surveys conducted in 2002 and 2006. Setting: Clinical institutions specializing in obstetrics and gynecology that participated in the nationwide surveys: 260 in the 2002 survey and 344 in the 2006 survey. Participants: 16,396 and 19,386 pregnant women in Japan surveyed in 2002 and 2006, respectively. Intervention: N/A. Measurements and Results: Pregnant women exposed to passive smoking were likely to have sleep disturbances, such as subjective insufficient sleep, difficulty in initiating sleep, short sleep duration, and snoring loudly/breathing uncomfortably. Smoking pregnant women had the same sleep disturbances and also experienced excessive daytime sleepiness and early morning awakening. The prevalence of 5 types of sleep disturbance (insufficient sleep, difficulty in initiating sleep, short sleep duration, excessive daytime sleepiness, and snoring loudly/breathing uncomfortably) among nonsmokers with environmental tobacco smoke showed a mean value intermediate between that of active smokers and that of nonsmokers without environmental tobacco smoke. Conclusion: Passive smoking is independently associated with increased sleep disturbance during pregnancy. Citation: Ohida T; Kaneita Y; Osaki Y; Harano S; Tanihata T; Takemura S; Wada K; Kanda H; Hayashi K; Uchiyama M. Is passive smoking associated with sleep disturbance among pregnant women? SLEEP 2007;30(9):1155-1161. PMID:17910387

  19. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernández, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesús; Rifakis, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P < .01). Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered. PMID:17093349

  20. Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Functional Constipation in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Guo, Sa; Wang, Jing; Wang, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Aim To understand the prevalence of functional constipation in pregnant women and to analyze the impact of its risk factors. Methods We searched hospital databases for women who were 37–41 weeks pregnant (1698 cases) from July 2012 to January 2014 in four hospitals in Shanghai. We reviewed factors including general data, living and eating habits, psychological history, past history of defecation in the 6 months before pregnancy and defecation after pregnancy. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results Pregnant women who were more than 35 years old, with a pre-pregnancy body mass index >24, who were highly educated and employed in a sedentary occupation, showed a higher prevalence of functional constipation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the prevalence of functional constipation among pregnant women was related to age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, diet, exercise, occupation, psychological factors, threatened abortion in early pregnancy and constipation history. Conclusion The prevalence rate of functional constipation in pregnant women was significantly higher than in the general population. PMID:26208169

  1. Pregnant Women in Louisiana Are Not Meeting Dietary Seafood Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Lammi-Keefe, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that pregnant women and women of childbearing ages consume 8–12 oz. of seafood per week. Fish are the major dietary source of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have benefits for the mother and fetus. Methods. In this observational study, we investigated dietary habits of pregnant women in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, to determine if they achieve recommended seafood intake. A print survey, which included commonly consumed foods from protein sources (beef, chicken, pork, and fish), was completed by pregnant women at a single-day hospital convention for expecting families in October 2015. Women (n = 221) chose from six predefined responses to answer how frequently they were consuming each food. Results. Chicken was consumed most frequently (75% of women), followed by beef (71%), pork (65%), and fish (22%), respectively. Consumption frequency for the most consumed fish (catfish, once per month) was similar to or lower than that of the least consumed beef, chicken, and pork foods. Consumption frequency for the most consumed chicken and beef foods was at least once per week. Conclusion. Our data indicate that pregnant women in Louisiana often consume protein sources other than fish and likely fail to meet dietary seafood recommendations. PMID:27504202

  2. Pregnant Women in Louisiana Are Not Meeting Dietary Seafood Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Drewery, M L; Gaitán, A V; Thaxton, C; Xu, W; Lammi-Keefe, C J

    2016-01-01

    Background. The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that pregnant women and women of childbearing ages consume 8-12 oz. of seafood per week. Fish are the major dietary source of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have benefits for the mother and fetus. Methods. In this observational study, we investigated dietary habits of pregnant women in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, to determine if they achieve recommended seafood intake. A print survey, which included commonly consumed foods from protein sources (beef, chicken, pork, and fish), was completed by pregnant women at a single-day hospital convention for expecting families in October 2015. Women (n = 221) chose from six predefined responses to answer how frequently they were consuming each food. Results. Chicken was consumed most frequently (75% of women), followed by beef (71%), pork (65%), and fish (22%), respectively. Consumption frequency for the most consumed fish (catfish, once per month) was similar to or lower than that of the least consumed beef, chicken, and pork foods. Consumption frequency for the most consumed chicken and beef foods was at least once per week. Conclusion. Our data indicate that pregnant women in Louisiana often consume protein sources other than fish and likely fail to meet dietary seafood recommendations. PMID:27504202

  3. Missed Opportunities: Poor Linkage into Ongoing Care for HIV-Positive Pregnant Women in Mwanza, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Watson-Jones, Deborah; Balira, Rebecca; Ross, David A.; Weiss, Helen A.; Mabey, David

    2012-01-01

    Background Global coverage of prevention of mother-to-child (PMTCT) services reached 53% in 2009. However the number of pregnant women who test positive for HIV in antenatal clinics and who link into long-term HIV care is not known in many resource-poor countries. We measured the proportion of HIV-positive pregnant women in Mwanza city, Tanzania, who completed the cascade of care from antenatal HIV diagnosis to assessment and engagement in care in adult HIV clinics. Methods Thirty antenatal and maternity ward health workers were interviewed about PMTCT activities. Nine antenatal HIV education sessions were observed. A prospective cohort of 403 HIV-positive women was enrolled by specially-trained clinicians and nurses on admission to delivery and followed for four months post-partum. Information was collected on referral and attendance at adult HIV clinics, eligibility for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and reasons for lack of attendance. Results Overall, 70% of PMTCT health workers referred HIV-positive pregnant women to the HIV clinic for assessment and care. Antenatal HIV education sessions did not cover on-going care for HIV-infected women. Of 310 cohort participants tested in pregnancy, 51% had received an HIV clinic referral pre-delivery. Only 32% of 244 women followed to four months post-partum had attended an HIV clinic and been assessed for HAART eligibility. Non-attendance for HIV care was independently associated with fewer antenatal visits, poor PMTCT prophylaxis compliance, non-disclosure of HIV status, and non-Sukuma ethnicity. Conclusion Most women identified as HIV-positive during pregnancy were not assessed for HAART eligibility during pregnancy or in the first four months post-partum. Initiating HAART at the antenatal clinic, improved counselling and linkages to care between PMTCT and adult HIV treatment services and reducing stigma surrounding disclosure of HIV results would benefit on-going care of HIV-positive pregnant women. PMID

  4. Current approach for urinary system stone disease in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Celik, Orcun; Türk, Hakan; Cakmak, Ozgur; Budak, Salih; Ekin, Rahmi Gokhan; Keskin, Mehmet Zeynel; Yildiz, Guner; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem

    2016-01-14

    Urinary system stones can be classified according to size, location, X-ray characteristics, aetiology of formation, composition, and risk of recurrence. Especially urolithiasis during pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In most cases, it becomes symptomatic in the second or third trimester. Diagnostic options in pregnant women are limited due to the possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic risk of foetal radiation exposure. Clinical management of a pregnant urolithiasis patient is complex and demands close collaboration between patient, obstetrician and urologist. We would like to review current diagnosis and treatment modalities of stone disease of pregnant woman.

  5. Current approach for urinary system stone disease in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Celik, Orcun; Türk, Hakan; Cakmak, Ozgur; Budak, Salih; Ekin, Rahmi Gokhan; Keskin, Mehmet Zeynel; Yildiz, Guner; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem

    2015-12-01

    Urinary system stones can be classified according to size, location, X-ray characteristics, aetiology of formation, composition, and risk of recurrence. Especially urolithiasis during pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In most cases, it becomes symptomatic in the second or third trimester. Diagnostic options in pregnant women are limited due to the possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic risk of foetal radiation exposure. Clinical management of a pregnant urolithiasis patient is complex and demands close collaboration between patient, obstetrician and urologist. We would like to review current diagnosis and treatment modalities of stone disease of pregnant woman. PMID:26766798

  6. Oral Health in a Sample of Pregnant Women from Northern Appalachia (2011-2015).

    PubMed

    Neiswanger, Katherine; McNeil, Daniel W; Foxman, Betsy; Govil, Manika; Cooper, Margaret E; Weyant, Robert J; Shaffer, John R; Crout, Richard J; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Beach, Scott R; Chapman, Stella; Zovko, Jayme G; Brown, Linda J; Strotmeyer, Stephen J; Maurer, Jennifer L; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Background. Chronic poor oral health has a high prevalence in Appalachia, a large region in the eastern USA. The Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA) has been enrolling pregnant women and their babies since 2011 in the COHRA2 study of genetic, microbial, and environmental factors involved in oral health in Northern Appalachia. Methods. The COHRA2 protocol is presented in detail, including inclusion criteria (healthy, adult, pregnant, US Caucasian, English speaking, and nonimmunocompromised women), recruiting (two sites: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, USA), assessments (demographic, medical, dental, psychosocial/behavioral, and oral microbial samples and DNA), timelines (longitudinal from pregnancy to young childhood), quality control, and retention rates. Results. Preliminary oral health and demographic data are presented in 727 pregnant women, half from the greater Pittsburgh region and half from West Virginia. Despite similar tooth brushing and flossing habits, COHRA2 women in West Virginia have significantly worse oral health than the Pittsburgh sample. Women from Pittsburgh are older and more educated and have less unemployment than the West Virginia sample. Conclusions. We observed different prevalence of oral health and demographic variables between pregnant women from West Virginia (primarily rural) and Pittsburgh (primarily urban). These observations suggest site-specific differences within Northern Appalachia that warrant future studies.

  7. Oral Health in a Sample of Pregnant Women from Northern Appalachia (2011–2015)

    PubMed Central

    Neiswanger, Katherine; McNeil, Daniel W.; Foxman, Betsy; Govil, Manika; Cooper, Margaret E.; Weyant, Robert J.; Shaffer, John R.; Crout, Richard J.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.; Beach, Scott R.; Chapman, Stella; Zovko, Jayme G.; Brown, Linda J.; Strotmeyer, Stephen J.; Maurer, Jennifer L.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Chronic poor oral health has a high prevalence in Appalachia, a large region in the eastern USA. The Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA) has been enrolling pregnant women and their babies since 2011 in the COHRA2 study of genetic, microbial, and environmental factors involved in oral health in Northern Appalachia. Methods. The COHRA2 protocol is presented in detail, including inclusion criteria (healthy, adult, pregnant, US Caucasian, English speaking, and nonimmunocompromised women), recruiting (two sites: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, USA), assessments (demographic, medical, dental, psychosocial/behavioral, and oral microbial samples and DNA), timelines (longitudinal from pregnancy to young childhood), quality control, and retention rates. Results. Preliminary oral health and demographic data are presented in 727 pregnant women, half from the greater Pittsburgh region and half from West Virginia. Despite similar tooth brushing and flossing habits, COHRA2 women in West Virginia have significantly worse oral health than the Pittsburgh sample. Women from Pittsburgh are older and more educated and have less unemployment than the West Virginia sample. Conclusions. We observed different prevalence of oral health and demographic variables between pregnant women from West Virginia (primarily rural) and Pittsburgh (primarily urban). These observations suggest site-specific differences within Northern Appalachia that warrant future studies. PMID:26089906

  8. Analysis of self-reported problematic tasks for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Cheng, P L; Dumas, G A; Smith, J T; Leger, A B; Plamondon, A; McGrath, M J; Tranmer, J E

    2006-02-22

    The objective of this study was to identify major components of, and influential factors in, problematic tasks performed by pregnant women employed in education, health care and service areas. Seventy-two pregnant women were surveyed using specially designed questionnaires consisting of an Initial Survey, a Job Analysis Questionnaire and a Task Description Questionnaire. Forty-four subjects (60%) had difficulty performing at least one work task and reported 105 tasks that were problematic at work. Reaching above the head, bending forward, bending and twisting, pushing, repeating actions and working at a fast pace were identified as the task components requiring the greatest level of effort. Excessive effort, excessive time, getting tired, repetitive actions, stress and fear of injury were identified as factors that had strong associations with the six major task components. Findings of this study suggest that these task components and factors should be considered when designing, assigning or analysing tasks for working pregnant women. PMID:16540440

  9. Utilization of malaria prevention methods by pregnant women in Yaounde

    PubMed Central

    Dongmo, Clemence Meli

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Malaria prevention methods are diverse. Their availability sometimes does not guarantee effective usage and the use of each method in isolation may not provide the necessary results for the fight against malaria. Pregnant women are relatively more vulnerable and so it is recommended that they should be protected against malaria. Proper protection will require malaria prevention methods in combination. This study seeks to find out what methods pregnant women use and how many of them use these methods. Methods Information on the use of malaria prevention methods was collected from pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in health institutions within the Biyem Assi health district of Yaounde VI subdivision using a pretested questionnaire. Analysis was done using SPSS version 16 (Chicago IL USA). Results The study revealed that 82.5% of women used at least one method of malaria prevention; 12% used four methods (insecticides, bednets, indoor residual spraying and Sulphadoxine Pyrimethamine) in combination. The most used method was mosquito bednet, 82.5%. Some of the women 17.5% did not use any of the prevention methods. Conclusion Use of malaria prevention methods in combination is not considered a priority by pregnant women. Sensitization campaigns by governments and NGOs should give that a priority position. PMID:24198885

  10. [Antiparasitic treatments in pregnant women and in children in 2003].

    PubMed

    Richard-Lenoble, D; Chandenier, J; Duong, T H

    2003-01-01

    Like antibacterial agents, antiparasite drugs for pregnant women and children must be chosen in function of the stage of pregnancy, age of the child, and expected benefit-risk ratio. While no agent is totally safe, there are few absolute contraindications. Most zones of serious endemic parasite disease are located in developing countries where parasite, bacterial, or viral conditions combined with poor nutrition treatment make it necessary to treat disease in a complex pathogenic environment that weakens pregnant women and children with multiple parasite infections. In both temperate and tropical zones, there have been few real therapeutic advances involving release of new products on the market or development of new indications for existing products. Constant appearance and extension of hematozoa resistance to conventional and even more recent antimalarial agents have prompted research to find new active drugs and long-lasting treatment combinations. Real therapeutic breakthroughs have resulted from the need to develop safe drugs without substantial side-effects for single-dose use in control programs against endemic parasite diseases in mass populations including pregnant women and young children in tropical zones. There are several notable examples in the field of major verminous diseases. Ivermectin is a versatile drug that can be used against filariasis as well as for management of intestinal worms or ectoparasitosis in temperate and tropical countries. Praziquantel is an important advance in platyhelminthiasis, especially bilharziais. Triclabendazole, the latest addition to the benzimidazole family, has shown promise as a substitute for bithionol, that is difficult to procure and not recommended in pregnant women, for treatment distomiasis occurring in pregnant women and children. Other examples include albendazole against giardiasis, nitazoxamide against cryptosporidiosis, artemisinine against bilharziasis, and paramomycine, not recommended in pregnant women

  11. [International recommandations on physical exercise for pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Filhol, G; Bernard, P; Quantin, X; Espian-Marcais, C; Ninot, G

    2014-12-01

    Benefits of physical exercise on the physical and psychological health lead to specifics guidelines during pregnancy. For pregnant women, to take part in aerobics exercise (walking, biking) (i.e. 30 minutes, three times per week at 60-90% of the maximal heart rate) and strength training (i.e. one to two times per week) is recommended. Physical exercise programs during pregnancy have shown benefits for preventing and treating complications pregnancy (e.g. gestational diabetes mellitus, overweight). Benefits of exercise and risks associated with sedentary should be widely diffused among pregnant women and prenatal caregivers. PMID:25455431

  12. Need of tetraiodothyronine supplemental therapy in pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for fetal development. Normal thyroid function in pregnant women adjusts by itself in cases of pregnancy, phenomenon that is deficient in cases of previous maternal thyroid disease. The study group was represented by 120 females, with reproductive age, with known thyroid disease, that had a up to delivery pregnancy. Thyroid ultrasound parameters and functional parameters were follow-up during the 9-month of gestation. The study proposes a mathematical model of predicting the need and the amount of tetraiodothyronine treatment in pregnant women with prevalent thyroid disease.

  13. Food safety practices among pregnant women and mothers in the women, infants, and children program, Miami, Florida.

    PubMed

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Newman, Frederick L; Dixon, Zisca; Huffman, Fatma G

    2007-05-01

    Pregnant women and infants are two groups at the highest risk of severe outcomes from foodborne illnesses. We surveyed adult clients of a Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic serving predominately African Americans in inner-city Miami, Florida, to assess food safety practices. Eligible and consenting women completed a 23-item self-administered survey with questions concerning food handling practices around the Partnership for Food Safety Education's Fight BAC! campaign constructs of "clean", "separate" (not cross-contaminated), "cook", and "chill". Of 342 eligible clients, 299 (87.4%) consented to participate. In general, the clients' food safety practices were most problematic in the cook and chill constructs. Using a cooking thermometer, refrigerating foods within 2 h, and thawing them safely were the least commonly reported safe practices. Women who were pregnant with their first child had the lowest food safety practice scores. Of the 62 pregnant participants, 32 (51.6%) reported eating hot dogs or deli meats without first reheating them some of the time or more often, and 22 (35.5%) reported eating soft cheeses and blue-veined cheeses some of the time or more often, putting the women at risk of listeriosis. Although all women in the WIC program could benefit from food safety education, these findings indicate that women during their first pregnancy should especially be targeted for food safety education.

  14. Food safety practices among pregnant women and mothers in the women, infants, and children program, Miami, Florida.

    PubMed

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Newman, Frederick L; Dixon, Zisca; Huffman, Fatma G

    2007-05-01

    Pregnant women and infants are two groups at the highest risk of severe outcomes from foodborne illnesses. We surveyed adult clients of a Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic serving predominately African Americans in inner-city Miami, Florida, to assess food safety practices. Eligible and consenting women completed a 23-item self-administered survey with questions concerning food handling practices around the Partnership for Food Safety Education's Fight BAC! campaign constructs of "clean", "separate" (not cross-contaminated), "cook", and "chill". Of 342 eligible clients, 299 (87.4%) consented to participate. In general, the clients' food safety practices were most problematic in the cook and chill constructs. Using a cooking thermometer, refrigerating foods within 2 h, and thawing them safely were the least commonly reported safe practices. Women who were pregnant with their first child had the lowest food safety practice scores. Of the 62 pregnant participants, 32 (51.6%) reported eating hot dogs or deli meats without first reheating them some of the time or more often, and 22 (35.5%) reported eating soft cheeses and blue-veined cheeses some of the time or more often, putting the women at risk of listeriosis. Although all women in the WIC program could benefit from food safety education, these findings indicate that women during their first pregnancy should especially be targeted for food safety education. PMID:17536684

  15. Iodine status among pregnant women after mandatory salt iodisation.

    PubMed

    Anaforoğlu, İ; Algün, E; İnceçayır, Ö; Topbaş, M; Erdoğan, M F

    2016-02-14

    I is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis and neurological development. Various changes occur in thyroid hormone metabolism during pregnancy and I requirements increase significantly. The purpose of this study was to investigate I status among pregnant women in Trabzon, formerly a severely I-deficient area but shown to have become I sufficient following mandatory iodisation of table salt based on monitoring studies among school-age children (SAC) in the area. A total of 864 healthy pregnant women with a median age of 28 (25th-75th percentile 17-47) years participated in the study. None of them were using I-containing supplement. All of them were screened for use of iodised salt, obstetric history, thyroid function tests and urinary I concentrations (UIC), and thyroid ultrasonography was performed. Median UIC was 102 (25th-75th percentile=62-143) μg/l. Median UIC of the patients according to trimesters were 122 µg/l at the 1st, 97 µg/l at the 2nd and 87 µg/l at the 3rd trimester. UIC in the 1st trimester was higher compared with the 2nd and 3rd trimesters (P<0·017). Nodules were present in 17·7% of women (n 153). The rate of iodised salt usage among pregnant women was 90·7%. Our study demonstrates that, although the I status among SAC has been rectified, I deficiency (ID) is still prevalent among pregnant women. Current knowledge is in favour of I supplementation in this group. Until the effects of maternal I supplementation in mild ID have been clarified by large-scale prospective controlled trials, pregnant women living in borderline defficient and I-sufficient areas, such as Trabzon city, should receive 100-200 µg/d of I-containing supplements in addition to iodised salt. PMID:26596695

  16. Iodine status among pregnant women after mandatory salt iodisation.

    PubMed

    Anaforoğlu, İ; Algün, E; İnceçayır, Ö; Topbaş, M; Erdoğan, M F

    2016-02-14

    I is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis and neurological development. Various changes occur in thyroid hormone metabolism during pregnancy and I requirements increase significantly. The purpose of this study was to investigate I status among pregnant women in Trabzon, formerly a severely I-deficient area but shown to have become I sufficient following mandatory iodisation of table salt based on monitoring studies among school-age children (SAC) in the area. A total of 864 healthy pregnant women with a median age of 28 (25th-75th percentile 17-47) years participated in the study. None of them were using I-containing supplement. All of them were screened for use of iodised salt, obstetric history, thyroid function tests and urinary I concentrations (UIC), and thyroid ultrasonography was performed. Median UIC was 102 (25th-75th percentile=62-143) μg/l. Median UIC of the patients according to trimesters were 122 µg/l at the 1st, 97 µg/l at the 2nd and 87 µg/l at the 3rd trimester. UIC in the 1st trimester was higher compared with the 2nd and 3rd trimesters (P<0·017). Nodules were present in 17·7% of women (n 153). The rate of iodised salt usage among pregnant women was 90·7%. Our study demonstrates that, although the I status among SAC has been rectified, I deficiency (ID) is still prevalent among pregnant women. Current knowledge is in favour of I supplementation in this group. Until the effects of maternal I supplementation in mild ID have been clarified by large-scale prospective controlled trials, pregnant women living in borderline defficient and I-sufficient areas, such as Trabzon city, should receive 100-200 µg/d of I-containing supplements in addition to iodised salt.

  17. The meaning of the rubella vaccine for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Lúcia Maria Tonzar Ristori; Shimo, Antonieta Keiko Kakuda

    2007-01-01

    The research was aimed at describing the meaning of the rubella vaccine to women who were discovered pregnant after having received the measles-rubella vaccine during the 2001 campaign against rubella, and who lived in 10 cities within the region of DIR XX from São João da Boa Vista. The theory of Social Representation was used as a reference framework for the research, and data were collected through the Collective Subject Discourse technique, involving 18 women who either were pregnant or became pregnant within 30 days after having received the vaccine. Through their discourse, it was possible to unveil the diversity of meanings the rubella vaccine has when dispensed during pregnancy, characterized as a threat to their and their children's physical integrity and to their conjugal relationship. The meanings constitute an important source of information that allows health professionals and administrators to reflect, so they can reconsider their role as health promoters.

  18. Undocumented pregnant women: what does the literature tell us?

    PubMed

    Munro, Kimberly; Jarvis, Catherine; Munoz, Marie; D'Souza, Vinita; Graves, Lisa

    2013-04-01

    The present literature review was conducted to determine what information has been published on the topic of undocumented pregnant migrants. Scientific databases and gray literature sources were searched for articles published between January 1967 and September 2010. Eighty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. A final sample of 23 articles was included in the review. Existing evidence suggests that pregnant undocumented migrants living in Western societies tend to be younger, unmarried, and more likely to be employed in the domestic sector than documented migrants and permanent residents. They have less access to prenatal care and consult later in pregnancy than controls. Findings concerning delivery and birth outcomes are conflicting and subject to several biases. Little has been published on programs to address the needs of undocumented pregnant women living in Western countries. More research on the particular health and social issues faced by these women is needed.

  19. Zika Testing for All Pregnant Women Who Have Been in Florida County: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_161597.html Zika Testing for All Pregnant Women Who Have Been in Florida County: ... News) -- U.S. health officials are now recommending that all pregnant women who have recently spent time in ...

  20. Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnant Women and Their Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Abbasian, Maryam; Chaman, Reza; Amiri, Mohammad; Ajami, Mohammad Esmaeil; Jafari-Koshki, Tohid; Rohani, Hossein; Taghavi-Shahri, Seyed Mahmood; Sadeghi, Erfan; Raei, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is a worldwide problem. Studies have reported prevalence ranged 18-84% in pregnant women. Receiving adequate calcium and vitamin D during pregnancy period is necessary for calcium homeostasis, fetal growth and bone mineralization. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women and their neonates in Shahroud city in the northeast Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 284 pregnant women and their neonates referred to Fatemiyeh Hospital of Shahroud were included. Blood samples of mothers and umbilical cords were collected during the delivery and were sent to laboratory in order to measure calcium and 25-hydroxy vitamin D. Findings: Amounts of Vitamin D insufficiency (20-30 ng/mL) and deficiency (<20 ng/mL) in (mothers, neonates) were found to be (60.2%, 48.9%) and (1.1%, 2.5%) respectively. Calcium deficiency (<8.5 mg/dL) was present in 33.5% of mothers and 25% of neonates. There was a weak correlation between maternal serum and cord blood 25-hydroxy vitamin D (r=0.12, p=0.053). Conclusion: More than half of the mothers and their neonates had some degrees of vitamin D deficiency. It is recommended to evaluate the nutritional status of vitamin D in pregnant women along with public health interventions to be carried out. PMID:27157170

  1. Dilemmas in Managing Pregnant Women With Ebola: 2 Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Caluwaerts, Séverine; Fautsch, Tessy; Lagrou, Daphne; Moreau, Michel; Modet Camara, Alseny; Günther, Stephan; Di Caro, Antonino; Borremans, Benny; Raymond Koundouno, Fara; Akoi Bore, Joseph; Logue, Christopher H.; Richter, Martin; Wölfel, Roman; Kuisma, Eeva; Kurth, Andreas; Thomas, Stephen; Burkhardt, Gillian; Erland, Elin; Lionetto, Fanshen; Lledo Weber, Patricia; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Macpherson, Hassan; Van Herp, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We report 2 cases of Ebola viral disease (EVD) in pregnant women who survived, initially with intact pregnancies. Respectively 31–32 days after negativation of the maternal blood EVD-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) both patients delivered a stillborn fetus with persistent EVD-PCR amniotic fluid positivity. PMID:26679622

  2. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Among Pregnant Women in Urmia, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rostamzadeh Khameneh, Zakieh; Sepehrvand, Nariman; Khalkhali, Hamid-Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background While hepatitis E virus (HEV) mostly causes self-limited disease in general population, it is more severe in pregnant women. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG among a population of pregnant women in West Azerbaijan of Iran . Patients and Methods One hundred thirty six pregnant women referred to urban health centers of Urmia for pursuing pregnancy-related health services were enrolled in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Anti-HEV IgG antibody was evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA; Dia.Pro; Diagnostic Bioprobes). Results Only five (3.6%) of 136 cases had positive results for anti-HEV IgG. There was no significant difference between age (P=0.88), and income level (P = 0.19) of the two seropositive and seronegative groups. All seropositive cases were from urban areas. Conclusions The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG is low in the population of pregnant women in , similar to the rates reported from developed countries. Effective health services and provision of safe water supplies in Urmia may take role in this low prevalence rate. PMID:24348644

  3. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women.

    PubMed

    Al-Faris, Nora A

    2016-02-04

    Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50-74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.

  4. [Laparoscopic splenectomy in immune thrombocytopenic purpura in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Danishyan, K I; Soboleva, O A; Galstyan, G M; Zvereva, A V; Sorkina, O M

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes 4 cases of laparoscopic splenectomy in pregnant women with immune thrombocytopenic purpura. No complications of surgery were noted in all the patients. The postoperative period was marked by sustained clinical and hematological remission that made it possible to discontinue prednisolone therapy and to ensure an uncomplicated course of pregnancy and labor. PMID:27459624

  5. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women

    PubMed Central

    Al-Faris, Nora A.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50–74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements. PMID:26861386

  6. Current Concepts in Nutrition--Pregnant Women and Premature Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Janet C.; Charlet, Sara

    1978-01-01

    Discusses energy and nutrient requirements of pregnant women with respect to kcal needs and vitamins B-6, folacin, vitamin E, and intake of certain trace elements. Also discusses nutritional needs of the premature infant and the ways of supplying these nutrients. (MA)

  7. Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Pregnancy & Breastfeeding You are here Home / Audience / Adults Pregnancy & Breastfeeding Print Share Health & Nutrition Information When you are ...

  8. [The expectancy-stress factor in pregnant refugee women].

    PubMed

    Gogol', K N; Gotsiridze, E G; Guruli, Z V; Kintraia, N P; Tsaava, F D

    2006-09-01

    Our study revealed that refugee status increases the risks and worsens the outcome of pregnancy among Georgian refugees. 125 Georgian refugee women participated in this study. The study included examinations of the psychological status of expecting mothers, clinical development of pregnancy, complications of labor, functional status of the fetus, and EEG and neuro-ultrasound data of newborns. The control group comprised 125 pregnant women who experienced no stress during pregnancy. An examination of the psycho-emotional status of pregnant refugee women revealed high percentage indicators (82%) for hypochondria, depression, psychopathy, hysteria and psychoastenia in contrast to the control group. The deterioration of psycho-emotional status and biochemical indicators in pregnant refugee women was directly proportional to the worsening of functional and clinical conditions in fetuses. Prolonged stress is the cause of increased morbidity and mortality during pregnancy and child birth in refugee women. Infants born to refugee women also faced increased risks and belong to the group of special premature care and observation.

  9. Factors Associated with Periodontal Disease in Pregnant Diabetic Women.

    PubMed

    Anwar, N; Zaman, N; Nimmi, N; Chowdhury, T A; Khan, M H

    2016-04-01

    There have been an association between systemic diseases and hormonal changes particularly diabetes which has been cited as a risk factor in the progression of periodontitis in pregnant women. The incidence and severity of periodontal diseases are increasing at a higher rate and a common condition in pregnant diabetic women among Bangladeshi population. This cross sectional study included 200 pregnant women who were selected from gynecological department and examined at the dental unit. The clinical parameters used were the Silness and Loe plaque index (PI), gingival scores and periodontal status and any relationship to socio demographic variables (age, occupation, level of education and urban or rural residence) and clinical variables (gestation period, previous pregnancy, type of diabetes and periodontal maintenance) were evaluated. The results showed that these clinical parameters increased concomitantly with an increase in the stage of pregnancy and in women with multiple pregnancies. Increased age, lower level of education, unemployment and patients residing in rural areas were associated with significantly higher gingival scores and periodontal measures. Women with increased age and multiple pregnancies usually have less interest to frequent periodontal maintenance showing a significant statistical relation between an increased age and changes in gingival and periodontal status; however no significant association was found between increased age and plaque index. It is concluded that gingival inflammatory symptoms are aggravated during pregnancy in diabetic women and are related to different clinical and demographic variables. PMID:27277362

  10. Ambient air pollution and annoyance responses from pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort

    ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.

  11. Perfluorinated compounds and subfecundity in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Whitworth, Kristina W.; Haug, Line S.; Baird, Donna D.; Becher, Georg; Hoppin, Jane A.; Skjaerven, Rolv; Thomsen, Cathrine; Eggesbo, Merete; Travlos, Gregory; Wilson, Ralph; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Perfluorinated compounds are ubiquitous pollutants; epidemiologic data suggest they may be associated with adverse health outcomes, including subfecundity. We examined subfecundity in relation to two perfluorinated compounds, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Methods This case-control analysis included 910 women enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study in 2003 and 2004. Around gestational week 17, women reported their time to pregnancy and provided blood samples. Cases consisted of 416 women with a time to pregnancy greater than 12 months, considered subfecund. Plasma concentrations of perfluorinated compounds were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for each pollutant quartile using logistic regression. Estimates were further stratified by parity. Results The median plasma concentration of PFOS was 13.0 ng/ml (interquartile range [IQR]=10.3-16.6 ng/ml) and of PFOA was 2.2 ng/ml (IQR=1.7-3.0 ng/ml). The relative odds of subfecundity among parous women was 2.1 (95% CI=1.2-3.8) for the highest PFOS quartile and 2.1 (1.0-4.0) for the highest PFOA quartile. Among nulliparous women, the respective relative odds were 0.7 (0.4-1.3) and 0.5 (0.2-1.2). Conclusion Previous studies suggest that the body burden of perfluorinated compounds decreases during pregnancy and lactation through transfer to the fetus and to breast milk. Afterwards, the body burden may rise again. Among parous women, increased body burden may be due to a long interpregnancy interval rather than the cause of a long time to pregnancy. Therefore, data from nulliparous women may be more informative regarding toxic effects of perfluorinated compounds. Our results among nulliparous women did not support an association with subfecundity. PMID:22081060

  12. A halfway house for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Z; Jaafar, R; Hassan, M H; Awang, C W

    1998-01-01

    For a number of reasons, it is common for rural women in Malaysia who are experiencing high-risk pregnancy to choose to give birth at home rather than in a hospital. In so doing, these women usually agree to enter the hospital only upon the development of birth complications, a behavior which tends to raise the incidence of maternal morbidity and mortality. The records were analyzed of 171 women who received care in the low-risk birth center of Bachok district in Kelantan between June 1995 and September 1996. 93 of the women delivered uneventfully and were discharged within 24 hours, with no case of postpartum hemorrhage. The remaining 78 women were referred to hospital for delivery for a range of reasons. All women interviewed in Bachok felt that a low-risk birth center should be part of every health clinic. Many of the drawbacks of hospitalization were reduced or eliminated in the new facilities, and all of the doctors, nurses, and midwives saw the establishment of the low-risk birth center as beneficial.

  13. HIV Risk Factors among Pregnant and Non-Pregnant High-Risk Women in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deren, Sherry; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Compared high-risk pregnant (n=55) and nonpregnant (n=598) women from Harlem on human immunodeficiency virus-related drug and sexual risk behaviors. Found higher percentage of intravenous drug users (IVDUs) among nonpregnant women and no significant differences between pregnant and nonpregnant IVDUs in terms of needle risk behaviors. Pregnant…

  14. Folate Intake and Markers of Folate Status in Women of Reproductive Age, Pregnant and Lactating Women: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Berti, Cristiana; Fekete, Katalin; Dullemeijer, Carla; Trovato, Monica; Souverein, Olga W.; Cavelaars, Adriënne; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie; Massari, Maddalena; Decsi, Tamás; van't Veer, Pieter; Cetin, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Background. Pregnant and breastfeeding women are at risk for folate deficiency. Folate supplementation has been shown to be associated with enhanced markers of folate status. However, dose-response analyses for adult women are still lacking. Objective. To assess the dose-response relationship between total folate intake (folic acid plus dietary folate) and markers of folate status (plasma/serum folate, red blood cell folate, and plasma homocysteine); to evaluate potential differences between women in childbearing age, pregnant and lactating women. Methods. Electronic literature searches were carried out on three databases until February 2010. The overall pooled regression coefficient (β) and SE(β) were calculated using meta-analysis on a double-log scale. Results. The majority of data was based on nonpregnant, nonlactating women in childbearingage. The pooled estimate of the relationship between folate intake and serum/plasma folate was 0.56 (95% CI = 0.40–0.72, P < 0.00001); that is, the doubling of folate intake increases the folate level in serum/plasma by 47%. For red blood cell folate, the pooled-effect estimate was 0.30 (95% CI = 0.22–0.38, P < 0.00001), that is, +23% for doubling intake. For plasma-homocysteine it was –0.10 (95% = –0.17 to –0.04, P = 0.001), that is, –7% for doubling the intake. Associations tended to be weaker in pregnant and lactating women. Conclusion. Significant relationships between folate intake and serum/plasma folate, red blood cell folate, and plasma homocysteine were quantified. This dose-response methodology may be applied for setting requirements for women in childbearing age, as well as for pregnant and lactating women. PMID:23024859

  15. 42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 435... Mandatory Coverage of Special Groups § 435.170 Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. (a) The agency... pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible for, and received Medicaid services...

  16. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 436... ISLANDS Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.122 Pregnant women eligible for extended... period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible...

  17. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 436... ISLANDS Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.122 Pregnant women eligible for extended... period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible...

  18. 42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The agency must...

  19. 42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 435... Mandatory Coverage of Special Groups § 435.170 Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. (a) The agency... pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible for, and received Medicaid services...

  20. 42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The agency must...

  1. 42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The agency must...

  2. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 436... ISLANDS Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.122 Pregnant women eligible for extended... period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible...

  3. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 436... ISLANDS Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.122 Pregnant women eligible for extended... period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible...

  4. Characteristics of pregnant women who use ecstasy (3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine).

    PubMed

    Ho, E; Karimi-Tabesh, L; Koren, G

    2001-01-01

    To determine the characteristics of pregnant women who use Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA), and to identify reproductive risk factors associated with this group of women. Prospective, observational study. Pregnant women who have contacted the Motherisk Alcohol and Substance Use Helpline at The Hospital for Sick Children, in Toronto, about exposure to drugs, chemicals, infection or radiation. All inquiries from December 1998 to October 2000 concerning pregnant women who reported use of MDMA, and control cases of women not exposed to MDMA selected within the same week of the MDMA callers. Age, maternal demographics, pregnancy characteristics, patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use, psychological/emotional status, sexually transmitted disease, MDMA method and pattern of use, and adverse drug reactions after ingestion of MDMA. The 132 pregnant women who used MDMA were significantly younger (mean 23.2 vs. 31.2 years, P<.0001), and had more unplanned pregnancies compared to 122 pregnant nonusers (84.2% vs. 54.3%, P<.05). MDMA users were also more likely to be single (57.0% vs. 18.3%, P<.001), and to be White (82.2% vs. 56.0%, P<.05). Comparably more MDMA users smoked cigarettes (53.8% vs. 19.7%, P<.0001), drank alcohol (66.4% vs. 37.3%, P<.0001), and had significantly more episodes of binge drinking during pregnancy (mean 2.12 vs. 0.05, P<.001). Illicit drugs such as cocaine, marijuana, methamphetamine, ketamine, gamma-hydroxy butyrate, and psilocybin were used more frequently among the MDMA sample. Over a third of MDMA users reported psychiatric/emotional problems, including 6.5% with a clinically diagnosed condition that was being treated with medication and/or counseling. Pregnant women who use MDMA tend to be young, single, and report psychological morbidity, and have a clustering of risk factors that may compromise the pregnancy and fetus. Smoking, heavy alcohol intake, and polydrug use, combined with a higher than expected rate of

  5. Representation of Women and Pregnant Women in HIV Research: A Limited Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Westreich, Daniel; Rosenberg, Molly; Schwartz, Sheree; Swamy, Geeta

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV-related outcomes may be affected by biological sex and by pregnancy. Including women in general and pregnant women in particular in HIV-related research is important for generalizability of findings. Objective To characterize representation of pregnant and non-pregnant women in HIV-related research conducted in general populations. Data Sources All HIV-related articles published in fifteen journals from January to March of 2011. We selected the top five journals by 2010 impact factor, in internal medicine, infectious diseases, and HIV/AIDS. Study Eligibility Criteria HIV-related studies reporting original research on questions applicable to both men and women of reproductive age were considered; studies were excluded if they did not include individual-level patient data. Study appraisal and synthesis methods. Articles were doubly reviewed and abstracted; discrepancies were resolved through consensus. We recorded proportion of female study participants, whether pregnant women were included or excluded, and other key factors. Results In total, 2014 articles were published during this period. After screening, 259 articles were included as original HIV-related research reporting individual-level data; of these, 226 were determined to be articles relevant to both men and women of reproductive age. In these articles, women were adequately represented within geographic region. The vast majority of published articles, 183/226 (81%), did not mention pregnancy (or related issues); still fewer included pregnant women (n=33), reported numbers of pregnant women (n=19), or analyzed using pregnancy status (n=9). Limitations Data were missing for some key variables, including pregnancy. The time period over which published works were evaluated was relatively short. Conclusions and implications of key findings. The under-reporting and inattention to pregnancy in the HIV literature may reduce policy-makers’ ability to set evidence-based policy around HIV/AIDS care

  6. Listeriosis Prevention Knowledge Among Pregnant Women in the USA

    DOE PAGES

    Ogunmodede, Folashade; Jones, Jeffery L.; Scheftel, Joni; Kirkland, Elizabeth; Schulkin, Jay; Lynfield, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    Background: Listeriosis is a food-borne disease often associated with ready-to-eat foods. It usually causes mild febrile gastrointestinal illness in immunocompetent persons. In pregnant women, it may cause more severe infection and often crosses the placenta to infect the fetus, resulting in miscarriage, fetal death or neonatal morbidity. Simple precautions during pregnancy can prevent listeriosis. However, many women are unaware of these precautions and listeriosis education is often omitted from prenatal care. Methods: Volunteer pregnant women were recruited to complete a questionnaire to assess their knowledge of listeriosis and its prevention, in two separate studies. One study was a nationalmore » survey of 403 women from throughout the USA, and the other survey was limited to 286 Minnesota residents. Results: In the multi-state survey, 74 of 403 respondents (18%) had some knowledge of listeriosis, compared with 43 of 286 (15%) respondents to the Minnesota survey. The majority of respondents reported hearing about listeriosis from a medical professional. In the multi-state survey, 33% of respondents knew listeriosis could be prevented by not eating delicatessen meats, compared with 17% in the Minnesota survey ( p = 0.01). Similarly, 31% of respondents to the multi-state survey compared with 19% of Minnesota survey respondents knew listeriosis could be prevented by avoiding unpasteurized dairy products (p = 0.05). As for preventive behaviors, 18% of US and 23% of Minnesota respondents reported avoiding delicatessen meats and ready-to-eat foods during pregnancy, whereas 86% and 88%, respectively, avoided unpasteurized dairy products. Conclusions: Most pregnant women have limited knowledge of listeriosis prevention. Even though most respondents avoided eating unpasteurized dairy products, they were unaware of the risk associated with ready-to-eat foods. Improved education of pregnant women regarding the risk and sources of listeriosis in pregnancy is needed.« less

  7. Vitamin D status and periodontal disease among pregnant and non-pregnant women in an underdeveloped district of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Farhan R.; Ahmad, Tashfeen; Hussain, Rabia; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare pregnant and non-pregnant females for vitamin D level and periodontal status and to determine if there is any association between the periodontal health and hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jhelum, Pakistan. Participants were pregnant females at ~ 12 weeks of gestation (n = 36) and non-pregnant (n = 35) females selected from the same locality. Periodontal parameters such as probing depth, bleeding on probing, and attachment loss were recorded. Serum samples were taken to measure blood indices and vitamin D levels. Chi-square test and Odds ratio were applied to determine the association between hypovitaminosis D and periodontal status. Results: Vitamin D deficiency was common in the pregnant group compared to non-pregnant (P < 0.001). Blood indices (hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume) were significantly lower among the pregnant compared to the non-pregnant group (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups for probing depth and attachment loss. Conclusions: Pregnant women were more deficient in Vitamin D than non-pregnant women. However, no association between low vitamin D levels and periodontal disease was seen in the studied population. PMID:27382540

  8. Emotional state and dreams in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Alfredo; De Vivo, Antonio; Fanara, Giusi; Settineri, Salvatore; Giacobbe, Annamaria; Pizzo, Alfonsa

    2008-09-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of recall and the content of dreams during pregnancy, as well as their correlation with socio-demographic, obstetric and physician-patients relationship variables, emotional state and duration of labour. A questionnaire, designed to analyse background characteristics, was given to 290 women in the third trimester of gestation. The psychiatric analysis of anxiety and depression was performed using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, while dreams were divided into masochistic and pleasant according to Beck's criteria. Oneiric activity was found to be associated with age >or= 35 years, higher family income, higher educational level, and a "satisfactory" physician-patient relationship. Masochistic content was associated with age<35 years, quality of information and frequent thoughts of delivery. Concerning the emotional state, depression levels were higher in women reporting masochistic dreams, while no difference in anxiety levels was found. Labour duration was shorter in the dreamer group and in patients with masochistic dream content. These findings may indicate that, also in pregnancy, the number and the content of dreams are influenced by women's mood and that the evaluation of the oneiric activity might represent a useful tool for clinicians either to investigate the women's emotional state or to predict its repercussions on the course of labour.

  9. Resilience after Hurricane Katrina among pregnant and postpartum women

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Background Although disaster causes distress, many disaster victims do not develop long-term psychopathology. Others report benefits after traumatic experiences (post-traumatic growth). The objective of this study was to examine demographic and hurricane-related predictors of resilience and post-traumatic growth. Methods 222 pregnant southern Louisiana women were interviewed, and 292 postpartum women completed interviews at delivery and eight weeks later. Resilience was measured by scores lower than a non-affected population, using the Edinburgh Depression Scale and the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist (PCL). Post-traumatic growth was measured by questions about perceived benefits of the storm. Women were asked about their experience of the hurricane, addressing danger, illness/injury, and damage. Chi-square tests and log-Poisson models were used to calculate associations and relative risks (RR) for demographics, hurricane experience, and mental health resilience and perceived benefit. Findings 35% of pregnant and 34% of the postpartum women were resilient from depression, while 56% and 49% were resilient from post-traumatic stress disorder. Resilience was most likely among white women, older women, and women who had a partner. A greater experience of the storm, particularly injury/illness or danger, was associated with lower resilience. Experiencing damage due to the storm was associated with increased report of some perceived benefits. Conclusions Many pregnant and postpartum women are resilient from the mental health consequences of disaster, and perceive benefits after a traumatic experience. Certain aspects of experiencing disaster reduce resilience, but may increase perceived benefit. PMID:20123173

  10. Exposure of Pregnant Women to Waterpipe and Cigarette Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Khabour, Omar F.; Alzoubi, Karem H.; Anabtawi, Mays M.; Quttina, Maram; Khader, Yousuf; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Throughout the Eastern Mediterranean region, tobacco is used primarily in 2 forms: cigarette smoking and waterpipe smoking. Despite the fact that tobacco use is considered as a global public health threat, waterpipe smoking is reported to be growing in popularity, particularly among women. The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence and patterns of cigarette, waterpipe, and passive smoking among pregnant women in Jordan, and to assess their perception of harmful effects of cigarette and waterpipe smoking. Methods: A total of 500 pregnant women were randomly recruited from maternity clinics in North and Middle of Jordan and surveyed regarding exposure to waterpipe tobacco and cigarette smoking. Results: The results showed that 7.9% of women were current cigarette smokers and 8.7% were current waterpipe smokers. About 82.4% of all women reported that they are exposed to cigarette smoke and 32.8% reported that they are exposed to waterpipe smoke. The most common place where women are exposed to cigarette and waterpipe smoke was their house (50.4% and 48.7%, respectively) followed by public places (31.4% and 21.4%, respectively). In addition, the husband was the main source for exposure to cigarette and waterpipe smoke (48.5% and 42.7%, respectively). Approximately, 74% of women believed that cigarette smoking is addictive, whereas only 55.1% reported that waterpipe smoking leads to addiction. Conclusions: Exposure of pregnant women to tobacco smoke is a public health problem in Jordan that requires immediate action. PMID:22573726

  11. Attractiveness of pregnant women to the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis, in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Himeidan, Y E; Elbashir, M I; Adam, I

    2004-09-01

    The attractiveness of pregnant women for mosquitoes was investigated in a peri-urban site in New Halfa, eastern Sudan, in September-October 2003. For 20 nights, the mosquitoes feeding on nine pregnant and nine non-pregnant women sleeping under untreated bednets were collected. The women slept outdoors, in the yards of nine houses, each yard holding one pregnant and one non-pregnant woman. In general, each pregnant woman attracted significantly more Anopheles arabiensis (the main vector of Plasmodium falciparum in the area) than each non-pregnant women, with mean biting rates of 0.94 and 0.49 bites/woman-night, respectively (P = 0.005). In contrast, the two groups of women attracted similar numbers of the other mosquito species collected, which were all culicine. Impregnated bednets need to be used in the study area, at least by the pregnant women (who appear to be at particularly high risk of acquiring malaria).

  12. Accelerating the paradigm shift toward inclusion of pregnant women in drug research: Ethical and regulatory considerations.

    PubMed

    White, Amina

    2015-11-01

    Although there has been long-standing reluctance to include pregnant women as clinical trial participants, increasing recognition of profound gaps in research on the safety and efficacy of drugs often prescribed to pregnant women calls into question the practice of routinely excluding them. This article presents compelling reasons for including pregnant women in clinical research, highlights certain regulatory barriers to the inclusion of pregnant women, and proposes that professional societies with expertise in obstetrics and maternal-fetal medicine can be instrumental in hastening the paradigm shift from the systematic exclusion of pregnant women in research to a one of responsible and fair inclusion. PMID:26385413

  13. Getting Older Women Pregnant: Contemporary Thoughts.

    PubMed

    Allahbadia, Gautam N

    2016-10-01

    For women of advanced age with abnormally increased FSH levels, standardized hormonal stimulation often represents a cost-intensive procedure with a low success rate. It is well established now that with mild ovarian stimulation, there is a greater percentage of good-quality eggs (although a smaller number) than with higher-dose conventional stimulation. Mild stimulation protocols reduce the mean number of days of stimulation, the total amount of gonadotropins used and the mean number of oocytes retrieved. The proportion of high-quality and euploid embryos seems to be higher compared with conventional stimulation protocols, and the pregnancy rate per embryo transfer is comparable. Moreover, the reduced costs, the better tolerability for patients and the less time needed to complete an IVF cycle make mild approaches clinically and cost-effective over a given period of time. The low number of embryos available for transfer poses a great challenge in the management of older women going in for IVF. A potential management of these older women is to create a sufficient pool of embryos by accumulating vitrified good-grade embryos over several minimal stimulation and natural cycles. At the end of the accumulation process, these embryos can be subjected to a preimplantation genetic screening using next-generation sequencing and then the pool would have only chromosomal normal embryos with maximal chances of implantation. This would potentially make the chances of success for older women similar to normal responders. This management, however, is unthinkable without an outstanding vitrification program. The option of accumulating embryos has become a promising reality with the advent of vitrification technologies. PMID:27486273

  14. Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort.

    PubMed

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Wright, Rosalind J

    2010-12-01

    While adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning is thought to be altered by traumatic experiences, little data exist on the effects of cumulative stress on HPA functioning among pregnant women or among specific racial and ethnic groups. Individuals may be increasingly vulnerable to physiological alterations when experiencing cumulative effects of multiple stressors. These effects may be particularly relevant in urban poor communities where exposure to multiple stressors is more prevalent. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of multiple social stressors on HPA axis functioning in a sample of urban Black (n = 68) and Hispanic (n = 132) pregnant women enrolled in the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress (ACCESS). Pregnant women were administered the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (R-CTS) survey to assess interpersonal violence, the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) survey, the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised (CRISYS-R) negative life events survey, and the My Exposure to Violence (ETV) survey, which ascertains exposure to community violence. A cumulative stress measure was derived from these instruments. Salivary cortisol samples were collected five times per day over three days to assess area under the curve (AUC), morning change, and basal awakening response in order to characterize diurnal salivary cortisol patterns. Repeated measures mixed models, stratified by race/ethnicity, were performed adjusting for education level, age, smoking status, body mass index and weeks pregnant at time of cortisol sampling. The majority of Hispanic participants (57%) had low cumulative stress exposure, while the majority of Black participants had intermediate (35%) or high (41%) cumulative stress exposure. Results showed that among Black but not Hispanic women, cumulative stress was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, including a flatter waking to bedtime rhythm. These analyses suggest that the combined

  15. Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort.

    PubMed

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Wright, Rosalind J

    2010-12-01

    While adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning is thought to be altered by traumatic experiences, little data exist on the effects of cumulative stress on HPA functioning among pregnant women or among specific racial and ethnic groups. Individuals may be increasingly vulnerable to physiological alterations when experiencing cumulative effects of multiple stressors. These effects may be particularly relevant in urban poor communities where exposure to multiple stressors is more prevalent. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of multiple social stressors on HPA axis functioning in a sample of urban Black (n = 68) and Hispanic (n = 132) pregnant women enrolled in the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress (ACCESS). Pregnant women were administered the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (R-CTS) survey to assess interpersonal violence, the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) survey, the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised (CRISYS-R) negative life events survey, and the My Exposure to Violence (ETV) survey, which ascertains exposure to community violence. A cumulative stress measure was derived from these instruments. Salivary cortisol samples were collected five times per day over three days to assess area under the curve (AUC), morning change, and basal awakening response in order to characterize diurnal salivary cortisol patterns. Repeated measures mixed models, stratified by race/ethnicity, were performed adjusting for education level, age, smoking status, body mass index and weeks pregnant at time of cortisol sampling. The majority of Hispanic participants (57%) had low cumulative stress exposure, while the majority of Black participants had intermediate (35%) or high (41%) cumulative stress exposure. Results showed that among Black but not Hispanic women, cumulative stress was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, including a flatter waking to bedtime rhythm. These analyses suggest that the combined

  16. Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2010-01-01

    While adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning is thought to be altered by traumatic experiences, little data exist on the effects of cumulative stress on HPA functioning among pregnant women or among specific racial and ethnic groups. Individuals may be increasingly vulnerable to physiological alterations when experiencing cumulative effects of multiple stressors. These effects may be particularly relevant in urban poor communities where exposure to multiple stressors is more prevalent. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of multiple social stressors on HPA axis functioning in a sample of urban Black (n = 68) and Hispanic (n = 132) pregnant women enrolled in the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress (ACCESS). Pregnant women were administered the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (R-CTS) survey to assess interpersonal violence, the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) survey, the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised (CRISYS-R) negative life events survey, and the My Exposure to Violence (ETV) survey, which ascertains exposure to community violence. A cumulative stress measure was derived from these instruments. Salivary cortisol samples were collected five times per day over three days to assess area under the curve (AUC), morning change, and basal awakening response in order to characterize diurnal salivary cortisol patterns. Repeated measures mixed models, stratified by race/ethnicity, were performed adjusting for education level, age, smoking status, body mass index and weeks pregnant at time of cortisol sampling. The majority of Hispanic participants (57%) had low cumulative stress exposure, while the majority of Black participants had intermediate (35%) or high (41%) cumulative stress exposure. Results showed that among Black but not Hispanic women, cumulative stress was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, including a flatter waking to bedtime rhythm. These analyses suggest that the combined

  17. Iron status in pregnant women in the Republic of Seychelles

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Wallace, Julie MW; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Robson, Paula J; Myers, Gary J; Davidson, Philip W; Clarkson, Thomas W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Strain, JJ

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish the Fe status of pregnant women and their neonates in the Republic of Seychelles. Design A prospective study. Setting Republic of Seychelles. Subjects Pregnant women were recruited and blood samples taken at enrolment and post-delivery along with cord blood samples. Ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) were measured in maternal (n 220) and cord blood (n 123) samples. Results Maternal Fe deficiency (ferritin<15 ng/ml, sTfR>28 nmol/l) was present in 6% of subjects at enrolment and in 20% at delivery. There was no significant decrease in maternal ferritin. A significant increase in sTfR was observed between enrolment and delivery (P<0·001). Maternal BMI and use of Fe supplements at 28 weeks’ gestation were associated with improved maternal Fe status at delivery, whereas parity had a negative effect on sTfR and ferritin at delivery. Conclusions Fe status of pregnant Seychellois women was, on average, within normal ranges. The incidence of Fe deficiency throughout pregnancy in this population was similar to that in a Westernised population. Increased awareness of the importance of adequate Fe intake during pregnancy, particularly in multiparous women, is warranted. PMID:19706210

  18. Cervical Stiffness Evaluated In Vivo by Endoflip in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Hee, Lene; Liao, Donghua; Sandager, Puk; Gregersen, Hans; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the stiffness of the pregnant uterine cervix in vivo. Method Five women in early pregnancy and six women in late pregnancy were included. The EndoFlip is a 1-m-long probe with a 12-cm-long bag mounted on the tip. The tip of the probe was inserted into the cervical canal. Sensors spaced at 0.5-cm intervals along the probe were used to determine 16 serial cross-sectional areas of the bag. The diameter of the cervical canal could thereby be determined during inflation with up to 50 ml saline solution. Tissue stiffness was calculated from the geometric profiles and the pressure-strain elastic modulus (EP) at each sensor site. Three parts of the cervix were defined: the uterus-near part, the middle and the vaginal part. The EPmax was defined as the highest EP detected along the cervical canal. Results The EPmax was always found in the middle part of the cervix. The median EPmax was 243 kPa (IQR, 67–422 kPa) for the early pregnant women and 5 kPa (IQR, 4–15 kPa) for those at term. In the early pregnant women the stiffness differed along the cervical length (p<0.05) whereas difference along the cervix was not found for late pregnant women. A positive correlation coefficient (Spearman’s rho) was established between the EPs of the uterus-near and the middle part (0.84), between the vaginal and the middle part (0.81), and between the uterus-near and the vaginal part (0.85). Conclusion This new method can estimate the stiffness along the cervical canal in vivo. This method may be useful in the clinical examination of the biomechanical properties of the uterine cervix. PMID:24603859

  19. Mental health treatment need among pregnant and postpartum women/girls entering substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H

    2012-06-01

    Substance use during pregnancy is widely acknowledged as a major public health concern with detrimental effects on both mother and unborn child. Mental health issues often co-occur with substance use and may trigger continued use during pregnancy or relapse to use postpartum, though little is known about the extent of these issues in pregnant and postpartum women entering substance abuse treatment. The purpose of this study is: (a) to examine self-reported mental health in a population of women and girls who were pregnant in the past year and are entering substance abuse treatment, and (b) to determine whether disparity exists in mental health treatment received across groups by race and age if a treatment need is present. Secondary data analysis was conducted with Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN) data from 502 female adolescents and adults who reported having been pregnant in the past year and who completed the GAIN upon entry into substance abuse treatment. Participants were compared on demographic, diagnostic, and problem severity variables by race and age. Results indicate that mental health treatment need is high among the whole pregnant and postpartum sample, but African American and Hispanic women and girls are receiving less mental health treatment than other groups despite having a need for it. No mental health treatment acquisition disparity was found by age.

  20. First time pregnant women's experiences in early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Modh, Carin; Lundgren, Ingela; Bergbom, Ingegerd

    2011-01-01

    Background There are few studies focusing on women's experiences of early pregnancy. Medical and psychological approaches have dominated the research. Taking women's experiences seriously during early pregnancy may prevent future suffering during childbirth. Aim To describe and understand women's first time experiences of early pregnancy. Method Qualitative study using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Data were collected via tape-recorded interviews in two antenatal care units in Sweden. Twelve first time pregnant women in week 10–14, aged between 17 and 37 years participated. Results To be in early pregnancy means for the women a life opening both in terms of life affirming and suffering. The central themes are: living in the present and thinking ahead, being in a change of new perspectives and values and being in change to becoming a mother. Conclusions The results have implications for the midwife's encounter with the women during pregnancy. Questions of more existential nature, instead of only focusing the physical aspects of the pregnancy, may lead to an improvement in health condition and a positive experience for the pregnant woman. PMID:21499449

  1. [Non-pregnant women's nutrition and its impact in life quality].

    PubMed

    Casanueva, E

    1999-03-01

    Emphasis is made in the nutrition aspects related to women at reproductive age that are not pregnant or lactating and that includes the variations that happen throughout the menstrual cycle, fluctuations in energy expenditure, body composition and mood. Nutrition role in some premenstrual syndrome alterations as premenstrual stress (serotonin, magnesium, calcium and vitamin E), anemia, gynecological cancers (antioxidants, alcohol, folic acid, lipids, fiber and phytosterols) and osteoporosis (exercise and diet) are also described, as well as the impact on nutrition of the use of contraceptive methods (hormonal and intrauterine devices). Practical recommendations directed toward the evaluation and management of the main nutrition needs of adult women are included.

  2. Knowledge and beliefs regarding oral health among pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Boggess, Kim A.; Urlaub, Diana M.; Moos, Merry-K; Polinkovsky, Margaret; El-Khorazaty, Jill; Lorenz, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background Racial or ethnic and economic disparities exist in terms of oral diseases among pregnant women and children. The authors hypothesized that women of a racial or ethnic minority have less oral health knowledge than do women not of a racial or ethnic minority. Therefore, the authors conducted a study to assess and compare maternal oral health knowledge and beliefs and to determine if maternal race and ethnicity or other maternal factors contributed to women’s knowledge or beliefs. Methods The authors administered a written oral health questionnaire to pregnant women. The authors calculated the participants’ knowledge and belief scores on the basis of correct answers or answers supporting positive oral health behaviors. They conducted multivariable analysis of variance to assess associations between oral health knowledge and belief scores and characteristics. Results The authors enrolled 615 women in the study, and 599 (97.4 percent) completed the questionnaire. Of 599 participants, 573 (95.7 percent) knew that sugar intake is associated with caries. Almost one-half (295 participants [49.2 percent]) did not know that caries and periodontal disease are oral infections. Median (interquartile range) knowledge and belief scores were 6.0 (5.5–7.0) and 6.0 (5.0–7.0), respectively. Hispanic women had median (interquartile range) knowledge and belief scores significantly lower than those of white or African American women (6.0 [4.0–7.0] versus 7.0 [6.0–7.0] versus 7.0 [6.0–7.0], respectively [P < .001]; and 5.0 [4.0–6.0] versus 6.0 [5.0–7.0] versus 6.0 [5.0–7.0], respectively [P < .001]). Multivariable analysis of variance results showed that being of His-panic ethnicity was associated significantly with a lower knowledge score, and that an education level of eighth grade or less was associated significantly with a lower belief score. Conclusions Pregnant women have some oral health knowledge. Knowledge varied according to maternal race or

  3. Epidemiology and Risk Analysis of Malaria among Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, S; Yadav, K; Goswami, D; Das, NG; Baruah, I; Singh, L

    2012-01-01

    Malaria remains a complex problem during the pregnancy, which threatens > 35 millions pregnant women every year. Malaria pathogenesis in pregnancy results in accumulation of infected RBCs in the intervillous spaces causing severe alterations leading to the reduced materno-foetal exchanges. In this article we have revisited the current evidences of clinical implications and overall burden of malaria in pregnancy. Many adverse aftermaths including, low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, preterm delivery, stillbirth and anemia were found associated with malaria in pregnant women. Despite of worldwide comprehensive control programmes for malaria in pregnancy, the disease control has been a daunting task everywhere. Socio cultural, economical, lack of awareness and various logistic problems compound the disease in developing countries. Thorough evidence based information and estimates, education and awareness and strengthening of prevention programmes are needed urgently to achieve success in malaria control in pregnancy. PMID:23113116

  4. Treatment of Opioid Dependent Pregnant Women: Clinical and Research Issues

    PubMed Central

    Jones, H.E.; Martin, P.R.; Heil, S.H.; Stine, S.M.; Kaltenbach, K.; Selby, P.; Coyle, M.G.; O’Grady, K.E.; Arria, A.M.; Fischer, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses common questions that clinicians face when treating pregnant women with opioid dependence. Guidance is provided to aid clinical decision-making, based on both research evidence and the collective clinical experience of the authors which include investigators in the Maternal Opioid Treatment: Human Experimental Research (MOTHER) project. MOTHER is a double-blind, double-dummy, flexible–dosing, parallel-group clinical trial examining the comparative safety and efficacy of methadone and buprenorphine for the opioid dependence treatment among pregnant women and their neonates. The paper begins with a discussion of appropriate assessment during pregnancy, and then addresses clinical management stages, including maintenance medication selection, induction and stabilization, opioid agonist medication management before, during and after delivery, pain management, breast-feeding, and transfer to aftercare. Lastly, other important clinical issues including managing co-occurring psychiatric disorders and medication interactions are discussed. PMID:18248941

  5. Urinary excretion of parabens in pregnant Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Sayaka; Suzuki, Yayoi; Yoshinaga, Jun; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Urinary excretion of free and total (free plus conjugated) forms of methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl parabens (MP, EP, PP and BP, respectively) and their metabolite p-hydroxybenzoic acid were measured for 111 pregnant Japanese women. Frequent detection of parabens and their metabolite indicated that exposure takes place daily for pregnant Japanese women. The estrogenic potency of PP was 20 times higher than those of the other 3 parabens for the present subjects when both abundance in the urine and the relative estrogenic activity of each compound was considered. Detection of free parabens suggested dermal exposure, probably from their inclusion in personal care products. No statistical association was found between the anogenital index (birth weight-adjusted AGD) of male offspring and the concentrations of any parabens in the urine of the mothers suggesting that the parabens were not apparently estrogenically active at the exposure level of the present subjects.

  6. HIV-Infected Adolescent, Young Adult and Pregnant Smokers: Important Targets for Effective Tobacco Control Programs

    PubMed Central

    Escota, Gerome; Önen, Nur

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use is inextricably linked to a number of health risks both in the general and HIV-infected populations. There is, however, a dearth of research on effective tobacco control programs among people living with HIV, and especially among adolescents, young adults and pregnant women, groups with heightened or increased vulnerability secondary to tobacco use. Adolescents and young adults constitute a growing population of persons living with HIV infection. Early and continued tobacco use in this population living with a disease characterized by premature onset multimorbidity and chronic inflammation is of concern. Additionally, there is an increased acuity for tobacco control among HIV-infected pregnant women to reduce pregnancy morbidity and improve fetal outcome. This review will provide an important summary of current knowledge of tobacco use among HIV-infected adolescents, young adults and pregnant women. The effects of tobacco use in these specific populations will be presented and the current state of tobacco control within these populations, assessed. PMID:23778059

  7. [Effectiveness of body mass index in the nutritional diagnosis of pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Rached-Paoli, Ingrid; Henriquez-Pérez, Gladys; Azuaje-Sánchez, Arelis

    2005-03-01

    Our goal was to analyze the concordances and non-concordances of the nutritional classification in pregnant women and to evaluate their effectiveness when different BMI classification methodologies were applied. The study consisted of 314 adult healthy pregnant women in their first trimester, of socioeconomic status IV. In all of them, two nutritional classification criteria were applied: the integral nutritional diagnosis (IND) and different BMI reference values (Institute of Medicine, FAO/OMS, Frisancho, Bray, and Atalah). Kappa, concordance and nonconcordance, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated. The highest frequency of concordance between IND and the analyzed classification criteria in comparing four and three nutritional categories was Frisancho's with the following results 89.2%, Kappa = 0.81 in the first case, and 91.4, Kappa = 0.84 in the second case. In deficit, the Bray and Atalah classification criteria were the highest sensitivities. In excess, FAO/ OMS, Frisancho, and Bray had a high sensitivity (1 - 0.99). Frisancho, in addition, had a high specificity with respect to FAO/OMS and Bray. Frisancho's classification criteria are the best choice for diagnosing adult pregnant women's nutritional status during the first trimester within population groups with these characteristics. PMID:16187677

  8. Oxidative Profile and δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity in Healthy Pregnant Women with Iron Supplementation.

    PubMed

    De Lucca, Leidiane; Rodrigues, Fabiane; Jantsch, Letícia B; Neme, Walter S; Gallarreta, Francisco M P; Gonçalves, Thissiane L

    2016-05-03

    An oxidative burst occurs during pregnancy due to the large consumption of oxygen in the tissues and an increase in metabolic demands in response to maternal physiological changes and fetal growth. This study aimed to determine the oxidative profile and activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) in pregnant women who received iron supplementation. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in 25 pregnant women with iron supplementation, 25 pregnant women without supplementation and 25 non-pregnant women. The following oxidative stress parameters were evaluated: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein thiol groups (P-SH), non-protein thiol levels (NP-SH), vitamin C levels, catalase and δ-ALA-D activity. Markers of oxidative stress and cell damage, such as TBARS in plasma were significantly higher in pregnant women without supplementation. Levels of P-SH, NP-SH and δ-ALA-D activity were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation compared to non-pregnant and pregnant women with supplementation, while vitamin C levels were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation when compared to non-pregnant women. The increase in the generation of oxidative species and decrease of antioxidants suggest the loss of physiological oxidative balance during normal pregnancy, which was not observed in pregnant women with iron supplementation, suggesting a protective effect of iron against oxidative damage.

  9. Oxidative Profile and δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity in Healthy Pregnant Women with Iron Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    De Lucca, Leidiane; Rodrigues, Fabiane; Jantsch, Letícia B.; Neme, Walter S.; Gallarreta, Francisco M. P.; Gonçalves, Thissiane L.

    2016-01-01

    An oxidative burst occurs during pregnancy due to the large consumption of oxygen in the tissues and an increase in metabolic demands in response to maternal physiological changes and fetal growth. This study aimed to determine the oxidative profile and activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) in pregnant women who received iron supplementation. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in 25 pregnant women with iron supplementation, 25 pregnant women without supplementation and 25 non-pregnant women. The following oxidative stress parameters were evaluated: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein thiol groups (P-SH), non-protein thiol levels (NP-SH), vitamin C levels, catalase and δ-ALA-D activity. Markers of oxidative stress and cell damage, such as TBARS in plasma were significantly higher in pregnant women without supplementation. Levels of P-SH, NP-SH and δ-ALA-D activity were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation compared to non-pregnant and pregnant women with supplementation, while vitamin C levels were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation when compared to non-pregnant women. The increase in the generation of oxidative species and decrease of antioxidants suggest the loss of physiological oxidative balance during normal pregnancy, which was not observed in pregnant women with iron supplementation, suggesting a protective effect of iron against oxidative damage. PMID:27153075

  10. Anticoagulation in pregnant women with prosthetic heart valves.

    PubMed

    Danik, Stephan; Fuster, Valentin

    2004-10-01

    The combination of heart disease and pregnancy can present a formidable challenge to the clinician entrusted to care for both the mother and fetus. Since most data is retrospective, a definitive prognosis for such a patient may be difficult to obtain. Nevertheless, certain cardiac conditions carry greater risks of maternal mortality than do others. However, even for certain preexisting conditions, a tremendous amount of debate persists with respect to risks during pregnancy and optimal peripartum management. One such area of controversy concerns anticoagulation in pregnant women with prosthetic heart valves. For patients who require anticoagulation for mechanical valves, the choice of some combination of warfarin, unfractionated heparin, and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) has resulted in many small-scale trials, which have not yet provided definite guidance as to the best course of action. Even more controversial has been the recent labeling change that advises against the use of LMWH in all patients with prosthetic heart valves, as a result of two cases of prosthetic valve thrombosis in women using LMWH while pregnant. Although the latest product labeling, in the summer of 2003, was changed to a less restrictive recommendation, debate persists. A discussion of the available data on anticoagulation in pregnant women with prosthetic heart valves is presented here, to inform the clinician and the patient of the risks and benefits of the options presently available. PMID:15543433

  11. Molecular basis of reduced birth weight in smoking pregnant women: mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Garrabou, Glòria; Hernàndez, Ana-Sandra; Catalán García, Marc; Morén, Constanza; Tobías, Ester; Córdoba, Sarai; López, Marta; Figueras, Francesc; Grau, Josep M; Cardellach, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    In utero exposure of fetuses to tobacco is associated with reduced birth weight. We hypothesized that this may be due to the toxic effect of carbon monoxide (CO) from tobacco, which has previously been described to damage mitochondria in non-pregnant adult smokers. Maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), newborn cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) and placenta were collected from 30 smoking pregnant women and their newborns and classified as moderate and severe smoking groups, and compared to a cohort of 21 non-smoking controls. A biomarker for tobacco consumption (cotinine) was assessed by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The following parameters were measured in all tissues: mitochondrial chain complex IV [cytochrome c oxidase (COX)] activity by spectrophotometry, mitochondrial DNA levels by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, oxidative stress by spectrophotometric lipid peroxide quantification, mitochondrial mass through citrate synthase spectrophotometric activity and apoptosis by Western blot parallelly confirmed by TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling) assay in placenta. Newborns from smoking pregnant women presented reduced birth weight by 10.75 percent. Materno-fetal mitochondrial and apoptotic PBMC and CBMC parameters showed altered and correlated values regarding COX activity, mitochondrial DNA, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Placenta partially compensated this dysfunction by increasing mitochondrial number; even so ratios of oxidative stress and apoptosis were increased. A CO-induced mitotoxic and apoptotic fingerprint is present in smoking pregnant women and their newborn, with a lack of filtering effect from the placenta. Tobacco consumption correlated with a reduction in birth weight and mitochondrial and apoptotic impairment, suggesting that both could be the cause of the reduced birth weight in smoking pregnant women.

  12. Affective reactivity differences in pregnant and postpartum women

    PubMed Central

    Rosebrock, Laina; Hoxha, Denada; Gollan, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    Reactions to emotional cues, termed affective reactivity, promote adaptation and survival. Shifts in affective reactivity during pregnancy and postpartum may invoke altered responses to environmental and biological changes. The development and testing of affective reactivity tasks, with published normative ratings for use in studies of affective reactivity, has been based on responses provided by healthy college students. A comparison of the healthy norms with ratings provided by peripartum women has yet to be conducted, despite its value in highlighting critical differences in affective reactivity during peripartum phases. This study compared arousal ratings of unpleasant, neutral, pleasant, and threat stimuli from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS; Lang et al., 2008) between three samples: (a) women measured during pregnancy and again at postpartum, (b) age-matched nonpregnant women, and (c) college-aged women from the normative sample used to test the stimuli. Using mixed-design GLMs, results showed that the pregnant and postpartum women and the age-matched women showed suppressed arousal relative to the college-age women. Additionally, postpartum women showed increased arousal to unpleasant/threat images compared to other types of images. The data suggest that future research on peripartum women should include affective reactivity tasks based on norms reflective of this specific population. PMID:25890694

  13. Down syndrome screening methods in Iranian pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Farshbaf Khalili, Azizeh; Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Hajizadeh, Khadijeh; Shekari Khaniani, Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Down syndrome is one of the most prevalent genetic diseases. Screening methods for this syndrome are easy and safe and are recommended to all pregnant women particularly mothers over 35 years of age. This study aimed to review the status of Down syndrome screening and related factors in Iranian pregnant women. Methods: This descriptive analytical study was carried out in 2011. It included 400 women who were randomly selected from those referring to Alzahra Hospital (Tabriz, Iran) during their third trimester of pregnancy. Data was collected through a question-naire whose reliability and validity have been approved. The data was analyzed by chi-square test in SPSS13. Results: The results showed that while 28 and 26 women imple-mented screening tests during the first and second trimesters, respectively, only 5 sub-jects benefited from both (integrated test). Chi-square test showed significant correla-tions between the implementation of screening methods and age, education level, in-come, and the location of prenatal care (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed women to poorly implement Down syndrome screening methods. Therefore, the necessity of providing appropriate educational programs for health staff and mothers seems undeniable. Moreover, paying attention to the related factors such as income, educational level, and adequate training of mothers during pregnancy is essential. PMID:25276689

  14. Pregnant women's perspectives on umbilical cord blood banking.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, J; Kaplan, L; Cogswell, B; Olson, J

    1998-08-01

    Promising clinical results suggest that umbilical cord blood (UCB) collected after delivery of a child may have many advantages over bone marrow for transplantation. As there are an increasing number of options regarding the collection of UCB, including private and public banking, more pregnant women are likely to be asked to make decisions about UCB collection. We conducted three focus groups with pregnant women to learn about their perspectives on this emerging technology. All the women in these focus groups indicated that they would choose to have UCB collected. Reasons leading to this choice were that the UCB would otherwise be discarded and altruism. Participants indicated that possible reasons to decide not to have UCB collected include concerns about the safety of the mother and neonate, beliefs about the placenta, threats against confidentiality, rejection of UCB, and the influence of fathers. While feeling confident in making an anticipatory decision about UCB collection, women expressed a clear desire to learn much more about the collection, storage (including distinctions between public and private banking), and use of UCB. In addition, they believed that recruitment for UCB collection should occur after sufficient education about UCB and certainly not after delivery and collection. These data will be useful in guiding efforts to help women make decisions about having UCB collected and in developing an appropriate recruitment and informed consent process for donating UCB to a public bank. PMID:9718543

  15. Carrying their own medical records: the perspective of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Phipps, H

    2001-11-01

    Freedom of information, access to and ownership of medical records are current and controversial issues in Australia. Relating to pregnancy and birth the debate provokes emotional responses and raises important questions about access to information, decision-making, responsibility, power and control. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the impact on pregnant women of carrying their medical records throughout pregnancy Twenty-one women participated in face-to-face individual interviews, which were coded for thematic analysis. The study found the reaction of women toward carrying their own records to be overwhelmingly positive. Maternal record holding had the potential to improve the level of communication between the health care worker and the pregnant woman and provided a greater sense of sharing and communication within the family The study also established that maternal record holding was of benefit to the woman's partner who was better informed and more involved in the pregnancy All but one of the women who participated favoured carrying their records in subsequent pregnancies. A concern about the potential for losing or misplacing records was not seen in this study, as no women lost their records. A sense of ownership would argue against this possible drawback.

  16. Recruitment of pregnant women to an exercise-intervention study.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, R E; Emery, S J; Rassi, D; Uzun, O; Lewis, M J

    2016-01-01

    We share here our experience of recruiting pregnant women into an exercise intervention study. Recruitment challenges were anticipated owing to the study design, which required four hospital visits for cardiovascular assessment, a long-term (nine-month) commitment, and adherence to a 20-week exercise programme. Fifty-three women were assigned to one of three groups (no-exercise, land exercise or water exercise) using a 2 × 2 × 2 flexible randomisation design. Seven hundred forty-four women were screened at an antenatal clinic, of whom 501 were eligible to participate in the study. One hundred forty-five women were subsequently approached: 46 (32%) of whom agreed to participate, 42 (29%) were interested but then declined and 57 (39%) declined outright. Our study design helped recruit pregnant women as it allowed them some choice of group membership. We also noted that the participant-researcher relationship is important in reducing attrition. Our experience provides indications of likely recruitment and attrition rates for future randomised controlled trials of this type.

  17. Virtual traumatology of pregnant women: the PRegnant car Occupant Model for Impact Simulations (PROMIS).

    PubMed

    Auriault, F; Thollon, L; Peres, J; Delotte, J; Kayvantash, K; Brunet, C; Behr, M

    2014-01-01

    This study report documents the development of a finite element (FE) model for analyzing trauma in pregnant women involved in road accidents and help the design of a specific safety device. The model is representative of a 50th percentile pregnant woman at 26 weeks of pregnancy in sitting position. To achieve this, the HUMOS 2 model, which has been validated in a wide range of dynamic tests, was scaled to the morphology of a woman in the 50th percentile and coupled with a model of gravid uterus. During scaling, special attention was paid to the pelvic region which is known to differ considerably in morphological terms between men and women. The gravid uterus model includes a placenta, a fetus, uterosacral ligaments and the amniotic fluid by means of fluid structure interaction formulation. The uterus and the female model were coupled using an original method whereby the growth of an uterus was simulated to compress the abdominal organs in a realistic manner. The model was validated based on experimental tests described in the literature. Additional tests based on abdominal loadings with a seatbelt on Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) coupled to silicone uterus were also performed. Results highlighted the role of the possible interaction of the fetus in the pregnant woman abdominal response. Experimental corridors taking into account the presence of this fetus could therefore be proposed.

  18. Church Member Support Benefits Psychological Well-Being of Pregnant African American Women.

    PubMed

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Murn, Nicole L

    2016-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy is common, and pregnant African American (AA) women are more likely to experience depressive symptoms compared with pregnant non-Hispanic white women. This study explored AA women's experience of church attendance, church member support, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being at 15-25 weeks' gestation. Nurses need to be aware of the importance of church support and encourage clergy and church members to be supportive of pregnant women.

  19. Church Member Support Benefits Psychological Well-Being of Pregnant African American Women.

    PubMed

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Murn, Nicole L

    2016-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy is common, and pregnant African American (AA) women are more likely to experience depressive symptoms compared with pregnant non-Hispanic white women. This study explored AA women's experience of church attendance, church member support, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being at 15-25 weeks' gestation. Nurses need to be aware of the importance of church support and encourage clergy and church members to be supportive of pregnant women. PMID:27119803

  20. Predictors of Prenatal Empowerment Among Iranian Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Borghei, Narjes Sadat; Taghipour, Ali; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Keramat, Afsaneh; Noghabi, Hadi Jabbari

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Considering that empowering expectant mothers is an important issue to maintain a healthy pregnancy, this study was conducted to evaluate the predictors of empowerment among Iranian pregnant women. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted in Golestan, North of Iran in 2015. A total number of 161 pregnant women were selected through random cluster sampling from urban health centers, using PASS software. The socio-political, educational, and mental-financial predictors of empowerment were measured using a self-structured questionnaire during pregnancy and was analyzed by a linear regression model using SPSS version 16. Results The findings of linear regression showed that educational dimension of empowerment had the highest coefficient in the regression model, on total empowerment (βeta standardized coefficient [β]=0.696 with DW=1.830 and means error=0). The total empowerment score of pregnant women was controlled by individual factors such as the age of marriage (β-0.228), employment (β-0.210), and educational factors such as participation in prenatal education classes (β-0.246), and moral issues such as sense of spiritual support (β-0.217). Conclusion By recognizing and observing predictors of empowerment during pregnancy, health care providers can increase women’s power over their pregnancy. Educational predictors of empowerment were the most important factors to empower women during pregnancy. The objective of childbirth education classes, therefore, should shift from simply giving information to women, towards giving them appropriate knowledge in order to provide them with empowerment during pregnancy. PMID:27790351

  1. Artemether-Lumefantrine Pharmacokinetics and Clinical Response Are Minimally Altered in Pregnant Ugandan Women Treated for Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Nyunt, Myaing M.; Nguyen, Vy K.; Kajubi, Richard; Huang, Liusheng; Ssebuliba, Joshua; Kiconco, Sylvia; Mwima, Moses W.; Achan, Jane; Aweeka, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Artemether-lumefantrine is a first-line regimen for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Previous studies have reported changes in the pharmacokinetics and clinical outcomes following treatment with artemether-lumefantrine in pregnant women compared to nonpregnant adults; however, the results are inconclusive. We conducted a study in rural Uganda to compare the pharmacokinetics of artemether-lumefantrine and the treatment responses between 30 pregnant women and 30 nonpregnant adults with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. All participants were uninfected with HIV, treated with a six-dose regimen of artemether-lumefantrine, and monitored clinically for 42 days. The pharmacokinetics of artemether, its metabolite dihydroartemisinin, and lumefantrine were evaluated for 21 days following treatment. We found no significant differences in the overall pharmacokinetics of artemether, dihydroartemisinin, or lumefantrine in a direct comparison of pregnant women to nonpregnant adults, except for a statistically significant but small difference in the terminal elimination half-lives of both dihydroartemisinin and lumefantrine. There were seven PCR-confirmed reinfections (5 pregnant and 2 nonpregnant participants). The observation of a shorter terminal half-life for lumefantrine may have contributed to a higher frequency of reinfection or a shorter posttreatment prophylactic period in pregnant women than in nonpregnant adults. While the comparable overall pharmacokinetic exposure is reassuring, studies are needed to further optimize antimalarial efficacy in pregnant women, particularly in high-transmission settings and because of emerging drug resistance. (This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01717885.) PMID:26666942

  2. Worries of Pregnant Women: Testing the Farsi Cambridge Worry Scale.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Forough; Akaberi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy adds many sources of concerns to women's daily life worries. Excessive worry can affect maternal physiological and psychological state that influences the pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to validate the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS) in a sample of Iranian pregnant women. After translation of the CWS, ten experts evaluated the items and added six items to the 17-item scale. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 405 of pregnant women booked for prenatal care completed the Farsi CWS. We split the sample randomly. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on the first half of the sample to disclose the factorial structure of the 23-item scale. The results of the EFA on the Farsi CWS indicated four factors altogether explained 51.5% of variances. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was done on the second half of the sample. The results of the CFA showed that the model fit our data (chi-square/df = 2.02, RMSEA = 0.071, SRMR = 0.071, CFI = 0.95, and NNFI = 0.94). Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the Farsi CWS was 0.883. The Farsi CWS is a reliable and valid instrument for understanding common pregnancy worries in the third trimester of pregnancy in Iranian women.

  3. Worries of Pregnant Women: Testing the Farsi Cambridge Worry Scale.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Forough; Akaberi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy adds many sources of concerns to women's daily life worries. Excessive worry can affect maternal physiological and psychological state that influences the pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to validate the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS) in a sample of Iranian pregnant women. After translation of the CWS, ten experts evaluated the items and added six items to the 17-item scale. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 405 of pregnant women booked for prenatal care completed the Farsi CWS. We split the sample randomly. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on the first half of the sample to disclose the factorial structure of the 23-item scale. The results of the EFA on the Farsi CWS indicated four factors altogether explained 51.5% of variances. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was done on the second half of the sample. The results of the CFA showed that the model fit our data (chi-square/df = 2.02, RMSEA = 0.071, SRMR = 0.071, CFI = 0.95, and NNFI = 0.94). Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the Farsi CWS was 0.883. The Farsi CWS is a reliable and valid instrument for understanding common pregnancy worries in the third trimester of pregnancy in Iranian women. PMID:27293974

  4. Worries of Pregnant Women: Testing the Farsi Cambridge Worry Scale

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Forough; Akaberi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy adds many sources of concerns to women's daily life worries. Excessive worry can affect maternal physiological and psychological state that influences the pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to validate the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS) in a sample of Iranian pregnant women. After translation of the CWS, ten experts evaluated the items and added six items to the 17-item scale. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 405 of pregnant women booked for prenatal care completed the Farsi CWS. We split the sample randomly. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on the first half of the sample to disclose the factorial structure of the 23-item scale. The results of the EFA on the Farsi CWS indicated four factors altogether explained 51.5% of variances. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was done on the second half of the sample. The results of the CFA showed that the model fit our data (chi-square/df = 2.02, RMSEA = 0.071, SRMR = 0.071, CFI = 0.95, and NNFI = 0.94). Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the Farsi CWS was 0.883. The Farsi CWS is a reliable and valid instrument for understanding common pregnancy worries in the third trimester of pregnancy in Iranian women. PMID:27293974

  5. Measurements of Pupillary Diameter and Wavefront Aberrations in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Altay, Mehmet Metin; Demirok, Gulizar; Balta, Ozgur; Bolu, Hulya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To show whether pregnancy affects the measurements of pupillary diameter and wavefront (WF) aberrations. Methods. This was a case-control study including 34 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and age-matched 34 nonpregnant women. Only women who had no ocular abnormalities and no refractive error were included. We measured photopic and mesopic pupil diameter and WF aberrations at the third trimester and at the second postpartum month. Measurements of the right eyes were used in this study. The differences between groups were analysed by paired t-test and t-test. Results. Pregnant women's mean photopic pupil size in the third trimester was significantly higher than in postpartum period and in control group (3.74 ± 0.77, 3.45 ± 0.53, and 3.49 ± 0.15 mm, p < 0.05, resp.). Mesopic pupil size in the third trimester was also higher than in postpartum period and in control group (6.77 ± 0.52, 6.42 ± 0.55, and 6.38 ± 0.21 mm, p < 0.05, resp.). RMS-3 and RMS-5 values were higher in pregnancy but these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion. Pregnancy increased photopic and mesopic pupil size significantly but did not increase wavefront aberrations notably. Increased pupil size may be due to increased sympathetic activity during pregnancy. And this activity can be noninvasively determined by measuring pupil size. PMID:26998383

  6. Emotional memory in pregnant women at risk for postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Williams, Marissa E; Becker, Suzanna; McKinnon, Margaret C; Wong, Queenie; Cudney, Lauren E; Steiner, Meir; Frey, Benicio N

    2015-10-30

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is associated with debilitating effects on mothers and their infants. A previous history of depression is considered the strongest risk factor for PPD. Depressed individuals recall more negative than positive content and higher levels of stress hormones released during encoding are associated with enhanced recall of emotional stimuli. This study examined the impact of a previous history of major depressive disorder (MDD) and pregnancy on emotional memory. Seventy-seven participants completed the study [44 pregnant women in the second trimester of pregnancy with and without a lifetime history of MDD and 33 non-pregnant women with and without a lifetime history of MDD]. All completed an encoding task and provided salivary cortisol (sCORT) and alpha-amylase (sAA) samples. Participants returned one week later for a surprise incidental recognition memory task. Women with a history of MDD had worse recognition than women without a history of MDD for negative, but not positive images; this effect was independent of sCORT and sAA levels. Pregnancy did not affect emotional memory. Considering that several previous studies found enhanced memory bias for negative content during depressive states, our results suggest that clinical remission may be associated with an opposite cognitive processing of negative emotional content. PMID:26272023

  7. Neurocognitive outcomes of children secondary to mild iodine deficiency in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Caron, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Iodine deficiency is the most important preventable cause of brain damage worldwide. During pregnancy, severe iodine deficiency causes endemic cretinism, whereas mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency impairs neurocognitive function of the offspring. Numerous reports demonstrate the impact of iodine supplementation on prevention of cretinism, and recent studies evaluate the effects of iodine prophylaxis on neurocognitive development in children of women with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. Iodine prophylaxis is generally well tolerated without side effects for the pregnant women and the offspring. In France, the iodine status was recently considered as satisfactory in children and adult population, but regional studies conducted during the last two decades have shown that healthy women are mild-to-moderately iodine deficient during pregnancy. According to recent World Heath Organization guidelines, systematic iodine prophylaxis is recommended in women planning a pregnancy, during gestation and lactation in order to prevent maternal, neonatal and infantile consequences of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. PMID:25934357

  8. Neurocognitive outcomes of children secondary to mild iodine deficiency in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Caron, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Iodine deficiency is the most important preventable cause of brain damage worldwide. During pregnancy, severe iodine deficiency causes endemic cretinism, whereas mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency impairs neurocognitive function of the offspring. Numerous reports demonstrate the impact of iodine supplementation on prevention of cretinism, and recent studies evaluate the effects of iodine prophylaxis on neurocognitive development in children of women with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency. Iodine prophylaxis is generally well tolerated without side effects for the pregnant women and the offspring. In France, the iodine status was recently considered as satisfactory in children and adult population, but regional studies conducted during the last two decades have shown that healthy women are mild-to-moderately iodine deficient during pregnancy. According to recent World Heath Organization guidelines, systematic iodine prophylaxis is recommended in women planning a pregnancy, during gestation and lactation in order to prevent maternal, neonatal and infantile consequences of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency.

  9. Poor, powerless and pregnant. Empowering women will benefit all.

    PubMed

    1992-07-01

    In South Africa, the better educated women have a responsibility to help out less fortunate women. The possibilities for action could include the following: literacy classes for adult women with the help of teachers, librarians, social workers, development program workers, and among church groups and adult literacy groups; and promotion campaigns to encourage mothers to keep their children in school as long as possible. Women and teenagers could be educated about the complications of teenage births and parental responsibilities. Child spacing should be encouraged as a means of achieving better health and a higher standard of living. Women must be motivated to attend family planning clinics and health education programs. Income generation programs for women could be established. Community improvement projects and new housing projects could be instrumental in improving living conditions. Leadership courses and job creation for women must be provided. These activities would highlight women as assets, such as the UN Population Fund described in its 1992 report of The State of the World. Women's high status has been found to be directly related to economic growth and higher quality of life. 7-9% of a child's mortality risk might be reduced for each year of maternal education. In Africa, the ratio of girls to boys in school attendance averages 80 girls to 100 boys in primary school and 47 girls to 100 boys in secondary school. Almost 66% of adult illiterates were women in 1985: 949 million. Early marriage and childbearing perpetuates the cycle of low status and high fertility. Where human resource development has been high, such as in Asian countries, there have been as many as 78% of women active in the labor force. In South Africa, rural women have had as many as 7 children. The growth rate was 2.3% and population has been doubling every 32 years. At the present rate, greater numbers of women will be poor and illiterate, and their children will continue the cycle.

  10. Poor, powerless and pregnant. Empowering women will benefit all.

    PubMed

    1992-07-01

    In South Africa, the better educated women have a responsibility to help out less fortunate women. The possibilities for action could include the following: literacy classes for adult women with the help of teachers, librarians, social workers, development program workers, and among church groups and adult literacy groups; and promotion campaigns to encourage mothers to keep their children in school as long as possible. Women and teenagers could be educated about the complications of teenage births and parental responsibilities. Child spacing should be encouraged as a means of achieving better health and a higher standard of living. Women must be motivated to attend family planning clinics and health education programs. Income generation programs for women could be established. Community improvement projects and new housing projects could be instrumental in improving living conditions. Leadership courses and job creation for women must be provided. These activities would highlight women as assets, such as the UN Population Fund described in its 1992 report of The State of the World. Women's high status has been found to be directly related to economic growth and higher quality of life. 7-9% of a child's mortality risk might be reduced for each year of maternal education. In Africa, the ratio of girls to boys in school attendance averages 80 girls to 100 boys in primary school and 47 girls to 100 boys in secondary school. Almost 66% of adult illiterates were women in 1985: 949 million. Early marriage and childbearing perpetuates the cycle of low status and high fertility. Where human resource development has been high, such as in Asian countries, there have been as many as 78% of women active in the labor force. In South Africa, rural women have had as many as 7 children. The growth rate was 2.3% and population has been doubling every 32 years. At the present rate, greater numbers of women will be poor and illiterate, and their children will continue the cycle. PMID

  11. Factors Associated with Seasonal Influenza Vaccination in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Irving, Stephanie A.; Thompson, Mark; Avalos, Lyndsay Ammon; Ball, Sarah W.; Shifflett, Pat; Naleway, Allison L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: This observational study followed a cohort of pregnant women during the 2010–2011 influenza season to determine factors associated with vaccination. Methods: Participants were 1105 pregnant women who completed a survey assessing health beliefs related to vaccination upon enrollment and were then followed to determine vaccination status by the end of the 2010–2011 influenza season. We conducted univariate and multivariate analyses to explore factors associated with vaccination status and a factor analysis of survey items to identify health beliefs associated with vaccination. Results: Sixty-three percent (n=701) of the participants were vaccinated. In the univariate analyses, multiple factors were associated with vaccination status, including maternal age, race, marital status, educational level, and gravidity. Factor analysis identified two health belief factors associated with vaccination: participant's positive views (factor 1) and negative views (factor 2) of influenza vaccination. In a multivariate logistic regression model, factor 1 was associated with increased likelihood of vaccination (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=2.18; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.72–2.78), whereas factor 2 was associated with decreased likelihood of vaccination (aOR=0.36; 95% CI=0.28–0.46). After controlling for the two health belief factors in multivariate analyses, demographic factors significant in univariate analyses were no longer significant. Women who received a provider recommendation were about three times more likely to be vaccinated (aOR=3.14; 95% CI=1.99–4.96). Conclusion: Pregnant women's health beliefs about vaccination appear to be more important than demographic and maternal factors previously associated with vaccination status. Provider recommendation remains one of the most critical factors influencing vaccination during pregnancy. PMID:25874550

  12. Prevalence of prescription medication use among non-pregnant women of childbearing age and pregnant women in the United States: NHANES, 1999-2006.

    PubMed

    Tinker, Sarah C; Broussard, Cheryl S; Frey, Meghan T; Gilboa, Suzanne M

    2015-05-01

    Many prescription medications have limited information regarding safety for use during pregnancy. In order to inform research on safer medication use during pregnancy, we examined prescription medication use among women in the United States. We analyzed data from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to estimate the prevalence of prescription medication use in the past 30 days among pregnant women and non-pregnant women of childbearing age (15-44 years) and to ascertain the most commonly reported prescription medications by women in these groups. We assessed how the most commonly reported medications differed among groups defined by selected demographic characteristics, including age, race/ethnicity, and markers of socioeconomic status. Prescription medication use in the past 30 days was reported by 22 % of pregnant women and 47 % of non-pregnant women of childbearing age. The most commonly reported prescription medications by NHANES participants differed somewhat by pregnancy status; allergy and anti-infective medications were more common among pregnant women, while oral contraceptives were more common among non-pregnant women. Use of prescription medication for asthma and thyroid disorders was reported by both groups. Although prescription medication use in the previous 30 days was less common among pregnant women than non-pregnant women, its use was reported among almost 1 in 4 pregnant women. Many of the most common medications reported were for the treatment of chronic medical conditions. Given the potential impact of medications on the developing fetus, our data underscore the importance of understanding the safety of these medications during pregnancy.

  13. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Hinwood, A.L.; Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M.; Heyworth, J.; McCafferty, P.; Odland, J.Ø.

    2013-10-15

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity

  14. [Simple locomotion and during load carrying in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Golomer, E; Ducher, D; Arfi, G S; Sud, R

    1991-01-01

    There have been few studies of the way women walk in pregnancy, though some of the causes of low back ache of which they complain have only been partially worked out. This is why this study has been carried out on ten women between the third and eighth month of pregnancy. The speed at which they walk and the parameters of the gait as well as the localization of the centre of gravity when keeping upright have been measured in these pregnant women as well as in twenty control women of the same age. The results show that the speed at which they walk whether with or without carrying a weight usually is identical at the beginning and the end of pregnancy. When walking normally the size of the steps taken are no larger in pregnant women than in the control patients (p less than 0.05). Though the results are not statistically significant the rhythm of the steps is faster as well as their being a reduction in the length of the steps between the third and eighth month of pregnancy. When carrying a weight the length of the steps does not change greatly with pregnancy (p less than 0.05) and it would seem therefore to be a good way of assessing the changes that locomotion undergoes in pregnancy. The fact that women do not walk faster or slower can give evidence that they adapt to the change in posture that happens in pregnancy and they make the best possible biomechanical use of the parameters of walking in order to economise total energy output of the organism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Iodine status of pregnant women in a metropolitan city which proved to be an iodine-sufficient area. Is mandatory salt iodisation enough for pregnant women?

    PubMed

    Oral, Engin; Aydogan Mathyk, Begum; Aydogan, Berna Imge; Acıkgoz, Abdullah Serdar; Erenel, Hakan; Celik Acıoglu, Hasniye; Anık Ilhan, Gökce; Dane, Banu; Ozel, Aysegul; Tandogan, Bulent; Cakar, Erbil; Isci, Herman; Kayan, Basak; Aslan, Halil; Ekiz, Ali; Sancak, Seda; Celik, Ayhan; Yoldemir, Tevfik; Uzun, Ozgur; Erdogan, Murat Faik

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the iodine status of pregnant women in a metropolitan city which was stated as iodine sufficient area after salt iodination program. This multicenter, cross-sectional study was carried out on 3543 pregnant women. Age, gestational weeks, smoking, consumption of iodized salt, dietary salt restriction, history of stillbirth, abortus and congenital malformations were questioned. Spot urine samples were analyzed for urine iodine concentration (UIC). The outcomes were: (a) median UIC in three trimesters of pregnancy and (b) frequency of ID among pregnant women. The median UIC was 73 µg/L. The median UIC was 77 µg/L (1-324), 73 µg/L (1-600) and 70 µg/L (1-1650) in three trimesters of pregnancy, respectively (p: 0.14). UIC <50 µg/L was observed in 36.6% (n: 1295) and UIC<150 µg/L was observed in 90.7% (n: 3214) of pregnant women. Only 1% (n: 34) of the pregnant women had UIC levels higher than 500 µg/L. This study showed that more than 90% of the pregnant women in this iodine-sufficient city are facing some degree of iodine deficiency during their pregnancy. A salt iodization program might be satisfactory for the non-pregnant population, but it seems to be insufficient for the pregnant population.

  16. Identifying Pregnant Women Experiencing Domestic Violence in an Urban Emergency Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datner, Elizabeth M.; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Nelson, Deborah B.

    2007-01-01

    The article describes characteristics of pregnant women presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) who are experiencing current violence and presented a screening tool to identify pregnant women experiencing violence. Women completed an in-person interview regarding violence, sociodemo-graphic factors, health status, and drug use. Fifteen percent…

  17. 42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 435... Groups § 435.170 Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. (a) The agency must provide categorically needy Medicaid eligibility for an extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who,...

  18. 42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 435... Groups § 435.170 Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. (a) The agency must provide categorically needy Medicaid eligibility for an extended period following termination of pregnancy to women who,...

  19. Periodontitis-associated risk factors in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    de Vasconcellos Piscoya, Maria Dilma Bezerra; de Alencar Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes; da Silva, Genivaldo Moura; Jamelli, Sílvia Regina; Coutinho, Sônia Bechara

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with periodontitis in pregnant women. METHODS: This study was conducted in two stages. In Stage 1, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of periodontitis among 810 women treated at the maternity ward of a university hospital. In Stage 2, the factors associated with periodontitis were investigated in two groups of pregnant women: 90 with periodontitis and 720 without. A hierarchized approach to the evaluation of the risk factors was used in the analysis, and the independent variables related to periodontitis were grouped into two levels: 1) socio-demographic variables; 2a) variables related to nutritional status, smoking, and number of pregnancies; and 2b) variables related to oral hygiene. Periodontitis was defined as a probing depth ≥4 mm and an attachment loss ≥3 mm at the same site in four or more teeth. A logistic regression analysis was also performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of periodontitis in this sample was 11%. The variables that remained in the final multivariate model with the hierarchized approach were schooling, family income, smoking, body mass index, and bacterial plaque. CONCLUSION: The factors identified underscore the social nature of the disease, as periodontitis was associated with socioeconomic, demographic status, and poor oral hygiene. PMID:22249477

  20. Vaginal carriage of enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis in pregnant women.

    PubMed Central

    Leszczynski, P; van Belkum, A; Pituch, H; Verbrugh, H; Meisel-Mikolajczyk, F

    1997-01-01

    Bacteroides fragilis is an anaerobic bacterial species that is involved in gynecological infections and pathology. The incidence of vaginal carriage is largely unknown, and in order to study this, 120 pregnant women attending a general hospital for delivery were examined. Cultures were positive for eight of these women (6.6%). Interestingly, potential clonal relatedness could be demonstrated among several of the nonenterotoxigenic B. fragilis strains. Among the strains, only one produced metalloprotease enterotoxin. The presence of the gene for the metalloprotease, giving rise to the pathogenic effect on cultured eukaryotic HT29/C1 cells, was confirmed by a newly designed specific PCR assay. The enterotoxigenic B. fragilis (ETBF) strain was analyzed with the help of arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) and PCR-mediated ribotyping. The ETBF strain was shown to be genetically different compared to several other strains obtained from diverse sources. Our data indicate a relatively high vaginal B. fragilis carriage rate among pregnant women in Warsaw, Poland. Although neither ETBF nor B. fragilis colonization presented a clinical problem, the possible genetic relatedness among the colonizing B. fragilis strains indicates the need for additional research in the field of ETBF transmission and molecular epidemiology. PMID:9350755

  1. [Herpes zoster in immunocompetent pregnant women and their perinatal outcome].

    PubMed

    Casanova Román, Gerardo; Reyna Figueroa, Jesús; Figueroa Damián, Ricardo; Ortiz Ibarra, Javier

    2004-02-01

    A prospective and descriptive study was done in pregnant women diagnosed with herpes zoster, to know the demographic characteristics and clinical manifestations as well as maternal and/or neonatal complications to cause by this viral infection during pregnancy. The study included all pregnant women diagnosed with herpes zoster at the Department of Infectious Diseases of the Instituto Nacional de Perinatologia México, between 1994 and 2002. A total of 17 women were included in the study. All were given clinical and ultrasound follow-up to discard any maternal or fetal complications also at the moment of birth. A review in the newborn was made to establish the demographic, anthropometric and clinical characteristics; also the data collected included mother's age, gestational age at the moment of diagnosis with herpes zoster, anatomical lesion site, treatments administered, ultrasound characteristics, newborn's gestational age, weight, height, Apgar at birth and type of delivery. The most frequent site (58.8%) for herpes zoster lesions on the mother was the intercostal area, followed by the scapular region, the lumbar region and the limbs. None of the patients experienced complications during pregnancy, including post-herpetic pain. Sixteen of the newborns had no complications and one was a stillborn due to 60% of placental separation. These findings suggest a benign evolution of herpes zoster during pregnancy, supporting similar findings in the literature. No complications during pregnancy are suggested, and no phenotypical alterations occurred in the child at the moment of birth.

  2. Non-anaemic pregnant women should not take iron supplements.

    PubMed

    2009-12-01

    (1) Iron-deficiency anaemia during pregnancy increases the risk of low birth weight and preterm birth; (2) In a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial, iron supplementation in pregnant women with haemoglobin levels of at least 13.2 g/100 ml at the beginning of the 2nd trimester was associated with low birth weight and maternal hypertension; (3) In a trial in women with haemoglobin levels of at least 11.5 g/100 ml who took supplemental iron, haemoglobin levels above 14.5 g/100 ml at 28 weeks of gestation were associated with an 8-fold increase in the risk of preterm birth and a 6-fold increase in the risk of low birth weight; (4) An epidemiological study showed a link between high maternal haemoglobin levels and low birth weight; (5) In practice, iron supplements should not be taken by pregnant women whose haemoglobin levels exceed 11 g/100 ml during the 1st and 3rd trimesters and 10.5 g/100 ml during the 2nd trimester. PMID:20025097

  3. Women in Adult Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Rosemarie J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of adult basic education (ABE) program directors in five states revealed that most ABE teachers are women and work part-time without benefits while most ABE administrators are men who are employed full-time. Concludes that women employed in ABE are victims of discrimination. (EM)

  4. Childhood sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder among pregnant and postpartum women: Review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Wosu, Adaeze C.; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this review are i) to summarize and evaluate current knowledge on the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in pregnant and postpartum women, ii) to provide suggestions for future research on this topic, and iii) to highlight some clinical implications. Methods Relevant publications were identified through literature searches of four databases (PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES) using keywords such as “child abuse,” “posttraumatic stress,” “pregnancy” and “postpartum”. Results Five studies were included in this review. Findings across all studies were consistent with higher prevalence of PTSD diagnosis or symptomatology among women with history of CSA. However, only findings from two studies were statistically significant. One study observed higher overall PTSD scores in women with CSA history compared to women with non-CSA trauma history or no trauma history during pregnancy (mean±SD 1.47 (0.51) vs. 1.33 (0.41) vs. 1.22 (0.29), p<0.001), at 2 months postpartum (mean±SD 1.43 (0.49) vs. 1.26 (0.38) vs. 1.19 (0.35), p<0.001), and at 6 months postpartum (mean±SD 1.36 (1.43) vs. 1.20 (0.33) vs. 1.14 (0.27), p<0.001). Another study observed that the prevalence of PTSD during pregnancy was 4.1 % in women with no history of physical or sexual abuse, 11.4 % in women with adult physical or sexual abuse history, 16.0 % in women with childhood physical or sexual abuse history, and 39.0 % in women exposed to both childhood and adult physical or sexual abuse (p<0.001); in a subsequent analysis, the investigators reported that pregnant women with PTSD had over 5-fold odds of having a history of childhood completed rape compared to counterparts without PTSD (OR = 5.3, 95 % CI 3.2, 8.7). Conclusions Overall, available evidence suggests positive associations of CSA with clinical PTSD or PTSD symptomatology among pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:25380784

  5. Comparing the prevalence of smoking in pregnant and nonpregnant women, 1985 to 1986.

    PubMed

    Williamson, D F; Serdula, M K; Kendrick, J S; Binkin, N J

    1989-01-01

    The 1990 health objectives for the nation state that pregnant women should be only half as likely to smoke as nonpregnant women. To assess progress toward meeting this objective, we used cross-sectional data from the 26 states in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 1985 and 1986. We compared the prevalence of self-reported smoking among pregnant (N = 836) and nonpregnant (N = 18,025) women aged 18 to 45 years. Overall, pregnant women were 70% as likely to be current smokers as nonpregnant women (prevalence ratio, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.6 to 0.8), while blacks showed the largest pregnancy-associated reduction in the prevalence of smoking (prevalence ratio, 0.5; 95% confidence interval, 0.3 to 0.9). Most of the difference in smoking prevalence occurred not because pregnant women were less likely to have ever smoked, but because pregnant women were more likely to have quit smoking than nonpregnant women. However, unmarried pregnant white women were 40% more likely to smoke than their nonpregnant counterparts (prevalence ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 1.7). We conclude from this analysis that the 1990 health objective for smoking among pregnant women is unlikely to be achieved. Clinicians providing care to pregnant women need to pay increased attention to smoking cessation.

  6. Pregnant Women and the Use of Corrections Restraints and Substance Use Commitment.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ryan C H; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Jain, Abhishek

    2015-09-01

    Recent evolving trends in the United States legal system regarding how policies and laws are applied to pregnant women include concerns over the use of restraints or shackles in pregnant inmates and forced treatment or commitment of pregnant women for substance abuse. These topics raise many questions, such as: how violent are women, particularly pregnant women; what are the informed consent and treatment implications; and who is at risk of harm? In addition, questions have been raised regarding maternal versus fetal rights, especially when the mother uses substances during a pregnancy. We review legal decisions and organizational position statements and highlight ethics-related concerns. PMID:26438814

  7. Does Body Mass Index in Pregnant Women Affect Laboratory Parameters in the Newborn?

    PubMed Central

    Raguž, Marjana Jerković; Brzica, Jerko

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the effect of body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy in laboratory parameters in the serum of the three groups of pregnant women and in their newborns. Methods This prospective study is comparison between the three groups of pregnant women and their newborns categorized according to their BMI. The study included 128 pregnant women and their newborns. In this study, the concentration of blood count, iron, ferritin, and bilirubin were analyzed in the subjects. Results The pregnant women in the three groups significantly differ in the values of blood count (p < 0.001). Statistically significant difference in iron and ferritin was not found between individual three studied groups of pregnant women (p = 0.947). The newborn of the first group of pregnant women had significantly lower values of ferritin (p < 0.001), leucocytes (p < 0.001), and bilirubin (p < 0.001). Significant positive correlation between BMI of pregnant women and leucocytes, ferritin, and bilirubin of the newborn was found (p < 0.001). Conclusion In this study, the tested pregnant women do not have biochemical signs of anemia, neither do their newborns. It was noted that there was no negative correlation between individual tested biochemical parameters for anemia in pregnant women and their newborns. PMID:27119047

  8. Smoking cessation support for pregnant women: role of mobile technology

    PubMed Central

    Heminger, Christina L; Schindler-Ruwisch, Jennifer M; Abroms, Lorien C

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking during pregnancy has deleterious health effects for the fetus and mother. Given the high risks associated with smoking in pregnancy, smoking cessation programs that are designed specifically for pregnant smokers are needed. This paper summarizes the current landscape of mHealth cessation programs aimed at pregnant smokers and where available reviews evidence to support their use. Methods A search strategy was conducted in June–August 2015 to identify mHealth programs with at least one component or activity that was explicitly directed at smoking cessation assistance for pregnant women. The search for text messaging programs and applications included keyword searches within public health and medical databases of peer-reviewed literature, Google Play/iTunes stores, and gray literature via Google. Results Five unique short message service programs and two mobile applications were identified and reviewed. Little evidence was identified to support their use. Common tools and features identified included the ability to set your quit date, ability to track smoking status, ability to get help during cravings, referral to quitline, and tailored content for the individual participant. The theoretical approach utilized was varied, and approximately half of the programs included pregnancy-related content, in addition to cessation content. With one exception, the mHealth programs identified were found to have low enrollment. Conclusion Globally, there are a handful of applications and text-based mHealth programs available for pregnant smokers. Future studies are needed that examine the efficacy of such programs, as well as strategies to best promote enrollment. PMID:27110146

  9. The prevalence and incidence of Toxoplasma antibodies in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Franklin, D M; Dror, Z; Nishri, Z

    1993-05-01

    A group of 213 pregnant Jewish women of Israeli and North-African/Asian origin in the Upper Gallilee in Israel were tested for Toxoplasma antibody, first at 4-12 weeks gestation and again 5-6 months later. Immunofluorescent antibody, Sabin-Feldman tests, and specific IgM estimation were used. The prevalence rates for seropositive women were lower in both groups (total 21%) than the rate found in a 1973 study in Israel. The incidence rate for infection acquired in pregnancy was 1.4%. There were no cases of congenital toxoplasmosis, as far as is known up to 3 years of age. More information on the prevalence and incidence of seropositivity, and on congenital toxoplasmosis, is required before a policy decision can be taken as to whether an antenatal screening program for toxoplasmosis should be instituted in Israel.

  10. Breastfeeding, pregnant, and non-breastfeeding nor pregnant women's food consumption: A matched within-household analysis in India

    PubMed Central

    Fledderjohann, Jasmine; Vellakkal, Sukumar; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective Promoting breastfeeding is major maternal and child health goal in India. It is unclear whether mothers receive additional food needed to support healthy breastfeeding. Methods Using the latest National Family and Health Survey (2005–2006), we applied multilevel linear regression models to document correlates of nutrition for (n = 20,764) breastfeeding women. We then compared consumption of pulses, eggs, meat, fish, dairy, fruit, and vegetables across a sample of breastfeeding, non-breastfeeding/pregnant (NBP), and pregnant women (n = 3,409) matched within households and five-year age bands. We tested whether breastfeeding women had greater advantages in the 18 high-focus states of India's National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). Results Vegetarianism, caste, and religion were the strongest predictors of breastfeeding women's nutrition. Breastfeeding women had no nutritional advantage compared to NBP women, and were disadvantaged in their consumption of milk (b = −0.14) in low-focus states. Pregnant women were similarly disadvantaged in their consumption of milk in low-focus states (b = −0.32), but consumed vegetables more frequently (b = 0.12) than NBP women in high-focus states. Conclusions Breastfeeding women do not receive nutritional advantages compared to NBP women. Targeted effort is needed to assess and improve nutritional adequacy for breastfeeding Indian women. PMID:26826049

  11. Safety of Tdap vaccine in pregnant women: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Petousis-Harris, Helen; Walls, Tony; Watson, Donna; Paynter, Janine; Graham, Patricia; Turner, Nikki

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Actively recruit and intensively follow pregnant women receiving a dose of acellular pertussis vaccine for 4 weeks after vaccination. Design and settings A prospective observational study conducted in 2 New Zealand regions. Participants Women in their 28th–38th week of pregnancy, recruited from primary care and antenatal clinics at the time of Tdap administration. Telephone interviews were conducted at 48 h and 4 weeks postvaccination. Main outcomes measures Outcomes were injection site reactions, systemic symptoms and serious adverse events (SAEs). Where available, data have been classified and reported according to Brighton Collaboration definitions. Results 793 women participated with 27.9% receiving trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine concomitantly. 79% of participants reported mild or moderate pain and 2.6% severe pain. Any swelling was reported by 7.6%, induration by 12.0% (collected from 1 site only, n=326), and erythema by 5.8% of participants. Fever was reported by 17 (2.1%) participants, 14 of these occurred within 24 h. Headache, dizziness, nausea, myalgia or arthralgia was reported by <4% of participants, respectively, and fatigue by 8.4%. During the study period, there were 115 adverse events in 113 participants, most of which were minor. At the end of the reporting period, 31 events were classified as serious (eg, obstetric bleeding, hypertension, infection, tachycardia, preterm labour, exacerbation of pre-existing condition and pre-eclampsia). All had variable onset time from vaccination. There were two perinatal deaths. Clinician assessment of all SAEs found none likely to be vaccine related. Conclusions Vaccination with Tdap in pregnant women was well tolerated with no SAE likely to be caused by the vaccine. Trial registration number ACTRN12613001045707. PMID:27091823

  12. Effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programmes (GSP) for Smoking Cessation in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Mette; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP) on pregnant women in real life. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study based on data from a national Danish registry on smoking cessation interventions. The study population included 10,682 women of a fertile age. The pregnancy status of the study population was identified using the National Patient Registry. Results: The response rate to follow up was 76%. The continuous abstinence rate for both pregnant and non-pregnant smokers was 24–32%. The following prognostic factors for continuous abstinence were identified: programme format (individual/group), older age, heavy smoking, compliance with the programme, health professional recommendation, and being a disadvantaged smoker. Conclusions: The GSP seems to be as effective among pregnant smokers as among non-pregnant smoking women. Due to the relatively high effect and clinical significance, the GSP would be an attractive element in smoking cessation intervention among pregnant women. PMID:23959083

  13. Pharmacological Management of Opioid Use Disorder in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Christine M; Winhusen, Theresa

    2015-08-01

    Opioid misuse during pregnancy is associated with negative outcomes for both mother and fetus due not only to the physiological effects of the drug but also to the associated social, medical and mental health problems that accompany illicit drug use. An interdisciplinary approach to the treatment of opioid use disorder during pregnancy is most effective. Ideally, obstetric and substance use treatment are co-located and ancillary support services are readily available. Medication-assisted treatment with methadone or buprenorphine is intrinsic to evidence-based care for the opioid-using pregnant woman. Women who are not stabilized on an opioid maintenance medication experience high rates of relapse and worse outcomes. Methadone has been the mainstay of maintenance treatment for nearly 50 years, but recent research has found that both methadone and buprenorphine maintenance treatments significantly improve maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes. Although methadone remains the current standard of care, the field is beginning to move towards buprenorphine maintenance as a first-line treatment for pregnant women with opioid use disorder, because of its greater availability and evidence of better neonatal outcomes than methadone. However, there is some evidence that treatment dropout may be greater with buprenorphine relative to methadone. PMID:26315948

  14. Studies say doctors are lax in assisting pregnant women.

    PubMed

    1995-06-30

    In an International Clinical Conference Call, a national telephone hookup that enables people in the field to pose questions to experts, speakers agreed that doctors are not moving quickly enough to deal with the privacy, counseling and treatment issues associated with pregnant women who are HIV-positive. In two recent studies, less than half of the doctors surveyed were aware that prescribing the antiviral drug AZT during pregnancy, labor, and childbirth, could reduce by two-thirds the risk of HIV transmission to the infant. The results are alarming because research on the benefits of AZT therapy in pregnancy has been widely disseminated since August. In February, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended that physicians counsel all pregnant women about the risk of HIV infection. Most physicians, however, seem to regard HIV counseling as too complicated or too touchy a subject to address. Another issue discussed during the June 8 telephone conference was the costs of treating a woman and infant with AZT, approximately $1,000, compared to the cost of treating HIV infection in an infant, $38,000 per year.

  15. The composition and stability of the vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women is different from that of non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was undertaken to characterize the vaginal microbiota throughout normal human pregnancy using sequence-based techniques. We compared the vaginal microbial composition of non-pregnant patients with a group of pregnant women who delivered at term. Results A retrospective case–control longitudinal study was designed and included non-pregnant women (n = 32) and pregnant women who delivered at term (38 to 42 weeks) without complications (n = 22). Serial samples of vaginal fluid were collected from both non-pregnant and pregnant patients. A 16S rRNA gene sequence-based survey was conducted using pyrosequencing to characterize the structure and stability of the vaginal microbiota. Linear mixed effects models and generalized estimating equations were used to identify the phylotypes whose relative abundance was different between the two study groups. The vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women was different from that of non-pregnant women (higher abundance of Lactobacillus vaginalis, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii and lower abundance of 22 other phylotypes in pregnant women). Bacterial community state type (CST) IV-B or CST IV-A characterized by high relative abundance of species of genus Atopobium as well as the presence of Prevotella, Sneathia, Gardnerella, Ruminococcaceae, Parvimonas, Mobiluncus and other taxa previously shown to be associated with bacterial vaginosis were less frequent in normal pregnancy. The stability of the vaginal microbiota of pregnant women was higher than that of non-pregnant women; however, during normal pregnancy, bacterial communities shift almost exclusively from one CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. to another CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. Conclusion We report the first longitudinal study of the vaginal microbiota in normal pregnancy. Differences in the composition and stability of the microbial community between pregnant and non-pregnant women were observed. Lactobacillus spp. were the

  16. Personal, indoor and outdoor air pollution levels among pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schembari, Anna; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; de Nazelle, Audrey; Dadvand, Payam; Vrijheid, Martine; Cirach, Marta; Martinez, David; Figueras, Francesc; Querol, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Eeftens, Marloes; Meliefste, Kees; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    AimThe aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between pregnant women's personal exposures to NOx, NO2, PM2.5 concentration and absorbance as a marker for black carbon and their indoor and outdoor concentration levels at their residence, and also to identify predictors of personal exposure and indoor levels using questionnaire and time activity data. MethodWe recruited 54 pregnant women in Barcelona who carried a personal PM2.5 sampler for two days and NOx/NO2 passive badges for one week, while indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and NOx/NO2 levels at their residence were simultaneously measured. Time activity and house characteristics were recorded. Gravimetry determinations for PM2.5 concentration and absorbance measurements were carried out on the PM2.5 filter samples. ResultsLevels of personal exposure to NOx, PM2.5 and absorbance were slightly higher than indoor and outdoor levels (geometric mean of personal NOx = 61.9 vs indoor NOx = 60.6 μg m-3), while for NO2 the indoor levels were slightly higher than the personal ones. Generally, there was a high statistically significant correlation between personal exposure and indoor levels (Spearman's r between 0.78 and 0.84). Women spent more than 60% of their time indoors at home. Ventilation of the house by opening the windows, the time spent cooking and indicators for traffic intensity were re-occurring statistically significant determinants of the personal and indoor pollutants levels with models for NOx explaining the 55% and 60% of the variability respectively, and models for NO2 explaining the 39% and 16% of the variability respectively. Models for PM2.5 and absorbance explained the least of the variability. ConclusionOur findings improve the current understanding of the characterization and inter-associations between personal, indoor and outdoor pollution levels among pregnant women. Variability in personal and indoor NOx and to a lesser extent NO2 levels could be explained well, but not the variability

  17. Thyroid hormones according to gestational age in pregnant Spanish women

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Thyroid function changes during pregnancy and maternal thyroid dysfunction have been associated with adverse outcomes. Our aim was to evaluate thyroid hormones levels in pregnant women resident in Aragon, Spain. Findings Samples for 1198 pregnant women with no apparent thyroid disorders were analyzed, using paramagnetic microparticle and chemiluminescent detection technologies, in order to determine levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab), and thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab). Of the women in our sample, 85.22% had normal values for TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab and 14.77% had results revealing the presence of autoimmune diseases of the thyroid. The thyroid hormone reference values obtained according to gestational age (in brackets) were as follows: for free T3, values were 3.38 ± 0.52 pg/mL (<11 weeks), 3.45 ± 0.54 pg/mL (11-20 weeks), 3.32 ± 0.43 pg/mL (21-30 weeks), 3.21 ± 0.53 pg/mL (31-36 weeks), and 3.23 ± 0.41 pg/mL (>36 weeks); for free T4, values were 1.10 ± 0.14 ng/dL (<10 weeks), 1.04 ± 0.14 ng/dL (11-20 weeks), 0.93 ± 0.12 ng/dL (21-30 weeks), 0.90 ± 0.13 ng/dL (31-36 weeks), and 0.80 ± 0.21 ng/dL (>36 weeks); and for TSH, values were (μIU/mL): 1.12 ± 0.69 (<10 weeks), 1.05 ± 0.67 (11-20 weeks), 1.19 ± 0.60 (21-30 weeks), 1.38 ± 0.76 (31-36 weeks), and 1.46 ± 0.72 (>36 weeks). Conclusion Pregnant women with normal antibody values according to gestational age had values for FT4 and TSH, but not for FT3, that differed to a statistically significant degree. The values we describe can be used as reference values for the Aragon region of Spain. PMID:19939287

  18. Leukocyte Esterase Activity in Vaginal Fluid of Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women With Vaginitis/Vaginosis and in Controls

    PubMed Central

    Novikova, Natalia; Niklasson, Ola; Bekassy, Zoltan; Skude, Lennart

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the leukocyte esterase (LE) activity in vaginal lavage fluid of women with acute and recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis (VVC and RVVC respectively), bacterial vaginosis (BV), and in pregnant and non-pregnant women without evidence of the three conditions. Also to compare the result of LE tests in women consulting at different weeks in the cycle and trimesters of pregnancy.The LE activity was correlated to vaginal pH, number of inflammatory cells in stained vaginal smears, type of predominating vaginal bacteria and presence of yeast morphotypes. Methods: One hundred and thirteen women with a history of RVVC, i.e. with at least four attacks of the condition during the previous year and who had consulted with an assumed new attack of the condition, were studied. Furthermore, we studied 16 women with VVC, 15 women with BV, and 27 women attending for control of cytological abnormalities, who all presented without evidence of either vaginitis or vaginosis. Finally, 73 pregnant women were investigated. The LE activity in vaginal fluid during different weeks in the cycle of 53 of the women was measured. Results: In the non-pregnant women, an increased LE activity was found in 96, 88, 73 and 56% of those with RVVC, VVC and BV and in the non-VVC/BV cases, respectively. In 73% of pregnant women in the second trimester, and 76% of those in the third, the LE test was positive. In all groups of non-pregnant women tested, the LE activity correlated with the number of leukocytes in vaginal smears, but it did not in those who were pregnant. There was no correlation between LE activity and week in cycle. The vaginal pH showed no correlation to LE activity in any of the groups studied. Conclusions: The use of commercial LE dipsticks has a limited value in the differential diagnosis of RVVC, VVCand BV. There is no correlation between the LE activity in vaginal secretion on one hand and vaginal pH, week in the menstrual cycle and trimester in pregnancy on the

  19. Perinatal Outcomes in Pregnant Women Users of Illegal Drugs.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Tenilson Amaral; Bersusa, Ana Aparecida Sanches; Santos, Tatiana Fiorelli Dos; Aquino, Márcia Maria Auxiliadora de; Mariani Neto, Corintio

    2016-04-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perinatal outcomes in pregnant women who use illicit drugs. Methods A retrospective observational study of patients who, at the time of delivery, were sent to or who spontaneously sought a public maternity hospital in the eastern area of São Paulo city. We compared the perinatal outcomes of two distinct groups of pregnant women - illicit drugs users and non-users - that gave birth in the same period and analyzed the obstetric and neonatal variables. We used Student's t-test to calculate the averages among the groups, and the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test to compare categorical data from each group. Results We analyzed 166 women (83 users and 83 non-users) in both groups with a mean of age of 26 years. Ninety-five percent of the drug users would use crack or pure cocaine alone or associated with other psychoactive substances during pregnancy. Approximately half of the users group made no prenatal visit, compared with 2.4% in the non-users group (p < 0.001). Low birth weight (2,620 g versus 3,333 g on average, p < 0.001) and maternal syphilis (15.7% versus 0%, p < 0.001) were associated with the use of these illicit drugs. Conclusions The use of illicit drugs, mainly crack cocaine, represents an important perinatal risk. Any medical intervention in this population should combine adherence to prenatal care with strategies for reducing maternal exposure to illicit drugs. PMID:27088708

  20. Determining rubella immunity in pregnant Alberta women 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Lai, Florence Y; Dover, Douglas C; Lee, Bonita; Fonseca, Kevin; Solomon, Natalia; Plitt, Sabrina S; Jaipaul, Joy; Tipples, Graham A; Charlton, Carmen L

    2015-01-29

    Rubella IgG levels for 157,763 pregnant women residing in Alberta between 2009 and 2012 were analyzed. As there have been no reported cases of indigenous rubella infection in Canada since 2005, there has been a lack of naturally acquired immunity, and the current prenatal population depends almost entirely on vaccine induced immunity for protection. Rubella antibody levels are significantly lower in younger maternal cohorts with 16.8% of those born prior to universal vaccination programs (1971-1980), and 33.8% of those born after (1981-1990) having IgG levels that are not considered protective (<15 IU/mL). Analysis across pregnancies showed only 35.0% of women responded with a 4-fold increase in antibody levels following post-natal vaccination. Additionally, 41.2% of women with antibody levels <15 IU/mL had previously received 2 doses of rubella containing vaccine. These discordant interpretations generate a great deal of confusion for laboratorians and physicians alike, and result in significant patient follow-up by Public Health teams. To assess the current antibody levels in the prenatal population, latent class modeling was employed to generate a two class fit model representing women with an antibody response to rubella, and women without an antibody response. The declining level of vaccine-induced antibodies in our population is disconcerting, and a combined approach from the laboratory and Public Health may be required to provide appropriate follow up for women who are truly susceptible to rubella infection.

  1. Physical and emotional abuse in pregnancy: a comparison of adult and teenage women.

    PubMed

    Parker, B; McFarlane, J; Soeken, K; Torres, S; Campbell, D

    1993-01-01

    A sample of 691 African American, Hispanic, and white pregnant teenage and adult women were interviewed in the prenatal setting. On their first prenatal visit, 182 (26%) women reported physical or sexual abuse within the past year. There were significant differences between the teens and adults, with a higher percentage of teens (31.6%) reporting abuse during the prior year than adults (23.6%). The rate of abuse during pregnancy was 21.7% for teens and 15.9% for adult women. Adult women scored significantly higher than teens on two measures of mental abuse. Mental abuse was significantly correlated with physical abuse for all subjects. PMID:8506167

  2. The Global Influenza Initiative recommendations for the vaccination of pregnant women against seasonal influenza.

    PubMed

    Macias, Alejandro E; Precioso, Alexander R; Falsey, Ann R

    2015-08-01

    There is a heavy disease burden due to seasonal influenza in pregnant women, their fetuses, and their newborns. The main aim of this study was to review and analyze current evidence on safety, immunogenicity, and clinical benefits of the inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in pregnant women. Current evidence shows that in pregnant women, the seasonal and pandemic IIVs are safe and well tolerated. After vaccination, pregnant women have protective concentrations of anti-influenza antibodies, conferring immunogenicity in newborns. The best evidence, to date, suggests that influenza vaccination confers clinical benefits in both pregnant women and their newborns. Vaccination with either the seasonal or pandemic vaccine has been shown to be cost-effective in pregnancy. There are scarce data from randomized clinical trials; fortunately, new phase 3 clinical trials are under way. In the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, data suggest that the greatest clinical benefit for infants occurs if the IIV is administered within the first weeks of availability of the vaccine, at the beginning of the influenza season, regardless of the pregnancy trimester. The optimal timing to vaccinate pregnant women who live in tropical regions is unclear. Based on evaluation of the evidence, the Global Influenza Initiative (GII) recommends that to prevent seasonal influenza morbidity and mortality in infants and their mothers, all pregnant women, regardless of trimester, should be vaccinated with the IIV. For countries where vaccination against influenza is starting or expanding, the GII recommends that pregnant women have the highest priority. PMID:26256293

  3. Recruitment and Retention of Substance-Using Pregnant and Parenting Women: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laken, Marilyn Poland; Hutchins, Ellen

    According to current estimates, approximately 5.5 percent of all American pregnant women use an illicit drug during pregnancy. National concern for drug-exposed infants prompted interest in the needs of substance using pregnant women and in the development of drug treatment programs for them. A total of 147 comprehensive programs have been funded…

  4. Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

  5. Sources of Malaria Information among Pregnant Women in Ebonyi State and Implications for Malaria Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amari-Omaka, Lois Nnenna; Obande-Ogbuinya, Nkiru Edith

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine sources of malaria information among pregnant women in Ebonyi state and implications for malaria education. The cross sectional research design was adopted and stratified sampling technique was used to select a total of five hundred and four (504) pregnant women from 12 hospitals in the state. A self…

  6. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  7. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  8. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  9. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  10. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  11. An ethical analysis of opt-out HIV screening for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Wocial, Lucia D; Cox, Elaine G

    2013-07-01

    Critical advances in prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of the HIV in the perinatal period have changed practice recommendations for HIV screening for pregnant women. Using case studies we illustrate the ethical complexities and implications of opt-out HIV testing for pregnant women. Despite the potential for compromised informed consent, an opt-out HIV screening approach is ethically defensible.

  12. Psychometric Evaluation of the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue Scale for Use with Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbrother, Nichole; Hutton, Eileen K.; Stoll, Kathrin; Hall, Wendy; Kluka, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    Although fatigue is a common experience for pregnant women and new mothers, few measures of fatigue have been validated for use with this population. To address this gap, the authors assessed psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF) scale, which was used in 2 independent samples of pregnant women. Results…

  13. The Global Influenza Initiative recommendations for the vaccination of pregnant women against seasonal influenza

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Alejandro E; Precioso, Alexander R; Falsey, Ann R

    2015-01-01

    There is a heavy disease burden due to seasonal influenza in pregnant women, their fetuses, and their newborns. The main aim of this study was to review and analyze current evidence on safety, immunogenicity, and clinical benefits of the inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in pregnant women. Current evidence shows that in pregnant women, the seasonal and pandemic IIVs are safe and well tolerated. After vaccination, pregnant women have protective concentrations of anti-influenza antibodies, conferring immunogenicity in newborns. The best evidence, to date, suggests that influenza vaccination confers clinical benefits in both pregnant women and their newborns. Vaccination with either the seasonal or pandemic vaccine has been shown to be cost-effective in pregnancy. There are scarce data from randomized clinical trials; fortunately, new phase 3 clinical trials are under way. In the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, data suggest that the greatest clinical benefit for infants occurs if the IIV is administered within the first weeks of availability of the vaccine, at the beginning of the influenza season, regardless of the pregnancy trimester. The optimal timing to vaccinate pregnant women who live in tropical regions is unclear. Based on evaluation of the evidence, the Global Influenza Initiative (GII) recommends that to prevent seasonal influenza morbidity and mortality in infants and their mothers, all pregnant women, regardless of trimester, should be vaccinated with the IIV. For countries where vaccination against influenza is starting or expanding, the GII recommends that pregnant women have the highest priority. PMID:26256293

  14. Prevention of supine hypotensive syndrome in pregnant women treated with transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Deborah Rubin; Wang, Eileen

    2014-08-15

    In our studies of transcranial magnetic stimulation in pregnant women with major depressive disorder, two subjects had an episode of supine hypotensive syndrome and one subject had an episode of dizziness without hypotension. Prevention of the supine hypotensive syndrome in pregnant women receiving transcranial magnetic stimulation is described. PMID:24768354

  15. [The perception of domestic violence of pregnant and not pregnant women in the city of Campinas, São Paulo].

    PubMed

    Audi, Celene Aparecida Ferrari; Corrêa, Ana Maria Segall; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro; Santiago, Silvia Maria; Andrade, Maria da Graça Garcia; Rodrigues, Maria Socorro Pereira

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to compare the perception of domestic violence of women, victims of this kind of violence, with the perception of pregnant women, victims or not of domestic violence, as well as to search for elements allowing for the planning and execution of a cohort study on domestic violence among pregnant women. A qualitative exploratory research was conducted using the technique of convenience sampling for selecting a focal group. The subjects were twenty four women divided into two groups: (1) thirteen women from a follow-up group from a Referral Center for victims of domestic violence, and (2) eleven pregnant women that were participating in the pre-natal care program in a primary care unit, selected independently of suffering domestic violence or not. The data collected were transcribed, conceptually decoded and qualified for qualitative analysis. The contents of the women's discourse were analyzed on the basis of thematic categories. It was observed that domestic violence was perceived in a similar way by both studied groups, independently from the fact of having or not experienced a situation of this kind. The understanding and discussion of the topics proposed for the groups allowed developing a more appropriate approach to the studied women. The way the questions were formulated in the questionnaire was considered of easy understanding by both groups of women.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of HIV screening for incarcerated pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Resch, Stephen; Altice, Frederick L; Paltiel, A David

    2005-02-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiated on a prenatal basis in HIV-infected pregnant women is a highly effective method for preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission. We developed a decision analytic model to project the clinical and economic outcomes of alternative HIV screening strategies (voluntary prenatal screening [VPS], routine prenatal screening [RPS], and mandatory newborn screening [MNS]) for a high-risk population of incarcerated pregnant women. Data for the decision model came from the HIV voluntary counseling and testing program at Connecticut's sole correctional facility for women and a comprehensive anonymously linked serosurvey of all inmates who entered the facility during the 2-year period beginning in October 1994. Based on serosurvey results, in the absence of any HIV screening program, 2.5 cases of pediatric HIV infection would be expected per 1000 pregnancies. Multiplied by the discounted lifetime cost per case of $247,000, this translates to a cost of $624 per testing-eligible prison entrant. Entrants were considered eligible if they were pregnant and their HIV status was unknown. MNS would save money, cost $364 per eligible entrant, and simultaneously reduce the rate of infections to 1.1 per 1000 pregnancies. Doing both MNS and RPS is most effective in reducing the rate of new infections (down to 0.2 per 1000 pregnancies). It would, however, increase costs to $430 per eligible entrant. This would result in an incremental cost of $73,603 per additional pediatric HIV case averted when compared with MNS alone. If mandatory newborn testing was not considered a feasible option, RPS would dominate VPS and would be cost-saving compared with no screening. RPS compares favorably with alternative uses of HIV prevention and treatment resources. In correctional facilities where voluntary newborn screening is already in place, our findings show that there remains a small marginal benefit to be realized from switching to RPS. In settings where HIV

  17. Detection and enumeration of periodontopathogenic bacteria in subgingival biofilm of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Machado, Fernanda Campos; Cesar, Dionéia Evangelista; Assis, Amanda Vervloet Dutra Agostinho; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo; Ribeiro, Rosangela Almeida

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique to test the hypothesis of qualitative and quantitative differences of 8 periodontopathogens between pregnant and non-pregnant women. This cross-sectional study included 20 pregnant women in their second trimester of pregnancy and 20 non-pregnant women. Probing depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level, and presence of calculus were recorded. Subgingival plaque samples were collected and the FISH technique identified the presence and numbers of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Campylobacter rectus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. The Mann-Whitney U-test was applied to compare the data between the two groups. The mean age, ethnicity, marital status, education, and economic level in both groups were similar. The clinical parameters showed no significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women. The numbers of subgingival periodontopathogens were not found to be significantly different between groups, despite the higher mean counts of P. intermedia in pregnant women. Colonization patterns of the different bacteria most commonly associated with periodontal disease were not different in the subgingival plaque of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

  18. Computer-Assisted Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Pregnant Women with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hantsoo, Liisa; Thase, Michael E.; Sammel, Mary; Epperson, C. Neill

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Pregnant women with major depressive disorder (MDD) report that psychotherapy is a more acceptable treatment than pharmacotherapy. However, although results of several studies suggest that psychotherapy is an effective treatment for pregnant women, logistical barriers—including cost and traveling for weekly visits—can limit real-world utility. We hypothesized that computer-assisted cognitive behavior therapy (CCBT) would be both acceptable and would significantly decrease depressive symptoms in pregnant women with MDD. Methods: As a preliminary test of this hypothesis, we treated 10 pregnant women with MDD using a standardized CCBT protocol. Results: The pilot results were very promising, with 80% of participants showing treatment response and 60% showing remission after only eight sessions of CCBT. Conclusion: A larger, randomized controlled trial of CCBT in pregnant women with MDD is warranted. PMID:25268672

  19. 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis reveals differences in bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jae Young; Rho, Mina; You, Young-Ah; Kwon, Eun Jin; Kim, Min-Hye; Kym, Sungmin; Jee, Young-Koo; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important for host–microbe communication. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether bacteria-derived EVs are excreted via the urinary tract and to compare the composition of bacteria-derived EVs in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Seventy-three non-pregnant and seventy-four pregnant women were enrolled from Dankook University and Ewha Womans University hospitals. DNA was extracted from urine EVs after EV isolation using the differential centrifugation method. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing was performed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing after amplification of the V1–V3 region of the 16S rDNA. The composition of 13 taxa differed significantly between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. At the genus level, Bacillus spp. EVs were more significantly enriched in the urine of the pregnant women than in that of the non-pregnant women (45.61% vs 0.12%, respectively). However, Pseudomonas spp. EVs were more dominant in non-pregnant women than in pregnant women (13.2% vs 4.09%, respectively). Regarding the compositional difference between pregnant women with normal and preterm delivery, EVs derived from Ureaplasma spp. and the family Veillonellaceae (including Megasphaera spp.) were more abundant in the urine of preterm-delivered women than in that of women with normal deliveries. Taken together, these data showed that Bacillus spp. EVs predominate in the urine of pregnant women, whereas Pseudomonas spp. EVs predominate in the urine of non-pregnant women; this suggests that Bacillus spp. EVs might have an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:26846451

  20. 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis reveals differences in bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae Young; Rho, Mina; You, Young-Ah; Kwon, Eun Jin; Kim, Min-Hye; Kym, Sungmin; Jee, Young-Koo; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-02-05

    Recent evidence has indicated that bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important for host-microbe communication. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether bacteria-derived EVs are excreted via the urinary tract and to compare the composition of bacteria-derived EVs in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Seventy-three non-pregnant and seventy-four pregnant women were enrolled from Dankook University and Ewha Womans University hospitals. DNA was extracted from urine EVs after EV isolation using the differential centrifugation method. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing was performed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing after amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. The composition of 13 taxa differed significantly between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. At the genus level, Bacillus spp. EVs were more significantly enriched in the urine of the pregnant women than in that of the non-pregnant women (45.61% vs 0.12%, respectively). However, Pseudomonas spp. EVs were more dominant in non-pregnant women than in pregnant women (13.2% vs 4.09%, respectively). Regarding the compositional difference between pregnant women with normal and preterm delivery, EVs derived from Ureaplasma spp. and the family Veillonellaceae (including Megasphaera spp.) were more abundant in the urine of preterm-delivered women than in that of women with normal deliveries. Taken together, these data showed that Bacillus spp. EVs predominate in the urine of pregnant women, whereas Pseudomonas spp. EVs predominate in the urine of non-pregnant women; this suggests that Bacillus spp. EVs might have an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy.

  1. 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis reveals differences in bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae Young; Rho, Mina; You, Young-Ah; Kwon, Eun Jin; Kim, Min-Hye; Kym, Sungmin; Jee, Young-Koo; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important for host-microbe communication. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether bacteria-derived EVs are excreted via the urinary tract and to compare the composition of bacteria-derived EVs in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Seventy-three non-pregnant and seventy-four pregnant women were enrolled from Dankook University and Ewha Womans University hospitals. DNA was extracted from urine EVs after EV isolation using the differential centrifugation method. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing was performed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing after amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. The composition of 13 taxa differed significantly between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. At the genus level, Bacillus spp. EVs were more significantly enriched in the urine of the pregnant women than in that of the non-pregnant women (45.61% vs 0.12%, respectively). However, Pseudomonas spp. EVs were more dominant in non-pregnant women than in pregnant women (13.2% vs 4.09%, respectively). Regarding the compositional difference between pregnant women with normal and preterm delivery, EVs derived from Ureaplasma spp. and the family Veillonellaceae (including Megasphaera spp.) were more abundant in the urine of preterm-delivered women than in that of women with normal deliveries. Taken together, these data showed that Bacillus spp. EVs predominate in the urine of pregnant women, whereas Pseudomonas spp. EVs predominate in the urine of non-pregnant women; this suggests that Bacillus spp. EVs might have an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:26846451

  2. [Risk factors for toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in central Italy].

    PubMed

    Thaller, R; Tammaro, F; Pentimalli, H

    2011-12-01

    Between 2005 and 2007 we examined 2356 pregnant women. We interviewed the patients concerning their dietary behaviour and lifestyles during pregnancy in correlation with the possibility of contracting toxoplasmosis. Our purpose was to ascertain the importance of different risk factors in a group of Italian patients and assess the level of knowledge on this matter. The survey questions were related to: 1) eating rare/raw meat; 2) eating commercial or homemade ham or other pork derivatives such as dry sausage and salami; 3) owning a garden or a plot for fruit and vegetables; 4) owning pets, especially cats; 5) living in town or in the country; 6) eating fresh uncooked vegetables. On the basis of serological tests (Toxo IgG, IgM, IgA, avidity test) we identified three groups of women: those with primary infection, seronegative women (control), and those with inactive infections. Comparison of the first two groups showed that each risk factor significantly increases the likelihood of acquiring toxoplasmosis. Higher odds ratios were observed for those living in the country and for those consuming homemade cured meat. PMID:22212163

  3. Racism and Oral Health Outcomes among Pregnant Canadian Aboriginal Women.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Herenia P; Cidro, Jaime; Isaac-Mann, Sonia; Peressini, Sabrina; Maar, Marion; Schroth, Robert J; Gordon, Janet N; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Broughton, John R; Jamieson, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed links between racism and oral health outcomes among pregnant Canadian Aboriginal women. Baseline data were analyzed for 541 First Nations (94.6%) and Métis (5.4%) women in an early childhood caries preventive trial conducted in urban and on-reserve communities in Ontario and Manitoba. One-third of participants experienced racism in the past year determined by the Measure of Indigenous Racism Experience. In logistic regressions, outcomes significantly associated with incidents of racism included: wearing dentures, off-reserve dental care, asked to pay for dental services, perceived need for preventive care, flossing more than once daily, having fewer than 21 natural teeth, fear of going to dentist, never received orthodontic treatment and perceived impact of oral conditions on quality of life. In the context of dental care, racism experienced by Aboriginal women can be a barrier to accessing services. Programs and policies should address racism's insidious effects on both mothers' and children's oral health outcomes.

  4. Intimate partner violence and suicidal ideation in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Frohman, N.; Purcell, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a major public health issue with significant implications for maternal mental health. Less studied is the association between IPV during pregnancy and suicidal ideation. This study reports the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among low-income pregnant women receiving prenatal care at a university obstetrical clinic from February 2009 to March 2010. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 166 women surveyed between 24 – 28 weeks gestation using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS). Multiple logistic regression identified factors associated with antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 22.89%. In the fully adjusted model antenatal depressive symptomatology (OR = 17.04; 95% CI 2.10 – 38.27) and experiencing IPV (OR = 9.37; 95% CI 3.41 – 25.75) were significantly associated with an increased risk of antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of antenatal suicidal ideation in the current study was higher than other population-based samples though this sample was predominantly single, low-income, and 19% experienced IPV during pregnancy. Given the strong association of antenatal suicidal ideation, depressive symptomatology, and IPV, health care providers are urged to identify those women at risk so that antenatal care can be tailored to best support optimal maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:25753680

  5. Intimate partner violence and suicidal ideation in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Frohman, N; Purcell, Genevieve

    2015-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a major public health issue with significant implications for maternal mental health. Less studied is the association between IPV during pregnancy and suicidal ideation. This study reports the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among low-income pregnant women receiving prenatal care at a university obstetrical clinic from February 2009 to March 2010. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 166 women surveyed between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS). Multiple logistic regression identified factors associated with antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 22.89 %. In the fully adjusted model, antenatal depressive symptomatology (OR = 17.04; 95 % CI 2.10-38.27) and experiencing IPV (OR = 9.37; 95 % CI 3.41-25.75) were significantly associated with an increased risk of antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of antenatal suicidal ideation in the current study was higher than other population-based samples though this sample was predominantly single, low-income, and 19 % experienced IPV during pregnancy. Given the strong association of antenatal suicidal ideation, depressive symptomatology, and IPV, health care providers are urged to identify those women at risk so that antenatal care can be tailored to best support optimal maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:25753680

  6. Should pregnant women with substance use disorders be managed differently?

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Verena; Köchl, Birgit; Fischer, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Summary Pregnant women with substance use disorders have multiple special needs, which might be best managed within a multiprofessional treatment setting involving medical, psychological and social care. Adequate treatment provision remains a challenge for healthcare professionals, who should undergo special training and education when working with this patient population. Careful assessment and screening is necessary to tailor interventions individually to the woman's needs in order to achieve beneficial clinical outcomes for mothers and newborns, whereas the choice of treatment options highly depends on the type of substance of abuse and evidence-based treatment interventions available. Economic considerations have shown that early multiprofessional treatment might yield better clinical outcomes and save healthcare costs over the lifespan. PMID:23243466

  7. A population pharmacokinetic model of piperaquine in pregnant and non-pregnant women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of developing a malaria infection and a higher risk of developing severe malaria. The pharmacokinetic properties of many anti-malarials are also altered during pregnancy, often resulting in a decreased drug exposure. Piperaquine is a promising anti-malarial partner drug used in a fixed-dose combination with dihydroartemisinin. The aim of this study was to investigate the population pharmacokinetics of piperaquine in pregnant and non-pregnant Sudanese women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Method Symptomatic patients received a standard dose regimen of the fixed dose oral piperaquine-dihydroartemisinin combination treatment. Densely sampled plasma aliquots were collected and analysed using a previously described LC-MS/MS method. Data from 12 pregnant and 12 non-pregnant women were analysed using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. A Monte Carlo Mapped Power (MCMP) analysis was conducted based on a previously published study to evaluate the power of detecting covariates in this relatively small study. Results A three-compartment disposition model with a transit-absorption model described the observed data well. Body weight was added as an allometric function on all clearance and volume parameters. A statistically significant decrease in estimated terminal piperaquine half-life in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women was found, but there were no differences in post-hoc estimates of total piperaquine exposure. The MCMP analysis indicated a minimum of 13 pregnant and 13 non-pregnant women were required to identify pregnancy as a covariate on relevant pharmacokinetic parameters (80% power and p=0.05). Pregnancy was, therefore, evaluated as a categorical and continuous covariate (i.e. estimate gestational age) in a full covariate approach. Using this approach pregnancy was not associated with any major change in piperaquine elimination clearance. However, a trend of increasing elimination

  8. A Pilot Study of the Nutritional Status of Opiate Abusing Pregnant Women on Methadone Maintenance Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tomedi, Laura E.; Bogen, Debra; Hanusa, Barbara H.; Wisner, Katherine L.; Bodnar, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    Pregnant women in methadone maintenance therapy may have poor nutrition during pregnancy. In 2006–2008, methadone treated pregnant women (n = 22) were recruited at an urban academic medical center and compared with non-drug using pregnant women (n = 119) at 20–35 weeks gestation. We measured adiposity using pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), dietary intake using a food frequency questionnaire, and micronutrient and essential fatty acid status using biomarkers. Methadone treated women had lower BMI, consumed more calories, had lower serum carotenoid concentrations and higher plasma homocysteine concentrations than controls. The study’s limitations and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:22217127

  9. Implications of Nutritional Beliefs and Taboos--Hausa and Yoruba Pregnant Women in Lagos, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abidoye, R. O.; Akinpelumi, O. B.

    1997-01-01

    Investigated taboos and beliefs about the nutritional value of foods among pregnant women from Nigeria's Hausa and Yoruba tribes. Found that Hausa women had greater nutritional anemia than Yoruba women; their babies had greater incidence of low birth weights and smaller chest and head measurements. Hausa women learned food-related beliefs from…

  10. Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and Interventions Among Pregnant Women in China: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Jason; Tu, Xiaoming; Xia, Yang; Zhang, Lihong; Bi, Zhenqiang; Liu, Hongyan; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Smoking prevalence is high among men in China. One result is that a large number of nonsmoking Chinese women may be exposed daily to secondhand smoke (SHS). Exposure is particularly problematic for pregnant women because of potential adverse reproductive effects. To determine the extent of this exposure and to summarize existing intervention studies designed to reduce SHS exposure in China, a systematic review of the literature published from 1995 through 2012 was conducted. Methods We searched the PubMed and Wanfang databases for studies published from 1995 through 2012 using various search terms including SHS, pregnant women, and China. Only articles on prevalence of SHS exposure and interventions to reduce exposure to SHS were selected. Results We identified 132 studies during the initial searches. Eight of 13 eligible studies reported the prevalence of SHS exposure among pregnant women; estimates ranged from 38.9% to 75.1%. Few SHS prevention interventions among pregnant women in China have been studied; we found only 5 such studies. The interventions primarily focused on changing husbands’ smoking behaviors; some interventions focused on women’s avoidance behaviors. Conclusion Prevalence of exposure to SHS among pregnant women is high in China. Information is limited on effective interventions to protect pregnant women from exposure. The results of this review can provide the basis for the design and evaluation of interventions to help pregnant women avoid SHS exposure. PMID:25789496

  11. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  12. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  13. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  14. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  15. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare Department of Health... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  16. Correlates of In-Law Conflict and Intimate Partner Violence against Chinese Pregnant Women in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Leung, Wing Cheong; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Ho, Pak Chung

    2009-01-01

    This study examines correlates of in-law conflict with intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women in a cohort of Chinese pregnant women who visited antenatal clinics in Hong Kong. This was a territory-wide, cross-sectional study of 3,245 pregnant women recruited from seven hospitals in Hong Kong. Participants were invited to complete…

  17. Economic Evaluation of Health Services Costs During Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Pdm09 Infection in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women in Spain

    PubMed Central

    MORALES-SUÁREZ-VARELA, María; LLOPIS-GONZÁLEZ, Agustín; GONZÁLEZ-CANDELA, Fernando; ASTRAY, Jenaro; ALONSO, Jordi; GARIN, Olatz; CASTRO, Ady; GALAN, Juan Carlos; SOLDEVILA, Nuria; CASTILLA, Jesús; GODOY, Pere; DELGADO-RODRÍGUEZ, Miguel; MARTIN, Vicente; MAYORAL, Jose María; PUMAROLA, Tomas; QUINTANA, José Maria; TAMAMES, Sonia; RUBIO-LÓPEZ, Nuria; DOMINGUEZ, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Background: The healthcare and socio-economic burden resulting from influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 in Spain was considerable. Our aim was to estimate and compare the management (resource utilization) and economic healthcare impact in an at-risk group of unvaccinated pregnant women with an unvaccinated group of non-pregnant woman of childbearing age (15–44 yr old). Methods: We addressed this question with a longitudinal, observational, multicentre study. Inputs were the requirements in managing both groups of women. Outcome measures were healthcare costs. Direct healthcare (including medical utilisation, prescriptions of antivirals, medication, diagnostic tests, and hospitalisation) costs and indirect (productivity loss) costs were considered. Unit of cost was attributed to the frequency of health service resources utilisation. The mean cost per patient was calculated in this group of women. Results: We found that the influenza clinical pattern was worse in non-pregnant women as they had a high medical risk of 20.4% versus 6.1% of pregnant women. Non-pregnant required more antipyretics and antibiotics, and needed more health service resource utilisation (338 medical visits in non-pregnant women vs. 42 in pregnant women). The total cost of non-pregnant women was higher (€4,689.4/non-pregnant and €2,945.07/pregnant). Conclusions: Cost per (H1N1) pdm09 was lower for pregnant women, probably due to more preventive measures adopted for their protection in Spain. The highest costs were incurred by hospitalisations/day and work absenteeism for non-pregnant than for pregnant women. These data will allow better future pandemic influenza planning. PMID:27252911

  18. [Pregnancy and eating behavior in pregnant women from a low-income neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Baião, Mirian Ribeiro; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the meanings of acceptance attributed to pregnancy and their influence on the eating behavior of pregnant women attending a health unit located in a low-income neighborhood in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The methodology involved a qualitative approach with social representations as the analytical category. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with adolescent and adult pregnant women (primiparous or multiparous) in different stages of pregnancy. Discourse analysis drew on in-depth hermeneutics, using thematic analysis as the main technical resource. Two representational categories emerged from the set of discourses, namely accepting versus not accepting the pregnancy, which involved different eating behaviors. In the former, women tended to either eat adequately or overeat. For the latter, not accepting the pregnancy was associated with denial of eating, temporarily or throughout the pregnancy.

  19. Rubella Immune Status in Pregnant Women in a Northern Mexican City

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Salas-Pacheco, Jose Manuel; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada Agustina; Martinez-Ramirez, Lucio; Antuna-Salcido, Elizabeth Irasema; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background The seroepidemiology of rubella virus infection in pregnant women in northern Mexico is largely unknown. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of rubella virus infection in pregnant women in the northern Mexican city of Durango, Mexico. Seroprevalence association with the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the pregnant women was also investigated. Methods Through a cross-sectional study, we determined the seroprevalence of IgG and IgM anti-rubella virus in 279 pregnant women (mean age 29.17 ± 5.96 years; range 15 - 43 years) attending in a clinic of family medicine using enzyme-linked fluorescent assays. A questionnaire was used to obtain the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the pregnant women. The association of rubella seropositivity and characteristics of the women was assessed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Anti-rubella IgG antibodies (≥ 15 IU/mL) were found in 271 (97.1%) of the 279 pregnant women examined. None of the 279 pregnant women were positive for anti-rubella IgM antibodies. Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral variables showed that seroreactivity to rubella virus was positively associated with national trips (OR = 7.39; 95% CI: 1.41 - 38.78; P = 0.01), and negatively associated with age (OR = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.06 - 0.99; P = 0.04). Conclusions Rate of rubella immunity in pregnant women in the northern Mexican city of Durango is high. However, nearly 3% of pregnant women are susceptible to rubella in our setting. Risk factors associated with rubella seropositivity found in this study may be useful for optimal design of preventive measures against rubella and its sequelae. PMID:27540439

  20. HIV Prevalence among Pregnant Women in Brazil: A National Survey.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gerson Fernando Mendes; Sabidó, Meritxell; Caruso, Alessandro; Oliveira, Silvano Barbosa de; Mesquita, Fábio; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz

    2016-08-01

    Background This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of HIV among pregnant women in Brazil and to describe HIV testing coverage and the uptake of antenatal care (ANC). Methods Between October 2010 and January 2012, a probability sample survey of parturient women aged 15-49 years who visited public hospital delivery services in Brazil was conducted. Data were collected from prenatal reports and hospital records. Dried blood spot (DNS) samples were collected and tested for HIV. We describe the age-specific prevalence of HIV infection and ANC uptake with respect to sociodemographic factors. Results Of the 36,713 included women, 35,444 (96.6%) were tested for HIV during delivery admission. The overall HIV prevalence was of 0.38% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.31-0.48), and it was highest in: the 30 to 39 year-old age group (0.60% [0.40-0.88]), in the Southern region of Brazil (0.79% [0.59-1.04]), among women who had not completed primary (0.63% [0.30-1.31]) or secondary (0.67% [0.49-0.97]) school education, and among women who self-reported as Asian (0.94% [0.28-3.10]). The HIV testing coverage during prenatal care was of 86.6% for one test and of 38.2% for two tests. Overall, 98.5% of women attended at least 1 ANC visit, 90.4% attended at least 4 visits, 71% attended at least 6 visits, and 51.7% received ANC during the 1st trimester. HIV testing coverage and ANC uptake indicators increased with increasing age and education level of education, and were highest in the Southern region. Conclusions Brazil presents an HIV prevalence of less than 1% and almost universal coverage of ANC. However, gaps in HIV testing and ANC during the first trimester challenge the prevention of the vertical transmission of HIV. More efforts are needed to address regional and social disparities. PMID:27608165

  1. SAR exposure from UHF RFID reader in adult, child, pregnant woman, and fetus anatomical models.

    PubMed

    Fiocchi, Serena; Markakis, Ioannis A; Ravazzani, Paolo; Samaras, Theodoros

    2013-09-01

    The spread of radio frequency identification (RFID) devices in ubiquitous applications without their simultaneous exposure assessment could give rise to public concerns about their potential adverse health effects. Among the various RFID system categories, the ultra high frequency (UHF) RFID systems have recently started to be widely used in many applications. This study addresses a computational exposure assessment of the electromagnetic radiation generated by a realistic UHF RFID reader, quantifying the exposure levels in different exposure scenarios and subjects (two adults, four children, and two anatomical models of women 7 and 9 months pregnant). The results of the computations are presented in terms of the whole-body and peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) averaged over 10 g of tissue to allow comparison with the basic restrictions of the exposure guidelines. The SAR levels in the adults and children were below 0.02 and 0.8 W/kg in whole-body SAR and maximum peak SAR levels, respectively, for all tested positions of the antenna. On the contrary, exposure of pregnant women and fetuses resulted in maximum peak SAR(10 g) values close to the values suggested by the guidelines (2 W/kg) in some of the exposure scenarios with the antenna positioned in front of the abdomen and with a 100% duty cycle and 1 W radiated power.

  2. Nutrient intake of pregnant women at high risk of gestational diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Meinilä, Jelena; Koivusalo, Saila B.; Valkama, Anita; Rönö, Kristiina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Kautiainen, Hannu; Stach-Lempinen, Beata; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence of gestational diabetes (GDM) has been increasing along with the obesity pandemic. It is associated with pregnancy complications and a risk of type 2 diabetes. Objective To study nutrient intake among pregnant Finnish women at increased risk of GDM due to obesity or a history of GDM. Design Food records from obese women or women with GDM history (n=394) were examined at baseline (≤20 weeks of pregnancy) of the Finnish Gestational Diabetes Prevention Study. Results The pregnant women had a mean fat intake of 33 en% (SD 7), saturated fatty acids (SFA) 12 en% (SD 3), and carbohydrate 46 en% (SD 6). Sucrose intake among pregnant women with GDM history was 7 en% (SD 3), which was different from the intake of the other pregnant women, 10 en% (SD 4) (p<0.001). Median intakes of folate and vitamins A and D provided by food sources were below the Finnish national nutrition recommendation, but, excluding vitamin A, supplements raised the total intake to the recommended level. The frequency of use of dietary supplements among pregnant women was 77%. Conclusions The observed excessive intake of SFA and low intake of carbohydrates among women at high risk of GDM may further increase their risk of GDM. A GDM history, however, seems to reduce sucrose intake in a future pregnancy. Pregnant women at high risk of GDM seem to have insufficient intakes of vitamin D and folate from food and thus need supplementation, which most of them already take. PMID:25994096

  3. Pregnant women exaggerate cautious gait patterns during the transition between level and hill surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gottschall, Jinger S; Sheehan, Riley C; Downs, Danielle S

    2013-10-01

    Falls are the leading cause of nonfatal injury across all age groups and a common incident for pregnant women. Thus, there is a critical demand for research to evaluate if walking strategies in pregnant women change throughout pregnancy in order to effectively intervene and minimize the incidence rate. The aim of the present study was to analyze modifications in temporal-spatial parameters as well as muscle activity during hill walking transitions in pregnant women between gestational week 20 and 32. Based upon previous literature, we hypothesized that in comparison to level walking, the transition strides of pregnant women would be distinct between trimesters in order to accommodate the physical changes within twelve weeks. Thirteen pregnant women completed a series of randomly assigned walking conditions on level and hill surfaces during gestational week 20 and 32. Our results demonstrated that pregnant women modulated their gait patterns throughout pregnancy with additional joint flexion as well as muscle activity at the ankle, knee and hip. In summary, pregnant women exaggerate cautious gait patterns by walking slower and wider with greater joint flexion and muscle activity in order to safely transition between level and hill surfaces.

  4. Dietary behaviour, food and nutrient intake of pregnant women in a rural community in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Huybregts, Lieven Fernand; Roberfroid, Dominique Albert; Kolsteren, Patrick Wilfried; Van Camp, John Hendrik

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess potential changes in dietary habits during pregnancy in a rural community in Houndé district, Burkina Faso. In-depth interviews were performed on a random sample of 37 pregnant women in order to analyse specific perceptions and attitudes regarding food consumption during pregnancy. In addition to this, an interactive 24-h recall survey was used to compare the food intake of 218 pregnant and 176 non-pregnant women. The majority of interviewees reported dietary restrictions during pregnancy but no consistent pattern of avoided food types was found. Most of the mentioned 'forbidden' foods were in related to physical discomfort during gestation. Interviewees also admitted to ignoring culturally determined food prohibitions/prescriptions. No differences were observed in food intake, food choice and nutrient intake between the group of pregnant and non-pregnant women. During the third trimester of gestation women did not show any major differences in food and nutrient intake compared with women from the first/second trimester. The mean nutrient intakes were found to be insufficient compared with the recommended daily allowances, especially for pregnant women. In conclusion, pregnant women in this rural area of Burkina Faso do not seem to restrict their diet significantly during pregnancy. The additional nutritional requirements of pregnancy are not accounted for in their dietary practises.

  5. Dietary behaviour, food and nutrient intake of pregnant women in a rural community in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Huybregts, Lieven Fernand; Roberfroid, Dominique Albert; Kolsteren, Patrick Wilfried; Van Camp, John Hendrik

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess potential changes in dietary habits during pregnancy in a rural community in Houndé district, Burkina Faso. In-depth interviews were performed on a random sample of 37 pregnant women in order to analyse specific perceptions and attitudes regarding food consumption during pregnancy. In addition to this, an interactive 24-h recall survey was used to compare the food intake of 218 pregnant and 176 non-pregnant women. The majority of interviewees reported dietary restrictions during pregnancy but no consistent pattern of avoided food types was found. Most of the mentioned 'forbidden' foods were in related to physical discomfort during gestation. Interviewees also admitted to ignoring culturally determined food prohibitions/prescriptions. No differences were observed in food intake, food choice and nutrient intake between the group of pregnant and non-pregnant women. During the third trimester of gestation women did not show any major differences in food and nutrient intake compared with women from the first/second trimester. The mean nutrient intakes were found to be insufficient compared with the recommended daily allowances, especially for pregnant women. In conclusion, pregnant women in this rural area of Burkina Faso do not seem to restrict their diet significantly during pregnancy. The additional nutritional requirements of pregnancy are not accounted for in their dietary practises. PMID:20572925

  6. Etravirine Pharmacokinetics in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Mulligan, Nikki; Schalkwijk, Stein; Best, Brookie M.; Colbers, Angela; Wang, Jiajia; Capparelli, Edmund V.; Moltó, José; Stek, Alice M.; Taylor, Graham; Smith, Elizabeth; Hidalgo Tenorio, Carmen; Chakhtoura, Nahida; van Kasteren, Marjo; Fletcher, Courtney V.; Mirochnick, Mark; Burger, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: The study goal was to describe etravirine pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and postpartum in HIV-infected women. Methods: IMPAACT P1026s and PANNA are on-going, non-randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multi-center phase-IV prospective studies in HIV-infected pregnant women. Intensive steady-state 12-h pharmacokinetic profiles were performed from 2nd trimester through postpartum. Etravirine was measured at two labs using validated ultra performance liquid chromatography (detection limits: 0.020 and 0.026 mcg/mL). Results: Fifteen women took etravirine 200 mg twice-daily. Etravirine AUC0–12 was higher in the 3rd trimester compared to paired postpartum data by 34% (median 8.3 vs. 5.3 mcg*h/mL, p = 0.068). Etravirine apparent oral clearance was significantly lower in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy compared to paired postpartum data by 52% (median 24 vs. 38 L/h, p = 0.025). The median ratio of cord blood to maternal plasma concentration at delivery was 0.52 (range: 0.19–4.25) and no perinatal transmission occurred. Conclusion: Etravirine apparent oral clearance is reduced and exposure increased during the third trimester of pregnancy. Based on prior dose-ranging and safety data, no dose adjustment is necessary for maternal health but the effects of etravirine in utero are unknown. Maternal health and infant outcomes should be closely monitored until further infant safety data are available. Clinical Trial registration: The IMPAACT protocol P1026s and PANNA study are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under NCT00042289 and NCT00825929. PMID:27540363

  7. Oral and dental health in pregnant women: attitudes among dentists in southeastern Spain.

    PubMed

    López-Jornet, Pia; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Sanchez-Siles, Mariano; Molina-Miñano, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the general level of knowledge, attitudes and practices in clinical dental care of pregnant women. This was a transversal descriptive study in the form of a structured and anonymous survey completed by dentists in Murcia (southeast Spain). The questionnaire was sent by e-mail and investigated dentists' knowledge of and attitudes toward different dental procedures applying to pregnant women. The response rate to the questionnaire was 60%. The vast majority of dentists (81.3%) agreed that oral care should be part of general healthcare for pregnant women. However, discrepancies were found in knowledge and attitudes to practice.

  8. Do pregnant women have a higher risk for venous thromboembolism following air travel?

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Morteza; Alemzadeh-Ansari, Mohammad Javad; Kazemisaleh, Davood; Moshkani-Farahani, Maryam; Shafiee, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    International travel has become increasingly common and accessible, and it is part of everyday life in pregnant women. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious public health disorder that occurs following long-haul travel, especially after air travel. The normal pregnancy is accompanied by a state of hypercoagulability and hypofibrinolysis. Thus, it seems that pregnant women are at a higher risk of VTE following air travel, and, if they have preexisting risk factors, this risk would increase. There is limited data about travel-related VTE in pregnant women; therefore, in the present study, we tried to evaluate the pathogenesis of thrombosis, association of thrombosis and air travel, risk factors and prevention of VTE in pregnant women based on available evidences. Pregnancy is associated with a five- to 10-fold increased risk of VTE compared with nonpregnant women; however, during the postpartum period, this risk would increase to 20–80-fold. Furthermore, the risk of thrombosis is higher in individuals with preexisting risk factors, and the most common risk factor for VTE during pregnancy is a previous history of VTE. Pregnant women are at a higher risk for thrombosis compared with other women. Thus, the prevention of VTE and additional risk factors should be considered for all pregnant women who travel by plane. PMID:25802829

  9. [Eating practices during pregnancy: a study of low-income pregnant and postpartum women in Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Baião, Mirian Ribeiro; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira

    2010-10-01

    This study aimed to analyze the self-reported eating practices of pregnant and postpartum women living in a group of slum communities in the city of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. The interpretative methodology used a semi-structured interview and thematic content analysis. The sample (n=26) consisted of 18 pregnant and 8 postpartum women, of whom 7 were adolescents and 19 adults, including both primiparous and multiparous subjects. According to these women, eating while watching television, eating out, and eating with relatives and friends on weekends were forms of associating leisure-time activities with food, thus increasing their pleasure in eating. Income was identified as the principal obstacle to consuming healthier foods, which were reserved for their children as a priority. Thus, milk, vegetables, greens, and fruit were rarely consumed. Their diet consisted mainly of rice, beans and chicken. There was a clear preference for "junk food". The women were limited to a monotonous diet. It is important to understand and value socio-cultural and economic issues that influence eating practices in order for food and nutritional orientation aimed at healthy eating to be negotiated and adjusted to pregnant women's objective and subjective needs.

  10. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women at Khartoum North Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Urinary tract infections (UTI) can lead to poor maternal and perinatal outcomes. Investigating epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women is fundamental for care-givers and health planners. Methods A cross sectional study has been conducted at Khartoum north teaching hospital Antenatal Care Clinic between February-June 2010, to investigate epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics resistance among pregnant women. Structured questionnaires were used to gather data from pregnant women. UTI was diagnosed using mid stream urine culture on standard culture media Results Out of 235 pregnant women included, 66 (28.0%) were symptomatic and 169 (71.9%) asymptomatic. the prevalence of bacteriuria among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women were (12.1%), and (14.7%) respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.596), and the overall prevalence of UTI was (14.0%). In multivariate analyses, age, gestational age, parity, and history of UTI in index pregnancy were not associated with bacteriuria. Escherichia coli (42.4%) and S. aureus (39.3%) were the commonest isolated bacteria. Four, 2, 2, 3, 4, 2 and 0 out of 14 E. coli isolates, showed resistance to amoxicillin, naladixic acid, nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin/clavulanate and norfloxacin, respectively Conclusion Escherichia coli were the most prevalent causative organisms and showing multi drug resistance pattern, asymptomatic bacteriuria is more prevalent than symptomatic among pregnant women. Urine culture for screening and diagnosis purpose for all pregnant is recommended. PMID:21244660

  11. Iron deficiency anaemia is still a major killer of pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Khaskheli, Meharun-Nissa; Baloch, Shahla; Sheeba, Aneela; Baloch, Sarmad; Khaskheli, Fahad Khan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of iron deficiency anaemia on the health and life of pregnant women. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Unit IV, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro from 1st June 2015 to 30th November 2015, for the period of 6 months. During this study period all the pregnant women from 13-40 weeks of pregnancy with iron deficiency anaemia having haemoglobin level less than 9 gram% were included, while the pregnant women with other medical disorders were excluded from the study. The data was collected and analyzed on SPSS version 21. Result: Out of the 305 pregnant registered women with iron deficiency anaemia most women were young 170(55.73%) between 20-30 years, belonged to low socioeconomic group 254(83.27%), they were multiparous 104(34.09%), having very low haemoglobin level between 1-3 gram % in 54(17.70%) women and between 4-6gram% in162 (53.11%) women. These women were prone to high complications such as ante partum haemorrhage 49(16.06%), renal failure 48(15.73%), disseminated intravascular coagulation 54(17.70%) and 16(5.24%) women died. Conclusion: Iron deficiency anaemia is common in pregnant women with higher rates of complications. PMID:27375704

  12. Exercise in obese pregnant women: The role of social factors, lifestyle and pregnancy symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity may reduce the risk of adverse maternal outcomes, yet there are very few studies that have examined the correlates of exercise amongst obese women during pregnancy. We examined which relevant sociodemographic, obstetric, and health behaviour variables and pregnancy symptoms were associated with exercise in a small sample of obese pregnant women. Methods This was a secondary analysis using data from an exercise intervention for the prevention of gestational diabetes in obese pregnant women. Using the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ), 50 obese pregnant women were classified as "Exercisers" if they achieved ≥900 kcal/wk of exercise and "Non-Exercisers" if they did not meet this criterion. Analyses examined which relevant variables were associated with exercise status at 12, 20, 28 and 36 weeks gestation. Results Obese pregnant women with a history of miscarriage; who had children living at home; who had a lower pre-pregnancy weight; reported no nausea and vomiting; and who had no lower back pain, were those women who were most likely to have exercised in early pregnancy. Exercise in late pregnancy was most common among tertiary educated women. Conclusions Offering greater support to women from disadvantaged backgrounds and closely monitoring women who report persistent nausea and vomiting or lower back pain in early pregnancy may be important. The findings may be particularly useful for other interventions aimed at reducing or controlling weight gain in obese pregnant women. PMID:21226958

  13. TB-HIV co-infection among pregnant women in Karnataka, South India: A case series.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Shastri; Sharath, Burugina N; Anita, Shet; Lalitha, Ravindra; Prasad, Tripathy J; Rewari, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant contributor to mortality in HIV-infected patients. Concurrent TB infection is also a significant contributing factor to maternal mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women. Studies addressing the outcomes of TB and HIV co-infection among pregnant women are generally infrequent. Although limited, the records maintained by the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) and the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) in Karnataka State, Southern India provide information about the numbers of pregnant women who are co-infected with TB and HIV and their pregnancy outcomes. We reviewed the data and conducted this study to understand how TB-HIV co-infection influences the outcomes of pregnancy in this setting. We sought to determine the incidence and treatment and delivery outcomes of TB-HIV co-infected pregnant women in programmatic settings in Karnataka State in southern India. The study participants were all the HIV-infected pregnant women who were screened for tuberculosis under the NACP from 2008 to 2012. For the purposes of this study, the program staff in the field gathered the data regarding on treatment and delivery outcomes of pregnant women. A total of seventeen pregnant women with TB-HIV co-infection were identified among 3,165,729 pregnant women (for an incidence of 5.4 per million pregnancies). The median age of these pregnant women was 24 years, and majority were primiparous women with WHO HIV stage III disease and were on a stavudine-based ART regimen. The maternal mortality rates were 18% before delivery and 24% after delivery. The abortion rate was 24%, and the neonatal mortality rate was 10%. The anti-tuberculosis treatment and anti-retroviral treatment outcome mortality rates were 30% and 53%, respectively. Although the incidence of TB among the HIV-infected pregnant women was marginally less than that among the non-HIV-infected women, the delivery outcomes were relatively

  14. TB-HIV co-infection among pregnant women in Karnataka, South India: A case series.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Shastri; Sharath, Burugina N; Anita, Shet; Lalitha, Ravindra; Prasad, Tripathy J; Rewari, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant contributor to mortality in HIV-infected patients. Concurrent TB infection is also a significant contributing factor to maternal mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women. Studies addressing the outcomes of TB and HIV co-infection among pregnant women are generally infrequent. Although limited, the records maintained by the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) and the National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) in Karnataka State, Southern India provide information about the numbers of pregnant women who are co-infected with TB and HIV and their pregnancy outcomes. We reviewed the data and conducted this study to understand how TB-HIV co-infection influences the outcomes of pregnancy in this setting. We sought to determine the incidence and treatment and delivery outcomes of TB-HIV co-infected pregnant women in programmatic settings in Karnataka State in southern India. The study participants were all the HIV-infected pregnant women who were screened for tuberculosis under the NACP from 2008 to 2012. For the purposes of this study, the program staff in the field gathered the data regarding on treatment and delivery outcomes of pregnant women. A total of seventeen pregnant women with TB-HIV co-infection were identified among 3,165,729 pregnant women (for an incidence of 5.4 per million pregnancies). The median age of these pregnant women was 24 years, and majority were primiparous women with WHO HIV stage III disease and were on a stavudine-based ART regimen. The maternal mortality rates were 18% before delivery and 24% after delivery. The abortion rate was 24%, and the neonatal mortality rate was 10%. The anti-tuberculosis treatment and anti-retroviral treatment outcome mortality rates were 30% and 53%, respectively. Although the incidence of TB among the HIV-infected pregnant women was marginally less than that among the non-HIV-infected women, the delivery outcomes were relatively

  15. Clinical guides to preventing ethical conflicts between pregnant women and their physicians.

    PubMed

    Chervenak, F A; McCullough, L B

    1990-02-01

    We provide a justification for preventive ethics in obstetric practice. Four clinical guides to resolving ethical conflicts between pregnant women and their physicians can be identified: (1) informed consent as an ongoing dialogue between the pregnant woman and her physician, (2) negotiation as a clinical strategy, (3) respectful persuasion as a clinical strategy, and (4) the proper use of ethics committees. PMID:2309810

  16. Immediate Needs and Concerns among Pregnant Women During and after Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda)

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Mari; Nakamura, Yasuka; Atogami, Fumi; Horiguchi, Ribeka; Tamaki, Raita; Yoshizawa, Toyoko; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pregnant and postpartum women are especially vulnerable to natural disasters. These women suffer from increased risk of physical and mental issues including pregnant related problems. Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda), which hit the Philippines affected a large number of people and caused devastating damages. During and after the typhoon, pregnant women were forced to live in particularly difficult circumstances. The purpose of this study was to determine concerns and problems regarding public health needs and coping mechanisms among pregnant women during and shortly after the typhoon. Methods: This study employed a cross-sectional design utilizing focus group discussions (FGDs). Participants were 53 women (mean age: 26.6 years old; 42 had children) from four affected communities who were pregnant at the time of the typhoon. FGDs were conducted 4 months after the typhoon, from March 19 to 28, 2014, using semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using the qualitative content analysis. Result: Three themes were identified regarding problems and concerns during and after the typhoon: 1) having no ideas what is going to happen during the evacuation, 2) lacking essentials to survive, and 3) being unsure of how to deal with health concerns. Two themes were identified as means of solving issues: 1) finding food for survival and 2) avoiding diseases to save my family. As the pregnant women already had several typhoon experiences without any major problems, they underestimated the catastrophic nature of this typhoon. During the typhoon, the women could not ensure their safety and did not have a strong sense of crisis management. They suffered from hunger, food shortage, and poor sanitation. Moreover, though the women had fear and anxiety regarding their pregnancy, they had no way to resolve these concerns. Pregnant women and their families also suffered from common health problems for which they would usually seek medical services. Under such conditions, the

  17. Depression and Rural Environment are Associated With Poor Oral Health Among Pregnant Women in Northern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Daniel W; Hayes, Sarah E; Randall, Cameron L; Polk, Deborah E; Neiswanger, Kathy; Shaffer, John R; Weyant, Robert J; Foxman, Betsy; Kao, Elizabeth; Crout, Richard J; Chapman, Stella; Brown, Linda J; Maurer, Jennifer L; Marazita, Mary L

    2016-01-01

    Both oral health problems and depression among pregnant women contribute to maternal-infant health outcomes. Little is known, however, about the potential effects of clinically significant depression on the oral health status of pregnant women. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of clinically significant depression and rural- or urban-dwelling status on oral health outcomes among pregnant women. Pregnant women (N = 685) in rural (i.e., West Virginia) and urban (i.e., Pittsburgh, PA) areas of northern Appalachia were assessed by calibrated examiners regarding gingivitis, oral hygiene, and DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth), completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) and provided demographics. Participants were categorized based on clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16) and rural/urban domicile. Women with depression and those living in rural areas had worse oral health on all three indices than their non-depressed and urban counterparts. Depression, particularly among women in rural areas, affects certain oral health indices and represents a modifiable target for intervention. Moreover, treatments designed specifically for rural populations may be of particular utility. Women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant may benefit from regular depression screenings from their dental and medical health care providers.

  18. Fetal Biometry of Head Circumference for Malaysian Pregnant Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Remsen Maizan; Jaafar, M. S.; Ismail, N. E.; Saltani, Hend A. A.; Ahmad, A. L.; Bermakai, M. Yahaya

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the fetal head circumference (HC) biometry for local population. Retrospective study was selected, done at Hospital Pulau Pinang and 5551 files of pregnant women were collected. The HC mean values of this study (HCmean) was compared with other published studies to see whether there was any difference between the various populations in the world. Comparison of means, regression analysis and paired sample t-test in SPSS software version 11.5 were used in the analysis. A total of 9874 HC data (mm) were recorded for gestational age (GA) of 12 to 41 weeks. The HC growth rate in second trimester (11.32 mm/week) has decreased to nearly half than in third trimester (5.53 mm/week). The HCmean was found to be highly significant difference (SD) than other 9 studies and only lower than HC values of USA, UK and Zimbabwe populations. The HC values of German show close similarity with HCmean. From 45 comparisons done, more than three-quarter of the comparisons resulted as SD (37) compared to insignificant differences (8). Consequently, each country should have their own standard HC of fetus biometry of the various gestations for their own population.

  19. [Vegetarian diets in the nutrition of pregnant and breastfeeding women].

    PubMed

    Brzezińska, Małgorzata; Kucharska, Alicja; Sińska, Beata

    2016-04-01

    Pregnant and breastfeeding women who eat vegetarian are a source of much controversy. This is the result of concern that eliminating some or all animal produce may lead to nutritional deficiencies and thus adversely affect the mother's and child's health. The American Dietetic Association's position is that appropriately planned vegan, lacto-vegetarian and lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets ensure a normal course of pregnancy and lactation. However, in practice the balancing of such a diet can pose certain difficulties, especially for individuals without the necessary experience or knowledge about nutrition. Nutrients to which particular attention needs to be paid to ensure their sufficient supply include: protein (essential amino acids), Omega-3 essential fatty acids, iron and calcium as well as vitamins D and B(12). The proper adherence to recommendations can be attained with a varied diet containing suitable plant products compensating for the nutritional value of the eliminated animal products. Supplementation with vitamin D and vitamin B(12) is also necessary. Research shows that infants born to vegetarian mothers are born at term and have normal birth weight. There is an increased risk of hypospadias in boys. The main difference in the composition of vegetarian mothers' milk compared to non-vegetarians' is lower content of docosahexaenoic acid and higher content of Linoleic and α-Linolenic acid.

  20. Eye care services utilisation among pregnant women in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ibraheem, Waheed A; Ibraheem, Anifat B; Owonikoko, Musliudeen; Tijani, Aramide; Olamoyegun, Michael Adeyemi; AbdSalam, Soliu

    2016-07-01

    One hundred and sixty-five pregnant Nigerian women attending the antenatal clinic of LAUTECH teaching hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria between January and April 2014 were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents were obtained. Respondents were also asked: if they had had their eye examined by an eye specialist during the index pregnancy, frequencies of visit to eye care centers and indications for their visitation. A history of previous eye examination by eye care specialist/visit to eye clinic was considered as eye care utilisation. Selection of eligible subjects who consented to participate in the study was done using simple random technique. Logistic regression model was used to control sociodemographic and obstetric factors in order to determine independent covariate factor influencing the use of eye care services. Among the population studied, only 46 (32%) had eye examination during the index pregnancy. Level of education and occupational status of the respondents were found to be statistically significant factors (p = 0.001 and 0.008, respectively). There is a need for a policy that will encourage regular eye care services usage during pregnancy. PMID:27012975

  1. [Vegetarian diets in the nutrition of pregnant and breastfeeding women].

    PubMed

    Brzezińska, Małgorzata; Kucharska, Alicja; Sińska, Beata

    2016-04-01

    Pregnant and breastfeeding women who eat vegetarian are a source of much controversy. This is the result of concern that eliminating some or all animal produce may lead to nutritional deficiencies and thus adversely affect the mother's and child's health. The American Dietetic Association's position is that appropriately planned vegan, lacto-vegetarian and lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets ensure a normal course of pregnancy and lactation. However, in practice the balancing of such a diet can pose certain difficulties, especially for individuals without the necessary experience or knowledge about nutrition. Nutrients to which particular attention needs to be paid to ensure their sufficient supply include: protein (essential amino acids), Omega-3 essential fatty acids, iron and calcium as well as vitamins D and B(12). The proper adherence to recommendations can be attained with a varied diet containing suitable plant products compensating for the nutritional value of the eliminated animal products. Supplementation with vitamin D and vitamin B(12) is also necessary. Research shows that infants born to vegetarian mothers are born at term and have normal birth weight. There is an increased risk of hypospadias in boys. The main difference in the composition of vegetarian mothers' milk compared to non-vegetarians' is lower content of docosahexaenoic acid and higher content of Linoleic and α-Linolenic acid. PMID:27137830

  2. [Clinical and psychological disorders of pregnant women induced by abuse].

    PubMed

    Diquelou, J-Y; Amar, P; Boyer, S; Montilla, F; Karoubi, R

    2008-06-01

    This study is performed on a population of pregnant women during the second trimester of their pregnancy. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that clinical symptoms noticeable by the obstétricians during their consultations. Eight hundred and fifty-three patients have been involved in this study by responding to an anonymous questionnary. Hundred and seventy-five patients(groupI) have been abuse either physically or psychologically or sexually. The study shows that there is a strong difference between the groupI and the group without abuse in their medical past history (678 patients) about the occurracy of several disorders. The most frequently observed troubles are sexuals disorders, school failures, deficients relationship with others persons, anxiety and troubles of humor. We can concluded, about those clinical manifestations, that they do exist during pregnancy and probably thoses symptoms are linked to traumatism occured during their past history. Obstetricians must look after thoses symptoms very seriously to propose a good management of the pregnancy either about their psychological problems or about the social environnement in which they live.

  3. Pregnant women in vehicles: Driving habits, position and risk of injury.

    PubMed

    Auriault, F; Brandt, C; Chopin, A; Gadegbeku, B; Ndiaye, A; Balzing, M-P; Thollon, L; Behr, M

    2016-04-01

    This study proposed to broadly examine vehicle use by pregnant women in order to improve realism of accident simulations involving these particular occupants. Three research pathways were developed: the first consisted in a questionnaire survey examining the driving habits of 135 pregnant women, the second obtained measurements of 15 pregnant women driving position in their own vehicle from the 6th to the 9th month of pregnancy by measuring distances between body parts and vehicle parts, and the third examined car accidents involving pregnant occupants. Results obtained indicate that between 90% and 100% of pregnant women wore their seat belts whatever their stage of pregnancy, although nearly one third of subjects considered the seat belt was dangerous for their unborn child. The measurements obtained also showed that the position of the pregnant woman in her vehicle, in relation to the various elements of the passenger compartment, changed significantly during pregnancy. In the studied accidents, no correlation was found between the conditions of the accident and the resulting fetal injury. Results reveal that pregnant women do not modify significantly the seat setting as a function of pregnancy stage. Only the distance between maternal abdomen and steering wheel change significantly, from 16 cm to 12 cm at 6 and 9 month respectively. Pregnant women are mainly drivers before 8 months of pregnancy, passengers after that. Car use frequency falls down rapidly from 6 to 9 months of pregnancy. Real crashes investigations indicate a low rate of casualties, i.e. 342 car accidents involving pregnant women for a period of 9 years in an approximately 1.7 million inhabitants area. No specific injury was found as a function of stage of pregnancy. PMID:26809074

  4. Pregnant women in vehicles: Driving habits, position and risk of injury.

    PubMed

    Auriault, F; Brandt, C; Chopin, A; Gadegbeku, B; Ndiaye, A; Balzing, M-P; Thollon, L; Behr, M

    2016-04-01

    This study proposed to broadly examine vehicle use by pregnant women in order to improve realism of accident simulations involving these particular occupants. Three research pathways were developed: the first consisted in a questionnaire survey examining the driving habits of 135 pregnant women, the second obtained measurements of 15 pregnant women driving position in their own vehicle from the 6th to the 9th month of pregnancy by measuring distances between body parts and vehicle parts, and the third examined car accidents involving pregnant occupants. Results obtained indicate that between 90% and 100% of pregnant women wore their seat belts whatever their stage of pregnancy, although nearly one third of subjects considered the seat belt was dangerous for their unborn child. The measurements obtained also showed that the position of the pregnant woman in her vehicle, in relation to the various elements of the passenger compartment, changed significantly during pregnancy. In the studied accidents, no correlation was found between the conditions of the accident and the resulting fetal injury. Results reveal that pregnant women do not modify significantly the seat setting as a function of pregnancy stage. Only the distance between maternal abdomen and steering wheel change significantly, from 16 cm to 12 cm at 6 and 9 month respectively. Pregnant women are mainly drivers before 8 months of pregnancy, passengers after that. Car use frequency falls down rapidly from 6 to 9 months of pregnancy. Real crashes investigations indicate a low rate of casualties, i.e. 342 car accidents involving pregnant women for a period of 9 years in an approximately 1.7 million inhabitants area. No specific injury was found as a function of stage of pregnancy.

  5. Provision of smoking cessation support for pregnant women in England: results from an online survey of NHS stop smoking services for pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking during pregnancy is a major public health concern and an NHS priority. In 2010, 26% of UK women smoked immediately before or during their pregnancy and 12% smoked continuously. Smoking cessation support is provided through free at the point of use Stop Smoking Services for Pregnant women (SSSP). However, to date, little is known of how these services provide support across England. The aim of this study was to describe the key elements of support provided through English SSSP. Methods SSSP managers were invited to participate in this survey by email. Data were then collected via an online questionnaire; one survey was completed for each SSSP. Up to four reminder emails were sent over a two month period. Results 86% (121 of 141) of services completed the survey. Responding services were, on average, larger than non-responding services in terms of the number of pregnant women setting quit dates and successfully quitting (p < 0.01). In line with the 2010 NICE guidelines, Stop Smoking in Pregnancy and following Childbirth, one in five SSSP identified pregnant smokers using carbon monoxide (CO) testing and refer via an opt-out pathway. All services offered nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) to pregnant women and 87% of services also offered dual therapy NRT, i.e. combination of a patch and short acting NRT product.. The 2010 NICE guidelines note that services should be flexible and client-centred. Consistent with this, SSSP offer pregnant women a range of support types (median 4) including couple/family, group (open or closed) or one-to-one. These are available in a number of locations (median 5), including in community venues, clinics and women’s homes. Conclusions English Stop Smoking Services offer behavioural support and pharmacotherapy to pregnant women motivated to quit smoking. Interventions provided are generally evidence-based and delivered in a variety of both social and health care settings. PMID:24593130

  6. CDC Advises Pregnant Women to Avoid Miami Beach Due to Zika

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnant Women to Avoid Miami Beach Due to Zika Florida Gov. Rick Scott says 5 cases of ... on Friday that five cases of locally transmitted Zika virus have occurred there. Until now, local transmission ...

  7. Attitudes, Knowledge, and Practices Regarding Malaria Prevention and Treatment among Pregnant Women in Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Sabin, Lora L.; Rizal, Abanish; Brooks, Mohamad I.; Singh, Mrigendra P.; Tuchman, Jordan; Wylie, Blair J.; Joyce, Katherine M.; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Singh, Neeru; Hamer, Davidson H.

    2010-01-01

    We explored views toward and use of malaria prevention and treatment measures among pregnant women in Jharkhand, India. We conducted 32 in-depth interviews and six focus group discussions (total = 73 respondents) with pregnant women in urban, semi-urban, and rural locations in a region with moderate intensity malaria transmission. Most respondents ranked malaria as an important health issue affecting pregnant women, had partially correct understanding of malaria transmission and prevention, and reported using potentially effective prevention methods, usually untreated bed nets. However, most conveyed misinformation and described using unproven prevention and/or treatment methods. Many described using different ineffective traditional malaria remedies. The majority also showed willingness to try new prevention methods and take medications if doctor-prescribed. Misconceptions and use of unproven prevention and treatment methods are common among pregnant women in eastern India. Policy makers should focus on improving knowledge and availability of effective malaria control strategies in this population. PMID:20519593

  8. Attitudes, knowledge, and practices regarding malaria prevention and treatment among pregnant women in Eastern India.

    PubMed

    Sabin, Lora L; Rizal, Abanish; Brooks, Mohamad I; Singh, Mrigendra P; Tuchman, Jordan; Wylie, Blair J; Joyce, Katherine M; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Singh, Neeru; Hamer, Davidson H

    2010-06-01

    We explored views toward and use of malaria prevention and treatment measures among pregnant women in Jharkhand, India. We conducted 32 in-depth interviews and six focus group discussions (total = 73 respondents) with pregnant women in urban, semi-urban, and rural locations in a region with moderate intensity malaria transmission. Most respondents ranked malaria as an important health issue affecting pregnant women, had partially correct understanding of malaria transmission and prevention, and reported using potentially effective prevention methods, usually untreated bed nets. However, most conveyed misinformation and described using unproven prevention and/or treatment methods. Many described using different ineffective traditional malaria remedies. The majority also showed willingness to try new prevention methods and take medications if doctor-prescribed. Misconceptions and use of unproven prevention and treatment methods are common among pregnant women in eastern India. Policy makers should focus on improving knowledge and availability of effective malaria control strategies in this population.

  9. Social Factors Determining the Experience of Blindness among Pregnant Women in Developing Countries: The Case of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Shanta; Lin, Yuan; Collier-Tenison, Shannon; Bodden, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 10 million pregnant women around the world develop night blindness annually. In India, one in 11 pregnant women suffers from night blindness. This study used a nationally representative sample of 35,248 women from India between the ages of 15 and 49 who had given birth in the past five years to understand the effect of women's…

  10. 34 CFR 403.82 - In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program be offered? 403.82 Section 403.82 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.82 In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant...

  11. 34 CFR 403.82 - In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program be offered? 403.82 Section 403.82 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.82 In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant...

  12. 34 CFR 403.82 - In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program be offered? 403.82 Section 403.82 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.82 In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant...

  13. 34 CFR 403.82 - In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program be offered? 403.82 Section 403.82 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.82 In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant...

  14. [Hygienic evaluation of environment, morbidity among pregnant women and newborns within social hygienic monitoring system].

    PubMed

    Kuz'min, D V

    2014-01-01

    Hygienic evaluation covered health state of pregnant women and newborns, subjected to chemical pollution of environment by aluminium industrial enterprises. The data obtained helped to suggest methodic approach to selection of priority territories, environmental and health state parameters within social hygienic monitoring system, to form recommendations on creation of system supporting management decisions to lower negative influence of chemical environmental factors on health of pregnant women and newborns.

  15. Self-Medication: potential risks and hazards among pregnant women in Uyo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abasiubong, Festus; Bassey, Emem Abasi; Udobang, John Akpan; Akinbami, Oluyinka Samuel; Udoh, Sunday Bassey; Idung, Alphonsus Udo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction There is increasing evidence that self-medications among pregnant women are common in many developing countries. Despite the adverse impact on pregnancy, there are few programs available for their control. The objective of this study was to assess the level of self-medication amongst Nigerian pregnant women in order to determine possible harmful effects on fetus. Methods Five hundred and eighteen 518 pregnant women, aged between 18 and 40 years, drawn from three General hospitals in Akwa Ibom State were assessed for self-medication and substance abuse using an instrument, adapted from a modified form of 117-item self-report questionnaire based on the WHO guidelines for students’ substance use survey. Results Of the 518 pregnant women assessed, 375 (72.4%) indulged in one form of self-medication or the other; 143 (27.6%) used only drugs prescribed from the antenatal clinic. A total of 157 (41.9%) pregnant women self-medicate fever/pain relievers; 47 (9.1%) mixture of herbs and other drugs; 15 (4.0%) sedatives; 13 (3.5%) alcohol; while 5 (1.3%) used kolanuts. Reasons for using these substances range from protection from witches and witchcrafts, preventing pregnancy from coming out, for blood; poor sleep, fever and vomiting and infections. There was a significant difference in the rate of using analgesics (X2=9.43, p=0.001); and antibiotic (X2=4.43, p=0.001) among pregnant women who were highly educated compared to those with little or no education. However, the level of education has no impact in the usage of native herbs. Conclusion This study shows that self-medication is common among pregnant women in our environment. There is need for adequate education of pregnant women during antenatal clinics on the potential danger of self-medication so as to prevent child and maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:23308320

  16. [Effect of respiratory and aqua-gymnastics on the adaptive potential of pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Krivonogova, T S; Gerget, O M; Agarkova, L A

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with one of the most promising methods for the assessment of the health status of pregnant women and their children based on information criteria in the framework of an intelligent system. Inter-relations between the revealed adaptation strategies and functional disturbances in the organism are considered with special reference to various types of adaptive reactions in pregnant women and adaptational capacities of their children. PMID:21381327

  17. Plasma levels of antiprogestin RU 486 following oral administration to non-pregnant and early pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Swahn, M.L.; Wang, G.; Aedo, A.R.; Cekan, S.Z.; Bygdeman, M.

    1986-11-01

    RU 486 is a synthetic steroid which acts as an antiprogestin at the receptor level. The clinical usefulness of the compound for menstrual regulation and termination of early pregnancy is currently being evaluated. The aim of the present study was to determine the plasma levels of RU 486 following the oral administration of the compound to 42 pregnant and 10 non-pregnant women. The levels of RU 486 were measured by a radioimmunoassay method which uses chromatography on Sephadex LH 20 columns. The identity of the compound assayed as RU 486 was confirmed, but the presence of small amounts of two highly cross-reacting metabolites (monodemethyl and didemethyl RU 486) in the analyzed fractions could not be excluded. Following the ingestion of a single tablet containing 25 and 50 mg of the compound, a peak plasma value of approximately 3.5 to 4.0 mumol/l in both the pregnant and non-pregnant subjects was reached one to two hours later. The half-lives of elimination were about 20 hours in both the pregnant and the non-pregnant women. Following the repeated oral administration of 50, 100 or 200 mg of RU 486 daily for four days, maximum plasma levels of 2.9, 4.5 and 5.4 mumol/l, respectively, were found. Thus, the increase in plasma levels was not directly proportional to the increase in the dose. No accumulation of RU 486 in the plasma was found, even when the duration of treatment was prolonged to six days. The data partly explain the reported lack of relation between ingested dose and frequency of induced abortion and they may be useful for designing future studies on the use of compound to prevent implantation, induce menstruation or terminate an early pregnancy.

  18. Impact of Extended Combination Antiretroviral Therapy on the Decline of HIV Prevalence in Pregnant Women in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Liotta, Giuseppe; Chimbwandira, Frank; Wouters, Kristien; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Jere, Haswell; Mancinelli, Sandro; Ceffa, Susanna; Erba, Fulvio; Palombi, Leonardo; Marazzi, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy has been shown to reduce HIV transmission and incident infections. In recent years, Malawi has significantly increased the number of individuals on combination antiretroviral drugs through more inclusive treatment policies. Using a retrospective observational cohort design, records with HIV test results were reviewed for pregnant women attending a referral hospital in Malawi over a 5-year period, with viral load measurements recorded. HIV prevalence over time was determined, and results correlated with population viral load. A total of 11 052 women were included in this analysis, with 440 (4.1%) HIV infections identified. HIV prevalence rates in pregnant women in Malawi halved from 6.4% to 3.0% over 5 years. Mean viral loads of adult patients decreased from 120 000 copies/mL to less than 20 000 copies/mL. Results suggest that community viral load has an effect on HIV incidence rates in the population, which in turn correlates with reduced HIV prevalence rates in pregnant women.

  19. Interim Guidelines for Pregnant Women During a Zika Virus Outbreak--United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Emily E; Staples, J Erin; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Fischer, Marc; Ellington, Sascha R; Callaghan, William M; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-01-22

    CDC has developed interim guidelines for health care providers in the United States caring for pregnant women during a Zika virus outbreak. These guidelines include recommendations for pregnant women considering travel to an area with Zika virus transmission and recommendations for screening, testing, and management of pregnant returning travelers. Updates on areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission are available online (http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/notices/). Health care providers should ask all pregnant women about recent travel. Pregnant women with a history of travel to an area with Zika virus transmission and who report two or more symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease (acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis) during or within 2 weeks of travel, or who have ultrasound findings of fetal microcephaly or intracranial calcifications, should be tested for Zika virus infection in consultation with their state or local health department. Testing is not indicated for women without a travel history to an area with Zika virus transmission. In pregnant women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection, serial ultrasound examination should be considered to monitor fetal growth and anatomy and referral to a maternal-fetal medicine or infectious disease specialist with expertise in pregnancy management is recommended. There is no specific antiviral treatment for Zika virus; supportive care is recommended.

  20. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Pregnant Women: A Seroprevalence and Case-Control Study in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wei; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Meng, Qing-Feng; Zhou, Na; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Very limited information is available concerning the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in pregnant women in eastern China. Therefore, a case-control study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in this population group and to identify risk factors and possible routes of contamination. Serum samples were collected from 965 pregnant women and 965 age-matched nonpregnant control subjects in Qingdao and Weihai between October 2011 and July 2013. These were screened with enzyme linked immunoassays for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. 147 (15.2%) pregnant women and 167 (17.3%) control subjects were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies, while 28 (2.9%) pregnant women and 37 (3.8%) controls were positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies (P = 0.256). There was no significant difference between pregnant women and nonpregnant controls with regard to the seroprevalence of either anti-T. gondii IgG or IgM antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii infection was associated with location, cats in home, contact with cats and dogs, and exposure to soil. The results indicated that the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in pregnant women is high compared to most other regions of China and other East Asian countries with similar climatic conditions. PMID:26539465

  1. Views of pregnant women and clinicians regarding discussion of exposure to phthalate plasticizers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study explores the views of pregnant women and clinicians regarding discussion of exposure to phthalate plasticizers during pregnancy, subsequent to the 2011 Health Canada ban of certain phthalates at a concentration greater than 1000 mg/kg in baby toys. This occurred with no regulation of products to which pregnant women are exposed, such as food packaging and cosmetics. Methods Pregnant women, physicians and midwives were recruited through posters and pamphlets in prenatal clinics in Southwestern Ontario for a semi-structured interview. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and subjected to rigorous qualitative analysis through a grounded theory approach, supported by NVIVO™ software. Themes emerged from line by line, open, and axial coding in an iterative manner. Results Theoretical sufficiency was reached after 23 pregnant women and 11 clinicians had been interviewed. The themes (and subthemes from which they arose) were: Theme I-Information Provision (IA-Sources of Information, IB-Standardization, IC-Constraints, ID-Role of Government); Theme II-Risk (IIA-Significant Risk, IIB-Perceived Relevance, IIC-Reconciliation); and Theme III- Factors Influencing Level of Concern (IIIA-Current Knowledge, IIIB-Demographic Factors). Conclusion To respond to the increasing media and research attention regarding risk of phthalates to women, and pregnant women in particular, national professional organizations should provide patient information. This could include pamphlets on what a pregnant woman should know about phthalates and how they can be avoided, as well as information to clinicians to facilitate this discussion. PMID:24952638

  2. Surveillance of Chagas disease in pregnant women in Madrid, Spain, from 2008 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Flores-Chavez, M D; Merino, F J; Garcia-Bujalance, S; Martin-Rabadan, P; Merino, P; Garcia-Bermejo, I; Delgado, A; Cuadros, J

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important modes of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in areas where it is not endemic is vertical transmission: from mother to child. The objective of this report is to assess the efficacy of different programmes of serological screening to monitor infection with T. cruzi in pregnant Latin American women living in Madrid (Spain). To achieve this, a retrospective study was undertaken from January 2008 to December 2010 in seven hospitals in the Autonomous Community of Madrid. Serological screening programmes were classified in two main strategies: a selective one (pregnant women from Bolivia) and a universal one (pregnant women from Latin America). A total of 3,839 pregnant women were tested and the overall prevalence was 3.96%. The rate of congenital transmission was 2.6%. The current monitoring programmes have variable coverage ranging between 26% (selective screening) and 100% (universal screening). Monitoring of pregnant women from Latin America only reaches full coverage if universal screening of pregnant women is carried out at any moment of pregnancy, including at delivery. A common national regulation is necessary in order to ensure homogenous implementation of screening. PMID:21958533

  3. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Pregnant Women: A Seroprevalence and Case-Control Study in Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Wei; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Meng, Qing-Feng; Zhou, Na; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Very limited information is available concerning the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in pregnant women in eastern China. Therefore, a case-control study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in this population group and to identify risk factors and possible routes of contamination. Serum samples were collected from 965 pregnant women and 965 age-matched nonpregnant control subjects in Qingdao and Weihai between October 2011 and July 2013. These were screened with enzyme linked immunoassays for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. 147 (15.2%) pregnant women and 167 (17.3%) control subjects were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies, while 28 (2.9%) pregnant women and 37 (3.8%) controls were positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies (P = 0.256). There was no significant difference between pregnant women and nonpregnant controls with regard to the seroprevalence of either anti-T. gondii IgG or IgM antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii infection was associated with location, cats in home, contact with cats and dogs, and exposure to soil. The results indicated that the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in pregnant women is high compared to most other regions of China and other East Asian countries with similar climatic conditions. PMID:26539465

  4. [POLYGYNAX IN THE TREATMENT OF VAGINAL INFECTIONS IN PREGNANT AND NON-PREGNANT WOMEN--CLINICAL EXPERIENCE].

    PubMed

    Popovski, N; Popovski, K; Nedelkovski, V

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal infections /VI/ represent some of the most common diseases by infection of FGS. The aim of this study is to analyze clinical and bacteriological efficacy of Polygynax in the treatment of vaginal infections and to take into account the correlation between the results of microbiological controls and reduction of clinical symptoms. The study included 100 patients, including 50 pregnant and non-pregnant 50 for a period of 3 months. All of them was diagnosed with vaginitis clinical examination, taken material from vagina for microbiological testing. The studied women was conducted targeted therapy Polygynax 12 capsules, in the form of vaginal capsules for 12 days, after which the sample control microbiology. Behind the subjective complaints of the patient and to reduce them as a result of treatment. The effective implementation of Polygynax 12 capsules is equally good as in non-pregnant and pregnant women. In a summary of the survey data to make relevant analyzes and conclusions from the results. PMID:27509660

  5. Heavy metals and parasitic geohelminths toxicity among geophagous pregnant women: a case study of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Odongo, A O; Moturi, W N; Mbuthia, E K

    2016-02-01

    Geophagia is defined as deliberate consumption of earths' materials, e.g. soil, clay and soft stones. The practice is widespread among pregnant women, and there are conflicting views as to whether it is beneficial to health or not. Geophagic materials may be a source of micronutrients though the materials may bind the micronutrients thus reducing or hindering their bioavailability in the body. Geophagia is closely associated with geohelminthic infections among pregnant women and heavy metal poisoning, which constitute significant public health problem in many developing countries such as Kenya. In our research, the geophagic materials consumed by the pregnant women were studied. A total of 38 geophagic materials in the possession by different pregnant women were analysed. The collected samples were subjected to standard digestion procedures and analysed for zinc, lead and iron by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results indicated that the geophagic materials contained elevated levels of Fe at mean concentration value of 80.10 ppm, Pb at 3.28 ppm and Zn 1.81 ppm for a 1.00 g sample. An average of 20 g of the geophagic materials was being consumed per day. Based on the average consumption, the pregnant women were exposed to 65.52 ppm Pb per day, 36.2 ppm Zn per day and 1602 ppm Fe per day. Lead exceeded the WHO-lead exposure limits of 25 ppm/day for pregnant women. The materials were also subjected to microscopic examination for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia Spp., Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. In conclusion, the women were exposed to heavy metals-iron, zinc and lead, but there was no observable eggs, larvae or adult species of the geohelminths. The key recommendation was that there is need to integrate public health education on geophagia, lead screening and testing with antenatal support care systems. This will enhance maternal and child health, thus reducing infant and maternal morbidity and mortality rates.

  6. Heavy metals and parasitic geohelminths toxicity among geophagous pregnant women: a case study of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Odongo, A O; Moturi, W N; Mbuthia, E K

    2016-02-01

    Geophagia is defined as deliberate consumption of earths' materials, e.g. soil, clay and soft stones. The practice is widespread among pregnant women, and there are conflicting views as to whether it is beneficial to health or not. Geophagic materials may be a source of micronutrients though the materials may bind the micronutrients thus reducing or hindering their bioavailability in the body. Geophagia is closely associated with geohelminthic infections among pregnant women and heavy metal poisoning, which constitute significant public health problem in many developing countries such as Kenya. In our research, the geophagic materials consumed by the pregnant women were studied. A total of 38 geophagic materials in the possession by different pregnant women were analysed. The collected samples were subjected to standard digestion procedures and analysed for zinc, lead and iron by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results indicated that the geophagic materials contained elevated levels of Fe at mean concentration value of 80.10 ppm, Pb at 3.28 ppm and Zn 1.81 ppm for a 1.00 g sample. An average of 20 g of the geophagic materials was being consumed per day. Based on the average consumption, the pregnant women were exposed to 65.52 ppm Pb per day, 36.2 ppm Zn per day and 1602 ppm Fe per day. Lead exceeded the WHO-lead exposure limits of 25 ppm/day for pregnant women. The materials were also subjected to microscopic examination for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia Spp., Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. In conclusion, the women were exposed to heavy metals-iron, zinc and lead, but there was no observable eggs, larvae or adult species of the geohelminths. The key recommendation was that there is need to integrate public health education on geophagia, lead screening and testing with antenatal support care systems. This will enhance maternal and child health, thus reducing infant and maternal morbidity and mortality rates. PMID:25750054

  7. Knowledge and practice on Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Andiappan, Hemah; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Khaing, Si-Lay; Salibay, Cristina C.; Cheung, Mary Mae M.; Dungca, Julieta Z.; Chemoh, Waenurama; Xiao Teng, Ching; Lau, Yee-Ling; Mat Adenan, Noor A.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the infectious agents of congenital TORCH infections, causes severe clinical outcomes in fetus and newborns. Nevertheless this life-threatening parasitic disease is preventable by simple preventive measures related to lifestyle during pregnancy. We aim to study on the knowledge about toxoplasmosis and practices that prevents this infection among the pregnant women. Total of 2598 pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand were randomly surveyed to determine the knowledge and their practices on Toxoplasma infection. The questionnaire covered respondents' general information and knowledge on plausible risks factors, symptoms, timing of infection, prevention knowledge, and preventive behavior regarding Toxoplasma infection. Majority of these pregnant women were in their age group of 20–29 years (50.9%), completed secondary level of education (51.7%), in their second trimester of pregnancies (38.1%), non-parous (36.6%), and had no history of abortion (90.4%). Based on this survey, only 11% of these pregnant women had read, heard, or seen information regarding toxoplasmosis and 3.5% of them were aware of being tested for the infection. A small percentage of these pregnant women knew that T. gondii were shed in the feces of infected cats (19.4%) and sometimes found in the raw or undercooked meat (11.0%). There was 16.1% of responding women knew that toxoplasmosis is caused by an infection. Demographic profiles such as age group, level of education, pregnancy term, and number of children of the pregnant women showed significant association with their responses toward prevention knowledge and preventive behavior related questions (P < 0.05). Thus, it is suggested that health education on toxoplasmosis and primary behavioral practices should be consistently offered to reproductive age women in general and pregnant women in particular. This information could help to reduce vertical transmission of Toxoplasma infection during

  8. Overweight increases risk of first trimester hypothyroxinaemia in iodine-deficient pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Gowachirapant, Sueppong; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    Hypothyroxinaemia early in pregnancy may impair fetal brain development. Increased body weight has been associated with low thyroxine concentrations in non-pregnant women. In pregnant women, morbid maternal obesity is a risk factor for thyroid dysfunction. But whether lesser degrees of overweight that are much more common could be a risk factor for hypothyroxinaemia in pregnancy is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate if overweight increases risk for thyroid dysfunction, and specifically hypothyroxinaemia, in iodine-deficient pregnant women. We performed a cross-sectional study at first hospital visit among healthy Thai pregnant women. We measured weight and height, urinary iodine concentration (UIC), serum thyroid hormones and thyroglobulin. Pre-pregnancy weight and relevant dietary factors were determined by questionnaire, and body mass index (BMI) was used to classify weight status. Among 514 women (mean gestational age, 11 weeks) with a median UIC of 111 μg dL(-1) , indicating mild iodine deficiency, 12% had low free thyroxine (fT4) concentrations: 3% had overt hypothyroidism; 7% had subclinical hypothyroidism; and 8% had isolated hypothyroxinaemia. Based on pre-pregnancy BMI, 26% of women were overweight or obese. In a multiple regression model, BMI was a negative predictor of fT4 (β = -0.20, P < 0.001). Compared to normal weight women, the prevalence ratio (95% CI) of a low fT4 in overweight women was 3.64 (2.08-6.37) (P < 0.01). Iodine-deficient pregnant Thai women who are overweight have a 3.6-fold higher risk of hypothyroxinaemia in the first trimester compared to normal weight women. Targeted screening should consider overweight a potential risk factor for thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women in iodine-deficient areas.

  9. Suicidality among pregnant women in Brazil: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Castro e Couto, Tiago; Brancaglion, Mayra Yara Martins; Cardoso, Mauro Nogueira; Faria, Gustavo Coutinho; Garcia, Frederico Duarte; Nicolato, Rodrigo; Aguiar, Regina Amélia Lopes P; Leite, Henrique Vitor; Corrêa, Humberto

    2016-04-01

    Suicide is one of the major causes of preventable death. We evaluated suicidality among pregnant women who participated in prenatal care in Brazil. A total of 255 patients were assessed using semi-structured interviews as well as the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Plus. Thereafter, Stata 12 was used to identify the significant predictors of current suicide risk (CSR) among participants using univariate and multivariate analyses (p < 0.05). According to MINI Plus module C, the lifetime suicide attempt rate was 12.55%. The overall CSR was 23.53%, distributed across risk levels of low (12.55%), moderate (1.18%), and high (9.80%). Our rates approximate those found in another Brazilian study (18.4%). Antenatal depression (AD), lifetime bipolar disorder, and any current anxiety disorder (as measured using the MINI) as well as BDI scores ≥15 and EPDS scores ≥11 were identified as positive risk factors in a univariate analysis (p < 0.001). These factors changed after a multivariate analysis was employed, and only years of education [odds ratio (OR) = 0.45; 95% confidence intervals (CIs) = 0.21-0.99], AD (OR = 3.42; 95% CIs = 1.37-8.53), and EPDS scores ≥11 (OR = 4.44; 95% CIs = 1.97-9.97) remained independent risk factors. AD and other psychiatric disorders were the primary risk factors for suicidality, although only the former remained an independent factor after a multivariate analysis. More than 10 years of education and EPDS scores ≥11 were also independent factors; the latter can be used as a screening tool for suicide risk.

  10. Performance of Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt Medium for Group B Streptococcus Screening in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Gavena, Angela Andréia França; Silva, Flávia Teixeira Ribeiro; Moreira, Ricardo Castanho; de Lima Scodro, Regiane Bertin; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti; Siqueira, Vera Lúcia Dias; de Pádua, Rúbia Andreia Faleiros; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa

    2015-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS), which commonly colonizes the female genital tract and rectum, can cause infections in newborns with varying severity, possibly leading to death. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt (HPTH) medium performance for GBS screening in pregnant women. A descriptive analytical cross-sectional study was performed with 556 pregnant women, of which 496 were at 35-37 weeks of gestation and 60 were at ≥ 38 weeks of gestation. The study was conducted from September 2011 to March 2014 in northern Paraná, Brazil. Vaginal and anorectal clinical specimens from each pregnant woman were plated on sheep blood agar (SBA) and seeded on HPTH medium and Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 496 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, 141 (28.4%) were positive for GBS, based on the combination of the three culture media and clinical specimens. The GBS colonization rates that were detected by each medium were 22.2% for HPTH medium, 21.2% for SBA, and 13.1% for Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 60 pregnant women at ≥ 38 weeks of gestation, seven (11.7%) were positive for GBS. These results demonstrate that HPTH medium and SBA were more sensitive than Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth for GBS screening in pregnant women and good GBS recovery in culture, indicating that the two media should be used together for vaginal and anorectal specimens. PMID:25881083

  11. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Terrones-Saldívar, María del Carmen; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Muñoz-Terrones, María Daniela Enriqueta; Gallegos-González, Roberto Oswaldo; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Reyes-Robles, Martha Elena; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We determined the seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico. Design A cross-sectional survey. Setting Pregnant women were enrolled in the central Mexican city of Aguascalientes. Participants We studied 338 pregnant women who attended prenatal care in 3 public health centres. Primary and secondary outcome measures Women were examined for IgG/IgM antibodies to T. gondii by using commercially available enzyme immunoassays, and an avidity test. Multiple analyses were used to determine the association of T. gondii seropositivity with the characteristics of the pregnant women. Results Of the 338 pregnant women studied, 21 (6.2%) had IgG antibodies to T. gondii, and 1 (4.8%) of them was also positive for IgM antibodies to T. gondii. Avidity of IgG antibodies to T. gondii was high in the IgM-positive sample. Logistic regression analysis of sociodemographic, behavioural and housing variables showed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with white ethnicity (OR=149.4; 95% CI 10.8 to 2054.1; p<0.01), not washing hands before eating (OR=6.41; 95% CI 1.73 to 23.6; p=0.005) and use of latrine (OR=37.6; 95% CI 4.63 to 306.31; p=0.001). Conclusions Results demonstrate that pregnant women in Aguascalientes City have a low seroprevalence of T. gondii infection. However, this low prevalence indicates that most pregnant women are at risk for a primary infection. Factors associated with T. gondii exposure found in this study, including food hygiene, may be useful to determine preventive measures against T. gondii infection and its sequelae. PMID:27371556

  12. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women living in the South-East of the UK: the influence of diet and nutritional supplements on iodine status

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Sarah C.; Walter, Alan; Taylor, Andrew; Wright, John; Rayman, Margaret P.

    2015-01-01

    Iodine is a key component of the thyroid hormones which are crucial for brain development. Pregnant women are vulnerable to iodine deficiency because their requirement for iodine is higher than that of non-pregnant adults. Data on the iodine status of UK pregnant women are sparse and there are no such data in the South East. One hundred pregnant women were recruited to a cross-sectional study at the Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, at their first-trimester visit for an ultrasound scan. Participants provided a spot-urine sample (for the measurement of urinary iodine and creatinine concentrations) and 24-hour excretion of iodine was estimated from the urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio. Women completed a general questionnaire and a food-frequency questionnaire. The median urinary iodine concentration (85·3 μg/l) indicated that the group was iodine deficient by WHO criteria. The median values of the iodine-to-creatinine ratio (122·9 μg/g) and of the estimated 24-hr iodine excretion (151·2 μg/day) were also suggestive of iodine deficiency. Urinary iodine concentration was significantly higher in women taking an iodine-containing prenatal supplement (n=42) than in those not taking such a supplement (P<0·001). In adjusted analyses, milk intake, maternal age and iodine-containing prenatal supplement use were positively associated with estimated 24-hour urinary iodine excretion. Our finding of iodine deficiency in these women gives cause for concern. We suggest that women of childbearing age and pregnant women should be given advice on how to improve their iodine status through dietary means. A national survey of iodine status in UK pregnant women is required. PMID:24398008

  13. Iodised salt contribution to iodine nutrition status of pregnant and lactating women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haihong; Lv, Shengmin; Mu, Zhenguo; Li, Weihong; Zhang, Xia; Wang, Yuchun; Rutherford, Shannon

    2015-07-14

    Sufficient iodine intake by pregnant and lactating women is crucial to their offspring's cognitive development. The aim of the present study was to explore the impact of iodised salt intake on the iodine status of pregnant and lactating women. Thirty towns were selected from 211 towns in the rural areas of Shijiazhuang city using probability proportionate to size sampling in this cross-sectional survey. In each selected town, forty pregnant women and forty lactating women were randomly selected to contribute urine samples to determine iodine content. The median urinary iodine content (UIC) of 1200 pregnant women in all was 146 (interquartile range (IQR) 88-239) μg/l. The median UIC in the first, second and third trimesters were 166 (IQR 92-276) μg/l, 145 (IQR 83-248) μg/l and 134 (IQR 79-221) μg/l, respectively. The median UIC in the first trimester was significantly higher than that in the third trimester (P= 0.04). The median UIC of 1200 lactating women in all was 120 (IQR 66-195) μg/l. Their median UIC in every 4-week block was higher than the WHO criteria except in weeks 25-28 and weeks 33-36 of lactation. Pregnant women's median UIC did not correlate with median salt iodine (MSI) (P= 0.402); however, there was a linear correlation between MSI and the lactating women's median UIC (P= 0.007). Iodised salt failed to provide adequate iodine to pregnant women possibly due to limited intake of iodised salt during pregnancy, though it was found to provide adequate iodine to lactating women in the rural areas of Shijiazhuang city.

  14. Medical and Obstetric Complications among Pregnant Women Aged 45 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Grotegut, Chad A.; Chisholm, Christian A.; Johnson, Lauren N. C.; Brown, Haywood L.; Heine, R. Phillips; James, Andra H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The number of women aged 45 and older who become pregnant is increasing. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of medical and obstetric complications among women aged 45 and older. Methods The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify pregnant woman during admission for delivery. Deliveries were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9-CM) codes. Using ICD-9-CM codes, pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications were identified in women at the time of delivery and were compared for women aged 45 years and older to women under age 35. Outcomes among women aged 35–44 were also compared to women under age 35 to determine if women in this group demonstrated intermediate risk between the older and younger groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications for both older groups relative to women under 35. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were also developed for outcomes at delivery among older women, while controlling for pre-existing medical conditions, multiple gestation, and insurance status, to determine the effect of age on the studied outcomes. Results Women aged 45 and older had higher adjusted odds for death, transfusion, myocardial infarction/ischemia, cardiac arrest, acute heart failure, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, acute renal failure, cesarean delivery, gestational diabetes, fetal demise, fetal chromosomal anomaly, and placenta previa compared to women under 35. Conclusion Pregnant women aged 45 and older experience significantly more medical and obstetric complications and are more likely to die at the time of a delivery than women under age 35, though the absolute risks are low and these events are rare. Further research is needed to determine what associated factors among pregnant women aged 45 and older may

  15. Lifestyles of Adult Omani Women

    PubMed Central

    Al-Habsi, Azza; Kilani, Hashem

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the lifestyles of adult Omani women with regards to physical activity (PA) levels and sedentary behaviour (SB). Methods: The study was carried out between May and June 2013 and included a total of 277 healthy women aged 18–48 years from five governorates in Oman. Total, moderate and vigorous PA levels and walking were self-reported by participants using the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. SB (total sitting time and different types of sitting time) was self-reported using the Domain-Specific Sitting Time Questionnaire on both working and non-working days. PA levels and SB were also objectively measured among 86 of the participants using an accelerometer. Results: The self-reported median ± interquartile range (IQR) total PA was 1,516 ± 3,392 metabolic equivalent of task minutes/week. The self-reported median ± IQR total sitting time was 433 ± 323 minutes/day and 470 ± 423 minutes/day for working and non-working days, respectively. Sitting at work on working days and sitting during leisure activities on non-working days formed the greatest proportion of total sitting time. Overall, accelerometer results indicated that participants spent 62% of their time involved in SB, 35% in light PA and only 3% in moderate to vigorous PA. Conclusion: Sedentary lifestyles were common among the adult Omani women studied. Lack of PA and increased SB is known to increase the risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity. The use of accelerometers to monitor PA and SB among different groups in Oman is highly recommended in order to accurately assess the lifestyle risks of this population. PMID:26052460

  16. The First Serological Study of Coxiella burnetii among Pregnant Women in Iran

    PubMed Central

    KHAYYAT KHAMENEIE, Maryam; ASADI, Javad; KHALILI, Mohammad; ABIRI, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    Background: Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. There is no information about this disease in pregnant women in Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of C. burnetii infection among pregnant women in southwestern (Ahvaz) and northern (Parsabad) Iran and further to comparison its prevalence in normal and abnormal pregnancies. Methods: A total of 400 samples were collected randomly from pregnant women who referred to diagnostic laboratories of Ahvaz and Parsabad in 2014. An indirect ELISA kit, designed in Veterinary Faculty, was used to detect the specific antibodies against phase II humanC. burnetii in serum samples. Results: The overall prevalence of C. burnetii in sera from pregnant women was 29.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 25–34%). The prevalence of C. burnetii infection was significantly different in Ahvaz and Parsabad with, respectively, 22 (95% CI: 16–28%) and 36.5% (95% CI: 30–43%). Total prevalence of C. burnetii infection in serum was significantly higher in women with abnormal pregnancy history (39.8%) compared with normal pregnancies (23.8%). Furthermore, maternal age had significant association with seropositivity and the prevalence increased with maternal age. This could be due to higher probability of encountering C. burnetii in older women. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated ahigh seroprevalence of C. burnetii infection among pregnant women in Iran for the first time. Seropositivity was associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and maternal age. The pregnant women who experienced abnormal pregnancy had higher seroprevalence of C. burnetii compared to women with normal pregnancy. PMID:27252922

  17. Early Phthalates Exposure in Pregnant Women Is Associated with Alteration of Thyroid Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chih-Hsin; Liang, Wei-Yen; Li, Sih-Syuan; Huang, Han-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies revealed that phthalate exposure could alter thyroid hormones during the last trimester of pregnancy. However, thyroid hormones are crucial for fetal development during the first trimester. We aimed to clarify the effect of phthalate exposure on thyroid hormones during early pregnancy. Method We recruited 97 pregnant women who were offered an amniocentesis during the early trimester from an obstetrics clinic in southern Taiwan from 2013 to 2014. After signing an informed consent form, we collected amniotic fluid and urine samples from pregnant women to analyze 11 metabolites, including mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-butyl phthalate (MnBP), of 9 phthalates using liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. We collected blood samples from each subject to analyze serum thyroid hormones including thyroxine (T4), free T4, and thyroid-binding globulin (TBG). Results Three phthalate metabolites were discovered to be >80% in the urine samples of the pregnant women: MEP (88%), MnBP (81%) and MECPP (86%). Median MnBP and MECPP levels in pregnant Taiwanese women were 21.5 and 17.6 μg/g-creatinine, respectively, that decreased after the 2011 Taiwan DEHP scandal. Results of principal component analysis suggested two major sources (DEHP and other phthalates) of phthalates exposure in pregnant women. After adjusting for age, gestational age, TBG, urinary creatinine, and other phthalate metabolites, we found a significantly negative association between urinary MnBP levels and serum T4 (β = –5.41; p-value = 0.012; n = 97) in pregnant women using Bonferroni correction. Conclusion We observed a potential change in the thyroid hormones of pregnant women during early pregnancy after DnBP exposure. Additional study is necessitated to clarify these associations. PMID:27455052

  18. Cadmium levels in maternal blood, fetal cord blood, and placental tissues of pregnant women who smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhnert, P.M.; Kuhnert, B.R.; Bottoms, S.F.; Erhard, P.

    1982-04-15

    Previous studies have reported that cigarette smoking is a major source of exposure to cadmium (Cd). This study was carried out to determine the degree of exposure to Cd of pregnant women who smoke and to determine the degree of exposure to Cd of pregnant women who smoke and to determine the disposition of the Cd in the maternal-fetoplacental unit. Our data reveal that pregnant women who smoke expose themselves and their placentas to levels of Cd higher than those to which they would normally be exposed. The percentage increase in Cd due to smoking was 32% in the placenta and 59% in maternal blood; these increases are statistically significant. The mean levels of Cd in maternal blood, cord blood, and placental tissues of pregnant women who smoked were all higher than the mean levels of Cd in the same tissues and blood of pregnant women who did not smoke. In addition, the levels of Cd in the maternal blood of smokers were significantly higher than levels of Cd in the cord blood of their infants; this relationship was not found in nonsmokers. On the basis of the Cd data on cord blood and placental tissues, the fetuses found in nonsmokers. On the basis of the Cd data on cord blood and placental tissues, the fetuses of pregnant women who smoke apparently receive very little additional exposure to Cd; however, this does not lessen concern for the fetus. The presently reported increase in exposure to Cd of pregnant women due to smoking must be viewed as undesirable because Cd has been shown to alter placental function in animals, and because Cd has no known biologic function.

  19. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus among pregnant women and control subjects in China.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wei; Sui, Jian-Chao; Zhang, Xiang-Yan; Qian, Ai-Dong; Chen, Jia; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-03-01

    Hepatitis E infection, caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV), is an important global public health concern, with particularly high mortality in pregnant women. China is generally judged to be an HEV-endemic area, but epidemiological data for HEV among pregnant women are limited. Between June 2011 and July 2013, a case-control study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence and potential risk factors associated with the acquisition of HEV infection by pregnant women in China. Nine-hundred and ninety pregnant women who visited hospitals for antenatal follow-up or medication in Qingdao and Weihai and 965 control subjects matched by age, gender and residence were examined for the presence of anti-HEV IgG and IgM antibodies by enzyme immunoassays. Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics from the study subjects were obtained. The overall prevalence of anti-HEV IgG in all 1,955 samples was 20.7%. In pregnant women, 16.2% of samples were anti-HEV IgG positive whereas, in control subjects 25.3% of samples were anti-HEV IgG positive, (P < 0.01). For anti-HEV IgM detection, 62 (3.2%) of the 1,955 serum samples were positive and the seroprevalence in pregnant women and control subjects was 2.6% and 3.6%, respectively. Age, contact with cats, contact with pigs and exposure to soil were found to be associated with HEV infection. These findings demonstrated the high prevalence of HEV and the considerable potential for the transmission of HEV infection in pregnant women in China. PMID:25164987

  20. Working memory in pregnant women: Relation to estrogen and antepartum depression.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Elizabeth; Phillips, Shauna-Dae; Duff-Canning, Sarah J; Evans, Kelly L; Merrill, Mia; Pinsonneault, Julia K; Sadée, Wolfgang; Soares, Claudio N; Steiner, Meir

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and cognition". Subjective changes in concentration and memory are commonly reported by women during the second or third trimesters of pregnancy, but the nature of the problem is poorly understood. We hypothesized that these self-reports might reflect difficulties in working memory (WM). It was further hypothesized that antepartum depression (depression arising during pregnancy) may play an etiological role, either on its own or due to secondary changes in endocrine function or sleep. Using WM tasks that emphasized executive control processes mediated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) we compared pregnant women tested at 34-36 weeks of gestation (n = 28) with age- and education-matched non-pregnant controls (n = 26). All pregnant women were screened for depression. Evidence of a WM disturbance was found, and was evident only among pregnant women showing depressive symptoms. In contrast, pregnant women who were not depressed showed WM performance that equalled, or even significantly exceeded, non-pregnant controls. No significant differences were observed on control tests of other cognitive functions. Multiple regression revealed that serum estradiol concentrations, along with severity of depressive affect but not sleep disruption, significantly predicted variation in the WM scores. In agreement with studies of estradiol and WM in other contexts, higher estradiol was associated with better WM, while higher levels of depressive symptoms predicted poorer WM. We conclude that memory disturbance during gestation might not be as widespread as commonly believed, but can be seen among women experiencing antepartum depression. The high level of WM performance found in healthy, non-depressed, pregnant women is discussed from an adaptationist perspective.

  1. Barriers to receiving substance abuse treatment among rural pregnant women in Kentucky.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Afton; Shannon, Lisa

    2012-12-01

    Research presenting outcomes for women who enter substance abuse treatment during pregnancy consistently shows benefits. While treatment has nearly universal benefits, there are many barriers to seeking substance abuse treatment for pregnant women. The purpose of this study is to explore barriers for rural pregnant women seeking substance abuse treatment. There were three eligibility criteria for study participation: (1) aged 18 and older, (2) pregnant, and (3) undergoing short-term inpatient detoxification at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center. Eighty-five rural women (N = 85) were included in the analysis. Substance use history and previous treatment were assessed with measures adapted from the Addiction Severity Index. Treatment barriers were measured with three qualitative questions and were coded into four overarching categories: availability, accessibility, affordability, and acceptability barriers. This sample had an extensive substance use history. Almost all participants had used alcohol (98%), marijuana (98%), illicit opiates (99%), and cigarettes (97%). On average, participants reported about two barriers to receiving treatment (Mean = 1.8; SD = 1.3), with over 80% of the sample reporting having experienced any barrier to treatment. The majority experienced acceptability (51%) and accessibility (49%) barriers. Twenty-six percent (26%) of the sample reported availability barriers. A smaller percentage of participants reported affordability barriers (13%). Rural pregnant women seeking substance abuse treatment face many obstacles to receiving needed treatment. More studies on barriers to substance abuse treatment among rural pregnant women are needed. Identifying these barriers can help in improving treatment access and services.

  2. Family Foundations: A New Program for Pregnant and Parenting Women Offenders with Substance Abuse Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiewel, Brenda; Mosley, Toni

    2006-01-01

    A new program in California partners the California Department of Corrections with a non-profit drug treatment agency on behalf of pregnant or parenting women who are drug offenders with substance abuse histories. The women are sentenced to the family foundations facility for one year and receive a range of special services to prepare for…

  3. Patients' Characteristics and Providers' Attitudes: Predictors of Screening Pregnant Women for Illicit Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerker, Bonnie D.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Leventhal, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study's aim was to determine how patients' and providers' characteristics affect hospital providers' decisions to screen pregnant and postpartum women for illicit substances. Methods: A retrospective design was used. Participants included all low-income women (N=1,100) who delivered at an urban teaching hospital over a 12-month…

  4. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  5. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  6. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  7. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  8. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... research. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.204 are applicable to this section. ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  9. Strategies Pregnant Rural Women Employ to Deal with Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored strategies from the Intimate Partner Violence Strategy Index (IPVSI) that a sub-set of 20 rural, low-income, abused women of a larger, multi-site, mixed-method study employed to deal with Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) during the perinatal period. We conducted 32 in-depth interviews with women who were pregnant (N = 12) and/or…

  10. Effects of Personality on Psychiatric and Somatic Symptoms in Pregnant Women: The Role of Pregnancy Worries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puente, Cecilia Penacoba; Monge, Francisco Javier Carmona; Abellan, Isabel Carretero; Morales, Dolores Marin

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of personality and pregnancy worries on pregnant women's mental and physical health with 154 women in the first half of their gestational period. Self-report questionnaires were used to collect information about control variables, sociodemographic (age, educational level, and work), and pregnancy variables…

  11. [Total protein and immunoglobulin concentrations in the parotid saliva of pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Donat, H; Tymnik, G; Bernstein, L; Knauthe, H; Kessler, L

    1977-01-01

    The content of total protein and immunglobulins in the parotid saliva and blood serum of pregnant women and healthy test persons has been determined by the biuret method and radial immunofiffusion. It was stated that total protein and IgG in the parotid saliva were higher in pregnant women than in healthy test persons, whereas the IgA-levels don't show any differences. IgM was not measurable in the parotid saliva. There was no relationship between saliva and serum immunglobulins. During the pregnancy show the parotid glands another typ of reaction than nonpregnant women.

  12. Promoting positive motherhood among nulliparous pregnant women with an intense fear of childbirth: RCT intervention.

    PubMed

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Read, Sanna; Rouhe, Hanna; Halmesmäki, Erja; Toivanen, Riikka Maria; Tokola, Maiju Ilona; Saisto, Terhi

    2012-05-01

    This RCT intervention among nulliparous pregnant women with an intense fear of childbirth sought to promote preparedness for childbirth and to enhance positive parenting. Pregnant women (n = 8,611) filled in a 'fear of childbirth' questionnaire. Nulliparous women with severe fear of childbirth (n = 355) were randomized into intervention (n = 131; 41 refused) and control (n = 224) groups. They rated themselves on a preparedness scale in middle and late pregnancy, and on a motherhood scale three months after childbirth. The intervention included six psycho-education group sessions during pregnancy and one after childbirth. This intervention increased the mothers' preparedness for childbirth, which predicted an increase in positive motherhood. PMID:21963681

  13. Relationship between air pollution and pre-eclampsia in pregnant women: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Nahidi, F; Gholami, R; Rashidi, Y; Majd, H Alavi

    2014-01-09

    Pre-eclampsia is the main cause of maternal and fetal death and disability worldwide. Its incidence in the Islamic Republic of Iran is 5%-12%. Air pollution has been reported to be one of the causative factors, and this case-control study determined its effect on pre-eclampsia in 195 pregnant women (65 with pre-eclampsia and 130 without) admitted to hospitals in Tehran. Women were divided into high and low exposure groups according to the mean density of exposure to pollutants during pregnancy. There was no statistically significant relationship between exposure to air pollutants including CO, particulate matter, SO2, NO2 and O3 and pre-eclampsia. The combined effect was also not significant. Air pollution is one of the problems of modern society and its avoidance is almost impossible for pregnant women. This study should reduce concern about pregnant women living in polluted cities.

  14. Antiviral therapy for hepatitis C: Has anything changed for pregnant/lactating women?

    PubMed

    Spera, Anna Maria; Eldin, Tarek Kamal; Tosone, Grazia; Orlando, Raffaele

    2016-04-28

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects about 3% of the world's population, with the highest prevalence in individuals under 40. The prevalence in pregnant women varies with geographical distribution (highest in developing countries). Prevalence also increases in sub-populations of women at high risk for blood-transmitted infections. HCV infection in pregnancy represents a non-negligible problem. However, most of the past antiviral regimens cannot be routinely offered to pregnant or breastfeeding women because of their side effects. We briefly reviewed the issue of treatment of HCV infection in pregnant/breastfeeding women focusing on the effects of the new direct-acting antivirals on fertility, pregnancy and lactation in animal studies and on the potential risk for humans based on the pharmacokinetic properties of each drug. Currently, all new therapy regimens are contraindicated in this setting because of lack of sufficient safety information and adequate measures of contraception are still routinely recommended for female patients of childbearing potential. PMID:27134703

  15. Physiological Effects of Aquatic Exercise in Pregnant Women on Bed Rest.

    PubMed

    Sechrist, Dawndra M; Tiongco, Cynthia Gorter; Whisner, Sandra M; Geddie, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study examined the effectiveness of an Aquatic Exercise Program (AEP) provided by an occupational therapist for pregnant women on hospitalized bed rest. Researchers conducted a retrospective analysis of medical records of hospitalized pregnant women comparing those who attended an AEP (n = 19) to a control group who received no AEP (n = 12). Statistical tests were used to assess evidence of differences in length of gestation as well as blood pressure and amniotic fluid index (AFI) at discharge. Women who received an AEP had increased AFI and length of gestation compared to the control group. This study supports the use of an AEP as an intervention for pregnant women on prescribed bed rest. Further research is recommended to validate these findings with a larger sample.

  16. Need for population specific validation of a portable metabolic testing system: a case of sedentary pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Yeo, SeonAe; Ronis, David L; Antonakos, Cathy L; Roberts, Katherine; Hayashi, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Commercially available portable metabolic systems have been validated with samples of young, healthy, and well-fit subjects, but use of these systems with a special population, such as healthy but sedentary pregnant women, requires a unique set of considerations. These include a woman's limited testing time necessary for fetal safety, relatively low oxygen consumption, and the unique physiology of pregnancy (woman, the placenta, and the fetus). The purpose of this study was to validate a portable metabolic testing system (VO2000) with healthy sedentary pregnant women. A total of 9 sedentary pregnant women who averaged 30 years of age (SD=3), 93 kg (SD=19) weight, 163 cm (SD=7) height, and at 19 weeks' gestation (SD=5) volunteered to participate. Submaximum fitness tests using the Cornell protocol were conducted once with two systems (VO2000 and CPX/D, a reference) simultaneously, and then subsequently twice with one system (VO2000). The VO2000 consistently overestimated VO2 measurement, compared to the same manufacturer's reference system, by 4.4 +/- 3.6 (SD) ml/kg/min, and when VO2000 was used twice, the mean difference was statistically significant (1.0 +/- 1.8 [SD] ml/kg/min; t(45) = 3.9, p < .001). The results of the study show that although VO2000 is an established and validated portable metabolic system for measurement on adult males and females who are relatively well fit, this portable system consistently overestimates VO2 readings for pregnant women compared to standard full-size system. Measurements, when repeated, were not consistent.

  17. Nausea in pregnancy: attitudes among pregnant women and general practitioners on treatment and pregnancy care

    PubMed Central

    Heitmann, Kristine; Svendsen, Hans Christian; Sporsheim, Ingvild H.; Holst, Lone

    2016-01-01

    Objective Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP) is very common, and may have great impact on a woman’s life. The aim of this study was to explore thoughts and attitudes among Norwegian pregnant women and GPs on treatment of NVP and pregnancy care. Design Focus-group study. Setting and subjects Separate focus-group discussions were conducted with pregnant women and GPs. Results Two focus-group discussions were conducted with pregnant women and two with GPs. The GPs thought it was important to normalize NVP symptoms. However, the women felt their distress due to NVP was trivialized by the GPs. The women were sceptical towards the use of medicines while pregnant, and avoidance was sought despite being ill. The GPs appeared uncertain with respect to medical treatment of NVP, which was stated to be considered only after progression to quite severe symptoms. Sick leave seemed to be an important part of the treatment regime applied by the GPs. The women had good experiences with graded sick leave. Conclusion This Norwegian study identifies attitudes among GPs and pregnant women that may act as obstacles to appropriate care for women with NVP. The pregnant women and the GPs seemed to talk at cross-purposes; GPs’ normalization of the symptoms made the women feel that their distress due to NVP was trivialized by the GPs. Our results indicate that pregnant women with NVP requiring medical treatment probably need comprehensive and reassuring information about treatment options before considering using any medicines. Key pointsNausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP) is very common, and considered to be of clinical significance for 35% of women. While the GPs agreed on the importance of normalizing the symptoms, the women felt their distress was trivialized, and missed being properly evaluated.Both the GPs and the women showed a reluctant attitude to medical treatment of NVP.The GPs gave the impression of considering medical treatment only after progression of

  18. Donating umbilical cord blood to a public bank or storing it in a private bank: knowledge and preference of blood donors and of pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Screnci, Maria; Murgi, Emilia; Pirrè, Guglielma; Valente, Elisabetta; Gesuiti, Paola; Corona, Francesca; Girelli, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    Background. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a source of stem cells for allogeneic haematopoietic transplantation in paediatric and adult patients with haematological malignancies and other indications. Voluntary donation is the basis for the success of unrelated UCB transplantation programmes. In the last few years a growing number of private banks offer their services to expectant parents, to store UCB for future use. The debate concerning UCB donation and private preservation has been ongoing for several years. The aims of this single centre study were to explore knowledge about UCB stem cells and attitudes towards voluntary UCB donation or private UCB preservation among both blood donors and pregnant women. Materials and methods. This study was conducted at the “Sapienza” University of Rome. Two types of anonymous questionnaires were prepared: one type was administered to 1,000 blood donors while the other type was distributed to 300 pregnant women. Results. Most blood donors as well as the majority of pregnant women had some general knowledge about UCB (89% and 93%, respectively) and were aware of the possibility of donating it (82% and 95%). However, the level of knowledge regarding current therapeutic use resulted generally low, only 91 (10%) among informed blood donors and 69 (31%) among informed pregnant women gave a correct answer. The survey revealed a preference for voluntary donation both among blood donors (76%) and among pregnant woman (55%). Indeed, a minority of blood donors (6.5%) and of pregnant women (9%) would opt to store UCB for private use. Discussion. The study raises the following considerations: (i) the large support for UCB donation expressed by blood donors and by pregnant women suggests that UCB preservation does not represent an obstacle to the expansion of UCB donation and to development of unrelated transplantation programmes; (ii) information about UCB donation and preservation should be carefully given by professionals and

  19. Women at Midlife: Implications for Theories of Women's Adult Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippert, Laurel

    1997-01-01

    Discusses research on midlife transitions in women and its implications for theories of women's adult development. Presents findings on menopause, the postparental period, and the roles of women at midlife. Offers several theoretical approaches in light of research findings and makes recommendations for future research. Suggests implications for…

  20. Risk factors of hypertensive disorders among Chinese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rong; Li, Ying-xue; Di, Hai-hong; Li, Zhi-wei; Zhang, Chun-hua; Shen, Xian-ping; Zhu, Jun-feng; Yan, Wei-rong

    2015-12-01

    -induced hypertension, low maternal educational level, and poor relationship with their parents-in-law were independent risk factors for hypertensive disorders among Chinese pregnant women. PMID:26670428

  1. The Prevalence of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Iranian Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ghafari, Mahin; Baigi, Vali; Cheraghi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is defined as the presence of bacteria in urine without having signs and symptoms. The aim of this meta-analysis was to estimate the overall prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among Iranian pregnant women. Methods Major national and international databases were searched up to November 2015, including Scientific Information Database, MagIran, Web of Science, Medline, Scopus, Science Direct and Ovid. The checklist of the STROBE statement was used for evaluating the quality of reporting. The extracted data were analyzed and the results were reported using a random-effects model with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results From 3709 obtained studies, 20 included in the meta-analysis, which involved 15108 pregnant women. The overall prevalence of ASB was 0.13 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.17). The prevalence of ASB in the northern and southern regions of Iran was 0.13 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.18) and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.16), respectively. Conclusion Prevalence of ASB among Iranian pregnant women is considerable. Due to the complications of ASB for pregnant women and their children, preventative planning and control of ASB among pregnant women in Iran is necessary. PMID:27336476

  2. Assessment of Placental Stiffness Using Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography in Pregnant Women with Fetal Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Göya, Cemil; Tunç, Senem; Teke, Memik; Hattapoğlu, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate placental stiffness measured by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in pregnant women in the second trimester with a normal fetus versus those with structural anomalies and non-structural findings. Materials and Methods Forty pregnant women carrying a fetus with structural anomalies diagnosed sonographically at 18–28 weeks of gestation comprised the study group. The control group consisted of 34 healthy pregnant women with a sonographically normal fetus at a similar gestational age. Placental shear wave velocity (SWV) was measured by ARFI elastography and compared between the two groups. Structural anomalies and non-structural findings were scored based on sonographic markers. Placental stiffness measurements were compared among fetus anomaly categories. Doppler parameters of umbilical and uterine arteries were compared with placental SWV measurements. Results All placental SWV measurements, including minimum SWV, maximum SWV, and mean SWV were significantly higher in the study group than the control group ([0.86 ± 0.2, 0.74 ± 0.1; p < 0.001], [1.89 ± 0.7, 1.59 ± 0.5; p = 0.04], and [1.26 ± 0.4, 1.09 ± 0.2; p = 0.01]), respectively. Conclusion Placental stiffness evaluated by ARFI elastography during the second trimester in pregnant women with fetuses with congenital structural anomalies is higher than that of pregnant women with normal fetuses. PMID:26957906

  3. Comparison of Vitamin D levels in cases with preeclampsia, eclampsia and healthy pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Bakacak, Murat; Serin, Salih; Ercan, Onder; Köstü, Bülent; Avci, Fazıl; Kılınç, Metin; Kıran, Hakan; Kiran, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess vitamin D levels in eclampsia, preeclampsia and healthy pregnant women and the role of vitamin D deficiency in the etiology of preeclampsia (PE). Forty healthy pregnant women, 83 preeclamptic and 32 eclamptic pregnant women were included. Maternal and infant medical records were reviewed. Blood samples were obtained from all groups. Demographics and serum vitamin D levels were compared between the groups. No statistical differences were observed in age, gravidity, parity, weight, height and BMI between the three groups. Week of pregnancy and weight at birth in eclamptic and preeclamptic patients were lower compared to the healthy patients (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher in eclamptic (P<0.001) and preeclamptic patients (P<0.001) compared to the healthy pregnant group. The rate of cesarean section was found to be higher in preeclamptic and eclamptic patients (P<0.001). Vitamin D levels were lower in both preeclamptic and eclamptic patients compared to healthy normotensive pregnant women (P<0.001). Preeclamptic and eclamptic women were similar in terms of the data compared. Vitamin D supplementation is considered to decrease the risk of both preeclampsia and eclampsia in the patient population at risk for vitamin D deficiency.

  4. Knowledge and Attitude of Medical Nurses toward Oral Health and Oral Health Care of Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Suzana; Saddki, Norkhafizah; Yusoff, Azizah

    2016-01-01

    Background This study assessed the knowledge and attitudes of medical nurses regarding oral health and oral health care of pregnant women. Methods This cross sectional study of 133 nurses in the district of Tumpat, Kelantan (Malaysia) used self-administered questionnaires. Results Most nurses knew that dental plaque is associated with periodontal disease (97.7%). However, most nurses erroneously believed that tooth decay (86.5%) and excessive sugar consumption (87.2%) led to periodontal disease. About half of the nurses knew about the relationship between periodontal disease of pregnant women and low birth weight (43.6%) and preterm birth (48.9%). Many nurses had the misconception that the developing foetus draws calcium from the mothers’ teeth (78.2%). Most nurses had good attitudes toward improving their oral health knowledge (97.0%) and agreed they should help to deliver oral health education to pregnant women (94.0%). Age, length of service as a nurse, and length of service in antenatal care had no effect on the scores for the nurses’ knowledge and attitude regarding oral health and oral health care of pregnant women. Conclusion Medical nurses had limited knowledge about oral health of pregnant women and had some misunderstandings about oral health, although they had good attitudes. Age, length of service as a nurse, and length service in antenatal care had no effect on the knowledge and attitude scores of the nurses. PMID:27540327

  5. Effect of Mindfulness Meditation on Perceived Stress Scores and Autonomic Function Tests of Pregnant Indian Women

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Reena; Kohli, Sangeeta; Batra, Swaraj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Various pregnancy complications like hypertension, preeclampsia have been strongly correlated with maternal stress. One of the connecting links between pregnancy complications and maternal stress is mind-body intervention which can be part of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Biologic measures of stress during pregnancy may get reduced by such interventions. Aim To evaluate the effect of Mindfulness meditation on perceived stress scores and autonomic function tests of pregnant Indian women. Materials and Methods Pregnant Indian women of 12 weeks gestation were randomised to two treatment groups: Test group with Mindfulness meditation and control group with their usual obstetric care. The effect of Mindfulness meditation on perceived stress scores and cardiac sympathetic functions and parasympathetic functions (Heart rate variation with respiration, lying to standing ratio, standing to lying ratio and respiratory rate) were evaluated on pregnant Indian women. Results There was a significant decrease in perceived stress scores, a significant decrease of blood pressure response to cold pressor test and a significant increase in heart rate variability in the test group (p< 0.05, significant) which indicates that mindfulness meditation is a powerful modulator of the sympathetic nervous system and can thereby reduce the day-to-day perceived stress in pregnant women. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that mindfulness meditation improves parasympathetic functions in pregnant women and is a powerful modulator of the sympathetic nervous system during pregnancy. PMID:27190795

  6. Older Adult Women Learners in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mary Alice

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines the potential for personal growth, development, and learning of older adult women who will have many productive years in the workforce. What implications are there for adult education communities who will interact with these older women? How do they adapt to the educational environment, and what social support will enable…

  7. Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women and Women of Reproductive Age with Possible Zika Virus Exposure - United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Oduyebo, Titilope; Petersen, Emily E; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Mead, Paul S; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Renquist, Christina M; Ellington, Sascha R; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J Erin; Powers, Ann M; Villanueva, Julie; Galang, Romeo R; Dieke, Ada; Muñoz, Jorge L; Honein, Margaret A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-02-12

    CDC has updated its interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women during a Zika virus outbreak (1). Updated guidelines include a new recommendation to offer serologic testing to asymptomatic pregnant women (women who do not report clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease) who have traveled to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission. Testing can be offered 2-12 weeks after pregnant women return from travel. This update also expands guidance to women who reside in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission, and includes recommendations for screening, testing, and management of pregnant women and recommendations for counseling women of reproductive age (15-44 years). Pregnant women who reside in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission have an ongoing risk for infection throughout their pregnancy. For pregnant women with clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease,* testing is recommended during the first week of illness. For asymptomatic pregnant women residing in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission, testing is recommended at the initiation of prenatal care with follow-up testing mid-second trimester. Local health officials should determine when to implement testing of asymptomatic pregnant women based on information about levels of Zika virus transmission and laboratory capacity. Health care providers should discuss reproductive life plans, including pregnancy intention and timing, with women of reproductive age in the context of the potential risks associated with Zika virus infection.

  8. Comparative Evaluation of Oral Health Knowledge, Practices and Attitude of Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women, and Their Awareness Regarding Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Ashish; Mohan, Sugandha; Bhaskar, Nandini; Walia, Prabhjot Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Background Adverse pregnancy outcomes are undesirable events occurring during pregnancy and childbirth in mother or child, such as Preterm Low Birth Weight (PLBW) and preeclampsia. There is growing evidence that periodontitis may be a risk factor for preterm birth even after adjusting for known risk factors. Aim 1. To determine the knowledge and attitude of pregnant females about oral health. 2. To evaluate the oral hygiene practices of pregnant females. 3. To evaluate their awareness regarding effect of oral health on adverse pregnancy outcomes. 4. To assess whether there was any significant difference from their non pregnant counter parts. 5. To evaluate whether their awareness towards dental treatment had increased after conceiving. Materials and Methods 200 pregnant and 200 non-pregnant women filled up a validated questionnaire which comprised of questions on personal data, oral hygiene knowledge, attitude, oral hygiene practices and their awareness regarding the correlation of oral health to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Statistical Analysis Analyses were conducted using SPSS for Windows (version 15.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results The results indicate no statistically significant differences in the variables assessed in both the groups, indicating that no further knowledge had been imparted to the women after they conceived. 96% women of both groups (p>0.05) had received no knowledge from the gynaecologist regarding the impact of oral health on pregnancy outcomes. 93.9% of pregnant women, and 89.5% of non pregnant women (p>0.05) did not go for routine dental check-ups. Only 3% of pregnant women were aware of oral health having a correlation with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Conclusion In our study, pregnancy did little to change future attitudes to dental care. To provide better oral health care, more knowledge needs to be made available to the pregnant women and the medical community. PMID:26674176

  9. Possible Zika Virus Infection Among Pregnant Women - United States and Territories, May 2016.

    PubMed

    Simeone, Regina M; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Petersen, Emily E; Galang, Romeo R; Oduyebo, Titilope; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Newsome, Kimberly B; Pérez-Padilla, Janice; Williams, Tonya R; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is a cause of microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1), and it is the first known mosquito-borne infection to cause congenital anomalies in humans. The establishment of a comprehensive surveillance system to monitor pregnant women with Zika virus infection will provide data to further elucidate the full range of potential outcomes for fetuses and infants of mothers with asymptomatic and symptomatic Zika virus infection during pregnancy. In February 2016, Zika virus disease and congenital Zika virus infections became nationally notifiable conditions in the United States (2). Cases in pregnant women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection who have either 1) symptomatic infection or 2) asymptomatic infection with diagnosed complications of pregnancy can be reported as cases of Zika virus disease to ArboNET* (2), CDC's national arboviral diseases surveillance system. Under existing interim guidelines from the Council for State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE), asymptomatic Zika virus infections in pregnant women who do not have known pregnancy complications are not reportable. ArboNET does not currently include pregnancy surveillance information (e.g., gestational age or pregnancy exposures) or pregnancy outcomes. To understand the full impact of infection on the fetus and neonate, other systems are needed for reporting and active monitoring of pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Thus, in collaboration with state, local, tribal, and territorial health departments, CDC established two surveillance systems to monitor pregnancies and congenital outcomes among women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection(†) in the United States and territories: 1) the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR),(§) which monitors pregnant women residing in U.S. states and all U.S. territories except Puerto Rico, and 2) the Zika Active Pregnancy Surveillance System (ZAPSS), which monitors pregnant women

  10. Possible Zika Virus Infection Among Pregnant Women - United States and Territories, May 2016.

    PubMed

    Simeone, Regina M; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Petersen, Emily E; Galang, Romeo R; Oduyebo, Titilope; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Newsome, Kimberly B; Pérez-Padilla, Janice; Williams, Tonya R; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A

    2016-05-27

    Zika virus is a cause of microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1), and it is the first known mosquito-borne infection to cause congenital anomalies in humans. The establishment of a comprehensive surveillance system to monitor pregnant women with Zika virus infection will provide data to further elucidate the full range of potential outcomes for fetuses and infants of mothers with asymptomatic and symptomatic Zika virus infection during pregnancy. In February 2016, Zika virus disease and congenital Zika virus infections became nationally notifiable conditions in the United States (2). Cases in pregnant women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection who have either 1) symptomatic infection or 2) asymptomatic infection with diagnosed complications of pregnancy can be reported as cases of Zika virus disease to ArboNET* (2), CDC's national arboviral diseases surveillance system. Under existing interim guidelines from the Council for State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE), asymptomatic Zika virus infections in pregnant women who do not have known pregnancy complications are not reportable. ArboNET does not currently include pregnancy surveillance information (e.g., gestational age or pregnancy exposures) or pregnancy outcomes. To understand the full impact of infection on the fetus and neonate, other systems are needed for reporting and active monitoring of pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Thus, in collaboration with state, local, tribal, and territorial health departments, CDC established two surveillance systems to monitor pregnancies and congenital outcomes among women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection(†) in the United States and territories: 1) the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR),(§) which monitors pregnant women residing in U.S. states and all U.S. territories except Puerto Rico, and 2) the Zika Active Pregnancy Surveillance System (ZAPSS), which monitors pregnant women

  11. Characteristics of Low-income Racial/Ethnic Minority Pregnant Women Screening Positive for Alcohol Risk.

    PubMed

    Washio, Yukiko; Mericle, Amy A; Cassey, Heather; Daubert, Angela M; Kirby, Kimberly C

    2016-08-01

    The current study examined the prevalence and characteristics associated with alcohol risk among low-income, predominantly racial/ethnic minority pregnant women in an urban area. We surveyed 225 pregnant women receiving nutritional care. Twenty-six percent screened positive for alcohol risk. Current smoking status (AOR 2.9, p = 0.018, 95 % CI [1.2, 7.0]) and a history of marijuana use (AOR 3.1, p = 0.001, 95 % CI [1.6, 6.2]) were the strongest predictors of alcohol risk status. This study underscores the need for screening for alcohol risk, smoking, and illicit drug use among low-income, racial/ethnic minority pregnant women and highlights the usefulness of the TWEAK in identifying alcohol risk in WIC settings. PMID:26187172

  12. Development of vaccines to prevent malaria in pregnant women: WHO MALVAC meeting report.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Clara; Moorthy, Vasee S; Reed, Zarifah; Bardají, Azucena; Alonso, Pedro; Brown, Graham V

    2011-09-01

    The major public health consequences of malaria in pregnancy have long been acknowledged. However, further information is still required for development and implementation of a malaria vaccine specifically directed to prevent malaria in pregnant women and improve maternal, fetal and infant outcomes. The WHO Malaria Vaccine Advisory Committee (MALVAC) provides guidance to the WHO on strategic priorities and research needs for development of vaccines to prevent malaria. Here we summarize the discussions and conclusions of a MALVAC scientific forum meeting on considerations in the development of vaccines to prevent malaria in pregnant women. This report includes brief summaries of what is known, and major knowledge gaps in disease burden estimation, pathogenesis and immunity, and the challenges with current preventive strategies for malaria in pregnancy. We conclude with the formulation of a conceptual framework for research and development for vaccines to prevent malaria in pregnant women.

  13. The Necessity of Awareness of Early Symptoms of Placental Abruption Among Pregnant Japanese Women

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shunji; Shinmura, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012, the recommendation for immediate contact and visit to obstetric institutions by pregnant women was emphasized by The Japan Obstetric Compensation System for Cerebral Palsy (JOCSC). In this study, we examined whether or not the increased awareness has led to the improvement of perinatal outcomes of placental abruption managed at private clinics. Methods We reviewed the obstetric records of 38 singleton pregnant women complicated by placental abruption that developed at home, and were managed at private clinics from April 2008 through April 2016. Results The perinatal outcomes, specifically the rate of cases with ≥ 1 hour time interval between symptom onset and clinic visit, have not changed significantly after the intervention. Conclusion The provision of information regarding the early clinical symptoms associated with placental abruption in pregnant women has not been well documented in Japan. PMID:27540442

  14. Epidemiological and clinical reasons for vaccination against pertussis and influenza in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Gawlak, Maciej; Życińska, Katarzyna; Wardyn, Kazimierz; Kuchar, Ernest

    2015-01-01

    Vaccinations in pregnancy are an important aspect of prenatal care for improving both maternal health and neonatal outcomes. Despite the fact that protection against some infectious diseases for pregnant women can be easily provided through immunizations, current coverage rates are low. Two vaccines are notably recommended during pregnancy: influenza and the combined tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine. In this review the authors discuss current recommendations for vaccination against pertussis and influenza in pregnant women in terms of epidemiological, clinical, and immunological reasons, taking into account safety and effectiveness. Promoting patients' awareness about pertussis and influenza and encouraging general practitioners, nurses and obstetricians to recommend the pertussis booster and influenza vaccine will hopefully increase the number of pregnant women who choose to become vaccinated. PMID:25398316

  15. Impact of intimate partner violence on pregnant women's mental health: mental distress and mental strength.

    PubMed

    Rose, Linda; Alhusen, Jeanne; Bhandari, Shreya; Soeken, Karen; Marcantonio, Kristen; Bullock, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis

    2010-02-01

    The mental health consequences of living with intimate partner violence (IPV) are substantial. Despite the growing awareness of the incidence of depression and PTSD in women experiencing IPV, few studies have examined prospectively the experience of IPV during pregnancy and the impact of the abuse on women's mental health. As a component of a larger clinical trial of an intervention for pregnant abused women, 27 women participated in a qualitative study of their responses to the abuse in the context of pregnancy and parenting. Results indicate that women's changing perceptions of self was related to mental distress, mental health, or both mental distress and mental health. PMID:20070224

  16. [Intakes of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women in the northeast of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Tijerina Sáenz, Alexandra; Ramírez López, Erik; Meneses Valderrama, Víctor Manuel; Martínez Garza, Nancy Edith

    2014-09-01

    Descriptive and transversal study, first to report the dietary intake of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women in the northeast of Mexico. Convenience sample of 125 pregnant women (15-45 years of age) in the third trimester, who were prenatal patients in the Hospital Regional Materno Infantil, Nuevo León, Mexico. It was reported the level of studies, marital and professional status, weight, height and body mass index (BMI). Diet was evaluated by 24-hour food recalls, in 3 non-consecutive days. There were analyzed the intake of energy and the percentage contribution of calories from macronutrients according to the recommendations of intake of pregnant women. Intake of energy was 1683,8 Cal/day. The caloric contribution of saturated fat was higher than the recommendation in 53.6% of women. 76.8% of participants ate more than 55% of energy from carbohydrates, while 86.4% ate more sugars than the amount suggested. The median intake of protein was 12.0% of total energy intake. 75% of participants consumed less than 22,5 g of total dietary fiber. The relevance of knowing the intakes of energy and macronutrients in pregnant women may be due to the possible influence of diet over the child's appetite and maternal complications. Results of this study suggest the need to provide women with adequate nutritional recommendations since the first trimester of gestation, according to their nutritional status and social environment.

  17. Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness Practice and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Little is known about birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR) plan in resource limited settings to decrease maternal mortality. Therefore, this study was done to assess the status of BPCR and associated factors among pregnant women in South Wollo, Northwest Ethiopia, by involving 819 pregnant women from March to April, 2014. Data were collected by using pretested interviewer administered questionnaire and analyzed using a computer program of SPSS version 20.00. Results. Pregnant women who were prepared for at least three elements of BPCR were 24.1%. Pregnant women knowing at least three key danger signs during pregnancy, delivery, and postnatal period were 23.2%, 22.6%, and 9.6%, respectively. Women having secondary education and higher were 6.20 (95% CI = [1.36, 28.120]) times more likely to be prepared than illiterates. Women having a lifetime history of stillbirth [5.80 (1.13, 29.63)], attending ANC for last child pregnancy [5.44 (2.07, 14.27)], participating in community BPCR group discussion [4.36 (1.17, 16.26)], and having their male partner involved in BPCR counseling during ANC follow-up [4.45 (1.95, 10.16)] were more likely to be prepared. Conclusions. BPCR was very low and should be strengthened through health communication by involving partner in BPCR counseling. PMID:27722201

  18. Elevated frequencies of micronuclei in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus and in their newborns.

    PubMed

    Witczak, Monika; Ferenc, Tomasz; Gulczyńska, Ewa; Nowakowska, Dorota; Łopaczyńska, Dobrosława; Wilczyński, Jan

    2014-03-15

    Pregestational diabetes mellitus (type 1 and type 2) affects about 1% of the obstetric population. In diabetes, persistent hyperglycemia can be a source of DNA damage via overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) test, we measured the frequencies of micronuclei (MN) per 1000 binucleated (BN) cells in pregnant women (mothers) with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and in their newborns. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were collected from 17 pregnant women with T1DM and cord-blood lymphocytes from their 17 newborns. The control group included 40 pregnant women (mothers) without diabetes mellitus (DM) and their 40 newborns. In the group of pregnant women with T1DM, the mean number of MN per 1000 BN cells was 2.35 (±1.07), significantly (p<0.001) higher than in the control group of pregnant women (0.86±0.90). The frequency value in the group of newborns of T1DM mothers was 1.42 (±0.60), significantly (p<0.05) higher than in the corresponding control group (0.67±0.79). The value in the group of mothers with T1DM was significantly (p<0.05) higher than in their newborns. Comparing mothers without DM with their newborns, no significant frequency differences were observed. No significant correlations were observed between MN frequencies in mothers with T1DM and either the frequencies in their newborns, the duration of diabetes, or HbA1C levels. Our results indicate that T1DM is accompanied by increased frequencies of MN in pregnant women and their newborns.

  19. The Effect of Fish Consumption on Blood Mercury Levels of Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Euy Hyuk; Kwon, Ja Young; Kim, Sang Wun; Park, Yong Won

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the relationship between average fish consumption, as well as the type of fish consumed and levels of mercury in the blood of pregnant women. We also performed follow-up studies to determine if blood mercury levels were decreased after counseling and prenatal education. To examine these potential relationships, pregnant women were divided into two groups: a study group was educated to restrict fish intake, whereas a control group did not receive any prenatal education regarding fish consumption. We measured blood mercury level and performed follow-up studies during the third trimester to examine any differences between the two groups. Out of the 63 pregnant women who participated in our study, we performed follow-up studies with 19 pregnant women from the study group and 12 pregnant women from control group. The average initial blood mercury level of both groups was 2.94 µg/L, with a range of 0.14 to 10.75 µg/L. Blood mercury level in the group who ate fish more than four times per month was significantly higher than that of the group who did not consume fish (p = 0.02). In follow-up studies, blood mercury levels were decreased in the study group but slightly increased in the control group (p = 0.014). The maternal blood mercury level in late pregnancy was positively correlated with mercury levels of cord blood (r = 0.58, p = 0.047), which was almost twice the level found in maternal blood. Pregnant women who consume a large amount of fish may have high blood mercury levels. Further, cord blood mercury levels were much higher than that of maternal blood. Because the level of fish intake appears to influence blood mercury level, preconceptual education might be necessary in order decrease fish consumption. PMID:17066506

  20. Clinical care for opioid-using pregnant and postpartum women: the role of obstetric providers.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hendrée E; Deppen, Krisanna; Hudak, Mark L; Leffert, Lisa; McClelland, Carol; Sahin, Leyla; Starer, Jacquelyn; Terplan, Mishka; Thorp, John M; Walsh, James; Creanga, Andreea A

    2014-04-01

    We review clinical care issues that are related to illicit and therapeutic opioid use among pregnant women and women in the postpartum period and outline the major responsibilities of obstetrics providers who care for these patients during the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum periods. Selected patient treatment issues are highlighted, and case examples are provided. Securing a strong rapport and trust with these patients is crucial for success in delivering high-quality obstetric care and in coordinating services with other specialists as needed. Obstetrics providers have an ethical obligation to screen, assess, and provide brief interventions and referral to specialized treatment for patients with drug use disorders. Opioid-dependent pregnant women often can be treated effectively with methadone or buprenorphine. These medications are classified as pregnancy category C medications by the Food and Drug Administration, and their use in the treatment of opioid-dependent pregnant patients should not be considered "off-label." Except in rare special circumstances, medication-assisted withdrawal during pregnancy should be discouraged because of a high relapse rate. Acute pain management in this population deserves special consideration because patients who use opioids can be hypersensitive to pain and because the use of mixed opioid-agonist/antagonists can precipitate opioid withdrawal. In the absence of other indications, pregnant women who use opioids do not require more intense medical care than other pregnant patients to ensure adequate treatment and the best possible outcomes. Together with specialists in pain and addiction medicine, obstetricians can coordinate comprehensive care for pregnant women who use opioids and women who use opioids in the postpartum period.

  1. A global survey of adverse event following immunization surveillance systems for pregnant women and their infants

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Christine; MacDonald, Noni E.; Steenbeek, Audrey; Ortiz, Justin R.; Zuber, Patrick L. F.; Top, Karina A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Strengthening antenatal care as a platform for maternal immunization is a priority of the World Health Organization (WHO). Systematic surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) in pregnancy is needed to identify vaccine safety events. We sought to identify active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants. Representatives from all National Pharmacovigilance Centers and a convenience sample of vaccine safety experts were invited to complete a 14-item online survey in English, French or Spanish. The survey captured maternal immunization policies, and active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants in respondents' countries. The analysis was descriptive. We received responses from 51/185 (28%) invited persons from 47/148 (32%) countries representing all WHO regions, and low, middle and high-income countries. Thirty countries had national immunization policies targeting pregnant women. Eleven countries had active surveillance systems to detect serious AEFI in pregnant women and/or their infants, including six low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Thirty-nine countries had passive surveillance systems, including 23 LMIC. These active and passive surveillance programs cover approximately 8% and 56% of the worldwide annual birth cohort, respectively. Data from one active and four passive systems have been published. We identified 50 active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants, but few have published their findings. AEFI surveillance appears to be feasible in low and high resource settings. Further expansion of AEFI surveillance for pregnant women and sharing of vaccine safety information will provide additional evidence in support of maternal immunization policies. PMID:27159639

  2. Comparative Proteomics Analysis of Placenta from Pregnant Women with Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Guo, Yueshuai; Guo, Xuejiang; Zhou, Tao; Chen, Daozhen; Xiang, Jingying; Zhou, Zuomin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) usually occurs in the third trimester and associated with increased risks in fetal complications. Currently, the exact cause of this disease is unknown. In this study we aim to investigate the potential proteins in placenta, which may participate in the molecular mechanisms of ICP-related fetal complications using iTRAQ-based proteomics approach. Methods The iTRAQ analysis combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed to separate differentially expressed placental proteins from 4 pregnant women with ICP and 4 healthy pregnant women. Bioinformatics analysis was used to find the relative processes that these differentially expressed proteins were involved in. Three apoptosis related proteins ERp29, PRDX6 and MPO that resulted from iTRAQ-based proteomics were further verified in placenta by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Placental apoptosis was also detected by TUNEL assay. Results Proteomics results showed there were 38 differentially expressed proteins from pregnant women with ICP and healthy pregnant women, 29 were upregulated and 9 were downregulated in placenta from pregnant women with ICP. Bioinformatics analysis showed most of the identified proteins was functionally related to specific cell processes, including apoptosis, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism. The expression levels of ERp29, PRDX6 and MPO were consistent with the proteomics data. The apoptosis index in placenta from ICP patients was significantly increased. Conclusion This preliminary work provides a better understanding of the proteomic alterations of placenta from pregnant women with ICP and may provide us some new insights into the pathophysiology and potential novel treatment targets for ICP. PMID:24391750

  3. Quit4baby: Results From a Pilot Test of a Mobile Smoking Cessation Program for Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Text messaging (short message service, SMS) programs have been shown to be effective in helping adult smokers quit smoking. This study describes the results of a pilot test of Quit4baby, a smoking cessation text messaging program for pregnant smokers that was adapted from Text2quit. Objective The study aimed to demonstrate the feasibility and acceptability of Quit4baby for women currently enrolled in Text4baby, a perinatal health text messaging program. Methods Pregnant women enrolled in Text4baby and who were current smokers or had quit within the last 4 weeks (n=20) were enrolled in Quit4baby. Those under the age of 18, not pregnant, not current smokers, those using nicotine replacement therapy, and those not interested in participating were ineligible. Participants were surveyed at baseline and at 2 and 4 weeks postenrollment. Results Most participants responded to the program favorably. Highly rated aspects included the content of the program, skills taught within the program, and encouragement and social support provided by the program. Participants reported that the program was helpful in quitting, that the program gave good ideas on quitting, and that they would recommend the program to a friend. Suggestions for improvement included increasing the message dose and making the quitpal more interactive. Conclusions This pilot test provides support for the feasibility and acceptability of Quit4baby. Future studies are needed to assess whether Quit4baby is effective for smoking cessation during pregnancy. PMID:25650765

  4. Preliminary study of quinine pharmacokinetics in pregnant women with malaria-HIV co-infection.

    PubMed

    Kayentao, Kassoum; Guirou, Etienne A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Venkatesan, Meera; Plowe, Christopher V; Parsons, Teresa L; Hendrix, Craig W; Nyunt, Myaing M

    2014-03-01

    Pregnant women bear the greatest burden of malaria-human immunodeficiency virus co-infection. Previous studies suggest that interaction with antiretroviral drugs may compromise antimalarial pharmacokinetics and treatment outcomes. We conducted a preliminary clinical study to assess quinine pharmacokinetics in Malian pregnant women with acute malaria who reported taking nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy. Of seven women, six had stable concentrations of nevirapine in the plasma and one had none. Quinine concentrations were lower, and its metabolite 3-hydroxyquinine higher, in the six women with nevirapine than in the one without, and quinine concentrations were below the recommended therapeutic range in 50% of the women. This preliminary observation warrants further research to understand the impact of long-term antiretroviral therapy on the treatment of acute malaria.

  5. Knowledge of periconceptional folic acid use among pregnant women at Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Al-Darzi, W; Al-Mudares, F; Farah, A; Ali, A; Marzouk, D

    2014-10-12

    Egypt has a high incidence of neural tube defects. Folic acid supplementation in the periconceptional period is known to lower the risk of such defects. This cross-sectional study aimed to measure the level of knowledge about periconceptional folic acid use among pregnant women attending for antenatal care at Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt in 2012. Questionnaires were filled through personal interviews with 660 pregnant women. Of the respondents, 62.4% had heard of folic acid and 39.2% knew about the role of folic acid supplementation in prevention of congenital anomalies. Knowledge about using folic acid before and in the first trimester of pregnancy was highest among university-educated women and those working in professional occupations. Only 18.8% of women reported taking folic acid, and 8.8% had used it before conception. Awareness campaigns are suggested to improve knowledge about folic acid among women in the childbearing period in Egypt.

  6. I am pregnant and want to do better but i can't: focus groups with low-income overweight and obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Wei; Nitzke, Susan; Buist, Diana; Cain, Deborah; Horning, Stefanie; Eghtedary, Kobra

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to identify factors that influenced stress, healthy eating and physical activity among low-income overweight or obese pregnant women. We conducted seven focus groups with 96 low-income overweight and obese pregnant women. Common themes were identified from audio tapes and transcripts. Women said that poor communication affected their relationships with spouses or significant others. They were frustrated or upset with significant others for three key reasons: failure to understand or listen to the pregnant women's pregnancy concerns, refusal to be helpful when asked and being overly concerned with the woman's safety. Most women said that they were emotional and took naps throughout the day after becoming pregnant. Many withdrew from their social interactions. They also faced numerous challenges that made healthy eating more difficult, e.g., craving for unhealthy foods and eating foods for comfort. To eat healthier, some reminded themselves to avoid overeating or stop eating in the car. Women were not physically active because of tiredness, lack of motivation, inadequate social support, or bad weather. Some stayed physically active to prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain and have an easier labor. Women equivocally said weighing themselves to manage weight would add to their stress and make them feel more depressed. When designing interventions to help low-income overweight and obese pregnant women avoid excessive pregnancy weight gain, it is important to include information and practical advice on stress management, emphasizing effective communication skills with significant others and helping them plan effective ways to manage negative feelings.

  7. Evaluation of soluble human leukocyte antigen-G in peripheral blood of pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Shobeiri, Saeide-sadat; Abediankenari, Saeid; Lashtoo-Aghaee, Bahareh; Rahmani, Zahra; Esmaeili-gorji, Bahareh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research says that diabetes may develop in over 10% of non-diabetic pregnant women. Diabetes which generally occurs late in second trimester and third trimester of pregnancy, it is called gestational diabetes. Overweight or suffering from obesity before pregnancy is type 2 diabetes risk factor. In most cases, diabetic symptoms disappear after delivery. HLA-G has an important role both in mother and fetus tolerance during pregnancy, it may also be effective in the protection of pancreatic islet cells. In this study, concentration of these molecules in pregnant women with gestational diabetes in comparison with normal pregnant women was investigated. Methods: In this case-control study, we measured serum HLA-G levels in 24 pregnant women with gestational diabetes compared with 30 normal pregnant women using sandwich ELISA. Results: HLA-G levels were significantly low in pregnant women with gestational diabetes in contrast to normal pregnant women (P=0.001). Conclusion: In this study, we found that HLA-G levels were reduced in women with gestational diabetes compared with control group. Therefore, it is suggested that measurement of HLA-G in pregnant women can be considered as an indicator in prognosis of gestational diabetes. PMID:27757202

  8. Consumption habits of pregnant women and implications for developmental biology: a survey of predominantly Hispanic women in California

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthy post-pregnancy outcomes are contingent upon an informed regimen of prenatal care encouraging healthy maternal consumption habits. In this article, we describe aspects of maternal intake of food, drink, and medication in a population of predominantly Hispanic women in Southern California. Potential implications for unhealthy prenatal dietary choices are discussed. Methods The Food, Beverage, and Medication Intake Questionnaire (FBMIQ) measures common practices of maternal consumption during pregnancy. The FBMIQ was administered to English and Spanish speaking pregnant and recently pregnant (36 weeks pregnant - 8 weeks post-partum) women over the age of 18 who were receiving care from a private medical group in Downey CA. Results A total of 200 women completed the FBMIQ. Consumption habits of healthy foods and beverages, unhealthy foods, unhealthy beverages, and medication are characterized in this article. Data indicate widespread consumption of fresh fruit, meats, milk and juice and indicate most women used prenatal vitamin supplements. Studies in developmental neuroscience have shown that certain substances may cause teratogenic effects on the fetus when ingested by the mother during pregnancy. Those potentially harmful substances included in our study were Bisphenol-A (BPA), methylmercury, caffeine, alcohol and certain medications. Our results show that a proportion of the women surveyed in our study consumed BPA, methylmercury, caffeine, alcohol, and certain medications at varied levels during pregnancy. This represents an interesting finding and suggests a disconnect between scientific data and general recommendations provided to pregnant mothers by obstetricians. Conclusions The results of our study demonstrate that a proportion of pregnant women consume substances that are potentially teratogenic and may impact the health and well being of the offspring. It is important to appraise healthy and unhealthy consumption habits in order to

  9. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in rural Durango, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Torres-Castorena, A; Liesenfeld, O; García-López, C R; Estrada-Martínez, S; Sifuentes-Alvarez, A; Marsal-Hernández, J F; Esquivel-Cruz, R; Sandoval-Herrera, F; Castañeda, J A; Dubey, J P

    2009-04-01

    The epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in rural Mexico is largely unknown. The seroepidemiology of T. gondii infection in 439 pregnant women from 9 communities in rural Durango State, Mexico was investigated. Using commercial enzyme-linked immunoassays, sera were tested for T. gondii IgG, IgM, and avidity antibodies. Prevalences of T. gondii IgG antibodies in the communities varied from 0% to 20%. Overall, 36 (8.2%) of the 439 women had IgG T. gondii antibodies. Ten (2.3%) women had also T. gondii IgM antibodies; IgG avidity was high in all IgM-positive women, suggesting chronic infection. None of the women, however, had delivered a known T. gondii-infected child. The seroprevalence was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in women from low socio-economic conditions (14%) than in those with higher socio-economic status (6.6%). Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii infection was associated with soil floors at home (adjusted OR = 2.89; 95% CI: 1.12-7.49). This is the first epidemiological study of T. gondii infection in pregnant women in rural Mexico.

  10. Dietary Patterns and Maternal Anthropometry in HIV-Infected, Pregnant Malawian Women

    PubMed Central

    Ramlal, Roshan T.; Tembo, Martin; King, Caroline C.; Ellington, Sascha; Soko, Alice; Chigwenembe, Maggie; Chasela, Charles; Jamieson, Denise J.; van der Horst, Charles; Bentley, Margaret; Adair, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Diet is a modifiable factor that can contribute to the health of pregnant women. In a sample of 577 HIV-positive pregnant women who completed baseline interviews for the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study in Lilongwe, Malawi, cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify associations between the dietary patterns and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), arm muscle area (AMA), arm fat area (AFA), and hemoglobin at baseline. Three key dietary patterns were identified: animal-based, plant-based, and grain-based. Women with relatively greater wealth were more likely to consume the animal-based diet, which had the highest intake of energy, protein, and fat and was associated with higher hemoglobin levels compared to the other diets. Women with the lowest wealth were more likely to consume the grain-based diet with the lowest intake of energy, protein, fat, and iron and were more likely to have lower AFA than women on the animal-based and plant-based diets, but higher AMA compared to women on the animal-based diet. Pregnant, HIV-infected women in Malawi could benefit from nutritional support to ensure greater nutrient diversity during pregnancy, when women face increased nutrient demands to support fetal growth and development. PMID:25594441

  11. Distribution of Kell phenotype among pregnant women in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Osaro, Erhabor; Ladan, Malami Aisha; Zama, Isaac; Ahmed, Yakubu; Mairo, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Kell antigen is highly immunogenic and is the common cause of antibody production in mismatched blood transfusions, haemolytic transfusion reaction (HTR) and maternal alloimmunization, which causes severe anaemia in neonates. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and ethnic variation of the Kell phenotype among pregnant women in Sokoto, Nigeria. Methods Kell antigen status of 150 pregnant women aged 18-45 years and mean age 27.19 ±4.69 years attending antenatal clinic in UDUTH Sokoto Nigeria was determined using the conventional tube method and anti-Kell reagents (Lorne Laboratories, UK). Results Among the 150 subjects studied, 3 (2.0%) of subjects were positive and 147 (98.0) were negative for K antigen. Of the 150 pregnant subjects; 32 (21.3%) were primigravidae while 118 (78.7%) were multigravidae. Kell phenotype was more prevalent among primigravidae (3.1%) compared to multigravidae (1.7%) women. The distribution of Kell phenotype among the pregnant subjects was compared based on ethnicity. The prevalence of Kell antigen was significantly higher among the Hausa ethnic group (3.2%) compared to other ethnic groups which indicated zero prevalence (p = 0.001). Kell negative phenotype was ≥ 96.8% among all the ethnic groups. Conclusion Our observed prevalence of Kell phenotype is consistent with previous studies among Blacks and Asians but significantly lower than values observed in previous studies among Caucasians. We recommend that all pregnant women should be screened for the presence clinically significant red cell antigens including Kell antigen on their first antenatal visit. Kell negative red cell should be routinely provided for all pregnant women and women with child bearing potential to reduce the risk of Kell-associated HDFN. There is need to introduce routine screening of pregnant women for clinically significant red cell antibodies to facilitate the effective management of HDFN as well as prevent HTR. There is also need

  12. Evaluation of Granada agar plate for detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in urine specimens from pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, Javier; Gómez-Garcés, José-Luis; Alós, Juan-Ignacio

    2004-08-01

    The Granada agar plate (GAP; Biomedics SL, Madrid, Spain) was evaluated for the detection of group B streptococci (GBS) in urine specimens from pregnant women submitted for testing for asymptomatic bacteriuria and was compared with blood agar (BA [Columbia agar with 5% sheep blood]; bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France). The GAP detected 103 out of 105 GBS, whereas BA detected only 50. Use of the GAP could be a good method for the detection of GBS in urine specimens from pregnant women. PMID:15297542

  13. Reprint of "Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women impairs regulatory T cell function".

    PubMed

    Vijayendra Chary, A; Hemalatha, R; Seshacharyulu, M; Vasudeva Murali, M; Jayaprakash, D; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-04-01

    Regulatory T cells and IgE receptors (CD23 and CD21) on B cells were assessed in vitamin D deficient pregnant women. For this, 153 pregnant women were recruited from a government hospital and were categorized into three groups based on 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) status. Regulatory T cell population (Treg cells) and CD23/CD21 expression on B cells were quantified by FACS ARIA II in maternal blood at third trimester; and the same parameters were evaluated in cord blood soon after delivery. In addition, TGF β and IL-10 were quantified in maternal and cord blood by using Milliplex kits. In a representative sample of eight women from each group (vitamin D sufficient, insufficient and deficient), placental tissues were processed for mRNA expressions of vitamin D receptor (VDR), retinoic acid receptor (RXR), vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and vitamin D regulating enzymes. Of the 153 pregnant women, 18 were sufficient (≥30ng/mL), 55 were insufficient (20-29ng/mL) and 80 were deficient (≤19ng/mL) for 25(OH)D3 status. The maternal blood Treg cell population (mean (%)±SE) was lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.2±0.01) pregnant women compared to insufficient (0.34±0.01) and sufficient (0.45±0.02) pregnant women. Similarly, cord blood Treg cell population (mean (%)±SE) was also lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.63±0.03) pregnant women when compared to insufficient (1.05±0.04) and sufficient (1.75±0.02) pregnant women. Mean (%)±SE of B cells with CD23 and CD21 in maternal blood was higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient pregnant women (0.35±0.02; 1.65±0.04) when compared to insufficient (0.22±0.02; 0.55±0.05) and sufficient (0.15±0.02; 0.21±0.01) pregnant women. Similarly, mean (%)±SE of B cell population with CD23 and CD21 in cord blood was also higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.41±0.02; 1.2±0.03) when compared to insufficient (0.32±0.01; 0.6±0.05) and sufficient (0.2±0.01; 0.4±0.02) pregnant women. Regulatory cytokines, TGF

  14. Reprint of "Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women impairs regulatory T cell function".

    PubMed

    Vijayendra Chary, A; Hemalatha, R; Seshacharyulu, M; Vasudeva Murali, M; Jayaprakash, D; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-04-01

    Regulatory T cells and IgE receptors (CD23 and CD21) on B cells were assessed in vitamin D deficient pregnant women. For this, 153 pregnant women were recruited from a government hospital and were categorized into three groups based on 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) status. Regulatory T cell population (Treg cells) and CD23/CD21 expression on B cells were quantified by FACS ARIA II in maternal blood at third trimester; and the same parameters were evaluated in cord blood soon after delivery. In addition, TGF β and IL-10 were quantified in maternal and cord blood by using Milliplex kits. In a representative sample of eight women from each group (vitamin D sufficient, insufficient and deficient), placental tissues were processed for mRNA expressions of vitamin D receptor (VDR), retinoic acid receptor (RXR), vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and vitamin D regulating enzymes. Of the 153 pregnant women, 18 were sufficient (≥30ng/mL), 55 were insufficient (20-29ng/mL) and 80 were deficient (≤19ng/mL) for 25(OH)D3 status. The maternal blood Treg cell population (mean (%)±SE) was lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.2±0.01) pregnant women compared to insufficient (0.34±0.01) and sufficient (0.45±0.02) pregnant women. Similarly, cord blood Treg cell population (mean (%)±SE) was also lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.63±0.03) pregnant women when compared to insufficient (1.05±0.04) and sufficient (1.75±0.02) pregnant women. Mean (%)±SE of B cells with CD23 and CD21 in maternal blood was higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient pregnant women (0.35±0.02; 1.65±0.04) when compared to insufficient (0.22±0.02; 0.55±0.05) and sufficient (0.15±0.02; 0.21±0.01) pregnant women. Similarly, mean (%)±SE of B cell population with CD23 and CD21 in cord blood was also higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.41±0.02; 1.2±0.03) when compared to insufficient (0.32±0.01; 0.6±0.05) and sufficient (0.2±0.01; 0.4±0.02) pregnant women. Regulatory cytokines, TGF

  15. Iron status and its determinants in a nationally representative sample of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Van Oyen, Herman; Egli, Ines; Ines, Egli; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2013-05-01

    Iron-deficiency anemia is associated with adverse neonatal health outcomes. Iron status and its determinants were assessed in a representative sample of Belgian pregnant women. Blood samples were collected and a questionnaire was completed face-to-face. Hemoglobin (Hb) and mean cell volume were measured using a Beckman Coulter Hematology Analyzer and serum ferritin (SF) and transferrin receptor (sTfr) concentrations by immunoassay. In total, 55 obstetric clinics and 1,311 pregnant women were included. Approximately 40% of third-trimester and 6% of first-trimester women had SF levels less than 15 μg/L. Approximately 21% of third-trimester and 4% of first-trimester women had anemia (Hb <110 g/L). Of the third-trimester women, 23% were iron-deficient nonanemic (SF <15 μg/L and Hb ≥110 g/L), 16% had iron-deficiency anemia (SF <15 μg/L and Hb <110 g/L), and approximately 7% had tissue iron deficiency (sTfr >8.5 mg/L). The median body iron stores were 8.1 mg/kg among first-trimester women, but only 3.6 mg/kg among third-trimester women. SF levels were significantly positively associated with age and education level, and were higher among nulliparous women and lower among North-African women. sTfr concentrations were significantly negatively associated with age and were lower among smokers, nulliparous women, and women who planned their pregnancy. Despite the fact that two thirds of Belgian pregnant women took iron-containing supplements, iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia were frequent in third-trimester women. The World Health Organization regards this as a moderate public health problem. National iron supplementation guidelines are needed in Belgium to optimize iron status during pregnancy.

  16. Drugs, alcohol and pregnant women--changing characteristics of women engaging with a specialist perinatal outreach addictions service.

    PubMed

    Mayet, Soraya; Groshkova, Teodora; Morgan, Louise; MacCormack, Tracey; Strang, John

    2008-09-01

    Pregnant substance misusers present an increased risk to themselves and the unborn child. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the characteristics of women referred to a specialist perinatal addictions outreach service (1989-1991 versus 2002-2005). A cross-sectional audit of health records was conducted. Information was gathered for each woman who contacted the service (2002-2005). Data were compared to an earlier study in the same locality (1989-1991). A total of 167 pregnant substance-using women were referred between 2002 and 2005, of whom 126 made contact. The mean age was 30.2 years at 20.8 weeks' fetal gestation, with 76% not in addictions treatment, 32% from black or minority ethnic (BME) communities, 49% polysubstance users and 29% homeless. The primary substance used was illicit heroin (38%), followed by cocaine (24%). Compared to 1989-1991, there were significantly more pregnant women presenting at an older age, later gestation, with increased polysubstance use and a higher percentage of women from BME communities. This service was able to access vulnerable substance-abusing women with an altered pattern of substance use compared to over 10 years previously. However, improvements are needed for engaging all referred women and accessing women at an earlier gestation.

  17. Psychosocial aspects of pregnant women living with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gadit, Amin Muhammad

    2016-09-01

    A pregnant woman is exposed to a number of stress factors that can affect the pregnancy, maternal health and well-being of the foetus. Among these are the biological, social/environmental and psychological factors. The biological factors include medical condition of the pregnant woman, most notable is the gestational diabetes. The increased glucose levels can cause detrimental effect on the foetus and also cause maternal distress. This factor becomes more complicated if the woman is exposed to environmental stressors. The result is evident in the form of complications during pregnancy and psychological effects like depression and anxiety. Appropriate steps are important to address these issues in order to maintain the mother and prospective child\\'s well-being. PMID:27582167

  18. Suicidal behavior-related hospitalizations among pregnant women in the USA, 2006-2012.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Miller, Matthew; Fricchione, Gregory L; Cai, Tianxi; Johnson, Paula A; Henderson, David C; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-06-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality in many countries, but little is known about the epidemiology of suicide and suicidal behavior among pregnant women in the USA. We sought to examine trends and provide nationally representative estimates for suicidal behavior (including suicidal ideation and suicide and self-inflicted injury) among pregnant women from 2006 to 2012 in the USA. Pregnant women aged 12-55 years were identified through pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalization records from the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample. Suicidal behavior was identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Annual, nationwide estimates and trends were determined using discharge and hospital weights. The prevalence of suicidal ideation more than doubled from 2006 to 2012 (47.5 to 115.0 per 100,000 pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalizations), whereas the prevalence of suicide and self-inflicted injury remained stable. Nearly 10 % of suicidal behavior occurred in the 12-18-year group, showing the highest prevalence per 100,000 pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalizations (158.8 in 2006 and 308.7 in 2012) over the study period. For suicidal ideation, blacks had higher prevalence than whites; women in the lowest income quartile had the highest prevalence. Although the prevalence of suicidal behavior was higher among hospitalizations with depression diagnoses, more than 30 % of hospitalizations were for suicidal behavior without depression diagnoses. Our findings highlight the increasing burden and racial differences in suicidal ideation among US pregnant women. Targeted suicide prevention efforts are needed for high-risk pregnant women including teens, blacks, and low-income women. PMID:26680447

  19. Prevalence of parvovirus B19 specific antibody in pregnant women with spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Nahid; Vali Zadeh, Saeid; Ghorbani, Raheb; Kheradmand, Pegah

    2015-01-01

    Human parvovirus B19 is a very common viral infection especially in school-aged children. The infection during pregnancy can affect the fetus due to lack of mother's immunity. Although, there is still no evidence of fetal teratogenic effects with parvovirus B19, but non-immune fetal hydrops and abortion may be caused by vertical transmission of the virus during pregnancy. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM) in pregnant women who had a spontaneous abortion. This cross-sectional study was carried out in all pregnant women who referred due to a spontaneous abortion. All demographic information such as age, occupation, and gestational age, last history of abortion, gravity, and presence of children below the age of six was recorded and a blood sample was provided for all the women. Then, the blood samples were tested to assay parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM) by EuroImmune ELISA kit. Among 94 pregnant women with the mean age of 28.4 years who had a spontaneous abortion, parvovirus B19 specific antibody (IgM) was detected in 17 participants (18.1%). Meanwhile, 14 women (14.9%) were suspected for presence of the antibody in their blood sample. There was no significant difference between the presence of antibody and age of pregnant women, occupation, gestational age, number of previous abortion, presence of children below the age of six and number of pregnancy. These findings revealed that a high percentage of pregnant women are probably non-immune against parvovirus B19, and also there might be a number of spontaneous abortions in which parvovirus infection caused fetal death.  However, more studies are needed to prove the absolute role of parvovirus B19 in these abortions.

  20. Perinatal Outcomes in HIV Positive Pregnant Women with Concomitant Sexually Transmitted Infections

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Erin; Loucks, Tammy L.; Lindsay, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate whether HIV infected pregnant women with concomitant sexually transmitted infection (STIs) are at increased risk of adverse perinatal and neonatal outcomes. Methods. We conducted a cohort study of HIV positive women who delivered at an inner-city hospital in Atlanta, Georgia, from 2003 to 2013. Demographics, presence of concomitant STIs, prenatal care information, and maternal and neonatal outcomes were collected. The outcomes examined were the association of the presence of concomitant STIs on the risk of preterm birth (PTB), postpartum hemorrhage, chorioamnionitis, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, small for gestational age, low Apgar scores, and neonatal intensive care admission. Multiple logistic regression was performed to adjust for potential confounders. Results. HIV positive pregnant women with concomitant STIs had an increased risk of spontaneous PTB (odds ratio (OR) 2.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12–3.97). After adjusting for a history of preterm birth, maternal age, and low CD4+ count at prenatal care entry the association between concomitant STIs and spontaneous PTB persisted (adjusted OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.01–3.78). Conclusions. HIV infected pregnant women with concomitant STIs relative to HIV positive pregnant women without a concomitant STI are at increased risk of spontaneous PTB. PMID:25918481

  1. Urine and serum biomonitoring of exposure to environmental estrogens I: Bisphenol A in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Teeguarden, Justin G; Twaddle, Nathan C; Churchwell, Mona I; Doerge, Daniel R

    2016-06-01

    Despite its very low oral bioavailability and rapid elimination, multiple reports of unexpectedly high bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations in the serum of pregnant mothers or cord blood have raised questions about BPA exposures during pregnancy. Thirty healthy pregnant women recruited to the study were evaluated for total BPA exposure over a 30-h period comprising one-half day in the field and one day in a clinical setting. BPA and its metabolites were measured in serum and total BPA was measured in matching urine samples. The mean total exposure was similar to the 50(th) percentile of exposure for U.S. women and pregnant women in a large North American cohort. Twenty volunteers had total daily exposures equal to or exceeding the U.S. mean, and six volunteers had exposures exceeding the 75th percentile. Women working as cashiers did not have higher total BPA exposure. BPA was detected in some serum samples (0.25-0.51 ng/ml), but showed no relationship to total BPA in corresponding urine samples, no relationship to total BPA exposure, and had unconjugated BPA fractions of 60-80%, consistent with established criteria for sample contamination. We conclude that typical exposures of North American pregnant women produce internal exposures to BPA in the picomolar range. PMID:27038865

  2. Australian Pregnant Women's Awareness of Gestational Weight Gain and Dietary Guidelines: Opportunity for Action

    PubMed Central

    Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira

    2016-01-01

    Background. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) can negatively impact on maternal and foetal health. Guidelines based on Institute of Medicine (IOM) encourage managing GWG by following healthy eating recommendations and increasing physical activity. This study investigated pregnant women's knowledge of their optimal GWG and recommended dietary approaches for GWG management. Method. English-speaking pregnant women were recruited from five hospitals in New South Wales (Australia) and an online link. Prepregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height and prepregnancy weight. Participants identified their recommended GWG. A survey assessed practical dietary knowledge and asked about broad dietary recommendations to prevent excessive GWG. Chi square and logistic regression analyses were used. Results. N = 326 pregnant women completed the surveys; 49% entered pregnancy overweight (25.2%) or obese (23.6%); and knowledge of recommended GWG was lacking. Prepregnancy BMI was a significant predictor of GWG recommendation knowledge (P < 0.000). Pregnant women were highly knowledgeable about broad dietary recommendations but had poor knowledge of detailed recommendations. Conclusions. Limited knowledge of IOM's GWG guidelines and of specific dietary recommendations for pregnancy should be addressed by health care providers and education initiatives to assist the high number of women who enter pregnancy overweight or obese. PMID:26881080

  3. A qualitative analysis of messages to promote smoking cessation among pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Hoek, Janet; Gifford, Heather; Maubach, Ninya; Newcombe, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although aware that smoking while pregnant presents serious risks to their unborn children, some women continue to smoke and rationalise their dissonance rather than quit. We explored metaphors women used to frame smoking and quitting, then developed cessation messages that drew on these metaphors and examined the perceived effectiveness of these. Participants We used a two-phase qualitative study. Phase one involved 13 in-depth interviews with women who were smoking (or who had smoked) while pregnant. Phase two comprised 22 in-depth interviews with a new sample drawn from the same population. Analyses Data were analysed using thematic analysis, which promoted theme identification independently of the research protocol. Results Participants often described smoking as a choice, a frame that explicitly asserted control over their behaviour. This stance allowed them to counter-argue messages to quit, and distanced them from the risks they created and faced. Messages tested in phase 2 used strong affective appeals as well as themes that stimulated cognitive reflection. Without exception, the messages depicting unwell or distressed children elicited strong emotional responses, were more powerful cessation stimuli, and elicited fewer counter-arguments. Conclusions Cessation messages that evoke strong affective responses capitalise on the dissonance many women feel when smoking while pregnant and stimulate stronger consideration of quitting. Given the importance of promoting cessation among pregnant women, future campaigns could make greater use of emotional appeals and place less emphasis on informational approaches, which often prompt vigorous counter-arguments. PMID:25431224

  4. Occurrence of anti-D alloantibodies among pregnant women in Kasese District, Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mbalibulha, Yona; Muwanguzi, Enoch; Mugyenyi, Godfrey R; Natukunda, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study was undertaken to determine the distribution of ABO/RhD (rhesus D antigen) blood phenotypes, prevalence of anti-D alloantibodies, and the risk factors for alloimmunization among pregnant women in Kasese District, Western Uganda. Materials and methods Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid-containing plasma samples and serum samples were taken from pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic. The blood groups were identified using the microplate grouping method, while the presence of anti-D alloantibodies was detected by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). Data were also collected from the pregnant women on the risk factors associated with anti-D alloantibody formation. Results Among the 726 participants, the blood group distribution was as follows: O: 356 (49.%); A: 190 (26.%); B: 152 (21%); and AB: 28 (4%). A total of 28 (3.86%) pregnant women were RhD negative. Anti-D alloantibodies were detected in 88 (12.1%) of the participants; and of these, 13 (14.8%) were RhD negative. Statistically significant risk factors for anti-D alloimmunization included miscarriage, stillbirth, and postpartum hemorrhage. Conclusion Blood group O was the most common among the pregnant women in this study and the prevalence of Rh negativity was 3.8%. The frequency of anti-D alloimmunization among pregnant women in Kasese District was 12.12%, with 85.5% of these being RhD positive. Risk factors such as a history of stillbirths, miscarriages, and incidence of postpartum hemorrhage were significantly associated with anti-D alloimmunization. There is a need to routinely carry out antenatal blood grouping and IAT screening on pregnant women in Uganda to detect anti-D alloimmunization. Given the high prevalence of anti-D alloantibody formation among RhD-positive women, we recommend additional research studies on the role of autoimmunity among antigen-positive women, as well as the occurrence of RhD variants plus their implications on hemolytic disease of the fetus and

  5. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and fetuses. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.203 are applicable to this section. ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  6. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and fetuses. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.203 are applicable to this section. ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  7. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and fetuses. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.203 are applicable to this section. ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  8. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and fetuses. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.203 are applicable to this section. ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  9. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and fetuses. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.203 are applicable to this section. ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted...

  10. Perception of Problem Severity, Treatment Motivations, Experiences, and Long-Term Plans among Pregnant Women in a Detoxification Inpatient Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Afton; Shannon, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine pregnant women's substance use from initial use, to recognition of problem severity, motivations for treatment, and ultimately to treatment entry. The sample consisted of 114 pregnant women receiving inpatient detoxification treatment at the University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center. Qualitative and…

  11. Psychological and/or educational interventions for reducing alcohol consumption in pregnant women and women planning pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Stade, Brenda C; Bailey, Carol; Dzendoletas, Darlene; Sgro, Michael; Dowswell, Therese; Bennett, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background It is estimated that more than 20% of pregnant women worldwide consume alcohol. Current research suggests that alcohol intake of seven or more standard drinks (one standard drink = 13.6 grams of absolute alcohol) per week during pregnancy places the baby at risk of serious, lifelong developmental and cognitive disabilities. Psychological and educational interventions may help women to reduce their alcohol intake during pregnancy. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of psychological and educational interventions to reduce alcohol consumption during pregnancy in pregnant women or women planning pregnancy. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (August 2008), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1966 to November 2007), EMBASE (1980 to November 2007), CINAHL (1982 to November 2007), Counsel.Lit (1980 to November 2007), PsycLIT (1974 to November 2007) and PsycINFO (1967 to November 2007) and checked cited references from retrieved articles. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials examining the effectiveness of psychological and educational interventions for reducing consumption of alcohol among pregnant women, or women planning for pregnancy. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors independently extracted information from the results sections of the included studies. Main results Four studies met the inclusion criteria (715 pregnant women), and reported on at least one of the outcomes of interest. We performed no meta-analyses as the interventions and outcomes measured in the studies were not sufficiently similar. For most outcomes there were no significant differences between groups; and results relating to abstaining or reducing alcohol consumption were mixed. Results from individual studies suggest that interventions may encourage women to abstain from alcohol in pregnancy. There was very little information provided on the effects of interventions on the

  12. Lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women: The ACCEPT – sub-study

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Ane-Kersti Skaarup; Long, Manhai; Pedersen, Henning S.; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    Background In the past decades, Greenland has changed from a hunter society to a more western lifestyle, causing less intake of traditional food, such as marine mammals, fish and seabirds. These changes in the living conditions and food habits might impact the maternal health in Greenland. Objectives To describe lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women, and to assess possible age and geographical differences. Design Cross-sectional study of 189 Greenlandic pregnant women. Inclusion criteria were ≥18 years and lived >50% of their life in Greenland. Data were collected in 2010–2011, and information was obtained from lifestyle and food frequency questionnaires. Two age groups for comparison were given for the pregnant women (<27 years vs. ≥27 years) with regard to the median age. Region groups for comparison were West, Disko Bay, South, North and East. Results Population characteristics showed that 43.3% had pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) >25.0 kg/m2, 46.3% were current smokers in the beginning of their pregnancy and few participants consumed alcohol during pregnancy. Women <27 years were more in doubt regarding planned breastfeeding period and consumed more dried fish and fast food. A trend for higher alcohol intake during pregnancy was found for women ≥27 years. The regional differences showed that women living >50% in North, South and West had a higher alcohol intake during pregnancy. Women in North had the fewest breastfeeding plans. Women in Disko Bay had the lowest intake of terrestrial species. No significant geographical differences were found for intake of marine mammals or seabirds. Conclusions The present study found relatively high BMI level and high smoking frequency in Greenlandic pregnant women. Age and region differences were found for alcohol consumption, breastfeeding plans and food intake profile. Further research is needed to implement relevant maternal health intervention programs in Greenland

  13. Determinants of Pregnant Women's Online Self-Regulatory Activities for Appropriate Gestational Weight Gain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyung; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Guillory, Jamie; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri

    2015-01-01

    This study examined psychosocial and sociodemographic factors associated with pregnant women's use of Web-based tools to set and monitor personal goals for healthy diet and physical activity. These tools were made available to women participating in a randomized trial testing a Web-based intervention to promote appropriate gestational weight gain. We used data from a baseline survey of pregnant women assigned to the intervention group and log data on women's use of various intervention features (N = 873). Women who believed that appropriate gestational weight gain would lead to healthy outcomes for their child were more likely to engage in online goal-setting and self-monitoring. Less positive outcome expectancy beliefs about the relationship between their own weight and baby's health partially explains why some at risk subpopulations (e.g., African-American women) were less likely to utilize online self-regulatory tools. This study specifies key psychosocial and motivational factors that guide the construction and monitoring of goals among pregnant women. These findings offer guidance for the design of interventions to promote self-regulatory techniques by identifying groups for whom those features are most likely to be useful, as well as psychological determinants of their use.

  14. Initial Feasibility of a Woman-Focused Intervention for Pregnant African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Hendrée E.; Berkman, Nancy D.; Kline, Tracy L.; Ellerson, Rachel Middlesteadt; Browne, Felicia A.; Poulton, Winona; Wechsberg, Wendee M.

    2011-01-01

    African-American women who use crack are vulnerable to HIV because of the complex social circumstances in which they live. Drug-abuse treatment for these women during pregnancy may provide time for changing risk behaviors. This paper examines the initial 6-month feasibility of a women-focused HIV intervention, the Women's CoOp, adapted for pregnant women, relative to treatment-as-usual among 59 pregnant African-American women enrolled in drug-abuse treatment. At treatment entry, the women were largely homeless, unemployed, practicing unsafe sex, and involved in violence. Results indicated marked reductions in homelessness, use of cocaine and illegal drugs, involvement in physical violence, and an increase in knowledge of HIV from baseline to 6-month followup for both conditions. Findings suggest that the Women's CoOp intervention could be successfully adapted to treat this hard-to-reach population. Future studies should examine the efficacy of the pregnancy-adapted Women's CoOp for women not enrolled in drug-abuse treatment. PMID:21541069

  15. Initial feasibility of a woman-focused intervention for pregnant african-american women.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hendrée E; Berkman, Nancy D; Kline, Tracy L; Ellerson, Rachel Middlesteadt; Browne, Felicia A; Poulton, Winona; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2011-01-01

    African-American women who use crack are vulnerable to HIV because of the complex social circumstances in which they live. Drug-abuse treatment for these women during pregnancy may provide time for changing risk behaviors. This paper examines the initial 6-month feasibility of a women-focused HIV intervention, the Women's CoOp, adapted for pregnant women, relative to treatment-as-usual among 59 pregnant African-American women enrolled in drug-abuse treatment. At treatment entry, the women were largely homeless, unemployed, practicing unsafe sex, and involved in violence. Results indicated marked reductions in homelessness, use of cocaine and illegal drugs, involvement in physical violence, and an increase in knowledge of HIV from baseline to 6-month followup for both conditions. Findings suggest that the Women's CoOp intervention could be successfully adapted to treat this hard-to-reach population. Future studies should examine the efficacy of the pregnancy-adapted Women's CoOp for women not enrolled in drug-abuse treatment.

  16. Recruitment and retention of pregnant women into clinical research trials: an overview of challenges, facilitators, and best practices.

    PubMed

    Frew, Paula M; Saint-Victor, Diane S; Isaacs, Margaret Brewinski; Kim, Sonnie; Swamy, Geeta K; Sheffield, Jeanne S; Edwards, Kathryn M; Villafana, Tonya; Kamagate, Ouda; Ault, Kevin

    2014-12-15

    Pregnant women are a vulnerable group who are needed in clinical research studies to advance prevention and treatment options for this population. Yet, pregnant women remain underrepresented in clinical research. Through the lens of the socioecological model, we highlight reported barriers and facilitators to recruitment and retention of pregnant women in studies that sought their participation. We trace historical, policy-based reasons for the exclusion of pregnant women in clinical studies to present-day rationale for inclusion of this group. The findings highlight why it has been difficult to recruit and retain this population over time. A body of literature suggests that integrative sampling and recruitment methods that leverage the influence and reach of prenatal providers will overcome recruitment challenges. We argue that these strategies, in combination with building strong engagement with existing community-based organizations, will enable teams to more effectively promote and retain pregnant women in future longitudinal cohort studies.

  17. Recruitment and Retention of Pregnant Women Into Clinical Research Trials: An Overview of Challenges, Facilitators, and Best Practices

    PubMed Central

    Frew, Paula M.; Saint-Victor, Diane S.; Isaacs, Margaret Brewinski; Kim, Sonnie; Swamy, Geeta K.; Sheffield, Jeanne S.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Villafana, Tonya; Kamagate, Ouda; Ault, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant women are a vulnerable group who are needed in clinical research studies to advance prevention and treatment options for this population. Yet, pregnant women remain underrepresented in clinical research. Through the lens of the socioecological model, we highlight reported barriers and facilitators to recruitment and retention of pregnant women in studies that sought their participation. We trace historical, policy-based reasons for the exclusion of pregnant women in clinical studies to present-day rationale for inclusion of this group. The findings highlight why it has been difficult to recruit and retain this population over time. A body of literature suggests that integrative sampling and recruitment methods that leverage the influence and reach of prenatal providers will overcome recruitment challenges. We argue that these strategies, in combination with building strong engagement with existing community-based organizations, will enable teams to more effectively promote and retain pregnant women in future longitudinal cohort studies. PMID:25425718

  18. Toxoplasmosis Preventive Behavior and Related Knowledge among Saudi Pregnant Women: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Ali, Mohamed Nabil Al; Alrashid, Ahmed Abdulmohsen; Ahmed Al-Agnam, Amena; Al Sultan, Amina Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Many cases of congenital toxoplasmosis can be prevented provided that pregnant women following hygienic measures to avert risk of infection and to reduce severity of the condition if primary prevention failed. Objectives: This descriptive exploratory study aimed to assess the risk behavior and knowledge related to toxoplasmoisis among Saudi pregnant women attending primary health care centers (PHCs) in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia and to determine socio-demographic characteristics related to risk behavior and knowledge. Methods: All Saudi pregnant women attending antenatal care at randomly selected six urban and four rural PHCs were approached. Those agreed to participate were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire collecting data regarding socio-demographic, obstetric history, toxoplasmosis risk behaviors and related knowledge. Results: Of the included pregnant women, 234 (26.8%) have fulfilled the criteria for toxoplasmosis preventive behavior recommended by Centers for Disease Prevention and Control to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, while 48.9% reported at least one risk behavior and 24.3% reported ≥ two risk behaviors. Logistic regression model revealed that pregnant women aged 20 to <30 years and those with previous history of unfavorable pregnancy outcome were more likely to follow toxoplasmosis preventive behavior. Toxoplasmosis-related knowledge showed that many women had identified the role of cats in disease transmission while failed to identify other risk factors including consumption of undercooked meats, unwashed fruits and vegetables, and contacting with soil. Predictors for pregnant women to be knowledgeable towards toxoplasmosis included those aged 30 to <40 years (OR=1.53), with ≥ secondary education (OR=1.96), had previous unfavorable pregnancy outcomes (OR=1.88) and investigated for toxoplasmosis (OR=2.08) as reveled by multivariate regression model. Conclusion: Pregnant women in Al Hasas, Saudi Arabia, are

  19. Treatment of condylomata acuminata with CO2 laser under colposcopic control in pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Jakub; Opala, Tomasz; Pisarska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Wilczak, Maciej; Pisarski, Tadeusz

    1996-03-01

    The results of treatment of condylomata acuminata of the anogenital region in pregnant women are presented. All patients were treated between the 28th and 35th weeks of gestation. The laser surgery was done in 23 patients. One laser procedure was done in 14 women. In 5 patients we performed two and in 4 women 3 laser therapies. Complete destruction of pathological changes was obtained and no recurrences were diagnosed. There were no clinical signs of HPV infection in all neonates. In the authors' opinion the use of carbon-dioxide laser under colposcopic control is an efficient and safe method in the treatment of condylomata acuminata in pregnant women. Colposcopic control allows us to discover and coagulate the bleeding spots using the defocused laser beam with low power density.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of Plasmodium falciparum infections in pregnant women of Luanda, Angola.

    PubMed

    Valente, Bianor; Campos, Paulo A; do Rosário, Virgílio E; Varandas, Luis; Silveira, Henrique

    2011-10-01

    Pregnant women are at increased risk of malaria, but in Angola, epidemiologic data from this group is almost inexistent. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and risk factors of Plasmodium falciparum infections in 567 pregnant Angolan women living in Luanda province. One in five women had P. falciparum at delivery, diagnosed by PCR assay. Age, residence and history of malaria during pregnancy were significantly associated with P. falciparum infection, but gravidity and use of anti-malarial drugs were not. Placental infections were significantly more common in women ≤18 years old and in primigravidae, but we could not correlate placental infections with poor pregnancy outcomes. These findings are relevant to malaria control policies in Luanda, Angola.

  1. Comparison of symptomatology in Taiwanese women pregnant with and without assisted reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Pi-Chao; Chu, Nancy L; Chen, Yueh-Chih; Su, Tsann-Jun; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2008-06-01

    We compared the symptoms of 91 Taiwanese women, 50 pregnant by assisted reproductive technology (ART), with those of 41 women, pregnant without assistance. They completed a self-administered demographic questionnaire and symptomatology inventory (SI) during each trimester. The ART group had a higher frequency of complications and hospitalizations than the unassisted women. No significant differences were found in physical and affective symptoms in the ART group across three trimesters, but significant differences were found in the unassisted group. In addition, ART and non-ART women differed in types of individual symptoms experienced each trimester. These findings suggest the need for nurses to assess each group for the presence of specific symptoms throughout pregnancy and to provide individualized symptom management.

  2. Traditional medicine practitioners’ knowledge and views on treatment of pregnant women in three regions of Mali

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the widespread use of medicinal plants in Mali, knowledge about how traditional practitioners (TPs) treat pregnant and lactating women is lacking. Aim of the study The aim of this study was to investigate how traditional practitioners in Mali treat common diseases and ailments during pregnancy. Methods Data was collected through structured interviews of traditional practitioners in one urban (Bamako) and two rural areas (Siby and Dioila) in Mali. The TPs were interviewed about how they treat common diseases and ailments during pregnancy. They were also asked to name harmful plants in pregnancy and plants that could affect breast milk production. In addition, we asked about nine specific medicinal plants commonly used in Mali; Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia), Ximenia americana, Cola cordifolia, Combretum glutinosum, Parkia biglobosa, Trichilia emetica, Combretum micranthum, Lippia chevalieri and Vepris heterophylla. Results A total of 72 traditional practitioners (64% women, age: 34 to 90 years) were interviewed during an eight week period October 2011 to December 2011. They treated between 1 and 30 pregnant women with medicinal plants per months. We found a relatively high consensus for treatment of pregnant women with common diseases and ailments like nausea and dermatitis. The highest informer consensus was found for the treatment of malaria during pregnancy. TPs generally recommended pregnant women to avoid medicinal plants with bitter tastes like stem and root bark of Khaya senegalensis and Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia). TPs distinguished between oral (potentially unsafe) and dermal use (safe) of Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia). Cola cordifolia was used to facilitate labor. Conclusion Experience and knowledge about treatment of pregnant women with medicinal plants was broad among the traditional practitioners in the three investigated regions in Mali. Collaborating with traditional practitioners on the

  3. Seroepidemiology of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Pregnant Women in Rural Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    The seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in pregnant women in Durango, Mexico is largely unknown. The prevalence of anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies was examined in 343 pregnant women living in rural areas in 7 municipalities in Durango State, Mexico, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). A correlation of H. pylori seropositivity with socio-demographic, obstetric and behavioral characteristics of pregnant women was also assessed. In total, 179 (52.2%) of the 343 pregnant women (mean age, 24.2 ± 5.9 years) had H. pylori IgG antibodies, 75 (41.9%) of whom had H. pylori IgG antibody levels higher than 100 U/mL. The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection varied from 33.3% to 65% among municipalities. In contrast, the seroprevalence was comparable among women regardless their age, educational level, occupation, socioeconomic status, animal contacts, foreign travel, eating habits, contact with soil, crowding, sanitary conditions at home and educational level of the head of their families. Multivariant analysis of socio-demographic and behavioral variables showed that H. pylori seropositivity was associated with municipality (OR=1.12; 95% CI: 1.01–1.24; P=0.02). Of the obstetric characteristics, the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection increased significantly with the number of pregnancies and deliveries but not with the number of cesarean sections or miscarriages. Rural pregnant women in Durango had a lower seroprevalence of H. pylori infection than those from populations in developing countries. Results support a variability of H. pylori seroprevalence within a region. Further research at a municipal level might help to understand the epidemiology of H. pylori infection. PMID:24711758

  4. Toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in relation to knowledge and practice among pregnant women in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Elsafi, Salah H; Al-Mutairi, Wasaef F; Al-Jubran, Khalid M; Abu Hassan, Mohamed M; Al Zahrani, Eidan M

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiological importance of the different routes of Toxoplasma gondii transmission is not known and depends largely on population behaviour and knowledge. This study was conducted to assess toxoplasmosis seropositivity and the related knowledge and preventive practices that are necessary for the prevention of the disease among pregnant women. All pregnant women attending antenatal clinic were tested for T. gondii immunoglobulins followed by a survey questionnaire that tested their knowledge and preventive practice. Statistical comparisons were made between the seropositive and negative ones. We determined a low to moderate seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia as compared to many other parts of the world. The overall positivity rates of IgG and IgM against T. gondii among 400 pregnant women were 28.5 and 3%, respectively. 75.5% of the participants had never heard about toxoplasmosis and the associated risk factors. Lack of knowledge was associated with the higher risk of infection (OR = 4.04, p < 0.001). Keeping pet cats was not common and poorly associated with infections (OR = 1.15, p ≥ 0.64). Consumption of undercooked meat was reported frequently and only slight risk was associated with sheep/goat meat (OR = 1.39, p = 0.15). Eating outside the home at restaurants was reported for the first time to be related to a higher risk of infection (OR = 2.69, p < 0.001). Several possible risk factors were suggested through odds ratios calculation and overall knowledge of toxoplasmosis by pregnant women was poor. It is therefore vital to provide a formal education about toxoplasmosis risk factors to women of childbearing age.

  5. How do I manage tick bites and Lyme borreliosis in pregnant women?

    PubMed

    Maraspin, Vera; Strle, Franc

    2009-01-01

    In this report, we present basic data pertinent to the current understanding of borrelial infection in pregnancy, and propose a rationale for the management of Lyme borreliosis in pregnant women. We advocate early detection of attached ticks and their prompt removal. We do not recommend the use of prophylactic antibiotics in pregnant women but support the 'wait and watch' strategy, including early treatment with antibiotics if signs/symptoms of the disease arise. We encourage the approach that antibiotic treatment of pregnant patients is restricted to those having a reliable clinical diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis, and propose intravenous antibiotic treatment with penicillin, or preferably ceftriaxone 2 g daily for 14 days, not only for patients with early disseminated disease but also for those with solitary erythema migrans. PMID:19367103

  6. Smoking among Low-Income Pregnant Women: An Ethnographic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Muramoto, Myra; Adrian, Shelly; Goldade, Kate; Tesler, Laura; Thompson, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This article presents findings from a qualitative study of 53 low-income women who were smokers at the onset of pregnancy. Study participants were interviewed during pregnancy to document smoking trajectories and factors contributing to, or undermining, harm reduction and quit attempts. Thirty percent of women quit smoking completely, 43% engaged…

  7. Cluster Sampling with Referral to Improve the Efficiency of Estimating Unmet Needs among Pregnant and Postpartum Women after Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Horney, Jennifer; Zotti, Marianne E.; Williams, Amy; Hsia, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Background Women of reproductive age, in particular women who are pregnant or fewer than 6 months postpartum, are uniquely vulnerable to the effects of natural disasters, which may create stressors for caregivers, limit access to prenatal/postpartum care, or interrupt contraception. Traditional approaches (e.g., newborn records, community surveys) to survey women of reproductive age about unmet needs may not be practical after disasters. Finding pregnant or postpartum women is especially challenging because fewer than 5% of women of reproductive age are pregnant or postpartum at any time. Methods From 2009 to 2011, we conducted three pilots of a sampling strategy that aimed to increase the proportion of pregnant and postpartum women of reproductive age who were included in postdisaster reproductive health assessments in Johnston County, North Carolina, after tornadoes, Cobb/Douglas Counties, Georgia, after flooding, and Bertie County, North Carolina, after hurricane-related flooding. Results Using this method, the percentage of pregnant and postpartum women interviewed in each pilot increased from 0.06% to 21%, 8% to 19%, and 9% to 17%, respectively. Conclusion and Discussion Two-stage cluster sampling with referral can be used to increase the proportion of pregnant and postpartum women included in a postdisaster assessment. This strategy may be a promising way to assess unmet needs of pregnant and postpartum women in disaster-affected communities. PMID:22365134

  8. Attitudes of pregnant women towards collection of biological specimens during pregnancy and at birth.

    PubMed

    Nechuta, Sarah; Mudd, Lanay M; Elliott, Michael R; Lepkowski, James M; Paneth, Nigel

    2012-05-01

    Epidemiological investigations of maternal and child health may involve the collection of biological specimens, including cord blood and the placenta; however, the attitudes of pregnant women towards participation in the collection of biological specimens have been studied rarely. We evaluated attitudes towards collection and storage of biological specimens, and determined whether attitudes differed by maternal characteristics, in a cross-sectional study of pregnant women residing in Kent County, Michigan. Women were interviewed at their first visit for prenatal care between April and October 2006 (n = 311). Willingness to participate was highest for maternal blood collection (72%), followed by storage of biological specimens (68%), placenta collection (64%), and cord blood collection (63%). About one-quarter of women (25-28% by procedure) would not participate even if compensated. Hispanic ethnicity was associated with unwillingness to participate in maternal blood collection (OR = 2.16 [95% CI 1.15, 4.04]). Primiparity was associated with unwillingness to participate in cord blood collection (OR = 1.72 [95% CI 1.23, 2.42]). Among women willing to participate, Hispanic women were less likely to require compensation; while higher educated, married and primiparous women were more likely to require compensation. In conclusion, while many pregnant women were willing to participate in biological specimen collection, some women were more resistant, in particular Hispanic and primiparous women. Targeting these groups of women for enhanced recruitment efforts may improve overall participation rates and the representativeness of participants in future studies of maternal and child health.

  9. Correlates of adult assault among homeless women.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Angela L; Wright, Kynna; Bhattacharya, Debika; Sinha, Karabi; Nyamathi, Adeline; Marfisee, Mary

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of sexual and physical assault among homeless women. A multivariate, correlation design was utilized to identify independent correlates of adult physical and sexual assault. The sample consisted of 202 homeless women residing in shelters or living on the street in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. Respondents reporting a history of child sexual abuse were almost four times more likely to report being sexually assaulted as adults and were almost two and one third times more likely to report being physically assaulted as adults. A range of factors increase homeless women's risk of adult physical and sexual victimization, including child sexual abuse, substance use, lifetime sex trade activity, and previous incarceration. It is important for homeless service providers to develop an individual risk profile for homeless women and to intervene in order to decrease their risk of re-victimization. PMID:21099076

  10. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in a public hospital in northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Álvarez, Antonio; Narro-Duarte, Sergio Guadalupe; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio; Díaz-García, Juan Humberto; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Martínez-García, Sergio Arturo; Canales-Molina, Arturo

    2006-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in pregnant women represents a risk for congenital disease. There is scarce information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in pregnant women in Mexico. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics in a population of pregnant women of Durango City, Mexico. Methods Three hundred and forty three women seeking prenatal care in a public hospital of Durango City in Mexico were examined for T. gondii infection. All women were tested for anti-T. gondii IgM and IgG antibodies by using IMx Toxo IgM and IMx Toxo IgG 2.0 kits (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA), respectively. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics from each participant were also obtained. Results Twenty one out of the 343 (6.1%) women had IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies. None of the 343 women had IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies. Multivariate analysis using logic regression showed that T. gondii infection was associated with living in a house with soil floor (adjusted OR = 7.16; 95% CI: 1.39–36.84), residing outside of Durango State (adjusted OR = 4.25; 95% CI: 1.72–10.49), and turkey meat consumption (adjusted OR = 3.85; 95% CI: 1.30–11.44). Other characteristics as cat contact, gardening, and food preferences did not show any association with T. gondii infection. Conclusion The prevalence of T. gondii infection in pregnant women of Durango City is low as compared with those reported in other regions of Mexico and the majority of other countries. Poor housing conditions as soil floors, residing in other Mexican States, and turkey meat consumption might contribute to acquire T. gondii infection. PMID:16839423

  11. Nutritional control of pregnant women on chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Vidal, M L; Ursu, M; Martinez, A; Roland, S S; Wibmer, E; Pereira, D; Subiza, K; Alonso, W; Seijas, L; Piazze, S; Lisorio, L; Falconi, J P; Canessa, R; Laborda, L; Dibello, N

    1998-07-01

    The authors describe their experience in the follow-up of four patients with chronic renal failure who became pregnant while being treated with chronic hemodialysis. The outcomes were successful and each gave birth to healthy babies. The adequate nutritional condition previous to the pregnancies added more safety to their management. Special dedication to the nutritional control enabled a good outcome of their pregnancies. It stressed the importance of the intervention of the nutritionist-dietitian in the follow-up of nephrologic patients and the integration of a multidisciplinary staff. PMID:9724505

  12. Almost 3 in 10 Women Get Pregnant Naturally After Fertility Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatments called assisted reproductive technologies (ART), such as in-vitro fertilization. Ninety-six women didn't get pregnant during ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Assisted Reproductive Technology Infertility Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics ...

  13. Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

  14. 42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible for, and received Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in which a 60-day period, beginning on the last day of the pregnancy, ends....

  15. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible for, and received Medicaid services on the day that their pregnancy ends. This period extends from the last day of pregnancy through the end of the month in which a 60-day period, beginning on the last day...

  16. Comorbidity and Related Factors among Ethnically Diverse Substance Using Pregnant Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brems, Christiane; Namyniuk, Lorraine L.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the course of treatment, risk factors, and drug-related issues among ethnically diverse pregnant women (N=192) who were actively using drugs at admission to a residential treatment program. Findings reveal that the course of treatment is more difficult for comorbid clients who perceived more treatment barriers than noncomorbid clients.…

  17. The Association between Influenza Vaccination and Other Preventative Health Behaviors in a Cohort of Pregnant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheminske, Megan; Henninger, Michelle; Irving, Stephanie A.; Thompson, Mark; Williams, Jenny; Shifflett, Pat; Ball, Sarah W.; Avalos, Lyndsay Ammon; Naleway, Allison L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Although pregnant women are a high-priority group for seasonal influenza vaccination, vaccination rates in this population remain below target levels. Previous studies have identified sociodemographic predictors of vaccine choice, but relationships between preconception heath behaviors and seasonal influenza vaccination are poorly…

  18. Medical Students' Comfort with Pregnant Women with Substance-Use Disorders: A Randomized Educational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Brittany; Skipper, Betty; Riley, Shawne; Wilhelm, Peggy; Rayburn, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study objective was to determine whether medical students' attendance at a rehabilitation residence for pregnant women with substance-use disorders yielded changes in their attitudes and comfort levels in providing care to this population. Methods: This randomized educational trial involved 96 consecutive medical students during…

  19. A psychiatric medication decision support guide for social work practice with pregnant and postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Kia J; Price, Sarah Kye; Cummings, Cory R

    2014-10-01

    In their work in human services organizations and community agencies across service sectors, social workers encounter pregnant and postpartum women experiencing mental health challenges. This article offers an evidence-informed Decision Support Guide designed for use by social workers working with pregnant and postpartum women who are struggling with complicated decisions about psychiatric medication use. The guide is built on contemporary notions of health literacy and shared decision making and is informed by three areas: (1) research into the lived experiences of pregnant and postpartum women and health care providers around psychiatric medication decision making, (2) a critical review of existing decision aids, and (3) feedback on the strategy from social work practitioners who work with pregnant and postpartum women. Emphasizing the relational nature of social work in supporting effective health-related decision making, the guide relies on maintaining a collaborative practice milieu and using a decision aid that engages clients in discussions about mental health during and around the time of pregnancy. The guide offers social workers a practice tool to support responsive and compassionate care by embracing their roles in problem solving and decision making, providing emotional and psychosocial support, and making appropriate referrals to prescribers.

  20. Effects of group sexual counseling on the traditional perceptions and attitudes of Iranian pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Navidian, Ali; Rigi, Shahindokht Navabi; Soltani, Parvin

    2016-01-01

    Background Marital relationships may fluctuate due to physical and psychological changes during pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate the effect of group sexual counseling on the traditional perceptions and attitudes of pregnant women. Methods This was a quasiexperimental intervention study. Among the pregnant women who were referred to health care centers in Zahedan, Iran, in 2015 for routine care during pregnancy, 100 individuals were chosen and randomly categorized into two groups: intervention (n=50) and control (n=50). Variables were the participant’s attitudes and beliefs on sexual activity during pregnancy. The data were collected during pregnancy using the Sexual Activities and Attitudes Questionnaire. The questionnaire was completed before and 6 weeks after five sessions of group sexual counseling. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (Version 20) with descriptive and analytical statistics. Results The mean of score changes for sexual attitudes and traditional perceptions in the intervention group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.0001). Analysis of covariance also showed that the mean score of the participant’s traditional perceptions and sexual attitudes in both groups was significantly different after the group sexual counseling. Discussion Due to the positive effect of group sexual counseling on improving the attitudes of pregnant women about sexual issues and reframing the traditional perceptions over sexual activities during pregnancy, it is recommended that this educational intervention should be integrated into counseling and prenatal care for pregnant women. PMID:27366105

  1. Subjective Effect of September 11, 2001 among Pregnant Women: Is Cumulative History of Interpersonal Violence Important?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Marilyn W.; Cavanagh, Paul K.; Ahn, Grace; Yoshioka, Marianne R.

    2008-01-01

    Prior history of trauma may sensitize individuals to subsequent trauma, including terrorist attacks. Using a convenience sample of secondary, cross-sectional data, pregnant women were grouped based on lifetime interpersonal violence history. Cumulative risk theory was used to evaluate the association of lifetime interpersonal violence history and…

  2. Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C Viral Infection Among Pregnant Women in Peshawar, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Irshad

    2016-01-01

    Background Viral hepatitis during pregnancy is associated with a high risk of maternal complications. The virus has a high risk of vertical transmission and it has been reported as the leading cause of maternal death. Objectives To study the prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viral infections among pregnant women in the Peshawar district of Pakistan. Materials and Methods The cross-sectional study took place between July 2013 and April 2014. A total of 10,288 samples were collected from pregnant women living in different areas of the Peshawar district. The samples were centrifuged at a high speed in order to obtain a clear supernatant serum. All samples were screened for HBV and HCV using the immunochromatographic technique. Results The overall prevalence of HBV was found to be 1.16%, although it varied throughout the study period. The highest prevalence of HBV (1.69%) was observed during January 2014. The overall prevalence of HCV infection among the pregnant women was observed to be 1.42%. The highest prevalence of HCV infection (2.22%) was found during March 2014. Conclusions The overall prevalence of HBV and HCV was 1.16% and 1.42%, respectively. The incidence of HCV infection among the pregnant women was higher than that of HBV infection. PMID:27630725

  3. The role of environmental quality in gestational weight gain among U.S. pregnant women

    EPA Science Inventory

    From 2000-2009, 44% of United States (US) pregnant women had gestational weight gain (GWG) above and 20% had GWG below the recommended range of 15 to 40 pounds, which depends on starting weight. GWG outside the recommended range is associated with adverse outcomes including pre-e...

  4. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in an Urban Area of Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Addis Alene, Kefyalew; Mohamed Dohe, Abdulahi

    2014-01-01

    This research work presents the magnitude of anemia and its determinant factors among pregnant women. As far as this research is done in the eastern part of Ethiopia, where there is a different cultural issue related to pregnancy and dietary habit, it will help the researchers to know the problem in different parts of the country. PMID:25215230

  5. A new method for long-term home monitoring of fetal movement by pregnant women themselves.

    PubMed

    Ryo, Eiji; Nishihara, Kyoko; Matsumoto, Sachiyo; Kamata, Hideo

    2012-06-01

    Fetal movement is one index of fetal well-being. We designed and built a new recorder based on fetal movement acceleration measurement (FMAM). The FMAM recorder has a newly developed, capacitive acceleration sensor that can detect the oscillations of the maternal abdominal wall caused by fetal movements. In this study, the recorder was examined for its suitability for long-term home monitoring of fetal movement by pregnant women themselves. Experiment I: Fourteen pregnant women underwent 45 examinations in the laboratory at gestational 20-39 weeks. We simultaneously recorded fetal movement as detected by the recorder, ultrasonography, and maternal perception, and then calculated agreement among the three methods. We evaluated agreement using prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK). Agreement for gross fetal movement as detected by FMAM and ultrasonography was substantial or almost perfect, while agreement between maternal perception and ultrasonography was moderate or substantial. Experiment II: Six pregnant women undertook 53 experiments at home by themselves. Fetal movement during maternal nocturnal sleep was successfully recorded 50 out of 53 times at home. In conclusion, there was high agreement for gross fetal movement between FMAM and ultrasonography. The recorder is promising for objective, accurate, and long-term home monitoring of gross fetal movement by pregnant women themselves.

  6. Energy intake and energy expenditure for determining excess weight gain in pregnant women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To conduct a secondary analysis designed to test whether gestational weight gain is the result of increased energy intake or adaptive changes in energy expenditures. In this secondary analysis, energy intake and energy expenditure of 45 pregnant women (body mass index [BMI] 18.5-24.9 [n=33] and BMI ...

  7. Weakened Resilience in Parenting Self-Efficacy in Pregnant Women Who Were Abused in Childhood: An Experimental Test.

    PubMed

    Kunseler, Florentina C; Oosterman, Mirjam; de Moor, Marleen H M; Verhage, Marije L; Schuengel, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    This study tested experimentally whether the combination of a history of childhood abuse and confrontation with difficult infant temperament is associated with negative changes in parenting self-efficacy. First-time pregnant women (N = 243) participated in the Adult Attachment Interview, which was used to assess the occurrence of abuse by parents in childhood and unresolved representations, and completed a task asking them to respond to infant cries. Sixty of the 243 participants (25%) experienced childhood abuse, mostly physical or sexual. The task simulated infant temperamental difficulty by manipulating soothing success in order to reflect an easy-to-soothe (80% soothing success) and a difficult-to-soothe infant (20% soothing success). Both after baseline and after each of the two stimulus series women assessed their parenting self-efficacy. Women who reported childhood abuse did not differ from women who reported no childhood abuse in parenting self-efficacy at baseline or in response to the easy-to-soothe infant (relative to baseline), but decreased more in parenting self-efficacy following the difficult-to-soothe infant. Effects did not vary according to resolution of trauma. These findings suggest that in response to infant temperamental difficulty, women who experienced childhood abuse may more easily lose confidence in their parenting abilities, which underlines the importance of preparing at-risk women for the possible challenges that come along with parenthood.

  8. Weakened Resilience in Parenting Self-Efficacy in Pregnant Women Who Were Abused in Childhood: An Experimental Test

    PubMed Central

    Kunseler, Florentina C.; Oosterman, Mirjam; de Moor, Marleen H. M.; Verhage, Marije L.; Schuengel, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    This study tested experimentally whether the combination of a history of childhood abuse and confrontation with difficult infant temperament is associated with negative changes in parenting self-efficacy. First-time pregnant women (N = 243) participated in the Adult Attachment Interview, which was used to assess the occurrence of abuse by parents in childhood and unresolved representations, and completed a task asking them to respond to infant cries. Sixty of the 243 participants (25%) experienced childhood abuse, mostly physical or sexual. The task simulated infant temperamental difficulty by manipulating soothing success in order to reflect an easy-to-soothe (80% soothing success) and a difficult-to-soothe infant (20% soothing success). Both after baseline and after each of the two stimulus series women assessed their parenting self-efficacy. Women who reported childhood abuse did not differ from women who reported no childhood abuse in parenting self-efficacy at baseline or in response to the easy-to-soothe infant (relative to baseline), but decreased more in parenting self-efficacy following the difficult-to-soothe infant. Effects did not vary according to resolution of trauma. These findings suggest that in response to infant temperamental difficulty, women who experienced childhood abuse may more easily lose confidence in their parenting abilities, which underlines the importance of preparing at-risk women for the possible challenges that come along with parenthood. PMID:26848573

  9. Weakened Resilience in Parenting Self-Efficacy in Pregnant Women Who Were Abused in Childhood: An Experimental Test.

    PubMed

    Kunseler, Florentina C; Oosterman, Mirjam; de Moor, Marleen H M; Verhage, Marije L; Schuengel, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    This study tested experimentally whether the combination of a history of childhood abuse and confrontation with difficult infant temperament is associated with negative changes in parenting self-efficacy. First-time pregnant women (N = 243) participated in the Adult Attachment Interview, which was used to assess the occurrence of abuse by parents in childhood and unresolved representations, and completed a task asking them to respond to infant cries. Sixty of the 243 participants (25%) experienced childhood abuse, mostly physical or sexual. The task simulated infant temperamental difficulty by manipulating soothing success in order to reflect an easy-to-soothe (80% soothing success) and a difficult-to-soothe infant (20% soothing success). Both after baseline and after each of the two stimulus series women assessed their parenting self-efficacy. Women who reported childhood abuse did not differ from women who reported no childhood abuse in parenting self-efficacy at baseline or in response to the easy-to-soothe infant (relative to baseline), but decreased more in parenting self-efficacy following the difficult-to-soothe infant. Effects did not vary according to resolution of trauma. These findings suggest that in response to infant temperamental difficulty, women who experienced childhood abuse may more easily lose confidence in their parenting abilities, which underlines the importance of preparing at-risk women for the possible challenges that come along with parenthood. PMID:26848573

  10. Knowledge and use of folic acid among pregnant Arabian women residing in Qatar and Oman.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Abdelmonem S; Al-Kharusi, Balqees M

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and use of folic acid among pregnant Arabian women in Qatar and Oman. Three hundred pregnant women were interviewed during their second trimester based on a questionnaire developed for the study. Results of the survey indicated that 94% of the women knew about folic acid, 41.3% knew it should be taken periconceptionally, 58.5% knew that it prevents birth defects and 34.4% were able to identify five or more food sources of folic acid. The majority (88.7%) of women was taking the supplement, 85.0% were taking it regularly and 13.2% took it before getting pregnant. Knowledge and use were significantly influenced by ethnicity, age, education level, employment and family income. Periconceptional use of supplement was lowest among younger women (4.9%) and illiterate and least educated women (5.3%). It was concluded that high level of knowledge of folic acid was not reflected as successful use of the folic acid supplement.

  11. How do primary health care professionals deal with pregnant women who are victims of domestic violence?

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo-Barrientos, Dora Mariela; Miura, Paula Orchiucci; Macedo, Vanessa Dias; Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to determine how Family Health Strategy professionals recognize and deal with domestic violence in pregnant women. Method qualitative study based on the Theory of Praxis Intervention in Collective Health Nursing (TIPESC). Fourteen professionals at a Basic Health Unit in the east side of Sao Paulo/Brazil were interviewed. Empirical data were categorized and discussed in thematic groups. For data analysis was used the technique of Discourse Analysis. Results we identified low number of reported cases of domestic violence; lack of education and training of health care professionals; failure in the identification and intervention process due to bias on their personal problems, moral attitudes and prejudice against these women. In addition, the study showed that their labor process was based entirely on the biological aspects of the women and to overcome this, they need of proper rapport between health care professionals and pregnant women to deal with of domestic violence. Conclusion professionals should develop skills to intervene in violence against pregnant women and also modify labor processes considering women in their totality and part of society. PMID:25029056

  12. Lipoproteins in pregnant women before and during delivery: influence on neonatal haemorheology.

    PubMed Central

    Uberos-Fernández, J; Muñoz-Hoyos, A; Molina-Carballo, A; Puertas-Prieto, A; Valenzuela-Ruiz, A; Ruiz-Cosano, C; Molina-Font, J A

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate whether the lipid profile of pregnant women during parturition differs from the profile at previous stages of pregnancy and to determine the effects of maternal lipid changes on fetal or neonatal haemorheology. METHODS: Sixty pregnant women were studied, divided into two groups. Group 1 contained 30 women of mean age of 27 (SD 3) years and gestational age > 38 weeks in whom delivery had not yet begun; all these pregnancies followed an uncomplicated course and there was no evidence of any fetal pathology from previous obstetric examinations. All the women reached term and birth weight was 3340 (350) g. Group 2 contained women of mean age 26 (4) years, in whom delivery was ongoing, all of whose pregnancies reached term. The following variables were determined in all cases: total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL), free fatty acids and phospholipids, and apoprotein A (apo-A) and apoprotein B (apo-B). Serum and plasma viscosity was measured with a capillary viscosimeter. RESULTS: The apo-B/apo-A and HDL/apo-A ratios increased during delivery, indicating that in pregnant women these atherogenic indices are raised during delivery compared with previous gestational stages. Significant correlation coefficients were obtained between maternal lipids (triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, total cholesterol/HDL, and LDL/HDL) and plasma viscosity in the neonate. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma atherogenic indices increase progressively until birth. These changes have implications for neonatal haemorheology because they cause an increase in plasma viscosity. PMID:8655676

  13. INFLUENCE OF PERCEIVED RISK OF SMOKING AND SECOND-HAND SMOKE ON SELF-REGULATORY BEHAVIOR AMONG PREGNANT TAIWANESE WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ming-Cheng; Chou, Feng-Sha; Wang, Chih-Chien; Yang, Yann-Jy

    2015-11-01

    Tobacco use is a global health problem, including in Taiwan. The present study evaluated the perceived risk of smoking and second-hand smoke among pregnant Taiwanese women using a questionnaire. Seven hundred twenty-four pregnant Taiwanese women were recruited from an online parenting community using convenience sampling in 2013. Pregnant smokers and non-smokers had significantly different perceptions regarding risk of smoking and second-hand smoke during pregnancy. Pregnant non-smokers adopted more behaviors to avoid second-hand smoke both at home and in public than pregnant smokers. We conclude that perceived fetal health risks from smoking and second-hand smoke influenced maternal behavior during pregnancy. Pregnant women's perceptions of the risk of tobacco smoke depended on whether their focus in the decision-making process was on prevention or promotion. Understanding the risk factors associated with smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy may help in developing strategies to reduce such exposure.

  14. Peptic ulcer disease with related drug treatment in pregnant women and congenital abnormalities in their offspring.

    PubMed

    Bánhidy, Ferenc; Dakhlaoui, Abdallah; Puhó, Erzsébet H; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2011-03-01

    Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a common disease which can also occur in pregnant women. However, the possible association of PUD and related drug treatments in pregnant women with the risk of structural birth defects (i.e. congenital abnormalities [CA]) in their offspring has not been estimated in controlled population-based epidemiological studies. Thus, the prevalence of PUD in pregnant women who later delivered babies (cases) with different CA and in pregnant women who delivered newborns without CA (controls) was compared in the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities. Controls were matched to cases. Of 22,843 cases with congenital abnormalities, 182 (0.80%) had mothers with reported/recorded PUD, while of 38,151 controls, 261 (0.68%) were born to mothers with reported/recorded PUD. However, PUD(?) based on maternal information and/or unspecified diagnostic criteria, and PUD(!) based on endoscopic diagnosis showed different variables of mothers and newborn infants. Thus, finally, 20 case mothers and 58 control mothers with PUD(!) and related drugs were evaluated in detail. There was no higher risk for total CA group in the offspring of mothers with PUD during pregnancy (adjusted OR with 95% CI: 0.6, 0.3-0.9). Specific CA groups in cases were also assessed versus controls, but specified CA had no higher risk in the offspring of pregnant women with PUD and related drug treatments. In conclusion, a higher rate of CA was not found in the offspring of mothers with PUD.

  15. Quality of Life of Pregnant Women Living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Marysabel Pinto Telis; Silveira, Mariângela Freitas; Müller, Cristina Heloisa

    2016-05-01

    Objective to evaluate the quality of life of HIV positive (HIV+) pregnant women using the HIV/AIDS Target Quality of Life (HAT-QoL) instrument. Methods cross-sectional study, conducted between May 2014 and November 2015, with HIV+ pregnant women selected by convenience sampling. Sociodemographic and behavioral data were collected through interviews, and the HAT-QoL questionnaire was applied. Clinical and laboratorial data were collected from medical records. Results twenty-seven pregnant women participated in the study. Their mean age was 27 years (standard deviation - SD: 7.3). The majority (59%) had up to 8 years of education, 52% identified themselves as white, 56% were unemployed, and 59% had a household income higher than the minimum wage. The mean infection time by the virus was 68.4 months (5.7 years). The majority (74%) were contaminated with HIV through sexual intercourse, and 67% declared not having a HIV+ relative. Regarding the use of condoms, 41% reported using them sporadically, and the same number did not have proper knowledge about them. Only 23 patients (85%) reported having been prescribed antiretrovirals. Fourteen (64%) had a CD4 count higher than 500 cells/mm(3), and 13 pregnant women (59%) had an undetectable viral load. The scores from the quality of life questionnaire dimensions that were more affected are: infection "disclosure concerns" (mean: 39.8; SD: 27.1), followed by "financial concerns" (mean: 49.1; SD: 36), and "HIV acceptance" (mean: 49.1; SD: 35.8). The dimension with the best score was "medication concerns" (mean: 80.8; SD: 26.5). Conclusion quality of life has been increasingly used as a clinical outcome evaluation parameter. The results of this study contribute to the establishment of interventions based on the needs of HIV+ pregnant women. PMID:27187928

  16. [Ferro-Folgamma--a drug for treatment and prophylaxis of iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Bozhinova, S; Penkov, V; Bogdanova, A

    2004-01-01

    The problem of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) in pregnant women is not a new one, but the flashback to it is justified because of the fact that its significance is not appreciated properly. The growing foetus has increased needs of different active for blood formation substances such as iron (Fe), folic acid, vit. B12, which are taken away from the mother. If her supplies are not enough, an anaemic syndrome can be promoted. The only suitable way in the presence of iron deficiency is the administration of drugs for equilibration of iron balance. We used Ferro-Folgamma--a new medicine for our pharmaceutical market, for treatment of IDA in 42 pregnant women and we rendered an account of the results of its administration. All pregnant women had starting data of Hb<110 g/l and Hct<0.33 L/L. One capsule of Ferro-Folgamma contains 100 mg iron sulfate siccatum (that corresponds to 37 mg Fe), folic acid - 5 mg, cyancobalamine 10 mg. It is administered a capsule 3 times daily in 1 to 3 courses of treatment and a course has 20 days duration. After a treatment course was carried out the starting data of Hb were increased with 8.73 g/l, and of Hct with 0.02. In 8 pregnant women after the first therapeutic course, a 20-days - treatment was conducted too and Hb rose with 18.14 g/l in comparison with the starting data, and of Hct - with 0.037. The authors recommend the utilization of Ferro-Folgamma for treatment and prophylaxis of IDA in pregnant women, because of its good gastric acceptance, a few side undesired reactions, and the supplement of Folic acid and vit B12 increases the iron resorbtion.

  17. Pilot Study of Pesticide Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among Pregnant Women in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Alyson N.; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Narksen, Warangkana; Srinual, Niphan; Barr, Dana B.; Riederer, Anne M.

    2012-01-01

    An estimated 200,000 children born in Thailand each year are at risk of prenatal exposure to pesticides and associated neurodevelopmental outcomes because of their mothers’ agricultural occupations. Children born to non-agricultural workers may also be at risk of exposure from other pathways of maternal pesticide exposure, including exposure through home use, diet, and other environmental media. Pesticide exposure in Thailand has been linked to unsafe practices and beliefs about pesticides. However, limited information exists on pesticide knowledge, attitudes, and practices among pregnant women in Thailand or elsewhere. Obtaining this information is essential to understand the factors associated with prenatal pesticide exposure, identify populations potentially at risk, and ultimately protect pregnant women and their children. We administered surveys to 76 pregnant women in northern Thailand and used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate associations among pesticide-related knowledge, pregnancy trimester, and pesticide use behavior. In this pilot study, lower knowledge score and earliest trimester of pregnancy were marginally (p < 0.1) associated with unsafe practices in the home, but not at work. Women who worked in agriculture or applied pesticides before becoming pregnant, or who had a previous child were significantly (p < 0.05) more likely to engage in unsafe behaviors in the home during their current pregnancy. We preliminarily conclude that increasing pesticide-related knowledge among pregnant women may help promote safe practices and reduce prenatal exposure. Knowledge-based interventions may be most effective when implemented early in pregnancy and targeted to agricultural workers and other sub-populations at risk of pesticide exposure. PMID:23202693

  18. Prognosis of Pregnant Women with One Abnormal Value on 75g OGTT.

    PubMed

    Kozuma, Yutaka; Inoue, Shigeru; Horinouchi, Takashi; Shinagawa, Takaaki; Nakayama, Hitomi; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Hori, Daizo; Kamura, Toshiharu; Yamada, Kentaro; Ushijima, Kimio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors to allow us to detect patients at high risk of requiring insulin therapy, among Japanese pregnant women with one abnormal value (OAV) on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (75-g OGTT). A total of 118 pregnant women with OAV on a previous 75-g OGTT between 1997 and 2010 were studied. We identified the factors which can predict patients at high risk of requiring insulin therapy among Japanese pregnant women with OAV, by comparing severe abnormal glucose tolerance (insulin treatment; n=17) with mild glucose tolerance patients (diet only; n=101). The following factors were examined; plasma level of glucose (PG) and immunoreactive insulin (IRI) at fasting, 0.5, 1 and 2 hours after loading glucose, insulinogenic index, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin sensitivity index-composite (ISI composite), and HbA1c at the time of the 75-g OGTT. Univariate analysis showed a positive correlation between insulin therapy and 2-h PG value, 0.5-h and 1-h IRI values, AUC-IRI and insulinogenic index (p<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the PG 2-h value and insulinogenic index were independent predictive factors of insulin therapy. A 2-h PG ≥153 mg / dl and an insulinogenic index of <0.42 had a sensitivity of 81.8%, a specificity of 83.8%, a positive predictive value of 60.0% and a negative predictive value of 93.9% for the prediction of patients who required insulin therapy among pregnant women with OAV. These results suggest that a level of 2-h PG ≥153 mg/dl and an insulinogenic index of <0.42 on 75-g OGTT are predictive factors for insulin therapy in Japanese pregnant women with OAV.

  19. Infant feeding study: knowledge and attitudes of selected pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Kandiah, M; Ooi Guat San

    1984-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate attitudes toward infant feeding among women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. A total of 74 primiparous and multiparous mothers ranging in age from 18-45 who were attending antenatal clinics near Kuala Lumpur were interviewed, 78.3% of which were Malay, 12.2% Chinese, and 9.5% Indian. Most were from middle class families, and only 6.5% had never attended school. Although 91.9% considered breastmilk as being the best food for babies, only 63.5% preferred to breastfeed; 8.1% chose powdered milk and 28.4% chose mixed feeding. Most of those who chose not to breastfeed were Chinese, working women, and/or women from higher income groups. Information on the intended duration of breastfeeding showed that multiparous women and working women did not intend to breastfeed for more than 6 months. Most women did not believe that either breast milk or powdered milk alone was sufficient for infants up to 5 months of age, and intended to supplement with solid food before that age. Since 93.2% of the respondents had already decided on feeding methods by their last trimester, it is important that nutritional information be given during this time.

  20. Infant feeding study: knowledge and attitudes of selected pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Kandiah, M; Ooi Guat San

    1984-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate attitudes toward infant feeding among women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. A total of 74 primiparous and multiparous mothers ranging in age from 18-45 who were attending antenatal clinics near Kuala Lumpur were interviewed, 78.3% of which were Malay, 12.2% Chinese, and 9.5% Indian. Most were from middle class families, and only 6.5% had never attended school. Although 91.9% considered breastmilk as being the best food for babies, only 63.5% preferred to breastfeed; 8.1% chose powdered milk and 28.4% chose mixed feeding. Most of those who chose not to breastfeed were Chinese, working women, and/or women from higher income groups. Information on the intended duration of breastfeeding showed that multiparous women and working women did not intend to breastfeed for more than 6 months. Most women did not believe that either breast milk or powdered milk alone was sufficient for infants up to 5 months of age, and intended to supplement with solid food before that age. Since 93.2% of the respondents had already decided on feeding methods by their last trimester, it is important that nutritional information be given during this time. PMID:12280344

  1. Influence of education on HIV infection among pregnant women attending their antenatal care in Sekondi-Takoradi metropolis, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Orish, Verner N; Onyeabor, Onyekachi S; Boampong, Johnson N; Afoakwah, Richmond; Nwaefuna, Ekene; Acquah, Samuel; Orish, Esther O; Sanyaolu, Adekunle O; Iriemenam, Nnaemeka C

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the influence of the level of education on HIV infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Sekondi-Takoradi, Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted at four hospitals in the Sekondi-Takoradi metropolis. The study group comprised 885 consenting pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics. Questionnaires were administered and venous blood samples were screened for HIV and other parameters. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between the level of education attained by the pregnant women and their HIV statuses. The data showed that 9.83% (87/885) of the pregnant women were HIV seropositive while 90.17% (798/885) were HIV seronegative. There were significant differences in mean age (years) between the HIV seropositive women (27.45 ± 5.5) and their HIV seronegative (26.02 ± 5.6) counterparts (p = .026) but the inference disappeared after adjustment (p = .22). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that pregnant women with secondary/tertiary education were less likely to have HIV infection compared with those with none/primary education (adjusted OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.30-0.91; p = .022). Our data showed an association with higher level of education and HIV statuses of the pregnant women. It is imperative to encourage formal education among pregnant women in this region.

  2. Perceptions of emerging tobacco products and nicotine replacement therapy among pregnant women and women planning a pregnancy.

    PubMed

    England, Lucinda J; Tong, Van T; Koblitz, Amber; Kish-Doto, Julia; Lynch, Molly M; Southwell, Brian G

    2016-12-01

    The increasing availability of emerging non-combusted tobacco products (snus, dissolvables, and electronic nicotine delivery systems or ENDS) may have implications for pregnant women and women of reproductive age. We conducted 15 focus groups to explore how women perceive emerging non-combusted tobacco products and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in general, and during pregnancy. Sessions were held in 2013 in four U.S. cities. Participants were 18-40 years old and were pregnant smokers, pregnant quitters, or smokers planning a pregnancy. Responses were coded and analyzed to identify key themes using NVivo 10.0 qualitative software (QSR). Several themes emerged from focus groups. Participants generally found snus unappealing, but viewed dissolvables as a discreet and stigma-free way to use tobacco during pregnancy. Participants perceived NRT as ineffective and having undesired side effects. ENDS were thought to offer advantages over cigarettes, including use in smoke-free areas, lower cost, appealing flavors, and fewer health effects, and were seen by some as a potential quit aid. Some participants, however, worried that the lack of natural stopping point could lead to excessive use. Many participants felt that the use of any tobacco or NRT product is harmful during pregnancy. Women seeking to reduce health risks or stigma related to smoking during pregnancy may perceive advantages of using some emerging products over cigarettes. These findings can inform future public health efforts to reduce risks associated with tobacco product use among women of reproductive age.

  3. Perceptions of emerging tobacco products and nicotine replacement therapy among pregnant women and women planning a pregnancy.

    PubMed

    England, Lucinda J; Tong, Van T; Koblitz, Amber; Kish-Doto, Julia; Lynch, Molly M; Southwell, Brian G

    2016-12-01

    The increasing availability of emerging non-combusted tobacco products (snus, dissolvables, and electronic nicotine delivery systems or ENDS) may have implications for pregnant women and women of reproductive age. We conducted 15 focus groups to explore how women perceive emerging non-combusted tobacco products and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in general, and during pregnancy. Sessions were held in 2013 in four U.S. cities. Participants were 18-40 years old and were pregnant smokers, pregnant quitters, or smokers planning a pregnancy. Responses were coded and analyzed to identify key themes using NVivo 10.0 qualitative software (QSR). Several themes emerged from focus groups. Participants generally found snus unappealing, but viewed dissolvables as a discreet and stigma-free way to use tobacco during pregnancy. Participants perceived NRT as ineffective and having undesired side effects. ENDS were thought to offer advantages over cigarettes, including use in smoke-free areas, lower cost, appealing flavors, and fewer health effects, and were seen by some as a potential quit aid. Some participants, however, worried that the lack of natural stopping point could lead to excessive use. Many participants felt that the use of any tobacco or NRT product is harmful during pregnancy. Women seeking to reduce health risks or stigma related to smoking during pregnancy may perceive advantages of using some emerging products over cigarettes. These findings can inform future public health efforts to reduce risks associated with tobacco product use among women of reproductive age. PMID:27635381

  4. Exposure to pyrethroids insecticides and serum levels of thyroid-related measures in pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jie; Hisada, Aya; Yoshinaga, Jun; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Shimodaira, Kazuhisa; Okai, Takashi; Noda, Yumiko; Shirakawa, Miyako; Kato, Nobumasa

    2013-11-15

    Possible association between environmental exposure to pyrethroid insecticides and serum thyroid-related measures was explored in 231 pregnant women of 10–12 gestational weeks recruited at a university hospital in Tokyo during 2009–2011. Serum levels of free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid biding globulin (TBG) and urinary pyrethroid insecticide metabolite (3-phenoxybenzoic acid, 3-PBA) were measured. Obstetrical information was obtained from medical records and dietary and lifestyle information was collected by self-administered questionnaire. Geometric mean concentration of creatinine-adjusted urinary 3-PBA was 0.363 (geometric standard deviation: 3.06) μg/g cre, which was consistent with the previously reported levels for non-exposed Japanese adult females. The range of serum fT4, TSH and TBG level was 0.83–3.41 ng/dL, 0.01–27.4 μIU/mL and 16.4–54.4 μg/mL, respectively. Multiple regression analysis was carried out by using either one of serum levels of thyroid-related measures as a dependent variable and urinary 3-PBA as well as other potential covariates (age, pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, urinary iodine, smoking and drinking status) as independent variables: 3-PBA was not found as a significant predictor of serum level of thyroid-related measures. Lack of association may be due to lower pyrethroid insecticide exposure level of the present subjects. Taking the ability of pyrethroid insecticides and their metabolite to bind to nuclear thyroid hormone (TH) receptor, as well as their ability of placental transfer, into consideration, it is warranted to investigate if pyrethroid pesticides do not have any effect on TH actions in fetus brain even though maternal circulating TH level is not affected. -- Highlights: • Pyrethroid exposure and thyroid hormone status was examined in pregnant women. • Urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid was used as a biomarker of exposure. • Iodine nutrition, age and other covariates were included

  5. Mental health issues among pregnant women in correctional facilities: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Soumyadeep; Pierre-Victor, Dudith; Bahelah, Raed; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2014-01-01

    Incarceration-induced stress makes pregnant women in correctional facilities a high-risk group for mental health problems, resulting in adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to examine the prevalence and correlates of mental health issues among pregnant inmates. Databases searched included PubMed, Medline, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, National Criminal Justice Reference System, Social Work Abstracts, Cochrane and Campbell libraries, which were searched for studies published in English from 1950 till July 2013. Eleven studies were included of pregnant women in correctional facilities and addressed at least one mental illness. Quality score was assigned to these eligible articles. Due to heterogeneity, a narrative review was performed. All of the studies were conducted in the United States, with quality scores ranging from 7 to 10 out of 10. Only one of these studies used mixed methods, the rest were quantitative. Tobacco use among pregnant inmates exceeded 50%, with some studies reporting as high as 84%. Alcohol use was common; 36% of the inmates used illicit drugs in one study. Depression and anxiety levels were high-some studies reported depression among 80% of inmates. Findings suggest that mental health among pregnant prisoners is a huge concern that has not been adequately addressed. PMID:25190332

  6. Mental health issues among pregnant women in correctional facilities: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Soumyadeep; Pierre-Victor, Dudith; Bahelah, Raed; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2014-01-01

    Incarceration-induced stress makes pregnant women in correctional facilities a high-risk group for mental health problems, resulting in adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. A systematic review was conducted to examine the prevalence and correlates of mental health issues among pregnant inmates. Databases searched included PubMed, Medline, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, National Criminal Justice Reference System, Social Work Abstracts, Cochrane and Campbell libraries, which were searched for studies published in English from 1950 till July 2013. Eleven studies were included of pregnant women in correctional facilities and addressed at least one mental illness. Quality score was assigned to these eligible articles. Due to heterogeneity, a narrative review was performed. All of the studies were conducted in the United States, with quality scores ranging from 7 to 10 out of 10. Only one of these studies used mixed methods, the rest were quantitative. Tobacco use among pregnant inmates exceeded 50%, with some studies reporting as high as 84%. Alcohol use was common; 36% of the inmates used illicit drugs in one study. Depression and anxiety levels were high-some studies reported depression among 80% of inmates. Findings suggest that mental health among pregnant prisoners is a huge concern that has not been adequately addressed.

  7. Health risk factors and mental health among US women with and without chronic physical disabilities by whether women are currently pregnant.

    PubMed

    Iezzoni, Lisa I; Yu, Jun; Wint, Amy J; Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Ecker, Jeffrey L

    2015-06-01

    Growing numbers of reproductive-age US women with chronic physical disabilities (CPD) raise questions about their pregnancy experiences. Little is known about the health risks of women with versus without CPD by current pregnancy status. We analyzed cross-sectional, nationally-representative National Health Interview Survey data from 2006 to 2011, which includes 47,629 civilian, noninstitutionalized women ages 18-49. NHIS asks about specified movement difficulties, current pregnancy, and various health and health risk indicators, including tobacco use and body mass index (BMI). We used responses from eight movement difficulty and other questions to identify women with mobility difficulties caused by chronic physical health conditions. Across all women regardless of CPD, women reporting current pregnancy are significantly less likely to currently smoke tobacco and report certain mental health problems. Among currently pregnant women only, women with CPD are more likely to smoke cigarettes every day (12.2 %) versus 6.3 % for pregnant women without CPD (p ≤ 0.001). Among currently pregnant women, 17.7 % of women with CPD have BMIs in the non-overweight range, compared with 40.1 % of women without CPD (p ≤ 0.0001). Currently pregnant women with CPD are significantly more likely to report having any mental health problems, 66.6 % compared with 29.7 % among women without CPD (p ≤ 0.0001). For all women, currently pregnant women appear to have fewer health risks and mental health concerns than nonpregnant women. Among pregnant women, women with CPD have higher rates than other women of health risk factors that could affect maternal and infant outcomes.

  8. Health Risk Factors and Mental Health Among U.S. Women with and without Chronic Physical Disabilities by Whether Women Are Currently Pregnant

    PubMed Central

    Iezzoni, Lisa I.; Yu, Jun; Wint, Amy J.; Smeltzer, Suzanne C.; Ecker, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Growing numbers of reproductive-age U.S. women with chronic physical disabilities (CPD) raise questions about their pregnancy experiences. Little is known about the health risks of women with versus without CPD by current pregnancy status. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional, nationally-representative National Health Interview Survey data from 2006–2011, which includes 47,629 civilian, noninstitutionalized women ages 18–49. NHIS asks about specified movement difficulties, current pregnancy, and various health and health risk indicators, including tobacco use and body mass index (BMI). We used responses from 8 movement difficulty and other questions to identify women with mobility difficulties caused by chronic physical health conditions. Findings Across all women regardless of CPD, women reporting current pregnancy are significantly less likely to currently smoke tobacco and report certain mental health problems. Among currently pregnant women only, women with CPD are more likely to smoke cigarettes every day (12.2%) versus 6.3% for pregnant women without CPD (p ≤ 0.001). Among currently pregnant women, 17.7% of women with CPD have BMIs in the non-overweight range, compared with 40.1% of women without CPD (p ≤ 0.0001). Currently pregnant women with CPD are significantly more likely to report having any mental health problems, 66.6% compared with 29.7% among women without CPD (p ≤ 0.0001). Conclusions For all women, currently pregnant women appear to have fewer health risks and mental health concerns than nonpregnant women. Among pregnant women, women with CPD have higher rates than other women of health risk factors that could affect maternal and infant outcomes. PMID:25421328

  9. Anti-C1q autoantibodies are linked to autoimmune thyroid disorders in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Vitkova, H; Jiskra, J; Springer, D; Limanova, Z; Telicka, Z; Bartakova, J; Trendelenburg, M; Potlukova, E

    2016-10-01

    Anti-C1q antibodies (anti-C1q) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between anti-C1q and thyroid function in pregnancy-associated AITD. In 96 pregnant women screened positive for AITD (thyroid dysfunction and/or antibodies against thyroperoxidase - TPOAb), anti-C1q were measured during the 9-11th gestational week and after delivery (median 16 months after delivery), and compared to the corresponding serum levels of thyroid hormones. As controls, 80 healthy pregnant women, 72 non-pregnant AITD patients and 72 blood donors were included. In the non-pregnant AITD group, two serum samples ≥ 6 months apart were analysed. Compared to blood donors, anti-C1q levels were substantially higher in all pregnant women analysed. In pregnancy, anti-C1q levels were higher in the TPOAb-positive women than in controls (37 versus 17·5%, P < 0·0001). Anti-C1q-positive pregnant women screened positive for AITD had higher thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels than anti-C1q-negative women (2·41 versus 1·94 mU/l, P = 0·01), and TSH correlated positively with anti-C1q (r = 0·226, P = 0·045) in the TPOAb-positive women. After delivery, serum levels of anti-C1q decreased in the positively screened TPOAb-negative women (8·8 versus 5·9 U/l, P = 0·002), but not in the TPOAb-positive ones, and they no longer correlated with TSH. Anti-C1q antibody levels increase during pregnancy in general and even more in the context of AITD, where they correlate with thyroid stimulating hormone levels. PMID:27198614

  10. Adult Women in Community Colleges. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Janene

    This digest reviews some of the recent literature about adult female students at community colleges. Their motivations, unique needs, and barriers to entry are discussed, as well as ways institutions can enhance the educational experience for adult women. Female students have outnumbered male students in higher education for nearly 30 years. In…

  11. Using incentives to encourage smoking abstinence among pregnant indigenous women? A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Glover, Marewa; Kira, Anette; Walker, Natalie; Bauld, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of many adverse health outcomes for both the mother and the unborn child (Morton et al. 2010). Indigenous people often have a higher smoking prevalence during pregnancy than non-Indigenous populations. In New Zealand (NZ), the smoking rates among Indigenous Māori women who are pregnant have reduced since 1991 (68 %) but still remains high in 2007 (34 %) (Morton et al. 2010). The success rate of most smoking cessation interventions for pregnant smokers is low at <6 % (Lumley et al. 2009). In other populations of pregnant women, financial incentives have been shown to increase the attractiveness of smoking cessation programs and increase the number of quit attempts. A feasibility study was undertaken to determine the likely effectiveness of an incentives-based cessation trial among pregnant Māori women that smoked. Pregnant smokers, aged 16 years and older, who self-identified as Māori, were 2-30 weeks pregnant, and currently smoked, were recruited through health practitioners, print media, and radio adverts in Auckland, NZ. Participants were randomised to (1) usual cessation support, including information about different cessation products and services, and access to nicotine replacement therapy (control), (2) usual cessation support plus a retail voucher to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (voucher), or (3) usual cessation support plus product to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (product). Outcomes measures included weekly self-reported and monthly biochemically verified smoking status, and acceptability. Of the 74 referred women, 50 declined involvement in the study and 24 consented and were randomised (eight control, eight voucher and eight to product). The mean age of participants was 25 years old (±2.25). Overall 21 % (n = 5) of the women were abstinent from smoking for at least 6 weeks of the eight, one from the control, six from the

  12. Using incentives to encourage smoking abstinence among pregnant indigenous women? A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Glover, Marewa; Kira, Anette; Walker, Natalie; Bauld, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of many adverse health outcomes for both the mother and the unborn child (Morton et al. 2010). Indigenous people often have a higher smoking prevalence during pregnancy than non-Indigenous populations. In New Zealand (NZ), the smoking rates among Indigenous Māori women who are pregnant have reduced since 1991 (68 %) but still remains high in 2007 (34 %) (Morton et al. 2010). The success rate of most smoking cessation interventions for pregnant smokers is low at <6 % (Lumley et al. 2009). In other populations of pregnant women, financial incentives have been shown to increase the attractiveness of smoking cessation programs and increase the number of quit attempts. A feasibility study was undertaken to determine the likely effectiveness of an incentives-based cessation trial among pregnant Māori women that smoked. Pregnant smokers, aged 16 years and older, who self-identified as Māori, were 2-30 weeks pregnant, and currently smoked, were recruited through health practitioners, print media, and radio adverts in Auckland, NZ. Participants were randomised to (1) usual cessation support, including information about different cessation products and services, and access to nicotine replacement therapy (control), (2) usual cessation support plus a retail voucher to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (voucher), or (3) usual cessation support plus product to the value of NZ$25 for each 'abstinent from smoking' week for 8 weeks (product). Outcomes measures included weekly self-reported and monthly biochemically verified smoking status, and acceptability. Of the 74 referred women, 50 declined involvement in the study and 24 consented and were randomised (eight control, eight voucher and eight to product). The mean age of participants was 25 years old (±2.25). Overall 21 % (n = 5) of the women were abstinent from smoking for at least 6 weeks of the eight, one from the control, six from the

  13. Urinary iodine concentrations of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Rydbeck, Filip; Bottai, Matteo; Tofail, Fahmida; Persson, Lars-Åke; Kippler, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is an essential dietary element required for normal fetal growth and development. We aimed to explore intraindividual and interindividual variations in iodine intake in pregnant women and whether non-dietary factors might influence the intake. Iodine intake was assessed in 271 women, residing in Matlab, rural Bangladesh, by measuring their urinary iodine concentration (UIC) at gestational week (GW) 8, 14, 19, and 30 with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The women's UIC increased significantly during pregnancy (median 241 (GW8) and 300 μg/l (GW30)). About 6% of the women had insufficient iodine intake (UIC<150 μg/l) and 10% had excessive iodine intake (UIC≥500 μg/l) at all of their four sampling occasions. The women's UIC were dependent on their education, socio-economic status, and BMI, as well as the season of sampling and iodine concentrations in drinking water. Supplementation with a multi-micronutrient capsule, including 150 μg potassium iodine, increased the UIC in women with the lowest UIC (10th percentile) at GW30 but decreased the UIC in women with the highest UIC (90th percentile) at GW30. In conclusion, median UIC throughout pregnancy indicated adequate intake of iodine among pregnant women in Matlab, but, notably, consistently insufficient and excessive intake was also prevalent. PMID:24220214

  14. Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviors among Racially and Ethnically Diverse Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ashley; Chilukuri, Nymisha; West, Meredith; Henderson, Janice; Lawson, Shari; Polk, Sarah; Levine, David; Bennett, Wendy L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Obesity is common among reproductive age women and disproportionately impacts racial/ethnic minorities. Our objective was to assess racial/ethnic differences in obesity-related dietary behaviors among pregnant and postpartum women, to inform peripartum weight management interventions that target diverse populations. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 212 Black (44%), Hispanic (31%), and White (25%) women, aged ≥ 18, pregnant or within one year postpartum, in hospital-based clinics in Baltimore, Maryland, in 2013. Outcomes were fast food or sugar-sweetened beverage intake once or more weekly. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between race/ethnicity and obesity-related dietary behaviors, adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Results. In adjusted analyses, Black women had 2.4 increased odds of fast food intake once or more weekly compared to White women (CI = 1.08, 5.23). There were no racial/ethnic differences in the odds of sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Discussion. Compared with White or Hispanic women, Black women had 2-fold higher odds of fast food intake once or more weekly. Black women might benefit from targeted counseling and intervention to reduce fast food intake during and after pregnancy. PMID:27298738

  15. The Association between Hair Cortisol and Self-Reported Symptoms of Depression in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Wikenius, Ellen; Moe, Vibeke; Kjellevold, Marian; Smith, Lars; Lyle, Robert; Waagbø, Rune; Page, Christian Magnus; Myhre, Anne Margrethe

    2016-01-01

    Depression has been linked to an imbalance in cortisol. Until recently, cortisol has been studied by measuring concentrations at single time points in blood or saliva samples. Cortisol concentrations vary with circadian rhythm and experiences, from time point to time point. The measurement of hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a new method of accessing mean, long-term cortisol concentrations. Recent studies show positive associations between depression and HCC, and prenatal maternal cortisol is thought to influence the developing fetus. We therefore examined the association between HCC and self-reported symptoms of depression in second trimester pregnant women. Participants were 181 women, recruited between September 2011 and October 2013 to the Little-in-Norway (LiN)-study. These women answered the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Rating Scale (EPDS) on self-reported symptoms of depression, and one cm maternal scalp hair was collected and analyzed for cortisol concentrations. Multiple regression analyses did not show depressive symptoms as a predictor for HCC in our selection of pregnant women, while gestational age was significantly related. In conclusion, our study indicated that symptoms of depression during pregnancy did not predict HCC, but further studies of clinically depressed, pregnant women using gestational age as an adjustment variable are warranted. PMID:27584584

  16. The Association between Hair Cortisol and Self-Reported Symptoms of Depression in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Wikenius, Ellen; Moe, Vibeke; Kjellevold, Marian; Smith, Lars; Lyle, Robert; Waagbø, Rune; Page, Christian Magnus; Myhre, Anne Margrethe

    2016-01-01

    Depression has been linked to an imbalance in cortisol. Until recently, cortisol has been studied by measuring concentrations at single time points in blood or saliva samples. Cortisol concentrations vary with circadian rhythm and experiences, from time point to time point. The measurement of hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a new method of accessing mean, long-term cortisol concentrations. Recent studies show positive associations between depression and HCC, and prenatal maternal cortisol is thought to influence the developing fetus. We therefore examined the association between HCC and self-reported symptoms of depression in second trimester pregnant women. Participants were 181 women, recruited between September 2011 and October 2013 to the Little-in-Norway (LiN)-study. These women answered the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Rating Scale (EPDS) on self-reported symptoms of depression, and one cm maternal scalp hair was collected and analyzed for cortisol concentrations. Multiple regression analyses did not show depressive symptoms as a predictor for HCC in our selection of pregnant women, while gestational age was significantly related. In conclusion, our study indicated that symptoms of depression during pregnancy did not predict HCC, but further studies of clinically depressed, pregnant women using gestational age as an adjustment variable are warranted. PMID:27584584

  17. Examining Maternal Weight Gain During Contingency-Management Treatment for Smoking Cessation Among Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Washio, Yukiko; Higgins, Stephen T.; Heil, Sarah H.; Badger, Gary J.; Skelly, Joan; Bernstein, Ira M.; Solomon, Laura J.; Higgins, Tara M.; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Hanson, Jennifer D.

    2010-01-01

    Excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy can result in serious adverse maternal and neonatal health consequences making it an important outcome to monitor in developing smoking-cessation interventions for pregnant women. Maternal weight gain was investigated in the present study with 154 pregnant participants in controlled trials investigating the efficacy of contingency management (CM) for smoking cessation. Women were assigned to either an abstinence-contingent condition wherein they earned vouchers exchangeable for retail items by abstaining from smoking or to a control condition where they received comparable vouchers independent of smoking status. Mean percent of negative smoking status tests throughout antepartum was greater in the incentive than control condition (45.2±4.6 vs. 15.5±2.4, p < .001) as was late-pregnancy point-prevalence abstinence (36% vs. 8%, p < .001) but maternal weight gain did not differ significantly between treatment conditions (15.0 ± 0.8 kg vs. 15.0 ± 0.9 kg, p = .97). In a comparison of women classified by smoking status rather than treatment condition, a greater percent of negative smoking status tests predicted significantly more weight gain (0.34 kg per 10% increase in negative tests), an effect that appeared to be attributable to women with greater abstinence having larger infants. This study shows no evidence of excessive maternal weight gain among pregnant women receiving a CM intervention for smoking cessation. PMID:20870365

  18. Sources and Determinants of Vitamin D Intake in Danish Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Camilla B.; Petersen, Sesilje B.; Granström, Charlotta; Maslova, Ekaterina; Mølgaard, Christian; Olsen, Sjurdur F.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy has been associated with the development of several adverse health outcomes, e.g., pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm delivery, low birth weight, birth length, and bone mineral content. The aims of the present study were to estimate the intake and sources of vitamin D in Danish pregnant women and to examine potential determinants of vitamin D intake of the recommended level (10 µg per day). In 68,447 Danish pregnant women the mean ± SD for vitamin D intake was 9.23 ± 5.60 µg per day (diet: 3.56 ± 2.05 µg per day, supplements: 5.67 ± 5.20 µg per day). 67.6% of the women reported use of vitamin D supplements but only 36.9% reported use of vitamin D supplements of at least 10 µg. Supplements were the primary source of vitamin D for the two higher quartiles of total vitamin D intake, with diet being the primary source for the two lower quartiles. Determinants of sufficient total vitamin D intake were: high maternal age, nulliparity, non-smoking, and filling out of the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) during summer or fall. We propose that clinicians encourage vitamin D supplementation among pregnant women, with special focus on vulnerable groups such as the young, smokers and multiparous women, in order to improve maternal and fetal health both during and after pregnancy. PMID:22606369

  19. Reliability of triclosan measures in repeated urine samples from Norwegian pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Bertelsen, Randi J.; Engel, Stephanie M.; Jusko, Todd A.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Hoppin, Jane A.; London, Stephanie J.; Eggesbø, Merete; Aase, Heidi; Zeiner, Pål; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Knudsen, Gun P.; Guidry, Virginia T.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a synthetic antibacterial chemical that is used in personal care products and is measurable in urine. Urinary TCS has been associated with allergy in children in Norway and the United States. A reasonable degree of temporal reliability of TCS urinary concentrations has been reported among U.S. children as well as for Puerto Rican pregnant women. We examined the reliability of TCS measures in urine among Norwegian pregnant women. Triclosan was measured in spot urine samples collected in gestational weeks 17, 23, and 29 from 45 women in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) enrolled in 2007 and 2008. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (rs) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) statistics were calculated. Fifty-six percent of the 45 women had a least one sample with a value above the method limit of detection (2.3 µg/L). The correlation coefficients were 0.61 for TCS concentrations at 17 and 23 weeks and 0.49 for concentrations at 17 and 29 weeks. For the three time points, the ICC was 0.49. The reliability of TCS concentrations in repeated urine samples from pregnant Norwegian women was reasonably good, suggesting a single urine sample can adequately represent TCS exposure during pregnancy. PMID:24472755

  20. [Haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn/HDFN/timing in pregnant women and prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Kulinska, R

    2014-01-01

    Haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn/HDFN/is a condition in which the lifespan of the fetal or newborn infants red cells is shortened by the action of maternal antibodies against antigens present on the infants red cells. The most common routes of maternal sensitization are via blood transfusion or fetomaternal hemorrhage. With the institution of antenatal Rhesus (Rh) D immunoglobulin prophylaxis, the frequency of maternal alloimmunization in Rh D-negative women has decreased significantly. The prevention and treatment of Rh D alloimmunization is a true success story in obstetrics. This article present the reasons for the persistence of the anti-D alloimmunization, protocol for the prevention and diagnosis of HDFN, immunohematological management of all pregnant women, critical titre, protocol and timing in alloimmunized pregnant women. PMID:25098112

  1. The influence of power on HIV risk among pregnant women in rural Haiti.

    PubMed

    Kershaw, Trace S; Small, Maria; Joseph, Gabriel; Theodore, Melanie; Bateau, Reginald; Frederic, Rikerdy

    2006-05-01

    Given that condom use is not directly under a woman's control, the sexual division of power may play an important role in sexual behavior among pregnant women. We assessed the influence of factors related to the theory of gender and power (e.g., relationship power, abuse history, and sexual communication) on sexual behavior (e.g., two or more partners in the year prior to pregnancy, condom use, condom-use intentions, and STI diagnosis) among 196 pregnant women recruited from five community dispensaries in rural Haiti. Results showed that gender and power factors significantly related to sexual behavior. Gender and power factors were most significant for condom use and intention to use condoms, accounting for 18 and 25% of the variance above and beyond HIV knowledge and demographic covariates, respectively. These results suggest the need to create prevention interventions that restore power imbalances, provide support for women suffering abuse, and strengthen communication skills.

  2. Hair trace metal concentration of pregnant women at term in comparison with blood and milk levels.

    PubMed

    Sikorski, R; Juszkiewicz, T; Paszkowski, T; Radomański, T; Szkoda, J; Milart, P

    1986-12-01

    The concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb were determined by means of AAS in the scalp hair (SH) and pubic hair (PH) as well as in maternal blood (MB), breast milk (BM) and cord blood (CB) taken from 104 pregnant women and their neonates. SH values of all studied metals correlated with strong statistical significance with their PH levels. Significant correlations were found between maternal Fe-PH and neonatal body length (r = 0.271) as well as between Fe-SH and placental weight (r = 0.168). The age of examined women was found to correlate negatively with Cu-SH values as well as with Zn-SH (P less than 0.05). The inverse relationship between Zn-PH and the parity of examined women was established to be statistically significant (P less than 0.001). The usefulness of hair analyses in assessing trace metal status of a pregnant woman is discussed.

  3. [Control of Chagas disease in pregnant Latin-American women and her children].

    PubMed

    Merino, Francisco J; Martínez-Ruiz, Rocío; Olabarrieta, Iciar; Merino, Paloma; García-Bujalance, Silvia; Gastañaga, Teresa; Flores-Chavez, María

    2013-09-01

    Chagas disease is a chronic and systemic infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. According to estimates from WHO, 10 million people are affected by this parasite. In the last years, birthrate among the immigrant women from Latin America settled in the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid has been increasing, and as T. cruzi can be transmitted from mother to child, in fact 11 cases of congenital Chagas disease have been confirmed. Therefore, the aim of this paper is encouraging improvements in the coverage of the anti-T. cruzi antibodies detection in pregnant women from endemic areas. By this strategy, an active search for infected pregnant women and early detection of her infected newborns could be conducted, and then an early specific treatment could be administrated. Thus, there could be an important contribution to the control of Chagas disease in non-endemic area.

  4. Intestinal parasitic infections and anaemia among pregnant women in the highlands of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Michael, Audrey; Kirarock, Wendy S; Pomat, William S; van den Biggelaar, Anita H J

    2013-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associations with risk factors among pregnant women in their second or third trimester in Goroka, Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea. Among the 201 pregnant women enrolled in this study, 163 (81%) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. Infections with protozoan parasites (65%) were more prevalent than infections with nematodes (31%); protozoan infections included Entamoeba histolytica (43%), Giardia lamblia (39%) and Pentatrichomonas hominis (14%), and nematode infections included hookworm (18%), Ascaris lumbricoides (14%), Strongyloides stercoralis (3%) and Trichuris trichiura (2%). Factors associated with higher risk of intestinal parasitic infections in pregnancy included being a primigravida for protozoan-only infections and education limited to primary school for nematode infections. Altitude-adjusted haemoglobin levels were assessed at the beginning of labour for 110 women, with 69 (63%) found to be anaemic (haemoglobin < 11 g/dl). There were no associations found between being infected in pregnancy and anaemia. PMID:26288929

  5. [Control of Chagas disease in pregnant Latin-American women and her children].

    PubMed

    Merino, Francisco J; Martínez-Ruiz, Rocío; Olabarrieta, Iciar; Merino, Paloma; García-Bujalance, Silvia; Gastañaga, Teresa; Flores-Chavez, María

    2013-09-01

    Chagas disease is a chronic and systemic infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. According to estimates from WHO, 10 million people are affected by this parasite. In the last years, birthrate among the immigrant women from Latin America settled in the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid has been increasing, and as T. cruzi can be transmitted from mother to child, in fact 11 cases of congenital Chagas disease have been confirmed. Therefore, the aim of this paper is encouraging improvements in the coverage of the anti-T. cruzi antibodies detection in pregnant women from endemic areas. By this strategy, an active search for infected pregnant women and early detection of her infected newborns could be conducted, and then an early specific treatment could be administrated. Thus, there could be an important contribution to the control of Chagas disease in non-endemic area. PMID:24080893

  6. New Zealand needs guidelines for the safe and responsible inclusion of pregnant women in medical research.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, Angela J

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is a crucial window of time that influences long-term population health. As a matter of justice, pregnant woman are entitled to high quality, evidenced-based care. As a matter of population health, we need to better understand foetal development, particularly the impact of lifestyle, stress, chronic conditions and clinical treatment during pregnancy. Pregnancy continues to be dominated by the precautionary principle, advocating for the routine exclusion of pregnant women from medical research, particularly intervention studies, on the grounds of foetal vulnerability. But this stance simply shifts the risk into the community. Due to a lack of evidence-based data, many pregnant women are refused medically important drugs, are subject to dangerous delays in getting drugs, or are prescribed drugs that are thought 'safe', despite evidence of possible teratogenicity. I argue that New Zealand needs to shift to a default position of inclusion of pregnant women in research; and to develop guidelines to facilitate their safe and responsible inclusion. The uniqueness of pregnancy gives rise to specific questions regarding research ethics. These questions warrant focused debate and the answers cannot simply be deduced from the general principles of research ethics we currently have in New Zealand. PMID:27362600

  7. Correlates of lifetime trauma exposure among pregnant women from Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Bronwyn; Jones, Hendrée E.; Doherty, Irene A.; Kline, Tracy L.; Key, Mary E.; Johnson, Kim; Wechsberg, Wendee M.

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 298 pregnant women from Cape Town, South Africa was conducted to examine socio-demographic, reproductive health, mental health, and relationship correlates of lifetime trauma exposure and whether these correlates vary as a function of age. Overall, 19.8% of participants reported trauma exposure. We found similarities and differences in correlates of trauma exposure among women in emerging adulthood and older women. Prior termination of pregnancy was associated with trauma exposure in both age groups. Difficulties in resolving arguments, lifetime substance use, and a prior sexually transmitted infection were associated with trauma exposure among women in emerging adulthood. In contrast, depression and awareness of substance abuse treatment programmes were associated with trauma exposure among older women. These findings highlight the need for interventions that prevent and treat trauma exposure among vulnerable women. Such interventions should be tailored to address the correlates of trauma exposure in each age group. PMID:27087804

  8. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women: a national cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes in mothers, neonates and children. There are no representative country data available on vitamin D status of pregnant women in Europe. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Belgian pregnant women and to assess the determinants of vitamin D status in the first and third trimester of pregnancy. The women were selected via a multi-stage proportionate-to-size sampling design. Blood samples were collected and a questionnaire was completed face-to-face. 55 obstetric clinics were randomly selected and 1311 pregnant women participated in the study. The median serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH)D] concentration was significantly lower in the first trimester (20.4 ng/ml) than in third trimester (22.7 ng/ml). Of all women, 74.1% (95%CI = 71.8-76.5%) were vitamin D insufficient (25-(OH)D <30 ng/ml), 44.6% (95%CI = 41.9-47.3%) were vitamin D deficient (25-(OH)D <20 ng/ml), while 12.1% (95%CI = 10.3-13.8%) were severely vitamin D deficient (25-(OH)D <10 ng/ml). Of all women included, 62.0% reported taking vitamin D-containing multivitamins, of which only 24.2% started taking those before pregnancy. The risk of vitamin D deficiency (25-(OH)D <20 ng/ml) was significantly higher for less educated women and women who reported not going on holidays to sunny climates. The risk of severe vitamin D deficiency (25-(OH)D <10 ng/ml) decreased for women who reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy, decreased with more frequent use of sunscreen lotion and increased for smokers and women who reported preference for shadow. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among pregnant women in Belgium and this raises concerns about the health consequences for the mother and the offspring. A targeted screening strategy to detect and treat women at high risk of severe vitamin D deficiency is needed in

  9. Vitamin D status in Moroccan pregnant women and newborns: reports of 102 cases

    PubMed Central

    Loudyi, Fouzia Mnebhi; Kassouati, Jalal; Kabiri, Meryem; Chahid, Naima; Kharbach, Aicha; Aguenaou, Hassan; Barkat, Amina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin D insufficiency to pregnant women has been associated with a number of adverse consequences, and has been recognized as a public health concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate vitamin D status of Morrocan pregnant women and their newborns. Our study is being the first of its kind in Morocco, as it supports the program of systematic supplementation of pregnant women in the third quarter. Its results have established a new program for the fight against the deficit of various nutrients, thereby intake of vitamin D has become routine. So this work is a true example of action research. Methods It’s an observational and a cross sectional study. The data was collected prospectively from the 1st January to 31 December 2012 in the labor room of the Souissi maternity hospital, at the Ibn Sina university center of Rabat in Morocco. Women included were consented to participate in the study. Data on epidemiological, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics was recolted by interview, physical exam and biochemistry parameters. Hypovitaminosis D is defined as serum level of vitamin D ≤ 50 nmol/l (20 ng/ml). Results Our study included 102 cases of mother-newborn pairs. The average age of mothers was 28.3 +/- 6.7 years (range 17-43 years), 90.1% of women enrolled had a hypovitaminosis D, the average weight of newborns was 3377.9 +/- 509g (2270 - 4880g). Hypovitaminosis D is not correlated with the origin, season, body mass index, birth interval and birth weight. It was positively correlated with maternal serum calcium (p=0.000). Conclusion The maternal hypovitaminosis D is real public health problem. The prevention is necessary, by the systematic vitamin D supplementation for pregnant women.

  10. Male Partner’s Role during Pregnancy, Labour and Delivery: Expectations of Pregnant women in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adeniran, Abiodun S.; Aboyeji, Abiodun P.; Fawole, Adegboyega A.; Balogun, Olayinka R.; Adesina, Kikelomo T.; Adeniran, Peace I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the expectations of pregnant women on the role of the male partner during conception and delivery. Methodology A prospective multi-centre observational study comprising 506 pregnant women at eight health facilities in Ilorin, Nigeria from January to June 2014. Consenting women were recruited at antenatal clinics using multistage purposive sampling and a self-administered questionnaire was administered with provision for interpreters in local dialects for those without western education. The data was analyzed using SPSS using percentages and chi-square test; p <0.05 was termed significant. Results Participants were aged 17 to 49 years (mean 30.23±4.81), 82.4% desire male partners company during antenatal clinic visits and 59.1% experienced this in index pregnancy. During labour and delivery, 427(84.4%) want company; 345(80.8%) chose the male partner with 211(57.7%) hoping men will appreciate the value of females afterwards although 27.9% feared the men may disturb the health workers, 72(14.2%) male partners attended previous delivery and 84.8% of the women were satisfied with the experience. Significant predictors of support for male partner’s presence at delivery were maternal age (p=0.001), secondary or higher education (p=0.001) and parity less than four (p=0.001); religion (x21.010; p>0.001) and social status (p>0.001) were statistically insignificant. Pregnant women wanted education for male partners on care of pregnant women (77.0%) and sex during conception (25.2%). Conclusion Parturient desire male partners’ presence at deliveries but their past participation was low; health facility modifications and education for men are required to meet the desires. PMID:26609295

  11. Pharmacokinetics of Dihydroartemisinin and Piperaquine in Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women with Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria▿†

    PubMed Central

    Rijken, Marcus J.; McGready, Rose; Phyo, Aung Phae; Lindegardh, Niklas; Tarning, Joel; Laochan, Natthapon; Than, Hla Hla; Mu, Oh; Win, Aye Kyi; Singhasivanon, Pratap; White, Nicholas; Nosten, François

    2011-01-01

    Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is a fixed-dose artemisinin-based combination treatment. Some antimalarials have altered pharmacokinetics in pregnancy. Pregnant women in the 2nd or 3rd trimester and matched nonpregnant women with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were treated with a total of 6.4 mg/kg of body weight dihydroartemisinin and 51.2 mg/kg piperaquine once daily for 3 days. Venous blood samples were drawn at prespecified time points over 9 weeks. Plasma dihydroartemisinin and piperaquine concentrations were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Piperaquine and dihydroartemisinin pharmacokinetics were well described. There were no significant differences in total piperaquine exposure (P = 0.80) or drug exposure during the terminal elimination phase (72 h to infinity) (P = 0.64) between the two groups. The apparent volume of distribution of piperaquine was significantly smaller (602 liters/kg versus 877 liters/kg) in pregnant women than in nonpregnant women (P = 0.0057), and the terminal elimination half-life was significantly shorter (17.8 days versus 25.6 days; P = 0.0023). Dihydroartemisinin exposure after the first dose was significantly lower (844 h × ng/ml versus 1,220 h × ng/ml, P = 0.0021) in pregnant women, but there were no significant differences in total dihydroartemisinin exposure or maximum concentrations between the two groups. There were no significant differences in any pharmacokinetic parameters between the second and third trimester. These results obtained through noncompartmental analysis suggest that in the treatment of falciparum malaria, there are no clinically important differences in the pharmacokinetics of dihydroartemisinin or piperaquine between pregnant and nonpregnant women. However, a more detailed analysis using population pharmacokinetic modeling is needed to fully investigate the differences found for some of the pharmacokinetic parameters, such as the terminal half-life. PMID:21947392

  12. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in pregnant women and birth outcomes of their children: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Bánhidy, Ferenc; Ács, Nándor; Puhó, Erzsébet H; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the possible association of pregnant women with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) with the possible risk for adverse birth outcomes, particularly different congenital abnormalities (CAs) in their children. Prospectively and medically recorded PSVT was evaluated in 103 pregnant women who later had offspring with CA (case group) and 149 pregnant women who later delivered newborn infants without CA (control group) and matched to cases in the population-based data set of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. Of 252 pregnant women with PSVT, 115 (45.6%) had the onset of this condition before the study pregnancy, that is, their PSVT was a chronic condition, while the rest (N = 137) of PSVT was considered as new onset in the study pregnancy. The comparison of occurrence of PSVT in pregnant women who had offspring with different CA groups and in control mothers showed a higher risk for cardiovascular CAs (adjusted OR with 95% CI: 2.1, 1.1-3.8) explained mainly by secundum atrial septal defect. This association was confirmed in pregnant women with PSVT in the second and/or third gestational month, that is, critical period of cardiovascular CAs. In conclusion PSVT in pregnant women associates with a higher risk of secundum atrial septal defect in their children.

  13. Candida albicans and non-albicans species as etiological agent of vaginitis in pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Babic, Mirela; Hukic, Mirsada

    2010-02-01

    Pregnancy represents a risk factor in the occurrence of vaginal candidosis. The objectives of our study were: to make determination of the microscopic findings of vaginal swab, frequency of Candida species in the culture of pregnant women and patients who are not pregnant, determine the Candida species in all cultures, and to determine the frequency and differences in the frequency of C. albicans and other non-albicans species. In one year study performed during 2006 year, we tested patients of Gynaecology and Obstetrics clinic of the Clinical Centre in Sarajevo and Gynaecology department of the General hospital in Sarajevo. 447 woman included in the study were separated in two groups: 203 pregnant (in the last trimester of pregnancy), and 244 non-pregnant woman in period of fertility. Each vaginal swab was examined microscopically. The yeast, number of colonies, and the species of Candida were determined on Sabouraud dextrose agar with presence of antibiotics. For determination of Candida species, we used germ tube test for detection of C. albicans, and cultivation on the selective medium and assimilation tests for detection of non-albicans species. The results indicated positive microscopic findings in the test group (40,9%), as well as greater number of positive cultures (46,8%). The most commonly detected species for both groups was C. albicans ( test group 40.9% and control group 23,0%). The most commonly detected non-albicans species for the test group were C. glabrata (4,2 %) and C. krusei (3,2%), and for the control group were C. glabrata (3,2%) and C. parapsilosis (3,2%). The microscopic findings correlated with the number of colonies in positive cultures. In the test group, we found an increased number of yeasts (64,3%), and the pseudopyphae and blastopores by microscopic examination as an indication of infection. In the control group, we found a small number of yeasts (64,6%) , in the form of blastopores, as an indication of the candida colonisation. Our

  14. Pharmacokinetics of co-formulated mefloquine and artesunate in pregnant and non-pregnant women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infection in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Valea, Innocent; Tinto, Halidou; Traore/Coulibaly, Maminata; Toe, Laeticia C.; Lindegardh, Niklas; Tarning, Joel; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Davies, Geraint R.; Ward, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Mefloquine/artesunate has recently been developed as a fixed-dose combination, providing a promising rescue/alternative treatment for malaria during pregnancy. However, limited data are available on the effect of pregnancy on its pharmacokinetic properties. This study was conducted to assess the pharmacokinetic properties of mefloquine/carboxymefloquine and artesunate/dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and non-pregnant women with uncomplicated malaria. Methods Twenty-four women in their second and third trimesters of pregnancy and 24 paired non-pregnant women were enrolled. All patients were treated for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria with a standard fixed-dose combination of oral mefloquine and artesunate one daily over 3 days. Frequent blood samples were collected before treatment and at scheduled times post-dose for the drug measurements and pharmacokinetic analyses. The study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (identifier: NCT00701961). Results The total median exposure to mefloquine and dihydroartemisinin was not significantly different between the pregnant and non-pregnant women (P > 0.05). There was a trend of higher exposure to mefloquine in the pregnant women, but this difference did not reach statistical significance (656 700 versus 542 400 h × ng/mL; P = 0.059). However, the total exposure to carboxymefloquine was 49% lower during pregnancy (735 600 versus 1 499 000 h × ng/mL; P < 0.001) and the total drug exposure to artesunate was 42% higher during pregnancy (89.0 versus 62.9 h × ng/mL; P = 0.039) compared with non-pregnant controls. Conclusions The plasma levels of mefloquine and dihydroartemisinin appeared to be similar in both pregnant and non-pregnant women, but there were significant differences in carboxymefloquine and artesunate exposure. The data presented here do not warrant a dose adjustment in pregnant patients, but an extensive analysis of the data could provide a better

  15. Parallel rapid HIV testing in pregnant women at Tijuana General Hospital, Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Viani, Rolando M; Araneta, Maria Rosario G; Spector, Stephen A

    2013-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of parallel rapid HIV testing and the presence of HIV-associated risk factors in pregnant women with unknown HIV status in Baja California, Mexico. Pregnant women attending the delivery unit or the prenatal clinic at Tijuana General Hospital had blood drawn for parallel rapid HIV testing with Determine™ HIV-1/2 and Uni-Gold™ Recombigen(®) HIV. The parallel rapid HIV test performance was compared to the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and western blot. From September 2007 to July 2008, 1,383 (94%) of 1,464 women in labor and 1,992 (96%) of 2,075 women in prenatal care were enrolled. The HIV seroprevalence among women screened during labor (19/1,383, 1.37%, 95% CI: 0.85-2.18%) was significantly higher compared to those seeking prenatal care (5/1,992, 0.25%, 95% CI: 0.09-0.62%; p<0.001). Of 25 pregnant women testing positive by parallel rapid HIV testing 24 had a positive confirmatory western blot and one (0.03%) was confirmed as false positive. Additionally, two (0.06%) women had parallel rapid HIV discordant testing results; both tested negative by western blot. All women who tested negative by rapid testing had negative results on pooled EIA antibody testing. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of parallel rapid HIV testing were 100%, 99.9%, 96%, and 100%, respectively. These findings document a very high acceptance rate and an excellent performance of the parallel rapid HIV testing strategy during pregnancy.

  16. Factors associated with pregnant women's anticipations and experiences of HIV-related stigma in rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Cuca, Yvette P; Onono, Maricianah; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Turan, Janet M

    2012-01-01

    Pregnant women who fear or experience HIV-related stigma may not get care for their own health or medications to reduce perinatal transmission of HIV. This study examined factors associated with anticipating and experiencing HIV-related stigma among 1777 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in rural Kenya. Women were interviewed at baseline, offered HIV testing and care, and a sub-set was re-interviewed at 4-8 weeks postpartum. Women who were older, had less education, whose husbands had other wives, and who perceived community discrimination against people with HIV had significantly greater adjusted odds of anticipating HIV stigma. Over half of the HIV-positive women interviewed postpartum reported having experienced stigma, much of which was self-stigma. Women experiencing minor depression, and those whose family knew of their HIV status had significantly greater adjusted odds of experiencing stigma. Lack of women's empowerment, as well as depression, may be important risk factors for HIV-related stigma and discrimination. PMID:22799618

  17. The Association of Oral Health Literacy and Oral Health Knowledge with Social Determinants in Pregnant Brazilian Women.

    PubMed

    Vilella, Karina Duarte; Alves, Stephanie Gomes Assunção; de Souza, Juliana Feltrin; Fraiz, Fabian Calixto; Assunção, Luciana Reichert da Silva

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess oral health literacy (OHL) in pregnant women and its association with social determinants and knowledge regarding eating habits and oral hygiene in infants. This cross-sectional study assessed 175 pregnant women in a hospital in southern Brazil. Socioeconomic and demographic data were obtained using a questionnaire, and OHL was determined by the Brazilian Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry (BREALD-30). Eating habits and oral hygiene knowledge were assessed by statements on a 3-point Likert scale. The data were analyzed using Spearman correlations and the Mann-Whitney U test (α = 0.05). The mean (SD) age was 26.2 (6.17) years. Most of the participants had up to 8 years of education (60.0 %) and belonged to socioeconomic class "C" or lower (56.0 %). The mean (SD) score on the BREALD-30 was 22.4 (4.66). A positive correlation was found between BREALD-30 scores and knowledge (r s  = 0.370, p < 0.001), income (r s  = 0.374, p < 0.001), and the age at which infants first consumed sugar in their diets (r s  = 0.370, p < 0.001). A negative correlation was found between BREALD-30 scores and domicile agglomeration (r s  = -0.237, p = 0.020). BREALD-30 scores were higher among pregnant women who had more than 8 years of education (p < 0.001), who belonged to higher socioeconomic classes (p < 0.001), and who were employed (p = 0.025). A significant correlation was found between OHL and knowledge. Lower social determinants were associated with lower OHL. Oral health literacy should be considered in health education practices to facilitate adherence to health recommendations in pregnant women.

  18. Markers of Oxidative Stress in Pregnant Women with Sleep Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Rajendiran, Soundravally; Nimesh, Archana; Ananthanarayanan, P. H.; Dhiman, Pooja

    2015-01-01

    Objective The quality and duration of sleep is impaired during pregnancy. Our study aimed to determine whether maternal sleep deprivation occurring during the second and third trimester of pregnancy could alter fetal well-being with respect to birth weight and APGAR score by altering the inflammatory status and oxidative stress in the mothers.  Methods Sleep adequacy was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). We investigated the inflammatory status and oxidative stress at term in the blood of pregnant subjects with and without sleep deprivation by measuring the levels of protein-bound sialic acid (PBSA), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PCO). Homocysteine (Hcy) and its vitamin determinants were also measured. Fetal outcome with respect to birth weight and APGAR score were compared between study subjects.  Results A significant increase was observed in the levels of hsCRP, PBSA, Hcy, MDA, and PCO, in the sleep-deprived group when compared to the control group. Fetal outcome at birth showed a significant difference between the cases with high sleep deprivation and those with low sleep deprivation.  Conclusion Sleep deprivation in pregnancy leads to an increase in the inflammatory parameters, oxidative stress, and Hcy levels. Fetal outcome at birth was affected more in mothers with high sleep deprivation than those with low sleep deprivation. Follow-up in these babies are needed to reveal any differences in their growth and development. PMID:26366260

  19. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentration in the red blood cells of anaemic pregnant women in various periods of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Krasomski, G; Zachara, B; Krajewski, J

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the intraerythrocytic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) concentration in anaemic (haemoglobin concentration below 10.5 g/100 ml blood) and in normal pregnant women (haemoglobin concentration above 12.5 g/100 ml blood). The authors showed that the 2,3-DPG concentration increased systematically between the 16th and 42nd weeks of pregnancy, both in the control group and in pregnant women with anaemia. However, in the group of anaemic pregnant women the 2,3-DPG concentration was higher in each stage of pregnancy. PMID:6629145

  20. [Gestational diabetes from the perspective of hospitalized pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Araújo, Márcio Flávio Moura; Pessoa, Sarah Maria Fraxe; Damasceno, Marta Maria Coelho; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological qualitative study aimed to understand the meaning of the experiences lived by women with gestational diabetes mellitus. The sample consisted of 12 patients hospitalized at a maternity hospital in the city of Fortaleza, state of Ceará, Brazil, which expressed their feelings and perceptions through open interviews and drawings. The empirical material was fully transcribed and then organized and analyzed by the phenomenological method. The results revealed two themes: (1) Living experiences that bring happiness and well-being, and (2) Living experiences that cause suffering. This phenomenological study showed the experience of women with gestational diabetes mellitus, thus enabling to plan and to implement intervention programs based on a participatory model of health in order to prioritize the subjective aspects involved in high-risk pregnancy. PMID:23743842

  1. Trichomonas vaginalis infection among young pregnant women in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Angelica E; Pinto, Valdir M; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and its associated risk factors in parturient women aged 15-24 years attending Brazilian public maternity units. Participants answered a demographic, behavioral, and clinical data questionnaire. A sample of urine was screened for T. vaginalis. A total 299 women participated in this study. The prevalence rate of T. vaginalis was 7.7% (95% CI: 4.7-10.7%). The factors associated with T. vaginalis were use of illicit drugs [OR=4.70 (95% CI: 1.63-13.56, p=0.004)] and not attending antenatal care [OR=5.15 (95% CI: 1.15-23.25, p=0.032)]. These data demonstrate that it is important to discuss how to include routine screening for T. vaginalis during antenatal care in Brazil.

  2. Associations between serum levels of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) flame retardants and environmental and behavioral factors in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Buttke, Danielle E.; Wolkin, Amy; Stapleton, Heather M.; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are flame retardants that were previously used in upholstery, fabrics, and household appliances. PBDEs have been linked to adverse health outcomes, including neurotoxicity, thyroid hormone dysregulation, endocrine disruption, and poor semen quality. Because PBDEs pass into placental circulation, maternal exposures can approximate fetal exposures. Objectives Our objectives were to determine if diet and specific human behaviors were significantly associated with PBDE exposures in a cohort of pregnant women. Methods Women between the 34th and 38th week of pregnancy were given a questionnaire about behavioral, environmental, and dietary factors and asked to provide blood samples. Serum PBDE levels were measured using GS-MS and lipid adjusted. An adjusted ordinary least squares regression model was run to identify potential associations between behaviors and serum PBDE levels. Results Serum concentrations of BDEs 47, 99, 100, and 153 were found above the limit of detection in at least 50% of study participants and used in our models. Associations with serum PBDEs were observed with self-reported hand-to-mouth behaviors, including biting nails and licking fingers. Serum BDE levels of 47, 99, 153, and total PBDEs were also significantly higher in those individuals owning a large screen TV compared to those who did not. Serum PBDE levels were comparable to levels reported in the general population. Conclusions Hand-to-mouth behaviors may influence serum PBDE concentrations in adults. Household electronics such as large-screen TV’s appear to serve as a significant source of PBDEs in pregnant women. Together, hand-to-mouth behaviors and TV ownership may serve as a route of exposure to PBDEs in adults. PMID:22760441

  3. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  4. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  5. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated...

  6. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults initiated...

  7. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. 26.1704 Section 26.1704 Protection of Environment... research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. (a) This section applies to research subject to...

  8. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  9. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted before April 7, 2006. 26.1704 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  10. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  11. 40 CFR 26.1705 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted after April 7, 2006. 26.1705 Section 26... Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults conducted...

  12. 40 CFR 26.1704 - Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibition of reliance on unethical human research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. 26.1704 Section 26.1704 Protection of Environment... research with non-pregnant, non-nursing adults. (a) This section applies to research subject to...

  13. Antiviral therapy for hepatitis C: Has anything changed for pregnant/lactating women?

    PubMed Central

    Spera, Anna Maria; Eldin, Tarek Kamal; Tosone, Grazia; Orlando, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects about 3% of the world’s population, with the highest prevalence in individuals under 40. The prevalence in pregnant women varies with geographical distribution (highest in developing countries). Prevalence also increases in sub-populations of women at high risk for blood-transmitted infections. HCV infection in pregnancy represents a non-negligible problem. However, most of the past antiviral regimens cannot be routinely offered to pregnant or breastfeeding women because of their side effects. We briefly reviewed the issue of treatment of HCV infection in pregnant/breastfeeding women focusing on the effects of the new direct-acting antivirals on fertility, pregnancy and lactation in animal studies and on the potential risk for humans based on the pharmacokinetic properties of each drug. Currently, all new therapy regimens are contraindicated in this setting because of lack of sufficient safety information and adequate measures of contraception are still routinely recommended for female patients of childbearing potential. PMID:27134703

  14. Effects of Online Self-Regulation Activities on Physical Activity Among Pregnant and Early Postpartum Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyung; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri

    2015-01-01

    Physical and psychological changes that occur during pregnancy present a unique challenge for women's physical activity. Using a theory-based prospective design, this study examines the effects of pregnant women's (a) physical activity cognitions (self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and safety beliefs) and (b) online self-regulation activities (goal-setting and self-monitoring) on subsequent changes in their physical activity intentions and behavior during pregnancy and immediately postpartum. The authors used data from three panel surveys administered to pregnant women enrolled in a web-based intervention to promote healthy pregnancy and postpartum weight, as well as log data on their use of self-regulatory features on the intervention website. Perceived self-efficacy and perceived safety of physical activity in pregnancy enhanced subsequent intentions to be physically active. Repeated goal-setting and monitoring of those goals helped to maintain positive intentions during pregnancy, but only repeated self-monitoring transferred positive intentions into actual behavior. Theoretically, this study offers a better understanding of the roles of self-regulation activities in the processes of goal-striving. The authors also discuss practical implications for encouraging physical activity among pregnant and early postpartum women.

  15. Profile and microbiological isolates of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women in Abakaliki, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Onu, Fidelis Agwu; Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Ezeonu, Paul Olisaemeka; Umeora, Odidika Ugochukwu Joannes; Ibekwe, Perpetus Chudi; Ajah, Monique Iheoma

    2015-01-01

    Background Detecting and treating asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) prevents urinary tract infection and its consequences. The cost-effectiveness of routine screening for ASB in pregnancy is controversial. In populations with high prevalence, however, it is worthwhile and justifiable. Aim To determine the profile, prevalence, microbiological isolates, and risk factors of ASB among booking antenatal clinic attendees in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Materials and methods This was a cross-sectional study involving booking antenatal clinic attendees at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, who met the inclusion criteria. This study occurred between January and December, 2012. The midstream urine samples of these women were subjected to microscopy, culture, and sensitivity. Results A total of 300 randomly selected booking antenatal clinic attendees participated in the study; 74 of them had ASB, giving a prevalence of 24.7%. With the exception of rural residence, sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics did not influence the risk of ASB among the participants in this study. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest organism isolated. The majority of the organisms were sensitive to ofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of ASB among pregnant women in Abakaliki. With the exception of rural dwelling, sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics did not significantly influence the risk of ASB among these pregnant women. Therefore, routine ASB screening of pregnant women is recommended in our environment. PMID:26244027

  16. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in pregnant women determined by an immunoradiometric assay for intact PTH

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, O.K.; Hawkins, D.S.; Rubin, L.P.; Posillico, J.T.; Brown, E.M.; Schiff, I.

    1988-10-01

    Most studies of circulating PTH levels using traditional RIAs have supported the concept of physiological hyperparathyroidism of pregnancy, with pregnant women having serum immunoreactive PTH levels significantly higher than those in nonpregnant subjects. However, such RIAs are insensitive and often detect inactive PTH fragments, so that the correlation between PTH immunoreactivity and bioactivity is poor. Employing a new intact PTH immunoradiometric assay (Allegro-Nichols), we reassessed the effects of pregnancy on parathyroid function. The mean serum PTH level in 81 pregnant women was 14.4 +/- 6.3 (+/- SD) compared to 24.8 +/- 9.0 ng/L in 11 normally cycling nonpregnant women (P less than 0.001). The mean serum total and ionized calcium levels in the 2 groups were similar. In 5 of the pregnant women, serum bioactive PTH, determined by cytochemical bioassay, was slightly lower (7.7 +/- 3.4 ng/L) than in normal individuals (11.1 +/- 1.9 ng/L). Our findings suggest, in contrast with the results of most previous studies, that serum intact PTH may decline during pregnancy.

  17. A Cross-sectional Study of Resting Cardio-respiratory and Metabolic Changes in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Ajjimaporn, Amornpan; Somprasit, Charintip; Chaunchaiyakul, Rungchai

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] We examined cardiorespiratory and metabolic changes across the 1st (G1), 2nd (G2) and 3rd (G3) trimesters in pregnant women. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-two healthy, active, non-smoking, pregnant women participated in this study. They were divided into G1, G2 and G3 groups depending on their mean gestational ages at the time of testing which were 10.5 ±2.9, 19.2 ±3.4, and 33.3 ±2.4 weeks of gestation, respectively. Cardio-respiratory and metabolic variables, VO2 (oxygen consumption), VCO2 (carbon dioxide production), and VE (minute ventilation), were measured using indirect calorimetry (IC, gas analyser) to estimate ventilatory equivalents of oxygen (VE/VO2) and carbon dioxide (VE/VCO2), RER (respiratory exchange ratio) and REE (resting energy expenditure). [Results] Women in the late pregnancy period had higher resting VCO2 and RER, whereas the VE/VCO2 ratio was significantly lower than in G1 and in G2. Even though the values of VO2 and REE increased throughout the course of pregnancy, no significant differences were found. [Conclusion] In pregnant women, resting cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables continuously changed throughout the 3 trimesters. Changes in VE/VCO2 and RER indicate shifting metabolic energy substrates. In addition, changes in cardiorespiratory variables, in parallel with gas exchange, indicate a better gas exchange process.

  18. Back pain of working pregnant women: identification of associated occupational factors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Pei Lai; Pantel, Martin; Smith, J Terry; Dumas, Geneviève A; Leger, Andy B; Plamondon, André; McGrath, Michael J; Tranmer, Joan E

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify major occupational factors that were significantly correlated with back pain in pregnant women working in higher education, health care and service areas. A total of 73 working pregnant women were surveyed using questionnaires specifically designed for evaluating correlations between occupational factors and severity of back pain; 37 women were interviewed at both 20 and 34 weeks of pregnancy, 17 at 20 weeks only, and 19 were interviewed at 34 weeks only. "Rest breaks allowed" and "job autonomy" were negatively correlated with severity of back pain at 20 weeks of pregnancy. "Staying in a confined area" and "having restricted space" were positively correlated with severity of back pain at 34 weeks of pregnancy. The study suggests that allowing pregnant women to take more rest breaks and to have more job autonomy may reduce the severity of back pain during early pregnancy, and that allowing movement outside the working area and providing less restricted space may reduce back pain during late pregnancy. PMID:19084818

  19. I am pregnant and want to do better but i can't: focus groups with low-income overweight and obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Wei; Nitzke, Susan; Buist, Diana; Cain, Deborah; Horning, Stefanie; Eghtedary, Kobra

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to identify factors that influenced stress, healthy eating and physical activity among low-income overweight or obese pregnant women. We conducted seven focus groups with 96 low-income overweight and obese pregnant women. Common themes were identified from audio tapes and transcripts. Women said that poor communication affected their relationships with spouses or significant others. They were frustrated or upset with significant others for three key reasons: failure to understand or listen to the pregnant women's pregnancy concerns, refusal to be helpful when asked and being overly concerned with the woman's safety. Most women said that they were emotional and took naps throughout the day after becoming pregnant. Many withdrew from their social interactions. They also faced numerous challenges that made healthy eating more difficult, e.g., craving for unhealthy foods and eating foods for comfort. To eat healthier, some reminded themselves to avoid overeating or stop eating in the car. Women were not physically active because of tiredness, lack of motivation, inadequate social support, or bad weather. Some stayed physically active to prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain and have an easier labor. Women equivocally said weighing themselves to manage weight would add to their stress and make them feel more depressed. When designing interventions to help low-income overweight and obese pregnant women avoid excessive pregnancy weight gain, it is important to include information and practical advice on stress management, emphasizing effective communication skills with significant others and helping them plan effective ways to manage negative feelings. PMID:25115522

  20. A review of the iodine status of UK pregnant women and its implications for the offspring

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Sarah C.; Rayman, Margaret P.

    2015-01-01

    Iodine, as a component of the thyroid hormones, is crucial for brain development and is therefore especially important during pregnancy when the brain is developing most rapidly. While randomised controlled trials of pregnant women in regions of severe iodine deficiency have shown that prenatal iodine deficiency causes impaired cognition, less is known of the effects in regions of mild deficiency. This is relevant to the UK as the World Health Organisation now classifies the UK as mildly iodine deficient, based on a national study of 14-15 year old schoolgirls in 2011. We have previously published a study, using samples and data from the UK-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) that found an association between low iodine status in early pregnancy (urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio < 150 μg/g) and lower verbal IQ and reading scores in the offspring. Though the women in ALSPAC were recruited in the early 1990s, the results of the study are still relevant as their iodine status was similar to that reported in recent studies of UK pregnant women. This review discusses the evidence that mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency during pregnancy has deleterious effects on child neurodevelopment and relates that evidence to the data on iodine status in the UK. It has highlighted a need for nationwide data on iodine status of pregnant women and that a randomised controlled trial of iodine supplementation in pregnant women in a region of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency with child outcomes as the primary endpoint is required. PMID:25663363

  1. Assessment Scales, Associated Factors and the Quality of Life Score in Pregnant Women in Iran.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Farideh; Nahidi, Fatemeh; Kariman, Nourossadat

    2016-01-01

    Women experience physical, chemical, endocrine gland and organ changes during pregnancy that limit their activities and reduce their quality of life. The present study was conducted to investigate the quality of life in pregnant women in Iran, the assessment scales used to measure this variable and the factors associated with it.The present study searched databases including Science Direct, PubMed, Scopus, SID, Iranmedex, Mahiran, IranDoc and Google Scholar using keywords such as pregnant women, Iran, quality of life, pregnancy and prenatal and their Persian equivalents to find relevant articles conducted in Iran and ultimately found 20 articles to review without any regard for their time, language and publication site.Studies conducted in Iran to assess the quality of life in pregnant women have used four tools, including the SF-36, the WHOQOL-BRIEF, the SF-12 and the Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy-Specific Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire. The mean quality of life score obtained using these different tools varied from 61.18±13.21 to 66.48±15.57. Social support, socioeconomic status, the pregnancy being wanted, satisfaction with life and sexual function were related directly to the quality of life, while prenatal mental disorders, the severity of pregnancy nausea and vomiting and sleep disorders were related inversely to it.Given the lack of a specific tool designed to assess the quality of life in pregnant women, general tools were used for its assessment. Further studies are thus required to design a specific localized tool and to also assess the relationship between the quality of life and its associated factors. PMID:27241421

  2. A review of the iodine status of UK pregnant women and its implications for the offspring.

    PubMed

    Bath, Sarah C; Rayman, Margaret P

    2015-08-01

    Iodine, as a component of the thyroid hormones, is crucial for brain development and is therefore especially important during pregnancy when the brain is developing most rapidly. While randomised controlled trials of pregnant women in regions of severe iodine deficiency have shown that prenatal iodine deficiency causes impaired cognition, less is known of the effects in regions of mild deficiency. This is relevant to the UK as the World Health Organisation now classifies the UK as mildly iodine deficient, based on a national study of 14-15 year old schoolgirls in 2011. We have previously published a study using samples and data from the UK-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) that found an association between low iodine status in early pregnancy (urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio <150 μg/g) and lower verbal IQ and reading scores in the offspring. Though the women in ALSPAC were recruited in the early 1990s, the results of the study are still relevant as their iodine status was similar to that reported in recent studies of UK pregnant women. This review discusses the evidence that mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency during pregnancy has deleterious effects on child neurodevelopment and relates that evidence to the data on iodine status in the UK. It has highlighted a need for nationwide data on iodine status of pregnant women and that a randomised controlled trial of iodine supplementation in pregnant women in a region of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency with child outcomes as the primary endpoint is required. PMID:25663363

  3. A review of the iodine status of UK pregnant women and its implications for the offspring.

    PubMed

    Bath, Sarah C; Rayman, Margaret P

    2015-08-01

    Iodine, as a component of the thyroid hormones, is crucial for brain development and is therefore especially important during pregnancy when the brain is developing most rapidly. While randomised controlled trials of pregnant women in regions of severe iodine deficiency have shown that prenatal iodine deficiency causes impaired cognition, less is known of the effects in regions of mild deficiency. This is relevant to the UK as the World Health Organisation now classifies the UK as mildly iodine deficient, based on a national study of 14-15 year old schoolgirls in 2011. We have previously published a study using samples and data from the UK-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) that found an association between low iodine status in early pregnancy (urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio <150 μg/g) and lower verbal IQ and reading scores in the offspring. Though the women in ALSPAC were recruited in the early 1990s, the results of the study are still relevant as their iodine status was similar to that reported in recent studies of UK pregnant women. This review discusses the evidence that mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency during pregnancy has deleterious effects on child neurodevelopment and relates that evidence to the data on iodine status in the UK. It has highlighted a need for nationwide data on iodine status of pregnant women and that a randomised controlled trial of iodine supplementation in pregnant women in a region of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency with child outcomes as the primary endpoint is required.

  4. Lifestyle, nutrient intake, iron status, and pregnancy outcome in pregnant women of advanced maternal age.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hyun Sook

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how advanced maternal age influences lifestyle, nutrient intake, iron status, and pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women. The subjects of this study were 112 pregnant women who were receiving prenatal care at gynecologists located in Seoul. The subjects were divided into two groups according to their ages: those over age 35 were the advanced age group of pregnant women (AP) and those under age 35 were the young age group of pregnant women (YP). General factors, nutrient intakes, iron status, and pregnancy outcomes of the two groups were then compared. It was found that 72.5% of the YP group and 51.2% of the AP group had pre-pregnancy alcohol drinking experience; indicating that the YP group had more pre-pregnancy alcohol consumption than the AP group (P < 0.05). The only difference found in nutrient intake between the two groups was their niacin intakes which were 16.83 ± 8.20 mg/day and 13.76 ± 5.28 mg/day, respectively. When gestational age was shorter than 38.7 weeks, the average infant birth weight was 2.95 ± 0.08 kg, and when gestational age was longer than 40 weeks, it averaged at about 3.42 ± 0.08 kg. In other words, as gestational age increased, infant birth weight increased (P < 0.0001), and when maternal weight increased more than 15 kg, the infant birth weight increased significantly (P < 0.05). In conclusion, in order to secure healthy human resources, with respect to advanced aged women, it is necessary to intervene by promoting daily habits that consist of strategic increases in folate and calcium intake along with appropriate amounts of exercise.

  5. Hair mercury levels in pregnant women in Mahshahr, Iran: fish consumption as a determinant of exposure.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Zohreh; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas

    2010-09-15

    MeHg is a well-documented neurotoxicant even at low levels of exposure. Developing brain, in particular, is vulnerable to that. Through bioaccumulating to differing degrees in various fish species, it can have serious adverse effects on the development and functioning of the human central nervous system, especially during prenatal exposure. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate mercury concentration in hair samples of pregnant women living in Mahshahr located in Khuzestan province, Iran. It assessed the association between fish consumption and specific characteristics that can influence exposure. From April to June 2008, 149 pregnant women were invited to participate in this study. An interview administered questionnaire was used to collect information about age, body weight, height, fish (fresh, canned and shrimp) consumption, pregnancy stage, residence duration, education level, family income and number of dental amalgam fillings. The obtained results showed that the geometric mean and range for hair total Hg concentration was 3.52 microg/g (0.44-53.56 microg/g). About 5.4% of mothers had hair total Hg levels in excess of 10 microg/g. Maternal hair mercury level was less than threshold level of WHO (5 microg/g). As expected, there was a clear increase in hair Hg with reported fresh marine fish consumption (p=0.04). The highest mean for hair mercury level in a group who consumed fish several times per week, was 4.93 microg/g. Moreover, a significant effect of age and residential time on Hg concentration in the hair of the women was found. Pregnant women in Mahshahr consumed large amounts of fish; consequently, most of their offspring were prenatally exposed to moderately high levels of mercury. The results found suggest that pregnant women should decrease their fish consumption. PMID:20655095

  6. Clinical needs of in-treatment pregnant women with co-occurring disorders: implications for primary care.

    PubMed

    Lee King, Patricia A; Duan, Lei; Amaro, Hortensia

    2015-01-01

    We investigated social vulnerability and behavioral health clinical profiles (symptom severity) of pregnant women with co-occurring disorders, defined as substance abuse, mental illness, and trauma at treatment entry compared to their nonpregnant counterparts and the role of interpersonal abuse in clinical presentation among pregnant women. Our objective was to provide primary health care providers with insight into the needs of pregnant patients with high behavioral health risks to serve them better during the critical window of opportunity for long-term impact. We conducted cross-sectional secondary analysis of baseline data from women enrolled in treatment programs in the Women, Co-occurring Disorders and Violence Study from nine sites across the United States. We used analysis of variance and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel statistical analyses to compare means and frequencies of social vulnerability indicators and baseline Addiction Severity Index, Brief Symptom Inventory of mental health, and Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale scores between 152 pregnant and 2,577 nonpregnant women, and between pregnant women with and without current interpersonal abuse. Compared to nonpregnant women, pregnant women evidenced more social vulnerability but better behavioral health clinical profiles at treatment entry. Current interpersonal abuse was associated with increased mental health and trauma symptomatology but not with alcohol or drug abuse severity among pregnant women. The prenatal period is an important time for screening and intervention for factors such as social vulnerability and co-occurring disorders, known to affect pregnancy and infant outcomes; social and behavioral health services are particularly essential among pregnant women with co-occurring disorders.

  7. Estimates of nondisclosure of cigarette smoking among pregnant and nonpregnant women of reproductive age in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Patricia M; Homa, David; England, Lucinda J; Burley, Kim; Tong, Van T; Dube, Shanta R; Bernert, John T

    2011-02-01

    Although clinic-based studies have used biochemical validation to estimate the percentage of pregnant women who deny smoking but are actually smokers, a population-based estimate of nondisclosure of smoking status in US pregnant women has not been calculated. The authors analyzed data from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and estimated the percentage of 994 pregnant and 3,203 nonpregnant women 20-44 years of age who did not report smoking but had serum cotinine levels that exceeded the defined cut point for active smoking (nondisclosure). Active smoking was defined as self-reporting smoking or having a serum cotinine concentration that exceeded the cut point for active smoking. Overall, 13.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.8, 17.1) of pregnant women and 29.7% (95% CI: 27.3, 32.1) of nonpregnant women were active smokers. Nondisclosure was higher among pregnant active smokers (22.9%, 95% CI: 11.8, 34.6) than among nonpregnant smokers (9.2%, 95% CI: 7.1, 11.2). Among pregnant active smokers, nondisclosure was associated with younger age (20-24 years). Among nonpregnant active smokers, nondisclosure was associated with Mexican-American and non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity. Studies and surveillance systems that rely on self-reported smoking status are subject to underestimation of smoking prevalence, especially among pregnant women, and underreporting may vary by demographic characteristics.

  8. What do Pregnant Women Know About the Healthy Eating Guidelines for Pregnancy? A Web-Based Questionnaire.