Science.gov

Sample records for adult privacy policy

  1. Conformance Verification of Privacy Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiang

    Web applications are both the consumers and providers of information. To increase customer confidence, many websites choose to publish their privacy protection policies. However, policy conformance is often neglected. We propose a logic based framework for formally specifying and reasoning about the implementation of privacy protection by a web application. A first order extension of computation tree logic is used to specify a policy. A verification paradigm, built upon a static control/data flow analysis, is presented to verify if a policy is satisfied.

  2. EGRP Privacy Policy & Disclaimers

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program complies with requirements for privacy and security established by the Office of Management and Budget, Department of Health and Human Services, the National Institutes of Health, and the National Cancer Institute.

  3. 75 FR 22577 - Proposed Privacy Policy Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Privacy Policy Statement AGENCY: U.S. Election Assistance Commission. ACTION: Notice and request for public comment on Proposed Privacy Policy Statement. SUMMARY: The U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC) seeks public comment on the Proposed Privacy Policy Statement. OMB Memorandum M-99-...

  4. Extending SQL to Support Privacy Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazinour, Kambiz; Pun, Sampson; Majedi, Maryam; Chinaci, Amir H.; Barker, Ken

    Increasing concerns over Internet applications that violate user privacy by exploiting (back-end) database vulnerabilities must be addressed to protect both customer privacy and to ensure corporate strategic assets remain trustworthy. This chapter describes an extension onto database catalogues and Structured Query Language (SQL) for supporting privacy in Internet applications, such as in social networks, e-health, e-governmcnt, etc. The idea is to introduce new predicates to SQL commands to capture common privacy requirements, such as purpose, visibility, generalization, and retention for both mandatory and discretionary access control policies. The contribution is that corporations, when creating the underlying databases, will be able to define what their mandatory privacy policies arc with which all application users have to comply. Furthermore, each application user, when providing their own data, will be able to define their own privacy policies with which other users have to comply. The extension is supported with underlying catalogues and algorithms. The experiments demonstrate a very reasonable overhead for the extension. The result is a low-cost mechanism to create new systems that arc privacy aware and also to transform legacy databases to their privacy-preserving equivalents. Although the examples arc from social networks, one can apply the results to data security and user privacy of other enterprises as well.

  5. MedlinePlus: Privacy Policy

    MedlinePlus

    ... is available at: https://bitly.com/pages/privacy . Facebook NLM has multiple Facebook pages where we share information about NLM news, ... register or provide personal information to view our Facebook pages. The complete list of NLM Facebook pages ...

  6. 32 CFR 1701.4 - Privacy Act responsibilities/policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Privacy Act responsibilities/policy. 1701.4... NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE ADMINISTRATION OF RECORDS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 1701.4 Privacy Act...

  7. Privacy policies for health social networking sites

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingquan

    2013-01-01

    Health social networking sites (HSNS), virtual communities where users connect with each other around common problems and share relevant health data, have been increasingly adopted by medical professionals and patients. The growing use of HSNS like Sermo and PatientsLikeMe has prompted public concerns about the risks that such online data-sharing platforms pose to the privacy and security of personal health data. This paper articulates a set of privacy risks introduced by social networking in health care and presents a practical example that demonstrates how the risks might be intrinsic to some HSNS. The aim of this study is to identify and sketch the policy implications of using HSNS and how policy makers and stakeholders should elaborate upon them to protect the privacy of online health data. PMID:23599228

  8. Privacy policies for health social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingquan

    2013-01-01

    Health social networking sites (HSNS), virtual communities where users connect with each other around common problems and share relevant health data, have been increasingly adopted by medical professionals and patients. The growing use of HSNS like Sermo and PatientsLikeMe has prompted public concerns about the risks that such online data-sharing platforms pose to the privacy and security of personal health data. This paper articulates a set of privacy risks introduced by social networking in health care and presents a practical example that demonstrates how the risks might be intrinsic to some HSNS. The aim of this study is to identify and sketch the policy implications of using HSNS and how policy makers and stakeholders should elaborate upon them to protect the privacy of online health data.

  9. 45 CFR 503.2 - General policies-Privacy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General policies-Privacy Act. 503.2 Section 503.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) FOREIGN CLAIMS SETTLEMENT COMMISSION OF... provided under the Privacy Act only where an important public policy use for the exemption has...

  10. 45 CFR 503.2 - General policies-Privacy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General policies-Privacy Act. 503.2 Section 503.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) FOREIGN CLAIMS SETTLEMENT COMMISSION OF... provided under the Privacy Act only where an important public policy use for the exemption has...

  11. 45 CFR 503.2 - General policies-Privacy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General policies-Privacy Act. 503.2 Section 503.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) FOREIGN CLAIMS SETTLEMENT COMMISSION OF... provided under the Privacy Act only where an important public policy use for the exemption has...

  12. 45 CFR 503.2 - General policies-Privacy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General policies-Privacy Act. 503.2 Section 503.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) FOREIGN CLAIMS SETTLEMENT COMMISSION OF... provided under the Privacy Act only where an important public policy use for the exemption has...

  13. 45 CFR 503.2 - General policies-Privacy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General policies-Privacy Act. 503.2 Section 503.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) FOREIGN CLAIMS SETTLEMENT COMMISSION OF... provided under the Privacy Act only where an important public policy use for the exemption has...

  14. Availability and quality of mobile health app privacy policies.

    PubMed

    Sunyaev, Ali; Dehling, Tobias; Taylor, Patrick L; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2015-04-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) customers shopping for applications (apps) should be aware of app privacy practices so they can make informed decisions about purchase and use. We sought to assess the availability, scope, and transparency of mHealth app privacy policies on iOS and Android. Over 35,000 mHealth apps are available for iOS and Android. Of the 600 most commonly used apps, only 183 (30.5%) had privacy policies. Average policy length was 1755 (SD 1301) words with a reading grade level of 16 (SD 2.9). Two thirds (66.1%) of privacy policies did not specifically address the app itself. Our findings show that currently mHealth developers often fail to provide app privacy policies. The privacy policies that are available do not make information privacy practices transparent to users, require college-level literacy, and are often not focused on the app itself. Further research is warranted to address why privacy policies are often absent, opaque, or irrelevant, and to find a remedy. PMID:25147247

  15. Availability and quality of mobile health app privacy policies.

    PubMed

    Sunyaev, Ali; Dehling, Tobias; Taylor, Patrick L; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2015-04-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) customers shopping for applications (apps) should be aware of app privacy practices so they can make informed decisions about purchase and use. We sought to assess the availability, scope, and transparency of mHealth app privacy policies on iOS and Android. Over 35,000 mHealth apps are available for iOS and Android. Of the 600 most commonly used apps, only 183 (30.5%) had privacy policies. Average policy length was 1755 (SD 1301) words with a reading grade level of 16 (SD 2.9). Two thirds (66.1%) of privacy policies did not specifically address the app itself. Our findings show that currently mHealth developers often fail to provide app privacy policies. The privacy policies that are available do not make information privacy practices transparent to users, require college-level literacy, and are often not focused on the app itself. Further research is warranted to address why privacy policies are often absent, opaque, or irrelevant, and to find a remedy.

  16. Obtaining P3P privacy policies for composite services.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Huang, Zhiqiu; Ke, Changbo

    2014-01-01

    With the development of web services technology, web services have changed from single to composite services. Privacy protection in composite services is becoming an important issue. P3P (platform for privacy preferences) is a privacy policy language which was designed for single web services. It enables service providers to express how they will deal with the privacy information of service consumers. In order to solve the problem that P3P cannot be applied to composite services directly, we propose a method to obtain P3P privacy policies for composite services. In this method, we present the definitions of Purpose, Recipient, and Retention elements as well as Optional and Required attributes for P3P policies of composite services. We also provide an instantiation to illustrate the feasibility of the method.

  17. Obtaining P3P privacy policies for composite services.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Huang, Zhiqiu; Ke, Changbo

    2014-01-01

    With the development of web services technology, web services have changed from single to composite services. Privacy protection in composite services is becoming an important issue. P3P (platform for privacy preferences) is a privacy policy language which was designed for single web services. It enables service providers to express how they will deal with the privacy information of service consumers. In order to solve the problem that P3P cannot be applied to composite services directly, we propose a method to obtain P3P privacy policies for composite services. In this method, we present the definitions of Purpose, Recipient, and Retention elements as well as Optional and Required attributes for P3P policies of composite services. We also provide an instantiation to illustrate the feasibility of the method. PMID:25126609

  18. An examination of electronic health information privacy in older adults.

    PubMed

    Le, Thai; Thompson, Hilaire; Demiris, George

    2013-01-01

    Older adults are the quickest growing demographic group and are key consumers of health services. As the United States health system transitions to electronic health records, it is important to understand older adult perceptions of privacy and security. We performed a secondary analysis of the Health Information National Trends Survey (2012, Cycle 1), to examine differences in perceptions of electronic health information privacy between older adults and the general population. We found differences in the level of importance placed on access to electronic health information (older adults placed greater emphasis on provider as opposed to personal access) and tendency to withhold information out of concerns for privacy and security (older adults were less likely to withhold information). We provide recommendations to alleviate some of these privacy concerns. This may facilitate greater use of electronic health communication between patient and provider, while promoting shared decision making.

  19. Privacy Policies, Tools and Mechanisms of the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naessens, Vincent; Sandikkaya, Mehmet Tahir; Lapon, Jorn; Verslype, Kristof; Verhaeghe, Pieter; Nigusse, Girma; de Decker, Bart

    Although many believe that we have lost the battle for privacy, protection of what’s left of the user’s privacy is all the more important. Not only should a user be able to minimize the disclosure of her personal data, she should also have rights to decide what happens with her data once they have been disclosed. In order to minimize user interaction when deciding whether or not to reveal personal data, privacy policy languages were developed. However, these languages are inadequate and cannot properly deal with the complex interactions between users, service providers, third parties, identity providers and others. Also, tool support for composing and verifying these policies and mechanisms for enforcing them are lagging behind. This paper argues the need for better privacy policies and proposes some solutions. Throughout the paper, our statements are applied to three sample applications in three different domains: e-health, banking and social networks.

  20. Assessing the HIPAA standard in practice: PHR privacy policies.

    PubMed

    Carrión, Inmaculada; Alemán, José Luis Fernández; Toval, Ambrosio

    2011-01-01

    Health service providers are starting to become interested in providing PHRs (Personal Health Records). With PHRs, access to data is controlled by the patient, and not by the health care provider. Companies such as Google and Microsoft are establishing a leadership position in this emerging market. A number of benefits can be achieved with PHRs, but important challenges related to security and privacy must be addressed. This paper presents a review of the privacy policies of 20 free web-based PHRs. Security and privacy characteristics were extracted and assessed according to the HIPAA standard. The results show a number of important differences in the characteristics analyzed. Some improvements can be made to current PHR privacy policies to enhance the audit and management of access to users' PHRs. A questionnaire has been defined to assist PHR designers in this task.

  1. Assessing the privacy policies in mobile personal health records.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Belén Cruz; Hernández Niñirola, Antonio; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Toval, Ambrosio

    2014-01-01

    The huge increase in the number and use of smartphones and tablets has led health service providers to take an interest in mHealth. Popular mobile app markets like Apple App Store or Google Play contain thousands of health applications. Although mobile personal health records (mPHRs) have a number of benefits, important challenges appear in the form of adoption barriers. Security and privacy have been identified as part of these barriers and should be addressed. This paper analyzes and assesses a total of 24 free mPHRs for Android and iOS. Characteristics regarding privacy and security were extracted from the HIPAA. The results show important differences in both the mPHRs and the characteristics analyzed. A questionnaire containing six questions concerning privacy policies was defined. Our questionnaire may assist developers and stakeholders to evaluate the security and privacy of their mPHRs. PMID:25571104

  2. On the support of flexible patient privacy policies in social-medical discovery.

    PubMed

    Roitman, Haggai; Yogev, Sivan; Tsimerman, Yevgenia; Peres, Yardena

    2012-01-01

    Many new socially flavored medical services have recently emerged, utilizing the data openness and sharing through social channels. The adoption of such services by patients is still very limited, mainly due to privacy issues. Existing social-medical discovery services support only strict patient privacy policies and are not flexible enough to accommodate a wider range of privacy policy definitions. In this paper we present the IBM Medical Information and Care System (Medics) privacy-aware social-medical discovery solution that provides a highly flexible support for both fine-grained and dynamic patient privacy policies.

  3. A Content Analysis of Library Vendor Privacy Policies: Do They Meet Our Standards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magi, Trina J.

    2010-01-01

    Librarians have a long history of protecting user privacy, but they have done seemingly little to understand or influence the privacy policies of library resource vendors that increasingly collect user information through Web 2.0-style personalization features. After citing evidence that college students value privacy, this study used content…

  4. Autonomy and Privacy in Clinical Laboratory Science Policy and Practice.

    PubMed

    Leibach, Elizabeth Kenimer

    2014-01-01

    Rapid advancements in diagnostic technologies coupled with growth in testing options and choices mandate the development of evidence-based testing algorithms linked to the care paths of the major chronic diseases and health challenges encountered most frequently. As care paths are evaluated, patient/consumers become partners in healthcare delivery. Clinical laboratory scientists find themselves firmly embedded in both quality improvement and clinical research with an urgent need to translate clinical laboratory information into knowledge required by practitioners and patient/consumers alike. To implement this patient-centered care approach in clinical laboratory science, practitioners must understand their roles in (1) protecting patient/consumer autonomy in the healthcare informed consent process and (2) assuring patient/consumer privacy and confidentiality while blending quality improvement study findings with protected health information. A literature review, describing the current ethical environment, supports a consultative role for clinical laboratory scientists in the clinical decision-making process and suggests guidance for policy and practice regarding the principle of autonomy and its associated operational characteristics: informed consent and privacy.

  5. Adult Education and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Francis A.

    1972-01-01

    Author discussed American public's shifts in values and priorities" and suggests that adult educators become involved in 'real politique'" in order to help form public policy in the future. (Author/SP)

  6. Protecting Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses privacy issues related to use of the Internet. Topics include data gathering functions that are built into applications of the World Wide Web; cookies that identify Web site visitors; personal identity information; libraries and privacy, including the need for privacy policies; protecting your privacy; and developing privacy literacy.…

  7. Realizing IoT service's policy privacy over publish/subscribe-based middleware.

    PubMed

    Duan, Li; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Shiping; Wang, Shiyao; Cheng, Bo; Chen, Junliang

    2016-01-01

    The publish/subscribe paradigm makes IoT service collaborations more scalable and flexible, due to the space, time and control decoupling of event producers and consumers. Thus, the paradigm can be used to establish large-scale IoT service communication infrastructures such as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition systems. However, preserving IoT service's policy privacy is difficult in this paradigm, because a classical publisher has little control of its own event after being published; and a subscriber has to accept all the events from the subscribed event type with no choice. Few existing publish/subscribe middleware have built-in mechanisms to address the above issues. In this paper, we present a novel access control framework, which is capable of preserving IoT service's policy privacy. In particular, we adopt the publish/subscribe paradigm as the IoT service communication infrastructure to facilitate the protection of IoT services policy privacy. The key idea in our policy-privacy solution is using a two-layer cooperating method to match bi-directional privacy control requirements: (a) data layer for protecting IoT events; and (b) application layer for preserving the privacy of service policy. Furthermore, the anonymous-set-based principle is adopted to realize the functionalities of the framework, including policy embedding and policy encoding as well as policy matching. Our security analysis shows that the policy privacy framework is Chosen-Plaintext Attack secure. We extend the open source Apache ActiveMQ broker by building into a policy-based authorization mechanism to enforce the privacy policy. The performance evaluation results indicate that our approach is scalable with reasonable overheads.

  8. Realizing IoT service's policy privacy over publish/subscribe-based middleware.

    PubMed

    Duan, Li; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Shiping; Wang, Shiyao; Cheng, Bo; Chen, Junliang

    2016-01-01

    The publish/subscribe paradigm makes IoT service collaborations more scalable and flexible, due to the space, time and control decoupling of event producers and consumers. Thus, the paradigm can be used to establish large-scale IoT service communication infrastructures such as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition systems. However, preserving IoT service's policy privacy is difficult in this paradigm, because a classical publisher has little control of its own event after being published; and a subscriber has to accept all the events from the subscribed event type with no choice. Few existing publish/subscribe middleware have built-in mechanisms to address the above issues. In this paper, we present a novel access control framework, which is capable of preserving IoT service's policy privacy. In particular, we adopt the publish/subscribe paradigm as the IoT service communication infrastructure to facilitate the protection of IoT services policy privacy. The key idea in our policy-privacy solution is using a two-layer cooperating method to match bi-directional privacy control requirements: (a) data layer for protecting IoT events; and (b) application layer for preserving the privacy of service policy. Furthermore, the anonymous-set-based principle is adopted to realize the functionalities of the framework, including policy embedding and policy encoding as well as policy matching. Our security analysis shows that the policy privacy framework is Chosen-Plaintext Attack secure. We extend the open source Apache ActiveMQ broker by building into a policy-based authorization mechanism to enforce the privacy policy. The performance evaluation results indicate that our approach is scalable with reasonable overheads. PMID:27652188

  9. Trust Information and Privacy Policies - Enablers for pHealth and Ubiquitous Health.

    PubMed

    Ruotsalainen, Pekka; Blobel, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    pHealth occurs in uncontrolled and unsecure environment where predefined organizational trust does not exist. To be accepted by users, pHealth requires a privacy model where privacy is a personal property, i.e., a person can perform own will and define policies which regulate how personal health information (PHI) is used. Privacy and trust are interconnected concepts. Therefore, before beginning to use pHealth services, the person needs practical and reliable information that enables her or him to determine the trustworthiness level of services. To avoid the use of blind trust, organizations, researchers, policymakers, and standardization organizations have proposed the use of dynamic context-aware policies for privacy management in pHealth. To make meaningful privacy decision, a person should understand the impact of selected policy rules on the processing of PHI in different situations. In this paper, the use of computational trust information for defining privacy polies and reducing their number is proposed. A trust value and understandable trust attributes enable a person to tailor privacy policies requested for trustworthy use of pHealth services. Trust attributes proposed are derived from privacy concerns existing in open ubiquitous environment. These attributes also force pHealth services providers to publish information needed for trust calculation and in this way to support openness and transparency.

  10. HealthConnect and privacy: a policy conundrum.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Moira

    2004-08-01

    A shared electronic health record is intrinsically privacy-invasive because it creates a comprehensive record for information-sharing. The author explains the significance of information privacy and why it is that health information warrants special protection. She also provides an overview of the existing regulatory framework and an evaluation of suggested options and proposals for addressing privacy-related issues. Her analysis of suggested consent models suggests that they ultimately involve a trade-off between privacy and the broader benefits promised by HealthConnect and that obtaining the right balance is essential if HealthConnect is to achieve optimal health outcomes.

  11. Determining the privacy policy deficiencies of health ICT applications through semi-formal modelling.

    PubMed

    Croll, Peter R

    2011-02-01

    To ensure that patient confidentiality is securely maintained, health ICT applications that contain sensitive personal information demand comprehensive privacy policies. Determining the adequacy of these policies to meet legal conformity together with clinical users and patient expectation is demanding in practice. Organisations and agencies looking to analyse their Privacy and Security policies can benefit from guidance provided by outside entities such as the Privacy Office of their State or Government together with law firms and ICT specialists. The advice given is not uniform and often open to different interpretations. Of greater concern is the possibility of overlooking any important aspects that later result in a data breach. Based on three case studies, this paper considers whether a more formal approach to privacy analysis could be taken that would help identify the full coverage of a Privacy Impact Analysis and determine the deficiencies with an organisation's current policies and approach. A diagrammatic model showing the relationships between Confidentiality, Privacy, Trust, Security and Safety is introduced. First the validity of this model is determined by mapping it against the real-world case studies taken from three healthcare services that depend on ICT. Then, by using software engineering methods, a formal mapping of the relationships is undertaken to identify a full set of policies needed to satisfy the model. How effective this approach may prove as a generic method for deriving a comprehensive set of policies in health ICT applications is finally discussed. PMID:21075675

  12. Determining the privacy policy deficiencies of health ICT applications through semi-formal modelling.

    PubMed

    Croll, Peter R

    2011-02-01

    To ensure that patient confidentiality is securely maintained, health ICT applications that contain sensitive personal information demand comprehensive privacy policies. Determining the adequacy of these policies to meet legal conformity together with clinical users and patient expectation is demanding in practice. Organisations and agencies looking to analyse their Privacy and Security policies can benefit from guidance provided by outside entities such as the Privacy Office of their State or Government together with law firms and ICT specialists. The advice given is not uniform and often open to different interpretations. Of greater concern is the possibility of overlooking any important aspects that later result in a data breach. Based on three case studies, this paper considers whether a more formal approach to privacy analysis could be taken that would help identify the full coverage of a Privacy Impact Analysis and determine the deficiencies with an organisation's current policies and approach. A diagrammatic model showing the relationships between Confidentiality, Privacy, Trust, Security and Safety is introduced. First the validity of this model is determined by mapping it against the real-world case studies taken from three healthcare services that depend on ICT. Then, by using software engineering methods, a formal mapping of the relationships is undertaken to identify a full set of policies needed to satisfy the model. How effective this approach may prove as a generic method for deriving a comprehensive set of policies in health ICT applications is finally discussed.

  13. Privacy policy analysis for health information networks and regional health information organizations.

    PubMed

    Noblin, Alice M

    2007-01-01

    Regional Health Information Organizations (RHIOs) are forming in response to President George W. Bush's 2004 mandate that medical information be made available electronically to facilitate continuity of care. Privacy concerns are a deterrent to widespread acceptance of RHIOs. The Health Information Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 provides some guidelines for privacy protection. However, most states have stricter guidelines, causing difficulty when RHIOs form across these jurisdictions. This article compares several RHIOs including their privacy policies where available. In addition, studies were reviewed considering privacy concerns of people in the United States and elsewhere. Surveys reveal that Americans are concerned about the privacy of their personal health information and ultimately feel it is the role of the government to provide protection. The purpose of this article is to look at the privacy issues and recommend a policy that may help to resolve some of the concerns of both providers and patients. Policy research and action are needed to move the National Health Information Network toward reality. Efforts to provide consistency in privacy laws are a necessary early step to facilitate the construction and maintenance of RHIOs and the National Health Information Network.

  14. Globalisation, Transnational Policies and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milana, Marcella

    2012-01-01

    Globalisation, transnational policies and adult education--This paper examines policy documents produced by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the European Union (EU) in the field of adult education and learning. Both these entities address adult education as an explicit object of policy. This paper…

  15. Privacy and health in the information age: a content analysis of health web site privacy policy statements.

    PubMed

    Rains, Stephen A; Bosch, Leslie A

    2009-07-01

    This article reports a content analysis of the privacy policy statements (PPSs) from 97 general reference health Web sites that was conducted to examine the ways in which visitors' privacy is constructed by health organizations. PPSs are formal documents created by the Web site owner to describe how information regarding site visitors and their behavior is collected and used. The results show that over 80% of the PPSs in the sample indicated automatically collecting or requesting that visitors voluntarily provide information about themselves, and only 3% met all five of the Federal Trade Commission's Fair Information Practices guidelines. Additionally, the results suggest that the manner in which PPSs are framed and the use of justifications for collecting information are tropes used by health organizations to foster a secondary exchange of visitors' personal information for access to Web site content. PMID:19657826

  16. A voluntary privacy standard for health services and policy research: legal, ethical and social policy issues in the Canadian context.

    PubMed

    Weisbaum, Karen M; Slaughter, Pamela M; Collins, Paulette K

    2005-01-01

    In this review, the authors describe how one group of Canadian researchers has begun to address current privacy protection challenges with the end goal of developing a Canadian national standard for privacy protection specific to health services and policy research (HSPR). They provide a concise description of some of the key messages and issues that resulted from a recent series of HSPR workshops and describe some of the workshop outcomes in terms of their legal, ethical and social/policy significance. The review ends with a brief description of some future directions for research and development in this area.

  17. Technical and Policy Approaches to Balancing Patient Privacy and Data Sharing in Clinical and Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Malin, Bradley; Karp, David; Scheuermann, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical researchers need to share data to support scientific validation and information reuse, and to comply with a host of regulations and directives from funders. Various organizations are constructing informatics resources in the form of centralized databases to ensure widespread availability of data derived from sponsored research. The widespread use of such open databases is contingent on the protection of patient privacy. In this paper, we review several aspects of the privacy-related problems associated with data sharing for clinical research from technical and policy perspectives. We begin with a review of existing policies for secondary data sharing and privacy requirements in the context of data derived from research and clinical settings. In particular, we focus on policies specified by the U.S. National Institutes of Health and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act and touch upon how these policies are related to current, as well as future, use of data stored in public database archives. Next, we address aspects of data privacy and “identifiability” from a more technical perspective, and review how biomedical databanks can be exploited and seemingly anonymous records can be “re-identified” using various resources without compromising or hacking into secure computer systems. We highlight which data features specified in clinical research data models are potentially vulnerable or exploitable. In the process, we recount a recent privacy-related concern associated with the publication of aggregate statistics from pooled genome-wide association studies that has had a significant impact on the data sharing policies of NIH-sponsored databanks. Finally, we conclude with a list of recommendations that cover various technical, legal, and policy mechanisms that open clinical databases can adopt to strengthen data privacy protections as they move toward wider deployment and adoption. PMID:20051768

  18. Fixing Broken Doors: Strategies for Drafting Privacy Policies Young People Can Understand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micheti, Anca; Burkell, Jacquelyn; Steeves, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this project is to identify guidelines for privacy policies that children and teens can accurately interpret with relative ease. A three-pronged strategy was used to achieve this goal. First, an analysis of the relevant literature on reading was undertaken to identify the document features that affect comprehension. Second, focus…

  19. International Policies on Sharing Genomic Research Results with Relatives: Approaches to Balancing Privacy with Access.

    PubMed

    Branum, Rebecca; Wolf, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Returning genetic research results to relatives raises complex issues. In order to inform the U.S. debate, this paper analyzes international law and policies governing the sharing of genetic research results with relatives and identifies key themes and lessons. The laws and policies from other countries demonstrate a range of approaches to balancing individual privacy and autonomy with family access for health benefit, offering important lessons for further development of approaches in the United States.

  20. Policy forum. Data, privacy, and the greater good.

    PubMed

    Horvitz, Eric; Mulligan, Deirdre

    2015-07-17

    Large-scale aggregate analyses of anonymized data can yield valuable results and insights that address public health challenges and provide new avenues for scientific discovery. These methods can extend our knowledge and provide new tools for enhancing health and wellbeing. However, they raise questions about how to best address potential threats to privacy while reaping benefits for individuals and to society as a whole. The use of machine learning to make leaps across informational and social contexts to infer health conditions and risks from nonmedical data provides representative scenarios for reflections on directions with balancing innovation and regulation.

  1. Policy recommendations for addressing privacy challenges associated with cell-based research and interventions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increased use of human biological material for cell-based research and clinical interventions poses risks to the privacy of patients and donors, including the possibility of re-identification of individuals from anonymized cell lines and associated genetic data. These risks will increase as technologies and databases used for re-identification become affordable and more sophisticated. Policies that require ongoing linkage of cell lines to donors’ clinical information for research and regulatory purposes, and existing practices that limit research participants’ ability to control what is done with their genetic data, amplify the privacy concerns. Discussion To date, the privacy issues associated with cell-based research and interventions have not received much attention in the academic and policymaking contexts. This paper, arising out of a multi-disciplinary workshop, aims to rectify this by outlining the issues, proposing novel governance strategies and policy recommendations, and identifying areas where further evidence is required to make sound policy decisions. The authors of this paper take the position that existing rules and norms can be reasonably extended to address privacy risks in this context without compromising emerging developments in the research environment, and that exceptions from such rules should be justified using a case-by-case approach. In developing new policies, the broader framework of regulations governing cell-based research and related areas must be taken into account, as well as the views of impacted groups, including scientists, research participants and the general public. Summary This paper outlines deliberations at a policy development workshop focusing on privacy challenges associated with cell-based research and interventions. The paper provides an overview of these challenges, followed by a discussion of key themes and recommendations that emerged from discussions at the workshop. The paper concludes that

  2. Personal privacy, public benefits, and biobanks: A conjoint analysis of policy priorities and public perceptions.

    PubMed

    Pullman, Daryl; Etchegary, Holly; Gallagher, Katherine; Hodgkinson, Kathlene; Keough, Montgomery; Morgan, David; Street, Catherine

    2011-09-26

    PURPOSE:: To assess the public's perception of biobank research and the relative importance they place on concerns for privacy and confidentiality, when compared with other key variables when considering participation in biobank research. METHODS:: Conjoint analysis of three key attributes (research focus, research beneficiary, and privacy and confidentiality) under conditions of either blanket or specific consent. RESULTS:: Although the majority of our participants described themselves as private individuals, they consistently ranked privacy and confidentiality as the least important of the variables they considered. The potential beneficiary of proposed research ranked the highest under conditions of both blanket and specific consent. When completing the conjoint task under conditions of blanket consent, participants tended to act more altruistically. CONCLUSION:: The public tend to view biobanks as public goods designed primarily for public benefit. As such they tend to act altruistically with respect to the potential benefits that might accrue from research using biobanked samples. Participants expressed little concern about informational risks (i.e., privacy and confidentiality) should they choose to participate. The manner in which policy priorities are framed could impact participant value preferences with regard to a number of governance issues in biobanking.

  3. Globalisation, transnational policies and adult education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milana, Marcella

    2012-12-01

    Globalisation, transnational policies and adult education - This paper examines policy documents produced by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the European Union (EU) in the field of adult education and learning. Both these entities address adult education as an explicit object of policy. This paper investigates how globalisation processes are constructed as policy problems when these transnational political agents propose adult education as a response. The author's main argument is that while UNESCO presents the provision of adult education as a means for governments worldwide to overcome disadvantages experienced by their own citizenry, the EU institutionalises learning experiences as a means for governments to sustain regional economic growth and political expansion. After reviewing the literature on globalisation to elucidate the theories that inform current understanding of contemporary economic, political, cultural and ecological changes as political problems, she presents the conceptual and methodological framework of her analysis. The author then examines the active role played by UNESCO and the EU in promoting adult education as a policy objective at transnational level, and unpacks the specific problem "representations" that are substantiated by these organisations. She argues that UNESCO and EU processes assign specific values and meanings to globalisation, and that these reflect a limited understanding of the complexity of globalisation. Finally, she considers two of the effects produced by these problem representations.

  4. [Family caregiver issues: gender, privacy, and public policy perspectives].

    PubMed

    Lee, I; Chou, Fan-Hao; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2011-04-01

    Due to the phenomenon of Taiwan'saging population has made, long-term care has become an issue of increasingly emphasized importance. According to the statistics, the family takes responsibility for most long-term care duties and more than 70% of primary family caregivers are female. In the past, because of gender-based divisions of labor and gender role expectations made, it was taken for granted that females would be the socially preferred family caregivers. Those men who devoting in themselves to such work were regarded as a rare precious. As such, family care signified entailed different life experiences for males and females. Over the years, amendments to the civil code have recognized family care contributions, and the allowance for caregivers underlines that care responsibilities have shifted away from the family to society. Traditional gender divisions of labor today are significantly more blurred; family structures have become smaller in size; female labor in the workplace has increased; and ten-year long-term care plans and long-term care insurance have been successively implemented. These transformations will make labor outsourcing more and more popular and transform family care from a private problem to a pubic policy issue. In the future, family caregivers require consideration and support on a sustained basis. It is also important to improve and monitor the quality of care services. Nurses, the major professional members of long-term care teams, should be concerned over the issue of family care while providing nursing care. They should include family caregivers in the care plan so that they can make sure that patients receive comprehensive and constant care in order to enhance the overall quality of nursing care.

  5. [Family caregiver issues: gender, privacy, and public policy perspectives].

    PubMed

    Lee, I; Chou, Fan-Hao; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2011-04-01

    Due to the phenomenon of Taiwan'saging population has made, long-term care has become an issue of increasingly emphasized importance. According to the statistics, the family takes responsibility for most long-term care duties and more than 70% of primary family caregivers are female. In the past, because of gender-based divisions of labor and gender role expectations made, it was taken for granted that females would be the socially preferred family caregivers. Those men who devoting in themselves to such work were regarded as a rare precious. As such, family care signified entailed different life experiences for males and females. Over the years, amendments to the civil code have recognized family care contributions, and the allowance for caregivers underlines that care responsibilities have shifted away from the family to society. Traditional gender divisions of labor today are significantly more blurred; family structures have become smaller in size; female labor in the workplace has increased; and ten-year long-term care plans and long-term care insurance have been successively implemented. These transformations will make labor outsourcing more and more popular and transform family care from a private problem to a pubic policy issue. In the future, family caregivers require consideration and support on a sustained basis. It is also important to improve and monitor the quality of care services. Nurses, the major professional members of long-term care teams, should be concerned over the issue of family care while providing nursing care. They should include family caregivers in the care plan so that they can make sure that patients receive comprehensive and constant care in order to enhance the overall quality of nursing care. PMID:21455893

  6. Are Personal Health Records Safe? A Review of Free Web-Accessible Personal Health Record Privacy Policies

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Toval, Ambrosio

    2012-01-01

    Background Several obstacles prevent the adoption and use of personal health record (PHR) systems, including users’ concerns regarding the privacy and security of their personal health information. Objective To analyze the privacy and security characteristics of PHR privacy policies. It is hoped that identification of the strengths and weaknesses of the PHR systems will be useful for PHR users, health care professionals, decision makers, and designers. Methods We conducted a systematic review using the principal databases related to health and computer science to discover the Web-based and free PHR systems mentioned in published articles. The privacy policy of each PHR system selected was reviewed to extract its main privacy and security characteristics. Results The search of databases and the myPHR website provided a total of 52 PHR systems, of which 24 met our inclusion criteria. Of these, 17 (71%) allowed users to manage their data and to control access to their health care information. Only 9 (38%) PHR systems permitted users to check who had accessed their data. The majority of PHR systems used information related to the users’ accesses to monitor and analyze system use, 12 (50%) of them aggregated user information to publish trends, and 20 (83%) used diverse types of security measures. Finally, 15 (63%) PHR systems were based on regulations or principles such as the US Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and the Health on the Net Foundation Code of Conduct (HONcode). Conclusions Most privacy policies of PHR systems do not provide an in-depth description of the security measures that they use. Moreover, compliance with standards and regulations in PHR systems is still low. PMID:22917868

  7. Privacy and Biobanking in China: A Case of Policy in Transition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haidan; Chan, Benny; Joly, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Disease-based biobanks have operated in hospitals and research institutes in China for decades, and China has recently embarked on a plan to establish further biobank networks with the aim of promoting data sharing among the existing biobanks. Although the Chinese Constitution has only recently begun to recognize individual privacy as a distinct and independent constitutional right, biobanking in China has been loosely regulated under a patchwork of sometimes overlapping laws (such as the Interim Measures for the Administration of Human Genetic Resources) and regulatory instruments, as well as and the policies of individual biobanks and networks of biobanks (such as the Shanghai Biobank Network Guidelines). A Draft Ordinance on Human Genetics Resources is currently being developed that will deal in more detail than previous laws with issues such as management measures, legal liability, and punishment for violations. International data sharing will be tightly regulated under this new law, and individual biobanks' policies such as the Shanghai Guidelines may choose to regulate such sharing even more. In contrast with national regulatory instruments, the Shanghai Guidelines also contain detailed de-identification policies, and explicitly endorse broad consent.

  8. Legal Underpinnings for Creating Campus Computer Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Marjorie W.; Worona, Steven L.

    1996-01-01

    Provides guidelines for the development of campus computer policies, focusing on legal issues related to adult material, harassment, privacy, commerce, and copyright. Notes that computer use policies and practices need to evolve in concert with the changing computer culture. (MDM)

  9. Debating Global Polity, Policy Crossing, and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milana, Marcella

    2015-01-01

    This article revisits the concept of "global polity" as a useful conceptual tool for studying public policy development in adult education. First, it describes the relations between polity, policy, and praxis and how these are addressed in adult education research. Then, it reviews how policy is conceptualized in terms of material and…

  10. Navigating State and Federal Student Privacy Laws to Design Educationally Sound Parental Notice Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Thomas R.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the relationship between federal student privacy laws and state privacy laws, and identifies the changes in the federal law over the last ten years affecting disclosure to parents of college students. Recent litigation on health emergencies is outlined and the limited rights of college students not yet eighteen years of age…

  11. Adult Basic Skills: Innovations in Measurement and Policy Analysis. Series on Literacy: Research, Policy, and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuijnman, Albert C., Ed.; Kirsch, Irwin S., Ed.; Wagner, Daniel A., Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers examining innovations in measuring adults' basic skills and analyzing adult literacy policy. The following papers are included: "Series Preface" (Daniel A. Wagner); "Foreword" (Torsten Husen); "Introduction" (Albert Tuijnman); "Adult Basic Skills: Policy Issues and a Research Agenda" (David Stern, Albert Tuijnman);…

  12. Policy to Performance Toolkit: Transitioning Adults to Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alamprese, Judith A.; Limardo, Chrys

    2012-01-01

    The "Policy to Performance Toolkit" is designed to provide state adult education staff and key stakeholders with guidance and tools to use in developing, implementing, and monitoring state policies and their associated practices that support an effective state adult basic education (ABE) to postsecondary education and training transition…

  13. Closing the Barn Door: The Effect of Parental Supervision on Canadian Children's Online Privacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steeves, Valerie; Webster, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    Empirical data from a large sample of Canadian youth aged 13 to 17 years suggest that, although the current privacy policy framework is having a positive effect on the extent to which young people are complying with the types of behavior promoted by adults as privacy protective, its primary focus on parental supervision is inadequate to fully…

  14. Exemplary Program Policies and Practices for Adult Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry; Hedges, Lowell

    Policies and practices were identified that have led to the success of exemplary programs in adult vocational education in Ohio. Data were collected from adult vocational education personnel, students, and employers located in five exemplary planning districts. All districts had a full-time supervisor for adult programs, employed full- and…

  15. Willingness of older adults to share data and privacy concerns after exposure to unobtrusive in-home monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Boise, Linda; Wild, Katherine; Mattek, Nora; Ruhl, Mary; Dodge, Hiroko H.; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Older adult participants in the Intelligent Systems for Assessment of Aging Changes study (ISAAC) carried out by the Oregon Center for Aging and Technology (ORCATECH) were surveyed regarding their attitudes about unobtrusive home monitoring and computer use at baseline and after one year (n=119). The survey was part of a longitudinal study using in-home sensor technology to detect cognitive changes and other health problems. Our primary objective was to measure willingness to share health or activity data with one’s doctor or family members and concerns about privacy or security of monitoring over one year of study participation. Differences in attitudes of participants with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) compared to those with normal cognition were also examined. A high proportion (over 72%) of participants reported acceptance of in-home and computer monitoring and willingness to have data shared with their doctor or family members. However, a majority (60%) reported concerns related to privacy or security; these concerns increased after one year of participation. Few differences between participants with MCI and those with normal cognition were identified. Findings suggest that involvement in this unobtrusive in-home monitoring study may have raised awareness about the potential privacy risks of technology. Still, results show high acceptance, stable over time, of sharing information from monitoring systems with family members and doctors. Our findings have important implications for the deployment of technologies among older adults in research studies as well as in the general community. PMID:23525351

  16. Challenges for Policy and Standards for Adult and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelan, Belle S.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter addresses educational policy as a force that contemporary adult education would be required to reckon with from the point of view of an accreditor. It identifies the issues and projects shifts that are currently taking place in higher education policy at the national, state, and regional levels.

  17. Adult Community Education: A Model for Regional Policy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The adult community education (ACE) sector in the state of Victoria provides an example of best practice in regional rural policy in Australia that may serve as a model for other areas of government effort. In 1997, 309,000 Victorians enrolled in adult and community education courses, such as business and technical skills development, literacy and…

  18. Policy Development in Adult Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuhr, Christian

    Policies for educational institutions reflect social values. However, modern Canadian society is pluralistic; many values are held, and often these are in conflict with one another. Neither an appeal to the facts nor reasoned argument will reconcile such conflicts. Policy makers must think globally and act locally to ensure that all levels of…

  19. Testing Privacy Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Mike

    In web-based business processes the disclosure of personal data by the user is an essential part and mandatory for the processes. Privacy policies help to inform the user about his/her rights and to protect the user’s privacy. In this paper we present a test to empirically measure how the user’s privacy awareness changes by presenting specific elements of the privacy policy in close proximity to the required data items. We compare an experimental group using an enhanced interface to a control group using a conventional interface regarding their capability to recall the agreed privacy-related facts. A concrete online survey has been performed. The major results are presented.

  20. Adult Education--The Legislative and Policy Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Sergio, Ed.

    The 10 studies in this volume present a sampling of policy and legislation relating to adult learning in various parts of the world. The articles resulted from an international research project conducted at the UNESCO Institute for Education in conjunction with the University of Florence. They were written by the following contributors: Robb Mason…

  1. Theme with Variations: Social Policy, Community Care and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Changes in British social policy regarding community health care has implications for local education agency (LEA) providers of adult continuing education. LEAs will either have a role in providing staff training and other learning opportunities, will be forced to provide cheaper forms of community care, or will be ignored altogether. (SK)

  2. 12 CFR 332.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 332.2 Section... POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 332.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with the...

  3. 12 CFR 332.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 332.2 Section... POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 332.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in Appendix A of this part, consistent with the...

  4. 12 CFR 332.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 332.2 Section... POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 332.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with the...

  5. 12 CFR 332.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 332.2 Section... POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 332.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with the...

  6. A Model Privacy Statement for Ohio Library Web Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaco, Michael J.

    The purpose of this research was to develop a model privacy policy statement for library World Wide Web sites. First, standards of privacy protection were identified. These standards were culled from the privacy and confidentiality policies of the American Library Association, the Federal Trade Commission's online privacy reports, the guidelines…

  7. Adult Literacy: Monitoring and Evaluation for Practice and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Daniel A.

    2008-11-01

    With the advent of the UN Literacy Decade launched in 2003, there is increased emphasis on monitoring and evaluation of adult literacy around the globe. The present paper presents an overview of the main approaches that have been taken to measure adult literacy within and across countries. A particular focus of the present review is to compare and contrast three models of literacy assessment: (1) the "traditional" model based largely on census enumeration, which has been used over recent decades to collect national and regional rates of illiteracy; (2) the large-scale survey techniques employed with the International Adult Literacy Survey and similar models; and (3) an intermediate type of assessment that borrows from the previous two models, and attempts to "tailor" the size and complexity of the survey methodology to the policy questions needing answers (called the SQC model). The present paper suggests that there is no single model or set of methods that are universally appropriate to monitoring and measuring in adult literacy around the world, but that blending both programmatic and comparative models through the SQC approach may bring greater involvement in, and insight into, adult literacy evaluations.

  8. Policy to Performance: State ABE Transition Systems Report. Transitioning Adults to Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alamprese, Judith A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's Policy to Performance project was funded in 2009 to build the capacity of state adult basic education (ABE) staff to develop and implement policies and practices that would support an ABE transition system. Policy to Performance states were selected though a competitive process. State adult education…

  9. Pass the Cookies and Uphold the Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, Kim

    2001-01-01

    Considers how privacy issues related to online profiling affect library patrons and what librarians should do to protect them. Discusses the need for a privacy policy and provides guidelines from the OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) privacy statement generator that can be adapted for libraries. (LRW)

  10. Elements d'une Politique en Education des Adultes 1970, II (Elements of an Adult Education Policy, 1970, II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Inst. for Adult Education, Montreal (Quebec).

    Based on a work paper on adult and continuing education policy formation for Quebec, this document modifies and supplements recommendations on the unemployed and other high priority clientele groups, adult education content and methodology, the training of adult educators, responsibilities of sponsoring bodies (including the mass media), Federal…

  11. Reinterpreting Lifelong Learning: Meanings of Adult Education Policy in Portugal, 1999-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimaraes, Paula

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses Portugal's adult education policy between 1999 and 2010. Our empirical material consists of Portuguese as well as supranational policy documents. We use a theoretical framework which distinguishes three models of public policy, with different views on the roles of public policy and of education: (1) participative…

  12. Digital Privacy: Toward a New Politics and Discursive Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doty, Philip

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of privacy focuses on digital environments and a more inclusive understanding of privacy. Highlights include legal and policy conceptions; legislation protecting privacy; relevant Supreme Court cases; torts and privacy; European and other efforts; surveillance and social control; information entrepreneurialism; Jurgen Habermas; free…

  13. 12 CFR 332.9 - Delivering privacy and opt out notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... GENERAL POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 332.9 Delivering... not, however, reasonably expect that a consumer will receive actual notice of your privacy policies... advertisements of your privacy policies and practices; or (ii) Send the notice via electronic mail to a...

  14. De Facto Language Policy in Legislation Defining Adult Basic Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanek, Jenifer

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of differing interpretation of federal education policy in three different states. The policy, the Workforce Investment Act Title II, has defined the services provided for adult English language learners (ELLs) enrolled in Adult Basic Education programs in the United States since it was passed in 1998. At the…

  15. Policy Silos and Red Ochre Men: An Examination of a Decade of Adult Literacy Policy and Program Development in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searle, Jean

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on some of the data gathered for an Australian research project which investigated "What does the past tell us about adult literacy and numeracy policy, provision and practice?" First, the key national and some state policies which have informed program development in Australia will be outlined in order to highlight some…

  16. A Policy Analysis of Adult Literacy Education in India: Across the Two National Policy Reviews of 1968 and 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    There have been few, if any, significant changes in educational policy regarding the provision of adult literacy education in India over the past two decades. The changes that have taken place in India's adult literacy programs have occurred in the realm of technology rather than ideology, thereby supporting a continuity in the existing…

  17. Customer privacy on UK healthcare websites.

    PubMed

    Mundy, Darren P

    2006-09-01

    Privacy has been and continues to be one of the key challenges of an age devoted to the accumulation, processing, and mining of electronic information. In particular, privacy of healthcare-related information is seen as a key issue as health organizations move towards the electronic provision of services. The aim of the research detailed in this paper has been to analyse privacy policies on popular UK healthcare-related websites to determine the extent to which consumer privacy is protected. The author has combined approaches (such as approaches focused on usability, policy content, and policy quality) used in studies by other researchers on e-commerce and US healthcare websites to provide a comprehensive analysis of UK healthcare privacy policies. The author identifies a wide range of issues related to the protection of consumer privacy through his research analysis using quantitative results. The main outcomes from the author's research are that only 61% of healthcare-related websites in their sample group posted privacy policies. In addition, most of the posted privacy policies had poor readability standards and included a variety of privacy vulnerability statements. Overall, the author's findings represent significant current issues in relation to healthcare information protection on the Internet. The hope is that raising awareness of these results will drive forward changes in the industry, similar to those experienced with information quality.

  18. Customer privacy on UK healthcare websites.

    PubMed

    Mundy, Darren P

    2006-09-01

    Privacy has been and continues to be one of the key challenges of an age devoted to the accumulation, processing, and mining of electronic information. In particular, privacy of healthcare-related information is seen as a key issue as health organizations move towards the electronic provision of services. The aim of the research detailed in this paper has been to analyse privacy policies on popular UK healthcare-related websites to determine the extent to which consumer privacy is protected. The author has combined approaches (such as approaches focused on usability, policy content, and policy quality) used in studies by other researchers on e-commerce and US healthcare websites to provide a comprehensive analysis of UK healthcare privacy policies. The author identifies a wide range of issues related to the protection of consumer privacy through his research analysis using quantitative results. The main outcomes from the author's research are that only 61% of healthcare-related websites in their sample group posted privacy policies. In addition, most of the posted privacy policies had poor readability standards and included a variety of privacy vulnerability statements. Overall, the author's findings represent significant current issues in relation to healthcare information protection on the Internet. The hope is that raising awareness of these results will drive forward changes in the industry, similar to those experienced with information quality. PMID:16954055

  19. Building Sustainable Adult Literacy Provision: A Review of International Trends in Adult Literacy Policy and Programs. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Rosa; Fitzpatrick, Lynne

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this report was to analyze, through a desktop audit, international trends in adult literacy policy and programs. The audit includes an examination of the significant research undertaken, and policy statements made by international institutions such as the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), the…

  20. 17 CFR 160.5 - Annual privacy notice to customers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annual privacy notice to... COMMISSION PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 160.5 Annual privacy... customers that accurately reflects your privacy policies and practices not less than annually during...

  1. 17 CFR 160.4 - Initial privacy notice to consumers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Initial privacy notice to... COMMISSION PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 160.4 Initial privacy... notice that accurately reflects your privacy policies and practices to: (1) Customer. An individual...

  2. The Impact of Irish Policy and Legislation on How Adults with Learning Disabilities Make Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Eileen; Griffiths, Colin

    2016-01-01

    This paper reflects the impact of policy and legislation in the context of how adults with learning disabilities make choices. Following an overview of policies which have improved choice for people with learning disability in the United Kingdom, this paper reviews "choice" in current Irish policy and legislation. This paper, while…

  3. Evidence-Based Policy-Making: The Usability of the Eurostat Adult Education Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeren, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    This article reflects on European education policy which is driven by benchmarks and indicators. While the European benchmark on adult lifelong learning participation--15% to be achieved by 2020--is measured by the Labour Force Survey, the Eurostat Adult Education Survey (AES) was designed to better understand the topic of adult lifelong learning…

  4. Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice. Review of Adult Learning and Literacy, Volume 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Christine, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice, Volume 7" is the newest volume in a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. Each…

  5. The Regulatory Framework for Privacy and Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiller, Janine S.

    The internet enables the easy collection of massive amounts of personally identifiable information. Unregulated data collection causes distrust and conflicts with widely accepted principles of privacy. The regulatory framework in the United States for ensuring privacy and security in the online environment consists of federal, state, and self-regulatory elements. New laws have been passed to address technological and internet practices that conflict with privacy protecting policies. The United States and the European Union approaches to privacy differ significantly, and the global internet environment will likely cause regulators to face the challenge of balancing privacy interests with data collection for many years to come.

  6. Conscious Choking: Adult and Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Conscious Choking—Adult and Child (2:25) QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  7. 32 CFR 317.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DCAA PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 317.3 Policy. (a) It is DCAA policy that personnel will comply with the DCAA Privacy Program; the Privacy Act of 1974; and the DoD Privacy Program (32 CFR part 310). Strict adherence...

  8. 32 CFR 317.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DCAA PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 317.3 Policy. (a) It is DCAA policy that personnel will comply with the DCAA Privacy Program; the Privacy Act of 1974; and the DoD Privacy Program (32 CFR part 310). Strict adherence...

  9. 32 CFR 317.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DCAA PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 317.3 Policy. (a) It is DCAA policy that personnel will comply with the DCAA Privacy Program; the Privacy Act of 1974; and the DoD Privacy Program (32 CFR part 310). Strict adherence...

  10. 32 CFR 317.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DCAA PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 317.3 Policy. (a) It is DCAA policy that personnel will comply with the DCAA Privacy Program; the Privacy Act of 1974; and the DoD Privacy Program (32 CFR part 310). Strict adherence...

  11. 32 CFR 317.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DCAA PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 317.3 Policy. (a) It is DCAA policy that personnel will comply with the DCAA Privacy Program; the Privacy Act of 1974; and the DoD Privacy Program (32 CFR part 310). Strict adherence...

  12. What was privacy?

    PubMed

    McCreary, Lew

    2008-10-01

    Why is that question in the past tense? Because individuals can no longer feel confident that the details of their lives--from identifying numbers to cultural preferences--will be treated with discretion rather than exploited. Even as Facebook users happily share the names of their favorite books, movies, songs, and brands, they often regard marketers' use of that information as an invasion of privacy. In this wide-ranging essay, McCreary, a senior editor at HBR, examines numerous facets of the privacy issue, from Google searches, public shaming on the internet, and cell phone etiquette to passenger screening devices, public surveillance cameras, and corporate chief privacy officers. He notes that IBM has been a leader on privacy; its policy forswearing the use of employees' genetic information in hiring and benefits decisions predated the federal Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act by three years. Now IBM is involved in an open-source project known as Higgins to provide users with transportable, potentially anonymous online presences. Craigslist, whose CEO calls it "as close to 100% user driven as you can get," has taken an extremely conservative position on privacy--perhaps easier for a company with a declared lack of interest in maximizing revenue. But TJX and other corporate victims of security breaches have discovered that retaining consumers' transaction information can be both costly and risky. Companies that underestimate the importance of privacy to their customers or fail to protect it may eventually face harsh regulation, reputational damage, or both. The best thing they can do, says the author, is negotiate directly with those customers over where to draw the line.

  13. To Shape the Future: Towards a Framework for Adult Education Social Policy Research and Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, B. Allan

    1993-01-01

    Compares three social policy models (market, progressive-liberal-welfare, social redistribution); links them to adult education models (vocational-behaviorist, liberal-humanist-progressive, liberatory/social reconstruction) and to sociological theories (structural functionalism and conflict theory). (SK)

  14. An Analysis of NCAA Division 1 Student Athlete Social Media Use, Privacy Management, and Perceptions of Social Media Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    The intercollegiate athletic subculture knows very little about how social media policies are perceived by students-athletes. Athletic department administrators, conference commissioners, and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) who are in charge of creating new policies lack any meaningful data to help understand or negotiate new…

  15. A Conceptual Framework and Proposed Taxonomy for Social Policy Research on Participation in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, B. Allan

    Although a considerable body of research has been developed in recent years on participation in adult education, little has been done from the standpoint of social policy and its impact on participation. To assist investigation of this aspect of participation, three social policy models are presented: market models, progressive-liberal-welfare…

  16. Adult and Community Education Policy in Aotearoa New Zealand 2000-2014: Neoliberal Influences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Changes in tertiary education policy in Aotearoa New Zealand in the last decade have impacted on adult and community education (ACE). Marginalized and understood as non-formal education at the turn of the century, ACE is now part of the "tertiary landscape". It is explicitly steered by education policy, its role severely narrowed, its…

  17. Global, Regional and Local Influences on Adult Literacy Policy in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between global, regional and local influences on adult literacy policy and practice in the UK through a discourse analysis of policy-related texts. The analysis is framed by theoretical perspectives from literacy studies and socio-material theory. The paper identifies a number of specific features in the UK…

  18. Adult Education in the Limpopo Province of South Africa: Challenges for Policy Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeelen, J.; Rampedi, M.; de Jong, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we report and reflect on a study about the problems encountered in the implementation of adult education policies in the Limpopo province of South Africa. We used the model of intergovernmental policy implementation of Van Horn and Van Meter as a theoretical framework. We reflect on this study and link the findings with more recent…

  19. Literacy for the Twenty-First Century: Research, Policy, Practices, and the National Adult Literacy Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Cecil, Ed.

    This book focuses on results from secondary analyses of the National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) and implications of these analyses for policy, practice, and further research on adult literacy. Part I contains an introduction and three additional chapters that provide a substantive summary of the NALS and its purposes: "Introduction: Adult…

  20. What's Going On? An Overview of Adult Education Policies in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucio-Villegas, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I attempt to present the state of adult education in Spain. Adult education in Spain is not unlike that of other countries in Europe in that it focuses on the policies and practices of lifelong learning rather than on the perspectives of people and communities. However, Spain has two specific characteristics that are distinctive…

  1. The Board of Education and Policy for Adult Education up to the Second World War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marriott, Stuart

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes the attempts by the Board of Education in England to develop policy in relation to adult education and "further education" as a whole that began in 1909 and ended by World War II. Identifies the emergence of modern adult education stemming from developments in municipal evening schools and the university extension movement. (CMK)

  2. Numbers Talk--Words Count: Language Policy and Adult Numeracy Education in Wales and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coben, Diana; Miller-Reilly, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review and compare language policy in relation to adult numeracy education in Wales and New Zealand with respect to the Maori and Welsh languages in the latest stage of our international comparative study of adult numeracy education. While much has been written about the relationship between language and literacy, the relationship…

  3. Reflections on the Professionalisation of Adult Educators in the Framework of Public Policies in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimaraes, Paula

    2009-01-01

    The discussion in this article is based on recent research carried out by the author recently on adult education public policies and her participation in the Adult Learning Practitioners in Europe (ALPINE) project coordinated by Research voor Beleid (The Netherlands) and funded by the European Commission. The analysis presented here stresses the…

  4. 32 CFR 310.5 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM DoD Policy § 310.5 Policy. It is DoD policy that: (a) The privacy of an individual is a personal... unwarranted invasions of their privacy. (2) The legal rights of individuals, as guaranteed by Federal...

  5. 32 CFR 310.5 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM DoD Policy § 310.5 Policy. It is DoD policy that: (a) The privacy of an individual is a personal... unwarranted invasions of their privacy. (2) The legal rights of individuals, as guaranteed by Federal...

  6. Globalisation, Southern Europe and European Adult Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Carmel; Mayo, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors define some of the most evident features of globalisation from below, which they distinguish from hegemonic globalisation, and draw out its implications for adult education. They draw out the implications for European adult education that emerge from the different features of these two types of globalisations. They…

  7. Adult Literacy: Monitoring and Evaluation for Practice and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    With the advent of the UN Literacy Decade launched in 2003, there is increased emphasis on monitoring and evaluation of adult literacy around the globe. The present paper presents an overview of the main approaches that have been taken to measure adult literacy within and across countries. A particular focus of the present review is to compare and…

  8. Handbook on Adult Education Personnel Policies and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Joe

    This handbook identifies California Education Code provisions that have reference to part-time adult education personnel, assesses current personnel practices in adult education, and offers possible approaches to the solution of problems. The chapters of the handbook are as follows: I. Principles of Personnel Management (general; peculiarities of…

  9. Information Parents Must Know about Online Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markell, Ginny

    2000-01-01

    Presents four tips to help parents monitor whether website operators are complying with the 1988 Children's Online Privacy Protection Act: look for privacy policies on children's websites; determine if they ask for parental consent to collect personal information; regularly monitor information being sent to children; and determine if web operators…

  10. 12 CFR 332.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 332.2 Section 332.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 332.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a)...

  11. How Does the Family Rights and Privacy Act Affect You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toglia, Thomas V.

    2007-01-01

    Enacted in 1974 to oversee the privacy, discharge, and accuracy of educational records, the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) has significant implications for teachers and administrators, who should stay informed regarding its current policies and practices, and when in doubt seek legal advice regarding the privacy and disclosure…

  12. Footprints near the Surf: Individual Privacy Decisions in Online Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Aleecia M.

    2010-01-01

    As more people seek the benefits of going online, more people are exposed to privacy risks from their time online. With a largely unregulated Internet, self-determination about privacy risks must be feasible for people from all walks of life. Yet in many cases decisions are either not obvious or not accessible. As one example, privacy policies are…

  13. 12 CFR 332.8 - Revised privacy notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 332.8 Revised privacy notices. (a..., disclose any nonpublic personal information about a consumer to a nonaffiliated third party other than...

  14. 12 CFR 332.5 - Annual privacy notice to customers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF GENERAL POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 332.5... conspicuous notice to customers that accurately reflects your privacy policies and practices not less than... policies; (ii) In the case of a closed-end loan, the customer pays the loan in full, you charge off...

  15. Adult literacy policy and provision in an age of austerity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limage, Leslie J.

    1986-12-01

    Against a background of growing concern for the large numbers of semiliterate or completely illiterate school leavers and adults in the industrialized countries, this article examines four key aspects necessary for gauging a nation's response to the problem of adult illiteracy. The four aspects — awareness raising, high-level national commitment, resource allocation, and range and extent of in-school and out-of-school basic education/literacy provision — are analyzed with particular reference to the United Kingdom, the United States, France and Canada. The article indicates that, in a period of economic austerity when education budgets are being cut, provision for adult literacy and for remedial classes in school is one of the first areas to be sacrificed. The article ends on a pessimistic note with respect to the implementation of a `Right to Read' charter in all industrialized countries.

  16. 32 CFR 324.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DFAS PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM General information § 324.3 Policy. DFAS personnel will comply with the Privacy Act of 1974, the DoD Privacy Program and the DFAS Privacy Act Program. Strict adherence is required to...

  17. 32 CFR 324.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DFAS PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM General information § 324.3 Policy. DFAS personnel will comply with the Privacy Act of 1974, the DoD Privacy Program and the DFAS Privacy Act Program. Strict adherence is required to...

  18. 32 CFR 324.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DFAS PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM General information § 324.3 Policy. DFAS personnel will comply with the Privacy Act of 1974, the DoD Privacy Program and the DFAS Privacy Act Program. Strict adherence is required to...

  19. 32 CFR 324.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DFAS PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM General information § 324.3 Policy. DFAS personnel will comply with the Privacy Act of 1974, the DoD Privacy Program and the DFAS Privacy Act Program. Strict adherence is required to...

  20. 32 CFR 324.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DFAS PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM General information § 324.3 Policy. DFAS personnel will comply with the Privacy Act of 1974, the DoD Privacy Program and the DFAS Privacy Act Program. Strict adherence is required to...

  1. Class Strategies and Stealth Policies in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, John

    2006-01-01

    Class strategies, how individual members of class fractions tactically gain advantage in fields including education, have been used to analyse schooling and initial post-compulsory education. In this paper, class strategies are applied to adult education in considering participation across social classes. Using empirical data from a biographical…

  2. Adult Literacy, Numeracy and Language: Policy, Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tett, Lyn, Ed.; Hamilton, Mary, Ed.; Hillier, Yvonne, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book explores the social practice of literacy, numeracy and language and its implications for teaching and learning adult basic skills. Leading international experts argue that literacy, numeracy and language are more than just a set of skills or techniques, but are shaped by the social and cultural context within which they are taking place;…

  3. Developments and Issues in Dutch Adult Education Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hake, Barry

    The three areas of educational activity recognized by the Dutch have developed historically into distinct and separate institutionalized sectors for educational provision for adults. These areas are knowledge-based, skill-based, and value-based. Each is the responsibility of a different governmental department and cabinet minister. Educational…

  4. From Data Privacy to Location Privacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ting; Liu, Ling

    Over the past decade, the research on data privacy has achieved considerable advancement in the following two aspects: First, a variety of privacy threat models and privacy principles have been proposed, aiming at providing sufficient protection against different types of inference attacks; Second, a plethora of algorithms and methods have been developed to implement the proposed privacy principles, while attempting to optimize the utility of the resulting data. The first part of the chapter presents an overview of data privacy research by taking a close examination at the achievements from the above two aspects, with the objective of pinpointing individual research efforts on the grand map of data privacy protection. As a special form of data privacy, location privacy possesses its unique characteristics. In the second part of the chapter, we examine the research challenges and opportunities of location privacy protection, in a perspective analogous to data privacy. Our discussion attempts to answer the following three questions: (1) Is it sufficient to apply the data privacy models and algorithms developed to date for protecting location privacy? (2) What is the current state of the research on location privacy? (3) What are the open issues and technical challenges that demand further investigation? Through answering these questions, we intend to provide a comprehensive review of the state of the art in location privacy research.

  5. Privacy in the Genomic Era

    PubMed Central

    NAVEED, MUHAMMAD; AYDAY, ERMAN; CLAYTON, ELLEN W.; FELLAY, JACQUES; GUNTER, CARL A.; HUBAUX, JEAN-PIERRE; MALIN, BRADLEY A.; WANG, XIAOFENG

    2015-01-01

    Genome sequencing technology has advanced at a rapid pace and it is now possible to generate highly-detailed genotypes inexpensively. The collection and analysis of such data has the potential to support various applications, including personalized medical services. While the benefits of the genomics revolution are trumpeted by the biomedical community, the increased availability of such data has major implications for personal privacy; notably because the genome has certain essential features, which include (but are not limited to) (i) an association with traits and certain diseases, (ii) identification capability (e.g., forensics), and (iii) revelation of family relationships. Moreover, direct-to-consumer DNA testing increases the likelihood that genome data will be made available in less regulated environments, such as the Internet and for-profit companies. The problem of genome data privacy thus resides at the crossroads of computer science, medicine, and public policy. While the computer scientists have addressed data privacy for various data types, there has been less attention dedicated to genomic data. Thus, the goal of this paper is to provide a systematization of knowledge for the computer science community. In doing so, we address some of the (sometimes erroneous) beliefs of this field and we report on a survey we conducted about genome data privacy with biomedical specialists. Then, after characterizing the genome privacy problem, we review the state-of-the-art regarding privacy attacks on genomic data and strategies for mitigating such attacks, as well as contextualizing these attacks from the perspective of medicine and public policy. This paper concludes with an enumeration of the challenges for genome data privacy and presents a framework to systematize the analysis of threats and the design of countermeasures as the field moves forward. PMID:26640318

  6. Casino gambling among older adults in North Dakota: a policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Bjelde, Kristine; Chromy, Barbara; Pankow, Debra

    2008-12-01

    This article examined social issues surrounding casino gambling among older adults both nationally and in the state of North Dakota. An exploratory review of gambling trends among older adults and an examination of policies to protect older gamblers revealed that older adults are targeted by the gaming industry as a lucrative market (Singh et al. J Retail Leisure Property 2007, 6(1):61-68). The authors used the national literature to frame their qualitative study, which explored gambling issues among older adults in North Dakota from the perspective of six counselors trained in gambling addiction who provide treatment services in the state. Findings indicated that relatively few policies existed at the state and national levels to protect older, more vulnerable adults who gamble. Further, the six casinos in North Dakota were viewed as very effective in marketing their casino gaming opportunities to older citizens by the gambling treatment providers interviewed. Additionally, barriers to gambling addiction treatment involved lack of available services and distance to receive services in this rural state. Based on the findings of this study, social policy changes which could lead to increased protection for older adult gamblers in the state were included.

  7. The Preference for Privacy: In Search of the Social Locations of Privacy Orientations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandy, Oscar H., Jr.

    A study was conducted to develop some understanding of how social experience might be related to public expectations of rights to privacy. A telephone questionnaire was developed which sought information about respondent knowledge, attitudes, and behavior regarding privacy and personal information. A national survey of adults over the age of 18…

  8. Review of Adult Learning and Literacy, Volume 6. Connecting Research, Policy and Practice: A Project of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice, Volume 6," is the newest volume in a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. Each…

  9. Review of Adult Learning and Literacy, Volume 5. Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice: A Project of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "The Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice, Volume 5" is a volume in a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. Each…

  10. Software for Adult Literacy: Scope, Suitability, Available Sources of Information, and Implications for Federal Policy. Final Report, Adult Literacy and New Technologies: Tools for a Lifetime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivin-Kachala, Jay P.; Bialo, Ellen R.

    This document, prepared for an ongoing assessment on adult literacy and new technologies, reports on a study that examined the scope and suitability of software for adult literacy programs, available sources of information concerning software use in adult literacy programs, and the implications for federal policy. First, a quantitative analysis of…

  11. Review of Adult Learning and Literacy, Volume 4. Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice: A Project of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "The Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research Policy, and Practice, Volume 4" is an addition to a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. "Volume 4"…

  12. Will our children be healthy adults? Applying science to public health policy.

    PubMed

    Law, Catherine

    2010-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is predicted to be a leading cause of death and disability worldwide for the foreseeable future. Observational studies link a variety of prevalent early life experiences (for example, smoking in pregnancy, child poverty) to increased risk of adult cardiovascular disease. Experimental animal studies suggest plausible causal relationships. However, there has been little consideration of how to use this wealth of information to benefit children's futures. Policy documents have drawn on research evidence to recognise that early experience influences life chances, the development of human capital, and long-term health. This has led to a general policy emphasis on prevention and early intervention. To date, there are few examples of the evidence base being useful in shaping specific policies, despite potential to do so, and some examples of policy misunderstanding of science. Minor changes to the perspectives of epidemiological research in this area might greatly increase the potential for evidence-based policy. PMID:21413485

  13. Intergenerational Transfers to Adult Children in Europe: Do Social Policies Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Martina; Deindl, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the role of social policies in intergenerational transfers from old to young people is especially important in times of population aging. This paper focuses on the influences of social expenditures and social services on financial support and on practical help from older parents to their adult children based on the first two waves…

  14. Physical Interventions for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Survey of Use, Policy, Training and Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deveau, Roy; McGill, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background: Perceived problems around the use of physical intervention (PI) to manage challenging behaviour have led to UK initiatives to encourage policy development and accredited training. However, information on PI use and the impact of these initiatives remains limited. Method: Adult residential services within an English region were sent a…

  15. Recommended Policies and Practices for Advancing Indiana's System of Adult Education and Workforce Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    With generous support from the Lilly Endowment, the Indiana Chamber has contracted with National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS) to provide a policy framework and specific recommendations for improving the system of adult education and workforce training in Indiana--building on the important initiatives that have already…

  16. Adult and Organizational Learning and Policy Development in Environments of Gray

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair-Szofran, Nancy C.

    2010-01-01

    Adult and Organizational Learning and Policy Development in Environments of Gray The purpose of this study was to describe, analyze and provide an understanding of the values that influence state legislators' decision-making as it relates to appropriations, tuition and fees, and financial aid for public postsecondary education in Idaho. The study…

  17. Education Community Dialogue towards Building a Policy Agenda for Adult Education: Reflections Drawn from Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirano, Tatiana Lotierzo; Giannecchini, Laura; Magalhaes, Giovanna Mode; Munhoz, Fabiola; Croso, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we share the experience of the "Amplifying Voices" initiative. Held by the Latin American Campaign for the Right to Education (CLADE) within the scope of public policy advocacy, "Amplifying Voices" applies the principles of consultation and dialogue in youth and adult education communities, aiming at a stronger…

  18. Accountability in Teenage Dating Violence: A Comparative Examination of Adult Domestic Violence and Juvenile Justice Systems Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zosky, Diane L.

    2010-01-01

    Unlike in the adult criminal justice system, where domestic violence policies hold perpetrators accountable for their violence, the juvenile justice system rarely addresses teenage dating violence. Although the adult criminal justice system has pursued policies toward intimate partner violence grounded on a "zero tolerance" ideology, the juvenile…

  19. 12 CFR 332.4 - Initial privacy notice to consumers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF GENERAL POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 332.4... conspicuous notice that accurately reflects your privacy policies and practices to: (1) Customer. An... personal information about the consumer to any nonaffiliated third party, if you make such a...

  20. Privacy and human behavior in the age of information.

    PubMed

    Acquisti, Alessandro; Brandimarte, Laura; Loewenstein, George

    2015-01-30

    This Review summarizes and draws connections between diverse streams of empirical research on privacy behavior. We use three themes to connect insights from social and behavioral sciences: people's uncertainty about the consequences of privacy-related behaviors and their own preferences over those consequences; the context-dependence of people's concern, or lack thereof, about privacy; and the degree to which privacy concerns are malleable—manipulable by commercial and governmental interests. Organizing our discussion by these themes, we offer observations concerning the role of public policy in the protection of privacy in the information age.

  1. Gender, intoxication and the developing brain: Problematisations of drinking among young adults in Australian alcohol policy.

    PubMed

    Manton, Elizabeth; Moore, David

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we draw on recent scholarly work in the poststructuralist analysis of policy to consider how policy itself functions as a key site in the constitution of alcohol 'problems', and the political implications of these problematisations. We do this by examining Australian alcohol policy as it relates to young adults (18-24 years old). Our critical analysis focuses on three national alcohol policies (1990, 2001 and 2006) and two Victorian state alcohol policies (2008 and 2013), which together span a 25-year period. We argue that Australian alcohol policies have conspicuously ignored young adult men, despite their ongoing over-representation in the statistical 'evidence base' on alcohol-related harm, while increasingly problematising alcohol consumption amongst other population subgroups. We also identify the development of a new problem representation in Australian alcohol policy, that of 'intoxication' as the leading cause of alcohol-related harm and rising hospital admissions, and argue that changes in the classification and diagnosis of intoxication may have contributed to its prioritisation and problematisation in alcohol policy at the expense of other forms of harm. Finally, we draw attention to how preliminary and inconclusive research on the purported association between binge drinking and brain development in those under 25 years old has been mobilised prematurely to support calls to increase the legal purchasing age from 18 to 21 years. Our critical analysis of the treatment of these three issues - gender, intoxication, and brain development - is intended to highlight the ways in which policy functions as a key site in the constitution of alcohol 'problems'.

  2. Adult Dental Health Survey 2009: implications of findings for clinical practice and oral health policy.

    PubMed

    Watt, R G; Steele, J G; Treasure, E T; White, D A; Pitts, N B; Murray, J J

    2013-01-01

    This is the final paper in a series reporting on the results of the 2009 Adult Dental Health Survey. Since 1968 national adult surveys have been repeated every decade with broadly similar methods providing a unique overview of trends in oral health over a 40-year period. This paper aims to explore the implications for dentists and oral health policy of the key results from the Adult Dental Health Survey 2009. Although repeat, cross-sectional, epidemiological surveys provide very valuable data on trends in disease patterns, they do not provide answers to test causal relationships and therefore cannot identify the causes for the significant improvements in oral health over the last 40 years. Evidence would indicate, however, that broad societal shifts in population norms and behaviours, combined with changes in clinical diagnostic criteria, treatment planning and clinical procedures are the main reasons for the changes that have taken place. Key implications of the survey results include the need to monitor, support and maintain the good state of oral health of the increasing proportion of younger adults with relatively simple treatment needs. A smaller number of young and middle aged adults but a significant proportion of older adults will have far more complex treatment needs requiring advanced restorative and periodontal care. Future oral health policy will need to address oral health inequalities, encourage skill mix and promote and facilitate the dental profession to deliver appropriate and high quality care relevant to the needs of their local population.

  3. Bureaucratic Response to Policy Change: Implementation of Adult Education Policy in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engesbak, Heidi; Stubbe, Tor Arne

    2008-01-01

    Our main concern was to investigate the implementation of the new "Education Act", giving adults the statutory right to complete upper secondary education. Referring to a "top-down" and a "bottom-up" perspective we have investigated how the representatives of the county authorities (the bureaucrats) interpret and practise the specific section of…

  4. E-Mail Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shieh, Jackie; Ballard, Rhea A-L

    1994-01-01

    Examines the relationship between electronic mail (E-mail) and employee privacy rights. Two current course cases involving the privacy issue are summarized; the Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 is explained; proposed legislation is discussed; and suggestions for employee E-mail privacy that can help avoid possible litigation are…

  5. Widening Privacy Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amidon, Paige

    1992-01-01

    Discusses privacy concerns relating to electronic information media. European privacy initiatives from the European Community are described, including personal data protection, impact on the online industry, and telecommunications privacy; and activities in the United States are examined, including telephone caller privacy, electronic mail…

  6. Privacy Issues and Personnel Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenard, Nancy C.

    1982-01-01

    Records management policy and clear guidelines, communicated campus-wide, are needed so that requests for personnel information are handled consistently and with respect for the privacy of employees. Suggestions for policy formation and current efforts on campuses are outlined. (MSE)

  7. The role of adult education and learning policy in fostering societal sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milana, Marcella; Rasmussen, Palle; Holford, John

    2016-10-01

    The idea of "sustainability" as a core value has slowly permeated policy and practice at governmental and institutional levels, in public and private policy. However, at times when social and economic crises have revealed the fragility of existing institutions and policies, it is important to consider how sustainability is - and could be - integrated into educational policies. In this theoretical contribution to a special issue on "Societal sustainability", the authors draw on available literature and knowledge. They begin their paper by summarising the conditions under which the concept of "sustainability" entered political discourse in the early 1970s and outline how it has influenced educational research. They then introduce the longstanding debate about the relative role of tradition (in terms of traditional cultural and social order) and change (in terms of efforts to provide learning opportunities for everyone) in adult education. Finally, they argue for a rethinking of the ontology of sustainability: this, they suggest, can shed new light on its relationships with adult education and learning and social justice.

  8. The role of adult education and learning policy in fostering societal sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milana, Marcella; Rasmussen, Palle; Holford, John

    2016-08-01

    The idea of "sustainability" as a core value has slowly permeated policy and practice at governmental and institutional levels, in public and private policy. However, at times when social and economic crises have revealed the fragility of existing institutions and policies, it is important to consider how sustainability is - and could be - integrated into educational policies. In this theoretical contribution to a special issue on "Societal sustainability", the authors draw on available literature and knowledge. They begin their paper by summarising the conditions under which the concept of "sustainability" entered political discourse in the early 1970s and outline how it has influenced educational research. They then introduce the longstanding debate about the relative role of tradition (in terms of traditional cultural and social order) and change (in terms of efforts to provide learning opportunities for everyone) in adult education. Finally, they argue for a rethinking of the ontology of sustainability: this, they suggest, can shed new light on its relationships with adult education and learning and social justice.

  9. A multimethod approach to examining usability of Web privacy polices and user agents for specifying privacy preferences.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Robert W; Vu, Kim-Phuong L

    2007-05-01

    Because all research methods have strengths and weaknesses, a multimethod approach often provides the best way to understand human behavior in applied settings. We describe how a multimethod approach was employed in a series of studies designed to examine usability issues associated with two aspects of online privacy: comprehension of privacy policies and configuration of privacy preferences for an online user agent. Archival research, user surveys, data mining, quantitative observations, and controlled experiments each yielded unique findings that, together, contributed to increased understanding of online-privacy issues for users. These findings were used to evaluate the accessibility of Web privacy policies to computer-literate users, determine whether people can configure user agents to achieve specific privacy goals, and discover ways in which the usability of those agents can be improved.

  10. Privacy and Library Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Stacey L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the history of privacy as it relates to library records. It commences with a discussion of how the concept of privacy first originated through case law and follows the concept of privacy as it has affected library records through current day and the "USA PATRIOT Act."

  11. Free and Reduced Tuition Policies for Older Adult Students at Two-Year Community, Junior, and Technical Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Loretta J.

    In order to investigate state-wide and institutional policies governing tuition waivers for older adult students at two-year colleges, a nationwide study was conducted, involving: (1) a literature review; (2) a survey of the state administrators of community colleges; (3) a survey of 146 institutions with tuition waiver policies; and (4)…

  12. Literacy, Knowledge and Development: South-South Policy Dialogue on Quality Education for Adults and Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Madhu, Ed.; Castro Mussot, Luz-Maria, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains the results of the conference "South-South Policy Dialogue on Quality Education for Adults and Young People" that took place in Mexico City in 2005. Articles were written by participants who presented their national programmes from the governmental perspective, which were reflected in the literacy policies, but there were…

  13. Riding the Waves of Policy? The Case of Basic Skills in Adult and Community Learning in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Ann; Edward, Sheila; Gregson, Maggie

    2007-01-01

    This paper draws on data from secondary sources and in-depth interviews to explore the question: What is the impact of policy on teaching, learning, assessment and inclusion in Adult and Community Learning (ACL) "Skills for Life" (SfL) provision? In particular, it focuses on the government's use of five policy-steering mechanisms--funding,…

  14. Policies of Adult Education in Portugal and France: The European Agenda of Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaco, C.; Lafont, P.; Pariat, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the influence of the European Union's educational policies on the implementation of devices for the recognition and the validation of informal and non-formal learning within public policies on education and training for adults in European Union Member States. Portugal and France are taken as examples. The European…

  15. Researching Adult Education Policy in the Context of an Emerging Global Political Economy: The Case of South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groener, Zelda

    An study investigated ways in which the political and economic development (PED) agendas of international organizations (IOs) permeated or pervaded PED agendas of the South African government's adult education and training policies. Policy documents of IOs were main data sources, and the richest data sources were country strategy papers written by…

  16. State Policies Affecting the "Adult Re-Entry Pipeline" in Postsecondary Education: Results of a Fifty-State Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Marianne; Zis, Stacey; Ewell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    With support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS) is engaged in a two year project centered on state policies that foster student progression and success in the "adult re-entry pipeline." The adult re-entry pipeline consists of the many alternative pathways to obtain a…

  17. Adult Education in China 1978-2008: An Analytical Review on the Influence of National Educational Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Qi

    2009-01-01

    Through an overview and analysis of the major national education and adult education policies, this paper endeavours to present the driving forces of the development of contemporary Chinese adult education, to identify and examine the highlights of current practices, and to discuss future developments. Questions for exploring and informing the…

  18. Federal Restrictions on Educational Research: Privacy Protection Study Commission Hearings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, John; Weinberg, JoAnn

    1977-01-01

    The Privacy Protection Study Commission (PPSC) held public hearings on personal data record-keeping policies and practices in educational institutions in Los Angeles in October and in Washington, D.C. in November, 1976. Under consideration were the protections afforded parents and students by the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act.…

  19. The Privacy Jungle:On the Market for Data Protection in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneau, Joseph; Preibusch, Sören

    We have conducted the first thorough analysis of the market for privacy practices and policies in online social networks. From an evaluation of 45 social networking sites using 260 criteria we find that many popular assumptions regarding privacy and social networking need to be revisited when considering the entire ecosystem instead of only a handful of well-known sites. Contrary to the common perception of an oligopolistic market, we find evidence of vigorous competition for new users. Despite observing many poor security practices, there is evidence that social network providers are making efforts to implement privacy enhancing technologies with substantial diversity in the amount of privacy control offered. However, privacy is rarely used as a selling point, even then only as auxiliary, nondecisive feature. Sites also failed to promote their existing privacy controls within the site. We similarly found great diversity in the length and content of formal privacy policies, but found an opposite promotional trend: though almost all policies are not accessible to ordinary users due to obfuscating legal jargon, they conspicuously vaunt the sites' privacy practices. We conclude that the market for privacy in social networks is dysfunctional in that there is significant variation in sites' privacy controls, data collection requirements, and legal privacy policies, but this is not effectively conveyed to users. Our empirical findings motivate us to introduce the novel model of a privacy communication game, where the economically rational choice for a site operator is to make privacy control available to evade criticism from privacy fundamentalists, while hiding the privacy control interface and privacy policy to maximize sign-up numbers and encourage data sharing from the pragmatic majority of users.

  20. Tweens' Conceptions of Privacy Online: Implications for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Katie; James, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable debate about young people's concern for privacy today, given their frequent use of social media to share information and other content about themselves and others. While researchers have investigated the online privacy practices of teens and emerging adults, relatively little is known about the attitudes and behaviors of…

  1. Is Privacy at Risk when Commercial Websites Target Primary School Children? A Case Study in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sora; Yi, Soon-Hyung

    2010-01-01

    This study discusses privacy risk factors when commercial web sites target primary school children in Korea. Specifically, the authors examined types of personal information required for membership subscriptions and whether privacy policies at commercial sites for children abide by privacy guidelines. A total of 159 commercial sites targeting…

  2. Aligning the Effective Use of Student Data with Student Privacy and Security Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winnick, Steve; Coleman, Art; Palmer, Scott; Lipper, Kate; Neiditz, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This legal and policy guidance provides a summary framework for state policymakers as they work to use longitudinal data to improve student achievement while also protecting the privacy and security of individual student records. Summarizing relevant federal privacy and security laws, with a focus on the Family Educational Records and Privacy Act…

  3. 12 CFR 216.5 - Annual privacy notice to customers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual privacy notice to customers required... Annual privacy notice to customers required. (a)(1) General rule. You must provide a clear and conspicuous notice to customers that accurately reflects your privacy policies and practices not less...

  4. Disparate Inclusion of Older Adults in Clinical Trials: Priorities and Opportunities for Policy and Practice Change

    PubMed Central

    Snipes, Shedra Amy; King, Denae W.; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Goldberg, Daniel S.; Weinberg, Armin D.

    2010-01-01

    Older adults are vastly underrepresented in clinical trials in spite of shouldering a disproportionate burden of disease and consumption of prescription drugs and therapies, restricting treatments' generalizability, efficacy, and safety. Eliminating Disparities in Clinical Trials, a national initiative comprising a stakeholder network of researchers, community advocates, policymakers, and federal representatives, undertook a critical analysis of older adults' structural barriers to clinical trial participation. We present practice and policy change recommendations emerging from this process and their rationale, which spanned multiple themes: (1) decision making with cognitively impaired patients; (2) pharmacokinetic differences and physiological age; (3) health literacy, communication, and aging; (4) geriatric training; (5) federal monitoring and accountability; (6) clinical trial costs; and (7) cumulative effects of aging and ethnicity. PMID:20147682

  5. Adult education and the challenges of regional development: Policy and sustainability in North Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Palle; Staugaard, Hans Jørgen

    2016-10-01

    Adult education is governed at many levels - internationally, nationally and locally. The authors of this paper look at the challenges, structures and practices of adult education policy at the local level, more specifically in North Denmark (Northern Jutland), one of the five administrative regions of the Danish nation-state. In many ways, the current educational challenges in this remote region of Europe are similar to what can be observed worldwide and especially in countries which are generally considered welfare states. The authors see the growing social and educational divide between the region's peripheral areas and its largest city centre as a major challenge - for society as a whole and for adult education in particular. It is from this perspective that the authors describe the present structures of adult education in the region and the strategies employed by local authorities and educational institutions. This is followed by an evaluation of both structures and efforts in terms of their ability to cope with the challenges.

  6. Adult education and the challenges of regional development: Policy and sustainability in North Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Palle; Staugaard, Hans Jørgen

    2016-09-01

    Adult education is governed at many levels - internationally, nationally and locally. The authors of this paper look at the challenges, structures and practices of adult education policy at the local level, more specifically in North Denmark (Northern Jutland), one of the five administrative regions of the Danish nation-state. In many ways, the current educational challenges in this remote region of Europe are similar to what can be observed worldwide and especially in countries which are generally considered welfare states. The authors see the growing social and educational divide between the region's peripheral areas and its largest city centre as a major challenge - for society as a whole and for adult education in particular. It is from this perspective that the authors describe the present structures of adult education in the region and the strategies employed by local authorities and educational institutions. This is followed by an evaluation of both structures and efforts in terms of their ability to cope with the challenges.

  7. Locating Biobanks in the Canadian Privacy Maze.

    PubMed

    Saulnier, Katie M; Joly, Yann

    2016-03-01

    Although Canada has not yet enacted any biobanking-specific privacy law, guidance and oversight are provided via various federal and provincial health and privacy-related laws as well as via ethics and policy documents. The primary policy document governing health research, the Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans, provides the framework for the strong role of Research Ethics Boards in Canada, and limits research funding from Canada's three main federal funding agencies to those who agree to adhere to its policies. The broad consent model is gaining traction in Canada, although lack of legal and constitutional precedence for the broad consent or opt-out options makes this an evolving issue. In general, data is required to be coded; more specific security measures are outlined in guidelines that may be implemented by local policy. International sharing is allowed, and Canada meets the European Union's standards for receipt of data and samples. PMID:27256119

  8. Choose Privacy Week: Educate Your Students (and Yourself) about Privacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Helen R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of "Choose Privacy Week" is to encourage a national conversation to raise awareness of the growing threats to personal privacy online and in day-to-day life. The 2016 Choose Privacy Week theme is "respecting individuals' privacy," with an emphasis on minors' privacy. A plethora of issues relating to minors' privacy…

  9. Is Monitoring Employees' E-Mail an Invasion of Privacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geroy, Gary D.; Jankovich, Jackie L.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the issue of e-mail and employee privacy rights. Highlights include laws and proposed legislation, ethical dilemmas, task and nontask messages and organizational misconduct, and policy guidelines for decision making about e-mail monitoring. (AEF)

  10. 76 FR 73604 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... (IDM) (March 18, 2010, 75 FR 13090). Reason: Due to policy changes and current budget constraints, we... within the purview of subsection (r) of the Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended,...

  11. An Update on the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.

    2002-01-01

    Updates the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act in light of two Supreme Court decisions in 2002: "Owasso Independent School District v. Falvo" and "Gonzaga University v. Doe." Suggests implications for school board policies on student records. (PKP)

  12. 32 CFR 326.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., as amended, the DoD Privacy Act Program (32 CFR part 310), and the NRO Privacy Act Program. No NRO... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policy. 326.4 Section 326.4 National Defense... RECONNAISSANCE OFFICE PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 326.4 Policy. (a) Records about individuals— (1) Collection. The...

  13. 32 CFR 326.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., as amended, the DoD Privacy Act Program (32 CFR part 310), and the NRO Privacy Act Program. No NRO... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Policy. 326.4 Section 326.4 National Defense... RECONNAISSANCE OFFICE PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 326.4 Policy. (a) Records about individuals— (1) Collection. The...

  14. 32 CFR 326.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., as amended, the DoD Privacy Act Program (32 CFR part 310), and the NRO Privacy Act Program. No NRO... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Policy. 326.4 Section 326.4 National Defense... RECONNAISSANCE OFFICE PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 326.4 Policy. (a) Records about individuals— (1) Collection. The...

  15. 32 CFR 326.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., as amended, the DoD Privacy Act Program (32 CFR part 310), and the NRO Privacy Act Program. No NRO... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Policy. 326.4 Section 326.4 National Defense... RECONNAISSANCE OFFICE PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 326.4 Policy. (a) Records about individuals— (1) Collection. The...

  16. Adult Education/Lifelong Learning Policies in Greece in the Early 2010s: Influences from European Education Policy and National Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokou, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that adult education/lifelong learning policies in Greece, as these are expressed by law 3879/2010 "Development of Lifelong Learning and Other Provisions," have the characteristics of the "statist" model of lifelong learning in Europe, namely strong governmental control and centralization. However, there are…

  17. Technology and Privacy in the Academic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fifarek, Aimee

    2002-01-01

    Describes potential situations where patron privacy can be endangered by the presence of information technology and how academic librarians can protect patron information and prepare patrons for safe information seeking in the online world. Discusses the USA PATRIOT Act, search warrants, and acceptable use policy. (Author/LRW)

  18. New Technology "Clouds" Student Data Privacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Keith R.; Moore, Bob

    2015-01-01

    As technology has leaped forward to provide valuable learning tools, parents and policy makers have begun raising concerns about the privacy of student data that schools and systems have. Federal laws are intended to protect students and their families but they have not and will never be able to keep up with rapidly evolving technology. School…

  19. 76 FR 22613 - Privacy Act; Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Management System'' from subsections (c)(3); (d)(1), (2), (3), (4); (e)(1) and (e)(4)(G), (H), (I); and (f... security or foreign policy information. (B) From subsections (d)(1), (2), (3) and (4) (record subject's...), (2), (3), and (4); (e)(1) and (e)(4)(G), (H), and (I); and (f) of the Privacy Act pursuant to 5...

  20. Privacy Act of 1974; system of records--PHS. Notification of a new system of records: 09-30-0046, "Survey of alcohol use among youth and young adults".

    PubMed

    1984-02-17

    In accordance with the requirements of the Privacy Act, the Public Health Service (PHS) is publishing notice of a proposal to establish a new system of records entitled, "Survey of Alcohol Use Among Youth and Young Adults, HHS/ADAMHA/NIAAA," to create a single comprehensive research data base so that critical issues associated with alcohol use among 16- to 27-year-olds can be analyzed. PHS invites interested persons to submit comments on the proposed routine uses on or before March 19, 1984. DATES: PHS has sent a Report of a New System to the Congress and to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) on Februrary 8, 1984 PHS has requested that OMB grant a waiver of the usual requirement that a system of records not be put into effect until 60 days after the report is sent to OMB and Congress (If this waver is granted, PHS will publish a notice to that effect in the Federal Register.)

  1. Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue is devoted to discussions of early childhood policy issues. "Creating a Shared Vision: How Policy Affects Early Childhood Care and Development" (Judith L. Evans) defines policy, discusses the motivation for changing or creating national policy and the process for changing such policies, and provides a sample design for an early…

  2. Does privacy matter? Former patients discuss their perceptions of privacy in shared hospital rooms.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Helen A

    2005-03-01

    As a relative concept, privacy is difficult to define in universal terms. In the New Zealand setting recent legislation aims to protect patients' privacy but anecdotal evidence suggests that these policies are not well understood by some providers and recipients of health care. This qualitative study set out to identify some of the issues by exploring former patients' perceptions of privacy in shared hospital rooms. The findings suggest a conditional acceptance of a loss of privacy in an environment dictated by architectural structure and by fiscal and time constraints. Participants indicated an awareness that personal information could be overheard and that their preference for a choice of setting for serious discussions was desirable. Some enjoyed the support offered in shared rooms, while, for others, overhearing another person's health issues caused unnecessary distress. The participants suggested that knowing they could be overheard constrained information disclosure. This withholding of information has implications for health professionals' ability to diagnose and treat patients appropriately.

  3. Older Adults (and Oral Health)

    MedlinePlus

    ... form does not collect any actual information. External Web Site Policy This graphic notice ( ) means that you ... Contact Us Viewers and Players Site Map FOIA Web Policies Privacy Policy National Institute of Dental and ...

  4. Provider views of harm reduction versus abstinence policies within homeless services for dually diagnosed adults.

    PubMed

    Henwood, Benjamin F; Padgett, Deborah K; Tiderington, Emmy

    2014-01-01

    Harm reduction is considered by many to be a legitimate alternative to abstinence-based services for dually diagnosed individuals, yet there is limited understanding of how varying approaches affect front-line practice within services for homeless adults. This paper examines how front-line providers working with individuals who have experienced homelessness, serious mental illness, and addiction view policies of harm reduction versus abstinence within two different approaches to homeless services: the traditional or "treatment first" approach that requires abstinence, and the more recent housing first approach that incorporates harm reduction. As part of a federally funded qualitative study, 129 in-depth interviews conducted with 41 providers were thematically analyzed to understand how providers view harm reduction versus abstinence approaches. Themes included the following: (a) harm reduction as a welcomed alternative, (b) working with ambiguity, and (c) accommodating abstinence. Drawing on recovery principles, the authors consider the broader implications of the findings for behavioral health care with this population.

  5. Ethics and Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Erin; Eastmond, Nick; Geertsen, Reed; Johnson, Doug; Lewandowski, Judith; Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Contains four articles covering trends and issues on ethics and privacy in instructional technology, including: considerations for assessing ethical issues; what schools must do to develop ethical behaviors in students; a privacy primer for educators; and manufacturing technophopia. Each article contains references. (MES)

  6. Emerging Privacy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Willis H.

    As the issue of information privacy increases in complexity in terms of the number of organizations involved, the intricacy of the information flows, and the difficulty of conceiving appropriate legal safeguards, it is not certain that the practices and laws that have been developed for current privacy protection can work for new situations.…

  7. Toward practicing privacy

    PubMed Central

    Dwork, Cynthia; Pottenger, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Private data analysis—the useful analysis of confidential data—requires a rigorous and practicable definition of privacy. Differential privacy, an emerging standard, is the subject of intensive investigation in several diverse research communities. We review the definition, explain its motivation, and discuss some of the challenges to bringing this concept to practice. PMID:23243088

  8. Information Privacy Revealed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavagnino, Merri Beth

    2013-01-01

    Why is Information Privacy the focus of the January-February 2013 issue of "EDUCAUSE Review" and "EDUCAUSE Review Online"? Results from the 2012 annual survey of the International Association of Privacy Professionals (IAPP) indicate that "meeting regulatory compliance requirements continues to be the top perceived driver…

  9. Privacy Management and Networked PPD Systems - Challenges Solutions.

    PubMed

    Ruotsalainen, Pekka; Pharow, Peter; Petersen, Francoise

    2015-01-01

    Modern personal portable health devices (PPDs) become increasingly part of a larger, inhomogeneous information system. Information collected by sensors are stored and processed in global clouds. Services are often free of charge, but at the same time service providers' business model is based on the disclosure of users' intimate health information. Health data processed in PPD networks is not regulated by health care specific legislation. In PPD networks, there is no guarantee that stakeholders share same ethical principles with the user. Often service providers have own security and privacy policies and they rarely offer to the user possibilities to define own, or adapt existing privacy policies. This all raises huge ethical and privacy concerns. In this paper, the authors have analyzed privacy challenges in PPD networks from users' viewpoint using system modeling method and propose the principle "Personal Health Data under Personal Control" must generally be accepted at global level. Among possible implementation of this principle, the authors propose encryption, computer understandable privacy policies, and privacy labels or trust based privacy management methods. The latter can be realized using infrastructural trust calculation and monitoring service. A first step is to require the protection of personal health information and the principle proposed being internationally mandatory. This requires both regulatory and standardization activities, and the availability of open and certified software application which all service providers can implement. One of those applications should be the independent Trust verifier. PMID:25980881

  10. Privacy Management and Networked PPD Systems - Challenges Solutions.

    PubMed

    Ruotsalainen, Pekka; Pharow, Peter; Petersen, Francoise

    2015-01-01

    Modern personal portable health devices (PPDs) become increasingly part of a larger, inhomogeneous information system. Information collected by sensors are stored and processed in global clouds. Services are often free of charge, but at the same time service providers' business model is based on the disclosure of users' intimate health information. Health data processed in PPD networks is not regulated by health care specific legislation. In PPD networks, there is no guarantee that stakeholders share same ethical principles with the user. Often service providers have own security and privacy policies and they rarely offer to the user possibilities to define own, or adapt existing privacy policies. This all raises huge ethical and privacy concerns. In this paper, the authors have analyzed privacy challenges in PPD networks from users' viewpoint using system modeling method and propose the principle "Personal Health Data under Personal Control" must generally be accepted at global level. Among possible implementation of this principle, the authors propose encryption, computer understandable privacy policies, and privacy labels or trust based privacy management methods. The latter can be realized using infrastructural trust calculation and monitoring service. A first step is to require the protection of personal health information and the principle proposed being internationally mandatory. This requires both regulatory and standardization activities, and the availability of open and certified software application which all service providers can implement. One of those applications should be the independent Trust verifier.

  11. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking in Turkey: Policy Implications and Trends from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    PubMed Central

    Erdöl, Cevdet; Ergüder, Toker; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna; Gupta, Prakash; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an emerging tobacco product globally, especially among adolescents and young adults who may perceive WTS as a safe alternative to smoking cigarettes. Monitoring the use of WTS in Turkey in relation to the tobacco control policy context is important to ensure that WTS does not become a major public health issue in Turkey. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was conducted in Turkey in 2008 and was repeated in 2012. GATS provided prevalence estimates on current WTS and change over time. Other indicators of WTS were also obtained, such as age of initiation and location of use. Among persons aged 15 and older in Turkey, the current prevalence of WTS decreased from 2.3% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2012, representing a 65% relative decline. Among males, WTS decreased from 4.0% to 1.1% (72% relative decline). While the overall smoking prevalence decreased among females, there was no change in the rate of WTS (0.7% in 2008 vs. 0.5% in 2012), though the WTS prevalence rate was already low in 2008. Comprehensive tobacco control efforts have been successful in reducing the overall smoking prevalence in Turkey, which includes the reduction of cigarette smoking and WTS. However, it is important to continue monitoring the use of waterpipes in Turkey and targeting tobacco control efforts to certain groups that may be vulnerable to future WTS marketing (e.g., youth, women). PMID:26670238

  12. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking in Turkey: Policy Implications and Trends from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    PubMed

    Erdöl, Cevdet; Ergüder, Toker; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna; Gupta, Prakash; Asma, Samira

    2015-12-08

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an emerging tobacco product globally, especially among adolescents and young adults who may perceive WTS as a safe alternative to smoking cigarettes. Monitoring the use of WTS in Turkey in relation to the tobacco control policy context is important to ensure that WTS does not become a major public health issue in Turkey. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was conducted in Turkey in 2008 and was repeated in 2012. GATS provided prevalence estimates on current WTS and change over time. Other indicators of WTS were also obtained, such as age of initiation and location of use. Among persons aged 15 and older in Turkey, the current prevalence of WTS decreased from 2.3% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2012, representing a 65% relative decline. Among males, WTS decreased from 4.0% to 1.1% (72% relative decline). While the overall smoking prevalence decreased among females, there was no change in the rate of WTS (0.7% in 2008 vs. 0.5% in 2012), though the WTS prevalence rate was already low in 2008. Comprehensive tobacco control efforts have been successful in reducing the overall smoking prevalence in Turkey, which includes the reduction of cigarette smoking and WTS. However, it is important to continue monitoring the use of waterpipes in Turkey and targeting tobacco control efforts to certain groups that may be vulnerable to future WTS marketing (e.g., youth, women).

  13. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking in Turkey: Policy Implications and Trends from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    PubMed

    Erdöl, Cevdet; Ergüder, Toker; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna; Gupta, Prakash; Asma, Samira

    2015-12-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an emerging tobacco product globally, especially among adolescents and young adults who may perceive WTS as a safe alternative to smoking cigarettes. Monitoring the use of WTS in Turkey in relation to the tobacco control policy context is important to ensure that WTS does not become a major public health issue in Turkey. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was conducted in Turkey in 2008 and was repeated in 2012. GATS provided prevalence estimates on current WTS and change over time. Other indicators of WTS were also obtained, such as age of initiation and location of use. Among persons aged 15 and older in Turkey, the current prevalence of WTS decreased from 2.3% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2012, representing a 65% relative decline. Among males, WTS decreased from 4.0% to 1.1% (72% relative decline). While the overall smoking prevalence decreased among females, there was no change in the rate of WTS (0.7% in 2008 vs. 0.5% in 2012), though the WTS prevalence rate was already low in 2008. Comprehensive tobacco control efforts have been successful in reducing the overall smoking prevalence in Turkey, which includes the reduction of cigarette smoking and WTS. However, it is important to continue monitoring the use of waterpipes in Turkey and targeting tobacco control efforts to certain groups that may be vulnerable to future WTS marketing (e.g., youth, women). PMID:26670238

  14. Individual privacy in an information dependent society

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, B.P.

    1994-12-31

    The extraordinary technologies and capabilities of the Information Age have vastly improved communication, while allowing executives to have ultra-current information about their companies, subsidiaries, staff, clients, and practically any individual in the world. These advances, however, have stripped the individual of his privacy. Although invasions of privacy do not require a computer, computers have made it much easier to gather and select informatin, which means that it is also much easier to invade privacy. The increased value of information to policy makers leads them to covet information, even when acquiring it invades someone`s pricacy; not only do managers of private companies gather personal data, almost every citizen has files about him in Federal agencies and administrations.

  15. Control use of data to protect privacy.

    PubMed

    Landau, Susan

    2015-01-30

    Massive data collection by businesses and governments calls into question traditional methods for protecting privacy, underpinned by two core principles: (i) notice, that there should be no data collection system whose existence is secret, and (ii) consent, that data collected for one purpose not be used for another without user permission. But notice, designated as a fundamental privacy principle in a different era, makes little sense in situations where collection consists of lots and lots of small amounts of information, whereas consent is no longer realistic, given the complexity and number of decisions that must be made. Thus, efforts to protect privacy by controlling use of data are gaining more attention. I discuss relevant technology, policy, and law, as well as some examples that can illuminate the way.

  16. Conflicting Ideologies and Language Policy in Adult ESL: Complexities of Language Socialization in a Majority-L1 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Miki

    2014-01-01

    This study looks at how language ideologies affect and are revealed in language socialization practices in a majority-L1 adult ESL classroom, particularly looking at language use and policy. It draws on recent theories and critiques of language socialization (Bayley & Langman, 2011; Bronson & Watson-Gegeo, 2008; Garrett &…

  17. Participation Patterns in Adult Education: The Role of Institutions and Public Policy Frameworks in Resolving Coordination Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Richard; Rubenson, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on evidence regarding cross-national patterns of participation in adult education and an interpretation of these patterns from an institutional and public policy perspective. The interpretation follows from the perspective that sustaining high and widely distributed levels of investment in the development and maintenance of…

  18. Illinois Adult Literacy Failing the Workforce: Alternative Solution Needed. Policy Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banovetz, James M., Ed.

    According to the most recent National Adult Literacy Survey, nearly half of Illinois adults lack sufficient reading proficiency to ensure job success and advancement in 21st century workplaces. The Test of Adult Basic Education is currently used as a pretest/posttest in Illinois' existing adult basic education, adult secondary education, and…

  19. Towards an international electronic repository and virtual laboratory of open data and open-source software for telehealth research: comparison of international, Australian and Finnish privacy policies.

    PubMed

    Suominen, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    Health data includes all content related to health in all data formats, document types, information systems, publication media and languages from all specialties, organisations, regions, states and countries. Capabilities to share, integrate and compare these data contents, clinical trial results and other evaluation outcomes together with telehealth applications for data processing are critical to accelerate discovery and its diffusion to clinical practice. However, the same ethical and legal frameworks that protect privacy hinder this open data and open-source code approach and the issues accumulate if moving data across national, regional or organisational borders. This can be seen as one of the reasons why many telehealth applications and health-research findings tend to be limited to very narrow domains and global results are lacking. The aim of this paper is to take steps towards establishing an international electronic repository and virtual laboratory of open data and open-source code for research purposes by comparing international, Australian and Finnish frameworks. The frameworks seem to be fundamentally similar; they apply the principles of accountability and adequacy to using and disclosing personal data. Their requirements to inform data subjects about the purposes of data collection and use before the dataset is collected, assure that individuals are no longer identifiable and to destruct data when the research activities are finished make sharing data and even secondary data difficult. Using the Internet or cloud services for sharing without proper approvals by ethics committees is technically not allowed if the data are stored in another country. The research community needs to overcome these barriers and develop a virtual laboratory, which operates on distributed data repositories. This empowers the community by enabling systematic evaluations of new technologies and research hypotheses on a rich variety of data and against existing applications

  20. Quality consciousness...auditing for HIPAA Privacy Compliance.

    PubMed

    LePar, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) privacy deadline has passed. Now it is essential to comply with the regulations. The stakes are high; therefore, a HIPAA Privacy Compliance Program must be part of an organization's quality initiatives. This article provides guidelines for the challenges of continual program improvement, successful cultural change, and effective monitoring of the existing program. Healthcare organizations will attain compliance goals through internal audits on the processes, policies, and training efforts of their HIPAA program.

  1. 75 FR 57163 - Privacy Act Systems of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ...); (d)(1), (2), (3), (4); (e)(1) and (e)(4)(G), (H), (I); and (f) of the Privacy Act, pursuant to 5 U.S...); (d)(1),(2),(3) and (4); (e)(1); (e)(4)(G),(H),(I); and (f) of the Privacy Act to the extent that... national security or foreign policy information. (2) From subsections (d)(1), (2), (3) and (4)......

  2. Comparative cervical profiles of adult and under-18 front-row rugby players: implications for playing policy

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, D F; Gatherer, D; Robson, J; Graham, N; Rennie, N; MacLean, J G B; Simpson, A H R W

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the cervical isometric strength, fatigue endurance and range of motion of adult and under-18 age-grade front-row rugby players to inform the development of a safe age group policy with particular reference to scrummaging. Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Setting ‘Field testing’ at Murrayfield stadium. Participants 30 high-performance under-18 players and 22 adult front-row rugby players. Outcome measures Isometric neck strength, height, weight and grip strength. Results Youth players demonstrated the same height and grip strength as the adult players; however, the adults were significantly heavier and demonstrated substantially greater isometric strength (p<0.001). Only two of the ‘elite’ younger players could match the adult mean cervical isometric strength value. In contrast to school age players in general, grip strength was poorly associated with neck strength (r=0.2) in front-row players; instead, player weight (r=0.4) and the number of years’ experience of playing in the front row (r=0.5) were the only relevant factors in multivariate modelling of cervical strength (R2=0.3). Conclusions Extreme forces are generated between opposing front rows in the scrum and avoidance of mismatch is important if the risk of injury is to be minimised. Although elite youth front-row rugby players demonstrate the same peripheral strength as their adult counterparts on grip testing, the adults demonstrate significantly greater cervical strength. If older youths and adults are to play together, such findings have to be noted in the development of age group policies with particular reference to the scrum. PMID:24797427

  3. 75 FR 33811 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Policy Committee's Privacy & Security Tiger Team. General Function of the Committee: To provide... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's Privacy & Security Tiger Team Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the...

  4. 32 CFR 806b.51 - Privacy and the Web.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and policy. Additionally, do not post personal information on .mil private web sites unless authorized... policies regarding restrictions on persistent and third party cookies, and add appropriate privacy and... or her name or personal identifier (i.e., Social Security Number). We may only maintain...

  5. 76 FR 3098 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... National Security Agency/Central Security Service (NSA/CSS) by other agencies and in some instances... Freedom of Information Act Program; DoD 5400.11- R, Department of Defense Privacy Program; NSA/CSS Policy 1-5; NSA/CSS Freedom of Information Act Program; NSA/CSS Policy 1-34; Implementation of the...

  6. "E" for Exposed? E-Mail and Privacy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon-Leary, Pat

    1997-01-01

    As a result of litigation, a number of companies have written policies declaring the right to monitor employee electronic communication. Discusses reasons why employers monitor employee e-mail, the prevalence of monitoring in universities, use and ethics policy statements, and bills of rights statements protecting employee privacy. (PEN)

  7. 45 CFR 5b.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policy. 5b.3 Section 5b.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.3 Policy. It is the policy of the Department to protect the privacy of individuals to the fullest extent...

  8. 45 CFR 5b.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Policy. 5b.3 Section 5b.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.3 Policy. It is the policy of the Department to protect the privacy of individuals to the fullest extent...

  9. 45 CFR 5b.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Policy. 5b.3 Section 5b.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.3 Policy. It is the policy of the Department to protect the privacy of individuals to the fullest extent...

  10. 45 CFR 5b.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Policy. 5b.3 Section 5b.3 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.3 Policy. It is the policy of the Department to protect the privacy of individuals to the fullest extent...

  11. Vaccination benefits and cost-sharing policy for non-institutionalized adult Medicaid enrollees in the United States.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Alexandra M; Lindley, Megan C; Chang, Kristen H M; Cox, Marisa A

    2014-01-23

    Medicaid is the largest funding source of health services for the poorest people in the United States. Medicaid enrollees have greater health care, needs, and higher health risks than other individuals in the country and, experience disproportionately low rates of preventive care. Without, Medicaid coverage, poor uninsured adults may not be vaccinated or would, rely on publicly-funded programs that provide vaccinations. We examined each programs' policies related to benefit coverage and, copayments for adult enrollees. Our study was completed between October 2011 and September 2012 using a document review and a survey of Medicaid administrators that assessed coverage and cost-sharing policy for fee-for-service programs. Results were compared to a similar review, conducted in 2003. Over the past 10 years, Medicaid programs have typically maintained or expanded vaccination coverage benefits for adults and nearly half have explicitly prohibited copayments. The 17 programs that cover all recommended vaccines while prohibiting, copayments demonstrate a commitment to providing increased access to vaccinations for adult enrollees. When developing responses to fiscal and political challenges, the programs that do not cover all ACIP recommended adult vaccines or those that permit copayments for vaccinations, should consider all strategies to increase vaccinations and reduce costs to enrollees.

  12. Vaccination benefits and cost-sharing policy for non-institutionalized adult Medicaid enrollees in the United States.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Alexandra M; Lindley, Megan C; Chang, Kristen H M; Cox, Marisa A

    2014-01-23

    Medicaid is the largest funding source of health services for the poorest people in the United States. Medicaid enrollees have greater health care, needs, and higher health risks than other individuals in the country and, experience disproportionately low rates of preventive care. Without, Medicaid coverage, poor uninsured adults may not be vaccinated or would, rely on publicly-funded programs that provide vaccinations. We examined each programs' policies related to benefit coverage and, copayments for adult enrollees. Our study was completed between October 2011 and September 2012 using a document review and a survey of Medicaid administrators that assessed coverage and cost-sharing policy for fee-for-service programs. Results were compared to a similar review, conducted in 2003. Over the past 10 years, Medicaid programs have typically maintained or expanded vaccination coverage benefits for adults and nearly half have explicitly prohibited copayments. The 17 programs that cover all recommended vaccines while prohibiting, copayments demonstrate a commitment to providing increased access to vaccinations for adult enrollees. When developing responses to fiscal and political challenges, the programs that do not cover all ACIP recommended adult vaccines or those that permit copayments for vaccinations, should consider all strategies to increase vaccinations and reduce costs to enrollees. PMID:24291539

  13. Introduction effects of the Australian plain packaging policy on adult smokers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Hayes, Linda; Durkin, Sarah; Borland, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether smokers smoking from packs required under Australia's plain packaging law had different smoking beliefs and quitting thoughts, compared with those still smoking from branded packs. Design Cross-sectional survey during the roll-out phase of the law, analysed by timing of survey. Setting Australian state of Victoria, November 2012. Participants 536 cigarette smokers with a usual brand, of whom 72.3% were smoking from a plain pack and 27.7% were smoking from a branded pack. Primary outcome measures Perceived quality and satisfaction of cigarettes compared with 1 year ago, frequency of thoughts of smoking harm, perceived exaggeration of harms, frequency of thoughts of quitting, quitting priority in life, intention to quit, approval of large graphic health warnings and plain packaging. Results Compared with branded pack smokers, those smoking from plain packs perceived their cigarettes to be lower in quality (adjusted OR (AdjOR)=1.66, p=0.045), tended to perceive their cigarettes as less satisfying than a year ago (AdjOR=1.70, p=0.052), were more likely to have thought about quitting at least once a day in the past week (AdjOR=1.81, p=0.013) and to rate quitting as a higher priority in their lives (F=13.11, df=1, p<0.001). Plain pack smokers were more likely to support the policy than branded pack smokers (AdjOR=1.51, p=0.049). Branded and plain pack smokers did not differ on measures of less immediate smoking intentions, frequency of thoughts about harms or perceived exaggeration of harms. Appeal outcomes, but not other outcomes, were sensitive to the extent of roll-out, with responses from branded pack smokers approaching those of plain pack smokers, once 80% of survey respondents were smoking from plain packs 1–2 weeks before the December implementation date. Conclusions The early indication is that plain packaging is associated with lower smoking appeal, more support for the policy and more urgency to quit among adult smokers

  14. What adult worker model? A critical look at recent social policy reform in Europe from a gender and family perspective.

    PubMed

    Daly, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Analyses regularly feature claims that European welfare states are in the process of creating an adult worker model. The theoretical and empirical basis of this argument is examined here by looking first at the conceptual foundations of the adult worker model formulation and then at the extent to which social policy reform in western Europe fits with the argument. It is suggested that the adult worker formulation is under-specified. A framework incorporating four dimensions—the treatment of individuals vis-à-vis their family role and status for the purposes of social rights, the treatment of care, the treatment of the family as a social institution, and the extent to which gender inequality is problematized—is developed and then applied. The empirical analysis reveals a strong move towards individualization as social policy promotes and valorizes individual agency and self-sufficiency and shifts some childcare from the family. Yet evidence is also found of continued (albeit changed) familism. Rather than an unequivocal move to an individualized worker model then, a dual earner, gender-specialized, family arrangement is being promoted. The latter is the middle way between the old dependencies and the new “independence.” This makes for complexity and even ambiguity in policy, a manifestation of which is that reform within countries involves concurrent moves in several directions. PMID:21692242

  15. The Role of Adult Education and Learning Policy in Fostering Societal Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milana, Marcella; Rasmussen, Palle; Holford, John

    2016-01-01

    The idea of "sustainability" as a core value has slowly permeated policy and practice at governmental and institutional levels, in public and private policy. However, at times when social and economic crises have revealed the fragility of existing institutions and policies, it is important to consider how sustainability is -- and could…

  16. Trust and Privacy Solutions Based on Holistic Service Requirements.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Alcón, José Antonio; López, Lourdes; Martínez, José-Fernán; Rubio Cifuentes, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    The products and services designed for Smart Cities provide the necessary tools to improve the management of modern cities in a more efficient way. These tools need to gather citizens' information about their activity, preferences, habits, etc. opening up the possibility of tracking them. Thus, privacy and security policies must be developed in order to satisfy and manage the legislative heterogeneity surrounding the services provided and comply with the laws of the country where they are provided. This paper presents one of the possible solutions to manage this heterogeneity, bearing in mind these types of networks, such as Wireless Sensor Networks, have important resource limitations. A knowledge and ontology management system is proposed to facilitate the collaboration between the business, legal and technological areas. This will ease the implementation of adequate specific security and privacy policies for a given service. All these security and privacy policies are based on the information provided by the deployed platforms and by expert system processing. PMID:26712752

  17. Trust and Privacy Solutions Based on Holistic Service Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez Alcón, José Antonio; López, Lourdes; Martínez, José-Fernán; Rubio Cifuentes, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    The products and services designed for Smart Cities provide the necessary tools to improve the management of modern cities in a more efficient way. These tools need to gather citizens’ information about their activity, preferences, habits, etc. opening up the possibility of tracking them. Thus, privacy and security policies must be developed in order to satisfy and manage the legislative heterogeneity surrounding the services provided and comply with the laws of the country where they are provided. This paper presents one of the possible solutions to manage this heterogeneity, bearing in mind these types of networks, such as Wireless Sensor Networks, have important resource limitations. A knowledge and ontology management system is proposed to facilitate the collaboration between the business, legal and technological areas. This will ease the implementation of adequate specific security and privacy policies for a given service. All these security and privacy policies are based on the information provided by the deployed platforms and by expert system processing. PMID:26712752

  18. Trust and Privacy Solutions Based on Holistic Service Requirements.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Alcón, José Antonio; López, Lourdes; Martínez, José-Fernán; Rubio Cifuentes, Gregorio

    2015-12-24

    The products and services designed for Smart Cities provide the necessary tools to improve the management of modern cities in a more efficient way. These tools need to gather citizens' information about their activity, preferences, habits, etc. opening up the possibility of tracking them. Thus, privacy and security policies must be developed in order to satisfy and manage the legislative heterogeneity surrounding the services provided and comply with the laws of the country where they are provided. This paper presents one of the possible solutions to manage this heterogeneity, bearing in mind these types of networks, such as Wireless Sensor Networks, have important resource limitations. A knowledge and ontology management system is proposed to facilitate the collaboration between the business, legal and technological areas. This will ease the implementation of adequate specific security and privacy policies for a given service. All these security and privacy policies are based on the information provided by the deployed platforms and by expert system processing.

  19. The impact of social policy on changes in professional practice within learning disability services: different standards for children and adults? A two-part examination: Part 1. The policy foundations: from welfare markets to Valuing People, personalization and Baby P.

    PubMed

    Malin, Nigel A; Race, David G

    2010-12-01

    This is the first of two articles examining links between policy developments and changes in professional practice within learning disability services in England, focusing upon emergent differences between children's and adult provision. The article focuses on the evolving tension around policy directions and managerialism/professionalism, with the latter as a set of practices driving services, particularly following the 1988 Griffiths Report but referring also to its antecedents. Implications of this development are examined to highlight a difference in emphasis between the credibility and professional status of the workforce in children's, as opposed to adult, services for people with learning disabilities. A historical narrative demonstrates a continuum from the policies of Thatcherism to those of New Labour, underpinned by the assertion that normalization ideas have shaped both social policy and professional directions. The origins of current policy initiatives covering the last 20 years are explored, showing the consequences of a developing gap between professional inputs for children's and adult services. PMID:21285124

  20. Pathways to Labor Market Success: The Literacy Proficiency of U.S. Adults. Policy Information Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sum, Andrew; Kirsch, Irwin; Yamamoto, Kentaro

    2004-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of reports that draws upon the vast amount of background and assessment data and information that have been collected from the National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) and the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS). In this report, the authors find connections between the literacy skills of adults and their success…

  1. Strategies for Success: Promising Ideas in Adult College Completion. Policy Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This publication is the first of a series focusing on promising new ideas and innovative practices developed through the Adult College Completion Network. The brief addresses five topics of importance to those working to improve adult college completion: (1) Data availability particular to the returning adult population; (2) Partnerships between…

  2. Overview of Privacy in Social Networking Sites (SNS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powale, Pallavi I.; Bhutkar, Ganesh D.

    2013-07-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNS) have become an integral part of communication and life style of people in today's world. Because of the wide range of services offered by SNSs mostly for free of cost, these sites are attracting the attention of all possible Internet users. Most importantly, users from all age groups have become members of SNSs. Since many of the users are not aware of the data thefts associated with information sharing, they freely share their personal information with SNSs. Therefore, SNSs may be used for investigating users' character and social habits by familiar or even unknown persons and agencies. Such commercial and social scenario, has led to number of privacy and security threats. Though, all major issues in SNSs need to be addressed, by SNS providers, privacy of SNS users is the most crucial. And therefore, in this paper, we have focused our discussion on "privacy in SNSs". We have discussed different ways of Personally Identifiable Information (PII) leakages from SNSs, information revelation to third-party domains without user consent and privacy related threats associated with such information sharing. We expect that this comprehensive overview on privacy in SNSs will definitely help in raising user awareness about sharing data and managing their privacy with SNSs. It will also help SNS providers to rethink about their privacy policies.

  3. Inequalities for the quantum privacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trindade, M. A. S.; Pinto, E.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we investigate the asymptotic behavior related to the quantum privacy for multipartite systems. In this context, an inequality for quantum privacy was obtained by exploiting of quantum entropy properties. Subsequently, we derive a lower limit for the quantum privacy through the entanglement fidelity. In particular, we show that there is an interval where an increase in entanglement fidelity implies a decrease in quantum privacy.

  4. A New Social Capital Paradigm for Adult Literacy: Partnerships, Policy and Pedagogy. An Adult Literacy National Project Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balatti, Jo; Black, Stephen; Falk, Ian

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this project is to produce a set of guidelines on how to deliver adult literacy and numeracy education and training using a social capital approach. Social capital in this project refers to the networks that operate during resourcing, course design, recruitment, teaching and evaluation. The study focused on three specific…

  5. Elements d'une Politique en Education des Adultes, 1970 (Elements of an Adult Education Policy, 1970).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Inst. for Adult Education, Montreal (Quebec).

    Requirements of a comprehensive approach to adult and continuing education in Quebec are set forth, with particular attention to individual and social needs in a changing world as well as to short-and long-range educational objectives. Proposals are offered for serving the unemployed and other groups, reshaping content and methodology, allocating…

  6. Information Systems, Security, and Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Willis H.

    1984-01-01

    Computer security and computer privacy issues are discussed. Among the areas addressed are technical and human security threats, security and privacy issues for information in electronic mail systems, the need for a national commission to examine these issues, and security/privacy issues relevant to colleges and universities. (JN)

  7. Advertising and Invasion of Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    The right of privacy as it relates to advertising and the use of a person's name or likeness is discussed in this paper. After an introduction that traces some of the history of invasion of privacy in court decisions, the paper examines cases involving issues such as public figures and newsworthy items, right of privacy waived, right of privacy…

  8. Privacy Expectations in Online Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pure, Rebekah Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Advances in digital networked communication technology over the last two decades have brought the issue of personal privacy into sharper focus within contemporary public discourse. In this dissertation, I explain the Fourth Amendment and the role that privacy expectations play in the constitutional protection of personal privacy generally, and…

  9. Genetic secrets: Protecting privacy and confidentiality in the genetic era

    SciTech Connect

    Rothstein, M.A.

    1998-07-01

    Few developments are likely to affect human beings more profoundly in the long run than the discoveries resulting from advances in modern genetics. Although the developments in genetic technology promise to provide many additional benefits, their application to genetic screening poses ethical, social, and legal questions, many of which are rooted in issues of privacy and confidentiality. The ethical, practical, and legal ramifications of these and related questions are explored in depth. The broad range of topics includes: the privacy and confidentiality of genetic information; the challenges to privacy and confidentiality that may be projected to result from the emerging genetic technologies; the role of informed consent in protecting the confidentiality of genetic information in the clinical setting; the potential uses of genetic information by third parties; the implications of changes in the health care delivery system for privacy and confidentiality; relevant national and international developments in public policies, professional standards, and laws; recommendations; and the identification of research needs.

  10. Suggestions for Compliance with Privacy Rights of Parents and Students (Buckley Amendments).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    These suggestions for formulating school district policies governing the confidentiality and release of student records are based on the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (the Buckley amendment) and on relevant Arizona state law. A checklist, which covers the major section of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, is designed to…

  11. 17 CFR 49.16 - Privacy and confidentiality requirements of swap data repositories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... policies and procedures reasonably designed to protect the privacy and confidentiality of any and all SDR... privacy and confidentiality of any and all SDR Information (except for swap data disseminated under part... misappropriation or misuse, directly or indirectly, of: (i) Section 8 Material; (ii) Other SDR Information;...

  12. The U. S. Privacy Protection Commission--A Retrospective View from the Chair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linowes, David F.

    This paper examines how the U.S. Privacy Protection Commission functioned. Examined are its basic authority, procedures and policies, operational plan, distinctive features, staffing, and results of recommendations. Created by an act of Congress in 1974, the Commission was authorized to examine all actual and potential invasions of privacy in the…

  13. Information technology issues in an era of greater state responsibilities: policy concerns for seniors.

    PubMed

    Shrewsbury, Carolyn M

    2002-01-01

    Five areas of state information technology policy are of special concern to seniors and senior service providers: obtaining access; closing the digital divide; developing information management systems; creating portals; and maintaining privacy. Increasing their activities in each of these areas, states continue to vary considerably in their responsiveness to meeting the challenge of including older adults, especially those living in rural areas, with the benefits of information technology.

  14. The Role of Education in Teaching Norms and Values to Adult Newcomers: An Analysis of Integration Policy in the Netherlands, with Emphasis on the City of Rotterdam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Maryan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents research on the current debate in the Netherlands regarding integration and the teaching of 'norms and values' to adult newcomers. Data consisting of national and local (city of Rotterdam) integration policy documents and interviews with those influential in policy making were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. The…

  15. Making Sense of Federal Employment and Training Policy for Youth and Adults. Volume II: Expert Recommendations To Create a Comprehensive and Unified System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristina M., Ed.; And Others

    This document contains 27 essays and 5 policy statements regarding creation of a comprehensive and unified federal employment and training policy for youth and adults. The following essays are included: "In Search of the American Way" (Wills); "Rethink the Demand Side" (Smith); "The Federal Government as a Change Agent" (Nathan); "Making Sense of…

  16. Crossed wires: how yesterday's privacy rules might undercut tomorrow's nationwide health information network.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Michael D; Ridgely, M Susan; Hillestad, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    More than a decade after passage of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), concerns about the privacy and security of personal health information remain a major policy issue. Now, the emergence of the Nationwide Health Information Network (NHIN) presents deeper underlying privacy challenges, which will require renewed attention from policymakers as federal and state privacy rules need to be revisited. This is necessary because the current framework of privacy laws is not well suited for regulating a transformed health care system, where computer networks supersede conventional communications media. PMID:19276003

  17. Crossed wires: how yesterday's privacy rules might undercut tomorrow's nationwide health information network.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Michael D; Ridgely, M Susan; Hillestad, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    More than a decade after passage of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), concerns about the privacy and security of personal health information remain a major policy issue. Now, the emergence of the Nationwide Health Information Network (NHIN) presents deeper underlying privacy challenges, which will require renewed attention from policymakers as federal and state privacy rules need to be revisited. This is necessary because the current framework of privacy laws is not well suited for regulating a transformed health care system, where computer networks supersede conventional communications media.

  18. Feasibility analysis of the privacy attributes of the personal wellness information model.

    PubMed

    Nykänen, Pirkko; Seppälä, Antto; Ruotsalainen, Pekka; Blobel, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    A feasibility analysis has been performed to study the applicability of privacy attributes with a developed wellness information model. Information privacy concerns specifically access to individually identifiable personal information and one's ability to control information about oneself. We carried out a user scenario walk-through of the privacy attributes related to the wellness components. The walk-through showed a need to relate self-regulating privacy policies to the pervasive context so that during various trust-building processes, a person is aware and can control the use, disclosure and even secondary use of his personal, private wellness information.

  19. A Policy of Individualization and Flexibility Ignoring the Situation of Non-Self-Reliant Individuals: The Example of Swedish Basic Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Ingrid Henning; Wass, Karin Lumsden

    2014-01-01

    Based on a case study in Swedish municipal basic adult education this article addresses current policies for providing individualized and flexible learning, which have been reinforced in recent adult education reforms. Concepts from the organization theory of "action nets" have been used. Institutionalized procedures and a number of…

  20. How to Motivate Adults with Low Literacy and Numeracy Skills to Engage and Persist in Learning: A Literature Review of Policy Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windisch, Hendrickje Catriona

    2016-01-01

    Low basic skills levels of adults are a complex policy problem which has neither straightforward causes nor solutions, and successful interventions are still relatively rare. Tackling serious literacy and numeracy weaknesses among adults is challenging, partly because the task itself is difficult, and partly because even if accomplished…

  1. The Impact Of State Policies On ACA Applications And Enrollment Among Low-Income Adults In Arkansas, Kentucky, And Texas.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Benjamin D; Maylone, Bethany; Nguyen, Kevin H; Blendon, Robert J; Epstein, Arnold M

    2015-06-01

    States are taking variable approaches to the Affordable Care Act (ACA) Medicaid expansion, Marketplace design, enrollment outreach, and application assistance. We surveyed nearly 3,000 low-income adults in late 2014 to compare experiences in three states with markedly different policies: Kentucky, which expanded Medicaid, created a successful state Marketplace, and supported outreach efforts; Arkansas, which enacted the private option and a federal-state partnership Marketplace, but with legislative limitations on outreach; and Texas, which did not expand Medicaid and passed restrictions on navigators. We found that application rates, successful enrollment, and positive experiences with the ACA were highest in Kentucky, followed by Arkansas, with Texas performing worst. Limited awareness remains a critical barrier: Fewer than half of adults had heard some or a lot about the coverage expansions. Application assistance from navigators and others was the strongest predictor of enrollment, while Latino applicants were less likely than others to successfully enroll. Twice as many respondents felt that the ACA had helped them as hurt them (although the majority reported no direct impact), and advertising was strongly associated with perceptions of the law. State policy choices appeared to have had major impacts on enrollment experiences among low-income adults and their perceptions of the ACA. PMID:26056207

  2. Computers and Personal Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Willis H.

    Privacy is an issue that arises from the intersection of a demand for improved recordkeeping processes, and computing technology as the response to the demand. Recordkeeping in the United States centers on information about people. Modern day computing technology has the ability to maintain, store, and retrieve records quickly; however, this…

  3. Testing Citizenship and Allegiance: Policy, Politics and the Education of Adult Migrants in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Audrey

    2009-01-01

    This article examines recent UK government policy and proposals relating to immigration and citizenship, and the ways in which these policies are presented as means of securing allegiance and integration. From 1997, the incoming Labour government emphasized the importance of informed, active citizenship and social justice. From 2001, the emphasis…

  4. Understanding Lifelong Learning and Adult Education Policy in Estonia: Tendencies and Contradictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jogi, Larissa

    2012-01-01

    There have been many theoretical and empirical analyses of lifelong learning policies and how to implement, develop, measure and facilitate lifelong learning and lifelong learning policy in order to cater for the needs and requirements of individuals as well as society in general. The particular slant on lifelong learning in different countries…

  5. Adult Learning in Northern Ireland: Investigating Further Education Policies for Widening Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAleavy, Gerry; Collins, Katrina; Adamson, Gary

    2004-01-01

    In Northern Ireland there has been a dearth of evidence on the role of further education colleges in relation to educating adults. Given the existence of a system of education based on academic selection, it has emerged that the "losers" in this process grow up to become adults with reduced self-esteem in relation to how they perceive their…

  6. Collaboration and Coordination to Improve Adult College Completion Efforts. Policy Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The Adult College Completion Network--funded by Lumina Foundation and facilitated by the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE)--brings together and supports entities working to increase college and certificate completion by adults with prior postsecondary credits but no degree. The network was founded in part on the premise…

  7. Adult Literacy Policies and Performance in the SADCC Region (Southern Africa).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    While the implementation of adult literacy promotion can best be handled at the national level, some important things can be done at the Southern African Development Co-ordination Conference (SADCC) level. A persuasive argument can be made on behalf of adult literacy in the SADCC development strategy. The people need to be educated in the…

  8. EduCard. Adult Education Access Card. Policy Option Paper on Strategic Recommendation 4. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Dennis

    One recommendation of the 1989 California Strategic Plan for Adult Education is the use of EduCard. EduCard, the Adult Education Access Card, is a means of giving learners access to information about educational opportunities and providing administrators with machine-readable information on learners' prior education and traiing. Three models are:…

  9. Policy-Driven for Lifelong Learning and Its Effects: Experiences of Working Adults in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Dian-Fu; Lin, Sung-Po

    2012-01-01

    Since the government enacted the "Lifelong Learning Act" in 2002, Taiwanese working adults consider lifelong learning as a better route to increase their employability or competitiveness at work. This study analyzed the survey on adults administered by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008, and statistics analysis showed a close relationship…

  10. Adult Education and Indigenous People: Addressing Gender in Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Nitya; Robinson-Pant, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Adult education programmes developed for or by indigenous communities rarely seem to have addressed gender inequalities. Yet, compared to mainstream adult educational interventions promoting instrumental approaches to "functional literacy", such programmes often appear highly politicised, starting from a standpoint of promoting indigenous peoples'…

  11. Adult Numeracy Development: Theory, Research, Practice. Series on Literacy: Research, Policy, and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gal, Iddo, Ed.

    This book contains 16 papers on the theory, research, and practice of adult numeracy development. The following papers are included: "The Numeracy Challenge" (Iddo Gal); "Numeracy, Mathematics, and Adult Learning" (Diane Coben); "Building a Problem-Solving Environment for Teaching Mathematics" (Peter Kloosterman, Bin Hassan Mohamad-Ali, Lynda R.…

  12. Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Targets for Increasing Victimization, a Call for a Preemptive Screening Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasser, Sheryl; O'Quin, Karen; Price, Thomas; Leyda, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The aging population is a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Isolation, limited autonomy, and declining physical and mental health render many older adults vulnerable to abuse, neglect, and exploitation. As the population grows, so does the need for Adult Protective Services (APS). This article highlights an ultrasensitive subgroup…

  13. Sinking or Swimming: Findings from a Survey of State Adult Education Tuition and Financing Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Marcie

    2012-01-01

    At no time in recent history has the importance of adult education been greater and the funding more threatened. Despite the fact that as many as 93 million adults in the U.S. may need basic skills services to improve their economic prospects, funding for these services is stagnating at the federal level and being slashed in statehouses and state…

  14. Collaborative Privacy - A Community-Based Privacy Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolter, Jan; Kernchen, Thomas; Pernul, Günther

    The landscape of the World Wide Web with all its versatile services heavily relies on the disclosure of private user information. Service providers collecting more and more of these personal user data pose a growing privacy threat for users. Addressing user concerns privacy-enhancing technologies emerged. One goal of these technologies is to enable users to improve the control over their personal data. A famous representative is the PRIME project that aims for a holistic privacy-enhancing identity management system. However, approaches like the PRIME privacy architecture require service providers to change their server infrastructure and add specific privacy-enhancing components. In the near future, service providers are not expected to alter internal processes. In this paper, we introduce a collaborative privacy community that allows the open exchange of privacy-related information. We lay out the privacy community’s functions and potentials within a user-centric, provider-independent privacy architecture that will help foster the usage and acceptance of privacy-enhancing technologies.

  15. Policy Implications of a Literature Review of Cardiovascular Disease in Uninsured Immigrant Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Sadarangani, Tina R

    2015-06-01

    The number of older adults emigrating to the United States is expected to quadruple by 2050. The health of immigrant older adults is complicated by the limited options for low-cost health insurance available to this population. Welfare reform has limited new immigrants' access to public assistance programs, such as Medicaid; and low-cost private insurance options rarely exist for individuals older than 65, even with the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). Uninsured immigrant older adults have been found to forgo preventive care due to cost and are among the leading users of emergency departments for preventable complications of chronic disease, primarily cardiovascular disease (CVD). A review of the literature found that insurance coverage has a significant impact on CVD risk among immigrant older adults. The current article discusses the implications of welfare reform initiatives and the shortcomings of the PPACA in addressing the health care needs of immigrant older adults.

  16. [Right to privacy, reservation or secret. Changes in perspective of research on human genome].

    PubMed

    Figueroa Yañez, G

    1999-01-01

    1. Three kinds of privacy can be identified: territorial, bodily and, thirdly, psychological or spiritual. Cases and examples of each. 2. Two aspects are involved in breaches of the right to privacy--in any of its three forms-: the actual invasion of someone's privacy and the subsequent publication of the product thereof. 3. The right to privacy can enter into conflict with other constitutionally protected right such as the right to information, freedom of expression and freedom of scientific enquiry. 4. Research on the human genome has opened up a new area in privacy, given that it is unlawful to intrude into the genetic structure of a person without said person's lawful consent. Nothing is more private than a person's own individual genetic code. There may be exceptions to the right to genetic privacy: cases of lawful intrusion. 5. Unwarranted intrusion: discrimination in school admissions, employment contracts and insurance policies.

  17. Utilizing the National Physical Activity Plan to create a disease-specific approach: Environmental and Policy Strategies to Increase Physical Activity Among Adults with Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Mary B; White, Patience H

    2014-03-01

    The Environmental and Policy Strategies to Increase Physical Activity Among Adults with Arthritis report focuses on the ways to make physical activity more convenient and accessible for adults with arthritis. The report is designed to engage 6 important sectors, which were adapted from the National Physical Activity Plan, as partners with a mutual interest in increasing physical activity among adults with arthritis using environmental and policy strategies. It serves as a call to action for each of these sectors to collaborate and focus more attention on helping people live well with arthritis and be a productive part of our society.

  18. 32 CFR 323.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... LOGISTICS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 323.3 Policy. DLA adopts and supplements the DoD Privacy Program policy and procedures codified at 32 CFR 310.4 through 310.53, and appendices A through H of 32 CFR part 310....

  19. 32 CFR 323.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... LOGISTICS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 323.3 Policy. DLA adopts and supplements the DoD Privacy Program policy and procedures codified at 32 CFR 310.4 through 310.53, and appendices A through H of 32 CFR part 310....

  20. Continuous-eligibility policies stabilize Medicaid coverage for children and could be extended to adults with similar results.

    PubMed

    Ku, Leighton; Steinmetz, Erika; Bruen, Brian K

    2013-09-01

    A key method of stabilizing Medicaid coverage is to provide beneficiaries with twelve months of continuous eligibility. Following the passage of the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act in 2009, seven states adopted the continuous-eligibility option for children. That policy change led to a 1.8-percentage-point increase in the average length of child enrollment during fiscal year 2010 and increased annual costs for children by about 2.2 percent. The Medicaid and CHIP Payment and Access Commission has recommended offering states the option of giving adults twelve-month continuous eligibility for Medicaid. Our findings suggest that continuous eligibility could promote more stable coverage for adults enrolled in Medicaid at a modest cost. PMID:24019362

  1. Impact of Different Policies on Unhealthy Dietary Behaviors in an Urban Adult Population: An Agent-Based Simulation Model

    PubMed Central

    Giabbanelli, Philippe J.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Zimmerman, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Unhealthy eating is a complex-system problem. We used agent-based modeling to examine the effects of different policies on unhealthy eating behaviors. Methods. We developed an agent-based simulation model to represent a synthetic population of adults in Pasadena, CA, and how they make dietary decisions. Data from the 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey and other empirical studies were used to calibrate the parameters of the model. Simulations were performed to contrast the potential effects of various policies on the evolution of dietary decisions. Results. Our model showed that a 20% increase in taxes on fast foods would lower the probability of fast-food consumption by 3 percentage points, whereas improving the visibility of positive social norms by 10%, either through community-based or mass-media campaigns, could improve the consumption of fruits and vegetables by 7 percentage points and lower fast-food consumption by 6 percentage points. Zoning policies had no significant impact. Conclusions. Interventions emphasizing healthy eating norms may be more effective than directly targeting food prices or regulating local food outlets. Agent-based modeling may be a useful tool for testing the population-level effects of various policies within complex systems. PMID:24832414

  2. Time series analysis of the impact of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence among Australian adults, 2001–2011

    PubMed Central

    Coomber, Kerri; Durkin, Sarah J; Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; Spittal, Matthew J; Simpson, Julie A; Hill, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on smoking prevalence in Australian adults. Methods Data for calculating the average monthly prevalence of smoking between January 2001 and June 2011 were obtained via structured interviews of randomly sampled adults aged 18 years or older from Australia’s five largest capital cities (monthly mean number of adults interviewed: 2375). The influence on smoking prevalence was estimated for increased tobacco taxes; strengthened smoke-free laws; increased monthly population exposure to televised tobacco control mass media campaigns and pharmaceutical company advertising for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), using gross ratings points; monthly sales of NRT, bupropion and varenicline; and introduction of graphic health warnings on cigarette packs. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used to examine the influence of these interventions on smoking prevalence. Findings The mean smoking prevalence for the study period was 19.9% (standard deviation: 2.0%), with a drop from 23.6% (in January 2001) to 17.3% (in June 2011). The best-fitting model showed that stronger smoke-free laws, tobacco price increases and greater exposure to mass media campaigns independently explained 76% of the decrease in smoking prevalence from February 2002 to June 2011. Conclusion Increased tobacco taxation, more comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased investment in mass media campaigns played a substantial role in reducing smoking prevalence among Australian adults between 2001 and 2011. PMID:24940015

  3. Adolescents and Social Media: Privacy, Brain Development, and the Law.

    PubMed

    Costello, Caitlin R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2016-09-01

    Adolescents under the age of 18 are not recognized in the law as adults, nor do they have the fully developed capacity of adults. Yet teens regularly enter into contractual arrangements with operators of websites to send and post information about themselves. Their level of development limits their capacity to understand the implications of online communications, yet the risks are real to adolescents' privacy and reputations. This article explores an apparent contradiction in the law: that in areas other than online communications, U.S. legal systems seek to protect minors from the limitations of youth. The Children's Online Privacy Protection Act provides some protection to the privacy of young people, but applies only to children under age 13, leaving minors of ages 13 to 17 with little legal protection in their online activities. In this article, we discuss several strategies to mitigate the risks of adolescent online activity. PMID:27644864

  4. Health information: reconciling personal privacy with the public good of human health.

    PubMed

    Gostin, L O

    2001-01-01

    The success of the health care system depends on the accuracy, correctness and trustworthiness of the information, and the privacy rights of individuals to control the disclosure of personal information. A national policy on health informational privacy should be guided by ethical principles that respect individual autonomy while recognizing the important collective interests in the use of health information. At present there are no adequate laws or constitutional principles to help guide a rational privacy policy. The laws are scattered and fragmented across the states. Constitutional law is highly general, without important specific safeguards. Finally, a case study is provided showing the important trade-offs that exist between public health and privacy. For a model public health law, see www.critpath.org/msphpa/privacy. PMID:11794835

  5. Educating the adult brain: How the neuroscience of learning can inform educational policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowland, Victoria C. P.; Thomas, Michael S. C.

    2014-05-01

    The acquisition of new skills in adulthood can positively affect an individual's quality of life, including their earning potential. In some cases, such as the learning of literacy in developing countries, it can provide an avenue to escape from poverty. In developed countries, job retraining in adulthood contributes to the flexibility of labour markets. For all adults, learning opportunities increase participation in society and family life. However, the popular view is that adults are less able to learn for an intrinsic reason: their brains are less plastic than in childhood. This article reviews what is currently known from neuroscientific research about how brain plasticity changes with age, with a particular focus on the ability to acquire new skills in adulthood. Anchoring their review in the examples of the adult acquisition of literacy and new motor skills, the authors address five specific questions: (1) Are sensitive periods in brain development relevant to learning complex educational skills like literacy? (2) Can adults become proficient in a new skill? (3) Can everyone learn equally effectively in adulthood? (4) What is the role of the learning environment? (5) Does adult education cost too much? They identify areas where further research is needed and conclude with a summary of principles for enhancing adult learning now established on a neuroscience foundation.

  6. Balancing Cyberspace Promise, Privacy, and Protection: Tracking the Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metivier-Carreiro, Karen A.; LaFollette, Marcel C.

    1997-01-01

    Examines aspects of cyberspace policy: Internet content and expectations; privacy: medical information and data collected by the government; and the regulation of offensive material: the Communications Decency Act, Internet filters, and the American Library Association's proactive great Web sites for children. Suggests that even "child friendly"…

  7. Identifiability and privacy in pluripotent stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Isasi, Rosario; Andrews, Peter W; Baltz, Jay M; Bredenoord, Annelien L; Burton, Paul; Chiu, Ing-Ming; Hull, Sara Chandros; Jung, Ji-Won; Kurtz, Andreas; Lomax, Geoffrey; Ludwig, Tenneille; McDonald, Michael; Morris, Clive; Ng, Huck Hui; Rooke, Heather; Sharma, Alka; Stacey, Glyn N; Williams, Clare; Zeng, Fanyi; Knoppers, Bartha Maria

    2014-04-01

    Data sharing is an essential element of research; however, recent scientific and social developments have challenged conventional methods for protecting privacy. Here we provide guidance for determining data sharing thresholds for human pluripotent stem cell research aimed at a wide range of stakeholders, including research consortia, biorepositories, policy-makers, and funders.

  8. Windows without Curtains: Computer Privacy and Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaughey, Martha

    2003-01-01

    When armed police officers, with no warrant, confiscated and searched the computer from this author's state university office, she began to cross-examine her relationship to computers and to investigate professors' computer privacy at public universities. She had violated no university policy. She had simply received an anonymous e-mail (an e-mail…

  9. Risk-Based Models for Managing Data Privacy in Healthcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AL Faresi, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Current research in health care lacks a systematic investigation to identify and classify various sources of threats to information privacy when sharing health data. Identifying and classifying such threats would enable the development of effective information security risk monitoring and management policies. In this research I put the first step…

  10. 77 FR 37004 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... access policies. Strict controls have been imposed to minimize the risk of compromising the information that is being stored. Access to the computer system containing the records in this system is limited to... of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: National...

  11. Research in the Biotech Age: Can Informational Privacy Compete?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peekhaus, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the privacy of personal medical information in the health research context. Arguing that biomedical research in Canada has been caught up in the government's broader neoliberal policy agenda that has positioned biotechnology as a strategic driver of economic growth, the author discusses the tension between informational…

  12. Identifiability and Privacy in Pluripotent Stem Cell Research

    PubMed Central

    Isasi, Rosario; Andrews, Peter W.; Baltz, Jay M.; Bredenoord, Annelien L.; Burton, Paul; Chiu, Ing-Ming; Hull, Sara Chandros; Jung, Ji-Won; Kurtz, Andreas; Lomax, Geoffrey; Ludwig, Tenneille; McDonald, Michael; Morris, Clive; Ng, Huck Hui; Rooke, Heather; Sharma, Alka; Stacey, Glyn N.; Williams, Clare; Zeng, Fanyi; Knoppers, Bartha Maria

    2016-01-01

    Data sharing is an essential element of research; however, recent scientific and social developments have challenged conventional methods for protecting privacy. Here we provide guidance for determining data sharing thresholds for human pluripotent stem cell research aimed at a wide range of stakeholders, including research consortia, biorepositories, policy-makers, and funders. PMID:24702994

  13. Location Privacy in RFID Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza; Visconti, Ivan; Wachsmann, Christian

    RFID-enabled systems allow fully automatic wireless identification of objects and are rapidly becoming a pervasive technology with various applications. However, despite their benefits, RFID-based systems also pose challenging risks, in particular concerning user privacy. Indeed, improvident use of RFID can disclose sensitive information about users and their locations allowing detailed user profiles. Hence, it is crucial to identify and to enforce appropriate security and privacy requirements of RFID applications (that are also compliant to legislation). This chapter first discusses security and privacy requirements for RFID-enabled systems, focusing in particular on location privacy issues. Then it explores the advances in RFID applications, stressing the security and privacy shortcomings of existing proposals. Finally, it presents new promising directions for privacy-preserving RFID systems, where as a case study we focus electronic tickets (e-tickets) for public transportation.

  14. Privacy Practices of Health Social Networking Sites: Implications for Privacy and Data Security in Online Cancer Communities.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, Deborah H

    2016-08-01

    While online communities for social support continue to grow, little is known about the state of privacy practices of health social networking sites. This article reports on a structured content analysis of privacy policies and disclosure practices for 25 online ovarian cancer communities. All of the health social networking sites in the study sample provided privacy statements to users, yet privacy practices varied considerably across the sites. The majority of sites informed users that personal information was collected about participants and shared with third parties (96%, n = 24). Furthermore, more than half of the sites (56%, n = 14) stated that cookies technology was used to track user behaviors. Despite these disclosures, only 36% (n = 9) offered opt-out choices for sharing data with third parties. In addition, very few of the sites (28%, n = 7) allowed individuals to delete their personal information. Discussions about specific security measures used to protect personal information were largely missing. Implications for privacy, confidentiality, consumer choice, and data safety in online environments are discussed. Overall, nurses and other health professionals can utilize these findings to encourage individuals seeking online support and participating in social networking sites to build awareness of privacy risks to better protect their personal health information in the digital age. PMID:27253081

  15. Privacy Practices of Health Social Networking Sites: Implications for Privacy and Data Security in Online Cancer Communities.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, Deborah H

    2016-08-01

    While online communities for social support continue to grow, little is known about the state of privacy practices of health social networking sites. This article reports on a structured content analysis of privacy policies and disclosure practices for 25 online ovarian cancer communities. All of the health social networking sites in the study sample provided privacy statements to users, yet privacy practices varied considerably across the sites. The majority of sites informed users that personal information was collected about participants and shared with third parties (96%, n = 24). Furthermore, more than half of the sites (56%, n = 14) stated that cookies technology was used to track user behaviors. Despite these disclosures, only 36% (n = 9) offered opt-out choices for sharing data with third parties. In addition, very few of the sites (28%, n = 7) allowed individuals to delete their personal information. Discussions about specific security measures used to protect personal information were largely missing. Implications for privacy, confidentiality, consumer choice, and data safety in online environments are discussed. Overall, nurses and other health professionals can utilize these findings to encourage individuals seeking online support and participating in social networking sites to build awareness of privacy risks to better protect their personal health information in the digital age.

  16. A Web Policy Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Elliott

    2001-01-01

    Sound technology policies can spell the difference between an effective website and an online nightmare. An effective web development policy addresses six key areas: roles and responsibilities, content/educational value, privacy and safety, adherence to copyright laws, technical standards, and use of commercial sites and services. (MLH)

  17. The Right to Privacy at the Workplace, Part 1: Employee Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelsohn, Susan R.; Morrison, Kathryn K.

    1988-01-01

    The authors discuss the employee's right to privacy. Court decisions and legislation regarding employee searches are reviewed. They provide guidelines for avoiding legal problems, including (1) publicize the search policy, (2) ascertain that the policy can be justified, and (3) apply the policy in a reasonable, even-handed manner. (CH)

  18. Evaluating the privacy properties of telephone metadata.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Jonathan; Mutchler, Patrick; Mitchell, John C

    2016-05-17

    Since 2013, a stream of disclosures has prompted reconsideration of surveillance law and policy. One of the most controversial principles, both in the United States and abroad, is that communications metadata receives substantially less protection than communications content. Several nations currently collect telephone metadata in bulk, including on their own citizens. In this paper, we attempt to shed light on the privacy properties of telephone metadata. Using a crowdsourcing methodology, we demonstrate that telephone metadata is densely interconnected, can trivially be reidentified, and can be used to draw sensitive inferences. PMID:27185922

  19. Evaluating the privacy properties of telephone metadata

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Jonathan; Mutchler, Patrick; Mitchell, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2013, a stream of disclosures has prompted reconsideration of surveillance law and policy. One of the most controversial principles, both in the United States and abroad, is that communications metadata receives substantially less protection than communications content. Several nations currently collect telephone metadata in bulk, including on their own citizens. In this paper, we attempt to shed light on the privacy properties of telephone metadata. Using a crowdsourcing methodology, we demonstrate that telephone metadata is densely interconnected, can trivially be reidentified, and can be used to draw sensitive inferences. PMID:27185922

  20. Privacy, confidentiality, and electronic medical records.

    PubMed Central

    Barrows, R C; Clayton, P D

    1996-01-01

    The enhanced availability of health information in an electronic format is strategic for industry-wide efforts to improve the quality and reduce the cost of health care, yet it brings a concomitant concern of greater risk for loss of privacy among health care participants. The authors review the conflicting goals of accessibility and security for electronic medical records and discuss nontechnical and technical aspects that constitute a reasonable security solution. It is argued that with guiding policy and current technology, an electronic medical record may offer better security than a traditional paper record. PMID:8653450

  1. 32 CFR 310.5 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Policy. 310.5 Section 310.5 National Defense... PROGRAM DoD Policy § 310.5 Policy. It is DoD policy that: (a) The privacy of an individual is a personal..., regulation, and policy, shall be protected when collecting, maintaining, using, or disseminating...

  2. Stakeholder Perspectives on Policies to Support Family Caregivers of Older Adults with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Michelle; Pickard, Joseph G.; Rodriguez, Carroll; Shear, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Persons with dementia are often excluded from consumer-directed home- and community-based service programs because they cannot direct their own care. Surrogates are permitted in some states, thereby allowing program participation. This study explored family caregiver perspectives on policies that support family needs related to providing care to…

  3. The Politics of Paternalism: Adult and Youth Perspectives on Youth Voice in Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Jerusha Osberg; Ober, C. Nathan; Brown, Amanda S.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Over the last two decades, youth involvement in policy advocacy has increased sharply, through youth councils, organizing coalitions, and new media forums. Currently 12 states and 140 American cities have youth councils or commissions established to advise policymakers on the impact of their legislation on youth. Despite their…

  4. 75 FR 63703 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act Regulation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... Federal Register, 73 FR 25594, May 7, 2008. The proposed amendments: (1) Waived all copying fees in..., 73 FR 54595, September 22, 2008, certain portions of BGFRS-37 (Electronic Applications) may be exempt... CFR Part 261a Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act Regulation AGENCY: Board of Governors of the...

  5. The Development of Adult and Community Education Policy in New Zealand: Insights from Popper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the process by which all post-compulsory education in New Zealand has become integrated under one administrative structure, the Tertiary Education Commission (TEC), with the intention of developing a single coordinated system of tertiary education. In particular, adult and community education (ACE), the least formal and…

  6. Global Polity in Adult Education and UNESCO: Landmarking, Brokering and Framing Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milana, Marcella

    2016-01-01

    Aknowledging the complexity of local-global interconnections, the author argues for the adoption of a global polity perspective in adult education, here applied to study mobilisation processes that occur through UNESCO. The findings point to three processes that cross geopolitical borders and professional interests: "landmarking," by…

  7. Myths and Misconceptions in Adult Literacy: A Research and Development Perspective. Policy Brief 93-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Daniel A.

    The public has formed some myths and misconceptions about literacy. No substantive proof supports the grandiose assertion that literacy changes the way humans think and their intelligence. No one who has studied national surveys of adult literacy seriously believes that illiteracy in the United States will be eradicated by 2000. The literacy…

  8. "Media Mediators": Advocating an Alternate Paradigm for Critical Adult Education ICT Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remtulla, Karim A.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the efficacy of current education program approaches to prepare instructors to achieve critical thinking and active learning from their students by integrating ICTs with traditional adult education practices. An argument is put forward that the increasing presence and influence of ICTs in education necessitates a paradigmatic…

  9. Modeling dietary fiber intakes in US adults: implications for public policy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was to simulate the application of the dietary recommendations to increase dietary fiber (DF)-containing foods. This study used 24-hour dietary recalls from NHANES 2003-2006 to model the impact of different approaches of increasing DF with current dietary patterns of US adults...

  10. Point of care and patient privacy: who is in control?

    PubMed

    Morgan, J D

    1994-05-01

    Public and patient access to medical records has been severely limited through policies limiting physical and timely access and intellectual understanding of content. New expectations of patient/public access and control have arisen accompanying the new paradigms of health care delivery and health information (computer-based patient records). Examples from these new paradigms are personalized and presented in information system contexts from bedside to community settings. Patient and family involvement in care delivery, education, assessment, and control of privacy are explored. A personalized confidentiality/security/privacy module of the computer-based patient record is suggested.

  11. The costs of safeguarding privacy: one research organization's experience.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Pamela M; Leman, Kevin; McGill, Peggy; Varney, Carolynne

    2004-01-01

    While academic health research has always observed strict vigilance in the guardianship of the rich information found in health databases, new legislation faced by all organizations ups the ante even higher. Research organizations like the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences are delving into even more rigorous policies to keep sensitive information secure while preserving the value that dedicated research provides. The costs of implementing privacy protections are of great concern to Canadian researchers. This report discusses basic costs associated with privacy practices undertaken at the Institute.

  12. Biological Contributions to Addictions in Adolescents and Adults: Prevention, Treatment and Policy Implications

    PubMed Central

    Potenza, Marc N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Despite significant advances in our understanding of the biological bases of addictions, these disorders continue to represent a huge public health burden that is associated with substantial personal suffering. Efforts to target addictions require consideration of how the improved biological understanding of addictions may lead to improved prevention, treatment and policy initiatives. Method In this article, we provide a narrative review of current biological models for addictions with a goal of placing existing data and theories within a translational and developmental framework targeting the advancement of prevention, treatment and policy strategies. Results Data regarding individual differences, intermediary phenotypes, and main and interactive influences of genetic and environmental contributions in the setting of developmental trajectories that may be influenced by addictive drugs or behavior indicate complex underpinnings of addictions. Conclusions Consideration and further elucidation of the biological etiologies of addictions hold significant potential for making important gains and reducing the public health impact of addictions. PMID:23332567

  13. Privacy Issues and New Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, Sue

    1997-01-01

    Issues of privacy, anonymity, and computer security emerging with advancing information technology are outlined, and implications for universities are discussed. Emphasis is on the Australian context and on Australian government and international initiatives concerning privacy. Sensitive information categories are identified, and measures…

  14. Student Privacy and School Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluckman, Ivan

    1987-01-01

    This pamphlet considers students' right to privacy and the application of this right to the confidentiality of information disclosed to administrators and counselors. Privacy is also considered in regard to special problems associated with counseling students about drugs, contraceptives, sexually transmitted diseases, abortion, and possible threat…

  15. Privacy Law and Print Photojournalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykhouse, Caroline Dow

    Reviews of publications about privacy law, of recent court actions, and of interviews with newspaper photographers and attorneys indicate that torts of privacy often conflict with the freedoms to publish and to gather news. Although some guidelines have already been established (about running distorted pictures, "stealing" pictures, taking…

  16. 76 FR 59073 - Privacy Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY 32 CFR Part 1901 Privacy Act AGENCY: Central Intelligence Agency. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: Consistent with the Privacy Act (PA), the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has undertaken and completed...

  17. How to motivate adults with low literacy and numeracy skills to engage and persist in learning: A literature review of policy interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windisch, Hendrickje Catriona

    2016-06-01

    Low basic skills levels of adults are a complex policy problem which has neither straightforward causes nor solutions, and successful interventions are still relatively rare. Tackling serious literacy and numeracy weaknesses among adults is challenging, partly because the task itself is difficult, and partly because even if accomplished successfully, the returns on the investment (of expertise, time and money) are uncertain. The Survey of Adult Skills, an international investigation conducted in 22 member and two partner countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) as part of the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), has revealed that a considerable number of adults possess only limited literacy and numeracy skills. Governments now recognise the need to upskill these adults in order to maintain national prosperity. This literature review examines current evidence on policy interventions for adults with low literacy and numeracy proficiencies to pinpoint what has so far proven to motivate adults to join and persist in basic literacy and numeracy learning. The author identifies three approaches which seem promising in helping to address individual learners' needs: (1) adapting instruction to learners' needs by means of regular assessment (formative assessment); (2) complementary e-learning (blended learning); and (3) contextualisation of basic skills provision both at work and at home (workplace learning and family literacy). The central challenge is to put the evidence to work.

  18. Acute low back problems in adults: assessment and treatment. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research.

    PubMed

    1994-12-01

    This Quick Reference Guide for Clinicians contains highlights from the Clinical Practice Guideline version of Acute Low Back Problems in Adults, which was developed by a private-sector panel of health care providers and consumers. The Quick Reference Guide is an example of how a clinician might implement the panel's findings and recommendations on the management of acute low back problems in working-age adults. Topics covered include the initial assessment of patients presenting with acute low back problems, identification of red flags that may indicate the presence of a serious underlying medical condition, initial management, special studies and diagnostic considerations, and further management considerations. Instructions for clinical testing for sciatic tension, recommendations for sitting and unassisted lifting, tests for identification of clinical pathology, and algorithms for patient management are included.

  19. Adult Literacy for Development in Ethiopia: A Review of Policy and Performance at Mid-Point.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    When Ethiopia launched its National Literacy Campaign (NLC) in July 1979, it was announced that illiteracy would be removed from the urban areas of the country by 1982 and from rural Ethiopia by 1987. By the end of the 12th round of the NLC in February 1985, 16.9 million youths and adults had been covered by the campaign, and 12 million (almost…

  20. User Privacy in RFID Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singelée, Dave; Seys, Stefaan

    Wireless RFID networks are getting deployed at a rapid pace and have already entered the public space on a massive scale: public transport cards, the biometric passport, office ID tokens, customer loyalty cards, etc. Although RFID technology offers interesting services to customers and retailers, it could also endanger the privacy of the end-users. The lack of protection mechanisms being deployed could potentially result in a privacy leakage of personal data. Furthermore, there is the emerging threat of location privacy. In this paper, we will show some practical attack scenarios and illustrates some of them with cases that have received press coverage. We will present the main challenges of enhancing privacy in RFID networks and evaluate some solutions proposed in literature. The main advantages and shortcomings will be briefly discussed. Finally, we will give an overview of some academic and industrial research initiatives on RFID privacy.

  1. Patients' experiences of privacy and dignity. Part 1: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Juliet; Wheeler, Herman

    This article reviews the literature on patients' privacy and dignity and concludes that interest in the topic goes back to psychiatric patients in the 1960s, with the 1990s seeing a shift to all hospitals. A number of databases were used to obtain information for the literature review. Findings revealed United Kingdom (UK) government policies designed to raise the profile of patients' privacy and dignity. UK research on patients' privacy/dignity is limited, although there is universal interest. While a variety of methodologies have been used in previous research, and there is consistency in findings, more research is indicated. Previous research spanned topics such as elderly patients, medical and surgical patients, palliative care, rehabilitative settings and child-bearing women. A conceptual framework and definitions of privacy and dignity were examined. Although healthcare professionals and patients attach importance to patients' privacy, there is insufficient understanding of the problem. Limitations of previous research have been discussed.

  2. A Generic Privacy Quantification Framework for Privacy-Preserving Data Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Zutao

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the concerns about the privacy for the electronic data collected by government agencies, organizations, and industries are increasing. They include individual privacy and knowledge privacy. Privacy-preserving data publishing is a research branch that preserves the privacy while, at the same time, withholding useful information in…

  3. Trust Information-Based Privacy Architecture for Ubiquitous Health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ubiquitous health is defined as a dynamic network of interconnected systems that offers health services independent of time and location to a data subject (DS). The network takes place in open and unsecure information space. It is created and managed by the DS who sets rules that regulate the way personal health information is collected and used. Compared to health care, it is impossible in ubiquitous health to assume the existence of a priori trust between the DS and service providers and to produce privacy using static security services. In ubiquitous health features, business goals and regulations systems followed often remain unknown. Furthermore, health care-specific regulations do not rule the ways health data is processed and shared. To be successful, ubiquitous health requires novel privacy architecture. Objective The goal of this study was to develop a privacy management architecture that helps the DS to create and dynamically manage the network and to maintain information privacy. The architecture should enable the DS to dynamically define service and system-specific rules that regulate the way subject data is processed. The architecture should provide to the DS reliable trust information about systems and assist in the formulation of privacy policies. Furthermore, the architecture should give feedback upon how systems follow the policies of DS and offer protection against privacy and trust threats existing in ubiquitous environments. Methods A sequential method that combines methodologies used in system theory, systems engineering, requirement analysis, and system design was used in the study. In the first phase, principles, trust and privacy models, and viewpoints were selected. Thereafter, functional requirements and services were developed on the basis of a careful analysis of existing research published in journals and conference proceedings. Based on principles, models, and requirements, architectural components and their interconnections

  4. Surgical patients' and nurses' opinions and expectations about privacy in care.

    PubMed

    Akyüz, Elif; Erdemir, Firdevs

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the opinions and expectations of patients and nurses about privacy during a hospital admission for surgery. The study explored what enables and maintains privacy from the perspective of Turkish surgical patients and nurses. The study included 102 adult patients having surgery and 47 nurses caring for them. Data were collected via semistructured questionnaire by face-to-face interviews. The results showed that patients were mostly satisfied by the respect shown to their privacy by the nurses but were less confident of the confidentiality of their personal data. It was found that patients have expectations regarding nursing approaches and attitudes about acknowledging and respecting patient autonomy and confidentiality. It is remarkable that while nurses focused on the physical dimension of privacy, patients focused on informational and psychosocial dimensions of privacy, as well as its physical dimension.

  5. Biobanking Research and Privacy Laws in the United States.

    PubMed

    Harrell, Heather L; Rothstein, Mark A

    2016-03-01

    Privacy is protected in biobank-based research in the US primarily by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy Rule and the Federal Policy for Protection of Human Subjects (Common Rule). Neither rule, however, was created to function in the unique context of biobank research, and therefore neither applies to all biobank-based research. Not only is it challenging to determine when the HIPAA Privacy Rule or the Common Rule apply, but these laws apply different standards to protect privacy. In addition, many other federal and state laws may be applicable to a particular biobank, researcher, or project. US law also does not directly address international sharing of data or specimens outside of the EU-US Safe Harbor Agreement, which only applies to receipt of data by certain US entities from EU countries, and is in the process of revision. Although new rules would help clarify privacy protections in biobanking, any implemented changes should be studied to determine the sufficiency of the protections as well as its ability to facilitate or hinder international collaborations. PMID:27256128

  6. Employee Privacy Rights: A Management Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Ira Michael; Olsen, Harry

    Employee privacy rights are considered, along with practical problems and permissible parameters of employer activity. Included is a state-by-state analysis of the status of workplace privacy. Definitions are offered of "invasion of privacy," with attention to four types of privacy invasions: (1) placing someone in a "false light," (2) the public…

  7. 48 CFR 39.105 - Privacy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Privacy. 39.105 Section 39... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.105 Privacy. Agencies shall ensure that contracts for information technology address protection of privacy in accordance with the Privacy Act (5...

  8. Business and Public Policy; Instructor's Guide for an Adult Course. Part II in a Series of Preparation for Certified Professional Secretary Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batten, Marion N.; Wakin, Bertha

    One of six courses to cover the six parts of the Certified Professional Secretary Examination, this course in business and public policy is appropriate for use in adult education programs, secondary schools, and community colleges of New York State. It is recommended that specific cases be used with each of the ten lessons to exemplify the major…

  9. "It Is Difficult to Be a Woman with a Dream of an Education:" Challenging U.S. Adult Basic Education Policies to Support Women Immigrants' Self-Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuban, Sondra; Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2009-01-01

    Women immigrants are an increasing population in the U.S. and in the Adult Basic Education (ABE) system, particularly in English to Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) programmes. The authors argue that their numerical predominance and comprehensive needs are not factored into U.S. ABE policies by reformers who are anxious about the system being…

  10. An Exploratory Study of the Factors That Influence Enrolling in Alternative Educational Options: Adult Perceptions and Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocsis-McNerney, Violet

    2013-01-01

    This research obtained information using focus groups as qualitative method to determine the factors that influenced alternative education decisions. The purpose of this study was to help bridge theory, research, and educational practices and examine policy reform efforts. Through the lenses of returning adult education students, this research…

  11. Decisions, Provisions and Disillusionment for Non-Vocational Adult Learning (NVAL) Staff in South-Eastern Europe: A Comparative Appraisal of Some Policy Developments with Diminishing Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarifis, George K.

    2009-01-01

    Since 2000, the European Union has given greater attention to lifelong learning, as expressed in the Lisbon presidency conclusions and the general objectives of the Education and Training 2010 work programme. In September 2007, these policy proposals were further strengthened with the announcement of the "Action Plan on Adult Learning" that sets…

  12. Confidentiality, privacy, and the facilitating role of psychoanalytic organizations.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Mary Kay

    2007-06-01

    Burgeoning external threats to confidentiality by claims to clinical information create unprecedented challenges for psychoanalysts. Internal threats arise from the use of clinical material for educational, scientific and historical purposes. Traditionally, confidentiality is considered a patient's right and an analyst's obligation; privacy is not usually stated as a professional requirement. Little consideration has been given to the impact of the confidentiality and privacy dilemmas that analysts encounter throughout their careers. There has been no systematic examination of the confidentiality policies of psychoanalytic organizations, nor has their role in facilitating maintenance of patient confidentiality and analysts' privacy been made explicit. The research reported here was undertaken to address these issues and to obtain baseline information about the current confidentiality policies and practices of psychoanalytic organizations in three English-speaking countries (Britain, Canada and the USA). The author discusses survey results in the light of the challenges which arise at each phase of the analytic career. She makes suggestions as to how psychoanalytic organizations can and should facilitate analysts' resolutions of contemporary confidentiality and privacy dilemmas.

  13. Data protection, privacy.

    PubMed

    La Monaca, G; Schiralli, I

    2010-01-01

    The topic of data protection is referred closely to the concept of privacy--characterized by the American political philosophy in order to indicate a sphere recognized as personal, and therefore private or intimate, of the person, which exclude other individuals or society--whose protection has deep roots in the international right. The technological progress in the field of telecommunication has increased the facility of acquisition and spreading of information, the exchange of data, and the possibility of access to confidential information by other people. This made it made necessary the regulation of the management and the transfer of these information in order to protect individual rights and, on the other hand, an easy circulation of data for legitimate and useful goals.

  14. Extensive nonadditivity of privacy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John A

    2009-09-18

    Quantum information theory establishes the ultimate limits on communication and cryptography in terms of channel capacities for various types of information. The private capacity is particularly important because it quantifies achievable rates of quantum key distribution. We study the power of quantum channels with limited private capacity, focusing on channels that dephase in random bases. These display extensive nonadditivity of private capacity: a channel with 2logd input qubits that has a private capacity less than 2, but when used together with a second channel with zero private capacity, the joint capacity jumps to (1/2)logd. In contrast to earlier work which found nonadditivity vanishing as a fraction of input size or conditional on unproven mathematical assumptions, this provides a natural setting manifesting nonadditivity of privacy of the strongest possible sort. PMID:19792417

  15. Privacy as an enabler, not an impediment: building trust into health information exchange.

    PubMed

    McGraw, Deven; Dempsey, James X; Harris, Leslie; Goldman, Janlori

    2009-01-01

    Building privacy and security protections into health information technology systems will bolster trust in such systems and promote their adoption. The privacy issue, too long seen as a barrier to electronic health information exchange, can be resolved through a comprehensive framework that implements core privacy principles, adopts trusted network design characteristics, and establishes oversight and accountability mechanisms. The public policy challenges of implementing this framework in a complex and evolving environment will require improvements to existing law, new rules for entities outside the traditional health care sector, a more nuanced approach to the role of consent, and stronger enforcement mechanisms.

  16. Biobanking and Privacy in India.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Sachin; Srinivas, Krishna Ravi; Muthuswamy, Vasantha

    2016-03-01

    Biobank-based research is not specifically addressed in Indian statutory law and therefore Indian Council for Medical Research guidelines are the primary regulators of biobank research in India. The guidelines allow for broad consent and for any level of identification of specimens. Although privacy is a fundamental right under the Indian Constitution, courts have limited this right when it conflicts with other rights or with the public interest. Furthermore, there is no established privacy test or actionable privacy right in the common law of India. In order to facilitate biobank-based research, both of these lacunae should be addressed by statutory law specifically addressing biobanking and more directly addressing the accompanying privacy concerns. A biobank-specific law should be written with international guidelines in mind, but harmonization with other laws should not be attempted until after India has created a law addressing biobank research within the unique legal and cultural environment of India.

  17. Biobanking and Privacy in India.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Sachin; Srinivas, Krishna Ravi; Muthuswamy, Vasantha

    2016-03-01

    Biobank-based research is not specifically addressed in Indian statutory law and therefore Indian Council for Medical Research guidelines are the primary regulators of biobank research in India. The guidelines allow for broad consent and for any level of identification of specimens. Although privacy is a fundamental right under the Indian Constitution, courts have limited this right when it conflicts with other rights or with the public interest. Furthermore, there is no established privacy test or actionable privacy right in the common law of India. In order to facilitate biobank-based research, both of these lacunae should be addressed by statutory law specifically addressing biobanking and more directly addressing the accompanying privacy concerns. A biobank-specific law should be written with international guidelines in mind, but harmonization with other laws should not be attempted until after India has created a law addressing biobank research within the unique legal and cultural environment of India. PMID:27256123

  18. Protecting the privacy of patient information in clinical networks: regulatory effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Brannigan, V M

    1992-12-17

    Patient privacy is one of the major issues in the development of modern clinical information system networks. Such networks will have to demonstrate an appropriate concern for privacy as a precondition of operation. Regulatory effectiveness analysis is a novel technique for measuring compliance with a technological regulatory system. By examining the public policies, legal structures, and technical tools involved in the regulatory system, it is possible to discover discontinuities that may result in noncompliance with the regulatory system.

  19. 32 CFR 2400.22 - Freedom of Information Act and Privacy Act requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Freedom of Information Act and Privacy Act... SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Declassification and Downgrading § 2400.22 Freedom of Information Act and...

  20. 32 CFR 2400.22 - Freedom of Information Act and Privacy Act requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Freedom of Information Act and Privacy Act... SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Declassification and Downgrading § 2400.22 Freedom of Information Act and...

  1. 78 FR 42945 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Vacancy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Vacancy AGENCY: Government Accountability Office... Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy Committee (Health IT.... ARRA requires that one member have expertise in health information privacy and security. Due to...

  2. Toward a Behavioral Approach to Privacy for Online Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Lerone D.; Wu, S. Felix

    We examine the correlation between user interactions and self reported information revelation preferences for users of the popular Online Social Network (OSN), Facebook. Our primary goal is to explore the use of indicators of tie strength to inform localized, per-user privacy preferences for users and their ties within OSNs. We examine the limitations of such an approach and discuss future plans to incorporate this approach into the development of an automated system for helping users define privacy policy. As part of future work, we discuss how to define/expand policy to the entire social network. We also present additional collected data similar to other studies such as perceived tie strength and information revelation preferences for OSN users.

  3. Personal Privacy Clarification Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Deutch, Theodore E. [D-FL-19

    2011-01-26

    02/08/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations and Procurement Reform . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. 76 FR 4352 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Policy Committee's Workgroups: Meaningful Use, Privacy & Security Tiger Team, Enrollment, Governance... meetings during February 2011: February 4th, Privacy & Security Tiger Team, 10 a.m. to 12 p.m./ET; February.... to 2 p.m./ET; February 14th, Privacy & Security Tiger Team, 10 a.m. to 12 p.m./ET; February...

  5. 75 FR 70924 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... Policy Committee's Workgroups: Meaningful Use, Privacy & Security Tiger Team, Enrollment, Governance... December 2010: December 3rd Privacy & Security Tiger Team, 10 a.m. to 12 p.m./ET; December 3rd Meaningful..../ET; December 8th Enrollment Workgroup, 11 a.m. to 2 p.m./ET; December 9th Privacy & Security...

  6. 75 FR 65485 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Policy Committee's Workgroups: Meaningful Use, Privacy & Security Tiger Team, Enrollment, Governance... Privacy & Security Tiger Team, 10 a.m. to 12 p.m./ET; November 9th Meaningful Use Workgroup, 10 a.m. to 12..., 11 a.m. to 2 p.m./ET; and November 22nd Privacy & Security Tiger Team, 10 a.m. to 12...

  7. 75 FR 36658 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... Policy Committee's Workgroups: Meaningful Use, Privacy & Security Tiger Team, Enrollment, Adoption... & Security Tiger Team, 10 a.m. to 12 p.m./ET; July 8th Certification/Adoption Workgroup, 10 a.m. to 12 p.m./ET; July 9th Privacy & Security Tiger Team, 10 a.m. to 1 p.m./ET; July 13th Privacy & Security...

  8. Query Monitoring and Analysis for Database Privacy - A Security Automata Model Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anand; Ligatti, Jay; Tu, Yi-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Privacy and usage restriction issues are important when valuable data are exchanged or acquired by different organizations. Standard access control mechanisms either restrict or completely grant access to valuable data. On the other hand, data obfuscation limits the overall usability and may result in loss of total value. There are no standard policy enforcement mechanisms for data acquired through mutual and copyright agreements. In practice, many different types of policies can be enforced in protecting data privacy. Hence there is the need for an unified framework that encapsulates multiple suites of policies to protect the data. We present our vision of an architecture named security automata model (SAM) to enforce privacy-preserving policies and usage restrictions. SAM analyzes the input queries and their outputs to enforce various policies, liberating data owners from the burden of monitoring data access. SAM allows administrators to specify various policies and enforces them to monitor queries and control the data access. Our goal is to address the problems of data usage control and protection through privacy policies that can be defined, enforced, and integrated with the existing access control mechanisms using SAM. In this paper, we lay out the theoretical foundation of SAM, which is based on an automata named Mandatory Result Automata. We also discuss the major challenges of implementing SAM in a real-world database environment as well as ideas to meet such challenges. PMID:26997936

  9. User Centric Policy Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Gorrell P.

    2013-01-01

    Internet use, in general, and online social networking sites, in particular, are experiencing tremendous growth with hundreds of millions of active users. As a result, there is a tremendous amount of privacy information and content online. Protecting this information is a challenge. Access control policy composition is complex, laborious and…

  10. Is Privacy Important in Scoliosis Screening?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quick, Miriam M.; Highriter, Marion E.

    1981-01-01

    In a study done to determine the importance of privacy during scoliosis screening, individual privacy was provided for some children. Results indicated a definite lessening of anxiety for those students screened privately. (JN)

  11. The Constitutional Right of Privacy: An Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwestern University Law Review, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The right of privacy, a personal right protecting the most traditional concepts of privacy and the most tangible qualities of private life, is discussed in relation to many cases, including three involving teachers in secondary schools. (Author/PG)

  12. Privacy and Security - a Way to Manage the Dilemma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peissl, Walter

    Privacy and security are often seen as opposites in a zero-sum game. The more you want from one, the less you get from the other. To overcome this dilemma the PRISE project (EU-funded by PASR/DG Enterprise) developed a methodology to establish sets of criteria for privacy enhancing security technologies. These sets of criteria are applicable on different levels (research, development, implementation) and by different actors (research coordinators, industry, policy-makers, public and private users). The use of these criteria is intended to contribute directly to a tangible and demonstrable improvement in security as accepted and acceptable security technologies will be more easily implemented, more widely used and confronted with less rejection by the general public and users of these technologies. A similar set of criteria is used for certification for the European Privacy Seal. Both the privacy by design approach and the certification scheme should increase the competitiveness of European security industries by providing guidance on the provision of widely acceptable security technologies.

  13. Fetal privacy and confidentiality.

    PubMed

    Botkin, J R

    1995-01-01

    With the advent of new and better contraceptive methods and the ability to facilitate and manipulate fertilization and gestation, couples will gain greater control over their fertility. Once a pregnancy has been established or an in vitro embryo created, the ability to evaluate the embryo and fetus will increase dramatically with progress in human genetic research. Preconception and preimplantation genetic testing and screening are now possible, and the technology to perform prenatal screening early in gestation is advancing rapidly. Nonsurgical methods facilitate induced abortion with a relatively lower degree of trauma upon the woman undergoing the procedure. These capabilities may all be used to enable and even encourage the genetic selection of future children. Despite the ethical concerns associated with prenatal testing and abortion, these services will continue to be an integral aspect of reproductive medicine. As technology advances, however, it will be possible to test and screen for conditions which do not produce serious defects. Genetic conditions which produce relatively mild impacts upon health will be identifiable in the embryo or fetus, while late-onset conditions and genetic factors which have only a probability of affecting health will also be located in the fetal genome. Prospective parents may therefore soon have the capability of selecting their most desirable embryo in vitro, or terminating all undesirable fetuses in vivo until the preferred child is delivered. The medical profession must take some responsibility for establishing guidelines on the use of reproductive technology. The standards of practice for the medical profession must reflect the results of a broad social debate over competing moral values. The author develops an argument for legal and ethical limitations on the application of prenatal testing and screening technology, suggesting that for some medical conditions, respect for the privacy and confidentiality of the fetus

  14. 21 CFR 1314.45 - Privacy protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Privacy protections. 1314.45 Section 1314.45 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.45 Privacy protections. To protect the privacy...

  15. 21 CFR 1314.45 - Privacy protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Privacy protections. 1314.45 Section 1314.45 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.45 Privacy protections. To protect the privacy...

  16. 24 CFR 3280.107 - Interior privacy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interior privacy. 3280.107 Section 3280.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... privacy. Bathroom and toilet compartment doors shall be equipped with a privacy lock....

  17. 75 FR 61994 - Privacy Act; Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... Office of the Secretary 31 CFR Part 1 RIN 1505-AC25 Privacy Act; Implementation AGENCY: Office of Foreign... requirements of the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, the Department of the Treasury is amending its regulations... records by revising the number and title of the Privacy Act system of records for which an exemption...

  18. 78 FR 69552 - Privacy Act; Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Department of the Navy 32 CFR Part 701 Privacy Act; Implementation AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD... Privacy Act Program by adding the (k)(5) exemption to accurately describe the basis for exempting the... Department of the Navy Privacy Program rules that will exempt applicable Department records and/or...

  19. 76 FR 49661 - Privacy Act; Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... Office of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 323 Privacy Act; Implementation AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, DoD... updating the DLA Privacy Act Program Rules by updating the language of the (k)(2) exemption. The update of the exemption will more accurately describe the basis for exempting the records. The Privacy...

  20. 75 FR 37287 - Privacy Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... April 19, 2010 (75 FR 20298) for a public comment period to end on June 18, 2010. This rule amends the... CFR Part 200 RIN 0430-AA03 Privacy Act Regulations AGENCY: Recovery Accountability and Transparency... regulations implementing the Privacy Act of 1974 (Privacy Act), Public Law 93-579, 5 U.S.C. 552a. This...

  1. 76 FR 71293 - Privacy Act; Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... Office of the Secretary 31 CFR Part 1 RIN 1505-AC37 Privacy Act; Implementation AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Treasury. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In accordance with the requirements of the Privacy Act... Identification Number Records'' from certain provisions of the Privacy Act. DATES: Comments must be received...

  2. 75 FR 20298 - Privacy Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ...,'' pursuant to the Privacy Act, as amended (74 FR 60302, Nov. 20, 2009). The Board received no comments on...; ] RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD 4 CFR Part 200 RIN 0430-AA03 Privacy Act Regulations AGENCY... and Transparency Board (Board) proposes to amend the Board's regulations implementing the Privacy...

  3. 77 FR 57017 - Privacy Act; Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 319 Privacy Act; Implementation AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, DoD... proposing to update the DIA Privacy Act Program by adding the (k)(2) exemption to accurately describe the... involves nonsubstantive changes dealing with DoD's management of its Privacy Programs. DoD expects...

  4. Sexiled: Privacy Acquisition Strategies of College Roommates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlandson, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to understand how roommates make privacy bids in college residence halls. The results indicate that privacy for sexual activity is a problem for students living in college residence halls, as almost all participants (82%) reported having dealt with this issue. Two sets of responses were collected and analyzed: privacy acquisition…

  5. 77 FR 57015 - Privacy Act; Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 319 Privacy Act; Implementation AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, DoD... that have been previously claimed for the records in another Privacy Act system of records. DIA is updating the DIA Privacy Act Program by adding the (k)(2) and (k)(5) exemptions to accurately describe...

  6. 21 CFR 1314.45 - Privacy protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Privacy protections. 1314.45 Section 1314.45 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.45 Privacy protections. To protect the privacy...

  7. Effective Management of Information Security and Privacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Alicia

    2006-01-01

    No university seems immune to cyber attacks. For many universities, such events have served as wake-up calls to develop a comprehensive information security and privacy strategy. This is no simple task, however. It involves balancing a culture of openness with a need for security and privacy. Security and privacy are not the same, and the…

  8. Privacy and Research with Human Beings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelman, Herbert C.

    1977-01-01

    This paper explores the psychological significance of preserving privacy, the ways in which different kinds of research may threaten privacy, the requirements for minimizing or counteracting such threats, and the conditions under which research representing a certain degree of invasion of privacy can nevertheless be justified. (Author/AM)

  9. ReDirection: Options for Policy and Practice in Adult Literacy in Washington State. Goals and Outcomes. A Series of Discussion Papers for the Adult Education Advisory Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Susan; Sampson, Lynne

    This discussion paper endeavors to inform decision makers about the goals and outcomes for adult basic education in Washington State. It first examines the current goals operating in adult literacy programs in the state, concluding that, although there may appear to be agreement about the very general purposes of literacy education in the state,…

  10. Adult Literacy: Policies, Programs and Practices. Lessons Learned. Final Report = Alphabetisation des adultes: politiques, programmes et pratiques. Etude bilan. Rapport final.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    Studies and reports examining the problems associated with adult literacy and efforts to address those problems were reviewed to identify lessons for adult literacy programs in Canada and elsewhere. Low literacy levels were linked to above-average rates of personal and/or learning difficulties, low self-esteem, associated social problems, and…

  11. Change in Ratio of Observed-to-Expected Deaths in Pediatric Patients after Implementing a Closed Policy in an Adult ICU That Admits Children.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Yoshitoyo; Imanaka, Hideaki; Oto, Jun; Nishimura, Masaji

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds. We examined the effect on the prognosis of critically ill pediatric patients after a closed ICU policy was implemented into an adult ICU that admitted children. Materials and Methods. We assessed the Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 (PIM2) score of pediatric patients (≤15 y.o.) admitted to the ICU from 2001 to 2009. In our teaching hospital, the department for intensive care was established in January 2004. Since then, for critical care patients, we have followed a closed ICU policy with full-time intensivists. We subsequently compared PIM2 scores and the ratio of observed-to-expected deaths (O/E ratio) for three three-year periods: 2001-2003 (before closed policy), 2004-2006, and 2007-2009. Results. Data was collected from 532 pediatric patients. While the PIM2 score statistically significantly increased from 0.066 ± 0.130 for 2001-2003 to 0.114 ± 0.239 for 2004-2006 and 0.086 ± 0.147 for 2007-2009, the O/E ratio decreased from 1.49 for 2001-2003 to 0.82 for 2004-2006 and remained at 0.82 for 2007-2009. Conclusion. The O/E ratio for critically ill pediatric patients improved after the establishment of a closed policy in an adult ICU that admitted children. PMID:22645670

  12. Confronting the Youth Demographic Challenge: The Labor Market Prospects of Out-of-School Young Adults. Policy Issues Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sum, Andrew; Fogg, Neeta; Mangum, Garth

    The labor market prospects of out-of-school young adults and options for improving the employment and earnings potential of all young adults were examined. The following issues were among those considered: demographic and social factors affecting young adults' employment prospects; employment trends and labor market problems in the United States…

  13. Privacy-enhanced electronic mail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Matt

    1990-06-01

    The security of electronic mail sent through the Internet may be described in exactly three words: there is none. The Privacy and Security Research Group has recommended implementing mechanisms designed to provide security enhancements. The first set of mechanisms provides a protocol to provide privacy, integrity, and authentication for electronic mail; the second provides a certificate-based key management infrastructure to support key distribution throughout the internet, to support the first set of mechanisms. These mechanisms are described, as well as the reasons behind their selection and how these mechanisms can be used to provide some measure of security in the exchange of electronic mail.

  14. Genetic secrets: Protecting privacy and confidentiality in the genetic era. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rothstein, M.A.

    1998-09-01

    Few developments are likely to affect human beings more profoundly in the long run than the discoveries resulting from advances in modern genetics. Although the developments in genetic technology promise to provide many additional benefits, their application to genetic screening poses ethical, social, and legal questions, many of which are rooted in issues of privacy and confidentiality. The ethical, practical, and legal ramifications of these and related questions are explored in depth. The broad range of topics includes: the privacy and confidentiality of genetic information; the challenges to privacy and confidentiality that may be projected to result from the emerging genetic technologies; the role of informed consent in protecting the confidentiality of genetic information in the clinical setting; the potential uses of genetic information by third parties; the implications of changes in the health care delivery system for privacy and confidentiality; relevant national and international developments in public policies, professional standards, and laws; recommendations; and the identification of research needs.

  15. Privacy and data security in E-health: requirements from the user's perspective.

    PubMed

    Wilkowska, Wiktoria; Ziefle, Martina

    2012-09-01

    In this study two currently relevant aspects of using medical assistive technologies were addressed-security and privacy. In a two-step empirical approach that used focus groups (n = 19) and a survey (n = 104), users' requirements for the use of medical technologies were collected and evaluated. Specifically, we focused on the perceived importance of data security and privacy issues. Outcomes showed that both security and privacy aspects play an important role in the successful adoption of medical assistive technologies in the home environment. In particular, analysis of data with respect to gender, health-status and age (young, middle-aged and old users) revealed that females and healthy adults require, and insist on, the highest security and privacy standards compared with males and the ailing elderly.

  16. The State of Evaluation Research on Food Policies to Reduce Obesity and Diabetes Among Adults in the United States, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Franzosa, Emily; Sohler, Nancy; Li, Rui; Devlin, Heather; Albu, Jeanine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Improvements in diet can prevent obesity and type 2 diabetes. Although policy changes provide a foundation for improvement at the population level, evidence for the effectiveness of such changes is slim. This study summarizes the literature on recent efforts in the United States to change food-related policies to prevent obesity and diabetes among adults. Methods We conducted a systematic review of evidence of the impact of food policies. Websites of government, academic, and nonprofit organizations were scanned to generate a typology of food-related policies, which we classified into 18 categories. A key-word search and a search of policy reports identified empirical evaluation studies of these categories. Analyses were limited to strategies with 10 or more reports. Of 422 articles identified, 94 met these criteria. Using publication date, study design, study quality, and dietary outcomes assessed, we evaluated the strength of evidence for each strategy in 3 assessment categories: time period, quality, and study design. Results Five strategies yielded 10 or more reports. Only 2 of the 5 strategies, menu labeling and taxes on unhealthy foods, had 50% or more studies with positive findings in at least 2 of 3 assessment categories. Most studies used methods that were rated medium quality. Although the number of published studies increased over 11 years, study quality did not show any clear trend nor did it vary by strategy. Conclusion Researchers and policy makers can improve the quality and rigor of policy evaluations to synthesize existing evidence and develop better methods for gleaning policy guidance from the ample but imperfect data available. PMID:26513438

  17. A Model for IT Policy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodyear, Marilu; Warner, Beth Forrest

    2003-01-01

    Describes the University of Kansas' information technology (IT) policy development process as a model for other institutions' IT policy development. The policy involves seven dimensions: access, freedom of expression, privacy, intellectual property, security, effective use of information resources, and records management. (EV)

  18. Rule-Based Policy Representations and Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonatti, Piero Andrea; de Coi, Juri Luca; Olmedilla, Daniel; Sauro, Luigi

    Trust and policies are going to play a crucial role in enabling the potential of many web applications. Policies are a well-known approach to protecting security and privacy of users in the context of the Semantic Web: in the last years a number of policy languages were proposed to address different application scenarios.

  19. 21 CFR 21.60 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Policy. 21.60 Section 21.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Exemptions § 21.60 Policy. It is the policy of the Food and Drug Administration that record systems should...

  20. 21 CFR 21.60 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Policy. 21.60 Section 21.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Exemptions § 21.60 Policy. It is the policy of the Food and Drug Administration that record systems should...

  1. 21 CFR 21.60 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Policy. 21.60 Section 21.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Exemptions § 21.60 Policy. It is the policy of the Food and Drug Administration that record systems should...

  2. 21 CFR 21.60 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Policy. 21.60 Section 21.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Exemptions § 21.60 Policy. It is the policy of the Food and Drug Administration that record systems should...

  3. 21 CFR 21.60 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policy. 21.60 Section 21.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Exemptions § 21.60 Policy. It is the policy of the Food and Drug Administration that record systems should...

  4. 34 CFR 5b.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Policy. 5b.3 Section 5b.3 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.3 Policy. It is the policy of the Department..., and responsibilities of the Department for disclosing records which the general public is entitled...

  5. Privacy and Security: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association, Washington, DC.

    Compiled at random from many sources, this bibliography attempts to cite as many publications concerning privacy and security as are available. The entries are organized under seven headings: (1) systems security, technical security, clearance of personnel, (2) corporate physical security, (3) administrative security, (4) miscellaneous--privacy…

  6. 78 FR 46256 - Privacy Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION 11 CFR Part 1 Privacy Act CFR Correction In Title 11 of the Code of Federal Regulations, revised as of January 1, 2012, on page 5, in Sec. 1.2, the words ``95 and 96 of the Internal Revenue Code...

  7. Facebook: When Education Meets Privacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruneel, Steven; De Wit, Kurt; Verhoeven, Jef C.; Elen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The use of social networking sites (SNSs) has become commonplace amongst students. In this research, we aim to shed light upon the educational use and privacy issues on Facebook from the perspective of role theory and reference group theory. 15 bachelor students of the University of Leuven (KU Leuven) in Flanders, Belgium, were interviewed in…

  8. Comprehensive quantitative analysis on privacy leak behavior.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lejun; Wang, Yuanzhuo; Jin, Xiaolong; Li, Jingyuan; Cheng, Xueqi; Jin, Shuyuan

    2013-01-01

    Privacy information is prone to be leaked by illegal software providers with various motivations. Privacy leak behavior has thus become an important research issue of cyber security. However, existing approaches can only qualitatively analyze privacy leak behavior of software applications. No quantitative approach, to the best of our knowledge, has been developed in the open literature. To fill this gap, in this paper we propose for the first time four quantitative metrics, namely, possibility, severity, crypticity, and manipulability, for privacy leak behavior analysis based on Privacy Petri Net (PPN). In order to compare the privacy leak behavior among different software, we further propose a comprehensive metric, namely, overall leak degree, based on these four metrics. Finally, we validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach using real-world software applications. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach can quantitatively analyze the privacy leak behaviors of various software types and reveal their characteristics from different aspects. PMID:24066046

  9. Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis on Privacy Leak Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lejun; Wang, Yuanzhuo; Jin, Xiaolong; Li, Jingyuan; Cheng, Xueqi; Jin, Shuyuan

    2013-01-01

    Privacy information is prone to be leaked by illegal software providers with various motivations. Privacy leak behavior has thus become an important research issue of cyber security. However, existing approaches can only qualitatively analyze privacy leak behavior of software applications. No quantitative approach, to the best of our knowledge, has been developed in the open literature. To fill this gap, in this paper we propose for the first time four quantitative metrics, namely, possibility, severity, crypticity, and manipulability, for privacy leak behavior analysis based on Privacy Petri Net (PPN). In order to compare the privacy leak behavior among different software, we further propose a comprehensive metric, namely, overall leak degree, based on these four metrics. Finally, we validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach using real-world software applications. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach can quantitatively analyze the privacy leak behaviors of various software types and reveal their characteristics from different aspects. PMID:24066046

  10. Balancing in a crisis? Bioterrorism, public health and privacy.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Janlori

    2005-01-01

    Post-September 11, the government has been rapidly funding public health initiatives to bolster the Nation's ability to respond to bioterrorist attacks. While the infusion of money into the public health system is laudable, the pressure to enact legislation quickly has resulted in laws and policies that ignore privacy and civil liberties and that favor anti-bioterror initiatives over more common public health concerns. A public health agenda that ignores privacy and civil liberties will undermine public trust, leading people to not fully participate in critical public health activities. Our Nation is far more likely to succeed in preventing and responding to a potential act of bioterrorism if we embrace the principle that advancing public health and preserving individual liberties are symbiotic and inextricable.

  11. Bridging the Gap between Evidence and Practice for Adults with Medically Refractory Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Is a Change in Funding Policy Needed to Stimulate a Shift in Practice?

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Alireza; Aldakkan, Abdulrahman; Kosicka, Magda J.; Tarride, Jean-Eric; Valiante, Taufik A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Surgery for medically refractory epilepsy (MRE) in adults has been shown to be effective but underutilized. Comprehensive health economic evaluations of surgery compared with continued medical management are limited. Policy changes may be necessary to influence practice shift. Methods. A critical review of the literature on health economic analyses for adults with MRE was conducted. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CRD, and EconLit databases were searched using relevant subject headings and keywords pertaining to adults, epilepsy, and health economic evaluations. The screening was conducted independently and in duplicate. Results. Four studies were identified (1 Canadian, 2 American, and 1 French). Two were cost-utility analyses and 2 were cost-effectiveness evaluations. Only one was conducted after the effectiveness of surgery was established through a randomized trial. All suggested surgery to be favorable in the medium to long term (7-8 years and beyond). The reduction of medication use was the major cost-saving parameter in favor of surgery. Conclusions. Although updated evaluations that are more generalizable across settings are necessary, surgery appears to be a favorable option from a health economic perspective. Given the limited success of knowledge translation endeavours, funder-level policy changes such as quality-based purchasing may be necessary to induce a shift in practice. PMID:26770822

  12. Privacy and confidentiality of genetic information: what rules for the new science?

    PubMed

    Anderlik, M R; Rothstein, M A

    2001-01-01

    This review covers the ethical, legal, and policy issues associated with the generation and dissemination of genetic information. First, conceptual issues, such as the definition of terms and the description of two modes of analysis, are addressed. Research findings on public attitudes toward privacy and genetics and other factors relevant to policy making are also reviewed. Second, the example of genetic research is used to highlight the importance of attention to the intrinsic harms associated with violations of genetic privacy. Subtopics include national databases and biobanks, gene brokers, and pharmacogenomics. Third, the example of insurer access to genetic information is used to highlight the importance of attention to discrimination and other instrumental harms associated with failures of regulation. Fourth, a summary of the preceding sections leads into an outline of a program for realizing the benefits of the new science in a manner that affirms rather than erodes privacy and other important values.

  13. Legal and ethical issues in neuroimaging research: human subjects protection, medical privacy, and the public communication of research results.

    PubMed

    Kulynych, Jennifer

    2002-12-01

    Humans subjects research entails significant legal and ethical obligations. Neuroimaging researchers must be familiar with the requirements of human subjects protection, including evolving standards for the protection of privacy and the disclosure of risk in "non-therapeutic" research. Techniques for creating veridical surface renderings from volumetric anatomical imaging data raise new privacy concerns, particularly under the federal medical privacy regulation. Additionally, neuroimaging researchers must consider their obligation to communicate research results responsibly. The emerging field of neuroethics should strive to raise awareness of these issues and to involve neuroimaging researchers in the legal, ethical, and policy debates that currently surround human subjects research.

  14. 75 FR 6622 - The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Proposes to Revise Three of Its Privacy Act Systems of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... tape files and disk files are kept in a locked computer room and tape library, which can be accessed by... contractors to protect private information and follow USDA privacy policy. RETENTION AND DISPOSAL:...

  15. Lifelong Learning Policy and Practice: The Impact of Accreditation on Education and Training Provision for Adult Women in the UK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coats, Maggie

    In the United Kingdom, these two perspectives on lifelong learning sit uneasily together: emphasis on adults in employment and a focus on diversity and widening participation in adult education. A recent emphasis on accreditation with implications for funding has affected diversity and participation objectives because involving assessment,…

  16. No Single Measure. A Survey of Australian Adult Literacy. Summary Report. A National Policy on Languages Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickert, Rosie

    A survey of the literacy proficiency of 1,500 Australian adults indicates that: (1) people who demonstrate some proficiency with using printed material should not be classified as illiterate; (2) appropriate rating scales should be developed for assessing adults' literacy skills; (3) more detailed analysis of the characteristics of those who…

  17. PEViD: privacy evaluation video dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korshunov, Pavel; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2013-09-01

    Visual privacy protection, i.e., obfuscation of personal visual information in video surveillance is an important and increasingly popular research topic. However, while many datasets are available for testing performance of various video analytics, little to nothing exists for evaluation of visual privacy tools. Since surveillance and privacy protection have contradictory objectives, the design principles of corresponding evaluation datasets should differ too. In this paper, we outline principles that need to be considered when building a dataset for privacy evaluation. Following these principles, we present new, and the first to our knowledge, Privacy Evaluation Video Dataset (PEViD). With the dataset, we provide XML-based annotations of various privacy regions, including face, accessories, skin regions, hair, body silhouette, and other personal information, and their descriptions. Via preliminary subjective tests, we demonstrate the flexibility and suitability of the dataset for privacy evaluations. The evaluation results also show the importance of secondary privacy regions that contain non-facial personal information for privacy- intelligibility tradeoff. We believe that PEViD dataset is equally suitable for evaluations of privacy protection tools using objective metrics and subjective assessments.

  18. Biobank research and the right to privacy.

    PubMed

    Ursin, Lars Oystein

    2008-01-01

    What is privacy? What does privacy mean in relation to biobanking, in what way do the participants have an interest in privacy, (why) is there a right to privacy, and how should the privacy issue be regulated when it comes to biobank research? A relational view of privacy is argued for in this article, which takes as its basis a general discussion of several concepts of privacy and attempts at grounding privacy rights. In promoting and protecting the rights that participants in biobank research might have to privacy, it is argued that their interests should be related to the specific context of the provision and reception of health care that participation in biobank research is connected with. Rather than just granting participants an exclusive right to or ownership of their health information, which must be waived in order to make biobank research possible, the privacy aspect of health information should be viewed in light of the moral rights and duties that accompany any involvement in a research based system of health services.

  19. Privacy information management for video surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ying; Cheung, Sen-ching S.

    2013-05-01

    The widespread deployment of surveillance cameras has raised serious privacy concerns. Many privacy-enhancing schemes have been proposed to automatically redact images of trusted individuals in the surveillance video. To identify these individuals for protection, the most reliable approach is to use biometric signals such as iris patterns as they are immutable and highly discriminative. In this paper, we propose a privacy data management system to be used in a privacy-aware video surveillance system. The privacy status of a subject is anonymously determined based on her iris pattern. For a trusted subject, the surveillance video is redacted and the original imagery is considered to be the privacy information. Our proposed system allows a subject to access her privacy information via the same biometric signal for privacy status determination. Two secure protocols, one for privacy information encryption and the other for privacy information retrieval are proposed. Error control coding is used to cope with the variability in iris patterns and efficient implementation is achieved using surrogate data records. Experimental results on a public iris biometric database demonstrate the validity of our framework.

  20. 17 CFR 160.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Model privacy form and... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION UNDER TITLE V OF THE GRAMM-LEACH-BLILEY ACT § 160.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of...

  1. 17 CFR 160.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Model privacy form and... Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of... content requirements of §§ 160.6 and 160.7 of this part, although use of the model privacy form is...

  2. 12 CFR 216.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 216.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION (REGULATION P) § 216.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with...

  3. 17 CFR 160.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Model privacy form and... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 160.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  4. 16 CFR 313.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 313.2... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 313.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  5. 16 CFR 313.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 313.2... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 313.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  6. 12 CFR 716.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 716.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 716.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in Appendix A of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  7. 16 CFR 313.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 313.2... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 313.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  8. 12 CFR 216.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 216.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION (REGULATION P) § 216.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with...

  9. 12 CFR 216.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 216.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION (REGULATION P) § 216.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with...

  10. 16 CFR 313.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 313.2... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 313.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  11. 17 CFR 160.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Model privacy form and... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION UNDER TITLE V OF THE GRAMM-LEACH-BLILEY ACT § 160.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of...

  12. 12 CFR 216.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 216.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION (REGULATION P) § 216.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with...

  13. 12 CFR 716.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 716.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 716.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in Appendix A of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  14. 12 CFR 716.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 716.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 716.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendixA of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  15. 16 CFR 313.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 313.2... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 313.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  16. 12 CFR 216.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 216.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION (REGULATION P) § 216.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with...

  17. 13 CFR 102.36 - Privacy Act standards of conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Privacy Act standards of conduct... AND PRIVACY Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 102.36 Privacy Act standards of conduct. Each Program/Support Office Head or designee shall inform...

  18. 32 CFR 806b.4 - Privacy Act complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Privacy Act complaints. 806b.4 Section 806b.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Overview of the Privacy Act Program § 806b.4 Privacy Act complaints. (a) Process Privacy...

  19. 12 CFR 716.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 716.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 716.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in Appendix A of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  20. 17 CFR 160.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Model privacy form and... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 160.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  1. Obesity Prevention Practices and Policies in Child Care Settings Enrolled and Not Enrolled in the Child and Adult Care Food Program.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sherry T; Graffagino, Cheryl L; Leser, Kendall A; Trombetta, Autumn L; Pirie, Phyllis L

    2016-09-01

    Objectives The United States Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) provides meals and snacks to low-income children in child care. This study compared nutrition and physical activity practices and policies as well as the overall nutrition and physical activity environments in a sample of CACFP and non-CACFP child care settings. Methods A random stratified sample of 350 child care settings in a large Midwestern city and its suburbs, was mailed a survey on obesity prevention practices and policies concerning menu offerings, feeding practices, nutrition and physical activity education, activity levels, training, and screen time. Completed surveys were obtained from 229 of 309 eligible child care settings (74.1 % response rate). Chi square tests were used to compare practices and policies in CACFP and non-CACFP sites. Poisson and negative binomial regression were used to examine associations between CACFP and total number of practices and policies. Results Sixty-nine percent of child care settings reported CACFP participation. A significantly higher proportion of CACFP sites reported offering whole grain foods daily and that providers always eat the same foods that are offered to the children. CACFP sites had 1.1 times as many supportive nutrition practices as non-CACFP sites. CACFP participation was not associated with written policies or physical activity practices. Conclusions for Practice There is room for improvement across nutrition and physical activity practices and policies. In addition to food reimbursement, CACFP participation may help promote child care environments that support healthy nutrition; however, additional training and education outreach activities may be needed.

  2. The Convergence of Virtual Reality and Social Networks: Threats to Privacy and Autonomy.

    PubMed

    O'Brolcháin, Fiachra; Jacquemard, Tim; Monaghan, David; O'Connor, Noel; Novitzky, Peter; Gordijn, Bert

    2016-02-01

    The rapid evolution of information, communication and entertainment technologies will transform the lives of citizens and ultimately transform society. This paper focuses on ethical issues associated with the likely convergence of virtual realities (VR) and social networks (SNs), hereafter VRSNs. We examine a scenario in which a significant segment of the world's population has a presence in a VRSN. Given the pace of technological development and the popularity of these new forms of social interaction, this scenario is plausible. However, it brings with it ethical problems. Two central ethical issues are addressed: those of privacy and those of autonomy. VRSNs pose threats to both privacy and autonomy. The threats to privacy can be broadly categorized as threats to informational privacy, threats to physical privacy, and threats to associational privacy. Each of these threats is further subdivided. The threats to autonomy can be broadly categorized as threats to freedom, to knowledge and to authenticity. Again, these three threats are divided into subcategories. Having categorized the main threats posed by VRSNs, a number of recommendations are provided so that policy-makers, developers, and users can make the best possible use of VRSNs.

  3. Update on Performance in Tobacco Control: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Impact of Tobacco Control Policy and the US Adult Smoking Rate, 2011-2013

    PubMed Central

    Lapin, Brittany; Cameron, Brianna J.; Carr, Thomas A.; Morley, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Tobacco use remains the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. States and municipalities have instituted a variety of tobacco control measures (TCMs) to address the significant impact tobacco use has on population health. The American Lung Association annually grades state performance of tobacco control using the State of Tobacco Control grading framework. Objective: To gain an updated understanding of how recent efforts in tobacco control have impacted tobacco use across the United States, using yearly State of Tobacco Control TCM assessments. Design: The independent TCM variables of smoke-free air score, cessation score, excise tax, and percentage of recommended funding were selected from the American Lung Association State of Tobacco Control reports. Predictors of adult smoking rates were determined by a mixed-effects model. Setting/Participants: The 50 US states and District of Columbia. Main Outcome Measure: Adult smoking rate in each state from 2011 to 2013. Results: The average adult smoking rate decreased significantly from 2011 to 2013 (21.3% [SD: 3.5] to 19.3% [SD: 3.5], P = .016). All forms of TCMs varied widely in implementation levels across states. Excise taxes (β = −.812, P = .006) and smoke-free air regulations (β = −.057, P = .008) were significant, negative predictors of adult smoking. Cessation services (β = .015, P = .46) did not have a measurable effect on adult smoking. Conclusion: Tobacco control measures with the strongest influence on adult smoking include the state excise tax and state smoke-free air regulations. The lack of robust funding for tobacco cessation services across the majority of US states highlights an important shortfall in current tobacco control policy. PMID:26618847

  4. Interventions to prevent or reduce the level of frailty in community-dwelling older adults: a protocol for a scoping review of the literature and international policies

    PubMed Central

    Puts, Martine T E; Toubasi, Samar; Atkinson, Esther; Ayala, Ana Patricia; Andrew, Melissa; Ashe, Maureen C; Bergman, Howard; Ploeg, Jenny; McGilton, Katherine S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction With ageing comes increased vulnerability such that older adults’ ability to recover from acute illnesses, fall-related injuries and other stresses related to the physical ageing processes declines. This increased vulnerability, also known as frailty, is common in older adults and associated with increased healthcare service use and adverse health outcomes. Currently, there is no overview of available interventions to prevent or reduce the level of frailty (as defined by study's authors) which will help healthcare providers in community settings caring for older adults. We will address this gap by reviewing interventions and international polices that are designed to prevent or reduce the level of frailty in community-dwelling older adults. Methods and analysis We will conduct a scoping review using the updated guidelines of Arksey and O'Malley to systematically search the peer-reviewed journal articles to identify interventions that aimed to prevent or reduce the level of frailty. We will search grey literature for international policies. The 6-stage scoping review model involves: (1) identifying the research question; (2) identifying relevant studies; (3) selecting studies; (4) charting the data; (5) collating, summarising and reporting the results and (6) consulting with key stakeholders. Ethics and dissemination Our scoping review will use robust methodology to search for available interventions focused on preventing or reducing the level of frailty in community-dwelling older adults. We will consult with stakeholders to find out whether they find the frailty interventions/policies useful and to identify the barriers and facilitators to their implementation in Canada. We will disseminate our findings to relevant stakeholders at local, national and international levels by presenting at relevant meetings and publishing the findings. Our review will identify gaps in research and provide healthcare providers and policymakers with an overview of

  5. The Genetic Privacy Act: an analysis of privacy and research concerns.

    PubMed

    Troy, E S

    1997-01-01

    Author argues that the Genetic Privacy Act fails to protect nucleic acid-based information as it relates to individual privacy, yet overburdens medical and scientific research with vague consent standards.

  6. 77 FR 38363 - Office of Privacy, Records, and Disclosure; Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... FOR AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION Office of Privacy, Records, and Disclosure; Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended AGENCY: Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction. ACTION: Notice of Proposed... Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR) gives notice of the establishment...

  7. Genetic privacy: orthodoxy or oxymoron?

    PubMed Central

    Sommerville, A; English, V

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we question whether the concept of "genetic privacy" is a contradiction in terms. And, if so, whether the implications of such a conclusion, inevitably impact on how society comes to perceive privacy and responsibility generally. Current law and ethical discourse place a high value on self-determination and the rights of individuals. In the medical sphere, the recognition of patient "rights" has resulted in health professionals being given clear duties of candour and frankness. Dilemmas arise, however, when patients decline to know relevant information or, knowing it, refuse to share it with others who may also need to know. This paper considers the notions of interconnectedness and responsibility to others which are brought to the fore in the genetic sphere and which challenge the primacy afforded to personal autonomy. It also explores the extent to which an individual's perceived moral obligations can or should be enforced. PMID:10226920

  8. Privacy issues in personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Vaszar, Laszlo T; Cho, Mildred K; Raffin, Thomas A

    2003-03-01

    Pharmacogenomics is the emerging study of why individuals respond differently to drugs. It aims to replace the current 'one size fits all' therapeutic approach with 'personalized medicine' that will use pharmacogenomic tests to predict drug response. In a simple conceptualization, these tests challenge privacy as a result of two factors: how comprehensive is the test and how is the access to samples or digital information controlled. Point-of-care tests are likely to be limited in scope, fit seamlessly into medical records and do not raise qualitatively new ethical and privacy challenges. In order to define practically relevant pharmacogenomic predictive patterns however, large-scale clinical trials and research on human specimens will be required, resulting in large databases of genomic information. The genomic scans' magnitude, stability, implications to kin and ease of dissemination together represent a qualitatively different challenge compared to traditional, self-limited and often temporally transient medical information.

  9. Privacy for All Students? Talking about and around Trans Students in "Public"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiegler, Sam

    2016-01-01

    This paper places under examination the arguments used to fight against school policies and legislation intended to guarantee and protect the rights of trans students. That is, the paper's central investigation works to uncover the regimes of truth about children, gender, race and privacy implicit in the methods employed by activists who seek to…

  10. Federal Privacy Laws That Apply to Children and Education. Safeguarding Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This table identifies and briefly describes the following federal policies that safeguard and protect the confidentiality of personal information: (1) Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA); (2) Protection of Pupil Rights Amendment (PPRA); (3) Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA); (4) Children's Online Privacy…

  11. 78 FR 32256 - Privacy Act of 1974; Report of an Altered CMS System of Records Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ..., Privacy Policy and Compliance Group, Office of E-Health Standards & Services, Offices of Enterprise... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... System of Records Notice AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), Department of Health...

  12. 77 FR 34179 - Freedom of Information Act and Privacy Act Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... public, uses its editorial skills to turn the raw materials into a distinct work, and distributes that..., ``Transparency and Openness,'' 74 FR 4685, and the Attorney General's March 19, 2009 FOIA policy guidance... response to the Interim final rule for SIGAR's FOIA and Privacy Act Regulations (77 FR 15555, March...

  13. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 806b - Privacy Impact Assessment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Privacy Impact Assessment E Appendix E to Part 806b National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION... Office is in the Office of the Air Force Chief Information Officer, Directorate of Plans and Policy,...

  14. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 806b - Privacy Impact Assessment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Privacy Impact Assessment E Appendix E to Part 806b National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION... Office is in the Office of the Air Force Chief Information Officer, Directorate of Plans and Policy,...

  15. 17 CFR 160.4 - Initial privacy notice to consumers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... You must provide a clear and conspicuous notice that accurately reflects your privacy policies and... or with a futures commission merchant that clears transactions for its customers through you on a... you pass on to a futures commission merchant for execution, if you are an introducing broker;...

  16. Computerized patient information under the Privacy Act: a regulatory effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Brannigan, V M

    1992-01-01

    Regulatory Effectiveness Analysis is a new technique for measuring compliance with a technological regulatory system. By examining the public policies, legal structures and technical tools involved in the regulatory system, it is possible to discover discontinuities which may result in non compliance with the regulatory system. This technique can be used to analyze the Veterans Health Administration's (VHA) actions under the Privacy Act.

  17. Fictional privacy among Facebook users.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The current study involved the creation of a fictional Facebook account with limited information and was designed to assess whether participants would accept the friendship of an ambiguous, unknown person. Results indicated that 325 Facebook members (72% of the sample) willingly accepted the friendship of the unknown individual. Results are discussed in relation to privacy concerns, norms of reciprocity, and allowing access to potentially embarrassing information and/or pictures. PMID:23045871

  18. Fictional privacy among Facebook users.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The current study involved the creation of a fictional Facebook account with limited information and was designed to assess whether participants would accept the friendship of an ambiguous, unknown person. Results indicated that 325 Facebook members (72% of the sample) willingly accepted the friendship of the unknown individual. Results are discussed in relation to privacy concerns, norms of reciprocity, and allowing access to potentially embarrassing information and/or pictures.

  19. Trust and Privacy in Healthcare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, Peter; Kalra, Dipak

    This paper considers issues of trust and privacy in healthcare around increased data-sharing through Electronic Health Records (EHRs). It uses a model structured around different aspects of trust in the healthcare organisation’s reasons for greater data-sharing and their ability to execute EHR projects, particularly any associated confidentiality controls. It reflects the individual’s personal circumstances and attitude to use of health records.

  20. Privacy: after the compliance date.

    PubMed

    Mikels, Debbie

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews successful strategies in preparing for HIPAA Privacy compliance. There are ongoing challenges organizations will face after the compliance date, such as managing research issues, identifying all business associates and managing the accounting of disclosures process. Finally, health information professionals must play an active role in ensuring that patient information is protected, while providing appropriate access as new uses for information are developed.

  1. Enabling Data Exchange in Two-Agent Interactive Systems Under Privacy Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmega, E. Veronica; Sankar, Lalitha; Poor, H. Vincent

    2015-10-01

    Data collecting agents in large networks, such as the electric power system, need to share information (measurements) for estimating the system state in a distributed manner. However, privacy concerns may limit or prevent this exchange leading to a tradeoff between state estimation fidelity and privacy (referred to as competitive privacy). This paper builds upon a recent information-theoretic result (using mutual information to measure privacy and mean-squared error to measure fidelity) that quantifies the region of achievable distortion-leakage tuples in a two-agent network. The objective of this paper is to study centralized and decentralized mechanisms that can enable and sustain non-trivial data exchanges among the agents. A centralized mechanism determines the data sharing policies that optimize a network-wide objective function combining the fidelities and leakages at both agents. Using common-goal games and best-response analysis, the optimal policies allow for distributed implementation. In contrast, in the decentralized setting, repeated discounted games are shown to naturally enable data exchange without any central control nor economic incentives. The effect of repetition is modeled by a time-averaged payoff function at each agent which combines its fidelity and leakage at each interaction stage. For both approaches, it is shown that non-trivial data exchange can be sustained for specific fidelity ranges even when privacy is a limiting factor.

  2. Patient Privacy: A Consumer Protection Approach

    PubMed Central

    Brannigan, Vincent M.

    1983-01-01

    In the United States, a “Constitutional Analysis” of medical data privacy has been so far unsuccessful in obtaining significant protection. Statutory protection has evolved primarily to protect the citizen against the state, not to vindicate the privacy interest of the individual. A “Consumer Protection” approach rather than a right to privacy approach can be used to develop a coherent, practical approach to the needs of various parties in the health care system in the U.S.

  3. FIELD NOTES: PEOPLE, PROGRAMS, & POLICIES Farmers' Market Produce Delivery Program for Mitigating Nutritional Risk in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Dover, Sally E; Buys, David R; Allocca, Sally; Locher, Julie L

    2013-01-01

    Community-dwelling older adults in disadvantaged neighborhoods may face nutritional risks not mitigated by existing programs. The Senior Market Basket Program, administered by nonprofit organization P.E.E.R., Inc., is a unique approach to serving community-dwelling senior adults and a valuable model for integrating targeted social services into local food systems. The program ensures access to fresh produce during the growing season for a defined target population.

  4. Student Privacy versus Campus Safety: Has Recent Legislation Compromised Privacy Rights?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Kaay, Christopher D.

    This study highlights major legislation addressing campus safety and crime reporting and discusses its impact on a student's right to privacy. The 1974 Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, commonly referred to as the "Buckley Amendment," was among the first pieces of legislation to address the notion of student privacy and confidentiality.…

  5. Privacy Challenges for Wireless Medical Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Lagesse, Brent J

    2010-01-01

    Implantable medical devices are becoming more pervasive as new technologies increase their reliability and safety. Furthermore, these devices are becoming increasingly reliant on wireless communication for interaction with the device. Such technologies have the potential to leak information that could be utilized by an attacker to threaten the lives of patients. Privacy of patient information is essential; however, this information is not the only privacy issue that must be considered. In this paper, we discuss why information privacy is insufficient for protecting patients from some attacks and how information regarding the presence of individual devices can leak vulnerabilities. Furthermore, we examine existing privacy enhancing algorithms and discuss their applicability to implantable medical devices.

  6. Privacy versus care--The shifting balance in mental health.

    PubMed

    Mork, Mary Jean; Price, Steven; Best, Kathryn

    2016-03-01

    Mental health professionals are now debating client confidentiality and its relationship to care coordination. History tells us there is a need to protect the privacy of people who are diagnosed with mental health issues in a world filled with stigma and misperceptions. People with mental illness and substance use problems may be legitimately concerned that employers, insurance companies, financial institutions, medical practices, and educational institutions could use their health information to discriminate against them, often without their knowledge. The protection of jobs and health information is a real, justifiable benefit of privacy legislation. However, there are also a host of negative consequences, including fragmented health care, lack of prevention, uninformed families, and even early death, because of a lack of coordination with medical treatment. The legal situation can be very confusing, but the upshot is that we are shifting from an environment of strict confidentiality to one of better care coordination. In short, we are moving toward a system that allows for better coordination because it improves the quality of care for our clients. At the policy level, we must lead the change process and actively support the revision and reinterpretation of existing laws and regulations. These changes will require earning the trust of the people being served. Many are wary, and some even scared, of their perceived loss of privacy. Health-care professionals must commit to the concept of coordinating care, making communication about shared care plans a priority. PMID:26963778

  7. Privacy, confidentiality and abortion statistics: a question of public interest?

    PubMed

    McHale, Jean V; Jones, June

    2012-01-01

    The precise nature and scope of healthcare confidentiality has long been the subject of debate. While the obligation of confidentiality is integral to professional ethical codes and is also safeguarded under English law through the equitable remedy of breach of confidence, underpinned by the right to privacy enshrined in Article 8 of the Human Rights Act 1998, it has never been regarded as absolute. But when can and should personal information be made available for statistical and research purposes and what if the information in question is highly sensitive information, such as that relating to the termination of pregnancy after 24 weeks? This article explores the case of In the Matter of an Appeal to the Information Tribunal under section 57 of the Freedom of Information Act 2000, concerning the decision of the Department of Health to withhold some statistical data from the publication of its annual abortion statistics. The specific data being withheld concerned the termination for serious fetal handicap under section 1(1)d of the Abortion Act 1967. The paper explores the implications of this case, which relate both to the nature and scope of personal privacy. It suggests that lessons can be drawn from this case about public interest and use of statistical information and also about general policy issues concerning the legal regulation of confidentiality and privacy in the future. PMID:21708829

  8. Privacy, confidentiality and abortion statistics: a question of public interest?

    PubMed

    McHale, Jean V; Jones, June

    2012-01-01

    The precise nature and scope of healthcare confidentiality has long been the subject of debate. While the obligation of confidentiality is integral to professional ethical codes and is also safeguarded under English law through the equitable remedy of breach of confidence, underpinned by the right to privacy enshrined in Article 8 of the Human Rights Act 1998, it has never been regarded as absolute. But when can and should personal information be made available for statistical and research purposes and what if the information in question is highly sensitive information, such as that relating to the termination of pregnancy after 24 weeks? This article explores the case of In the Matter of an Appeal to the Information Tribunal under section 57 of the Freedom of Information Act 2000, concerning the decision of the Department of Health to withhold some statistical data from the publication of its annual abortion statistics. The specific data being withheld concerned the termination for serious fetal handicap under section 1(1)d of the Abortion Act 1967. The paper explores the implications of this case, which relate both to the nature and scope of personal privacy. It suggests that lessons can be drawn from this case about public interest and use of statistical information and also about general policy issues concerning the legal regulation of confidentiality and privacy in the future.

  9. Privacy versus care--The shifting balance in mental health.

    PubMed

    Mork, Mary Jean; Price, Steven; Best, Kathryn

    2016-03-01

    Mental health professionals are now debating client confidentiality and its relationship to care coordination. History tells us there is a need to protect the privacy of people who are diagnosed with mental health issues in a world filled with stigma and misperceptions. People with mental illness and substance use problems may be legitimately concerned that employers, insurance companies, financial institutions, medical practices, and educational institutions could use their health information to discriminate against them, often without their knowledge. The protection of jobs and health information is a real, justifiable benefit of privacy legislation. However, there are also a host of negative consequences, including fragmented health care, lack of prevention, uninformed families, and even early death, because of a lack of coordination with medical treatment. The legal situation can be very confusing, but the upshot is that we are shifting from an environment of strict confidentiality to one of better care coordination. In short, we are moving toward a system that allows for better coordination because it improves the quality of care for our clients. At the policy level, we must lead the change process and actively support the revision and reinterpretation of existing laws and regulations. These changes will require earning the trust of the people being served. Many are wary, and some even scared, of their perceived loss of privacy. Health-care professionals must commit to the concept of coordinating care, making communication about shared care plans a priority.

  10. Efficient Discovery of De-identification Policies Through a Risk-Utility Frontier

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Weiyi; Heatherly, Raymond; Ding, Xiaofeng; Li, Jiuyong; Malin, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Modern information technologies enable organizations to capture large quantities of person-specific data while providing routine services. Many organizations hope, or are legally required, to share such data for secondary purposes (e.g., validation of research findings) in a de-identified manner. In previous work, it was shown de-identification policy alternatives could be modeled on a lattice, which could be searched for policies that met a prespecified risk threshold (e.g., likelihood of re-identification). However, the search was limited in several ways. First, its definition of utility was syntactic - based on the level of the lattice - and not semantic - based on the actual changes induced in the resulting data. Second, the threshold may not be known in advance. The goal of this work is to build the optimal set of policies that trade-off between privacy risk (R) and utility (U), which we refer to as a R-U frontier. To model this problem, we introduce a semantic definition of utility, based on information theory, that is compatible with the lattice representation of policies. To solve the problem, we initially build a set of policies that define a frontier. We then use a probability-guided heuristic to search the lattice for policies likely to update the frontier. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, we perform an empirical analysis with the Adult dataset of the UCI Machine Learning Repository. We show that our approach can construct a frontier closer to optimal than competitive approaches by searching a smaller number of policies. In addition, we show that a frequently followed de-identification policy (i.e., the Safe Harbor standard of the HIPAA Privacy Rule) is suboptimal in comparison to the frontier discovered by our approach. PMID:25520961

  11. Security and privacy services in pathology for enabling trustworthy personal health.

    PubMed

    Blobel, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitous personalized health services including ePathology require comprehensive, but trusted interoperability. Contrary to regulated traditional health services with pre-defined policies, the solutions enabled by mobile, pervasive and autonomous technology have to follow dynamic policies reflecting the customers changing health services needs, expectations and wishes as well as contextual and environmental conditions. The paper introduces an advanced approach to trustworthy architecture-centric, policy-driven pHealth solutions. To some details, it also addresses security and privacy ontologies to represent the required policies.

  12. National Information Policy: An Insider's View and National and International Information Policies and The Analysis of Information Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, Toni Carbo; And Others

    1986-01-01

    In the first of three articles, Bearman discusses trends, policy issues, and implications of policy developments for the library and information community. Jacob and Rings discuss copyright law, regulations, culture, language, recent technological developments, economic aspects, and privacy legislation. Burger provides background on evaluating…

  13. Network Policy and Economic Doctrines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    For many years, debates over telecommunications network policy were marked by a relative lack of partisan and ideological conflict. In the last decade, this has changed markedly. Today, debates over a whole set of issues, including broadband competition, net neutrality, copyright, privacy, and others, have become more contentious. These…

  14. 32 CFR 275.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INFORMATION FROM FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS: RIGHT TO FINANCIAL PRIVACY ACT OF 1978 § 275.4 Policy. It is DoD policy that: (a) Authorization of the customer to whom the financial records pertain shall be sought.... The guidance set forth in Appendix N of subpart B may be used to obtain financial information...

  15. 32 CFR 316.5 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 316.5 Policy. It is the policy of DISA: (a) To preserve the... personal information in a manner that assures that such action is for a necessary and lawful purpose; that the information is timely and accurate for its intended use; and that adequate safeguards are...

  16. 48 CFR 824.203 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROTECTION OF PRIVACY AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act 824.203 Policy. VA rules implementing the Freedom of Information Act are in 38 CFR 1.550 through 1.559. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 824.203...

  17. 48 CFR 1224.203 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... offices are located in 49 CFR Part 7. Specific contract award information shall be requested from the FOIA... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 1224.203 Section... PROTECTION OF PRIVACY AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act 1224.203 Policy. DOT rules...

  18. 48 CFR 724.202 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Information Act are codified in 22 CFR part 212 (USAID Regulation 12). ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 724.202 Section... PROGRAMS PROTECTION OF PRIVACY AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act 724.202 Policy. The...

  19. 32 CFR 323.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... LOGISTICS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 323.2 Policy. It is the policy of DLA to safeguard personal information contained in any system of records maintained by DLA activities and to make that information available to... that DLA activities: (a) Collect, maintain, use, and disseminate personal information only when it...

  20. 32 CFR 323.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... disclosure is made under DLAR 5400.14, DLA Freedom of Information Act Program (32 CFR part 1285). (f) Keep no... duties. (2) Under 32 CFR part 1285 (DLAR 5400.14). (m) Advise individuals on their rights to appeal any... LOGISTICS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 323.2 Policy. It is the policy of DLA to safeguard personal...

  1. 32 CFR 323.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... disclosure is made under DLAR 5400.14, DLA Freedom of Information Act Program (32 CFR part 1285). (f) Keep no... duties. (2) Under 32 CFR part 1285 (DLAR 5400.14). (m) Advise individuals on their rights to appeal any... LOGISTICS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 323.2 Policy. It is the policy of DLA to safeguard personal...

  2. 48 CFR 2124.102-70 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Policy. 2124.102-70 Section 2124.102-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES... FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Protection of Individual Privacy 2124.102-70 Policy. Records retained by...

  3. 48 CFR 2024.202 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROTECTION OF PRIVACY AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act 2024.202 Policy. The provisions at 10 CFR part 9, subpart A, Freedom of Information Act Regulations, are applicable to the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Policy. 2024.202...

  4. 48 CFR 2024.202 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROTECTION OF PRIVACY AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act 2024.202 Policy. The provisions at 10 CFR part 9, subpart A, Freedom of Information Act Regulations, are applicable to the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Policy. 2024.202...

  5. 48 CFR 2024.202 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROTECTION OF PRIVACY AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act 2024.202 Policy. The provisions at 10 CFR part 9, subpart A, Freedom of Information Act Regulations, are applicable to the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Policy. 2024.202...

  6. 48 CFR 24.203 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Policy. 24.203 Section 24... PROTECTION OF PRIVACY AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act 24.203 Policy. (a) The Act specifies, among other things, how agencies shall make their records available upon public request,...

  7. 45 CFR 5b.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 5b.3 Section 5b.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.3 Policy. It is... public is entitled to have under the Freedom of Information Act, 5 U.S.C. 552, and part 5 of this title....

  8. Public Policy Affirmations Affecting the Planning and Implementation of Developmental Services for Children and Adults with HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocker, Allen C., Comp.; And Others

    The increasing number of individuals infected with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has created a need to examine public policy issues and to further efforts in planning, implementing, and evaluating services for individuals with HIV infection and their families. A working conference was convened, which identified several…

  9. 42 CFR 457.1110 - Privacy protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Privacy protections. 457.1110 Section 457.1110 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Requirements: Applicant and Enrollee Protections § 457.1110 Privacy protections. The State must ensure...

  10. 42 CFR 457.1110 - Privacy protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Privacy protections. 457.1110 Section 457.1110 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Requirements: Applicant and Enrollee Protections § 457.1110 Privacy protections. The State must ensure...

  11. 42 CFR 457.1110 - Privacy protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Privacy protections. 457.1110 Section 457.1110 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Requirements: Applicant and Enrollee Protections § 457.1110 Privacy protections. The State must ensure...

  12. 42 CFR 457.1110 - Privacy protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Privacy protections. 457.1110 Section 457.1110 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Requirements: Applicant and Enrollee Protections § 457.1110 Privacy protections. The State must ensure...

  13. Privacy and Ethics in Undergraduate GIS Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scull, Peter; Burnett, Adam; Dolfi, Emmalee; Goldfarb, Ali; Baum, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The development of location-aware technologies, such as smartphones, raises serious questions regarding locational privacy and the ethical use of geographic data. The degree to which these concepts are taught in undergraduate geographic information science (GISci) courses is unknown. A survey of GISci educators shows that issues of privacy and…

  14. Reconsidering the Right to Privacy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shade, Leslie Regan

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that post-September 11 political debates and legislation around security necessitates a reconsideration of a right to privacy in Canada. It looks at the proposal for a Canadian Charter of Privacy Rights promoted by Senator Sheila Finestone in the late 1990s and the current challenges of emergent material technologies…

  15. 77 FR 19095 - Privacy Act; Implementation; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... (77 FR 15595-15596), Department of Defense published a direct final rule titled Privacy Act... In the direct final rule (FR Doc. 2012-6170) published on March 16, 2012 (77 FR 15595-15596), make... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 322 Privacy Act; Implementation; Correction AGENCY: Office of...

  16. 49 CFR 10.13 - Privacy Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Privacy Officer. 10.13 Section 10.13... INDIVIDUALS General § 10.13 Privacy Officer. (a) To assist with implementation, evaluation, and administration issues, the Chief Information Officer appoints a principal coordinating official with the title...

  17. 42 CFR 457.1110 - Privacy protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Privacy protections. 457.1110 Section 457.1110... Requirements: Applicant and Enrollee Protections § 457.1110 Privacy protections. The State must ensure that... disclosure, including those laws addressing the confidentiality of information about minors and the...

  18. Privacy-Preserving Location-Based Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Chi Yin

    2010-01-01

    Location-based services (LBS for short) providers require users' current locations to answer their location-based queries, e.g., range and nearest-neighbor queries. Revealing personal location information to potentially untrusted service providers could create privacy risks for users. To this end, our objective is to design a privacy-preserving…

  19. Just in Time Research: Privacy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grama, Joanna Lyn

    2014-01-01

    The January 2014 edition of the ECAR Update subscriber newsletter included an informal poll on information privacy practices. The poll was intended to collect a quick snapshot of the higher education community's thoughts on this important topic during Data Privacy Month. Results of the poll will be used to inform EDUCAUSE research, programs,…

  20. Protecting Privacy in Computerized Medical Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This report analyzes the implications of computerized medical information and the challenges it brings to individual privacy. The report examines the nature of the privacy interest in health care information and the current state of the law protecting that information; the nature of proposals to computerize health care information and the…

  1. A Deontological View of the Privacy Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Alan

    The mass media are at odds with the public on issues concerning privacy, i.e., issues concerning whether private information about a person should be printed in a newspaper or magazine. In a 1982 survey, one journalist/respondent said his or her newspaper "almost always" favored the public's right to know over a person's right to privacy.…

  2. Privacy Questions from Practicing School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2004-01-01

    This Question and Answer (Q&A) article addresses practice issues related to school health records and school nursing documentation that were posed by school nurses in the field. Specifically, the questions addressed concern the following: education records, medication privacy issues, sharing of sensitive health information, privacy of individual…

  3. Privacy and the National Information Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Marc

    1994-01-01

    Explains the work of Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility regarding privacy issues in the use of electronic networks; recommends principles that should be adopted for a National Information Infrastructure privacy code; discusses the need for public education; and suggests pertinent legislative proposals. (LRW)

  4. The Press, Privacy, and Community Mores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, Theodore L.

    Because of judicial indifference and legislative inaction, the conflict between the right of privacy and the freedom of the press is no closer to a resolution than it was a century ago. William Prosser's reduction of the common law of privacy into four separate torts has not solved the problem. The concept of "newsworthiness" has not been helpful…

  5. 75 FR 54162 - Privacy Act of 1974

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... should address comments to: Walter Stone, CMS Privacy Officer, Division of Information Security & Privacy... extended CHAMPVA benefit to age 65 for any beneficiary eligible for Medicare Part A on the basis of... Law 107-14 provided for extending benefit coverage for beneficiaries over the age of 65 years if...

  6. 77 FR 57013 - Privacy Act; Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 319 Privacy Act; Implementation AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, DoD. ACTION: Direct final rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: The Defense Intelligence Agency is updating the Defense Intelligence Agency Privacy Act Program, by adding the (k)(2) exemption to...

  7. 77 FR 15591 - Privacy Act; Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 319 Privacy Act; Implementation AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, DoD. ACTION: Direct final rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: The Defense Intelligence Agency is deleting... makes nonsubstantive changes to the Defense Intelligence Agency Privacy Program rules. These...

  8. Update on patient privacy legislation.

    PubMed

    Maddox, P J

    1998-01-01

    The administrative simplification provisions of HIPAA will establish the first national standards for the electronic transmission of health care transactions with which all federal programs (DOD, Medicare, and Medicaid) and all private health plans must comply. Individuals and organizations should prepare themselves, their systems, and their processes to meet these new administrative and financial data standards and requirements. The benefits of standardized electronic transactions on achieving a single paper-free claims submission to be used by all providers and payers is of obvious benefit. Not so obvious are consequences associated with limiting the access and use of existing data repositories on a variety of clinical, administrative, and research functions. It is critically important in this age of increased accountability for fiscal restraint and improving the outcomes of entire patient populations that clinicians, managers, organizations, and researchers to use data for a variety of clinical, quality improvement/evaluation, and research purposes. Administrative simplification and protecting individual privacy should not be achieved by overly bureaucratic and restrictive responses that impede epidemiologic and health services research, quality improvement activities, and optimization strategies for improving the health of populations. While the health system understands the need for some increased regulation to ensure the privacy of individual patient privacy in the "wired" world solutions must be found and overly restrictive consequences associated with prohibiting access to data must be resolved. More than ever, the entire system requires data to inform every level and type of decision made. Legislation and bureaucratic processes that do not understand and support responsible data-driven decision-making will serve to roll-back, not advance health system improvement. As we prepare ourselves for HIPAA compliance and the expectations of the benefits it will

  9. Changing Skills for a Changing World: Recommendations for Adult Literacy Policy in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Occasional Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Alice H.

    This report summarizes issues facing New Zealand's modern adult literacy movement and places it in the context of the rapidly changing skill demands of the 21st century. Part I introduces political, economic, and social issues facing New Zealand. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the issues and structures that create the current climate. Part II…

  10. Policy Changes in Medicare Home Health Care: Challenges to Providing Family-Centered, Community-Based Care for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davitt, Joan K.

    2009-01-01

    The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA) established new reimbursement systems in the Medicare home health fee-for-service benefit. Reimbursements were reduced to 1993 levels and per-beneficiary capitated limits were introduced for the first time. This article analyzes the impact of these changes on chronically ill older adults and their families.…

  11. Adult Education and the Contested Terrain of Public Policy. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Canadian Association for the Study of Adult Education (21st, Toronto, Ontario May 30-31 and June 1, 2002). = L'Education des Adultes et le Domaine Controverse des Affaires Publiques. Actes Annuel de L'Association Canadienne pour L'Etude de L'Education des Adultes (21eme, Toronto, Ontario, 30-31 Mai et 1 Juin, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojab, Shahrzad, Ed.; McQueen, William, Ed.

    This document contains the texts of 57 papers, 10 roundtables, and 7 symposia from a Canadian conference on adult education and public policy. The following are among the papers included: "Childhood, Schooling Family and Community" (Margarida Aguiar); "Voices Inside" (Irene C. Baird); "Beyond Personal Agency" (Rose Barg); "Participatory Research,…

  12. Protecting privacy in a clinical data warehouse.

    PubMed

    Kong, Guilan; Xiao, Zhichun

    2015-06-01

    Peking University has several prestigious teaching hospitals in China. To make secondary use of massive medical data for research purposes, construction of a clinical data warehouse is imperative in Peking University. However, a big concern for clinical data warehouse construction is how to protect patient privacy. In this project, we propose to use a combination of symmetric block ciphers, asymmetric ciphers, and cryptographic hashing algorithms to protect patient privacy information. The novelty of our privacy protection approach lies in message-level data encryption, the key caching system, and the cryptographic key management system. The proposed privacy protection approach is scalable to clinical data warehouse construction with any size of medical data. With the composite privacy protection approach, the clinical data warehouse can be secure enough to keep the confidential data from leaking to the outside world.

  13. Protecting privacy in a clinical data warehouse.

    PubMed

    Kong, Guilan; Xiao, Zhichun

    2015-06-01

    Peking University has several prestigious teaching hospitals in China. To make secondary use of massive medical data for research purposes, construction of a clinical data warehouse is imperative in Peking University. However, a big concern for clinical data warehouse construction is how to protect patient privacy. In this project, we propose to use a combination of symmetric block ciphers, asymmetric ciphers, and cryptographic hashing algorithms to protect patient privacy information. The novelty of our privacy protection approach lies in message-level data encryption, the key caching system, and the cryptographic key management system. The proposed privacy protection approach is scalable to clinical data warehouse construction with any size of medical data. With the composite privacy protection approach, the clinical data warehouse can be secure enough to keep the confidential data from leaking to the outside world. PMID:25301198

  14. Secure Message Distribution Scheme with Configurable Privacy in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yahui; Ma, Jianfeng; Moon, Sangjae

    Security and privacy of wireless sensor networks are key research issues recently. Most existing researches regarding wireless sensor networks security consider homogenous sensor networks. To achieve better security and performance, we adopt a heterogeneous wireless sensor network (HWSN) model that consists of physically different types of sensor nodes. This paper presents a secure message distribution scheme with configurable privacy for HWSNs, which takes advantage of powerful high-end sensor nodes. The scheme establishes a message distribution topology in an efficient and secure manner. The sensor node only need generate one signature for all the messages for all the users, which can greatly save the communication and computation cost of the sensor node. On the other hand, the user can only know the messages that let him know based on a pre-set policy, which can meet the requirement of the privacy. We show that the scheme has small bandwidth requirements and it is resilient against the node compromise attack.

  15. Policymaking to preserve privacy in disclosure of public health data: a suggested framework.

    PubMed

    Mizani, Mehrdad A; Baykal, Nazife

    2015-03-01

    Health organisations in Turkey gather a vast amount of valuable individual data that can be used for public health purposes. The organisations use rigid methods to remove some useful details from the data while publishing the rest of the data in a highly aggregated form, mostly because of privacy concerns and lack of standardised policies. This action leads to information loss and bias affecting public health research. Hence, organisations need dynamic policies and well-defined procedures rather than a specific algorithm to protect the privacy of individual data. To address this need, we developed a framework for the systematic application of anonymity methods while reducing and objectively reporting the information loss without leaking confidentiality. This framework acts as a roadmap for policymaking by providing high-level pseudo-policies with semitechnical guidelines in addition to some sample scenarios suitable for policymakers, public health programme managers and legislators.

  16. EPPS: Efficient and Privacy-Preserving Personal Health Information Sharing in Mobile Healthcare Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shunrong; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Liangmin

    2015-01-01

    Mobile healthcare social networks (MHSNs) have emerged as a promising next-generation healthcare system, which will significantly improve the quality of life. However, there are many security and privacy concerns before personal health information (PHI) is shared with other parities. To ensure patients' full control over their PHI, we propose a fine-grained and scalable data access control scheme based on attribute-based encryption (ABE). Besides, policies themselves for PHI sharing may be sensitive and may reveal information about underlying PHI or about data owners or recipients. In our scheme, we let each attribute contain an attribute name and its value and adopt the Bloom filter to efficiently check attributes before decryption. Thus, the data privacy and policy privacy can be preserved in our proposed scheme. Moreover, considering the fact that the computational cost grows with the complexity of the access policy and the limitation of the resource and energy in a smart phone, we outsource ABE decryption to the cloud while preventing the cloud from learning anything about the content and access policy. The security and performance analysis is carried out to demonstrate that our proposed scheme can achieve fine-grained access policies for PHI sharing in MHSNs. PMID:26404300

  17. EPPS: Efficient and Privacy-Preserving Personal Health Information Sharing in Mobile Healthcare Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shunrong; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Liangmin

    2015-01-01

    Mobile healthcare social networks (MHSNs) have emerged as a promising next-generation healthcare system, which will significantly improve the quality of life. However, there are many security and privacy concerns before personal health information (PHI) is shared with other parities. To ensure patients’ full control over their PHI, we propose a fine-grained and scalable data access control scheme based on attribute-based encryption (ABE). Besides, policies themselves for PHI sharing may be sensitive and may reveal information about underlying PHI or about data owners or recipients. In our scheme, we let each attribute contain an attribute name and its value and adopt the Bloom filter to efficiently check attributes before decryption. Thus, the data privacy and policy privacy can be preserved in our proposed scheme. Moreover, considering the fact that the computational cost grows with the complexity of the access policy and the limitation of the resource and energy in a smart phone, we outsource ABE decryption to the cloud while preventing the cloud from learning anything about the content and access policy. The security and performance analysis is carried out to demonstrate that our proposed scheme can achieve fine-grained access policies for PHI sharing in MHSNs. PMID:26404300

  18. EPPS: Efficient and Privacy-Preserving Personal Health Information Sharing in Mobile Healthcare Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shunrong; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Liangmin

    2015-09-03

    Mobile healthcare social networks (MHSNs) have emerged as a promising next-generation healthcare system, which will significantly improve the quality of life. However, there are many security and privacy concerns before personal health information (PHI) is shared with other parities. To ensure patients' full control over their PHI, we propose a fine-grained and scalable data access control scheme based on attribute-based encryption (ABE). Besides, policies themselves for PHI sharing may be sensitive and may reveal information about underlying PHI or about data owners or recipients. In our scheme, we let each attribute contain an attribute name and its value and adopt the Bloom filter to efficiently check attributes before decryption. Thus, the data privacy and policy privacy can be preserved in our proposed scheme. Moreover, considering the fact that the computational cost grows with the complexity of the access policy and the limitation of the resource and energy in a smart phone, we outsource ABE decryption to the cloud while preventing the cloud from learning anything about the content and access policy. The security and performance analysis is carried out to demonstrate that our proposed scheme can achieve fine-grained access policies for PHI sharing in MHSNs.

  19. A policy analysis of adult literacy promotion in the Third World: An accounting of promises made and promises fulfilled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhola, H. S.

    1985-09-01

    To the individual, literacy has promised a new mentality, a new social definition, and new economic capacities. At the collective level, literacy has promised modernization of institutions, democratization of political systems, and cultural renewal of societies in the Third World. Have the promises of literacy been fulfilled? The processes of policy formulation, policy analysis and policy assessment are essentially social processes and a search for `proof' of the effects of literacy is naive, to say the least. What we need is a position on literacy promotion that is plausible, credible and probable, and thereby compelling for action. While both the enthusiasts for literacy and the sceptics continue to draw different conclusions from the same research and experience, a consensus is emerging that the question `Why Literacy?' should now be laid to rest. The question to ask now should be: `How Literacy?' In regard to the question of `How Literacy?', there are two basic positions: Should literacy be taught within the specific small-frame of the selective and intensive approach to literacy, with the provision of basic needs? Or, should literacy be taught within a large-frame of literacy as a `potential added', on a mass-scale and with the political orientation? This paper clearly opts for literacy as generative rather than merely instrumental.

  20. VOIP for Telerehabilitation: A Risk Analysis for Privacy, Security and HIPAA Compliance: Part II

    PubMed Central

    Watzlaf, Valerie J.M.; Moeini, Sohrab; Matusow, Laura; Firouzan, Patti

    2011-01-01

    In a previous publication the authors developed a privacy and security checklist to evaluate Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) videoconferencing software used between patients and therapists to provide telerehabilitation (TR) therapy. In this paper, the privacy and security checklist that was previously developed is used to perform a risk analysis of the top ten VoIP videoconferencing software to determine if their policies provide answers to the privacy and security checklist. Sixty percent of the companies claimed they do not listen into video-therapy calls unless maintenance is needed. Only 50% of the companies assessed use some form of encryption, and some did not specify what type of encryption was used. Seventy percent of the companies assessed did not specify any form of auditing on their servers. Statistically significant differences across company websites were found for sharing information outside of the country (p=0.010), encryption (p=0.006), and security evaluation (p=0.005). Healthcare providers considering use of VoIP software for TR services may consider using this privacy and security checklist before deciding to incorporate a VoIP software system for TR. Other videoconferencing software that is specific for TR with strong encryption, good access controls, and hardware that meets privacy and security standards should be considered for use with TR. PMID:25945177

  1. The Risks to Patient Privacy from Publishing Data from Clinical Anesthesia Studies.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Liam; Dexter, Franklin; Zhang, Nan

    2016-06-01

    In this article, we consider the privacy implications of posting data from small, randomized trials, observational studies, or case series in anesthesia from a few (e.g., 1-3) hospitals. Prior to publishing such data as supplemental digital content, the authors remove attributes that could be used to re-identify individuals, a process known as "anonymization." Posting health information that has been properly "de-identified" is assumed to pose no risks to patient privacy. Yet, computer scientists have demonstrated that this assumption is flawed. We consider various realistic scenarios of how the publication of such data could lead to breaches of patient privacy. Several examples of successful privacy attacks are reviewed, as well as the methods used. We survey the latest models and methods from computer science for protecting health information and their application to posting data from small anesthesia studies. To illustrate the vulnerability of such published data, we calculate the "population uniqueness" for patients undergoing one or more surgical procedures using data from the State of Texas. For a patient selected uniformly at random, the probability that an adversary could match this patient's record to a unique record in the state external database was 42.8% (SE < 0.1%). Despite the 42.8% being an unacceptably high level of risk, it underestimates the risk for patients from smaller states or provinces. We propose an editorial policy that greatly reduces the likelihood of a privacy breach, while supporting the goal of transparency of the research process.

  2. Security of electronic medical information and patient privacy: what you need to know.

    PubMed

    Andriole, Katherine P

    2014-12-01

    The responsibility that physicians have to protect their patients from harm extends to protecting the privacy and confidentiality of patient health information including that contained within radiological images. The intent of HIPAA and subsequent HIPAA Privacy and Security Rules is to keep patients' private information confidential while allowing providers access to and maintaining the integrity of relevant information needed to provide care. Failure to comply with electronic protected health information (ePHI) regulations could result in financial or criminal penalties or both. Protected health information refers to anything that can reasonably be used to identify a patient (eg, name, age, date of birth, social security number, radiology examination accession number). The basic tools and techniques used to maintain medical information security and patient privacy described in this article include physical safeguards such as computer device isolation and data backup, technical safeguards such as firewalls and secure transmission modes, and administrative safeguards including documentation of security policies, training of staff, and audit tracking through system logs. Other important concepts related to privacy and security are explained, including user authentication, authorization, availability, confidentiality, data integrity, and nonrepudiation. Patient privacy and security of medical information are critical elements in today's electronic health care environment. Radiology has led the way in adopting digital systems to make possible the availability of medical information anywhere anytime, and in identifying and working to eliminate any risks to patients. PMID:25467897

  3. The Risks to Patient Privacy from Publishing Data from Clinical Anesthesia Studies.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Liam; Dexter, Franklin; Zhang, Nan

    2016-06-01

    In this article, we consider the privacy implications of posting data from small, randomized trials, observational studies, or case series in anesthesia from a few (e.g., 1-3) hospitals. Prior to publishing such data as supplemental digital content, the authors remove attributes that could be used to re-identify individuals, a process known as "anonymization." Posting health information that has been properly "de-identified" is assumed to pose no risks to patient privacy. Yet, computer scientists have demonstrated that this assumption is flawed. We consider various realistic scenarios of how the publication of such data could lead to breaches of patient privacy. Several examples of successful privacy attacks are reviewed, as well as the methods used. We survey the latest models and methods from computer science for protecting health information and their application to posting data from small anesthesia studies. To illustrate the vulnerability of such published data, we calculate the "population uniqueness" for patients undergoing one or more surgical procedures using data from the State of Texas. For a patient selected uniformly at random, the probability that an adversary could match this patient's record to a unique record in the state external database was 42.8% (SE < 0.1%). Despite the 42.8% being an unacceptably high level of risk, it underestimates the risk for patients from smaller states or provinces. We propose an editorial policy that greatly reduces the likelihood of a privacy breach, while supporting the goal of transparency of the research process. PMID:27172145

  4. Security of electronic medical information and patient privacy: what you need to know.

    PubMed

    Andriole, Katherine P

    2014-12-01

    The responsibility that physicians have to protect their patients from harm extends to protecting the privacy and confidentiality of patient health information including that contained within radiological images. The intent of HIPAA and subsequent HIPAA Privacy and Security Rules is to keep patients' private information confidential while allowing providers access to and maintaining the integrity of relevant information needed to provide care. Failure to comply with electronic protected health information (ePHI) regulations could result in financial or criminal penalties or both. Protected health information refers to anything that can reasonably be used to identify a patient (eg, name, age, date of birth, social security number, radiology examination accession number). The basic tools and techniques used to maintain medical information security and patient privacy described in this article include physical safeguards such as computer device isolation and data backup, technical safeguards such as firewalls and secure transmission modes, and administrative safeguards including documentation of security policies, training of staff, and audit tracking through system logs. Other important concepts related to privacy and security are explained, including user authentication, authorization, availability, confidentiality, data integrity, and nonrepudiation. Patient privacy and security of medical information are critical elements in today's electronic health care environment. Radiology has led the way in adopting digital systems to make possible the availability of medical information anywhere anytime, and in identifying and working to eliminate any risks to patients.

  5. 12 CFR 1016.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 1016.2 Section... INFORMATION (REGULATION P) § 1016.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model... model privacy form is not required. (b) Examples. The examples in this part are not...

  6. 12 CFR 1016.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 1016.2 Section... INFORMATION (REGULATION P) § 1016.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model... model privacy form is not required. (b) Examples. The examples in this part are not...

  7. 12 CFR 1016.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 1016.2 Section... INFORMATION (REGULATION P) § 1016.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model... model privacy form is not required. (b) Examples. The examples in this part are not...

  8. 10 CFR 1304.103 - Privacy Act inquiries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Privacy Act inquiries. 1304.103 Section 1304.103 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.103 Privacy Act inquiries. (a) Requests... writing may be sent to: Privacy Act Officer, U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board, 2300...

  9. 25 CFR 700.259 - Records subject to Privacy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records subject to Privacy Act. 700.259 Section 700.259 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Privacy Act § 700.259 Records subject to Privacy Act. The Privacy Act applies to all “records” as...

  10. 4 CFR 200.13 - Privacy Act training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Privacy Act training. 200.13 Section 200.13 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.13 Privacy Act training. (a) The... any Board systems of records are informed of all requirements necessary to protect the privacy...

  11. 43 CFR 2.47 - Records subject to Privacy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Records subject to Privacy Act. 2.47 Section 2.47 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior RECORDS AND TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT Privacy Act § 2.47 Records subject to Privacy Act. The Privacy Act applies to...

  12. 17 CFR 248.8 - Revised privacy notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revised privacy notices. 248.8...) REGULATIONS S-P AND S-AM Regulation S-P: Privacy of Consumer Financial Information and Safeguarding Personal Information Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 248.8 Revised privacy notices. (a) General rule. Except as...

  13. 16 CFR 313.8 - Revised privacy notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Revised privacy notices. 313.8 Section 313.8 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 313.8 Revised privacy notices. (a) General rule....

  14. 12 CFR 573.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 573.2 Section 573.2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 573.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the...

  15. 17 CFR 160.8 - Revised privacy notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revised privacy notices. 160.8 Section 160.8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 160.8 Revised privacy notices. (a) General rule....

  16. 12 CFR 573.8 - Revised privacy notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Revised privacy notices. 573.8 Section 573.8 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 573.8 Revised privacy notices. (a) General rule. Except as...

  17. 12 CFR 216.8 - Revised privacy notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Revised privacy notices. 216.8 Section 216.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION (REGULATION P) Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 216.8 Revised privacy...

  18. 12 CFR 40.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 40.2 Section 40.2 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 40.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the...

  19. 32 CFR 310.43 - Privacy Act inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Privacy Act inspections. 310.43 Section 310.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Inspections § 310.43 Privacy Act inspections. During internal...

  20. 12 CFR 716.8 - Revised privacy notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Revised privacy notices. 716.8 Section 716.8 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 716.8 Revised privacy notices. (a)...