Science.gov

Sample records for adult privacy policy

  1. Privacy Policy

    MedlinePlus

    ... are available at: http://www.addthis.com/privacy . Go.USA.Gov and Bit.ly NLM uses the Go.USA.gov and Bit.ly URL shortening services. ... shortened URLs. The analytics data is provided by Go.USA.Gov and Bit.ly. This data does ...

  2. Conformance Verification of Privacy Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiang

    Web applications are both the consumers and providers of information. To increase customer confidence, many websites choose to publish their privacy protection policies. However, policy conformance is often neglected. We propose a logic based framework for formally specifying and reasoning about the implementation of privacy protection by a web application. A first order extension of computation tree logic is used to specify a policy. A verification paradigm, built upon a static control/data flow analysis, is presented to verify if a policy is satisfied.

  3. EGRP Privacy Policy & Disclaimers

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program complies with requirements for privacy and security established by the Office of Management and Budget, Department of Health and Human Services, the National Institutes of Health, and the National Cancer Institute.

  4. 75 FR 22577 - Proposed Privacy Policy Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Privacy Policy Statement AGENCY: U.S. Election Assistance Commission. ACTION: Notice and request for public comment on Proposed Privacy Policy Statement. SUMMARY: The U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC) seeks public comment on the Proposed Privacy Policy Statement. OMB Memorandum M-99-...

  5. Privacy Policy | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) respects the privacy of users of its Web sites. This is why we have taken the time to disclose our privacy policy and information collection practices. NCI does not disclose, give, sell, or transfer any personal information about visitors unless required to do so by law. NCI automatically collects a limited amount of information about the use of Web sites for statistical purposes, that is, to measure the numbers of visitors. This information may be helpful when considering changes that improve our web sites for future visitors.

  6. Extending SQL to Support Privacy Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazinour, Kambiz; Pun, Sampson; Majedi, Maryam; Chinaci, Amir H.; Barker, Ken

    Increasing concerns over Internet applications that violate user privacy by exploiting (back-end) database vulnerabilities must be addressed to protect both customer privacy and to ensure corporate strategic assets remain trustworthy. This chapter describes an extension onto database catalogues and Structured Query Language (SQL) for supporting privacy in Internet applications, such as in social networks, e-health, e-governmcnt, etc. The idea is to introduce new predicates to SQL commands to capture common privacy requirements, such as purpose, visibility, generalization, and retention for both mandatory and discretionary access control policies. The contribution is that corporations, when creating the underlying databases, will be able to define what their mandatory privacy policies arc with which all application users have to comply. Furthermore, each application user, when providing their own data, will be able to define their own privacy policies with which other users have to comply. The extension is supported with underlying catalogues and algorithms. The experiments demonstrate a very reasonable overhead for the extension. The result is a low-cost mechanism to create new systems that arc privacy aware and also to transform legacy databases to their privacy-preserving equivalents. Although the examples arc from social networks, one can apply the results to data security and user privacy of other enterprises as well.

  7. 32 CFR 1701.4 - Privacy Act responsibilities/policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Privacy Act responsibilities/policy. 1701.4... NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE ADMINISTRATION OF RECORDS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 1701.4 Privacy Act...

  8. 32 CFR 1701.4 - Privacy Act responsibilities/policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Privacy Act responsibilities/policy. 1701.4... NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE ADMINISTRATION OF RECORDS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 1701.4 Privacy Act...

  9. 32 CFR 1701.4 - Privacy Act responsibilities/policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Privacy Act responsibilities/policy. 1701.4... NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE ADMINISTRATION OF RECORDS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 1701.4 Privacy Act...

  10. 32 CFR 1701.4 - Privacy Act responsibilities/policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Privacy Act responsibilities/policy. 1701.4... NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE ADMINISTRATION OF RECORDS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 1701.4 Privacy Act...

  11. 32 CFR 1701.4 - Privacy Act responsibilities/policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Privacy Act responsibilities/policy. 1701.4... NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE ADMINISTRATION OF RECORDS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 1701.4 Privacy Act...

  12. MedlinePlus: Privacy Policy

    MedlinePlus

    ... is available at: https://bitly.com/pages/privacy . Facebook NLM has multiple Facebook pages where we share information about NLM news, ... register or provide personal information to view our Facebook pages. The complete list of NLM Facebook pages ...

  13. Privacy policies for health social networking sites

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingquan

    2013-01-01

    Health social networking sites (HSNS), virtual communities where users connect with each other around common problems and share relevant health data, have been increasingly adopted by medical professionals and patients. The growing use of HSNS like Sermo and PatientsLikeMe has prompted public concerns about the risks that such online data-sharing platforms pose to the privacy and security of personal health data. This paper articulates a set of privacy risks introduced by social networking in health care and presents a practical example that demonstrates how the risks might be intrinsic to some HSNS. The aim of this study is to identify and sketch the policy implications of using HSNS and how policy makers and stakeholders should elaborate upon them to protect the privacy of online health data. PMID:23599228

  14. 45 CFR 503.2 - General policies-Privacy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General policies-Privacy Act. 503.2 Section 503.2... THE UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RULES OF PRACTICE PRIVACY ACT AND GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE REGULATIONS Privacy Act Regulations § 503.2 General policies—Privacy Act. The Commission will protect...

  15. 45 CFR 503.2 - General policies-Privacy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General policies-Privacy Act. 503.2 Section 503.2... THE UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RULES OF PRACTICE PRIVACY ACT AND GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE REGULATIONS Privacy Act Regulations § 503.2 General policies—Privacy Act. The Commission will protect...

  16. 45 CFR 503.2 - General policies-Privacy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General policies-Privacy Act. 503.2 Section 503.2... THE UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RULES OF PRACTICE PRIVACY ACT AND GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE REGULATIONS Privacy Act Regulations § 503.2 General policies—Privacy Act. The Commission will protect...

  17. 45 CFR 503.2 - General policies-Privacy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General policies-Privacy Act. 503.2 Section 503.2... THE UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RULES OF PRACTICE PRIVACY ACT AND GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE REGULATIONS Privacy Act Regulations § 503.2 General policies—Privacy Act. The Commission will protect...

  18. 45 CFR 503.2 - General policies-Privacy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General policies-Privacy Act. 503.2 Section 503.2... THE UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RULES OF PRACTICE PRIVACY ACT AND GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE REGULATIONS Privacy Act Regulations § 503.2 General policies—Privacy Act. The Commission will protect...

  19. Availability and quality of mobile health app privacy policies.

    PubMed

    Sunyaev, Ali; Dehling, Tobias; Taylor, Patrick L; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2015-04-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) customers shopping for applications (apps) should be aware of app privacy practices so they can make informed decisions about purchase and use. We sought to assess the availability, scope, and transparency of mHealth app privacy policies on iOS and Android. Over 35,000 mHealth apps are available for iOS and Android. Of the 600 most commonly used apps, only 183 (30.5%) had privacy policies. Average policy length was 1755 (SD 1301) words with a reading grade level of 16 (SD 2.9). Two thirds (66.1%) of privacy policies did not specifically address the app itself. Our findings show that currently mHealth developers often fail to provide app privacy policies. The privacy policies that are available do not make information privacy practices transparent to users, require college-level literacy, and are often not focused on the app itself. Further research is warranted to address why privacy policies are often absent, opaque, or irrelevant, and to find a remedy. PMID:25147247

  20. Obtaining P3P Privacy Policies for Composite Services

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yi; Huang, Zhiqiu; Ke, Changbo

    2014-01-01

    With the development of web services technology, web services have changed from single to composite services. Privacy protection in composite services is becoming an important issue. P3P (platform for privacy preferences) is a privacy policy language which was designed for single web services. It enables service providers to express how they will deal with the privacy information of service consumers. In order to solve the problem that P3P cannot be applied to composite services directly, we propose a method to obtain P3P privacy policies for composite services. In this method, we present the definitions of Purpose, Recipient, and Retention elements as well as Optional and Required attributes for P3P policies of composite services. We also provide an instantiation to illustrate the feasibility of the method. PMID:25126609

  1. Obtaining P3P privacy policies for composite services.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Huang, Zhiqiu; Ke, Changbo

    2014-01-01

    With the development of web services technology, web services have changed from single to composite services. Privacy protection in composite services is becoming an important issue. P3P (platform for privacy preferences) is a privacy policy language which was designed for single web services. It enables service providers to express how they will deal with the privacy information of service consumers. In order to solve the problem that P3P cannot be applied to composite services directly, we propose a method to obtain P3P privacy policies for composite services. In this method, we present the definitions of Purpose, Recipient, and Retention elements as well as Optional and Required attributes for P3P policies of composite services. We also provide an instantiation to illustrate the feasibility of the method. PMID:25126609

  2. Privacy Policies, Tools and Mechanisms of the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naessens, Vincent; Sandikkaya, Mehmet Tahir; Lapon, Jorn; Verslype, Kristof; Verhaeghe, Pieter; Nigusse, Girma; de Decker, Bart

    Although many believe that we have lost the battle for privacy, protection of what’s left of the user’s privacy is all the more important. Not only should a user be able to minimize the disclosure of her personal data, she should also have rights to decide what happens with her data once they have been disclosed. In order to minimize user interaction when deciding whether or not to reveal personal data, privacy policy languages were developed. However, these languages are inadequate and cannot properly deal with the complex interactions between users, service providers, third parties, identity providers and others. Also, tool support for composing and verifying these policies and mechanisms for enforcing them are lagging behind. This paper argues the need for better privacy policies and proposes some solutions. Throughout the paper, our statements are applied to three sample applications in three different domains: e-health, banking and social networks.

  3. Is Privacy Reserved for Adults? Children's Rights at the Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Janet

    1991-01-01

    Argues that the library has a responsibility to provide access to materials and ensure absolute privacy for children in the same manner as it does for adults. Attention this issue has received is discussed and policies formed at the Contra Costa County Library in California are described. Sources for further reading and listening are suggested.…

  4. Assessing the HIPAA standard in practice: PHR privacy policies.

    PubMed

    Carrión, Inmaculada; Alemán, José Luis Fernández; Toval, Ambrosio

    2011-01-01

    Health service providers are starting to become interested in providing PHRs (Personal Health Records). With PHRs, access to data is controlled by the patient, and not by the health care provider. Companies such as Google and Microsoft are establishing a leadership position in this emerging market. A number of benefits can be achieved with PHRs, but important challenges related to security and privacy must be addressed. This paper presents a review of the privacy policies of 20 free web-based PHRs. Security and privacy characteristics were extracted and assessed according to the HIPAA standard. The results show a number of important differences in the characteristics analyzed. Some improvements can be made to current PHR privacy policies to enhance the audit and management of access to users' PHRs. A questionnaire has been defined to assist PHR designers in this task. PMID:22254820

  5. Assessing the privacy policies in mobile personal health records.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Belén Cruz; Hernández Niñirola, Antonio; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Toval, Ambrosio

    2014-01-01

    The huge increase in the number and use of smartphones and tablets has led health service providers to take an interest in mHealth. Popular mobile app markets like Apple App Store or Google Play contain thousands of health applications. Although mobile personal health records (mPHRs) have a number of benefits, important challenges appear in the form of adoption barriers. Security and privacy have been identified as part of these barriers and should be addressed. This paper analyzes and assesses a total of 24 free mPHRs for Android and iOS. Characteristics regarding privacy and security were extracted from the HIPAA. The results show important differences in both the mPHRs and the characteristics analyzed. A questionnaire containing six questions concerning privacy policies was defined. Our questionnaire may assist developers and stakeholders to evaluate the security and privacy of their mPHRs. PMID:25571104

  6. A Content Analysis of Library Vendor Privacy Policies: Do They Meet Our Standards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magi, Trina J.

    2010-01-01

    Librarians have a long history of protecting user privacy, but they have done seemingly little to understand or influence the privacy policies of library resource vendors that increasingly collect user information through Web 2.0-style personalization features. After citing evidence that college students value privacy, this study used content…

  7. Policy Issues in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Leonard P.

    1983-01-01

    States that adult educators in the United States, unlike their counterparts abroad, have not been key actors in influencing policy with adult education overtones at the national, state, or local levels. Discusses how adult educators can become more influential by applying concepts used by Warren Bennis to describe organizational health: sense of…

  8. Autonomy and Privacy in Clinical Laboratory Science Policy and Practice.

    PubMed

    Leibach, Elizabeth Kenimer

    2014-01-01

    Rapid advancements in diagnostic technologies coupled with growth in testing options and choices mandate the development of evidence-based testing algorithms linked to the care paths of the major chronic diseases and health challenges encountered most frequently. As care paths are evaluated, patient/consumers become partners in healthcare delivery. Clinical laboratory scientists find themselves firmly embedded in both quality improvement and clinical research with an urgent need to translate clinical laboratory information into knowledge required by practitioners and patient/consumers alike. To implement this patient-centered care approach in clinical laboratory science, practitioners must understand their roles in (1) protecting patient/consumer autonomy in the healthcare informed consent process and (2) assuring patient/consumer privacy and confidentiality while blending quality improvement study findings with protected health information. A literature review, describing the current ethical environment, supports a consultative role for clinical laboratory scientists in the clinical decision-making process and suggests guidance for policy and practice regarding the principle of autonomy and its associated operational characteristics: informed consent and privacy. PMID:26084151

  9. Protecting Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses privacy issues related to use of the Internet. Topics include data gathering functions that are built into applications of the World Wide Web; cookies that identify Web site visitors; personal identity information; libraries and privacy, including the need for privacy policies; protecting your privacy; and developing privacy literacy.…

  10. Watching the Watchers: The Coordination of Federal Privacy Policy. Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trubow, George

    In this policy briefing, the technological developments of recent years are linked to the erosion of individuals' informational privacy under the press of bureaucratic efficiency and the ever-growing needs of executive agencies for more information. It is noted that privacy protection within federal agencies may entail costs, and therefore, may be…

  11. Enforcement of Privacy Policies over Multiple Online Social Networks for Collaborative Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhengping; Wang, Lifeng

    Our goal is to tend to develop an enforcement architecture of privacy policies over multiple online social networks. It is used to solve the problem of privacy protection when several social networks build permanent or temporary collaboration. Theoretically, this idea is practical, especially due to more and more social network tend to support open source framework “OpenSocial”. But as we known different social network websites may have the same privacy policy settings based on different enforcement mechanisms, this would cause problems. In this case, we have to manually write code for both sides to make the privacy policy settings enforceable. We can imagine that, this is a huge workload based on the huge number of current social networks. So we focus on proposing a middleware which is used to automatically generate privacy protection component for permanent integration or temporary interaction of social networks. This middleware provide functions, such as collecting of privacy policy of each participant in the new collaboration, generating a standard policy model for each participant and mapping all those standard policy to different enforcement mechanisms of those participants.

  12. Globalisation, Transnational Policies and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milana, Marcella

    2012-01-01

    Globalisation, transnational policies and adult education--This paper examines policy documents produced by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the European Union (EU) in the field of adult education and learning. Both these entities address adult education as an explicit object of policy. This paper…

  13. Policy Review on Adult Learning: The Adult Non-Formal Education Policy of Mali, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadio, Moussa

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the issue of policy development for adult learning in Mali, West Africa. On January 2007, the Malian government adopted the "Adult Non-formal Education Policy Document," which was intended to regulate the adult learning sector and federate the actions of policy makers, adult education providers, and adult learners. The…

  14. Technical and Policy Approaches to Balancing Patient Privacy and Data Sharing in Clinical and Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Malin, Bradley; Karp, David; Scheuermann, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical researchers need to share data to support scientific validation and information reuse, and to comply with a host of regulations and directives from funders. Various organizations are constructing informatics resources in the form of centralized databases to ensure widespread availability of data derived from sponsored research. The widespread use of such open databases is contingent on the protection of patient privacy. In this paper, we review several aspects of the privacy-related problems associated with data sharing for clinical research from technical and policy perspectives. We begin with a review of existing policies for secondary data sharing and privacy requirements in the context of data derived from research and clinical settings. In particular, we focus on policies specified by the U.S. National Institutes of Health and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act and touch upon how these policies are related to current, as well as future, use of data stored in public database archives. Next, we address aspects of data privacy and “identifiability” from a more technical perspective, and review how biomedical databanks can be exploited and seemingly anonymous records can be “re-identified” using various resources without compromising or hacking into secure computer systems. We highlight which data features specified in clinical research data models are potentially vulnerable or exploitable. In the process, we recount a recent privacy-related concern associated with the publication of aggregate statistics from pooled genome-wide association studies that has had a significant impact on the data sharing policies of NIH-sponsored databanks. Finally, we conclude with a list of recommendations that cover various technical, legal, and policy mechanisms that open clinical databases can adopt to strengthen data privacy protections as they move toward wider deployment and adoption. PMID:20051768

  15. Fixing Broken Doors: Strategies for Drafting Privacy Policies Young People Can Understand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micheti, Anca; Burkell, Jacquelyn; Steeves, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this project is to identify guidelines for privacy policies that children and teens can accurately interpret with relative ease. A three-pronged strategy was used to achieve this goal. First, an analysis of the relevant literature on reading was undertaken to identify the document features that affect comprehension. Second, focus…

  16. Beyond Rhetoric: Adult Learning Policies and Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Drawing on the experience of Canada, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom, this document identifies effective adult education policies and practices. The following are among the topics discussed: (1) issues in adult learning and why adult learning is important; (2) patterns of participation and…

  17. Development of a privacy and security policy framework for a multistate comparative effectiveness research network.

    PubMed

    Kim, Katherine K; McGraw, Deven; Mamo, Laura; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2013-08-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) conducted in distributed research networks (DRNs) is subject to different state laws and regulations as well as institution-specific policies intended to protect privacy and security of health information. The goal of the Scalable National Network for Effectiveness Research (SCANNER) project is to develop and demonstrate a scalable, flexible technical infrastructure for DRNs that enables near real-time CER consistent with privacy and security laws and best practices. This investigation began with an analysis of privacy and security laws and state health information exchange (HIE) guidelines applicable to SCANNER participants from California, Illinois, Massachusetts, and the Federal Veteran's Administration. A 7-member expert panel of policy and technical experts reviewed the analysis and gave input into the framework during 5 meetings held in 2011-2012. The state/federal guidelines were applied to 3 CER use cases: safety of new oral hematologic medications; medication therapy management for patients with diabetes and hypertension; and informational interventions for providers in the treatment of acute respiratory infections. The policy framework provides flexibility, beginning with a use-case approach rather than a one-size-fits-all approach. The policies may vary depending on the type of patient data shared (aggregate counts, deidentified, limited, and fully identified datasets) and the flow of data. The types of agreements necessary for a DRN may include a network-level and data use agreements. The need for flexibility in the development and implementation of policies must be balanced with responsibilities of data stewardship. PMID:23774516

  18. Criminal Justice Information Policy. Privacy and Juvenile Justice Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belair, Robert R.

    Elected officials, justice professionals, courts and other institutions of our society are contributing to a reevaluation of juvenile justice information policy. The tenet that juveniles who commit crimes are not culpable is being challenged as the public's safety and economic well being is increasingly threatened by children engaged in criminal…

  19. Globalisation, transnational policies and adult education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milana, Marcella

    2012-12-01

    Globalisation, transnational policies and adult education - This paper examines policy documents produced by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the European Union (EU) in the field of adult education and learning. Both these entities address adult education as an explicit object of policy. This paper investigates how globalisation processes are constructed as policy problems when these transnational political agents propose adult education as a response. The author's main argument is that while UNESCO presents the provision of adult education as a means for governments worldwide to overcome disadvantages experienced by their own citizenry, the EU institutionalises learning experiences as a means for governments to sustain regional economic growth and political expansion. After reviewing the literature on globalisation to elucidate the theories that inform current understanding of contemporary economic, political, cultural and ecological changes as political problems, she presents the conceptual and methodological framework of her analysis. The author then examines the active role played by UNESCO and the EU in promoting adult education as a policy objective at transnational level, and unpacks the specific problem "representations" that are substantiated by these organisations. She argues that UNESCO and EU processes assign specific values and meanings to globalisation, and that these reflect a limited understanding of the complexity of globalisation. Finally, she considers two of the effects produced by these problem representations.

  20. Are Personal Health Records Safe? A Review of Free Web-Accessible Personal Health Record Privacy Policies

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Toval, Ambrosio

    2012-01-01

    Background Several obstacles prevent the adoption and use of personal health record (PHR) systems, including users’ concerns regarding the privacy and security of their personal health information. Objective To analyze the privacy and security characteristics of PHR privacy policies. It is hoped that identification of the strengths and weaknesses of the PHR systems will be useful for PHR users, health care professionals, decision makers, and designers. Methods We conducted a systematic review using the principal databases related to health and computer science to discover the Web-based and free PHR systems mentioned in published articles. The privacy policy of each PHR system selected was reviewed to extract its main privacy and security characteristics. Results The search of databases and the myPHR website provided a total of 52 PHR systems, of which 24 met our inclusion criteria. Of these, 17 (71%) allowed users to manage their data and to control access to their health care information. Only 9 (38%) PHR systems permitted users to check who had accessed their data. The majority of PHR systems used information related to the users’ accesses to monitor and analyze system use, 12 (50%) of them aggregated user information to publish trends, and 20 (83%) used diverse types of security measures. Finally, 15 (63%) PHR systems were based on regulations or principles such as the US Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and the Health on the Net Foundation Code of Conduct (HONcode). Conclusions Most privacy policies of PHR systems do not provide an in-depth description of the security measures that they use. Moreover, compliance with standards and regulations in PHR systems is still low. PMID:22917868

  1. Privacy and Biobanking in China: A Case of Policy in Transition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haidan; Chan, Benny; Joly, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Disease-based biobanks have operated in hospitals and research institutes in China for decades, and China has recently embarked on a plan to establish further biobank networks with the aim of promoting data sharing among the existing biobanks. Although the Chinese Constitution has only recently begun to recognize individual privacy as a distinct and independent constitutional right, biobanking in China has been loosely regulated under a patchwork of sometimes overlapping laws (such as the Interim Measures for the Administration of Human Genetic Resources) and regulatory instruments, as well as and the policies of individual biobanks and networks of biobanks (such as the Shanghai Biobank Network Guidelines). A Draft Ordinance on Human Genetics Resources is currently being developed that will deal in more detail than previous laws with issues such as management measures, legal liability, and punishment for violations. International data sharing will be tightly regulated under this new law, and individual biobanks' policies such as the Shanghai Guidelines may choose to regulate such sharing even more. In contrast with national regulatory instruments, the Shanghai Guidelines also contain detailed de-identification policies, and explicitly endorse broad consent. PMID:26711413

  2. Legal Underpinnings for Creating Campus Computer Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Marjorie W.; Worona, Steven L.

    1996-01-01

    Provides guidelines for the development of campus computer policies, focusing on legal issues related to adult material, harassment, privacy, commerce, and copyright. Notes that computer use policies and practices need to evolve in concert with the changing computer culture. (MDM)

  3. Prospects for Adult Literacy Policy in British Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darville, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Intended to assist in the formulation of effective policies for adult literacy in British Columbia, this paper reviews the current discussion of adult literacy policy and programming across Canada. It also reviews existing policies in Canada and in British Columbia, in education ministries, and in other ministries with interests and activities…

  4. Debating Global Polity, Policy Crossing, and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milana, Marcella

    2015-01-01

    This article revisits the concept of "global polity" as a useful conceptual tool for studying public policy development in adult education. First, it describes the relations between polity, policy, and praxis and how these are addressed in adult education research. Then, it reviews how policy is conceptualized in terms of material and…

  5. Adult Basic Skills: Innovations in Measurement and Policy Analysis. Series on Literacy: Research, Policy, and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuijnman, Albert C., Ed.; Kirsch, Irwin S., Ed.; Wagner, Daniel A., Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers examining innovations in measuring adults' basic skills and analyzing adult literacy policy. The following papers are included: "Series Preface" (Daniel A. Wagner); "Foreword" (Torsten Husen); "Introduction" (Albert Tuijnman); "Adult Basic Skills: Policy Issues and a Research Agenda" (David Stern, Albert Tuijnman);…

  6. Navigating State and Federal Student Privacy Laws to Design Educationally Sound Parental Notice Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Thomas R.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the relationship between federal student privacy laws and state privacy laws, and identifies the changes in the federal law over the last ten years affecting disclosure to parents of college students. Recent litigation on health emergencies is outlined and the limited rights of college students not yet eighteen years of age…

  7. Policy to Performance Toolkit: Transitioning Adults to Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alamprese, Judith A.; Limardo, Chrys

    2012-01-01

    The "Policy to Performance Toolkit" is designed to provide state adult education staff and key stakeholders with guidance and tools to use in developing, implementing, and monitoring state policies and their associated practices that support an effective state adult basic education (ABE) to postsecondary education and training transition…

  8. Educating Older Adults: Discourses, Ideologies & Policies 1999-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This article tells the story of policies relevant to education, ageism and older adults between 1999 and 2005. It follows an article published in a previous "New Zealand Journal of Adult Learning" that described and critiqued policy developments between the 1980s and 2001. The story is located in the context of ongoing historical struggles between…

  9. Closing the Barn Door: The Effect of Parental Supervision on Canadian Children's Online Privacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steeves, Valerie; Webster, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    Empirical data from a large sample of Canadian youth aged 13 to 17 years suggest that, although the current privacy policy framework is having a positive effect on the extent to which young people are complying with the types of behavior promoted by adults as privacy protective, its primary focus on parental supervision is inadequate to fully…

  10. Older adult perceptions of smart home technologies: implications for research, policy & market innovations in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, J; D'Ambrosio, L A; Reimer, B; Pratt, M R

    2007-01-01

    Advances in information communications technology and related computational power are providing a wide array of systems and related services that form the basis of smart home technologies to support the health, safety and independence of older adults. While these technologies offer significant benefits to older people and their families, they are also transforming older adults into lead adopters of a new 24/7 lifestyle of being monitored, managed, and, at times, motivated, to maintain their health and wellness. To better understand older adult perceptions of smart home technologies and to inform future research a workshop and focus group was conducted with 30 leaders in aging advocacy and aging services from 10 northeastern states. Participants expressed support of technological advance along with a variety of concerns that included usability, reliability, trust, privacy, stigma, accessibility and affordability. Participants also observed that there is a virtual absence of a comprehensive market and policy environment to support either the consumer or the diffusion of these technologies. Implications for research, policy and market innovation are discussed. PMID:18002331

  11. Adult Community Education: A Model for Regional Policy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The adult community education (ACE) sector in the state of Victoria provides an example of best practice in regional rural policy in Australia that may serve as a model for other areas of government effort. In 1997, 309,000 Victorians enrolled in adult and community education courses, such as business and technical skills development, literacy and…

  12. Policy Issues and Process. Issues in Education for Adults, #1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaples, Gene C., Comp.; Rivera, William M., Comp.

    This publication, the first of a planned series, is intended to advance discussion by professionals and, hopefully, the public about education for adults--its purposes, control, and programs. Four essays are included, each with a distinct theme and purpose. However, all the essays relate to the major issues in adult education, national policy,…

  13. Challenges for Policy and Standards for Adult and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelan, Belle S.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter addresses educational policy as a force that contemporary adult education would be required to reckon with from the point of view of an accreditor. It identifies the issues and projects shifts that are currently taking place in higher education policy at the national, state, and regional levels.

  14. Policy, Legislation and Financing for Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Paul; Duke, Chris; Hinzen, Heribert

    2007-01-01

    Adult learning is now widely seen as a basic human right (the right to learn) and lifelong learning is similarly recognised. Adult learning within a lifelong learning concept has an agenda far wider than just employability skills. Yet educational inequalities between and within nations remain stark, as does the gap between rhetoric and practice in…

  15. Adult Literacy in Indiana. Policy Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beverstock, Caroline; And Others

    Adult functional illiteracy is estimated at more than 20 percent of the U.S. population and 12-19 percent of Indiana residents over age 25 (390,000 to 600,000 adults). In addition, high school dropouts and those who do not seek education past high school also need additional training. Functional illiteracy costs government and business through…

  16. Building Sustainable Adult Literacy Provision: A Review of International Trends in Adult Literacy Policy and Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Rosa; Fitzpatrick, Lynne

    2004-01-01

    This document summarizes an extensive study of policies and practices in adult literacy and adult basic education in a number of countries undertaken by Rosa McKenna and Lynne Fitzpatrick. The original study contains considerably greater detail and analyses issues on a country-by-country basis. The countries studied--Canada, the Republic of…

  17. Theme with Variations: Social Policy, Community Care and Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavender, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Changes in British social policy regarding community health care has implications for local education agency (LEA) providers of adult continuing education. LEAs will either have a role in providing staff training and other learning opportunities, will be forced to provide cheaper forms of community care, or will be ignored altogether. (SK)

  18. Professional Development for Adult Education Instructors. State Policy Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolbert, Michelle

    This State Policy Update provides background on professional development (PD) in adult education. Section 2 describes survey methods used to document how states funded and designed their PD systems. Section 3 reviews data collected by the survey of state PD systems, highlighting PD activities in Kentucky, New York, Oregon, and Tennessee. It…

  19. Legal Protections for Privacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, David W.

    1977-01-01

    Individual interest in privacy is a multiple legal issue, roughly divided into four parts according to different types of law: constitutional, statutory, administrative, and common law. Policy implications of this issue for institutions are discussed. (Editor/LBH)

  20. Testing Privacy Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Mike

    In web-based business processes the disclosure of personal data by the user is an essential part and mandatory for the processes. Privacy policies help to inform the user about his/her rights and to protect the user’s privacy. In this paper we present a test to empirically measure how the user’s privacy awareness changes by presenting specific elements of the privacy policy in close proximity to the required data items. We compare an experimental group using an enhanced interface to a control group using a conventional interface regarding their capability to recall the agreed privacy-related facts. A concrete online survey has been performed. The major results are presented.

  1. 12 CFR 332.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 332.2 Section... POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 332.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with the...

  2. 12 CFR 332.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 332.2 Section... POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 332.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in Appendix A of this part, consistent with the...

  3. 12 CFR 332.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 332.2 Section... POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 332.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with the...

  4. 12 CFR 332.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 332.2 Section... POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 332.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with the...

  5. 12 CFR 332.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 332.2 Section 332.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 332.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form...

  6. Adult Literacy: Monitoring and Evaluation for Practice and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Daniel A.

    2008-11-01

    With the advent of the UN Literacy Decade launched in 2003, there is increased emphasis on monitoring and evaluation of adult literacy around the globe. The present paper presents an overview of the main approaches that have been taken to measure adult literacy within and across countries. A particular focus of the present review is to compare and contrast three models of literacy assessment: (1) the "traditional" model based largely on census enumeration, which has been used over recent decades to collect national and regional rates of illiteracy; (2) the large-scale survey techniques employed with the International Adult Literacy Survey and similar models; and (3) an intermediate type of assessment that borrows from the previous two models, and attempts to "tailor" the size and complexity of the survey methodology to the policy questions needing answers (called the SQC model). The present paper suggests that there is no single model or set of methods that are universally appropriate to monitoring and measuring in adult literacy around the world, but that blending both programmatic and comparative models through the SQC approach may bring greater involvement in, and insight into, adult literacy evaluations.

  7. A Model Privacy Statement for Ohio Library Web Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaco, Michael J.

    The purpose of this research was to develop a model privacy policy statement for library World Wide Web sites. First, standards of privacy protection were identified. These standards were culled from the privacy and confidentiality policies of the American Library Association, the Federal Trade Commission's online privacy reports, the guidelines…

  8. Reinterpreting Lifelong Learning: Meanings of Adult Education Policy in Portugal, 1999-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimaraes, Paula

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses Portugal's adult education policy between 1999 and 2010. Our empirical material consists of Portuguese as well as supranational policy documents. We use a theoretical framework which distinguishes three models of public policy, with different views on the roles of public policy and of education: (1) participative…

  9. Pass the Cookies and Uphold the Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, Kim

    2001-01-01

    Considers how privacy issues related to online profiling affect library patrons and what librarians should do to protect them. Discusses the need for a privacy policy and provides guidelines from the OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) privacy statement generator that can be adapted for libraries. (LRW)

  10. Are Tobacco Control Policies Effective in Reducing Young Adult Smoking?

    PubMed Central

    Farrelly, Matthew C.; Loomis, Brett R.; Kuiper, Nicole; Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joseph; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Pechacek, Terry F.; Couzens, G. Lance

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We examined the influence of tobacco control program funding, smoke-free air laws, and cigarette prices on young adult smoking outcomes. Methods We use a natural experimental design approach that uses the variation in tobacco control policies across states and over time to understand their influence on tobacco outcomes. We combine individual outcome data with annual state-level policy data to conduct multivariable logistic regression models, controlling for an extensive set of sociodemographic factors. The participants are 18- to 25-year-olds from the 2002–2009 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. The three main outcomes are past-year smoking initiation, and current and established smoking. A current smoker was one who had smoked on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. An established smoker was one who had smoked 1 or more cigarettes in the past 30 days and smoked at least 100 cigarettes in his or her lifetime. Results Higher levels of tobacco control program funding and greater smoke-free-air law coverage were both associated with declines in current and established smoking (p < .01). Greater coverage of smoke-free air laws was associated with lower past year initiation with marginal significance (p = .058). Higher cigarette prices were not associated with smoking outcomes. Had smoke-free-air law coverage and cumulative tobacco control funding remained at 2002 levels, current and established smoking would have been 5%–7% higher in 2009. Conclusions Smoke-free air laws and state tobacco control programs are effective strategies for curbing young adult smoking. PMID:24268360

  11. Digital Privacy: Toward a New Politics and Discursive Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doty, Philip

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of privacy focuses on digital environments and a more inclusive understanding of privacy. Highlights include legal and policy conceptions; legislation protecting privacy; relevant Supreme Court cases; torts and privacy; European and other efforts; surveillance and social control; information entrepreneurialism; Jurgen Habermas; free…

  12. De Facto Language Policy in Legislation Defining Adult Basic Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanek, Jenifer

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of differing interpretation of federal education policy in three different states. The policy, the Workforce Investment Act Title II, has defined the services provided for adult English language learners (ELLs) enrolled in Adult Basic Education programs in the United States since it was passed in 1998. At the…

  13. Increasing Participation of Adults in Higher Education: Factors for Successful Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broek, Simon; Hake, Barry J.

    2012-01-01

    This article contains an analysis of policies aimed at increasing the participation of adults in higher education (HE) in seven countries (NL, DK, SE, UK, BE Flanders, DE and the state of California in the USA). In order to maintain their economic competitiveness, many countries have developed policies to increase the participation of adults in…

  14. A Policy Analysis of Adult Literacy Education in India: Across the Two National Policy Reviews of 1968 and 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    There have been few, if any, significant changes in educational policy regarding the provision of adult literacy education in India over the past two decades. The changes that have taken place in India's adult literacy programs have occurred in the realm of technology rather than ideology, thereby supporting a continuity in the existing…

  15. Policy Silos and Red Ochre Men: An Examination of a Decade of Adult Literacy Policy and Program Development in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searle, Jean

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on some of the data gathered for an Australian research project which investigated "What does the past tell us about adult literacy and numeracy policy, provision and practice?" First, the key national and some state policies which have informed program development in Australia will be outlined in order to highlight some…

  16. Building Sustainable Adult Literacy Provision: A Review of International Trends in Adult Literacy Policy and Programs. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Rosa; Fitzpatrick, Lynne

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this report was to analyze, through a desktop audit, international trends in adult literacy policy and programs. The audit includes an examination of the significant research undertaken, and policy statements made by international institutions such as the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), the…

  17. Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice. Review of Adult Learning and Literacy, Volume 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Christine, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice, Volume 7" is the newest volume in a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. Each…

  18. The Impact of Irish Policy and Legislation on How Adults with Learning Disabilities Make Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Eileen; Griffiths, Colin

    2016-01-01

    This paper reflects the impact of policy and legislation in the context of how adults with learning disabilities make choices. Following an overview of policies which have improved choice for people with learning disability in the United Kingdom, this paper reviews "choice" in current Irish policy and legislation. This paper, while…

  19. Bridging Canadian Adult Second Language Education and Essential Skills Policies: Approach with Caution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Tara L.

    2008-01-01

    Employing critical discourse analysis (CDA), this paper examines the attempt to bridge a Canadian adult second language policy with an employment skills policy. The result is a third policy intended to improve language education and employment skills training for immigrants. The analysis reveals that the knowledge economy and human capital theory…

  20. Customer privacy on UK healthcare websites.

    PubMed

    Mundy, Darren P

    2006-09-01

    Privacy has been and continues to be one of the key challenges of an age devoted to the accumulation, processing, and mining of electronic information. In particular, privacy of healthcare-related information is seen as a key issue as health organizations move towards the electronic provision of services. The aim of the research detailed in this paper has been to analyse privacy policies on popular UK healthcare-related websites to determine the extent to which consumer privacy is protected. The author has combined approaches (such as approaches focused on usability, policy content, and policy quality) used in studies by other researchers on e-commerce and US healthcare websites to provide a comprehensive analysis of UK healthcare privacy policies. The author identifies a wide range of issues related to the protection of consumer privacy through his research analysis using quantitative results. The main outcomes from the author's research are that only 61% of healthcare-related websites in their sample group posted privacy policies. In addition, most of the posted privacy policies had poor readability standards and included a variety of privacy vulnerability statements. Overall, the author's findings represent significant current issues in relation to healthcare information protection on the Internet. The hope is that raising awareness of these results will drive forward changes in the industry, similar to those experienced with information quality. PMID:16954055

  1. Privacy Legislation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Robert G.

    Four major pieces of legislation enacted since 1974--Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (the "Buckley Amendment"), Amendment to the Freedom of Information Act, The National Research Act, and The Privacy Act--represent a broad scope, impacting the administration of research, funding procedures, and the very substance and techniques of…

  2. 12 CFR 332.9 - Delivering privacy and opt out notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Delivering privacy and opt out notices. 332.9... GENERAL POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 332.9 Delivering privacy and opt out notices. (a) How to provide notices. You must provide any privacy notices and opt...

  3. 16 CFR 313.5 - Annual privacy notice to customers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Annual privacy notice to customers required... CONGRESS PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 313.5 Annual privacy... customers that accurately reflects your privacy policies and practices not less than annually during...

  4. 16 CFR 313.5 - Annual privacy notice to customers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Annual privacy notice to customers required... CONGRESS PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 313.5 Annual privacy... customers that accurately reflects your privacy policies and practices not less than annually during...

  5. 17 CFR 160.5 - Annual privacy notice to customers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Annual privacy notice to... COMMISSION PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 160.5 Annual privacy... customers that accurately reflects your privacy policies and practices not less than annually during...

  6. The Regulatory Framework for Privacy and Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiller, Janine S.

    The internet enables the easy collection of massive amounts of personally identifiable information. Unregulated data collection causes distrust and conflicts with widely accepted principles of privacy. The regulatory framework in the United States for ensuring privacy and security in the online environment consists of federal, state, and self-regulatory elements. New laws have been passed to address technological and internet practices that conflict with privacy protecting policies. The United States and the European Union approaches to privacy differ significantly, and the global internet environment will likely cause regulators to face the challenge of balancing privacy interests with data collection for many years to come.

  7. Alcohol Policy Comprehension, Compliance and Consequences Among Young Adult Restaurant Workers

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Genevieve M.; Cunradi, Carol B.; Duke, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY This study explores relationships between young adult restaurant employees' understanding and compliance with workplace alcohol control policies and consequences of alcohol policy violation. A mixed method analysis of 67 semi-structured interviews and 1,294 telephone surveys from restaurant chain employees found that alcohol policy details confused roughly a third of employees. Among current drinkers (n=1,093), multivariable linear regression analysis found that frequency of alcohol policy violation was positively associated with frequency of experiencing problems at work; perceived supervisor enforcement of alcohol policy was negatively associated with this outcome. Implications for preventing workplace alcohol-related problems include streamlining confusing alcohol policy guidelines. PMID:22984360

  8. Achieving Privacy in a Federated Identity Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landau, Susan; Le van Gong, Hubert; Wilton, Robin

    Federated identity management allows a user to efficiently authenticate and use identity information from data distributed across multiple domains. The sharing of data across domains blurs security boundaries and potentially creates privacy risks. We examine privacy risks and fundamental privacy protections of federated identity- management systems. The protections include minimal disclosure and providing PII only on a “need-to-know” basis. We then look at the Liberty Alliance system and analyze previous privacy critiques of that system. We show how law and policy provide privacy protections in federated identity-management systems, and that privacy threats are best handled using a combination of technology and law/policy tools.

  9. To Shape the Future: Towards a Framework for Adult Education Social Policy Research and Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, B. Allan

    1993-01-01

    Compares three social policy models (market, progressive-liberal-welfare, social redistribution); links them to adult education models (vocational-behaviorist, liberal-humanist-progressive, liberatory/social reconstruction) and to sociological theories (structural functionalism and conflict theory). (SK)

  10. What was privacy?

    PubMed

    McCreary, Lew

    2008-10-01

    Why is that question in the past tense? Because individuals can no longer feel confident that the details of their lives--from identifying numbers to cultural preferences--will be treated with discretion rather than exploited. Even as Facebook users happily share the names of their favorite books, movies, songs, and brands, they often regard marketers' use of that information as an invasion of privacy. In this wide-ranging essay, McCreary, a senior editor at HBR, examines numerous facets of the privacy issue, from Google searches, public shaming on the internet, and cell phone etiquette to passenger screening devices, public surveillance cameras, and corporate chief privacy officers. He notes that IBM has been a leader on privacy; its policy forswearing the use of employees' genetic information in hiring and benefits decisions predated the federal Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act by three years. Now IBM is involved in an open-source project known as Higgins to provide users with transportable, potentially anonymous online presences. Craigslist, whose CEO calls it "as close to 100% user driven as you can get," has taken an extremely conservative position on privacy--perhaps easier for a company with a declared lack of interest in maximizing revenue. But TJX and other corporate victims of security breaches have discovered that retaining consumers' transaction information can be both costly and risky. Companies that underestimate the importance of privacy to their customers or fail to protect it may eventually face harsh regulation, reputational damage, or both. The best thing they can do, says the author, is negotiate directly with those customers over where to draw the line. PMID:18822675

  11. Reflections on the Professionalisation of Adult Educators in the Framework of Public Policies in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimaraes, Paula

    2009-01-01

    The discussion in this article is based on recent research carried out by the author recently on adult education public policies and her participation in the Adult Learning Practitioners in Europe (ALPINE) project coordinated by Research voor Beleid (The Netherlands) and funded by the European Commission. The analysis presented here stresses the…

  12. What's Going On? An Overview of Adult Education Policies in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucio-Villegas, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I attempt to present the state of adult education in Spain. Adult education in Spain is not unlike that of other countries in Europe in that it focuses on the policies and practices of lifelong learning rather than on the perspectives of people and communities. However, Spain has two specific characteristics that are distinctive…

  13. Numbers Talk--Words Count: Language Policy and Adult Numeracy Education in Wales and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coben, Diana; Miller-Reilly, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review and compare language policy in relation to adult numeracy education in Wales and New Zealand with respect to the Maori and Welsh languages in the latest stage of our international comparative study of adult numeracy education. While much has been written about the relationship between language and literacy, the relationship…

  14. Towards a Public Policy for Adult Education in B.C.: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dampier, Lawrence Paul

    This document's purpose is to trace the growing acceptance of adult education in British Columbia (Canada) by the government, using public policy as the key indicator. The document consists of an introduction, four substantive sections, and a 31-item bibliography. The first section develops an overview of public policy. Included are considerations…

  15. Adult Education in the Limpopo Province of South Africa: Challenges for Policy Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeelen, J.; Rampedi, M.; de Jong, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we report and reflect on a study about the problems encountered in the implementation of adult education policies in the Limpopo province of South Africa. We used the model of intergovernmental policy implementation of Van Horn and Van Meter as a theoretical framework. We reflect on this study and link the findings with more recent…

  16. Global, Regional and Local Influences on Adult Literacy Policy in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between global, regional and local influences on adult literacy policy and practice in the UK through a discourse analysis of policy-related texts. The analysis is framed by theoretical perspectives from literacy studies and socio-material theory. The paper identifies a number of specific features in the UK…

  17. A Conceptual Framework and Proposed Taxonomy for Social Policy Research on Participation in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, B. Allan

    Although a considerable body of research has been developed in recent years on participation in adult education, little has been done from the standpoint of social policy and its impact on participation. To assist investigation of this aspect of participation, three social policy models are presented: market models, progressive-liberal-welfare…

  18. Adult and Community Education Policy in Aotearoa New Zealand 2000-2014: Neoliberal Influences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Changes in tertiary education policy in Aotearoa New Zealand in the last decade have impacted on adult and community education (ACE). Marginalized and understood as non-formal education at the turn of the century, ACE is now part of the "tertiary landscape". It is explicitly steered by education policy, its role severely narrowed, its…

  19. Aural rehabilitation of hearing-impaired adults (official policy of the British Society of Audiology).

    PubMed

    Markides, A; Brooks, D N; Hart, F G; Stephens, S D

    1979-02-01

    This report, which outlines the official policy of the British Society of Audiology on the aural rehabilitation of hearing impaired adults, (a) estimates the prevalence of hearing impairment in adults in the United Kingdom; (b) identifies the main problems associated with hearing impairment in adults; (c) outlines the main aural rehabilitative procedures and (d) puts forward recommendations for future developments in this area. PMID:435658

  20. An Analysis of NCAA Division 1 Student Athlete Social Media Use, Privacy Management, and Perceptions of Social Media Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    The intercollegiate athletic subculture knows very little about how social media policies are perceived by students-athletes. Athletic department administrators, conference commissioners, and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) who are in charge of creating new policies lack any meaningful data to help understand or negotiate new…

  1. Globalisation, Southern Europe and European Adult Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Carmel; Mayo, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors define some of the most evident features of globalisation from below, which they distinguish from hegemonic globalisation, and draw out its implications for adult education. They draw out the implications for European adult education that emerge from the different features of these two types of globalisations. They…

  2. Challenging Representations: Constructing the Adult Literacy Learner over 30 Years of Policy and Practice in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Mary; Pitt, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the question, How do changes in policy discourses shape public representations of literacy learners and the goals of adult literacy education? It examines specifically how the agency of adult literacy learners is constructed. We carry out a critical discourse analysis of two key adult literacy policy documents from the U.K.:…

  3. Information Parents Must Know about Online Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markell, Ginny

    2000-01-01

    Presents four tips to help parents monitor whether website operators are complying with the 1988 Children's Online Privacy Protection Act: look for privacy policies on children's websites; determine if they ask for parental consent to collect personal information; regularly monitor information being sent to children; and determine if web operators…

  4. How Does the Family Rights and Privacy Act Affect You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toglia, Thomas V.

    2007-01-01

    Enacted in 1974 to oversee the privacy, discharge, and accuracy of educational records, the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) has significant implications for teachers and administrators, who should stay informed regarding its current policies and practices, and when in doubt seek legal advice regarding the privacy and disclosure…

  5. Footprints near the Surf: Individual Privacy Decisions in Online Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Aleecia M.

    2010-01-01

    As more people seek the benefits of going online, more people are exposed to privacy risks from their time online. With a largely unregulated Internet, self-determination about privacy risks must be feasible for people from all walks of life. Yet in many cases decisions are either not obvious or not accessible. As one example, privacy policies are…

  6. Adult literacy policy and provision in an age of austerity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limage, Leslie J.

    1986-12-01

    Against a background of growing concern for the large numbers of semiliterate or completely illiterate school leavers and adults in the industrialized countries, this article examines four key aspects necessary for gauging a nation's response to the problem of adult illiteracy. The four aspects — awareness raising, high-level national commitment, resource allocation, and range and extent of in-school and out-of-school basic education/literacy provision — are analyzed with particular reference to the United Kingdom, the United States, France and Canada. The article indicates that, in a period of economic austerity when education budgets are being cut, provision for adult literacy and for remedial classes in school is one of the first areas to be sacrificed. The article ends on a pessimistic note with respect to the implementation of a `Right to Read' charter in all industrialized countries.

  7. Class Strategies and Stealth Policies in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, John

    2006-01-01

    Class strategies, how individual members of class fractions tactically gain advantage in fields including education, have been used to analyse schooling and initial post-compulsory education. In this paper, class strategies are applied to adult education in considering participation across social classes. Using empirical data from a biographical…

  8. Developments and Issues in Dutch Adult Education Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hake, Barry

    The three areas of educational activity recognized by the Dutch have developed historically into distinct and separate institutionalized sectors for educational provision for adults. These areas are knowledge-based, skill-based, and value-based. Each is the responsibility of a different governmental department and cabinet minister. Educational…

  9. Adult Literacy, Numeracy and Language: Policy, Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tett, Lyn, Ed.; Hamilton, Mary, Ed.; Hillier, Yvonne, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book explores the social practice of literacy, numeracy and language and its implications for teaching and learning adult basic skills. Leading international experts argue that literacy, numeracy and language are more than just a set of skills or techniques, but are shaped by the social and cultural context within which they are taking place;…

  10. 12 CFR 573.9 - Delivering privacy and opt out notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 573.9 Delivering privacy and opt out notices..., reasonably expect that a consumer will receive actual notice of your privacy policies and practices if you... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Delivering privacy and opt out notices....

  11. 12 CFR 332.4 - Initial privacy notice to consumers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Initial privacy notice to consumers required... OF GENERAL POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 332.4 Initial privacy notice to consumers required. (a) Initial notice requirement. You must provide a clear...

  12. 12 CFR 332.4 - Initial privacy notice to consumers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Initial privacy notice to consumers required... OF GENERAL POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 332.4 Initial privacy notice to consumers required. (a) Initial notice requirement. You must provide a clear...

  13. 12 CFR 332.4 - Initial privacy notice to consumers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Initial privacy notice to consumers required... OF GENERAL POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 332.4 Initial privacy notice to consumers required. (a) Initial notice requirement. You must provide a clear...

  14. 12 CFR 332.4 - Initial privacy notice to consumers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Initial privacy notice to consumers required... OF GENERAL POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 332.4 Initial privacy notice to consumers required. (a) Initial notice requirement. You must provide a clear...

  15. 12 CFR 332.6 - Information to be included in privacy notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Information to be included in privacy notices... OF GENERAL POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 332.6 Information to be included in privacy notices. (a) General rule. The initial, annual and revised...

  16. 12 CFR 332.5 - Annual privacy notice to customers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Annual privacy notice to customers required... OF GENERAL POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 332.5 Annual privacy notice to customers required. (a)(1) General rule. You must provide a clear...

  17. 13 CFR 102.21 - Agency employees responsible for the Privacy Act of 1974.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... systems of records in that office. (c) Senior Agency Official for Privacy is SBA's Chief Information... information privacy protections, including the SBA's full compliance with Federal laws, regulations, and policies relating to information privacy such as the Privacy Act and the E-Government Act of 2002....

  18. Review of Adult Learning and Literacy, Volume 6. Connecting Research, Policy and Practice: A Project of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice, Volume 6," is the newest volume in a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. Each…

  19. Review of Adult Learning and Literacy, Volume 5. Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice: A Project of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "The Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice, Volume 5" is a volume in a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. Each…

  20. Review of Adult Learning and Literacy, Volume 4. Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice: A Project of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comings, John, Ed.; Garner, Barbara, Ed.; Smith, Cristine, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "The Review of Adult Learning and Literacy: Connecting Research Policy, and Practice, Volume 4" is an addition to a series of annual publications of the National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) that address major issues, the latest research, and the best practices in the field of adult literacy and learning. "Volume 4"…

  1. Privacy Preserving Nearest Neighbor Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaneck, Mark; Kim, Yongdae; Kumar, Vipin

    Data mining is frequently obstructed by privacy concerns. In many cases data is distributed, and bringing the data together in one place for analysis is not possible due to privacy laws (e.g. HIPAA) or policies. Privacy preserving data mining techniques have been developed to address this issue by providing mechanisms to mine the data while giving certain privacy guarantees. In this chapter we address the issue of privacy preserving nearest neighbor search, which forms the kernel of many data mining applications. To this end, we present a novel algorithm based on secure multiparty computation primitives to compute the nearest neighbors of records in horizontally distributed data. We show how this algorithm can be used in three important data mining algorithms, namely LOF outlier detection, SNN clustering, and kNN classification. We prove the security of these algorithms under the semi-honest adversarial model, and describe methods that can be used to optimize their performance. Keywords: Privacy Preserving Data Mining, Nearest Neighbor Search, Outlier Detection, Clustering, Classification, Secure Multiparty Computation

  2. Privacy in the Genomic Era

    PubMed Central

    NAVEED, MUHAMMAD; AYDAY, ERMAN; CLAYTON, ELLEN W.; FELLAY, JACQUES; GUNTER, CARL A.; HUBAUX, JEAN-PIERRE; MALIN, BRADLEY A.; WANG, XIAOFENG

    2015-01-01

    Genome sequencing technology has advanced at a rapid pace and it is now possible to generate highly-detailed genotypes inexpensively. The collection and analysis of such data has the potential to support various applications, including personalized medical services. While the benefits of the genomics revolution are trumpeted by the biomedical community, the increased availability of such data has major implications for personal privacy; notably because the genome has certain essential features, which include (but are not limited to) (i) an association with traits and certain diseases, (ii) identification capability (e.g., forensics), and (iii) revelation of family relationships. Moreover, direct-to-consumer DNA testing increases the likelihood that genome data will be made available in less regulated environments, such as the Internet and for-profit companies. The problem of genome data privacy thus resides at the crossroads of computer science, medicine, and public policy. While the computer scientists have addressed data privacy for various data types, there has been less attention dedicated to genomic data. Thus, the goal of this paper is to provide a systematization of knowledge for the computer science community. In doing so, we address some of the (sometimes erroneous) beliefs of this field and we report on a survey we conducted about genome data privacy with biomedical specialists. Then, after characterizing the genome privacy problem, we review the state-of-the-art regarding privacy attacks on genomic data and strategies for mitigating such attacks, as well as contextualizing these attacks from the perspective of medicine and public policy. This paper concludes with an enumeration of the challenges for genome data privacy and presents a framework to systematize the analysis of threats and the design of countermeasures as the field moves forward. PMID:26640318

  3. Will our children be healthy adults? Applying science to public health policy.

    PubMed

    Law, Catherine

    2010-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is predicted to be a leading cause of death and disability worldwide for the foreseeable future. Observational studies link a variety of prevalent early life experiences (for example, smoking in pregnancy, child poverty) to increased risk of adult cardiovascular disease. Experimental animal studies suggest plausible causal relationships. However, there has been little consideration of how to use this wealth of information to benefit children's futures. Policy documents have drawn on research evidence to recognise that early experience influences life chances, the development of human capital, and long-term health. This has led to a general policy emphasis on prevention and early intervention. To date, there are few examples of the evidence base being useful in shaping specific policies, despite potential to do so, and some examples of policy misunderstanding of science. Minor changes to the perspectives of epidemiological research in this area might greatly increase the potential for evidence-based policy. PMID:21413485

  4. Protecting Children's Online Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kresses, Mamie

    2001-01-01

    Discuss provisions of new federal Children's Online Privacy Protection Act that principals should know to protect student privacy on the Internet. Also discusses relevant provisions of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act. (PKP)

  5. Accountability in Teenage Dating Violence: A Comparative Examination of Adult Domestic Violence and Juvenile Justice Systems Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zosky, Diane L.

    2010-01-01

    Unlike in the adult criminal justice system, where domestic violence policies hold perpetrators accountable for their violence, the juvenile justice system rarely addresses teenage dating violence. Although the adult criminal justice system has pursued policies toward intimate partner violence grounded on a "zero tolerance" ideology, the juvenile…

  6. Adult and Organizational Learning and Policy Development in Environments of Gray

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair-Szofran, Nancy C.

    2010-01-01

    Adult and Organizational Learning and Policy Development in Environments of Gray The purpose of this study was to describe, analyze and provide an understanding of the values that influence state legislators' decision-making as it relates to appropriations, tuition and fees, and financial aid for public postsecondary education in Idaho. The study…

  7. Intergenerational Transfers to Adult Children in Europe: Do Social Policies Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Martina; Deindl, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the role of social policies in intergenerational transfers from old to young people is especially important in times of population aging. This paper focuses on the influences of social expenditures and social services on financial support and on practical help from older parents to their adult children based on the first two waves…

  8. Physical Interventions for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Survey of Use, Policy, Training and Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deveau, Roy; McGill, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background: Perceived problems around the use of physical intervention (PI) to manage challenging behaviour have led to UK initiatives to encourage policy development and accredited training. However, information on PI use and the impact of these initiatives remains limited. Method: Adult residential services within an English region were sent a…

  9. Recommended Policies and Practices for Advancing Indiana's System of Adult Education and Workforce Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    With generous support from the Lilly Endowment, the Indiana Chamber has contracted with National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS) to provide a policy framework and specific recommendations for improving the system of adult education and workforce training in Indiana--building on the important initiatives that have already…

  10. Adult Education and State Policy in Latin America: The Contrasting Cases of Mexico and Nicaragua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnove, Robert F.; Torres, Carlos Alberto

    1995-01-01

    Goals, content, methods, and outcomes of adult education differ according to state policy and characteristics of the political regime. In the 1980s, Mexico represented a "corporatist" state undertaking an incremental approach to literacy provision for purposes of political legitimation and social integration, while Nicaragua represented a…

  11. Education Community Dialogue towards Building a Policy Agenda for Adult Education: Reflections Drawn from Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirano, Tatiana Lotierzo; Giannecchini, Laura; Magalhaes, Giovanna Mode; Munhoz, Fabiola; Croso, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we share the experience of the "Amplifying Voices" initiative. Held by the Latin American Campaign for the Right to Education (CLADE) within the scope of public policy advocacy, "Amplifying Voices" applies the principles of consultation and dialogue in youth and adult education communities, aiming at a stronger…

  12. The Preference for Privacy: In Search of the Social Locations of Privacy Orientations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandy, Oscar H., Jr.

    A study was conducted to develop some understanding of how social experience might be related to public expectations of rights to privacy. A telephone questionnaire was developed which sought information about respondent knowledge, attitudes, and behavior regarding privacy and personal information. A national survey of adults over the age of 18…

  13. Gender, intoxication and the developing brain: Problematisations of drinking among young adults in Australian alcohol policy.

    PubMed

    Manton, Elizabeth; Moore, David

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we draw on recent scholarly work in the poststructuralist analysis of policy to consider how policy itself functions as a key site in the constitution of alcohol 'problems', and the political implications of these problematisations. We do this by examining Australian alcohol policy as it relates to young adults (18-24 years old). Our critical analysis focuses on three national alcohol policies (1990, 2001 and 2006) and two Victorian state alcohol policies (2008 and 2013), which together span a 25-year period. We argue that Australian alcohol policies have conspicuously ignored young adult men, despite their ongoing over-representation in the statistical 'evidence base' on alcohol-related harm, while increasingly problematising alcohol consumption amongst other population subgroups. We also identify the development of a new problem representation in Australian alcohol policy, that of 'intoxication' as the leading cause of alcohol-related harm and rising hospital admissions, and argue that changes in the classification and diagnosis of intoxication may have contributed to its prioritisation and problematisation in alcohol policy at the expense of other forms of harm. Finally, we draw attention to how preliminary and inconclusive research on the purported association between binge drinking and brain development in those under 25 years old has been mobilised prematurely to support calls to increase the legal purchasing age from 18 to 21 years. Our critical analysis of the treatment of these three issues - gender, intoxication, and brain development - is intended to highlight the ways in which policy functions as a key site in the constitution of alcohol 'problems'. PMID:26644026

  14. Bureaucratic Response to Policy Change: Implementation of Adult Education Policy in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engesbak, Heidi; Stubbe, Tor Arne

    2008-01-01

    Our main concern was to investigate the implementation of the new "Education Act", giving adults the statutory right to complete upper secondary education. Referring to a "top-down" and a "bottom-up" perspective we have investigated how the representatives of the county authorities (the bureaucrats) interpret and practise the specific section of…

  15. 78 FR 15407 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... Internal Revenue Service Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service, Treasury. ACTION... requirements of the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, 5 U.S.C. 552a, the Department of the Treasury, Internal... violation of security policy. The records will include items such as suspected and actual policy...

  16. Privacy and human behavior in the age of information.

    PubMed

    Acquisti, Alessandro; Brandimarte, Laura; Loewenstein, George

    2015-01-30

    This Review summarizes and draws connections between diverse streams of empirical research on privacy behavior. We use three themes to connect insights from social and behavioral sciences: people's uncertainty about the consequences of privacy-related behaviors and their own preferences over those consequences; the context-dependence of people's concern, or lack thereof, about privacy; and the degree to which privacy concerns are malleable—manipulable by commercial and governmental interests. Organizing our discussion by these themes, we offer observations concerning the role of public policy in the protection of privacy in the information age. PMID:25635091

  17. Helping Adults Succeed in Postsecondary Education: A Policy Framework. Kentucky Adult Learner Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    To become more economically competitive and reap the benefits of postsecondary educational levels, Kentucky has set a very ambitious goal to double the number of bachelor's degree holders by 2020. Clearly, increasing the college-going rate of working-age adults is an important strategy in the state's efforts to produce more degree holders. The…

  18. Widening Privacy Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amidon, Paige

    1992-01-01

    Discusses privacy concerns relating to electronic information media. European privacy initiatives from the European Community are described, including personal data protection, impact on the online industry, and telecommunications privacy; and activities in the United States are examined, including telephone caller privacy, electronic mail…

  19. Rite of passage? Why young adults become uninsured and how new policies can help, 2009 update.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Jennifer L; Collins, Sara R; Mahato, Bisundev; Gould, Elise; Schoen, Cathy; Rustgi, Sheila D

    2009-08-01

    Young adults ages 19 to 29 are one of the largest segments of the U.S. population without health insurance: 13.2 million, or 29 percent, lacked coverage in 2007. They often lose coverage at age 19 or upon high school or college graduation: nearly two of five (38%) high school graduates who do not enroll in college and one-third of college graduates are uninsured for a time during the first year after graduation. Twenty-six states have passed laws to expand coverage of dependents to young adults under parents' insurance policies. Congressional proposals to reform the health system could help uninsured young adults gain coverage and prevent others from losing it. This is the seventh edition of Rite of Passage, first published by The Commonwealth Fund in 2003. PMID:19658271

  20. Privacy Issues and Personnel Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenard, Nancy C.

    1982-01-01

    Records management policy and clear guidelines, communicated campus-wide, are needed so that requests for personnel information are handled consistently and with respect for the privacy of employees. Suggestions for policy formation and current efforts on campuses are outlined. (MSE)

  1. State Policies Affecting the "Adult Re-Entry Pipeline" in Postsecondary Education: Results of a Fifty-State Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeke, Marianne; Zis, Stacey; Ewell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    With support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS) is engaged in a two year project centered on state policies that foster student progression and success in the "adult re-entry pipeline." The adult re-entry pipeline consists of the many alternative pathways to obtain a…

  2. FOR A POLICY OF ADULT EDUCATION AT THE POST-SECONDARY LEVEL, BRIEF TO THE MINISTER OF EDUCATION OF QUEBEC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JOUBERT, MADELEINE

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS BRIEF SUBMITTED TO THE MINISTER OF EDUCATION OF THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC IS TO HELP ESTABLISH AN ADULT EDUCATION POLICY FOR FUTURE COLLEGES OF GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION, WHICH WOULD INCLUDE PROVISION FOR ADULTS AT THE FIRST STAGE OF ORGANIZATION RATHER THAN ADDING IT LATER AS EXTENSION ACTIVITY. RECOMMENDATIONS ARE LAID…

  3. Adult Education in China 1978-2008: An Analytical Review on the Influence of National Educational Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Qi

    2009-01-01

    Through an overview and analysis of the major national education and adult education policies, this paper endeavours to present the driving forces of the development of contemporary Chinese adult education, to identify and examine the highlights of current practices, and to discuss future developments. Questions for exploring and informing the…

  4. Researching Adult Education Policy in the Context of an Emerging Global Political Economy: The Case of South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groener, Zelda

    An study investigated ways in which the political and economic development (PED) agendas of international organizations (IOs) permeated or pervaded PED agendas of the South African government's adult education and training policies. Policy documents of IOs were main data sources, and the richest data sources were country strategy papers written by…

  5. Policies of Adult Education in Portugal and France: The European Agenda of Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaco, C.; Lafont, P.; Pariat, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the influence of the European Union's educational policies on the implementation of devices for the recognition and the validation of informal and non-formal learning within public policies on education and training for adults in European Union Member States. Portugal and France are taken as examples. The European…

  6. Riding the Waves of Policy? The Case of Basic Skills in Adult and Community Learning in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Ann; Edward, Sheila; Gregson, Maggie

    2007-01-01

    This paper draws on data from secondary sources and in-depth interviews to explore the question: What is the impact of policy on teaching, learning, assessment and inclusion in Adult and Community Learning (ACL) "Skills for Life" (SfL) provision? In particular, it focuses on the government's use of five policy-steering mechanisms--funding,…

  7. Literacy, Knowledge and Development: South-South Policy Dialogue on Quality Education for Adults and Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Madhu, Ed.; Castro Mussot, Luz-Maria, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains the results of the conference "South-South Policy Dialogue on Quality Education for Adults and Young People" that took place in Mexico City in 2005. Articles were written by participants who presented their national programmes from the governmental perspective, which were reflected in the literacy policies, but there were…

  8. Privacy-protecting video surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasuriya, Jehan; Alhazzazi, Mohanned; Datt, Mahesh; Mehrotra, Sharad; Venkatasubramanian, Nalini

    2005-02-01

    Forms of surveillance are very quickly becoming an integral part of crime control policy, crisis management, social control theory and community consciousness. In turn, it has been used as a simple and effective solution to many of these problems. However, privacy-related concerns have been expressed over the development and deployment of this technology. Used properly, video cameras help expose wrongdoing but typically come at the cost of privacy to those not involved in any maleficent activity. This work describes the design and implementation of a real-time, privacy-protecting video surveillance infrastructure that fuses additional sensor information (e.g. Radio-frequency Identification) with video streams and an access control framework in order to make decisions about how and when to display the individuals under surveillance. This video surveillance system is a particular instance of a more general paradigm of privacy-protecting data collection. In this paper we describe in detail the video processing techniques used in order to achieve real-time tracking of users in pervasive spaces while utilizing the additional sensor data provided by various instrumented sensors. In particular, we discuss background modeling techniques, object tracking and implementation techniques that pertain to the overall development of this system.

  9. Privacy and security in teleradiology.

    PubMed

    Ruotsalainen, Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Teleradiology is probably the most successful eHealth service available today. Its business model is based on the remote transmission of radiological images (e.g. X-ray and CT-images) over electronic networks, and on the interpretation of the transmitted images for diagnostic purpose. Two basic service models are commonly used teleradiology today. The most common approach is based on the message paradigm (off-line model), but more developed teleradiology systems are based on the interactive use of PACS/RIS systems. Modern teleradiology is also more and more cross-organisational or even cross-border service between service providers having different jurisdictions and security policies. This paper defines the requirements needed to make different teleradiology models trusted. Those requirements include a common security policy that covers all partners and entities, common security and privacy protection principles and requirements, controlled contracts between partners, and the use of security controls and tools that supporting the common security policy. The security and privacy protection of any teleradiology system must be planned in advance, and the necessary security and privacy enhancing tools should be selected (e.g. strong authentication, data encryption, non-repudiation services and audit-logs) based on the risk analysis and requirements set by the legislation. In any case the teleradiology system should fulfil ethical and regulatory requirements. Certification of the whole teleradiology service system including security and privacy is also proposed. In the future, teleradiology services will be an integrated part of pervasive eHealth. Security requirements for this environment including dynamic and context aware security services are also discussed in this paper. PMID:19914020

  10. Privacy and Library Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Stacey L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the history of privacy as it relates to library records. It commences with a discussion of how the concept of privacy first originated through case law and follows the concept of privacy as it has affected library records through current day and the "USA PATRIOT Act."

  11. Tweens' Conceptions of Privacy Online: Implications for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Katie; James, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable debate about young people's concern for privacy today, given their frequent use of social media to share information and other content about themselves and others. While researchers have investigated the online privacy practices of teens and emerging adults, relatively little is known about the attitudes and behaviors of…

  12. The Privacy Jungle:On the Market for Data Protection in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneau, Joseph; Preibusch, Sören

    We have conducted the first thorough analysis of the market for privacy practices and policies in online social networks. From an evaluation of 45 social networking sites using 260 criteria we find that many popular assumptions regarding privacy and social networking need to be revisited when considering the entire ecosystem instead of only a handful of well-known sites. Contrary to the common perception of an oligopolistic market, we find evidence of vigorous competition for new users. Despite observing many poor security practices, there is evidence that social network providers are making efforts to implement privacy enhancing technologies with substantial diversity in the amount of privacy control offered. However, privacy is rarely used as a selling point, even then only as auxiliary, nondecisive feature. Sites also failed to promote their existing privacy controls within the site. We similarly found great diversity in the length and content of formal privacy policies, but found an opposite promotional trend: though almost all policies are not accessible to ordinary users due to obfuscating legal jargon, they conspicuously vaunt the sites' privacy practices. We conclude that the market for privacy in social networks is dysfunctional in that there is significant variation in sites' privacy controls, data collection requirements, and legal privacy policies, but this is not effectively conveyed to users. Our empirical findings motivate us to introduce the novel model of a privacy communication game, where the economically rational choice for a site operator is to make privacy control available to evade criticism from privacy fundamentalists, while hiding the privacy control interface and privacy policy to maximize sign-up numbers and encourage data sharing from the pragmatic majority of users.

  13. Federal Restrictions on Educational Research: Privacy Protection Study Commission Hearings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, John; Weinberg, JoAnn

    1977-01-01

    The Privacy Protection Study Commission (PPSC) held public hearings on personal data record-keeping policies and practices in educational institutions in Los Angeles in October and in Washington, D.C. in November, 1976. Under consideration were the protections afforded parents and students by the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act.…

  14. 45 CFR 5.4 - Relationship between the FOIA and the Privacy Act of 1974.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Relationship between the FOIA and the Privacy Act... ADMINISTRATION FREEDOM OF INFORMATION REGULATIONS Basic Policy § 5.4 Relationship between the FOIA and the Privacy Act of 1974. (a) Coverage. The FOIA and this rule apply to all HHS records. The Privacy Act, 5...

  15. 45 CFR 5.4 - Relationship between the FOIA and the Privacy Act of 1974.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Relationship between the FOIA and the Privacy Act... ADMINISTRATION FREEDOM OF INFORMATION REGULATIONS Basic Policy § 5.4 Relationship between the FOIA and the Privacy Act of 1974. (a) Coverage. The FOIA and this rule apply to all HHS records. The Privacy Act, 5...

  16. 45 CFR 5.4 - Relationship between the FOIA and the Privacy Act of 1974.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Relationship between the FOIA and the Privacy Act... ADMINISTRATION FREEDOM OF INFORMATION REGULATIONS Basic Policy § 5.4 Relationship between the FOIA and the Privacy Act of 1974. (a) Coverage. The FOIA and this rule apply to all HHS records. The Privacy Act, 5...

  17. 45 CFR 5.4 - Relationship between the FOIA and the Privacy Act of 1974.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Relationship between the FOIA and the Privacy Act... ADMINISTRATION FREEDOM OF INFORMATION REGULATIONS Basic Policy § 5.4 Relationship between the FOIA and the Privacy Act of 1974. (a) Coverage. The FOIA and this rule apply to all HHS records. The Privacy Act, 5...

  18. Is Privacy at Risk when Commercial Websites Target Primary School Children? A Case Study in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sora; Yi, Soon-Hyung

    2010-01-01

    This study discusses privacy risk factors when commercial web sites target primary school children in Korea. Specifically, the authors examined types of personal information required for membership subscriptions and whether privacy policies at commercial sites for children abide by privacy guidelines. A total of 159 commercial sites targeting…

  19. Aligning the Effective Use of Student Data with Student Privacy and Security Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winnick, Steve; Coleman, Art; Palmer, Scott; Lipper, Kate; Neiditz, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This legal and policy guidance provides a summary framework for state policymakers as they work to use longitudinal data to improve student achievement while also protecting the privacy and security of individual student records. Summarizing relevant federal privacy and security laws, with a focus on the Family Educational Records and Privacy Act…

  20. Adult Literacy Action Campaign: Projects around Australia. A Review of State and Territory Level Adult Literacy Projects Funded under the Adult Literacy Action Campaign of the National Policy on Languages. Occasional Paper Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Advisory Council on Languages and Multicultural Education, Canberra.

    This collection of papers is a review of the adult literacy projects in Australia funded under the 1987-89 Adult Literacy Action Campaign (ALAC) of the National Policy on Languages. Fourteen authors describe various literacy projects and, often, their outcomes. The projects described are grouped in seven areas. On the subject of Literacy Training…

  1. Locating Biobanks in the Canadian Privacy Maze.

    PubMed

    Saulnier, Katie M; Joly, Yann

    2016-03-01

    Although Canada has not yet enacted any biobanking-specific privacy law, guidance and oversight are provided via various federal and provincial health and privacy-related laws as well as via ethics and policy documents. The primary policy document governing health research, the Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans, provides the framework for the strong role of Research Ethics Boards in Canada, and limits research funding from Canada's three main federal funding agencies to those who agree to adhere to its policies. The broad consent model is gaining traction in Canada, although lack of legal and constitutional precedence for the broad consent or opt-out options makes this an evolving issue. In general, data is required to be coded; more specific security measures are outlined in guidelines that may be implemented by local policy. International sharing is allowed, and Canada meets the European Union's standards for receipt of data and samples. PMID:27256119

  2. Adult Education/Lifelong Learning Policies in Greece in the Early 2010s: Influences from European Education Policy and National Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokou, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that adult education/lifelong learning policies in Greece, as these are expressed by law 3879/2010 "Development of Lifelong Learning and Other Provisions," have the characteristics of the "statist" model of lifelong learning in Europe, namely strong governmental control and centralization. However, there are…

  3. Choose Privacy Week: Educate Your Students (and Yourself) about Privacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Helen R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of "Choose Privacy Week" is to encourage a national conversation to raise awareness of the growing threats to personal privacy online and in day-to-day life. The 2016 Choose Privacy Week theme is "respecting individuals' privacy," with an emphasis on minors' privacy. A plethora of issues relating to minors' privacy…

  4. 32 CFR 326.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Policy. 326.4 Section 326.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM NATIONAL RECONNAISSANCE OFFICE PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 326.4 Policy. (a) Records about individuals— (1) Collection. The NRO will safeguard the privacy...

  5. 32 CFR 326.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policy. 326.4 Section 326.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM NATIONAL RECONNAISSANCE OFFICE PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 326.4 Policy. (a) Records about individuals— (1) Collection. The NRO will safeguard the privacy...

  6. Is Monitoring Employees' E-Mail an Invasion of Privacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geroy, Gary D.; Jankovich, Jackie L.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the issue of e-mail and employee privacy rights. Highlights include laws and proposed legislation, ethical dilemmas, task and nontask messages and organizational misconduct, and policy guidelines for decision making about e-mail monitoring. (AEF)

  7. An Update on the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.

    2002-01-01

    Updates the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act in light of two Supreme Court decisions in 2002: "Owasso Independent School District v. Falvo" and "Gonzaga University v. Doe." Suggests implications for school board policies on student records. (PKP)

  8. Evaluating Common Privacy Vulnerabilities in Internet Service Providers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotzanikolaou, Panayiotis; Maniatis, Sotirios; Nikolouzou, Eugenia; Stathopoulos, Vassilios

    Privacy in electronic communications receives increased attention in both research and industry forums, stemming from both the users' needs and from legal and regulatory requirements in national or international context. Privacy in internet-based communications heavily relies on the level of security of the Internet Service Providers (ISPs), as well as on the security awareness of the end users. This paper discusses the role of the ISP in the privacy of the communications. Based on real security audits performed in national-wide ISPs, we illustrate privacy-specific threats and vulnerabilities that many providers fail to address when implementing their security policies. We subsequently provide and discuss specific security measures that the ISPs can implement, in order to fine-tune their security policies in the context of privacy protection.

  9. Older Adults (and Oral Health)

    MedlinePlus

    ... form does not collect any actual information. External Web Site Policy This graphic notice ( ) means that you ... Contact Us Viewers and Players Site Map FOIA Web Policies Privacy Policy National Institute of Dental and ...

  10. Ownership, Privacy, Confidentiality, and Security Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staman, E. Michael

    1986-01-01

    One of the areas most often neglected by those responsible for information systems in colleges and universities relates to ownership, privacy, confidentiality, and security of data. Background information and definitions are provided, and a suggested environment is described. Model recommendations for institutional policy are offered. (MLW)

  11. New Technology "Clouds" Student Data Privacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Keith R.; Moore, Bob

    2015-01-01

    As technology has leaped forward to provide valuable learning tools, parents and policy makers have begun raising concerns about the privacy of student data that schools and systems have. Federal laws are intended to protect students and their families but they have not and will never be able to keep up with rapidly evolving technology. School…

  12. Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue is devoted to discussions of early childhood policy issues. "Creating a Shared Vision: How Policy Affects Early Childhood Care and Development" (Judith L. Evans) defines policy, discusses the motivation for changing or creating national policy and the process for changing such policies, and provides a sample design for an early…

  13. Privacy-Related Context Information for Ubiquitous Health

    PubMed Central

    Nykänen, Pirkko; Ruotsalainen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Background Ubiquitous health has been defined as a dynamic network of interconnected systems. A system is composed of one or more information systems, their stakeholders, and the environment. These systems offer health services to individuals and thus implement ubiquitous computing. Privacy is the key challenge for ubiquitous health because of autonomous processing, rich contextual metadata, lack of predefined trust among participants, and the business objectives. Additionally, regulations and policies of stakeholders may be unknown to the individual. Context-sensitive privacy policies are needed to regulate information processing. Objective Our goal was to analyze privacy-related context information and to define the corresponding components and their properties that support privacy management in ubiquitous health. These properties should describe the privacy issues of information processing. With components and their properties, individuals can define context-aware privacy policies and set their privacy preferences that can change in different information-processing situations. Methods Scenarios and user stories are used to analyze typical activities in ubiquitous health to identify main actors, goals, tasks, and stakeholders. Context arises from an activity and, therefore, we can determine different situations, services, and systems to identify properties for privacy-related context information in information-processing situations. Results Privacy-related context information components are situation, environment, individual, information technology system, service, and stakeholder. Combining our analyses and previously identified characteristics of ubiquitous health, more detailed properties for the components are defined. Properties define explicitly what context information for different components is needed to create context-aware privacy policies that can control, limit, and constrain information processing. With properties, we can define, for example, how

  14. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking in Turkey: Policy Implications and Trends from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    PubMed

    Erdöl, Cevdet; Ergüder, Toker; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna; Gupta, Prakash; Asma, Samira

    2015-12-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an emerging tobacco product globally, especially among adolescents and young adults who may perceive WTS as a safe alternative to smoking cigarettes. Monitoring the use of WTS in Turkey in relation to the tobacco control policy context is important to ensure that WTS does not become a major public health issue in Turkey. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was conducted in Turkey in 2008 and was repeated in 2012. GATS provided prevalence estimates on current WTS and change over time. Other indicators of WTS were also obtained, such as age of initiation and location of use. Among persons aged 15 and older in Turkey, the current prevalence of WTS decreased from 2.3% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2012, representing a 65% relative decline. Among males, WTS decreased from 4.0% to 1.1% (72% relative decline). While the overall smoking prevalence decreased among females, there was no change in the rate of WTS (0.7% in 2008 vs. 0.5% in 2012), though the WTS prevalence rate was already low in 2008. Comprehensive tobacco control efforts have been successful in reducing the overall smoking prevalence in Turkey, which includes the reduction of cigarette smoking and WTS. However, it is important to continue monitoring the use of waterpipes in Turkey and targeting tobacco control efforts to certain groups that may be vulnerable to future WTS marketing (e.g., youth, women). PMID:26670238

  15. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking in Turkey: Policy Implications and Trends from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    PubMed Central

    Erdöl, Cevdet; Ergüder, Toker; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna; Gupta, Prakash; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an emerging tobacco product globally, especially among adolescents and young adults who may perceive WTS as a safe alternative to smoking cigarettes. Monitoring the use of WTS in Turkey in relation to the tobacco control policy context is important to ensure that WTS does not become a major public health issue in Turkey. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was conducted in Turkey in 2008 and was repeated in 2012. GATS provided prevalence estimates on current WTS and change over time. Other indicators of WTS were also obtained, such as age of initiation and location of use. Among persons aged 15 and older in Turkey, the current prevalence of WTS decreased from 2.3% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2012, representing a 65% relative decline. Among males, WTS decreased from 4.0% to 1.1% (72% relative decline). While the overall smoking prevalence decreased among females, there was no change in the rate of WTS (0.7% in 2008 vs. 0.5% in 2012), though the WTS prevalence rate was already low in 2008. Comprehensive tobacco control efforts have been successful in reducing the overall smoking prevalence in Turkey, which includes the reduction of cigarette smoking and WTS. However, it is important to continue monitoring the use of waterpipes in Turkey and targeting tobacco control efforts to certain groups that may be vulnerable to future WTS marketing (e.g., youth, women). PMID:26670238

  16. Lifelong Learning on Either Side of the Border: The Effects of Government Policy on Adult Education in the Netherlands and Belgium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smit, Hemmo; den Oudendammer, Frowine; Kats, Erik; van Lakerveld, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    Although there is a tendency to develop policy plans on adult education at a European level, there are still large differences between the various EU countries. These national policy contexts depend on historical, cultural, economic and political factors and can have a profound impact on the way adult education is shaped and developed within a…

  17. "We Thought They Had Forgotten Us": Research, Policy, and Practice in the Education of Latino Immigrant Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukes, Marguerite M.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses English-only policies as they relate to second language teaching for children and adults; explores popular perceptions and misconceptions about learning English; and discusses types of programs best suited for different students, depending on educational background. Examples from research and practice highlight the value of…

  18. Moving into the 1990s: A Policy Analysis of Community Living for Adults with Developmental Disabilities in South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racino, Julie Ann; And Others

    This report contains the findings and recommendations of a review of the residential services system for South Dakota adults with developmental disabilities, based on site visits, interviews, and an analysis of documents and materials. The policy analysis report examines how South Dakota could implement a "person-centered,""individualized," or…

  19. Participation Patterns in Adult Education: The Role of Institutions and Public Policy Frameworks in Resolving Coordination Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Richard; Rubenson, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on evidence regarding cross-national patterns of participation in adult education and an interpretation of these patterns from an institutional and public policy perspective. The interpretation follows from the perspective that sustaining high and widely distributed levels of investment in the development and maintenance of…

  20. Conflicting Ideologies and Language Policy in Adult ESL: Complexities of Language Socialization in a Majority-L1 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Miki

    2014-01-01

    This study looks at how language ideologies affect and are revealed in language socialization practices in a majority-L1 adult ESL classroom, particularly looking at language use and policy. It draws on recent theories and critiques of language socialization (Bayley & Langman, 2011; Bronson & Watson-Gegeo, 2008; Garrett &…

  1. 75 FR 80042 - Information Privacy and Innovation in the Internet Economy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ...The Department of Commerce's Internet Policy Task Force is conducting a comprehensive review of the nexus between privacy policy and innovation in the Internet economy. On April 23, 2010, the Department published a Notice of Inquiry seeking comment from all Internet stakeholders on the impact of current privacy laws in the United States and around the world on the pace of innovation in the......

  2. 75 FR 21226 - Information Privacy and Innovation in the Internet Economy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ...The Department of Commerce's Internet Policy Task Force is conducting a comprehensive review of the nexus between privacy policy and innovation in the Internet economy. The Department seeks public comment from all Internet stakeholders, including the commercial, academic and civil society sectors, on the impact of current privacy laws in the United States and around the world on the pace of......

  3. Information Privacy Revealed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavagnino, Merri Beth

    2013-01-01

    Why is Information Privacy the focus of the January-February 2013 issue of "EDUCAUSE Review" and "EDUCAUSE Review Online"? Results from the 2012 annual survey of the International Association of Privacy Professionals (IAPP) indicate that "meeting regulatory compliance requirements continues to be the top perceived driver…

  4. Emerging Privacy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Willis H.

    As the issue of information privacy increases in complexity in terms of the number of organizations involved, the intricacy of the information flows, and the difficulty of conceiving appropriate legal safeguards, it is not certain that the practices and laws that have been developed for current privacy protection can work for new situations.…

  5. Toward practicing privacy

    PubMed Central

    Dwork, Cynthia; Pottenger, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Private data analysis—the useful analysis of confidential data—requires a rigorous and practicable definition of privacy. Differential privacy, an emerging standard, is the subject of intensive investigation in several diverse research communities. We review the definition, explain its motivation, and discuss some of the challenges to bringing this concept to practice. PMID:23243088

  6. Children's Online Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aidman, Amy

    2000-01-01

    The first federal Internet privacy law (the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act) provides safeguards for children by regulating collection of their personal information. Unfortunately, teens are not protected. Legislation is pending to protect children from online marketers such as ZapMe! Interactive technologies require constant vigilance.…

  7. Illinois Adult Literacy Failing the Workforce: Alternative Solution Needed. Policy Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banovetz, James M., Ed.

    According to the most recent National Adult Literacy Survey, nearly half of Illinois adults lack sufficient reading proficiency to ensure job success and advancement in 21st century workplaces. The Test of Adult Basic Education is currently used as a pretest/posttest in Illinois' existing adult basic education, adult secondary education, and…

  8. Control use of data to protect privacy.

    PubMed

    Landau, Susan

    2015-01-30

    Massive data collection by businesses and governments calls into question traditional methods for protecting privacy, underpinned by two core principles: (i) notice, that there should be no data collection system whose existence is secret, and (ii) consent, that data collected for one purpose not be used for another without user permission. But notice, designated as a fundamental privacy principle in a different era, makes little sense in situations where collection consists of lots and lots of small amounts of information, whereas consent is no longer realistic, given the complexity and number of decisions that must be made. Thus, efforts to protect privacy by controlling use of data are gaining more attention. I discuss relevant technology, policy, and law, as well as some examples that can illuminate the way. PMID:25635089

  9. Individual privacy in an information dependent society

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, B.P.

    1994-12-31

    The extraordinary technologies and capabilities of the Information Age have vastly improved communication, while allowing executives to have ultra-current information about their companies, subsidiaries, staff, clients, and practically any individual in the world. These advances, however, have stripped the individual of his privacy. Although invasions of privacy do not require a computer, computers have made it much easier to gather and select informatin, which means that it is also much easier to invade privacy. The increased value of information to policy makers leads them to covet information, even when acquiring it invades someone`s pricacy; not only do managers of private companies gather personal data, almost every citizen has files about him in Federal agencies and administrations.

  10. Comparative cervical profiles of adult and under-18 front-row rugby players: implications for playing policy

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, D F; Gatherer, D; Robson, J; Graham, N; Rennie, N; MacLean, J G B; Simpson, A H R W

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the cervical isometric strength, fatigue endurance and range of motion of adult and under-18 age-grade front-row rugby players to inform the development of a safe age group policy with particular reference to scrummaging. Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Setting ‘Field testing’ at Murrayfield stadium. Participants 30 high-performance under-18 players and 22 adult front-row rugby players. Outcome measures Isometric neck strength, height, weight and grip strength. Results Youth players demonstrated the same height and grip strength as the adult players; however, the adults were significantly heavier and demonstrated substantially greater isometric strength (p<0.001). Only two of the ‘elite’ younger players could match the adult mean cervical isometric strength value. In contrast to school age players in general, grip strength was poorly associated with neck strength (r=0.2) in front-row players; instead, player weight (r=0.4) and the number of years’ experience of playing in the front row (r=0.5) were the only relevant factors in multivariate modelling of cervical strength (R2=0.3). Conclusions Extreme forces are generated between opposing front rows in the scrum and avoidance of mismatch is important if the risk of injury is to be minimised. Although elite youth front-row rugby players demonstrate the same peripheral strength as their adult counterparts on grip testing, the adults demonstrate significantly greater cervical strength. If older youths and adults are to play together, such findings have to be noted in the development of age group policies with particular reference to the scrum. PMID:24797427

  11. Provider views of harm reduction versus abstinence policies within homeless services for dually diagnosed adults

    PubMed Central

    Padgett, Deborah K.; Tiderington, Emmy

    2013-01-01

    Harm reduction is considered by many to be a legitimate alternative to abstinence-based services for dually diagnosed individuals, yet there is limited understanding of how varying approaches affect front-line practice within supportive housing services for homeless adults. This paper examines how front-line providers working with individuals who have experienced homelessness, serious mental illness, and addiction view policies of harm reduction versus abstinence within two distinctly different approaches to homeless services: the traditional or ‘treatment first’ (TF) approach that requires abstinence and the more recent Housing First (HF) approach that incorporates harm reduction. As part of a federally-funded qualitative study, 129 in-depth interviews conducted with 41 providers were thematically analyzed to understand how providers view a harm reduction versus abstinence approach. Themes included: (a) harm reduction as a welcomed alternative; (b) working with ambiguity; and (c) accommodating abstinence. Drawing on recovery principles, we consider the broader implications of the findings for behavioral health care with this population. PMID:23404076

  12. Impact of Tobacco Control Policies and Mass Media Campaigns on Monthly Adult Smoking Prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Melanie A.; Durkin, Sarah; Spittal, Matthew J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Scollo, Michelle; Simpson, Julie A.; Chapman, Simon; White, Victoria; Hill, David

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to assess the impact of several tobacco control policies and televised antismoking advertising on adult smoking prevalence. Methods. We used a population survey in which smoking prevalence was measured each month from 1995 through 2006. Time-series analysis assessed the effect on smoking prevalence of televised antismoking advertising (with gross audience rating points [GRPs] per month), cigarette costliness, monthly sales of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion, and smoke-free restaurant laws. Results. Increases in cigarette costliness and exposure to tobacco control media campaigns significantly reduced smoking prevalence. We found a 0.3-percentage-point reduction in smoking prevalence by either exposing the population to televised antismoking ads an average of almost 4 times per month (390 GRPs) or by increasing the costliness of a pack of cigarettes by 0.03% of gross average weekly earnings. Monthly sales of NRT and bupropion, exposure to NRT advertising, and smoke-free restaurant laws had no detectable impact on smoking prevalence. Conclusions. Increases in the real price of cigarettes and tobacco control mass media campaigns broadcast at sufficient exposure levels and at regular intervals are critical for reducing population smoking prevalence. PMID:18556601

  13. Vaccination benefits and cost-sharing policy for non-institutionalized adult Medicaid enrollees in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Alexandra M.; Lindley, Megan C.; Chang, Kristen H.M.; Cox, Marisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Medicaid is the largest funding source of health services for the poorest people in the United States. Medicaid enrollees have greater health care, needs, and higher health risks than other individuals in the country and, experience disproportionately low rates of preventive care. Without, Medicaid coverage, poor uninsured adults may not be vaccinated or would, rely on publicly-funded programs that provide vaccinations. We examined each programs’ policies related to benefit coverage and, copayments for adult enrollees. Our study was completed between October 2011 and September 2012 using a document review and a survey of Medicaid administrators that assessed coverage and cost-sharing policy for fee-for-service programs. Results were compared to a similar review, conducted in 2003. Over the past 10 years, Medicaid programs have typically maintained or expanded vaccination coverage benefits for adults and nearly half have explicitly prohibited copayments. The 17 programs that cover all recommended vaccines while prohibiting, copayments demonstrate a commitment to providing increased access to vaccinations for adult enrollees. When developing responses to fiscal and political challenges, the programs that do not cover all ACIP recommended adult vaccines or those that permit copayments for vaccinations, should consider all strategies to increase vaccinations and reduce costs to enrollees. PMID:24291539

  14. Privacy protection for patients with substance use problems

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Lianne Lian; Sparenborg, Steven; Tai, Betty

    2011-01-01

    Many Americans with substance use problems will have opportunities to receive coordinated health care through the integration of primary care and specialty care for substance use disorders under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Sharing of patient health records among care providers is essential to realize the benefits of electronic health records. Health information exchange through meaningful use of electronic health records can improve health care safety, quality, and efficiency. Implementation of electronic health records and health information exchange presents great opportunities for health care integration, but also makes patient privacy potentially vulnerable. Privacy issues are paramount for patients with substance use problems. This paper discusses major differences between two federal privacy laws associated with health care for substance use disorders, identifies health care problems created by privacy policies, and describes potential solutions to these problems through technology innovation and policy improvement. PMID:24474860

  15. 75 FR 33811 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's Privacy & Security Tiger Team Meeting; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the National... Policy Committee's Privacy & Security Tiger Team. General Function of the Committee: To...

  16. 22 CFR 308.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Policy. 308.2 Section 308.2 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 308.2 Policy. It is the policy of the Peace Corps to protect, preserve and defend the right of privacy of any individual as to whom the...

  17. 22 CFR 308.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Policy. 308.2 Section 308.2 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 308.2 Policy. It is the policy of the Peace Corps to protect, preserve and defend the right of privacy of any individual as to whom the...

  18. 22 CFR 308.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Policy. 308.2 Section 308.2 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 308.2 Policy. It is the policy of the Peace Corps to protect, preserve and defend the right of privacy of any individual as to whom the...

  19. 22 CFR 308.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Policy. 308.2 Section 308.2 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 308.2 Policy. It is the policy of the Peace Corps to protect, preserve and defend the right of privacy of any individual as to whom the...

  20. 45 CFR 5b.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Policy. 5b.3 Section 5b.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.3 Policy. It is the policy of the Department to protect the privacy of individuals to the fullest extent...

  1. 45 CFR 5b.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 5b.3 Section 5b.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.3 Policy. It is the policy of the Department to protect the privacy of individuals to the fullest extent...

  2. 45 CFR 5b.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policy. 5b.3 Section 5b.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.3 Policy. It is the policy of the Department to protect the privacy of individuals to the fullest extent...

  3. 45 CFR 5b.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Policy. 5b.3 Section 5b.3 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.3 Policy. It is the policy of the Department to protect the privacy of individuals to the fullest extent...

  4. 45 CFR 5b.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Policy. 5b.3 Section 5b.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.3 Policy. It is the policy of the Department to protect the privacy of individuals to the fullest extent...

  5. Privacy, Part Deux.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Discusses Oklahoma case ("Owasso Independent School District No. 1-001 v. Falvo") wherein the Supreme Court ruled unanimously in February 2002 that peer grading did not violate the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA). (PKP)

  6. "E" for Exposed? E-Mail and Privacy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon-Leary, Pat

    1997-01-01

    As a result of litigation, a number of companies have written policies declaring the right to monitor employee electronic communication. Discusses reasons why employers monitor employee e-mail, the prevalence of monitoring in universities, use and ethics policy statements, and bills of rights statements protecting employee privacy. (PEN)

  7. 76 FR 3098 - Privacy Act of 1974; Systems of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... National Security Agency/Central Security Service (NSA/CSS) by other agencies and in some instances... Freedom of Information Act Program; DoD 5400.11- R, Department of Defense Privacy Program; NSA/CSS Policy 1-5; NSA/CSS Freedom of Information Act Program; NSA/CSS Policy 1-34; Implementation of the...

  8. Online Patron Records and Privacy: Service vs. Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fouty, Kathleen G.

    1993-01-01

    Examines issues regarding the privacy of information contained in patron databases that have resulted from online circulation systems. Topics discussed include library policies to protect information in patron records; ensuring compliance with policies; limiting the data collected; security authorizations; and creating and modifying patron…

  9. Privacy and biometric passports.

    PubMed

    Vakalis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with privacy implications and threats that can emerge with the large-scale use of electronic biometric documents, such the recently introduced electronic passport (e-Passport). A brief introduction to privacy and personal data protection is followed by a presentation of the technical characteristics of the e-Passport. The description includes the digital data structure, and the communication and reading mechanisms of the e-Passport, indicating the possible points and methods of attack. PMID:21380483

  10. What adult worker model? A critical look at recent social policy reform in Europe from a gender and family perspective.

    PubMed

    Daly, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Analyses regularly feature claims that European welfare states are in the process of creating an adult worker model. The theoretical and empirical basis of this argument is examined here by looking first at the conceptual foundations of the adult worker model formulation and then at the extent to which social policy reform in western Europe fits with the argument. It is suggested that the adult worker formulation is under-specified. A framework incorporating four dimensions—the treatment of individuals vis-à-vis their family role and status for the purposes of social rights, the treatment of care, the treatment of the family as a social institution, and the extent to which gender inequality is problematized—is developed and then applied. The empirical analysis reveals a strong move towards individualization as social policy promotes and valorizes individual agency and self-sufficiency and shifts some childcare from the family. Yet evidence is also found of continued (albeit changed) familism. Rather than an unequivocal move to an individualized worker model then, a dual earner, gender-specialized, family arrangement is being promoted. The latter is the middle way between the old dependencies and the new “independence.” This makes for complexity and even ambiguity in policy, a manifestation of which is that reform within countries involves concurrent moves in several directions. PMID:21692242

  11. The impact of social policy on changes in professional practice within learning disability services: different standards for children and adults? A two-part examination: Part 1. The policy foundations: from welfare markets to Valuing People, personalization and Baby P.

    PubMed

    Malin, Nigel A; Race, David G

    2010-12-01

    This is the first of two articles examining links between policy developments and changes in professional practice within learning disability services in England, focusing upon emergent differences between children's and adult provision. The article focuses on the evolving tension around policy directions and managerialism/professionalism, with the latter as a set of practices driving services, particularly following the 1988 Griffiths Report but referring also to its antecedents. Implications of this development are examined to highlight a difference in emphasis between the credibility and professional status of the workforce in children's, as opposed to adult, services for people with learning disabilities. A historical narrative demonstrates a continuum from the policies of Thatcherism to those of New Labour, underpinned by the assertion that normalization ideas have shaped both social policy and professional directions. The origins of current policy initiatives covering the last 20 years are explored, showing the consequences of a developing gap between professional inputs for children's and adult services. PMID:21285124

  12. How States Are Implementing Distance Education for Adult Learners. State Policy Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Mary; Tracy-Mumford, Fran

    A recent survey of state directors of adult education reveals that 31 states include distance learning as either a current initiative, or in a future plan, to provide education delivery to adult learners. Distance learning modes employ technology in four categories: computer, video, audiographic, and telephone. Distance learning for adult learners…

  13. Integrated Adult Education Data System. Policy Option Paper on Strategic Recommendation 8. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Dennis

    This document addresses the recommendation contained in the 1989 California Strategic Plan for Adult Education for an integrated adult education data system. The recommendation proposes collecting and organizing community adult education information into groups of data on: program services, program delivery, learner characteristics, and learning…

  14. Strategies for Success: Promising Ideas in Adult College Completion. Policy Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This publication is the first of a series focusing on promising new ideas and innovative practices developed through the Adult College Completion Network. The brief addresses five topics of importance to those working to improve adult college completion: (1) Data availability particular to the returning adult population; (2) Partnerships between…

  15. A New Social Capital Paradigm for Adult Literacy: Partnerships, Policy and Pedagogy. An Adult Literacy National Project Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balatti, Jo; Black, Stephen; Falk, Ian

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this project is to produce a set of guidelines on how to deliver adult literacy and numeracy education and training using a social capital approach. Social capital in this project refers to the networks that operate during resourcing, course design, recruitment, teaching and evaluation. The study focused on three specific…

  16. Trust and Privacy Solutions Based on Holistic Service Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez Alcón, José Antonio; López, Lourdes; Martínez, José-Fernán; Rubio Cifuentes, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    The products and services designed for Smart Cities provide the necessary tools to improve the management of modern cities in a more efficient way. These tools need to gather citizens’ information about their activity, preferences, habits, etc. opening up the possibility of tracking them. Thus, privacy and security policies must be developed in order to satisfy and manage the legislative heterogeneity surrounding the services provided and comply with the laws of the country where they are provided. This paper presents one of the possible solutions to manage this heterogeneity, bearing in mind these types of networks, such as Wireless Sensor Networks, have important resource limitations. A knowledge and ontology management system is proposed to facilitate the collaboration between the business, legal and technological areas. This will ease the implementation of adequate specific security and privacy policies for a given service. All these security and privacy policies are based on the information provided by the deployed platforms and by expert system processing. PMID:26712752

  17. Trust and Privacy Solutions Based on Holistic Service Requirements.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Alcón, José Antonio; López, Lourdes; Martínez, José-Fernán; Rubio Cifuentes, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    The products and services designed for Smart Cities provide the necessary tools to improve the management of modern cities in a more efficient way. These tools need to gather citizens' information about their activity, preferences, habits, etc. opening up the possibility of tracking them. Thus, privacy and security policies must be developed in order to satisfy and manage the legislative heterogeneity surrounding the services provided and comply with the laws of the country where they are provided. This paper presents one of the possible solutions to manage this heterogeneity, bearing in mind these types of networks, such as Wireless Sensor Networks, have important resource limitations. A knowledge and ontology management system is proposed to facilitate the collaboration between the business, legal and technological areas. This will ease the implementation of adequate specific security and privacy policies for a given service. All these security and privacy policies are based on the information provided by the deployed platforms and by expert system processing. PMID:26712752

  18. 75 FR 63703 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act Regulation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ...The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Board) is issuing a final rule to amend its regulation implementing the Privacy Act of 1974 (Privacy Act). The primary changes concern the waiver of copying fees charged to current and former Board employees, and applicants for Board employment, for access to their records under the Privacy Act; the amendment of special procedures for the......

  19. Overview of Privacy in Social Networking Sites (SNS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powale, Pallavi I.; Bhutkar, Ganesh D.

    2013-07-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNS) have become an integral part of communication and life style of people in today's world. Because of the wide range of services offered by SNSs mostly for free of cost, these sites are attracting the attention of all possible Internet users. Most importantly, users from all age groups have become members of SNSs. Since many of the users are not aware of the data thefts associated with information sharing, they freely share their personal information with SNSs. Therefore, SNSs may be used for investigating users' character and social habits by familiar or even unknown persons and agencies. Such commercial and social scenario, has led to number of privacy and security threats. Though, all major issues in SNSs need to be addressed, by SNS providers, privacy of SNS users is the most crucial. And therefore, in this paper, we have focused our discussion on "privacy in SNSs". We have discussed different ways of Personally Identifiable Information (PII) leakages from SNSs, information revelation to third-party domains without user consent and privacy related threats associated with such information sharing. We expect that this comprehensive overview on privacy in SNSs will definitely help in raising user awareness about sharing data and managing their privacy with SNSs. It will also help SNS providers to rethink about their privacy policies.

  20. Adult Numeracy and the Totally Pedagogised Society: PIACC and Other International Surveys in the Context of Global Educational Policy on Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsatsaroni, Anna; Evans, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the emergence, form and likely effects of international surveys of adults' skills by locating them in the global context of policies on education and Life Long Learning (LLL). It focuses on adults' numeracy and discusses its conceptualisation and assessment in the Project for the International Assessment of…

  1. How to Motivate Adults with Low Literacy and Numeracy Skills to Engage and Persist in Learning: A Literature Review of Policy Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windisch, Hendrickje Catriona

    2016-01-01

    Low basic skills levels of adults are a complex policy problem which has neither straightforward causes nor solutions, and successful interventions are still relatively rare. Tackling serious literacy and numeracy weaknesses among adults is challenging, partly because the task itself is difficult, and partly because even if accomplished…

  2. A Policy of Individualization and Flexibility Ignoring the Situation of Non-Self-Reliant Individuals: The Example of Swedish Basic Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Ingrid Henning; Wass, Karin Lumsden

    2014-01-01

    Based on a case study in Swedish municipal basic adult education this article addresses current policies for providing individualized and flexible learning, which have been reinforced in recent adult education reforms. Concepts from the organization theory of "action nets" have been used. Institutionalized procedures and a number of…

  3. Making Sense of Federal Employment and Training Policy for Youth and Adults. Volume II: Expert Recommendations To Create a Comprehensive and Unified System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristina M., Ed.; And Others

    This document contains 27 essays and 5 policy statements regarding creation of a comprehensive and unified federal employment and training policy for youth and adults. The following essays are included: "In Search of the American Way" (Wills); "Rethink the Demand Side" (Smith); "The Federal Government as a Change Agent" (Nathan); "Making Sense of…

  4. The Role of Education in Teaching Norms and Values to Adult Newcomers: An Analysis of Integration Policy in the Netherlands, with Emphasis on the City of Rotterdam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Maryan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents research on the current debate in the Netherlands regarding integration and the teaching of 'norms and values' to adult newcomers. Data consisting of national and local (city of Rotterdam) integration policy documents and interviews with those influential in policy making were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. The…

  5. Inequalities for the quantum privacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trindade, M. A. S.; Pinto, E.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we investigate the asymptotic behavior related to the quantum privacy for multipartite systems. In this context, an inequality for quantum privacy was obtained by exploiting of quantum entropy properties. Subsequently, we derive a lower limit for the quantum privacy through the entanglement fidelity. In particular, we show that there is an interval where an increase in entanglement fidelity implies a decrease in quantum privacy.

  6. Maximal privacy without coherence.

    PubMed

    Leung, Debbie; Li, Ke; Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John A

    2014-07-18

    Privacy is a fundamental feature of quantum mechanics. A coherently transmitted quantum state is inherently private. Remarkably, coherent quantum communication is not a prerequisite for privacy: there are quantum channels that are too noisy to transmit any quantum information reliably that can nevertheless send private classical information. Here, we ask how much private classical information a channel can transmit if it has little quantum capacity. We present a class of channels N(d) with input dimension d(2), quantum capacity Q(N(d)) ≤ 1, and private capacity P(N(d)) = log d. These channels asymptotically saturate an interesting inequality P(N) ≤ (1/2)[log d(A) + Q(N)] for any channel N with input dimension d(A) and capture the essence of privacy stripped of the confounding influence of coherence. PMID:25083622

  7. Information Systems, Security, and Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Willis H.

    1984-01-01

    Computer security and computer privacy issues are discussed. Among the areas addressed are technical and human security threats, security and privacy issues for information in electronic mail systems, the need for a national commission to examine these issues, and security/privacy issues relevant to colleges and universities. (JN)

  8. Advertising and Invasion of Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    The right of privacy as it relates to advertising and the use of a person's name or likeness is discussed in this paper. After an introduction that traces some of the history of invasion of privacy in court decisions, the paper examines cases involving issues such as public figures and newsworthy items, right of privacy waived, right of privacy…

  9. Privacy Expectations in Online Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pure, Rebekah Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Advances in digital networked communication technology over the last two decades have brought the issue of personal privacy into sharper focus within contemporary public discourse. In this dissertation, I explain the Fourth Amendment and the role that privacy expectations play in the constitutional protection of personal privacy generally, and…

  10. Genetic secrets: Protecting privacy and confidentiality in the genetic era

    SciTech Connect

    Rothstein, M.A.

    1998-07-01

    Few developments are likely to affect human beings more profoundly in the long run than the discoveries resulting from advances in modern genetics. Although the developments in genetic technology promise to provide many additional benefits, their application to genetic screening poses ethical, social, and legal questions, many of which are rooted in issues of privacy and confidentiality. The ethical, practical, and legal ramifications of these and related questions are explored in depth. The broad range of topics includes: the privacy and confidentiality of genetic information; the challenges to privacy and confidentiality that may be projected to result from the emerging genetic technologies; the role of informed consent in protecting the confidentiality of genetic information in the clinical setting; the potential uses of genetic information by third parties; the implications of changes in the health care delivery system for privacy and confidentiality; relevant national and international developments in public policies, professional standards, and laws; recommendations; and the identification of research needs.

  11. The U. S. Privacy Protection Commission--A Retrospective View from the Chair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linowes, David F.

    This paper examines how the U.S. Privacy Protection Commission functioned. Examined are its basic authority, procedures and policies, operational plan, distinctive features, staffing, and results of recommendations. Created by an act of Congress in 1974, the Commission was authorized to examine all actual and potential invasions of privacy in the…

  12. Suggestions for Compliance with Privacy Rights of Parents and Students (Buckley Amendments).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    These suggestions for formulating school district policies governing the confidentiality and release of student records are based on the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (the Buckley amendment) and on relevant Arizona state law. A checklist, which covers the major section of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, is designed to…

  13. 12 CFR 332.4 - Initial privacy notice to consumers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... consumer's loan. (d) Existing customers. When an existing customer obtains a new financial product or... OF GENERAL POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 332.4... provided in paragraph (e) of this section; and (2) Consumer. A consumer, before you disclose any...

  14. Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Targets for Increasing Victimization, a Call for a Preemptive Screening Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasser, Sheryl; O'Quin, Karen; Price, Thomas; Leyda, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The aging population is a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Isolation, limited autonomy, and declining physical and mental health render many older adults vulnerable to abuse, neglect, and exploitation. As the population grows, so does the need for Adult Protective Services (APS). This article highlights an ultrasensitive subgroup…

  15. Adult Literacy Policies and Performance in the SADCC Region (Southern Africa).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    While the implementation of adult literacy promotion can best be handled at the national level, some important things can be done at the Southern African Development Co-ordination Conference (SADCC) level. A persuasive argument can be made on behalf of adult literacy in the SADCC development strategy. The people need to be educated in the…

  16. EduCard. Adult Education Access Card. Policy Option Paper on Strategic Recommendation 4. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Dennis

    One recommendation of the 1989 California Strategic Plan for Adult Education is the use of EduCard. EduCard, the Adult Education Access Card, is a means of giving learners access to information about educational opportunities and providing administrators with machine-readable information on learners' prior education and traiing. Three models are:…

  17. Understanding Lifelong Learning and Adult Education Policy in Estonia: Tendencies and Contradictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jogi, Larissa

    2012-01-01

    There have been many theoretical and empirical analyses of lifelong learning policies and how to implement, develop, measure and facilitate lifelong learning and lifelong learning policy in order to cater for the needs and requirements of individuals as well as society in general. The particular slant on lifelong learning in different countries…

  18. Testing Citizenship and Allegiance: Policy, Politics and the Education of Adult Migrants in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Audrey

    2009-01-01

    This article examines recent UK government policy and proposals relating to immigration and citizenship, and the ways in which these policies are presented as means of securing allegiance and integration. From 1997, the incoming Labour government emphasized the importance of informed, active citizenship and social justice. From 2001, the emphasis…

  19. Feasibility analysis of the privacy attributes of the personal wellness information model.

    PubMed

    Nykänen, Pirkko; Seppälä, Antto; Ruotsalainen, Pekka; Blobel, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    A feasibility analysis has been performed to study the applicability of privacy attributes with a developed wellness information model. Information privacy concerns specifically access to individually identifiable personal information and one's ability to control information about oneself. We carried out a user scenario walk-through of the privacy attributes related to the wellness components. The walk-through showed a need to relate self-regulating privacy policies to the pervasive context so that during various trust-building processes, a person is aware and can control the use, disclosure and even secondary use of his personal, private wellness information. PMID:23920548

  20. Crossed wires: how yesterday's privacy rules might undercut tomorrow's nationwide health information network.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Michael D; Ridgely, M Susan; Hillestad, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    More than a decade after passage of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), concerns about the privacy and security of personal health information remain a major policy issue. Now, the emergence of the Nationwide Health Information Network (NHIN) presents deeper underlying privacy challenges, which will require renewed attention from policymakers as federal and state privacy rules need to be revisited. This is necessary because the current framework of privacy laws is not well suited for regulating a transformed health care system, where computer networks supersede conventional communications media. PMID:19276003

  1. Time series analysis of the impact of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence among Australian adults, 2001–2011

    PubMed Central

    Coomber, Kerri; Durkin, Sarah J; Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; Spittal, Matthew J; Simpson, Julie A; Hill, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on smoking prevalence in Australian adults. Methods Data for calculating the average monthly prevalence of smoking between January 2001 and June 2011 were obtained via structured interviews of randomly sampled adults aged 18 years or older from Australia’s five largest capital cities (monthly mean number of adults interviewed: 2375). The influence on smoking prevalence was estimated for increased tobacco taxes; strengthened smoke-free laws; increased monthly population exposure to televised tobacco control mass media campaigns and pharmaceutical company advertising for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), using gross ratings points; monthly sales of NRT, bupropion and varenicline; and introduction of graphic health warnings on cigarette packs. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used to examine the influence of these interventions on smoking prevalence. Findings The mean smoking prevalence for the study period was 19.9% (standard deviation: 2.0%), with a drop from 23.6% (in January 2001) to 17.3% (in June 2011). The best-fitting model showed that stronger smoke-free laws, tobacco price increases and greater exposure to mass media campaigns independently explained 76% of the decrease in smoking prevalence from February 2002 to June 2011. Conclusion Increased tobacco taxation, more comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased investment in mass media campaigns played a substantial role in reducing smoking prevalence among Australian adults between 2001 and 2011. PMID:24940015

  2. Impact of Different Policies on Unhealthy Dietary Behaviors in an Urban Adult Population: An Agent-Based Simulation Model

    PubMed Central

    Giabbanelli, Philippe J.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Zimmerman, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Unhealthy eating is a complex-system problem. We used agent-based modeling to examine the effects of different policies on unhealthy eating behaviors. Methods. We developed an agent-based simulation model to represent a synthetic population of adults in Pasadena, CA, and how they make dietary decisions. Data from the 2007 Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey and other empirical studies were used to calibrate the parameters of the model. Simulations were performed to contrast the potential effects of various policies on the evolution of dietary decisions. Results. Our model showed that a 20% increase in taxes on fast foods would lower the probability of fast-food consumption by 3 percentage points, whereas improving the visibility of positive social norms by 10%, either through community-based or mass-media campaigns, could improve the consumption of fruits and vegetables by 7 percentage points and lower fast-food consumption by 6 percentage points. Zoning policies had no significant impact. Conclusions. Interventions emphasizing healthy eating norms may be more effective than directly targeting food prices or regulating local food outlets. Agent-based modeling may be a useful tool for testing the population-level effects of various policies within complex systems. PMID:24832414

  3. Computers and Personal Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Willis H.

    Privacy is an issue that arises from the intersection of a demand for improved recordkeeping processes, and computing technology as the response to the demand. Recordkeeping in the United States centers on information about people. Modern day computing technology has the ability to maintain, store, and retrieve records quickly; however, this…

  4. 32 CFR 322.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Policy. 322.3 Section 322.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM NATIONAL SECURITY AGENCY/CENTRAL SECURITY SERVICES PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 322.3 Policy. (a) The National Security Agency/Central Security Service...

  5. The HIPAA privacy rule: practical advice for academic and research institutions.

    PubMed

    Gunter, Kim P

    2002-02-01

    The Final Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information (privacy rule) of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 holds particular importance for academic and research organizations because they use patient information in the provision of experimental healthcare services. In developing a strategy to comply with the final privacy rule, these organizations require an understanding of certain standards that hold significance for them. Specifically, organizations should establish patient privacy guidelines for non-employee researchers the organization should consider partners in business with whom the organization should share its researcher guidelines. These organizations also should understand the difference between consent and authorization, how requirements of the final privacy rule build upon those of the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, and the differing roles of privacy boards and institutional review boards. PMID:11842502

  6. Educating the adult brain: How the neuroscience of learning can inform educational policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowland, Victoria C. P.; Thomas, Michael S. C.

    2014-05-01

    The acquisition of new skills in adulthood can positively affect an individual's quality of life, including their earning potential. In some cases, such as the learning of literacy in developing countries, it can provide an avenue to escape from poverty. In developed countries, job retraining in adulthood contributes to the flexibility of labour markets. For all adults, learning opportunities increase participation in society and family life. However, the popular view is that adults are less able to learn for an intrinsic reason: their brains are less plastic than in childhood. This article reviews what is currently known from neuroscientific research about how brain plasticity changes with age, with a particular focus on the ability to acquire new skills in adulthood. Anchoring their review in the examples of the adult acquisition of literacy and new motor skills, the authors address five specific questions: (1) Are sensitive periods in brain development relevant to learning complex educational skills like literacy? (2) Can adults become proficient in a new skill? (3) Can everyone learn equally effectively in adulthood? (4) What is the role of the learning environment? (5) Does adult education cost too much? They identify areas where further research is needed and conclude with a summary of principles for enhancing adult learning now established on a neuroscience foundation.

  7. 45 CFR 5.4 - Relationship between the FOIA and the Privacy Act of 1974.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION FREEDOM OF INFORMATION REGULATIONS Basic Policy § 5.4 Relationship between the FOIA and the... your request under the Privacy Act and part 5b. If there is any record that we need not release to...

  8. High Prevalence of Chronic Non-Communicable Conditions Among Adult Refugees: Implications for Practice and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Katherine; Hebrank, Kelly; Graber, Lauren K.; Sullivan, Mary-Christine; Chen, Isabel; Gupta, Jhumka

    2013-01-01

    The global rise in non-communicable disease (NCD) suggests that US-based refugees are increasingly affected by chronic conditions. However, health services have focused on the detection of infectious disease, with relatively limited data on chronic NCDs. Using data from a retrospective medical record review of a refugee health program in the urban Northeast (n = 180), we examined the prevalence of chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors among adult refugees who had recently arrived in the US, with attention to region of origin and family composition. Family composition was included because low-income adults without dependent children are at high risk of becoming uninsured. We found that half of the adult refugees in this sample had at least one chronic NCD (51.1%), and 9.5% had three or more NCDs. Behavioral health diagnoses were most common (15.0%), followed by hypertension (13.3%). Half of adults were overweight or obese (54.6%). Chronic NCDs were somewhat more common among adults from Iraq, but this difference was not significant (56.8 vs. 44.6%). Chronic NCDs were common among adults with and without dependent children (61.4 vs. 44.6%, respectively), and these two groups did not significantly differ in their likelihood of having a chronic NCD after adjustment for age and gender (AOR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.39, 1.55). This study suggests that chronic NCDs are common among adult refugees in the US, including refugees at high risk for uninsurance. We propose that refugee health services accommodate screening and treatment for chronic NCDs and NCD risk factors, and that insurance outreach and enrollment programs target recently arrived refugees. PMID:22382428

  9. Health information: reconciling personal privacy with the public good of human health.

    PubMed

    Gostin, L O

    2001-01-01

    The success of the health care system depends on the accuracy, correctness and trustworthiness of the information, and the privacy rights of individuals to control the disclosure of personal information. A national policy on health informational privacy should be guided by ethical principles that respect individual autonomy while recognizing the important collective interests in the use of health information. At present there are no adequate laws or constitutional principles to help guide a rational privacy policy. The laws are scattered and fragmented across the states. Constitutional law is highly general, without important specific safeguards. Finally, a case study is provided showing the important trade-offs that exist between public health and privacy. For a model public health law, see www.critpath.org/msphpa/privacy. PMID:11794835

  10. Privacy Awareness: A Means to Solve the Privacy Paradox?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pötzsch, Stefanie

    People are limited in their resources, i.e. they have limited memory capabilities, cannot pay attention to too many things at the same time, and forget much information after a while; computers do not suffer from these limitations. Thus, revealing personal data in electronic communication environments and being completely unaware of the impact of privacy might cause a lot of privacy issues later. Even if people are privacy aware in general, the so-called privacy paradox shows that they do not behave according to their stated attitudes. This paper discusses explanations for the existing dichotomy between the intentions of people towards disclosure of personal data and their behaviour. We present requirements on tools for privacy-awareness support in order to counteract the privacy paradox.

  11. Strategies for maintaining patient privacy in i2b2

    PubMed Central

    Gainer, Vivian; Mendis, Michael; Churchill, Susanne; Kohane, Isaac

    2011-01-01

    Background The re-use of patient data from electronic healthcare record systems can provide tremendous benefits for clinical research, but measures to protect patient privacy while utilizing these records have many challenges. Some of these challenges arise from a misperception that the problem should be solved technically when actually the problem needs a holistic solution. Objective The authors' experience with informatics for integrating biology and the bedside (i2b2) use cases indicates that the privacy of the patient should be considered on three fronts: technical de-identification of the data, trust in the researcher and the research, and the security of the underlying technical platforms. Methods The security structure of i2b2 is implemented based on consideration of all three fronts. It has been supported with several use cases across the USA, resulting in five privacy categories of users that serve to protect the data while supporting the use cases. Results The i2b2 architecture is designed to provide consistency and faithfully implement these user privacy categories. These privacy categories help reflect the policy of both the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act and the provisions of the National Research Act of 1974, as embodied by current institutional review boards. Conclusion By implementing a holistic approach to patient privacy solutions, i2b2 is able to help close the gap between principle and practice. PMID:21984588

  12. Research in the Biotech Age: Can Informational Privacy Compete?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peekhaus, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the privacy of personal medical information in the health research context. Arguing that biomedical research in Canada has been caught up in the government's broader neoliberal policy agenda that has positioned biotechnology as a strategic driver of economic growth, the author discusses the tension between informational…

  13. Risk-Based Models for Managing Data Privacy in Healthcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AL Faresi, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Current research in health care lacks a systematic investigation to identify and classify various sources of threats to information privacy when sharing health data. Identifying and classifying such threats would enable the development of effective information security risk monitoring and management policies. In this research I put the first step…

  14. Windows without Curtains: Computer Privacy and Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaughey, Martha

    2003-01-01

    When armed police officers, with no warrant, confiscated and searched the computer from this author's state university office, she began to cross-examine her relationship to computers and to investigate professors' computer privacy at public universities. She had violated no university policy. She had simply received an anonymous e-mail (an e-mail…

  15. A Web Policy Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Elliott

    2001-01-01

    Sound technology policies can spell the difference between an effective website and an online nightmare. An effective web development policy addresses six key areas: roles and responsibilities, content/educational value, privacy and safety, adherence to copyright laws, technical standards, and use of commercial sites and services. (MLH)

  16. Privacy Practices of Health Social Networking Sites: Implications for Privacy and Data Security in Online Cancer Communities.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, Deborah H

    2016-08-01

    While online communities for social support continue to grow, little is known about the state of privacy practices of health social networking sites. This article reports on a structured content analysis of privacy policies and disclosure practices for 25 online ovarian cancer communities. All of the health social networking sites in the study sample provided privacy statements to users, yet privacy practices varied considerably across the sites. The majority of sites informed users that personal information was collected about participants and shared with third parties (96%, n = 24). Furthermore, more than half of the sites (56%, n = 14) stated that cookies technology was used to track user behaviors. Despite these disclosures, only 36% (n = 9) offered opt-out choices for sharing data with third parties. In addition, very few of the sites (28%, n = 7) allowed individuals to delete their personal information. Discussions about specific security measures used to protect personal information were largely missing. Implications for privacy, confidentiality, consumer choice, and data safety in online environments are discussed. Overall, nurses and other health professionals can utilize these findings to encourage individuals seeking online support and participating in social networking sites to build awareness of privacy risks to better protect their personal health information in the digital age. PMID:27253081

  17. Modeling dietary fiber intakes in US adults: implications for public policy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was to simulate the application of the dietary recommendations to increase dietary fiber (DF)-containing foods. This study used 24-hour dietary recalls from NHANES 2003-2006 to model the impact of different approaches of increasing DF with current dietary patterns of US adults...

  18. "Media Mediators": Advocating an Alternate Paradigm for Critical Adult Education ICT Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remtulla, Karim A.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the efficacy of current education program approaches to prepare instructors to achieve critical thinking and active learning from their students by integrating ICTs with traditional adult education practices. An argument is put forward that the increasing presence and influence of ICTs in education necessitates a paradigmatic…

  19. The Learning Imperative. National Education and Training Targets and Adult Learners. A NIACE Policy Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Adult Continuing Education, Leicester (England).

    This paper promotes the adoption of the lifetime learning targets that form part of National Education and Training Targets (NETTS) for Lifetime Learning in the United Kingdom. Section 1 defines NETTs as goals for levels of participation in education and training. Section 2 considers the characteristics and current profile of adult learners.…

  20. The Development of Adult and Community Education Policy in New Zealand: Insights from Popper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the process by which all post-compulsory education in New Zealand has become integrated under one administrative structure, the Tertiary Education Commission (TEC), with the intention of developing a single coordinated system of tertiary education. In particular, adult and community education (ACE), the least formal and…

  1. Global Polity in Adult Education and UNESCO: Landmarking, Brokering and Framing Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milana, Marcella

    2016-01-01

    Aknowledging the complexity of local-global interconnections, the author argues for the adoption of a global polity perspective in adult education, here applied to study mobilisation processes that occur through UNESCO. The findings point to three processes that cross geopolitical borders and professional interests: "landmarking," by…

  2. A New Social Capital Paradigm for Adult Literacy: Partnerships, Policy and Pedagogy--Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balatti, Jo; Black, Stephen; Falk, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This Support Document reports in detail on two of three components of the methodology. The first part of this document features the literature review, focusing in particular on the three areas of health literacy, financial literacy and literacy in the justice sector. It also includes a background section on policy. The second part of the Support…

  3. Stakeholder Perspectives on Policies to Support Family Caregivers of Older Adults with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Michelle; Pickard, Joseph G.; Rodriguez, Carroll; Shear, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Persons with dementia are often excluded from consumer-directed home- and community-based service programs because they cannot direct their own care. Surrogates are permitted in some states, thereby allowing program participation. This study explored family caregiver perspectives on policies that support family needs related to providing care to…

  4. Gaussian operations and privacy

    SciTech Connect

    Navascues, Miguel; Acin, Antonio

    2005-07-15

    We consider the possibilities offered by Gaussian states and operations for two honest parties, Alice and Bob, to obtain privacy against a third eavesdropping party, Eve. We first extend the security analysis of the protocol proposed in [Navascues et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 010502 (2005)]. Then, we prove that a generalized version of this protocol does not allow one to distill a secret key out of bound entangled Gaussian states.

  5. The Right to Privacy at the Workplace, Part 1: Employee Searches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelsohn, Susan R.; Morrison, Kathryn K.

    1988-01-01

    The authors discuss the employee's right to privacy. Court decisions and legislation regarding employee searches are reviewed. They provide guidelines for avoiding legal problems, including (1) publicize the search policy, (2) ascertain that the policy can be justified, and (3) apply the policy in a reasonable, even-handed manner. (CH)

  6. How to motivate adults with low literacy and numeracy skills to engage and persist in learning: A literature review of policy interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windisch, Hendrickje Catriona

    2016-04-01

    Low basic skills levels of adults are a complex policy problem which has neither straightforward causes nor solutions, and successful interventions are still relatively rare. Tackling serious literacy and numeracy weaknesses among adults is challenging, partly because the task itself is difficult, and partly because even if accomplished successfully, the returns on the investment (of expertise, time and money) are uncertain. The Survey of Adult Skills, an international investigation conducted in 22 member and two partner countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) as part of the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), has revealed that a considerable number of adults possess only limited literacy and numeracy skills. Governments now recognise the need to upskill these adults in order to maintain national prosperity. This literature review examines current evidence on policy interventions for adults with low literacy and numeracy proficiencies to pinpoint what has so far proven to motivate adults to join and persist in basic literacy and numeracy learning. The author identifies three approaches which seem promising in helping to address individual learners' needs: (1) adapting instruction to learners' needs by means of regular assessment (formative assessment); (2) complementary e-learning (blended learning); and (3) contextualisation of basic skills provision both at work and at home (workplace learning and family literacy). The central challenge is to put the evidence to work.

  7. How to motivate adults with low literacy and numeracy skills to engage and persist in learning: A literature review of policy interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windisch, Hendrickje Catriona

    2016-06-01

    Low basic skills levels of adults are a complex policy problem which has neither straightforward causes nor solutions, and successful interventions are still relatively rare. Tackling serious literacy and numeracy weaknesses among adults is challenging, partly because the task itself is difficult, and partly because even if accomplished successfully, the returns on the investment (of expertise, time and money) are uncertain. The Survey of Adult Skills, an international investigation conducted in 22 member and two partner countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) as part of the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), has revealed that a considerable number of adults possess only limited literacy and numeracy skills. Governments now recognise the need to upskill these adults in order to maintain national prosperity. This literature review examines current evidence on policy interventions for adults with low literacy and numeracy proficiencies to pinpoint what has so far proven to motivate adults to join and persist in basic literacy and numeracy learning. The author identifies three approaches which seem promising in helping to address individual learners' needs: (1) adapting instruction to learners' needs by means of regular assessment (formative assessment); (2) complementary e-learning (blended learning); and (3) contextualisation of basic skills provision both at work and at home (workplace learning and family literacy). The central challenge is to put the evidence to work.

  8. Evaluating the privacy properties of telephone metadata

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Jonathan; Mutchler, Patrick; Mitchell, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2013, a stream of disclosures has prompted reconsideration of surveillance law and policy. One of the most controversial principles, both in the United States and abroad, is that communications metadata receives substantially less protection than communications content. Several nations currently collect telephone metadata in bulk, including on their own citizens. In this paper, we attempt to shed light on the privacy properties of telephone metadata. Using a crowdsourcing methodology, we demonstrate that telephone metadata is densely interconnected, can trivially be reidentified, and can be used to draw sensitive inferences. PMID:27185922

  9. Privacy, confidentiality, and electronic medical records.

    PubMed Central

    Barrows, R C; Clayton, P D

    1996-01-01

    The enhanced availability of health information in an electronic format is strategic for industry-wide efforts to improve the quality and reduce the cost of health care, yet it brings a concomitant concern of greater risk for loss of privacy among health care participants. The authors review the conflicting goals of accessibility and security for electronic medical records and discuss nontechnical and technical aspects that constitute a reasonable security solution. It is argued that with guiding policy and current technology, an electronic medical record may offer better security than a traditional paper record. PMID:8653450

  10. Evaluating the privacy properties of telephone metadata.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Jonathan; Mutchler, Patrick; Mitchell, John C

    2016-05-17

    Since 2013, a stream of disclosures has prompted reconsideration of surveillance law and policy. One of the most controversial principles, both in the United States and abroad, is that communications metadata receives substantially less protection than communications content. Several nations currently collect telephone metadata in bulk, including on their own citizens. In this paper, we attempt to shed light on the privacy properties of telephone metadata. Using a crowdsourcing methodology, we demonstrate that telephone metadata is densely interconnected, can trivially be reidentified, and can be used to draw sensitive inferences. PMID:27185922

  11. Biological Contributions to Addictions in Adolescents and Adults: Prevention, Treatment and Policy Implications

    PubMed Central

    Potenza, Marc N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Despite significant advances in our understanding of the biological bases of addictions, these disorders continue to represent a huge public health burden that is associated with substantial personal suffering. Efforts to target addictions require consideration of how the improved biological understanding of addictions may lead to improved prevention, treatment and policy initiatives. Method In this article, we provide a narrative review of current biological models for addictions with a goal of placing existing data and theories within a translational and developmental framework targeting the advancement of prevention, treatment and policy strategies. Results Data regarding individual differences, intermediary phenotypes, and main and interactive influences of genetic and environmental contributions in the setting of developmental trajectories that may be influenced by addictive drugs or behavior indicate complex underpinnings of addictions. Conclusions Consideration and further elucidation of the biological etiologies of addictions hold significant potential for making important gains and reducing the public health impact of addictions. PMID:23332567

  12. The Growing Costs and Burden of Family Caregiving of Older Adults: A Review of Paid Sick Leave and Family Leave Policies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Lan

    2016-06-01

    Many family caregivers of older adults suffer from a high burden of care and struggle with the balance of jobs and caregiving tasks. However, the United States is the only developed country without paid sick leave policies for all workers and their families. The purpose of this article is to review the federal Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) and empirical studies about paid sick policy, propose policy recommendations, and provide a starting point for future research. The result has shown that the FMLA only applies to certain employees and the provided leave is unpaid under the act. Working women, Latinos, low-wage workers, and less-educated employees are less likely to access paid sick leave and family leave. Obviously, social injustice exists in the FMLA and paid sick leave policies. This article proposes that the Family and Medical Leave Act coverage should be expanded to protect all workers, especially for primary family caregivers of older adults, regardless of family relationships. Also, paid sick and family leave laws should be passed, and requirements to contribute to a family-friendly workplace added to relieve the growing burden of family caregiving of older adults. Policy recommendations including the exemplar of the San Francisco Paid Sick Leave Ordinance, and suggestions for more comprehensive policies are proposed for federal, state, or/and city legislation. PMID:25335873

  13. Privacy Issues and New Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, Sue

    1997-01-01

    Issues of privacy, anonymity, and computer security emerging with advancing information technology are outlined, and implications for universities are discussed. Emphasis is on the Australian context and on Australian government and international initiatives concerning privacy. Sensitive information categories are identified, and measures…

  14. 76 FR 59073 - Privacy Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY 32 CFR Part 1901 Privacy Act AGENCY: Central Intelligence Agency. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: Consistent with the Privacy Act (PA), the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has undertaken and completed...

  15. Privacy in the Electronic Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spetalnick, Terrie

    1993-01-01

    Examines issues relating to privacy in the electronic community. Highlights include digital information versus print products; the Bill of Rights and Responsibilities for Electronic Learners; electronically stored personal information; institutional versus individual ownership; the right of free speech versus the right of privacy; and the need for…

  16. User Privacy in RFID Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singelée, Dave; Seys, Stefaan

    Wireless RFID networks are getting deployed at a rapid pace and have already entered the public space on a massive scale: public transport cards, the biometric passport, office ID tokens, customer loyalty cards, etc. Although RFID technology offers interesting services to customers and retailers, it could also endanger the privacy of the end-users. The lack of protection mechanisms being deployed could potentially result in a privacy leakage of personal data. Furthermore, there is the emerging threat of location privacy. In this paper, we will show some practical attack scenarios and illustrates some of them with cases that have received press coverage. We will present the main challenges of enhancing privacy in RFID networks and evaluate some solutions proposed in literature. The main advantages and shortcomings will be briefly discussed. Finally, we will give an overview of some academic and industrial research initiatives on RFID privacy.

  17. An Exploratory Study of the Factors That Influence Enrolling in Alternative Educational Options: Adult Perceptions and Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocsis-McNerney, Violet

    2013-01-01

    This research obtained information using focus groups as qualitative method to determine the factors that influenced alternative education decisions. The purpose of this study was to help bridge theory, research, and educational practices and examine policy reform efforts. Through the lenses of returning adult education students, this research…

  18. "It Is Difficult to Be a Woman with a Dream of an Education:" Challenging U.S. Adult Basic Education Policies to Support Women Immigrants' Self-Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuban, Sondra; Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2009-01-01

    Women immigrants are an increasing population in the U.S. and in the Adult Basic Education (ABE) system, particularly in English to Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) programmes. The authors argue that their numerical predominance and comprehensive needs are not factored into U.S. ABE policies by reformers who are anxious about the system being…

  19. Business and Public Policy; Instructor's Guide for an Adult Course. Part II in a Series of Preparation for Certified Professional Secretary Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batten, Marion N.; Wakin, Bertha

    One of six courses to cover the six parts of the Certified Professional Secretary Examination, this course in business and public policy is appropriate for use in adult education programs, secondary schools, and community colleges of New York State. It is recommended that specific cases be used with each of the ten lessons to exemplify the major…

  20. Decisions, Provisions and Disillusionment for Non-Vocational Adult Learning (NVAL) Staff in South-Eastern Europe: A Comparative Appraisal of Some Policy Developments with Diminishing Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarifis, George K.

    2009-01-01

    Since 2000, the European Union has given greater attention to lifelong learning, as expressed in the Lisbon presidency conclusions and the general objectives of the Education and Training 2010 work programme. In September 2007, these policy proposals were further strengthened with the announcement of the "Action Plan on Adult Learning" that sets…

  1. 32 CFR 323.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... LOGISTICS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 323.3 Policy. DLA adopts and supplements the DoD Privacy Program policy and procedures codified at 32 CFR 310.4 through 310.53, and appendices A through H of 32 CFR part 310. ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policy. 323.3 Section 323.3 National...

  2. 32 CFR 323.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... LOGISTICS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 323.3 Policy. DLA adopts and supplements the DoD Privacy Program policy and procedures codified at 32 CFR 310.4 through 310.53, and appendices A through H of 32 CFR part 310. ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Policy. 323.3 Section 323.3 National...

  3. Trust Information-Based Privacy Architecture for Ubiquitous Health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ubiquitous health is defined as a dynamic network of interconnected systems that offers health services independent of time and location to a data subject (DS). The network takes place in open and unsecure information space. It is created and managed by the DS who sets rules that regulate the way personal health information is collected and used. Compared to health care, it is impossible in ubiquitous health to assume the existence of a priori trust between the DS and service providers and to produce privacy using static security services. In ubiquitous health features, business goals and regulations systems followed often remain unknown. Furthermore, health care-specific regulations do not rule the ways health data is processed and shared. To be successful, ubiquitous health requires novel privacy architecture. Objective The goal of this study was to develop a privacy management architecture that helps the DS to create and dynamically manage the network and to maintain information privacy. The architecture should enable the DS to dynamically define service and system-specific rules that regulate the way subject data is processed. The architecture should provide to the DS reliable trust information about systems and assist in the formulation of privacy policies. Furthermore, the architecture should give feedback upon how systems follow the policies of DS and offer protection against privacy and trust threats existing in ubiquitous environments. Methods A sequential method that combines methodologies used in system theory, systems engineering, requirement analysis, and system design was used in the study. In the first phase, principles, trust and privacy models, and viewpoints were selected. Thereafter, functional requirements and services were developed on the basis of a careful analysis of existing research published in journals and conference proceedings. Based on principles, models, and requirements, architectural components and their interconnections

  4. A Generic Privacy Quantification Framework for Privacy-Preserving Data Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Zutao

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the concerns about the privacy for the electronic data collected by government agencies, organizations, and industries are increasing. They include individual privacy and knowledge privacy. Privacy-preserving data publishing is a research branch that preserves the privacy while, at the same time, withholding useful information in…

  5. Employee Privacy Rights: A Management Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Ira Michael; Olsen, Harry

    Employee privacy rights are considered, along with practical problems and permissible parameters of employer activity. Included is a state-by-state analysis of the status of workplace privacy. Definitions are offered of "invasion of privacy," with attention to four types of privacy invasions: (1) placing someone in a "false light," (2) the public…

  6. Privacy in Social Networks: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheleva, Elena; Getoor, Lise

    In this chapter, we survey the literature on privacy in social networks. We focus both on online social networks and online affiliation networks. We formally define the possible privacy breaches and describe the privacy attacks that have been studied. We present definitions of privacy in the context of anonymization together with existing anonymization techniques.

  7. 48 CFR 39.105 - Privacy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Privacy. 39.105 Section 39... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.105 Privacy. Agencies shall ensure that contracts for information technology address protection of privacy in accordance with the Privacy Act (5...

  8. 48 CFR 39.105 - Privacy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Privacy. 39.105 Section 39... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.105 Privacy. Agencies shall ensure that contracts for information technology address protection of privacy in accordance with the Privacy Act (5...

  9. 48 CFR 39.105 - Privacy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Privacy. 39.105 Section 39... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.105 Privacy. Agencies shall ensure that contracts for information technology address protection of privacy in accordance with the Privacy Act (5...

  10. 48 CFR 39.105 - Privacy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Privacy. 39.105 Section 39... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.105 Privacy. Agencies shall ensure that contracts for information technology address protection of privacy in accordance with the Privacy Act (5...

  11. A Privacy Manager for Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Siani; Shen, Yun; Mowbray, Miranda

    We describe a privacy manager for cloud computing, which reduces the risk to the cloud computing user of their private data being stolen or misused, and also assists the cloud computing provider to conform to privacy law. We describe different possible architectures for privacy management in cloud computing; give an algebraic description of obfuscation, one of the features of the privacy manager; and describe how the privacy manager might be used to protect private metadata of online photos.

  12. Data protection, privacy.

    PubMed

    La Monaca, G; Schiralli, I

    2010-01-01

    The topic of data protection is referred closely to the concept of privacy--characterized by the American political philosophy in order to indicate a sphere recognized as personal, and therefore private or intimate, of the person, which exclude other individuals or society--whose protection has deep roots in the international right. The technological progress in the field of telecommunication has increased the facility of acquisition and spreading of information, the exchange of data, and the possibility of access to confidential information by other people. This made it made necessary the regulation of the management and the transfer of these information in order to protect individual rights and, on the other hand, an easy circulation of data for legitimate and useful goals. PMID:20499037

  13. 78 FR 42945 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Vacancy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Vacancy AGENCY: Government Accountability Office... Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy Committee (Health IT.... ARRA requires that one member have expertise in health information privacy and security. Due to...

  14. 78 FR 73466 - Privacy Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... or qualifications for Federal civilian employment, military service, Federal contracts or access to... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION 22 CFR Part 707 Privacy Act AGENCY: Overseas Private Investment Corporation. ACTION: Notice...

  15. Biobanking and Privacy in India.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Sachin; Srinivas, Krishna Ravi; Muthuswamy, Vasantha

    2016-03-01

    Biobank-based research is not specifically addressed in Indian statutory law and therefore Indian Council for Medical Research guidelines are the primary regulators of biobank research in India. The guidelines allow for broad consent and for any level of identification of specimens. Although privacy is a fundamental right under the Indian Constitution, courts have limited this right when it conflicts with other rights or with the public interest. Furthermore, there is no established privacy test or actionable privacy right in the common law of India. In order to facilitate biobank-based research, both of these lacunae should be addressed by statutory law specifically addressing biobanking and more directly addressing the accompanying privacy concerns. A biobank-specific law should be written with international guidelines in mind, but harmonization with other laws should not be attempted until after India has created a law addressing biobank research within the unique legal and cultural environment of India. PMID:27256123

  16. 32 CFR 2400.22 - Freedom of Information Act and Privacy Act requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Freedom of Information Act and Privacy Act... SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Declassification and Downgrading § 2400.22 Freedom of Information Act and...

  17. 32 CFR 2400.22 - Freedom of Information Act and Privacy Act requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Freedom of Information Act and Privacy Act... SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Declassification and Downgrading § 2400.22 Freedom of Information Act and...

  18. Toward a Behavioral Approach to Privacy for Online Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Lerone D.; Wu, S. Felix

    We examine the correlation between user interactions and self reported information revelation preferences for users of the popular Online Social Network (OSN), Facebook. Our primary goal is to explore the use of indicators of tie strength to inform localized, per-user privacy preferences for users and their ties within OSNs. We examine the limitations of such an approach and discuss future plans to incorporate this approach into the development of an automated system for helping users define privacy policy. As part of future work, we discuss how to define/expand policy to the entire social network. We also present additional collected data similar to other studies such as perceived tie strength and information revelation preferences for OSN users.

  19. 75 FR 70924 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... Policy Committee's Workgroups: Meaningful Use, Privacy & Security Tiger Team, Enrollment, Governance... December 2010: December 3rd Privacy & Security Tiger Team, 10 a.m. to 12 p.m./ET; December 3rd Meaningful..../ET; December 8th Enrollment Workgroup, 11 a.m. to 2 p.m./ET; December 9th Privacy & Security...

  20. 75 FR 36658 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... Policy Committee's Workgroups: Meaningful Use, Privacy & Security Tiger Team, Enrollment, Adoption... & Security Tiger Team, 10 a.m. to 12 p.m./ET; July 8th Certification/Adoption Workgroup, 10 a.m. to 12 p.m./ET; July 9th Privacy & Security Tiger Team, 10 a.m. to 1 p.m./ET; July 13th Privacy & Security...

  1. 75 FR 65485 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Policy Committee's Workgroups: Meaningful Use, Privacy & Security Tiger Team, Enrollment, Governance... Privacy & Security Tiger Team, 10 a.m. to 12 p.m./ET; November 9th Meaningful Use Workgroup, 10 a.m. to 12..., 11 a.m. to 2 p.m./ET; and November 22nd Privacy & Security Tiger Team, 10 a.m. to 12...

  2. 76 FR 4352 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Policy Committee's Workgroups: Meaningful Use, Privacy & Security Tiger Team, Enrollment, Governance... meetings during February 2011: February 4th, Privacy & Security Tiger Team, 10 a.m. to 12 p.m./ET; February.... to 2 p.m./ET; February 14th, Privacy & Security Tiger Team, 10 a.m. to 12 p.m./ET; February...

  3. Personal Privacy Clarification Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Deutch, Theodore E. [D-FL-19

    2011-01-26

    02/08/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations and Procurement Reform . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. User Centric Policy Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Gorrell P.

    2013-01-01

    Internet use, in general, and online social networking sites, in particular, are experiencing tremendous growth with hundreds of millions of active users. As a result, there is a tremendous amount of privacy information and content online. Protecting this information is a challenge. Access control policy composition is complex, laborious and…

  5. 48 CFR 1324.203 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROTECTION OF PRIVACY AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act 1324.203 Policy. DOC's implementation of the Freedom of Information Act is described in 15 CFR part 4 and DAO 205-14....

  6. 48 CFR 1324.203 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROTECTION OF PRIVACY AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act 1324.203 Policy. DOC's implementation of the Freedom of Information Act is described in 15 CFR part 4 and DAO 205-14....

  7. 48 CFR 1324.203 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROTECTION OF PRIVACY AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act 1324.203 Policy. DOC's implementation of the Freedom of Information Act is described in 15 CFR part 4 and DAO 205-14....

  8. 48 CFR 1324.203 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROTECTION OF PRIVACY AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act 1324.203 Policy. DOC's implementation of the Freedom of Information Act is described in 15 CFR part 4 and DAO 205-14....

  9. 48 CFR 1324.203 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROTECTION OF PRIVACY AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act 1324.203 Policy. DOC's implementation of the Freedom of Information Act is described in 15 CFR part 4 and DAO 205-14....

  10. 48 CFR 2424.203 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PROTECTION OF PRIVACY AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act 2424.203 Policy. See 24 CFR part 15 for the HUD regulations which implement the Freedom of Information Act....

  11. 48 CFR 2024.202 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROTECTION OF PRIVACY AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act 2024.202 Policy. The provisions at 10 CFR part 9, subpart A, Freedom of Information Act Regulations, are applicable to...

  12. 48 CFR 2824.202 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF PRIVACY AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act 2824.202 Policy. Procedures for processing Freedom of Information Act requests are set forth in Departmental regulations and 28 CFR part 16....

  13. Query Monitoring and Analysis for Database Privacy - A Security Automata Model Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anand; Ligatti, Jay; Tu, Yi-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Privacy and usage restriction issues are important when valuable data are exchanged or acquired by different organizations. Standard access control mechanisms either restrict or completely grant access to valuable data. On the other hand, data obfuscation limits the overall usability and may result in loss of total value. There are no standard policy enforcement mechanisms for data acquired through mutual and copyright agreements. In practice, many different types of policies can be enforced in protecting data privacy. Hence there is the need for an unified framework that encapsulates multiple suites of policies to protect the data. We present our vision of an architecture named security automata model (SAM) to enforce privacy-preserving policies and usage restrictions. SAM analyzes the input queries and their outputs to enforce various policies, liberating data owners from the burden of monitoring data access. SAM allows administrators to specify various policies and enforces them to monitor queries and control the data access. Our goal is to address the problems of data usage control and protection through privacy policies that can be defined, enforced, and integrated with the existing access control mechanisms using SAM. In this paper, we lay out the theoretical foundation of SAM, which is based on an automata named Mandatory Result Automata. We also discuss the major challenges of implementing SAM in a real-world database environment as well as ideas to meet such challenges. PMID:26997936

  14. Confronting the Youth Demographic Challenge: The Labor Market Prospects of Out-of-School Young Adults. Policy Issues Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sum, Andrew; Fogg, Neeta; Mangum, Garth

    The labor market prospects of out-of-school young adults and options for improving the employment and earnings potential of all young adults were examined. The following issues were among those considered: demographic and social factors affecting young adults' employment prospects; employment trends and labor market problems in the United States…

  15. Privacy versus autonomy: a tradeoff model for smart home monitoring technologies.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Daphne; Knoefel, Frank; Goubran, Rafik

    2011-01-01

    Smart homes are proposed as a new location for the delivery of healthcare services. They provide healthcare monitoring and communication services, by using integrated sensor network technologies. We validate a hypothesis regarding older adults' adoption of home monitoring technologies by conducting a literature review of articles studying older adults' attitudes and perceptions of sensor technologies. Using current literature to support the hypothesis, this paper applies the tradeoff model to decisions about sensor acceptance. Older adults are willing to trade privacy (by accepting a monitoring technology), for autonomy. As the information captured by the sensor becomes more intrusive and the infringement on privacy increases, sensors are accepted if the loss in privacy is traded for autonomy. Even video cameras, the most intrusive sensor type were accepted in exchange for the height of autonomy which is to remain in the home. PMID:22255399

  16. Privacy and Security - a Way to Manage the Dilemma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peissl, Walter

    Privacy and security are often seen as opposites in a zero-sum game. The more you want from one, the less you get from the other. To overcome this dilemma the PRISE project (EU-funded by PASR/DG Enterprise) developed a methodology to establish sets of criteria for privacy enhancing security technologies. These sets of criteria are applicable on different levels (research, development, implementation) and by different actors (research coordinators, industry, policy-makers, public and private users). The use of these criteria is intended to contribute directly to a tangible and demonstrable improvement in security as accepted and acceptable security technologies will be more easily implemented, more widely used and confronted with less rejection by the general public and users of these technologies. A similar set of criteria is used for certification for the European Privacy Seal. Both the privacy by design approach and the certification scheme should increase the competitiveness of European security industries by providing guidance on the provision of widely acceptable security technologies.

  17. The State of Evaluation Research on Food Policies to Reduce Obesity and Diabetes Among Adults in the United States, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Franzosa, Emily; Sohler, Nancy; Li, Rui; Devlin, Heather; Albu, Jeanine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Improvements in diet can prevent obesity and type 2 diabetes. Although policy changes provide a foundation for improvement at the population level, evidence for the effectiveness of such changes is slim. This study summarizes the literature on recent efforts in the United States to change food-related policies to prevent obesity and diabetes among adults. Methods We conducted a systematic review of evidence of the impact of food policies. Websites of government, academic, and nonprofit organizations were scanned to generate a typology of food-related policies, which we classified into 18 categories. A key-word search and a search of policy reports identified empirical evaluation studies of these categories. Analyses were limited to strategies with 10 or more reports. Of 422 articles identified, 94 met these criteria. Using publication date, study design, study quality, and dietary outcomes assessed, we evaluated the strength of evidence for each strategy in 3 assessment categories: time period, quality, and study design. Results Five strategies yielded 10 or more reports. Only 2 of the 5 strategies, menu labeling and taxes on unhealthy foods, had 50% or more studies with positive findings in at least 2 of 3 assessment categories. Most studies used methods that were rated medium quality. Although the number of published studies increased over 11 years, study quality did not show any clear trend nor did it vary by strategy. Conclusion Researchers and policy makers can improve the quality and rigor of policy evaluations to synthesize existing evidence and develop better methods for gleaning policy guidance from the ample but imperfect data available. PMID:26513438

  18. Is Privacy Important in Scoliosis Screening?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quick, Miriam M.; Highriter, Marion E.

    1981-01-01

    In a study done to determine the importance of privacy during scoliosis screening, individual privacy was provided for some children. Results indicated a definite lessening of anxiety for those students screened privately. (JN)

  19. A Model for IT Policy Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodyear, Marilu; Warner, Beth Forrest

    2003-01-01

    Describes the University of Kansas' information technology (IT) policy development process as a model for other institutions' IT policy development. The policy involves seven dimensions: access, freedom of expression, privacy, intellectual property, security, effective use of information resources, and records management. (EV)

  20. 22 CFR 1507.2 - General policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true General policies. 1507.2 Section 1507.2 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION RULES SAFEGUARDING PERSONAL INFORMATION § 1507.2 General policies. It is the policy of the Foundation to safeguard the right of privacy of any individual as to whom...

  1. 21 CFR 21.60 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Policy. 21.60 Section 21.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Exemptions § 21.60 Policy. It is the policy of the Food and Drug Administration that record systems should...

  2. 21 CFR 21.60 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Policy. 21.60 Section 21.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Exemptions § 21.60 Policy. It is the policy of the Food and Drug Administration that record systems should...

  3. 21 CFR 21.60 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Policy. 21.60 Section 21.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Exemptions § 21.60 Policy. It is the policy of the Food and Drug Administration that record systems should...

  4. 21 CFR 21.60 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policy. 21.60 Section 21.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Exemptions § 21.60 Policy. It is the policy of the Food and Drug Administration that record systems should...

  5. 21 CFR 21.60 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Policy. 21.60 Section 21.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROTECTION OF PRIVACY Exemptions § 21.60 Policy. It is the policy of the Food and Drug Administration that record systems should...

  6. On genomics, kin, and privacy

    PubMed Central

    Telenti, Amalio; Ayday, Erman; Hubaux, Jean Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The storage of greater numbers of exomes or genomes raises the question of loss of privacy for the individual and for families if genomic data are not properly protected. Access to genome data may result from a personal decision to disclose, or from gaps in protection. In either case, revealing genome data has consequences beyond the individual, as it compromises the privacy of family members. Increasing availability of genome data linked or linkable to metadata through online social networks and services adds one additional layer of complexity to the protection of genome privacy.  The field of computer science and information technology offers solutions to secure genomic data so that individuals, medical personnel or researchers can access only the subset of genomic information required for healthcare or dedicated studies. PMID:25254097

  7. 39 CFR 262.5 - Systems (Privacy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DEFINITIONS § 262.5 Systems (Privacy). (a) Privacy Act system of records. A Postal Service system containing... individual. (c) Computer matching program. A “matching program,” as defined in the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. 552a... comparison of: (1) A Postal Service automated system of records with an automated system of records...

  8. 39 CFR 262.5 - Systems (Privacy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DEFINITIONS § 262.5 Systems (Privacy). (a) Privacy Act system of records. A Postal Service system containing... individual. (c) Computer matching program. A “matching program,” as defined in the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. 552a... comparison of: (1) A Postal Service automated system of records with an automated system of records...

  9. 39 CFR 262.5 - Systems (Privacy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DEFINITIONS § 262.5 Systems (Privacy). (a) Privacy Act system of records. A Postal Service system containing... individual. (c) Computer matching program. A “matching program,” as defined in the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. 552a... comparison of: (1) A Postal Service automated system of records with an automated system of records...

  10. 39 CFR 262.5 - Systems (Privacy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DEFINITIONS § 262.5 Systems (Privacy). (a) Privacy Act system of records. A Postal Service system containing... individual. (c) Computer matching program. A “matching program,” as defined in the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. 552a... comparison of: (1) A Postal Service automated system of records with an automated system of records...

  11. Privacy Regulations and Employee Record Keeping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledvinka, James

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the laws governing access to employee records including the U.S. Constitution, especially the Fourth and Fifth Amendments of the Bill of Rights; the National Labor Relations Act; the Privacy Act of 1974; state privacy statutes; and common-law privacy protections from court opinions. Recommendations for management actions are included. (EM)

  12. Sexiled: Privacy Acquisition Strategies of College Roommates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlandson, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to understand how roommates make privacy bids in college residence halls. The results indicate that privacy for sexual activity is a problem for students living in college residence halls, as almost all participants (82%) reported having dealt with this issue. Two sets of responses were collected and analyzed: privacy acquisition…

  13. Effective Management of Information Security and Privacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Alicia

    2006-01-01

    No university seems immune to cyber attacks. For many universities, such events have served as wake-up calls to develop a comprehensive information security and privacy strategy. This is no simple task, however. It involves balancing a culture of openness with a need for security and privacy. Security and privacy are not the same, and the…

  14. 48 CFR 39.105 - Privacy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.105 Privacy. Agencies shall ensure that contracts for information technology address protection of privacy in accordance with the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C... operation of a system of records using commercial information technology services or information...

  15. 21 CFR 1314.45 - Privacy protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Privacy protections. 1314.45 Section 1314.45 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.45 Privacy protections. To protect the privacy...

  16. 24 CFR 3280.107 - Interior privacy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interior privacy. 3280.107 Section 3280.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... privacy. Bathroom and toilet compartment doors shall be equipped with a privacy lock....

  17. 24 CFR 3280.107 - Interior privacy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Interior privacy. 3280.107 Section 3280.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... privacy. Bathroom and toilet compartment doors shall be equipped with a privacy lock....

  18. 24 CFR 3280.107 - Interior privacy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Interior privacy. 3280.107 Section 3280.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... privacy. Bathroom and toilet compartment doors shall be equipped with a privacy lock....

  19. 21 CFR 1314.45 - Privacy protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Privacy protections. 1314.45 Section 1314.45 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.45 Privacy protections. To protect the privacy...

  20. 24 CFR 3280.107 - Interior privacy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Interior privacy. 3280.107 Section 3280.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... privacy. Bathroom and toilet compartment doors shall be equipped with a privacy lock....

  1. 24 CFR 3280.107 - Interior privacy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Interior privacy. 3280.107 Section 3280.107 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... privacy. Bathroom and toilet compartment doors shall be equipped with a privacy lock....

  2. 21 CFR 1314.45 - Privacy protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Privacy protections. 1314.45 Section 1314.45 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.45 Privacy protections. To protect the privacy...

  3. 21 CFR 1314.45 - Privacy protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Privacy protections. 1314.45 Section 1314.45 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.45 Privacy protections. To protect the privacy...

  4. 21 CFR 1314.45 - Privacy protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Privacy protections. 1314.45 Section 1314.45 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.45 Privacy protections. To protect the privacy...

  5. 39 CFR 262.5 - Systems (Privacy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Systems (Privacy). 262.5 Section 262.5 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION RECORDS AND INFORMATION MANAGEMENT DEFINITIONS § 262.5 Systems (Privacy). (a) Privacy Act system of records. A Postal Service system containing information about individuals,...

  6. Privacy and data security in E-health: requirements from the user's perspective.

    PubMed

    Wilkowska, Wiktoria; Ziefle, Martina

    2012-09-01

    In this study two currently relevant aspects of using medical assistive technologies were addressed-security and privacy. In a two-step empirical approach that used focus groups (n = 19) and a survey (n = 104), users' requirements for the use of medical technologies were collected and evaluated. Specifically, we focused on the perceived importance of data security and privacy issues. Outcomes showed that both security and privacy aspects play an important role in the successful adoption of medical assistive technologies in the home environment. In particular, analysis of data with respect to gender, health-status and age (young, middle-aged and old users) revealed that females and healthy adults require, and insist on, the highest security and privacy standards compared with males and the ailing elderly. PMID:23011814

  7. Genetic secrets: Protecting privacy and confidentiality in the genetic era. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rothstein, M.A.

    1998-09-01

    Few developments are likely to affect human beings more profoundly in the long run than the discoveries resulting from advances in modern genetics. Although the developments in genetic technology promise to provide many additional benefits, their application to genetic screening poses ethical, social, and legal questions, many of which are rooted in issues of privacy and confidentiality. The ethical, practical, and legal ramifications of these and related questions are explored in depth. The broad range of topics includes: the privacy and confidentiality of genetic information; the challenges to privacy and confidentiality that may be projected to result from the emerging genetic technologies; the role of informed consent in protecting the confidentiality of genetic information in the clinical setting; the potential uses of genetic information by third parties; the implications of changes in the health care delivery system for privacy and confidentiality; relevant national and international developments in public policies, professional standards, and laws; recommendations; and the identification of research needs.

  8. Intelligence, Dataveillance, and Information Privacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mace, Robyn R.

    The extent and scope of intelligence activities are expanding in response to technological and economic transformations of the past decades. Intelligence efforts involving aggregated data from multiple public and private sources combined with past abuses of domestic intelligence functions have generated significant concerns among privacy advocates and citizens about the protection of individual civil liberties and information privacy from corporate and governmental misuse. In the information age, effective regulation and oversight are key components in the legitimacy and success of government domestic intelligence activities.

  9. Privacy-enhanced electronic mail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Matt

    1990-06-01

    The security of electronic mail sent through the Internet may be described in exactly three words: there is none. The Privacy and Security Research Group has recommended implementing mechanisms designed to provide security enhancements. The first set of mechanisms provides a protocol to provide privacy, integrity, and authentication for electronic mail; the second provides a certificate-based key management infrastructure to support key distribution throughout the internet, to support the first set of mechanisms. These mechanisms are described, as well as the reasons behind their selection and how these mechanisms can be used to provide some measure of security in the exchange of electronic mail.

  10. Bridging the Gap between Evidence and Practice for Adults with Medically Refractory Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Is a Change in Funding Policy Needed to Stimulate a Shift in Practice?

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Alireza; Aldakkan, Abdulrahman; Kosicka, Magda J.; Tarride, Jean-Eric; Valiante, Taufik A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Surgery for medically refractory epilepsy (MRE) in adults has been shown to be effective but underutilized. Comprehensive health economic evaluations of surgery compared with continued medical management are limited. Policy changes may be necessary to influence practice shift. Methods. A critical review of the literature on health economic analyses for adults with MRE was conducted. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CRD, and EconLit databases were searched using relevant subject headings and keywords pertaining to adults, epilepsy, and health economic evaluations. The screening was conducted independently and in duplicate. Results. Four studies were identified (1 Canadian, 2 American, and 1 French). Two were cost-utility analyses and 2 were cost-effectiveness evaluations. Only one was conducted after the effectiveness of surgery was established through a randomized trial. All suggested surgery to be favorable in the medium to long term (7-8 years and beyond). The reduction of medication use was the major cost-saving parameter in favor of surgery. Conclusions. Although updated evaluations that are more generalizable across settings are necessary, surgery appears to be a favorable option from a health economic perspective. Given the limited success of knowledge translation endeavours, funder-level policy changes such as quality-based purchasing may be necessary to induce a shift in practice. PMID:26770822

  11. Comprehensive quantitative analysis on privacy leak behavior.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lejun; Wang, Yuanzhuo; Jin, Xiaolong; Li, Jingyuan; Cheng, Xueqi; Jin, Shuyuan

    2013-01-01

    Privacy information is prone to be leaked by illegal software providers with various motivations. Privacy leak behavior has thus become an important research issue of cyber security. However, existing approaches can only qualitatively analyze privacy leak behavior of software applications. No quantitative approach, to the best of our knowledge, has been developed in the open literature. To fill this gap, in this paper we propose for the first time four quantitative metrics, namely, possibility, severity, crypticity, and manipulability, for privacy leak behavior analysis based on Privacy Petri Net (PPN). In order to compare the privacy leak behavior among different software, we further propose a comprehensive metric, namely, overall leak degree, based on these four metrics. Finally, we validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach using real-world software applications. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach can quantitatively analyze the privacy leak behaviors of various software types and reveal their characteristics from different aspects. PMID:24066046

  12. Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis on Privacy Leak Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lejun; Wang, Yuanzhuo; Jin, Xiaolong; Li, Jingyuan; Cheng, Xueqi; Jin, Shuyuan

    2013-01-01

    Privacy information is prone to be leaked by illegal software providers with various motivations. Privacy leak behavior has thus become an important research issue of cyber security. However, existing approaches can only qualitatively analyze privacy leak behavior of software applications. No quantitative approach, to the best of our knowledge, has been developed in the open literature. To fill this gap, in this paper we propose for the first time four quantitative metrics, namely, possibility, severity, crypticity, and manipulability, for privacy leak behavior analysis based on Privacy Petri Net (PPN). In order to compare the privacy leak behavior among different software, we further propose a comprehensive metric, namely, overall leak degree, based on these four metrics. Finally, we validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach using real-world software applications. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach can quantitatively analyze the privacy leak behaviors of various software types and reveal their characteristics from different aspects. PMID:24066046

  13. Education, Technology, and Individual Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Lawrence P.

    1978-01-01

    Modern technological devices, along with advances in the behavioral sciences, can threaten the privacy of students. Technology that can reveal innermost thoughts and motives, or can change basic values and behaviors, must be used judiciously and only by qualified professionals under strictly controlled conditions. (Author)

  14. Panel: RFID Security and Privacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Kevin

    The panel on RFID security and privacy included Ross Anderson, Jon Callas, Yvo Desmedt, and Kevin Fu. Topics for discussion included the "chip and PIN" EMV payment systems, e-Passports, "mafia" attacks, and RFID-enabled credit cards. Position papers by the panelists appear in the following pages, and the RFID-enabled credit card work appears separately in these proceedings.

  15. The Privacy Act of 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, James T.

    This report describes the possible impact of the comprehensive Privacy Act of 1974, which went into effect on 27 September 1975. Specifically, the implications of the act for limitation of disclosure, federal information collection, individual access, private suits; criminal provisions; and exceptions to the provisions of the law are detailed. In…

  16. 78 FR 46256 - Privacy Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION 11 CFR Part 1 Privacy Act CFR Correction In Title 11 of the Code of Federal Regulations, revised as of January 1, 2012, on page 5, in Sec. 1.2, the words ``95 and 96 of the Internal Revenue Code...

  17. Privacy and Security: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association, Washington, DC.

    Compiled at random from many sources, this bibliography attempts to cite as many publications concerning privacy and security as are available. The entries are organized under seven headings: (1) systems security, technical security, clearance of personnel, (2) corporate physical security, (3) administrative security, (4) miscellaneous--privacy…

  18. Facebook: When Education Meets Privacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruneel, Steven; De Wit, Kurt; Verhoeven, Jef C.; Elen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The use of social networking sites (SNSs) has become commonplace amongst students. In this research, we aim to shed light upon the educational use and privacy issues on Facebook from the perspective of role theory and reference group theory. 15 bachelor students of the University of Leuven (KU Leuven) in Flanders, Belgium, were interviewed in…

  19. College and University Privacy Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Showalter, Rodney J.

    2009-01-01

    Beginning in the late 1990s, international corporations began hiring Chief Privacy Officers (CPOs). By 2002, large universities responded to this trend by creating this distinct position or modifying an existing job description to include CPO responsibilities. While not every registrar assumes the role of CPO, increasing practical and legislative…

  20. Integrating Adult Basic Education with Workforce Development and Workplace Change: How National-Level Policy Makers Can Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurmo, Paul

    A review of literature and work with focus groups shows that, although adult education has always focused on helping undereducated adults prepare for work, since the early 1990s there has been emphasis on work force development (helping prepare the work force and get them into rewarding productive jobs) and workplace (organizational) change. A…

  1. No Single Measure. A Survey of Australian Adult Literacy. Summary Report. A National Policy on Languages Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickert, Rosie

    A survey of the literacy proficiency of 1,500 Australian adults indicates that: (1) people who demonstrate some proficiency with using printed material should not be classified as illiterate; (2) appropriate rating scales should be developed for assessing adults' literacy skills; (3) more detailed analysis of the characteristics of those who…

  2. Balancing in a crisis? Bioterrorism, public health and privacy.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Janlori

    2005-01-01

    Post-September 11, the government has been rapidly funding public health initiatives to bolster the Nation's ability to respond to bioterrorist attacks. While the infusion of money into the public health system is laudable, the pressure to enact legislation quickly has resulted in laws and policies that ignore privacy and civil liberties and that favor anti-bioterror initiatives over more common public health concerns. A public health agenda that ignores privacy and civil liberties will undermine public trust, leading people to not fully participate in critical public health activities. Our Nation is far more likely to succeed in preventing and responding to a potential act of bioterrorism if we embrace the principle that advancing public health and preserving individual liberties are symbiotic and inextricable. PMID:16477799

  3. Obesity Prevention Practices and Policies in Child Care Settings Enrolled and Not Enrolled in the Child and Adult Care Food Program.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sherry T; Graffagino, Cheryl L; Leser, Kendall A; Trombetta, Autumn L; Pirie, Phyllis L

    2016-09-01

    Objectives The United States Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) provides meals and snacks to low-income children in child care. This study compared nutrition and physical activity practices and policies as well as the overall nutrition and physical activity environments in a sample of CACFP and non-CACFP child care settings. Methods A random stratified sample of 350 child care settings in a large Midwestern city and its suburbs, was mailed a survey on obesity prevention practices and policies concerning menu offerings, feeding practices, nutrition and physical activity education, activity levels, training, and screen time. Completed surveys were obtained from 229 of 309 eligible child care settings (74.1 % response rate). Chi square tests were used to compare practices and policies in CACFP and non-CACFP sites. Poisson and negative binomial regression were used to examine associations between CACFP and total number of practices and policies. Results Sixty-nine percent of child care settings reported CACFP participation. A significantly higher proportion of CACFP sites reported offering whole grain foods daily and that providers always eat the same foods that are offered to the children. CACFP sites had 1.1 times as many supportive nutrition practices as non-CACFP sites. CACFP participation was not associated with written policies or physical activity practices. Conclusions for Practice There is room for improvement across nutrition and physical activity practices and policies. In addition to food reimbursement, CACFP participation may help promote child care environments that support healthy nutrition; however, additional training and education outreach activities may be needed. PMID:27112556

  4. Interventions to prevent or reduce the level of frailty in community-dwelling older adults: a protocol for a scoping review of the literature and international policies

    PubMed Central

    Puts, Martine T E; Toubasi, Samar; Atkinson, Esther; Ayala, Ana Patricia; Andrew, Melissa; Ashe, Maureen C; Bergman, Howard; Ploeg, Jenny; McGilton, Katherine S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction With ageing comes increased vulnerability such that older adults’ ability to recover from acute illnesses, fall-related injuries and other stresses related to the physical ageing processes declines. This increased vulnerability, also known as frailty, is common in older adults and associated with increased healthcare service use and adverse health outcomes. Currently, there is no overview of available interventions to prevent or reduce the level of frailty (as defined by study's authors) which will help healthcare providers in community settings caring for older adults. We will address this gap by reviewing interventions and international polices that are designed to prevent or reduce the level of frailty in community-dwelling older adults. Methods and analysis We will conduct a scoping review using the updated guidelines of Arksey and O'Malley to systematically search the peer-reviewed journal articles to identify interventions that aimed to prevent or reduce the level of frailty. We will search grey literature for international policies. The 6-stage scoping review model involves: (1) identifying the research question; (2) identifying relevant studies; (3) selecting studies; (4) charting the data; (5) collating, summarising and reporting the results and (6) consulting with key stakeholders. Ethics and dissemination Our scoping review will use robust methodology to search for available interventions focused on preventing or reducing the level of frailty in community-dwelling older adults. We will consult with stakeholders to find out whether they find the frailty interventions/policies useful and to identify the barriers and facilitators to their implementation in Canada. We will disseminate our findings to relevant stakeholders at local, national and international levels by presenting at relevant meetings and publishing the findings. Our review will identify gaps in research and provide healthcare providers and policymakers with an overview of

  5. 17 CFR 160.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Model privacy form and... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION UNDER TITLE V OF THE GRAMM-LEACH-BLILEY ACT § 160.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of...

  6. 17 CFR 160.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Model privacy form and... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 160.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  7. 17 CFR 160.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Model privacy form and... Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of... content requirements of §§ 160.6 and 160.7 of this part, although use of the model privacy form is...

  8. 12 CFR 216.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 216.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION (REGULATION P) § 216.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with...

  9. 17 CFR 160.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Model privacy form and... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 160.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  10. 16 CFR 313.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 313.2... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 313.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  11. 16 CFR 313.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 313.2... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 313.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  12. 12 CFR 716.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 716.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 716.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in Appendix A of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  13. 12 CFR 716.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 716.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 716.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in Appendix A of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  14. 16 CFR 313.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 313.2... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 313.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  15. 12 CFR 216.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 216.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION (REGULATION P) § 216.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with...

  16. 16 CFR 313.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 313.2... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 313.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  17. 12 CFR 216.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 216.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION (REGULATION P) § 216.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with...

  18. 16 CFR 313.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 313.2... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 313.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  19. 17 CFR 160.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Model privacy form and... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION UNDER TITLE V OF THE GRAMM-LEACH-BLILEY ACT § 160.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of...

  20. 12 CFR 216.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 216.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION (REGULATION P) § 216.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendix A of this part, consistent with...

  1. 12 CFR 716.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 716.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 716.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in Appendix A of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  2. 12 CFR 716.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 716.2 Section... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION § 716.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model privacy form in appendixA of this part, consistent with the instructions in...

  3. 32 CFR 806b.4 - Privacy Act complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Privacy Act complaints. 806b.4 Section 806b.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Overview of the Privacy Act Program § 806b.4 Privacy Act complaints. (a) Process Privacy...

  4. 12 CFR 332.8 - Revised privacy notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Revised privacy notices. 332.8 Section 332.8... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 332.8 Revised privacy notices. (a... described in your prior notice. (c) Delivery. When you are required to deliver a revised privacy notice...

  5. 32 CFR 806b.4 - Privacy Act complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Privacy Act complaints. 806b.4 Section 806b.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Overview of the Privacy Act Program § 806b.4 Privacy Act complaints. (a) Process Privacy...

  6. 12 CFR 332.8 - Revised privacy notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Revised privacy notices. 332.8 Section 332.8... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 332.8 Revised privacy notices. (a... described in your prior notice. (c) Delivery. When you are required to deliver a revised privacy notice...

  7. 12 CFR 332.8 - Revised privacy notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Revised privacy notices. 332.8 Section 332.8... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 332.8 Revised privacy notices. (a... described in your prior notice. (c) Delivery. When you are required to deliver a revised privacy notice...

  8. 32 CFR 806b.4 - Privacy Act complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Privacy Act complaints. 806b.4 Section 806b.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Overview of the Privacy Act Program § 806b.4 Privacy Act complaints. (a) Process Privacy...

  9. 13 CFR 102.36 - Privacy Act standards of conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Privacy Act standards of conduct... AND PRIVACY Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 102.36 Privacy Act standards of conduct. Each Program/Support Office Head or designee shall inform...

  10. 32 CFR 806b.4 - Privacy Act complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Privacy Act complaints. 806b.4 Section 806b.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Overview of the Privacy Act Program § 806b.4 Privacy Act complaints. (a) Process Privacy...

  11. 13 CFR 102.36 - Privacy Act standards of conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Privacy Act standards of conduct... AND PRIVACY Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 102.36 Privacy Act standards of conduct. Each Program/Support Office Head or designee shall inform...

  12. 32 CFR 806b.4 - Privacy Act complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Privacy Act complaints. 806b.4 Section 806b.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Overview of the Privacy Act Program § 806b.4 Privacy Act complaints. (a) Process Privacy...

  13. 13 CFR 102.36 - Privacy Act standards of conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Privacy Act standards of conduct... AND PRIVACY Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 102.36 Privacy Act standards of conduct. Each Program/Support Office Head or designee shall inform...

  14. 12 CFR 332.8 - Revised privacy notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Revised privacy notices. 332.8 Section 332.8... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 332.8 Revised privacy notices. (a... described in your prior notice. (c) Delivery. When you are required to deliver a revised privacy notice...

  15. 12 CFR 332.8 - Revised privacy notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Revised privacy notices. 332.8 Section 332.8... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 332.8 Revised privacy notices. (a... described in your prior notice. (c) Delivery. When you are required to deliver a revised privacy notice...

  16. 13 CFR 102.36 - Privacy Act standards of conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Privacy Act standards of conduct... AND PRIVACY Protection of Privacy and Access to Individual Records Under the Privacy Act of 1974 § 102.36 Privacy Act standards of conduct. Each Program/Support Office Head or designee shall inform...

  17. Privacy information management for video surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ying; Cheung, Sen-ching S.

    2013-05-01

    The widespread deployment of surveillance cameras has raised serious privacy concerns. Many privacy-enhancing schemes have been proposed to automatically redact images of trusted individuals in the surveillance video. To identify these individuals for protection, the most reliable approach is to use biometric signals such as iris patterns as they are immutable and highly discriminative. In this paper, we propose a privacy data management system to be used in a privacy-aware video surveillance system. The privacy status of a subject is anonymously determined based on her iris pattern. For a trusted subject, the surveillance video is redacted and the original imagery is considered to be the privacy information. Our proposed system allows a subject to access her privacy information via the same biometric signal for privacy status determination. Two secure protocols, one for privacy information encryption and the other for privacy information retrieval are proposed. Error control coding is used to cope with the variability in iris patterns and efficient implementation is achieved using surrogate data records. Experimental results on a public iris biometric database demonstrate the validity of our framework.

  18. The Convergence of Virtual Reality and Social Networks: Threats to Privacy and Autonomy.

    PubMed

    O'Brolcháin, Fiachra; Jacquemard, Tim; Monaghan, David; O'Connor, Noel; Novitzky, Peter; Gordijn, Bert

    2016-02-01

    The rapid evolution of information, communication and entertainment technologies will transform the lives of citizens and ultimately transform society. This paper focuses on ethical issues associated with the likely convergence of virtual realities (VR) and social networks (SNs), hereafter VRSNs. We examine a scenario in which a significant segment of the world's population has a presence in a VRSN. Given the pace of technological development and the popularity of these new forms of social interaction, this scenario is plausible. However, it brings with it ethical problems. Two central ethical issues are addressed: those of privacy and those of autonomy. VRSNs pose threats to both privacy and autonomy. The threats to privacy can be broadly categorized as threats to informational privacy, threats to physical privacy, and threats to associational privacy. Each of these threats is further subdivided. The threats to autonomy can be broadly categorized as threats to freedom, to knowledge and to authenticity. Again, these three threats are divided into subcategories. Having categorized the main threats posed by VRSNs, a number of recommendations are provided so that policy-makers, developers, and users can make the best possible use of VRSNs. PMID:25552240

  19. 32 CFR 326.6 - Policies for processing requests for records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policies for processing requests for records. 326.6 Section 326.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM NATIONAL RECONNAISSANCE OFFICE PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 326.6 Policies for processing requests for records. (a)...

  20. 76 FR 44033 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Notice of a New System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... data, educational, business, or volunteer affiliation. AUTHORITY FOR MAINTENANCE OF THE SYSTEM... when no longer needed for agency business. SYSTEM MANAGER AND ADDRESS: Policy official is the Director... Office of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Notice of a New System of Records AGENCY:...

  1. The Loss of Personal Privacy and Its Consequences for Social Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbin, Alice

    2001-01-01

    Chronicles public opinion, politics, and law and policy on privacy and confidentiality and their consequences for access by the social research community to government administrative and statistical records. Discusses the political environment, the decennial census long form, media coverage, and fears about the accumulation of personal information…

  2. Federal Privacy Laws That Apply to Children and Education. Safeguarding Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This table identifies and briefly describes the following federal policies that safeguard and protect the confidentiality of personal information: (1) Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA); (2) Protection of Pupil Rights Amendment (PPRA); (3) Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA); (4) Children's Online Privacy…

  3. 76 FR 19307 - Privacy Act of 1974; Amendment of Privacy Act System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ...In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is amending an existing Forest Service Privacy Act system of records, USDA/FS-3, Uniform Allowance...

  4. Efficient Discovery of De-identification Policies Through a Risk-Utility Frontier

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Weiyi; Heatherly, Raymond; Ding, Xiaofeng; Li, Jiuyong; Malin, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Modern information technologies enable organizations to capture large quantities of person-specific data while providing routine services. Many organizations hope, or are legally required, to share such data for secondary purposes (e.g., validation of research findings) in a de-identified manner. In previous work, it was shown de-identification policy alternatives could be modeled on a lattice, which could be searched for policies that met a prespecified risk threshold (e.g., likelihood of re-identification). However, the search was limited in several ways. First, its definition of utility was syntactic - based on the level of the lattice - and not semantic - based on the actual changes induced in the resulting data. Second, the threshold may not be known in advance. The goal of this work is to build the optimal set of policies that trade-off between privacy risk (R) and utility (U), which we refer to as a R-U frontier. To model this problem, we introduce a semantic definition of utility, based on information theory, that is compatible with the lattice representation of policies. To solve the problem, we initially build a set of policies that define a frontier. We then use a probability-guided heuristic to search the lattice for policies likely to update the frontier. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, we perform an empirical analysis with the Adult dataset of the UCI Machine Learning Repository. We show that our approach can construct a frontier closer to optimal than competitive approaches by searching a smaller number of policies. In addition, we show that a frequently followed de-identification policy (i.e., the Safe Harbor standard of the HIPAA Privacy Rule) is suboptimal in comparison to the frontier discovered by our approach. PMID:25520961

  5. Genetic privacy: orthodoxy or oxymoron?

    PubMed Central

    Sommerville, A; English, V

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we question whether the concept of "genetic privacy" is a contradiction in terms. And, if so, whether the implications of such a conclusion, inevitably impact on how society comes to perceive privacy and responsibility generally. Current law and ethical discourse place a high value on self-determination and the rights of individuals. In the medical sphere, the recognition of patient "rights" has resulted in health professionals being given clear duties of candour and frankness. Dilemmas arise, however, when patients decline to know relevant information or, knowing it, refuse to share it with others who may also need to know. This paper considers the notions of interconnectedness and responsibility to others which are brought to the fore in the genetic sphere and which challenge the primacy afforded to personal autonomy. It also explores the extent to which an individual's perceived moral obligations can or should be enforced. PMID:10226920

  6. Privacy-by-Design: Understanding Data Access Models for Secondary Data

    PubMed Central

    Kum, Hye-Chung; Ahalt, Stanley

    Today there is a constant flow of data into, out of, and between ever-larger and ever-more complex databases about people. Together, these digital traces collectively capture our social genome , the footprints of our society. The burgeoning field of population informatics is the systematic study of populations via secondary analysis of such massive data collections (termed “big data”) about people. In particular, health informatics analyzes electronic health records to improve health outcomes for a population. Privacy protection in such secondary data analysis research is complex and requires a holistic approach which combines technology, statistics, policy and a shift in culture of information accountability through transparency rather than secrecy. We review state of the art in privacy protection technology and policy frameworks from widely different fields, and synthesize the findings to present a comprehensive system of privacy protection in population informatics research using the privacy-by-design approach. Based on common activities in the workflow, we describe the pros and cons of four different data access models – restricted access, controlled access, monitored access, and open access – that minimize risk and maximize usability of data. We then evaluate the system by analyzing the risk and usability of data through a realistic example. We conclude that deployed together the four data access models can provide a comprehensive system for privacy protection, balancing the risk and usability of secondary data in population informatics research. PMID:24303251

  7. Enabling Data Exchange in Two-Agent Interactive Systems Under Privacy Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmega, E. Veronica; Sankar, Lalitha; Poor, H. Vincent

    2015-10-01

    Data collecting agents in large networks, such as the electric power system, need to share information (measurements) for estimating the system state in a distributed manner. However, privacy concerns may limit or prevent this exchange leading to a tradeoff between state estimation fidelity and privacy (referred to as competitive privacy). This paper builds upon a recent information-theoretic result (using mutual information to measure privacy and mean-squared error to measure fidelity) that quantifies the region of achievable distortion-leakage tuples in a two-agent network. The objective of this paper is to study centralized and decentralized mechanisms that can enable and sustain non-trivial data exchanges among the agents. A centralized mechanism determines the data sharing policies that optimize a network-wide objective function combining the fidelities and leakages at both agents. Using common-goal games and best-response analysis, the optimal policies allow for distributed implementation. In contrast, in the decentralized setting, repeated discounted games are shown to naturally enable data exchange without any central control nor economic incentives. The effect of repetition is modeled by a time-averaged payoff function at each agent which combines its fidelity and leakage at each interaction stage. For both approaches, it is shown that non-trivial data exchange can be sustained for specific fidelity ranges even when privacy is a limiting factor.

  8. Fictional privacy among Facebook users.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The current study involved the creation of a fictional Facebook account with limited information and was designed to assess whether participants would accept the friendship of an ambiguous, unknown person. Results indicated that 325 Facebook members (72% of the sample) willingly accepted the friendship of the unknown individual. Results are discussed in relation to privacy concerns, norms of reciprocity, and allowing access to potentially embarrassing information and/or pictures. PMID:23045871

  9. Trust and Privacy in Healthcare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, Peter; Kalra, Dipak

    This paper considers issues of trust and privacy in healthcare around increased data-sharing through Electronic Health Records (EHRs). It uses a model structured around different aspects of trust in the healthcare organisation’s reasons for greater data-sharing and their ability to execute EHR projects, particularly any associated confidentiality controls. It reflects the individual’s personal circumstances and attitude to use of health records.

  10. Patient Privacy: A Consumer Protection Approach

    PubMed Central

    Brannigan, Vincent M.

    1983-01-01

    In the United States, a “Constitutional Analysis” of medical data privacy has been so far unsuccessful in obtaining significant protection. Statutory protection has evolved primarily to protect the citizen against the state, not to vindicate the privacy interest of the individual. A “Consumer Protection” approach rather than a right to privacy approach can be used to develop a coherent, practical approach to the needs of various parties in the health care system in the U.S.

  11. 77 FR 27756 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ...In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended (Privacy Act), the Department of Education (Department) deletes one system of records from its existing inventory of systems of records subject to the Privacy...

  12. A Progress Report on Information Privacy and Data Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, Gerard

    1980-01-01

    Describes the role of information privacy in modern society, examines recent legal cases to illustrate how privacy cases are adjudicated and to identify the limits of available privacy protection, and raises issues regarding techniques for insuring data confidentiality. (FM)

  13. The Need for Privacy and the Application of Privacy to the Day Care Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Ellen

    This paper, focusing on young children's need for privacy, describes a study conducted to determine the manner in which children in day care centers resolve the problem of reduced space and time for privacy. A pilot study revealed that children displayed three privacy seeking behaviors: (1) verbal and nonverbal territorial behavior (use or defense…

  14. Student Privacy versus Campus Safety: Has Recent Legislation Compromised Privacy Rights?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Kaay, Christopher D.

    This study highlights major legislation addressing campus safety and crime reporting and discusses its impact on a student's right to privacy. The 1974 Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, commonly referred to as the "Buckley Amendment," was among the first pieces of legislation to address the notion of student privacy and confidentiality.…

  15. 76 FR 64112 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records Appendices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... Station, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Sandusky, OH 44870. Location 14 MSFC Michoud... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records Appendices AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Revisions of NASA Appendices to Privacy Act System...

  16. 76 FR 64114 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... Aeronautics and Space Administration is issuing public notice of its proposal to significantly alter a... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act System of Records AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of proposed revisions to an existing Privacy Act system...

  17. 77 FR 26027 - Privacy Act: Notification of a New Privacy Act System of Records, Veterans Homelessness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... Maintaining Records About Individuals,'' July 25, 1994 (59 FR 37914). Authority: 5 U.S.C. 552a 88 Stat. 1896... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Privacy Act: Notification of a New Privacy Act System of Records, Veterans... Housing and Urban Development (HUD) proposes to establish a new Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a)...

  18. Privacy, confidentiality and abortion statistics: a question of public interest?

    PubMed

    McHale, Jean V; Jones, June

    2012-01-01

    The precise nature and scope of healthcare confidentiality has long been the subject of debate. While the obligation of confidentiality is integral to professional ethical codes and is also safeguarded under English law through the equitable remedy of breach of confidence, underpinned by the right to privacy enshrined in Article 8 of the Human Rights Act 1998, it has never been regarded as absolute. But when can and should personal information be made available for statistical and research purposes and what if the information in question is highly sensitive information, such as that relating to the termination of pregnancy after 24 weeks? This article explores the case of In the Matter of an Appeal to the Information Tribunal under section 57 of the Freedom of Information Act 2000, concerning the decision of the Department of Health to withhold some statistical data from the publication of its annual abortion statistics. The specific data being withheld concerned the termination for serious fetal handicap under section 1(1)d of the Abortion Act 1967. The paper explores the implications of this case, which relate both to the nature and scope of personal privacy. It suggests that lessons can be drawn from this case about public interest and use of statistical information and also about general policy issues concerning the legal regulation of confidentiality and privacy in the future. PMID:21708829

  19. Privacy versus care--The shifting balance in mental health.

    PubMed

    Mork, Mary Jean; Price, Steven; Best, Kathryn

    2016-03-01

    Mental health professionals are now debating client confidentiality and its relationship to care coordination. History tells us there is a need to protect the privacy of people who are diagnosed with mental health issues in a world filled with stigma and misperceptions. People with mental illness and substance use problems may be legitimately concerned that employers, insurance companies, financial institutions, medical practices, and educational institutions could use their health information to discriminate against them, often without their knowledge. The protection of jobs and health information is a real, justifiable benefit of privacy legislation. However, there are also a host of negative consequences, including fragmented health care, lack of prevention, uninformed families, and even early death, because of a lack of coordination with medical treatment. The legal situation can be very confusing, but the upshot is that we are shifting from an environment of strict confidentiality to one of better care coordination. In short, we are moving toward a system that allows for better coordination because it improves the quality of care for our clients. At the policy level, we must lead the change process and actively support the revision and reinterpretation of existing laws and regulations. These changes will require earning the trust of the people being served. Many are wary, and some even scared, of their perceived loss of privacy. Health-care professionals must commit to the concept of coordinating care, making communication about shared care plans a priority. PMID:26963778

  20. Privacy Challenges for Wireless Medical Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Lagesse, Brent J

    2010-01-01

    Implantable medical devices are becoming more pervasive as new technologies increase their reliability and safety. Furthermore, these devices are becoming increasingly reliant on wireless communication for interaction with the device. Such technologies have the potential to leak information that could be utilized by an attacker to threaten the lives of patients. Privacy of patient information is essential; however, this information is not the only privacy issue that must be considered. In this paper, we discuss why information privacy is insufficient for protecting patients from some attacks and how information regarding the presence of individual devices can leak vulnerabilities. Furthermore, we examine existing privacy enhancing algorithms and discuss their applicability to implantable medical devices.

  1. Adult Education and the Contested Terrain of Public Policy. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Canadian Association for the Study of Adult Education (21st, Toronto, Ontario May 30-31 and June 1, 2002). = L'Education des Adultes et le Domaine Controverse des Affaires Publiques. Actes Annuel de L'Association Canadienne pour L'Etude de L'Education des Adultes (21eme, Toronto, Ontario, 30-31 Mai et 1 Juin, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojab, Shahrzad, Ed.; McQueen, William, Ed.

    This document contains the texts of 57 papers, 10 roundtables, and 7 symposia from a Canadian conference on adult education and public policy. The following are among the papers included: "Childhood, Schooling Family and Community" (Margarida Aguiar); "Voices Inside" (Irene C. Baird); "Beyond Personal Agency" (Rose Barg); "Participatory Research,…

  2. Changing Skills for a Changing World: Recommendations for Adult Literacy Policy in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Occasional Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Alice H.

    This report summarizes issues facing New Zealand's modern adult literacy movement and places it in the context of the rapidly changing skill demands of the 21st century. Part I introduces political, economic, and social issues facing New Zealand. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the issues and structures that create the current climate. Part II…

  3. Dispelling the Myth: An Analysis of Youth and Adult Crime Patterns in California over the Past 20 Years. Policy Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Males, Mike; Macallair, Dan

    To examine the theory of growing criminality among today's youths, this study analyzes youth and adult crime rates in California from 1975 to 1991. Data were obtained from the California Department of Justice for arrest statistics by age, race, ethnicity, sex, and offense, statewide and by county and from the state department of finance. From 1978…

  4. Policy Changes in Medicare Home Health Care: Challenges to Providing Family-Centered, Community-Based Care for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davitt, Joan K.

    2009-01-01

    The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA) established new reimbursement systems in the Medicare home health fee-for-service benefit. Reimbursements were reduced to 1993 levels and per-beneficiary capitated limits were introduced for the first time. This article analyzes the impact of these changes on chronically ill older adults and their families.…

  5. Network Policy and Economic Doctrines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    For many years, debates over telecommunications network policy were marked by a relative lack of partisan and ideological conflict. In the last decade, this has changed markedly. Today, debates over a whole set of issues, including broadband competition, net neutrality, copyright, privacy, and others, have become more contentious. These…

  6. Public Policy Affirmations Affecting the Planning and Implementation of Developmental Services for Children and Adults with HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocker, Allen C., Comp.; And Others

    The increasing number of individuals infected with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has created a need to examine public policy issues and to further efforts in planning, implementing, and evaluating services for individuals with HIV infection and their families. A working conference was convened, which identified several…

  7. 48 CFR 24.203 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Policy. 24.203 Section 24.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PROTECTION OF PRIVACY AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act 24.203 Policy. (a) The Act specifies, among other things, how agencies...

  8. 32 CFR 324.3 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 324.3 Section 324.3 National Defense... ACT PROGRAM General information § 324.3 Policy. DFAS personnel will comply with the Privacy Act of... public trust. Personal information maintained by DFAS organizational elements will be...

  9. 32 CFR 323.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... LOGISTICS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 323.2 Policy. It is the policy of DLA to safeguard personal information... before making them available to any recipients outside DoD, other than a Federal agency, unless the disclosure is made under DLAR 5400.14, DLA Freedom of Information Act Program (32 CFR part 1285). (f) Keep...

  10. 32 CFR 323.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... LOGISTICS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 323.2 Policy. It is the policy of DLA to safeguard personal information... before making them available to any recipients outside DoD, other than a Federal agency, unless the disclosure is made under DLAR 5400.14, DLA Freedom of Information Act Program (32 CFR part 1285). (f) Keep...

  11. 32 CFR 316.5 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 316.5 Policy. It is the policy of DISA: (a) To preserve the... personal information in a manner that assures that such action is for a necessary and lawful purpose; that the information is timely and accurate for its intended use; and that adequate safeguards are...

  12. 32 CFR 316.5 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 316.5 Policy. It is the policy of DISA: (a) To preserve the... personal information in a manner that assures that such action is for a necessary and lawful purpose; that the information is timely and accurate for its intended use; and that adequate safeguards are...

  13. 32 CFR 323.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... disclosure is made under DLAR 5400.14, DLA Freedom of Information Act Program (32 CFR part 1285). (f) Keep no... duties. (2) Under 32 CFR part 1285 (DLAR 5400.14). (m) Advise individuals on their rights to appeal any... LOGISTICS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 323.2 Policy. It is the policy of DLA to safeguard personal...

  14. 32 CFR 275.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INFORMATION FROM FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS: RIGHT TO FINANCIAL PRIVACY ACT OF 1978 § 275.4 Policy. It is DoD policy that: (a) Authorization of the customer to whom the financial records pertain shall be sought... govern obtaining access to financial records maintained by military banking contractors located...

  15. 32 CFR 275.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INFORMATION FROM FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS: RIGHT TO FINANCIAL PRIVACY ACT OF 1978 § 275.4 Policy. It is DoD policy that: (a) Authorization of the customer to whom the financial records pertain shall be sought... govern obtaining access to financial records maintained by military banking contractors located...

  16. 32 CFR 275.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INFORMATION FROM FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS: RIGHT TO FINANCIAL PRIVACY ACT OF 1978 § 275.4 Policy. It is DoD policy that: (a) Authorization of the customer to whom the financial records pertain shall be sought... govern obtaining access to financial records maintained by military banking contractors located...

  17. 48 CFR 2824.202 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF PRIVACY AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act 2824.202 Policy. Procedures for processing Freedom of Information Act requests are set forth in Departmental regulations and 28 CFR part 16. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Policy. 2824.202...

  18. 48 CFR 2124.102-70 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Policy. 2124.102-70 Section 2124.102-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES... FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Protection of Individual Privacy 2124.102-70 Policy. Records retained by...

  19. 48 CFR 2024.202 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROTECTION OF PRIVACY AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act 2024.202 Policy. The provisions at 10 CFR part 9, subpart A, Freedom of Information Act Regulations, are applicable to the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Policy. 2024.202...

  20. Beyond Lawrence v. Texas: crafting a fundamental right to sexual privacy.

    PubMed

    Fasullo, Kristin

    2009-05-01

    After the watershed 2003 U.S. Supreme Court decision Lawrence v.Texas, courts are faced with the daunting task of navigating the bounds of sexual privacy in light of Lawrence's sweeping language and unconventional structure. This Note focuses on the specific issue of state governments regulating sexual device distribution. Evaluating the substantive due process rights of sexual device retailers and users, this Note ultimately argues that the privacy interest identified in Lawrence is sufficiently broad to protect intimate decisions to engage in adult consensual sexual behavior, including the liberty to sell, purchase, and use a sexual device. PMID:19618552

  1. Framework for objective evaluation of privacy filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korshunov, Pavel; Melle, Andrea; Dugelay, Jean-Luc; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2013-09-01

    Extensive adoption of video surveillance, affecting many aspects of our daily lives, alarms the public about the increasing invasion into personal privacy. To address these concerns, many tools have been proposed for protection of personal privacy in image and video. However, little is understood regarding the effectiveness of such tools and especially their impact on the underlying surveillance tasks, leading to a tradeoff between the preservation of privacy offered by these tools and the intelligibility of activities under video surveillance. In this paper, we investigate this privacy-intelligibility tradeoff objectively by proposing an objective framework for evaluation of privacy filters. We apply the proposed framework on a use case where privacy of people is protected by obscuring faces, assuming an automated video surveillance system. We used several popular privacy protection filters, such as blurring, pixelization, and masking and applied them with varying strengths to people's faces from different public datasets of video surveillance footage. Accuracy of face detection algorithm was used as a measure of intelligibility (a face should be detected to perform a surveillance task), and accuracy of face recognition algorithm as a measure of privacy (a specific person should not be identified). Under these conditions, after application of an ideal privacy protection tool, an obfuscated face would be visible as a face but would not be correctly identified by the recognition algorithm. The experiments demonstrate that, in general, an increase in strength of privacy filters under consideration leads to an increase in privacy (i.e., reduction in recognition accuracy) and to a decrease in intelligibility (i.e., reduction in detection accuracy). Masking also shows to be the most favorable filter across all tested datasets.

  2. Privacy Questions from Practicing School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2004-01-01

    This Question and Answer (Q&A) article addresses practice issues related to school health records and school nursing documentation that were posed by school nurses in the field. Specifically, the questions addressed concern the following: education records, medication privacy issues, sharing of sensitive health information, privacy of individual…

  3. Privacy-Preserving Location-Based Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Chi Yin

    2010-01-01

    Location-based services (LBS for short) providers require users' current locations to answer their location-based queries, e.g., range and nearest-neighbor queries. Revealing personal location information to potentially untrusted service providers could create privacy risks for users. To this end, our objective is to design a privacy-preserving…

  4. A Deontological View of the Privacy Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Alan

    The mass media are at odds with the public on issues concerning privacy, i.e., issues concerning whether private information about a person should be printed in a newspaper or magazine. In a 1982 survey, one journalist/respondent said his or her newspaper "almost always" favored the public's right to know over a person's right to privacy.…

  5. 75 FR 37287 - Privacy Act Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... April 19, 2010 (75 FR 20298) for a public comment period to end on June 18, 2010. This rule amends the... criminal law enforcement duties. (2) From subsection (c)(4) and (d) because notification would alert a... regulations implementing the Privacy Act of 1974 (Privacy Act), Public Law 93-579, 5 U.S.C. 552a. This...

  6. 77 FR 19095 - Privacy Act; Implementation; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... (77 FR 15595-15596), Department of Defense published a direct final rule titled Privacy Act... In the direct final rule (FR Doc. 2012-6170) published on March 16, 2012 (77 FR 15595-15596), make... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 322 Privacy Act; Implementation; Correction AGENCY: Office of...

  7. 78 FR 69551 - Privacy Act; Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... as follows: PART 319--DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM 0 1. The authority citation for 32 CFR part 319 continues to read as follows: Authority: Pub. L. 93-579, 88 Stat. 1896 (5 U.S.C. 552a). 0... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 319 Privacy Act; Implementation AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency,...

  8. 78 FR 69550 - Privacy Act; Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ...: PART 319--DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM 0 1. The authority citation for 32 CFR part 319 continues to read as follows: Authority: Pub. L. 93-579, 88 Stat. 1896 (5 U.S.C. 552a). 0 2. Section 319.13... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 319 Privacy Act; Implementation AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency,...

  9. 76 FR 51869 - Privacy Act Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... regulation on the Privacy Act at 12 CFR part 1204 (74 FR 33907 (July 14, 2009)). The final regulation... / Friday, August 19, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1204 RIN 2590-AA46 Privacy Act Implementation AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: Interim...

  10. 42 CFR 457.1110 - Privacy protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Privacy protections. 457.1110 Section 457.1110... Requirements: Applicant and Enrollee Protections § 457.1110 Privacy protections. The State must ensure that... disclosure, including those laws addressing the confidentiality of information about minors and the...

  11. 49 CFR 10.13 - Privacy Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Privacy Officer. 10.13 Section 10.13... INDIVIDUALS General § 10.13 Privacy Officer. (a) To assist with implementation, evaluation, and administration issues, the Chief Information Officer appoints a principal coordinating official with the title...

  12. Reconsidering the Right to Privacy in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shade, Leslie Regan

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that post-September 11 political debates and legislation around security necessitates a reconsideration of a right to privacy in Canada. It looks at the proposal for a Canadian Charter of Privacy Rights promoted by Senator Sheila Finestone in the late 1990s and the current challenges of emergent material technologies…

  13. 42 CFR 457.1110 - Privacy protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Privacy protections. 457.1110 Section 457.1110... Requirements: Applicant and Enrollee Protections § 457.1110 Privacy protections. The State must ensure that... disclosure, including those laws addressing the confidentiality of information about minors and the...

  14. 49 CFR 10.13 - Privacy Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Privacy Officer. 10.13 Section 10.13... INDIVIDUALS General § 10.13 Privacy Officer. (a) To assist with implementation, evaluation, and administration issues, the Chief Information Officer appoints a principal coordinating official with the title...

  15. 42 CFR 457.1110 - Privacy protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Privacy protections. 457.1110 Section 457.1110... Requirements: Applicant and Enrollee Protections § 457.1110 Privacy protections. The State must ensure that... disclosure, including those laws addressing the confidentiality of information about minors and the...

  16. 42 CFR 457.1110 - Privacy protections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Privacy protections. 457.1110 Section 457.1110... Requirements: Applicant and Enrollee Protections § 457.1110 Privacy protections. The State must ensure that... disclosure, including those laws addressing the confidentiality of information about minors and the...

  17. 49 CFR 10.13 - Privacy Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Privacy Officer. 10.13 Section 10.13... INDIVIDUALS General § 10.13 Privacy Officer. (a) To assist with implementation, evaluation, and administration issues, the Chief Information Officer appoints a principal coordinating official with the title...

  18. 49 CFR 10.13 - Privacy Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Privacy Officer. 10.13 Section 10.13... INDIVIDUALS General § 10.13 Privacy Officer. (a) To assist with implementation, evaluation, and administration issues, the Chief Information Officer appoints a principal coordinating official with the title...

  19. 49 CFR 10.13 - Privacy Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Privacy Officer. 10.13 Section 10.13... INDIVIDUALS General § 10.13 Privacy Officer. (a) To assist with implementation, evaluation, and administration issues, the Chief Information Officer appoints a principal coordinating official with the title...

  20. Protecting Privacy in Computerized Medical Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This report analyzes the implications of computerized medical information and the challenges it brings to individual privacy. The report examines the nature of the privacy interest in health care information and the current state of the law protecting that information; the nature of proposals to computerize health care information and the…

  1. 77 FR 15591 - Privacy Act; Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 319 Privacy Act; Implementation AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, DoD. ACTION: Direct final rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: The Defense Intelligence Agency is deleting... makes nonsubstantive changes to the Defense Intelligence Agency Privacy Program rules. These...

  2. 77 FR 57013 - Privacy Act; Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 319 Privacy Act; Implementation AGENCY: Defense Intelligence Agency, DoD. ACTION: Direct final rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: The Defense Intelligence Agency is updating the Defense Intelligence Agency Privacy Act Program, by adding the (k)(2) exemption to...

  3. 76 FR 49661 - Privacy Act; Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ...The Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) is updating the DLA Privacy Act Program Rules by updating the language of the (k)(2) exemption. The update of the exemption will more accurately describe the basis for exempting the records. The Privacy Act system of records notice, S500.20, entitled ``Defense Logistics Agency Criminal Incident Reporting System Records'', has already been published on June 8,......

  4. 25 CFR 556.2 - Privacy notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Privacy notice. 556.2 Section 556.2 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GAMING LICENSES AND BACKGROUND INVESTIGATIONS FOR KEY EMPLOYEES AND PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS BACKGROUND INVESTIGATIONS FOR PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS AND KEY EMPLOYEES § 556.2 Privacy notice....

  5. The Press, Privacy, and Community Mores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, Theodore L.

    Because of judicial indifference and legislative inaction, the conflict between the right of privacy and the freedom of the press is no closer to a resolution than it was a century ago. William Prosser's reduction of the common law of privacy into four separate torts has not solved the problem. The concept of "newsworthiness" has not been helpful…

  6. Just in Time Research: Privacy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grama, Joanna Lyn

    2014-01-01

    The January 2014 edition of the ECAR Update subscriber newsletter included an informal poll on information privacy practices. The poll was intended to collect a quick snapshot of the higher education community's thoughts on this important topic during Data Privacy Month. Results of the poll will be used to inform EDUCAUSE research, programs,…

  7. Privacy and Ethics in Undergraduate GIS Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scull, Peter; Burnett, Adam; Dolfi, Emmalee; Goldfarb, Ali; Baum, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The development of location-aware technologies, such as smartphones, raises serious questions regarding locational privacy and the ethical use of geographic data. The degree to which these concepts are taught in undergraduate geographic information science (GISci) courses is unknown. A survey of GISci educators shows that issues of privacy and…

  8. Protecting privacy in a clinical data warehouse.

    PubMed

    Kong, Guilan; Xiao, Zhichun

    2015-06-01

    Peking University has several prestigious teaching hospitals in China. To make secondary use of massive medical data for research purposes, construction of a clinical data warehouse is imperative in Peking University. However, a big concern for clinical data warehouse construction is how to protect patient privacy. In this project, we propose to use a combination of symmetric block ciphers, asymmetric ciphers, and cryptographic hashing algorithms to protect patient privacy information. The novelty of our privacy protection approach lies in message-level data encryption, the key caching system, and the cryptographic key management system. The proposed privacy protection approach is scalable to clinical data warehouse construction with any size of medical data. With the composite privacy protection approach, the clinical data warehouse can be secure enough to keep the confidential data from leaking to the outside world. PMID:25301198

  9. Policymaking to preserve privacy in disclosure of public health data: a suggested framework.

    PubMed

    Mizani, Mehrdad A; Baykal, Nazife

    2015-03-01

    Health organisations in Turkey gather a vast amount of valuable individual data that can be used for public health purposes. The organisations use rigid methods to remove some useful details from the data while publishing the rest of the data in a highly aggregated form, mostly because of privacy concerns and lack of standardised policies. This action leads to information loss and bias affecting public health research. Hence, organisations need dynamic policies and well-defined procedures rather than a specific algorithm to protect the privacy of individual data. To address this need, we developed a framework for the systematic application of anonymity methods while reducing and objectively reporting the information loss without leaking confidentiality. This framework acts as a roadmap for policymaking by providing high-level pseudo-policies with semitechnical guidelines in addition to some sample scenarios suitable for policymakers, public health programme managers and legislators. PMID:24591703

  10. Quick Guide to Health Literacy and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... to navigation | skip to content ACCESSIBILITY | FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT | PRIVACY POLICY | CONTACT US Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

  11. EPPS: Efficient and Privacy-Preserving Personal Health Information Sharing in Mobile Healthcare Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shunrong; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Liangmin

    2015-01-01

    Mobile healthcare social networks (MHSNs) have emerged as a promising next-generation healthcare system, which will significantly improve the quality of life. However, there are many security and privacy concerns before personal health information (PHI) is shared with other parities. To ensure patients’ full control over their PHI, we propose a fine-grained and scalable data access control scheme based on attribute-based encryption (ABE). Besides, policies themselves for PHI sharing may be sensitive and may reveal information about underlying PHI or about data owners or recipients. In our scheme, we let each attribute contain an attribute name and its value and adopt the Bloom filter to efficiently check attributes before decryption. Thus, the data privacy and policy privacy can be preserved in our proposed scheme. Moreover, considering the fact that the computational cost grows with the complexity of the access policy and the limitation of the resource and energy in a smart phone, we outsource ABE decryption to the cloud while preventing the cloud from learning anything about the content and access policy. The security and performance analysis is carried out to demonstrate that our proposed scheme can achieve fine-grained access policies for PHI sharing in MHSNs. PMID:26404300

  12. EPPS: Efficient and Privacy-Preserving Personal Health Information Sharing in Mobile Healthcare Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shunrong; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Liangmin

    2015-01-01

    Mobile healthcare social networks (MHSNs) have emerged as a promising next-generation healthcare system, which will significantly improve the quality of life. However, there are many security and privacy concerns before personal health information (PHI) is shared with other parities. To ensure patients' full control over their PHI, we propose a fine-grained and scalable data access control scheme based on attribute-based encryption (ABE). Besides, policies themselves for PHI sharing may be sensitive and may reveal information about underlying PHI or about data owners or recipients. In our scheme, we let each attribute contain an attribute name and its value and adopt the Bloom filter to efficiently check attributes before decryption. Thus, the data privacy and policy privacy can be preserved in our proposed scheme. Moreover, considering the fact that the computational cost grows with the complexity of the access policy and the limitation of the resource and energy in a smart phone, we outsource ABE decryption to the cloud while preventing the cloud from learning anything about the content and access policy. The security and performance analysis is carried out to demonstrate that our proposed scheme can achieve fine-grained access policies for PHI sharing in MHSNs. PMID:26404300

  13. The Risks to Patient Privacy from Publishing Data from Clinical Anesthesia Studies.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Liam; Dexter, Franklin; Zhang, Nan

    2016-06-01

    In this article, we consider the privacy implications of posting data from small, randomized trials, observational studies, or case series in anesthesia from a few (e.g., 1-3) hospitals. Prior to publishing such data as supplemental digital content, the authors remove attributes that could be used to re-identify individuals, a process known as "anonymization." Posting health information that has been properly "de-identified" is assumed to pose no risks to patient privacy. Yet, computer scientists have demonstrated that this assumption is flawed. We consider various realistic scenarios of how the publication of such data could lead to breaches of patient privacy. Several examples of successful privacy attacks are reviewed, as well as the methods used. We survey the latest models and methods from computer science for protecting health information and their application to posting data from small anesthesia studies. To illustrate the vulnerability of such published data, we calculate the "population uniqueness" for patients undergoing one or more surgical procedures using data from the State of Texas. For a patient selected uniformly at random, the probability that an adversary could match this patient's record to a unique record in the state external database was 42.8% (SE < 0.1%). Despite the 42.8% being an unacceptably high level of risk, it underestimates the risk for patients from smaller states or provinces. We propose an editorial policy that greatly reduces the likelihood of a privacy breach, while supporting the goal of transparency of the research process. PMID:27172145

  14. Security of electronic medical information and patient privacy: what you need to know.

    PubMed

    Andriole, Katherine P

    2014-12-01

    The responsibility that physicians have to protect their patients from harm extends to protecting the privacy and confidentiality of patient health information including that contained within radiological images. The intent of HIPAA and subsequent HIPAA Privacy and Security Rules is to keep patients' private information confidential while allowing providers access to and maintaining the integrity of relevant information needed to provide care. Failure to comply with electronic protected health information (ePHI) regulations could result in financial or criminal penalties or both. Protected health information refers to anything that can reasonably be used to identify a patient (eg, name, age, date of birth, social security number, radiology examination accession number). The basic tools and techniques used to maintain medical information security and patient privacy described in this article include physical safeguards such as computer device isolation and data backup, technical safeguards such as firewalls and secure transmission modes, and administrative safeguards including documentation of security policies, training of staff, and audit tracking through system logs. Other important concepts related to privacy and security are explained, including user authentication, authorization, availability, confidentiality, data integrity, and nonrepudiation. Patient privacy and security of medical information are critical elements in today's electronic health care environment. Radiology has led the way in adopting digital systems to make possible the availability of medical information anywhere anytime, and in identifying and working to eliminate any risks to patients. PMID:25467897

  15. VOIP for Telerehabilitation: A Risk Analysis for Privacy, Security and HIPAA Compliance: Part II.

    PubMed

    Watzlaf, Valerie J M; Moeini, Sohrab; Matusow, Laura; Firouzan, Patti

    2011-01-01

    In a previous publication the authors developed a privacy and security checklist to evaluate Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) videoconferencing software used between patients and therapists to provide telerehabilitation (TR) therapy. In this paper, the privacy and security checklist that was previously developed is used to perform a risk analysis of the top ten VoIP videoconferencing software to determine if their policies provide answers to the privacy and security checklist. Sixty percent of the companies claimed they do not listen into video-therapy calls unless maintenance is needed. Only 50% of the companies assessed use some form of encryption, and some did not specify what type of encryption was used. Seventy percent of the companies assessed did not specify any form of auditing on their servers. Statistically significant differences across company websites were found for sharing information outside of the country (p=0.010), encryption (p=0.006), and security evaluation (p=0.005). Healthcare providers considering use of VoIP software for TR services may consider using this privacy and security checklist before deciding to incorporate a VoIP software system for TR. Other videoconferencing software that is specific for TR with strong encryption, good access controls, and hardware that meets privacy and security standards should be considered for use with TR. PMID:25945177

  16. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act: security and privacy requirements.

    PubMed

    Tribble, D A

    2001-05-01

    The security and privacy requirements of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) and their implications for pharmacy are discussed. HIPAA was enacted to improve the portability of health care insurance for persons leaving jobs. A section of the act encourages the use of electronic communications for health care claims adjudication, mandates the use of new standard code sets and transaction sets, and establishes the need for regulations to protect the security and privacy of individually identifiable health care information. Creating these regulations became the task of the Department of Health and Human Services. Regulations on security have been published for comment. Regulations on privacy and the definition of standard transaction sets and code sets are complete. National identifiers for patients, providers, and payers have not yet been established. The HIPAA regulations on security and privacy will require that pharmacies adopt policies and procedures that limit access to health care information. Existing pharmacy information systems may require upgrading or replacement. Costs of implementation nationwide are estimated to exceed $8 billion. The health care community has two years from the finalization of each regulation to comply with that regulation. The security and privacy requirements of HIPAA will require pharmacies to review their practices regarding the storage, use, and disclosure of protected health care information. PMID:11351916

  17. VOIP for Telerehabilitation: A Risk Analysis for Privacy, Security and HIPAA Compliance: Part II

    PubMed Central

    Watzlaf, Valerie J.M.; Moeini, Sohrab; Matusow, Laura; Firouzan, Patti

    2011-01-01

    In a previous publication the authors developed a privacy and security checklist to evaluate Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) videoconferencing software used between patients and therapists to provide telerehabilitation (TR) therapy. In this paper, the privacy and security checklist that was previously developed is used to perform a risk analysis of the top ten VoIP videoconferencing software to determine if their policies provide answers to the privacy and security checklist. Sixty percent of the companies claimed they do not listen into video-therapy calls unless maintenance is needed. Only 50% of the companies assessed use some form of encryption, and some did not specify what type of encryption was used. Seventy percent of the companies assessed did not specify any form of auditing on their servers. Statistically significant differences across company websites were found for sharing information outside of the country (p=0.010), encryption (p=0.006), and security evaluation (p=0.005). Healthcare providers considering use of VoIP software for TR services may consider using this privacy and security checklist before deciding to incorporate a VoIP software system for TR. Other videoconferencing software that is specific for TR with strong encryption, good access controls, and hardware that meets privacy and security standards should be considered for use with TR. PMID:25945177

  18. 12 CFR 1016.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 1016.2 Section... INFORMATION (REGULATION P) § 1016.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model... model privacy form is not required. (b) Examples. The examples in this part are not...

  19. 12 CFR 1016.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 1016.2 Section... INFORMATION (REGULATION P) § 1016.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model... model privacy form is not required. (b) Examples. The examples in this part are not...

  20. 12 CFR 1016.2 - Model privacy form and examples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Model privacy form and examples. 1016.2 Section... INFORMATION (REGULATION P) § 1016.2 Model privacy form and examples. (a) Model privacy form. Use of the model... model privacy form is not required. (b) Examples. The examples in this part are not...

  1. 77 FR 32655 - DHS Data Privacy and Integrity Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary DHS Data Privacy and Integrity Advisory Committee AGENCY: Privacy Office... Homeland Security has determined that the renewal of the charter of the Data Privacy and Integrity Advisory... Ballard, Designated Federal Officer, Data Privacy and Integrity Advisory Committee, Department of...

  2. Fourteen Reasons Privacy Matters: A Multidisciplinary Review of Scholarly Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magi, Trina J.

    2011-01-01

    Librarians have long recognized the importance of privacy to intellectual freedom. As digital technology and its applications advance, however, efforts to protect privacy may become increasingly difficult. With some users behaving in ways that suggest they do not care about privacy and with powerful voices claiming that privacy is dead, librarians…

  3. 10 CFR 1304.103 - Privacy Act inquiries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Privacy Act inquiries. 1304.103 Section 1304.103 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.103 Privacy Act inquiries. (a) Requests... writing may be sent to: Privacy Act Officer, U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board, 2300...

  4. 10 CFR 1304.103 - Privacy Act inquiries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Privacy Act inquiries. 1304.103 Section 1304.103 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.103 Privacy Act inquiries. (a) Requests... writing may be sent to: Privacy Act Officer, U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board, 2300...

  5. Privacy Issues of a National Research and Education Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, James E.; Graveman, Richard F.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of the right to privacy of communications focuses on privacy expectations within a National Research and Education Network (NREN). Highlights include privacy needs in scientific and education communications; academic and research networks; network security and privacy concerns; protection strategies; and consequences of privacy…

  6. 32 CFR 505.12 - Privacy Act enforcement actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Privacy Act enforcement actions. 505.12 Section... AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 505.12 Privacy Act enforcement actions. (a.... (1) Civil remedies. The DA is subject to civil remedies for violations of the Privacy Act....

  7. 48 CFR 1452.224-1 - Privacy Act Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Privacy Act are set forth in 43 CFR 2, subpart D. The CFR is available for public inspection at the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Privacy Act Notification... Privacy Act Notification. (a) As prescribed in 1424.104, the clause at FAR 52.224-1, Privacy...

  8. 32 CFR 310.43 - Privacy Act inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Privacy Act inspections. 310.43 Section 310.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Inspections § 310.43 Privacy Act inspections. During internal...

  9. 4 CFR 200.13 - Privacy Act training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Privacy Act training. 200.13 Section 200.13 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.13 Privacy Act training. (a) The... any Board systems of records are informed of all requirements necessary to protect the privacy...

  10. 48 CFR 52.224-2 - Privacy Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Privacy Act. 52.224-2... AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.224-2 Privacy... agency function: Privacy Act (APR 1984) (a) The Contractor agrees to— (1) Comply with the Privacy Act...

  11. 12 CFR 40.8 - Revised privacy notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Revised privacy notices. 40.8 Section 40.8 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 40.8 Revised privacy notices. (a) General rule. Except as...

  12. 4 CFR 200.13 - Privacy Act training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Privacy Act training. 200.13 Section 200.13 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.13 Privacy Act training. (a) The... any Board systems of records are informed of all requirements necessary to protect the privacy...

  13. 17 CFR 248.8 - Revised privacy notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Revised privacy notices. 248.8...) REGULATIONS S-P AND S-AM Regulation S-P: Privacy of Consumer Financial Information and Safeguarding Personal Information Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 248.8 Revised privacy notices. (a) General rule. Except as...

  14. 48 CFR 1452.224-1 - Privacy Act Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Privacy Act are set forth in 43 CFR 2, subpart D. The CFR is available for public inspection at the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Privacy Act Notification... Privacy Act Notification. (a) As prescribed in 1424.104, the clause at FAR 52.224-1, Privacy...

  15. 12 CFR 40.8 - Revised privacy notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Revised privacy notices. 40.8 Section 40.8 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 40.8 Revised privacy notices. (a) General rule. Except as...

  16. 12 CFR 573.8 - Revised privacy notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Revised privacy notices. 573.8 Section 573.8 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 573.8 Revised privacy notices. (a) General rule. Except as...

  17. 4 CFR 200.13 - Privacy Act training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Privacy Act training. 200.13 Section 200.13 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.13 Privacy Act training. (a) The... any Board systems of records are informed of all requirements necessary to protect the privacy...

  18. 12 CFR 716.8 - Revised privacy notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Revised privacy notices. 716.8 Section 716.8 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 716.8 Revised privacy notices. (a)...

  19. 4 CFR 200.13 - Privacy Act training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Privacy Act training. 200.13 Section 200.13 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.13 Privacy Act training. (a) The... any Board systems of records are informed of all requirements necessary to protect the privacy...

  20. 16 CFR 313.8 - Revised privacy notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Revised privacy notices. 313.8 Section 313.8 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Privacy and Opt Out Notices § 313.8 Revised privacy notices. (a) General rule....