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Sample records for adult psychiatric disorder

  1. Adult Neurogenesis and Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kang, Eunchai; Wen, Zhexing; Song, Hongjun; Christian, Kimberly M; Ming, Guo-Li

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders continue to be among the most challenging disorders to diagnose and treat because there is no single genetic or anatomical locus that is causative for the disease. Current treatments are often blunt tools used to ameliorate the most severe symptoms, at the risk of disrupting functional neural systems. There is a critical need to develop new therapeutic strategies that can target circumscribed functional or anatomical domains of pathology. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis may be one such domain. Here, we review the evidence suggesting that adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays a role in emotional regulation and forms of learning and memory that include temporal and spatial memory encoding and context discrimination, and that its dysregulation is associated with psychiatric disorders, such as affective disorders, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. Further, adult neurogenesis has proven to be an effective model to investigate basic processes of neuronal development and converging evidence suggests that aberrant neural development may be an etiological factor, even in late-onset diseases. Constitutive neurogenesis in the hippocampus of the mature brain reflects large-scale plasticity unique to this region and could be a potential hub for modulation of a subset of cognitive and affective behaviors that are affected by multiple psychiatric disorders. PMID:26801682

  2. Psychiatric disorders in adults with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, C.S.; Levitas, A.S.

    1994-09-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a multiple anomaly/mental retardation syndrome currently mapped to 16p13.3 and characterized by microephaly, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, curved nose, elongated nasal columelia and broad thumbs and great toes, often with medial or lateral angulation. Although there are reports of attentional problems and impulsivity among children with RTS there have been no studies to date of behavioral characteristics of the syndrome. Since 1988 we have identified 7 adults with classic RTS and psychiatric disorders among 1500 mentally retarded individuals ascertained primarily for behavioral and psychiatric problems; these patients all had microcephaly, characteristic facies and broad halluces, frequently with angulation. An additional 6 adults with psychiatric disorders had some features suggesting RTS but not classic for the disorder; these patients had microcephaly, characteristic nasal configuration and somewhat broad thumbs but lacked hypertelorism, downslant of palpebral fissures, angulation of halluces, and/or other dysmorphic features typical of classic RTS. Among the seven with classic RTS, three had tic disorder and/or Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, one had Bipolar Disorder with Psychotic Features and one had Major Depressive Disorder with obsessive-compulsive features. The six with some RTS features had similar psychiatric disorders. All patients were extremely sensitive to side effects of antidopaminergic medication, with the exception of clozapine. This clustering of psychiatric disorders and sensitivity suggests possible dysfunction of dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in at least some patients with RTS. The 16p13.3 region should be examined for possible genes affecting metabolism or receptors of these neurotransmitters.

  3. [Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders: diagnosis and pharmacological treatment].

    PubMed

    Paslakis, G; Schredl, M; Alm, B; Sobanski, E

    2013-08-01

    Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity and is a frequent psychiatric disorder with childhood onset. In addition to core symptoms, patients often experience associated symptoms like emotional dysregulation or low self-esteem and suffer from comorbid disorders, particularly depressive episodes, substance abuse, anxiety or sleep disorders. It is recommended to include associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders in the diagnostic set-up and in the treatment plan. Comorbid psychiatric disorders should be addressed with disorder-specific therapies while associated symptoms also often improve with treatment of the ADHD core symptoms. The most impairing psychiatric disorder should be treated first. This review presents recommendations for differential diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD with associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders with respect to internationally published guidelines, clinical trials and expert opinions. PMID:23864520

  4. Psychiatric manifestations of treatable hereditary metabolic disorders in adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Detecting psychiatric disorders of secondary origin is a crucial concern for the psychiatrist. But how can this reliably be done among a large number of conditions, most of which have a very low prevalence? Metabolic screening undertaken in a population of subjects with psychosis demonstrated the presence of treatable metabolic disorders in a significant number of cases. The nature of the symptoms that should alert the clinician is also a fundamental issue and is not limited to psychosis. Hereditary metabolic disorders (HMD) are a rare but important cause of psychiatric disorders in adolescents and adults, the signs of which may remain isolated for years before other more specific organic signs appear. HMDs that present purely with psychiatric symptoms are very difficult to diagnose due to low awareness of these rare diseases among psychiatrists. However, it is important to identify HMDs in order to refer patients to specialist centres for appropriate management, disease-specific treatment and possible prevention of irreversible physical and neurological complications. Genetic counselling can also be provided. This review focuses on three HMD categories: acute, treatable HMDs (urea cycle abnormalities, remethylation disorders, acute intermittent porphyria); chronic, treatable HMDs (Wilson’s disease, Niemann-Pick disease type C, homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis); and chronic HMDs that are difficult to treat (lysosomal storage diseases, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, creatine deficiency syndrome). We also propose an algorithm for the diagnosis of HMDs in patients with psychiatric symptoms. PMID:25478001

  5. Childhood maltreatment in adult female psychiatric outpatients with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Fosse, Gunilla Klensmeden; Holen, Are

    2006-11-01

    To explore possible relations between maltreatment in childhood and subsequent eating disorders in adult life, 107 consecutive adult psychiatric female outpatients were screened for eating disorders. They also completed questionnaires about harassment by adults and bullying by peers in childhood. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire measured childhood abuse by parents or other adults, and the Parental Bonding Instrument captured parental coldness and overprotection. Bullying by peers was measured by an inventory used in schools. Outpatients who met the criteria for bulimia nervosa reported far more bullying by peers, more coldness and overprotection from fathers, and more childhood emotional, physical and sexual abuse. The findings suggest associations between childhood maltreatment, especially bullying by peers, and bulimia nervosa. PMID:17056418

  6. Childhood Determinants of Adult Psychiatric Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fryers, Tom; Brugha, Traolach

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project was to assess the current evidence from longitudinal studies for childhood determinants of adult mental illness. Because of the variable and often prolonged period between factors in childhood and the identification of mental illness in adults, prospective studies, particularly birth cohorts, offer the best chance of demonstrating associations in individuals. A review was undertaken in 2006 of the published literature from longitudinal studies, together with some large-scale retrospective studies and relevant reviews which provided supplementary evidence. The main focus was upon potentially ameliorable characteristics, experiences or situations of childhood; however, other factors, not determinants but pre-cursors, associated with later mental illness could not be left out. Seven major electronic data-bases of published research were interrogated with a range of key-words and the results supplemented from personal searches, enquiries and reference trails. In excess of 1,500 abstracts were read to select 250 papers for full review. The material was assessed in relation to ten factors: Psychological disturbance; Genetic Influences; Neurological Deviance; Neuroticism; Behaviour; School Performance; Adversity; Child Abuse or Neglect; Parenting and parent-child relationships; Disrupted and Disfunctional Families. In 2011 the search was repeated for the period 2006 to mid-2011, using the same search terms and supplemented in the same manner. Over 1,800 abstracts emerged and almost 200 papers selected for more detailed review. These were then integrated into the original text with modifications where necessary. The whole text was then revised and edited in January / February 2012. There is continuing evidence for the association with later mental ill-health for each of these ten factors, but with different degrees of conviction. The evidence for each is discussed in detail and weighed both separately and in relation to others. These are then

  7. Childhood determinants of adult psychiatric disorder.

    PubMed

    Fryers, Tom; Brugha, Traolach

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project was to assess the current evidence from longitudinal studies for childhood determinants of adult mental illness. Because of the variable and often prolonged period between factors in childhood and the identification of mental illness in adults, prospective studies, particularly birth cohorts, offer the best chance of demonstrating associations in individuals. A review was undertaken in 2006 of the published literature from longitudinal studies, together with some large-scale retrospective studies and relevant reviews which provided supplementary evidence. The main focus was upon potentially ameliorable characteristics, experiences or situations of childhood; however, other factors, not determinants but pre-cursors, associated with later mental illness could not be left out. Seven major electronic data-bases of published research were interrogated with a range of key-words and the results supplemented from personal searches, enquiries and reference trails. In excess of 1,500 abstracts were read to select 250 papers for full review. The material was assessed in relation to ten factors: Psychological disturbance; Genetic Influences; Neurological Deviance; Neuroticism; Behaviour; School Performance; Adversity; Child Abuse or Neglect; Parenting and parent-child relationships; Disrupted and Disfunctional Families. In 2011 the search was repeated for the period 2006 to mid-2011, using the same search terms and supplemented in the same manner. Over 1,800 abstracts emerged and almost 200 papers selected for more detailed review. These were then integrated into the original text with modifications where necessary. The whole text was then revised and edited in January / February 2012. There is continuing evidence for the association with later mental ill-health for each of these ten factors, but with different degrees of conviction. The evidence for each is discussed in detail and weighed both separately and in relation to others. These are then

  8. Psychiatric Comorbidity and Medication Use in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Tara R.; Viskochil, Joseph; Farley, Megan; Coon, Hilary; McMahon, William M.; Morgan, Jubel; Bilder, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate comorbid psychiatric disorders and psychotropic medication use among adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ascertained as children during a 1980's statewide Utah autism prevalence study (n = 129). Seventy-three individuals (56.6%) met criteria for a current psychiatric disorder; 89…

  9. Longitudinal Predictors of Psychiatric Disorders in Very Low Birth Weight Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westrupp, E. M.; Northam, E.; Doyle, L. W.; Callanan, C.; Anderson, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine risk and protective factors for adult psychiatric disorders in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight less than 1,501 g) survivors. 79 of 154 (51%) VLBW subjects recruited at birth were assessed in early adulthood (24-27 years). Participants were screened for a psychiatric disorder; those elevated were…

  10. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in U.S. older adults: findings from a nationally representative survey

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Kristin; Pietrzak, Robert H; El-Gabalawy, Renée; Mackenzie, Corey S; Sareen, Jitender

    2015-01-01

    Data on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in late life are lacking. The present study addresses this gap in the literature by examining the prevalence of the broadest range of psychiatric disorders in late life to date; comparing prevalences across older adult age groups using the largest sample of adults aged 85+; and exploring gender differences in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in late life. Using data from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, we examined the prevalence of past-year mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders, and lifetime personality disorders in a nationally representative sample of 12,312 U.S. older adults. We stratified our analyses by gender and by older age groups: young-old (ages 55-64), middle-old (ages 65-74), old-old (ages 75-84), and oldest-old (ages 85+). The proportion of older adults who experienced any past-year anxiety disorder was 11.4%, while the prevalence of any past-year mood disorder was 6.8%. A total of 3.8% of older adults met criteria for any past-year substance use disorder, and 14.5% of older adults had one or more personality disorder. We observed a general pattern of decreasing rates of psychiatric disorders with increasing age. Women experienced higher rates of mood and anxiety disorders, while men had higher rates of substance use disorders and any personality disorder. Gender differences in rates of most psychiatric disorders decreased with increasing age. These data indicate that psychiatric disorders are prevalent among U.S. older adults, and support the importance of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of psychiatric disorders in this population. PMID:25655161

  11. Psychiatric Service Use and Psychiatric Disorders in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhaumik, S.; Tyrer, F. C.; McGrother, C.; Ganghadaran, S. K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: UK policies aim to facilitate access to general psychiatric services for adults with intellectual disability (ID). If this is to be achieved, it is important to have a clear idea of the characteristics and proportion of people with ID who currently access specialist psychiatric services and the nature and extent of psychiatric…

  12. Psychiatric Co-occurring Symptoms and Disorders in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lever, Anne G; Geurts, Hilde M

    2016-06-01

    Although psychiatric problems are less prevalent in old age within the general population, it is largely unknown whether this extends to individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We examined psychiatric symptoms and disorders in young, middle-aged, and older adults with and without ASD (Nmax = 344, age 19-79 years, IQ > 80). Albeit comparable to other psychiatric patients, levels of symptoms and psychological distress were high over the adult lifespan; 79 % met criteria for a psychiatric disorder at least once in their lives. Depression and anxiety were most common. However, older adults less often met criteria for any psychiatric diagnosis and, specifically, social phobia than younger adults. Hence, despite marked psychological distress, psychiatric problems are also less prevalent in older aged individuals with ASD. PMID:26861713

  13. Dyslexia as Cause of Psychiatric Disorder in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, W. A.; Barker, M. G.

    1972-01-01

    A few patients may be of normal intelligence but have difficulties in reading, writing, and spelling, which are the main precipitants of a psychiatric disorder. In seven patients this illiteracy emerged only after intensive examination, as they had hidden it from employers, friends, and children. Characteristically these patients are often very sensitive about this disability and marital friction is common. They are also often noticeably resistant to remedial help. PMID:4646506

  14. Screening for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adult inpatients with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Geetha; Faden, Justin; Steer, Robert A

    2011-06-01

    The purpose was to assess the effectiveness of the adult ADHD Module from the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales: Screening Version DSM-IV ADHD Symptoms Total Scale (CAARS-S:SV) in screening for attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) disorder in patients hospitalized for other psychiatric disorders. Assessment measures were administered to 55 (50%) female and 55 (50%) male adult (>18 yr. old) inpatients. Only six (5%) of the 110 inpatients had been diagnosed with comorbid ADHD according to medical charts. In contrast, 55 (50%) patients met criteria for ADHD according to the MINI, and 39 (36%) patients met criteria on the CAARS-S:SV. The higher rates of prevalence for the MINI and the CAARS-S:SV were attributable to symptom criteria for ADHD being similar to those shared with comorbid disorders. PMID:21879629

  15. Psychiatric Comorbidity and Functioning in a Clinically Referred Population of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshi, Gagan; Wozniak, Janet; Petty, Carter; Martelon, Mary Kate; Fried, Ronna; Bolfek, Anela; Kotte, Amelia; Stevens, Jonathan; Furtak, Stephannie L.; Bourgeois, Michelle; Caruso, Janet; Caron, Ashley; Biederman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    To systematically examine the patterns of psychiatric comorbidity and functioning in clinically referred adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Psychiatrically referred adults with and without ASD were compared on measures assessing for psychiatric comorbidity and psychosocial functioning. Sixty-three adults with ASD participated in the…

  16. Effects of neurofeedback on adult patients with psychiatric disorders in a naturalistic setting.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Eun-Jin; Koo, Bon-Hoon; Seo, Wan-Seok; Lee, Jun-Yeob; Choi, Joong-Hyeon; Song, Shin-Ho

    2015-03-01

    Few well-controlled studies have considered neurofeedback treatment in adult psychiatric patients. In this regard, the present study investigates the characteristics and effects of neurofeedback on adult psychiatric patients in a naturalistic setting. A total of 77 adult patients with psychiatric disorders participated in this study. Demographic data and neurofeedback states were retrospectively analyzed, and the effects of neurofeedback were evaluated using clinical global impression (CGI) and subjective self-rating scales. Depressive disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders (19; 24.7 %), followed by anxiety disorders (18; 23.4 %). A total of 69 patients (89.6 %) took medicine, and the average frequency of neurofeedback was 17.39 ± 16.64. Neurofeedback was applied to a total of 39 patients (50.6 %) more than 10 times, and 48 patients (62.3 %) received both β/SMR and α/θ training. The discontinuation rate was 33.8 % (26 patients). There was significant difference between pretreatment and posttreatment CGI scores (<.001), and the self-rating scale also showed significant differences in depressive symptoms, anxiety, and inattention (<.001). This is a naturalistic study in a clinical setting, and has several limitations, including the absence of a control group and a heterogenous sample. Despite these limitations, the study demonstrates the potential of neurofeedback as an effective complimentary treatment for adult patients with psychiatric disorders. PMID:25740085

  17. Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Psychiatric Hospitals in Ontario: Clinical Profile and Service Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsky, Yona; Gracey, Carolyn; Bradley, Elspeth

    2009-01-01

    Background: Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) represent a small, but challenging sub-group of patients within Ontario's mental health care system. However, few studies have documented the clinical characteristics of this population and examined how such individuals differ from other psychiatric patients, with or without intellectual…

  18. Neuropsychological Functioning in Adults With ADHD and Adults With Other Psychiatric Disorders: The Issue of Specificity.

    PubMed

    Holst, Ylva; Thorell, Lisa B

    2013-10-17

    Objective: The aim was to investigate how well neuropsychological measures can discriminate between adults with ADHD and those with other psychiatric disorders. Method: Adults with ADHD and a clinical control group (n = 110) were included. Neuropsychological functioning was investigated using measures of inhibition, working memory, set shifting, planning, fluency, reaction-time variability, and delay aversion. Results: Adults with ADHD performed more poorly compared with clinical controls with regard to all constructs. The effects of verbal memory, inhibition, set shifting, fluency, and delay aversion remained significant when controlling for IQ. However, when controlling for basic cognitive functions, only the effects of inhibition, fluency, and delay aversion were significant. Sensitivity ranged between 64% and 75%, and specificity between 66% and 81%. Conclusion: Neuropsychological tests have a relatively poor ability to discriminate between adults with ADHD and clinical controls, but they may be used to identify individuals at particularly high risk for poor daily functioning. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24134875

  19. Adolescents and Adults with Autism with and without Co-Morbid Psychiatric Disorders: Differences in Maternal Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kring, Sheilah R.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the associations between the characteristics of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and maternal well-being. Two groups were compared: mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD and co-morbid psychiatric disorders (n = 142) and mothers whose sons or daughters had a single diagnosis of ASD (n = 130).…

  20. A review of the evidence from family, twin and adoption studies for a genetic contribution to adult psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Shih, Regina A; Belmonte, Pamela L; Zandi, Peter P

    2004-11-01

    Family, twin and adoption studies have provided major evidence for the role of genetics in numerous psychiatric disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. As the search for patterns of inheritance and candidate genes of these complex disorders continues, we review relevant findings from quantitative genetic studies and outline the main challenges for the field of psychiatric genetics to focus on in order to more definitively establish the underpinnings of genetic and environmental influences of adult psychopathology. PMID:16194760

  1. Psychiatric Disorders Among Detained Youths: A Comparison of Youths Processed in Juvenile Court and Adult Criminal Court

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Jason; Teplin, Linda; Voss, Laurie; Simon, Clarissa; Abram, Karen; McClelland, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in youths processed in adult criminal court with youths processed in the juvenile court. Methods Participants were a stratified random sample of 1829 youths (10–18 years of age) arrested and detained in Chicago, IL. Data on 1715 youths (13–18 years of age) from version 2.3 of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children are presented, including 1440 youths processed in juvenile court and 275 youths processed in adult criminal court. Results Among youths processed in the adult criminal court, 66% had at least one psychiatric disorder and 43% had two or more types of disorders. Prevalence rates and the number of comorbid types of disorders were not significantly different between youths processed in adult criminal court and those processed in the juvenile court. Among youths processed in adult criminal court, those sentenced to prison had significantly greater odds of having disruptive behavior, substance use, or comorbid affective and anxiety disorders than those receiving a less severe sentence. Males, African Americans, Hispanics, and older youths had greater odds of being processed in adult criminal court than females, non-Hispanic whites, and younger youths, even after controlling for felony-level violent crime. Conclusions Community and correctional systems must be prepared to provide psychiatric services to youths transferred to adult criminal court, and especially to youths sentenced to prison. Psychiatric service providers must also consider the disproportionate representation of racial/ethnic minorities in the transfer process when developing and implementing services. PMID:18757588

  2. Psychiatric and psychosocial problems in adults with normal-intelligence autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hofvander, Björn; Delorme, Richard; Chaste, Pauline; Nydén, Agneta; Wentz, Elisabet; Ståhlberg, Ola; Herbrecht, Evelyn; Stopin, Astrid; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Gillberg, Christopher; Råstam, Maria; Leboyer, Marion

    2009-01-01

    Background Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) often display symptoms from other diagnostic categories. Studies of clinical and psychosocial outcome in adult patients with ASDs without concomitant intellectual disability are few. The objective of this paper is to describe the clinical psychiatric presentation and important outcome measures of a large group of normal-intelligence adult patients with ASDs. Methods Autistic symptomatology according to the DSM-IV-criteria and the Gillberg & Gillberg research criteria, patterns of comorbid psychopathology and psychosocial outcome were assessed in 122 consecutively referred adults with normal intelligence ASDs. The subjects consisted of 5 patients with autistic disorder (AD), 67 with Asperger's disorder (AS) and 50 with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD NOS). This study group consists of subjects pooled from two studies with highly similar protocols, all seen on an outpatient basis by one of three clinicians. Results Core autistic symptoms were highly prevalent in all ASD subgroups. Though AD subjects had the most pervasive problems, restrictions in non-verbal communication were common across all three subgroups and, contrary to current DSM criteria, so were verbal communication deficits. Lifetime psychiatric axis I comorbidity was very common, most notably mood and anxiety disorders, but also ADHD and psychotic disorders. The frequency of these diagnoses did not differ between the ASD subgroups or between males and females. Antisocial personality disorder and substance abuse were more common in the PDD NOS group. Of all subjects, few led an independent life and very few had ever had a long-term relationship. Female subjects more often reported having been bullied at school than male subjects. Conclusion ASDs are clinical syndromes characterized by impaired social interaction and non-verbal communication in adulthood as well as in childhood. They also carry a high risk for co

  3. ADHD and Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders: Adult Student Perspectives on Learning Needs and Academic Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study is to understand, from their own perspective, the learning needs of adult college students with comorbid attention deficits and psychiatric disabilities, and to identify services and practices that support their success in the college environment. Adult students with comorbid attention deficits and psychiatric disorders…

  4. Aging Effects on Whole-Brain Functional Connectivity in Adults Free of Cognitive and Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luiz Kobuti; Regina, Ana Carolina Brocanello; Kovacevic, Natasa; Martin, Maria da Graça Morais; Santos, Pedro Paim; Carneiro, Camila de Godoi; Kerr, Daniel Shikanai; Amaro, Edson; McIntosh, Anthony Randal; Busatto, Geraldo F

    2016-09-01

    Aging is associated with decreased resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) within the default mode network (DMN), but most functional imaging studies have restricted the analysis to specific brain regions or networks, a strategy not appropriate to describe system-wide changes. Moreover, few investigations have employed operational psychiatric interviewing procedures to select participants; this is an important limitation since mental disorders are prevalent and underdiagnosed and can be associated with RSFC abnormalities. In this study, resting-state fMRI was acquired from 59 adults free of cognitive and psychiatric disorders according to standardized criteria and based on extensive neuropsychological and clinical assessments. We tested for associations between age and whole-brain RSFC using Partial Least Squares, a multivariate technique. We found that normal aging is not only characterized by decreased RSFC within the DMN but also by ubiquitous increases in internetwork positive correlations and focal internetwork losses of anticorrelations (involving mainly connections between the DMN and the attentional networks). Our results reinforce the notion that the aging brain undergoes a dedifferentiation processes with loss of functional diversity. These findings advance the characterization of healthy aging effects on RSFC and highlight the importance of adopting a broad, system-wide perspective to analyze brain connectivity. PMID:26315689

  5. Assessment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder Diagnostic Criteria in the National Comorbidity Survey and Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubarych, Thomas S.; Aggen, Steven H.; Hettema, John M.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Neale, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated measurement properties of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition," generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) criteria in the National Comorbidity Survey and the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders (VATSPSUD). The two studies used different widely used…

  6. Psychiatric disorders impacting critical illness.

    PubMed

    Struble, Laura M; Sullivan, Barbara J; Hartman, Laurie S

    2014-03-01

    An astounding 30% to 50% of older patients who are hospitalized for a medical condition also have a psychiatric disorder. The intent of this article is to prepare acute care nurses to meet the mental health needs of older adults with a critical illness and prevent untoward sequelae of medical events. The authors discuss the importance of baseline assessment data, issues related to informed consent, manifestations of common psychiatric disorders that may be seen in older adults in the acute care setting, as well as strategies to improve patient outcomes. PMID:24484928

  7. Dopamine D3 Receptor Mediates Preadolescent Stress-Induced Adult Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Joon H.; Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that repeated stressful experiences during childhood increases the likelihood of developing depression- and anxiety-related disorders in adulthood; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We subjected drd3-EGFP and drd3-null mice to daily, two hour restraint stress episodes over a five day period during preadolescence (postnatal day 35 to 39), followed by social isolation. When these mice reached adulthood (post-natal day > 90), we assessed locomotor behavior in a novel environment, and assessed depression-related behavior in the Porsolt Forced Swim test. We also measured the expression and function of dopamine D3 receptor in limbic brain areas such as hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and amygdala in control and stressed drd3-EGFP mice in adulthood. Adult male mice subjected to restraint stress during preadolescence exhibited both anxiety- and depression-related behaviors; however, adult female mice subjected to preadolescent restraint stress exhibited only depression-related behaviors. The development of preadolescent stress-derived psychiatric disorders was blocked by D3 receptor selective antagonist, SB 277011-A, and absent in D3 receptor null mice. Adult male mice that experienced stress during preadolescence exhibited a loss of D3 receptor expression and function in the amygdala but not in hippocampus or nucleus accumbens. In contrast, adult female mice that experienced preadolescent stress exhibited increased D3 receptor expression in the nucleus accumbens but not in amygdala or hippocampus. Our results suggest that the dopamine D3 receptor is centrally involved in the etiology of adult anxiety- and depression-related behaviors that arise from repeated stressful experiences during childhood. PMID:26619275

  8. Childhood Trauma and Psychiatric Disorders as Correlates of School Dropout in a National Sample of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Porche, Michelle V.; Fortuna, Lisa R.; Lin, Julia; Alegria, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    The effect of childhood trauma, psychiatric diagnoses, and mental health services on school dropout among U.S. born and immigrant youth is examined using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), a nationally representative probability sample of African Americans, Afro-Caribbeans, Asians, Latinos, and non-Latino Whites, including 2532 young adults, ages 21 to 29. The dropout prevalence rate was 16% overall, with variation by childhood trauma, childhood psychiatric diagnosis, race/ethnicity, and nativity. Childhood substance and conduct disorders mediated the relationship between trauma and school dropout. Likelihood of dropout was decreased for Asians, and increased for African Americans and Latinos, compared to non-Latino Whites as a function of psychiatric disorders and trauma. Timing of U.S. immigration during adolescence increased risk of dropout. PMID:21410919

  9. OLDER ADULT PSYCHIATRIC INPATIENTS WITH NON-COGNITIVE DISORDERS SHOULD BE SCREENED FOR VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY

    PubMed Central

    LACHNER, C.; MARTIN, C.; JOHN, D.; NEKKALAPU, S.; SASAN, A.; STEINLE, N.; REGENOLD, W.T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency is most prevalent among older adults. Practice guidelines recommend screening older adults with symptoms of cognitive disorder for B12 deficiency. However, guidelines for non-cognitive psychiatric disorders typically do not mention screening older adults for B12 deficiency. The purpose of this study was to determine whether routine screening of older adult psychiatric inpatients for B12 deficiency, regardless of cognitive symptoms, is clinically justified. Design We conducted a retrospective chart-review study of consecutive inpatient admissions. Setting Older Adult Acute Psychiatric Inpatient Unit at the University of Maryland Medical Center from 10/2007-4/2010. Participants Acute psychiatric inpatients aged ≥50 years who met inclusion criteria (N=374). Measurements Mean (SD) B12 levels and percentages of probable (<180pg/mL) and possible (180–350pg/mL) B12 deficiency as well as characteristics of patients with probable and possible B12 deficiency compared to patients with optimal B12 levels. Results Mean (SD) B12 levels and percentages of probable and possible B12 deficiency, respectively, for cognitive disorder patients [468 (284) pg/mL, 7.8 % (n=5) and 29.7% (n=19)] and for non-cognitive disorder patients [481(268) pg/mL, 4.8 %(n=15) and 33.2%(n=103)] were not significantly different (t=0.339, df=372, P=0.735; χ2=1.084, df=2, P=0.582, respectively). Conclusion Considering the potential benefits and low costs of screening and treatment, we conclude that it is justified to routinely screen older adult psychiatric inpatients for B12 deficiency whether or not cognitive disorder symptoms are present. PMID:24522476

  10. Reliability and validity of the SPAID-G checklist for detecting psychiatric disorders in adults with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Bertelli, Marco; Scuticchio, Daniela; Ferrandi, Angela; Lassi, Stefano; Mango, Francesco; Ciavatta, Claudio; Porcelli, Cesare; Bianco, Annamaria; Monchieri, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    SPAID (Psychiatric Instrument for the Intellectually Disabled Adult) is the first Italian tool-package for carrying out psychiatric diagnosis in adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID). It includes the "G" form, for general diagnostic orientation, and specific checklists for all groups of syndromes stated by the available classification systems. SPAID was established to provide an easy and quick tool for daily practice of the personnel working with ID. The present study was aimed at evaluating psychometric and psychodiagnostic characteristics of the SPAID-G and at supplying new data on the prevalence rate of psychiatric disorders in a multicentric Italian sample of people with ID living in different settings. The SPAID-G was randomly applied to 304 participants with ID attending residential facilities or assessment services across Italy. A part of the sample was also consecutively assessed through the use of DASH, PDD-MRS and by the clinical application of the DSM-IV TR criteria. The correlation between SPAID-G scores and those provided by other evaluation tools was over 60%. Additionally, the internal consistency and inter-rater reliability resulted to be good. Psychopathological symptoms were detected in approximately 40% of the sample. Respectively, autistic spectrum disorders, impulse control disorders, mood disorders, and dramatic personality disorders were the diagnostic orientations providing the most prevalent over-threshold scores. SPAID-G seems to be a valid diagnostic tool, quick and easy to use in psychiatric disorders assessment within the Italian population with ID. PMID:22119685

  11. The Relationship between Autism and Psychiatric Disorders in Intellectually Disabled Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Malfa, Giampaolo; Lassi, Stefano; Salvini, Roberto; Giganti, Chiara; Bertelli, Marco; Albertini, Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    Intellectual Disability (ID) shows a high comorbidity with psychiatric disorders with a great variability in the prevalence rates. An important subgroup is represented by subjects with ID and autism or other autistic spectrum disorders (PDD). The purpose of the present study was to assess PDD with specific screening tools in a population of people…

  12. Predictors of diagnosis of child psychiatric disorder in adult-infant social-communicative interaction at 12 months.

    PubMed

    Marwick, H; Doolin, O; Allely, C S; McConnachie, A; Johnson, P; Puckering, C; Golding, J; Gillberg, C; Wilson, P

    2013-01-01

    To establish which social interactive behaviours predict later psychiatric diagnosis, we examined 180 videos of a parent-infant interaction when children were aged one year, from within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort. Sixty of the videos involved infants who were later diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder at seven years, and 120 were a randomly selected sex-matched control group. Interactive behaviours for both the caregiver and the one year old infant were coded from the videos according to eight holistic categories of interpersonal engagement: Well-being, Contingent Responsiveness, Cooperativeness, Involvement, Activity, Playfulness, Fussiness, and Speech. Lower levels of adult activity and speech in interaction at one year significantly predicted overall diagnosis of child psychiatric disorder. PMID:23123869

  13. Occupational Psychiatric Disorders in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    We searched databases and used various online resources to identify and systematically review all articles on occupational psychiatric disorders among Korean workers published in English and Korean before 2009. Three kinds of occupational psychiatric disorders were studied: disorders related to job stress and mental illness, psychiatric symptoms emerging in victims of industrial injuries, and occupational psychiatric disorders compensated by Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance (IACI). Korea does not maintain official statistical records for occupational psychiatric disorders, but several studies have estimated the number of occupational psychiatric disorders using the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service (COMWEL, formerly KLWC) database. The major compensated occupational psychiatric disorders in Korea were "personality and behavioral disorders due to brain disease, damage, and dysfunction", "other mental disorders due to brain damage and dysfunction and to physical diseases", "reactions to severe stress and adjustment disorders", and "depressive episodes". The most common work-related psychiatric disorders, excluding accidents, were "neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders" followed by "mood disorders". PMID:21258596

  14. Reliability and Validity of the SPAID-G Checklist for Detecting Psychiatric Disorders in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertelli, Marco; Scuticchio, Daniela; Ferrandi, Angela, Lassi, Stefano; Mango, Francesco; Ciavatta, Claudio; Porcelli, Cesare; Bianco, Annamaria; Monchieri, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    SPAID (Psychiatric Instrument for the Intellectually Disabled Adult) is the first Italian tool-package for carrying out psychiatric diagnosis in adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID). It includes the "G" form, for general diagnostic orientation, and specific checklists for all groups of syndromes stated by the available classification…

  15. Surgery for psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Luigjes, Judy; de Kwaasteniet, Bart P; de Koning, Pelle P; Oudijn, Marloes S; van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Schuurman, P Richard; Denys, Damiaan

    2013-01-01

    Surgery in psychiatric disorders has a long history and has regained momentum in the past few decades with deep brain stimulation (DBS). DBS is an adjustable and reversible neurosurgical intervention using implanted electrodes to deliver controlled electrical pulses to targeted areas of the brain. It holds great promise for therapy-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. Several double-blind controlled and open trials have been conducted and the response rate is estimated around 54%. Open trials have shown encouraging results with DBS for therapy-refractory depression and case reports have shown potential effects of DBS on addiction. Another promising indication is Tourette syndrome, where potential efficacy of DBS is shown by several case series and a few controlled trials. Further research should focus on optimizing DBS with respect to target location and increasing the number of controlled double-blinded trials. In addition, new indications for DBS and new target options should be explored in preclinical research. PMID:22465369

  16. [Movement disorders is psychiatric diseases].

    PubMed

    Hidasi, Zoltan; Salacz, Pal; Csibri, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Movement disorders are common in psychiatry. The movement disorder can either be the symptom of a psychiatric disorder, can share a common aetiological factor with it, or can be the consequence of psychopharmacological therapy. Most common features include tic, stereotypy, compulsion, akathisia, dyskinesias, tremor, hypokinesia and disturbances of posture and gait. We discuss characteristics and clinical importance of these features. Movement disorders are frequently present in mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, catatonia, Tourette-disorder and psychogenic movement disorder, leading to differential-diagnostic and therapeutical difficulties in everyday practice. Movement disorders due to psychopharmacotherapy can be classified as early-onset, late-onset and tardive. Frequent psychiatric comorbidity is found in primary movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease, Huntington's disease, diffuse Lewy-body disorder. Complex neuropsychiatric approach is effective concerning overlapping clinical features and spectrums of disorders in terms of movement disorders and psychiatric diseases. PMID:25577484

  17. Epigenetic Signaling in Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Catherine J; Bagot, Rosemary C; Labonté, Benoit; Nestler, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are complex multifactorial illnesses involving chronic alterations in neural circuit structure and function. While genetic factors are important in the etiology of disorders such as depression and addiction, relatively high rates of discordance among identical twins clearly indicate the importance of additional mechanisms. Environmental factors such as stress or prior drug exposure are known to play a role in the onset of these illnesses. Such exposure to environmental insults induces stable changes in gene expression, neural circuit function, and ultimately behavior, and these maladaptations appear distinct between developmental and adult exposures. Increasing evidence indicates that these sustained abnormalities are maintained by epigenetic modifications in specific brain regions. Indeed, transcriptional dysregulation and associated aberrant epigenetic regulation is a unifying theme in psychiatric disorders. Aspects of depression and addiction can be modeled in animals by inducing disease-like states through environmental manipulations (e.g., chronic-stress, drug administration). Understanding how environmental factors recruit the epigenetic machinery in animal models is revealing new insight into disease mechanisms in humans. PMID:24709417

  18. Epigenetic signaling in psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Peña, Catherine J; Bagot, Rosemary C; Labonté, Benoit; Nestler, Eric J

    2014-10-01

    Psychiatric disorders are complex multifactorial illnesses involving chronic alterations in neural circuit structure and function. While genetic factors are important in the etiology of disorders such as depression and addiction, relatively high rates of discordance among identical twins clearly indicate the importance of additional mechanisms. Environmental factors such as stress or prior drug exposure are known to play a role in the onset of these illnesses. Such exposure to environmental insults induces stable changes in gene expression, neural circuit function, and ultimately behavior, and these maladaptations appear distinct between developmental and adult exposures. Increasing evidence indicates that these sustained abnormalities are maintained by epigenetic modifications in specific brain regions. Indeed, transcriptional dysregulation and associated aberrant epigenetic regulation is a unifying theme in psychiatric disorders. Aspects of depression and addiction can be modeled in animals by inducing disease-like states through environmental manipulations (e.g., chronic stress, drug administration). Understanding how environmental factors recruit the epigenetic machinery in animal models reveals new insight into disease mechanisms in humans. PMID:24709417

  19. Characteristics and Psychiatric Symptoms of Internet Gaming Disorder among Adults Using Self-Reported DSM-5 Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na Ri; Hwang, Samuel Suk-Hyun; Choi, Jung-Seok; Kim, Dai-Jin; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Király, Orsolya; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Griffiths, Mark. D.; Hyun, So Yeon; Youn, Hyun Chul

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) proposed nine diagnostic criteria and five cut-point criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD). We aimed to examine the efficacy of such criteria. Methods Adults (n=3041, men: 1824, women: 1217) who engaged in internet gaming within last 6 months completed a self-report online survey using the suggested wordings of the criteria in DSM-5. Major characteristics, gaming behavior, and psychiatric symptoms of IGD were analyzed using ANOVA, chi-square, and correlation analyses. Results The sociodemographic variables were not statistically significant between the healthy controls and the risk group. Among the participants, 419 (13.8%) were identified and labeled as the IGD risk group. The IGD risk group scored significantly higher on all motivation subscales (p<0.001). The IGD risk group showed significantly higher scores than healthy controls in all nine psychiatric symptom dimensions, i.e., somatization, obsession-compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism (p<0.001). Conclusion The IGD risk group showed differential psychopathological manifestations according to DSM-5 IGD diagnostic criteria. Further studies are needed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the specific criteria, especially for developing screening instruments. PMID:26766947

  20. Predictors of Diagnosis of Child Psychiatric Disorder in Adult-Infant Social-Communicative Interaction at 12 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marwick, H.; Doolin, O.; Allely, C. S.; McConnachie, A.; Johnson, P.; Puckering, C.; Golding, J.; Gillberg, C.; Wilson, P.

    2013-01-01

    To establish which social interactive behaviours predict later psychiatric diagnosis, we examined 180 videos of a parent-infant interaction when children were aged one year, from within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort. Sixty of the videos involved infants who were later diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder at…

  1. The Psychiatric Disorders of Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Charles R.; Lucas, Alexander R.

    A general textbook on the psychiatric disorders of childhood, the book is intended to be an introductory text for students and practitioners working with children (such as psychiatric and pediatric residents and psychologists, teachers, medical students). The genesis of mental illness is discussed in terms of the contributions of heredity and the…

  2. [Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among homeless adolescents].

    PubMed

    Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Santeler, Stefan; Stelzig-Schöler, Renate; Kemmler, Georg; Steinmayr-Gensluckner, Maria; Hinterhuber, Hartmann

    2008-01-01

    Various studies show a high prevalence of mental disorders among homeless people. So far most of these studies deal solely with single men, mainly affected by homelessness. Few data exist for women, children, adolescents and whole families that are more and more affected by poverty and homelessness. This study, conducted in Innsbruck/Austria, determined the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among homeless adolescents. The adolescents were recruited in a counselling centre and homeless shelter specifically founded for homeless youth. Mental disorders were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SKID-I). 40 adolescents and young adults ranging from 14-23 years (mean 17.9 years) were included in the study. The results show that 58% of the homeless adolescents were exposed to continuous violence in their families and that violence was a major reason for them to leave home. The overall prevalence of diagnosed psychiatric disorders was 80% in the whole sample; the leading disorder was substance abuse/dependence (65%), followed by mood disorders (42.5%), anxiety disorders (17.5%) and eating disorders (17.5%). 57.5% of the adolescents had a history of self-harm and 25% reported at least one suicide attempt. Duration of homelessness had the greatest influence on the prevalence of mental disorders. Longer duration of homelessness was associated with a higher risk of psychiatric disorder or self-harm. These results demonstrate the urgent need for early psychosocial and psychiatric help for homeless adolescents. PMID:18826872

  3. Glial Contributions to Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Hanna E.

    2009-01-01

    There are several researches that demonstrate the importance of glia for child psychiatric disorders. One study found that levels of two astrocyctic proteins are altered in the brains of adults with autism while another research found that changes in glia are induced by some early adverse experiences.

  4. Circadian Disruption in Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Jones, Stephanie G; Benca, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    Evidence suggests that abnormalities in circadian rhythms might prove causally or pathophysiologically significant in psychiatric illness. The circadian regulation of hormonal and behavioral timekeeping processes is often altered in patients with major depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, and a susceptibility to rhythm instability may contribute to the functional impairment. For some patients, interventions that stabilize or resynchronize circadian rhythms prove therapeutically effective. Circadian disruption in the clinical profiles of most psychiatric illnesses and the treatment efficacy of chronobiological interventions suggest that attention to circadian phenotypes in a range of psychiatric disorders may help to uncover shared pathophysiologic mechanisms. PMID:26568124

  5. Infant psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Bolten, Margarete I

    2013-02-01

    Infant mental health problems include difficulties to regulate emotions or attention, crying, sleeping or feeding problems as well as aggressive behavior. Early identifications of these problems help to change developmental trajectories and improve developmental outcomes. Psychiatric assessment and classification have to take into account the rapid processes of development as well as the inseparable linkage between symptoms of the infant, psychosocial risks in the family environment, and parent-child relations. The proposed DSM-5 classification system presents a systematic description of mental health disorders which are relevant for infant psychiatry. However, the proposal has provided rather limited attention to developmental differences and parent-infant relations. Therefore, additional classification systems, like the Zero-to-Three (DC: 0-3R), are strongly recommended. In terms of assessment and in accordance with the guidelines of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, infant psychiatrists have to consider the close relation between somatic and mental health and the interplay between behaviors of the caregiver and the infant. Therefore, the assessment has to be multidisciplinary and relationship based. A standard assessment in infancy includes a clinical interview, behavior observations, caregiver questionnaires, and a pediatric screening. All assessments should pay attention to motor, cognitive, language, and social-emotional development. Because infant development is embedded in the family context, socio-economic factors, parents' mental problems, including drug abuse, domestic violence, and trauma history should be assessed. The treatment has to be oriented toward symptoms and development and has to address underlying medical conditions. The focus should be on parent-child interactions. Evidence-based interventions are based on attachment theory, use social-learning perspectives, and behavioral approaches. PMID:23229140

  6. Psychiatric Disorders in Preschool Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Goldstein, Benjamin; Monk, Kelly; Kalas, Catherine; Obreja, Mihaela; Hickey, Mary Beth; Iyengar, Satish; Brent, David; Shamseddeen, Wael; Diler, Rasim; Kupfer, David

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate lifetime prevalence and specificity of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders and severity of depressive and manic symptoms at intake in preschool offspring of parents with Disorder I–II. Methods 121 offspring ages 2–5 years old of 83 parents with Bipolar Disorder and 102 offspring of 65 demographically matched control parents (29 with non-Bipolar psychiatric disorders and 36 without any lifetime psychopathology) were recruited. Parents with Bipolar Disorder were recruited through advertisement and adult outpatient clinics and control parents were ascertained at random from the community. Subjects were evaluated with standardized instruments. All staff were blind to parental diagnoses. Results After adjusting for within-family correlations and both biological parents’ non-Bipolar psychopathology, compared to the offspring of the control parents, offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder, particularly those older than 4 years old, showed an 8-fold increased life-time prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) and significantly higher rates of ≥ 2 psychiatric disorders. While only 3 offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder had mood disorders, offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder, especially those with ADHD and Oppositional-Defiant Disorder, had significantly more severe current manic and depressive symptomatology than the offspring of the controls. Conclusions Preschool offspring of parents with Bipolar Disorder are at increased risk for ADHD and demonstrate increased subthreshold manic and depressive symptomatology. Longitudinal follow-up is warranted to evaluate whether these children are at high-risk to develop mood and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:20080982

  7. A Cross-sectional Study on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and General Psychiatric Morbidity Among Adult Survivors 3 Years After the Wenchuan Earthquake, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Duan, Guangfeng; Xu, Qin; Jia, Zhaobao; Bai, Zhengyang; Liu, Weizhi; Pan, Xiao; Tian, Wenhua

    2015-11-01

    After the Wenchuan earthquake, a large number of studies have focused on postearthquake psychological disorders among survivors; however, most of these studies were conducted within a relatively short period. This study was conducted to examine the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and general psychiatric morbidity among adult survivors 3 years after the Wenchuan earthquake, China. Through a multistage systematic sampling approach, a cross-sectional survey of 360 participants, 18 years or older, was conducted. The prevalence of PTSD and general psychiatric morbidity was 10.3% and 20.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed significant predictors for PTSD, including female gender and having felt guilt concerning someone's death or injury. Significant predictors for general psychiatric morbidity included unmarried status and having been in serious danger. These results suggest that mental health services should be continuously available to earthquake survivors. PMID:26316500

  8. Parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jokiranta, Elina; Brown, Alan S.; Heinimaa, Markus; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Partanen, Auli; Sourander, Andre

    2013-01-01

    The present population-based, case-control study examines associations between specific parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) including childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD-NOS). The cohort includes 4713 children born between 1987 and 2005 with diagnoses of childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome or PDD-NOS. Cases were ascertained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, and each was matched to four controls by gender, date of birth, place of birth, and residence in Finland. Controls were selected from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Parents were identified through the Finnish Medical Birth Register and Finnish Central Population Register. Parental psychiatric diagnoses from inpatient care were collected from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess whether parents’ psychiatric disorders predicted ASD after controlling for parents’ age, smoking during pregnancy and weight for gestational age. In summary, parental schizophrenia spectrum disorders and affective disorders were associated with the risk of ASD regardless of the subgroup. PDD-NOS was associated with all parental psychiatric disorders investigated. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings. These results may facilitate the investigation of shared genetic and familial factors between ASD and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:23391634

  9. Comorbid psychiatric and substance abuse disorders: recent treatment research.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Paula; Levin, Frances; Green, Alan I; Vocci, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity is defined as the co-occurrence of a psychiatric disorder in a patient with a substance use disorder. Psychiatric disorders in substance abuse patients can antedate the substance use disorder or be a consequence of the substance abuse. There is emerging evidence that drug use in adolescence may alter the onset of certain psychiatric disorders in vulnerable individuals. Patients with concurrent comorbid disorders present special challenges for the substance abuse treatment system in terms of diagnosis and management because each disorder has the capability of exacerbating the other. This manuscript is a summary of an ISAM symposium that featured three speakers who discussed the following topics: 1. Etiology and treatment of comorbid psychiatric and substance use disorders in adolescents; 2. Treatment of ADHD and substance use disorders in adults; 3. Effects of substance abuse on the onset, severity, and treatment of schizophrenia. Recommendations for further research will be presented. PMID:19042206

  10. Stressors and common mental disorder in informal carers – An analysis of the English Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007

    PubMed Central

    Stansfeld, Stephen; Smuk, Melanie; Onwumere, Juliana; Clark, Charlotte; Pike, Cleo; McManus, Sally; Harris, Jenny; Bebbington, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates potential explanations of the association between caring and common mental disorder, using the English Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007. We examined whether carers are more exposed to other stressors additional to caring – such as domestic violence and debt – and if so whether this explains their elevated rates of mental disorder. We analysed differences between carers and non-carers in common mental disorders (CMD), suicidal thoughts, suicidal attempts, recent stressors, social support, and social participation. We used multivariate models to investigate whether differences between carers and non-carers in identifiable stressors and supports explained the association between caring and CMD, as measured by the revised Clinical Interview Schedule. The prevalence of CMD (OR = 1.64 95% CI 1.37–1.97), suicidal thoughts in the last week (OR = 2.71 95% CI 1.31–5.62) and fatigue (OR = 1.33 95% CI 1.14–1.54) was increased in carers. However, caring remained independently associated with CMD (OR = 1.58 1.30–1.91) after adjustment for other stressors and social support. Thus caring itself is associated with increased risk of CMD that is not explained by other identified social stressors. Carers should be recognized as being at increased risk of CMD independent of the other life stressors they have to deal with. Interventions aimed at a direct reduction of the stressfulness of caring are indicated. However, carers also reported higher rates of debt problems and domestic violence and perceived social support was slightly lower in carers than in non-carers. So carers are also more likely to experience stressors other than caring and it is likely that they will need support not only aimed at their caring role, but also at other aspects of their lives. PMID:25259657

  11. Work and common psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Henderson, M; Harvey, S B; Overland, S; Mykletun, A; Hotopf, M

    2011-05-01

    Psychiatric disorders are now the most common reason for long-term sickness absence. The associated loss in productivity and the payment of disability benefits places a substantial burden on the economies of many developed countries. The occupational dysfunction associated with psychiatric disorders can also lead to poverty and social isolation. As a result the area of work and psychiatric disorders is a high priority for policymakers. There are two main agendas: for many researchers and clinicians the focus is on the need to overcome stigma and ensure people with severe psychiatric disorders have meaningful work; however the public health agenda predominantly relates to the more common disorders such as depression and anxiety, which contribute a greater burden of disability benefits and pensions. In this review we attempt to address this second agenda. The relatively sparse evidence available reveals a complex field with significant interplay between medical, psychological social and cultural factors. Sick leave can be a 'process' as well as an 'event'. In this review we propose a staged model where different risk and protective factors contribute to the onset of psychiatric disorders in the working population, the onset of short-term sickness absence, and the transition from short- to long-term absence. We also examine strategies to manage psychiatric disorder in the workforce with a view towards returning the employee to work. Our aim in this review is to highlight the complexity of the area, to stimulate debate and to identify important gaps in knowledge where further research might benefit both patients and wider society. PMID:21558098

  12. The nature of psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S

    2016-02-01

    A foundational question for the discipline of psychiatry is the nature of psychiatric disorders. What kinds of things are they? In this paper, I review and critique three major relevant theories: realism, pragmatism and constructivism. Realism assumes that the content of science is real and independent of human activities. I distinguish two "flavors" of realism: chemistry-based, for which the paradigmatic example is elements of the periodic table, and biology-based, for which the paradigm is species. The latter is a much better fit for psychiatry. Pragmatism articulates a sensible approach to psychiatric disorders just seeking categories that perform well in the world. But it makes no claim about the reality of those disorders. This is problematic, because we have a duty to advocate for our profession and our patients against other physicians who never doubt the reality of the disorders they treat. Constructivism has been associated with anti-psychiatry activists, but we should admit that social forces play a role in the creation of our diagnoses, as they do in many sciences. However, truly socially constructed psychiatric disorders are rare. I then describe powerful arguments against a realist theory of psychiatric disorders. Because so many prior psychiatric diagnoses have been proposed and then abandoned, can we really claim that our current nosologies have it right? Much of our current nosology arose from a series of historical figures and events which could have gone differently. If we re-run the tape of history over and over again, the DSM and ICD would not likely have the same categories on every iteration. Therefore, we should argue more confidently for the reality of broader constructs of psychiatric illness rather than our current diagnostic categories, which remain tentative. Finally, instead of thinking that our disorders are true because they correspond to clear entities in the world, we should consider a coherence theory of truth by which disorders

  13. A Systematic Review of the Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Adults with Intellectual Disability, 2003-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckles, Jason; Luckasson, Ruth; Keefe, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Research regarding the prevalence of psychiatric conditions co-occurring with intellectual disability in adults was reviewed. Particular attention was paid to the qualities of sampling and diagnostic methodology, which have been identified as needs in two recent reviews. Sixteen articles published in peer-reviewed journals between 2003 and 2009…

  14. [Alcohol and psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Bouzyk-Szutkiewicz, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szulc, Agata

    2012-09-01

    Alcohol dependence and abuse is one of the most costly health problems in the world from both a social and an economic point of view. It is a widespread problem, focusing attention not only psychiatrists but also doctors of other specialties. Patterns of drinking appear to be changing throughout the world, with more women and young people drinking heavily. Even risky drinking is a potential health risk, while chronic alcohol abuse contribute to the serious physical and mental complications. Alcohol used disorders associated with alcohol-induced brain damage include: withdrawal state, delirium tremens, alcoholic hallucinosis, alcoholic paranoia, Korsakoffs psychosis, alcoholic dementia, alcoholic depression. On the other hand, mental disorders as panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorder most frequently comorbid with alcohol abuse or they trigger alcohol. PMID:23157139

  15. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form ... Health & Health Disparities Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Other Psychiatric Disorders In the current ...

  16. PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS ASSOCIATED WITH FXTAS

    PubMed Central

    Seritan, Andreea L.; Ortigas, Melina; Seritan, Stefan; Bourgeois, James A.; Hagerman, Randi J.

    2015-01-01

    Carriers of the FMR1 premutation (with 55-200 CGG repeats) may present with multiple medical and psychiatric disorders. Middle-aged carriers (males more often than females) may suffer from fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). FXTAS is a newly discovered neurodegenerative disease characterized by intention tremor and ataxia, along with several other neurological features. Psychiatric manifestations are common in premutation carriers of both genders and include attention deficits, anxiety, depression, irritability, impulse dyscontrol, and substance abuse or dependence. Major depressive disorder, panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and specific phobia are among the psychiatric diagnoses often encountered in premutation carriers, including those with FXTAS. Later in the course of the illness, cognitive deficits (including dementia) may occur. In this paper, we discuss common psychiatric phenotypes in FXTAS, based on a thorough review of the literature, as well as our own research experience. Symptomatic pharmacologic treatments are available, although disease modifying agents have not yet been developed. PMID:25620899

  17. Tobacco and psychiatric dual disorders.

    PubMed

    Graham, Noni A; Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Gold, Mark S

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and premature mortality in the United States. The relationship between tobacco smoking and several forms of cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic lung disease, and other medical diseases is well recognized and accepted. Recent epidemiological studies are now focusing on the link between tobacco use and psychiatric diseases. Experts now suggest that in the differential diagnosis of "smoker," depression, alcohol dependence, and schizophrenia are highest on the list. Studies are also focusing on the role of secondhand tobacco exposure, either in utero or during childhood, in the risk of dual disorders. Prenatal exposure may alter gene expression and change the risk for a variety of life-long psychiatric diseases, e.g., ADD/ADHD, antisocial personality disorders, substance use disorders, and major depression. Considerable time and effort have been devoted to studying the link between smoking and depression and also schizophrenia. We will focus on less well-studied areas in tobacco use and psychiatric dual disorders (including eating disorders), prenatal and early childhood secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, and the relationship to the genesis of these dual disorders. PMID:19283970

  18. Psychiatric disorders and traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzbold, Marcelo; Diaz, Alexandre; Martins, Evandro Tostes; Rufino, Armanda; Amante, Lúcia Nazareth; Thais, Maria Emília; Quevedo, João; Hohl, Alexandre; Linhares, Marcelo Neves; Walz, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are frequent. Researches in this area are important for the patients’ care and they may provide hints for the comprehension of primary psychiatric disorders. Here we approach epidemiology, diagnosis, associated factors and treatment of the main psychiatric disorders after TBI. Finally, the present situation of the knowledge in this field is discussed. PMID:19043523

  19. Psychiatric Disorders: Diagnosis to Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Krystal, John H.; State, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings in a range of scientific disciplines are challenging the conventional wisdom regarding the etiology, classification and treatment of psychiatric disorders. This review focuses on the current state of the psychiatric diagnostic nosology and recent progress in three areas: genomics, neuroimaging, and therapeutics development. The accelerating pace of novel and unexpected findings is transforming the understanding of mental illness and represents a hopeful sign that the approaches and models that have sustained the field for the past 40 years are yielding to a flood of new data and presaging the emergence of a new and more powerful scientific paradigm. PMID:24679536

  20. Comorbidity of Psychiatric Disorders and Parental Psychiatric Disorders in a Sample of Iranian Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Moini, Rozita

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the psychiatric comorbidity of a clinical sample of children with ADHD and the psychiatric disorders in their parents. Method: Structured psychiatric interviews assessing lifetime psychiatric disorders by "DSM-IV" criteria, using the Farsi version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Results: The mean age…

  1. Religious ideas and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Beit-Hallahmi, B; Argyle, M

    1977-01-01

    The evidence presented above points to the need for considering factors other than purely religious ones in determining the role of religious ideas in psychiatric disorders. The occurrence of religious ideas as part of the content of individual delusional systems in psychiatric patients can be explained on the basis of exposure to religious ideas through the social environment. It may be also related to the prominence of religion, vis-a-vis other belief systems, in the social envirnment. When considering psychopathological explanations for intense religious experiences, one has to be conscious again of the social factors involved. When an unusual experience having religious content becomes normative in a certain group (for whatever reasons), trying to explain its appearance on the basis of individual psychodynamics or psychopathology becomes very difficult. There seems to be an inverse relationship between the social nature of a religious experience and its psychopathological nature, i.e., there is more psychopathology in individuals reporting solitary religious experiences, or individual religious ideas. Thus the solitary experience seems to be more influenced by disturbed individual dynamics, but in other cases social factors seem to be crucial. Our overall conclusion is that a psychiatric analysis of the role of religious factors in psychopathology has to be first a social-psychiatric analysis. An individual presenting psychiatric symptoms and religious ideas has to be evaluated in light of his social background, since the specific content of psychiatric symptoms seems to be determined by social background factors. Individual psychodynamics determine the appearance of symptoms, but their particular form will be the result of these background factors, one of which is religion. PMID:863602

  2. Panic Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  3. Bipolar Disorder Among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  4. Reliability and validity of a semi-structured DSM-based diagnostic interview module for the assessment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in adult psychiatric outpatients.

    PubMed

    Gorlin, Eugenia I; Dalrymple, Kristy; Chelminski, Iwona; Zimmerman, Mark

    2016-08-30

    Despite growing recognition that the symptoms and functional impairments of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) persist into adulthood, only a few psychometrically sound diagnostic measures have been developed for the assessment of ADHD in adults, and none have been validated for use in a broad treatment-seeking psychiatric sample. The current study presents the reliability and validity of a semi-structured DSM-based diagnostic interview module for ADHD, which was administered to 1194 adults presenting to an outpatient psychiatric practice. The module showed excellent internal consistency and interrater reliability, good convergent and discriminant validity (as indexed by relatively high correlations with self-report measures of ADHD and ADHD-related constructs and little or no correlation with other, non-ADHD symptom domains), and good construct validity (as indexed by significantly higher rates of psychosocial impairment and self-reported family history of ADHD in individuals who meet criteria for an ADHD diagnosis). This instrument is thus a reliable and valid diagnostic tool for the detection of ADHD in adults presenting for psychiatric evaluation and treatment. PMID:27259136

  5. Imaging genetics and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, R; Ohi, K; Yamamori, H; Yasuda, Y; Fujimoto, M; Umeda-Yano, S; Watanabe, Y; Fukunaga, M; Takeda, M

    2015-01-01

    Imaging genetics is an integrated research method that uses neuroimaging and genetics to assess the impact of genetic variation on brain function and structure. Imaging genetics is both a tool for the discovery of risk genes for psychiatric disorders and a strategy for characterizing the neural systems affected by risk gene variants to elucidate quantitative and mechanistic aspects of brain function implicated in psychiatric disease. Early studies of imaging genetics included association analyses between brain morphology and single nucleotide polymorphisms whose function is well known, such as catechol-Omethyltransferase (COMT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). GWAS of psychiatric disorders have identified genes with unknown functions, such as ZNF804A, and imaging genetics has been used to investigate clues of the biological function of these genes. The difficulty in replicating the findings of studies with small sample sizes has motivated the creation of largescale collaborative consortiums, such as ENIGMA, CHARGE and IMAGEN, to collect thousands of images. In a genome-wide association study, the ENIGMA consortium successfully identified common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume at 12q24, and the CHARGE consortium replicated this finding. The new era of imaging genetics has just begun, and the next challenge we face is the discovery of small effect size signals from large data sets obtained from genetics and neuroimaging. New methods and technologies for data reduction with appropriate statistical thresholds, such as polygenic analysis and parallel independent component analysis (ICA), are warranted. Future advances in imaging genetics will aid in the discovery of genes and provide mechanistic insight into psychiatric disorders. PMID:25732148

  6. Imaging Genetics and Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, R; Ohi, K; Yamamori, H; Yasuda, Y; Fujimoto, M; Umeda-Yano, S; Watanabe, Y; Fukunaga, M; Takeda, M

    2015-01-01

    Imaging genetics is an integrated research method that uses neuroimaging and genetics to assess the impact of genetic variation on brain function and structure. Imaging genetics is both a tool for the discovery of risk genes for psychiatric disorders and a strategy for characterizing the neural systems affected by risk gene variants to elucidate quantitative and mechanistic aspects of brain function implicated in psychiatric disease. Early studies of imaging genetics included association analyses between brain morphology and single nucleotide polymorphisms whose function is well known, such as catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). GWAS of psychiatric disorders have identified genes with unknown functions, such as ZNF804A, and imaging genetics has been used to investigate clues of the biological function of these genes. The difficulty in replicating the findings of studies with small sample sizes has motivated the creation of large-scale collaborative consortiums, such as ENIGMA, CHARGE and IMAGEN, to collect thousands of images. In a genome-wide association study, the ENIGMA consortium successfully identified common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume at 12q24, and the CHARGE consortium replicated this finding. The new era of imaging genetics has just begun, and the next challenge we face is the discovery of small effect size signals from large data sets obtained from genetics and neuroimaging. New methods and technologies for data reduction with appropriate statistical thresholds, such as polygenic analysis and parallel independent component analysis (ICA), are warranted. Future advances in imaging genetics will aid in the discovery of genes and provide mechanistic insight into psychiatric disorders. PMID:25732148

  7. Psychiatric disorders and sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    2015-01-01

    Sexual problems are highly prevalent among patients with psychiatric disorders. They may be caused by the psychopathology of the psychiatric disorder but also by its pharmacotherapy. Both positive symptoms (e.g., psychosis, hallucinations) as well as negative symptoms (e.g., anhedonia) of schizophrenia may negatively interfere with interpersonal and sexual relationships. Atypical antipsychotics have fewer sexual side-effects than the classic antipsychotics. Mood disorders may affect libido, sexual arousal, orgasm, and erectile function. With the exception of bupropion, agomelatine, mirtazapine, vortioxetine, amineptine, and moclobemide, all antidepressants cause sexual side-effects. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may particularly delay ejaculation and female orgasm, but also can cause decreased libido and erectile difficulties. SSRI-induced sexual side-effects are dose-dependent and reversible. Very rarely, their sexual side-effects persist after SSRI discontinuation. This is often preceded by genital anesthesia. Some personality characteristics are a risk factor for sexual dysfunction. Also patients with eating disorders may suffer from sexual difficulties. So far, research into psychotropic-induced sexual side-effects suffers from substantial methodologic limitations. Patients tend not to talk with their clinician about their sexual life. Psychiatrists and other doctors need to take the initiative to talk about the patient's sexual life in order to become informed about potential medication-induced sexual difficulties. PMID:26003261

  8. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders Among Young Injection Drug Users*

    PubMed Central

    Mackesy-Amiti, Mary E.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Ouellet, Lawrence J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of individuals in treatment for substance use have found high rates of psychiatric disorders, however little is known about the mental health of drug users not in treatment. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of lifetime and recent substance use and psychiatric disorders among young injection drug users (IDU) outside of a treatment setting. Methods Participants were recruited through outreach and respondent-driven sampling. Trained interviewers administered the Psychiatric Research Instrument for Substance and Mental Disorders. Interviews were conducted at two field stations operated by Community Outreach Intervention Projects in Chicago. Participants were 570 young adults (18-25 years) who injected drugs in the previous 30 days. Heroin was the primary drug used in this sample. Past 12-month and lifetime substance use disorders and primary and substance-induced mental disorders were based on DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Results Nearly all participants met the criteria for heroin dependence. Multiple substance use disorders were common; cannabis was the most common substance involved after heroin, followed by alcohol and cocaine. Major depression, alcohol dependence, antisocial personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder were highly prevalent. Other psychiatric disorders were observed at levels consistent with other young adult samples. Conclusions Young IDU experience major depression, alcohol dependence, anti-social personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder at high rates, and multiple substance use disorders are common. Anxiety disorders in this population appear to be similar in prevalence to young adults in general. PMID:22226707

  9. Psoriasis and Associated Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, José Luís Pio Da Costa; Reis, José Pedro Gaspar Dos; Figueiredo, Américo Manuel Da Costa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and objective: Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease with a high impact on self-esteem and patients’ health-related quality of life. In the last decades some studies have pointed out mental disorders associated with psoriasis and the etiopathogenic mechanisms behind that co-existence. This work compiles psychopathology associated with psoriasis and further analyzes the etiopathogenesis of psoriasis and mental disorders. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and using the “5S” levels of organization of evidence from healthcare research, as previously described. Results: Psoriasis is linked with many mental disorders, both in the psychotic and neurotic sprectrum. Chronic stress diminishes hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and upregulates sympathetic-adrenal-medullary responses, stimulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. Then, it maintains and exacerbates psoriasis and some of its mental disorders. High levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines connect psoriasis, psychiatric conditions, and other comorbidities of psoriasis (such as atherosclerosis) within a vicious cycle. Furthermore, the etiopathogenesis of the link between each psychiatric comorbidity and psoriasis has its own subtleties, including the cooccurrence of other comorbidities, the parts of the body affected by psoriasis, treatments, and biological and psychosocial factors. Conclusion: The study of psychopathology can amplify our understanding about the etiopathogenesis of psoriasis and associated mental disorders. Patients would benefit from a psychodermatologic approach. The adequate treatment should take into account the mental disorders associated with psoriasis as well as the circumstances under which they occur. PMID:27386050

  10. Psychiatric emergencies (part I): psychiatric disorders causing organic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Testa, A; Giannuzzi, R; Sollazzo, F; Petrongolo, L; Bernardini, L; Daini, S

    2013-02-01

    Psychiatric emergencies are conditions that mostly destabilize the already frenetic activity of the Emergency Department. Sometimes the emergency is clearly referable to primitive psychiatric illness. Other times, psychiatric and organic symptoms can independently coexist (comorbidity), or develop together in different conditions of substance abuse, including alcohol and prescription drugs. Differentiating between substance induced and pre-existing psychiatric disorder (dual diagnosis) may be difficult, other than controversial issue. Finally, an organic disease can hide behind a psychiatric disorder (pseudopsychiatric emergency). In this review (part I), psychiatric disorders that occur with organic symptoms are discussed. They include: (1) anxiety, conversion and psychosomatic disorders, and (2) simulated diseases. The physiologic mechanisms of the stress reaction, divided into a dual neuro-hormonal response, are reviewed in this section: (1) activation of the sympathetic nervous system and adrenal medulla with catecholamine production (rapid response), and (2) activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis with cortisol production (slow response). The concept of the fight-or-flight response, its adaptive significance and the potential evolution in paralyzing response, well showing by Yerkes-Dodson curve, is explained. Abnormal short- and long-term reactions to stress evolving toward well codified cluster of trauma and stressor-related disorders, including acute stress disorder, adjustment disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder, are examined. A brief review of major psychiatric disorder and related behaviour abnormalities, vegetative symptoms and cognitive impairment, according to DMS IV-TR classification, are described. Finally, the reactive psychic symptoms and behavioral responses to acute or chronic organic disease, so called "somatopsychic disorders", commonly occurring in elderly and pediatric patients, are presented. The specific conditions of

  11. Sleep in Children With Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ramtekkar, Ujjwal; Ivanenko, Anna

    2015-06-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in pediatric psychiatric disorders and constitute key elements in diagnostic symptomatology of various primary psychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder, depression, and anxiety disorder. Although sleep is not included in key defining criteria of some impairing illnesses such as obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia, these disorders present with a very high prevalence of sleep disturbances. The interaction between sleep and psychopathology is very complex with significant interrelationship in development, severity, and prognosis of psychiatric disorders and comorbid sleep disturbances. The research ranging from small intervention case series to large epidemiologic studies have demonstrated the role of specific sleep complaints in specific psychiatric diagnoses. However, the research using objective instruments such as polysomnography and actigraphy remains limited in youth with psychiatric disorders. The intervention studies using pharmaceutical treatment specifically focusing on sleep disturbances in psychiatric disorders are also sparse in the pediatric literature. Early identification of sleep disturbances and behavioral management using cognitive behavior therapy-based tools appear to be the most effective approach for treatment. The use of psychotropic medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for the treatment of primary psychiatric disorder often alleviate the psychological barriers for sleep but may lead to emergence of other sleep issues such as restless leg syndrome. The safety and efficacy data of hypnotics for primary sleep disorders are limited in pediatrics and should be avoided or used with extreme caution in children with comorbid sleep and psychiatric problems. PMID:26072345

  12. Paternal psychiatric disorders and children's psychosocial development.

    PubMed

    Ramchandani, Paul; Psychogiou, Lamprini

    2009-08-22

    Psychiatric disorders of parents are associated with an increased risk of psychological and developmental difficulties in their children. Most research has focused on mothers, neglecting psychiatric disorders affecting fathers. We review findings on paternal psychiatric disorders and their effect on children's psychosocial development. Most psychiatric disorders that affect fathers are associated with an increased risk of behavioural and emotional difficulties in their children, similar in magnitude to that due to maternal psychiatric disorders. Some findings indicate that boys are at greater risk than girls, and that paternal disorders, compared with maternal disorders, might be associated with an increased risk of behavioural rather than emotional problems. Improved paternal mental health is likely to improve children's wellbeing and life course. PMID:19411102

  13. Purinergic receptors in psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Krügel, Ute

    2016-05-01

    Psychiatric disorders describe different mental or behavioral patterns, causing suffering or poor coping of ordinary life with manifold presentations. Multifactorial processes can contribute to their development and progression. Purinergic neurotransmission and neuromodulation in the brain have attracted increasing therapeutic interest in the field of psychiatry. Purine nucleotides and nucleosides are well recognized as signaling molecules mediating cell to cell communication. The actions of ATP are mediated by ionotropic P2X and metabotropic P2Y receptor subfamilies, whilst the actions of adenosine are mediated by P1 (A1 or A2) adenosine receptors. Purinergic mechanisms and specific receptor subtypes have been shown to be linked to the regulation of many aspects of behavior and mood and to dysregulation in pathological processes of brain function. In this review the recent knowledge on the role of purinergic receptors in the two most frequent psychiatric diseases, major depression and schizophrenia, as well as on related animal models is summarized. At present the most promising data for therapeutic strategies derive from investigations of the adenosine system emphasizing a unique function of A2A receptors at neurons and astrocytes in these disorders. Among the P2 receptor family, in particular P2X7 and P2Y1 receptors were related to disturbances in major depression and schizophrenia, respectively. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Purines in Neurodegeneration and Neuroregeneration'. PMID:26518371

  14. Adult ADHD Among NSW Prisoners: Prevalence and Psychiatric Comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Moore, Elizabeth; Sunjic, Sandra; Kaye, Sharlene; Archer, Vicki; Indig, Devon

    2013-10-17

    Objective: Given the paucity of research among prisoners, this study aimed to examine the prevalence and psychiatric comorbidity associated with adult ADHD. Method: The study was conducted at four NSW correctional facilities (2 male; 2 female). Results: Thirty-five percent of the sample screened positive for adult ADHD, and 17% of the sample met criteria for a full diagnosis. After adjustment, benzodiazepine dependence, borderline personality disorder, social phobia, antisocial personality disorder, and a number of lifetime psychological disorders remained significantly and independently associated with the diagnosis of adult ADHD. Lowering the threshold on the ADHD Self-Rating Scale to ≥3 (vs. ≥4) increased the sensitivity (80%-93%), but lowered the specificity (55%-47%). Conclusion: Adult ADHD among NSW prisoners is elevated, with substance use disorders and psychiatric comorbidity common. A greater acceptance of this disorder among prisoners, and appropriate treatment, is warranted. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24134874

  15. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, David S.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Brereton, Avril V.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study investigating rates and types of comorbid mental disorder evident in adolescents and young adults with autism. A sample of 84 young people (M = 19.5 years, SD = 4.6) with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association,…

  16. Psychiatric disorders in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Fazzito, Mirella Martins; Jordy, Sérgio Semeraro; Tilbery, Charles Peter

    2009-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease showing variable clinical presentation. Optic neuritis is the most common symptom, followed by motor and sensitive manifestations. It is known that this disease may be related to several psychiatric disorders, especially depression. In this study we will discribe 5 cases of MS patients harboring psychiatric disorder related or unchained by the disease itself. PMID:19722046

  17. [Treatments for otorhinolaryngological patients with psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Nishio, Ayako; Sumi, Takuro; Yamada, Masato; Kuwahata, Yuko

    2013-02-01

    There are few systems in place for patients with psychiatric disorders who need treatments for physical complications. In Tokyo, "The Tokyo metropolitan psychiatric emergency system" was established in 1981, and Ome Municipal General Hospital participated in it. Under this system, fifteen patients with psychiatric disorders were treated for otorhinolaryngological diseases in our department from April 2005 to March 2011. We reviewed the fifteen patients. The coexisting psychiatric disorders were schizophrenia in twelve patients, and mental retardation, Korsakoff's syndrome, and Alzheimer's dementia in one patient each, respectively. All the patients had been receiving psychiatric treatment. The otorhinolaryngological diseases were head and neck cancer in nine patients, chronic sinusitis in three patients, and benign salivary gland tumor, cholesteatoma, and epistaxis in one patient each, respectively. Among the fifteen patients, thirteen could complete their treatment, but two dropped out due to exacerbation of their psychiatric symptoms. The therapeutic course is uncertain in otorhinolaryngological diseases occurring concomitantly with psychiatric disorders, especially in head and neck cancer, because it may be difficult to prioritize the problem when determining the treatment options and delivering the treatment. Thus, we should treat patients with psychiatric disorders carefully on a case-by-case basis depending on their psychiatric symptoms. It is also important to cooperate with psychiatrists and patients' families. PMID:23539958

  18. The effectiveness of anticonvulsants in psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Grunze, Heinz C R

    2008-01-01

    Anticonvulsant drugs are widely used in psychiatric indications. These include mainly alcohol and benzodiazepine withdrawal syndromes, panic and anxiety disorders, dementia, schizophrenia, affective disorders, bipolar affective disorders in particular, and, to some extent, personality disorders. A further area in which neurology and psychiatry overlap is pain conditions, in which some anticonvulsants, and also typical psychiatric medications such as antidepressants, are helpful. From the beginning of their psychiatric use, anticonvulsants have also been used to ameliorate specific symptoms of psychiatric disorders independently of their causality and underlying illness, eg, aggression, and, more recently, cognitive impairment, as seen in affective disorders and schizophrenia. With new anticonvulsants currently under development, it is likely that their use in psychiatry will further increase, and that psychiatrists need to learn about their differential efficacy and safety profiles to the same extent as do neurologists. PMID:18472486

  19. Psychometric Evaluation of a Dutch Version of the Mini PAS-ADD for Assessing Psychiatric Disorders in Adults with Different Levels of Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, R.; Maes, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disabilities (ID) have an increased vulnerability to develop psychiatric problems. Moreover, the early recognition and the accurate diagnosis of psychiatric disorders in the population of persons with ID are challenging. Method: A Dutch version of the Mini PAS-ADD, which is a screening instrument for…

  20. Childhood Trauma and Psychiatric Disorders as Correlates of School Dropout in a National Sample of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porche, Michelle V.; Fortuna, Lisa R.; Lin, Julia; Alegria, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    The effect of childhood trauma, psychiatric diagnoses, and mental health services on school dropout among U.S.-born and immigrant youth is examined using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys, a nationally representative probability sample of African Americans, Afro-Caribbeans, Asians, Latinos, and non-Latino Whites,…

  1. Accountability and psychiatric disorders: how do forensic psychiatric professionals think?

    PubMed

    Höglund, Pontus; Levander, Sten; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Radovic, Susanna

    2009-01-01

    Swedish penal law does not exculpate on the grounds of diminished accountability; persons judged to suffer from severe mental disorder are sentenced to forensic psychiatric care instead of prison. Re-introduction of accountability as a condition for legal responsibility has been advocated, not least by forensic psychiatric professionals. To investigate how professionals in forensic psychiatry would assess degree of accountability based on psychiatric diagnoses and case vignettes, 30 psychiatrists, 30 psychologists, 45 nurses, and 45 ward attendants from five forensic psychiatric clinics were interviewed. They were asked (i) to judge to which degree (on a dimensional scale from 1 to 5) each of 12 psychiatric diagnoses might affect accountability, (ii) to assess accountability from five case vignettes, and (iii) to list further factors they regarded as relevant for their assessment of accountability. All informants accepted to provide a dimensional assessment of accountability on this basis and consistently found most types of mental disorders to reduce accountability, especially psychotic disorders and dementia. Other factors thought to be relevant were substance abuse, social network, personality traits, social stress, and level of education. PMID:19811835

  2. Comorbidity between neurological illness and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Hesdorffer, Dale C

    2016-06-01

    Psychiatric disorders are common in many neurological disorders, including epilepsy, migraine, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and stroke. These comorbidities increase disease burden and may complicate the treatment of the combined disorders. Initial studies of the comorbidity of psychiatric and neurological disorders were cross-sectional, and time order of the associations was impossible to elucidate. More recent work has clarified time associations between psychiatric disorders and neurological disorders, particularly in epilepsy and stroke where epidemiological evidence suggests that there is a bidirectional relationship. This article takes an epidemiological approach to understanding these relationships and focuses mostly on epilepsy. Although, these relationships are understood in many neurological disorders, routine screening for psychiatric disorders in neurological disorders is infrequent, mostly due to the lack of partnerships between psychiatrists and neurologists and the paucity of neuropsychiatrists. Much more needs to be done to improve the detection and treatment of patients affected by neurological and psychiatric disorders. Understanding the scope of this overlap may inspire collaborations to improve the lives of people affected by both disorders. PMID:26898322

  3. Integrated Treatment of Substance Use and Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Thomas M.; Daley, Dennis C.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies find that psychiatric disorders, including mental disorders and substance use disorders, are common among adults and highly comorbid. Integrated treatment refers to the focus of treatment on two or more conditions and to the use of multiple treatments such as the combination of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. Integrated treatment for comorbidity has been found to be consistently superior compared to treatment of individual disorders with separate treatment plans. This article focuses on a review of the risks for developing comorbid disorders and the combinations of treatments that appear to be most effective for clients with particular comorbid disorders. PMID:23731427

  4. Subjectivity and Severe Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, John

    2011-01-01

    To have a complete human science in the mental health field it is essential to give adequate attention to both the objective and the subjective data related to people with psychiatric disorders. The tendency in the past has been to ignore or discount one or the other of these data sources. Subjective data are particularly neglected, sometimes considered (only) part of the “art” of medicine since the usual methodologies of the physical sciences in themselves are not adequate to reflect the nature, elusiveness, and complexity of human subjective experience. The complete experience of hallucinated voices, for instance, often includes not only the voices themselves but also terrible anguish and terrifying inability to concentrate. But even such descriptors fall unnecessarily short of reflecting the data of the experience, thus leaving research, theory, and treatment with incomplete information. To represent adequately the subjective data it is essential to recognize that besides the usual discursive knowledge and methods of traditional physical science, a second kind of knowledge and method is required to reflect the depth of human experience. To accomplish this, we must employ approaches to narrative and the arts that are uniquely capable of capturing the nature of these experiences. Only by attending seriously in our research, training, theory, and practice to the unique nature of subjective data is it possible to have a true human science for our field. PMID:20961994

  5. Reversing Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ehninger, Dan; Li, Weidong; Fox, Kevin; Stryker, Michael P.; Silva, Alcino J.

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in brain development, thought to be irreversible in adults, have long been assumed to underlie the neurological and psychiatric symptoms associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Surprisingly, a number of recent animal model studies of neurodevelopmental disorders demonstrate that reversing the underlying molecular deficits can result in substantial improvements in function even if treatments are started in adulthood. These findings mark a paradigmatic change in the way we understand and envision treating neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:19109903

  6. Psychiatric disorder in the general hospital.

    PubMed

    Mayou, R; Hawton, K

    1986-08-01

    There have been many reports of psychiatric disorder in medical populations, but few have used standard methods on representative patient groups. Even so, there is consistent evidence for considerable psychiatric morbidity in in-patient, out-patient and casualty department populations, much of which is unrecognised by hospital doctors. We require a better classification of psychiatric disorder in the general hospital, improved research measures, and more evidence about the nature and course of the many different types of problem so that we can provide precise advice for their management of routine clinical practice. PMID:3535978

  7. Engram formation in psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gebicke-Haerter, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental factors substantially influence beginning and progression of mental illness, reinforcing or reducing the consequences of genetic vulnerability. Often initiated by early traumatic events, “engrams” or memories are formed that may give rise to a slow and subtle progression of psychiatric disorders. The large delay between beginning and time of onset (diagnosis) may be explained by efficient compensatory mechanisms observed in brain metabolism that use optional pathways in highly redundant molecular interactions. To this end, research has to deal with mechanisms of learning and long-term memory formation, which involves (a) epigenetic changes, (b) altered neuronal activities, and (c) changes in neuron-glia communication. On the epigenetic level, apparently DNA-methylations are more stable than histone modifications, although both closely interact. Neuronal activities basically deliver digital information, which clearly can serve as basis for memory formation (LTP). However, research in this respect has long time neglected the importance of glia. They are more actively involved in the control of neuronal activities than thought before. They can both reinforce and inhibit neuronal activities by transducing neuronal information from frequency-encoded to amplitude and frequency-modulated calcium wave patterns spreading in the glial syncytium by use of gap junctions. In this way, they serve integrative functions. In conclusion, we are dealing with two concepts of encoding information that mutually control each other and synergize: a digital (neuronal) and a wave-like (glial) computing, forming neuron-glia functional units with inbuilt feedback loops to maintain balance of excitation and inhibition. To better understand mental illness, we have to gain more insight into the dynamics of adverse environmental impact on those cellular and molecular systems. This report summarizes existing knowledge and draws some outline about further research in molecular

  8. [Circadian rhythm sleep disorders in psychiatric diseases].

    PubMed

    Bromundt, Vivien

    2014-11-01

    Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are prevalent among psychiatric patients. This is most probable due to a close relationship between functional disturbances of the internal clock, sleep regulation and mental health. Mechanisms on molecular level of the circadian clock and neurotransmitter signalling are involved in the development of both disorders. Moreover, circadian disorders and psychiatric diseases favour each other by accessory symptoms such as stress or social isolation. Actimetry to objectively quantify the rest-activity cycle and salivary melatonin profiles as marker for the circadian phase help to diagnose circadian rhythm sleep disorders in psychiatric patients. Chronotherapeutics such as bright light therapy, dark therapy, melatonin administration, and wake therapy are used to synchronise and consolidate circadian rhythms and help in the treatment of depression and other psychiatric disorders, but are still neglected in medicine. More molecular to behavioural research is needed for the understanding of the development of circadian disorders and their relationship to psychiatric illnesses. This will help to boost the awareness and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders in psychiatry. PMID:25377290

  9. Psychiatric rehabilitation of emotional disorders

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Sang-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Emotional disorder is psychological and behavioral problems of emotional domain that is different from cognitive domain, such as thought and memory. Typical emotional disorders are anxiety disorder, depression, and bipolar disorder. In the present study, we discussed on the symptoms, progression, and treatment for the anxiety disorder (panic disorder, social phobia, and obsessive compulsive disorder), depression, and bipolar disorder. The goal of treatment for the emotional disorder is removal of symptoms. In spite of the development of brain science, removal of symptoms, prevention of recurrence, and coming back to normal life require patience and effort. PMID:25210694

  10. Out and Down: Incarceration and Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnittker, Jason; Massoglia, Michael; Uggen, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are unusually prevalent among current and former inmates, but it is not known what this relationship reflects. A putative causal relationship is contaminated by assorted influences, including childhood disadvantage, the early onset of most disorders, and the criminalization of substance use. Using the National Comorbidity…

  11. Psychiatric Disorders, Comorbidity, and Suicidality in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Guilherme; Nock, Matthew K.; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Hwang, Irving; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Prior studies have reported that psychiatric disorders are among the strongest predictors of suicidal behavior (i.e., suicide ideation, plans, and attempts). However, surprisingly little is known about the independent associations between each disorder and each suicidal behavior due to a failure to account for comorbidity. Methods This study used data from a representative sample of 5,782 respondents participating in the Mexican National Comorbidity Survey (2001–2002) to examine the unique associations between psychiatric disorders and suicidality. Results A prior psychiatric disorder was present in 48.8% of those with a suicide ideation and in 65.2% of those with an attempt. Discrete-time survival models adjusting for comorbidity revealed that conduct disorder and alcohol abuse/dependence were the strongest predictors of a subsequent suicide attempt. Most disorders predicted suicidal ideation but few predicted the transition from ideation to a suicide plan or attempt. Limitations M-NCS is a household survey that excluded homeless and institutionalized people, andthe diagnostic instrument used did not include an assessment of all DSM-IV disorders which would increase the comorbidity discussed here. Conclusions These results reveal a complex pattern of associations in which diverse psychiatric disorders impact different parts of the pathway to suicide attempts. These findings will help inform clinical and public health efforts aimed at suicide prevention in Mexico and other developing countries. PMID:19926141

  12. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichstrom, Lars; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne; Angold, Adrian; Egger, Helen Link; Solheim, Elisabet; Sveen, Trude Hamre

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many disorders in childhood and adolescence were already present in the preschool years. However, there is little empirical research on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in young children. A true community study using structured diagnostic tools has yet to be published. Methods: All children born in 2003 or 2004 in the city of…

  13. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Young Adults with a Clinical Diagnosis of Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugnegard, Tove; Hallerback, Maria Unenge; Gillberg, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    In children with autism spectrum disorders, previous studies have shown high rates of psychiatric comorbidity. To date, studies on adults have been scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate psychiatric comorbidity in young adults with Asperger syndrome. Participants were 26 men and 28 women (mean age 27 years) with a clinical…

  14. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  15. Minor Self-Harm and Psychiatric Disorder: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skegg, Keren; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Moffit, Terrie E.

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the extent to which minor self-harm in the general population is associated with psychiatric disorder. A population-based sample of 980 young adults was interviewed independently about past-year suicidal and self-harm behavior and thoughts, and psychiatric disorders. Self-harm included self-harmful behaviors such as…

  16. Comorbidity and Continuity of Psychiatric Disorders in Youth After Detention

    PubMed Central

    Abram, Karen M.; Zwecker, Naomi A.; Welty, Leah J.; Hershfield, Jennifer A.; Dulcan, Mina K.; Teplin, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Psychiatric disorders and comorbidity are prevalent among incarcerated juveniles. To date, no large-scale study has examined the comorbidity and continuity of psychiatric disorders after youth leave detention. OBJECTIVE To determine the comorbidity and continuity of psychiatric disorders among youth 5 years after detention. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective longitudinal study of a stratified random sample of 1829 youth (1172 male and 657 female; 1005 African American, 296 non-Hispanic white, 524 Hispanic, and 4 other race/ethnicity) recruited from the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center, Chicago, Illinois, between November 20, 1995, and June 14, 1998, and who received their time 2 follow-up interview between May 22, 2000, and April 3, 2004. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES At baseline, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version 2.3. At follow-ups, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (child and young adult versions) and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule Version IV (substance use disorders and antisocial personality disorder). RESULTS Five years after detention, when participants were 14 to 24 years old, almost 27% of males and 14% of females had comorbid psychiatric disorders. Although females had significantly higher rates of comorbidity when in detention (odds ratio, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.7), males had significantly higher rates than females at follow-up (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6-3.3). Substance use plus behavioral disorders was the most common comorbid profile among males, affecting 1 in 6. Participants with more disorders at baseline were more likely to have a disorder approximately 5 years after detention, even after adjusting for demographic characteristics. We found substantial continuity of disorder. However, some baseline disorders predicted alcohol and drug use disorders at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Although prevalence rates of comorbidity decreased in youth after detention, rates

  17. Cholinergic connectivity: it's implications for psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Scarr, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew S.; Neo, Jaclyn; Udawela, Madhara; Dean, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Acetylcholine has been implicated in both the pathophysiology and treatment of a number of psychiatric disorders, with most of the data related to its role and therapeutic potential focusing on schizophrenia. However, there is little thought given to the consequences of the documented changes in the cholinergic system and how they may affect the functioning of the brain. This review looks at the cholinergic system and its interactions with the intrinsic neurotransmitters glutamate and gamma-amino butyric acid as well as those with the projection neurotransmitters most implicated in the pathophysiologies of psychiatric disorders; dopamine and serotonin. In addition, with the recent focus on the role of factors normally associated with inflammation in the pathophysiologies of psychiatric disorders, links between the cholinergic system and these factors will also be examined. These interfaces are put into context, primarily for schizophrenia, by looking at the changes in each of these systems in the disorder and exploring, theoretically, whether the changes are interconnected with those seen in the cholinergic system. Thus, this review will provide a comprehensive overview of the connectivity between the cholinergic system and some of the major areas of research into the pathophysiologies of psychiatric disorders, resulting in a critical appraisal of the potential outcomes of a dysregulated central cholinergic system. PMID:23653591

  18. Psychiatric symptoms and disorders in phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Brumm, V L; Bilder, D; Waisbren, S E

    2010-01-01

    Psychological and psychiatric problems are well documented across the lifespan of individuals with early-treated phenylketonuria (PKU). Early-treated children and adolescents tend to display attentional problems, school problems, lower achievement motivation, decreased social competence, decreased autonomy, and low-self-esteem. As they enter adulthood, early-treated individuals may carry forward low self-esteem and lack of autonomy but also tend to develop depressed mood, generalized anxiety, phobias, decreased positive emotions, social maturity deficits, and social isolation. The correlation between level of metabolic control and severity of symptoms suggests a biological basis of psychiatric dysfunction. Additionally, psychosocial factors such as the burden of living with a chronic illness may contribute to psychological and psychiatric outcomes in PKU. The lack of a PKU-specific psychiatric phenotype combined with the observation that not everyone with PKU is affected highlights the complexity of the problem. More research on psychiatric and psychological outcomes in PKU is required. Of particular importance is the routine monitoring of emotional, behavioral, and psychosocial symptoms in individuals with this metabolic disorder. Longitudinal studies are required to evaluate the impact of new and emerging therapies on psychiatric and psychosocial functioning in PKU. Unidentified or untreated emotional and behavioral symptoms may have a significant, lifelong impact on the quality of life and social status of patients. PMID:20123472

  19. Burnout and psychiatric disorder among cancer clinicians.

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, A. J.; Graham, J.; Richards, M. A.; Cull, A.; Gregory, W. M.; Leaning, M. S.; Snashall, D. C.; Timothy, A. R.

    1995-01-01

    The prevalence and causes of 'burnout' and psychiatric disorder among senior oncologists and palliative care specialists have been measured in a national questionnaire-based survey. All consultant non-surgical oncologists in the UK were asked to participate. Sources of work-related stress and satisfaction were measured using study-specific questions which were aggregated into factors. Psychiatric disorder was estimated using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The three components of 'burnout'--emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and low personal accomplishment--were assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Three hundred and ninety-three out of 476 (83%) consultants returned their questionnaires. The estimated prevalence of psychiatric disorder in cancer clinicians was 28%, and this is similar to the rate among British junior house officers. The study group had equivalent levels of emotional exhaustion and low personal accomplishment to those found in American doctors and nurses, but lower levels of depersonalisation. Among cancer clinicians, 'burnout' was more prevalent among clinical oncologists than among medical oncologists and palliative care specialists. Psychiatric disorder was independently associated with the stress of feeling overloaded (P < 0.0001), dealing with treatment toxicity/errors (P < 0.004) and deriving little satisfaction from professional status/esteem (P = 0.002). 'Burnout' was also related to these factors, and in addition was associated with high stress and low satisfaction from dealing with patients, and with low satisfaction from having adequate resources (each at a level of P < or = 0.002). Clinicians who felt insufficiently trained in communication and management skills had significantly higher levels of distress than those who felt sufficiently trained. If 'burnout' and psychiatric disorder among cancer clinicians are to be reduced, increased resources will be required to lessen overload and to improve training in

  20. Skin changes in primary psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Basta-Juzbašić, Aleksandra; Bukvić Mokos, Zrinka

    2015-01-01

    Primary psychiatric disorders where skin changes appear most frequently include: delusions of parasitosis, body dysmorphic disorder, neurotic excoriations, dermatitis artefacta, and trichotillomania. In all these diseases the primary pathologic condition is of psychiatric nature, and the skin changes are secondary and self-induced. In this review we wanted to present the epidemiology, clinical pictures, and treatment options for these disorders. These patients are more frequently seen in dermatology clinics, as they may be unwilling to acknowledge a psychiatric basis for their psychical symptoms. If we want the treatment to be effective and timely, it is important for the dermatologist to understand the underlying psychopathology of these conditions. Treatment should be gradual. An initially supportive, nonconfrontational, empathic approach to the patient is indicated. Immediate confrontation regarding the suspicion that the patient's lesions are self-induced can be counterproductive in that the patient will often refuse treatment. Frequent visits and symptomatic topical treatments are useful in the beginning. The goal is to establish a trusting and supportive enough relationship with the patient so that he or she will accept a psychiatric referral to explore the complex personality and behavioral issues that often underlie these conditions. PMID:26228818

  1. [Neuroimaging of psychiatric and pedopsychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mana, Stéphanie

    2011-01-01

    Over the last two decades, imaging techniques have allowed to establish the cerebral neurophysiologic correlates of psychiatric disorders and have highlighted the impact of psychopathologic events, therapeutic drugs, addictions, on the growth and plasticity of brain. In this review, we intend to illustrate how neuroimaging has improved our knowledge of such alterations in brain maturation (schizophrenia, autistic disorders), fronto-limbic (depressive syndromes) or fronto-striatal (compulsive disorders) regions in psychiatric illnesses, but also in psychopharmacology, or pedopsychiatry. Statistically significant alterations in the structure and/or function of brain are detected in all psychiatric disorders and these are often detectable already during childhood or teenage. Furthermore, neuroimaging has allowed to underline the importance of cerebral networks specific to each disorder, but also to uncover those which are common to different diseases provided that they share common clinical or cognitive features. Besides their value in basic research, neuroimaging findings have been key in changing the perception that society has of these diseases which contributed to their therapeutic approach. PMID:21718649

  2. Psychiatric and Addictive Symptoms of Young Adult Female Indoor Tanners

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn J.; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Darlow, Susan; Kloss, Jacqueline D.; Manne, Sharon L.; Munshi, Teja

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Indoor tanning (IT) increases risk for melanoma and is particularly common among young adult women. IT has also been linked with some psychiatric symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction) associated with endorphin release during ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure. The objective of the current study was to investigate associations between IT, tanning dependence, and psychiatric and substance use symptoms in young adult women. Design Cross-sectional survey and psychiatric interview. Setting Online, except for the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) that was completed over the telephone. Subjects Participants were 306 female university students aged 18–25 years. Measures MINI, Seasonal Scale Index, tanning dependence scales, reporting ever having used a tanning bed or booth with tanning lamps (single item), reporting smoking a cigarette in the last 30 days (single item). Analysis Descriptive statistics, chi square analysis, multivariate logistic regression. Results Forty-six percent of the sample reported a history of IT, and 25% were classified as tanning dependent. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that IT was significantly associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders, generalized anxiety, and not having social anxiety. Tanning dependence was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders. Conclusion Tanning is of concern not only for its association with skin cancer but for its association with psychiatric and substance use symptoms. Young women with certain psychological problems may seek relief from their symptoms by IT. These findings suggest that indoor tanners may benefit from health behavior and other psychosocial interventions. PMID:23621780

  3. Psychiatric Manifestations of Learning Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gever, Benson E.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the descriptive influences of reading and learning disorders on personality development. It discusses the effects of biologic vulnerabilities and environmental interaction, the variant patterns of defense and symptom development at various life stages, and evidence that early development failures are key elements in later…

  4. Cooccurring Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Zachary D; Riggs, Paula D

    2016-10-01

    Research shows that the majority of adolescents with substance use disorders also have other cooccurring psychiatric disorders, which has been associated with poorer treatment outcomes. Despite considerable consensus that treatment of cooccurring disorders should be integrated or concurrent, most such youth do not receive it. In addition to systemic and economic barriers, few studies have been conducted that inform evidence-based integrated treatment approaches. This article provides a review of current research from which empirically derived principles of integrated treatment can originate and which have informed the development of at least one evidence-based model of integrated mental health and substance treatment. PMID:27613347

  5. Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Arab Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amr, Mostafa; Raddad, Dahoud; El-Mehesh, Fatima; Bakr, Ashraf; Sallam, Khalid; Amin, Tarek

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study is to estimate the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) recruited from three Arab countries. We also examine the relationship between comorbidity and children's cognitive functioning and gender. Children who received a diagnosis of ASD (n = 60) from a…

  6. Lithium Treatment for Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Maletzky, Barry M.; Shore, James H.

    1978-01-01

    Although used around the world since 1949, lithium has come into extensive use in psychiatry in the United States only within the past decade. Before initiating treatment with this drug, physicians must be familiar with the diagnostic scheme of the major affective disorders, the indications and contraindications to lithium's use, and its principles of treatment, including evaluation before lithium therapy, criteria for monitoring blood levels and signs of impending toxicity. Despite earlier reports about the toxicity of lithium when it was promoted as a salt substitute, lithium is a safe drug. Its use not only has revolutionized the treatment of the major affective disorders, but has opened up new and broad avenues of research into the regulation of man's emotions. PMID:664651

  7. Population-level prevalence estimate and characteristics of psychiatric disability among Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Chen, Gong; Du, Wei; Song, Xinming; Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2011-11-01

    Psychiatric disability is a population health problem, and understanding its magnitude is essential to informing population health policies. This paper aims to describe the prevalence rates, causes, and severity of psychiatric disability in Chinese adults, and to explore daily activities and social functions for people with psychiatric disability. We used the second China National Sample Survey on Disability, comprising 2,526,145 persons from 771,797 households. Identification and classification for psychiatric disability was based on consensus manuals. We used standard weighting procedures to construct sample weights considering the multistage stratified cluster sampling survey scheme. Population weighted prevalence and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were evaluated. An estimate of 8 million adults with psychiatric disability was identified. The weighted prevalence rate of psychiatric disability was 8.14 per 1000 people (95% CI, 7.95-8.33). More rural residents suffered from psychiatric disability than their urban counterparts, and more females had psychiatric disability than males. Schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders accounted for more than half of the psychiatric disability in Chinese adults. People with psychiatric disability had more severe difficulties in most daily activities and social functions than in people with other disabilities. This study demonstrates psychiatric disability causes social burden to the Chinese communities. Strategies including case identification, treatment, and rehabilitation should be developed and countermeasures are warranted for females and rural residents to reduce the burden caused by psychiatric disability. PMID:21794875

  8. Biofeedback for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, Poppy L A; David, Anthony S

    2014-06-01

    Biofeedback potentially provides non-invasive, effective psychophysiological interventions for psychiatric disorders. The encompassing purpose of this review was to establish how biofeedback interventions have been used to treat select psychiatric disorders [anxiety, autistic spectrum disorders, depression, dissociation, eating disorders, schizophrenia and psychoses] to date and provide a useful reference for consultation by clinicians and researchers planning to administer a biofeedback treatment. A systematic search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and WOK databases and hand searches in Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, and Journal of Neurotherapy, identified 227 articles; 63 of which are included within this review. Electroencephalographic neurofeedback constituted the most investigated modality (31.7%). Anxiety disorders were the most commonly treated (68.3%). Multi-modal biofeedback appeared most effective in significantly ameliorating symptoms, suggesting that targeting more than one physiological modality for bio-regulation increases therapeutic efficacy. Overall, 80.9% of articles reported some level of clinical amelioration related to biofeedback exposure, 65.0% to a statistically significant (p < .05) level of symptom reduction based on reported standardized clinical parameters. Although the heterogeneity of the included studies warrants caution before explicit efficacy statements can be made. Further development of standardized controlled methodological protocols tailored for specific disorders and guidelines to generate comprehensive reports may contribute towards establishing the value of biofeedback interventions within mainstream psychiatry. PMID:24806535

  9. Coping in Chest Pain Patients with and without Psychiatric Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaliano, Peter P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined relations between psychiatric disorder and coronary heart disease (CHD) in 77 patients with chest pain, and compared coping profiles of chest pain patients with and without psychiatric disorders and CHD. Psychiatric patients with no medical disease were also studied. Results are discussed in the context of illness behavior and…

  10. Saccadic eye movement applications for psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Juliana; Velasques, Bruna; Teixeira, Silmar; Basile, Luis F; Salles, José Inácio; Nardi, Antonio Egídio; Budde, Henning; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Objective The study presented here analyzed the patterns of relationship between oculomotor performance and psychopathology, focusing on depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and anxiety disorder. Methods Scientific articles published from 1967 to 2013 in the PubMed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane, and SciELO databases were reviewed. Results Saccadic eye movement appears to be heavily involved in psychiatric diseases covered in this review via a direct mechanism. The changes seen in the execution of eye movement tasks in patients with psychopathologies of various studies confirm that eye movement is associated with the cognitive and motor system. Conclusion Saccadic eye movement changes appear to be heavily involved in the psychiatric disorders covered in this review and may be considered a possible marker of some disorders. The few existing studies that approach the topic demonstrate a need to improve the experimental paradigms, as well as the methods of analysis. Most of them report behavioral variables (latency/reaction time), though electrophysiological measures are absent. PMID:24072973

  11. Psychiatric Disorders in Iranian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Salmanian, Maryam; Asadian-koohestani, Fatemeh; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Alavi, Ali; Malek, Ayyoub; Dastgiri, Saeed; Moharreri, Fatemeh; Hebrani, Paria; Arman, Soroor; Khoshhal Dastjerdi, Javad; Motavallian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents in five provinces of Iran: Tehran, Shiraz, Isfahan, Tabriz and Mashhad. Method: In the present study, we selected 9,636 children and adolescents aged 6–18 years through multistage cluster random sampling method from Tehran, Shiraz, Isfahan, Tabriz and Mashhad. We instructed the clinical psychologists to complete the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for the participants, andthose who received a high score on SDQ, completed the Persian version of Kiddie-SADS-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). We used descriptive analysis and 95% confidence interval to investigate the relationship between scores of the K-SADS questionnaire and demographic factors. We used one-way ANOVA to test the significant differences among the disorders according to sex, age and province of residence. Results: Based on the results, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (4.45%) had the highest prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the five provinces and substance abuse and alcohol abuse (0%) had the lowest prevalence. In addition, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) had the most prevalence in boys (5.03%) and ODD had the most prevalence in girls (4.05%). Among the three age groups, 6 to 9 year olds had the highest rates of ADHD (5.69%); 10 to 14 and 15 to 18 year olds had the highest rates of ODD (4.32% and 4.37% respectively). Among the five provinces, Tehran and Mashhad allocated the highest rates of ODD; Isfahan and Shiraz had the highest rates of ADHD; and Tabriz had the highest rates of social phobia. Conclusion: The current study revealed that the overall frequency of psychiatric disorders based on Kiddie-SADS-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) was higher than a similar study. Moreover, in this study, among the five provinces, Tehran and Mashhad allocated the highest rates of ODD; Isfahan and Shiraz had the highest rates of

  12. Cognitive and Psychiatric Phenotypes of Movement Disorders in Children: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Pazi, Hilla; Jaworowski, Solomon; Shalev, Ruth S

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The cognitive and psychiatric aspects of adult movement disorders are well established, but specific behavioural profiles for paediatric movement disorders have not been delineated. Knowledge of non-motor phenotypes may guide treatment and determine which symptoms are suggestive of a specific movement disorder and which indicate medication…

  13. [Intermediate phenotype studies in psychiatric disorder].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ryota

    2016-02-01

    The concept of intermediate phenotype was proposed by Dr. Weinberger of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). The risk genes for mental disorders define intermediate phenotypes, neurobiological characteristics observed in psychiatric disorders, and intermediate phenotypes increase the risk of mental disorders. The author worked at Dr. Weinberger's laboratory, and after returning home, introduced the concept to Japan, creating a term "Chukanhyogengata" to translate "intermediate phenotype". Intermediate phenotype has been proposed as a tool for the identification of risk genes for mental disorders, spreading the concept as a biomarker for the bridging between genes and behaviors. Intermediate phenotype studies later became one of the main pillars of psychiatric research. As a large number of data and samples are needed for intermediate phenotype research, we built a research resource database that combines the brain phenotype and bioresources. We performed genome-wide association analysis of cognitive decline in schizophrenia and identified the DEGS2 gene using this sample. This research resource database was developed for a multicenter study by COCORO (Cognitive Genetics Collaborative Research Organization). COCORO carried out genome-wide association analysis of the gray matter volume of the superior temporal gyrus and identified genome-wide significant loci. In this paper, we introduce the concept and history of intermediate phenotype study of mental illness and the latest trends. We hope to contribute to the future development of mental illness research through translational research. PMID:27044135

  14. Psychiatric Consultation and Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Specker, Sheila; Meller, William H.; Thurber, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Background A substantial number of patients in general hospitals will evince substance abuse problems but a majority is unlikely to be adequately identified in the referral-consultation process. This failure may preclude patients from receiving effective interventions for substance use disorders. Objectives 1. To evaluate all referred patients for possible substance use disorders. 2. To ascertain the degree of convergence between patients referred for chemical problems and the corresponding DSM diagnosis. 3. To compare demographic data for substance abusing patients and referrals not so classified. 4. To evaluate conditions concomitant with substance use disorders. Method Consecutive one-year referrals (524) to consultation-liaison psychiatric services were scrutinized for chemically-related problems by psychiatric consultants. Results Of the referrals, 176 met criteria for substance use disorders (SUD) (57% alcohol; 25% other drugs; 18% both alcohol and other drugs). Persons diagnosed with SUD tended to be younger, male, non-Caucasian, unmarried, and unemployed. They were more likely to be depressed, have liver and other gastrointestinal problems, and to have experienced traumatic events; they also tended to have current financial difficulties. Most were referred for SUD evaluation by personnel in general medicine and family practice. Following psychiatric consultation, SUD designated patients were referred mainly to substance abuse treatment programs. The only variable related to recommended inpatient versus outpatient services for individuals with SUD was the Global Assessment of Functioning Axis (GAF) with persons having lower estimated functioning more likely to be referred for inpatient interventions. Conclusions These data are similar to the results of past studies in this area. Unlike previous investigations in the domain of consultative-liaison psychiatry, financial stressors and specific consultant recommendations were included in data gathering. Although

  15. Psychiatric Disorders and Treatments: A Primer for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forness, Steven R.; Walker, Hill M.; Kavale, Kenneth A.

    2003-01-01

    This article for teachers provides basic information on psychiatric disorders and treatments. It covers oppositional defiant and conduct disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression or other mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders, and autistic spectrum disorders. Insets provide additional…

  16. The role of protein intrinsic disorder in major psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Recamonde-Mendoza, Mariana; Paixão-Côrtes, Vanessa Rodrigues; Bruxel, Estela M; Schuch, Jaqueline B; Friedrich, Deise C; Rohde, Luis A; Hutz, Mara H

    2016-09-01

    Although new candidate genes for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Schizophrenia (SCZ), Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and Bipolar Disorder (BD) emerged from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), their underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Evidences of the involvement of intrinsically disordered proteins in diseases have grown in the last decade. These proteins lack tridimensional structure under physiological conditions and are involved in important cellular functions such as signaling, recognition and regulation. The aim of the present study was to identify the role and abundance of intrinsically disordered proteins in a set of psychiatric diseases and to test whether diseases are different regarding protein intrinsic disorder. Our hypothesis is that differences across psychiatric illnesses phenotypes and symptoms may arise from differences in intrinsic protein disorder content and properties of each group. A bioinformatics prediction of intrinsic disorder was performed in proteins retrieved based on top findings from GWAS, Copy Number Variation and candidate gene investigations for each disease. This approach revealed that about 80% of studied proteins presented long stretches of disorder. This amount was significantly higher than that observed in general eukaryotic proteins, and those involved in cardiovascular diseases. These results suggest that proteins with intrinsic disorder are a common feature of neurodevelopment and synaptic transmission processes which are potentially involved in the etiology of psychiatric diseases. Moreover, we identified differences between ADHD and ASD when the binary prediction of structure and putative binding sites were compared. These differences may be related to variation in symptom complexity between both diseases. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27184105

  17. Boys with Asperger Syndrome Grow Up: Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Disorders 20 Years After Initial Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gillberg, I Carina; Helles, Adam; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We examined comorbid psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders in fifty adult males (mean age 30 years) with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosed in childhood and followed up prospectively for almost two decades (13-26 years). Only three of the 50 men had never met criteria for an additional psychiatric/neurodevelopmental diagnosis and more than half had ongoing comorbidity (most commonly either ADHD or depression or both). Any psychiatric comorbidity increased the risk of poorer outcome. The minority of the AS group who no longer met criteria for a full diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder were usually free of current psychiatric comorbidity. The high rate of psychiatric/neurodevelopmental comorbidities underscores the need for a full psychiatric/neurodevelopmental assessment at follow-up of males with AS. PMID:26210519

  18. Postpartum psychiatric disorders: Early diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Shashi; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Indira

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum period is demanding period characterized by overwhelming biological, physical, social, and emotional changes. It requires significant personal and interpersonal adaptation, especially in case of primigravida. Pregnant women and their families have lots of aspirations from the postpartum period, which is colored by the joyful arrival of a new baby. Unfortunately, women in the postpartum period can be vulnerable to a range of psychiatric disorders like postpartum blues, depression, and psychosis. Perinatal mental illness is largely under-diagnosed and can have far reaching ramifications for both the mother and the infant. Early screening, diagnosis, and management are very important and must be considered as mandatory part of postpartum care. PMID:26330638

  19. Skin and brain: itch and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Caccavale, Stefano; Bove, Domenico; Bove, Rocco M; LA Montagna, Maddalena

    2016-10-01

    Skin diseases (atopic eczema, psoriasis, idiopathic urticaria), systemic diseases (chronic hepatic or renal failure, morbus Hodgkin, diabetes mellitus) and psychiatric disorders (obsessive compulsive disorders, depression, delusions of parasitosis) can occur with itching. The aim of this review is to clarify the link between pruritus and psychiatric morbidity and emphasize the importance of a psychiatric consultation for patients with a chronic itching, without a skin disease. In the last years, there is a growing awareness regarding psychogenic itch, although these types of itch are significantly less studied in comparison to other types of pruritus. Psychogenic pruritus is usually a diagnosis of exclusion. There are not controlled studies about treatment of psychogenic itch, but the same drugs prescribed for neuropathic pain, depression, and anxiety are used. There is a strong association between pruritus and psyche; so, it is important that the dermatologist evaluates psychosomatic dimension. According to the analysis of scientific literature and our clinical experience, pruritus seems to be a rather common phenomenon in patients suffering from depression. Future works should explain the basis of psychopathology of chronic itching thanks to studies of selected groups of patients with a particular type of chronic itching, highlighting the clinical features to establish appropriate and individual targeted care, based on the several types of pruritus. Some questions still unanswered could be clarified in this way. It is really important to decrease the symptoms "itching", because the quality of life of the patient will be improved, but the goal is to identify the underlying mechanisms of itch and establish a targeted therapy, depending on the biological changes and the underlying disease. PMID:25854671

  20. Psychiatric Morbidity and Social Functioning among Adults with Borderline Intelligence Living in Private Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassiotis, A.; Strydom, A.; Hall, I.; Ali, A.; Lawrence-Smith, G.; Meltzer, H.; Head, J; Bebbington, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Approximately one-eighth of the population will have DSM-IV borderline intelligence. Various mental disorders and social disability are associated with it. Method: The paper uses data (secondary analysis) from a UK-wide cross-sectional survey of 8450 adults living in private households. Data were collected on psychiatric disorders,…

  1. Transgenic Mouse Models of Childhood Onset Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Holly R.; Feng, Guoping

    2011-01-01

    Childhood onset psychiatric disorders, such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Mood Disorders, Obsessive Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (OCSD), and Schizophrenia (SZ), affect many school age children leading to a lower quality of life, including difficulties in school and personal relationships that persists into adulthood. Currently, the causes of these psychiatric disorders are poorly understood resulting in difficulty diagnosing affected children, and insufficient treatment options. Family and twin studies implicate a genetic contribution for ADHD, ASD, Mood Disorders, OCSD, and SZ. Identification of candidate genes and chromosomal regions associated with a particular disorder provide targets for directed research, and understanding how these genes influence the disease state will provide valuable insights for improving the diagnosis and treatment of children with psychiatric disorders. Animal models are one important approach in the study of human diseases, allowing for the use of a variety of experimental approaches to dissect the contribution of a specific chromosomal or genetic abnormality in human disorders. While it is impossible to model an entire psychiatric disorder in a single animal model, these models can be extremely valuable in dissecting out the specific role of a gene, pathway, neuron subtype, or brain region in a particular abnormal behavior. In this review we discuss existing transgenic mouse models for childhood onset psychiatric disorders. We compare the strength and weakness of various transgenic animal models proposed for each of the common childhood onset psychiatric disorders, and discuss future directions for the study of these disorders using cutting-edge genetic tools. PMID:21309772

  2. HIV Risk Behavior Among Psychiatric Outpatients: Association with Psychiatric Disorder, Substance Use Disorder, and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Michael P.; Carey, Kate B.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Schroder, Kerstin E. E.; Vanable, Peter A.; Gordon, Christopher M.

    2005-01-01

    Persons living with a mental illness are disproportionately vulnerable to HIV. The current study sought to examine the influence of psychiatric disorder, substance use disorder, and gender on risky sexual behavior in this vulnerable population. Participants were 228 female and 202 male outpatients (66% mood disorder, 34% schizophrenia) each of whom took part in a Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV and a comprehensive assessment of sexual risk behavior. Univariate and multivariate analyses tested a priori hypotheses. The results indicated that risk behavior was more frequent among patients diagnosed with a mood disorder (compared to those diagnosed with schizophrenia) and/or with a substance use disorder (compared to those without a co-morbid disorder). We recommend routine HIV risk screening and risk reduction programs for this vulnerable population. PMID:15060403

  3. Psychiatric Disorders and Behavior Problems in People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myrbakk, Even; von Tetzchner, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between behavior problems and psychiatric disorders in individuals with intellectual disability is still unresolved. The present study compares the prevalence and pattern of psychiatric disorders in individuals with intellectual disability who were assessed on the ABC to have moderate and severe behavior problems and a matched…

  4. The Role of Sleep in Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfano, Candice A.; Gamble, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    Although sleep problems often comprise core features of psychiatric disorders, inadequate attention has been paid to the complex, reciprocal relationships involved in the early regulation of sleep, emotion, and behavior. In this paper, we review the pediatric literature examining sleep in children with primary psychiatric disorders as well as…

  5. Comorbidity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with psychiatric disorder: an overview.

    PubMed

    Pliszka, S R

    1998-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been noted to be comorbid with a variety of psychiatric disorders. These include oppositional defiant and conduct disorders, as well as affective, anxiety, and learning disorders. Considerable debate has revolved as to the meaning of this overlap. Does it occur by chance or is it an artifact of referral bias? Are the comorbid conditions secondary to the ADHD, or can other psychiatric disorders masquerade as attentional problems? Alternatively, ADHD may exist as distinct subtypes, each with its specific comorbidity. Studies that have examined the comorbidity of oppositional, conduct, affective, anxiety, and learning disorders in ADHD are reviewed. ADHD and ADHD with conduct disorder appear to be distinct subtypes, possibly with different etiologies. While the short-term response to stimulants is the same in these two groups, children with ADHD and conduct disorder children have higher rates of antisocial personality as adults. Coexisting anxiety appears to attenuate impulsivity in ADHD, and stimulant response is poorer in ADHD children with comorbid anxiety. Anxiety and ADHD appear to be inherited independently. A subset of ADHD children also meet criteria for bipolar disorder, although the exact prevalence of this diagnosis in ADHD children is strongly debated. Regardless of prevalence, this is a severely impaired group of ADHD children, with high rates of aggression and psychiatric disorder in their families. The comorbidity of ADHD and major depression is much less studied, and few firm conclusions can be made about it. Finally, about 20%-25% of ADHD children meet criteria for a learning disorder, but learning disorders appear to be independent of ADHD. PMID:9680053

  6. Alcoholism and co-morbid psychiatric disorders among American Indians.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, J

    2001-01-01

    Much of the data reported here regarding American Indian (AI) people has originated from specific areas with particular peoples. Thus, one must be cautious in applying information from one tribe to the hundreds of tribes living across the United States. As with any people, psychiatric disorder may be a pre-existing rationale for using alcohol. Or alternatively, alcohol may lead to various psychiatric disorders, such as organic mental conditions, posttraumatic stress disorder, or other conditions. A third alternative is that both alcoholism and other psychiatric disorder merely happen to affect the same person by chance. Recognizing alcoholism and treating it in a timely manner before disabling or even permanent psychiatric disorders ensue are key strategies. In addition, clinicians must be able to recognize and then either treat or refer co-morbid patients for appropriate care. Some psychiatric disorders, such as panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and various organic mental disorders may occur more often in some AI groups. Other co-morbid conditions, such as eating disorders, may occur less often among AI patients with alcoholism. It could be argued that resources should go solely to preventive efforts, thereby negating the need for psychiatric services. However, successful prevention of alcoholism may hinge upon, and increase the need for greater psychiatric services in AI communities. PMID:11698982

  7. Radiosurgery for the treatment of psychiatric disorders: a review.

    PubMed

    Lévêque, Marc; Carron, Romain; Régis, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Radiosurgery for psychiatric disorders has been performed for more than 50 years. The use of deep brain stimulation has recently been expanded to the investigational treatment of specific psychiatric disorders. A literature review of past studies incorporating radiosurgical stereotactic lesions for psychiatric disorders was performed to provide historic context and possible guidance for current and future attempts at treating psychiatric disorders, especially by gamma capsulotomy. The anatomic target localization, dose selection, and the outcome of the radiosurgical procedures were reviewed, and the evolutions of lesioning strategies were analyzed with particular emphasis on the dose selection. Large-scale prospective studies with strict inclusion and well-defined, objective outcome criteria are necessary for defining the role of radiosurgery for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. PMID:23872618

  8. Physical activity in adolescents with psychiatric disorders and in the general population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adults who suffer from psychiatric disorders report low levels of physical activity and the activity levels differ between disorders. Less is known regarding physical activity across psychiatric disorders in adolescence. We investigate the frequency and type of physical activity in adolescent psychiatric patients, compared with adolescents in the general population. Methods A total of 566 adolescent psychiatric patients aged 13–18 years who participated in the CAP survey, Norway, were compared to 8173 adolescents aged 13–19 years who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, Young-HUNT 3, Norway. All adolescents completed a questionnaire, including questions about physical activity and participation in team and individual sports. Results Approximately 50% of adolescents with psychiatric disorders and 25% of the population sample reported low levels of physical activity. Within the clinical sample, those with mood disorders (62%) and autism spectrum disorders (56%) were the most inactive and those with eating disorders (36%) the most active. This pattern was the same in individual and team sports. After multivariable adjustment, adolescents with a psychiatric disorder had a three-fold increased risk of lower levels of physical activity, and a corresponding risk of not participating in team and individual sports compared with adolescents in the general population. Conclusions Levels of physical activity were low in adolescent psychiatric patients compared with the general population, yet activity levels differed considerably between various disorders. The findings underscore the importance of assessing physical activity in adolescents with psychiatric disorders and providing early intervention to promote mental as well as physical health in this early stage of life. PMID:24450542

  9. Peritraumatic reactions and posttraumatic stress disorder in psychiatrically impaired youth.

    PubMed

    Sugar, Jeff; Ford, Julian D

    2012-02-01

    Although peritraumatic dissociation and other subjective peritraumatic reactions, such as emotional distress and arousal, have been shown to affect the relationship between a traumatic event and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults, systematic studies with youth have not been done. In a mixed ethnic and racial sample of 90 psychiatrically impaired youth (ages 10-18, 56% boys), we investigated the contributions of peritraumatic dissociation, emotional distress, and arousal to current PTSD severity after accounting for the effects of gender, trauma history, trait dissociation, and psychopathology (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and depression). Peritraumatic dissociation emerged as the only peritraumatic variable associated with current PTSD severity assessed both by questionnaire and interview methods (β = .30 and .47 p < .01). Peritraumatic dissociation can be rapidly assessed in clinical practice and warrants further testing in prospective studies as a potential mediator of the trauma-PTSD relationship in youth. PMID:22354507

  10. Circadian Clocks as Modulators of Metabolic Comorbidity in Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Barandas, Rita; Landgraf, Dominic; McCarthy, Michael J; Welsh, David K

    2015-12-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder are often accompanied by metabolic dysfunction symptoms, including obesity and diabetes. Since the circadian system controls important brain systems that regulate affective, cognitive, and metabolic functions, and neuropsychiatric and metabolic diseases are often correlated with disturbances of circadian rhythms, we hypothesize that dysregulation of circadian clocks plays a central role in metabolic comorbidity in psychiatric disorders. In this review paper, we highlight the role of circadian clocks in glucocorticoid, dopamine, and orexin/melanin-concentrating hormone systems and describe how a dysfunction of these clocks may contribute to the simultaneous development of psychiatric and metabolic symptoms. PMID:26483181

  11. Gabapentin Therapy in Psychiatric Disorders: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Rachel K.; Butler, Paul M.; Perloff, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Gabapentin is commonly used off-label in the treatment of psychiatric disorders with success, failure, and controversy. A systematic review of the literature was performed to elucidate the evidence for clinical benefit of gabapentin in psychiatric disorders. Data sources: Bibliographic reference searches for gabapentin use in psychiatric disorders were performed in PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE search engines with no language restrictions from January 1, 1983, to October 1, 2014, excluding nonhuman studies. For psychiatric references, the keywords bipolar, depression, anxiety, mood, posttraumatic stress disorder (posttraumatic stress disorder and PTSD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (obsessive-compulsive disorder and OCD), alcohol (abuse, dependence, withdraw), drug (abuse, dependence, withdraw), opioid (abuse, dependence, withdraw), cocaine (abuse, dependence, withdraw), and amphetamine (abuse, dependence, withdraw) were crossed with gabapentin OR neurontin. Study selection and data extraction: The resulting 988 abstracts were read by 2 reviewers; references were excluded if gabapentin was not a study compound or psychiatric symptoms were not studied. The resulting references were subsequently read, reviewed, and analyzed; 219 pertinent to gabapentin use in psychiatric disorders were retained. Only 34 clinical trials investigating psychiatric disorders contained quality of evidence level II-2 or higher. Results: Gabapentin may have benefit for some anxiety disorders, although there are no studies for generalized anxiety disorder. Gabapentin has less likely benefit adjunctively for bipolar disorder. Gabapentin has clearer efficacy for alcohol craving and withdrawal symptoms and may have a role in adjunctive treatment of opioid dependence. There is no clear evidence for gabapentin therapy in depression, PTSD prevention, OCD, or other types of substance abuse. Limitations of available data include variation in dosing between studies, gabapentin as monotherapy or

  12. Mitochondrial Mutations and Polymorphisms in Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sequeira, Adolfo; Martin, Maureen V.; Rollins, Brandi; Moon, Emily A.; Bunney, William E.; Macciardi, Fabio; Lupoli, Sara; Smith, Erin N.; Kelsoe, John; Magnan, Christophe N.; van Oven, Mannis; Baldi, Pierre; Wallace, Douglas C.; Vawter, Marquis P.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial deficiencies with unknown causes have been observed in schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) in imaging and postmortem studies. Polymorphisms and somatic mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were investigated as potential causes with next generation sequencing of mtDNA (mtDNA-Seq) and genotyping arrays in subjects with SZ, BD, major depressive disorder (MDD), and controls. The common deletion of 4,977 bp in mtDNA was compared between SZ and controls in 11 different vulnerable brain regions and in blood samples, and in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of BD, SZ, and controls. In a separate analysis, association of mitochondria SNPs (mtSNPs) with SZ and BD in European ancestry individuals (n = 6,040) was tested using Genetic Association Information Network (GAIN) and Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2 (WTCCC2) datasets. The common deletion levels were highly variable across brain regions, with a 40-fold increase in some regions (nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus and amygdala), increased with age, and showed little change in blood samples from the same subjects. The common deletion levels were increased in the DLPFC for BD compared to controls, but not in SZ. Full mtDNA genome resequencing of 23 subjects, showed seven novel homoplasmic mutations, five were novel synonymous coding mutations. By logistic regression analysis there were no significant mtSNPs associated with BD or SZ after genome wide correction. However, nominal association of mtSNPs (p < 0.05) to SZ and BD were found in the hypervariable region of mtDNA to T195C and T16519C. The results confirm prior reports that certain brain regions accumulate somatic mutations at higher levels than blood. The study in mtDNA of common polymorphisms, somatic mutations, and rare mutations in larger populations may lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. PMID:22723804

  13. Gestational risks and psychiatric disorders among indigenous adolescents.

    PubMed

    Whitbeck, Les B; Crawford, Devan M

    2009-02-01

    This study reports on the effects maternal prenatal binge drinking, cigarette smoking, drug use, and pregnancy and birth complications on meeting criteria for psychiatric disorders at ages 10-12 and 13-15 years among 546 Indigenous adolescents from a single culture in the northern Midwest and Canada. Adolescent DSM-IV psychiatric disorders were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Revised (DISC-R). Results indicate that maternal behaviors when pregnant have significant effects on adolescent psychiatric disorders even when controlling for age and gender of adolescent, family per capita income, living in a single mother household, and adolescent reports of mother's positive parenting. PMID:18998209

  14. Psychiatric Symptoms in Adults with Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urv, Tiina K.; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Changes in psychiatric symptoms related to specific stages of dementia were investigated in 224 adults 45 years of age or older with Down syndrome. Findings indicate that psychiatric symptoms are a prevalent feature of dementia in the population with Down syndrome and that clinical presentation is qualitatively similar to that seen in Alzheimer's…

  15. Relational Aggression in Children with Preschool-Onset Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Luby, Joan L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of preschool-onset (PO) psychiatric disorders as correlates and/or risk factors for relational aggression during kindergarten or first grade was tested in a sample of 146 preschool-age children (age 3 to 5.11 years). Method: Axis-I diagnoses and symptom scores were derived using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment.…

  16. The Presence of Psychiatric Disorders in HIV-Infected Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Elizabeth R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Many women of low socioeconomic status who have contracted HIV qualify for individual, dual, and multiple psychiatric diagnoses that predate their knowledge of their HIV infection. Earlier intervention addressing these problems might have prevented the onset of psychiatric disorders as well as high-risk behaviors that lead to HIV infection. (FC)

  17. TBI-ROC Part Nine: Diagnosing TBI and Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Eileen; Weider, Katie; Mustafa, Ruman

    2011-01-01

    This article is the ninth of a multi-part series on traumatic brain injury (TBI). It focuses on the process of diagnosing TBI and psychiatric disorders. Diagnosing traumatic brain injury can be challenging. It can be difficult differentiating TBI and psychiatric symptoms, as both have similar symptoms (e.g., memory problems, emotional outbursts,…

  18. Adult functional outcomes of common childhood psychiatric problems: A prospective, longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, William E.; Wolke, Dieter; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane

    2016-01-01

    Context Psychiatric problems are among the most common health problems of childhood. Objective To test whether these health problems adversely affect adult functioning even if the problems themselves do not persist. Design Prospective, population-based study of 1420 participants assessed with structured interviews up to 6 times in childhood (ages 9 to 16; 6674 observations) for common psychiatric diagnoses and subthreshold psychiatric problems. Setting and population Community sample. Main outcome measure Participants were then assessed 3 times in young adulthood (ages 19, 21, and 24–26; 3215 observations of 1273 subjects) for adverse outcomes related to health, legal, financial, and social functioning. Results Participants with a childhood disorder had 6 times higher odds of at least one adverse adult outcome as compared to those with no history of psychiatric problems and 9 times higher odds of 2 or more such indicators (1 indicator: 59.5% vs. 19.9%, p <0.001; 2+ indicators: 34.2% vs. 5.6%, p <0.001). These associations persisted after statistically controlling for childhood psychosocial hardships and adult psychiatric problems. Risk was not limited to those with a diagnosis: participants with subthreshold psychiatric problems had 3 times higher odds of adult adverse outcomes and 5 time higher odds of 2 or more outcomes (1 indicator: 41.9% vs. 19.9%, p <0.001; 2+ indicators: 23.2% vs. 5.6%, p <0.001). The best diagnostic predictor of adverse outcomes was cumulative childhood exposure to psychiatric disorders. Conclusions Common, typically moderately-impairing, childhood psychiatric problems are associated with a disrupted transition to adulthood even if the problems do not persist into adulthood and even if the problems are subthreshold. Such problems provide potential target for public health efforts to ameliorate adult suffering and morbidity. PMID:26176785

  19. Boys with Asperger Syndrome Grow Up: Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Disorders 20 Years after Initial Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillberg, I. Carina; Helles, Adam; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We examined comorbid psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders in fifty adult males (mean age 30 years) with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosed in childhood and followed up prospectively for almost two decades (13-26 years). Only three of the 50 men had "never" met criteria for an additional psychiatric/neurodevelopmental diagnosis and…

  20. Microbiota, immunoregulatory old friends and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Rook, Graham A W; Raison, Charles L; Lowry, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of the immune system is an important function of the gut microbiota. Increasing evidence suggests that modern living conditions cause the gut microbiota to deviate from the form it took during human evolution. Contributing factors include loss of helminth infections, encountering less microbial biodiversity, and modulation of the microbiota composition by diet and antibiotic use. Thus the gut microbiota is a major mediator of the hygiene hypothesis (or as we prefer, "Old Friends" mechanism), which describes the role of organisms with which we co-evolved, and that needed to be tolerated, as crucial inducers of immunoregulation. At least partly as a consequence of reduced exposure to immunoregulatory Old Friends, many but not all of which resided in the gut, high-income countries are undergoing large increases in a wide range of chronic inflammatory disorders including allergies, autoimmunity and inflammatory bowel diseases. Depression, anxiety and reduced stress resilience are comorbid with these conditions, or can occur in individuals with persistently raised circulating levels of biomarkers of inflammation in the absence of clinically apparent peripheral inflammatory disease. Moreover poorly regulated inflammation during pregnancy might contribute to brain developmental abnormalities that underlie some cases of autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. In this chapter we explain how the gut microbiota drives immunoregulation, how faulty immunoregulation and inflammation predispose to psychiatric disease, and how psychological stress drives further inflammation via pathways that involve the gut and microbiota. We also outline how this two-way relationship between the brain and inflammation implicates the microbiota, Old Friends and immunoregulation in the control of stress resilience. PMID:24997041

  1. Patterns in Referral and Admission to Vocational Rehabilitation Associated with Coexisting Psychiatric and Substance-Use Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drebing, Charles E.; Rosenheck, Robert; Schutt, Russell; Kasprow, Wesley J.; Penk, Walter

    2003-01-01

    Studies homeless adults entering the Healthcare for Homeless Veterans program to identify whether the rate of referral and admission to vocational rehabilitation differed between adults with psychiatric disorders and those with a coexisting substance-use disorder (SUD). Participants with an SUD had an 11% greater chance of being referred to…

  2. Dissecting psychiatric spectrum disorders by generative embedding.

    PubMed

    Brodersen, Kay H; Deserno, Lorenz; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Lin, Zhihao; Penny, Will D; Buhmann, Joachim M; Stephan, Klaas E

    2014-01-01

    This proof-of-concept study examines the feasibility of defining subgroups in psychiatric spectrum disorders by generative embedding, using dynamical system models which infer neuronal circuit mechanisms from neuroimaging data. To this end, we re-analysed an fMRI dataset of 41 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 42 healthy controls performing a numerical n-back working-memory task. In our generative-embedding approach, we used parameter estimates from a dynamic causal model (DCM) of a visual-parietal-prefrontal network to define a model-based feature space for the subsequent application of supervised and unsupervised learning techniques. First, using a linear support vector machine for classification, we were able to predict individual diagnostic labels significantly more accurately (78%) from DCM-based effective connectivity estimates than from functional connectivity between (62%) or local activity within the same regions (55%). Second, an unsupervised approach based on variational Bayesian Gaussian mixture modelling provided evidence for two clusters which mapped onto patients and controls with nearly the same accuracy (71%) as the supervised approach. Finally, when restricting the analysis only to the patients, Gaussian mixture modelling suggested the existence of three patient subgroups, each of which was characterised by a different architecture of the visual-parietal-prefrontal working-memory network. Critically, even though this analysis did not have access to information about the patients' clinical symptoms, the three neurophysiologically defined subgroups mapped onto three clinically distinct subgroups, distinguished by significant differences in negative symptom severity, as assessed on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). In summary, this study provides a concrete example of how psychiatric spectrum diseases may be split into subgroups that are defined in terms of neurophysiological mechanisms specified by a generative model of

  3. Impaired self-reflection in psychiatric disorders among adults: a proposal for the existence of a network of semi independent functions.

    PubMed

    Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Vanheule, Stijn; Lysaker, Paul H; Carcione, Antonino; Nicolò, Giuseppe

    2009-09-01

    Self-reflection plays a key role in healthy human adaptation. Self-reflection might involve different capacities which may be impaired to different degrees relatively independently of one another. Variation in abilities for different forms of self-reflection are commonly seen as key aspects of many adult mental disorders. Yet little has been written about whether there are different kinds of deficits in self-reflection found in mental illness, how those deficits should be distinguished from one another and how to characterize the extent to which they are interrelated. We review clinical and experimental literature and suggest four different forms of deficits in self-reflection: (a) sense of ownership of one's own thoughts and actions, (b) emotional awareness, (c) distinction between fantasy and reality and (d) the integration of a range of different views of oneself and others. We propose how these different impairments in self-reflection are linked with one another. PMID:19615919

  4. Traumatization in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Adult Psychiatric Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Øhre, Beate; Uthus, Mette Perly; von Tetzchner, Stephen; Falkum, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Deaf and hard-of-hearing persons are at risk for experiencing traumatic events and such experiences are associated with symptoms of mental disorder. We investigated the prevalence of traumatic events and subsequent traumatization in adults referred to specialized psychiatric outpatient units for deaf and hard-of-hearing patients. Sixty-two…

  5. MAOA Variants and Genetic Susceptibility to Major Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zichao; Huang, Liang; Luo, Xiong-Jian; Wu, Lichuan; Li, Ming

    2016-09-01

    Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) is a mitochondrial enzyme involved in the metabolism of several biological amines such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, which are important neurochemicals in the pathogenesis of major psychiatric illnesses. MAOA is regarded as a functional plausible susceptibility gene for psychiatric disorders, whereas previous hypothesis-driven association studies obtained controversial results, a reflection of small sample size, genetic heterogeneity, or true negative associations. In addition, MAOA is not analyzed in most of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on psychiatric disorders, since it is located on Chromosome Xp11.3. Therefore, the effects of MAOA variants on genetic predisposition to psychiatric disorders remain obscure. To fill this gap, we collected psychiatric phenotypic (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder) and genetic data in up to 18,824 individuals from diverse ethnic groups. We employed classical fixed (or random) effects inverse variance weighted methods to calculate summary odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). We identified a synonymous SNP rs1137070 showing significant associations with major depressive disorder (p = 0.00067, OR = 1.263 for T allele) and schizophrenia (p = 0.0039, OR = 1.225 for T allele) as well as a broad spectrum of psychiatric phenotype (p = 0.000066, OR = 1.218 for T allele) in both males and females. The effect size was similar between different ethnic populations and different gender groups. Collectively, we confirmed that MAOA is a risk gene for psychiatric disorders, and our results provide useful information toward a better understanding of genetic mechanism involving MAOA underlying risk of complex psychiatric disorders. PMID:26227907

  6. Promoting Good Psychiatric Management for Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Links, Paul S; Ross, James; Gunderson, John G

    2015-08-01

    General psychiatric management for patients with borderline personality disorder was devised to be an outpatient intervention that could be readily learned and easily delivered by independent community mental health professionals. To disseminate the approach, Drs. Gunderson and Links developed the Handbook of Good Psychiatric Management for Borderline Personality Disorder (Gunderson & Links, ) that presented the basics of the approach, videos to illustrate the appropriate clinical skills, and case examples to practice adherence to the approach. Unfortunately, the inclusion of "psychiatric" in the treatment's name may discourage psychologists and other mental health professionals from using this therapy. In this article, we review the basic principles and approaches related to general psychiatric management. With a case example, we illustrate how psychologists can use all the general psychiatric management principles for their patients with BPD, except medications and, as a result, provide and deliver this approach effectively. PMID:26197971

  7. Deep brain stimulation for psychiatric disorders: where we are now.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Daniel R; Ozpinar, Alp; Raslan, Ahmed M; Ko, Andrew L

    2015-06-01

    Fossil records showing trephination in the Stone Age provide evidence that humans have sought to influence the mind through physical means since before the historical record. Attempts to treat psychiatric disease via neurosurgical means in the 20th century provided some intriguing initial results. However, the indiscriminate application of these treatments, lack of rigorous evaluation of the results, and the side effects of ablative, irreversible procedures resulted in a backlash against brain surgery for psychiatric disorders that continues to this day. With the advent of psychotropic medications, interest in invasive procedures for organic brain disease waned. Diagnosis and classification of psychiatric diseases has improved, due to a better understanding of psychiatric patho-physiology and the development of disease and treatment biomarkers. Meanwhile, a significant percentage of patients remain refractory to multiple modes of treatment, and psychiatric disease remains the number one cause of disability in the world. These data, along with the safe and efficacious application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for movement disorders, in principle a reversible process, is rekindling interest in the surgical treatment of psychiatric disorders with stimulation of deep brain sites involved in emotional and behavioral circuitry. This review presents a brief history of psychosurgery and summarizes the development of DBS for psychiatric disease, reviewing the available evidence for the current application of DBS for disorders of the mind. PMID:26030702

  8. Psychiatric symptoms of patients with primary mitochondrial DNA disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of our study was to assess psychiatric symptoms in patients with genetically proven primary mutation of the mitochondrial DNA. Methods 19 adults with known mitochondrial mutation (MT) have been assessed with the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire 20-item Disability Index (HAQ-DI), the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), the Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form (BDI-SF), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and the clinical version of the Structured Clinical Interview for the the DSM-IV (SCID-I and SCID-II) As control, 10 patients with hereditary sensorimotor neuropathy (HN), harboring the peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP22) mutation were examined with the same tools. Results The two groups did not differ significantly in gender, age or education. Mean HAQ-DI score was 0.82 in the MT (range: 0-1.625) and 0.71 in the HN group (range: 0-1.625). Level of disability between the two groups did not differ significantly (p = 0.6076). MT patients scored significantly higher on the BDI-SF and HDRS than HN patients (12.85 versus 4.40, p = 0.031, and 15.62 vs 7.30, p = 0.043, respectively). The Global Severity Index (GSI) of SCL-90-R also showed significant difference (1.44 vs 0.46, p = 0.013) as well as the subscales except for somatization. SCID-I interview yielded a variety of mood disorders in both groups. Eight MT patient (42%) had past, 6 (31%) had current, 5 (26%) had both past and current psychiatric diagnosis, yielding a lifetime prevalence of 9/19 (47%) in the MT group. In the HN group, 3 patients had both past and current diagnosis showing a lifetime prevalence of 3/10 (30%) in this group. SCID-II detected personality disorder in 8 MT cases (42%), yielding 3 avoidant, 2 obsessive-compulsive and 3 personality disorder not otherwise specified (NOS) diagnosis. No personality disorder was identified in the HN group. Conclusions Clinicians should be aware of the high prevalence of psychiatric symptoms in patients with mitochondrial

  9. Epigenetic targets of HDAC inhibition in neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ted; Zukin, R Suzanne

    2008-02-01

    Epigenetic chromatin remodeling and modifications of DNA represent central mechanisms for regulation of gene expression during brain development and in memory formation. Emerging evidence implicates epigenetic modifications in disorders of synaptic plasticity and cognition. This review focuses on recent findings that HDAC inhibitors can ameliorate deficits in synaptic plasticity, cognition, and stress-related behaviors in a wide range of neurologic and psychiatric disorders including Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, anxiety and mood disorders, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, and Rett syndrome. These agents may prove useful in the clinic for the treatment of the cognitive impairments that are central elements of many neurodevelopmental, neurological, and psychiatric disorders. PMID:18206423

  10. Substance use disorders and psychiatric comorbidity in mid and later life: a review

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, adults aged 65 years or older will increase from 516 million in 2009 to an estimated 1.53 billion in 2050. Due to substance use at earlier ages that may continue into later life, and ageing-related changes in medical conditions, older substance users are at risk for substance-related consequences. Methods MEDLINE and PsychInfo databases were searched using keywords: alcohol use disorder, drug use disorder, drug misuse, substance use disorder, prescription drug abuse, and substance abuse. Using the related-articles link, additional articles were screened for inclusion. This review focused on original studies published between 2005 and 2013 to reflect recent trends in substance use disorders. Studies on psychiatric comorbidity were also reviewed to inform treatment needs for older adults with a substance use disorder. Results Among community non-institutionalized adults aged 50+ years, about 60% used alcohol, 3% used illicit drugs and 1–2% used nonmedical prescription drugs in the past year. Among adults aged 50+, about 5% of men and 1.4% of women had a past-year alcohol use disorder. Among alcohol users, about one in 14 users aged 50–64 had a past-year alcohol use disorder vs one in 30 elder users aged 65+. Among drug users aged 50+, approximately 10–12% had a drug use disorder. Similar to depressive and anxiety disorders, substance use disorders were among the common psychiatric disorders among older adults. Older drug users in methadone maintenance treatment exhibited multiple psychiatric or medical conditions. There have been increases in treatment admissions for illicit and prescription drug problems in the United States. Conclusions Substance use in late life requires surveillance and research, including tracking substance use in the racial/ethnic populations and developing effective care models to address comorbid medical and mental health problems. PMID:24163278

  11. A novel syndrome with psychiatric features and review of malformation syndromes with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    du Souich, Christèle; Austin, Jehannine C; Friedlander, Robin; Boerkoel, Cornelius F

    2009-02-15

    Psychiatric disease occurs with increased frequency in a number of malformation syndromes. We hypothesize that the study of these disorders is helpful for understanding the pathophysiology of psychiatric disease. With this objective, we have been screening for individuals with malformations and prominent psychiatric disease. We report on a man with visual and auditory hallucinations and behavioral problems who was the product of an incestuous relationship and had anomalies primarily of his face, hands and feet. His distinctive features define an undescribed acro-auricular malformation syndrome with a psychiatric component. The study of Mendelian syndromes such as the one presented will likely be helpful for isolating novel genes involved in psychiatric illness. PMID:19253384

  12. Co-occurring Psychiatric and Drug Use Disorders among Sexual Minority Men with Lifetime Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Marshall, Brandon D.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Bryant, Kendall; Zaller, Nickolas D.; Operario, Don

    2015-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence indicates multiple health risks associated with harmful alcohol use among sexual minority men in the United States. In particular, sexual minority men with alcohol use disorders (AUD) might have greater co-occurring health problems compared with heterosexual men. We used nationally representative data to compare the prevalence of diagnostic co-occurring psychiatric disorders and drug use disorders (DUD) among sexual minority men with AUD compared with heterosexual males with a lifetime AUD diagnosis. Methods We analyzed data from 6,899 adult males with AUD participating in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Using multiple logistic regressions, we compared the odds of lifetime diagnosis of mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and drug use disorders in sexual minority and heterosexual adult males with AUD. Results Of participants included in this analysis, 176 (2.6%) self-identified as a sexual minority. In adjusted analyses, sexual minority men with AUD were more likely than heterosexual men with AUD to have any mood disorder (including major depressive episode), any anxiety disorder (including panic disorder without agoraphobia, specific phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder), and lifetime DUD. Conclusions The elevated co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders and DUD among sexual minority men with AUD suggests that future research is warranted. A better understanding of the etiology of diagnostic co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders among sexual minority men in order to develop effective integrated prevention and treatment programs. PMID:25913886

  13. Screening for psychiatric and substance abuse disorders in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Ford, D E; Kamerow, D B

    1990-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders, particularly depression and alcohol abuse, represent a large burden of illness to the society. Many individuals with these disorders receive all of their care from health care providers who are not mental health specialists. There is evidence that non-psychiatric physicians frequently do not recognize these disorders in their patients. Screening questionnaires have been introduced to improve detection of these patients. Several studies have found that these screening questionnaires can increase detection rates, but no important impact on patient outcomes has been demonstrated. This review article outlines several reasons why it has been difficult to discern improvement in patient outcomes: inadequate study design, insufficient physician education, interdependence of psychiatric and medical conditions, and vague treatment guidelines. Practical use of the current psychiatric screening questionnaires and key areas for further investigation are considered. PMID:2231063

  14. Modeling psychiatric disorders: from genomic findings to cellular phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Falk, A; Heine, V M; Harwood, A J; Sullivan, P F; Peitz, M; Brüstle, O; Shen, S; Sun, Y-M; Glover, J C; Posthuma, D; Djurovic, S

    2016-09-01

    Major programs in psychiatric genetics have identified >150 risk loci for psychiatric disorders. These loci converge on a small number of functional pathways, which span conventional diagnostic criteria, suggesting a partly common biology underlying schizophrenia, autism and other psychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, the cellular phenotypes that capture the fundamental features of psychiatric disorders have not yet been determined. Recent advances in genetics and stem cell biology offer new prospects for cell-based modeling of psychiatric disorders. The advent of cell reprogramming and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) provides an opportunity to translate genetic findings into patient-specific in vitro models. iPSC technology is less than a decade old but holds great promise for bridging the gaps between patients, genetics and biology. Despite many obvious advantages, iPSC studies still present multiple challenges. In this expert review, we critically review the challenges for modeling of psychiatric disorders, potential solutions and how iPSC technology can be used to develop an analytical framework for the evaluation and therapeutic manipulation of fundamental disease processes. PMID:27240529

  15. Modeling psychiatric disorders: from genomic findings to cellular phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Falk, A; Heine, V M; Harwood, A J; Sullivan, P F; Peitz, M; Brüstle, O; Shen, S; Sun, Y-M; Glover, J C; Posthuma, D; Djurovic, S

    2016-01-01

    Major programs in psychiatric genetics have identified >150 risk loci for psychiatric disorders. These loci converge on a small number of functional pathways, which span conventional diagnostic criteria, suggesting a partly common biology underlying schizophrenia, autism and other psychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, the cellular phenotypes that capture the fundamental features of psychiatric disorders have not yet been determined. Recent advances in genetics and stem cell biology offer new prospects for cell-based modeling of psychiatric disorders. The advent of cell reprogramming and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) provides an opportunity to translate genetic findings into patient-specific in vitro models. iPSC technology is less than a decade old but holds great promise for bridging the gaps between patients, genetics and biology. Despite many obvious advantages, iPSC studies still present multiple challenges. In this expert review, we critically review the challenges for modeling of psychiatric disorders, potential solutions and how iPSC technology can be used to develop an analytical framework for the evaluation and therapeutic manipulation of fundamental disease processes. PMID:27240529

  16. [Psychiatric complications of alcoholism: alcohol withdrawal syndrome and other psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Maciel, Cláudia; Kerr-Corrêa, Florence

    2004-05-01

    Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is an acute condition secondary to total or partial reduction of alcohol consumption, characterized by self limited signs and symptoms and different degrees of severity. It can be complicated by several clinical and/or other psychiatric related problems. The objective of this article is to review the most important psychiatric complications to alcohol withdrawal syndrome as well as other psychiatric disorders associated with alcohol dependence as Wernicke Korsakoff and Marchiava Bignami syndromes. We aim to promote early diagnosis and treatment of these conditions, minimizing morbidity and mortality associated with them. PMID:15729445

  17. [Emergence of early childhood trauma in adult psychiatric symptomatology].

    PubMed

    Bouras, G; Lazaratou, E

    2012-06-01

    Trauma comes as a result of the subject's exposure to extremely negative and stressful events, such as natural or human-provoked catastrophes, wars, serious injuries, violent deaths, tortures, terrorist attacks, rapes and other sexual crimes. A child's exposure to traumatic circumstances of this level during the crucial period of self-structuring creates rather difficult conditions for its development. Moreover, if the child does not have the opportunity to elaborate and analyze all these stressful conditions and put them into words, serious consequences, both psychological and somatic, may occur in adult life. Specific factors and child characteristics, namely, the age, the developmental stage within which the trauma occurs, its type (physical or sexual abuse, neglect or traumatic social events), frequency, duration and intensity, have been proved to seriously affect the trauma's consequences. The immediate emotional impact of trauma may include isolation, fear, feeling of weakness or loss of the sense of confidence. Moreover, mood disorders such as depression and withdrawal, negative effects on cognitive ability, language development and academic performance, difficulties in creating a secure link and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are also observed. The long-term consequences for the individual's mental health can be expressed through the following: post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) combined or not with depression and anxiety disorder, mood disorders, personality disorders, poor control of impulsions, dissociation disorder, psychotic disorder. Finally, apart from the dramatic impact of trauma on the person itself, there is also a high social cost to be paid as a result of the individual's poor adjustment and dysfunction in the community. Early support and intervention in the child's environment may significantly minimize the negative effects of trauma. Beyond the expression of genes, good maternal care as well as psychological support, lead to normal

  18. Risk of Psychiatric Disorders Following Symptomatic Menopausal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Li-Yu; Shen, Cheng-Che; Hung, Jeng-Hsiu; Chen, Pan-Ming; Wen, Chun-Hsien; Chiang, Yung-Yen; Lu, Ti

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Menopausal transition is highly symptomatic in at least 20% of women. A higher prevalence of psychiatric symptoms, including depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance, has been shown in women with symptomatic menopausal transition. However, a clear correlation between symptomatic menopausal transition and psychiatric disorders has not been established. We explored the association between symptomatic menopausal transition and subsequent newly diagnosed psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia as well as bipolar, depressive, anxiety, and sleep disorders. We investigated women who were diagnosed with symptomatic menopausal transition by an obstetrician-gynecologist according to the data in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort comprised age-matched women without symptomatic menopausal transition. The incidence rate and the hazard ratios of subsequent newly diagnosed psychiatric disorders were evaluated in both cohorts, based on the diagnoses of psychiatrists. The symptomatic menopausal transition and control cohorts each consisted of 19,028 women. The incidences of bipolar disorders (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–2.80), depressive disorders (HR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.93–2.45), anxiety disorders (HR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.84–2.41), and sleep disorders (HR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.73–2.34) were higher among the symptomatic menopausal transition women than in the comparison cohort. After stratifying for follow-up duration, the incidence of newly diagnosed bipolar disorders, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, and sleep disorders following a diagnosis of symptomatic menopausal transition remained significantly increased in the longer follow-up groups (1–5 and ≥ 5 years). Symptomatic menopausal transition might increase the risk of subsequent newly onset bipolar disorders, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, and sleep disorders. A prospective study

  19. ADHD Prevalence in Adult Outpatients with Nonpsychotic Psychiatric Illnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida Montes, Luis Guillermo; Hernandez Garcia, Ana Olivia; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of ADHD in the general adult population has been estimated to be about 4.4%. However, few studies exist in which the prevalence of ADHD in psychiatric adult outpatient samples has been estimated. These studies suggest that the prevalence is higher than in the general population. The objective of this study is to estimate…

  20. Co-occurring alcohol, drug, and other psychiatric disorders among Mexican-origin people in the United States.

    PubMed

    Vega, William A; Sribney, William M; Achara-Abrahams, Ijeoma

    2003-07-01

    We examined co-occurrence of (comorbid) alcohol, drug, and non-substance use psychiatric disorders in a population sample of Mexican-origin adults from rural and urban areas of central California. Co-occurring lifetime rates of alcohol or other drug disorders with non-substance use psychiatric disorders, or both, were 8.3% for men and 5.5% for women and were 12.3% for the US born and 3.5% for immigrants. Alcohol abuse or dependence with co-occurring psychiatric disorders is a primary disorder among Mexican-origin adult males (7.5% lifetime prevalence). US-born men and women are almost equally likely to have co-occurring disorders involving substances. Cobormidity is expected to increase in the Mexican-origin population owing to acculturation effects of both sexes. PMID:12835179

  1. Sex differences in animal models of psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Kokras, N; Dalla, C

    2014-10-01

    Psychiatric disorders are characterized by sex differences in their prevalence, symptomatology and treatment response. Animal models have been widely employed for the investigation of the neurobiology of such disorders and the discovery of new treatments. However, mostly male animals have been used in preclinical pharmacological studies. In this review, we highlight the need for the inclusion of both male and female animals in experimental studies aiming at gender-oriented prevention, diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders. We present behavioural findings on sex differences from animal models of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance-related disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism. Moreover, when available, we include studies conducted across different stages of the oestrous cycle. By inspection of the relevant literature, it is obvious that robust sex differences exist in models of all psychiatric disorders. However, many times results are conflicting, and no clear conclusion regarding the direction of sex differences and the effect of the oestrous cycle is drawn. Moreover, there is a lack of considerable amount of studies using psychiatric drugs in both male and female animals, in order to evaluate the differential response between the two sexes. Notably, while in most cases animal models successfully mimic drug response in both sexes, test parameters and treatment-sensitive behavioural indices are not always the same for male and female rodents. Thus, there is an increasing need to validate animal models for both sexes and use standard procedures across different laboratories. PMID:24697577

  2. Vocational Impact of Psychiatric Disorders: A Guide for Rehabilitation Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischler, Gary L.; Booth, Nan

    This book, which is intended for vocational rehabilitation (VR) professionals, is a guide to many of the disorders included in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual," fourth edition (DSM-IV), that VR professionals are likely to encounter. The introduction discusses the relationship between psychiatric disorders and vocational functioning and…

  3. Molecular Pathways Bridging Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration and Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zanardini, Roberta; Ciani, Miriam; Benussi, Luisa; Ghidoni, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The overlap of symptoms between neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases has been reported. Neuropsychiatric alterations are commonly observed in dementia, especially in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), which is the most common clinical FTD subtype. At the same time, psychiatric disorders, like schizophrenia (SCZ), can display symptoms of dementia, including features of frontal dysfunction with relative sparing of memory. In the present review, we discuss common molecular features in these pathologies with a special focus on FTD. Molecules like Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and progranulin are linked to the pathophysiology of both neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. In these brain-associated illnesses, the presence of disease-associated variants in BDNF and progranulin (GRN) genes cause a reduction of circulating proteins levels, through alterations in proteins expression or secretion. For these reasons, we believe that prevention and therapy of psychiatric and neurological disorders could be achieved enhancing both BDNF and progranulin levels thanks to drug discovery efforts. PMID:26869919

  4. Associations between Polygenic Risk for Psychiatric Disorders and Substance Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Caitlin E.; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Hartz, Sarah M.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Bierut, Laura J.; Bogdan, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence of substantial comorbidity between psychiatric disorders and substance involvement, the extent to which common genetic factors contribute to their co-occurrence remains understudied. In the current study, we tested for associations between polygenic risk for psychiatric disorders and substance involvement (i.e., ranging from ever-use to severe dependence) among 2573 non-Hispanic European–American participants from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for cross-disorder psychopathology (CROSS) were generated based on the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium’s Cross-Disorder meta-analysis and then tested for associations with a factor representing general liability to alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, nicotine, and opioid involvement (GENSUB). Follow-up analyses evaluated specific associations between each of the five psychiatric disorders which comprised CROSS—attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (AUT), bipolar disorder (BIP), major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia (SCZ)—and involvement with each component substance included in GENSUB. CROSS PRS explained 1.10% of variance in GENSUB in our sample (p < 0.001). After correction for multiple testing in our follow-up analyses of polygenic risk for each individual disorder predicting involvement with each component substance, associations remained between: (A) MDD PRS and non-problem cannabis use, (B) MDD PRS and severe cocaine dependence, (C) SCZ PRS and non-problem cannabis use and severe cannabis dependence, and (D) SCZ PRS and severe cocaine dependence. These results suggest that shared covariance from common genetic variation contributes to psychiatric and substance involvement comorbidity. PMID:27574527

  5. Associations between Polygenic Risk for Psychiatric Disorders and Substance Involvement.

    PubMed

    Carey, Caitlin E; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Hartz, Sarah M; Lynskey, Michael T; Nelson, Elliot C; Bierut, Laura J; Bogdan, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence of substantial comorbidity between psychiatric disorders and substance involvement, the extent to which common genetic factors contribute to their co-occurrence remains understudied. In the current study, we tested for associations between polygenic risk for psychiatric disorders and substance involvement (i.e., ranging from ever-use to severe dependence) among 2573 non-Hispanic European-American participants from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for cross-disorder psychopathology (CROSS) were generated based on the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium's Cross-Disorder meta-analysis and then tested for associations with a factor representing general liability to alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, nicotine, and opioid involvement (GENSUB). Follow-up analyses evaluated specific associations between each of the five psychiatric disorders which comprised CROSS-attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (AUT), bipolar disorder (BIP), major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia (SCZ)-and involvement with each component substance included in GENSUB. CROSS PRS explained 1.10% of variance in GENSUB in our sample (p < 0.001). After correction for multiple testing in our follow-up analyses of polygenic risk for each individual disorder predicting involvement with each component substance, associations remained between: (A) MDD PRS and non-problem cannabis use, (B) MDD PRS and severe cocaine dependence, (C) SCZ PRS and non-problem cannabis use and severe cannabis dependence, and (D) SCZ PRS and severe cocaine dependence. These results suggest that shared covariance from common genetic variation contributes to psychiatric and substance involvement comorbidity. PMID:27574527

  6. Longitudinal social competence and adult psychiatric symptoms at first hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Prentky, R A; Watt, N F; Fryer, J H

    1979-01-01

    Patterns of psychiatric symptoms of 141 patients at first hospital admission were correlated with social competence, as measured in childhood from school records and in adulthood by the Index of Social Competence, which is based on hospital records. Results confirmed the hypothesis that low social competence is associated with the more disintegrative symptoms of withdrawal, thought disorder, and antisocial acting out, but this conclusion held only when the measure of social competence was based upon adult premorbid behavior. A longitudinal perspective on social competence did not improve upon the symptomatic discrimination based on adult cross-sectional assessment alone, except that a cluster of schizoid symptoms (apathy, flat affect, hallucinations, resentfulness, and verbal hostility) was significantly associated with a longitudinal measure of social competence, though not with either cross-sectional measure by itself. Positive symptoms (delusions, hallucinations, and other florid processes) appeared not to be part of a longstanding, longitudinal process, but the negative symptoms included in the withdrawal cluster showed some association with childhood behavior. PMID:462143

  7. Psychiatric and substance abuse disorders among male urban jail detainees.

    PubMed Central

    Teplin, L A

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents prevalence rates by race/ethnicity and age for nine psychiatric and substance use disorders found in a random sample of 728 male jail detainees. Two thirds of the sample detainees had had a disorder other than antisocial personality during their lifetimes; half of these had had an episode within 2 weeks of the interview. More than 30% currently had either a severe mental disorder or a substance use disorder. Detainees with severe mental disorders or substance use disorders were most often in jail because they had committed nonviolent crimes. Policy implications of the results are discussed. PMID:8296957

  8. Psychiatric Disorders and TRP Channels: Focus on Psychotropic Drugs.

    PubMed

    Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Demirdaş, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric and neurological disorders are mostly associated with the changes in neural calcium ion signaling pathways required for activity-triggered cellular events. One calcium channel family is the TRP cation channel family, which contains seven subfamilies. Results of recent papers have discovered that calcium ion influx through TRP channels is important. We discuss the latest advances in calcium ion influx through TRP channels in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. Activation of TRPC4, TRPC5, and TRPV1 cation channels in the etiology of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, fear-associated responses, and depression modulate calcium ion influx. Evidence substantiates that anandamide and its analog (methanandamide) induce an anxiolytic-like effect via CB1 receptors and TRPV1 channels. Intracellular calcium influx induced by oxidative stress has an significant role in the etiology of bipolar disorders (BDs), and studies recently reported the important role of TRP channels such as TRPC3, TRPM2, and TRPV1 in converting oxidant or nitrogen radical signaling to cytosolic calcium ion homeostasis in BDs. The TRPV1 channel also plays a function in morphine tolerance and hyperalgesia. Among psychotropic drugs, amitriptyline and capsazepine seem to have protective effects on psychiatric disorders via the TRP channels. Some drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamine also seem to have an important role in alcohol addiction and substance abuse via activation of the TRPV1 channel. Thus, we explore the relationships between the etiology of psychiatric disorders and TRP channel-regulated mechanisms. Investigation of the TRP channels in psychiatric disorders holds the promise of the development of new drug treatments. PMID:26411768

  9. Psychiatric Disorders and TRP Channels: Focus on Psychotropic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Demirdaş, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric and neurological disorders are mostly associated with the changes in neural calcium ion signaling pathways required for activity-triggered cellular events. One calcium channel family is the TRP cation channel family, which contains seven subfamilies. Results of recent papers have discovered that calcium ion influx through TRP channels is important. We discuss the latest advances in calcium ion influx through TRP channels in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. Activation of TRPC4, TRPC5, and TRPV1 cation channels in the etiology of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, fear-associated responses, and depression modulate calcium ion influx. Evidence substantiates that anandamide and its analog (methanandamide) induce an anxiolytic-like effect via CB1 receptors and TRPV1 channels. Intracellular calcium influx induced by oxidative stress has an significant role in the etiology of bipolar disorders (BDs), and studies recently reported the important role of TRP channels such as TRPC3, TRPM2, and TRPV1 in converting oxidant or nitrogen radical signaling to cytosolic calcium ion homeostasis in BDs. The TRPV1 channel also plays a function in morphine tolerance and hyperalgesia. Among psychotropic drugs, amitriptyline and capsazepine seem to have protective effects on psychiatric disorders via the TRP channels. Some drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamine also seem to have an important role in alcohol addiction and substance abuse via activation of the TRPV1 channel. Thus, we explore the relationships between the etiology of psychiatric disorders and TRP channel-regulated mechanisms. Investigation of the TRP channels in psychiatric disorders holds the promise of the development of new drug treatments. PMID:26411768

  10. Body awareness in preschool children with psychiatric disorder.

    PubMed

    Simons, J; Leitschuh, C; Raymaekers, A; Vandenbussche, I

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the body awareness of preschool children with a psychiatric disorder as measured by the test imitation of gestures (Bergès & Lézine, 1978), using the subsections for pointing to body parts (passive vocabulary) and naming body parts (active vocabulary). Seventy-seven children from 37 to 72 months of age with psychiatric disorders and 67 children without psychiatric disorders were matched for age and sex. A MANOVA indicated no significant interaction effects on the results between the sexes in the psychiatric group and the control group for passive vocabulary (F(1,150)=.59, p≥0.05) or for active vocabulary (F(1,150)=.61, p≥0.05). An ANOVA was conducted to determine the differences between the boys and girls for passive and active vocabulary, and the differences between the psychiatric group and the control group for passive and active vocabulary. No significant differences between the boys and girls for passive vocabulary (F(1,150)=1.968, p≥0.05) and active vocabulary (F(1,150)=1.57, p≥0.05) were found. There was a significant difference between the psychiatric and the control group for passive vocabulary (F(1,150)=9.511, p=0.002) and active vocabulary (F(1,150)=16.18, p=0.00009). The study provides support for the presence of language disorders associated with active and passive body awareness in children with psychiatric disorders compared to typically developing children. PMID:21435833

  11. Psychiatric Comorbidity at the Time of Diagnosis in Adults With ADHD: The CAT Study.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro-Dieguez, Benjamin; Balanzá-Martínez, Vicent; García-García, Pilar; Soler-López, Begoña

    2014-01-24

    Objective: The CAT (Comorbilidad en Adultos con TDAH) study aimed to quantify and characterize the psychiatric comorbidity at the time of diagnosis of ADHD in adult outpatients. Method: Cross-sectional, multicenter, observational register of adults with ADHD diagnosed for the first time. Results: In this large sample of adult ADHD (n = 367), psychiatric comorbidities were present in 66.2% of the sample, and were more prevalent in males and in the hyperactive-impulsive and combined subtypes. The most common comorbidities were substance use disorders (39.2%), anxiety disorders (23%), and mood disorders (18.1%). In all, 88.8% patients were prescribed pharmacological treatment for ADHD (in 93.4% of cases, modified release methylphenidate capsules 50:50). Conclusion: A high proportion of psychiatric comorbidity was observed when adult outpatients received a first-time diagnosis of ADHD. The systematic registering of patients and comorbidities in clinical practice may help to better understand and manage the prognostic determinants in adult ADHD. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24464326

  12. Maternal Psychiatric Disorder and the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder or Intellectual Disability in Subsequent Offspring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairthorne, Jenny; Hammond, Geoff; Bourke, Jenny; de Klerk, Nick; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are more common in the mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or intellectual disability (ID) after the birth of their child. We aimed to assess the relationship between women's psychiatric contacts and subsequent offspring with ASD/ID. We linked three Western Australian registers to investigate pre-existing…

  13. Molecular analysis of velo-cardio-facial syndrome patients with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, C; Papolos, D; Pandita, R K; Faedda, G L; Veit, S; Goldberg, R; Shprintzen, R; Kucherlapati, R; Morrow, B

    1997-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is characterized by conotruncal cardiac defects, cleft palate, learning disabilities, and characteristic facial appearance and is associated with hemizygous deletions within 22q11. A newly recognized clinical feature is the presence of psychiatric illness in children and adults with VCFS. To ascertain the relationship between psychiatric illness, VCFS, and chromosome 22 deletions, we evaluated 26 VCFS patients by clinical and molecular biological methods. The VCFS children and adolescents were found to share a set of psychiatric disorders, including bipolar spectrum disorders and attention-deficit disorder with hyperactivity. The adult patients, >18 years of age, were affected with bipolar spectrum disorders. Four of six adult patients had psychotic symptoms manifested as paranoid and grandiose delusions. Loss-of-heterozygosity analysis of all 26 patients revealed that all but 3 had a large 3-Mb common deletion. One patient had a nested distal deletion and two did not have a detectable deletion. Somatic cell hybrids were developed from the two patients who did not have a detectable deletion within 22q11 and were analyzed with a large number of sequence tagged sites. A deletion was not detected among the two patients at a resolution of 21 kb. There was no correlation between the phenotype and the presence of the deletion within 22q11. The remarkably high prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders, in association with the congenital anomalies of VCFS and its occurrence among nondeleted VCFS patients, suggest a common genetic etiology. Images Figure 4 PMID:9106531

  14. [Psychiatric disorders among victims of disasters in Ecuador].

    PubMed

    Lima, B R; Chávez, H; Samaniego, N; Pai, S

    1992-07-01

    Previous studies in developing countries have demonstrated post-disaster stress disorders in a substantial share of the people living through a natural calamity, but questions have remained as to the severity of these mental health problems. This article reports information derived from a 1987 study of Ecuadorian earthquake victims that shows many of the victims had diagnosable psychiatric disorders and provides insight into the nature of those disorders. PMID:1642782

  15. Psychiatric disorders in a community sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kashani, J H; Beck, N C; Hoeper, E W; Fallahi, C; Corcoran, C M; McAllister, J A; Rosenberg, T K; Reid, J C

    1987-05-01

    The prevalence of psychiatric disorders diagnosed according to DSM-III in adolescents in the general population is not known. The authors address this issue in a community sample of 150 adolescents 14-16 years of age. Structured interviews as well as other instruments were used to collect data. Twenty-eight (18.7%) of the 150 adolescents were identified as having a psychiatric disorder. These 28 adolescents viewed their parents as less caring, had lower self-esteem, and resolved their conflicts through verbal aggression and physical violence more often than did the adolescents who did not have a psychiatric disorder. The authors make recommendations regarding the use of structured interviews in future research. PMID:3495187

  16. Epigenetic signaling in psychiatric disorders: stress and depression.

    PubMed

    Bagot, Rosemary C; Labonté, Benoit; Peña, Catherine J; Nestler, Eric J

    2014-09-01

    Psychiatric disorders are complex multifactorial disorders involving chronic alterations in neural circuit structure and function. While genetic factors play a role in the etiology of disorders such as depression, addiction, and schizophrenia, relatively high rates of discordance among identical twins clearly point to the importance of additional factors. Environmental factors, such as stress, play a major role in the psychiatric disorders by inducing stable changes in gene expression, neural circuit function, and ultimately behavior. Insults at the developmental stage and in adulthood appear to induce distinct maladaptations. Increasing evidence indicates that these sustained abnormalities are maintained by epigenetic modifications in specific brain regions. Indeed, transcriptional dysregulation and associated aberrant epigenetic regulation is a unifying theme in psychiatric disorders. Aspects of depression can be modeled in animals by inducing disease-like states through environmental manipulations, and these studies can provide a more general understanding of epigenetic mechanisms in psychiatric disorders. Understanding how environmental factors recruit the epigenetic machinery in animal models is providing new insights into disease mechanisms in humans. PMID:25364280

  17. Metabolic syndrome among psychiatric outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have simultaneously compared the impacts of pharmacotherapy and mental diagnoses on metabolic syndrome (MetS) among psychiatric outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of pharmacotherapy and mental diagnoses on MetS and the prevalence of MetS among these patients. Methods Two-hundred and twenty-nine outpatients (men/women = 85/144) were enrolled from 1147 outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders by systematic sampling. Psychiatric disorders and MetS were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR and the new International Diabetics Federation definition, respectively. The numbers of antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and antidepressants being taken were recorded. Logistic regression was used to investigate the impacts of pharmacotherapy and psychiatric diagnoses on MetS. Results Among 229 subjects, 51 (22.3%) fulfilled the criteria for MetS. The prevalence of MetS was highest in the bipolar I disorder (46.7%) patients, followed by bipolar II disorder (25.0%), major depressive disorder (22.0%), anxiety-only disorders (16.7%), and no mood and/or anxiety disorders (14.3%). The percentages of MetS among the five categories were correlated with those of the patients being treated with antipsychotics and mood stabilizers. Use of antipsychotics and/or mood stabilizers independently predicted a higher risk of MetS after controlling for demographic variables and psychiatric diagnoses. When adding body mass index (BMI) as an independent variable in the regression model, BMI became the most significant factor to predict MetS. Conclusion BMI was found to be an important factor related to MetS. Pharmacotherapy might be one of underlying causes of elevated BMI. The interactions among MetS, BMI, pharmacotherapy, and psychiatric diagnoses might need further research. PMID:24952586

  18. Psychiatric comorbidity in women and men with eating disorders results from a large clinical database.

    PubMed

    Ulfvebrand, Sara; Birgegård, Andreas; Norring, Claes; Högdahl, Louise; von Hausswolff-Juhlin, Yvonne

    2015-12-15

    Psychiatric comorbidity is common in patients with eating disorders (ED), but prevalence estimates are heterogeneous, probably due to methodological differences between studies (population, diagnostic method, sampling procedure etc.) and a few studies include men. The aim of this study is to investigate psychiatric DSM-IV Axis I comorbidity in a large sample of adult patients, both males and females, with the whole spectrum of DSM-IV ED diagnoses. Initial presentation assessment data on 11,588 adult men and women presenting to specialist ED clinics in Sweden between 2008 and 2012 were extracted from a large clinical database. Diagnostics were based on semi-structured interviews (SCID-I) and the Structured Eating Disorder Interview (SEDI). Seventy-one percent of the patients with ED had at least one other Axis I disorder. The most common type of diagnosis was anxiety disorders (53%), where generalized anxiety disorder was the most common diagnosis. The highest levels of comorbidity were found for women with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and men with Bulimia Nervosa (BN). Findings are consistent with previous research showing a high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity in both men and women with ED. The small gender differences observed seem negligible compared to the general similarity in comorbidity. PMID:26416590

  19. Modeling psychiatric disorders for developing effective treatments

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Tobias; Feng, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    The recent advance in identifying risk genes has provided an unprecedented opportunity for developing animal models for psychiatric disease research with the goal of attaining translational utility to ultimately develop novel treatments. However, at this early stage, successful translation has yet to be achieved. Here, we review recent advances in modeling psychiatric disease, discuss utility and limitations of animal models, and emphasize the importance of shifting from behavioral analysis to identifying neurophysiological defects, which are likely more conserved across species and thus increase translatability. Looking forward, we envision that preclinical research will align with clinical research to build a common framework of comparable neurobiological abnormalities and form subgroups of patients based on similar pathophysiology. Experimental neuroscience can then use animal models to discover mechanisms underlying distinct abnormalities and develop strategies for effective treatments. PMID:26340119

  20. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the other. Researchers are continuing to study alcohol abuse and other mental health disorders, including the effects of stress and gender differences on these disorders. With a fuller understanding of ...

  1. Common psychiatric disorders share the same genetic origin: a multivariate sibling study of the Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, E; Larsson, H; Lichtenstein, P

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that different mental-health problems appear to be partly influenced by the same set of genes, which can be summarized by a general genetic factor. To date, such studies have relied on surveys of community-based samples, which could introduce potential biases. The goal of this study was to examine whether a general genetic factor would still emerge when based on a different ascertainment method with different biases from previous studies. We targeted all adults in Sweden (n=3 475 112) using national registers and identified those who had received one or more psychiatric diagnoses after seeking or being forced into mental health care. In order to examine the genetic versus environmental etiology of the general factor, we examined whether participants' full- or half-siblings had also received diagnoses. We focused on eight major psychiatric disorders based on the International Classification of Diseases, including schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, alcohol use disorder and drug abuse. In addition, we included convictions of violent crimes. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that a general genetic factor influenced all disorders and convictions of violent crimes, accounting for between 10% (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder) and 36% (drug abuse) of the variance of the conditions. Thus, a general genetic factor of psychopathology emerges when based on both surveys as well as national registers, indicating that a set of pleiotropic genes influence a variety of psychiatric disorders. PMID:26303662

  2. Oxidative stress and therapeutic implications in psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang Yang; Yao, Jeffrey K

    2013-10-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that disturbances of antioxidant defense system and presence of oxidative stress can play a part in a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression, as well as antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia (TD). Moreover, researchers have embarked on using antioxidant treatment as adjunct therapy for psychiatry disorders. Evidence from clinical, pre-clinical and epidemiological studies suggests that a benefit of using antioxidant compounds should be considered as an adjunctive therapy in these patients. These are some of the main perspectives that are reviewed by four articles in this special section. Overall, there has been growing recognition of the importance of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders and the development of TD. The collection of articles in this special section will contribute to providing more efficacious treatments arising from a better appreciation of the roles of oxidative stress in these psychiatric disorders. PMID:23523744

  3. Fragile X Premutation Disorders – Expanding the Psychiatric Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeois, James; Coffey, Sarah; Rivera, Susan M.; Hessl, David; Gane, Louise W.; Tassone, Flora; Greco, Claudia; Finucane, Brenda; Nelson, Lawrence; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Grigsby, Jim; Hagerman, Paul J.; Hagerman, Randi J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Fragile X premutation conditions are associated with a significant degree of psychopathology and thus are of interest to the psychiatrist. Remarkable advances at the molecular level have enhanced our understanding of fragile X premutation disorders. Methods: The authors review the genetic, molecular, neuroimaging, and clinical (systemic, neurologic, and psychiatric) manifestations of the premutation carrier state (55-200 CGG repeats) of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Results: Clinical manifestations of psychiatric illness in premutation carriers include cognitive, mood, anxiety, and other psychiatric disorders. Fragile X premutation-associated conditions are part of the clinical differential diagnosis of several psychiatric syndromes, particularly in pedigrees with known fragile X syndrome (FXS) cases. Conclusions: Fragile X-associated psychiatric manifestations serve as a useful model for a molecular genesis of neuropsychiatric illness. Because of the multigenerational expression of fragile X-associated neuropsychiatric illness, there is a prominent role for genetic testing and genetic counseling of patients and their relatives. Genetic testing is confirmatory of the FMR1 premutation and is an essential component of the clinical evaluation. Psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment of fragile X-associated psychiatric illnesses may improve patient function and assist in adaptation to the burden of a genetic neuropsychiatric illness. PMID:19422761

  4. Pharmacological management of behavioral and psychiatric symptoms in older adults with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Eady, Nicole; Courtenay, Ken; Strydom, André

    2015-02-01

    Given medical and social advances, the life expectancy of individuals with intellectual disability (ID) has increased dramatically, leading to a generation of older individuals with such disabilities. This review focuses on the pharmacological treatment of behavioral and psychiatric symptoms and disorders in older adults with ID. Older adults with ID often present with medical co-morbidities and mental health issues. Medication management of behavioral and psychiatric problems is complicated by a higher risk for adverse events, lack of decision-making capacity, and complex care networks. Some studies have shown that individuals with ID and co-morbid mental disorders are undertreated in comparison with those with similar disorders in the general population, resulting in poorer outcomes. However, older adults with ID are also at risk of polypharmacy, and older age is a risk factor for development of side effects. A general principle is that medication treatment for psychiatric disorders in older individuals with ID should be started at low dosages and increased cautiously while monitoring response and side effects. The use of psychotropic drugs for older individuals with ID and behavioral problems remains controversial, particularly in those with dementia. PMID:25573538

  5. [Sexual dysfunction among patients with psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Soldati, Lorenzo

    2016-03-16

    Scientific literature shows that sexual dysfunction is more common in patients suffering from psychiatric illness as opposed to the general population. It also shows that the prevalence of sexual dysfunction is underestimated by professionals, partly because patients rarely talk spontaneously about their dysfunctions. However, sexual dysfunction has an impact on patients' mental health. Furthermore, some psychotropic medication, antidepressants and antipsychotics in particular, can hinder sexual functioning and induce sexual dysfunction. These harmful effects can, in turn, reduce patients' compliance with their medical treatments. It is therefore important that practitioners take into account their patients' sexual experience. PMID:27149715

  6. Sex Differences in Stress-Related Psychiatric Disorders: Neurobiological Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bangasser, Debra A.; Valentino, Rita J.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is associated with the onset and severity of several psychiatric disorders that occur more frequently in women than men, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Patients with these disorders present with dysregulation of several stress response systems, including the neuroendocrine response to stress, corticolimbic responses to negatively valenced stimuli, and hyperarousal. Thus, sex differences within their underlying circuitry may explain sex biases in disease prevalence. This review describes clinical studies that identify sex differences within the activity of these circuits, as well as preclinical studies that demonstrate cellular and molecular sex differences in stress responses systems. These studies reveal sex differences from the molecular to the systems level that increase endocrine, emotional, and arousal responses to stress in females. Exploring these sex differences is critical because this research can reveal the neurobiological underpinnings of vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders and guide the development of novel pharmacotherapies. PMID:24726661

  7. Sex differences in stress-related psychiatric disorders: neurobiological perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bangasser, Debra A; Valentino, Rita J

    2014-08-01

    Stress is associated with the onset and severity of several psychiatric disorders that occur more frequently in women than men, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Patients with these disorders present with dysregulation of several stress response systems, including the neuroendocrine response to stress, corticolimbic responses to negatively valenced stimuli, and hyperarousal. Thus, sex differences within their underlying circuitry may explain sex biases in disease prevalence. This review describes clinical studies that identify sex differences within the activity of these circuits, as well as preclinical studies that demonstrate cellular and molecular sex differences in stress responses systems. These studies reveal sex differences from the molecular to the systems level that increase endocrine, emotional, and arousal responses to stress in females. Exploring these sex differences is critical because this research can reveal the neurobiological underpinnings of vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders and guide the development of novel pharmacotherapies. PMID:24726661

  8. Indian Psychiatry and classification of psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, K. S.

    2010-01-01

    The contribution of Indian psychiatry to classification of mental disorders has been limited and restricted to acute and transient psychosis and to possession disorders. There is a need for leadership in research in order to match diagnosis and management strategies to the Indian context and culture. PMID:21836665

  9. Body Awareness in Preschool Children with Psychiatric Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, J.; Leitschuh, C.; Raymaekers, A.; Vandenbussche, I.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the body awareness of preschool children with a psychiatric disorder as measured by the test imitation of gestures (Berges & Lezine, 1978), using the subsections for pointing to body parts (passive vocabulary) and naming body parts (active vocabulary). Seventy-seven children from 37 to 72 months of age…

  10. Brief Report: Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Pregnant Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitsuhiro, Sandro Sendin; Chalem, Elisa; Barros, Marina Carvalho Moraes; Guinsburg, Ruth; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of ICD-10 psychiatric disorders in a population of pregnant teenage women from a Brazilian public hospital. Method: 1000 pregnant teenage women were evaluated using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, a structured interview which establishes diagnoses according to the International Classification…

  11. Collaborative Screening of Psychiatric and Language Disorders in Pediatric Neurology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spratt, Eve G.; Anderson, Deborah; Pagano, Maria; Macias, Michelle

    This study evaluated 102 patients (ages 5 to 13) at the Medical University of South Carolina's Pediatric Neurology Clinic for incidence of psychiatric or language disorders. Parents completed the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC), the Child Behavior Checklist, and the Language Problems Scale; phone interviews were conducted to determine child…

  12. Completed Suicide among Adolescents with No Diagnosable Psychiatric Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marttunen, Mauri J.; Henriksson, Markus M.; Isometsa, Erkki T.; Heikkinen, Martti E.; Aro, Hillevi M.; Lonnqvist, Jouko K.

    1998-01-01

    The characteristics of male adolescent suicide victims with (N=84) and without (N=8) diagnosable psychiatric disorder were compared. Psychological autopsy data were collected on all adolescent suicides in one year. Communication of suicidal intent and problems with discipline just before the suicide are among the few clinical warning signs found.…

  13. Alcoholism and Co-Morbid Psychiatric Disorders among American Indians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermeyer, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Much of the data reported here regarding American Indian (AI) people has originated from specific areas with particular peoples. Thus, one must be cautious in applying information from one tribe to the hundreds of tribes living across the United States. As with any people, psychiatric disorder may be a pre-existing rationale for using alcohol. Or…

  14. Histories of Child Maltreatment and Psychiatric Disorder in Pregnant Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Elisa; Zoccolillo, Mark; Paquette, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The study investigated histories of child maltreatment and psychiatric disorder in a high-risk sample of pregnant adolescents. Method: Cross-sectional data were obtained for 252 pregnant adolescents from high school, hospital, and group home settings in Montreal (Canada). Adolescents completed a child maltreatment questionnaire and a…

  15. Are neurological and psychiatric disorders different?†

    PubMed Central

    David, Anthony S.; Nicholson, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    There have been recent calls to abandon the distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders on philosophical and moral grounds. Crossley and colleagues, in this issue, meta-analyse published structural brain imaging data and prove that they are different after all – or do they? PMID:26527662

  16. Psychiatric Hospitalization among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, David S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined predictors of psychiatric hospitalization among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Data were collected from 760 caregivers of children with ASD. Cox regression was used to determine factors associated with hospitalization. Almost 11% were hospitalized. Youth in single parent homes were more likely to be hospitalized…

  17. A General Practice-Based Prevalence Study of Epilepsy among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and of Its Association with Psychiatric Disorder, Behaviour Disturbance and Carer Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, T.; Weston, N.; Baxter, H.; Felce, D.; Kerr, M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although the elevated occurrence of epilepsy in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) is well recognized, the nature of seizures and their association with psychopathology and carer strain are less clearly understood. The aims were to determine the prevalence and features of epilepsy in a community-based population of adults with…

  18. Adolescents with personality disorders suffer from severe psychiatric stigma: evidence from a sample of 131 patients

    PubMed Central

    Catthoor, Kirsten; Feenstra, Dine J; Hutsebaut, Joost; Schrijvers, Didier; Sabbe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study is to assess the severity of psychiatric stigma in a sample of personality disordered adolescents in order to evaluate whether differences in stigma can be found in adolescents with different types and severity of personality disorders (PDs). Not only adults but children and adolescents with mental health problems suffer from psychiatric stigma. In contrast to the abundance of research in adult psychiatric samples, stigma in children and adolescents has hardly been investigated. Personality disordered adolescents with fragile identities and self-esteem might be especially prone to feeling stigmatized, an experience which might further shape their identity throughout this critical developmental phase. Materials and methods One hundred thirty-one adolescent patients underwent a standard assessment with Axis I and Axis II diagnostic interviews and two stigma instruments, Stigma Consciousness Questionnaire (SCQ) and Perceived Devaluation–Discrimination Questionnaire (PDDQ). Independent sample t-tests were used to investigate differences in the mean SCQ and PDDQ total scores for patients with and without a PD. Multiple regression main effect analyses were conducted to explore the impact of the different PDs on level of stigma, as well as comorbid Axis I disorders. Age and sex were also entered in the regression models. Results and conclusions Adolescents with severe mental health problems experience a burden of stigma. Personality disordered patients experience more stigma than adolescents with other severe psychiatric Axis I disorders. Borderline PD is the strongest predictor of experiences of stigma. More severely personality disordered adolescents tend to experience the highest level of stigma. PMID:25999774

  19. [Why do obese individuals suffer more often from psychiatric disorders?].

    PubMed

    Müller, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a complex association between obesity and psychiatric disorders caused by biological, psychosocial and environmental factors and dependent from the severity of obesity. For example, empirical data confirmed a reciprocal link between depression and obesity. Obesity was found to increase the risk of depression and vice versa. There is further a growing body of research pointing towards the important role of impulsivity in obesity, particularly in obese individuals with a binge eating disorder. PMID:25594276

  20. Sex differences in animal models of psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kokras, N; Dalla, C

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are characterized by sex differences in their prevalence, symptomatology and treatment response. Animal models have been widely employed for the investigation of the neurobiology of such disorders and the discovery of new treatments. However, mostly male animals have been used in preclinical pharmacological studies. In this review, we highlight the need for the inclusion of both male and female animals in experimental studies aiming at gender-oriented prevention, diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders. We present behavioural findings on sex differences from animal models of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance-related disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism. Moreover, when available, we include studies conducted across different stages of the oestrous cycle. By inspection of the relevant literature, it is obvious that robust sex differences exist in models of all psychiatric disorders. However, many times results are conflicting, and no clear conclusion regarding the direction of sex differences and the effect of the oestrous cycle is drawn. Moreover, there is a lack of considerable amount of studies using psychiatric drugs in both male and female animals, in order to evaluate the differential response between the two sexes. Notably, while in most cases animal models successfully mimic drug response in both sexes, test parameters and treatment-sensitive behavioural indices are not always the same for male and female rodents. Thus, there is an increasing need to validate animal models for both sexes and use standard procedures across different laboratories. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-20 PMID:24697577

  1. Adult Psychiatric and Suicide Outcomes of Bullying and Being Bullied by Peers in Childhood and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, William E.; Wolke, Dieter; Angold, Adrian; Costello, E. Jane

    2013-01-01

    Context Both bullies and victims of bullying are at risk for psychiatric problems in childhood, but it is unclear if this elevated risk extends into early adulthood. Objective To test whether bullying and being bullied in childhood predicts psychiatric and suicidality in young adulthood after accounting for childhood psychiatric problems and family hardships. Design Prospective, population-based study of 1420 subjects with being bullied and bullying assessed four to six times between ages 9 and 16. Subjects were categorized as bullies only, victims only, bullies and victims (bully-victims), or neither. Setting and population Community sample Main Outcome Measure Psychiatric outcomes included depression, anxiety, antisocial personality disorder, substance disorders, and suicidality (including recurrent thoughts of death, suicidal ideation, or a suicide attempt) were assessed in young adulthood (ages 19, 21, and 24/25/26) by structured diagnostic interviews. Results Victims and bully-victims had elevated rates of young adult psychiatric disorder, but also elevated rates of childhood psychiatric disorders and family hardships. After controlling for childhood psychiatric problems or family hardship, victims continued to have higher prevalence of agoraphobia (odds ratio (OR), 4.6; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.7–12.5, p <0.01), generalized anxiety (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.1–6.3, p <0.001), and panic disorder (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.5–6.5, p <0.01), and bully-victims were at increased risk of young adult depression (OR, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.2–19.4, p <0.05), panic disorder (OR, 14.5; 95% CI, 5.7–36.6, p <0.001), agoraphobia (females only; OR, 26.7; 95% CI, 4.3–52.5, p <0.001), and suicidality (males only: OR, 18.5; 95% CI, 6.2–55.1, p <0.0001). Bullies were at risk for antisocial personality disorder only (OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.1–15.8, p < 0.04). Conclusion The effects of being bullied are direct, pleiotropic and long- lasting with the worst effects for those who are

  2. A psychiatric study of deviant eating behaviour among mentally handicapped adults.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, G; Whitehouse, A M

    1990-08-01

    A study of deviant eating behaviour among mentally handicapped adults in community placements is reported. Those individuals with a psychiatric disorder showed more deviant eating behaviour. Depressed subjects, in particular, showed an excess of the amount eaten and time spent searching for food, as well as the tendency to eat all sweet food presented to them. Non-food pica was uncommon, even among the autistic subjects. PMID:2224381

  3. Dietary cyclic dipeptides, apoptosis and psychiatric disorders: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Semon, Bruce A

    2014-06-01

    Cyclic dipeptides from food and intestinal yeast cyclic dipeptides may play a role in causing psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. From cancer research, cyclic dipeptides such as cyclo (proline-phenylalanine) have been found to activate the pathways of apoptosis and to cause programmed cell death. Activation of such pathways is also thought to be important in causing the neurodevelopmental abnormalities seen in disorders such as schizophrenia and autistic disorder, and also may be important in Alzheimer's. Cyclic dipeptides are found in foods such as malt and cocoa and beer. The intestinal yeast Candida albicans also synthesizes cyclic dipeptides. These dipeptides may be activating apoptosis pathways throughout fetal development and postnatal development, leading to some of the changes seen in brain in schizophrenia and in other psychiatric disorders. These compounds should be researched further to see if they play a role in causing these brain changes. In addition, these cyclic dipeptides are considered within the larger context of research on amino acids and other cyclic dipeptides in neurotransmission and neurophysiology. A better understanding of the role of these cyclic dipeptides in psychiatric disorders could lead to strategies for prevention and treatment of these disorders. PMID:24717821

  4. Suicide in young adults: psychiatric and socio-economic factors from a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicide in young adults remains an important public health issue in Australia. The attributable risks associated with broader socioeconomic factors, compared to more proximal psychiatric disorders, have not been considered previously in individual-level studies of young adults. This study compared the relative contributions of psychiatric disorder and socio-economic disadvantage associated with suicide in terms of relative and attributable risk in young adults. Method A population-based case–control study of young adults (18–34 years) compared cases of suicide (n = 84) with randomly selected controls (n = 250) from population catchments in New South Wales (Australia), with exposure information collected from key informant interviews (for both cases and controls). The relative and attributable risk of suicide associated with ICD-10 defined substance use, affective, and anxiety disorder was compared with educational achievement and household income, adjusting for key confounders. Prevalence of exposures from the control group was used to estimate population attributable fractions (PAF). Results Strong associations were evident between mental disorders and suicide for both males and females (ORs 3.1 to 18.7). The strongest association was for anxiety disorders (both males and females), followed by affective disorders and substance use disorders. Associations for socio-economic status were smaller in magnitude than for mental disorders for both males and females (ORs 1.1 to 4.8 for lower compared to high SES groups). The combined PAF% for all mental disorders (48% for males and 52% for females) was similar in magnitude to socio-economic status (46% for males and 58% for females). Conclusion Socio-economic status had a similar magnitude of population attributable risk for suicide as mental disorders. Public health interventions to reduce suicide should incorporate socio-economic disadvantage in addition to mental illness as a potential target for

  5. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders among visitors to faith healers in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alosaimi, Fahad D.; Alshehri, Youssef; Alfraih, Ibrahim; Alghamdi, Ayedh; Aldahash, Saleh; Alkhuzayem, Haifa; Albeeeshi, Haneen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among visitors to Faith Healers (FHs) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We also studied the sociodemographic profiles for these visitors, in addition to their past psychiatric history, reason(s) for seeking FH help, and past and current treatment experience with FHs. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among the visitors (n=321) to a number of faith healing settings in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia using a specially designed questionnaire and validated Arabic version of The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results: Most of the participants were young adults (35.1±10.8 years) and males with intermediate and secondary levels of education who had not sought medical help prior to their visits. A high proportion of the FH visitors have diagnosable mental illnesses. Depressive and anxiety disorders were the most prevalent among the study participants; few visitors were affected by psychotic or bipolar disorders. Conclusions: The present study provides insight for understanding the type of patients with psychiatric disorders who visit Faith Healers.(FHs). The study highlights the tendency of psychiatric patients in Saudi Arabia to visit FHs, which could reflect the importance of further studies to clarify the impact of FHs on the management of those patients. PMID:25225530

  6. Work characteristics and psychiatric disorder in civil servants in London.

    PubMed Central

    Stansfeld, S A; North, F M; White, I; Marmot, M G

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To describe the association between self reported and externally assessed work characteristics and psychiatric disorder. DESIGN--Analysis of questionnaire data collected from the first phase of the Whitehall II study, a cohort study of an employed population. SETTING--Twenty civil service departments in London. PARTICIPANTS--Altogether 6900 male and 3414 female civil servants aged 35-55 years. MAIN RESULTS--High levels of subjective social support at work, control at work, job variety, and skill use were associated with greater satisfaction and wellbeing and less psychiatric disorder measured by the 30 item general health questionnaire (GHQ). High levels of subjective work pace and conflicting demands were associated with less satisfaction and wellbeing and greater psychiatric disorder. The combined effects of work characteristics were similar to the effects of the work characteristics considered separately, except that for men there was a small interaction between psychological demands and control on the GHQ. There was little overall support for the two factor job strain model. In contrast, objective indices of work were generally not associated with the psychological indices. Findings in men and women were generally comparable and were not significantly influenced by employment grade. CONCLUSIONS--Negative affectivity and a tendency to report negatively about both work and the psychological indices may partly explain the difference in the findings between subjective and objective work characteristics. However, subjective work characteristics were still associated with psychiatric disorder after adjusting for negative affectivity. The potential confounding effects of employment grade did not explain the association between either subjective or objective work characteristics and the psychological indices. While modifications to the work environment may directly reduce certain adverse physical health effects, the influence of work place design and

  7. Hypocretins, Neural Systems, Physiology, and Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Bin; Jones, Jeff R; de Lecea, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The hypocretins (Hcrts), also known as orexins, have been among the most intensely studied neuropeptide systems since their discovery about two decades ago. Anatomical evidence shows that the hypothalamic neurons that produce hypocretins/orexins project widely throughout the entire brain, innervating the noradrenergic locus coeruleus, the cholinergic basal forebrain, the dopaminergic ventral tegmental area, the serotonergic raphe nuclei, the histaminergic tuberomammillary nucleus, and many other brain regions. By interacting with other neural systems, the Hcrt system profoundly modulates versatile physiological processes including arousal, food intake, emotion, attention, and reward. Importantly, interruption of the interactions between these systems has the potential to cause neurological and psychiatric diseases. Here, we review the modulation of diverse neural systems by Hcrts and summarize potential therapeutic strategies based on our understanding of the Hcrt system's role in physiology and pathophysiological processes. PMID:26733323

  8. Astrogliopathology in neurological, neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Verkhratsky, Alexei; Parpura, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Astroglial cells represent a main element in the maintenance of homeostasis and providing defense to the brain. Consequently, their dysfunction underlies many, if not all, neurological, neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. General astrogliopathy is evident in diametrically opposing morpho-functional changes in astrocytes, i.e. their hypertrophy along with reactivity or atrophy with asthenia. Neurological disorders with astroglial participation can be genetic, of which Alexander disease is a primary sporadic astrogliopathy, environmentally caused, such as heavy metal encephalopathies, or neurodevelopmental in origin. Astroglia contribute to neurodegenerative processes seen in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases. Furthermore, astroglia also play a role in major neuropsychiatric disorders, ranging from schizophrenia to depression, as well as in addictive disorders. PMID:25843667

  9. Pervasive pleiotropy between psychiatric disorders and immune disorders revealed by integrative analysis of multiple GWAS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Yang, Can; Gelernter, Joel; Zhao, Hongyu

    2015-11-01

    Although some existing epidemiological observations and molecular experiments suggested that brain disorders in the realm of psychiatry may be influenced by immune dysregulation, the degree of genetic overlap between psychiatric disorders and immune disorders has not been well established. We investigated this issue by integrative analysis of genome-wide association studies of 18 complex human traits/diseases (five psychiatric disorders, seven immune disorders, and others) and multiple genome-wide annotation resources (central nervous system genes, immune-related expression-quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and DNase I hypertensive sites from 98 cell lines). We detected pleiotropy in 24 of the 35 psychiatric-immune disorder pairs. The strongest pleiotropy was observed for schizophrenia-rheumatoid arthritis with MHC region included in the analysis (p = 3.9 x 10(-285), and schizophrenia-Crohn's disease with MHC region excluded (p = 1.1 x 10(-36). Significant enrichment (> 1.4 fold) of immune-related eQTL was observed in four psychiatric disorders. Genomic regions responsible for pleiotropy between psychiatric disorders and immune disorders were detected. The MHC region on chromosome 6 appears to be the most important with other regions, such as cytoband 1p13.2, also playing significant roles in pleiotropy. We also found that most alleles shared between schizophrenia and Crohn's disease have the same effect direction, with similar trend found for other disorder pairs, such as bipolar-Crohn's disease. Our results offer a novel bird's-eye view of the genetic relationship and demonstrate strong evidence for pervasive pleiotropy between psychiatric disorders and immune disorders. Our findings might open new routes for prevention and treatment strategies for these disorders based on a new appreciation of the importance of immunological mechanisms in mediating risk of many psychiatric diseases. PMID:26340901

  10. Onset of Maternal Psychiatric Disorders after the Birth of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairthorne, Jenny; Jacoby, Peter; Bourke, Jenny; de Klerk, Nick; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mothers of a child with autism spectrum disorder have more psychiatric disorders after the birth of their child. This might be because they have more psychiatric disorders before the birth, or the increase could be related to the burden of caring for their child. Aims: We aimed to calculate the incidence of a psychiatric diagnosis in…

  11. Anterior capsulotomy improves persistent developmental stuttering with a psychiatric disorder: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shizhen; Li, Peng; Zhang, Zhujun; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Stuttering is characterized by disrupted fluency of verbal expression, and occurs mostly in children. Persistent developmental stuttering (PDS) may occur in adults. Reports of the surgical management of PDS are limited. Here we present the case of a 28-year-old man who had had PDS since the age of 7 years, was diagnosed with depression and anxiety disorder at the age of 24 years, and had physical concomitants. He underwent a bilateral anterior capsulotomy 4 years after the diagnosis. Over one year of follow-up, his physical concomitants resolved, and significant improvements in his psychiatric disorders and PDS were observed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of simultaneous improvement in a patient’s PDS and psychiatric disorder after a bilateral anterior capsulotomy. PMID:24729709

  12. Genomewide association studies: History, rationale and prospects for psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective We review the history and empirical basis of genomewide association studies (GWAS), the rationale for GWAS of psychiatric disorders, results to date, limitations, and plans for GWAS meta-analyses. Method Literature review, power analysis, discussion of issues and description of planned studies. Results Most of the genomic DNA sequence differences between any two people are common (frequency > 5%) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Because of localized patterns of correlation (linkage disequilibrium), 500,000-1,000,000 of these SNPs can test the hypothesis that one or more common variants explain part of the genetic risk for a disease. GWAS technologies can also detect some of the copy number variants (CNVs; deletions and duplications) in the genome. Systematic study of rare variants will require large-scale resequencing studies. GWAS methods have detected a remarkable number of robust genetic associations for dozens of common diseases and traits, leading to new pathophysiological hypotheses, although only small proportions of genetic variance have been explained so far, and therapeutic applications will require substantial further effort. Study design issues, power and limitations are discussed. For psychiatric disorders, there are initial significant findings for common SNPs and rare CNVs. Many other studies are in progress. Conclusion GWAS of large samples have detected associations of common SNPs and of rare CNVs to psychiatric disorders. More findings are likely -- larger GWAS samples detect larger numbers of common susceptibility variants (with smaller effects). The Psychiatric GWAS Consortium (of 110 researchers from 54 institutions) is carrying out GWAS meta-analyses for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Based on results for other diseases, larger samples will be required. The contribution of GWAS will depend on the true genetic architecture of each disorder. PMID

  13. Adult Diagnostic and Functional Outcomes of DSM-5 Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, William E.; Shanahan, Lilly; Egger, Helen; Angold, Adrian; Costello, E. Jane

    2014-01-01

    Objective Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder is a new disorder for DSM-5 that is uncommon and frequently co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Here, we test whether meeting diagnostic criteria for this disorder in childhood predicts adult diagnostic and functional outcomes. Methods In a prospective, population-based study, subjects were assessed with structured interviews up to 6 times in childhood and adolescence (ages 10 to 16; 5336 observations of 1420 subjects) for symptoms of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder and 3 times in young adulthood (ages 19, 21, and 24-26; 3215 observations of 1273 subjects) for psychiatric and functional outcomes (health, risky/illegal behavior, financial/educational and social functioning). Results Young adults with a history of childhood disruptive mood dysregulation disorders had elevated rates of anxiety and depression and were more likely to meet criteria for more than one adult disorder as compared to controls with no history of childhood psychiatric problems (noncases) or subjects meeting criteria for psychiatric disorders other than disruptive mood dysregulation disorder in childhood/adolescence (psychiatric controls). Participants with a history of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder also were more likely to have adverse health outcomes, be impoverished, have reported police contact, and have low educational attainment as adults compared to either psychiatric or noncase controls. Conclusions The long-term prognosis of children with disruptive mood dysregulation disorder cases is one of pervasive impaired functioning that in many cases is worse than that of other childhood psychiatric cases. PMID:24781389

  14. Cutaneous factitia in elderly patients: alarm signal for psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chiriac, Anca; Foia, Liliana; Birsan, Cristina; Goriuc, Ancuta; Solovan, Caius

    2014-01-01

    Background The factitious disorders, more commonly known in daily practice as pathomimia, are expressed in dermatology units by skin lesions induced voluntarily by the patient, in order to draw attention of the medical staff and/or the family members. The disorder is often challenging to diagnose and even more difficult to document in front of the patient or relatives. It represents a challenge for the physician, and any attempt at treatment may be followed by recurrence of the self-mutilation. This paper describes two cases of pathomimia diagnosed by dermatologists and treated in a psychiatry unit, highlighting the importance of collaboration in these situations. Patients and methods Two case reports, describing old female patients with pathomimia, hospitalized in a department of dermatology for bizarre skin lesions. Results The first case was a 77-year-old female with unknown psychiatric problems and atrophic skin lesions on the face, self-induced for many months, with multiple hospitalizations in dermatology units, with no response to different therapeutic patterns, and full recovery after psychiatric treatment for a major depressive syndrome. The second case was a 61-year-old female patient with disseminated atrophic scars on the face, trunk, and limbs. She raised our interest because of possible psychiatric issues, as she had attempted to commit suicide. The prescription of antidepressants led to a significant clinical improvement. Conclusion These cases indicate that a real psychiatric disease may be recorded in patients suffering from pathomimia. Therefore, complete psychiatric evaluation in order to choose the proper therapy is mandatory for all these cases. Dermatologists and all physicians who take care of old patients must recognize the disorder in order to provide optimum care for this chronic condition. We emphasize therefore the importance of psychiatric evaluation and treatment to avoid the major risk of suicide. Skin lesions must be regarded as an

  15. Comorbidity of Psychiatric Disorders and Nicotine Dependence among Adolescents: Findings from a Prospective, Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griesler, Pamela C.; Hu, Mei-Chen; Schaffram, Christine; Kandel, Denise B.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between nicotine dependence and DSM-IV psychiatric disorders in 1,039 adolescents is examined. Findings revealed that psychiatric disorders most usually predicted the onset of the first basis of nicotine dependence while nicotine dependence does not appear to have an influence on the onset of psychiatric disorders. Other…

  16. A Review of Indian Research on Co-occurring Psychiatric Disorders and Alcohol use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shalini; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

    2016-01-01

    Excessive use of alcohol has been identified as a major contributor to the global burden of disease. Excessive use of alcohol is a component cause of more than 200 disease and injury conditions. Alcohol use has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality across all regions of the world including South-East Asia. Epidemiological as well as clinic-based studies from Western countries have reported a high prevalence of co-occurrence of alcohol use disorder and psychiatric disorders. The research has established the clinical relevance of this comorbidity as it is often associated with poor treatment outcome, severe illness course, and high service utilization. Understandably, dual disorders in from of alcohol use disorders and psychiatric disorders present diagnostic and management challenge. The current article is aimed to review systematically the published Indian literature on comorbid alcohol use disorders and psychiatric disorders. PMID:27011396

  17. The Relationship Between Childhood Abuse and Adult Personality Disorder Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Kelly E.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Price, Lawrence H.; Gagne, Gerard G.; Mello, Andrea F.; Mello, Marcelo F.; Tyrka, Audrey R.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed personality disorder symptomatology in a community sample of healthy adults without diagnosable DSM-IV-TR Axis I psychiatric disorders who reported a history of childhood abuse. Twenty-eight subjects with a history of moderate to severe physical, sexual, and/or emotional abuse according to the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were compared to 33 subjects without an abuse history on symptoms of personality disorders. Subjects in the Abuse group were more likely to report subclinical symptoms of paranoid, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial, obsessive compulsive, passive-aggressive, and depressive personality disorders. These findings link reports of childhood abuse with symptoms of personality disorders in the absence of Axis I psychiatric disorders in a community sample of healthy adults. PMID:17685839

  18. Adventure with Adults Living with Psychiatric Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Bridget; Horwood, Shane; Aunger, Nic; Wong, Michele

    Out Doors Inc. is a community-managed mental health organization in Victoria (Australia) that provides psychosocial rehabilitation to adults with mental health needs through outdoor adventure and other recreation experiences. This paper focuses on Out Door Inc.'s Going Places Program. The program, which ranges from 1 day to 4 months, is based on…

  19. Affective responses across psychiatric disorders-A dimensional approach.

    PubMed

    Hägele, Claudia; Friedel, Eva; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Sterzer, Philipp; Beck, Anne; Bermpohl, Felix; Stoy, Meline; Held-Poschardt, Dada; Wittmann, André; Ströhle, Andreas; Heinz, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Studying psychiatric disorders across nosological boundaries aims at a better understanding of mental disorders by identifying comprehensive signatures of core symptoms. Here, we studied neurobiological correlates of emotion processing in several major psychiatric disorders. We assessed differences between diagnostic groups, and investigated whether there is a psychopathological correlate of emotion processing that transcends disorder categories. 135 patient with psychiatric disorders (alcohol dependence, n=29; schizophrenia, n=37; major depressive disorder (MDD), n=25; acute manic episode of bipolar disorder, n=12; panic disorder, n=12, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), n=20) and healthy controls (n=40) underwent an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with affectively positive, aversive and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Between-group differences were assessed with full-factorial ANOVAs, with age, gender and smoking habits as covariates. Self-ratings of depressed mood and anxiety were correlated with activation clusters showing significant stimulus-evoked fMRI activation. Furthermore, we examined functional connectivity with the amygdala as seed region during the processing of aversive pictures. During the presentation of pleasant stimuli, we observed across all subjects significant activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), bilateral middle temporal gyrus and right precuneus, while a significant activation of the left amygdala and the bilateral middle temporal gyrus was found during the presentation of aversive stimuli. We did neither find any significant interaction with diagnostic group, nor any correlation with depression and anxiety scores at the activated clusters or with amygdala connectivity. Positive and aversive IAPS-stimuli were consistently processed in limbic and prefrontal brain areas, irrespective of diagnostic category. A dimensional correlate of these

  20. Physical Punishment, Childhood Abuse and Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afifi, Tracie O.; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Cox, Brian J.; Sareen, Jitender

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Physical punishment, as a means of disciplining children, may be considered a mild form of childhood adversity. Although many outcomes of physical punishment have been investigated, little attention has been given to the impact of physical punishment on later adult psychopathology. Also, it has been stated that physical punishment by a…

  1. Psychiatric Literacy and the Conduct Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Leno, Virginia Carter

    2012-01-01

    Past research regarding mental health literacy has indicated that public knowledge is lamentably poor. This study aimed to examine the effect of demographics, experience and personality, as predictors for understanding conduct disorders. An opportunistic sample of 125 participants with a mean age of 24.29 years completed an online questionnaire in…

  2. Resilience: A psychobiological construct for psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Amresh; Desousa, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of psychopathology of mental disorder is evolving, particularly with availability of newer insight from the field of genetics, epigenetics, social, and environmental pathology. It is now becoming clear how biological factors are contributing to development of an illness in the face of a number of psychosocial factors. Resilience is a psychobiological factor which determines individual's response to adverse life events. Resilience is a human capacity to adapt swiftly and successfully to stressful/traumatic events and manage to revert to a positive state. It is fundamental for growth of positive psychology which deals with satisfaction, adaptability, contentment, and optimism in people's life. Of late, there has been a paradigm shift in the understanding of resilience in context of stress risk vulnerability dimension. It is a neurobiological construct with significant neurobehavioral and emotional features which plays important role in deconstructing mechanism of biopsychosocial model of mental disorders. Resilience is a protective factor against development of mental disorder and a risk factor for a number of clinical conditions, e.g. suicide. Available information from scientific studies points out that resilience is modifiable factor which opens up avenues for a number of newer psychosocial as well as biological therapies. Early identification of vulnerable candidates and effectiveness of resilience-based intervention may offer more clarity in possibility of prevention. Future research may be crucial for preventive psychiatry. In this study, we aim to examine whether resilience is a psychopathological construct for mental disorder. PMID:26985103

  3. Resilience: A psychobiological construct for psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Amresh; Desousa, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of psychopathology of mental disorder is evolving, particularly with availability of newer insight from the field of genetics, epigenetics, social, and environmental pathology. It is now becoming clear how biological factors are contributing to development of an illness in the face of a number of psychosocial factors. Resilience is a psychobiological factor which determines individual's response to adverse life events. Resilience is a human capacity to adapt swiftly and successfully to stressful/traumatic events and manage to revert to a positive state. It is fundamental for growth of positive psychology which deals with satisfaction, adaptability, contentment, and optimism in people's life. Of late, there has been a paradigm shift in the understanding of resilience in context of stress risk vulnerability dimension. It is a neurobiological construct with significant neurobehavioral and emotional features which plays important role in deconstructing mechanism of biopsychosocial model of mental disorders. Resilience is a protective factor against development of mental disorder and a risk factor for a number of clinical conditions, e.g. suicide. Available information from scientific studies points out that resilience is modifiable factor which opens up avenues for a number of newer psychosocial as well as biological therapies. Early identification of vulnerable candidates and effectiveness of resilience-based intervention may offer more clarity in possibility of prevention. Future research may be crucial for preventive psychiatry. In this study, we aim to examine whether resilience is a psychopathological construct for mental disorder. PMID:26985103

  4. Neurological and psychiatric disorders as a neuroglial failure

    PubMed Central

    VERKHRATSKY, ALEXEI; PARPURA, VLADIMIR

    2014-01-01

    Neuroglia are a diverse non-neuronal population of cells in the central and peripheral nervous system. These cells have a variety of functions that can all be summed up as the maintenance of homeostasis of the nervous system. It is the loss of homeostasis that represents the culprit of all disorders. Thus, neuroglia can be envisioned as the pivotal element in all neural disorders, be that neurological or psychiatric. In this review, we discuss the role of glia in homeostasis and defence of the nervous system as well as changes in the morpho-functional characteristics of these cells in various disorders. PMID:25544781

  5. Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Children with Autism: Interview Development and Rates of Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyfer, Ovsanna T.; Folstein, Susan E.; Bacalman, Susan; Davis, Naomi O.; Dinh, Elena; Morgan, Jubel; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2006-01-01

    The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia was modified for use in children and adolescents with autism by developing additional screening questions and coding options that reflect the presentation of psychiatric disorders in autism spectrum disorders. The modified instrument, the Autism Comorbidity Interview-Present and…

  6. Self-esteem, life stress and psychiatric disorder.

    PubMed

    Miller, P M; Kreitman, N B; Ingham, J G; Sashidharan, S P

    1989-01-01

    Using a special subsample from a survey of women in Edinburgh investigations were carried out into (a) which types of life event are associated with lowered self-esteem; (b) the role of life events and self-esteem in onset of psychiatric disorder; and (c) the additional significance of prior psychiatric consultation in determining onset. Stressors involving impaired relationships with others were the only ones clearly associated with lowered self-esteem. Minor psychiatric illness was predicted by stress of uncertain outcome, and, to a lesser extent, by impaired relationship stress. Onset of major depression was best predicted by an interaction between total stress experienced and low self-esteem. There was evidence that such onset involves a pre-existing low level of self-esteem on which life stress impinges, rather than life stress generating low self-esteem and then onset. A small group of subjects characterised by low self-esteem, prior psychiatric consultation and maladaptive coping seemed to be fluctuating in and out of psychiatric illness irrespective of stress. PMID:2525578

  7. The ANKK1 kinase gene and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Guillermo; Pérez-González, Rocío; Aragüés, María; Palomo, Tomás; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Roberto; Jiménez-Arriero, Miguel Angel; Hoenicka, Janet

    2009-07-01

    The TaqIA single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs1800497), which is located in the gene that codes for the putative kinase ANKK1 (ANKK1) near the termination codon of the D2 dopamine receptor gene (DRD2; chromosome 11q22-q23), is the most studied genetic variation in a broad range of psychiatric disorders and personality traits. A large number of individual genetic association studies have found that the TaqIA SNP is linked to alcoholism and antisocial traits. In addition, it has also been related to other conditions such as schizophrenia, eating disorders, and some behavioral childhood disorders. The TaqIA A1 allele is mainly associated with addictions, antisocial disorders, eating disorders, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders, while the A2 allele occurs more frequently in schizophrenic and obsessive-compulsive patients. Current data show that the TaqIA polymorphism may be a marker of both DRD2 and ANKK1 genetic variants. ANKK1 would belong to a family of kinases involved in signal transduction. This raises the question of whether signaling players intervene in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Basic research on the ANKK1 protein and its putative interaction with the D2 dopamine receptor could shed light on this issue. PMID:19526298

  8. [Cannabis-induced cognitive and psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Dervaux, Alain; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Laqueille, Xavier

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have shown that Δ-9-THC the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, can impair cognitive functions, especially attention, episodic memory, working memory and executive functions. These impairments have been related to the duration, frequency, dose and age at onset of cannabis use. Cognitive deficits may disappear with abstinence, but abnormalities may be long-lasting in subjects who began smoking cannabis before age 15. The lifetime prevalence of cannabis use disorders is about 1% in the general population. The main characteristics of cannabis use disorders are craving, persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cannabis use, and persistent avoidance of familial, social occupational or recreational activities because of cannabis use. Nine prospective longitudinal studies in the generalpopulation have shown that cannabis use is associated with a two-fold increase in the risk of psychotic disorders, particularly schizophrenia, compared to controls. The risk of psychosis increases in a dose-related fashion. A higher risk of schizophrenia is predicted by earlier onset of cannabis use. The effects of cannabis are exerted primarily through THC interaction with cannabinoid (CB) 1 receptors in the brain. Cannabis exposure may disrupt the last steps of brain maturation, through the endocannabinoid system, thereby increasing the risk of psychosis during adolescence. PMID:26427297

  9. Transcranial direct current stimulation in psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tortella, Gabriel; Casati, Roberta; Aparicio, Luana V M; Mantovani, Antonio; Senço, Natasha; D’Urso, Giordano; Brunelin, Jerome; Guarienti, Fabiana; Selingardi, Priscila Mara Lorencini; Muszkat, Débora; Junior, Bernardo de Sampaio Pereira; Valiengo, Leandro; Moffa, Adriano H; Simis, Marcel; Borrione, Lucas; Brunoni, André R

    2015-01-01

    The interest in non-invasive brain stimulation techniques is increasing in recent years. Among these techniques, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been the subject of great interest among researchers because of its easiness to use, low cost, benign profile of side effects and encouraging results of research in the field. This interest has generated several studies and randomized clinical trials, particularly in psychiatry. In this review, we provide a summary of the development of the technique and its mechanism of action as well as a review of the methodological aspects of randomized clinical trials in psychiatry, including studies in affective disorders, schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder, child psychiatry and substance use disorder. Finally, we provide an overview of tDCS use in cognitive enhancement as well as a discussion regarding its clinical use and regulatory and ethical issues. Although many promising results regarding tDCS efficacy were described, the total number of studies is still low, highlighting the need of further studies aiming to replicate these findings in larger samples as to provide a definite picture regarding tDCS efficacy in psychiatry. PMID:25815258

  10. Network beyond IDO in psychiatric disorders: revisiting neurodegeneration hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Myint, Aye-Mu; Kim, Yong-Ku

    2014-01-01

    The involvement of immune system activation in the pathophysiology of certain psychiatric disorders is well documented. Inflammatory molecules such as pro-inflammatory cytokines could enhance the activity of the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) enzyme which is the first rate-limiting enzyme of the tryptophan degradation pathway, the kynurenine pathway. The increased tryptophan degradation could induce serotonin depletion and depressive mood. On the other hand, the downstream metabolites from this pathway, such as 3-hydroxykynurenine, quinolinic acid and kynurenic acid, are neuroactive metabolites which can modulate several neurotransmissions, such as glutamatergic, GABAergic, dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurotransmissions, which in turn induce changes in neuronal-glial network and neuropsychiatric consequences. In this issue, we have revised the previous 'neurodegeneration hypothesis,' which explained the involvement of cytokines and IDO pathway interaction in depression, with a further extended view related to the network beyond IDO, the network between immune molecules, tryptophan metabolites and different neurotransmitters, in depression and other major psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and childhood psychiatric disorders. PMID:24184687

  11. Dopamine in socioecological and evolutionary perspectives: implications for psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Lee, Young-A; Goto, Yukiori

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) transmission in brain areas such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) plays important roles in cognitive and affective function. As such, DA deficits have been implicated in a number of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Accumulating evidence suggests that DA is also involved in social behavior of animals and humans. Although most animals organize and live in social groups, how the DA system functions in such social groups of animals, and its dysfunction causes compromises in the groups has remained less understood. Here we propose that alterations of DA signaling and associated genetic variants and behavioral phenotypes, which have been normally considered as “deficits” in investigation at an individual level, may not necessarily yield disadvantages, but even work advantageously, depending on social contexts in groups. This hypothesis could provide a novel insight into our understanding of the biological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders, and a potential explanation that disadvantageous phenotypes associated with DA deficits in psychiatric disorders have remained in humans through evolution. PMID:26136653

  12. The Correlation Between Psychiatric Disorders and Women’s Lives

    PubMed Central

    Bursalioglu, Fusun Sevimli; Aydin, Nazan; Yazici, Esra; Yazici, Ahmet Bulent

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Psychiatric disorders are important factors which affect the quality of life: employment rates, interpersonal and intrafamilial communications, marriage, child-bearing, parental skills and many other social – cognitive areas in different ways. Psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder and depressive disorder have a negative impact on women’s lives. This study has compared the relationship between these mental illnesses and the liabilities of women’s lives. Methods: For the purpose of this study, 61 schizophrenics, 35 bipolar and 40 unipolar female patients and 60 healthy controls from a university hospital of eastern Turkey were evaluated with SCID- I, a family environmental scale and a personal information questionnaire. Results: The women with psychiatric disorders had higher rates of unemployment, shorter durations of marriage and lower numbers of parity, as compared to their healthy counterparts, especially after the onset of their illnesses. The schizophrenia and bipolar groups are at risk due to the psychotropic medications which they take during pregnancy. The onset or the exacerbations of illnesses during the postpartum period are also seen more in the schizophrenia and the bipolar groups. However, the patients did not use medicines more than the healthy controls during lactation. The schizophrenia and bipolar groups seem to be failing in using reliable methods of contraception. This data is important due to the traditional and the socio-economical structure of eastern Turkey, which may interrelate with the results. Conclusion: Women have to play various roles in life and they have various challenges which are related to these roles. The female psychiatric patients should be evaluated in the special perspective of ‘being women’, along with other clinical parameters. The evaluation of the social, cultural and the economic aspects and the collaborative teams of different clinical disciplines which are related to

  13. Subjective Well-being of Older African Americans with DSM IV Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Tina L; Chatters, Linda M; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Nguyen, Ann W

    2014-10-01

    This study examined demographic and mental health correlates of subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, happiness) using a national sample of older African Americans with psychiatric disorders. We used a subsample of 185 African Americans, 55 and older with at least one of thirteen lifetime psychiatric disorders from The National Survey of American Life: Coping with Stress in the 21st Century (NSAL). The findings indicated that among this population of older adults who had a lifetime psychiatric disorder, having a lifetime suicidal ideation was associated with life satisfaction but not happiness. Further, having a 12-month anxiety disorder or a lifetime suicidal ideation was not associated with happiness. Having a 12-month mood disorder, however, was negatively associated with an individual's level of happiness, as well as their life satisfaction. Additionally, there were two significant interactions. Among men, employment was positively associated with life satisfaction, and marriage was associated with higher levels of happiness among men but not women. The overall pattern of findings reflects both similarities and departures from prior research confirming that well-being evaluations are associated with multiple factors. PMID:25328428

  14. Consensus on guidelines for stereotactic neurosurgery for psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nuttin, Bart; Wu, Hemmings; Mayberg, Helen; Hariz, Marwan; Gabriëls, Loes; Galert, Thorsten; Merkel, Reinhard; Kubu, Cynthia; Vilela-Filho, Osvaldo; Matthews, Keith; Taira, Takaomi; Lozano, Andres M; Schechtmann, Gastón; Doshi, Paresh; Broggi, Giovanni; Régis, Jean; Alkhani, Ahmed; Sun, Bomin; Eljamel, Sam; Schulder, Michael; Kaplitt, Michael; Eskandar, Emad; Rezai, Ali; Krauss, Joachim K; Hilven, Paulien; Schuurman, Rick; Ruiz, Pedro; Chang, Jin Woo; Cosyns, Paul; Lipsman, Nir; Voges, Juergen; Cosgrove, Rees; Li, Yongjie; Schlaepfer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background For patients with psychiatric illnesses remaining refractory to ‘standard’ therapies, neurosurgical procedures may be considered. Guidelines for safe and ethical conduct of such procedures have previously and independently been proposed by various local and regional expert groups. Methods To expand on these earlier documents, representative members of continental and international psychiatric and neurosurgical societies, joined efforts to further elaborate and adopt a pragmatic worldwide set of guidelines. These are intended to address a broad range of neuropsychiatric disorders, brain targets and neurosurgical techniques, taking into account cultural and social heterogeneities of healthcare environments. Findings The proposed consensus document highlights that, while stereotactic ablative procedures such as cingulotomy and capsulotomy for depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder are considered ‘established’ in some countries, they still lack level I evidence. Further, it is noted that deep brain stimulation in any brain target hitherto tried, and for any psychiatric or behavioural disorder, still remains at an investigational stage. Researchers are encouraged to design randomised controlled trials, based on scientific and data-driven rationales for disease and brain target selection. Experienced multidisciplinary teams are a mandatory requirement for the safe and ethical conduct of any psychiatric neurosurgery, ensuring documented refractoriness of patients, proper consent procedures that respect patient's capacity and autonomy, multifaceted preoperative as well as postoperative long-term follow-up evaluation, and reporting of effects and side effects for all patients. Interpretation This consensus document on ethical and scientific conduct of psychiatric surgery worldwide is designed to enhance patient safety. PMID:24444853

  15. Balancing Histone Methylation Activities in Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Cyril Jayakumar; Akbarian, Schahram

    2011-01-01

    Alterations in histone lysine methylation and other epigenetic regulators of gene expression contribute to changes in brain transcriptomes in mood and psychosis spectrum disorders, including depression and schizophrenia. Genetic association studies and animal models implicate multiple lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) and demethylases (KDMs) in the neurobiology of emotion and cognition. Here, we review the role of histone lysine methylation and transcriptional regulation in normal and diseased neurodevelopment and discuss various KMTs and KDMs as potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disease. PMID:21429800

  16. Social Experience-Dependent Myelination: An Implication for Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Toritsuka, Michihiro; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    Myelination is one of the strategies to promote the conduction velocity of axons in order to adjust to evolving environment in vertebrates. It has been shown that myelin formation depends on genetic programing and experience, including multiple factors, intracellular and extracellular molecules, and neuronal activities. Recently, accumulating studies have shown that myelination in the central nervous system changes more dynamically in response to neuronal activities and experience than expected. Among experiences, social experience-dependent myelination draws attention as one of the critical pathobiologies of psychiatric disorders. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms of neuronal activity-dependent and social experience-dependent myelination and discuss the contribution of social experience-dependent myelination to the pathology of psychiatric disorders. PMID:26078885

  17. Comorbid psychiatric disorders in substance dependence patients: A control study

    PubMed Central

    Shantna, K.; Chaudhury, S.; Verma, A. N.; Singh, A. R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the comorbidity of mental disorders among a random sample of substance dependence patients from a psychiatric inpatients department and the general population. Materials and Methods: Comprehensive data was collected from inpatients with substance abuse/dependence and comorbidity of mental disorders at the Ranchi Institute of Neuropsychiatry and Allied Sciences (RINPAS) and from normal controls from the general population during the period January 2007 to May 2007. Results: The results show that the most prevalent comorbid disorders in substance dependence patients and substance abusers were depressive disorders. Conclusions: The majority of substance dependence patients suffered from comorbid mental disorders. Comorbidity needs to be taken into account when analyzing the relationship between substance dependence and depression and in planning treatment strategies for comorbid conditions. PMID:21180482

  18. Gender Differences in Psychiatric Disorders at Juvenile Probation Intake

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Gail A.; McReynolds, Larkin S.; Ko, Susan J.; Katz, Laura M.; Carpenter, Jennifer R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective. We identified gender differences in psychiatric disorders among youths at probation intake. Methods. We measured disorders with the Voice Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children among 991 randomly selected youths (200 girls) at probation intake in 8 Texas counties. Logistic regression analyses predicted diagnostic clusters by gender, adjusting for demographics and offense characteristics. Results. Demographic and offense characteristics explained small but interpretable and specific variance in diagnostic profile. Girls’ rates of anxiety and affective disorders were higher than boys’ (odds ratios = 0.59 and 0.32, respectively). Girls with violent offenses, compared with other groups, were 3 to 5 times as likely to report anxiety disorders. Conclusions. Among youths with conduct problems, girls demonstrated an elevated risk for co-occurring anxiety or affective disorder. PMID:15623873

  19. Clinical significance of brain white matter hyperintensities in young adults with psychiatric illness.

    PubMed

    Breeze, Janis L; Hesdorffer, Dale C; Hong, Xiaoni; Frazier, Jean A; Renshaw, Perry F

    2003-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides detailed images of brain anatomy, with especially clear definition of gray and white matter structures. Several brain MRI studies have suggested that adults with bipolar disorder (BD) are more likely to have "white matter hyperintensities" (WMH) than adults without BD. The disproportionately greater frequency of these lesions in otherwise physically healthy patients suggests that the illness itself, or treatments used to control the illness, may be risk factors for the development of white matter changes. Similarly, WMH may be an etiological factor for some types of BD. In addition to reviewing the relevant literature, this research study attempted to determine whether lithium treatment is associated with an increased prevalence of WMH in young adults with psychiatric illness. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated over 600 brain MRI scans from inpatients at McLean Hospital, Belmont, Massachusetts. We controlled for possible confounding variables such as age, vascular disease, substance abuse, and markers of illness severity. We found that individuals with BD were no more likely to have WMH than other psychiatric patients. Lithium use was nonsignificantly associated with the presence of WMH. A multivariate regression model for the presence of WMH showed that heart disease, female gender, and multiple psychiatric admissions were significant predictors of WMH. This study does not support previous findings that BD, compared to other psychiatric illnesses, was associated with increased risk of WMH. Lithium use may be subtly associated with WMH. Our results are consistent with previous research that found an association between cardiovascular disease, advanced age, and the presence of WMH, though our analysis appears to be unique in its inclusion of cardiovascular disease as a risk factor in young adults with psychiatric illness. PMID:14555427

  20. Perceived social support in Spanish cancer outpatients with psychiatric disorder.

    PubMed

    Costa-Requena, Gema; Ballester Arnal, Rafael; Gil, Francisco

    2013-12-01

    This study examines differences in perceived social support during oncology treatment of cancer patients, whilst taking into account the presence of psychiatric disorder. Of particular interest were cancer patients who received psychopharmacology treatment compared with those who did not. A total of 760 cancer outpatients were recruited from one hospital in Spain. Multivariate analysis of variance with the general linear model procedure was used. The Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey was used to assess social support perceived. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule using DSM-III-R criteria was utilized for the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders. There were significant differences between the patients diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder and those not diagnosed with psychiatric disorders in terms of perceived Emotional/Informational Support (F = 19.11, p < 0.01), Affectionate Support (F = 12.30, p < 0.01) and the Overall Support Index (F = 16.73, p < 0.01). In patients requiring psychopharmacology treatment, significant differences were presented with Structural Support (F = 4.32, p < 0.05), Emotional/Informational Support perceived (F = 7.87, p < 0.01), Instrumental Support (F = 4.17, p < 0.05) and Overall Support Index (F = 7.84, p < 0.01). Psychopharmacology treatment helped to increase the perception of social support received by the patient. Healthcare professionals could provide support that would normalize cancer patients' distress, taking into account the importance of perceived social support for the psychological well-being of patients. PMID:23436700

  1. Adult Learning Disorders: Contemporary Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Lorraine E., Ed.; Schreiber, Hope E., Ed.; Wasserstein, Jeanette, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging and genetics technologies have enhanced our understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders in adults. The authors in this volume not only discuss such advances as they apply to adults with learning disorders, but also address their translation into clinical practice. One cluster of chapters addresses developmental…

  2. Common Questions About Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Scott F; Banducci, Anne N; Vinci, Christine

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is a time-limited, goal-oriented psychotherapy that has been extensively researched and has benefits in a number of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, obsessive-compulsive and tic disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, and insomnia. CBT uses targeted strategies to help patients adopt more adaptive patterns of thinking and behaving, which leads to positive changes in emotions and decreased functional impairments. Strategies include identifying and challenging problematic thoughts and beliefs, scheduling pleasant activities to increase environmental reinforcement, and extended exposure to unpleasant thoughts, situations, or physiologic sensations to decrease avoidance and arousal associated with anxiety-eliciting stimuli. CBT can be helpful in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder by emphasizing safety, trust, control, esteem, and intimacy. Prolonged exposure therapy is a CBT technique that includes a variety of strategies, such as repeated recounting of the trauma and exposure to feared real-world situations. For attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, CBT focuses on establishing structures and routines, and clear rules and expectations within the home and classroom. Early intensive behavioral interventions should be initiated in children with autism before three years of age; therapy consists of 12 to 40 hours of intensive treatment per week, for at least one year. In many disorders, CBT can be used alone or in combination with medications. However, CBT requires a significant commitment from patients. Family physicians are well suited to provide collaborative care for patients with psychiatric disorders, in concert with cognitive behavior therapists. PMID:26554473

  3. Body mass index and psychiatric disorders: a Mendelian randomization study

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, Fernando Pires; Bowden, Jack; Loret de Mola, Christian; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Davey Smith, George; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a highly prevalent risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. Observational studies suggest that obesity is associated with psychiatric traits, but causal inference from such studies has several limitations. We used two-sample Mendelian randomization methods (inverse variance weighting, weighted median and MR-Egger regression) to evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI) with three psychiatric traits using data from the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits and Psychiatric Genomics consortia. Causal odds ratio estimates per 1-standard deviation increment in BMI ranged from 0.88 (95% CI: 0.62; 1.25) to 1.23 (95% CI: 0.65; 2.31) for bipolar disorder; 0.93 (0.78; 1.11) to 1.41 (0.87; 2.27) for schizophrenia; and 1.15 (95% CI: 0.92; 1.44) to 1.40 (95% CI: 1.03; 1.90) for major depressive disorder. Analyses removing potentially influential SNPs suggested that the effect estimates for depression might be underestimated. Our findings do not support the notion that higher BMI increases risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Although the point estimates for depression were consistent in all sensitivity analyses, the overall statistical evidence was weak. However, the fact that SNP-depression associations were estimated in relatively small samples reduced power to detect causal effects. This should be re-addressed when SNP-depression associations from larger studies become available. PMID:27601421

  4. A Computational Analysis of Aberrant Delay Discounting in Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Story, Giles W; Moutoussis, Michael; Dolan, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    Impatience for reward is a facet of many psychiatric disorders. We draw attention to a growing literature finding greater discounting of delayed reward, an important aspect of impatience, across a range of psychiatric disorders. We propose these findings are best understood by considering the goals and motivation for discounting future reward. We characterize these as arising from either the opportunity costs of waiting or the uncertainty associated with delayed reward. We link specific instances of higher discounting in psychiatric disorder to heightened subjective estimates of either of these factors. We propose these costs are learned and represented based either on a flexible cognitive model of the world, an accumulation of previous experience, or through evolutionary specification. Any of these can be considered suboptimal for the individual if the resulting behavior results in impairments in personal and social functioning and/or in distress. By considering the neurochemical and neuroanatomical implementation of these processes, we illustrate how this approach can in principle unite social, psychological and biological conceptions of impulsive choice. PMID:26793131

  5. Body mass index and psychiatric disorders: a Mendelian randomization study.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Fernando Pires; Bowden, Jack; Loret de Mola, Christian; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Davey Smith, George; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a highly prevalent risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. Observational studies suggest that obesity is associated with psychiatric traits, but causal inference from such studies has several limitations. We used two-sample Mendelian randomization methods (inverse variance weighting, weighted median and MR-Egger regression) to evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI) with three psychiatric traits using data from the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits and Psychiatric Genomics consortia. Causal odds ratio estimates per 1-standard deviation increment in BMI ranged from 0.88 (95% CI: 0.62; 1.25) to 1.23 (95% CI: 0.65; 2.31) for bipolar disorder; 0.93 (0.78; 1.11) to 1.41 (0.87; 2.27) for schizophrenia; and 1.15 (95% CI: 0.92; 1.44) to 1.40 (95% CI: 1.03; 1.90) for major depressive disorder. Analyses removing potentially influential SNPs suggested that the effect estimates for depression might be underestimated. Our findings do not support the notion that higher BMI increases risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Although the point estimates for depression were consistent in all sensitivity analyses, the overall statistical evidence was weak. However, the fact that SNP-depression associations were estimated in relatively small samples reduced power to detect causal effects. This should be re-addressed when SNP-depression associations from larger studies become available. PMID:27601421

  6. A Computational Analysis of Aberrant Delay Discounting in Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Story, Giles W.; Moutoussis, Michael; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2016-01-01

    Impatience for reward is a facet of many psychiatric disorders. We draw attention to a growing literature finding greater discounting of delayed reward, an important aspect of impatience, across a range of psychiatric disorders. We propose these findings are best understood by considering the goals and motivation for discounting future reward. We characterize these as arising from either the opportunity costs of waiting or the uncertainty associated with delayed reward. We link specific instances of higher discounting in psychiatric disorder to heightened subjective estimates of either of these factors. We propose these costs are learned and represented based either on a flexible cognitive model of the world, an accumulation of previous experience, or through evolutionary specification. Any of these can be considered suboptimal for the individual if the resulting behavior results in impairments in personal and social functioning and/or in distress. By considering the neurochemical and neuroanatomical implementation of these processes, we illustrate how this approach can in principle unite social, psychological and biological conceptions of impulsive choice. PMID:26793131

  7. Childhood-Onset Bipolar Disorder: Evidence for Increased Familial Loading of Psychiatric Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rende, Richard; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Strober, Michael; Gill, Mary Kay; Valeri, Sylvia; Chiappetta, Laurel; Ryan, Neal; Leonard, Henrietta; Hunt, Jeffrey; Iyengar, Satish; Keller, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether childhood-onset bipolar disorder (BP) is associated with an increased psychiatric family history compared with adolescent-onset BP. Method: Semistructured psychiatric interviews were conducted for 438 youth with BP spectrum disorders. To evaluate the effects of age at onset and psychiatric family history, the sample…

  8. Stability of Comorbid Psychiatric Diagnosis among Youths in Treatment and Aftercare for Alcohol Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawke, Josephine M.; Kaminer, Yifrah; Burke, Rebecca; Burleson, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the stability of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses among a sample of 50 adolescents in cognitive-behaviorally-based treatment for alcohol and other substance use disorders (AOSUD). Methods: A standardized psychiatric interview was administered at baseline and 12 month later to obtain current comorbid psychiatric disorders. Chi…

  9. Emergency Department Visits by Adults for Psychiatric Medication Adverse Events

    PubMed Central

    Hampton, Lee M.; Daubresse, Matthew; Chang, Hsien-Yen; Alexander, G. Caleb; Budnitz, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE In 2011, an estimated 26.8 million US adults used prescription medications for mental illness. OBJECTIVE To estimate the numbers and rates of adverse drug event (ADE) emergency department (ED) visits involving psychiatric medications among US adults between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2011. DESIGN AND SETTING Descriptive analyses of active, nationally representative surveillance of ADE ED visits using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System–Cooperative Adverse Drug Event Surveillance system and of drug prescribing during outpatient visits using the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. PARTICIPANTS Medical records from national probability samples of ED and outpatient visits by adults 19 years or older were reviewed and analyzed. EXPOSURES Antidepressants, antipsychotics, lithium salts, sedatives and anxiolytics, and stimulants. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES National estimates of ADE ED visits resulting from therapeutic psychiatric medication use and of psychiatric medication ADE ED visits per 10 000 outpatient visits at which psychiatric medications were prescribed. RESULTS From 2009 through 2011, there were an estimated 89 094 (95% CI, 68 641–109 548) psychiatric medication ADE ED visits annually, with 19.3% (95% CI, 16.3%–22.2%) resulting in hospitalization and 49.4% (95% CI, 46.5%–52.4%) involving patients aged 19 to 44 years. Sedatives and anxiolytics, antidepressants, antipsychotics, lithium salts, and stimulants were implicated in an estimated 30 707 (95% CI, 23 406–38 008), 25 377 (95% CI, 19 051–31 704), 21 578 (95% CI, 16 599–26 557), 3620 (95% CI, 2311–4928), and 2779 (95% CI, 1764–3794) respective ADE ED visits annually. Antipsychotics and lithium salts were implicated in 11.7 (95% CI, 10.1–13.2) and 16.4 (95% CI, 13.0–19.9) ADE ED visits per 10 000 outpatient prescription visits, respectively, compared with 3.6 (95% CI, 3.2–4.1) for sedatives

  10. [Psychiatric comorbidity in somatic disorders. Psychophytopharmaceuticals are worth a try].

    PubMed

    Volz, H P

    2001-05-28

    Somatic and psychiatric illnesses are commonly associated. Cardiovascular disorders, Parkinson's disease and stroke are especially often associated with depression as also anxiety and sleep disturbances. Psychophytopharmaceuticals, which are usually well tolerated, are highly suitable for this purpose. To treat mild to moderate episodes of depression, extracts of St. John's Wort are employed, but recently reported interactions with coumarin, theophylline and also estrogen preparations, need to be considered. Unspecific anxiety states can be treated with extracts of kava. At present, no herbal preparation can be recommended for the treatment of sleep disorders, as no unequivocal proof of efficacy in patients with such problems has yet been established. PMID:11434262

  11. G Protein-Coupled Receptors in Major Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Catapano, Lisa A.; Manji, Husseini K.

    2007-01-01

    Although the molecular mechanisms underlying psychiatric illnesses such as depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia remain incompletely understood, there is increasing clinical, pharmacologic, and genetic evidence that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play critical roles in these disorders and their treatments. This perspectives paper reviews and synthesizes the available data. Dysfunction of multiple neurotransmitter and neuropeptide GPCRs in frontal cortex and limbic-related regions, such as the hippocampus, hypothalamus and brainstem, likely underlies the complex clinical picture that includes cognitive, perceptual, affective and motoric symptoms. The future development of novel agents targeting GPCR signaling cascades remains an exciting prospect for patients refractory to existing therapeutics. PMID:17078926

  12. Dissociative identity disorder among adolescents: prevalence in a university psychiatric outpatient unit.

    PubMed

    Sar, Vedat; Onder, Canan; Kilincaslan, Ayse; Zoroglu, Süleyman S; Alyanak, Behiye

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dissociative identity disorder (DID) and other dissociative disorders among adolescent psychiatric outpatients. A total of 116 consecutive outpatients between 11 and 17 years of age who were admitted to the child and adolescent psychiatry clinic of a university hospital for the 1st time were evaluated using the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale, adolescent version of the Child Symptom Inventory-4, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and McMaster Family Assessment Device. All patients were invited for an interview with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D) administered by 2 senior psychiatrists in a blind fashion. There was excellent interrater reliability between the 2 clinicians on SCID-D diagnoses and scores. Among 73 participants, 33 (45.2%) had a dissociative disorder: 12 (16.4%) had DID, and 21 (28.8%) had dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. There was no difference in gender distribution, childhood trauma, or family dysfunction scores between the dissociative and nondissociative groups. Childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction correlated with self-reported dissociation. Of the dissociative adolescents, 93.9% had an additional psychiatric disorder. Among them, only separation anxiety disorder was significantly more prevalent than in controls. Although originally designed for adults, the SCID-D is promising for diagnosing dissociative disorders in adolescents, its modest congruence with self-rated dissociation and lack of relationship between diagnosis and childhood trauma and family dysfunction suggest that the prevalence rates obtained with this instrument originally designed for adults must be replicated. The introduction of diagnostic criteria for adolescent DID in revised versions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, would refine the assessment of dissociative disorders in this age group. PMID

  13. Review of the use of Topiramate for treatment of psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Arnone, Danilo

    2005-01-01

    Background Topiramate is a new antiepileptic drug, originally designed as an oral hypoglycaemic subsequently approved as anticonvulsant. It has increasingly been used in the treatment of numerous psychiatric conditions and it has also been associated with weight loss potentially relevant in reversing weight gain induced by psychotropic medications. This article reviews pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of topiramate, its biological putative role in treating psychiatric disorders and its relevance in clinical practice. Methods A comprehensive search from a range of databases was conducted and papers addressing the topic were selected. Results Thirty-two published reports met criteria for inclusion, 4 controlled and 28 uncontrolled studies. Five unpublished controlled studies were also identified in the treatment of acute mania. Conclusions Topiramate lacks efficacy in the treatment of acute mania. Increasing evidence, based on controlled studies, supports the use of topiramate in binge eating disorders, bulimia nervosa, alcohol dependence and possibly in bipolar disorders in depressive phase. In the treatment of rapid cycling bipolar disorders, as adjunctive treatment in refractory bipolar disorder in adults and children, schizophrenia, posttraumatic stress disorder, unipolar depression, emotionally unstable personality disorder and Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome the evidence is entirely based on open label studies, case reports and case series. Regarding weight loss, findings are encouraging and have potential implications in reversing increased body weight, normalisation of glycemic control and blood pressure. Topiramate was generally well tolerated and serious adverse events were rare. PMID:15845141

  14. The impact of environmental factors in severe psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Andrea; Malchow, Berend; Hasan, Alkomiet; Falkai, Peter

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, schizophrenia has been regarded as a developmental disorder. The neurodevelopmental hypothesis proposes schizophrenia to be related to genetic and environmental factors leading to abnormal brain development during the pre- or postnatal period. First disease symptoms appear in early adulthood during the synaptic pruning and myelination process. Meta-analyses of structural MRI studies revealing hippocampal volume deficits in first-episode patients and in the longitudinal disease course confirm this hypothesis. Apart from the influence of risk genes in severe psychiatric disorders, environmental factors may also impact brain development during the perinatal period. Several environmental factors such as antenatal maternal virus infections, obstetric complications entailing hypoxia as common factor or stress during neurodevelopment have been identified to play a role in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, possibly contributing to smaller hippocampal volumes. In major depression, psychosocial stress during the perinatal period or in adulthood is an important trigger. In animal studies, chronic stress or repeated administration of glucocorticoids have been shown to induce degeneration of glucocorticoid-sensitive hippocampal neurons and may contribute to the pathophysiology of affective disorders. Epigenetic mechanisms altering the chromatin structure such as histone acetylation and DNA methylation may mediate effects of environmental factors to transcriptional regulation of specific genes and be a prominent factor in gene-environmental interaction. In animal models, gene-environmental interaction should be investigated more intensely to unravel pathophysiological mechanisms. These findings may lead to new therapeutic strategies influencing epigenetic targets in severe psychiatric disorders. PMID:24574956

  15. Neuropsychological and psychiatric profiles in acute encephalitis in adults.

    PubMed

    Pewter, Stephen M; Williams, W Huw; Haslam, Catherine; Kay, Janice M

    2007-01-01

    Acute encephalitis is an inflammation of brain tissue that can result from activity in the central nervous system (CNS) of a number of viruses. Although the neurological and psychiatric effects of encephalitis in the acute phase of the illness are well-known (Caroff, Mann, Gliatto, Sullivan, & Campbell, 2001), larger scale studies of the pattern of neuropsychological and psychiatric impairment following recovery from the acute inflammatory phase are less apparent. This paper reports the results of neuropsychological testing with a range of standardised cognitive measures in a case series of long-term post-acute participants. Psychiatric abnormality is examined using the SCL-90-R self-report scale of distress (Derogatis, 1983). We also examined the role of emerging insight in the aetiology of depression in this population. Two clusters of cognitive dysfunction were observed, one group of primarily herpes simplex cases showing a severe generalised deficit across a number of cognitive domains and a second cluster showing a variety of more isolated disorders of executive function. Abnormally high levels of distress were reported by participants, with depression, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity and phobic anxiety most significantly increased. Depression was found to be least severe in those with most accurate insight into their problems. Examining the correlations between cognitive and psychiatric test results demonstrates a relationship between depression and interpersonal anxiety and specific cognitive measures. Obsessive-compulsive behaviour and phobic anxiety, however, appear to exist independently of the assessed cognitive deficits. PMID:17676531

  16. Late Preterm Birth, Maternal Depression, and Risk of Preschool Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Cynthia E.; Lenze, Shannon N.; Luby, Joan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Preterm children are at greater risk for psychiatric disorders, including anxiety disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), than their term-born peers. Prior research has focused primarily on children born at early gestational ages. Less is known about the rate of psychiatric disorders among late preterm or early…

  17. Adult Basic Education Curriculum Guide for ABE Programs Serving Psychiatrically Ill Adult Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Ezma V.

    This curriculum guide is designed for use in adult basic education (ABE) programs serving psychiatrically ill adult students. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: personal hygiene and grooming, nutrition and health, money and money management, transportation and safety, government and law, values clarification, and…

  18. Social experiences in childhood and adult psychiatric morbidity: a multiple regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Tennant, C; Bebbington, P; Hurry, J

    1982-05-01

    The effect of childhood experiences on adult psychiatric morbidity was examined in a community psychiatric survey. The Present State Examination was used to assess psychiatric morbidity. Childhood experiences assessed included childhood demographic factors and 'loss and deprivation' variables. The latter group comprised maternal and paternal deaths and separations and other disruptions in parental care 'Loss and deprivation' in combination accounted for between 4.5 and 5.5% of the variance in adult psychiatric morbidity. PMID:7100355

  19. Alcohol stigma and persistence of alcohol and other psychiatric disorders: A modified labeling theory approach☆

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Joseph E.; Mowbray, Orion P.; Link, Bruce G.; Kristjansson, Sean D.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.

    2014-01-01

    Background We sought to apply modified labeling theory in a cross-sectional study of alcohol use disorder (AUD) to investigate the mechanisms through which perceived alcohol stigma (PAS) may lead to the persistence of AUD and risk of psychiatric disorder. Methods We conducted structural equation modeling (SEM) including moderated mediation analyses of two waves (W1 and W2) of data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. We analyzed validated measures of PAS, perceived social support, social network involvement, and psychiatric disorders among (n = 3608) adults with two or more DSM-5 AUD symptoms in the first two of the three years between the W1 and W2 survey. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted owing to the assessment of PAS only at W2. Results Per mediation analyses, lower levels of perceived social support explained the association of PAS with past-year AUD and past-year internalizing psychiatric disorder at W2. The size of the mediated relationship was significantly larger for those classified as labeled (i.e., alcoholic) per their prior alcohol treatment or perceived need (n = 938) as compared to unlabeled (n = 2634), confirming a hypothesis of moderated mediation. Unexpectedly, mediation was also present for unlabeled individuals. Conclusions Lower levels of social support may be an important intermediate outcome of alcohol stigma. Longitudinal data are needed to establish the temporal precedence of PAS and its hypothesized intermediate and distal outcomes. Research is needed to evaluate direct measures of labeling that could replace proxy measures (e.g., prior treatment status) commonly employed in studies of the stigma of psychiatric disorders. PMID:24071569

  20. A Pilot Study of Abnormal Growth in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Peters, Cindy T. R.; Oosterling, Iris J.; Visser, Janne C.; Bons, Danielle; van Steijn, Daphne J.; Draaisma, Jos; van der Gaag, Rutger-Jan; Buitelaar, Jan. K.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine whether early growth abnormalities are (a) comparable in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other childhood psychiatric disorders, and (b) specific to the brain or generalized to the whole body. Head circumference, height, and weight were measured during the first 19 months of life in 129 children…

  1. CAPs-IDD: Characteristics of Assessment Instruments for Psychiatric Disorders in Persons with Intellectual Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeilinger, E. L.; Nader, I. W.; Brehmer-Rinderer, B.; Koller, I.; Weber, G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Assessment of psychiatric disorders in persons with an intellectual developmental disorder (IDD) can be performed with a variety of greatly differing instruments. This makes the choice of an instrument best suited for the intended purpose challenging. In this study, we developed a comprehensive set of characteristics for the evaluation…

  2. Mechanisms of Non-Genetic Inheritance and Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Miklos

    2015-01-01

    Inheritance is typically associated with the Mendelian transmission of information from parents to offspring by alleles (DNA sequence). However, empirical data clearly suggest that traits can be acquired from ancestors by mechanisms that do not involve genetic alleles, referred to as non-genetic inheritance. Information that is non-genetically transmitted across generations includes parental experience and exposure to certain environments, but also parental mutations and polymorphisms, because they can change the parental ‘intrinsic' environment. Non-genetic inheritance is not limited to the first generation of the progeny, but can involve the grandchildren and even further generations. Non-genetic inheritance has been observed for multiple traits including overall development, cardiovascular risk and metabolic symptoms, but this review will focus on the inheritance of behavioral abnormalities pertinent to psychiatric disorders. Multigenerational non-genetic inheritance is often interpreted as the transmission of epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation and chromatin modifications, via the gametes (transgenerational epigenetic inheritance). However, information can be carried across generations by a large number of bioactive substances, including hormones, cytokines, and even microorganisms, without the involvement of the gametes. We reason that this broader definition of non-genetic inheritance is more appropriate, especially in the context of psychiatric disorders, because of the well-recognized role of parental and early life environmental factors in later life psychopathology. Here we discuss the various forms of non-genetic inheritance in humans and animals, as well as rodent models of psychiatric conditions to illustrate possible mechanisms. PMID:24889369

  3. [Personality disorders and psychiatric comorbidity in obsessive-compulsive disorder and anorexia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Müller, B; Wewetzer, C; Jans, T; Holtkamp, K; Herpertz, S C; Warnke, A; Remschmidt, H; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the course of adolescent anorexia nervosa and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (fulfilling DSM-III-R criteria) to compare psychiatric comorbidity and personality disorders of both groups. Because anorexia nervosa patients are mainly female, we compared them only with female OCD patients. Ten years after discharge the whole sample (32 female patients; 100%) of a group of 39 (32 female; 7 male) anorexia nervosa patients could be reexamined personally. 25 (61%) female patients of a group of 116 patients (41 female; 75 male) with obsessive-compulsive disorder were also reexamined. The anorexia nervosa patients were interviewed using the Structured Interview for Anorexia and Bulimia nervosa (SIAB [39]) to assess eating disorder symptomatology. To examine comorbid psychiatric disorders we used the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, WHO [44] and SCID-II [45] for personality disorders. One fourth of the patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and 20% of the patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder had a personality disorder according to DSM-III-R. Most of them were "Cluster C"-personality disorders (AN: 28%; OCD: 20%). In the group of the female OCD patients 8% schizoid, 4% schizotype and 12% paranoid personality disorders were observed. The most prevalent psychiatric disorders were anxiety (AN: 28%; OCD: 20%) and affective disorders (AN: 16%; OCD: 16%). Our results support the view that in the course of anorexia nervosa and in obsessive-compulsive disorder there is a high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity and "Cluster C"-personality disorders according to DSM-III-R. These results might confirm a model of a high vulnerability of the serotonergic neurotransmitter system in patients with anorexia nervosa or OCD. PMID:11584688

  4. The predictors of psychiatric disorders among people living with epilepsy as seen in a Nigerian Tertiary Health Institution

    PubMed Central

    Ayanda, Kazeem Ayinde; Sulyman, Dauda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mental disorders may complicate epilepsy which can further impair the quality of life of people living with this chronic neurological condition. The aim of this study was to determine the types of psychiatric disorders in patients with epilepsy and to determine the sociodemographic and clinical factors that may predict these psychiatric illnesses. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out over a period of 6 months at Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching Hospital, Bauchi, Nigeria. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to determine the psychological health of 74 consecutively recruited adult patients with epilepsy attending the psychiatric outpatients' clinic of the hospital. Psychiatric diagnoses were based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 4th Edition criteria, and logistic regression analysis was done to determine variables that predict psychiatric disorder. Results: Majority of the participants were male (67.6%) with their age ranging from 18 to 68 years and the mean age of 30.55 ± 10.91 years. Thirty-three (44.6%) of our study respondents had psychiatric diagnoses that included major depressive disorder (21.6%), schizophrenia (17.6%), generalized anxiety disorder (4.1%), and hypomania (1.4%). Being unemployed (odds ratio [OR] = 3.24. 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15–9.10, P = 0.026) and short-term seizure free period (OR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.04–0.78, P = 0.022) were the variables found to be predictive of psychiatric diagnoses. Conclusions: The study revealed that a large percentage of people living with epilepsy develop mental disorders which can further increase the burden and worsen the quality of life of patients with this chronic debilitating condition. PMID:27185975

  5. TEMPERAMENT AS DETERMINANT OF PHENOMENOLOGY OF CHILDHOOD PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS*

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Savita; Varma, V.K.; Verma, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    SUMMARY The study was carried out with the main aim of finding the relationship between the temperament 01 children and the phenomenology of the psychiatric disorders exhibited by them. Temperament was taken as the independent variable, phenomenology of the psychiatric disorders in children as the dependent variable and parental handling methods as the intervening variable. Instruments for the measurement of temperament, childhood psychopathology and parental handling were developed and standardized for use in the context of the Indian culture and in Hindi language as the preliminary work for the main study. A group of 100 children suffering from various types of emotional disorders and a control group of 100 normal children were studied with regard to the three variables mentioned earlier. Data on the two groups were separately analysed through univariate and multivariate (factor analysis and hierarchical multiple regression) statistics. The results revealed that the phenomenological categories of Low Intelligence with behaviour Problems, conduct Disorders and Somatization were significantly related to the temperament variables of Emotionality, Energy and Attentitivity respectively. The syndromes of Anxiety, Depression, Psychotic symptoms, Special symptoms and Physical illness with Emotional problems did not have relationship with the temperament or parental handling. Thus, temperament has been found to be specific risk factor leading to specific psychopathologies. PMID:21927188

  6. Role of Islam in the management of Psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sabry, Walaa M.; Vohra, Adarsh

    2013-01-01

    With the significant growth of the Muslim population all over the world, there exists a corresponding increase in the need for mental health services that suit this group of patients. Research demonstrates the effectiveness of the integration of spirituality and religiosity into psychotherapy and how religious beliefs could affect the management plans. This article discusses the impact of various beliefs in the Islamic faith on the bio-psychosocial model for the management of different psychiatric disorders including focusing on the modification of psychotherapeutic techniques as cognitive restructuring. It also shows other types of therapies such as music therapy, meditation therapy, and aromatherapy. The main emphasis remains to ensure that Muslim psychiatric patients get ethical, acceptable, and effective treatment. PMID:23858256

  7. Illuminating circuitry relevant to psychiatric disorders with optogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Elizabeth E.; Christoffel, Daniel J.; Deisseroth, Karl; Malenka, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    The brain’s remarkable capacity to generate cognition and behavior is mediated by an extraordinarily complex set of neural interactions that remain largely mysterious. This complexity poses a significant challenge in developing therapeutic interventions to ameliorate psychiatric disease. Accordingly, few new classes of drugs have been made available for patients with mental illness since the 1950’s. Optogenetics offers the ability to selectively manipulate individual neural circuit elements that underlie disease-relevant behaviors and is currently accelerating the pace of preclinical research into neurobiological mechanisms of disease. In this review, we highlight recent findings from studies that employ optogenetic approaches to gain insight into normal and aberrant brain function relevant to mental illness. Emerging data from these efforts offers an exquisitely detailed picture of disease-relevant neural circuits in action, and hints at the potential of optogenetics to open up entirely new avenues in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. PMID:25215625

  8. Using animal models to study post-partum psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Perani, C V; Slattery, D A

    2014-01-01

    The post-partum period represents a time during which all maternal organisms undergo substantial plasticity in a wide variety of systems in order to ensure the well-being of the offspring. Although this time is generally associated with increased calmness and decreased stress responses, for a substantial subset of mothers, this period represents a time of particular risk for the onset of psychiatric disorders. Thus, post-partum anxiety, depression and, to a lesser extent, psychosis may develop, and not only affect the well-being of the mother but also place at risk the long-term health of the infant. Although the risk factors for these disorders, as well as normal peripartum-associated adaptations, are well known, the underlying aetiology of post-partum psychiatric disorders remains poorly understood. However, there have been a number of attempts to model these disorders in basic research, which aim to reveal their underlying mechanisms. In the following review, we first discuss known peripartum adaptations and then describe post-partum mood and anxiety disorders, including their risk factors, prevalence and symptoms. Thereafter, we discuss the animal models that have been designed in order to study them and what they have revealed about their aetiology to date. Overall, these studies show that it is feasible to study such complex disorders in animal models, but that more needs to be done in order to increase our knowledge of these severe and debilitating mood and anxiety disorders. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-20 PMID:24527704

  9. Psychiatric adverse effects of zonisamide in patients with epilepsy and mental disorder comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Cavanna, Andrea E; Seri, Stefano

    2013-11-01

    Over the last few years, zonisamide has been proposed as a potentially useful medication for patients with focal seizures, with or without secondary generalization. Since psychiatric adverse effects, including mania, psychosis, and suicidal ideation, have been associated with its use, it was suggested that the presence of antecedent psychiatric disorders is an important factor associated with the discontinuation of zonisamide therapy in patients with epilepsy. We, therefore, set out to assess the tolerability profile of zonisamide in a retrospective chart review of 23 patients with epilepsy and comorbid mental disorders, recruited from two specialist pediatric (n=11) and adult (n=12) neuropsychiatry clinics. All patients had a clinical diagnosis of treatment-refractory epilepsy after extensive neurophysiological and neuroimaging investigations. The vast majority of patients (n=22/23, 95.7%) had tried previous antiepileptic medications, and most adult patients (n=9/11, 81.8%) were on concomitant medication for epilepsy. In the majority of cases, the psychiatric adverse effects of zonisamide were not severe. Four patients (17.4%) discontinued zonisamide because of lack of efficacy, whereas only one patient (4.3%) discontinued it because of the severity of psychiatric adverse effects (major depressive disorder). The low discontinuation rate of zonisamide in a selected population of patients with epilepsy and neuropsychiatric comorbidity suggests that this medication is safe and reasonably well-tolerated for use in patients with treatment-refractory epilepsy. Given the limitations of the present study, including the relatively small sample size, further research is warranted to confirm this finding. PMID:24070880

  10. Psychiatric disorders in candidates for surgery for epilepsy.

    PubMed Central

    Manchanda, R; Schaefer, B; McLachlan, R S; Blume, W T; Wiebe, S; Girvin, J P; Parrent, A; Derry, P A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To provide a descriptive analysis of the prevalence and pattern of psychiatric morbidity among 300 consecutive epileptic patients refractive to treatment and admitted during a six year period for evaluation of their candidature for surgery. METHODS--Patients underwent detailed observation of their seizure and standardised psychiatric assessment. Patients were considered to be refractory to treatment if they continued to manifest seizures with an average frequency of at least once every month even with polytherapy using up to three different anti-convulsants for a period of at least two years. Of the 300 patients, 231 had a temporal lobe focus, 43 had a non-temporal lobe focus, and 26 patients had a generalised and multifocal seizure onset. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS--With the DSM-III-R criteria 142 (47.3%) patients emerged as psychiatric cases. A principal axis I diagnosis was made in 88 (29.3%), and an axis II diagnosis (personality disorder) in another 54 (18.0%) patients. The most common axis I diagnosis was anxiety disorders (10.7%). A schizophrenia-like psychosis was seen in 13 (4.3%). Most patients with personality disorders showed dependent and avoidant personality traits. There was a significantly higher psychotic subscore on the present state examination in the temporal than with the non-temporal group of patients. These findings were not significant when compared with patients with a generalised and multifocal seizure disorder. There were no significant findings between the different seizure focus groups on the neurotic subscores. The findings with regard to laterality of seizure focus and the neurotic or psychotic subscores were not significant. PMID:8676167

  11. Evolutionary conservation in genes underlying human psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Lisa M; Vallender, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Many psychiatric diseases observed in humans have tenuous or absent analogs in other species. Most notable among these are schizophrenia and autism. One hypothesis has posited that these diseases have arisen as a consequence of human brain evolution, for example, that the same processes that led to advances in cognition, language, and executive function also resulted in novel diseases in humans when dysfunctional. Here, the molecular evolution of the protein-coding regions of genes associated with these and other psychiatric disorders are compared among species. Genes associated with psychiatric disorders are drawn from the literature and orthologous sequences are collected from eleven primate species (human, chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, macaque, baboon, marmoset, squirrel monkey, and galago) and 34 non-primate mammalian species. Evolutionary parameters, including dN/dS, are calculated for each gene and compared between disease classes and among species, focusing on humans and primates compared to other mammals, and on large-brained taxa (cetaceans, rhinoceros, walrus, bear, and elephant) compared to their small-brained sister species. Evidence of differential selection in humans to the exclusion of non-human primates was absent, however elevated dN/dS was detected in catarrhines as a whole, as well as in cetaceans, possibly as part of a more general trend. Although this may suggest that protein changes associated with schizophrenia and autism are not a cost of the higher brain function found in humans, it may also point to insufficiencies in the study of these diseases including incomplete or inaccurate gene association lists and/or a greater role of regulatory changes or copy number variation. Through this work a better understanding of the molecular evolution of the human brain, the pathophysiology of disease, and the genetic basis of human psychiatric disease is gained. PMID:24834046

  12. Evolutionary conservation in genes underlying human psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Lisa M.; Vallender, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Many psychiatric diseases observed in humans have tenuous or absent analogs in other species. Most notable among these are schizophrenia and autism. One hypothesis has posited that these diseases have arisen as a consequence of human brain evolution, for example, that the same processes that led to advances in cognition, language, and executive function also resulted in novel diseases in humans when dysfunctional. Here, the molecular evolution of the protein-coding regions of genes associated with these and other psychiatric disorders are compared among species. Genes associated with psychiatric disorders are drawn from the literature and orthologous sequences are collected from eleven primate species (human, chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, macaque, baboon, marmoset, squirrel monkey, and galago) and 34 non-primate mammalian species. Evolutionary parameters, including dN/dS, are calculated for each gene and compared between disease classes and among species, focusing on humans and primates compared to other mammals, and on large-brained taxa (cetaceans, rhinoceros, walrus, bear, and elephant) compared to their small-brained sister species. Evidence of differential selection in humans to the exclusion of non-human primates was absent, however elevated dN/dS was detected in catarrhines as a whole, as well as in cetaceans, possibly as part of a more general trend. Although this may suggest that protein changes associated with schizophrenia and autism are not a cost of the higher brain function found in humans, it may also point to insufficiencies in the study of these diseases including incomplete or inaccurate gene association lists and/or a greater role of regulatory changes or copy number variation. Through this work a better understanding of the molecular evolution of the human brain, the pathophysiology of disease, and the genetic basis of human psychiatric disease is gained. PMID:24834046

  13. Psychiatric Comorbidity and Perceived Alcohol Stigma in a Nationally Representative Sample of Individuals with DSM-5 Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Joseph E.; Williams, Emily C.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is among the most stigmatized health conditions and is frequently comorbid with mood, anxiety, and drug use disorders. Theoretical frameworks have conceptualized stigma-related stress as a predictor of psychiatric disorders. We described profiles of psychiatric comorbidity among people with AUD and compared levels of perceived alcohol stigma across profiles. Methods Cross-sectional data were analyzed from a general population sample of United States adults with past-year DSM-5 AUD (n=3,368) from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, which was collected 2001–2005. Empirically derived psychiatric comorbidity profiles were established with latent class analysis and mean levels of perceived alcohol stigma were compared across the latent classes while adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and AUD severity. Results Four classes of psychiatric comorbidity emerged within this AUD sample, including those with: (1) high comorbidity, reflecting internalizing (i.e. mood and anxiety disorders) and externalizing (i.e. antisocial personality and drug use disorders) disorders; (2) externalizing comorbidity; (3) internalizing comorbidity; and (4) no comorbidity. Perceived alcohol stigma was significantly higher in those with internalizing comorbidity (but not those with high comorbidity) as compared to those with no comorbidity or externalizing comorbidity. Conclusions Perceived stigma, as manifested by anticipations of social rejection and discrimination, may increase risk for internalizing psychiatric comorbidity. Alternatively, internalizing psychiatric comorbidity could sensitize affected individuals to perceive more negative attitudes towards them. Future research is needed to understand causal and bidirectional associations between alcohol stigma and psychiatric comorbidity. PMID:24848495

  14. Epigenetic mechanisms mediating vulnerability and resilience to psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Kevin J; Li, Xiang; Kobor, Michael S; Kippin, Tod E; Bredy, Timothy W

    2011-06-01

    The impact that stressful encounters have upon long-lasting behavioural phenotypes is varied. Whereas a significant proportion of the population will develop "stress-related" conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder or depression in later life, the majority are considered "resilient" and are able to cope with stress and avoid such psychopathologies. The reason for this heterogeneity is undoubtedly multi-factorial, involving a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Both genes and environment are of critical importance when it comes to developmental processes, and it appears that subtle differences in either of these may be responsible for altering developmental trajectories that confer vulnerability or resilience. At the molecular level, developmental processes are regulated by epigenetic mechanisms, with recent clinical and pre-clinical data obtained by ourselves and others suggesting that epigenetic differences in various regions of the brain are associated with a range of psychiatric disorders, including many that are stress-related. Here we provide an overview of how these epigenetic differences, and hence susceptibility to psychiatric disorders, might arise through exposure to stress-related factors during critical periods of development. PMID:21251925

  15. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors and Psychiatric Symptoms in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratis, Elizabeth A.; Lecavalier, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at high risk for co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Previous research has suggested that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB) are associated with symptoms of co-occurring psychiatric disorders in individuals with ASD, but this relationship is not well understood. The current study…

  16. Mindfulness meditation practices as adjunctive treatments for psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Marchand, William R

    2013-03-01

    Mindfulness meditation-based therapies are being increasingly used as interventions for psychiatric disorders. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) have been studied extensively. MBSR is beneficial for general psychological health and pain management. MBCT is recommended as an adjunctive treatment for unipolar depression. Both MBSR and MBCT have efficacy for anxiety symptoms. Informed clinicians can do much to support their patients who are receiving mindfulness training. This review provides information needed by clinicians to help patients maximize the benefits of mindfulness training and develop an enduring meditation practice. PMID:23538083

  17. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in early stages of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Brown, G R; Rundell, J R; McManis, S E; Kendall, S N; Zachary, R; Temoshok, L

    1992-01-01

    As part of a military universal HIV screening program, 442 men were assessed for the presence of DSM-III-R defined psychiatric disorders and symptoms of anxiety and depression after notification of HIV seroconversion. Of them, 84.4% were in the earliest, asymptomatic stages of disease at the time of interview (96% did not have AIDS). The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R and Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Scales were used. Relevant comparisons were made to Epidemiologic Catchment Area prevalence data. HIV seropositive men were more likely than age-matched men in the community to have current diagnoses of major depression (ages 18-44) and anxiety disorders (ages 25-44). Higher lifetime rates of major depression and alcohol use disorder, and high current prevalence of sexual dysfunction (21.7%) were noted. We conclude that men who become HIV seropositive have high rates of mood and substance use disorders prior to knowledge of seroconversion, and that early in the course of HIV infection men are at risk for developing major depression, anxiety disorders, and disorders of sexual desire. PMID:1438661

  18. [Assessment of the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults].

    PubMed

    Gross, J; Blocher, D; Trott, G E; Rösler, M

    1999-01-01

    The attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common disorders in childhood and adolescence with a prevalence of app. 5%. The importance of ADHD in childhood as a factor of vulnerability for psychiatric disorders in adults is becoming a focus of discussion. It was shown that there is a comorbidity in adults with substance abuse, delinquency and personality disorders. There is a growing evidence that ADHD will persist in a significant number of patients during adulthood. This is the first german study to evaluate this interdependence. We examined 164 adult inpatients and 48 healthy volunteers with the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), a retrospective self-evaluation scale for the diagnosis of ADHD in childhood, and the Eysenck impulsiveness questionnaire I7. It could be shown that the WURS and the I7 are suitable instruments for the evaluation of the ADHD in adults especially concerning the aspects of attention deficits and impulsiveness. PMID:10087514

  19. Psychiatric implications of language disorders and learning disabilities: risks and management.

    PubMed

    Sundheim, Suzanne T P V; Voeller, Kytja K S

    2004-10-01

    This article reviews the relationship between different learning disabilities, language disorders, and the psychiatric disorders that are commonly associated with learning disabilities and language disorder: attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorders, depression, and conduct or antisocial personality disorder. The complex associations between language disorders and specific learning disabilities--dyslexia, nonverbal learning disorder, dyscalculia--and the various psychiatric disorders are discussed. Clinical vignettes are presented to highlight the impact of these disorders on a child's social and psychological development and the importance of early recognition and treatment. PMID:15559896

  20. Linking Activation of Microglia and Peripheral Monocytic Cells to the Pathophysiology of Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yuta; Yu, Zhiqian; Sakai, Mai; Tomita, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    A wide variety of studies have identified microglial activation in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder. Relatively fewer, but robust, studies have detected activation of peripheral monocytic cells in psychiatric disorders. Considering the origin of microglia, as well as neuropsychoimmune interactions in the context of the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, it is reasonable to speculate that microglia interact with peripheral monocytic cells in relevance with the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders; however, these interactions have drawn little attention. In this review, we summarize findings relevant to activation of microglia and monocytic cells in psychiatric disorders, discuss the potential association between these cell types and disease pathogenesis, and propose perspectives for future research on these processes. PMID:27375431

  1. The Impact of Institutional Discrimination on Psychiatric Disorders in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Populations: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relation between living in states that instituted bans on same-sex marriage during the 2004 and 2005 elections and the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. Methods. We used data from wave 1 (2001–2002) and wave 2 (2004–2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 34 653), a longitudinal, nationally representative study of noninstitutionalized US adults. Results. Psychiatric disorders defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, increased significantly between waves 1 and 2 among LGB respondents living in states that banned gay marriage for the following outcomes: any mood disorder (36.6% increase), generalized anxiety disorder (248.2% increase), any alcohol use disorder (41.9% increase), and psychiatric comorbidity (36.3% increase). These psychiatric disorders did not increase significantly among LGB respondents living in states without constitutional amendments. Additionally, we found no evidence for increases of the same magnitude among heterosexuals living in states with constitutional amendments. Conclusions. Living in states with discriminatory policies may have pernicious consequences for the mental health of LGB populations. These findings lend scientific support to recent efforts to overturn these policies. PMID:20075314

  2. Pathophysiological Role of Neuroinflammation in Neurodegenerative Diseases and Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Brain diseases and disorders such as Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, depression, schizophrenia, autism, and addiction lead to reduced quality of daily life through abnormal thoughts, perceptions, emotional states, and behavior. While the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood, human and animal studies have supported a role of neuroinflammation in the etiology of these diseases. In the central nervous system, an increased inflammatory response is capable of activating microglial cells, leading to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. In turn, the pro-inflammatory cytokines aggravate and propagate neuroinflammation, degenerating healthy neurons and impairing brain functions. Therefore, activated microglia may play a key role in neuroinflammatory processes contributing to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and neurodegeneration. PMID:27230456

  3. Pathophysiological Role of Neuroinflammation in Neurodegenerative Diseases and Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hong, Heeok; Kim, Byung Sun; Im, Heh-In

    2016-05-01

    Brain diseases and disorders such as Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, depression, schizophrenia, autism, and addiction lead to reduced quality of daily life through abnormal thoughts, perceptions, emotional states, and behavior. While the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood, human and animal studies have supported a role of neuroinflammation in the etiology of these diseases. In the central nervous system, an increased inflammatory response is capable of activating microglial cells, leading to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. In turn, the pro-inflammatory cytokines aggravate and propagate neuroinflammation, degenerating healthy neurons and impairing brain functions. Therefore, activated microglia may play a key role in neuroinflammatory processes contributing to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and neurodegeneration. PMID:27230456

  4. Transnational Disorders: Returned Migrants at Oaxaca's Psychiatric Hospital.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Whitney L

    2015-03-01

    This article examines experiences of returned migrants seeking mental health care at the public psychiatric hospital in Oaxaca, Mexico. Approximately one-third of the hospital's patients have migration experience, and many return to Oaxaca due to mental health crises precipitated by conditions of structural vulnerability and "illegality" in the United States. Once home, migrants, their families, and their doctors struggle to interpret and allay these "transnational disorders"-disorders structurally produced and personally experienced within the borders of more than one country. Considering how space and time shape illness and treatment among transnational migrants, I contend that a critical phenomenology of illegality must incorporate migrant experience and political economy on both sides of the border before, during, and after migration. PMID:25294096

  5. Psychiatric hospitalization among children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Mandell, David S

    2008-07-01

    This study examined predictors of psychiatric hospitalization among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Data were collected from 760 caregivers of children with ASD. Cox regression was used to determine factors associated with hospitalization. Almost 11% were hospitalized. Youth in single parent homes were more likely to be hospitalized (OR = 2.54), as were youth diagnosed at a later age (OR = 1.10). Engaging in self-injurious behavior (OR = 2.14), aggressive behavior (OR = 4.83), and being diagnosed with depression (OR = 2.48) or obsessive compulsive disorder (OR = 2.35) increased the odds of hospitalization. Risk for hospitalization increased with age and over time. The results suggest early diagnosis and community-based interventions for aggressive and self-injurious behaviors may reduce hospitalizations. PMID:17975720

  6. [The role of the nucleus accumbens in psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Mavridis, I

    2015-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens is the most inferior part of the striatum and is mainly connected to the limbic system. It is neurochemically and immunohistochemically divided into a shell laterally and a core medially. As a functionally central structure between amygdala, basal ganglia, mesolimbic dopaminergic regions, mediodorsal thalamus and prefrontal cortex, the nucleus accumbens appears to play a modulative role in the flow of the information from the amygdaloid complex to these regions. Dopamine is a major neurotransmitter of the nucleus accumbens and this nucleus has a modulative function to the amygdala-basal ganglia-prefrontal cortex circuit. Together with the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, nucleus accumbens consists a part of the cerebral circuit which regulates functions associated with effort. It is anatomically located in a unique way to serve emotional and behavioral components of feelings. It is considered as a neural interface between motivation and action, having a key-role in food intake, sexual behavior, reward-motivated behavior, stress-related behavior and substance-dependence. It is involved in several cognitive, emotional and psychomotor functions, altered in some psychopathology. Moreover it is involved in some of the commonest and most severe psychiatric disorders, such as depression, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and other anxiety disorders, as well as in addiction, including drugs abuse, alcoholism and smoking. Nucleus accumbens has also a role in other psychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder, attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. Because of its rich dopaminergic projections, this nucleus has been subject of many studies in animals as well as in humans, connecting its malfunction with the disturbed reward process observed in depression. Neuromodulation interventions targeting the nucleus accumbens are nowadays applied in strictly selected patients suffering from treatment

  7. Association of nail biting and psychiatric disorders in children and their parents in a psychiatrically referred sample of children

    PubMed Central

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    Background Nail biting (NB) is a very common unwanted behavior. The majority of children are motivated to stop NB and have already tried to stop it, but are generally unsuccessful in doing so. It is a difficult behavior to modify or treat. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders in a clinical sample of children with NB who present at a child and adolescent mental healthcare outpatient clinic and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in their parents. Method A consecutive sample of 450 referred children was examined for NB and 63 (14%) were found to have NB. The children and adolescents with nail biting and their parents were interviewed according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. They were also asked about lip biting, head banging, skin biting, and hair pulling behaviors. Results Nail biting is common amongst children and adolescents referred to a child and adolescent mental health clinic. The most common co-morbid psychiatric disorders in these children were attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (74.6%), oppositional defiant disorder (36%), separation anxiety disorder (20.6%), enuresis (15.6%), tic disorder (12.7%) and obsessive compulsive disorder (11.1%). The rates of major depressive disorder, mental retardation, and pervasive developmental disorder were 6.7%, 9.5%, 3.2%, respectively. There was no association between the age of onset of nail biting and the co-morbid psychiatric disorder. Severity and frequency of NB were not associated with any co-morbid psychiatric disorder. About 56.8% of the mothers and 45.9% of the fathers were suffering from at least one psychiatric disorder. The most common psychiatric disorder found in these parents was major depression. Conclusion Nail biting presents in a significant proportion of referrals to a mental healthcare clinic setting. Nail biting should be routinely looked for and asked for in the child and adolescent mental healthcare setting because it is common

  8. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Additive Effects of Socio-economics, Psychiatric Disorders, and Subjective Religiosity on Suicidal Ideation among Blacks

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to investigate the additive effects of socio-economic factors, number of psychiatric disorders, and religiosity on suicidal ideation among Blacks, based on the intersection of ethnicity and gender. Methods: With a cross-sectional design, data came from the National Survey of American Life, 2001–2003, which included 3570 African-American and 1621 Caribbean Black adults. Socio-demographics, perceived religiosity, number of lifetime psychiatric disorders and lifetime suicidal ideation were measured. Logistic regressions were fitted specific to groups based on the intersection of gender and ethnicity, while socioeconomics, number of life time psychiatric disorders, and subjective religiosity were independent variables, and lifetime serious suicidal ideation was the dependent variable. Results: Irrespective of ethnicity and gender, number of lifetime psychiatric disorders was a risk factor for lifetime suicidal ideation (odds ratio [OR] ranging from 2.4 for Caribbean Black women to 6.0 for Caribbean Black men). Only among African-American men (OR = 0.8, 95% confidence interval = 0.7–0.9), perceived religiosity had a residual protective effect against suicidal ideation above and beyond number of lifetime psychiatric disorders. The direction of the effect of education on suicidal ideating also varied based on the group. Conclusions: Residual protective effect of subjective religiosity in the presence of psychiatric disorders on suicidal ideation among Blacks depends on ethnicity and gender. African-American men with multiple psychiatric disorders and low religiosity are at very high risk for suicidal ideation. PMID:26180624

  9. Pharmacogenetics of alcohol use disorders and comorbid psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Helton, Sarah G; Lohoff, Falk W

    2015-12-15

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) represent a significant health burden worldwide. Currently, there are three medications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of AUDs, and other drugs are being prescribed off-label for this purpose. However, response rates for pharmacologic treatment are low, and extant research suggests that treatment effects may partially depend on genetic factors. Personalized medicine, or using a patient's genetics and/or personal history to determine efficacy of treatment prior to prescription, is an emerging tool that will help clinicians treat their patients more effectively and safely. This review systematically discusses current findings from AUD pharmacotherapy trials examining disulfiram, acamprosate, naltrexone, the injectable naltrexone, and topiramate. Furthermore, it presents pharmacogenetics findings associated with these medications in an attempt to further the field of personalized medicine. Research from trials examining AUDs and comorbid major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders is also presented, and pharmacogenetic findings for these treatments are discussed. Lastly, the authors comment on the present and future states of the field of personalized medicine for AUD. PMID:26455758

  10. Psychiatric Symptom Clusters as Risk Factors for Alcohol Use Disorders in Adolescence: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Harford, Thomas C.; Yi, Hsiao-ye; Chen, Chiung M.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few epidemiologic studies have examined a full range of adolescent psychiatric disorders in the general population. The association between psychiatric symptom clusters (PSCs) and DSM-IV alcohol use disorders (AUDs) among adolescents is not well understood. Methods This study draws upon the public-use data from the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, including a study sample of 19,430 respondents ages 12 to 17. Logistic regression and exploratory structural equation modeling assess the associations between PSCs and DSM-IV AUDs by gender. The PSCs are based on brief screening scales devised from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Predictive Scales. Results Several PSCs were found to be significantly associated with DSM-IV AUDs, including separation anxiety, generalized anxiety, depression, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder among both genders, and panic disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder among females. Consistent with the literature, the analysis of PSCs yields three factors identical for both genders—two internalizing factors (fear and anxiety–misery) and one externalizing factor. Adolescents who scored higher on the externalizing factor tended to have higher levels of the AUD factor. Female adolescents who scored higher on the internalizing misery factor and lower on the internalizing fear factor also tended to have higher levels of the AUD factor. Conclusion The associations that we found between PSCs and AUDs among adolescents in this study are consistent with those found among adults in other studies, although gender may moderate associations between internalizing PSCs and AUDs. Our findings lend support to previous findings on the developmentally stable associations between disruptive behaviors and AUDs among adolescents as well as adults in the general population. PMID:26110378

  11. Executive summary of the consensus document on psychiatric and psychological aspects in adults and children with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    HIV Patient care should include psychological and psychiatric care, which is necessary for early detection thereof. Should suicidal ideation occur, refer the patient to a psychiatric unit. Pharmacological treatment is recommended when there is comorbidity with moderate or severe depression. You should look for the aetiology of neuropsychiatric disorder before using psychoactive drugs in HIV patients. The overall management of the health of HIV adolescents should include an assessment of mental health, environmental stressors and support systems. Training in the management of the patient both own emotions is critical to getting to provide optimal care. These new guidelines updated previous recommendations regarding psychiatric and psychological disorders, including the most common pathologies in adults and children. PMID:26409724

  12. Day hospital versus admission for acute psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Max; Crowther, Ruth; Sledge, William Hurt; Rathbone, John; Soares-Weiser, Karla

    2014-01-01

    Background Inpatient treatment is an expensive way of caring for people with acute psychiatric disorders. It has been proposed that many of those currently treated as inpatients could be cared for in acute psychiatric day hospitals. Objectives To assess the effects of day hospital versus inpatient care for people with acute psychiatric disorders. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (June 2010) which is based on regular searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO. We approached trialists to identify unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of day hospital versus inpatient care, for people with acute psychiatric disorders. Studies were ineligible if a majority of participants were under 18 or over 65, or had a primary diagnosis of substance abuse or organic brain disorder. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted and cross-checked data. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous data. We calculated weighted or standardised means for continuous data. Day hospital trials tend to present similar outcomes in slightly different formats, making it difficult to synthesise data. We therefore sought individual patient data so that we could re-analyse outcomes in a common format. Main results Ten trials (involving 2685 people) met the inclusion criteria. We obtained individual patient data for four trials (involving 646 people). We found no difference in the number lost to follow-up by one year between day hospital care and inpatient care (5 RCTs, n = 1694, RR 0.94 CI 0.82 to 1.08). There is moderate evidence that the duration of index admission is longer for patients in day hospital care than inpatient care (4 RCTs, n = 1582, WMD 27.47 CI 3.96 to 50.98). There is very low evidence that the duration of day patient care (adjusted days/month) is longer for patients in day hospital care than inpatient care (3 RCTs, n = 265, WMD 2.34 days

  13. Concurrent Medical and Psychiatric Disorders among Schizophrenic and Neurotic Outpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Bruno R.; Pai, Shaila

    Although the occurrence of medical illnesses in psychiatric patients is quite high, medical illnesses manifested by psychiatric symptoms are often overlooked. The higher mortality rates among psychiatric patients when compared to the general population may be a reflection of neglect or inadequate treatment of the psychiatric patients' medical…

  14. The Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders among People with Intellectual Disabilities: An Analysis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Simon; Read, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Background: It has often been stated that the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disabilities is greater than it is in the population as a whole. Method: The epidemiological studies on psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disabilities were reviewed. Results: There is evidence that the prevalence of…

  15. Preschoolers' Observed Temperament and Psychiatric Disorders Assessed with a Parent Diagnostic Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Dyson, Margaret; Olino, Thomas M.; Durbin, C. Emily; Klein, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence supports the role of temperament in the origins of psychiatric disorders. However, there are few data on associations between temperament and psychiatric disorders in early childhood. A community sample of 541 three-year-old preschoolers participated in a laboratory temperament assessment, and caregivers were administered a structured…

  16. Antecedents and Consequences of Psychiatric Disorders in African-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Run; Ge, Xiaojia; Brody, Gene H.; Simons, Ronald L.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2008-01-01

    This study included three waves of data, collected from approximately 890 African-American children and their families. Antecedents and consequences of psychiatric disorders among this population were examined. Children's temperament, pubertal timing, and experience of stressful life events were tested as antecedents of psychiatric disorders.…

  17. Gender-related Differences in the Associations between Sexual Impulsivity and Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Erez, Galit; Pilver, Corey E.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sexual impulsivity (SI) has been associated with conditions that have substantial public health costs, such as sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies. However, SI has not been examined systematically with respect to its relationships to psychopathology. We aimed to investigate associations between SI and psychopathology, including gender-related differences. Method We performed a secondary data analysis of Wave-2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a national sample of 34,653 adults in the United States. DSM-IV-based diagnoses of mood, anxiety, drug and personality disorders were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Scheduled DSM-IV Version. Results The prevalence of SI was considerable (14.7%), with greater acknowledgment by men than women (18.9% versus 10.9%; p<0.0001). For both women and men, SI was positively associated with most Axis-I and Axis-II psychiatric disorders (OR range: Women, Axis-I:1.89-6.14, Axis-II:2.10-10.02; Men, Axis-I:1.92-6.21, Axis-II:1.63-6.05). Significant gender-related differences were observed. Among women as compared to men, SI was more strongly associated with social phobia, alcohol abuse/dependence, and paranoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, narcissistic, avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. Conclusion The robust associations between SI and psychopathology across genders suggest the need for screening and interventions related to SI for individuals with psychiatric concerns. The stronger associations between SI and psychopathology among women as compared to men emphasize the importance of a gender-oriented perspective in targeting SI. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the extent to SI predates, postdates or co-occurs with specific psychiatric conditions. PMID:24793538

  18. Annual Research Review: Transgenic Mouse Models of Childhood-Onset Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Holly R.; Feng, Guoping

    2011-01-01

    Childhood-onset psychiatric disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), mood disorders, obsessive compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSD), and schizophrenia (SZ), affect many school-age children, leading to a lower quality of life, including difficulties in school and personal relationships that…

  19. Borderline Personality Disorder in the Emergency Department: Good Psychiatric Management.

    PubMed

    Hong, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are high utilizers of psychiatric emergency services and present unique challenges in that setting. Frequently advised to visit an emergency department (ED) if safety is in question, their experiences once there often do not have beneficial effects. Issues specific to patients with BPD in the ED include volatile interactions with staff, repeat visits, concerns about safety (and liability), and disposition. Emergency department staff attitudes toward these patients are frequently negative when compared to patients with other diagnoses, and can detrimentally affect outcomes and perpetuate stigma regarding BPD. These attitudes are often due to lack of education and training about how to understand, approach, and treat the patient with BPD. The limited literature regarding the treatment of BPD in the ED offers few guidelines. This article presents an approach based on Good Psychiatric Management that can reduce negative reactions by ED staff and make ED visits more effective and less harmful. Relevant principles include psychoeducation, the reinforcement of the connection between symptoms and interpersonal stressors, and employment of an active, authentic therapeutic stance. Training ED staff in these principles could lead to attitudinal changes, reduced stigma, and potentially improved outcomes. PMID:27603743

  20. ASD, a Psychiatric Disorder, or Both? Psychiatric Diagnoses in Adolescents with High-Functioning ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Oswald, Donald P.; Day, Taylor N.; Eack, Shaun M.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2012-01-01

    Varied presentations of emotion dysregulation in autism complicate diagnostic decision making and may lead to inaccurate psychiatric diagnoses or delayed autism diagnosis for high-functioning children. This pilot study aimed to determine the concordance between prior psychiatric diagnoses and the results of an autism-specific psychiatric interview…

  1. Spontaneous Social Behaviors Discriminate “Behavioral Dementias” from Psychiatric Disorders and Other Dementias

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Katherine P.; Santos-Modesitt, Wendy; Kramer, Joel H.; Pavlic, Danijela; Beckman, Victoria; Miller, Bruce L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Changes in social behavior are often the first symptoms of neurodegenerative disease. Patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) often go undiagnosed, or are misclassified as psychiatric patients, because in the absence of cognitive deficits, non-experts fail to recognize these social changes as dementia symptoms. The object of this study was to improve screening for behavioral dementia in primary care and mental health settings by quantifying spontaneous social behaviors specific to FTLD. Method In a university hospital dementia clinic, examiners blind to subject diagnosis performed one hour of cognitive testing, then completed the Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy (IMP), an 18-item checklist of observed inappropriate behaviors. Patients then underwent a multidisciplinary evaluation to derive a neurodegenerative or psychiatric diagnosis. Data were collected from 288 subjects: 45 Alzheimer's disease (AD), 40 frontotemporal dementia (FTD), 21 semantic dementia (SD), 13 progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), 14 corticobasal degeneration (CBD), 21 progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), 37 dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), 16 vascular dementia, 29 mixed vascular and AD, 35 primary psychiatric disorders, and 17 normal older controls. Results Statistical item analyses demonstrated specific patterns of social behavior that differentiated both FTD and SD patients from 1) non-dementing older adults, 2) non-dementing individuals with psychiatric conditions, 3) individuals with cerebrovascular disease, and 4) individuals with other neurodegenerative disorders. SDs verbally and physically interrupted evaluations, spoke perseveratively and tangentially and resisted clinician redirection. FTDs were apathetic or disinhibited and were unconcerned about meeting clinician expectations. Conclusions Specific, abnormal interpersonal behaviors can alert non-experts to the need for specialized dementia referral. PMID:18312039

  2. Alcohol use disorders and psychiatric diseases in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Alejandro; Prada, Sergio I

    2016-01-01

    Background: An accurate understanding of co-occurrence and comorbidity of alcohol use disorders (AUD) in Colombia is crucial for public health. Objective: A secondary analysis was conducted, using a 2003/2004 government´s population database to determine the lifetime associations between AUD and other mental and addictive disorders in people of Colombia aged 18-65 years. Methods: Several statistical analysis were performed: testing prevalence difference in mental disorders by whether the individual had an AUD; a stratified analysis by gender and logistic regression analyses accounting for differences in demographic, socio-economic, behavioral and self-reported health status variables. Results: People with AUD comprised 9% of the population, of which 88% were males and on average 37 years old. They were more likely to be males, be working, and be current smokers; and less likely to be at home or retired. The population with AUD had greater chance to comply with criteria for all disorders but minor depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, nicotine dependence, and oppositional defiant disorder. Conclusion: This study demonstrates a high prevalence of mental disorders in the adult population with AUD in Colombia. The findings highlight the importance of comorbidity as a sign of disease severity and impact on public health and supports the need for training of more professionals and developing appropriate interventions and services. PMID:27226662

  3. Substance use disorders, psychiatric disorders, and mortality after release from prison: a nationwide longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zheng; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; Fazel, Seena

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background High mortality rates have been reported in people released from prison compared with the general population. However, few studies have investigated potential risk factors associated with these high rates, especially psychiatric determinants. We aimed to investigate the association between psychiatric disorders and mortality in people released from prison in Sweden. Methods We studied all people who were imprisoned since Jan 1, 2000, and released before Dec 31, 2009, in Sweden for risks of all-cause and external-cause (accidents, suicide, homicide) mortality after prison release. We obtained data for substance use disorders and other psychiatric disorders, and criminological and sociodemographic factors from population-based registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) by Cox regression, and then used them to calculate population attributable fractions for post-release mortality. To control for potential familial confounding, we compared individuals in the study with siblings who were also released from prison, but without psychiatric disorders. We tested whether any independent risk factors improved the prediction of mortality beyond age, sex, and criminal history. Findings We identified 47 326 individuals who were imprisoned. During a median follow-up time of 5·1 years (IQR 2·6–7·5), we recorded 2874 (6%) deaths after release from prison. The overall all-cause mortality rate was 1205 deaths per 100 000 person-years. Substance use disorders significantly increased the rate of all-cause mortality (alcohol use: adjusted HR 1·62, 95% CI 1·48–1·77; drug use: 1·67, 1·53–1·83), and the association was independent of sociodemographic, criminological, and familial factors. We identified no strong evidence that other psychiatric disorders increased mortality after we controlled for potential confounders. In people released from prison, 925 (34%) of all-cause deaths in men and 85 (50%) in women were potentially attributable to substance

  4. Traumatization in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Adult Psychiatric Outpatients.

    PubMed

    Øhre, Beate; Uthus, Mette Perly; von Tetzchner, Stephen; Falkum, Erik

    2015-07-01

    Deaf and hard-of-hearing persons are at risk for experiencing traumatic events and such experiences are associated with symptoms of mental disorder. We investigated the prevalence of traumatic events and subsequent traumatization in adults referred to specialized psychiatric outpatient units for deaf and hard-of-hearing patients. Sixty-two patients were diagnosed with mental disorders and assessed for potential traumatic experiences in their preferred language and mode of communication using instruments translated into Norwegian Sign Language. All patients reported traumatic events, with a mean of 6.2 different types; 85% reported subsequent traumatization not significantly associated with either residential school setting or communicative competence of childhood caregivers. Traumatization patterns in both sexes were similar to those in hearing clinical samples. Findings indicate that psychiatric intake interviews should routinely assess potentially traumatic events and their impacts, and that mental health professionals working with deaf and hard-of-hearing patients should be able to treat trauma-related disorders. PMID:25852180

  5. The misdiagnosis of conversion disorder in a psychiatric emergency service.

    PubMed

    Fishbain, D A; Goldberg, M

    1991-05-01

    During a 1-year period, 8400 patient presentations to a psychiatric emergency service were screened for the conversion symptom of extremity paresis/paralysis. Of 4220 unduplicated presentations, three patients had this complaint. These cases were reviewed and followed up. All had received a DSM-III diagnosis of conversion disorder, but in each case the patient's conversion symptom was attributed to organic disease. This had medicolegal consequences in one case and threatened legal consequences in the others. Although the frequency of this alleged conversion symptom was 0.07%, in reality it was 0.0%. Guidelines for the management of the alleged conversion symptom of paresis/paralysis are discussed. PMID:1855657

  6. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in psychiatric disorders and the impact of psychotropic medications: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alvares, Gail A.; Quintana, Daniel S.; Hickie, Ian B.; Guastella, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction is a putative underlying mechanism for increased cardiovascular disease risk in individuals with psychiatric disorders. Previous studies suggest that this risk may be related to psychotropic medication use. In the present study we systematically reviewed and analyzed published studies of heart rate variability (HRV), measuring ANS output, to determine the effect of psychiatric illness and medication use. Methods We searched for studies comparing HRV in physically healthy adults with a diagnosed psychiatric disorder to controls and comparing HRV pre- and post-treatment with a psychotropic medication. Results In total, 140 case–control (mood, anxiety, psychosis, dependent disorders, k = 151) and 30 treatment (antidepressants, antipsychotics; k = 43) studies were included. We found that HRV was reduced in all patient groups compared to controls (Hedges g = −0.583) with a large effect for psychotic disorders (Hedges g = −0.948). Effect sizes remained highly significant for medication-free patients compared to controls across all disorders. Smaller and significant reductions in HRV were observed for specific antidepressants and antipsychotics. Limitations Study quality significantly moderated effect sizes in case–control analyses, underscoring the importance of assessing methodological quality when interpreting HRV findings. Conclusion Combined findings confirm substantial reductions in HRV across psychiatric disorders, and these effects remained significant even in medication-free individuals. Reductions in HRV may therefore represent a significant mechanism contributing to elevated cardiovascular risk in individuals with psychiatric disorders. The negative impact of specific medications on HRV suggest increased risk for cardiovascular disease in these groups, highlighting a need for treatment providers to consider modifiable cardiovascular risk factors to attenuate this risk. PMID:26447819

  7. Multidisciplinary View of Alcohol Use Disorder: From a Psychiatric Illness to a Major Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Gitto, Stefano; Golfieri, Lucia; Caputo, Fabio; Grandi, Silvana; Andreone, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder is a significant health problem being a cause of increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. Alcohol-related illness has a relevant economic impact on the society and a negative influence on the life of patients and their family members. Psychosocial support might be useful in the management of people affected by alcohol use disorder since psychiatric and pharmaceutical approaches show some limits. In fact, many drugs are accessible for the treatment of alcohol disorder, but only Baclofen is functional as an anti-craving drug in patients with advanced liver disease. The alcohol-related liver damage represents the most frequent cause of advanced liver disease in Europe, and it is the main cause of death among adults with high alcohol consumption. The multidisciplinary action of clinical-psychologists, psychiatrics and hepatologists, is essential in the management of patients with alcohol liver disease especially in the case of liver transplantation. In general, the multidisciplinary approach is necessary in prevention, in framing patients and in the treatment. More resources should be used in prevention and research with the main aim of decreasing the harmful alcohol consumption. PMID:26784248

  8. Multidisciplinary View of Alcohol Use Disorder: From a Psychiatric Illness to a Major Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gitto, Stefano; Golfieri, Lucia; Caputo, Fabio; Grandi, Silvana; Andreone, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder is a significant health problem being a cause of increased morbidity and mortality worldwide. Alcohol-related illness has a relevant economic impact on the society and a negative influence on the life of patients and their family members. Psychosocial support might be useful in the management of people affected by alcohol use disorder since psychiatric and pharmaceutical approaches show some limits. In fact, many drugs are accessible for the treatment of alcohol disorder, but only Baclofen is functional as an anti-craving drug in patients with advanced liver disease. The alcohol-related liver damage represents the most frequent cause of advanced liver disease in Europe, and it is the main cause of death among adults with high alcohol consumption. The multidisciplinary action of clinical-psychologists, psychiatrics and hepatologists, is essential in the management of patients with alcohol liver disease especially in the case of liver transplantation. In general, the multidisciplinary approach is necessary in prevention, in framing patients and in the treatment. More resources should be used in prevention and research with the main aim of decreasing the harmful alcohol consumption. PMID:26784248

  9. Psychiatric Disorders in HTLV-1-Infected Individuals with Bladder Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Orge, Glória O.; Dellavechia, Thais R.; Carneiro-Neto, José Abraão; Araújo-de-Freitas, Lucas; Daltro, Carla H. C.; Santos, Carlos T.; Quarantini, Lucas C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported high rates of depression and anxiety in HTLV-1 infected individuals with the neurological disease and in the asymptomatic phase. No study has investigated the rates in individuals that already show bladder symptoms without severe neurological changes; that is, during the oligosymptomatic phase. The present study investigated patients in this intermediate form on the spectrum of the infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants answered a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Brazilian Version 5.0.0 (MINI PLUS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Data analysis was performed in STATA statistical software (version 12.0). Depressive disorder was the most frequent comorbidity. Current depressive disorder was higher in the group of overactive bladder subjects (11.9%), and lifelong depression was more frequent in the HAM/TSP group (35%). The three groups had similar frequencies of anxiety disorders. Increased frequency and severity of anxiety and depression symptoms were observed in the overactive bladder group. Conclusion/Significance The results suggest that individuals with overactive bladders need a more thorough assessment from the mental health perspective. These patients remain an understudied group regarding psychiatric comorbidities. PMID:26018525

  10. Daily weather variables and affective disorder admissions to psychiatric hospitals.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have reported that admission rates in patients with affective disorders are subject to seasonal variation. Notwithstanding, there has been limited evaluation of the degree to which changeable daily meteorological patterns influence affective disorder admission rates. A handful of small studies have alluded to a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental temperature (heat waves in particular), wind direction and sunshine. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test, ARIMA and time-series regression analyses to examine whether daily meteorological variables--namely wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, hours of sunshine, sunlight radiation and temperature--influence admission rates for mania and depression across 12 regions in Ireland over a 31-year period. Although we found some very weak but interesting trends for barometric pressure in relation to mania admissions, daily meteorological patterns did not appear to affect hospital admissions overall for mania or depression. Our results do not support the small number of papers to date that suggest a link between daily meteorological variables and affective disorder admissions. Further study is needed. PMID:24599495

  11. Daily weather variables and affective disorder admissions to psychiatric hospitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have reported that admission rates in patients with affective disorders are subject to seasonal variation. Notwithstanding, there has been limited evaluation of the degree to which changeable daily meteorological patterns influence affective disorder admission rates. A handful of small studies have alluded to a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental temperature (heat waves in particular), wind direction and sunshine. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test, ARIMA and time-series regression analyses to examine whether daily meteorological variables—namely wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, hours of sunshine, sunlight radiation and temperature—influence admission rates for mania and depression across 12 regions in Ireland over a 31-year period. Although we found some very weak but interesting trends for barometric pressure in relation to mania admissions, daily meteorological patterns did not appear to affect hospital admissions overall for mania or depression. Our results do not support the small number of papers to date that suggest a link between daily meteorological variables and affective disorder admissions. Further study is needed.

  12. Prospects for neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorder drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael; Enna, S J

    2011-05-01

    The discovery of CNS-active drugs has, to a major extent, resulted from clinical serendipity. Once targets for such compounds were identified, conventional mechanism-based approaches were used to identify new chemical entities for the treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Most of these have, however, failed to display any greater efficacy than existing psychotherapeutics and may, in fact, be less efficacious because of side effect liabilities. Among the reasons for this lack of success in drug discovery include a lack of fundamental knowledge regarding the causes of CNS disorders, the absence of biomarkers for diagnosing and monitoring these conditions, a paucity of animal models that are congruent with the human disease state and the increasing likelihood that CNS conditions are multifactorial in their etiology. These challenges force the inclusion of a Phase IIa proof of concept trial as a component of the drug discovery program. Unlike other therapeutic areas, serendipity is a major factor in the CNS translational medicine interface requiring a close collaboration between preclinical and clinical scientists trained to appreciate unusual behavioral phenotypes. When combined with conventional target-based drug discovery technologies, this increases the likelihood of identifying truly novel drugs for the treatment of CNS disorders. PMID:22646072

  13. Psychiatric disorders in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome are frequent, diverse and strongly associated with pain.

    PubMed

    Hershenfeld, Samantha Aliza; Wasim, Syed; McNiven, Vanda; Parikh, Manasi; Majewski, Paula; Faghfoury, Hanna; So, Joyce

    2016-03-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) are a heterogeneous group of hereditary connective tissue disorders characterized by joint hypermobility, widespread musculoskeletal pain and tissue fragility. Psychiatric disorders and psychosocial impairment are common, yet poorly characterized, findings in EDS patients. We investigated the frequency and types of psychiatric disorders and their relationship to systemic manifestations in a cohort of 106 classic and hypermobility type EDS patients. In this retrospective study, extensive medical chart review was performed for patients referred at two genetics clinics who were diagnosed with EDS. Statistical analysis was undertaken to determine the frequency of psychiatric disorders and association with systemic findings. Psychiatric disorders were found in 42.5% of the EDS cohort, with 22.7% of patients affected with 2 or more psychiatric diagnoses. Anxiety and depression were most commonly reported, with frequencies of 23.6 and 25.5%, respectively. A variety of other psychiatric diagnoses were also identified. Abdominal pain [odds ratio (OR) 7.38], neuropathic pain (OR 4.07), migraines (OR 5.21), joint pain (OR 2.85) and fatigue (OR 5.55) were significantly associated with the presence of a psychiatric disorder. The presence of any pain symptom was significantly associated with having a psychiatric disorder (OR 9.68). Muscle pain (OR 2.79), abdominal pain (OR 5.78), neuropathic pain (OR 3.91), migraines (OR 2.63) and fatigue (OR 3.78) were significantly associated with having an anxiety or mood disorder. Joint hypermobility and the classic dermatological features of EDS showed no significant association with having a psychiatric disorder. Our findings demonstrate a high frequency of psychiatric disorders and an association with pain symptoms in EDS. PMID:26433894

  14. Factors Affecting Minor Psychiatric Disorder in Southern Iranian Nurses: A Latent Class Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Jamshid; Roustaei, Narges; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi; Sadeghi, Erfan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mental health is one of the most important dimensions of life and its quality. Minor Psychiatric Disorder as a type of mental health problem is prevalent among health workers. Nursing is considered to be one of the most stressful occupations. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of minor psychiatric disorder and its associated factors among nurses in southern Iran. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 771 nurses working in 20 cities of Bushehr and Fars provinces in southern Iran. Participants were recruited through multi-stage sampling during 2014. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used for screening of minor psychiatric disorder in nurses. Latent Class Regression was used to analyze the data. Results: The prevalence of minor psychiatric disorder among nurses was estimated to be 27.5%. Gender and sleep disorders were significant factors in determining the level of minor psychiatric disorder (P Values of 0.04 and < 0.001, respectively). Female nurses were 20% more likely than males to be classified into the minor psychiatric disorder group. Conclusions: The results of this study provide information about the prevalence of minor psychiatric disorder among nurses, and factors, which affect the prevalence of such disorders. These findings can be used in strategic planning processes to improve nurses’ mental health. PMID:26339670

  15. Sleep and sleep disorders in older adults.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Kate

    2011-03-01

    A common but significant change associated with aging is a profound disruption to the daily sleep-wake cycle. It has been estimated that as many as 50% of older adults complain about difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep. Poor sleep results in increased risk of significant morbidity and mortality. Moreover, in younger adults, compromised sleep has been shown to have a consistent effect on cognitive function, which may suggest that sleep problems contribute to the cognitive changes that accompany older age. The multifactorial nature of variables affecting sleep in old age cannot be overstated. Changes in sleep have been thought to reflect normal developmental processes, which can be further compromised by sleep disturbances secondary to medical or psychiatric diseases (e.g., chronic pain, dementia, depression), a primary sleep disorder that can itself be age-related (e.g., Sleep Disordered Breathing and Periodic Limb Movements During Sleep), or some combination of any of these factors. Given that changes in sleep quality and quantity in later life have implications for quality of life and level of functioning, it is imperative to distinguish the normal age-related sleep changes from those originating from pathological processes. PMID:21225347

  16. Incidence of childhood abuse among women with psychiatric disorders compared with healthy women: Data from a tertiary care centre in India.

    PubMed

    Jangam, Kavita; Muralidharan, Kesavan; Tansa, K A; Aravind Raj, E; Bhowmick, Paramita

    2015-12-01

    Childhood abuse has been recognized as a precursor and a maintaining factor for adult psychopathology. There are very few studies that have investigated the incidence of childhood abuse in adult women with psychiatric disorders. Hence, this current investigation is an attempt to study and compare the incidence of childhood abuse (physical, emotional and sexual) among women seeking treatment for psychiatric disorders to healthy women. Using consecutive sampling, women seeking treatment for psychiatric disorders (N=609) and a group of age-education matched healthy women (N=100) were recruited for the study from a tertiary mental health-care hospital in India. The participants were screened for childhood abuse using the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool - Retrospective (ICAST)-R (I-CAST R, International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) and The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), 2009). Emotional abuse was significantly more common among women with psychiatric disorders compared with healthy women (p<0.05). On overall abuse, there was a trend to significance in women with psychiatric disorders compared with healthy women (p=0.07). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups on physical and sexual abuse (all p>0.13). There was no statistically significant difference in all three types of abuse across disorder categories, though the report was more among women with severe mental disorders. Women with psychiatric disorders reported more emotional and overall abuse compared with healthy women. Sexual and physical abuse was similar in both groups. It is likely that more emotional abuse predisposes these women to psychiatric disorders. PMID:26118353

  17. Untangling the psychiatric comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder in a sample of flood survivors.

    PubMed

    McMillen, Curtis; North, Carol; Mosley, Muriel; Smith, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    This report empirically examines multiple explanations for the high rates of psychiatric comorbidity seen with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One hundred sixty-two St. Louis area survivors of the 1993 Great Midwest Floods were interviewed a few months after the flood subsided using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) and its Disaster Supplement to assess psychiatric history relative to PTSD and five other psychiatric disorders. Thirty-five subjects (23%) met criteria for PTSD related to the flood. PTSD was frequently comorbid with other disorders. Seventeen subjects (10%) developed a new, non-PTSD psychiatric disorder after the flood. New non-PTSD disorders were rare in the absence of PTSD symptoms. Though prior psychiatric history was predictive of developing PTSD, no support was found that prior psychiatric history contributed to PTSD through social vulnerability. Thus, support was found for a model in which PTSD contributes to the development of other disorders following trauma, whereas no evidence was found to suggest that comorbid disorders develop independently of PTSD following trauma, or that comorbidity was due to symptom overlap among disorders. The lack of support for models in which psychosocial resources mediate the effect of psychiatric history on the development of PTSD indirectly confirms models of physiological vulnerability to PTSD development. PMID:12439837

  18. Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs.

    PubMed

    Lee, S Hong; Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M; Faraone, Stephen V; Purcell, Shaun M; Perlis, Roy H; Mowry, Bryan J; Thapar, Anita; Goddard, Michael E; Witte, John S; Absher, Devin; Agartz, Ingrid; Akil, Huda; Amin, Farooq; Andreassen, Ole A; Anjorin, Adebayo; Anney, Richard; Anttila, Verneri; Arking, Dan E; Asherson, Philip; Azevedo, Maria H; Backlund, Lena; Badner, Judith A; Bailey, Anthony J; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barchas, Jack D; Barnes, Michael R; Barrett, Thomas B; Bass, Nicholas; Battaglia, Agatino; Bauer, Michael; Bayés, Mònica; Bellivier, Frank; Bergen, Sarah E; Berrettini, Wade; Betancur, Catalina; Bettecken, Thomas; Biederman, Joseph; Binder, Elisabeth B; Black, Donald W; Blackwood, Douglas H R; Bloss, Cinnamon S; Boehnke, Michael; Boomsma, Dorret I; Breen, Gerome; Breuer, René; Bruggeman, Richard; Cormican, Paul; Buccola, Nancy G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Bunney, William E; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Byerley, William F; Byrne, Enda M; Caesar, Sian; Cahn, Wiepke; Cantor, Rita M; Casas, Miguel; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambert, Kimberly; Choudhury, Khalid; Cichon, Sven; Cloninger, C Robert; Collier, David A; Cook, Edwin H; Coon, Hilary; Cormand, Bru; Corvin, Aiden; Coryell, William H; Craig, David W; Craig, Ian W; Crosbie, Jennifer; Cuccaro, Michael L; Curtis, David; Czamara, Darina; Datta, Susmita; Dawson, Geraldine; Day, Richard; De Geus, Eco J; Degenhardt, Franziska; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary J; Doyle, Alysa E; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Duketis, Eftichia; Ebstein, Richard P; Edenberg, Howard J; Elia, Josephine; Ennis, Sean; Etain, Bruno; Fanous, Ayman; Farmer, Anne E; Ferrier, I Nicol; Flickinger, Matthew; Fombonne, Eric; Foroud, Tatiana; Frank, Josef; Franke, Barbara; Fraser, Christine; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B; Freitag, Christine M; Friedl, Marion; Frisén, Louise; Gallagher, Louise; Gejman, Pablo V; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Gershon, Elliot S; Geschwind, Daniel H; Giegling, Ina; Gill, Michael; Gordon, Scott D; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Green, Elaine K; Greenwood, Tiffany A; Grice, Dorothy E; Gross, Magdalena; Grozeva, Detelina; Guan, Weihua; Gurling, Hugh; De Haan, Lieuwe; Haines, Jonathan L; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hallmayer, Joachim; Hamilton, Steven P; Hamshere, Marian L; Hansen, Thomas F; Hartmann, Annette M; Hautzinger, Martin; Heath, Andrew C; Henders, Anjali K; Herms, Stefan; Hickie, Ian B; Hipolito, Maria; Hoefels, Susanne; Holmans, Peter A; Holsboer, Florian; Hoogendijk, Witte J; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hultman, Christina M; Hus, Vanessa; Ingason, Andrés; Ising, Marcus; Jamain, Stéphane; Jones, Edward G; Jones, Ian; Jones, Lisa; Tzeng, Jung-Ying; Kähler, Anna K; Kahn, René S; Kandaswamy, Radhika; Keller, Matthew C; Kennedy, James L; Kenny, Elaine; Kent, Lindsey; Kim, Yunjung; Kirov, George K; Klauck, Sabine M; Klei, Lambertus; Knowles, James A; Kohli, Martin A; Koller, Daniel L; Konte, Bettina; Korszun, Ania; Krabbendam, Lydia; Krasucki, Robert; Kuntsi, Jonna; Kwan, Phoenix; Landén, Mikael; Långström, Niklas; Lathrop, Mark; Lawrence, Jacob; Lawson, William B; Leboyer, Marion; Ledbetter, David H; Lee, Phil H; Lencz, Todd; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Levinson, Douglas F; Lewis, Cathryn M; Li, Jun; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Lin, Dan-Yu; Linszen, Don H; Liu, Chunyu; Lohoff, Falk W; Loo, Sandra K; Lord, Catherine; Lowe, Jennifer K; Lucae, Susanne; MacIntyre, Donald J; Madden, Pamela A F; Maestrini, Elena; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mahon, Pamela B; Maier, Wolfgang; Malhotra, Anil K; Mane, Shrikant M; Martin, Christa L; Martin, Nicholas G; Mattheisen, Manuel; Matthews, Keith; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarroll, Steven A; McGhee, Kevin A; McGough, James J; McGrath, Patrick J; McGuffin, Peter; McInnis, Melvin G; McIntosh, Andrew; McKinney, Rebecca; McLean, Alan W; McMahon, Francis J; McMahon, William M; McQuillin, Andrew; Medeiros, Helena; Medland, Sarah E; Meier, Sandra; Melle, Ingrid; Meng, Fan; Meyer, Jobst; Middeldorp, Christel M; Middleton, Lefkos; Milanova, Vihra; Miranda, Ana; Monaco, Anthony P; Montgomery, Grant W; Moran, Jennifer L; Moreno-De-Luca, Daniel; Morken, Gunnar; Morris, Derek W; Morrow, Eric M; Moskvina, Valentina; Muglia, Pierandrea; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Muir, Walter J; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Murtha, Michael; Myers, Richard M; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Neale, Michael C; Nelson, Stan F; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Nikolov, Ivan; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit; Nolen, Willem A; Nöthen, Markus M; Nurnberger, John I; Nwulia, Evaristus A; Nyholt, Dale R; O'Dushlaine, Colm; Oades, Robert D; Olincy, Ann; Oliveira, Guiomar; Olsen, Line; Ophoff, Roel A; Osby, Urban; Owen, Michael J; Palotie, Aarno; Parr, Jeremy R

    2013-09-01

    Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases and controls in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We apply univariate and bivariate methods for the estimation of genetic variation within and covariation between disorders. SNPs explained 17-29% of the variance in liability. The genetic correlation calculated using common SNPs was high between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (0.68 ± 0.04 s.e.), moderate between schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (0.43 ± 0.06 s.e.), bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (0.47 ± 0.06 s.e.), and ADHD and major depressive disorder (0.32 ± 0.07 s.e.), low between schizophrenia and ASD (0.16 ± 0.06 s.e.) and non-significant for other pairs of disorders as well as between psychiatric disorders and the negative control of Crohn's disease. This empirical evidence of shared genetic etiology for psychiatric disorders can inform nosology and encourages the investigation of common pathophysiologies for related disorders. PMID:23933821

  19. Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases and controls in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We apply univariate and bivariate methods for the estimation of genetic variation within and covariation between disorders. SNPs explained 17–29% of the variance in liability. The genetic correlation calculated using common SNPs was high between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (0.68 ± 0.04 s.e.), moderate between schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (0.43 ± 0.06 s.e.), bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (0.47 ± 0.06 s.e.), and ADHD and major depressive disorder (0.32 ± 0.07 s.e.), low between schizophrenia and ASD (0.16 ± 0.06 s.e.) and non-significant for other pairs of disorders as well as between psychiatric disorders and the negative control of Crohn’s disease. This empirical evidence of shared genetic etiology for psychiatric disorders can inform nosology and encourages the investigation of common pathophysiologies for related disorders. PMID:23933821

  20. Association between psychiatric disorders and osteoarthritis: a nationwide longitudinal population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Wang, Wei-Te; Lin, Li-Fong; Liao, Chun-De; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Lin, Hui-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although the association between depressive disorders and osteoarthritis (OA) has been studied, the association of other psychiatric disorders with OA remains unclear. Here, we investigated whether psychiatric disorders are risk factors for OA. The data were obtained from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 of Taiwan. We collected the ambulatory care claim records of patients who were diagnosed with psychiatric disorders according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2008. The prevalence and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of osteoarthritis among patients with psychiatric disorders and the control cohort were estimated. Of 74,393 patients with psychiatric disorders, 16,261 developed OA during the 7-year follow-up period. The crude HR for OA was 1.44 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39–1.49), which was higher than that of the control cohort. The adjusted HR for OA was 1.42 (95% CI, 1.39–1.42) among patients with psychiatric disorders during the 7-year follow-up period. Further analysis revealed that affective psychoses, neurotic illnesses or personality disorders, alcohol and drug dependence or abuse, and other mental disorders were risk factors for OA. This large-scale longitudinal population-based study revealed that affective psychoses, personality disorders, and alcohol and drug dependence or abuse are risk factors for OA. PMID:27368019

  1. Association between psychiatric disorders and osteoarthritis: a nationwide longitudinal population-based study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Wang, Wei-Te; Lin, Li-Fong; Liao, Chun-De; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Lin, Hui-Wen

    2016-06-01

    Although the association between depressive disorders and osteoarthritis (OA) has been studied, the association of other psychiatric disorders with OA remains unclear. Here, we investigated whether psychiatric disorders are risk factors for OA.The data were obtained from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 of Taiwan. We collected the ambulatory care claim records of patients who were diagnosed with psychiatric disorders according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2008. The prevalence and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of osteoarthritis among patients with psychiatric disorders and the control cohort were estimated.Of 74,393 patients with psychiatric disorders, 16,261 developed OA during the 7-year follow-up period. The crude HR for OA was 1.44 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39-1.49), which was higher than that of the control cohort. The adjusted HR for OA was 1.42 (95% CI, 1.39-1.42) among patients with psychiatric disorders during the 7-year follow-up period. Further analysis revealed that affective psychoses, neurotic illnesses or personality disorders, alcohol and drug dependence or abuse, and other mental disorders were risk factors for OA.This large-scale longitudinal population-based study revealed that affective psychoses, personality disorders, and alcohol and drug dependence or abuse are risk factors for OA. PMID:27368019

  2. Disorders of memory and plasticity in psychiatric disease.

    PubMed

    Pittenger, Christopher

    2013-12-01

    Plasticity is found throughout the nervous system and is thought to underlie key aspects of development, learning and memory, and repair. Neuropiastic processes include synaptic plasticity, cellular growth and remodeling, and neurogenesis. Dysregulation of these processes can contribute to a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases. In this review we explore three different ways in which dysregulation of neuropiastic and mnemonic processes can contribute to psychiatric illness. First, impairment of the mechanisms of plasticity can lead to cognitive deficits; this is most obvious in dementia and amnesia, but is also seen in more subtle forms in other conditions. We explore the relationship between stress, major depression, and impaired neuroplasticity in some detail. Second, enhanced memories can be pathogenic; we explore the example of post-traumatic stress disorder, in which intrusive trauma associated memories, accompanied by hyperactivity of the normal fear learning circuitry, are core aspects of the pathology. Third, impaired modulation of the relationship between parallel memory systems can contribute to maladaptive patterns of behavior; we explore the bias towards inflexible, habit-like behavior patterns in drug addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Together, these examples illustrate how different abnormalities in the mechanisms of neuroplasticity and memory formation can contribute to various forms of psychopathology. It is hoped that a growing understanding of these relationships, and of the fundamental mechanisms underlying neuroplasticity in the normal brain, will pave the way for new understandings of the mechanisms of neuropsychiatric disease and the development of novel treatment strategies. PMID:24459412

  3. Psychiatric Disorders and Polyphenols: Can They Be Helpful in Therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Trebatická, Jana; Ďuračková, Zdeňka

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of psychiatric disorders permanently increases. Polyphenolic compounds can be involved in modulation of mental health including brain plasticity, behaviour, mood, depression, and cognition. In addition to their antioxidant ability other biomodulating properties have been observed. In the pathogenesis of depression disturbance in neurotransmitters, increased inflammatory processes, defects in neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and redox imbalance are observed. Ginkgo biloba, green tea, and Quercus robur extracts and curcumin can affect neuronal system in depressive patients. ADHD patients treated with antipsychotic drugs, especially stimulants, report significant adverse effects; therefore, an alternative treatment is searched for. An extract from Ginkgo biloba and from Pinus pinaster bark, Pycnogenol, could become promising complementary supplements in ADHD treatment. Schizophrenia is a devastating mental disorder, with oxidative stress involved in its pathophysiology. The direct interference of polyphenols with schizophrenia pathophysiology has not been reported yet. However, increased oxidative stress caused by haloperidol was inhibited ex vivo by different polyphenols. Curcumin, extract from green tea and from Ginkgo biloba, may have benefits on serious side effects associated with administration of neuroleptics to patients suffering from schizophrenia. Polyphenols in the diet have the potential to become medicaments in the field of mental health after a thorough study of their mechanism of action. PMID:26180581

  4. Disorders of memory and plasticity in psychiatric disease

    PubMed Central

    Pittenger, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Plasticity is found throughout the nervous system and is thought to underlie key aspects of development, learning and memory, and repair. Neuropiastic processes include synaptic plasticity, cellular growth and remodeling, and neurogenesis. Dysregulation of these processes can contribute to a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases. In this review we explore three different ways in which dysregulation of neuropiastic and mnemonic processes can contribute to psychiatric illness. First, impairment of the mechanisms of plasticity can lead to cognitive deficits; this is most obvious in dementia and amnesia, but is also seen in more subtle forms in other conditions. We explore the relationship between stress, major depression, and impaired neuroplasticity in some detail. Second, enhanced memories can be pathogenic; we explore the example of post-traumatic stress disorder, in which intrusive trauma associated memories, accompanied by hyperactivity of the normal fear learning circuitry, are core aspects of the pathology. Third, impaired modulation of the relationship between parallel memory systems can contribute to maladaptive patterns of behavior; we explore the bias towards inflexible, habit-like behavior patterns in drug addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Together, these examples illustrate how different abnormalities in the mechanisms of neuroplasticity and memory formation can contribute to various forms of psychopathology. It is hoped that a growing understanding of these relationships, and of the fundamental mechanisms underlying neuroplasticity in the normal brain, will pave the way for new understandings of the mechanisms of neuropsychiatric disease and the development of novel treatment strategies. PMID:24459412

  5. Psychiatric disorders and violent reoffending: a national cohort study of convicted prisoners in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zheng; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Fazel, Seena

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Reoffending and presence of psychiatric disorders are common in prisoners worldwide. However, whether psychiatric disorders are risk factors for reoffending is still unknown. We aimed to examine the association between psychiatric disorders, including substance use disorder, and violent reoffending. Methods We did a longitudinal cohort study of 47 326 prisoners who were imprisoned since Jan 1, 2000, and released before Dec 31, 2009, in Sweden. We obtained data for diagnosed psychiatric disorders from both inpatient and outpatient registers, and sociodemographic and criminological factors from other population-based registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for violent reoffending with Cox regression. To control for potential familial confounding, we compared sibling prisoners with and without psychiatric disorders. We calculated population attributable fraction to assess the population effect. Findings Diagnosed psychiatric disorders were associated with an increased hazard of violent reoffending in male (adjusted HR 1·63 [95% CI 1·57–1·70]) and female (2·02 [1·54–2·63]) prisoners, and these associations were independent of measured sociodemographic and criminological factors, and, in men, remained substantial after adjustment for unmeasured familial factors (2·01 [1·66–2·43]). However, findings differed between individual diagnoses and sex. We found some evidence of stronger effects on violent reoffending of alcohol and drug use disorders and bipolar disorder than of other psychiatric disorders. Alcohol use disorder seemed to have a greater effect in women than in men (women 2·08 [1·66–2·60]; men 1·63 [1·56–1·71]). The overall effects of psychiatric disorders did not differ with severity of crime. The hazard of violent reoffending increased in a stepwise way with the number of diagnosed psychiatric disorders. Assuming causality, up to 20% (95% CI 19–22) of violent reoffending in men and 40% (27–52) in women was

  6. Ethnicity in Trauma and Psychiatric Disorders: Findings from the Collaborative Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pérez Benítez, Carlos I.; Yen, Shirley; Shea, M. Tracie; Edelen, Maria O.; Markowitz, John C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Ansell, Emily B.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Gunderson, John G.; Morey, Leslie C.

    2013-01-01

    The study’s aims are to explore ethnic differences in rates of adverse childhood experiences and lifetime traumatic events and in rates of psychiatric disorders for patients exposed to similar traumas. Rates of these events and rates of major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress, substance use, and borderline personality disorders were compared among 506 non-Hispanic Whites (N-HW), 108 Latina(o)s, and 94 African Americans (AA) participating in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorder Study. We found that Whites reported higher rates of neglect than African Americans and Latina(o)s, higher rates of verbal/emotional abuse than African Americans, and higher rates of accidents and injuries/feared serious injury than Latina(o)s. African Americans had higher rates of seeing someone injured/killed than Whites. No significant interaction was observed between adverse events and ethnicity for mental disorders. PMID:20455250

  7. A Review of Impact of Tobacco Use on Patients with Co-occurring Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Arghya; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of tobacco has been a worldwide problem over the past few decades due to the highly prevalent tobacco-attributable complications. Tobacco use has also been found to be more prevalent in patients with psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we conducted this review about the impact of tobacco use on co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Various facets of this interaction between tobacco use among those with co-occurring psychiatric disorders have been explored. It has been found that people with psychiatric disorders have a higher chance of currently smoking tobacco and lesser chance of cessation. Tobacco use and mental disorders continue to share a complex relationship that has been further evolving after the change in the pattern of tobacco use and also the advent of newer modalities of treatment. However, at the same time, it is believed that cessation of smoking may lead to improvement in the symptoms of mental illness. PMID:26997871

  8. Childhood Exposure to Psychological Trauma and the Risk of Suicide Attempts: The Modulating Effect of Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Jeon, Hong Jin; Seong, Sujeong

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined whether childhood exposure to psychological trauma is associated with greater suicidality and whether specific psychiatric disorders modulate this association in a representative sample of Korean adults. Methods The Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 was administered to 6,027 subjects aged 18-74 years. Subjects who experienced a traumatic event before the age of 18 years, the childhood-trauma-exposure group, were compared with controls without childhood trauma exposure. Results Childhood exposure to psychological trauma was associated with lifetime suicidal ideation (OR=3.19, 95% CI=2.42-4.20), suicide plans (OR=4.15, 95% CI=2.68-6.43), and suicide attempts (OR=4.52, 95% CI=2.97-6.88). These associations weakened after further adjustment for any psychiatric disorders, but they were not eliminated. The risk of suicide attempts related to childhood trauma increased with the presence of a concurrent alcohol use, depressive, or eating disorder. Conclusion In terms of clinical implications, patients with these disorders who have a history of childhood trauma should be carefully assessed for their suicide risk and aggressively treated for psychiatric disorders. PMID:25866516

  9. Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms and Comorbidity in Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Gadke, Daniel L; McKinney, Cliff; Oliveros, Arazais

    2016-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) continues to grow in prevalence each passing year. As more children are diagnosed, it makes sense that the emerging adult and adult population with ASD also will continue to grow. Although the body of research is quite large for children with ASD, the literature for emerging adults with ASD is sparse in comparison. The current study aimed to extend existing literature further by beginning to explore the realm of emerging adulthood. Specifically, the study investigated the presence of comorbid psychiatric symptoms in emerging adults who also presented with ASD symptoms as measured by the Adult Self-Report (Rescorla and Achenbach in The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) for ages 18 to 90 years. The use of psychological testing for treatment planning and outcomes assessment: volume 3: instruments for adults, 3rd edn. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, pp 115-152, 2004). Emerging adults were categorized as having normal, mild, moderate, or severe levels of ASD symptoms and were compared for the presence of comorbid psychiatric symptoms. Overall, results suggested that emerging adults who presented with greater ASD symptom severity were more likely to experience the presence of additional comorbid symptoms. PMID:25995020

  10. Quality of Life and Psychiatric Symptoms in Wilson’s Disease: the Relevance of Bipolar Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carta, MG; Mura, G; Sorbello, O; Farina, G; Demelia, L

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Wilson’s disease is an inherited disorder caused by a gene located on chromosome 13, which involved copper transportation across cell membranes. The disease can cause a reduced incorporation of copper into ceruloplasmin resulting in accumulation of this metal in the liver, central nervous system, kidneys and other organs. The objective is to define the frequencies of psychiatric disorders in WD, the amount of impairment of Quality of Life [QoL] in patients with WD and the relevance of the psychiatric disorders in the QoL of people suffering by WD. Methods: This is a systematic review. The search of the significant articles was carried out in PubMed using specific key words. Results: Such other neurological diseases, WD is characterized by chronic course and need of treatments, impairment of functional outcomes and high frequency of psychiatric symptoms, although a specific association between Bipolar Disorders and WD was recently found. Despite this, since today few studies are carried on WD patients’ quality of life related to psychiatric symptoms. Some new reports showed a link between presence of Bipolar Disorders diagnosis, cerebral damage and low Qol. Conclusion: Prospective studies on large cohorts are required to establish the effective impact of psychiatric disorders comorbidity, particularly Bipolar Disorders, on quality of life in WD and to clarify the causal link between brain damage, psychiatric disorders and worsening of QoL. PMID:23049615

  11. Psychiatric Illness in a Cohort of Adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnema, Margje; Boer, Harm; Collin, Philippe; Maaskant, Marian A.; van Roozendaal, Kees E. P.; Schrander-Stumpel, Constance T. R. M.; Curfs, Leopold M. G.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested an association between PWS and comorbid psychiatric illness. Data on prevalence rates of psychopathology is still scarce. This paper describes a large-scale, systematic study investigating the prevalence of psychiatric illness in a Dutch adult PWS cohort. One hundred and two individuals were screened for psychiatric…

  12. Disordered gambling and co-morbidity of psychiatric disorders among college students: an examination of problem drinking, anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ryan J; Usdan, Stuart; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen

    2014-06-01

    We assessed the occurrence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders (i.e., problem drinking, anxiety, and depression) among college students who met the threshold for disordered gambling. The participants included a large sample of undergraduate students (n = 1,430) who were enrolled in an introductory health course at a large, southeastern university in Spring 2011 and completed an online assessment that included scales to assess disordered gambling, problem drinking, anxiety, and depression. We calculated screening scores, computed prevalence rates for each disorder, and calculated Pearson correlations and Chi square tests to examine correlations and co-morbid relationships between the four disorders. Analyses indicated that all disorders were significantly associated (p < .01) except for disordered gambling and anxiety. Because college students who experience disordered gambling (and other psychiatric disorders) are at increased risk of experiencing co-occurring disorders, it might be useful for college health professionals to concurrently screen and intervene for co-occurring disorders. PMID:23430449

  13. A Rating Scale to Screen Symptoms of Psychiatric Disorders in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina; Van der Ploeg, Jan D.

    2008-01-01

    To be able to offer children with developmental disorders adequate help, professionals working in special needs education must use a screening device to assess the specific psychiatric difficulties of the children. In this paper the psychometric properties of an easy-to-use parental rating scale to screen symptoms of major psychiatric disorders…

  14. Quality of Life in Children with Psychiatric Disorders: Self-, Parent, and Clinician Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastiaansen, Dennis; Koot, Hans M.; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between child psychiatric disorders and quality of life (QoL). Method: In a sample of 310 children (ages 6-18 years) referred for psychiatric problems, children, parents, and clinicians reported on psychopathology and subjective and objective QoL indicators. Results: Six diagnostic categories were…

  15. Psychiatric Disorders in Smokers Seeking Treatment for Tobacco Dependence: Relations with Tobacco Dependence and Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Megan E.; Smith, Stevens S.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Fleming, Michael F.; Bittrich, Amy A.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Leitzke, Cathlyn J.; Zehner, Mark E.; Fiore, Michael C.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present research examined the relation of psychiatric disorders to tobacco dependence and cessation outcomes. Method: Data were collected from 1,504 smokers (58.2% women; 83.9% White; mean age = 44.67 years, SD = 11.08) making an aided smoking cessation attempt as part of a clinical trial. Psychiatric diagnoses were determined with…

  16. Applied Behavior Analysis in the Treatment of Severe Psychiatric Disorders: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scotti, Joseph R.; And Others

    Clinical research in the area of severe psychiatric disorders constituted the major focus for the discipline of applied behavior analysis during the early 1960s. Recently, however, there appears to be a notable lack of a behavioral focus within many inpatient psychiatric settings and a relative dearth of published behavioral treatment studies with…

  17. The Epidemiology of Psychiatric Disorders among Repeat DUI Offenders Accepting a Treatment-Sentencing Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Howard J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; LaPlante, Debi A.; LaBrie, Richard A.; Albanese, Mark; Caro, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity likely contributes to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol among repeat offenders. This study presents one of the first descriptions of the prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders among repeat DUI offenders in treatment. Participants included all consenting eligible admissions (N=729) to a 2-week…

  18. The Epidemiology of Psychiatric Disorders among Repeat DUI Offenders Accepting a Treatment-Sentencing Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Howard J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; LaPlante, Debi A.; LaBrie, Richard A.; Albanese, Mark; Caro, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity likely contributes to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol among repeat offenders. This study presents one of the first descriptions of the prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders among repeat DUI offenders in treatment. Participants included all consenting eligible admissions (N = 729) to a 2-week…

  19. The Persistence and Stability of Psychiatric Problems in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonoff, Emily; Jones, Catherine R. G.; Baird, Gillian; Pickles, Andrew; Happe, Francesca; Charman, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Background: Psychiatric problems are common in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), but the reasons are poorly understood. We use a longitudinal population-representative cohort to examine for the first time the persistence of psychiatric problems and to identify risk factors for their occurrence and stability. Methods: Eighty-one 16-year olds (75…

  20. The Behavioural Profile of Psychiatric Disorders in Persons with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kishore, M. T.; Nizamie, S. H.; Nizamie, A.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Problems associated with psychiatric diagnoses could be minimized by identifying behavioural clusters of specific psychiatric disorders. Methods: Sixty persons with intellectual disability (ID) and behavioural problems, aged 12?55 years, were assessed with standardized Indian tools for intelligence and adaptive behaviour. Clinical…

  1. Novel psychopharmacological therapies for psychiatric disorders: psilocybin and MDMA.

    PubMed

    Mithoefer, Michael C; Grob, Charles S; Brewerton, Timothy D

    2016-05-01

    4-phosphorloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (psilocybin) and methylenedioxymethamfetamine (MDMA), best known for their illegal use as psychedelic drugs, are showing promise as therapeutics in a resurgence of clinical research during the past 10 years. Psilocybin is being tested for alcoholism, smoking cessation, and in patients with advanced cancer with anxiety. MDMA is showing encouraging results as a treatment for refractory post-traumatic stress disorder, social anxiety in autistic adults, and anxiety associated with a life-threatening illness. Both drugs are studied as adjuncts or catalysts to psychotherapy, rather than as stand-alone drug treatments. This model of drug-assisted psychotherapy is a possible alternative to existing pharmacological and psychological treatments in psychiatry. Further research is needed to fully assess the potential of these compounds in the management of these common disorders that are difficult to treat with existing methods. PMID:27067625

  2. The Evolution of the Classification of Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Surís, Alina; Holliday, Ryan; North, Carol S.

    2016-01-01

    This article traces the history of classification systems for mental illness and then reviews the history of the American diagnostic system for mental disorders. The steps leading up to each publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) are described including leaders, timelines, pre-publication meetings, and field trials. Important changes in the purpose of the manuals are described with a focus on events leading to the manual’s third edition (DSM-III), which represented a paradigm shift in how we think about, and use, the classification system for mental illness. For the first time, DSM-III emphasized empirically-based, atheoretical and agnostic diagnostic criteria. New criticisms of the DSM-III and subsequent editions have arisen with a call for a new paradigm shift to replace diagnostic categories with continuous dimensional systems of classification, returning to etiologically-based definitions and incorporating findings from neurobiological science into systems of diagnosis. In the foreseeable future, however, psychiatric diagnosis must continue to be accomplished by taking a history and assessing the currently established criteria. This is necessary for communication about diseases and education of clinicians and scientists in medical fields, as well as advancement of research needed to further advance the diagnostic criteria of psychiatry. PMID:26797641

  3. The Evolution of the Classification of Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Surís, Alina; Holliday, Ryan; North, Carol S

    2016-01-01

    This article traces the history of classification systems for mental illness and then reviews the history of the American diagnostic system for mental disorders. The steps leading up to each publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) are described including leaders, timelines, pre-publication meetings, and field trials. Important changes in the purpose of the manuals are described with a focus on events leading to the manual's third edition (DSM-III), which represented a paradigm shift in how we think about, and use, the classification system for mental illness. For the first time, DSM-III emphasized empirically-based, atheoretical and agnostic diagnostic criteria. New criticisms of the DSM-III and subsequent editions have arisen with a call for a new paradigm shift to replace diagnostic categories with continuous dimensional systems of classification, returning to etiologically-based definitions and incorporating findings from neurobiological science into systems of diagnosis. In the foreseeable future, however, psychiatric diagnosis must continue to be accomplished by taking a history and assessing the currently established criteria. This is necessary for communication about diseases and education of clinicians and scientists in medical fields, as well as advancement of research needed to further advance the diagnostic criteria of psychiatry. PMID:26797641

  4. Psychiatric Disorders and Violence: A Longitudinal Study of Delinquent Females and Males After Detention

    PubMed Central

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Teplin, Linda A.; Abram, Karen M.; Jakubowski, Jessica A.; Dulcan, Mina K.; Welty, Leah J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between psychiatric disorders and violence in delinquent youth after detention. Method The Northwestern Juvenile Project is a longitudinal study of youth from the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center (Chicago, Illinois). Violence and psychiatric disorders were assessed via self-report in 1,659 youth (56% African American, 28% Hispanic, 36% female, ages 13–25) interviewed up to 4 times between three and five years after detention. Using generalized estimating equations and logistic regression, we examined (1) the prevalence of violence three and five years after detention; (2) the contemporaneous relationships between psychiatric disorders and violence as youth age; and (3) if the presence of a psychiatric disorder predicts subsequent violence. Results Rates of any violence decreased between 3 and 5 years after detention, from 35% to 21% (males), and from 20% to 17% (females). Contemporaneous relationship between disorder and violence: Compared to the group with no disorder, males and females with any disorder had greater odds of any violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.0 [95%CI, 1.9–4.7] and AOR, 4.4 [95%CI, 3.0–6.3], respectively). All specific disorders were associated contemporaneously with violence, except for major depressive disorder/dysthymia among males. Disorder and subsequent violence: Males with other drug use disorder and females with marijuana use disorder 3 years after detention had greater odds of any violence 2 years later (AOR, 3.4 [95%CI, 1.4–8.2] and AOR, 2.0 [95%CI, 1.1–3.8], respectively). Conclusion Aside from substance use disorders, the psychiatric disorders studied may not be useful markers of subsequent violence. Violence assessment and reduction must be key components of ongoing psychiatric services for high-risk youth. PMID:25791147

  5. Neurodevelopmental Plasticity in Pre- and Postnatal Environmental Interactions: Implications for Psychiatric Disorders from an Evolutionary Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-A; Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Goto, Yukiori

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are disadvantageous behavioral phenotypes in humans. Accordingly, a recent epidemiological study has reported decreased fecundity in patients with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. Moreover, the fecundity of the relatives of these patients is not exceedingly higher compared to the fecundity of the relatives of normal subjects. Collectively, the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among humans is expected to decrease over generations. Nevertheless, in reality, the prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in humans either have been constant over a long period of time or have even increased more recently. Several attempts to explain this fact have been made using biological mechanisms, such as de novo gene mutations or variants, although none of these explanations is fully comprehensive. Here, we propose a hypothesis towards understanding the biological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders from evolutionary perspectives. This hypothesis considers that behavioral phenotypes associated with psychiatric disorders might have emerged in the evolution of organisms as a neurodevelopmental adaptation against adverse environmental conditions associated with stress. PMID:26060583

  6. Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents Attending Pediatric Out Patient Departments of Tertiary Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Jesmin, Akhter; Rahman, Khan Muhammad Zillur; Muntasir, Maruf Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Psychiatric disorders are increasingly recognized among children and adolescents in Bangladesh. Psychiatric disorders are more common in children with chronic and acute pediatric disorders. Our study was designed to determine the psychiatric disorders among children and adolescents attending pediatric outpatient departments of tertiary care hospitals. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out from July 2012 to February 2013 in pediatric outpatient departments of three prime tertiary level hospitals of Dhaka, Bangladesh. A purposive sampling technique was used. A total of 240 male and female children aged 5 to 16 years old were included in the study. We used a semi-structured questionnaire to obtain sociodemographic and other relevant clinical information about the children and their families from their parents or caregivers and a validated parent version of the Bangla Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) for measuring psychopathology. Results The mean age of the children was 9.0± 2.6 years. The majority (71%) of children were in the 5–10 year age group. The male/female ratio was 1.2:1. Among the respondents, 18% were found to have a psychiatric disorder. Behavioral disorders, emotional disorders, and developmental disorders were found in 9.0%, 15.0% and 0.4% respectively. Hyperkinetic disorder was the single most frequent (5.0%) psychiatric disorder. Conclusions A significant number of children were found to have psychiatric disorders. Our study indicates the importance of identification and subsequent management of psychiatric conditions among the pediatric population. PMID:27403237

  7. Antipsychotic Medication Prescription Patterns in Adults with Developmental Disabilities Who Have Experienced Psychiatric Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsky, Yona; Elserafi, Jonny

    2012-01-01

    Antipsychotic medication rates are high in adults with developmental disability. This study considered rates of antipsychotic use in 743 adults with developmental disability who had experienced a psychiatric crisis. Nearly half (49%) of these adults were prescribed antipsychotics. Polypharmacy was common with 22% of those prescribed antipsychotics…

  8. Formal Psychiatric Disorders are not Overrepresented in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia.

    PubMed

    Gossink, Flora T; Dols, Annemieke; Krudop, Welmoed A; Sikkes, Sietske A; Kerssens, Cora J; Prins, Niels D; Scheltens, Philip; Stek, Max L; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L

    2016-02-25

    While psychiatric misdiagnosis is well-known in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), a systematic evaluation of standardized criteria for psychiatric disorders in bvFTD is still missing. Our aim was to define frequency and character of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders among patients with probable and definite bvFTD compared to possible bvFTD, other neurodegenerative diseases, and psychiatric diagnoses, using MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. We additionally compared psychiatric prodromes between these groups. Subjects were participants of the late-onset frontal lobe (LOF) study, a longitudinal multicenter study. In each patient, after baseline diagnostic procedure, a neurologist and geriatric psychiatrist made a joint clinical diagnosis. Independently, a structured diagnostic interview according to DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria (MINI-Plus) was performed by a trained professional blinded to clinical diagnosis. Out of 91 patients, 23 with probable and definite bvFTD, 3 with possible bvFTD, 25 with a non bvFTD neurodegenerative disease, and 40 with a clinical psychiatric diagnosis were included. Overall frequency of formal current and past psychiatric disorders in probable and definite bvFTD (21.7% current, 8.7% past) did not differ from other neurodegenerative diseases (12.0% current, 16.0% past) or possible bvFTD (66.7% current, 66.7% past), but was less than in patients with a clinical psychiatric diagnosis (57.5% current, 62.5% past; p <  0.01). In probable and definite bvFTD unipolar mood disorders were most common. Formally diagnosed psychiatric disorders are not overrepresented in probable bvFTD, suggesting that psychiatric misdiagnosis in bvFTD can be reduced by strictly applying diagnostic criteria. In suspected bvFTD close collaboration between neurologists and psychiatrists will advance diagnostics and subsequent treatment. PMID:26967225

  9. Beyond Alcoholism: Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome in Patients With Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Laurie M.; Buchanan, Judith R.; Onwuameze, Obiora E.; Pierson, Ronald K.; Paradiso, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Objective Wernicke encephalopathy and Korsakoff syndrome (the combined disorder is named Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome [WKS]) are preventable, life-threatening neuropsychiatric syndromes resulting from thiamine deficiency. WKS has historically been associated with alcoholism; more recently, it has been recognized in patients who have anorexia nervosa or have undergone bariatric surgery for obesity. However, patients with nutritional deficiencies of any origin are at risk for WKS. We present clinical histories and neuroimaging data on 2 young adults with underlying psychiatric disorders who became malnourished and developed WKS. Methods A young woman with bipolar disorder and somatization disorder was hospitalized for intractable vomiting. A young man with chronic paranoid schizophrenia developed delusions that food and water were harmful, and was hospitalized after subsisting for 4 months on soda pop. Results Acute, life-threatening Wernicke encephalopathy was confirmed in both patients by brain magnetic resonance imaging showing classic thalamic injury. The patients were left with persistent cognitive and physical disabilities that were consistent with Korsakoff syndrome. Conclusions Failure to suspect a vitamin deficiency led to permanent cognitive and physical disabilities that may necessitate lifelong care for these patients. The neuropsychiatric consequences could have been prevented by prompt recognition of their thiamine deficiency. PMID:22134191

  10. Psychiatric Disorders in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Prevalence, Comorbidity, and Associated Factors in a Population-Derived Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew; Charman, Tony; Chandler, Susie; Loucas, Tom; Baird, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    A study on autism spectrum disorders is conducted because its early onset, lifelong persistence, and high levels of associated impairment is turning it into a major public health concern. Results show that psychiatric disorders are common in children with autism spectrum disorders but there were few associations between putative risk factors and…

  11. Risk of Adverse Cognitive or Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, Kelley J.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Whitmire, Alexandra M.; Picano, James J.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA commitment to human space flight includes continuing to fly astronauts on the ISS until it is decommissioned as well as possibly returning astronauts to the moon or having astronauts venture to an asteroid or Mars. As missions leave low Earth orbit and explore deeper space, BHP supports and conducts research to enable a risk posture that considers the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders “acceptable given mitigations,” for pre-, in, and post-flight.The Human System Risk Board (HSRB) determines the risk of various mission scenarios using a likelihood (per person per year) by consequences matrix examining those risks across two categories—long term health and operational (within mission). Colors from a stoplight signal are used by HSRB and quickly provide a means of assessing overall perceived risk for a particular mission scenario. Risk associated with the current six month missions on the ISS are classified as “accepted with monitoring” while planetary missions, such as a mission to Mars, are recognized to be a “red” risk that requires mitigation to ensure mission success.Currently, the HSRB deems that the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric outcomes requires mitigation for planetary missions owing to long duration isolation and radiation exposure (see Table 1). While limited research evidence exists from spaceflight, it is well known anecdotally that the shift from the two week shuttle missions to the six month ISS missions renders the psychological stressors of space as more salient over longer duration missions. Shuttle astronauts were expected just to tolerate any stressors that arose during their mission and were successful at doing so (Whitmire et al, 2013). While it is possible to deal with stressors such as social isolation and to live with incompatible crewmembers for two weeks on shuttle, “ignoring it” is much less likely to be a successful coping mechanism

  12. Dissecting psychiatric spectrum disorders by generative embedding☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Brodersen, Kay H.; Deserno, Lorenz; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Lin, Zhihao; Penny, Will D.; Buhmann, Joachim M.; Stephan, Klaas E.

    2013-01-01

    This proof-of-concept study examines the feasibility of defining subgroups in psychiatric spectrum disorders by generative embedding, using dynamical system models which infer neuronal circuit mechanisms from neuroimaging data. To this end, we re-analysed an fMRI dataset of 41 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 42 healthy controls performing a numerical n-back working-memory task. In our generative-embedding approach, we used parameter estimates from a dynamic causal model (DCM) of a visual–parietal–prefrontal network to define a model-based feature space for the subsequent application of supervised and unsupervised learning techniques. First, using a linear support vector machine for classification, we were able to predict individual diagnostic labels significantly more accurately (78%) from DCM-based effective connectivity estimates than from functional connectivity between (62%) or local activity within the same regions (55%). Second, an unsupervised approach based on variational Bayesian Gaussian mixture modelling provided evidence for two clusters which mapped onto patients and controls with nearly the same accuracy (71%) as the supervised approach. Finally, when restricting the analysis only to the patients, Gaussian mixture modelling suggested the existence of three patient subgroups, each of which was characterised by a different architecture of the visual–parietal–prefrontal working-memory network. Critically, even though this analysis did not have access to information about the patients' clinical symptoms, the three neurophysiologically defined subgroups mapped onto three clinically distinct subgroups, distinguished by significant differences in negative symptom severity, as assessed on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). In summary, this study provides a concrete example of how psychiatric spectrum diseases may be split into subgroups that are defined in terms of neurophysiological mechanisms specified by a generative model

  13. Reliability and Validity of the "Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes-Parent Version" in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witwer, Andrea N.; Lecavalier, Luc; Norris, Megan

    2012-01-01

    The "Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes-Parent Version" (P-ChIPS) is a structured psychiatric interview designed to assess the presence of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. This study examined the reliability and validity of the P-ChIPS in 61 youngsters (6- to 17-years-old) with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Reliability…

  14. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comparison with Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; de Bruin, Esther I.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted with the aim to identify comorbid psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (n = 40) and to compare those comorbidity rates to those in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 40). Participants were clinically referred children aged 7-18 years. DSM-IV…

  15. Patterns in Work Functioning and Vocational Rehabilitation Associated with Coexisting Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drebing, Charles E.; Fleitas, Rick; Moore, Anshan; Krebs, Christopher; Van Ormer, Alice; Penk, Walter; Seibyl, Catherine; Rosenheck, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Analysis performed to identify differences in working functioning and vocational rehabilitation among participants with psychiatric disorders alone, substance use disorders alone, and a diagnosis of both disorders. Dual diagnosis was associated with better work functioning and more participation in rehabilitation. Findings may suggest clinicians…

  16. Approaches to recognition and management of childhood psychiatric disorders in pediatric primary care.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, L J; Jellinek, M S

    1998-10-01

    Psychiatric disorders occur in 14% to 20% of American children and adolescents and are a leading cause of disability among them, yet fewer than one in five of these children are recognized. The most common psychiatric disorders presenting to pediatricians include ADHD, anxiety disorders, depression, substance-use disorders, and conduct disorder, Approaches to recognition include screening for psychosocial concerns using specific questions in the clinical interview, and using brief, written questionnaires. Case vignettes illustrate comprehensive treatment planning for children with psychiatric disorders in the primary care context. As psychopharmacologic treatments and the new subspecialty of pediatric psychopharmacology take on growing importance, the traditional oversight role of the pediatrician and effective communication among referring and consulting physicians remain critical to quality care. PMID:9884674

  17. The long-term impact of early adversity on late-life psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Gershon, Anda; Sudheimer, Keith; Tirouvanziam, Rabindra; Williams, Leanne M; O'Hara, Ruth

    2013-04-01

    Early adversity is a strong and enduring predictor of psychiatric disorders including mood disorders, anxiety disorders, substance abuse or dependence, and posttraumatic stress disorder. However, the mechanisms of this effect are not well understood. The purpose of this review is to summarize and integrate the current research knowledge pertaining to the long-term effects of early adversity on psychiatric disorders, particularly in late life. We explore definitional considerations including key dimensions of the experience such as type, severity, and timing of adversity relative to development. We then review the potential biological and environmental mediators and moderators of the relationships between early adversity and psychiatric disorders. We conclude with clinical implications, methodological challenges and suggestions for future research. PMID:23443532

  18. Correlates of Substance Use Disorder among Psychiatric Outpatients: Focus on Cognition, Social Role Functioning and Psychiatric Status

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.; Simons, Jeffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared psychiatric outpatients who were never, former, and current substance abusers on psychiatric, social, and cognitive functioning. Fifty-six outpatients with schizophrenia-spectrum and bipolar disorders volunteered to complete diagnostic and social role function interviews, self-report inventories, and neuropsychological tests. Multinomial logit regression analyses indicated that current and former abusers reported greater subjective feelings of distress than those who never abused. Contrary to expectations, however, both groups of substance abusers performed better on non-verbal cognitive tests compared to those who never abused. Differences in social functioning were also observed: former abusers demonstrated better instrumental role functioning than those who never abused. This pattern of findings challenges assumptions about additive effects of comorbid disorders on cognitive and social functioning. PMID:12819549

  19. An Update on the Use of Sedative-Hypnotic Medications in Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Creado, Shane; Plante, David T

    2016-09-01

    Sleep disturbance is a common clinical problem experienced by patients with a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that insomnia is a comorbid process that affects the course and treatment of a number of forms of mental illness. The efficacy and safety of sedative-hypnotic medications have largely been established in patients who do not have comorbid psychiatric disorders, underscoring the need for further research in this sphere. This review summarizes pertinent findings in the recent literature that have examined the role of hypnotic medication in the treatment of psychiatric illness, and highlights potential areas that may prove fruitful avenues of future research. PMID:27417512

  20. Risk of psychiatric disorders following pelvic inflammatory disease: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cheng-Che; Yang, Albert C; Hung, Jeng-Hsiu; Hu, Li-Yu; Chiang, Yung-Yen; Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) a common infection in women that is associated with significant morbidity and is a major cause of infertility. A clear temporal causal relationship between PID and psychiatric disorders has not been well established. We used a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study to explore the relationship between PID and the subsequent development of psychiatric disorders. We identified subjects who were newly diagnosed with PID between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2002 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort was constructed for patients without PID. A total of 21 930 PID and 21 930 matched control patients were observed until diagnosed with psychiatric disorders, or until death, withdrawal from the NHI system, or until 31 December 2009. Adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of bipolar disorder, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder and sleep disorder in subjects with PID were significantly higher (HR: 2.671, 2.173, 2.006 and 2.251, respectively) than that of the controls during the follow-up. PID may increase the risk of subsequent newly diagnosed bipolar disorder, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder and sleep disorder, which will impair life quality. Our findings highlight that clinicians should pay particular attention to psychiatric comorbidities in PID patients. PMID:26821967

  1. The basis for folinic acid treatment in neuro-psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Ramaekers, V T; Sequeira, J M; Quadros, E V

    2016-07-01

    Multiple factors such as genetic and extraneous causes (drugs, toxins, adverse psychological events) contribute to neuro-psychiatric conditions. In a subgroup of these disorders, systemic folate deficiency has been associated with macrocytic anemia and neuropsychiatric phenotypes. In some of these, despite normal systemic levels, folate transport to the brain is impaired in the so-called cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) syndromes presenting as developmental and psychiatric disorders. These include infantile-onset CFD syndrome, infantile autism with or without neurologic deficits, a spastic-ataxic syndrome and intractable epilepsy in young children expanding to refractory schizophrenia in adolescents, and finally treatment-resistant major depression in adults. Folate receptor alpha (FRα) autoimmunity with low CSF N(5)-methyl-tetrahydrofolate (MTHF) underlies most CFD syndromes, whereas FRα gene abnormalities and mitochondrial gene defects are rarely found. The age at which FRα antibodies of the blocking type emerge, determines the clinical phenotype. Infantile CFD syndrome and autism with neurological deficits tend to be characterized by elevated FRα antibody titers and low CSF MTHF. In contrast, in infantile autism and intractable schizophrenia, abnormal behavioral signs and symptoms may wax and wane with fluctuating FRα antibody titers over time accompanied by cycling changes in CSF folate, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and neurotransmitter metabolites ranging between low and normal levels. We propose a hypothetical model explaining the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Based on findings from clinical, genetic, spinal fluid and MRI spectroscopic studies, we discuss the neurochemical changes associated with these disorders, metabolic and regulatory pathways, synthesis and catabolism of neurotransmitters, and the impact of oxidative stress on the pathogenesis of these conditions. A diagnostic algorithm and therapeutic regimens using high dose folinic acid

  2. Influence of interactions between genes and childhood trauma on refractoriness in psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Sun; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2016-10-01

    Psychiatric disorders are excellent disease models in which gene-environmental interaction play a significant role in the pathogenesis. Childhood trauma has been known as a significant environmental factor in the progress of, and prognosis for psychiatric illness. Patients with refractory illness usually have more severe symptoms, greater disability, lower quality of life and are at greater risk of suicide than other psychiatric patients. Our literature review uncovered some important clinical factors which modulate response to treatment in psychiatric patients who have experienced childhood trauma. Childhood trauma seems to be a critical determinant of treatment refractoriness in psychotic disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. In patients with psychotic disorders, the relationship between childhood trauma and treatment-refractoriness appears to be mediated by cognitive impairment. In the case of bipolar disorder, the relationship appears to be mediated by greater affective disturbance and earlier onset, while in major depressive disorder the mediating factors are persistent, severe symptoms and frequent recurrence. In suicidal individuals, childhood maltreatment was associated with violent suicidal attempts. In the case of PTSD patients, it appears that childhood trauma makes the brain more vulnerable to subsequent trauma, thus resulting in more severe, refractory symptoms. Given that several studies have suggested that there are distinct subtypes of genetic vulnerability to childhood trauma, it is important to understand how gene-environment interactions influence the course of psychiatric illnesses in order to improve therapeutic strategies. PMID:26827636

  3. Curriculum development: Preparing trainees to care for children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Foley, Kimberly P; Haggerty, Treah S; Harrison, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Family physicians provide care for about one-third of the children and adolescents in the United States, many of whom present with psychological concerns. Family physicians often do not recognize these psychological disorders and therefore do not diagnose or treat them. This report describes the implementation of a curriculum designed to increase family medicine trainees' level of awareness that children/adolescents experience psychiatric conditions. This goal is achieved through the addition of a clinical child/adolescent psychologist faculty member, resident self-assessment of training needs and subsequent development of didactic presentations to address these needs. The curriculum relies on the acquisition of child/adolescent psychiatric screeners, development of child/adolescent-focused bibliotherapy materials, and the development of a longitudinal behavioral sciences curriculum. To facilitate the screening of child/adolescent psychiatric disorders, a comprehensive collection of age-appropriate psychiatric screeners were compiled and made readily available in all precepting areas. To assist with the identification of specific child/adolescent psychiatric deficit areas, family medicine resident physicians were presented with an inventory of child/adolescent psychiatric, psychosocial, and behavioral topics, based upon American Academy of Family Practice guidelines and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition psychiatric disorders, and self-selected training deficiencies. PMID:26113643

  4. The Relationships between Workaholism and Symptoms of Psychiatric Disorders: A Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Mark D.; Sinha, Rajita; Hetland, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    Despite the many number of studies examining workaholism, large-scale studies have been lacking. The present study utilized an open web-based cross-sectional survey assessing symptoms of psychiatric disorders and workaholism among 16,426 workers (Mage = 37.3 years, SD = 11.4, range = 16–75 years). Participants were administered the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Obsession-Compulsive Inventory-Revised, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Bergen Work Addiction Scale, along with additional questions examining demographic and work-related variables. Correlations between workaholism and all psychiatric disorder symptoms were positive and significant. Workaholism comprised the dependent variable in a three-step linear multiple hierarchical regression analysis. Basic demographics (age, gender, relationship status, and education) explained 1.2% of the variance in workaholism, whereas work demographics (work status, position, sector, and annual income) explained an additional 5.4% of the variance. Age (inversely) and managerial positions (positively) were of most importance. The psychiatric symptoms (ADHD, OCD, anxiety, and depression) explained 17.0% of the variance. ADHD and anxiety contributed considerably. The prevalence rate of workaholism status was 7.8% of the present sample. In an adjusted logistic regression analysis, all psychiatric symptoms were positively associated with being a workaholic. The independent variables explained between 6.1% and 14.4% in total of the variance in workaholism cases. Although most effect sizes were relatively small, the study’s findings expand our understanding of possible psychiatric predictors of workaholism, and particularly shed new insight into the reality of adult ADHD in work life. The study’s implications, strengths, and shortcomings are also discussed. PMID:27192149

  5. The Relationships between Workaholism and Symptoms of Psychiatric Disorders: A Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Sinha, Rajita; Hetland, Jørn; Pallesen, Ståle

    2016-01-01

    Despite the many number of studies examining workaholism, large-scale studies have been lacking. The present study utilized an open web-based cross-sectional survey assessing symptoms of psychiatric disorders and workaholism among 16,426 workers (Mage = 37.3 years, SD = 11.4, range = 16-75 years). Participants were administered the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Obsession-Compulsive Inventory-Revised, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Bergen Work Addiction Scale, along with additional questions examining demographic and work-related variables. Correlations between workaholism and all psychiatric disorder symptoms were positive and significant. Workaholism comprised the dependent variable in a three-step linear multiple hierarchical regression analysis. Basic demographics (age, gender, relationship status, and education) explained 1.2% of the variance in workaholism, whereas work demographics (work status, position, sector, and annual income) explained an additional 5.4% of the variance. Age (inversely) and managerial positions (positively) were of most importance. The psychiatric symptoms (ADHD, OCD, anxiety, and depression) explained 17.0% of the variance. ADHD and anxiety contributed considerably. The prevalence rate of workaholism status was 7.8% of the present sample. In an adjusted logistic regression analysis, all psychiatric symptoms were positively associated with being a workaholic. The independent variables explained between 6.1% and 14.4% in total of the variance in workaholism cases. Although most effect sizes were relatively small, the study's findings expand our understanding of possible psychiatric predictors of workaholism, and particularly shed new insight into the reality of adult ADHD in work life. The study's implications, strengths, and shortcomings are also discussed. PMID:27192149

  6. Ghrelin-Derived Peptides: A Link between Appetite/Reward, GH Axis, and Psychiatric Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Labarthe, Alexandra; Fiquet, Oriane; Hassouna, Rim; Zizzari, Philippe; Lanfumey, Laurence; Ramoz, Nicolas; Grouselle, Dominique; Epelbaum, Jacques; Tolle, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are often associated with metabolic and hormonal alterations, including obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome as well as modifications in several biological rhythms including appetite, stress, sleep–wake cycles, and secretion of their corresponding endocrine regulators. Among the gastrointestinal hormones that regulate appetite and adapt the metabolism in response to nutritional, hedonic, and emotional dysfunctions, at the interface between endocrine, metabolic, and psychiatric disorders, ghrelin plays a unique role as the only one increasing appetite. The secretion of ghrelin is altered in several psychiatric disorders (anorexia, schizophrenia) as well as in metabolic disorders (obesity) and in animal models in response to emotional triggers (psychological stress …) but the relationship between these modifications and the physiopathology of psychiatric disorders remains unclear. Recently, a large literature showed that this key metabolic/endocrine regulator is involved in stress and reward-oriented behaviors and regulates anxiety and mood. In addition, preproghrelin is a complex prohormone but the roles of the other ghrelin-derived peptides, thought to act as functional ghrelin antagonists, are largely unknown. Altered ghrelin secretion and/or signaling in psychiatric diseases are thought to participate in altered appetite, hedonic response and reward. Whether this can contribute to the mechanism responsible for the development of the disease or can help to minimize some symptoms associated with these psychiatric disorders is discussed in the present review. We will thus describe (1) the biological actions of ghrelin and ghrelin-derived peptides on food and drugs reward, anxiety and depression, and the physiological consequences of ghrelin invalidation on these parameters, (2) how ghrelin and ghrelin-derived peptides are regulated in animal models of psychiatric diseases and in human psychiatric disorders in relation with the GH axis

  7. Ghrelin-Derived Peptides: A Link between Appetite/Reward, GH Axis, and Psychiatric Disorders?

    PubMed

    Labarthe, Alexandra; Fiquet, Oriane; Hassouna, Rim; Zizzari, Philippe; Lanfumey, Laurence; Ramoz, Nicolas; Grouselle, Dominique; Epelbaum, Jacques; Tolle, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are often associated with metabolic and hormonal alterations, including obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome as well as modifications in several biological rhythms including appetite, stress, sleep-wake cycles, and secretion of their corresponding endocrine regulators. Among the gastrointestinal hormones that regulate appetite and adapt the metabolism in response to nutritional, hedonic, and emotional dysfunctions, at the interface between endocrine, metabolic, and psychiatric disorders, ghrelin plays a unique role as the only one increasing appetite. The secretion of ghrelin is altered in several psychiatric disorders (anorexia, schizophrenia) as well as in metabolic disorders (obesity) and in animal models in response to emotional triggers (psychological stress …) but the relationship between these modifications and the physiopathology of psychiatric disorders remains unclear. Recently, a large literature showed that this key metabolic/endocrine regulator is involved in stress and reward-oriented behaviors and regulates anxiety and mood. In addition, preproghrelin is a complex prohormone but the roles of the other ghrelin-derived peptides, thought to act as functional ghrelin antagonists, are largely unknown. Altered ghrelin secretion and/or signaling in psychiatric diseases are thought to participate in altered appetite, hedonic response and reward. Whether this can contribute to the mechanism responsible for the development of the disease or can help to minimize some symptoms associated with these psychiatric disorders is discussed in the present review. We will thus describe (1) the biological actions of ghrelin and ghrelin-derived peptides on food and drugs reward, anxiety and depression, and the physiological consequences of ghrelin invalidation on these parameters, (2) how ghrelin and ghrelin-derived peptides are regulated in animal models of psychiatric diseases and in human psychiatric disorders in relation with the GH axis

  8. The use of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate for the treatment of ADHD and other psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Roncero, Carlos; Álvarez, F Javier

    2014-08-01

    Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is a long-acting oral prodrug stimulant. It is inactive until enzymatically hydrolyzed in the blood to active D-amphetamine. The pharmacological action of this compound involves blocking norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine reuptake into presynaptic neurons and promoting the release of NE and dopamine into the extraneuronal space. LDX has been approved for treating ADHD, which is the most common psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents. Also, LDX has been proposed for other psychiatric conditions related with dopaminergic and NE CNS. LDX is the first long-acting oral prodrug indicated for the treatment of ADHD in children (6-12 years), adolescents (13-17 years) and in adults in the USA and Canada, whereas, in Europe, LDX is licensed in several countries for the treatment of children and adolescents with ADHD who have had a clinically inadequate response to methylphenidate. This article covers the most important pharmacological aspects of LDX as well as data on the efficacy, tolerability and safety of this long-acting amphetamine prodrug collected from clinical studies recently published in the literature. PMID:24948428

  9. Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…

  10. Dopamine D4 receptor gene DRD4 and its association with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Ptácek, Radek; Kuzelová, Hana; Stefano, George B

    2011-09-01

    Dopamine receptors control neural signals that modulates behavior. Dopamine plays an important role in normal attention; that is the reason for studying the genes of the dopaminergic system, mainly in connection with disorders of attention. DRD4 influences the postsynaptic action of dopamine and is implicated in many neurological processes, exhibits polymorphism and is one of the most studied genes in connection with psychiatric disorders. Associations were found with ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), substance dependences, several specific personality traits, and reaction to stress. These findings have implications for pharmacogenetics. This article reviews the principle published associations of DRD4 variants with psychiatric disorders. PMID:21873960

  11. Antipsychotic Medication Prescribing Practices Among Adult Patients Discharged From State Psychiatric Inpatient Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    HOLLEN, VERA; SCHACHT, LUCILLE

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The goal of this study was to explore antipsychotic medication prescribing practices in a sample of 86,034 patients discharged from state psychiatric inpatient hospitals and to find the prevalence of patients discharged with no antipsychotic medications, on antipsychotic monotherapy, and on antipsychotic polypharmacy. For patients discharged on antipsychotic polypharmacy, the study explored the adjusted rates of antipsychotic polypharmacy, the reasons patients were discharged on antipsychotic polypharmacy, the proportion of antipsychotic polypharmacy by mental health disorder, and the characteristics associated with being discharged on antipsychotic polypharmacy. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed all discharges for adult patients (18 to 64 y of age) from state psychiatric inpatient hospitals between January 1 and December 31, 2011. The relationship among variables was explored using χ2, t test, and analysis of variance. Logistic regression was used to determine predictors of antipsychotic polypharmacy. Results: The prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy was 12%. Of the discharged patients receiving at least 1 antipsychotic medication (adjusted rate), 18% were on antipsychotic polypharmacy. The strongest predictors of antipsychotic polypharmacy being prescribed were having a diagnosis of schizophrenia and a length of stay of 90 days or more. Patients were prescribed antipsychotic polypharmacy primarily to reduce their symptoms. Conclusions: Antipsychotic polypharmacy continues at a high enough rate to affect nearly 10,000 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia each year in state psychiatric inpatient hospitals. Further analysis of the clinical presentation of these patients may highlight particular aspects of the illness and its previous treatment that are contributing to practices outside the best-practice guideline. An increased understanding of trend data, patient characteristics, and national benchmarks provides an opportunity for

  12. Complex Psychiatric Comorbidity of Treatment-Seeking Youth With Autism Spectrum Disorder and Anxiety Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    HEPBURN, SUSAN L.; STERN, JESSICA A.; BLAKELEY-SMITH, AUDREY; KIMEL, LILA K.; REAVEN, JUDITH A.

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders and other co-occurring psychiatric disorders significantly impact adaptive functioning for many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This descriptive study examines the complexity of psychiatric comorbidity in treatment-seeking youth with ASD and anxiety symptoms. Forty-two parents of 8- to 14-year-old children with ASD and anxiety symptoms completed a structured psychiatric interview (K-SADS) and provided information about the child’s past and current psychological functioning as part of a screening process to enter an anxiety intervention program. Overall, comorbidity was very complex, with children obtaining an average of 4 psychiatric diagnoses (including anxiety disorders) on a structured clinical interview (range = 0–9). Onset and course differed by psychiatric disorder. Complexity of comorbidity did not differ significantly by age, sex, or autism severity. Despite clinical significance of the symptoms reported, few children were currently (or ever) engaged in mental health treatment or group psychosocial intervention. Although the specificity of the current sample limits the generalizability of these results, findings suggest that treatment-seeking children with ASD and anxiety often present with additional psychiatric symptoms, which supports a transdiagnostic approach to research and intervention in this area. Accurate assessment of comorbidity may provide valuable information for families and clinicians regarding individualized treatment approaches. PMID:25960821

  13. Is an interest in computers or individual/team sports associated with adolescent psychiatric disorders?

    PubMed

    Harju, Outi; Luukkonen, Anu-Helmi; Hakko, Helinä; Räsänen, Pirkko; Riala, Kaisa

    2011-01-01

    The Internet plays a major role in adolescents' free time activities and communication nowadays. The aim here was to investigate the possibility of an association of computers and video games or sports (team, individual) with psychiatric disorders among underage psychiatric inpatients. The series of adolescents (n = 508) had been diagnosed using semistructured interviews (K-SADS-PL). The results showed that an interest in computers and video games did not increase the risk of any specific psychiatric disorder among these adolescent inpatients, but the likelihood of a substance-related disorder was statistically significantly lower among the boys with computers as a hobby. Team sports were related to increased likelihood of conduct disorder among the boys, whereas the likelihood of an affective disorder was reduced. No such association was found in individual sports or among the girls. We conclude that social contacts and peers play an important role in preventing adolescent depression. PMID:21288072

  14. Autistic-Like Traits in Adult Patients with Mood Disorders and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Junko; Kamio, Yoko; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Ota, Miho; Teraishi, Toshiya; Hori, Hiroaki; Nagashima, Anna; Takei, Reiko; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Motohashi, Nobutaka; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder often co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Although a high prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms has been identified in the pediatric psychiatric population of normal intelligence, there are no reports from adult psychiatric population. This study examined whether there is a greater prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms in patients with adult-onset psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia, and whether such an association is independent of symptom severity. The subjects were 290 adults of normal intelligence between 25 and 59 years of age (MDD, n=125; bipolar disorder, n=56; schizophrenia, n=44; healthy controls, n=65). Autistic-like traits/symptoms were measured using the Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults. Symptom severity was measured using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and/or the Young Mania Rating Scale. Almost half of the clinical subjects, except those with remitted MDD, exhibited autistic-like traits/symptoms at levels typical for sub-threshold or threshold autism spectrum disorder. Furthermore, the proportion of psychiatric patients that demonstrated high autistic-like traits/symptoms was significantly greater than that of healthy controls, and not different between that of remitted or unremitted subjects with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. On the other hand, remitted subjects with MDD did not differ from healthy controls with regard to the prevalence or degree of high autistic-like traits/symptoms. A substantial proportion of adults with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia showed high autistic-like traits/symptoms independent of symptom severity, suggesting a shared pathophysiology among autism spectrum disorder and these psychiatric disorders. Conversely, autistic-like traits among subjects with MDD were associated with the depressive symptom severity. These findings suggest the importance of

  15. The BDNF gene Val66Met polymorphism as a modifier of psychiatric disorder susceptibility: progress and controversy.

    PubMed

    Notaras, M; Hill, R; van den Buuse, M

    2015-08-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has a primary role in neuronal development, differentiation and plasticity in both the developing and adult brain. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the proregion of BDNF, termed the Val66Met polymorphism, results in deficient subcellular translocation and activity-dependent secretion of BDNF, and has been associated with impaired neurocognitive function in healthy adults and in the incidence and clinical features of several psychiatric disorders. Research investigating the Val66Met polymorphism has increased markedly in the past decade, and a gap in integration exists between and within academic subfields interested in the effects of this variant. Here we comprehensively review the role and relevance of the Val66Met polymorphism in psychiatric disorders, with emphasis on suicidal behavior and anxiety, eating, mood and psychotic disorders. The cognitive and molecular neuroscience of the Val66Met polymorphism is also concisely reviewed to illustrate the effects of this genetic variant in healthy controls, and is complemented by a commentary on the behavioral neuroscience of BDNF and the Val66Met polymorphism where relevant to specific disorders. Lastly, a number of controversies and unresolved issues, including small effect sizes, sampling of allele inheritance but not genotype and putative ethnicity-specific effects of the Val66Met polymorphism, are also discussed to direct future research. PMID:25824305

  16. Childhood adversity and psychiatric disorder in young adulthood: An analysis of 107,704 Swedes.

    PubMed

    Björkenstam, Emma; Burström, Bo; Vinnerljung, Bo; Kosidou, Kyriaki

    2016-06-01

    Childhood adversity (CA) is associated with increased risks of psychiatric disorder in young adulthood, but details in this association are less known. We aimed to explore the association of a range of CA indicators with psychiatric disorder in young adulthood, and the impact of age at exposure, disorder type and accumulation of indicators. We capitalized on Sweden's extensive and high-quality registers and analyzed a cohort of all Swedes (N = 107,704) born in Stockholm County 1987-1991. Adversities included familial death, parental substance misuse and psychiatric disorder, parental criminality, parental separation, public assistance recipiency and residential instability. Age at exposure was categorized as: 0-6.9 years (infancy and early childhood), 7-11.9 years (middle childhood), and 12-14 years (early adolescence). Psychiatric disorders after age 15 were defined from ICD codes through registers. Risks were calculated as Hazard Ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results showed that exposure to at least one CA was associated with an increased risk of psychiatric disorder (HR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.3-1.4). Risks were increased for mood, anxiety, and psychotic disorders and ADHD but not for eating disorders. The risk varied with type of disorder but was similar for all exposure periods. Individuals with multiple (3+) CAs had a two-fold risk of psychiatric disorder (HR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.9-2.1). In conclusion, our findings support the long-term negative impact of CA on mental health, regardless of developmental period of exposure. Given that experience of CA is common, efforts should be put to alleviate the burden of childhood adversities for children, particularly among the most disadvantaged. PMID:26994339

  17. Impact of Psychiatric Information on Potential Jurors in Evaluating High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (hfASD)

    PubMed Central

    Berryessa, Colleen M.; Milner, Lauren C.; Garrison, Nanibaa' A.; Cho, Mildred K.

    2015-01-01

    During a trial involving an offender with a mental disorder, jurors are often required to evaluate information on the disorder and its characteristics. This evaluation relies on how jurors understand and synthesize psychiatric and other evidence on the disorder and this information's impact on the case, an offender's culpability, and the rendered verdict. The importance of this evaluation is further highlighted when jurors are faced with evaluating a disorder that may be associated with criminal actions of diagnosed offenders, such as high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (hfASD). We designed a three-part survey to assess potential jurors' attitudes concerning an offender's diagnosis with hfASD in terms of perceptions and decisions surrounding legal and moral responsibility, personal characteristics of the offender, the introduction of psychiatric and genetic information, and the condition's influence on the facts of the case. A sample of 623 jury-eligible U.S. adults completed the survey. We found the majority of participants were influenced by the information provided on hfASD. Most respondents indicated that hfASD diagnosis should generally not affect the legal responsibility of an offender, but many reported the disorder as a mitigating factor when evaluating moral responsibility and legal consequences for criminal actions. Respondents reported favorable and sympathetic perceptions of individuals with autism and associated characteristics but were unsure, even after the presentation of psychiatric information on hfASD, if these disorders should be classified as “mental illness.” Further, the majority reported their views were in some way influenced by the fact that hfASD has potential genetic origins. PMID:26843900

  18. Comorbidity of Personality Disorders and Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)--Review of Recent Findings.

    PubMed

    Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may remit until adulthood. But, more than 60-80% have persisting ADHD symptoms. ADHD as an early manifesting neurodevelopmental disorder is considered a major risk factor for the development of comorbid psychiatric disorders in later life. Particularly, personality disorders are oftentimes observed in adult patients suffering from ADHD. If ADHD and personality disorders share common etiological mechanisms and/or if ADHD as a severely impairing condition influences psychological functioning and learning and leads to unfavorable learning histories is unclear. The development of inflexible and dysfunctional beliefs on the basis of real and perceived impairments or otherness due to the core symptoms of ADHD is intuitively plausible. Such beliefs are a known cause for the development of personality disorders. But, why some personality disorders are more frequently found in ADHD patients as for example antisocial and borderline personality disorder remains subject of debate. Because of the high prevalence of ADHD and the high impact of personality disorders on daily functioning, it is important to take them into account when treating patients with ADHD. Research on the developmental trajectories leading to personality disorders in adult ADHD patients might open the door for targeted interventions to prevent impairing comorbid clinical pictures. PMID:26893231

  19. Risk of Psychiatric Disorders Following Symptomatic Menopausal Transition: A Nationwide Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Li-Yu; Shen, Cheng-Che; Hung, Jeng-Hsiu; Chen, Pan-Ming; Wen, Chun-Hsien; Chiang, Yung-Yen; Lu, Ti

    2016-02-01

    Menopausal transition is highly symptomatic in at least 20% of women. A higher prevalence of psychiatric symptoms, including depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance, has been shown in women with symptomatic menopausal transition. However, a clear correlation between symptomatic menopausal transition and psychiatric disorders has not been established.We explored the association between symptomatic menopausal transition and subsequent newly diagnosed psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia as well as bipolar, depressive, anxiety, and sleep disorders.We investigated women who were diagnosed with symptomatic menopausal transition by an obstetrician-gynecologist according to the data in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort comprised age-matched women without symptomatic menopausal transition. The incidence rate and the hazard ratios of subsequent newly diagnosed psychiatric disorders were evaluated in both cohorts, based on the diagnoses of psychiatrists.The symptomatic menopausal transition and control cohorts each consisted of 19,028 women. The incidences of bipolar disorders (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-2.80), depressive disorders (HR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.93-2.45), anxiety disorders (HR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.84-2.41), and sleep disorders (HR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.73-2.34) were higher among the symptomatic menopausal transition women than in the comparison cohort. After stratifying for follow-up duration, the incidence of newly diagnosed bipolar disorders, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, and sleep disorders following a diagnosis of symptomatic menopausal transition remained significantly increased in the longer follow-up groups (1-5 and ≥ 5 years).Symptomatic menopausal transition might increase the risk of subsequent newly onset bipolar disorders, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, and sleep disorders. A prospective study is necessary to confirm

  20. Multigenerational Positive Family History of Psychiatric Disorders Is Associated With a Poor Prognosis in Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Post, Robert M; Altshuler, Lori; Kupka, Ralph; McElroy, Susan L; Frye, Mark A; Rowe, Michael; Grunze, Heinz; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E; Leverich, Gabriele S; Nolen, Willem A

    2015-01-01

    The authors assessed how family history loading affected the course of illness in patients from the United States. A total of 676 outpatients with bipolar disorder from the United States rated their illness and provided a parental and grandparental history of mood disorder, substance abuse, and other clinical conditions. A positive family history for each illness was associated with almost all of the seven poor prognosis factors established in the study (abuse in childhood, early onset, anxiety and substance abuse comorbidity, rapid cycling, multiple episodes, and worsening of severity or frequency of episodes). Family history for psychiatric difficulties in parents and grandparents was associated with a more complex and difficult course of bipolar illness. PMID:26258489

  1. Refinements in the Hierarchical Structure of Externalizing Psychiatric Disorders: Patterns of Lifetime Liability from Mid-Adolescence through Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Richard F.; Seeley, John R.; Kosty, Derek B.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    Research on hierarchical modeling of psychopathology has frequently identified two higher-order latent factors, “internalizing” and “externalizing.” When based on the comorbidity of psychiatric diagnoses, the externalizing domain has usually been modeled as a single latent factor. Multivariate studies of externalizing symptom features, however, suggest multidimensionality. To address this apparent contradiction, confirmatory factor analytic methods and information-theoretic criteria were used to evaluate four theoretically plausible measurement models based on lifetime comorbidity patterns of seven putative externalizing disorders. Diagnostic information was collected at four assessment waves from an age-based cohort of 816 persons between the ages of 14 and 33. A two-factor model that distinguished oppositional behavior disorders (attention–deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder) from social norm violation disorders (conduct disorder, adult antisocial behavior, alcohol use disorder, cannabis use disorder, hard drug use disorder) demonstrated consistently good fit and superior approximating abilities. Analyses of psychosocial outcomes measured at the last assessment wave supported the validity of this two-factor model. Implications of this research for the theoretical understanding of domain-related disorders and the organization of classification systems are discussed. PMID:19899840

  2. Responses to Discrimination and Psychiatric Disorders Among Black, Hispanic, Female, and Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Keyes, Katherine M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between perceived discrimination due to race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, or gender; responses to discrimination experiences; and psychiatric disorders. Methods. The sample included respondents in the 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 34 653). We analyzed the associations between self-reported past-year discrimination and past-year psychiatric disorders as assessed with structured diagnostic interviews among Black (n = 6587); Hispanic (n = 6359); lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB; n = 577); and female (n = 20 089) respondents. Results. Black respondents reported the highest levels of past-year discrimination, followed by LGB, Hispanic, and female respondents. Across groups, discrimination was associated with 12-month mood (odds ratio [ORs] = 2.1–3.1), anxiety (ORs = 1.8–3.3), and substance use (ORs = 1.6–3.5) disorders. Respondents who reported not accepting discrimination and not discussing it with others had higher odds of psychiatric disorders (ORs = 2.9–3.9) than did those who did not accept discrimination but did discuss it with others. Black respondents and women who accepted discrimination and did not talk about it with others had elevated rates of mood and anxiety disorders, respectively. Conclusions. Psychiatric disorders are more prevalent among individuals reporting past-year discrimination experiences. Certain responses to discrimination, particularly not disclosing it, are associated with psychiatric morbidity. PMID:20558791

  3. Serological and biochemical genetic markers and their associations with psychiatric disorders : a review.

    PubMed

    Balgir, R S

    1983-10-01

    The studies pertaining to associations of serological and biochemical genetic markers (blood groups in particular and scrum proteins and enzymes in general) with the psychiatric disorders such as psychoses in general, Schizophrenia, manic-depressive psychosis including unipolar and bipolar affective disorders and neuroses have been critically examined. The reasons for inconsistent findings of various investigators have been pointed out to assist the future researchers to overcome the previous drawbacks. Implications of associations of genetic markers with the psychiatric disorders have been discussed and future areas of research suggested. PMID:21847304

  4. SEROLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL GENETIC MARKERS AND THEIR ASSOCIATIONS WITH PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS : A REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Balgir, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY The studies pertaining to associations of serological and biochemical genetic markers (blood groups in particular and scrum proteins and enzymes in general) with the psychiatric disorders such as psychoses in general, Schizophrenia, manic-depressive psychosis including unipolar and bipolar affective disorders and neuroses have been critically examined. The reasons for inconsistent findings of various investigators have been pointed out to assist the future researchers to overcome the previous drawbacks. Implications of associations of genetic markers with the psychiatric disorders have been discussed and future areas of research suggested. PMID:21847304

  5. Role of the Axonal Initial Segment in Psychiatric Disorders: Function, Dysfunction, and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wei-Chun Jim; Nilsson, Carol Lynn; Laezza, Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    The progress of developing effective interventions against psychiatric disorders has been limited due to a lack of understanding of the underlying cellular and functional mechanisms. Recent research findings focused on exploring novel causes of psychiatric disorders have highlighted the importance of the axonal initial segment (AIS), a highly specialized neuronal structure critical for spike initiation of the action potential. In particular, the role of voltage-gated sodium channels, and their interactions with other protein partners in a tightly regulated macromolecular complex has been emphasized as a key component in the regulation of neuronal excitability. Deficits and excesses of excitability have been linked to the pathogenesis of brain disorders. Identification of the factors and regulatory pathways involved in proper AIS function, or its disruption, can lead to the development of novel interventions that target these mechanistic interactions, increasing treatment efficacy while reducing deleterious off-target effects for psychiatric disorders. PMID:25191280

  6. Microglial Cells as a Link between Cannabinoids and the Immune Hypothesis of Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lisboa, Sabrina F.; Gomes, Felipe V.; Guimaraes, Francisco S.; Campos, Alline C.

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. Although several therapeutic options are available, the exact mechanisms responsible for the genesis of these disorders remain to be fully elucidated. In the last decade, a body of evidence has supported the involvement of the immune system in the pathophysiology of these conditions. Microglial cells play a significant role in maintaining brain homeostasis and surveillance. Dysregulation of microglial functions has been associated with several psychiatric conditions. Cannabinoids regulate the brain–immune axis and inhibit microglial cell activation. Here, we summarized evidence supporting the hypothesis that microglial cells could be a target for cannabinoid influence on psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and stress-related disorders. PMID:26858686

  7. Microglial Cells as a Link between Cannabinoids and the Immune Hypothesis of Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Lisboa, Sabrina F; Gomes, Felipe V; Guimaraes, Francisco S; Campos, Alline C

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. Although several therapeutic options are available, the exact mechanisms responsible for the genesis of these disorders remain to be fully elucidated. In the last decade, a body of evidence has supported the involvement of the immune system in the pathophysiology of these conditions. Microglial cells play a significant role in maintaining brain homeostasis and surveillance. Dysregulation of microglial functions has been associated with several psychiatric conditions. Cannabinoids regulate the brain-immune axis and inhibit microglial cell activation. Here, we summarized evidence supporting the hypothesis that microglial cells could be a target for cannabinoid influence on psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and stress-related disorders. PMID:26858686

  8. Psychopharmacological treatments in persons with dual diagnosis of psychiatric disorders and developmental disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Antochi, R; Stavrakaki, C; Emery, P

    2003-01-01

    People with developmental disabilities are at considerable risk for the development of comorbid psychiatric conditions. Psychopharmacological treatments may have a crucial role in a multidisciplinary and multimodal approach to the management of psychopathology in this population. Psychiatric illnesses that are particularly amenable include mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHDs) and antidepressants, mood stabilisers, anxiolytics, antipsychotics, and stimulants should be considered, respectively. ADHD may also respond to α2-agonists. Psychotropic agents such as ß-antagonists can target aggressive, self injurious, and stereotypical behaviours and opioid antagonists may be helpful in treating self injurious behaviour and stereotypy. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, newer anticonvulsants, and atypical neuroleptics are preferred when treating psychiatric disorders among people with developmental disabilities. This paper will review the major studies of pharmacological treatment of mental illness in individuals with developmental disabilities. PMID:12697912

  9. Five-Year Follow-up of Preschoolers with Autism and Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Joanne J.; Freeman, Stephanny F. N.; Paparella, Tanya; Forness, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have examined the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders, there are no current longitudinal studies of such children regarding the impact of comorbidity. In this study, 44 of an original sample of 175 preschoolers were located after 5 1/2 years, at an average chronological…

  10. Psychiatric disorders and substance use in homeless youth: a preliminary comparison of san francisco and chicago.

    PubMed

    Quimby, Ernika G; Edidin, Jennifer P; Ganim, Zoe; Gustafson, Erika; Hunter, Scott J; Karnik, Niranjan S

    2012-09-01

    Youth homelessness is a growing problem in the United States. The experience of homelessness appears to have numerous adverse consequences, including psychiatric and substance use disorders. This study compared the frequencies of psychiatric disorders, including substance use, between homeless youth (18-24 years-old) in San Francisco (N = 31) and Chicago (N = 56). Subjects were administered the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) to assess DSM-IV-TR diagnoses and substance use disorders. Eighty-seven percent of the San Francisco youth, and 81% of the Chicago youth met criteria for at least one M.I.N.I. psychiatric diagnosis. Nearly two-thirds of the youth in both samples met criteria for a mood disorder. Approximately one-third met criteria for an anxiety disorder. Thirty-two percent of the San Francisco sample and 18% of the Chicago met criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder. Approximately 84% of the San Francisco youth and 48% of the Chicago youth met criteria for a substance-related disorder, and more substances were used by San Francisco youth. In conclusion, the high rate of psychiatric disorders in homeless youth provides clear evidence that the mental health needs of this population are significant. Implications are discussed. PMID:25379220

  11. One-Year Incidence of Psychiatric Disorders and Associated Risk Factors among Adolescents in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Robert E.; Roberts, Catherine R.; Chan, Wenyaw

    2009-01-01

    Background: We have few data on incidence of psychiatric disorders among adolescents. This study examined first incidence of disorders among adolescents and baseline factors which increased or decreased risk of new onset cases a year later. Methods: Data were analyzed from Teen Health 2000 (TH2K), a probability sample of 4,175 youths 11-17 and…

  12. Children with a Prepubertal and Early Adolescent Bipolar Disorder Phenotype from Pediatric Versus Psychiatric Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Rebecca; Geller, Barbara; Frazier, Jeanne; Beringer, Linda; Zimerman, Betsy; Klages, Tricia; Bolhofner, Kristine

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine characteristics between subjects with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype from pediatric versus psychiatric venues. Method: Subjects (N = 93) with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype were obtained through consecutive new case ascertainment from designated pediatric and…

  13. Gross Motor Performance and Physical Fitness in Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Gross motor performance appears to be impaired in children with psychiatric disorders but little is known about which skill domains are affected in each disorder, nor about possible accompanying deficits in physical fitness. The present study has sought to provide information about these issues in children with emotional, behavioural, and…

  14. The Space of Common Psychiatric Disorders in Adolescents: Comorbidity Structure and Individual Latent Liabilities

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Carlos; Wall, Melanie M.; He, Jian-Ping; Krueger, Robert F.; Olfson, Mark; Jin, Chelsea J.; Burstein, Marcy; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To construct a virtual space of common adolescent psychiatric disorders, spanned by factors reflecting major psychopathological dimensions, and locate psychiatric disorders in that space; examine whether the major psychopathological dimensions can be hierarchically organized; and determine the distribution of the latent scores of individuals in the space spanned by those dimensions. Method Exploratory factor analyses of data from the National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A) using the psychiatric diagnoses as indicators were used to identify the latent major psychopathological dimensions. The loadings of the disorders on those dimensions were used as coordinates to calculate the distance among disorders. The distribution of individuals in the space was based on the latent scores on the factors reflecting the major psychopathological conditions. Results A model with three correlated factors provided an excellent fit (Comparative Fit Index [CFI]=0.97, Tucker-Lewis Index [TLI]=0.95, the root mean squared error of approximation [RMSEA]=0.008) for the structure of disorders and a 4-factor model could be hierarchically organized, ultimately yielding a general psychopathology factor. Distances between disorders ranged from 0.079 (between social phobia and generalized anxiety disorder [GAD]) and 1.173 (between specific phobia and conduct disorder [CD]). At the individual level, there were 546 distinct liabilities observed (22% of all 2,455 potential liabilities). Conclusion A novel way of understanding psychiatric disorders in adolescents is as existing in a space with a limited number of dimensions with no disorder aligning along one single dimension. These dimensions are hierarchically organized, allowing for analyses at different levels of organization. Furthermore, individuals with psychiatric disorders present with a broad range of liabilities, reflecting the diversity of their clinical presentations. PMID:25524789

  15. Targeting the neuropeptide Y system in stress-related psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Enman, Nicole M.; Sabban, Esther L.; McGonigle, Paul; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated, extreme, or traumatic stressors can elicit pathological effects leading to many negative physical and psychological outcomes. Stressors can precipitate the onset of psychiatric diseases, or exacerbate pre-existing disorders including various anxiety and mood disorders. As stressors can negatively impact human psychiatric health, it is essential to identify neurochemicals that may confer protection from the negative sequelae of repeated or extreme stress exposure. Elucidating the neurobiological underpinnings of stress resilience will enhance our ability to promote resilience to, or recovery from, stress-related psychiatric disease. Herein, we will review the evidence for neuropeptide Y as an endogenous mediator of resilience and its potential relevance for the treatment of stress-related psychiatric diseases. PMID:25506604

  16. The Clinical Significance of Single Features of Borderline Personality Disorder: Anger, Affective Instability, Impulsivity, and Chronic Emptiness in Psychiatric Outpatients.

    PubMed

    Ellison, William D; Rosenstein, Lia; Chelminski, Iwona; Dalrymple, Kristy; Zimmerman, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Although dimensional models of borderline personality disorder (BPD) are consistent with findings showing that minimal levels of pathology are associated with substantial increases in psychosocial impairment, it is still unclear whether different individual BPD criteria are each clinically significant on their own. The current study uses semistructured interview data from 1,870 adults presenting for outpatient psychiatric treatment to investigate whether the BPD criteria of impulsivity, affective instability, emptiness, and anger are each related to psychosocial morbidity when met in the absence of the other eight criteria. Analyses showed that each of these criteria was associated with dysfunction in comparison with a control group meeting zero BPD criteria, but only the emptiness criterion was a marker of impairment on all indices of psychosocial morbidity: suicidality, history of suicide attempts and psychiatric hospitalizations, social and work dysfunction, Axis I comorbidity, and global functioning. Implications for the study of borderline pathology are discussed. PMID:25893552

  17. Interventions for comorbid problem gambling and psychiatric disorders: Advancing a developing field of research.

    PubMed

    Dowling, N A; Merkouris, S S; Lorains, F K

    2016-07-01

    Despite significant psychiatric comorbidity in problem gambling, there is little evidence on which to base treatment recommendations for subpopulations of problem gamblers with comorbid psychiatric disorders. This mini-review draws on two separate systematic searches to identify possible interventions for comorbid problem gambling and psychiatric disorders, highlight the gaps in the currently available evidence base, and stimulate further research in this area. In this mini-review, only 21 studies that have conducted post-hoc analyses to explore the influence of psychiatric disorders or problem gambling subtypes on gambling outcomes from different types of treatment were identified. The findings of these studies suggest that most gambling treatments are not contraindicated by psychiatric disorders. Moreover, only 6 randomized studies comparing the efficacy of interventions targeted towards specific comorbidity subgroups with a control/comparison group were identified. The results of these studies provide preliminary evidence for modified dialectical behavior therapy for comorbid substance use, the addition of naltrexone to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for comorbid alcohol use problems, and the addition of N-acetylcysteine to tobacco support programs and imaginal desensitisation/motivational interviewing for comorbid nicotine dependence. They also suggest that lithium for comorbid bipolar disorder, escitalopram for comorbid anxiety disorders, and the addition of CBT to standard drug treatment for comorbid schizophrenia may be effective. Future research evaluating interventions sequenced according to disorder severity or the functional relationship between the gambling behavior and comorbid symptomatology, identifying psychiatric disorders as moderators of the efficacy of problem gambling interventions, and evaluating interventions matched to client comorbidity could advance this immature field of study. PMID:26900888

  18. Gender differences in psychiatric disorders and clusters of self-esteem among detained adolescents.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, Lore; Colins, Olivier F; Vanderplasschen, Wouter

    2014-12-30

    Detained minors display substantial mental health needs. This study focused on two features (psychopathology and self-esteem) that have received considerable attention in the literature and clinical work, but have rarely been studied simultaneously in detained youths. The aims of this study were to examine gender differences in psychiatric disorders and clusters of self-esteem, and to test the hypothesis that the cluster of adolescents with lower (versus higher) levels of self-esteem have higher rates of psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was assessed in 440 Belgian, detained adolescents using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV. Self-esteem was assessed using the Self-perception Profile for Adolescents. Model-based cluster analyses were performed to identify youths with lower and/or higher levels of self-esteem across several domains. Girls have higher rates for most psychiatric disorders and lower levels of self-esteem than boys. A higher number of clusters was identified in boys (four) than girls (three). Generally, the cluster of adolescents with lower (versus higher) levels of self-esteem had a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders. These results suggest that the detection of low levels of self-esteem in adolescents, especially girls, might help clinicians to identify a subgroup of detained adolescents with the highest prevalence of psychopathology. PMID:25454118

  19. Psychiatric disorders among men voluntarily in treatment for violent behaviour: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Askeland, Ingunn Rangul; Heir, Trond

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although violent behaviour and psychopathology often co-occur, there has been little research on psychiatric disorders among men in treatment for intimate partner violence (IPV). This study aimed to examine the prevalence of a broad spectrum of psychiatric disorders among men voluntarily attending treatment for IPV. Setting 5 clinics for IPV treatment, located in the east, south and west of Norway, participated in the study. In a cross-sectional design, men attending therapy for violence against a partner went through a face-to-face structured diagnostic interview, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Participants 222 men contacted the clinic during the inclusion period; 12 men did not attend and 13 men were referred to outpatient clinics. Of the 197 men who were offered therapy, 13 did not provide consent to participate in the study, 2 were excluded and 3 men missed the interview. Results A total of 179 men participated in the study. The majority were ethnic Norwegians (88%). A total of 70.9% of the men fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for at least one ongoing psychiatric disorder. Three categories of disorders stood out with approximately equal prevalences: depressive disorders (40.6%), anxiety disorders (38.5%) including post-traumatic stress disorder (18.4%) and alcohol/substance abuse (40.2%). Antisocial personality disorder was present in approximately 2/10 participants. Comorbidity was high, with nearly half of the men (48.0%) assigned two or more diagnoses. Conclusions Men voluntarily admitted to treatment for IPV harbour a wide spectrum of psychiatric disorders. Our findings suggest a need for screening procedures for psychiatric disorders as well as adoption of treatment interventions according to different types of psychopathologies and therapeutic needs. Limitations include caution in terms of generalisation to other populations not voluntarily admitted to treatment for IPV, and risk of ignoring symptoms not covered by a

  20. Catatonia in inpatients with psychiatric disorders: A comparison of schizophrenia and mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Grover, Sandeep; Chakrabarti, Subho; Ghormode, Deepak; Agarwal, Munish; Sharma, Akhilesh; Avasthi, Ajit

    2015-10-30

    This study aimed to evaluate the symptom threshold for making the diagnosis of catatonia. Further the objectives were to (1) to study the factor solution of Bush Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS); (2) To compare the prevalence and symptom profile of catatonia in patients with psychotic and mood disorders among patients admitted to the psychiatry inpatient of a general hospital psychiatric unit. 201 patients were screened for presence of catatonia by using BFCRS. By using cluster analysis, discriminant analysis, ROC curve, sensitivity and specificity analysis, data suggested that a threshold of 3 symptoms was able to correctly categorize 89.4% of patients with catatonia and 100% of patients without catatonia. Prevalence of catatonia was 9.45%. There was no difference in the prevalence rate and symptom profile of catatonia between those with schizophrenia and mood disorders (i.e., unipolar depression and bipolar affective disorder). Factor analysis of the data yielded 2 factor solutions, i.e., retarded and excited catatonia. To conclude this study suggests that presence of 3 symptoms for making the diagnosis of catatonia can correctly distinguish patients with and without catatonia. This is compatible with the recommendations of DSM-5. Prevalence of catatonia is almost equal in patients with schizophrenia and mood disorders. PMID:26260564

  1. Absence of BRINP1 in mice causes increase of hippocampal neurogenesis and behavioral alterations relevant to human psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We have previously identified BRINP (BMP/RA-inducible neural-specific protein-1, 2, 3) family genes that possess the ability to suppress cell cycle progression in neural stem cells. Of the three family members, BRINP1 is the most highly expressed in various brain regions, including the hippocampus, in adult mice and its expression in dentate gyrus (DG) is markedly induced by neural activity. In the present study, we generated BRINP1-deficient (KO) mice to clarify the physiological functions of BRINP1 in the nervous system. Results Neurogenesis in the subgranular zone of dentate gyrus was increased in BRINP1-KO mice creating a more immature neuronal population in granule cell layer. The number of parvalbumin expressing interneuron in hippocampal CA1 subregion was also increased in BRINP1-KO mice. Furthermore, BRINP1-KO mice showed abnormal behaviors with increase in locomotor activity, reduced anxiety-like behavior, poor social interaction, and slight impairment of working memory, all of which resemble symptoms of human psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention–deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Conclusions Absence of BRINP1 causes deregulation of neurogenesis and impairments of neuronal differentiation in adult hippocampal circuitry. Abnormal behaviors comparable to those of human psychiatric disorders such as hyperactivity and poor social behavior were observed in BRINP1-KO mice. These abnormal behaviors could be caused by alteration of hippocampal circuitry as a consequence of the lack of BRINP1. PMID:24528488

  2. Onset of Alcohol Use Disorders and Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in a Military Cohort: Are there Critical Periods for Prevention of Alcohol Use Disorders?

    PubMed

    Fink, David S; Gallaway, M Shayne; Tamburrino, Marijo B; Liberzon, Israel; Chan, Philip; Cohen, Gregory H; Sampson, Laura; Shirley, Edwin; Goto, Toyomi; D'Arcangelo, Nicole; Fine, Thomas; Reed, Philip L; Calabrese, Joseph R; Galea, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) are commonly comorbid with anxiety and mood disorders; however, a strategy for AUD prevention remains unclear in the presence of three competing etiological models that each recommends different high-risk groups. Therefore, the investigation of the three hypotheses in a characteristically unique cohort is critical to identifying pervasive characteristics of AUD that can inform a universal prevention strategy. The current study evaluated the temporality and onset of comorbid AUD and psychiatric disorders in a representative sample of 528 Ohio Army National Guard soldiers using structured clinical interviews from 2009 to 2012. We examined temporality both statistically and graphically to identify patterns that could inform prevention. General estimating equations with dichotomous predictor variables were used to estimate odds ratios between comorbid psychiatric disorders and AUDs. An annualized rate of 13.5 % persons per year was diagnosed with any AUD between 2010 and 2012. About an equal proportion of participants with comorbid psychiatric disorders and AUD initiated the psychiatric disorder prior to the AUD and half initiated the psychiatric disorder after the AUD. Regardless of onset, however, the majority (80 %) AUD initiated during a short interval between the ages of 16 and 23. Focused primary prevention during this narrow age range (16-23 years) may have the greatest potential to reduce population mental health burden of AUD, irrespective of the sequencing of comorbid psychiatric disorder. PMID:26687202

  3. EMOTIONAL AVAILABILITY IN EARLY MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTIONS FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS, OTHER PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS, AND DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY.

    PubMed

    Gul, Hesna; Erol, Nese; Pamir Akin, Duygu; Ustun Gullu, Belgin; Akcakin, Melda; Alpas, Başak; Öner, Özgür

    2016-03-01

    Emotional availability (EA) is a method to assess early parent-child dyadic interactions for emotional awareness, perception, experience, and expression between child and parent that describe global relational quality (Z. Biringen & M. Easterbrooks, ). The current study aimed to examine the effects of an infant's diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), other psychiatric disorders (OPD), and developmental delay (DD) on the maternal EA Scale (EAS; Z. Biringen & M. Easterbrooks, ; Z. Biringen, J.L. Robinson, & R.N. Emde, ) scores and the relative contributions of infant's age, gender, diagnosis, developmental level, and maternal education on EAS scores in a clinical Turkish sample. Three hundred forty-five infant-mother dyads participated in this study. Results of the research indicated that EAS adult scores were associated with maternal education and infant's diagnosis whereas child scores were associated with infant's age, diagnosis, and developmental level. Infants' involvement and responsiveness to the mother were lower in the group with ASD. Children with OPD, particularly when their mothers have lower education, might be at increased risk of having problems in parent-child interactions. Young ASD subjects with developmental delay are in greatest need of support to increase reactions toward their mother. These findings underscore the importance of using all of the EA dimensions rather than only one measure on children in high-risk populations. PMID:26891759

  4. Vocal acoustic analysis as a biometric indicator of information processing: Implications for neurological and psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alex S.; Dinzeo, Thomas J.; Donovan, Neila J.; Brown, Caitlin E.; Morrison, Sean C.

    2015-01-01

    Vocal expression reflects an integral component of communication that varies considerably within individuals across contexts and is disrupted in a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders. There is reason to suspect that variability in vocal expression reflects, in part, the availability of “on-line” resources (e.g., working memory, attention). Thus, understanding vocal expression is a potentially important biometric index of information processing, not only across but within individuals over time. A first step in this line of research involves establishing a link between vocal expression and information processing systems in healthy adults. The present study employed a dual attention experimental task where participants provided natural speech while simultaneously engaged in a baseline, medium or high nonverbal processing-load task. Objective, automated, computerized analysis was employed to measure vocal expression in 226 adults. Increased processing load resulted in longer pauses, fewer utterances, greater silence overall and less variability in frequency and intensity levels. These results provide compelling evidence of a link between information processing resources and vocal expression, and provide important information for the development of an automated, inexpensive and uninvasive biometric measure of information processing. PMID:25656172

  5. [Some neurologic and psychiatric complications in endocrine disorders: the thyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Aszalós, Zsuzsa

    2007-02-18

    Thyroid hormones are of primary importance for the perinatal development of the central nervous system, and for normal function of the adult brain. These hormones primarily regulate the transcription of specific target genes. They increase the cortical serotonergic neurotransmission, and play an important role in regulating central noradrenergic and GABA function. Thyroid deficiency during the perinatal period results in mental retardation. Hypothyroidism of the adults causes most frequently dementia and depression. Other less common clinical pictures include myxoedema coma, dysfunction of cerebellum and cranial nerves. Hypothyroidism also increases predisposition of stroke. Peripheral diseases frequently include polyneuropathy, carpal tunnel syndrome, myalgic state, and rarely myokymia. Nearly all the hyperthyroid patients show minor psychiatric signs, and infrequently psychosis, dementia, confusion state, depression, apathetic thyrotoxicosis, thyrotoxic crisis, seizures, pyramidal signs, or chorea occur. The peripheral complications may be indicated by chronic thyrotoxic myopathy, infiltrative ophthalmopathy, myasthenia gravis, periodic hypokalemic paralysis and polyneuropathy. Generalized resistance to thyroid hormone was confirmed in a number of patients with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Significantly elevated antithyroid antibody titers characterize Hashimoto's encephalopathy. This condition is a rare, acute - subacute, serious, life threatening, but steroid-responsive, relapsing-remitting, autoimmune disease. PMID:17344150

  6. Vocal acoustic analysis as a biometric indicator of information processing: implications for neurological and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alex S; Dinzeo, Thomas J; Donovan, Neila J; Brown, Caitlin E; Morrison, Sean C

    2015-03-30

    Vocal expression reflects an integral component of communication that varies considerably within individuals across contexts and is disrupted in a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders. There is reason to suspect that variability in vocal expression reflects, in part, the availability of "on-line" resources (e.g., working memory, attention). Thus, understanding vocal expression is a potentially important biometric index of information processing, not only across but within individuals over time. A first step in this line of research involves establishing a link between vocal expression and information processing systems in healthy adults. The present study employed a dual attention experimental task where participants provided natural speech while simultaneously engaged in a baseline, medium or high nonverbal processing-load task. Objective, automated, and computerized analysis was employed to measure vocal expression in 226 adults. Increased processing load resulted in longer pauses, fewer utterances, greater silence overall and less variability in frequency and intensity levels. These results provide compelling evidence of a link between information processing resources and vocal expression, and provide important information for the development of an automated, inexpensive and uninvasive biometric measure of information processing. PMID:25656172

  7. Measuring Limit-Setting Practices Used by Family Members Towards Relatives with Psychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Labrum, Travis; Walk, Marlene; Solomon, Phyllis L

    2016-09-01

    Family members often set limits with relatives with psychiatric disorders (PD), however, no scale currently exists measuring the use of such limit-setting practices. The present article describes the development and results of a new measure, the Family Limit-Setting Scale (FLSS). Via a national online survey, the FLSS was completed by 573 adults residing in the U.S. who report having an adult relative with PD. We conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, examined internal consistencies and other indicators of construct validity, and performed invariance analyses assessing the generality of the optimal factor model to men, women, Caucasian respondents, and non-Caucasian respondents. Results indicate that the FLSS has an acceptable two factor structure (routine limit-setting and crisis prevention limit-setting) with both factors being highly generalizable to all groups of respondents examined. Internal consistencies and other indicators provide additional evidence of the FLSS' construct validity. Use of the FLSS will enable the conduction of quantitative research in this area. In addition, this measure may be employed in education/support organizations for families with a member with mental illness in an effort to identify persons using high levels of limit-setting practices who may benefit from extra support and/or guidance. PMID:26518780

  8. Serotonin-related pathways and developmental plasticity: relevance for psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dayer, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Risk for adult psychiatric disorders is partially determined by early-life alterations occurring during neural circuit formation and maturation. In this perspective, recent data show that the serotonin system regulates key cellular processes involved in the construction of cortical circuits. Translational data for rodents indicate that early-life serotonin dysregulation leads to a wide range of behavioral alterations, ranging from stress-related phenotypes to social deficits. Studies in humans have revealed that serotonin-related genetic variants interact with early-life stress to regulate stress-induced cortisol responsiveness and activate the neural circuits involved in mood and anxiety disorders. Emerging data demonstrate that early-life adversity induces epigenetic modifications in serotonin-related genes. Finally, recent findings reveal that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors can reinstate juvenile-like forms of neural plasticity, thus allowing the erasure of long-lasting fear memories. These approaches are providing new insights on the biological mechanisms and clinical application of antidepressants. PMID:24733969

  9. [Contributions of cortisol suppression tests to understanding of psychiatric disorders: a narrative review of literature].

    PubMed

    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Montes-Montero, Ana; Güemes, Itziar; González-Vives, Sara; Díaz-Marsá, Marina; Carrasco, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis had been studied for the past half century, when some researchers noted that some patients with Cushing's syndrome and severe mood disorders had high baseline cortisol levels, which resulted in an inhibited response in the 1mg dexamethasone suppression test. Altered dexamethasone suppression test results were subsequently found in many psychiatric diseases, including anorexia nervosa, obsessive-compulsive disorder, degenerative dementia, bipolar disorders, and schizophrenia. The relationship between high baseline cortisol levels and stress has also been studied. Some researches on the genesis of borderline personality disorder focused on traumatic childhood backgrounds. Other investigations aimed at elucidating the relationship between traumatic backgrounds and some psychiatric disorders noted that patients with post-traumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder showed an enhanced cortisol suppression with low cortisol doses (0.5 mg). Recent studies showed that use of an ultra-low dose of cortisol during the dexamethasone suppression test may be helpful for detecting disorders with hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Recent advances in neuroimaging support the existence of hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with borderline personality disorder, relating a decreased pituitary gland volume to major traumatic backgrounds and suicidal attempts. The purpose of this paper is to make a narrative review of research using dexamethasone suppression test in psychiatric disorders, in order to ascertain its value as a supplemental diagnostic test or as a prognostic marker. PMID:23623464

  10. Psychiatric disorders: are they an absolute contraindication to living donation?

    PubMed

    Rowley, Anthony A; Hong, Barry A; Martin, Susan; Jones, Linda; Vijayan, Anitha; Shenoy, Surendra; Jendrisak, Martin

    2009-06-01

    Little information has been published about the suitability of candidates for living organ donation who have a past or current psychiatric diagnosis. A retrospective review of 445 living donor kidney transplants performed at Barnes-Jewish Hospital's transplant center from 1995 to 2005 disclosed 42 donor candidates with such a history, prompting detailed psychological evaluation. Although 41 candidates (10% of the donor pool) met criteria for 1 or more psychiatric diagnoses, none were considered psychologically unfit for donation. Of these, 22 candidates underwent kidney donation without medical or surgical complications and without development of subsequent active psychological problems. Several donors maintained long-term contact up to 12 years to report good health and a high degree of satisfaction with the decision to donate. This experience suggests that for donor candidates with a psychiatric diagnosis, formal psychiatric evaluation to evaluate current mental health stability is warranted. Stable individuals, on or off therapy, can be considered fit to donate with expected short- and long-term outcome prognoses similar to those for the general population. PMID:19588662

  11. Influence of Criminal Justice Involvement and Psychiatric Diagnoses on Treatment Costs Among Adults With Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Allison G; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Lin, Hsiuju; Easter, Michele M; Frisman, Linda K; Swartz, Marvin S

    2015-09-01

    The impact of criminal justice involvement and clinical characteristics on the cost of public treatment services for adults with serious mental illnesses is unknown. The authors examined differential effects of justice involvement on behavioral health treatment costs by primary psychiatric diagnosis (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) and also by substance use diagnosis among 25,133 adult clients of Connecticut's public behavioral health system in fiscal years 2006 and 2007. Justice-involved adults with schizophrenia had the highest costs, strongly driven by forensic hospitalizations. Addressing the cross-system burdens of forensic hospitalizations may be a sensible starting point in the effort to reduce costs in both the public behavioral health and justice systems. PMID:25975893

  12. Influence of Criminal Justice Involvement and Psychiatric Diagnoses on Treatment Costs Among Adults With Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Allison G.; Swanson, Jeffrey W.; Lin, Hsiuju; Easter, Michele M.; Frisman, Linda K.; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of criminal justice involvement and clinical characteristics on the cost of public treatment services for adults with serious mental illnesses is unknown. The authors examined differential effects of justice involvement on behavioral health treatment costs by primary psychiatric diagnosis (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) and also by substance use diagnosis among 25,133 adult clients of Connecticut’s public behavioral health system in fiscal years 2006 and 2007. Justice-involved adults with schizophrenia had the highest costs, strongly driven by forensic hospitalizations. Addressing the cross-system burdens of forensic hospitalizations may be a sensible starting point in the effort to reduce costs in both the public behavioral health and justice systems. PMID:25975893

  13. State of the art of the neurotrophin hypothesis in psychiatric disorders: implications and limitations.

    PubMed

    Lang, U E; Jockers-Scherübl, M C; Hellweg, R

    2004-03-01

    The neurotrophin hypothesis proposes that repetitive neuronal activity enhances the expression, secretion and actions of neurotrophins to modify synaptic transmission and connectivity thereby providing a connection between neuronal activity and synaptic plasticity. Moreover, there is ample evidence that neurotrophins have numerous neuroprotective effects under pathological conditions, which might be important in particular for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer' disease. Current research postulates that effects during brain development lead to defective neural connectivity and altered biochemical functioning resulting in cognitive, emotional and intentional dysfunction later in life. This implicates a possible role in most psychiatric diseases including affective and schizophrenic disorders. This hypothesis is mainly based on new experimental evidence showing that psychiatric disorders are associated with neuronal atrophy and cell loss, impairments of structural plasticity and cellular resilience due to neurodevelopmental disturbances and morphological abnormalities of the brain. Thus, the potential role of neurotrophins in psychiatric disorders has been studied in different ways. Animal studies indicate the involvement of neurotrophins in psychopharmacological therapies and they show that gene expression of cerebral neurotrophins is changed in animal models of several psychiatric disorders. Whether such alterations are causatively associated with increased neural plasticity, improved cognitive function and decreased depressive mood states remains to be elucidated in further studies including man (e.g. in postmortem studies of patients). Association studies tried to link different variants in genes coding for neurotrophins, they have not been conclusive however. They partially allow to separate different subgroups of patients with differing therapy response profiles or indicate an increased vulnerability for a specific disorder. Finally, neurotrophin

  14. Genetic Architectures of Psychiatric Disorders: The Emerging Picture and Its Implications

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Patrick F.; Daly, Mark J.; O’Donovan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are among the most intractable enigmas in medicine. In the past five years, there has been unprecedented progress on the genetics of many of these conditions. In this review, we discuss the genetics of nine cardinal psychiatric disorders (Alzheimer’s disease, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, alcohol dependence, anorexia nervosa, autism spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, nicotine dependence, and schizophrenia). Empirical approaches have yielded new hypotheses about etiology, and now provide data on the often debated genetic architectures of these conditions, which have implications for future research strategies. Further study using a balanced portfolio of methods to assess multiple forms of genetic variation is likely to yield many additional new findings. PMID:22777127

  15. Genetic architectures of psychiatric disorders: the emerging picture and its implications.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Patrick F; Daly, Mark J; O'Donovan, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Psychiatric disorders are among the most intractable enigmas in medicine. In the past 5 years, there has been unprecedented progress on the genetics of many of these conditions. In this Review, we discuss the genetics of nine cardinal psychiatric disorders (namely, Alzheimer's disease, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, alcohol dependence, anorexia nervosa, autism spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, nicotine dependence and schizophrenia). Empirical approaches have yielded new hypotheses about aetiology and now provide data on the often debated genetic architectures of these conditions, which have implications for future research strategies. Further study using a balanced portfolio of methods to assess multiple forms of genetic variation is likely to yield many additional new findings. PMID:22777127

  16. Violent Behavior and DSM-IV Psychiatric Disorders: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pulay, Attila J.; Dawson, Deborah A.; Hasin, Deborah S.; Goldstein, Rise B.; June Ruan, Ms. W.; Pickering, Roger P.; Huang, Boji; Chou, S. Patricia; Grant, Bridget F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To present nationally representative data on the lifetime prevalence and population estimates of violent behavior among individuals with DSM-IV psychiatric disorders. Method The data were derived from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Prevalences, population estimates, and associations of violent behavior occurring among individuals with pure, comorbid and specific DSM-IV psychiatric disorders were examined. Results Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and other comorbidity, the odds of violent behavior were significantly increased (p < 0.05) among individuals with substance use disorders, pathological gambling, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorders, panic disorder with agoraphobia, specific phobia, and paranoid, schizoid, histrionic, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. Percentages of violent behavior among individuals with each comorbid disorders was significantly greater (p < 0.05 – p < 0.0001) than the corresponding percentages among those presenting with the pure form of each disorder. Alcohol and drug use disorders were the most significant contributors to the public health burden of violent behavior. Conclusion The majority of individuals with psychiatric disorders do not engage in violent behavior, and public perception associated with stereotypic violence among individuals with psychiatric disorders appears unwarranted. Elevated risks and burden of violent behavior were not equally shared across the spectrum of psychiatric disorders, with particular disorders, especially substance use disorders, contributing disproportionately to the burden. Future research should examine the circumstances under which violence among individuals with psychiatric disorders occurs with a view towards improving clinical prediction and developing more effective prevention strategies. PMID:18312033

  17. The Heavy Burden of Psychiatric Comorbidity in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Large Comparative Study of a Psychiatrically Referred Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshi, Gagan; Petty, Carter; Wozniak, Janet; Henin, Aude; Fried, Ronna; Galdo, Maribel; Kotarski, Meghan; Walls, Sarah; Biederman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to systematically examine patterns of psychiatric comorbidity in referred youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) including autistic disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. Consecutively referred children and adolescents to a pediatric psychopharmacology program were assessed with…

  18. Reward circuitry dysfunction in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders and genetic syndromes: animal models and clinical findings

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes evidence of dysregulated reward circuitry function in a range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders and genetic syndromes. First, the contribution of identifying a core mechanistic process across disparate disorders to disease classification is discussed, followed by a review of the neurobiology of reward circuitry. We next consider preclinical animal models and clinical evidence of reward-pathway dysfunction in a range of disorders, including psychiatric disorders (i.e., substance-use disorders, affective disorders, eating disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders), neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e., schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, Tourette’s syndrome, conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder), and genetic syndromes (i.e., Fragile X syndrome, Prader–Willi syndrome, Williams syndrome, Angelman syndrome, and Rett syndrome). We also provide brief overviews of effective psychopharmacologic agents that have an effect on the dopamine system in these disorders. This review concludes with methodological considerations for future research designed to more clearly probe reward-circuitry dysfunction, with the ultimate goal of improved intervention strategies. PMID:22958744

  19. Psychiatric disorders among emotionally distressed disaster victims attending primary mental health clinics in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Lima, B R; Chávez, H; Samaniego, N; Pai, S

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies in developing countries have demonstrated post-disaster stress disorders in a substantial share of the people living through a natural calamity, but questions have remained as to the severity of these mental health problems. This article reports information derived from a 1987 study of Ecuadorian earthquake victims that shows many of the victims had diagnosable psychiatric disorders and provides insight into the nature of those disorders. PMID:1600438

  20. The Burden of Loss: Unexpected death of a loved one and psychiatric disorders across the life course in a national study

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Pratt, Charissa; Galea, Sandro; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Shear, M. Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Background Unexpected death of a loved one is common and associated with subsequent elevations in symptoms of multiple forms of psychopathology. Determining whether this experience predicts novel onset of psychiatric disorders and whether these associations vary across the life course has important clinical implications. Aims To examine associations of a loved one’s unexpected death with first onset of common anxiety, mood, and substance disorders in a population-based sample. Methods Relation between unexpected death and first onset of lifetime DSM-IV disorders estimated using a structured interview of adults in the US general population (analytic sample size=27,534). Models controlled for prior occurrence of any disorder, other traumatic event experiences, and demographics. Results Unexpected death was the most common traumatic experience and most likely to be rated as the respondent’s worst, regardless of other traumatic experiences. Increased incidence after unexpected death was observed at every point across the life course for major depressive episodes, panic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Increased incidence was clustered in later adult age groups for manic episodes, phobias, alcohol disorders, and generalized anxiety disorder. Conclusions The bereavement period is associated with elevated risk for the onset of multiple psychiatric disorders, consistently across the life course and coincident with the experience of the loved one’s death. Novel associations between unexpected death and onset of several disorders, including mania, confirm multiple case reports and small studies, and suggest an important emerging area for clinical research and practice. PMID:24832609

  1. Psychiatric Disorders and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from the National Latino and Asian American Study

    PubMed Central

    Chatterji, Pinka; Alegria, Margarita; Lu, Mingshan; Takeuchi, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent psychiatric disorders and mental distress affect labor market outcomes in two rapidly growing populations that have not been studied to date – ethnic minorities of Latino and Asian descent, most of whom are immigrants. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), we examine the labor market effects of having any psychiatric disorder in the past 12 months as well as the effects of experiencing psychiatric distress in the past 12 months. The labor market outcomes analyzed are current employment status, the number of weeks worked in the past year among those who are employed, and having at least one work absence in the past month among those who are employed. Our results show that among Latinos, psychiatric disorders and mental distress are associated with large, detrimental effects on employment and absenteeism, similar to effects found in analyses of mostly white, American born populations. Among Asians, we find more mixed evidence that psychiatric disorders and mental distress detract from labor market outcomes. PMID:17294497

  2. Tobacco use and cessation in psychiatric disorders: National Institute of Mental Health report.

    PubMed

    Ziedonis, Douglas; Hitsman, Brian; Beckham, Jean C; Zvolensky, Michael; Adler, Lawrence E; Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Breslau, Naomi; Brown, Richard A; George, Tony P; Williams, Jill; Calhoun, Patrick S; Riley, William T

    2008-12-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) convened a meeting in September 2005 to review tobacco use and dependence and smoking cessation among those with mental disorders, especially individuals with anxiety disorders, depression, or schizophrenia. Smoking rates are exceptionally high among these individuals and contribute to the high rates of medical morbidity and mortality in these individuals. Numerous biological, psychological, and social factors may explain these high smoking rates, including the lack of smoking cessation treatment in mental health settings. Historically, "self-medication" and "individual rights" have been concerns used to rationalize allowing ongoing tobacco use and limited smoking cessation efforts in many mental health treatment settings. Although research has shown that tobacco use can reduce or ameliorate certain psychiatric symptoms, overreliance on the self-medication hypothesis to explain the high rates of tobacco use in psychiatric populations may result in inadequate attention to other potential explanations for this addictive behavior among those with mental disorders. A more complete understanding of nicotine and tobacco use in psychiatric patients also can lead to new psychiatric treatments and a better understanding of mental illness. Greater collaboration between mental health researchers and nicotine and tobacco researchers is needed to better understand and develop new treatments for cooccurring nicotine dependence and mental illness. Despite an accumulating literature for some specific psychiatric disorders and tobacco use and cessation, many unstudied research questions remain and are a focus and an emphasis of this review. PMID:19023823

  3. PsyGeNET: a knowledge platform on psychiatric disorders and their genes

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Sacristán, Alba; Grosdidier, Solène; Valverde, Olga; Torrens, Marta; Bravo, Àlex; Piñero, Janet; Sanz, Ferran; Furlong, Laura I.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: PsyGeNET (Psychiatric disorders and Genes association NETwork) is a knowledge platform for the exploratory analysis of psychiatric diseases and their associated genes. PsyGeNET is composed of a database and a web interface supporting data search, visualization, filtering and sharing. PsyGeNET integrates information from DisGeNET and data extracted from the literature by text mining, which has been curated by domain experts. It currently contains 2642 associations between 1271 genes and 37 psychiatric disease concepts. In its first release, PsyGeNET is focused on three psychiatric disorders: major depression, alcohol and cocaine use disorders. PsyGeNET represents a comprehensive, open access resource for the analysis of the molecular mechanisms underpinning psychiatric disorders and their comorbidities. Availability and implementation: The PysGeNET platform is freely available at http://www.psygenet.org/. The PsyGeNET database is made available under the Open Database License (http://opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/1.0/). Contact: lfurlong@imim.es Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25964630

  4. Joint Analysis of Psychiatric Disorders Increases Accuracy of Risk Prediction for Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Robert; Moser, Gerhard; Chen, Guo-Bo; Ripke, Stephan; Absher, Devin; Agartz, Ingrid; Akil, Huda; Amin, Farooq; Andreassen, Ole A.; Anjorin, Adebayo; Anney, Richard; Arking, Dan E.; Asherson, Philip; Azevedo, Maria H.; Backlund, Lena; Badner, Judith A.; Bailey, Anthony J.; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barchas, Jack D.; Barnes, Michael R.; Barrett, Thomas B.; Bass, Nicholas; Battaglia, Agatino; Bauer, Michael; Bayés, Mònica; Bellivier, Frank; Bergen, Sarah E.; Berrettini, Wade; Betancur, Catalina; Bettecken, Thomas; Biederman, Joseph; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Black, Donald W.; Blackwood, Douglas H.R.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Boehnke, Michael; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Breen, Gerome; Breuer, René; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Bunney, William E.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Byerley, William F.; Caesar, Sian; Cahn, Wiepke; Cantor, Rita M.; Casas, Miguel; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambert, Kimberly; Choudhury, Khalid; Cichon, Sven; Cloninger, C. Robert; Collier, David A.; Cook, Edwin H.; Coon, Hilary; Cormand, Bru; Cormican, Paul; Corvin, Aiden; Coryell, William H.; Craddock, Nicholas; Craig, David W.; Craig, Ian W.; Crosbie, Jennifer; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Curtis, David; Czamara, Darina; Daly, Mark J.; Datta, Susmita; Dawson, Geraldine; Day, Richard; De Geus, Eco J.; Degenhardt, Franziska; Devlin, Bernie; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary J.; Doyle, Alysa E.; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Duketis, Eftichia; Ebstein, Richard P.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Elia, Josephine; Ennis, Sean; Etain, Bruno; Fanous, Ayman; Faraone, Stephen V.; Farmer, Anne E.; Ferrier, I. Nicol; Flickinger, Matthew; Fombonne, Eric; Foroud, Tatiana; Frank, Josef; Franke, Barbara; Fraser, Christine; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Freitag, Christine M.; Friedl, Marion; Frisén, Louise; Gallagher, Louise; Gejman, Pablo V.; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Gershon, Elliot S.; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Giegling, Ina; Gill, Michael; Gordon, Scott D.; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Green, Elaine K.; Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Grice, Dorothy E.; Gross, Magdalena; Grozeva, Detelina; Guan, Weihua; Gurling, Hugh; De Haan, Lieuwe; Haines, Jonathan L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hallmayer, Joachim; Hamilton, Steven P.; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Thomas F.; Hartmann, Annette M.; Hautzinger, Martin; Heath, Andrew C.; Henders, Anjali K.; Herms, Stefan; Hickie, Ian B.; Hipolito, Maria; Hoefels, Susanne; Holmans, Peter A.; Holsboer, Florian; Hoogendijk, Witte J.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hultman, Christina M.; Hus, Vanessa; Ingason, Andrés; Ising, Marcus; Jamain, Stéphane; Jones, Ian; Jones, Lisa; Kähler, Anna K.; Kahn, René S.; Kandaswamy, Radhika; Keller, Matthew C.; Kelsoe, John R.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kennedy, James L.; Kenny, Elaine; Kent, Lindsey; Kim, Yunjung; Kirov, George K.; Klauck, Sabine M.; Klei, Lambertus; Knowles, James A.; Kohli, Martin A.; Koller, Daniel L.; Konte, Bettina; Korszun, Ania; Krabbendam, Lydia; Krasucki, Robert; Kuntsi, Jonna; Kwan, Phoenix; Landén, Mikael; Långström, Niklas; Lathrop, Mark; Lawrence, Jacob; Lawson, William B.; Leboyer, Marion; Ledbetter, David H.; Lee, Phil H.; Lencz, Todd; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Li, Jun; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Lin, Dan-Yu; Linszen, Don H.; Liu, Chunyu; Lohoff, Falk W.; Loo, Sandra K.; Lord, Catherine; Lowe, Jennifer K.; Lucae, Susanne; MacIntyre, Donald J.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Maestrini, Elena; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Mahon, Pamela B.; Maier, Wolfgang; Malhotra, Anil K.; Mane, Shrikant M.; Martin, Christa L.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Matthews, Keith; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarroll, Steven A.; McGhee, Kevin A.; McGough, James J.; McGrath, Patrick J.; McGuffin, Peter; McInnis, Melvin G.; McIntosh, Andrew; McKinney, Rebecca; McLean, Alan W.; McMahon, Francis J.; McMahon, William M.; McQuillin, Andrew; Medeiros, Helena; Medland, Sarah E.; Meier, Sandra; Melle, Ingrid; Meng, Fan; Meyer, Jobst; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Middleton, Lefkos; Milanova, Vihra; Miranda, Ana; Monaco, Anthony P.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Moran, Jennifer L.; Moreno-De-Luca, Daniel; Morken, Gunnar; Morris, Derek W.; Morrow, Eric M.; Moskvina, Valentina; Mowry, Bryan J.; Muglia, Pierandrea; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Murtha, Michael; Myers, Richard M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Neale, Benjamin M.; Nelson, Stan F.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Nikolov, Ivan; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit; Nolen, Willem A.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Nurnberger, John I.; Nwulia, Evaristus A.; Nyholt, Dale R.; O’Donovan, Michael C.; O’Dushlaine, Colm; Oades, Robert D.; Olincy, Ann; Oliveira, Guiomar; Olsen, Line; Ophoff, Roel A.; Osby, Urban; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Parr, Jeremy R.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Pato, Carlos N.; Pato, Michele T.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Perlis, Roy H.; Pickard, Benjamin S.; Pimm, Jonathan; Piven, Joseph; Posthuma, Danielle; Potash, James B.; Poustka, Fritz; Propping, Peter; Purcell, Shaun M.; Puri, Vinay; Quested, Digby J.; Quinn, Emma M.; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Rehnström, Karola; Reif, Andreas; Ribasés, Marta; Rice, John P.; Rietschel, Marcella; Ripke, Stephan; Roeder, Kathryn; Roeyers, Herbert; Rossin, Lizzy; Rothenberger, Aribert; Rouleau, Guy; Ruderfer, Douglas; Rujescu, Dan; Sanders, Alan R.; Sanders, Stephan J.; Santangelo, Susan L.; Schachar, Russell; Schalling, Martin; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Scheftner, William A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schumacher, Johannes; Schwarz, Markus; Scolnick, Edward; Scott, Laura J.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Shi, Jianxin; Shilling, Paul D.; Shyn, Stanley I.; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sklar, Pamela; Slager, Susan L.; Smalley, Susan L.; Smit, Johannes H.; Smith, Erin N.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.S.; St Clair, David; State, Matthew; Steffens, Michael; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Strauss, John S.; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Sutcliffe, James; Szatmari, Peter; Szelinger, Szabocls; Thapar, Anita; Thirumalai, Srinivasa; Thompson, Robert C.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Tozzi, Federica; Treutlein, Jens; Tzeng, Jung-Ying; Uhr, Manfred; van den Oord, Edwin J.C.G.; Van Grootheest, Gerard; Van Os, Jim; Vicente, Astrid M.; Vieland, Veronica J.; Vincent, John B.; Visscher, Peter M.; Walsh, Christopher A.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Watson, Stanley J.; Weiss, Lauren A.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Werge, Thomas; Wienker, Thomas F.; Wiersma, Durk; Wijsman, Ellen M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Williams, Nigel; Willsey, A. Jeremy; Witt, Stephanie H.; Wray, Naomi R.; Xu, Wei; Young, Allan H.; Yu, Timothy W.; Zammit, Stanley; Zandi, Peter P.; Zhang, Peng; Zitman, Frans G.; Zöllner, Sebastian; Coryell, William; Potash, James B.; Scheftner, William A.; Shi, Jianxin; Weissman, Myrna M.; Hultman, Christina M.; Landén, Mikael; Levinson, Douglas F.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Wray, Naomi R.; Lee, S. Hong

    2015-01-01

    Genetic risk prediction has several potential applications in medical research and clinical practice and could be used, for example, to stratify a heterogeneous population of patients by their predicted genetic risk. However, for polygenic traits, such as psychiatric disorders, the accuracy of risk prediction is low. Here we use a multivariate linear mixed model and apply multi-trait genomic best linear unbiased prediction for genetic risk prediction. This method exploits correlations between disorders and simultaneously evaluates individual risk for each disorder. We show that the multivariate approach significantly increases the prediction accuracy for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder in the discovery as well as in independent validation datasets. By grouping SNPs based on genome annotation and fitting multiple random effects, we show that the prediction accuracy could be further improved. The gain in prediction accuracy of the multivariate approach is equivalent to an increase in sample size of 34% for schizophrenia, 68% for bipolar disorder, and 76% for major depressive disorders using single trait models. Because our approach can be readily applied to any number of GWAS datasets of correlated traits, it is a flexible and powerful tool to maximize prediction accuracy. With current sample size, risk predictors are not useful in a clinical setting but already are a valuable research tool, for example in experimental designs comparing cases with high and low polygenic risk. PMID:25640677

  5. Joint analysis of psychiatric disorders increases accuracy of risk prediction for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Maier, Robert; Moser, Gerhard; Chen, Guo-Bo; Ripke, Stephan; Coryell, William; Potash, James B; Scheftner, William A; Shi, Jianxin; Weissman, Myrna M; Hultman, Christina M; Landén, Mikael; Levinson, Douglas F; Kendler, Kenneth S; Smoller, Jordan W; Wray, Naomi R; Lee, S Hong

    2015-02-01

    Genetic risk prediction has several potential applications in medical research and clinical practice and could be used, for example, to stratify a heterogeneous population of patients by their predicted genetic risk. However, for polygenic traits, such as psychiatric disorders, the accuracy of risk prediction is low. Here we use a multivariate linear mixed model and apply multi-trait genomic best linear unbiased prediction for genetic risk prediction. This method exploits correlations between disorders and simultaneously evaluates individual risk for each disorder. We show that the multivariate approach significantly increases the prediction accuracy for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder in the discovery as well as in independent validation datasets. By grouping SNPs based on genome annotation and fitting multiple random effects, we show that the prediction accuracy could be further improved. The gain in prediction accuracy of the multivariate approach is equivalent to an increase in sample size of 34% for schizophrenia, 68% for bipolar disorder, and 76% for major depressive disorders using single trait models. Because our approach can be readily applied to any number of GWAS datasets of correlated traits, it is a flexible and powerful tool to maximize prediction accuracy. With current sample size, risk predictors are not useful in a clinical setting but already are a valuable research tool, for example in experimental designs comparing cases with high and low polygenic risk. PMID:25640677

  6. A longitudinal perspective on childhood adversities and onset risk of various psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ormel, Johan

    2015-06-01

    It is well-known that childhood adversities can have long-term effects on mental health, but a lot remains to be learned about the risk they bring about for a first onset of various psychiatric disorders, and how this risk develops over time. In the present study, which was based on a Dutch longitudinal population survey of adolescents TRAILS (N = 1,584), we investigated whether and how childhood adversities, as assessed with three different measures, affected the risk of developing an incident depressive, anxiety, or disruptive behavior in childhood and adolescence. In addition, we tested gender differences in any of the effects under study. The results indicated that depressive, anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders each had their own, characteristic, pattern of associations with childhood adversities across childhood and adolescence, which was maintained after adjustment for comorbid disorders. For depressive disorders, the overall pattern suggested a high excess risk of incidence during childhood, which decreased during adolescence. Anxiety disorders were characterized by a moderately increased incident risk during childhood, which remained approximately stable over time. Disruptive behavior disorders took an intermediate position. Of the three childhood adversities tested, an overall rating of the stressfulness of the childhood appeared to predict onset of psychiatric disorders best. To conclude, the risk of developing a psychiatric disorder after exposure to adversities early in life depends on the nature of the adversities, the nature of the outcome, and the time that has passed since the adversities without disorder onset. PMID:24723042

  7. The serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) variant and psychiatric disorders: review of current literature.

    PubMed

    Kuzelova, Hana; Ptacek, Radek; Macek, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Both serotonin and the serotonin transporter, which transports the neurotransmitter serotonin from synaptic spaces into presynaptic neurons, play an important role in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric disorders. Mutations associated with the serotonin transporter gene may result in changes in serotonin transporter function. The serotonin transporter gene promoter variant, consisting of a long (L) and a short (S) variant, is one of the major factors which contribute to the etiology of many psychiatric disorders. In this regard, many studies have been published on association of this variant with various psychiatric disorders. This repeat length variant in the promoter region of this gene has been shown to affect the rate of serotonin uptake and may play a role in post-traumatic stress disorder and depression-susceptibility in people experiencing emotional trauma. Associations between a functional variant in the serotonin transporter anxiety-related personality traits were found, as well as the risk of developing depression, alcoholism or suicidal behavior. Understanding of possible associations of these variants and psychiatric disorders would bring progress in principles and treatment of many disorders. PMID:20150867

  8. Psychiatric Co-morbidity in Women Presenting across the Continuum of Disordered Eating

    PubMed Central

    Aspen, Vandana; Weisman, Hannah; Vannucci, Anna; Nafiz, Najia; Gredysa, Dana; Kass, Andrea; Trockel, Mickey; Wilfley, Denise E.; Taylor, C. Barr

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the prevalence and correlates of psychiatric co-morbidity across a large sample of college women without an eating disorder, those at high risk for an eating disorder and women diagnosed using DSM-5 criteria for an eating disorder. Participants 549 college age women aged 18–25. Methods Data from the Eating Disorder Examination, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders and self-report questionnaires were analyzed using logistic regression for categorical data and ANCOVA for continuous measures. Results Eating disordered symptomatology was strongly associated with anxiety disorders, mood disorders and insomnia. These co-morbidities (type and severity) tend to increase with eating disorder symptom severity. Conclusions Prevention and treatment programs for eating disorders need to address the high levels of mood, anxiety and sleep problems in this population. The findings on insomnia are novel and suggest that sleep disturbance may play an integral role in eating-related difficulties. PMID:25462028

  9. RDoC and Translational Perspectives on the Genetics of Trauma-Related Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Montalvo-Ortiz, Janitza L.; Gelernter, Joel; Hudziak, James; Kaufman, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with a history of child abuse are at high risk for depression, anxiety disorders, aggressive behavior, and substance use problems. The goal of this paper is to review studies of the genetics of these stress-related psychiatric disorders. An informative subset of studies that examined candidate gene by environment (GxE) predictors of these psychiatric problems in individuals maltreated as children is reviewed, together with extant genome wide association studies (GWAS). Emerging findings on epigenetic changes associated with adverse early experiences are also reviewed. Meta-analytic support and replicated findings are evident for several genetic risk factors; however, extant research suggests the effects are pleiotropic. Genetic factors are not associated with distinct psychiatric disorders, but rather diverse clinical phenotypes. Research also suggests adverse early life experiences are associated with changes in gene expression of multiple known candidate genes, genes involved in DNA transcription and translation, and genes necessary for brain circuitry development, with changes in gene expression reported in key brain structures implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric and substance use disorders. The finding of pleiotropy highlights the value of using the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework in future studies of the genetics of stress-related psychiatric disorders, and not trying simply to link genes to multifaceted clinical syndromes, but to more limited phenotypes that map onto distinct neural circuits. Emerging work in the field of epigenetics also suggests that translational studies that integrate numerous unbiased genome-wide approaches will help to further unravel the genetics of stress-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:26592203

  10. RDoC and translational perspectives on the genetics of trauma-related psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Montalvo-Ortiz, Janitza L; Gelernter, Joel; Hudziak, James; Kaufman, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with a history of child abuse are at high risk for depression, anxiety disorders, aggressive behavior, and substance use problems. The goal of this paper is to review studies of the genetics of these stress-related psychiatric disorders. An informative subset of studies that examined candidate gene by environment (GxE) predictors of these psychiatric problems in individuals maltreated as children is reviewed, together with extant genome wide association studies (GWAS). Emerging findings on epigenetic changes associated with adverse early experiences are also reviewed. Meta-analytic support and replicated findings are evident for several genetic risk factors; however, extant research suggests the effects are pleiotropic. Genetic factors are not associated with distinct psychiatric disorders, but rather diverse clinical phenotypes. Research also suggests adverse early life experiences are associated with changes in gene expression of multiple known candidate genes, genes involved in DNA transcription and translation, and genes necessary for brain circuitry development, with changes in gene expression reported in key brain structures implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric and substance use disorders. The finding of pleiotropy highlights the value of using the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework in future studies of the genetics of stress-related psychiatric disorders, and not trying simply to link genes to multifaceted clinical syndromes, but to more limited phenotypes that map onto distinct neural circuits. Emerging work in the field of epigenetics also suggests that translational studies that integrate numerous unbiased genome-wide approaches will help to further unravel the genetics of stress-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:26592203

  11. What Have Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics and Metabolomics (Not) Taught Us about Psychiatric Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Turck, Christoph W.; Filiou, Michaela D.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the molecular causes and finding appropriate therapies for psychiatric disorders are challenging tasks for research; -omics technologies are used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying brain dysfunction in a hypothesis-free manner. In this review, we will focus on mass spectrometry-based proteomics and metabolomics and address how these approaches have contributed to our understanding of psychiatric disorders. Specifically, we will discuss what we have learned from mass spectrometry-based proteomics and metabolomics studies in rodent models and human cohorts, outline current limitations and discuss the potential of these methods for future applications in psychiatry.

  12. Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Campos, Alline Cristina; Moreira, Fabricio Araújo; Gomes, Felipe Villela; Del Bel, Elaine Aparecida; Guimarães, Francisco Silveira

    2012-12-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major phytocannabinoid present in the Cannabis sativa plant. It lacks the psychotomimetic and other psychotropic effects that the main plant compound Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) being able, on the contrary, to antagonize these effects. This property, together with its safety profile, was an initial stimulus for the investigation of CBD pharmacological properties. It is now clear that CBD has therapeutic potential over a wide range of non-psychiatric and psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and psychosis. Although the pharmacological effects of CBD in different biological systems have been extensively investigated by in vitro studies, the mechanisms responsible for its therapeutic potential are still not clear. Here, we review recent in vivo studies indicating that these mechanisms are not unitary but rather depend on the behavioural response being measured. Acute anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects seem to rely mainly on facilitation of 5-HT1A-mediated neurotransmission in key brain areas related to defensive responses, including the dorsal periaqueductal grey, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial prefrontal cortex. Other effects, such as anti-compulsive, increased extinction and impaired reconsolidation of aversive memories, and facilitation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis could depend on potentiation of anandamide-mediated neurotransmission. Finally, activation of TRPV1 channels may help us to explain the antipsychotic effect and the bell-shaped dose-response curves commonly observed with CBD. Considering its safety profile and wide range of therapeutic potential, however, further studies are needed to investigate the involvement of other possible mechanisms (e.g. inhibition of adenosine uptake, inverse agonism at CB2 receptor, CB1 receptor antagonism, GPR55 antagonism, PPARγ receptors agonism, intracellular (Ca(2+)) increase, etc.), on CBD behavioural effects. PMID:23108553

  13. Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Alline Cristina; Moreira, Fabricio Araújo; Gomes, Felipe Villela; Del Bel, Elaine Aparecida; Guimarães, Francisco Silveira

    2012-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major phytocannabinoid present in the Cannabis sativa plant. It lacks the psychotomimetic and other psychotropic effects that the main plant compound Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) being able, on the contrary, to antagonize these effects. This property, together with its safety profile, was an initial stimulus for the investigation of CBD pharmacological properties. It is now clear that CBD has therapeutic potential over a wide range of non-psychiatric and psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and psychosis. Although the pharmacological effects of CBD in different biological systems have been extensively investigated by in vitro studies, the mechanisms responsible for its therapeutic potential are still not clear. Here, we review recent in vivo studies indicating that these mechanisms are not unitary but rather depend on the behavioural response being measured. Acute anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects seem to rely mainly on facilitation of 5-HT1A-mediated neurotransmission in key brain areas related to defensive responses, including the dorsal periaqueductal grey, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial prefrontal cortex. Other effects, such as anti-compulsive, increased extinction and impaired reconsolidation of aversive memories, and facilitation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis could depend on potentiation of anandamide-mediated neurotransmission. Finally, activation of TRPV1 channels may help us to explain the antipsychotic effect and the bell-shaped dose-response curves commonly observed with CBD. Considering its safety profile and wide range of therapeutic potential, however, further studies are needed to investigate the involvement of other possible mechanisms (e.g. inhibition of adenosine uptake, inverse agonism at CB2 receptor, CB1 receptor antagonism, GPR55 antagonism, PPARγ receptors agonism, intracellular (Ca2+) increase, etc.), on CBD behavioural effects. PMID:23108553

  14. An orthomolecular approach to the prevention and treatment of psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Zell, Mark; Grundmann, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Orthomolecular medicine is based on the use of endogenous and naturally occurring substances to supplement deficiencies in vitamins, minerals, and other essential substances in the human body. Although the medical community has long regarded it as a nonscientific approach to healing, scientific and clinical evidence is emerging for the supplemental use of orthomolecular medicine in the treatment of schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatrists currently treat these common psychiatric disorders using a wide range of pharmacological approaches that often have significant side effects, resulting in patients' noncompliance. With newly gained knowledge about the neurophysiology and neuropathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, researchers now can link potential mechanisms for both pharmacological and orthomolecular treatments to physiological processes. In many cases, the use of orthomolecular supplements may provide a feasible addition to conventional drug therapy. PMID:23341413

  15. Physical similarity and the equal-environment assumption in twin studies of psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Hettema, J M; Neale, M C; Kendler, K S

    1995-07-01

    The equal-environment assumption (EEA), upon which twin methodology is based, was examined for the impact of physical similarity on phenotypic resemblance in five common psychiatric disorders: major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, phobia, alcoholism, and bulimia. A population-based sample of 882 female-female twin pairs of known zygosity was rated for similarity of appearance by color photographs. Psychiatric diagnoses were made by clinical assessment of personal interviews of the twins. Structural equation modeling of the data using physical similarity as a form of specified common environment provided no evidence for a significant effect of physical resemblance on concordance for major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, phobia, and alcoholism, thereby supporting the validity of the EEA in twin studies of these disorders. Results for bulimia, on the other hand, suggest, within the limitations of this study, that physical similarity may significantly influence twin resemblance for this disorder. PMID:7575361

  16. Convergence and divergence in the etiology of myelin impairment in psychiatric disorders and drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yue

    2008-10-01

    Impairment of oligodendroglia (OL)-dependent myelination in the central nervous system (CNS) is a remarkable parallel recently identified in major psychiatric disorders and chronic drug abuse. Neuroimaging and neuropathological studies revealed myelin defects and microarray-profiling analysis demonstrated aberrant expression of myelin-related genes in schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD) and cocaine addiction. However, the etiology underlying myelin impairment in these clinically distinct subjects remains elusive. This article reviews myelin impairment in line with dopaminergic dysfunction, a prime neuropathophysiological trait shared in psychiatric disorders and drug abuse, as well as the genetic and epigenetic alterations associated with these diseases. The current findings support the hypothesis that aberrant dopamine (DA) action on OLs is a common pathologic mechanism for myelin impairment in the aforementioned mental morbidities, whereas inherited genetic variations that specifically affect OL development and myelinogenesis may further increase myelin vulnerability in psychiatric disorders. Importantly, OL defect is not only a pathological consequence but also a causative factor for dopaminergic dysfunction. Hence, myelin impairment is a key factor in the pathogenic loop of psychiatric diseases and drug addiction. PMID:18404371

  17. Cognitive phenotype and psychiatric disorder in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: A review.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Asit B; Furniss, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    The behavioural phenotype of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome syndrome (22q11DS), one of the most common human multiple anomaly syndromes, frequently includes intellectual disability (ID) together with high risk of diagnosis of psychotic disorders including schizophrenia. Candidate cognitive endophenotypes include problems with retrieval of contextual information from memory and in executive control and focussing of attention. 22q11DS may offer a model of the relationship between ID and risk of psychiatric disorder. This paper reviews research on the relationship between the cognitive phenotype and the development of psychiatric disorders in 22q11DS. Aspects of cognitive function including verbal I.Q., visual memory, and executive function, are associated with mental health outcome in people with 22q11DS. This relationship may result from a common neurobiological basis for the cognitive difficulties and psychiatric disorders. Some of the cognitive difficulties experienced by people with 22q11DS, especially in attention, memory retrieval, and face processing, may, however, in themselves constitute risk factors for development of hallucinations and paranoid delusions. Future research into factors leading to psychiatric disorder in people with 22q11DS should include assessment of social and psychological factors including life events, symptoms associated with trauma, attachment, and self-esteem, which together with cognitive risk factors may mediate mental health outcome. PMID:26942704

  18. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Patients from the Addictive Disorders Assistance Units of Galicia: The COPSIAD Study

    PubMed Central

    Pereiro, César; Pino, Carlos; Flórez, Gerardo; Arrojo, Manuel; Becoña, Elisardo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity in patients under treatment within the addictive disorders assistance units of Galicia (Spain). Material and Methods A total of 64 healthcare professionals performed clinical diagnosis of mental disorders (on DSM IV-TR criteria) in 2300 patients treated throughout March 2010 in 21 addictive disorders assistance units. Results 56.3% of patients with substance abuse/dependency also showed some other mental disorder, 42.2% of patients suffering from at least an Axis I condition and 20.2% from some Axis II condition. Mood and anxiety disorders and borderline and antisocial personality disorders were the most frequent disorders in both axes. Conclusions A high comorbidity was found between mental and substance use disorders (SUD) in patients seen at the addictive disorders assistance units of Galicia. PMID:23823135

  19. Challenges in understanding psychiatric disorders and developing therapeutics: a role for zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    McCammon, Jasmine M.; Sive, Hazel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The treatment of psychiatric disorders presents three major challenges to the research and clinical community: defining a genotype associated with a disorder, characterizing the molecular pathology of each disorder and developing new therapies. This Review addresses how cellular and animal systems can help to meet these challenges, with an emphasis on the role of the zebrafish. Genetic changes account for a large proportion of psychiatric disorders and, as gene variants that predispose to psychiatric disease are beginning to be identified in patients, these are tractable for study in cellular and animal systems. Defining cellular and molecular criteria associated with each disorder will help to uncover causal physiological changes in patients and will lead to more objective diagnostic criteria. These criteria should also define co-morbid pathologies within the nervous system or in other organ systems. The definition of genotypes and of any associated pathophysiology is integral to the development of new therapies. Cell culture-based approaches can address these challenges by identifying cellular pathology and by high-throughput screening of gene variants and potential therapeutics. Whole-animal systems can define the broadest function of disorder-associated gene variants and the organismal impact of candidate medications. Given its evolutionary conservation with humans and its experimental tractability, the zebrafish offers several advantages to psychiatric disorder research. These include assays ranging from molecular to behavioural, and capability for chemical screening. There is optimism that the multiple approaches discussed here will link together effectively to provide new diagnostics and treatments for psychiatric patients. PMID:26092527

  20. Prevalence of Psychiatric Diagnoses and Challenging Behaviors in a Community-Based Population of Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Ian; Pollard, Jill; McClean, Brian; MacAuley, Niall; Hastings, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested substantial variation in prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and also differential patterns of associations between psychiatric disorders and challenging behaviors in people with ID. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of specific…

  1. Ophthalmic Disorders in Adults with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    A myriad of ophthalmic disorders is associated with the phenotype of Down syndrome including strabismus, cataracts, and refractive errors potentially resulting in significant visual impairment. Ophthalmic sequelae have been extensively studied in children and adolescents with Down syndrome but less often in older adults. In-depth review of medical records of older adults with Down syndrome indicated that ophthalmic disorders were common. Cataracts were the most frequent ophthalmic disorder reported, followed by refractive errors, strabismus, and presbyopia. Severity of intellectual disability was unrelated to the presence of ophthalmic disorders. Also, ophthalmic disorders were associated with lower vision-dependent functional and cognitive abilities, although not to the extent that was expected. The high prevalence of ophthalmic disorders highlights the need for periodic evaluations and individualized treatment plans for adults with Down syndrome, in general, but especially when concerns are identified. PMID:22570648

  2. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Patients with a Diagnosis of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Kashmir

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Arshad; Chandel, Rajesh Kumar; Ganie, Mohd Ashraf; Dar, Mansoor Ahmad; Rather, Yasir Hassan; Wani, Zaid Ahmad; Shiekh, Javid Ahmad; Shah, Majid Shafi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the common endocrine disorders and is associated with reproductive, metabolic, and psychological disturbances affecting one in five women of reproductive age group. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among women in ambulatory treatment with a diagnosis of PCOS. Materials and Methods: One hundred and ten patients of PCOS were evaluated using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria by means of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, English version 5.0.0. Diagnosis of PCOS was confirmed according to the National Institute of Health/National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 1990 consensus conference criteria. Forty subjects without PCOS who were matched for age and body mass index were taken as a comparison group. Results: About 23% of cases had major depressive disorder as compared to 7.5% of controls, 1.8% had dysthymia, 15.45% had panic disorder compared to 5% of controls, 6.36% had obsessive compulsive disorder compared to 2.5% of controls, 8% cases had suicidality, 2.72% of cases were bipolar affective disorder, and 15.45% had generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Conclusion: A high prevalence of mental disorders was observed, especially major depression, panic disorder, and GAD in patients with PCOS in our study. The results suggest that screening and appropriate management for psychiatric disorders should be part of the routine evaluation of these patients. PMID:25722515

  3. What Can Psychiatric Disorders Tell Us about Neural Processing of the Self?

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Weihua; Luo, Lizhu; Li, Qin; Kendrick, Keith M.

    2013-01-01

    Many psychiatric disorders are associated with abnormal self-processing. While these disorders also have a wide-range of complex, and often heterogeneous sets of symptoms involving different cognitive, emotional, and motor domains, an impaired sense of self can contribute to many of these. Research investigating self-processing in healthy subjects has facilitated identification of changes in specific neural circuits which may cause altered self-processing in psychiatric disorders. While there is evidence for altered self-processing in many psychiatric disorders, here we will focus on four of the most studied ones, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), major depression, and borderline personality disorder (BPD). We review evidence for dysfunction in two different neural systems implicated in self-processing, namely the cortical midline system (CMS) and the mirror neuron system (MNS), as well as contributions from altered inter-hemispheric connectivity (IHC). We conclude that while abnormalities in frontal-parietal activity and/or connectivity in the CMS are common to all four disorders there is more disruption of integration between frontal and parietal regions resulting in a shift toward parietal control in schizophrenia and ASD which may contribute to the greater severity and delusional aspects of their symptoms. Abnormalities in the MNS and in IHC are also particularly evident in schizophrenia and ASD and may lead to disturbances in sense of agency and the physical self in these two disorders. A better future understanding of how changes in the neural systems sub-serving self-processing contribute to different aspects of symptom abnormality in psychiatric disorders will require that more studies carry out detailed individual assessments of altered self-processing in conjunction with measurements of neural functioning. PMID:23966936

  4. Genomic insights into the overlap between psychiatric disorders: implications for research and clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder are common and result in significant morbidity and mortality. Although currently classified into distinct disorder categories, they show clinical overlap and familial co-aggregation, and share genetic risk factors. Recent advances in psychiatric genomics have provided insight into the potential mechanisms underlying the overlap between these disorders, implicating genes involved in neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Furthermore, evidence from copy number variant, exome sequencing and genome-wide association studies supports a gradient of neurodevelopmental psychopathology indexed by mutational load or mutational severity, and cognitive impairment. These findings have important implications for psychiatric research, highlighting the need for new approaches to stratifying patients for research. They also point the way for work aiming to advance our understanding of the pathways from genotype to clinical phenotype, which will be required in order to inform new classification systems and to develop novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:24944580

  5. Velo-cardio-facial syndrome and psychotic disorders: Implications for psychiatric genetics

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, W.C.; Bassett, A.S.; Weksberg, R.

    1994-06-15

    Psychiatric disorders have been reported in over 10% of patients with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) in long-term follow-up. To further explore the behavioral and psychiatric findings associated with VCFS in adulthood, detailed clinical histories of two patients - one with VCFS who developed a psychotic illness, and one with schizophrenia who was found to have dysmorphological features associated with VCFS - are described in the current report. The observed overlap of physical and psychiatric symptoms in these two patients suggests that VCFS and psychotic disorders may share a pathogenetic mechanism. This could be consistent with a contiguous gene model for VCFS and psychosis, suggesting chromosome 22q11 as a possible candidate region for genetic studies of schizophrenia. 26 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. The "psychomicrobiotic": Targeting microbiota in major psychiatric disorders: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fond, G; Boukouaci, W; Chevalier, G; Regnault, A; Eberl, G; Hamdani, N; Dickerson, F; Macgregor, A; Boyer, L; Dargel, A; Oliveira, J; Tamouza, R; Leboyer, M

    2015-02-01

    The gut microbiota is increasingly considered as a symbiotic partner in the maintenance of good health. Metagenomic approaches could help to discover how the complex gut microbial ecosystem participates in the control of the host's brain development and function, and could be relevant for future therapeutic developments, such as probiotics, prebiotics and nutritional approaches for psychiatric disorders. Previous reviews focused on the effects of microbiota on the central nervous system in in vitro and animal studies. The aim of the present review is to synthetize the current data on the association between microbiota dysbiosis and onset and/or maintenance of major psychiatric disorders, and to explore potential therapeutic opportunities targeting microbiota dysbiosis in psychiatric patients. PMID:25468489

  7. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults With Bipolar Disorder or Major Depressive Disorder: Results From the International Mood Disorders Collaborative Project

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Sidney H.; Soczynska, Joanna K.; Nguyen, Ha T. T.; Bilkey, Timothy S.; Woldeyohannes, Hanna O.; Nathanson, Jay A.; Joshi, Shikha; Cheng, Jenny S. H.; Benson, Kathleen M.; Muzina, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Relatively few studies have evaluated the clinical implications of lifetime attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults with bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder (MDD). Herein, we sought to determine the prevalence as well as the demographic and clinical correlates of lifetime ADHD in persons with a mood disorder. Method: The first 399 patients enrolled in the International Mood Disorders Collaborative Project (IMDCP) were evaluated for lifetime ADHD using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Plus (MINI-Plus) as the primary instrument to derive current and lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses. All analyses of variables of interest were conducted utilizing the MINI-Plus, the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale-v1.1, and the Wender Utah Rating Scale-Short Form. The effect of ADHD on clinical presentation, course of illness variables, comorbidity, anamnesis, treatment, and outcome are reported. The IMDCP is a joint initiative of the Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit at the University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and the Cleveland Clinic Center for Mood Disorders Treatment and Research at Lutheran Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio. All data for this study were procured between January 2008 and January 2009. Results: The percentages of subjects with MDD or bipolar disorder meeting the DSM-IV criteria for lifetime adult ADHD were 5.4% and 17.6% (P < .001), respectively. Lifetime comorbid ADHD in both mood disorder populations was associated with earlier age at illness onset (MDD, P = .049; bipolar disorder, P = .005), a higher number of psychiatric comorbidities (eg, MDD and current panic disorder with agoraphobia [P = .002]; bipolar disorder and social phobia [P = .012]), and decreased quality of life (MDD, P = .018). Conclusions: The overarching findings herein are that the adult ADHD phenotype is commonly reported by individuals with MDD or bipolar disorder and is associated with a greater illness burden

  8. The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-IV (AUDADIS-IV): Reliability of New Psychiatric Diagnostic Modules and Risk Factors in a General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, W. June; Goldstein, Risë B.; Chou, S. Patricia; Smith, Sharon M.; Saha, Tulshi D.; Pickering, Roger P.; Dawson, Deborah A.; Huang, Boji; Stinson, Frederick S.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents test-retest reliability statistics and information on internal consistency for new diagnostic modules and risk factor of alcohol, drug, and psychiatric disorders the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-IV (AUDADIS-IV). Test-retest statistics were derived from a random sample of 1,899 adults selected from 34,653 respondents who participated in the 2004–2005 Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Internal consistency of continuous scales was assessed using the entire Wave 2 NESARC. Both test and retest interviews were conducted face-to-face. Test-retest and internal consistency results for diagnoses and symptom scales associated with posttraumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and borderline, narcissistic, and schizotypal personality disorders were predominantly good (kappa > 0.63; ICC > 0.69; alpha > 0.75) and reliability for risk factor measures fell within the good to excellent range (intraclass correlations = 0.50–0.94; alpha = 0.64–0.90). The high degree of reliability found in this study suggests that new AUDADIS-IV diagnostic measures can be useful tools in research settings. The availability of highly reliable measures of risk factors of alcohol, drug, and psychiatric disorders will contribute to the validity of conclusions drawn from future research in the domains of substance use disorder and psychiatric epidemiology. PMID:17706375

  9. Childhood Environment of Adult Psychiatric Outpatients in Norway Having Been Bullied in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosse, Gunilla Klensmeden; Holen, Are

    2002-01-01

    A study contrasted the childhood environment of Norwegian adult psychiatric outpatients reporting to have been bullied at school (n=74) with those who were not (n=85). Men who were bullied tended to grow up without biological fathers. Women who were bullied reported higher parental abuse and neglect in childhood. (Contains references.) (CR)

  10. Further Examination of Relationships Between Life Events and Psychiatric Symptoms in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, D.; Sutherland, G.; Iacono, T.

    2005-01-01

    Background: It has been proposed that people with intellectual disability (ID) might be similar to the general population in the way they respond to significant life events. Some preliminary findings have demonstrated that adults with ID who have experienced recent life events have an increased probability of having psychiatric problems. The aims…

  11. Efficacy of Group Art Therapy on Depressive Symptoms in Adult Heterogeneous Psychiatric Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandraiah, Shambhavi; Ainlay Anand, Susan; Avent, Lindsay Cherryl

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential benefit of weekly group art therapy in groups of adult psychiatric outpatients at a university medical center. Eighteen patients participated in 4 successive 8-week groups of 6 to 8 patients each that met weekly and were led by 2 therapists (a board-certified art therapist and a psychiatry resident). The…

  12. Student Contributions to Clinical Agencies: A Comparison of Adult Health and Psychiatric Staff Nurses' Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grindel, Cecelia Gatson; Bateman, Anne L.; Patsdaughter, Carol A.; Babington, Lynn M.; Medici, Geraldine

    2001-01-01

    Adult health/medical-surgical nurses (n=54) and mental health/psychiatric nurses (n=54) were surveyed about contributions of nursing students in clinical placements. Students provided clinical staff with opportunities for mentoring, reciprocal learning, and professional development and made direct contributions to patient care. (SK)

  13. New Research into General Psychiatric Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There are a variety of models for the mental health care of adults with comorbid intellectual disability (ID) and mental illness. There has been a long-running debate as to whether this should be provided by general psychiatric or specialised ID services. A previous review concluded that there was no clear evidence to support either…

  14. Clinical Application of the "Scribble Technique" with Adults in an Acute Inpatient Psychiatric Hospital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanes, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    The "scribble technique," described by Florence Cane's book, "The Artist in Each of Us" (1983), has historically been employed by art therapists as a technique to reduce inhibitions and liberate spontaneous imagery from the unconscious. Reviews the technique and presents examples produced by adult patients in an acute inpatient psychiatric ward.…

  15. Co-Occurring Psychiatric Disorders in Preschool and Elementary School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Fernando; Baird, Gillian; Chandler, Susie; Tseng, Evelin; O'sullivan, Tony; Howlin, Patricia; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily

    2015-01-01

    We employed a clinical sample of young children with ASD, with and without intellectual disability, to determine the rate and type of psychiatric disorders and possible association with risk factors. We assessed 101 children (57 males, 44 females) aged 4.5-9.8 years. 90.5% of the sample met the criteria. Most common diagnoses were: generalized…

  16. Psychiatric Diagnoses as Contemporaneous Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Adolescents and Young Adults: Developmental Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldston, David B.; Daniel, Stephanie Sergent; Erkanli, Alaattin; Reboussin, Beth A.; Mayfield, Andrew; Frazier, Patricia H.; Treadway, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, naturalistic study was to examine the relationships between suicide attempts and contemporaneous psychiatric disorders, and developmental changes in these relationships from adolescence to young adulthood. The sample consisted of 180 adolescents, 12-19 years of age at hospitalization, repeatedly assessed for up to…

  17. Current perspectives on deep brain stimulation for severe neurological and psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kocabicak, Ersoy; Temel, Yasin; Höllig, Anke; Falkenburger, Björn; Tan, Sonny KH

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a well-accepted therapy to treat movement disorders, including Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and dystonia. Long-term follow-up studies have demonstrated sustained improvement in motor symptoms and quality of life. DBS offers the opportunity to selectively modulate the targeted brain regions and related networks. Moreover, stimulation can be adjusted according to individual patients’ demands, and stimulation is reversible. This has led to the introduction of DBS as a treatment for further neurological and psychiatric disorders and many clinical studies investigating the efficacy of stimulating various brain regions in order to alleviate severe neurological or psychiatric disorders including epilepsy, major depression, and obsessive–compulsive disorder. In this review, we provide an overview of accepted and experimental indications for DBS therapy and the corresponding anatomical targets. PMID:25914538

  18. Association between morningness/eveningness, addiction severity and psychiatric disorders among individuals with addictions.

    PubMed

    Kervran, Charlotte; Fatséas, Mélina; Serre, Fuschia; Taillard, Jacques; Beltran, Virginie; Leboucher, Juliette; Debrabant, Romain; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Daulouède, Jean-Pierre; Philip, Pierre; Auriacombe, Marc

    2015-10-30

    Studies have shown that Evening-Type (ET) subjects used more stimulating and sedative substances, and presented more psychiatric disorders than Morning-Type (MT) subject. However, there is a lack of data on the chronotype of patients with addiction. The aim of our study was to describe chronotype and associated factors in a sample of outpatients beginning treatment for addiction. Subjects were assessed with the Morningness-Eveningness questionnaire of Hörne & Ostberg, the Addiction Severity Index and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. In the 333 subjects with an addiction, 20% were MT and 32% were ET. When comparing ET to MT, multivariate analysis showed that ET was significantly associated with poly-problematic addiction, non-substance addictions, cannabis addiction, and mood disorders, but not with severity of addiction. MT was associated with antisocial personality disorder. Results suggested that chronotype was associated with specific addiction pattern and psychiatric disorders. PMID:26250146

  19. Optimizing Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piacentini, John

    2008-01-01

    Reports that expand the understanding of the treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder by using exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy in the age group of 5 to 8-year-olds are presented. A model for collecting the common core elements of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for childhood disorders is also presented.

  20. Predictors of Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla; Schneider, Jayne

    2008-01-01

    This study examined mental health risk/protective factors for DSM-IV psychiatric symptoms in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their contribution to functioning separate from ASD symptom severity. Mothers/teachers completed measures of risk/protection and social, adaptive, and school functioning in 6- to 12-year-olds with a…

  1. Psychiatric Disorder or Impairing Psychology in Children Who Have Been Excluded from School: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whear, Rebecca; Marlow, Ruth; Boddy, Kate; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Parker, Claire; Ford, Tamsin; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Stein, Ken

    2014-01-01

    When children with special educational needs are excluded from school, it should raise the concern that these children are not receiving adequate help and support. This systematic review aims to identify the prevalence of psychiatric disorder or impairing psychopathology among children who are excluded from school compared to children who are not…

  2. Psychiatric Disorders in a Sample of Saudi Arabian Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amr, Mostafa Abdel-Monhem; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Hablas, Hatem Refaat

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the magnitude of psychiatric disorders and to define socio-demographic and disease-related risk factors in a sample of adolescents with SCD in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of 110 adolescents with SCD and a convenient sample of 202 adolescents without SCD as controls. Psychiatric…

  3. Pachydermodactyly in a young girl: cutaneous manifestation of a psychiatric disorder?

    PubMed

    Cabanillas, Miguel; Monteagudo, Benigno; León-Muíños, Elvira; Suárez-Amor, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    ; Pachydermodactyly is a benign process characterized by painless fusiform skin swellings affecting radial and ulnar aspects of the proximal interphalangeal joints of the fingers. We report a case of this condition in a young girl, suggesting a major role of psychiatric disorder in the development of cutaneous lesions. PMID:20609157

  4. Challenging Times: Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders and Suicidal Behaviours in Irish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Fionnuala; Mills, Carla; Daly, Irenee; Fitzpatrick, Carol

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Against a background of a lack of systematic epidemiological research in Ireland in the area, this study set out to determine prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders, suicidal ideation and intent, and parasuicide in a population of Irish adolescents aged 12-15 years in a defined geographical area. Method: All 12-15-year olds attending…

  5. HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors in Delinquent Youth with Psychiatric Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine; Teplin, Linda A.; Mericle, Amy A.; Welty, Leah J.; Romero, Erin G.; Abram, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of psychiatric disorders on human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risk behaviors in juvenile justice youths is examined. Prevalence, persistence and prediction are addressed among four mutually exclusive diagnostic groups and results show a high prevalence rate of many HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors that…

  6. Psychiatric Disorders and Sexual Risk among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Stewart, Angela; Lescano, Celia; Whiteley, Laura; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sexual behaviors among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Adolescents in mental health treatment have been found to have higher rates of HIV risk behavior than their peers, but data concerning the relationship between psychopathology and risk are inconsistent and…

  7. Co-Occurring Psychiatric and Substance Dependence Disorders as Predictors of Parolee Time to Rearrest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 500,000-plus people are on parole each year, many with serious co-occurring psychiatric and substance use disorders. Using cross sectional, self-report data this study examined the relationships between parolee time to rearrest, serious mental illnesses, and substance dependency (n = 1,121). Regression analyses indicated that after…

  8. PhenoChipping of psychotic disorders: a novel approach for deconstructing and quantitating psychiatric phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Niculescu, Alexander B; Lulow, Len L; Ogden, Corey A; Le-Niculescu, Helen; Salomon, Daniel R; Schork, Nicholas J; Caligiuri, Michael P; Lohr, James B

    2006-09-01

    Psychiatric phenotypes as currently defined are primarily the result of clinical consensus criteria rather than empirical research. We propose, and present initial proof of principle for, a novel approach to characterizing psychiatric phenotypes. We have termed our approach PhenoChipping, by analogy with, and borrowing paradigms and tools from, gene expression microarray studies (GeneChipping). A massive parallel profiling of cognitive and affective state is done with a PhenoChip composed of a battery of existing and new quantitative psychiatric rating scales, as well as hand neuromotor measures. We present preliminary data from 104 subjects, 72 with psychotic disorders (bipolar disorder-41, schizophrenia-17, schizoaffective disorder-14), and 32 normal controls. Microarray data analysis software and visualization tools were used to investigate: 1. relationships between phenotypic items ("phenes"), including with objective motor measures, and 2. relationships between subjects. Our analyses revealed phenotypic overlap among, as well as phenotypic heterogeneity within, the three major psychotic disorders studied. This approach may be useful in helping us move beyond current diagnostic classifications, and suggests a combinatorial building-block (Lego-like) structure underlies psychiatric syndromes. The adaptation of microarray informatic tools for phenotypic analysis readily facilitates direct integration with gene expression profiling of lymphocytes in the same individuals, a strategy for molecular biomarker identification. Empirically derived clusterings of (endo)phenotypes and of patients will better serve genetic, pharmacological, and imaging research, as well as clinical practice. PMID:16838358

  9. Annual Research Review: Progress in Using Brain Morphometry as a Clinical Tool for Diagnosing Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haubold, Alexander; Peterson, Bradley S.; Bansal, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Brain morphometry in recent decades has increased our understanding of the neural bases of psychiatric disorders by localizing anatomical disturbances to specific nuclei and subnuclei of the brain. At least some of these disturbances precede the overt expression of clinical symptoms and possibly are endophenotypes that could be used to diagnose an…

  10. Towards the Prevention of Behavioural and Psychiatric Disorders in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David; Langthorne, Paul; Tonge, Bruce; Emerson, Eric; McGill, Peter; Fletcher, Robert; Dosen, Anton; Kennedy, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Intervention for behavioural and psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disabilities often only takes place once these conditions are well established and more resistant to change. As an alternative, this paper promotes a public health prevention model and maps out opportunities for intervention at primary, secondary and tertiary…

  11. Rates and Types of Psychiatric Disorders in Perinatally Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Youth and Seroreverters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellins, Claude Ann; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Elkington, Katherine S.; Dolezal, Curtis; Wiznia, Andrew; McKay, Mary; Bamji, Mahrukh; Abrams, Elaine J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine 1) the prevalence of psychiatric and substance use disorders in perinatally HIV-infected (HIV+) adolescents and 2) the association between HIV infection and these mental health outcomes by comparing HIV+ youths to HIV exposed but uninfected youths (HIV-) from similar communities. Methods: Data…

  12. "The role of oxytocin in psychiatric disorders: A review of biological and therapeutic research findings"

    PubMed Central

    Cochran, David; Fallon, Daniel; Hill, Michael; Frazier, Jean A.

    2014-01-01

    Oxytocin is a peptide hormone integral in parturition, milk let-down, and maternal behaviors that has been demonstrated in animal studies to be important in the formation of pair bonds and in social behaviors. This hormone is increasingly recognized as an important regulator of human social behaviors, including social decision making, evaluating and responding to social stimuli, mediating social interactions, and forming social memories. In addition, oxytocin is intricately involved in a broad array of neuropsychiatric functions, and may be a common factor important in multiple psychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. This review article examines the extant literature on the evidence for oxytocin dysfunction in a variety of psychiatric disorders and highlights the need for further research to understand the complex role of the oxytocin system in psychiatric disease to pave the way for developing new therapeutic modalities. Articles were selected that involved human participants with various psychiatric disorders, either comparing oxytocin biology to healthy controls or examining the effects of exogenous oxytocin administration. PMID:24651556

  13. Childhood-Onset Bipolar Disorder: Evidence for Increased Familial Loading of Psychiatric Illness

    PubMed Central

    Rende, Richard; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Strober, Michael; Gill, Mary Kay; Valeri, Sylvia; Chiappetta, Laurel; Ryan, Neal; Leonard, Henrietta; Hunt, Jeffrey; Iyengar, Satish; Keller, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine whether childhood-onset bipolar disorder (BP) is associated with an increased psychiatric family history compared with adolescent-onset BP. Method Semistructured psychiatric interviews were conducted for 438 youth with BP spectrum disorders. To evaluate the effects of age at onset and psychiatric family history, the sample was divided into childhood-onset BP (age and BP onset <12 years; n = 192), adolescents with early-onset BP (age ≥12 years and BP onset <12 years; n = 136), and adolescents with late-onset BP (age and BP onset ≥12 years; n = 110). Lifetime family history of psychiatric illness was ascertained for first- and second-degree relatives through both direct interview of caretakers and the Family History Screen. Results After significant demographic and clinical factors were controlled for, children and adolescents with childhood-onset BP showed higher percentages of positive first-degree family history for depression, anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, conduct, and substance dependence disorders and suicidal behaviors compared with adolescents with late onset. Subjects with childhood-onset BP also showed elevated familial loading for depression and attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder in second-degree relatives. Conclusions These data support a model that postulates a higher density of familial risk for a broad range of psychopathology in childhood-onset BP. PMID:17242623

  14. Psychiatric Disorders in Extremely Preterm Children: Longitudinal Finding at Age 11 Years in the EPICure Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Samantha; Hollis, Chris; Kochhar, Puja; Hennessy, Enid; Wolke, Dieter; Marlow, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for psychiatric disorders in extremely preterm children. Method: All babies born less than 26 weeks gestation in the United Kingdom and Ireland from March through December 1995 were recruited to the EPICure Study. Of 307 survivors at 11 years of age, 219 (71%) were assessed alongside 153…

  15. Psychiatric Disorders among Children with Cerebral Palsy at School Starting Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorgaas, H. M.; Hysing, M.; Elgen, I.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present population study was to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children with cerebral palsy (CP), as well as the impact of comorbid conditions. A cohort of children with CP born 2001-2003, and living in the Western Health Region of Norway were evaluated at school starting age. Parents were interviewed with the…

  16. Complex Psychiatric Comorbidity of Treatment-Seeking Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Anxiety Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Susan L.; Stern, Jessica A.; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Kimel, Lila K.; Reaven, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study examines the complexity of psychiatric comorbidity in treatment-seeking youth with ASD and anxiety symptoms. Forty-two parents of youth with ASD and anxiety (ages 8-14) completed a structured diagnostic interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version). Youth…

  17. Neuroimaging Correlates of Novel Psychiatric Disorders after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max, Jeffrey E.; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Bigler, Erin D.; Thompson, Wesley K.; MacLeod, Marianne; Vasquez, Ana C.; Merkley, Tricia L.; Hunter, Jill V.; Chu, Zili D.; Yallampalli, Ragini; Hotz, Gillian; Chapman, Sandra B.; Yang, Tony T.; Levin, Harvey S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) correlates of novel (new-onset) psychiatric disorders (NPD) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and orthopedic injury (OI). Method: Participants were 7 to 17 years of age at the time of hospitalization for either TBI or OI. The study used a prospective, longitudinal, controlled design with…

  18. Approaches for Strengthening Causal Inference Regarding Prenatal Risk Factors for Childhood Behavioural and Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Sarah J.; Relton, Caroline; Zammit, Stanley; Smith, George Davey

    2013-01-01

    Background: The risk of childhood behavioural and psychiatric diseases could be substantially reduced if modifiable risk factors for these disorders were identified. The critical period for many of these exposures is likely to be in utero as this is the time when brain development is most rapid. However, due to confounding and other limitations of…

  19. Psychiatric Disorders in a Representative Sample of Incarcerated Boys in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vreugdenhil, Coby; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; Vermeiren, Robert; Wouters, Luuk F. J. M.; Brink, Wim Van Den

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among incarcerated male adolescents and to investigate the influence of psychopathology on allocation to either plain detention or detention with compulsory treatment. Method: A cross-sectional study of a representative sample (N = 204) of incarcerated boys aged 12 to 18, using the…

  20. Socioeconomic Circumstances and Risk of Psychiatric Disorders among Parents of Children with Early Cognitive Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Eric; McCulloch, Andrew; Graham, Hilary; Blacher, Jan; Llwellyn, Gwynnyth M.; Hatton, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Results of previous research suggest that parents of children with intellectual disabilities are at increased risk of psychological distress and psychiatric disorder. Secondary analysis of the Millennium Cohort Study in the United Kingdom indicated that controlling for between-group differences in socioeconomic circumstances reduced the…

  1. Mentoring Youth with Psychiatric Disorder: The Impact on Child and Parent Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jent, Jason F.; Niec, Larissa N.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a behavioral mentoring program aimed at serving youth with psychiatric disorders. Participants included 30 youth (8-12 years old) receiving services in a mentoring program for a mental health population and 30 wait-listed youth and their maternal caregivers. Participating in mentoring services was related…

  2. Natural Disaster and Risk of Psychiatric Disorders in Puerto Rican Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix, Erika; Hernandez, Lino A.; Bravo, Milagros; Ramirez, Rafael; Cabiya, Jose; Canino, Glorisa

    2011-01-01

    We examined the persistence of psychiatric disorders at approximately 18 and 30 months after a hurricane among a random sample of the child and adolescent population (4-17 years) of Puerto Rico. Data were obtained from caretaker-child dyads (N = 1,886) through in person interviews with primary caretakers (all children) and youth (11-17 years)…

  3. School Exclusion in Children with Psychiatric Disorder or Impairing Psychopathology: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Claire; Whear, Rebecca; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Bethel, Alison; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Stein, Ken; Ford, Tamsin

    2015-01-01

    Childhood psychiatric disorders are associated with a wide range of adverse outcomes including poor academic attainment. For some children these difficulties are recognised through school Special Educational Need procedures (SEN) but many others may remain unidentified and/or unsupported. In Britain, government data suggests disproportionate…

  4. Substance use disorders and comorbid Axis I and II psychiatric disorders among young psychiatric patients: findings from a large electronic health records database

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Gersing, Ken; Burchett, Bruce; Woody, George E.; Blazer, Dan G.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs) among psychiatric patients aged 2–17 years in an electronic health records database (N=11,457) and determined patterns of comorbid diagnoses among patients with a SUD to inform emerging comparative effectiveness research (CER) efforts. DSM-IV diagnoses of all inpatients and outpatients at a large university-based hospital and its associated psychiatric clinics were systematically captured between 2000 and 2010: SUD, anxiety (AD), mood (MD), conduct (CD), attention deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD), personality (PD), adjustment, eating, impulse-control, psychotic, learning, mental retardation, and relational disorders. The prevalence of SUD in the 2–12-year age group (n=6,210) was 1.6% and increased to 25% in the 13–17-year age group (n=5,247). Cannabis diagnosis was the most prevalent SUD, accounting for more than 80% of all SUD cases. Among patients with a SUD (n=1,423), children aged 2–12 years (95%) and females (75–100%) showed high rates of comorbidities; blacks were more likely than whites to be diagnosed with CD, impulse-control, and psychotic diagnoses, while whites had elevated odds of having AD, ADHD, MD, PD, relational, and eating diagnoses. Patients with a SUD used more inpatient treatment than patients without a SUD (43% vs. 21%); children, females, and blacks had elevated odds of inpatient psychiatric treatment. Collectively, results add clinical evidence on treatment needs and diagnostic patterns for understudied diagnoses. PMID:21742345

  5. Oxytocin in the socioemotional brain: implications for psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT), highly conserved during evolution, is an important modulator of social and emotional processes across many species. During the last decade, a large body of literature has revealed its effects on different aspects of social behavior, including social stress and anxiety, social memory, affiliation and bonding, emotion recognition, mentalizing, empathy, and interpersonal trust. In addition, as impairments in these social domains can be observed in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism, social anxiety disorder, depression, schizophrenia, and borderline personality disorder, the role of OXT in mental disorders and their treatment has been intensively studied. The present paper gives a short overview of these lines of research and shows how OXT has become a promising target for novel treatment approaches for mental disorders characterized by social impairments. PMID:26869847

  6. Challenging Times: A Study to Detect Irish Adolescents at Risk of Psychiatric Disorders and Suicidal Ideation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Fionnuala; Mills, Carla; Daly, Irenee; Fitzpatrick, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Suicide rates in young Irish males have risen markedly in the past 10 years, and suicide is now the leading cause of death in young men in the 15-24-year-old age range. This is the first large-scale study in Ireland that set out to identify young people at risk of psychiatric disorders, including depressive disorders, and suicidal ideation. Seven…

  7. Psychiatric disorders in property, violent, and versatile offending detained male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Colins, Olivier; Vermeiren, Robert; Schuyten, Gilberte; Broekaert, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the past year prevalence rate of psychiatric disorders in detained male adolescents and the relation between psychiatric disorders and type of offending. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV) was administered in a sample (N = 245) of male detained adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Based on lifetime official criminal history, participants were classified into property, violent, and versatile subgroups. High rates of psychiatric disorders were found in all groups. In addition, property offenders reported significantly higher rates of depression, disruptive behavior disorders, substance use disorders and comorbidity than violent and versatile offenders. Overall, versatile offenders did not differ from violent offenders, with the exception of more marijuana use disorder found in violent offenders. This study once more emphasizes that detained boys have substantial mental health needs, a finding that is generalizable across countries. In addition, the current study suggests that classifying detained juveniles by offense subgroups may carry clinical relevance. The long-term impact of these differences, and the possible effects of intervention, should be subject of further research. PMID:19290723

  8. Psychiatric disorders and suicide in the nation's largest state prison system.

    PubMed

    Baillargeon, Jacques; Penn, Joseph V; Thomas, Christopher R; Temple, Jeff R; Baillargeon, Gwen; Murray, Owen J

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the overall rate of psychiatric disorders and suicides in the nation's largest state prison population. Data from 234,031 Texas Department of Criminal Justice inmates who were incarcerated for any duration between September 2006 and September 2007 were analyzed by Poisson regression, to assess the independent associations of major psychiatric disorders and demographic characteristics with suicide. Across the entire study cohort, 41 inmates (18 per 100,000) were reported to have committed suicide during the 12-month follow-up period; 21 of them had a diagnosis of a serious mental illness. An elevated risk of suicide was observed among inmates with major depressive disorder (relative risk [RR] = 5.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.9-13.8), bipolar disorder (RR = 4.6, CI = 1.3-15.9), and schizophrenia (RR = 7.3, CI = 1.7-15.9). The highest overall risk was present in those inmates with a nonschizophrenic psychotic disorder (RR = 13.8, CI = 5.8-32.9). These findings highlight the importance of maintaining suicide prevention programs in correctional settings, with particular emphasis on screening and monitoring of patients with severe psychiatric disorders. PMID:19535556

  9. Animal Models of Psychiatric Disorders That Reflect Human Copy Number Variation

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Jun; Takumi, Toru

    2012-01-01

    The development of genetic technologies has led to the identification of several copy number variations (CNVs) in the human genome. Genome rearrangements affect dosage-sensitive gene expression in normal brain development. There is strong evidence associating human psychiatric disorders, especially autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and schizophrenia to genetic risk factors and accumulated CNV risk loci. Deletions in 1q21, 3q29, 15q13, 17p12, and 22q11, as well as duplications in 16p11, 16p13, and 15q11-13 have been reported as recurrent CNVs in ASD and/or schizophrenia. Chromosome engineering can be a useful technology to reflect human diseases in animal models, especially CNV-based psychiatric disorders. This system, based on the Cre/loxP strategy, uses large chromosome rearrangement such as deletion, duplication, inversion, and translocation. Although it is hard to reflect human pathophysiology in animal models, some aspects of molecular pathways, brain anatomy, cognitive, and behavioral phenotypes can be addressed. Some groups have created animal models of psychiatric disorders, ASD, and schizophrenia, which are based on human CNV. These mouse models display some brain anatomical and behavioral abnormalities, providing insight into human neuropsychiatric disorders that will contribute to novel drug screening for these devastating disorders. PMID:22900207

  10. Relationship between ST8SIA2, polysialic acid and its binding molecules, and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Sato, Chihiro; Hane, Masaya; Kitajima, Ken

    2016-08-01

    Polysialic acid (polySia, PSA) is a unique and functionally important glycan, particularly in vertebrate brains. It is involved in higher brain functions such as learning, memory, and social behaviors. Recently, an association between several genetic variations and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ST8SIA2/STX, one of two polysialyltransferase genes in vertebrates, and psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), was reported based on candidate gene approaches and genome-wide studies among normal and mental disorder patients. It is of critical importance to determine if the reported mutations and SNPs in ST8SIA2 lead to impairments of the structure and function of polySia, which is the final product of ST8SIA2. To date, however, only a few such forward-directed studies have been conducted. In addition, the molecular mechanisms underlying polySia-involved brain functions remain unknown, although polySia was shown to have an anti-adhesive effect. In this report, we review the relationships between psychiatric disorders and polySia and/or ST8SIA2, and describe a new function of polySia as a regulator of neurologically active molecules, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and dopamine, which are deeply involved in psychiatric disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Glycans in personalised medicine" Guest Editor: Professor Gordan Lauc. PMID:27105834

  11. Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents 24 Months After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Max, Jeffrey E.; Friedman, Keren; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Bigler, Erin D.; Hanten, Gerri; Schachar, Russell J.; Saunders, Ann E.; Dennis, Maureen; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Chapman, Sandra B.; Yang, Tony T.; Levin, Harvey S.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to better understand the occurrence of novel psychiatric disorders (NPDs) in children with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in relation to preinjury variables, injury-related variables, and concurrent neurocognitive outcome. Eighty-seven children aged 5–14 years who had experienced mTBI were studied from consecutive hospital admissions with semistructured psychiatric interviews soon after injury (baseline). Fifty-four children were reassessed 24 months postinjury. Standardized instruments were used to evaluate injury severity, lesion characteristics, preinjury variables (lifetime psychiatric disorder, family psychiatric history, family function, socioeconomic status, psychosocial adversity, adaptive function, and academic function), and finally, postinjury neurocognitive and adaptive function. At 24 months postinjury, NPDs had occurred in 17 of 54 (31%) participants. NPD at 24 months was related to frontal white matter lesions and was associated with estimated preinjury reading, preinjury adaptive function, and concurrent deficits in reading, processing speed, and adaptive function. These findings extend earlier reports that the psychiatric morbidity after mTBI in children is more common than previously thought, and moreover, it is linked to preinjury individual variables and injury characteristics and is associated with postinjury adaptive and neurocognitive functioning. PMID:25923850

  12. From psychiatric disorders to animal models: a bidirectional and dimensional approach

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Zoe. R.; Hen, René

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric genetics research is bidirectional in nature, with human and animal studies becoming more closely integrated as techniques for genetic manipulations allow for more subtle exploration of disease phenotypes. This synergy, however, highlights the importance of considering the way in which we approach the genotype-phenotype relationship. In particular, the nosological divide of psychiatric illness, while clinically relevant, is not directly translatable in animal models. For instance, mice will never fully re-capitulate the broad criteria for many psychiatric disorders; nor will they have guilty ruminations, suicidal thoughts, or rapid speech. Instead, animal models have been and continue to provide a means to explore dimensions of psychiatric disorders in order to identify neural circuits and mechanisms underlying disease-relevant phenotypes. Thus, the genetic investigation of psychiatric illness will yield the greatest insights if efforts continue to identify and utilize biologically valid phenotypes across species. In this review we discuss the progress to date and the future efforts that will enhance translation between human and animal studies, including the identification of intermediate phenotypes that can be studied across species, as well as the importance of refined modeling of human disease-associated genetic variation in mice and other animal models. PMID:24650688

  13. Sleep Disorders in Adult Sickle Cell Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sunil; Efird, Jimmy T.; Knupp, Charles; Kadali, Renuka; Liles, Darla; Shiue, Kristin; Boettger, Peter; Quan, Stuart F.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: While sleep apnea has been studied in children with sickle cell disease (SCD), little is known about sleep disorders in adult sickle cell patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate sleep disordered breathing and its polysomnographic characteristics in adult patients with sickle cell disease. Methods: The analysis cohort included 32 consecutive adult SCD patients who underwent a comprehensive sleep evaluation and overnight polysomnography in an accredited sleep center after reporting symptoms suggesting disordered sleep or an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score ≥ 10. Epworth score, sleep parameters, comorbid conditions, and narcotic use were reviewed and compared in patients with and without sleep disordered breathing. SCD complication rates in the two groups also were compared. Results: In adult SCD patients who underwent overnight polysomnography, we report a high prevalence (44%) of sleep disordered breathing. Disease severity was mild to moderate (mean apnea-hypopnea index = 17/h (95% CI: 10–24/h). Concomitant sleep disorders, including insomnia complaints (57%) and delayed sleep-phase syndrome (57%), also were common in this population. In this limited cohort, we did not find increased SCD complications associated with sleep disordered breathing in adult patients with sickle cell disease. Conclusions: A high burden of sleep disordered breathing and other sleep-related complaints were identified in the adult sickle cell population. Our results provide important information on this unique population. Citation: Sharma S, Efird JT, Knupp C, Kadali R, Liles D, Shiue K, Boettger P, Quan SF. Sleep disorders in adult sickle cell patients. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(3):219–223. PMID:25515282

  14. Comorbid Social Anxiety Disorder in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety symptoms are common among cognitively unimpaired youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Few studies have investigated the co-occurrence of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adults with ASD, although identification may aid access to effective treatments and inform our scientific efforts to parse heterogeneity. In this preliminary…

  15. A Study of the Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Patients with Methamphetamine-Induced Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Eslami-Shahrbabaki, Mahin; Fekrat, Alireza; Mazhari, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    Background The abuse of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances such as amphetamines and ecstasy has had a growing trend. Tachycardia, increased blood pressure, hallucinations, panic attacks, and psychosis are the negative effects of methamphetamine abuse. The present study aimed to assess psychiatric disorders associated with methamphetamine-induced psychotic disorder. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed from October 2013 to March 2014 on 165 patients hospitalized at Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Kerman, Iran, and diagnosed with psychosis induced by methamphetamine abuse within the previous 6 months. Study subjects were selected via census method. Based on the exclusion criteria and due to the lack of cooperation of some patients, 121 patients were enrolled in the study. Research data were gathered using clinical interviews, the Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (Y-BOCS), Hamilton anxiety scale (HAM-A) and Hamilton rating scale for depression (HRSD), Young mania rating scale (YMRS), substance dependence severity scale (SDSS), positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), and clinical global impression (CGI) scale. The data analysis was performed using SPSS software, descriptive statistics, and ANOVA. Findings Among the 121 patients of the sample group, 4 patients (3.3%) had anxiety, 58 patients (47.9%) depression, 30 patients (24.8%) obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 20 patients (16.5%) bipolar mood disorder (BMD), 8 patients (6.6%) persistent psychotic symptoms, 85 patients (70.2%) personality disorder, and 36 patients (29.8%) had no personality disorders. The highest prevalence was related to borderline personality disorder (35.5%). However, 45 patients (37.2%) had no impairment associated with methamphetamine-induced psychosis. Conclusion It seems that there is comorbidity between psychiatric disorders, including mood disorders, especially depressive disorder, childhood history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar

  16. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Psychiatric Defense

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Harold W.; Howe, Gary L.; Gelsomino, Joe; Lockert, Edna W.

    1986-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the anxiety disorders recently included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition (DSM-III).1 The disorder refers to the psychological sequelae that may follow a significant stressor. The military has previously referred to PTSD as “war neurosis,” “shell shock,” and “combat neurosis.” PTSD has recently gained attention as a means of legal defense. As a defense, it may exist separately from “innocence by reason of insanity.” The authors review the literature, provide case vignettes exemplifying the clinical features, and present three additional cases that gained local and national notoriety because of their defense motions. The senior author served as an expert witness in these cases. Recommendations are given to readers who may in the future serve as expert witnesses or consultants in similar cases. PMID:3950984

  17. Psychiatric Approaches for Disorders of Sex Development: Experience of a Multidisciplinary Team

    PubMed Central

    Özbaran, Burcu; Özen, Samim; Gökşen, Damla; Korkmaz, Özlem; Onay, Hüseyin; Özkınay, Ferda; Çoğulu, Özgür; Erermiş, Serpil; Köse, Sezen; Avanoğlu, Ali; Ulman, İbrahim; Darcan, Şükran

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Disorders of sex development (DSD) are a group of congenital medical conditions that affect life as a whole. In this study, we aimed to reflect the experience of a multidisciplinary team in the clinical/psychiatric follow-up of a group of children and adolescents with DSD. Methods: The study group consisted of 51 patients diagnosed with DSD. The Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, Draw a Person Test and Children’s Apperception Test, and the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGIS) were used for psychiatric evaluations. Results: The mean age of the patients was 7.8 years (median: 7.8; min: 1.0; max: 18.0). Genetic evaluation showed 46,XX configuration in 15 patients (29.4%) and 46,XY in 35 (68.6%). One patient (2.0%) was diagnosed to have a sex chromosome disorder. Forty patients (78.4%) had no problems with their given gender identity and gender role. Thirty-four (66.7%) patients had normal intellectual capacity. Twenty-eight (54.9%) patients did not have any psychiatric problem. Depression, anxiety disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and adjustment disorders were the common diagnoses. The mean score of symptom severity on CGIS-severity-baseline was 6.15±0.68 and after one year, it was 1.46±0.51 (Z=-3.236 p=0.001). The mean score of CGI–Improvement was 1.23±0.44. Conclusion: It is important to identify and treat the psychiatric disorders encountered in patients with DSD. A psychiatrist needs to be included in the professional team following these patients. Examination and observation results need to be shared by holding periodic team meetings to establish a wholesome point of view for every unique child. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24379031

  18. Trends of indigenous healing among people with psychiatric disorders: comparative study of Arabic and Kurdish ethnicities in Iraq.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Twana Abdulrahman; Saeed, Banaz Adnan; Farhan, Hafidh Muhammed; Aziz, Rosh Rauf

    2015-02-01

    Indigenous healing is commonly practiced in Middle East. Little is known about trends of indigenous therapies among patients with psychiatric disorders in Iraq. To determine and compare rates and predictors of indigenous healings by individuals with psychiatric disorders, and the practiced rituals among Arabic and Kurdish ethnicities in Iraq, patients aged 18 year and older attending outpatients in Erbil and Najaf were assessed for their prior contacts with indigenous healers. About 48.9 % had indigenous healer's consultations before visiting their psychiatrists; the figure was three times higher among Arabs than Kurds. Higher consultation rate was detected among younger and less formally educated patients. Fourteen types of religious therapeutic rituals have been practiced. Indigenous healing is widespread in Iraq. It is more common among Arabs, younger and less educated people with psychiatric disorders. Participants consider indigenous healing for their psychiatric more than non-psychiatric disorders. PMID:25060735

  19. Phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity and family history in referred preschool children with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to investigate phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity, and family history of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in a clinical sample of normally developing preschool children with OCD. Method Subjects in this study were recruited from a clinical sample of preschool children (under 72 months of age) who were referred to a university clinic. Subjects with a normal developmental history and significant impairment related to OCD symptoms were included in the study. Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was used to assess OCD symptoms. Each subject was assessed for comorbid DSM-IV psychiatric disorders using a semi-structured interview. Parents were evaluated for lifetime history of OCD in individual sessions. Results Fifteen boys and ten girls (age range: 28 to 69 months; 54.12±9.08 months) were included. Mean age of onset of OCD was 35.64±13.42 months. All subjects received at least one comorbid diagnosis. The most frequent comorbid disorders were non-OCD anxiety disorders (n=17; 68.0%), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n=15; 60.0%), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (n=12; 48.0%), and tic disorders (n=6; 24.0%). Mean number of comorbid disorders was 3.65 and 2.35 for boys and girls, respectively. At least one parent received lifetime OCD diagnosis in 68 percent of the subjects. Conclusions The results indicated that OCD in referred preschool children is more common in males, highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, and associated with high rates of family history of OCD. Given the high rates of comorbidity and family history, OCD should be considered in referred preschool children with disruptive behavior disorders and/or with family history of OCD. PMID:23173690

  20. Gender differences in the receipt of aftercare and psychiatric hospitalization among adults with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Klinkenberg, W D; Calsyn, R J

    1998-01-01

    Gender differences in receiving aftercare and being hospitalized for persons with severe mental illness were examined. For women, unique predictors for receiving aftercare were primarily treatment system responsiveness variables. For men, unique predictors of aftercare were from all categories and included being accompanied to the psychiatric emergency room (PER) by family or friends and having previous psychiatric admissions. More recent outpatient treatment and a greater number of previous admissions predicted hospitalization for both men and women. Receiving less intense aftercare predicted hospitalization for women but not men. Unique predictors of hospitalization for men were a higher level of education and a psychotic disorder diagnosis. PMID:9606579