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Sample records for adult psychosocial adjustment

  1. Exploring the Psychosocial and Behavioral Adjustment Outcomes of Multi-Type Abuse among Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the psychosocial and behavioral adjustment outcomes associated with verbal, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse among homeless young adults as well as the associations among abuse types. Convenience sampling was used to select 28 homeless young adults (ages 18 to 24) from one drop-in center. Overall, subjects experienced…

  2. Life-Course Pathways and the Psychosocial Adjustment of Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    We examined 7 life-course pathways from adolescence through the early adult years and their links with general health and psychosocial adjustment among 2,290 women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Young women who followed a pathway involving college attendance to full-time employment with no family-formation transitions…

  3. Gender-Nonconforming Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth: School Victimization and Young Adult Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Russell B.; Ryan, Caitlin; Diaz, Rafael M.; Card, Noel A.; Russell, Stephen T.

    2010-01-01

    Past research documents that both adolescent gender nonconformity and the experience of school victimization are associated with high rates of negative psychosocial adjustment. Using data from the Family Acceptance Project's young adult survey, we examined associations among retrospective reports of adolescent gender nonconformity and adolescent…

  4. Gender-nonconforming lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth: school victimization and young adult psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Russell B; Ryan, Caitlin; Diaz, Rafael M; Card, Noel A; Russell, Stephen T

    2010-11-01

    Past research documents that both adolescent gender nonconformity and the experience of school victimization are associated with high rates of negative psychosocial adjustment. Using data from the Family Acceptance Project's young adult survey, we examined associations among retrospective reports of adolescent gender nonconformity and adolescent school victimization due to perceived or actual lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) status, along with current reports of life satisfaction and depression. The participants included 245 LGBT young adults ranging in age from 21 to 25 years. Using structural equation modeling, we found that victimization due to perceived or actual LGBT status fully mediates the association between adolescent gender nonconformity and young adult psychosocial adjustment (i.e., life satisfaction and depression). Implications are addressed, including specific strategies that schools can implement to provide safer environments for gender-nonconforming LGBT students.

  5. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Adults Who Stutter: Psychosocial Adjustment and Speech Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beilby, Janet M.; Byrnes, Michelle L.; Yaruss, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy group intervention program for adults who stutter (N = 20). The program consisted of 2-h therapeutic sessions conducted weekly for eight consecutive weeks. It was an integrated program designed to improve: (a) psychosocial functioning, (b)…

  6. Parental divorce during early adolescence in Caucasian families: the role of family process variables in predicting the long-term consequences for early adult psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Summers, P; Forehand, R; Armistead, L; Tannenbaum, L

    1998-04-01

    The relationship between parental divorce occurring during adolescence and young adult psychosocial adjustment was examined, as was the role of family process variables in clarifying this relationship. Participants were young Caucasian adults from divorced (n = 119) and married (n = 123) families. Assessments were conducted during adolescence and 6 years later during early adulthood. Young adults from married families reported more secure romantic attachments than those from divorced families; however, differences were not evident in other domains of psychosocial adjustment after demographic variables were controlled. Three family process variables (parent-adolescent relationship, interparental conflict, and maternal depressive symptoms) were examined as potential mediators and moderators of the association between parental divorce and young adult adjustment. No evidence supporting mediation or moderation was found; however, the parent-adolescent and parent-young adult relationships, particularly when the identified parent was the father, emerged as significant predictors of young adult psychosocial adjustment. PMID:9583336

  7. The quality of parent/child relationships in adolescence is associated with poor adult psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Raudino, Alessandra; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John

    2013-04-01

    This study used data gathered over the course of a New Zealand longitudinal study (N = 924) to examine the relationships between measures of parental bonding and attachment in adolescence (age 15-16) and later personal adjustment (major depression; anxiety disorder; suicidal behaviour; illicit drug abuse/dependence; crime) assessed up to the age of 30. Key findings included: 1) There were significant (p < 0.05) and pervasive associations between all measures of attachment and bonding and later outcomes. 2) Structural equation modelling showed that all measures of bonding and attachment loaded on a common factor reflecting the quality of parent/child relationships in adolescence. 3) After adjustment for covariates there were modest relationships (β = 0.16-0.17) between the quality of parent/child relationships in adolescence factor and later adjustment. The study findings suggest that the quality of parent/child relationships in adolescence is modestly related to later psychosocial functioning in adulthood.

  8. A follow-up study of adults with suicidal burns: psychosocial adjustment and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Daigeler, Adrien; Langer, Stefan; Hüllmann, Kathrin; Illes, Franziska; Juckel, Georg; Echterhoff, Silke; Selbach, David; Steinsträsser, Lars; Steinau, Hans-Ulrich; Lehnhardt, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    The severity of the burn injuries, accompanying injuries, and the often concomitant psychiatric disease complicate the treatment of patients with suicidal burns. Data from 45 patients who were treated for suicidal burn injuries from 1994 to 2005 were acquired from the patients' charts and interviews with standardized questionnaires (n = 11) concerning their psychological status pretrauma and posttrauma, as well as their quality of life with special reference to psychosocial adjustments. None of the patients survived more than 69% TBSA burns; no one with 41% or less died. Most of the patients had prediagnosed psychiatric disorders. The educational and social background of the patients and religious beliefs played a minor role for choosing this method of suicide. Aggression levels were above the average population, whereas self-direction was underdeveloped. Forty percent, albeit unsuccessfully, committed subsequent suicide attempts. Most patients felt only moderate social impairment by the burn wound residuals, the majority had intensified and improved their social contacts, and most felt no relevant decrease of quality of life compared with their personal situation before the suicide attempt. Patients who survive the suicide attempt can become integrated in social life again. More data are needed to reliably identify patients at risk in advance.

  9. Psychosocial adjustment of adult survivors of a paediatric dialysis and transplant programme.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, J M; Morton, M J; Garralda, M E; Postlethwaite, R J; Goh, D

    1993-01-01

    The social adjustment of 45 young adult renal patients who commenced treatment for end stage renal disease (ESRD) as children and of 48 age and sex matched controls were compared. Renal patients were less socially mature than controls. More lived with their parents, fewer had an intimate relationship outside the family, they had fewer school qualifications, and there was more unemployment among them. The majority, however, were in employment and the level of subjective stress and support derived from most of these areas was comparable in renal patients and in controls. Having a close relationship with a member of the opposite sex was the only domain in which renal patients reported more stress than controls. Early start of illness and current health problems were associated with poorer social outcome. A lifelong history of ESRD leads to suboptimal or delayed social functioning on conventional indicators. However this does not lead to increased overall distress in the patients about their social circumstances and quality of life does not appear to be substantially impaired.

  10. Maternal and Paternal Parenting during Adolescence: Forecasting Early Adult Psychosocial Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah J.; Forehand, Rex; Beach, Steven R. H.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the relationship of maternal and paternal parenting behavior during adolescence to four domains of early adult functioning. Higher levels of maternal firm control were associated with more secure early adult romantic attachment and lower levels of educational achievement. There were no main effects for fathers, but paternal parenting…

  11. The Quality of Parent/Child Relationships in Adolescence Is Associated with Poor Adult Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudino, Alessandra; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2013-01-01

    This study used data gathered over the course of a New Zealand longitudinal study (N = 924) to examine the relationships between measures of parental bonding and attachment in adolescence (age 15-16) and later personal adjustment (major depression; anxiety disorder; suicidal behaviour; illicit drug abuse/dependence; crime) assessed up to the age…

  12. Psychosocial adjustment to recurrent cancer.

    PubMed

    Mahon, S M; Cella, D F; Donovan, M I

    1990-01-01

    This descriptive study of the perceptions and needs of people with recurrent malignancies asks three questions: How do patients describe the meaning of a recurrence of cancer? Do individuals perceive the diagnosis of recurrence and the initial diagnosis of cancer differently? What are the key psychosocial problems associated with recurrent cancer? The theoretical framework was based on Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress, appraisal, and coping. Subjects completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES), the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale--Self-Report (PAIS), and a semistructured qualitative interview. The interview elicited perceptions of the event of recurrence and differences between the diagnosis of recurrence and the initial diagnosis. The convenience sample included 40 patients diagnosed with recurrent cancer within the last 30 days. Many subjects (78%) reported that the recurrence was more upsetting than the initial diagnosis. Scores on both the IES and the PAIS were high when compared to normative samples of patients with cancer suggesting that this sample of patients experienced a lot of psychological distress as well as problems at home, work, and in their social lives. These concerns often were unknown to caregivers. Although more research is needed, the authors propose that, with more accurate assessment, more effective intervention could be implemented and the quality of life improved for patients with recurrent cancer.

  13. Psychosocial adjustment and craniofacial malformations in childhood.

    PubMed

    Pertschuk, M J; Whitaker, L A

    1985-02-01

    Forty-three children between the ages of 6 and 13 years with congenital facial anomalies underwent psychosocial evaluation prior to surgery. Also evaluated were healthy children matched to the craniofacial subjects by sex, age, intelligence, and economic background. Relative to this comparison group, the craniofacial children were found to have poorer self-concept, greater anxiety at the time of evaluation, and more introversion. Parents of the craniofacial children noted more frequent negative social encounters for their children and more hyperactive behavior at home. Teachers reported more problematic classroom behavior. Examination of these results revealed craniofacial malformations to be associated with psychosocial limitations rather than marked deficits. These children tended to function less well than the comparison children, but with few exceptions, they were not functioning in a psychosocially deviant range. Explanations for the observed circumscribed impact of facial deformity include the use of denial as a coping mechanism, possible diminished significance of appearance for younger children, and the restricted environment experienced by most of the subjects. It can be predicted that time would render these protective influences ineffective, so that adolescent and young adult patients could be at far greater psychosocial risk. PMID:3969404

  14. Recurrent Dreams and Psychosocial Adjustment in Preteenaged Children.

    PubMed

    Gauchat, Aline; Zadra, Antonio; Tremblay, Richard E; Zelazo, Philip David; Séguin, Jean R

    2009-06-01

    Research indicates that recurrent dreams in adults are associated with impoverished psychological well-being. Whether similar associations exist in children remains unknown. The authors hypothesized that children reporting recurrent dreams would show poorer psychosocial adjustment than children without recurrent dreams. One hundred sixty-eight 11-year-old children self-reported on their recurrent dreams and on measures of psychosocial adjustment. Although 35% of children reported having experienced a recurrent dream during the past year, our hypothesis was only partially supported. Multivariate analyses revealed a marginally significant interaction between gender and recurrent dream presence and a significant main effect of gender. Univariate analyses revealed that boys reporting recurrent dreams reported significantly higher scores on reactive aggression than those who did not (d = 0.58). This suggests that by age 11 years, the presence of recurrent dreams may already reflect underlying emotional difficulties in boys but not necessarily in girls. Challenges in addressing this developmental question are discussed.

  15. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS. PMID:26441696

  16. Romantic Experience and Psychosocial Adjustment in Middle Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Wyndol; Low, Sabina; Ho, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent and longitudinal relations between the amount of romantic experience and psychosocial adjustment were examined in a 1-year study of a community based sample of 200 tenth graders. Adolescents, parents, and friends completed measures of psychosocial adjustment. The amount of romantic experience was associated with higher reports of social…

  17. Clefting and psychosocial adjustment. Influence of facial aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Tobiasen, J M; Hiebert, J M

    1993-10-01

    This article briefly reviewed the research literature on the psychosocial correlates of facial clefts and described a program of research to study the relationship between severity of cleft impairment and psychosocial adjustment. In the past 40 years, there has been increasing recognition and research literature on the psychologic implications of facial clefts to patients and their families. Advances in both the knowledge base and the science of the psychologic correlates of facial clefts have been made. Children with clefts are not at greater risk for psychopathology than are individuals without clefts; however, they are at significant risk for social competence problems relating to development of friendships, progress in school, and participation in organizations. Problems with social competence have a negative effect on development. The ability of all children to make friends and to be liked by others is considered by most parents, teachers, and child development specialists to be a major developmental milestone. Not having friends and social withdrawal can cause parents or teachers to refer noncleft children to mental health professionals and is a predictor of impaired adult social competence and mental health. Studies of adults with clefts are consistent with studies of adults without clefts. Adults with repaired clefts are less likely to marry than are their noncleft siblings, and they have more problems with social withdrawal. Because facial attractiveness is well-known to affect peer acceptance, we hypothesized that the severity of the cleft deformity may have a significant impact on social competence. Consequently, we undertook a program of research to examine this question.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8275628

  18. Epigenetic Patterns Modulate the Connection between Developmental Dynamics of Parenting and Offspring Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naumova, Oksana Yu.; Hein, Sascha; Suderman, Matthew; Barbot, Baptiste; Lee, Maria; Raefski, Adam; Dobrynin, Pavel V.; Brown, Pamela J.; Szyf, Moshe; Luthar, Suniya S.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2016-01-01

    This study attempted to establish and quantify the connections between parenting, offspring psychosocial adjustment, and the epigenome. The participants, 35 African American young adults (19 females and 16 males; age = 17-29.5 years), represented a subsample of a 3-wave longitudinal 15-year study on the developmental trajectories of low-income…

  19. Vietnamese Amerasians: Psychosocial Adjustment and Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bemak, Fred; Chung, Rita Chi-Ying

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the literature on Amerasians and offers suggestions for directions in psychotherapy. Provides a brief chronology of Amerasian emigration and associated psychological issues, followed by a discussion of myths and generalizations about Amerasians, research findings, and adjustment issues. (RJM)

  20. Psychosocial Adjustment of College Students with Tattoos and Piercings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberti, Jonathan W.; Storch, Eric A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between body modification practices and psychosocial adjustment. Participants were 198 undergraduate college students, 129 of whom had I or more piercings (other than in earlobe) or tattoos. Findings showed that individuals with body modifications reported more symptoms of depression and…

  1. Adolescent Leisure Dimensions, Psychosocial Adjustment, and Gender Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Graham L.; Inglis, Brad C.

    2012-01-01

    Leisure provides the context for much of adolescent behaviour and development. While both theory and research point to the benefits of participation in leisure activities that are highly structured, the association between structured leisure and psychosocial adjustment is not uniformly high. This paper presents a model of adolescent leisure…

  2. Psychosocial adjustment in adolescent child molesters.

    PubMed

    Katz, R C

    1990-01-01

    This study compared adolescent child molesters (n = 31) with nonsex offending delinquents (n = 34) and normal adolescents (n = 71) on standardized measures of social competence and psychological adjustment. The measures included the Adolescent Assertiveness Scale, the Survey of Heterosocial Interactions, the Self-Consciousness Scale, the Social Anxiety and Distress Scale, the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Norwicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale, and the Jesness Inventory. Results were consistent with predictions. Molesters showed significantly more global maladjustment than normals and were more socially anxious and threatened by heterosocial interactions than nonsex offending delinquents. A discriminant function analysis suggested that molesters, more than delinquents, were likely to perceive themselves as socially inadequate and to be externally oriented in their attributional style. Results support the hypothesis that social skill deficits and social isolation are risk factors that may predispose some adolescents to commit sexual crimes against children.

  3. Psychosocial adjustment and adherence to dialysis treatment regimes.

    PubMed

    Brownbridge, G; Fielding, D M

    1994-12-01

    Sixty children and adolescents in end-stage renal failure who were undergoing either haemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis at one of five United Kingdom dialysis centres were assessed on psychosocial adjustment and adherence to their fluid intake, diet and medication regimes. Parental adjustment was also measured and data on sociodemographic and treatment history variables collected. A structured family interview and standardised questionnaire measures of anxiety, depression and behavioural disturbance were used. Multiple measures of treatment adherence were obtained, utilising children's and parents' self-reports, weight gain between dialysis, blood pressure, serum potassium level, blood urea level, dietitians' surveys and consultants' ratings. Correlational analyses showed that low treatment adherence was associated with poor adjustment to diagnosis and dialysis by children and parents (P < 0.01), self-ratings of anxiety and depression in children and parents (P < 0.001), age (adolescents tended to show poorer adherence than younger children, P < 0.001), duration of dialysis (P < 0.05), low family socioeconomic status (P < 0.05) and family structure (P < 0.01). These findings demonstrate the importance of psychosocial care in the treatment of this group of children. Future research should develop and evaluate psychosocial interventions aimed at improving treatment adherence.

  4. Longitudinal Associations Between Humor Styles and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Claire Louise; Hunter, Simon Christopher; Jones, Siân Emily

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female) aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem) and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer). In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. PMID:27547255

  5. Longitudinal Associations Between Humor Styles and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Fox, Claire Louise; Hunter, Simon Christopher; Jones, Siân Emily

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female) aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem) and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer). In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. PMID:27547255

  6. Adolescent suicide attempts and adult adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Brière, Frédéric N.; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Klein, Daniel; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent suicide attempts are disproportionally prevalent and frequently of low severity, raising questions regarding their long-term prognostic implications. In this study, we examined whether adolescent attempts were associated with impairments related to suicidality, psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning in adulthood (objective 1) and whether these impairments were better accounted for by concurrent adolescent confounders (objective 2). Method 816 adolescents were assessed using interviews and questionnaires at four time points from adolescence to adulthood. We examined whether lifetime suicide attempts in adolescence (by T2, mean age 17) predicted adult outcomes (by T4, mean age 30) using linear and logistic regressions in unadjusted models (objective 1) and adjusting for sociodemographic background, adolescent psychopathology, and family risk factors (objective 2). Results In unadjusted analyses, adolescent suicide attempts predicted poorer adjustment on all outcomes, except those related to social role status. After adjustment, adolescent attempts remained predictive of axis I and II psychopathology (anxiety disorder, antisocial and borderline personality disorder symptoms), global and social adjustment, risky sex, and psychiatric treatment utilization. However, adolescent attempts no longer predicted most adult outcomes, notably suicide attempts and major depressive disorder. Secondary analyses indicated that associations did not differ by sex and attempt characteristics (intent, lethality, recurrence). Conclusions Adolescent suicide attempters are at high risk of protracted and wide-ranging impairments, regardless of the characteristics of their attempt. Although attempts specifically predict (and possibly influence) several outcomes, results suggest that most impairments reflect the confounding contributions of other individual and family problems or vulnerabilites in adolescent attempters. PMID:25421360

  7. Psychosocial Impact of Epilepsy in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Manacheril, Rinu; Faheem, Urooba; Labiner, David; Drake, Kendra; Chong, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to describe the quality of life of older adults with seizures or epilepsy and compare its psychosocial impact between those who were new diagnosed and those diagnosed before the age of 65. Methods: In-depth face to face interviews with open ended questions were conducted with two participant groups: Incident group: 42 older adults (>65 years) with new onset or newly diagnosed after age of 65; and Prevalent group: 15 older adults (>65 years) diagnosed before age of 65. Interviews were reviewed and coded using a list of themes and results were compared between the two groups. Eight topics were selected from the participants’ responses to questions about the psychosocial impact of epilepsy and seizures. The topics were then analyzed and compared between the two groups. Results: The topics analyzed were: Emotional and physical impact, significant life changes, co-morbidities, information gathering, stigma, AED side effects, changes in relationships and attitude toward diagnosis. Conclusion: We concluded that the age at onset and duration does seem to have a negative correlation with health related quality of life. However, the perceived health status of older adults with chronic epilepsy was significantly better and reflected in their more positive approach to the diagnosis of seizures or epilepsy probably because they have had a longer opportunity to learn to cope with their diagnosis. PMID:27417823

  8. [Self-concept and psychosocial adjustment in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Fuentes, María C; García, José Fernando; Gracia, Enrique; Lila, Marisol

    2011-02-01

    This study analyses the relationship between a multidimensional measure of self-concept, Self-concept Form-5 Questionnaire (AF5), and a broad set of adolescents' psychosocial adjustment indicators. From the responses of 1,281 participants (53.7% females) aged 12 to 17 years ( M = 14.98 years, SD = 1.74 years), results indicated that higher self-concept scores corresponded to better psychological adjustment, good personal skills and fewer behavioral problems. Although a positive relationship between social self-concept and drug use was found, this significant relationship disappeared once the adolescent's age and sex was controlled for. These results support the idea that the self-concept is a basic theoretical construct closely related to the psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. Also this study helps explain some contradictory results reported in the literature (i.e., a positive relationship between social self-concept and drug use), by showing how the statistical control of a third variable effect (i.e., age) avoids reaching conclusions based on spurious relationships.

  9. Psychosocial adjustment of pediatric patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Felder-Puig, R; Peters, C; Matthes-Martin, S; Lamche, M; Felsberger, C; Gadner, H; Topf, R

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the psychosocial adjustment of patients who had been treated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in our clinic. Selection criteria for patients were to be aged 14-30 years at the time of the follow-up, to be at least 2 years post-SCT and to have a very good knowledge of German. Among 31 eligible patients, 26 participated (84% response rate). The patients were between 15 and 27 years old and were on average 7 years (range 2-13) post-SCT. Research instruments consisted of a demographic questionnaire and various subscales of established psychological measures for which data from a sample of bone cancer survivors and population norms were available. About 35% of patients showed high levels of anxiety, 62% appeared to be extremely sensitive and vulnerable, and 35% showed strong, unfulfilled needs in their love lives. In the other domains tested (self-esteem, family and peer relationships, school/vocational performance, etc), no noticeable differences were found between the subjects and comparable populations. There was no significant association between psychosocial outcome and demographic features or clinical data. Our results suggest that patients who underwent SCT in their childhood or adolescence are at risk of developing long-term emotional or social problems. Due to the retrospective design of our study and the small sample size, no predictive factors for psychosocial distress could be identified.

  10. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Follow-Up Study of Psychosocial Adjustment and Community Reintegration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T.; Whitfield, Theodore H.; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (ages 10-18; n = 156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the 2-year period of follow-up, youth who had wounded or killed…

  11. A Literature Review of the Psychosocial Development of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to examine existing models of psychosocial development of older adults especially framed around human mortality as a point of discussion that informs all aspects of human development in older adulthood. Well known, in addition to burgeoning, human psychosocial development models that considered older…

  12. Being out at school: the implications for school victimization and young adult adjustment.

    PubMed

    Russell, Stephen T; Toomey, Russell B; Ryan, Caitlin; Diaz, Rafael M

    2014-11-01

    Many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adolescents disclose their sexual and/or gender identities to peers at school. Disclosure of LGBT status is linked with positive psychosocial adjustment for adults; however, for adolescents, "coming out" has been linked to school victimization, which in turn is associated with negative adjustment. This study investigates the associations among adolescent disclosure of LGBT status to others at school, school victimization, and young adult psychosocial adjustment using a sample of 245 LGBT young adults (aged 21-25 years, living in California). After accounting for the association between school victimization and later adjustment, being out at high school was associated with positive psychosocial adjustment in young adulthood. Results have significant implications for training of school-based health and mental health providers, education and guidance for parents and caregivers, fostering positive development of LGBT youth, and developing informed school policies and educational practices.

  13. Being out at school: the implications for school victimization and young adult adjustment.

    PubMed

    Russell, Stephen T; Toomey, Russell B; Ryan, Caitlin; Diaz, Rafael M

    2014-11-01

    Many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adolescents disclose their sexual and/or gender identities to peers at school. Disclosure of LGBT status is linked with positive psychosocial adjustment for adults; however, for adolescents, "coming out" has been linked to school victimization, which in turn is associated with negative adjustment. This study investigates the associations among adolescent disclosure of LGBT status to others at school, school victimization, and young adult psychosocial adjustment using a sample of 245 LGBT young adults (aged 21-25 years, living in California). After accounting for the association between school victimization and later adjustment, being out at high school was associated with positive psychosocial adjustment in young adulthood. Results have significant implications for training of school-based health and mental health providers, education and guidance for parents and caregivers, fostering positive development of LGBT youth, and developing informed school policies and educational practices. PMID:25545431

  14. Measuring Acculturation Gap Conflicts among Hispanics: Implications for Psychosocial and Academic Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Basáñez, Tatiana; Dennis, Jessica M.; Crano, William; Stacy, Alan; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure and validity of the Acculturation Gap Conflicts Inventory (AGCI), a new instrument developed to measure the types of recurring conflicts that young people experience as part of the parent–child acculturation gap. Participants included 283 Hispanic young adults who completed the AGCI and existing measures of acculturation, family dynamics, psychosocial, and academic adjustment. Principal axis factor analysis revealed three factors with good internal consistency: Autonomy Conflicts, Conflicts over Preferred-Culture, and Dating/Being Out Late Conflicts. These factors correlated in the expected direction with acculturative stress and family dynamics variables. Autonomy Conflicts explained more than 25% of the variance in the acculturation gap conflicts items investigated, and this factor demonstrated incremental validity in predicting psychosocial and academic adjustment beyond the variance accounted for by other acculturative stress variables. The AGCI can be valuable to researchers from a variety of disciplines interested in measuring acculturation-related intergenerational conflicts among Hispanic youth that may be predictive of adjustment. PMID:26855464

  15. Interparental violence and children's long-term psychosocial adjustment: the mediating role of parenting practices.

    PubMed

    Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Almendros, Carmen; Carrobles, José Antonio; Muñoz-Rivas, Marina

    2012-03-01

    The objectives of this study were: (a) to examine the direct and indirect relationships among witnessing interparental violence, parenting practices, and children's long-term psychosocial adjustment; (b) to analyze the possible gender differences in the relationships specified. The sample consisted of 1295 Spanish university students (M age = 21.21, SD = 4.04). We performed statistical analyses using structural equation modeling. The results showed that witnessing parental violence as a child is related to poor long-term psychosocial adjustment during the child's adult years. Furthermore, we found that parenting practices fully mediated the relation between witnessing interparental violence and the child's long-term adjustment. The multigroup analyses showed that most of the relations among the variables did not differ significantly by gender. However, the relation between harsh discipline and antisocial behavior was stronger for males, whereas the relation between harsh discipline and depressive symptoms was stronger for females. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for the clinicians and specialists who plan and develop intervention programs for populations at risk. PMID:22379705

  16. Adult Children as Informants about Parents' Psychosocial Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Brian D.; Lee, Monica; Ruckdeschel, Katy; Van Haitsma, Kimberly S.; Feldman, Penny H.

    2006-01-01

    Utilizing data from 80 adult children-older parent dyads, this study examined the degree to which adult children could predict the psychosocial preferences of their older parents. Overall, children demonstrated good knowledge about parent preferences, although there was wide variability within the sample and across preference domains. Children…

  17. Beyond preadoptive risk: The impact of adoptive family environment on adopted youth's psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Ji, Juye; Brooks, Devon; Barth, Richard P; Kim, Hansung

    2010-07-01

    Adopted children often are exposed to preadoptive stressors--such as prenatal substance exposure, child maltreatment, and out-of-home placements--that increase their risks for psychosocial maladjustment. Psychosocial adjustment of adopted children emerges as the product of pre- and postadoptive factors. This study builds on previous research, which fails to simultaneously assess the influences of pre- and postadoptive factors, by examining the impact of adoptive family sense of coherence on adoptee's psychosocial adjustment beyond the effects of preadoptive risks. Using a sample of adoptive families (n = 385) taking part in the California Long Range Adoption Study, structural equation modeling analyses were performed. Results indicate a significant impact of family sense of coherence on adoptees' psychosocial adjustment and a considerably less significant role of preadoptive risks. The findings suggest the importance of assessing adoptive family's ability to respond to stress and of helping families to build and maintain their capacity to cope with stress despite the sometimes fractious pressures of adoption.

  18. Longitudinal Associations between Fathers' Heavy Drinking Patterns and Children's Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; O'Farrell, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    Psychosocial adjustment in children of alcoholics (N = 114) was examined in the year before and at three follow-ups in the 15 months after their alcoholic fathers entered alcoholism treatment, testing the hypothesis that children's adjustment problems will vary over time as a function of their fathers' heavy drinking patterns. Three unique…

  19. Which psychosocial factors best predict cognitive performance in older adults?

    PubMed

    Zahodne, Laura B; Nowinski, Cindy J; Gershon, Richard C; Manly, Jennifer J

    2014-05-01

    Negative affect (e.g., depression) is associated with accelerated age-related cognitive decline and heightened dementia risk. Fewer studies examine positive psychosocial factors (e.g., emotional support, self-efficacy) in cognitive aging. Preliminary reports suggest that these variables predict slower cognitive decline independent of negative affect. No reports have examined these factors in a single model to determine which best relate to cognition. Data from 482 individuals 55 and older came from the normative sample for the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function. Negative and positive psychosocial factors, executive functioning, working memory, processing speed, and episodic memory were measured with the NIH Toolbox Emotion and Cognition modules. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling characterized independent relations between psychosocial factors and cognition. Psychosocial variables loaded onto negative and positive factors. Independent of education, negative affect and health status, greater emotional support was associated with better task-switching and processing speed. Greater self-efficacy was associated with better working memory. Negative affect was not independently associated with any cognitive variables. Findings support the conceptual distinctness of negative and positive psychosocial factors in older adults. Emotional support and self-efficacy may be more closely tied to cognition than other psychosocial variables.

  20. Development of Food Safety Psychosocial Questionnaires for Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd-Bredbenner, C.; Wheatley, V.; Schaffner, D.; Bruhn, C.; Blalock, L.; Maurer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Food mishandling is thought to be more acute among young adults; yet little is known about why they may engage in risky food handling behaviors. The purpose of this study was to create valid, reliable instruments for assessing key food safety psychosocial measures. Development of the measures began by examining published studies and behavior…

  1. Is involvement in school bullying associated with general health and psychosocial adjustment outcomes in adulthood?

    PubMed

    Sigurdson, J F; Wallander, J; Sund, A M

    2014-10-01

    The aim was to examine prospectively associations between bullying involvement at 14-15 years of age and self-reported general health and psychosocial adjustment in young adulthood, at 26-27 years of age. A large representative sample (N=2,464) was recruited and assessed in two counties in Mid-Norway in 1998 (T1) and 1999/2000 (T2) when the respondents had a mean age of 13.7 and 14.9, respectively, leading to classification as being bullied, bully-victim, being aggressive toward others or non-involved. Information about general health and psychosocial adjustment was gathered at a follow-up in 2012 (T4) (N=1,266) with a respondent mean age of 27.2. Logistic regression and ANOVA analyses showed that groups involved in bullying of any type in adolescence had increased risk for lower education as young adults compared to those non-involved. The group aggressive toward others also had a higher risk of being unemployed and receiving any kind of social help. Compared with the non-involved, those being bullied and bully-victims had increased risk of poor general health and high levels of pain. Bully-victims and those aggressive toward others during adolescence subsequently had increased risk of tobacco use and lower job functioning than non-involved. Further, those being bullied and aggressive toward others had increased risk of illegal drug use. Relations to live-in spouse/partner were poorer among those being bullied. Involvement in bullying, either as victim or perpetrator, has significant social costs even 12 years after the bullying experience. Accordingly, it will be important to provide early intervention for those involved in bullying in adolescence.

  2. Is involvement in school bullying associated with general health and psychosocial adjustment outcomes in adulthood?

    PubMed

    Sigurdson, J F; Wallander, J; Sund, A M

    2014-10-01

    The aim was to examine prospectively associations between bullying involvement at 14-15 years of age and self-reported general health and psychosocial adjustment in young adulthood, at 26-27 years of age. A large representative sample (N=2,464) was recruited and assessed in two counties in Mid-Norway in 1998 (T1) and 1999/2000 (T2) when the respondents had a mean age of 13.7 and 14.9, respectively, leading to classification as being bullied, bully-victim, being aggressive toward others or non-involved. Information about general health and psychosocial adjustment was gathered at a follow-up in 2012 (T4) (N=1,266) with a respondent mean age of 27.2. Logistic regression and ANOVA analyses showed that groups involved in bullying of any type in adolescence had increased risk for lower education as young adults compared to those non-involved. The group aggressive toward others also had a higher risk of being unemployed and receiving any kind of social help. Compared with the non-involved, those being bullied and bully-victims had increased risk of poor general health and high levels of pain. Bully-victims and those aggressive toward others during adolescence subsequently had increased risk of tobacco use and lower job functioning than non-involved. Further, those being bullied and aggressive toward others had increased risk of illegal drug use. Relations to live-in spouse/partner were poorer among those being bullied. Involvement in bullying, either as victim or perpetrator, has significant social costs even 12 years after the bullying experience. Accordingly, it will be important to provide early intervention for those involved in bullying in adolescence. PMID:24972719

  3. Assessment of the Long-Term Benefits of Life Skills Programming on Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Ruby; Reddon, John R.; Hoglin, Brenda; Woodman, Mary-Ann

    2008-01-01

    The durability of the psychosocial benefits of Life Skills programming on outpatient adults with mental health/forensic issues was examined. Participants were 52 adults (28 males, 24 females) who completed 16 weeks of Life Skills at a psychiatric outpatient clinic and were re-assessed between six months and six years following treatment.…

  4. Psychosocial functioning in a group of Swedish adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Engström, I; Ekström, L; Emilsson, B

    2003-03-01

    This study reports on psychosocial functioning in Swedish adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA). A systematically selected sample of patients and relatives was interviewed concerning their psychosocial situation. The majority was living independently. All persons but one were unemployed. None was married and none had children. Only a few had some kind of partner. Most persons needed a high level of public and/or private support. The overall adjustment was rated good in 12 percent, fair in 75 percent and poor in 12 percent. Adult persons with AS/HFA have extensive need for support from their families and/or society. This information is important in order to provide adequate interventions that are in accordance with the expressed needs of the individuals themselves.

  5. Cross-lagged relations among parenting, children's emotion regulation, and psychosocial adjustment in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Otterpohl, Nantje; Wild, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported substantive correlations between indicators of parenting, children's emotion regulation (ER), and children's psychosocial adjustment. However, studies on underlying mechanisms are scarce. Particularly in early adolescence, it is still unclear whether relations between parenting and ER are caused by adolescent behavior, by parent behavior, or by reciprocal processes. Moreover, it is unclear whether ER can be seen as an antecedent or a consequence of psychosocial adjustment. The aim of this study was to examine predictive relations among parenting and adolescents' ER, and adolescents' ER and psychosocial adjustment, respectively. We collected longitudinal, multiple informant data at two measurement occasions (Grade 6, Grade 7). All told, 1,100 adolescents (10-14 years) and their parents filled out questionnaires assessing responsiveness and psychological control, adolescents' anger regulation, and adolescents' problem and prosocial behavior. Cross-lagged analyses revealed reciprocal effects between parenting, ER, and adjustment for the parent and boys', but not for the girls', report. Moreover, relations were different for adolescents with versus without clinically elevated symptoms of psychopathology. Our findings support the assumption that reciprocal relations between parenting, ER, and psychosocial adjustment are likely to persist until early adolescence. Nevertheless, the moderating role of gender and psychopathology should be taken into account. Possible reasons for the different findings, and practical implications, are discussed.

  6. Psychosocial Adjustment in School-age Girls With a Family History of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Angela R.; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Schwartz, Lisa; Egleston, Brian; Sands, Colleen Burke; Chung, Wendy K.; Glendon, Gord; McDonald, Jasmine A.; Moore, Cynthia; Rauch, Paula; Tuchman, Lisa; Andrulis, Irene L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Frost, Caren J.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Knight, Julia A.; Terry, Mary Beth; John, Esther M.; Daly, Mary B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Understanding how young girls respond to growing up with breast cancer family histories is critical given expansion of genetic testing and breast cancer messaging. We examined the impact of breast cancer family history on psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors among >800 girls in the multicenter LEGACY Girls Study. METHODS Girls aged 6 to 13 years with a family history of breast cancer or familial BRCA1/2 mutation (BCFH+), peers without a family history (BCFH−), and their biological mothers completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment (maternal report for 6- to 13-year-olds, self-report for 10- to 13-year-olds), breast cancer–specific distress, perceived risk of breast cancer, and health behaviors (10- to 13-year-olds). RESULTS BCFH+ girls had better general psychosocial adjustment than BCFH− peers by maternal report. Psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors did not differ significantly by self-report among 10- to 13-year-old girls. BCFH+ girls reported higher breast cancer–specific distress (P = .001) and were more likely to report themselves at increased breast cancer risk than BCFH− peers (38.4% vs 13.7%, P < .001), although many girls were unsure of their risk. In multivariable analyses, higher daughter anxiety was associated with higher maternal anxiety and poorer family communication. Higher daughter breast cancer–specific distress was associated with higher maternal breast cancer-specific distress. CONCLUSIONS Although growing up in a family at risk for breast cancer does not negatively affect general psychosocial adjustment among preadolescent girls, those from breast cancer risk families experience greater breast cancer–specific distress. Interventions to address daughter and mother breast cancer concerns and responses to genetic or familial risk might improve psychosocial outcomes of teen daughters. PMID:26482668

  7. Psychosocial adjustment of adolescent siblings of hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Packman, Wendy; Gong, Kimberly; VanZutphen, Kelly; Shaffer, Tani; Crittenden, Mary

    2004-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a widely practiced therapy for many life-threatening childhood disorders. The authors investigated the psychosocial effects of HSCT on siblings of pediatric HSCT patients (n = 44; 21 donors, 23 nondonors, ages 6 to 18 years). Donor siblings reported significantly more anxiety and lower self-esteem than did nondonors. Nondonors showed significantly more school problems. Approximately one third of all siblings reported moderate to severe posttraumatic stress. The study drew on the developmental theory of Erik Erikson and the psychosocial model of posttraumatic stress. As part of the study, the authors used the Measures of Psychosocial Development (MPD), a self-report measure based on Eriksonian constructs. The MPD was used to assess the psychosocial adjustment of 12 siblings who were adolescents (> or =13 years) at the time the study was conducted. In this article, findings are presented from the MPD as well as salient findings from the larger study.

  8. Psychosocial adjustment of adolescent siblings of hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Packman, Wendy; Gong, Kimberly; VanZutphen, Kelly; Shaffer, Tani; Crittenden, Mary

    2004-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a widely practiced therapy for many life-threatening childhood disorders. The authors investigated the psychosocial effects of HSCT on siblings of pediatric HSCT patients (n = 44; 21 donors, 23 nondonors, ages 6 to 18 years). Donor siblings reported significantly more anxiety and lower self-esteem than did nondonors. Nondonors showed significantly more school problems. Approximately one third of all siblings reported moderate to severe posttraumatic stress. The study drew on the developmental theory of Erik Erikson and the psychosocial model of posttraumatic stress. As part of the study, the authors used the Measures of Psychosocial Development (MPD), a self-report measure based on Eriksonian constructs. The MPD was used to assess the psychosocial adjustment of 12 siblings who were adolescents (> or =13 years) at the time the study was conducted. In this article, findings are presented from the MPD as well as salient findings from the larger study. PMID:15490868

  9. The Role of Parental and Extrafamilial Social Support in the Psychosocial Adjustment of Children with a Chronically Ill Father.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotchick, Beth A.; Summers, Peter; Forehand, Rex; Steele, Ric G.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the relation between social support and psychosocial adjustment in children of men with hemophilia. Results, based on 53 families, indicate that the impact of illness, not the severity of illness itself, related to children's psychosocial adjustment. Main effects were observed for parental support on child- and parent-reported…

  10. Parental Problem Drinking and Adolescent Psychosocial Adjustment: The Mediating Role of Adolescent-Parent Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relations between parental problem drinking, adolescent-parent communication, and adolescent psychosocial adjustment. Surveys were administered to a diverse sample of 683 15-17-years-old adolescents in the spring of 2007 and again in the spring of 2008. Results indicated that paternal problem drinking directly predicted…

  11. Curvilinear Associations between Benefit Finding and Psychosocial Adjustment to Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lechner, Suzanne C.; Carver, Charles S.; Antoni, Michael H.; Weaver, Kathryn E.; Phillips, Kristin M.

    2006-01-01

    Two previously studied cohorts of women with nonmetastatic breast cancer (Ns = 230 and 136) were reexamined. Participants were assessed during the year after surgery and 5-8 years later. Associations were examined between benefit finding (BF) and several indicators of psychosocial adjustment (e.g., perceived quality of life, positive affect,…

  12. Being Bullied and Psychosocial Adjustment among Middle School Students in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yulan; Newman, Ian M.; Qu, Ming; Mbulo, Lazarous; Chai, Yan; Chen, Yan; Shell, Duane F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Using the Chinese version of the Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS), this article describes the prevalence of being bullied among a nationally representative sample of Chinese students in grades 6-10 and explores the relationships between being bullied and selected indicators of psychosocial adjustment. Methods: A total of 9015…

  13. Classroom Behavior and Psychosocial Adjustment of Single- and Two-Parent Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Edythe

    This study compared the psychosocial adjustment and social behavior of children from divorced or separated single-parent families with that of children from two-parent families. The theory of attachment was adopted as the conceptual framework for the study because of similarities between the behavioral response of children to parental separation…

  14. Thriving, Managing, and Struggling: A Mixed Methods Study of Adolescent African Refugees’ Psychosocial Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Weine, Stevan Merrill; Ware, Norma; Tugenberg, Toni; Hakizimana, Leonce; Dahnweih, Gonwo; Currie, Madeleine; Wagner, Maureen; Levin, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this mixed method study was to characterize the patterns of psychosocial adjustment among adolescent African refugees in U.S. resettlement. Methods A purposive sample of 73 recently resettled refugee adolescents from Burundi and Liberia were followed for two years and qualitative and quantitative data was analyzed using a mixed methods exploratory design. Results Protective resources identified were the family and community capacities that can promote youth psychosocial adjustment through: 1) Finances for necessities; 2) English proficiency; 3) Social support networks; 4) Engaged parenting; 5) Family cohesion; 6) Cultural adherence and guidance; 7) Educational support; and, 8) Faith and religious involvement. The researchers first inductively identified 19 thriving, 29 managing, and 25 struggling youths based on review of cases. Univariate analyses then indicated significant associations with country of origin, parental education, and parental employment. Multiple regressions indicated that better psychosocial adjustment was associated with Liberians and living with both parents. Logistic regressions showed that thriving was associated with Liberians and higher parental education, managing with more parental education, and struggling with Burundians and living parents. Qualitative analysis identified how these factors were proxy indicators for protective resources in families and communities. Conclusion These three trajectories of psychosocial adjustment and six domains of protective resources could assist in developing targeted prevention programs and policies for refugee youth. Further rigorous longitudinal mixed-methods study of adolescent refugees in U.S. resettlement are needed. PMID:24205467

  15. The Potential Role of Conflict Resolution Schemas in Adolescent Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jutengren, Goran; Palmerus, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Four specific schemas of cognitive structures that adolescents may hold concerning interpersonal disagreements with their parents were identified, each reflecting an authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or a neglecting parenting style. To examine the occurrence of such schemas across high and low levels of psychosocial adjustment, 120 Swedish…

  16. Psychosocial Adjustment and Life Satisfaction until 5 Years after Severe Brain Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorbo, Ann K.; Blomqvist, Maritha; Emanuelsson, Ingrid M.; Rydenhag, Bertil

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe psychosocial adjustment and outcome over time for severely brain-injured patients and to find suitable outcome measures for clinical practice during the rehabilitation process and for individual rehabilitation planning after discharge from hospital. The methods include a descriptive, prospective,…

  17. Social Capital in Promoting the Psychosocial Adjustment of Chinese Migrant Children: Interaction across Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Qiaobing; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; He, Xuesong

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon a sample of 772 migrant children and their parents in Shanghai, China, this study investigated how the interactions of social capital embedded in a range of social contexts (i.e., family, school, peer, and community) influenced the psychosocial adjustment of Chinese migrant children. Results of multiple-group structural equation…

  18. Family Relationships and the Psychosocial Adjustment of School-Aged Children in Intact Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakvoort, Esther M.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Van Balen, Frank; Hermanns, Jo M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the quality of three family relationships (i.e., marital, parent-child, sibling) in intact families are associated with each other and with children's psychosocial adjustment. Data were collected by means of maternal and child reports (N = 88) using standardized instruments (i.e., Marital Satisfaction Scale,…

  19. Catastrophe, Chaos, and Complexity Models and Psychosocial Adjustment to Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Randall M.; Schaller, James; Hansmann, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Rehabilitation professionals may unknowingly rely on stereotypes and specious beliefs when dealing with people with disabilities, despite the formulation of theories that suggest new models of the adjustment process. Suggests that Catastrophe, Chaos, and Complexity Theories hold considerable promise in this regard. This article reviews these…

  20. Psychosocial Adjustment to Unsuccessful IVF and GIFT Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Susan M.; Clifford, Ellen; Hay, Douglas M.; Robinson, John

    1997-01-01

    Couples for whom in vitro fertilization (IVF) or gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) treatment failed (N=20) were followed up and compared with successful couples. Current mental-health status, quality of life, and marital adjustment were assessed via questionnaires; experiences were explored by interview. Results and recommendations for…

  1. Psychosocial adjustment in children of mothers with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hoke, L A

    2001-01-01

    Thirty-five children of 28 mothers diagnosed with breast cancer during the previous year were compared to 34 children of 24 mothers with recent benign breast biopsies. Mothers and children, ages 8-16, completed questionnaires about mood, behavior problems and social functioning to assess whether children of mothers with breast cancer were at increased risk for adjustment problems. Significant differences were not found between children in the breast cancer group and the comparison group on any of the measures, even though mothers with breast cancer reported more psychological distress than mothers with benign biopsies. In addition, children in both groups were functioning better than normative samples on some adjustment measures. Variables measuring the mother's illness and treatment were not significantly related to children's adjustment in the breast cancer group. Findings suggested that some adolescents whose mothers had breast cancer did better in social and academic activities when their mothers were more distressed, while adolescents whose mothers had benign biopsies did less well when their mothers were distressed. The study's small sample size limits conclusions that can be drawn; however, clinical and research implications are discussed, given other reports that some children of parents with cancer may experience adjustment problems.

  2. Psychosocial stressors and adjustment disorder: van Gogh's life chart illustrates stress and disease.

    PubMed

    Rahe, R H

    1990-11-01

    The life of Vincent van Gogh is illustrative of the natural history of psychosocial stressors and their relationship to a person's states of health and disease. In the author's opinion, there is a lack of such understanding in the current, established criteria for psychosocial stressors in the diagnosis of adjustment disorder. By use of a life chart, which chronologically documents a person's major life events and concomitant health status over his or her life span, a fuller understanding can be reached regarding why an individual becomes ill at a particular time.

  3. Sense of humor, childhood cancer stressors, and outcomes of psychosocial adjustment, immune function, and infection.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Jacqueline S; Hockenberry, Marilyn; Gregory, Richard L

    2003-01-01

    The diagnosis, treatment, and side effects of childhood cancer have been described as extremely stressful experiences in the life of a child. Anecdotally, children report that a sense of humor helps them cope with the daily experiences of living with cancer; however, no research has examined sense of humor and childhood cancer stressors. This study investigated the effect of sense of humor on the relationship between cancer stressors and children's psychosocial adjustment to cancer, immune function, and infection using Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress, appraisal, and coping. A direct relationship was observed between sense of humor and psychosocial adjustment to cancer, such that children with a high sense of humor had greater psychological adjustment, regardless of the amount of cancer stressors. A moderating effect was observed for incidence of infection. As childhood cancer stressors increase, children with high coping humor scores reported fewer incidences of infection than low scorers.

  4. The psychosocial effects of adult strabismus: a review.

    PubMed

    Durnian, Jonathan M; Noonan, Carmel P; Marsh, Ian B

    2011-04-01

    Correction of adult strabismus is not a cosmetic procedure but one that restores normality to an individual's appearance that has been altered by a disease process. Two fundamental principles underpinning facial attractiveness are symmetry and averageness-manifest strabismus affects both of these giving an unconscious signal of poor genetic history. The presence of manifest strabismus adversely affects many aspects of patients' lives including finding a partner, job prospects and interaction with peers, and may manifest more seriously as psychiatric disorders. Surgical correction has been shown to be safe and effective for the functional problems of strabismus in adults but the hugely positive effects on the psychosocial aspects are only now becoming apparent. The advent of a new adult strabismus specific quality-of-life questionnaire and its subsequent validation will make this quantification of improvement easier. The wider medical community and the public at large should be made aware of the benefits of corrective strabismus surgery in adults. PMID:20852320

  5. Executive function and psychosocial adjustment in healthy children and adolescents: A latent variable modelling investigation.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Adam R

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish latent executive function (EF) and psychosocial adjustment factor structure, to examine associations between EF and psychosocial adjustment, and to explore potential development differences in EF-psychosocial adjustment associations in healthy children and adolescents. Using data from the multisite National Institutes of Health (NIH) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Study of Normal Brain Development, the current investigation examined latent associations between theoretically and empirically derived EF factors and emotional and behavioral adjustment measures in a large, nationally representative sample of children and adolescents (7-18 years old; N = 352). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was the primary method of data analysis. CFA results revealed that, in the whole sample, the proposed five-factor model (Working Memory, Shifting, Verbal Fluency, Externalizing, and Internalizing) provided a close fit to the data, χ(2)(66) = 114.48, p < .001; RMSEA = .046; NNFI = .973; CFI = .980. Significant negative associations were demonstrated between Externalizing and both Working Memory and Verbal Fluency (p < .01) factors. A series of increasingly restrictive tests led to the rejection of the hypothesis of invariance, thereby precluding formal statistical examination of age-related differences in latent EF-psychosocial adjustment associations. Findings indicate that childhood EF skills are best conceptualized as a constellation of interconnected yet distinguishable cognitive self-regulatory skills. Individual differences in certain domains of EF track meaningfully and in expected directions with emotional and behavioral adjustment indices. Externalizing behaviors, in particular, are associated with latent Working Memory and Verbal Fluency factors. PMID:25569593

  6. Effects of emotional support-focused nursing interventions on the psychosocial adjustment of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Gümüs, Aysun Babacan; Cam, Olcay

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to examine the effect of emotional support-focused nursing interventions on the psychosocial adjustment of breast cancer patients. The research was conducted in the Radiation Oncology Department of Ege University Medical Faculty Hospital and at Talay Aktas Oncology Hospital in Turkey. There were 30 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients included in the sample. Emotional support-focused nursing interventions were administered in seven sessions individually with each patient. A total of 210 hours of meetings with the patients were conducted. Data were collected by administering a pre-test and post-test in two phases with the patients using a Descriptive Information Form and the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale - Self Report (PAIS-SR). The patients mean age was 44.5 (SD=6.38) years and the mean duration of illness was 6.46 (SD=1.99) months. In the comparison of the PAIS-SR pretest and post-test mean scores it was determined that there was a significant increase in patients adaptation to health care orientation (p=0.001), domestic environment (p<0.01), sexual relationships (p<0.05), extended family relationships (p<0.001) and social environment (p<0.001), and a significant decrease in psychological distress (p<0.001). However, there was no change in patients vocational adjustment (p<0.05). According to these findings emotional support-focused nursing interventions had a part in increasing patients psychosocial adjustment. PMID:19256761

  7. Welfare status and psychosocial adjustment among 100 Hmong refugees.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, J; Callies, A; Neider, J

    1990-05-01

    Although the mental health of recently employed persons has been well studied, the mental health of welfare recipients is not well understood. Among our increasing refugee population, many receive welfare benefits at some point. The Hmong are among those who are highly represented among welfare recipients in several areas of the United States. Do psychiatrists have anything to contribute toward the resolution of high welfare rates? This question is especially relevant in refugee populations who are at increased risk for several psychiatric disorders, including depression, paranoia, and adjustment disorders. This study was undertaken among 100 Hmong refugees who had been in the United States for 8 years. Indices of mental health included two rating scales (the Zung Depression Scale and the SCL-90), five-axis DSM-III diagnoses, Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Scales, Global Assessment Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Inpatient Multidimensional Scale, and Mini-Mental State Exam. These indices were compared with current welfare status and the duration of time on welfare. Other comparisons with welfare included demographic characteristics, material possessions, acculturation characteristics, health and social problems, and nonoccupation avocations. Results indicate that welfare recipients show lower acculturation and elevated psychiatric symptom levels. Suggestions for ameliorating this situation are extrapolated from studies in the literature on chronically unemployed persons.

  8. Sierra Leone's former child soldiers: a follow-up study of psychosocial adjustment and community reintegration.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T; Whitfield, Theodore H; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E

    2010-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (ages 10-18; n = 156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the 2-year period of follow-up, youth who had wounded or killed others during the war demonstrated increases in hostility. Youth who survived rape not only had higher levels of anxiety and hostility but also demonstrated greater confidence and prosocial attitudes at follow-up. Of the potential protective resources examined, improved community acceptance was associated with reduced depression at follow-up and improved confidence and prosocial attitudes regardless of levels of violence exposure. Retention in school was also associated with greater prosocial attitudes.

  9. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Follow-up Study of Psychosocial Adjustment and Community Reintegration

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T.; Whitfield, T. Hatch; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (n=156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the two-year period of follow up, youth who had wounded or killed others during the war demonstrated increases in hostility. Youth who survived rape had higher levels of anxiety and hostility, but also demonstrated greater confidence and prosocial attitudes at follow up. Of the potential protective resources examined, improved community acceptance was associated with reduced depression at follow up and improved confidence and prosocial attitudes regardless of levels of violence exposure. Retention in school was also associated with greater prosocial attitudes. PMID:20636683

  10. Chronic psychosocial stressors and salivary biomarkers in emerging adults

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, Andrew W.; Mallick, Aditi; Nishita, Denise; Wei, Xin; Michel, Martha; Wacholder, Aaron; David, Sean P.; Swan, Gary E.; Reid, Mark W.; Simons, Anne; Andrews, Judy A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary We investigated whole saliva as a source of biomarkers to distinguish individuals who have, and who have not, been chronically exposed to severe and threatening life difficulties. We evaluated RNA and DNA metrics, expression of 37 candidate genes, and cortisol release in response to the Trier Social Stress Test, as well as clinical characteristics, from 48 individuals stratified on chronic exposure to psychosocial stressors within the last year as measured by the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule. Candidate genes were selected based on their differential gene expression ratio in circulating monocytes from a published genome-wide analysis of adults experiencing different levels of exposure to a chronic stressor. In univariate analyses, we observed significantly decreased RNA integrity (RIN) score (P = 0.04), and reduced expression of glucocorticoid receptor-regulated genes (Ps < 0.05) in whole saliva RNA from individuals exposed to chronic stressors, as compared to those with no exposure. In those exposed, we observed significantly decreased BMI (P < 0.001), increased ever-smoking and increased lifetime alcohol abuse or dependence (P ≤ 0.03), and a reduction of cortisol release. In post hoc multivariate analyses including clinical and biospecimen-derived variables, we consistently observed significantly decreased expression of IL8 (Ps < 0.05) in individuals exposed, with no significant association to RIN score. Alcohol use disorders, tobacco use, a reduced acute stress response and decreased salivary IL8 gene expression characterize emerging adults chronically exposed to severe and threatening psychosocial stressors. PMID:22172638

  11. Family relationships and the psychosocial adjustment of school-aged children in intact families.

    PubMed

    Hakvoort, Esther M; Bos, Henny M W; van Balen, Frank; Hermanns, Jo M A

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the quality of three family relationships (i.e., marital, parent-child, sibling) in intact families are associated with each other and with children's psychosocial adjustment. Data were collected by means of maternal and child reports (N = 88) using standardized instruments (i.e., Marital Satisfaction Scale, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). The findings confirm associations between the marital and the parent-child relationship, and between the parent-child and the sibling relationship, Further, both father-child relationships and sibling relationships predict children's adjustment. Father-child conflicts contribute to children's problem behavior, while father-child acceptance and sibling affection contribute significantly to children's general self-esteem. However, contrary to previous studies no support was found for the association between marital relationship and sibling relationship, or for that between marital relationship quality and children's adjustment.

  12. Psycho-Trauma, Psychosocial Adjustment, and Symptomatic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Internally Displaced Persons in Kaduna, Northwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Taiwo Lateef; Mohammed, Abdulaziz; Agunbiade, Samuel; Ike, Joseph; Ebiti, William N.; Adekeye, Oluwatosin

    2014-01-01

    Background: In April 2011, a post election violent conflict in Northern Nigeria led to resettlement of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in a camp in Kaduna, the worst affected state. We set out to determine prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among IDPs. We also determined types of psycho-trauma experienced by the IDPs and their psychosocial adjustment. Methods: Cross-sectional systematic random sampling was used to select 258 adults IDPs. We used Harvard trauma questionnaire to diagnose “symptomatic PTSD,” composite international diagnostic interview (CIDI) for diagnosis of depression, and communal trauma event inventory to determine exposure to psycho-trauma. We assessed social adjustment using social provision scale. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent predictors of PTSD. Results: Of the 258 IDPs, 109 (42.2%) had a diagnosis of PTSD, 204 (79.1%) had poor living conditions, and only 12 (4.7%) had poor social provision. The most frequent psycho-traumas were destruction of personal property (96.1%), been evacuated from their town (96%) and witnessing violence (88%). More than half (58%) of IDPs had experienced 11–15 of the 19 traumatic events. Independent predictors of PTSD among respondents were having a CIDI diagnosis of depression (adjusted odds ratios 3.5, 95% confidence interval 1.7–7.5; p = 0.001) and witnessing death of a family member (3.7, 1.2–11.5; p = 0.0259). Conclusion: We concluded that exposure to psycho-trauma among IDPs in Kaduna led to post conflict PTSD. Death of a family member and co-morbid depression were independent predictors of PTSD among IDPs. Though their living condition was poor, the IDPs had good psychosocial adjustment. We recommended a structured psychosocial intervention among the IDP targeted at improving living condition and dealing with the psychological consequences of psycho-trauma. PMID:25309461

  13. Belonging and connection to school in resettlement: young refugees, school belonging, and psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Kia-Keating, Maryam; Ellis, B Heidi

    2007-01-01

    Schools are one of the first and most influential service systems for young refugees. There is a burgeoning interest in developing school-based refugee mental health services, in part to reduce stigma and increase treatment access for this population. Despite the relevance of gaining a better understanding of how refugee students experience schools in resettlement and how this relates to psychosocial adjustment, belonging and connection to school have not been previously investigated among a population of resettled refugees. This study examines school belonging and psychosocial adjustment among a sample of 76 Somali adolescents resettled in the United States. A greater sense of school belonging was associated with lower depression and higher self-efficacy, regardless of the level of past exposure to adversities. Notably, more than one-quarter of the variation in self-efficacy was explained uniquely by a sense of school belonging. School belonging was not significantly associated with posttraumatic stress symptom severity and did not moderate the effect of exposure to adversities on psychological adjustment. These results suggest that investigating ways of improving school experiences would be particularly useful in the effort towards continued development of school-based mental health programs for young refugees. PMID:17375808

  14. Early adolescents' psychosocial adjustment and weight status change: the moderating roles of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yiting; Halgunseth, Linda C

    2015-04-01

    According to many public health experts, obesity is the most serious health threat facing today's early adolescents. This study examined the relationship between psychosocial adjustment (i.e., internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, interpersonal skills) and weight status change during early adolescence and possible moderating roles of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation. Data came from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a US nationally representative sample of children who entered kindergarten during 1998-1999 and were followed through eighth grade. The current study was initiated in the fifth grade (n = 6,860; 51 % female). At fifth grade, parents reported on household routines; children and teachers reported on indicators of psychosocial adjustment. At fifth and eighth grade, children's weight was measured. Girls' weight status stability and change was more likely than boys' to be associated with psychosocial adjustment, after accounting for household/child routines and demographic variables. Compared to non-Hispanic White, Hispanic girls who exhibited higher levels of externalizing behaviors at fifth grade were more likely to become or stay obese at eighth grade. Hispanic girls who exhibited higher levels of internalizing behaviors at fifth grade were more likely to become or stay at a healthy weight at eighth grade, especially if they reported lower levels of acculturation. Lastly, African American girls with better interpersonal skills at fifth grade were more likely to stay obese at eighth grade. Implications for obesity prevention programs with early adolescents are discussed in the contexts of gender, ethnicity and acculturation.

  15. Adult psychosocial outcomes of children with specific language impairment, pragmatic language impairment and autism

    PubMed Central

    Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Watt, Helen J; Line, E A; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2009-01-01

    Background: The few studies that have tracked children with developmental language disorder to adulthood have found that these individuals experience considerable difficulties with psychosocial adjustment (for example, academic, vocational and social aptitude). Evidence that some children also develop autistic symptomatology over time has raised suggestions that developmental language disorder may be a high-functioning form of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It is not yet clear whether these outcomes vary between individuals with different subtypes of language impairment. Aims: To compare the adult psychosocial outcomes of children with specific language impairment (SLI), pragmatic language impairment (PLI) and ASD. Methods & Procedures: All participants took part in research as children. In total, there were 19 young adults with a childhood history of Specific Language Impairment (M age = 24;8), seven with PLI (M age = 22;3), 11 with high functioning ASD (M age = 21;9) and 12 adults with no history of developmental disorder (Typical; n = 12; M age = 21;6). At follow-up, participants and their parents were interviewed to elicit information about psychosocial outcomes. Outcomes & Results: Participants in the SLI group were most likely to pursue vocational training and work in jobs not requiring a high level of language/literacy ability. The PLI group tended to obtain higher levels of education and work in ‘skilled’ professions. The ASD participants had lower levels of independence and more difficulty obtaining employment than the PLI and SLI participants. All groups had problems establishing social relationships, but these difficulties were most prominent in the PLI and ASD groups. A small number of participants in each group were found to experience affective disturbances. The PLI and SLI groups showed lower levels of autistic symptomatology than the ASD group. Conclusions & Implications: The between-group differences in autistic symptomatology provide

  16. Influence of Kinship Social Support on the Parenting Experiences and Psychosocial Adjustment of African-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald D.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Questionnaires assessed kinship support, psychosocial adjustment, and parenting practices for 125 African-American adolescents. Found that kinship support for adolescents was positively associated with adolescent adjustment and authoritative parenting practices in single- but not two-parent families and that parenting practices mediated the…

  17. Bullying Behaviors Among US Youth: Prevalence and Association With Psychosocial Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Nansel, Tonja R.; Overpeck, Mary; Pilla, Ramani S.; Ruan, W. June; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Scheidt, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Context Although violence among US youth is a current major concern, bullying is infrequently addressed and no national data on the prevalence of bullying are available. Objectives To measure the prevalence of bullying behaviors among US youth and to determine the association of bullying and being bullied with indicators of psychosocial adjustment, including problem behavior, school adjustment, social/emotional adjustment, and parenting. Design, Setting, and Participants Analysis of data from a representative sample of 15686 students in grades 6 through 10 in public and private schools throughout the United States who completed the World Health Organization’s Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey during the spring of 1998. Main Outcome Measure Self-report of involvement in bullying and being bullied by others. Results A total of 29.9% of the sample reported moderate or frequent involvement in bullying, as a bully (13.0%), one who was bullied (10.6%), or both (6.3%). Males were more likely than females to be both perpetrators and targets of bullying. The frequency of bullying was higher among 6th- through 8th-grade students than among 9th- and 10th-grade students. Perpetrating and experiencing bullying were associated with poorer psychosocial adjustment (P<.001); however, different patterns of association occurred among bullies, those bullied, and those who both bullied others and were bullied themselves. Conclusions The prevalence of bullying among US youth is substantial. Given the concurrent behavioral and emotional difficulties associated with bullying, as well as the potential long-term negative outcomes for these youth, the issue of bullying merits serious attention, both for future research and preventive intervention. PMID:11311098

  18. A Systematic Review of Psychosocial Interventions for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Minshew, Nancy J.; Eack, Shaun M.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) spend the majority of their lives as adults, and psychosocial interventions show promise for improving outcomes in this population. This research conducted a systematic review of all peer-review studies evaluating psychosocial interventions for adults with ASD. A total of 1217 studies were reviewed, only 13 met inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were single case studies or non-randomized controlled trials, and most focused on applied behavior analysis or social cognition training. Effects of psychosocial treatment in adult ASD were largely positive ranging from d = .14 to 3.59, although the quantity and quality of studies is limited. There is substantial need for the rigorous development and evaluation of psychosocial treatments for adults with ASD. PMID:22825929

  19. Psychosocial Correlates of Sunburn among Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn J.; Darlow,  Susan; Cohen-Filipic,  Jessye; Kloss,  Jacqueline D.; Munshi,  Teja; Perlis,  Clifford S.

    2012-01-01

    Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement), lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that young women who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk young women in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ. PMID:22829801

  20. Psychosocial correlates of sunburn among young adult women.

    PubMed

    Heckman, Carolyn J; Darlow, Susan; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Kloss, Jacqueline D; Manne, Sharon L; Munshi, Teja; Perlis, Clifford S

    2012-06-01

    Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement), lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that young women who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk young women in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ.

  1. Psychosocial adjustment of low-income African American youth from single mother homes: the role of the youth-coparent relationship.

    PubMed

    Sterrett, Emma M; Jones, Deborah J; Kincaid, Carlye

    2009-05-01

    African American youth from single mother homes are at greater risk for internalizing and externalizing problems relative to their peers from two-parent homes. Although the predominance of psychosocial research on these youth has focused on maternal parenting and mother-child relationship quality, far less attention has been devoted to the quality of the relationships that youth have with "nonmarital coparents," or other adults and family members who assist African American single mothers with childrearing. This study examined the contribution of the youth-coparent relationship to psychosocial adjustment among African American youth from single mother families (n = 141). Findings revealed that maternal parenting and youth-coparent relationship quality interacted to predict both youth internalizing and externalizing problems. Specifically, greater youth-coparent relationship quality enhanced the protective role of maternal positive parenting. Findings suggest the potential role of broader familial and social contexts for enhancing the protective effects of positive parenting.

  2. Evaluating a theory of stress and adjustment when predicting long-term psychosocial outcome after brain injury.

    PubMed

    Rutterford, Neil A; Wood, Rodger L

    2006-05-01

    Kendall and Terry (1996) include many psychosocial predictors in their theoretical model that explains individual differences in psychosocial adjustment (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). The model depicts appraisal and coping variables as mediating relationships between situation factors, environmental and personal resources, and multidimensional outcome. The aim of this study was to explore these theoretical relationships at very late stages of recovery from traumatic brain injury. A total of 131 participants who were more than 10 years post-injury (mean = 15.31 years) completed several psychosocial measures relating to outcome dimensions comprising employment, community integration, life satisfaction, quality of life (QoL), and emotion. There was no evidence that appraisal and coping variables mediated relationships between psychosocial and any of the outcome variables. However, when appraisal and coping variables were combined with psychosocial variables as direct predictors of outcome, every outcome except employment status was reliably predicted, accounting for between 31 and 46% of the variance. Personality significantly influenced all predicted outcomes. Self-efficacy contributed to the prediction of all outcomes except QoL. Data did not support for the theory of stress and adjustment as a framework for explaining the nature of predictive relationships between psychosocial variables and very long-term, multidimensional outcome after brain injury.

  3. Psychosocial and Family Functioning in Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Devine, Katie A.

    2010-01-01

    A developmentally oriented bio-neuropsychosocial model is introduced to explain the variation in family functioning and psychosocial adjustment in youth and young adults with spina bifida (SB). Research on the family functioning and psychosocial adjustment of individuals with SB is reviewed. The findings of past research on families of youth with…

  4. Violence and Victimization During Incarceration: Relations to Psychosocial Adjustment During Reentry to the Community.

    PubMed

    Schappell, Ashley; Docherty, Meagan; Boxer, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed male ex-offenders (N = 100) about their experiences during and prior to incarceration to assess the role of these factors in psychosocial adjustment postrelease. Participants completed measures of preincarceration mental health problems and severe victimization and feelings of safety during incarceration; they also self-reported emotional distress, antisocial behavior, and posttraumatic stress (PTS). Moderator analyses of PTS outcomes revealed two key interactions between preincarceration mental health problems and severe victimization during incarceration as well as preincarceration mental health problems by feelings of safety during incarceration. In those without preincarceration mental health problems, victimization and PTS were significantly positively related; this was not the case for those with preexisting mental problems. Furthermore, the positive relation between feeling unsafe and PTS was stronger among those with preexisting mental problems. Findings are discussed with respect to implications for reentry services. PMID:26830297

  5. Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescents Who Have Used Cochlear Implants Since Preschool

    PubMed Central

    Moog, Jean S.; Geers, Ann E.; Gustus, Chris; Brenner, Chris

    2011-01-01

    . Identification with the hearing world was not associated with personal or social adjustment problems but was associated with better speech perception and English language skill. Ninety-four percent were active participants in high school activities and sports, and 50% held part-time jobs (a rate similar to that documented for hearing teens). Conclusions The majority of these early-implanted adolescents reported strong social skills, high self-esteem, and at least mixed identification with the hearing world. However, these results must be viewed in light of possible sources of sample selection bias and may not represent the psychosocial characteristics of the entire population of children receiving CIs. PMID:21832891

  6. Tracking Psychosocial Health in Adults with Epilepsy—Estimates from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kobau, R; Cui, W; Kadima, N; Zack, MM; Sajatovic, M; Kaiboriboon, K; Jobst, B

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study provides population-based estimates of psychosocial health among U.S. adults with epilepsy from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Methods Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the prevalence of the following measures of psychosocial health among adults with and those without epilepsy: 1) the Kessler-6 scale of Serious Psychological Distress; 2) cognitive limitation; the extent of impairments associated with psychological problems; and work limitation; 3) Social participation; and 4) the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System Global Health scale. Results Compared with adults without epilepsy, adults with epilepsy, especially those with active epilepsy, reported significantly worse psychological health, more cognitive impairment, difficulty in participating in some social activities, and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Conclusions These disparities in psychosocial health in U.S. adults with epilepsy serve as baseline national estimates of their HRQOL, consistent with Healthy People 2020 national objectives on HRQOL. PMID:25305435

  7. Perceptions of Maternal and Paternal Attachment Security in Middle Childhood: Links with Positive Parental Affection and Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michiels, D.; Grietens, H.; Onghena, P.; Kuppens, S.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at determining whether paternal parenting behaviours (attachment and positive affection) added significant information on children's psychosocial adjustment beyond that provided by maternal reports. Five hundred and fifty-two children (fourth through sixth graders) from a non-clinical sample completed a brief measure of perceived…

  8. Comparing Psychosocial Adjustment across the College Transition in a Matched Heterosexual and Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsch, Alexandra C.; Conley, Colleen S.; Riley, Tracey J.

    2015-01-01

    We compared a matched sample of heterosexual and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students on 5 psychosocial adjustment composites, longitudinally across the transitional first year of college. Both LGB and heterosexual students experienced a significant increase in psychological distress over the first semester, along with significant decreases…

  9. Trajectories of Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescents with Spina Bifida: A 6-Year, Four-Wave Longitudinal Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; DeLucia, Christian; Essner, Bonnie; Kelly, Lauren; Zebracki, Kathy; Friedman, Deborah; Jandasek, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objective: As a follow-up to an earlier cross-sectional study (Holmbeck et al., 2003), the current multimethod, multi-informant investigation examined individual growth in psychosocial adjustment across the adolescent transition in 2 samples: young adolescents with spina bifida (SB) and typically developing adolescents (N = 68 in both groups at…

  10. Role of Family Resources and Paternal History of Substance Use Problems in Psychosocial Adjustment among School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the role of family resources (parenting style and family cohesion) and paternal history of substance abuse on the psychosocial adjustment of their school-aged children. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 (72 of fathers with history of substance use disorder, 76 children of fathers with no substance use…

  11. The Psychosocial Adjustment of African American Youth from Single Mother Homes: The Relative Contribution of Parents and Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chester, Charlene; Jones, Deborah J.; Zalot, Alecia; Sterrett, Emma

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relative roles of parents and peers in the psychosocial adjustment of African American youth (7-15 years old) from single mother homes (N = 242). Main effects of both positive parenting and peer relationship quality were found for youth depressive symptoms. In addition, a main effect of peer relationship quality and an…

  12. Psycho-Social Adjustment in an Indian Boarding School, September 1, 1963 - August 31, 1964. Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Highlands Univ., Las Vegas.

    The procedures and setting for the establishment of a psycho-social adjustment program in the Bureau of Indian Affairs Albuquerque Indian School are described. Particular attention is given to the formal organization of the school and to other agencies having functional relationships with the school, since these factors and the physical location…

  13. New Prof Omeje Pornography Addiction as Correlate of Psychosocial and Academic Adjustment of Students in Universities in Lagos State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohuakanwa, Chijioke Ephraim; Omeje, Joachim Chinweike; Eskay, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The study sought to investigate the relationship between pornography addiction and psychosocial and academic adjustment of students in universities in Lagos State. In order to achieve this objective, five research questions were formulated and two hypotheses postulated. The subjects for the study consisted of 616 full-time third-year undergraduate…

  14. Psychosocial adjustment in siblings of young people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Read, Joy; Kinali, Maria; Muntoni, Francesco; Garralda, M Elena

    2010-07-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive, impairing, life-limiting disorder of childhood. Little is known about how siblings adapt to this. The aim of this study is to document psychosocial adjustment in siblings of patients with DMD. Healthy siblings (11-18 years old) of young people with DMD attending a specialist paediatric centre and their parent/main carer took part. Parents, siblings and teachers completed a battery of questionnaires: (i) to assess psychiatric risk the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); (ii) to measure general wellbeing: SF-36; (iii) to document DMD illness disability: Functional Disability Inventory (FDI); (iv) to assess family function and life stresses for the unaffected sibling: Family Assessment Device (FAD), Family Burden Interview Schedule and Life Events Checklist. Forty six/77 eligible siblings (24 females/22 males); (mean age 14 years (SD 2.3)) took part. Although their mean psychological functioning and wellbeing questionnaire scores were comparable to normative data, there was a trend for more siblings scoring at high-risk for psychological (mainly emotional) problems. Weak/moderate associations with psychological symptoms in siblings varied according to informant and included the following factors: closeness in age to the affected sibling; older sibling age; extent of wheelchair use, burden of illness on family interactions, and siblings reporting high impact of illness on their lives. Psychological symptoms were also associated with less sibling involvement in patient care, with broader psychosocial and family disadvantage and with life stresses. Siblings have an increased risk for emotional problems, which appears influenced by specific illness factors.

  15. Psychosocial adjustment in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus infected or exposed children – a Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Zalwango, Sarah K; Kizza, Florence N; Nkwata, Allan K; Sekandi, Juliet N; Kakaire, Robert; Kiwanuka, Noah; Whalen, Christopher C; Ezeamama, Amara E

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether perinatal HIV infection and exposure adversely affected psychosocial adjustment (PA) between 6 and 18 years of life (i.e. during school-age and adolescence). Methods We enrolled 58 perinatally HIV-infected, 56 HIV-exposed uninfected and 54 unexposed controls from Kampala, Uganda. Perinatal HIV status was determined by 18 months of age using a DNA-polymerase chain-reaction test and was confirmed via HIV rapid diagnostic test at psychosocial testing when the children were 6 to 18 years old. Five indicators of PA (depressive symptoms, distress, hopelessness, positive future orientation and esteem) were measured using validated, culturally adapted and translated instruments. Multivariable linear regression analyses estimated HIV-status-related percent differences (β) in PA indicators and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results During school-age and adolescence, positive outlook (β=−3.8, 95% CI: −7.2, −0.1) and self-esteem (β=−4.3, 95% CI: −6.7, −1.8) scores were significantly lower, whereas depressive (β=11.4, 95% CI: 3.3, 19.5) and distress (β=12.3, 95% CI: 5.9, 18.7) symptoms were elevated for perinatally HIV-infected, compared to unexposed controls and exposed uninfected children. Similarly, positive outlook (β=−4.3, 95% CI: −7.3, −1.2) and self-esteem were lower for exposed controls versus HIV-unexposed children. Hopelessness was similar by perinatal HIV status. Likewise, the distress and depressive symptom levels were comparable for HIV-exposed uninfected and HIV-unexposed children. Conclusions Perinatal HIV infection predicted higher distress and depressive symptoms, while HIV-affected status (infection/exposure) predicted low self-esteem and diminished positive outlook in the long term. However, HIV-affected status had no impact on hopelessness, suggesting that psychosocial interventions as an integral component of HIV care for infected children or primary care exposed uninfected children may

  16. The patient–body relationship and the “lived experience” of a facial burn injury: a phenomenological inquiry of early psychosocial adjustment

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Loyola M; Rogers, Vanessa; Kornhaber, Rachel; Proctor, Marie-Therese; Kwiet, Julia; Streimer, Jeffrey; Vandervord, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Throughout development and into adulthood, a person’s face is the central focus for interpersonal communication, providing an important insight into one’s identity, age, sociocultural background, and emotional state. The face facilitates important social, including nonverbal, communication. Therefore, sustaining a severe burn, and in particular a facial burn, is a devastating and traumatizing injury. Burn survivors may encounter unique psychosocial problems and experience higher rates of psychosocial maladjustment, although there may be a number of potentially mediating factors. Objectives The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the early recovery experience of patients with a facial burn. In particular, this study focused on how the injury impacted on the participants’ relationship with their own body and the challenges of early psychosocial adjustment within the first 4 months of sustaining the injury. Methods In 2011, six adult participants encompassing two females and four males ranging from 29 to 55 years of age with superficial to deep dermal facial burns (with background burns of 0.8%–55% total body surface area) were recruited from a severe burn injury unit in Australia for participation in a Burns Modified Adult Attachment Interview. Narrative data were analyzed thematically and informed by Colaizzi’s method of data analysis. Results Three overarching themes emerged: relationship to self/other, coping, and meaning-making. Themes identified related to how the experience affected the participants’ sense of relationship with their own bodies and with others, as well as other challenges of early psychosocial adjustment. All participants indicated that they had experienced some early changes in their relationship with their body following their burn injury. Conclusion These findings highlight the struggle burn survivors experienced with postburn adjustment, but expressed altruism and optimism around their recovery. Past

  17. Preadolescent Friendship and Peer Rejection as Predictors of Adult Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagwell, Catherine L.; Newcomb, Andrew F.; Bukowski, William M.

    1998-01-01

    Compared adjustment of 30 young adults who had a stable, reciprocal best friend in fifth grade and 30 who did not. Found that lower peer rejection uniquely predicted overall life status adjustment. Friended preadolescents had higher general self-worth in adulthood, even after controlling for perceived preadolescence competence. Peer rejection and…

  18. Attachment Relationships and Psychological Adjustment of Married Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaleque, Abdul; Shirin, Anjuman; Uddin, Muhammad Kamal

    2013-01-01

    The present study explored relations among remembered parental (paternal and maternal) acceptance in childhood, spouse acceptance and psychological adjustment of adults. It also explored whether remembered childhood experiences of parental acceptance mediate the relation between perceived spouse acceptance and psychological adjustment. The sample…

  19. Depression and Psychosocial Risk Factors among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Theng, Yin-Leng; Foo, Schubert

    2015-12-01

    Depression is the most common mental and emotional disorder that emerges in the late stages of life. It is closely associated with poor health, disability, mortality, and suicide. The study examines the risk factors of depression in late life, especially the psychosocial factors, among a sample comprising 162 community-dwelling Singaporean adults aged 65 years and above. An interview-based structured survey was conducted in multiple senior activity centers located in different parts of Singapore. Results from the hierarchical regression analysis show that 32.9% of the variance in geriatric depression can be explained by the three psychosocial factors, among which loneliness, perceived social support, and the emotional regulation component of resilience are significantly associated with depression in older adults. Large-scale studies should be conducted to confirm the findings of the present study, and to further examine the predictive effects of these psychosocial factors on depression among older adults.

  20. Meeting the Psychosocial Needs of Adolescents and Adults with LD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Jean; Price, Lynda A.

    1990-01-01

    This article examines psychosocial needs of learning-disabled individuals making transitions from secondary to postsecondary education and ways in which service providers can address these needs. A transition project at the University of Minnesota is described, and techniques such as individual and group counseling, disability awareness training,…

  1. Evidence-based Assessment in Pediatric Psychology: Measures of Psychosocial Adjustment and Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Thill, Azure Welborn; Bachanas, Pamela; Garber, Judy; Miller, Karen Bearman; Abad, Mona; Bruno, Elizabeth Franks; Carter, Jocelyn Smith; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Jandasek, Barbara; Mennuti-Washburn, Jean E.; O’Mahar, Kerry; Zukerman, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Objective To provide an evidence-based review of measures of psychosocial adjustment and psychopathology, with a specific focus on their use in the field of pediatric psychology. Methods As part of a larger survey of pediatric psychologists from the Society of Pediatric Psychology e-mail listserv (American Psychological Association, APA, Division 54), 37 measures were selected for this psychometric review. Measures that qualified for the review fell into one of the following three categories: (a) internalizing or externalizing rating scales, (b) broad-band rating scales, and (c) self-related rating scales. Results Psychometric characteristics (i.e., three types of reliability, two types of validity) were strong for the majority of measures reviewed, with 34 of the 37 measures meeting “well-established” evidence-based assessment (EBA) criteria. Strengths and weaknesses of existing measures were noted. Conclusions Recommendations for future work in this area of assessment are presented, including suggestions that more fine-grained EBA criteria be developed and that evidence-based “profiles” be devised for each measure. PMID:17728305

  2. Psychosocial stress and changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate among adults with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Annor, Francis B.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Okosun, Ike S.; Roblin, Douglas W.; Goodman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychosocial stress has been hypothesized to impact renal changes, but this hypothesis has not been adequately tested. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between psychosocial stress and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and to examine other predictors of eGFR changes among persons with diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods Data from a survey conducted in 2005 by a major health maintenance organization located in the southeastern part of the United States, linked to patients’ clinical and pharmacy records (n=575) from 2005 to 2008, was used. Study participants were working adults aged 25–59 years, diagnosed with DM but without advanced microvascular or macrovascular complications. eGFR was estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. A latent psychosocial stress variable was created from five psychosocial stress subscales. Using a growth factor model in a structural equation framework, we estimated the association between psychosocial stress and eGFR while controlling for important covariates. Results The psychosocial stress variable was not directly associated with eGFR in the final model. Factors found to be associated with changes in eGFR were age, race, insulin use, and mean arterial pressure. Conclusion Among fairly healthy DM patients, we did not find any evidence of a direct association between psychosocial stress and eGFR changes after controlling for important covariates. Predictors of eGFR change in our population included age, race, insulin use, and mean arterial pressure. PMID:26484039

  3. Adult Adjustment of Survivors of Institutional Child Abuse in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Alan; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzpatrick, Mark; Flanagan, Edel; Flanagan-Howard, Roisin; Tierney, Kevin; White, Megan; Daly, Margaret; Egan, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To document the adult adjustment of survivors of childhood institutional abuse. Method: Two hundred and forty-seven adult survivors of institutional abuse with a mean age of 60 were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, modules from the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I Disorders of DSM IV…

  4. POSTURE ADJUSTMENT PROCEDURES FOR CHILDREN WHEN USING ADULT VDT WORKSTATIONS WITH LIMITED ADJUSTABILITY.

    PubMed

    Nanthavanij, Suebsak; Boon-anake, Doojchadang; Hongsiri, Kwanchanok; Miliang, Orawan

    2014-06-01

    Children are likely to assume very awkward seated postures when using a desktop computer at workstations with limited adjustability. This also includes the workstations that are not built for them such as adult visual display terminal (VDT) workstations. This paper proposes simple step-by-step procedures for estimating necessary adjustments so that children can sit and maintain an appropriate seated posture at VDT workstations with limited adjustability (i.e., fixed keyboard and monitor heights). From the anthropometric and VDT workstation data, the procedures compute the recommended VDT workstation settings for a concerned child, compare them with the actual workstation adjustment ranges, determine the appropriate settings, and suggest necessary accessories. The posture adjustment procedures are tested on four Thai children seated at two different types of adult VDT workstation. A rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) technique is used to evaluate the children's seated postures both before and after the posture adjustment. Applying the procedures, children need their own VDT workstation that should be fully adjustable. In using an adult workstation, adjustment accessories and the correct settings are required.

  5. PERSONAL COMPETENCIES, SOCIAL RESOURCES, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF PRIMIPAROUS WOMEN OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE AND THEIR PARTNERS.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Maryse; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) characterize the personal competencies, the social resources, and the psychosocial adjustment (psychological distress, quality of life, and parenting self-perceptions) during the early postpartum period of primiparous women of advanced age (≥35 years at the time of delivery) and their partners (older parents) compared with that of younger first-time mothers (20-34 years) and their partners (younger parents); and (b) explore the role of personal competencies and social resources in couples' psychosocial adjustment, depending on the age group. Older (n = 74) and younger parents (n = 71) completed self-report measures to assess personal competencies and social resources (third trimester of pregnancy), psychological distress, and quality of life (third trimester of pregnancy and 1-month' postpartum) and parenting self-perceptions (1-month' postpartum). Older parents were more similar than different from younger parents regarding personal competencies, social resources, and psychosocial adjustment during the first postnatal month. Regardless of the age group, higher personal competencies and social resources predicted lower anxiety and more positive parenting self-perceptions in women. Beyond higher personal competencies, older maternal age also predicted higher quality of life. In men, higher personal competencies were protective against anxiety, but only at older maternal age. PMID:26331727

  6. Psychosocial adjustment to sex reassignment surgery: a qualitative examination and personal experiences of six transsexual persons in croatia.

    PubMed

    Jokić-Begić, Nataša; Lauri Korajlija, Anita; Jurin, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    In Croatia, transgender individuals face numerous social and medical obstacles throughout the process of transition. The aim of this study was to depict the factors contributing to the psychosocial adjustment of six transsexual individuals living in Croatia following sex reassignment surgery (SRS). A combination of quantitative and qualitative self-report methods was used. Due to the specificity of the sample, the data were collected online. Standardized questionnaires were used to assess mental health and quality of life alongside a series of open-ended questions divided into 4 themes: the decision-making process regarding SRS; social and medical support during the SRS process; experience of discrimination and stigmatizing behaviors; psychosocial adjustment after SRS. Despite the unfavorable circumstances in Croatian society, participants demonstrated stable mental, social, and professional functioning, as well as a relative resilience to minority stress. Results also reveal the role of pretransition factors such as high socioeconomic status, good premorbid functioning, and high motivation for SRS in successful psychosocial adjustment. During and after transition, participants reported experiencing good social support and satisfaction with the surgical treatment and outcomes. Any difficulties reported by participants are related to either sexual relationships or internalized transphobia. The results also demonstrate the potentially protective role that a lengthier process of transition plays in countries such as Croatia.

  7. Psychosocial Adjustment to Sex Reassignment Surgery: A Qualitative Examination and Personal Experiences of Six Transsexual Persons in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Jokić-Begić, Nataša; Jurin, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    In Croatia, transgender individuals face numerous social and medical obstacles throughout the process of transition. The aim of this study was to depict the factors contributing to the psychosocial adjustment of six transsexual individuals living in Croatia following sex reassignment surgery (SRS). A combination of quantitative and qualitative self-report methods was used. Due to the specificity of the sample, the data were collected online. Standardized questionnaires were used to assess mental health and quality of life alongside a series of open-ended questions divided into 4 themes: the decision-making process regarding SRS; social and medical support during the SRS process; experience of discrimination and stigmatizing behaviors; psychosocial adjustment after SRS. Despite the unfavorable circumstances in Croatian society, participants demonstrated stable mental, social, and professional functioning, as well as a relative resilience to minority stress. Results also reveal the role of pretransition factors such as high socioeconomic status, good premorbid functioning, and high motivation for SRS in successful psychosocial adjustment. During and after transition, participants reported experiencing good social support and satisfaction with the surgical treatment and outcomes. Any difficulties reported by participants are related to either sexual relationships or internalized transphobia. The results also demonstrate the potentially protective role that a lengthier process of transition plays in countries such as Croatia. PMID:24790589

  8. PERSONAL COMPETENCIES, SOCIAL RESOURCES, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF PRIMIPAROUS WOMEN OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE AND THEIR PARTNERS.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Maryse; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) characterize the personal competencies, the social resources, and the psychosocial adjustment (psychological distress, quality of life, and parenting self-perceptions) during the early postpartum period of primiparous women of advanced age (≥35 years at the time of delivery) and their partners (older parents) compared with that of younger first-time mothers (20-34 years) and their partners (younger parents); and (b) explore the role of personal competencies and social resources in couples' psychosocial adjustment, depending on the age group. Older (n = 74) and younger parents (n = 71) completed self-report measures to assess personal competencies and social resources (third trimester of pregnancy), psychological distress, and quality of life (third trimester of pregnancy and 1-month' postpartum) and parenting self-perceptions (1-month' postpartum). Older parents were more similar than different from younger parents regarding personal competencies, social resources, and psychosocial adjustment during the first postnatal month. Regardless of the age group, higher personal competencies and social resources predicted lower anxiety and more positive parenting self-perceptions in women. Beyond higher personal competencies, older maternal age also predicted higher quality of life. In men, higher personal competencies were protective against anxiety, but only at older maternal age.

  9. Influence of marital and educational status on clients' psychosocial adjustment to HIV/AIDS in Calabar, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akpabio, Idongesit I; Uyanah, David A; Osuchukwu, Nelson C; Samson-Akpan, Patience E

    2010-06-01

    A comparative descriptive design and a stratified random sampling technique were adopted to study the influence of marital and educational status on the psychological, social, and spiritual adjustment of 280 respondents living with HIV/AIDS in two randomly selected clinics within Calabar, Nigeria. A 30 item questionnaire, with a content validity index of 0.92 and a Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient of 0.94, was used for data collection, with due attention to ethical considerations. The findings showed that marital status had a significant influence on the respondents' psychological and social adjustment but not on their spiritual adjustment. Those that were married and those with higher educational qualifications had better psychological adjustment than those who had never married. The marital and educational status of clients should be considered when conducting education or counseling, making recommendations, or organizing support groups for living with HIV/AIDS. Furthermore, advocacy aimed at meeting the psychosocial needs of single and less-educated clients could enhance their psychosocial adjustment.

  10. Psychosocial Treatments for Major Depression and Dysthymia in Older Adults: A Review of the Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalaquett, Carlos P.; Stens, Andrea N.

    2006-01-01

    Older adults represent a growing segment of the population with the highest suicide rate and an increasing need of counseling services for major depression and dysthymia. The present study examined the literature with the purpose of identifying research addressing psychosocial treatments of depression in later life. A summary of treatments…

  11. Further Validation of the Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites Scale among Employed Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteat, V. Paul; Spanierman, Lisa B.

    2008-01-01

    To examine the validity and test the generalizability of the Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites Scale (PCRW) beyond the original college student sample, a geographically dispersed sample of employed White adults (N = 284) in eight states completed the measure to assess for White empathic reactions toward racism, White guilt, and White fear of…

  12. Improvement of psychosocial adjustment to HIV-1 infection through a cognitive-behavioral oriented group psychotherapy program: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rousaud, Araceli; Blanch, Jordi; Hautzinger, Martin; De Lazzari, Elisa; Peri, Josep Maria; Puig, Olga; Martinez, Esteban; Masana, Guillem; De Pablo, Joan; Gatell, Josep Maria

    2007-03-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of a group therapy program in improving psychosocial adjustment to HIV infection, and tried to identify variables predictive of greater improvement. The outcome of 47 completing patients was analyzed, comparing the measures between T1 (1 month before therapy), and T2 (first session), and between T2 and T3 (last session) using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test for each dimension of the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale (PAIS). The therapy consisted of 16 weekly 2-hour sessions following a structured time-limited cognitive-behavioral group psychotherapy program. During the intervention (between T2 and T3) a significant improvement was observed in health care orientation, vocational environment, domestic environment, sexual relation, extended family relationships, social environment, and total PAIS. There were no changes during baseline (between T1 and T2) in any of the PAIS subscales, or in the total PAIS score. Sexual route of transmission was independently associated with an improvement in health care orientation (beta = 2.525). Time since HIV diagnosis (beta = 0.022) and being employed (beta = 2.548) were independently associated with an improvement in adjustment to vocational environment. Men who have sex with men showed a poorer improvement in adjusting to family relations after the intervention (beta = -2.548). Finally, a lower CD4 count (beta = -0.005) and being employed (beta = 3.054) were independently associated with an improvement in adjustment to social environment. Our psychotherapy program improved psychosocial functioning in a heterogeneous sample of HIV-1-infected patients referred to a consultation-liaison psychiatry unit. PMID:17428189

  13. More Than Just the Heart: Transition and Psychosocial Issues in Adult Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Adrienne H; Utens, Elisabeth M

    2015-11-01

    Most infants born with congenital heart disease (CHD) are now expected to reach adulthood. However, adults with CHD of moderate or great complexity remain at elevated risk of heart failure, arrhythmias, additional surgeries and interventional procedures, and premature mortality. This creates a need for lifelong specialized cardiac care and leads to 2 sets of potential challenges: (1) the transition from pediatric to adult care and (2) the psychosocial implications of coping with a chronic and often life-shortening medical condition. Many adolescents struggle with the transition to adult care, and mood and anxiety disorders are not uncommon in the adult setting.

  14. Type 1 diabetes mellitus: psychosocial factors and adjustment of pediatric patient and his/her family. Review.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Marín, Marián; Gómez-Rico, Irene; Montoya-Castilla, Inmaculada

    2015-04-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is the most common chronic endocrine disease in children, with a very low incidence in the first months of life and reaching its peak during puberty (10-15 years old is the age group with the highest incidence at the time of onset). Based on the review of the scientific literature, our objective is to study the main psychosocial factors associated with the adjustment of these pediatric patients and their families. Research underscore the following risk factors: situational (stressful life events), personal (additional physical diseases, low self-esteem, emotional disturbances), and interpersonal (family breakdown and conflicts), and also protection factors (coping strategies, social support, fluent communication). There is a pressing need to deal with the disturbances that affect these diabetic patients and their families, by implementing effective health care psychological interventions that take into account psychosocial factors associated with the course of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  15. Type 1 diabetes mellitus: psychosocial factors and adjustment of pediatric patient and his/her family. Review.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Marín, Marián; Gómez-Rico, Irene; Montoya-Castilla, Inmaculada

    2015-04-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is the most common chronic endocrine disease in children, with a very low incidence in the first months of life and reaching its peak during puberty (10-15 years old is the age group with the highest incidence at the time of onset). Based on the review of the scientific literature, our objective is to study the main psychosocial factors associated with the adjustment of these pediatric patients and their families. Research underscore the following risk factors: situational (stressful life events), personal (additional physical diseases, low self-esteem, emotional disturbances), and interpersonal (family breakdown and conflicts), and also protection factors (coping strategies, social support, fluent communication). There is a pressing need to deal with the disturbances that affect these diabetic patients and their families, by implementing effective health care psychological interventions that take into account psychosocial factors associated with the course of type 1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25727829

  16. Development of a New Psychosocial Treatment for Adult ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solanto, Mary V.; Marks, David J.; Mitchell, Katherine J.; Wasserstein, Jeanette; Kofman, Michele D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a new manualized group Meta-Cognitive Therapy (MCT) for adults with ADHD that extends the principles and practices of cognitive-behavioral therapy to the development of executive self-management skills. Method: Thirty adults diagnosed with ADHD completed an 8- or 12-week…

  17. Parental Attachment, Interparental Conflict, and Young Adults' Emotional Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Jennifer; Fuertes, Jairo

    2010-01-01

    This study extends Engels et al.'s model of emotional adjustment to young adults and includes the constructs of interparental conflict and conflict resolution. Results indicate that parental attachment is better conceived as a two-factor construct of mother and father attachment and that although attachment to both mothers and fathers directly…

  18. Adult Children of Alcoholics: Adjustment to a College Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Heather A.; Radford, Amy

    1999-01-01

    Provides a literature review of family-of-origin issues related to adult children of alcoholics (ACOA) and their adjustment to college. Implications for college personnel are presented, as is a case study to illustrate the many issues an ACOA college student may face in his or her transition. (Author/GCP)

  19. Predictors of positive psychosocial functioning of older adults in residential care facilities.

    PubMed

    Schanowitz, Jeff Y; Nicassio, Perry M

    2006-04-01

    This research examined the contributions of active and passive coping for health problems, and meaning-based coping, to positive psychosocial functioning in a sample of 100 individuals in residential care with a mean age of 83.11 years old. Study participants resided in skilled care, intermediate care, or assisted living facilities. Based on interview data collected on site in participants' residential settings, hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that active and passive coping and meaning-based coping had separate influences on measures of positive psychosocial functioning. Active coping was correlated with higher positive affect, whereas passive coping was associated with higher negative affect and self-acceptance. Positive reappraisal, a meaning-based coping strategy, was uniquely associated with higher positive affect, positive social relations, and self-acceptance. Positive religious coping was not independently associated with positive psychosocial functioning indices, whereas negative religious coping was related to higher negative affect. Health functioning did not contribute to positive psychosocial functioning in this sample. The results confirm the separate importance of health-related and meaning-based coping strategies in explaining positive psychosocial functioning in older adults living in residential care settings. PMID:16453068

  20. Cooccurrence of problems in activity level, attention, psychosocial adjustment, reading and writing in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Mei-Hui; Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Chuang, I-Ching; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the cooccurrence of problems in activity level, attention, reading, writing and psychosocial adjustment of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). A parent-report questionnaire, the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire - Chinese version (DCDQ-C), was used to screen first to third graders from 13 mainstream schools in Taipei. Two standardized motor tests were then administered to those who scored below 10% on the DCDQ-C. Tests of activity level, attention, reading, writing and psychosocial adjustment were then administered to this sample. Thirty-eight children identified as DCD, 32 as suspect for DCD and 82 as normal comparison were included in the final sample. Multivariate analysis of variance comparing the three groups (DCD, suspect DCD, and comparison) revealed that both children with DCD and suspect for DCD obtained significantly poorer scores on measures of attention and reading, and were more hyperactive than comparison children. Children with DCD and suspect for DCD were also reported to have more internalizing and social problems than children without motor problems. No significant differences, however, were noted between children with different degree of motor coordination problems (categorized as DCD and suspect for DCD) on any measure. Furthermore, a high percentage of children in both the DCD and suspect groups fell in the clinical range of attention, activity level and psychosocial adjustment problems. The results revealed a high risk for these problems in nonreferred children with motor coordination problems. The high percentage of clinical range behavioral problems warrants attention of clinicians who work with children with motor coordination difficulties to the need to promote early identification and referral.

  1. A systematic review of the psychosocial correlates of intuitive eating among adult women.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Lauren J; Ricciardelli, Lina A

    2016-01-01

    Intuitive eating has been proposed as an eating style that fosters a positive attitude towards food, the body, and physical activity. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to examine intuitive eating in relation to disordered eating, body image, emotional functioning, and other psychosocial correlates in adult women. Articles were identified through Academic Search Complete, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Health Source (Nursing and Academic Edition), Medline Complete, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, PubMed and Scopus. Eligible studies were those that examined women aged 18 years and older, measured intuitive eating, and assessed a psychosocial correlate of intuitive eating. Twenty-four cross-sectional studies, published between 2006 and September 2015, met eligibility criteria. Intuitive eating was associated with less disordered eating, a more positive body image, greater emotional functioning, and a number of other psychosocial correlates that have been examined less extensively. However, given that all studies used cross-sectional designs, no conclusions regarding the direction of the relationship between intuitive eating and psychosocial correlates can be drawn. Participants in the majority of studies were university students in the United States so findings cannot be generalised to the wider population of female adults. Prospective studies are now needed to verify these cross-sectional findings, and show if intuitive eating may reduce disordered eating and body image concerns, and promote women's psychological health and well-being. PMID:26474781

  2. A systematic review of the psychosocial correlates of intuitive eating among adult women.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Lauren J; Ricciardelli, Lina A

    2016-01-01

    Intuitive eating has been proposed as an eating style that fosters a positive attitude towards food, the body, and physical activity. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to examine intuitive eating in relation to disordered eating, body image, emotional functioning, and other psychosocial correlates in adult women. Articles were identified through Academic Search Complete, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Health Source (Nursing and Academic Edition), Medline Complete, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, PubMed and Scopus. Eligible studies were those that examined women aged 18 years and older, measured intuitive eating, and assessed a psychosocial correlate of intuitive eating. Twenty-four cross-sectional studies, published between 2006 and September 2015, met eligibility criteria. Intuitive eating was associated with less disordered eating, a more positive body image, greater emotional functioning, and a number of other psychosocial correlates that have been examined less extensively. However, given that all studies used cross-sectional designs, no conclusions regarding the direction of the relationship between intuitive eating and psychosocial correlates can be drawn. Participants in the majority of studies were university students in the United States so findings cannot be generalised to the wider population of female adults. Prospective studies are now needed to verify these cross-sectional findings, and show if intuitive eating may reduce disordered eating and body image concerns, and promote women's psychological health and well-being.

  3. Childhood Psychosocial Stressors and Adult Onset Arthritis: Broad Spectrum Risk Factors and Allostatic Load

    PubMed Central

    Von Korff, Michael; Alonso, Jordi; Ormel, Johan; Angermeyer, Matthais; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Fleiz, Clara; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Kessler, Ronald C.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Posada-Villa, José; Scott, Kate M.; Uda, Hidenori

    2009-01-01

    Neural, endocrine and immune stress mediators are hypothesized to increase risks of diverse chronic diseases, including arthritis. Retrospective data from the World Mental Health Surveys (N=18,309) were employed to assess whether adult onset of arthritis was associated with childhood adversities and early onset psychological disorder. Cox proportional hazard models assessed the association of number of childhood adversities and the presence of early onset psychological disorder with arthritis age of onset. Controlling for age, sex and early onset mental disorder, relative to persons with no childhood adversities, persons with two adversities had increased risk of adult onset arthritis (Hazard ratio=1.27, 95% CI= 1.08, 1.50), while persons with three or more adversities had higher risk (HR=1.44, CI=1.24,1.67). Early onset depressive and/or anxiety disorder was associated with increased risk of adult-onset arthritis after controlling for childhood adversities (HR=1.43, CI=1.28, 1.61). Since psychosocial stressors may be broad spectrum risk factors that increase risks of diverse chronic conditions in later life (e.g., arthritis, heart disease, diabetes, asthma, chronic pain), prospective studies of childhood psychosocial stressors may be most productive if multiple disease outcomes are assessed in the same study. Results from this study provide methodological guidance for future prospective studies of the relationship between childhood psychosocial stressors and subsequent risk of adult onset arthritis. PERSPECTIVE Retrospective reports of early onset mood-anxiety disorder and multiple childhood adversities were independently associated with increased risk of adult onset arthritis. Carrying out prospective studies of these relationships entails significant challenges. Since childhood psychosocial stressors may be broad spectrum risk factors for diverse chronic conditions, multiple disease outcomes should be assessed in prospective studies assessing health consequences

  4. Individual Differences in Adolescents' Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Functioning Moderate Associations between Family Environment and Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lisa M.; Fagundes, Christopher P.; Cribbet, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    The present study tested whether individual differences in autonomic nervous system functioning interact with environmental risk factors to predict adolescents' psychosocial functioning. The authors assessed skin conductance and respiratory sinus arrhythmia at rest and during laboratory stressors in 110 14-year-olds. Subsequently, adolescents and…

  5. Mother-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Autonomy as Predictors of Psychosocial Adjustment among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Mia Smith; Kotchick, Beth A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the role of mother-adolescent relationship quality and autonomy in the psychosocial outcomes in a sample of African American adolescents drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The results indicated that positive mother-adolescent relationship quality and greater autonomy were associated with higher…

  6. Psychosocial Adjustment and Attention in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder Using Different Motor Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Tseng, Mei-Hui; Hu, Fu-Chang; Cermak, Sharon A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the consistency between the findings of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) as identified by the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC), and explored the psychosocial and attention characteristics of children with DCD identified by the two motor tests,…

  7. Long-term psychosocial and behavioral adjustment in individuals receiving genetic test results in Lynch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Esplen, M J; Wong, J; Aronson, M; Butler, K; Rothenmund, H; Semotiuk, K; Madlensky, L; Way, C; Dicks, E; Green, J; Gallinger, S

    2015-06-01

    A cross-sectional study of 155 participants who underwent genetic testing for Lynch syndrome (LS) examined long-term psychosocial and behavioral outcomes. Participants completed standardized measures of perceived risk, psychosocial functioning, knowledge, and a questionnaire of screening activities. Participants were on average 47.3 years and had undergone testing a mean of 5.5 years prior. Eighty four (54%) tested positive for a LS mutation and 71 (46%) negative. For unaffected carriers, perceived lifetime risk of colorectal cancer was 68%, and surprisingly, 40% among those testing negative. Most individuals demonstrated normative levels of psychosocial functioning. However, 25% of those testing negative had moderate depressive symptoms, as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale, and 31% elevated state anxiety on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Being female and a stronger escape - avoidant coping style were predictive of depressive symptoms. For state anxiety, similar patterns were observed. Quality of life and social support were significantly associated with lower anxiety. Carriers maintained higher knowledge compared to those testing negative, and were more engaged in screening. In summary, most individuals adapt to genetic test results over the long term and continue to engage in screening. A subgroup, including some non-carriers, may require added psychosocial support. PMID:25297893

  8. Long-term Psychosocial and Behavioral Adjustment in Individuals Receiving Genetic Test Results in Lynch Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Esplen, MJ; Wong, J; Aronson, M; Butler, K; Rothenmund, H; Semotiuk, K; Madlensky, L; Way, C; Dicks, E; Green, J; Gallinger, S

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 155 participants who underwent genetic testing for Lynch Syndrome (LS) examined long-term psychosocial and behavioral outcomes. Participants completed standardized measures of perceived risk, psychosocial functioning, knowledge, and a questionnaire of screening activities. Participants were on average 47.3 years and had undergone testing a mean of 5.5 years prior. Eighty four (54%) tested positive for a LS mutation and 71 (46%) negative. For unaffected carriers, perceived lifetime risk of colorectal cancer was 68%, and surprisingly, 40% among those testing negative. Most individuals demonstrated normative levels of psychosocial functioning. However, 25% of those testing negative had moderate depressive symptoms, as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale, and 31% elevated state anxiety on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Being female and a stronger escape – avoidant coping style were predictive of depressive symptoms. For state anxiety, similar patterns were observed. Quality of life and social support were significantly associated with lower anxiety. Carriers maintained higher knowledge compared to those testing negative, and were more engaged in screening. In summary, most individuals adapt to genetic test results over the long term and continue to engage in screening. A subgroup, including some non-carriers, may require added psychosocial support. PMID:25297893

  9. Sensory-motor and psychosocial correlates of adaptive locomotor performance in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Nandini; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To identify sensory-motor and psychosocial factors independently associated with inability to perform adaptive walking tasks in older adults Design Cross-sectional cohort study Setting Population-based older cohort Participants Community-living elderly (age≥65 years) who could walk 7 m at self-selected normal speed (n=720). Interventions Not applicable Main Outcome Measures Walking performance was assessed in four walking tests: fast walking, obstacle crossing, narrow-based walking and walking while talking. Possible correlates of the inability to perform the walking test included knee extensor strength, lower limb coordination, Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index (CSII), visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, cognition, depression, personal mastery, social support and years of education. Results The results of binary logistic regression analyses, adjusted for demographics and self-selected normal speed, demonstrated that poor knee extensor strength was associated with inability to perform tasks demanding increase in walking speed (fast walking and obstacle crossing). Both, poor lower limb coordination and higher CSII were significantly associated with failure in tests that demanded precise control over foot placement (obstacle crossing and narrow-base walking). Higher CSII was associated with failure in all tests except in the walking while talking. In contrast, poor cognition was associated with inability to perform walking while talking. Poor personal mastery was the only variable that was associated with failure in all walking tests. Conclusion The results demonstrated a systematic and coherent pattern in these associations and indicated possible sensory-motor and psychological parameters that should be specifically investigated and should be intervened if a patient reports a difficulty/inability in walking in certain situations. PMID:21704787

  10. Physical and psychosocial challenges in adult hemophilia patients with inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    duTreil, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Numerous challenges confront adult hemophilia patients with inhibitors, including difficulty in controlling bleeding episodes, deterioration of joints, arthritic pain, physical disability, emotional turmoil, and social issues. High-intensity treatment regimens often used in the treatment of patients with inhibitors also impose significant scheduling, economic, and emotional demands on patients and their families or primary caregivers. A comprehensive multidisciplinary assessment of the physical, emotional, and social status of adult hemophilia patients with inhibitors is essential for the development of treatment strategies that can be individualized to address the complex needs of these patients. PMID:25093002

  11. Psychosocial Predictors of Emerging Adults' Risk and Reckless Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Graham; Wildman, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Studied risk and reckless behavior in 375 emerging adults using self-report measures and a cross-sectional design. Risk behaviors were found to be reliably predicted by sensation seeking, but not by antisocial peer pressure, while the reverse pattern was more true in relation to "reckless" behaviors. (SLD)

  12. A qualitative assessment of psychosocial impact, coping and adjustment in high-risk melanoma patients and caregivers.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jason D; Butow, Phyllis N; Boyle, Frances M; Saw, Robyn P M; O'Reilly, Amanda J

    2014-06-01

    The present study qualitatively assessed the psychosocial impacts experienced by stage III melanoma patients and caregivers throughout the course of the disease, and the coping responses they utilized in an attempt to promote psychosocial adjustment. The purpose of the study was to inform the development of a supportive care strategy for this population. Nineteen stage III melanoma patients and 14 of their caregivers were recruited from the clinical research database of the Melanoma Institute Australia. Data were collected using semistructured telephone interviews and analysed using thematic analysis. Participants reported psychosocial impacts related to diagnosis (shock, panic and devastation), treatment (challenges and unsatisfactory care, pain and limitation, practical impacts, new roles and responsibilities for the caregiver, caregiver inadequacy) and survivorship (ongoing physical problems, watchful waiting, feeling abandoned). They also reported global themes relevant to multiple phases of the disease (emotional distress, disfigurement, injustice, caregiver devaluation). Coping responses were identified related to diagnosis (avoidance), treatment (confidence in the treatment team, taking action) and survivorship (finding a positive meaning, acceptance and moving on) as well as global themes pertaining to multiple disease phases (receiving support, helpful thinking, putting on a brave face, redirecting attention, religion). The current findings support routine screening for the presence of symptoms and psychological distress and appropriate referral when necessary, and for provision of psychosocial interventions to provide information and support to stage III melanoma patients and caregivers. In addition, provision of communication skills training to all health professionals treating melanoma, use of evidence-based strategies for improving patient/caregiver understanding and recall, and routine assessment of patient-reported outcomes to inform clinical

  13. Personality, acculturation, and psychosocial adjustment of Chinese international students in Germany.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyu; Mandl, Heinz; Wang, Erping

    2010-10-01

    The effect of personality traits and acculturation variables on crosscultural adjustment were investigated in 139 Chinese students in Germany (52% girls; M age = 25.3 yr., SD = 2.9). Participants were surveyed by house visits to their dormitories. Several scales were administered: (a) Big Five Inventory; (b) Vancouver Index of Acculturation; (c) sociocultural adjustment, general and academic; and (d) psychological adjustment, i.e., depression, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Results showed that Neuroticism and Openness were two shared predictors of sociocultural adjustment. Agreeableness and mainstream acculturation were only related to general adjustment, while Conscientiousness was only related to academic adjustment. All facets of psychological adjustment were related to Neuroticism and Consciousness, while positive components (self-esteem and life satisfaction) were also related to Extraversion and Openness. No influence of heritage acculturation was found. The findings are discussed in light of measurement issues and the shared and unique individual predictors of the different facets of adjustment. PMID:21117478

  14. Postservice Psychosocial Adjustment of Former Spinal Cord Injured Rehabilitation Clients. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Daniel W.

    A study examined the long-term adjustment of spinal cord-injured vocational rehabilitation clients by isolating major dimensions of postservice adjustment, correlating preservice status with adjustment followup, and by measuring client pre- to postservice psychological change. Three self-report instruments (a needs satisfaction inventory, a goal…

  15. Successful Aging: A Psychosocial Resources Model for Very Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Randall, G. Kevin; Martin, Peter; Johnson, Mary Ann; Poon, Leonard W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Using data from the first two phases of the Georgia Centenarian Study, we proposed a latent factor structure for the Duke OARS domains: Economic Resources, Mental Health, Activities of Daily Living, Physical Health, and Social Resources. Methods. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on two waves of the Georgia Centenarian Study to test a latent variable measurement model of the five resources; nested model testing was employed to assess the final measurement model for equivalency of factor structure over time. Results. The specified measurement model fit the data well at Time 1. However, at Time 2, Social Resources only had one indicator load significantly and substantively. Supplemental analyses demonstrated that a model without Social Resources adequately fit the data. Factorial invariance over time was confirmed for the remaining four latent variables. Discussion. This study's findings allow researchers and clinicians to reduce the number of OARS questions asked of participants. This has practical implications because increased difficulties with hearing, vision, and fatigue in older adults may require extended time or multiple interviewer sessions to complete the battery of OARS questions. PMID:22900180

  16. Psychosocial Predictors of Adjustment among First Year College of Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salami, Samuel O.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of psychological and social factors to the prediction of adjustment to college. A total of 250 first year students from colleges of education in Kwara State, Nigeria, completed measures of self-esteem, emotional intelligence, stress, social support and adjustment. Regression analyses…

  17. Interpersonal circumplex descriptions of psychosocial risk factors for physical illness: application to hostility, neuroticism, and marital adjustment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy W; Traupman, Emily K; Uchino, Bert N; Berg, Cynthia A

    2010-06-01

    Personality risk factors for physical illness are typically studied individually and apart from risk factors reflecting the social environment, potentially fostering a piecemeal understanding of psychosocial influences on health. Because it can be used to describe both personality and social relationship processes, the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) provides an integrative approach to psychosocial risk. In 301 married couples we examined IPC correlates of 3 risk factor domains: anger, hostility, and aggressiveness; neuroticism; and marital adjustment. Risk factors displayed IPC locations ranging from hostile dominance (e.g., verbal aggressiveness, marital conflict) to hostility (e.g., anger) to hostile submissiveness (e.g., anxiety, depression); protective factors (marital satisfaction and support) reflected warmth or friendliness in the IPC. Similar descriptions were found using self-reports and spouse ratings of IPC dimensions, indicating that interpersonal styles associated with risk factors do not simply reflect common method variance. Findings identify interpersonal processes reflecting low affiliation or high hostility as a common component of risk and indicate distinctions among risk factors along the dominance dimension. PMID:20573134

  18. Interpersonal circumplex descriptions of psychosocial risk factors for physical illness: application to hostility, neuroticism, and marital adjustment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy W; Traupman, Emily K; Uchino, Bert N; Berg, Cynthia A

    2010-06-01

    Personality risk factors for physical illness are typically studied individually and apart from risk factors reflecting the social environment, potentially fostering a piecemeal understanding of psychosocial influences on health. Because it can be used to describe both personality and social relationship processes, the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) provides an integrative approach to psychosocial risk. In 301 married couples we examined IPC correlates of 3 risk factor domains: anger, hostility, and aggressiveness; neuroticism; and marital adjustment. Risk factors displayed IPC locations ranging from hostile dominance (e.g., verbal aggressiveness, marital conflict) to hostility (e.g., anger) to hostile submissiveness (e.g., anxiety, depression); protective factors (marital satisfaction and support) reflected warmth or friendliness in the IPC. Similar descriptions were found using self-reports and spouse ratings of IPC dimensions, indicating that interpersonal styles associated with risk factors do not simply reflect common method variance. Findings identify interpersonal processes reflecting low affiliation or high hostility as a common component of risk and indicate distinctions among risk factors along the dominance dimension.

  19. University students' Internet use and its relationships with academic performance, interpersonal relationships, psychosocial adjustment, and self-evaluation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Fang; Peng, Samuel S

    2008-08-01

    This study examined the relationships between university students' Internet use and students' academic performance, interpersonal relationships, psychosocial adjustment, and self-evaluation. The study was based on data drawn from a national survey of college students in Taiwan. A stratified sample of 49,609 students (2005-2006 academic year juniors) was randomly selected from 156 universities (174,277 students). Students completed a questionnaire online. Heavy Internet users and nonheavy Internet users differed significantly on a number of dimensions. Nonheavy users had better relationships with administrative staff, academic grades, and learning satisfaction than heavy Internet users. Heavy users were more likely than non-heavy Internet users to be depressed, physically ill, lonely, and introverted.

  20. The psychosocial adjustment of African American youth from single mother homes: the relative contribution of parents and peers.

    PubMed

    Chester, Charlene; Jones, Deborah J; Zalot, Alecia; Sterrett, Emma

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relative roles of parents and peers in the psychosocial adjustment of African American youth (7-15 years old) from single mother homes (N = 242). Main effects of both positive parenting and peer relationship quality were found for youth depressive symptoms. In addition, a main effect of peer relationship quality and an interaction of Positive Parenting x Peer Relationship Quality emerged for youth externalizing symptoms. When mothers engaged in higher levels of positive parenting behavior, peer relationship quality was not associated with youth externalizing symptomatology. When mothers engaged in lower levels of positive parenting behavior, however, higher peer relationship quality was associated with greater youth externalizing symptomatology. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed.

  1. Identity--lost and found: patterns of migration and psychological and psychosocial adjustment of migrants.

    PubMed

    Hertz, D G

    1988-01-01

    This paper focuses on patterns of integration in migrant individuals and families. The level of adjustment in traditional and Westernized families has been examined. Different factors affecting adjustment are pointed out. Migration process is interpreted as a transient and necessary crisis situation. Risk factors in the acculturation crisis are reported and predictive and preventive measures are suggested. Characteristics of migrant and remigrant groups are compared. The role of "homesickness" in clinical symptom formation is discussed.

  2. Psychosocial Effects of Health Disparities of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Zelle, Andraya; Arms, Tamatha

    2015-07-01

    The 1.5 million older adults who self-identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) are expected to double in number by 2030. Research suggests that health disparities are closely linked with societal stigma, discrimination, and denial of civil and human rights. More LGBT older adults struggle with depression, substance abuse, social isolation, and acceptance compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Despite individual preferences, most health care providers recognize the right of any individual to have access to basic medical services. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services requires that all hospitals receiving funds from Medicare and Medicaid respect visitation and medical decision-making rights to all individuals identifying as LGBT. The Joint Commission also requires a non-discrimination statement for accreditation. The current literature review examines LGBT health disparities and the consequential psychosocial impact on LGBT older adults as well as brings awareness to the needs of this underserved and underrepresented population. PMID:26151148

  3. Psychosocial Experiences Associated with Confirmed and Self-Identified Dyslexia: A Participant-Driven Concept Map of Adult Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalavany, Blace Arthur; Carawan, Lena Williams; Rennick, Robyn A.

    2011-01-01

    Concept mapping (a mixed qualitative-quantitative methodology) was used to describe and understand the psychosocial experiences of adults with confirmed and self-identified dyslexia. Using innovative processes of art and photography, Phase 1 of the study included 15 adults who participated in focus groups and in-depth interviews and were asked to…

  4. Environmental enrichment requires adult neurogenesis to facilitate the recovery from psychosocial stress

    PubMed Central

    Schloesser, R J; Lehmann, M; Martinowich, K; Manji, H K; Herkenham, M

    2010-01-01

    The subgranular zone of the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus contains a pool of neural stem cells that continuously divide and differentiate into functional granule cells. It has been shown that production of new hippocampal neurons is necessary for amelioration of stress-induced behavioral changes by antidepressants in animal models of depression. The survival of newly born hippocampal neurons is decreased by chronic psychosocial stress and increased by exposure to enriched environments. These observations suggest the existence of a link between hippocampal neurogenesis, stress-induced behavioral changes, and the beneficial effects of enriched environment. To show causality, we subjected transgenic mice with conditionally suppressed neurogenesis to psychosocial stress followed by environmental enrichment. First, we showed that repeated social defeat coupled with chronic exposure to an aggressor produces robust and quantifiable indices of submissive and depressive-like behaviors; second, subsequent exposure to an enriched environment led to extinction of the submissive phenotype, while animals exposed to an impoverished environment retained the submissive phenotype; and third, enrichment was not effective in reversing the submissive and depressive-like behaviors in transgenic mice lacking neurogenesis. Our data show two main findings. First, living in an enriched environment is highly effective in extinguishing submissive behavioral traits developed during chronic social stress, and second, these effects are critically dependent on adult neurogenesis, indicating that beneficial behavioral adaptations are dependent on intact adult neurogenesis. PMID:20308988

  5. Psychosocial interventions for adolescents and young adult cancer patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Richter, Diana; Koehler, Michael; Friedrich, Michael; Hilgendorf, Inken; Mehnert, Anja; Weißflog, Gregor

    2015-09-01

    Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients experience unique psychosocial needs and developmental challenges. A cancer diagnosis can stress this development and disrupt AYAs in their normal life. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the impact of psychosocial interventions on mental health in AYAs. A literature research was conducted, which resulted in twelve eligible studies. The standardized mean difference between intervention and control conditions was 0.13 (95% CI: -0.16 to 0.42) for quality of life, 0.27 (95% CI: -0.22 to 0.76) for cancer-related knowledge and -0.16 (95% CI: -0.73 to 0.42) on psychological distress indicating, small and non-significant effects for interventions improving mental health. This work strengthens the need for age-appropriated interventions in psycho-oncology. Future research should develop interventions more graduated by age. Randomized intervention studies with larger samples and focusing psychosocial outcomes are needed to establish evidence-based psycho-oncological interventions for AYAs.

  6. Ethical and psychosocial issues raised by the practice in cases of mistreatment of older adults.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Marie; Leclerc, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Intervention regarding older adult mistreatment raises many questions for practitioners. They have to interact with the victim, the abuser, and, in many cases, with both of them at the same time. In such cases, five themes emerge from the literature review on psycho-social and ethical issues in practice: practitioners' pre-construction and axiological frameworks, victims' capacity, confidentiality versus collaboration between practitioners or between agencies, social and family responsibilities and the balance between competing values in practice. Practitioners are well placed to offer a critical reflection on their practice and on ways of improving it. The goal of our qualitative study is to identify issues and ethical dilemmas in elderly mistreatment situations as represented in the discourses of practitioners in reference to interventions in their psychosocial practice. Sixteen practitioners from the public and community (non-profit organization) sectors were interviewed using a practice history approach. This paper presents the main ethical and psychosocial issues raised by practitioners and some ideas to improve the practice. It is motivated by the crucial question haunting the practitioners' minds: "How far should we go?"

  7. Psychosocial issues affecting adults with congenital heart disease: one patient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Livecchi, Tracy A

    2004-12-01

    This article addresses a number of psychosocial issues that advance practice nurses and other health care providers should be aware of when working with patients who have congenital heart disease. If not properly addressed, particularly during adolescence, these issues can have a strong impact on a person's medical care and over-all quality of life. This article includes information from medical literature, conversations with adult patients, and my own experiences as both a patient with congenital heart disease and as a clinical social worker.

  8. Psychosocial treatments for ADHD in teens and adults: a practice-friendly review.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kevin

    2005-05-01

    Although stimulant medication is a cornerstone of treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), numerous nonpharmacological treatments can be employed in combination with medication to assist in the lifelong management of the disorder. A multimodal treatment combining psychoeducation, medication, psychotherapy, compensatory behavioral/self-management skills, technological tools and devices, coaching, advocacy, and reasonable school or workplace accommodations is probably the most comprehensive and effective. This article describes a variety of psychosocial treatments that are commonly used for adolescents and adults suffering from ADHD.

  9. The Psychosocial Problems of Cancer Patients: A Prospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Wayne; And Others

    The course of psychosocial adjustment to cancer was examined in 105 adults with cancer of the lung, breast and skin. Half of the patients received a program of systematic psychosocial rehabilitation plus evaluation, and the other half received only an evaluation, consisting of a series of psychometric instruments and a problem-oriented structured…

  10. Past horrors, present struggles: the role of stigma in the association between war experiences and psychosocial adjustment among former child soldiers in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Gilman, Stephen E; Williams, David R; Ellis, B Heidi

    2010-01-01

    Upon returning to their communities, children formerly associated with armed forces and armed groups--commonly referred to as child soldiers--often confront significant community stigma. Much research on the reintegration and rehabilitation of child soldiers has focused on exposure to past war-related violence and mental health outcomes, yet no empirical work has yet examined the role that post-conflict stigma plays in shaping long-term psychosocial adjustment. Two waves of data are used in this paper from the first prospective study of male and female former child soldiers in Sierra Leone. We examined the role of stigma (manifest in discrimination as well as lower levels of community and family acceptance) in the relationship between war-related experiences and psychosocial adjustment (depression, anxiety, hostility and adaptive behaviors). Former child soldiers differ from one another with regard to their post-war experiences, and these differences profoundly shape their psychosocial adjustment over time. Consistent with social stress theory, we observed that post-conflict factors such as stigma can play an important role in shaping psychosocial adjustment in former child soldiers. We found that discrimination was inversely associated with family and community acceptance. Additionally, higher levels of family acceptance were associated with decreased hostility, while improvements in community acceptance were associated with adaptive attitudes and behaviors. We found that post-conflict experiences of discrimination largely explained the relationship between past involvement in wounding/killing others and subsequent increases in hostility. Stigma similarly mediated the relationship between surviving rape and depression. However, surviving rape continued to demonstrate independent effects on increases in anxiety, hostility and adaptive/prosocial behaviors after adjusting for other variables. These findings point to the complexity of psychosocial adjustment and

  11. A Social-Cognitive-Ecological Framework for Understanding the Impact of Exposure to Persistent Ethnic-Political Violence on Children's Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we describe a theoretical framework for understanding how persistent and extreme exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence interacts with cognitive, emotional, and self processes to influence children's psychosocial adjustment. Three recent strands of theorizing guide our approach. First, we focus on how observational and…

  12. Applying the Transactional Stress and Coping Model to Sickle Cell Disorder and Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus: Identifying Psychosocial Variables Related to Adjustment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, Matthew C.; Lochman, John E.

    2005-01-01

    This review paper examines the literature on psychosocial factors associated with adjustment to sickle cell disease and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in children through the framework of the transactional stress and coping (TSC) model. The transactional stress and coping model views adaptation to a childhood chronic illness as mediated by…

  13. Research Review: Psychosocial Adjustment and Mental Health in Former Child Soldiers--A Systematic Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Borisova, Ivelina; Williams, Timothy P.; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah E.; Rubin-Smith, Julia E.; Annan, Jeannie; Kohrt, Brandon A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims and scope: This article reviews the available quantitative research on psychosocial adjustment and mental health among children (age less than 18 years) associated with armed forces and armed groups (CAAFAG)--commonly referred to as child soldiers. Methods: PRISMA standards for systematic reviews were used to search PubMed, PsycInfo, JSTOR,…

  14. Masculinity, Femininity, and Psychosocial Adjustment in Medical Students: Two-Year Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeldow, Peter B.; And Others

    Although research on masculinity and femininity has increased over the past decade, longitudinal studies addressing predictive elements are lacking. The Rush Medical College Longitudinal Study examines the correlation between masculinity and femininity on the one hand and adjustment, interpersonal functioning, and impairment on the other. During…

  15. Perceived Partner Reactions to Diagnosis and Treatment of Breast Cancer: Impact on Psychosocial and Psychosexual Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimberly, Sarah R.; Carver, Charles S.; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Harris, Suzanne D.; Antoni, Michael H.

    2005-01-01

    Two studies examined breast cancer patients' perceptions of their partners' reactions to their diagnosis and treatment as influences on 3 aspects of patients' well-being: psychosexual adjustment, emotional distress, and marital satisfaction. Study 1, cross-sectional, indicated that partner initiation of sex, frequency of sex, a positive 1st sexual…

  16. Psychosocial Influences on College Adjustment in Division I Student-Athletes: The Role of Athletic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melendez, Mickey C.

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, graduation rates have been employed as a primary measure of college success for student-athletes. However, other sport related factors influencing college success and adjustment have yet to be adequately researched in the literature. The purpose of this study was to examine more closely the impact of race, gender, and athletic…

  17. In Vitro Fertilization and the Family: Quality of Parenting, Family Functioning, and Child Psychosocial Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Chun-Shin; DiPietro, Janet A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined associations between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and parenting quality, family functioning, and emotional/behavioral adjustment of 3- to 7-year-olds. Found that IVF mothers reported greater protectiveness than mothers of naturally conceived children. Teachers rated IVF mothers as displaying greater warmth but not overprotective or…

  18. Reciprocal Influences among Adrenocortical Activation, Psychosocial Processes, and the Behavioral Adjustment of Clinic-Referred Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granger, Douglas A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Assessed children's adjustment at clinic intake and six months later, and sampled children's saliva before and after a conflict-oriented parent-child interaction. Increases in salivary cortisol predicted children's internalizing problem behaviors and anxiety disorders at follow-up. High adrenocortical reactivity at intake and follow-up was…

  19. Just Another Club? The Distinctiveness of the Relation between Religious Service Attendance and Adolescent Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Marie; Willoughby, Teena; Fritjers, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This study used hierarchical linear modeling to compare longitudinal patterns of adolescent religious service attendance and club attendance, and to contrast the longitudinal relations between adolescent adjustment and religious service versus club attendance. Participants included 1050 students (47% girls) encompassing a school district in…

  20. Relation between Assertiveness, Academic Self-Efficacy, and Psychosocial Adjustment among International Graduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poyrazli, Senel; Arbona, Consuelo; Nora, Amaury; McPherson, Robert; Pisecco, Stewart

    2002-01-01

    Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, Academic Self-Efficacy Scale, The Inventory for Student Adjustment Strain, and UCLA Loneliness Scale were used to examine a total of 122 graduate international students. Findings indicate that English proficiency, assertiveness, and academic self-efficacy contributed uniquely to the variance in students' general…

  1. Youth Psychosocial Adjustment Following Wildfire: The Role of Family Resilience, Emotional Support, and Concrete Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Caryll M.; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Felix, Erika; Afifi, Tamara; Reyes, Gilbert; Afifi, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Natural disasters can have a significant impact on youth and family mental health and well-being. However, the relationship between family protective factors and youth adjustment in the aftermath of disaster remains unclear. Objective: In order to address the present gaps in the field, this study investigated perceived disaster-related…

  2. Navigating the cultural transition alone: psychosocial adjustment of Korean early study abroad students.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Okazaki, Sumie

    2014-04-01

    Precollege study abroad in English-speaking countries is an increasingly popular educational strategy among Asian families. We used grounded theory method to construct a model of cultural adjustment process for unaccompanied minors based the retrospective narratives of 10 (8 male) South Korean adolescents who came to the United States, unaccompanied by parents, to attend middle schools or high schools. We found that unaccompanied minors' cultural adjustment progressed from their predeparture ambivalence to initial sense of vulnerability to an eventual sense of reengagement. Unaccompanied minor students' pervasive sense of vulnerability upon arrival was heightened not only by their lack of English fluency but also their reluctance to seek the support of parents in Korea and of local Korean peers. This study has implications for educators and counselors in secondary schools who work with international students who are unaccompanied minors.

  3. Navigating the cultural transition alone: psychosocial adjustment of Korean early study abroad students.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Okazaki, Sumie

    2014-04-01

    Precollege study abroad in English-speaking countries is an increasingly popular educational strategy among Asian families. We used grounded theory method to construct a model of cultural adjustment process for unaccompanied minors based the retrospective narratives of 10 (8 male) South Korean adolescents who came to the United States, unaccompanied by parents, to attend middle schools or high schools. We found that unaccompanied minors' cultural adjustment progressed from their predeparture ambivalence to initial sense of vulnerability to an eventual sense of reengagement. Unaccompanied minor students' pervasive sense of vulnerability upon arrival was heightened not only by their lack of English fluency but also their reluctance to seek the support of parents in Korea and of local Korean peers. This study has implications for educators and counselors in secondary schools who work with international students who are unaccompanied minors. PMID:24099484

  4. [Parental cancer--parents ways of coping, family functioning, and psychosocial adjustment of dependent children].

    PubMed

    Krattenmacher, Thomas; Kühne, Franziska; Führer, Daniel; Ernst, Johanna; Brähler, Elmar; Herzog, Wolfgang; von Klitzing, Kai; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Bergelt, Corinna; Romer, Georg; Möller, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Children exposed to parental cancer have an increased risk of mental health problems. However, the parental illness itself and its features do not predict children's psychological adjustment. Parent- and family-related factors are more predictive for children's well-being and the incidence of psychopathological symptoms, respectively. This study focuses on parental ways of coping with illness from both, the ill and healthy parent's perspective, and the relationship with family functioning and children's adjustment. Results show a significant impact of parental coping styles on children's health-related quality of life and psychopathological symptoms and, furthermore, that this relationship is mediated by aspects of family functioning. This study support the importance of family systems approaches. Implications for further studies and practical issues are discussed. PMID:22950338

  5. Quality Counts: Developmental Shifts in Associations Between Romantic Relationship Qualities and Psychosocial Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Collibee, Charlene; Furman, Wyndol

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed a developmental task theory of romantic relationships by examining associations between romantic relationship qualities and adjustment across 9 years using a community based sample of 100 male and 100 female participants (M age Wave 1 = 15.83) in a Western U.S. city. Using multilevel modeling, the study examined the moderating effect of age on links between romantic relationship qualities and adjustment. Consistent with developmental task theory, high romantic quality was more associated with internalizing symptoms and dating satisfaction during young adulthood than adolescence. Romantic relationship qualities were also associated with externalizing symptoms and substance use, but the degree of association was consistent across ages. The findings underscore the significance of romantic relationship qualities across development. PMID:26283151

  6. Quality Counts: Developmental Shifts in Associations Between Romantic Relationship Qualities and Psychosocial Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Collibee, Charlene; Furman, Wyndol

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed a developmental task theory of romantic relationships by examining associations between romantic relationship qualities and adjustment across 9 years using a community-based sample of 100 male and 100 female participants (Mage Wave 1 = 15.83) in a Western U.S. city. Using multilevel modeling, the study examined the moderating effect of age on links between romantic relationship qualities and adjustment. Consistent with developmental task theory, high romantic quality was more negatively associated with internalizing symptoms and dating satisfaction during young adulthood than adolescence. Romantic relationship qualities were also associated with externalizing symptoms and substance use, but the degree of association was consistent across ages. The findings underscore the significance of romantic relationship qualities across development. PMID:26283151

  7. Three Years After Black Saturday: Long-Term Psychosocial Adjustment of Burns Patients as a Result of a Major Bushfire.

    PubMed

    Pfitzer, Birgit; Katona, Lynda Jane; Lee, Stuart J; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Cleland, Heather; Wasiak, Jason; Ellen, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence that burn injuries can result in multiple psychological sequelae, little is known about the long-term psychosocial adjustment to burns sustained in a major bushfire. The aim of the present study was to assess long-term psychological distress and health-related quality of life in Australian burns patients as a result of the 2009 Black Saturday bushfires. Eight male and five female burns patients with a mean age of 53.92 (SD = 11.82) years who received treatment at a statewide burns service participated in the study. A battery of standardized questionnaires was administered to assess general psychological distress, burns-specific and generic health-related quality of life, alcohol use, and specific psychological symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety. The results revealed that more than 3 years after Black Saturday 33% of the burns patients still suffered "high" to "very high" levels of general distress, whereas 58% fulfilled partial or full criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder. Furthermore, participants still experienced significantly impaired physical health functioning as compared to their preinjury status including limitations in work-based activities, increased bodily pain, and lower vitality overall. The trajectory of distress varied for participants. Some individuals experienced little distress overall, whereas others displayed a decline in their stress levels over time. Notwithstanding, some patients maintained high levels of distress throughout or experienced an increase in distress at a later stage of recovery. The results point to the importance of psychosocial screening to identify distress early. Follow-up assessments are crucial to diagnose individuals with chronic or late onset of distress.

  8. A Social-Cognitive-Ecological Framework for Understanding the Impact of Exposure to Persistent Ethnic-Political Violence on Children’s Psychosocial Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we describe a theoretical framework for understanding how persistent and extreme exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence interacts with cognitive, emotional, and self processes to influence children’s psychosocial adjustment. Three recent strands of theorizing guide our approach. First, we focus on how observational and social learning processes combine to influence the development of social-cognitive structures and processes that affect behavior. Second, we focus on the role of developing self and identity processes in shaping the child’s interactions with the world and the consequences of those interactions. Third, we build on the complex systems perspective on development and assume that human development can only be understood accurately by examining how the multiple contexts affecting children and the adults in their lives interact to moderate biosocial factors which predispose individuals to develop in certain directions. We review the recent empirical literature on children’s exposure to ethnic-political violence and we apply the social-cognitive-ecological framework to the empirical findings in this literature. Finally, we propose future directions for research and clinical implications derived from this framework. PMID:19430904

  9. [Personal and psychosocial problems in mastectomy for breast cancer and the possibility of adjustment].

    PubMed

    Heesen, H; Kolecki, S

    1982-08-01

    Parts of the results of single interviews of 34 patients with carcinoma of the breast are reported. A team of physician, psychologist, and the patients themselves worked out the interviews. These were then coded and analyzed. 10 patients said that they had found it especially difficult to overcome the problems caused by their illness due to the loss of their jobs because of bureaucratic reasons. 5 patients got into financial troubles. The patients tried to get back to their previous jobs, hobbies, social contacts and holiday habits as soon as possible. In all cases the illness caused a more anxious observation of bodily sensations. 19 patients felt the loss of the breast as a heavy diminution of their female identity. These reactions were strongly influenced by the reactions of their male partners and the loss of their jobs. The loss of the breast and the awareness of the disease partly negatively, partly positively changed the emotional state and family life and in many cases caused a change of sexual behaviour. Overprotection and questions regarding the patients' health were generally felt to be stressful. 17 patients tried to avoid obtaining complete information on the disease. They were afraid of contradictory views presented by the mass media or by fellow patients they met in waiting rooms, in convalescent sanatoriums, or in self-help groups. Although, still aware of their disease, 23 patient regained a fully satisfying life-style, 3 were ambivalent. The most important factors in overcoming the problems were family, friends, and the patients' own ability to adapt. The psychosocial care was entirely insufficient, although the patients showed a great readiness to cooperate.

  10. Social adjustment in adult males affected with progressive muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Eggers, S; Zatz, M

    1998-02-01

    Adult male patients affected with Becker (BMD, N = 22), limb girdle (LGMD, N = 22) and facioscapulohumeral (FSHMD, N = 18) muscular dystrophy were interviewed to assess for the first time how the disease's severity and recurrence risk (RR) magnitude alter their social adjustment. BMD (X-linked recessive) is the severest form and confers an intermediate RR because all daughters will be carriers, LGMD (autosomal-recessive) is moderately severe with a low RR in the absence of consanguineous marriage, and FSHMD (autosomal-dominant) is clinically the mildest of these three forms of MD but with the highest RR, of 50%. Results of the semistructured questionnaire [WHO (1988): Psychiatric Disability Assessment Schedule] showed no significant difference between the three clinical groups, but more severely handicapped patients as well as patients belonging to lower socioeconomic levels from all clinical groups showed poorer social adjustment. Taken together, myopathic patients displayed intermediate social dysfunction compared to controls and schizophrenics studied by Jablensky [1988: WHO Psychiatric Disability Assessment Schedule]. Since the items of major dysfunction proportion among myopathic patients concern intimate relationships (70%), interest in working among those unemployed (67%), and social isolation (53%), emotional support and social and legal assistance should concentrate on these aspects. Interestingly, the results of this study also suggest that high RRs do not affect relationships to the opposite sex.

  11. The mid-life transition: a period in adult psychosocial development.

    PubMed

    Levinson, D J

    1977-05-01

    For the past nine years my colleagues and I have been working on a theory of adult psychosocial development in men (Levinson et al., 1974, 1977; Levinson, 1977). We have started some research on women (Stewart, 1977), but it is too early yet to report definitive theory or findings. Our aim is to encompass the many components of a man's life-all of his relationships with individuals, groups, and institutions that have significance for him. The components of life include his occupation and its evolution over the years, his love relationships, marriage, and family life, his various other roles and careers in numerous social contexts. This psychosocial approach includes the man's personality and the ways in which it influences and is influenced by the evolution of his careers in occupation, family, and other systems. The resulting theory is not a theory of personality development, nor of occupational development, nor of development in any single aspect of living. It deals, rather, with the development of the individual life in the broadest sense, encompassing all of these segments. This theory provides a context within which we can study in more detail the development of personality and of particular careers. I shall briefly describe the developmental periods we discovered in early and middle adulthood, giving major emphasis to one period, the Mid-life Transition. Like childhood and adolescence, these periods are found in the lives of all men. Of ourse, men traverse them in myriad ways, as a result of differences in class, ethnicity, personality, and other factors. My primary aim is to present some of our major concepts, hypotheses, findings, and ways of thinking about adult development. None of them have been fully validated. Together, they comprise a framework for the analysis of adult development. No doubt the theory will be modified an extended as a result of further investigation. PMID:870922

  12. Appearance concerns and psychosocial adjustment following head and neck cancer: A cross-sectional study and nine-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Sally-Ann; Newell, Robert; Thompson, Andrew; Harcourt, Diana; Lindenmeyer, Antje

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial difficulties have been reported in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients, yet only few studies have assessed the impact of altered appearance following HNC treatment using theoretically selected measures of appearance-related distress. This study investigated appearance-related adjustment following HNC, and demographic and socio-cognitive predictors of adjustment. HNC patients (n=49) completed baseline questionnaires and a nine-month postal follow-up (n=20). Participants showed considerable variation in appearance-related adjustment, with females reporting higher levels of appearance-related distress (derriford appearance scale [DAS-24]) than females in the general population and male HNC survivors. Depression scores on the hospital anxiety and depression scale were higher than UK norms whilst anxiety was similar to UK norms. There were no significant differences between baseline and follow-up data. Fear of negative evaluation (a central feature of social anxiety) was a significant predictor of appearance-related adjustment at baseline, whilst dispositional optimism was a significant predictor of appearance-related adjustment at baseline and follow-up. Qualitative responses showed themes of appearance and disability, and coping strategies. Findings suggest that appearance-related adjustment post-HNC varies considerably and psychosocial services working with HNC patients should consider this broad pattern of response. Future research to examine the role of socio-cognitive predictors of appearance-related adjustment could progress development of effective psychological interventions.

  13. Effects of early menarche on physical and psychosocial health problems in adolescent girls and adult women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The menarcheal age of Korean women has been rapidly decreasing for the last 50 years, and the average menarcheal age of women born in the 1990s is approaching 12.6 years. In addition, interest in early puberty has been increasing recently owing to the rapid increase in precocious puberty. Generally, out of concern for short stature and early menarche, idiopathic central precocious puberty in female adolescents is treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs. Studies to date have described the association between early menarche and psychosocial problems such as delinquency and risky sexual behavior, as well as physical health problems such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and breast cancer throughout the lifespan of women. However, the pathophysiological mechanism underlying this association has not been clarified thus far. In this article, we review and discuss the existing literature to describe the current understanding of the effects of early menarche on the physical and psychosocial health of adolescent girls and adult women. PMID:27721839

  14. Effects of psychosocial and situational variables on substance abuse among homeless adults.

    PubMed

    Stein, Judith A; Dixon, Elizabeth L; Nyamathi, Adeline M

    2008-09-01

    Finding direct and indirect influences of salient psychosocial and situational variables on problem substance use among homeless people is important in designing evidence-based, effective, and relevant interventions for this special population. A stress-coping paradigm in conjunction with situational items specialized for homeless people was used to explore predictive relationships in a sample of homeless adults (N = 664) among (a) psychosocial variables of self-esteem, social support, positive and negative coping, and emotional distress, (b) situational variables of homelessness history and quality of recent housing, and (c) outcomes of alcohol use, injection drug use (IDU), and non-IDU. Lower self-esteem predicted greater emotional distress, lower positive coping, greater negative coping, and more alcohol use. Social support predicted less emotional distress and more positive coping. Chronic homelessness predicted more emotional distress, less positive coping, greater alcohol use, and IDU. Poor housing was associated with more alcohol use and IDU. Substance abuse interventions among the homeless should have a dual focus that includes attention to psychological issues and negative coping patterns while also addressing situational, environmental factors, including encouraging provision of permanent supportive housing.

  15. Sociodemographic and psychosocial factors in childhood as predictors of adult mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, J E; Friedman, H S; Tucker, J S; Tomlinson-Keasey, C; Wingard, D L; Criqui, M H

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Childhood sociodemographic, psychosocial, and environmental factors are often assumed to affect adult health and longevity. These relationships were prospectively tested by using the 7-decade Terman Life Cycle Study of Children With High Ability (n = 1285). METHODS: Parental socioeconomic status, childhood health, objective childhood stressors (e.g., death or divorce of parents), and childhood personality were considered as potential predictors in hazard regression analyses of longevity through 1991. RESULTS: Parental divorce during childhood predicted decreased longevity, with sex controlled. Other potential social predictors failed to show significant associations with longevity. Three dimensions of childhood personality--conscientiousness, lack of cheerfulness, and permanency of mood (males only)--predicted increased longevity. The effects of parental divorce and childhood personality were largely independent and did not account for any of the gender difference in mortality. CONCLUSIONS: A small number of childhood factors significantly predicted mortality across the life span in this sample. Further research should focus on how these psychosocial factors influence longevity. PMID:7661231

  16. Making meaning of traumatic events: youths' strategies for processing childhood sexual abuse are associated with psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Simon, Valerie A; Feiring, Candice; Kobielski McElroy, Sarah

    2010-08-01

    The need to make meaning of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and often persists long after the abuse ends. Although believed to be essential for healthy recovery, there is a paucity of research on how youth process their CSA experiences. The current study identified individual differences in the ways youth process their CSA and examined associations with psychosocial adjustment. A sample of 108 youth with confirmed abuse histories enrolled in the study within 8 weeks of abuse discovery, when they were between 8 and 15 years old. Six years later, they participated in interviews about their CSA experiences, reactions, and perceived effects. Using a coding system developed for this study, youths' CSA narratives were reliably classified with one of three processing strategies: Constructive (13.9%), Absorbed (50%), or Avoidant (36.1%). Absorbed youth reported the highest levels of psychopathological symptoms, sexual problems, and abuse-specific stigmatization, whereas Constructive youth tended to report the fewest problems. Avoidant youth showed significantly more problems than Constructive youth in some but not all areas. Interventions that build healthy processing skills may promote positive recovery by providing tools for constructing adaptive meanings of the abuse, both in its immediate aftermath and over time.

  17. Identification and Analysis of Learning Preferences of Mentally Ill Adults in Rehabilitative Psychosocial Therapy at the Anderson Mental Health Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Michael K.

    A study identified and analyzed the learning preferences of 17 seriously and chronically mentally ill adults participating in the rehabilitative psychosocial therapy program at the Toxaway Church Site of the Anderson Mental Health Center. Staff perceived as boring and unfocused the traditional treatment approach that relied mainly upon…

  18. Psychosocial Adaptation to Visual Impairment and Its Relationship to Depressive Affect in Older Adults with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Jennifer; Hill, Robert D.; Kleinschmidt, Julia J.; Gregg, Charles H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: In this study we examined psychosocial adaptation to vision loss and its relationship to depressive symptomatology in legally blind older adults with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Design and Methods: The 144 study participants were outpatients of a large regional vision clinic that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of…

  19. The Ethnic Identity, Other-Group Attitudes, and Psychosocial Functioning of Asian American Emerging Adults from Two Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda P.; Nguyen, Huong H.; Lin, Yunghui

    2006-01-01

    Drawing from two samples of Asian American emerging adults, one in an ethnically concentrated context (n = 108) and the other in an ethnically-dispersed, mainly White context (n = 153), we examined (a) how ethnic identity and other-group attitudes were related to psychosocial functioning (i.e., depression, self-esteem, and connectedness to…

  20. The Impact of the Developmental Timing of Trauma Exposure on PTSD Symptoms and Psychosocial Functioning among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogle, Christin M.; Rubin, David C.; Siegler, Ilene C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of the developmental timing of trauma exposure on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and psychosocial functioning in a large sample of community-dwelling older adults (N = 1,995). Specifically, we investigated whether the negative consequences of exposure to traumatic events were greater for traumas…

  1. Promoting Psychosocial Adjustment and Stress Management in First-Year College Students: The Benefits of Engagement in a Psychosocial Wellness Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Colleen S.; Travers, Lea V.; Bryant, Fred B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective/Methods: This research evaluates the effectiveness of a psychosocial wellness seminar for first-year college students, from 2009 to 2011, using an 8-month prospective quasi-experimental design. Participants/Results: Compared with controls ("n" = 22) involved in an alternative seminar, intervention participants ("n" =…

  2. Physical and Psychosocial Functions of Adults with Lower Limb Congenital Deficiencies and Amputations in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Montesinos-Magraner, Ll; Issa-Benítez, D; Pagès-Bolíbar, E; Meléndez-Plumed, M; González-Viejo, M A; Castellano-Tejedor, C

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To describe the epidemiological and medical features of a sample with LLA and LLD in childhood and (2) to explore their relationship with subsequent physical and psychosocial functions in adulthood. Methods. Cross-sectional survey. Demographics, medical data, Locomotor Capabilities Index (LCI), and Discomfort-Engagement in Everyday Activities Involving Revealing the Body Scale (D-EEARB) were collected from thirty-two adults who suffered from LLA in childhood or LLD. Results. Most of the sample (53.1% males) was working (84.4%), living independently (75%), and single (75%). Mean age was 33.16 (SD = 7.64, range 18-50). Leading causes for LLA were traumatic (40.6%) and oncologic (25%). LLD was present in 6 cases (18.8%). LCI scores revealed a high performance among males (t 17,464 = 2.976, p = .008). D-EEARB scores showed that 56.25% stated feeling "quite" or "totally comfortable" in situations which involved revealing their body, but 43.75% stated the contrary ("uncomfortable" or "very uncomfortable"). LLD and traumatic LLA show higher scores in D-EEARB than vascular and oncological LLA (χ (2) = 7.744, df = 3, p = .05). Conclusions. Adults suffering from LLDs and LLAs during childhood seem to perform well once they are adults. However, 43.75% of patients express considerable discomfort in situations that involve revealing the body.

  3. Physical and Psychosocial Functions of Adults with Lower Limb Congenital Deficiencies and Amputations in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Montesinos-Magraner, Ll.; Issa-Benítez, D.; Pagès-Bolíbar, E.; Meléndez-Plumed, M.; González-Viejo, M. A.; Castellano-Tejedor, C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To describe the epidemiological and medical features of a sample with LLA and LLD in childhood and (2) to explore their relationship with subsequent physical and psychosocial functions in adulthood. Methods. Cross-sectional survey. Demographics, medical data, Locomotor Capabilities Index (LCI), and Discomfort-Engagement in Everyday Activities Involving Revealing the Body Scale (D-EEARB) were collected from thirty-two adults who suffered from LLA in childhood or LLD. Results. Most of the sample (53.1% males) was working (84.4%), living independently (75%), and single (75%). Mean age was 33.16 (SD = 7.64, range 18–50). Leading causes for LLA were traumatic (40.6%) and oncologic (25%). LLD was present in 6 cases (18.8%). LCI scores revealed a high performance among males (t17,464 = 2.976, p = .008). D-EEARB scores showed that 56.25% stated feeling “quite” or “totally comfortable” in situations which involved revealing their body, but 43.75% stated the contrary (“uncomfortable” or “very uncomfortable”). LLD and traumatic LLA show higher scores in D-EEARB than vascular and oncological LLA (χ2 = 7.744, df = 3, p = .05). Conclusions. Adults suffering from LLDs and LLAs during childhood seem to perform well once they are adults. However, 43.75% of patients express considerable discomfort in situations that involve revealing the body. PMID:27195152

  4. Adult psychosocial assets and depressive mood over time. Effects of internalized childhood attachments.

    PubMed

    Richman, J A; Flaherty, J A

    1987-12-01

    This paper discusses contrasting assumptions in psychiatric epidemiological research regarding the relative significance of childhood and adult social experiences as etiological factors in adult psychopathology. It delineates a set of hypotheses that relate internal parental representations to subsequent depressed mood and to psychosocial assets assumed to mediate the relationships between parental representations and mood states. These hypotheses were prospectively tested using a cohort of medical students surveyed at medical school entrance and 7 months later. The data show that earlier paternal affectivity perceived at time 1 is inversely predictive of time 2 depressed mood, holding time 1 mood constant, whereas earlier maternal and paternal overprotection perceived at time 1 are directly predictive of time 2 depressed mood, holding time 1 mood constant. In addition, parental representations at time 1 are significantly linked to particular personality characteristics at time 1 and 2. However, it is not clear whether these personality characteristics are antecedents or consequences of depressed mood. The paper concludes with a discussion of theoretical and methodological issues involved in the retrospective assessment of remote social experiences as etiological factors in adult psychopathology. PMID:3681282

  5. Psychosocial Functioning of Adults who Experienced Substance Use Disorders as Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Paul; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Seeley, John R.; Klein, Daniel N.; Andrews, Judy A.; Small, Jason W.

    2008-01-01

    We examined whether substance use disorder (SUD) before age 19 was associated with functioning at age 30 in 773 individuals assessed twice during adolescence, and at ages 24 and 30. Eight of 14 adult measures were associated with adolescent SUD: education, unemployment, income, risky sexual behavior, suicide attempt, coping, stressful life events, and global adjustment. Controlling for adolescent comorbidity and functioning and adult SUD, education and unemployment remained associated, and three variables emerged as significant: being a parent (significant only for participants without adult SUD), and being currently married and decreased life satisfaction (significant only for participants with adult SUD). Adolescent SUD is associated with numerous functioning difficulties at age 30, some of which appear to be related to recurrent SUD, comorbid adolescent disorders, or functioning problems already evident in adolescence. PMID:17563135

  6. 'Schizoid' personality in childhood and adult life. II: Adult adjustment and the continuity with schizotypal personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Wolff, S; Townshend, R; McGuire, R J; Weeks, D J

    1991-11-01

    In a controlled follow-up study into adulthood of 32 children diagnosed 'schizoid', three-quarters fulfilled DSM-III criteria for schizotypal personality disorder and two developed schizophrenia. Overall their psychosocial adjustment was somewhat, but not markedly, worse than that of other attenders at a child psychiatry clinic, although as a group they remained more solitary, lacking in empathy, oversensitive, with odd styles of communicating, and often with circumscribed interests.

  7. Racial Differences in Clinical Characteristics, Perceptions and Behaviors, and Psychosocial Impact of Adult Female Acne

    PubMed Central

    Alexis, Andrew F.; Daniels, Selena R.; Kawata, Ariane K.; Burk, Caroline T.; Wilcox, Teresa K.; Taylor, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Limited data are available on racial differences in clinical characteristics and burden in adult female acne. The objective was to describe racial differences in clinical characteristics, psychosocial impact, perceptions, behaviors, and treatment satisfaction in facial adult female acne. Design: Cross-sectional, web-based survey. Setting: Diverse sample of United States women. Participants: Women between the ages of 25 and 45 years with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions). Measurements: Outcomes included sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial impacts, perceptions, behaviors, and treatment satisfaction. Racial differences were evaluated using descriptive statistics and t-test/chi-square analyses. Results: 208 females participated (mean age 35±6 years); 51.4 percent were White/Caucasian and 48.6 percent were non-White/Caucasian women [Black/African American (n=51); Hispanic/Latina (n=23); Asian (n=16); Other (n=ll)]. Age of acne onset (mean 14.8±5 vs. 17.0±8 years, p<0.05) and acne concern occurred earlier (16.6±7 vs. 19.3±9 years, p<0.05) in White/Caucasian than non-White/Caucasian subjects. Facial acne primarily presented on chin (28.0%) and cheeks (30.8%) for White/Caucasian women versus cheeks (58.4%) for non-White/Caucasian women. Non-White/Caucasian women experienced more postinflammatory hyperpigmentation than White/Caucasian women (p<0.0001). Facial acne negatively affected quality of life (QoL) in both groups, and most participants (>70%) reported some depression/anxiety symptoms. More White/Caucasian than non-White/Caucasian women were troubled by facial acne (88.8% vs. 76.2%, p<0.05). Lesion clearance was most important to White/Caucasian women (57.9 vs. non-White/Caucasian 31.7%, p<0.001); non-White/Caucasian females focused on postinflammatory hyperpigmentation clearance (41.6% vs. Caucasian 8.4%, p<0.0001). Conclusion: Results highlight racial differences in participant-reported clinical characteristics, attitudes, behaviors, and

  8. Research Review: Psychosocial adjustment and mental health in former child soldiers – a systematic review of the literature and recommendations for future research

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Borisova, Ivelina; Williams, Timothy P.; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah E.; Rubin-Smith, Julia E.; Annan, Jeannie; Kohrt, Brandon A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims and scope This article reviews the available quantitative research on psychosocial adjustment and mental health among children (age <18 years) associated with armed forces and armed groups (CAAFAG) – commonly referred to as child soldiers. Methods PRISMA standards for systematic reviews were used to search PubMed, PsycInfo, JSTOR, and Sociological Abstracts in February 2012 for all articles on former child soldiers and CAAFAG. Twenty-one quantitative studies from 10 countries were analyzed for author, year of publication, journal, objectives, design, selection population, setting, instruments, prevalence estimates, and associations with war experiences. Opinion pieces, editorials, and qualitative studies were deemed beyond the scope of this study. Quality of evidence was rated according to the Systematic Assessment of Quality in Observational Research (SAQOR). Findings According to SAQOR criteria, among the available published studies, eight studies were of high quality, four were of moderate quality, and the remaining nine were of low quality. Common limitations were lack of validated mental health measures, unclear methodology including undefined sampling approaches, and failure to report missing data. Only five studies included a comparison group of youth not involved with armed forces/armed groups, and only five studies assessed mental health at more than one point in time. Across studies, a number of risk and protective factors were associated with postconflict psychosocial adjustment and social reintegration in CAAFAG. Abduction, age of conscription, exposure to violence, gender, and community stigma were associated with increased internalizing and externalizing mental health problems. Family acceptance, social support, and educational/economic opportunities were associated with improved psychosocial adjustment. Conclusions Research on the social reintegration and psychosocial adjustment of former child soldiers is nascent. A number of gaps in the

  9. Health behaviors, quality of life, and psychosocial health among survivors of adolescent and young adult cancers

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Gina E.; Zhang, Yingying; McFadden, Molly; Wright, Jennifer; Spraker-Perlman, Holly; Kinney, Anita Y.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Kirchhoff, Anne C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer may engage in unhealthy lifestyles (e.g., smoking), potentially heightening their risk for long-term health problems. We assessed health behaviors and constructs including quality of life (QOL) and psychosocial well-being among survivors of AYA cancer compared to the general population. Methods We used 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to evaluate health behaviors for survivors of AYA cancer compared to AYAs without cancer. Multivariable regressions assessed health behaviors (smoking, binge drinking, physical inactivity, and low fruit/vegetable intake) by sex and age between AYA survivors and controls, and among survivors to determine the effects of demographic, QOL, psychosocial, and cancer factors on behaviors. Results A greater proportion of female survivors of AYA cancer smoked than controls (currently aged 20–39: 27 vs. 14.3%, respectively; currently aged 40–64: 29.3 vs. 18.4%, respectively). Generally, survivors and controls were non-adherent to national health behavior guidelines. Uninsured survivors were at greater risk of smoking vs. insured (females, Relative Risk (RR)=1.64, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.43–1.90; males, RR=2.62, 95 % CI 1.71–4.02). Poor social/emotional support was associated with smoking (RR= 1.26, 95 % CI 1.07–1.48) among female survivors and was associated with low fruit/vegetable intake among male (RR= 1.12, 95 % CI 1.01–1.23) and female (RR=1.12, 95 % CI 1.05–1.19) survivors. Female survivors >10 years from diagnosis had higher risk of smoking (RR=1.26–1.91, all p<0.01) than survivors 5–10 years from diagnosis. Conclusions Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors are common in survivors of AYA cancer. Implications for Cancer Survivors AYA survivors require health behavior support. PMID:26248766

  10. Investigating the psychosocial determinants of physical activity in older adults: A qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Kosteli, Maria-Christina; Williams, Sarah E.; Cumming, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Despite the benefits of physical activity (PA), only one-third of older adults meet the recommended levels. The present study focused on psychosocial determinants of PA following retirement. Social cognitive theory (SCT) was used to better understand pre- and post-retirement adults’ thoughts about PA, the reasons why some individuals are more active than others, and how PA is incorporated into daily life after retirement. Design: Seven focus groups of older adults (N = 37, M = 64, SD = 5.20; males = 20) representing a range of PA levels and retirement length participated in one of seven focus groups. Results: Aligned with SCT, self-efficacy beliefs along with perceptions about barriers and benefits of PA were among the major determinants of PA. Findings highlighted the importance of social support, positive outcome expectations and self-regulatory strategies as motivators. The lack of structure in retirement was a hindrance to incorporating PA into daily routine but, when incorporated, PA provided a sense of purpose in the lives of retired individuals. Conclusion: It is important to understand the meaning of retirement as a life transition and how it affects beliefs about PA to inform SCT-based health promotion interventions targeting individuals in retirement age. PMID:26964473

  11. Gender, Race-Ethnicity, and Psychosocial Barriers to Mental Health Care: An Examination of Perceptions and Attitudes among Adults Reporting Unmet Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojeda, Victoria D.; Bergstresser, Sara M.

    2008-01-01

    Though researchers have described psychosocial barriers to mental health care-seeking, limited research has examined ways in which gender and race-ethnicity are associated with individuals' perceptions and attitudes. This study investigates correlates of psychosocial barriers to mental health care in a population of adults reporting unmet need for…

  12. Psychosocial correlates of sun protection behaviors among U.S. Hispanic adults.

    PubMed

    Coups, Elliot J; Stapleton, Jerod L; Manne, Sharon L; Hudson, Shawna V; Medina-Forrester, Amanda; Rosenberg, Stephen A; Gordon, Marsha; Tatum, Kristina S; Robinson, June K; Natale-Pereira, Ana; Goydos, James S

    2014-12-01

    The incidence of skin cancer among U.S. Hispanics increased 1.3% annually from 1992 to 2008. However, little research has focused on skin cancer prevention among the rapidly growing Hispanic population. In this study, we examined theory-driven, psychosocial correlates of sun protection behaviors in a population-based sample of 787 Hispanic adults (49.6% female, mean age = 41.0 years) residing in five southern or western U.S. states. Participants completed an English- or Spanish-language online survey in September 2011. The outcomes of focus were sunscreen use, shade seeking, and use of sun protective clothing. The correlates included suntan benefits, sun protection benefits and barriers, skin color preference, perceived natural skin protection, photo-aging concerns, perceived skin cancer risk, skin cancer worry, skin cancer fatalism, and sun protection descriptive norms. Results of multiple linear regression analyses revealed the following: sun protection barriers were negatively associated with each outcome; descriptive norms were positively associated with each outcome; perceived natural skin protection was inversely associated with sunscreen use; skin cancer worry was positively associated with shade seeking and use of sun protective clothing; skin cancer fatalism was negatively associated with shade seeking; and skin color preference was negatively associated with use of sun protective clothing. A number of additional statistically significant associations were identified in bivariate correlation analyses. This study informs the potential content of interventions to promote engagement in sun protection behaviors among U.S. Hispanics.

  13. Concurrent and longitudinal effects of ethnic identity and experiences of discrimination on psychosocial adjustment of Navajo adolescents.

    PubMed

    Galliher, Renee V; Jones, Matthew D; Dahl, Angie

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we examined concurrent and longitudinal relations among Navajo adolescents' ethnic identity, experiences of discrimination, and psychosocial outcomes (i.e., self-esteem, substance use, and social functioning). At Time 1, 137 Navajo adolescents (67 male, 70 female), primarily in Grades 9 and 10, completed a written survey assessing ethnic identity, discrimination experiences, and a range of internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Two years later, 92 participants completed the same survey again. Ethnic and cultural identification was assessed via the Multiethnic Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM; Phinney, 1992) and the Orthogonal Cultural Identification Scale (OCIS; Oetting & Beauvais, 1990). At Time 1, MEIM Affirmation and Belonging, MEIM Exploration, and OCIS White American identification all demonstrated strong, positive associations with adaptive functioning for male and female adolescents, whereas discrimination experiences were linked to lower self-esteem and social functioning for male adolescents. By Time 2, fewer significant concurrent associations between ethnic identity and psychosocial functioning scores remained, and discrimination experiences emerged as the most consistent correlate of poorer psychosocial functioning for male adolescents. Controlling for Time 1 psychosocial functioning, relatively few direct effects of ethnic and cultural identification variables predicted psychosocial functioning longitudinally, but discrimination experiences demonstrated strong and consistent longitudinal links with boys' substance use. Finally, interaction effects assessing the moderating influence of ethnic and cultural identification on negative links between discrimination and psychosocial functioning suggested that embeddedness in and connection to Navajo culture and, in some cases, connection to White American culture, served as a buffer to the negative effects of discrimination experiences. PMID:21142373

  14. An increase in salivary interleukin-6 level following acute psychosocial stress and its biological correlates in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Shuhei; Sugaya, Nagisa; Kimura, Kenta; Ogawa, Namiko; Yamada, Kosuke C; Shirotsuki, Kentaro; Mikami, Ikuyo; Hirata, Kanako; Nagano, Yuichiro; Nomura, Shinobu

    2013-10-01

    Although interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been investigated frequently in stress research, knowledge regarding the biological processes of IL-6 in association with psychosocial stress remains incomplete. This study focused on salivary IL-6 and reports its temporal variation and biological correlates following acute psychosocial stress. Fifty healthy young adults (39 male and 11 female students) were subjected to the psychosocial stress test 'Trier Social Stress Test' (TSST), wherein the participants were asked to deliver a speech and perform a mental arithmetic task in front of 2 audiences. Collection of saliva samples, measurement of heart rate, and assessment of negative moods by visual analogue scales were conducted before, during, and after TSST. Salivary IL-6 levels increased by approximately 50% in response to the TSST and remained elevated for 20 min after the stress tasks were completed. Cluster analyses revealed that individuals with sustained elevation of IL-6 levels following the TSST exhibited a lower cortisol response compared to individuals with lower IL-6 levels. In the correlation analyses, a greater IL-6 response was associated with a higher heart rate during the mental arithmetic task (r=.351, p<.05) and with a lower cortisol response (r=-.302, p<.05). This study demonstrates that salivary IL-6 levels are elevated for a relatively long period following acute psychosocial stress, and suggests that sympathetic activity and cortisol secretion are involved in elevation of salivary IL-6 levels.

  15. Concurrent and Longitudinal Effects of Ethnic Identity and Experiences of Discrimination on Psychosocial Adjustment of Navajo Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galliher, Renee V.; Jones, Matthew D.; Dahl, Angie

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined concurrent and longitudinal relations among Navajo adolescents' ethnic identity, experiences of discrimination, and psychosocial outcomes (i.e., self-esteem, substance use, and social functioning). At Time 1, 137 Navajo adolescents (67 male, 70 female), primarily in Grades 9 and 10, completed a written survey assessing…

  16. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptom Profiles in Medication-Treated Adults Entering a Psychosocial Treatment Program

    PubMed Central

    Knouse, Laura E.; Sprich, Susan; Cooper-Vince, Christine; Safren, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although medications are the most widely studied effective treatments for adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), patients treated with medications often have significant residual symptoms that may be amenable to psychosocial intervention. Few studies, however, report on the structure and severity of specific residual ADHD symptoms in adult patients who have been treated with medications. This information may be important in identifying the most important psychosocial treatment targets for medicated adults with ADHD with residual symptoms. Objectives Identify which symptoms of ADHD are most frequent and severe for medication-treated adults. Identify meaningful factors underlying self-report and clinician ratings in this group. Methods Self-reported and clinician-rated ADHD symptom data from 105 adults in the community already receiving medication treatment who were entering cognitive behavioral therapy studies were examined. First, we examined the frequency and severity of each of the 18 ADHD symptoms that were present in the sample. Second, we conducted exploratory factor analyses of self-reported and clinician-rated ADHD symptoms to best describe the structure of residual symptoms in medication-treated adults, Lastly, we examined the association of the resulting factor scores with clinician-rated global ADHD severity (Clinical Global Impressions) and functional impairment (Global Assessment of Functioning) scales to determine which factors relate to overall severity. Results The 2 most frequent (self-reported and clinician-rated) residual symptoms were disorganization (85%–88%) and distractibility (74%–83%). Exploratory factor analyses for both self-reported and clinician-rated data yielded a 3-factor model: (1) Hyperactivity/Restlessness, (2) Impulsivity/Poor Prospective Memory, and (3) Inattention. Using multiple regression, the Inattention factor from self-reported and clinician-rated data was most strongly, consistently

  17. Exploring Post-Program Psychological Adjustment for Adult Staff Facilitating a Wilderness Adventure Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence-Wood, Ellie; Raymond, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a pilot study of the post-program psychological adjustment outcomes of adult staff facilitating an Australian-based wilderness adventure program for youth at risk. The descriptive and correlational survey study (N = 62) examined the psychological adjustment processes staff underwent following program completion, and the factors…

  18. Stress, Coping, and Psychological Adjustment of Adults with Sickle Cell Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Robert J., Jr.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined psychological adjustment to sickle cell disease (SCD) among 109 African-American adults. Good psychological adjustment was associated with lower levels of perceived daily stress and stress regarding SCD illness tasks, higher efficacy expectations, less use of palliative coping methods and negative thinking/passive adherence pain-coping…

  19. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adolescent School Victimization: Implications for Young Adult Health and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Stephen T.; Ryan, Caitlin; Toomey, Russell B.; Diaz, Rafael M.; Sanchez, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adolescent school victimization due to lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) status is commonplace, and is associated with compromised health and adjustment. Few studies have examined the long-term implications of LGBT school victimization for young adult adjustment. We examine the association between reports of LGBT school…

  20. How Older Rural Adults Utilize Self-Directed Learning in Late Life Adjustments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The increasing numbers and influence of older adults is causing many segments of western society to re-evaluate the concept of old age. Medical advances and personal lifestyles have resulted in older adults living longer and healthier lives. As one ages, adjustments in work, family, and health must be made. Self-directed learning (SDL) is one way…

  1. "I will guide you" The indirect link between overparenting and young adults' adjustment.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Sofie; Scharf, Miri

    2015-08-30

    This study addresses knowledge gaps regarding family dynamics, and identifies young adults at-risk for psychopathological symptoms. In particular, we examined overparenting and its associations with young adults' adjustment (distress and interpersonal sensitivity). Both direct and indirect relations were assessed, the latter through young adults' relational characteristics (attachment, psychological control perception, and boundaries diffusion perception). Also, the contribution of gender of parents and young adults was addressed. Questionnaires were collected from 89 Jewish-Israeli intact families. Mothers reported significantly more use of overparenting than fathers. More overparenting of fathers had a direct relation with less adjustment in young adults. This direct relation was partially mediated by higher levels of young adults' attachment anxiety (for the dependent variables distress and interpersonal sensitivity) and young adults' perceptions of parental psychological control (for the dependent variable distress). More overparenting of mothers was related to less interpersonal sensitivity for male young adults and for young adults who reported less parental psychological control. This study showed that parenting qualities and their interplay with young adults' relational characteristics continue to play an important role in the lives of young adult offspring. Therefore, clinicians dealing with young adults at risk for, or suffering from, psychopathology, should be attentive to overparenting and its possible implications.

  2. Religious commitment, adult attachment, and marital adjustment in newly married couples.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Jamie L; Riggs, Shelley A; Pollard, Sara E; Hook, Joshua N

    2011-04-01

    Existing literature on the role of religiosity in marital functioning is often difficult to interpret due to the frequent use of convenience samples, statistical approaches inadequate for interdependent dyadic data, and the lack of a theoretical framework. The current study examined the effects of religious commitment and insecure attachment on marital adjustment. Newly married couples who did not have children (N = 92 couples, 184 individuals) completed measures of religious commitment, adult attachment, and marital functioning. There was a small positive association between religious commitment and marital adjustment. Religious commitment buffered the negative association between attachment avoidance and marital adjustment, but exacerbated the negative association between attachment anxiety and marital adjustment.

  3. Psychosocial and Family Functioning in Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Devine, Katie A.

    2010-01-01

    A developmentally-oriented bio-neuropsychosocial model is introduced to explain variation in family functioning and psychosocial adjustment in youth and young adults with spina bifida (SB). Research on the family functioning and psychosocial adjustment of individuals with SB is reviewed. The findings of past research on families of youth with SB support a resilience-disruption view of family functioning. That is, the presence of a child with SB disrupts normative family functioning, but many families adapt to such disruption and exhibit considerable resilience in the face of adversity. Parents of youth with SB, and particularly those from lower SES homes, are at-risk for psychosocial difficulties. Individuals with SB are at-risk for developing internalizing symptoms, attention problems, educational difficulties, social maladjustment, and delays in the development of independent functioning. Emerging adults are often delayed in achieving milestones related to this stage of development (e.g., vocational and educational achievements). Methodologically-sound, longitudinal, and theory-driven studies of family and psychosocial functioning are needed, as are randomized family-based intervention trials, to promote adaptive functioning and better psychosocial outcomes in families of individuals with SB. PMID:20419770

  4. The relationships of personal and cultural identity to adaptive and maladaptive psychosocial functioning in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Seth J; Zamboanga, Byron L; Weisskirch, Robert S; Wang, Sherry C

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which cultural identity would be associated with adaptive and maladaptive psychosocial functioning, both directly and indirectly through a personal identity consolidation. A sample of 773 White, Black, and Hispanic university students completed measures of cultural identity, personal identity consolidation, adaptive psychosocial functioning, internalizing symptoms, and proclivity toward externalizing symptoms. Both heritage and American cultural identity were positively related to adaptive psychosocial functioning; American-culture identity was negatively associated with internalizing symptoms; and heritage-culture identity was negatively related to proclivity toward externalizing symptoms. All of these findings were mediated by personal identity consolidation and were fully consistent across ethnic groups. We discuss implications in terms of broadening the study of identity to include both personal and cultural dimensions of self.

  5. Psychosocial Adjustment and Sibling Relationships in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Risk and Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared sibling adjustment and relationships in siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD-Sibs; n = 69) and siblings of children with typical development (TD-Sibs; n = 93). ASD-Sibs and TD-Sibs demonstrated similar emotional/behavioral adjustment. Older male ASD-Sibs were at increased risk for difficulties. Sibling…

  6. Adolescent Obesity and Young Adult Psychosocial Outcomes: Gender and Racial Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merten, Michael J.; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Williams, Amanda L.

    2008-01-01

    Using a sample of 7,881 African American (915 males and 1,073 females) and White (2,864 males and 3,029 females) adolescents from Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined the psychosocial consequences that obese adolescents encounter as they reach young adulthood. Results indicate that obesity…

  7. Psychosocial Outcomes of Adult Children of Mothers with Depression and Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Carol T.; Mowbray, Orion P.

    2006-01-01

    Research has established that children of parents with mental illness, compared with normative samples, are more likely to have emotional/behavioral problems or psychiatric diagnoses themselves. Few studies have examined these children at adulthood, however, to document their diverse psychosocial outcomes and the parenting and contextual variables…

  8. The Effect of Preventive Consultations on Young Adults with Psychosocial Problems: A Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, Kirsten S.; Lous, Jorgen

    2012-01-01

    Patients with many problems often face difficulties in modifying their behavior as desired. Uncovered basic needs may be an important barrier. This research tests the effect of patient-centered consultations for 20- to 44-year-old patients with multiple psychosocial and lifestyle problems. We focus on resources and barriers for obtaining…

  9. Conduct Disorder and Psychosocial Outcomes at Age 30: Early Adult Psychopathology as a Potential Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olino, Thomas M.; Seeley, John R.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is associated with a number of adverse psychosocial outcomes in adulthood. There is consistent evidence that CD is predictive of antisocial behavior, but mixed evidence that CD is predictive of other externalizing and internalizing disorders. Further, externalizing and internalizing disorders are often associated with similar…

  10. The transmission of trauma in refugee families: associations between intra-family trauma communication style, children's attachment security and psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Dalgaard, Nina Thorup; Todd, Brenda Kathryn; Daniel, Sarah I F; Montgomery, Edith

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the transmission of trauma in 30 Middle Eastern refugee families in Denmark, where one or both parents were referred for treatment of PTSD symptoms and had non-traumatized children aged 4-9 years. The aim of the study was to explore potential risk and protective factors by examining the association between intra-family communication style regarding the parents' traumatic experiences from the past, children's psychosocial adjustment and attachment security. A negative impact of parental trauma on children might be indicated, as children's Total Difficulties Scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were significantly higher than the Danish norms. A negative association between children's attachment security as measured by the Attachment and Traumatization Story Task and higher scores on the SDQ Total Difficulties Scale approached significance, suggesting that the transmission of trauma may be associated with disruptions in children's attachment representations. Furthermore a significant association between parental trauma communication and children's attachment style was found.

  11. The transmission of trauma in refugee families: associations between intra-family trauma communication style, children's attachment security and psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Dalgaard, Nina Thorup; Todd, Brenda Kathryn; Daniel, Sarah I F; Montgomery, Edith

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the transmission of trauma in 30 Middle Eastern refugee families in Denmark, where one or both parents were referred for treatment of PTSD symptoms and had non-traumatized children aged 4-9 years. The aim of the study was to explore potential risk and protective factors by examining the association between intra-family communication style regarding the parents' traumatic experiences from the past, children's psychosocial adjustment and attachment security. A negative impact of parental trauma on children might be indicated, as children's Total Difficulties Scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were significantly higher than the Danish norms. A negative association between children's attachment security as measured by the Attachment and Traumatization Story Task and higher scores on the SDQ Total Difficulties Scale approached significance, suggesting that the transmission of trauma may be associated with disruptions in children's attachment representations. Furthermore a significant association between parental trauma communication and children's attachment style was found. PMID:26608277

  12. Distinct health behavior and psychosocial profiles of young adult survivors of childhood cancers: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Kincaid; Escoffery, Cam; Mertens, Ann C.; Berg, Carla J.

    2016-01-01

    Background We used a mixed-methods approach to examine health behavior profiles of young adult cancer survivors and characterize related sociodemographic and psychosocial factors. Methods We conducted a mail-based survey assessing sociodemographics, cancer treatment, health behaviors (e.g., tobacco use, physical activity), healthcare provider interactions, and psychosocial factors (e.g., Profile of Moods States [POMS]) among 106 young adult survivors from a southeastern cancer center and semi-structured interviews among a subset of 26. Results A k-means cluster analysis using eight health behaviors yielded three distinct health behavior profiles: high risk (n = 25), moderate risk (n = 39), and low risk (n = 40). High risks had the highest current alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use; physical activity; and number of sexual partners (p’s < 0.001). They had higher symptoms of POMS tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, fatigue-inertia, and confusion-bewilderment (p’s < 0.05). Moderate risks had lowest physical activity (p < 0.05) but otherwise had moderate health behaviors. Low risks had the lowest alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use and fewest sexual partners (p’s < 0.05). They had the lowest levels of tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, fatigue-inertia, and confusion-bewilderment (p’s < 0.05). Qualitative interviews showed that cancer had a range of effects on health behaviors and variable experiences regarding how healthcare providers address these behaviors. Conclusions Assessing health behavior profiles, rather than individual health behaviors, is informative in characterizing young adult cancer survivors and targeting survivorship care. Implications for Cancer Survivors Young adult cancer survivors demonstrate distinct health behavior profiles and are differentially impacted by the experience of cancer. Healthcare providers should be consistently intervening to ensure that survivors understand their specific health risks. PMID:26688575

  13. Psychosocial Aspects of Siblings' Experiences of Pediatric Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Marla; Brack, Gregory

    1994-01-01

    Identified those aspects of experiences of siblings of children with cancer that might have impact on school functioning. Also examined extent to which parents and siblings concurred in their reports of siblings' psychosocial functioning and adjustment. Findings from 15 children and adults attending pediatric oncology camp revealed that most…

  14. Testing a developmental cascade model of adolescent substance use trajectories and young adult adjustment

    PubMed Central

    LYNNE-LANDSMAN, SARAH D.; BRADSHAW, CATHERINE P.; IALONGO, NICHOLAS S.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental models highlight the impact of early risk factors on both the onset and growth of substance use, yet few studies have systematically examined the indirect effects of risk factors across several domains, and at multiple developmental time points, on trajectories of substance use and adult adjustment outcomes (e.g., educational attainment, mental health problems, criminal behavior). The current study used data from a community epidemiologically defined sample of 678 urban, primarily African American youth, followed from first grade through young adulthood (age 21) to test a developmental cascade model of substance use and young adult adjustment outcomes. Drawing upon transactional developmental theories and using growth mixture modeling procedures, we found evidence for a developmental progression from behavioral risk to adjustment problems in the peer context, culminating in a high-risk trajectory of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use during adolescence. Substance use trajectory membership was associated with adjustment in adulthood. These findings highlight the developmental significance of early individual and interpersonal risk factors on subsequent risk for substance use and, in turn, young adult adjustment outcomes. PMID:20883591

  15. Mechanisms in Psychosocial Interventions for Adults Living with Cancer: Opportunity for Integration of Theory, Research, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Annette L.; Luecken, Linda J.; MacKinnon, David P.; Thompson, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The diagnosis and treatment of cancer are highly stressful experiences that can profoundly affect emotional and physical well-being. Hundreds of longitudinal investigations that identify risk and protective factors for psychological and physical adjustment in adults living with cancer and numerous randomized controlled psychosocial…

  16. Social Networking Site Use Predicts Changes in Young Adults' Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szwedo, David E.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Allen, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined youths' friendships and posted pictures on social networking sites as predictors of changes in their adjustment over time. Observational, self-report, and peer-report data were obtained from a community sample of 89 young adults interviewed at age 21 and again at age 22. Findings were consistent with a leveling effect for…

  17. A Structural Equation Modeling Approach to the Study of Stress and Psychological Adjustment in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asberg, Kia K.; Bowers, Clint; Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    Today's society puts constant demands on the time and resources of all individuals, with the resulting stress promoting a decline in psychological adjustment. Emerging adults are not exempt from this experience, with an alarming number reporting excessive levels of stress and stress-related problems. As a result, the present study addresses the…

  18. Early Developmental and Psychosocial Risks and Longitudinal Behavioral Adjustment Outcomes for Preschool-Age Girls Adopted from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tony Xing; Marfo, Kofi; Dedrick, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    The central goal of this longitudinal study was to examine behavioral adjustment outcomes in a sample of preschool-age adopted Chinese girls. Research examining the effects of institutional deprivation on post-adoption behavioral outcomes for internationally adopted children has been constrained by the frequent unavailability of data on the…

  19. Don't Fret, Be Supportive! Maternal Characteristics Linking Child Shyness to Psychosocial and School Adjustment in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplan, Robert J.; Arbeau, Kimberley A.; Armer, Mandana

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the moderating role of maternal personality and parenting characteristics in the links between shyness and adjustment in kindergarten. Participants were 197 children enrolled in kindergarten programs (and their mothers and teachers). Multisource assessment was employed, including maternal ratings, behavioral…

  20. Observed and perceived parental overprotection in relation to psychosocial adjustment in preadolescents with a physical disability: the mediational role of behavioral autonomy.

    PubMed

    Holmbeck, Grayson N; Johnson, Sharon Z; Wills, Karen E; McKernon, Wendy; Rose, Brigid; Erklin, Shannon; Kemper, Therese

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to tes a mediational model of associations between parental overprotectiveness (OP), behavioral autonomy. and psychosocial adjustment in 68 families with 8- and 9-year-old preadolescents with spipa bifida and a demographically matched sample of 68 families with able-bodied children. Measures included questionnaire and observational assessments of parental OP; parent and child reports of behavioral autonomy; and parent, child, and teacher reports of preadolescent adjustment. On the basis of both questionnaire and observational measures of OP, mothers and fathers of children with spina bifida were significantly more overprotective than their counterparts in the able-bodied sample, although this group difference was partially mediated by children's cognitive ability. Across samples, mothers were more likely to be overprotective than fathers. Both questionnaire and observational measures of parental OP were associated with lower levels of preadolescent decision-making autonomy as well as with parents being less willing to grant autonomy to their offspring in the future. For the questionnaire measure of OP, and only for the spina bifida sample. the mediational model was supported such that parental OP was associated with less behavioral autonomy, which was, in turn, associated with more externalizing problems. Findings are discussed in relation to the literature on parenting, autonomy development, and pediatric psychology. PMID:11860060

  1. HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE AND PSYCHOSOCIAL CORRELATES AMONG HIV-INFECTED ADOLESCENT AND YOUNG ADULT WOMEN IN THE US

    PubMed Central

    Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Clum, Gretchen; Murphy, Debra A.; Harper, Gary; Perez, Lori; Xu, Jiahong; Cunningham, Shayna; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study HIV health-related quality of life (HIV-HRQOL) is examined among 179 behaviorally infected adolescent and young adult women. Modifiable psychosocial variables including depression, stigma, social support, and illness acceptance, and the biological end-points of CD4 cell count and viral load were explored in relation to HIV-HRQOL. The three factors of the HIV-HRQOL measure include current life satisfaction, illness related anxiety and illness burden. Bivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated statistically significant associations for all psychosocial variables and HIV-HRQOL factors (p < .01), but not for biological end-points. In multivariate linear regression analysis significant associations remained between: depression (p = .006), illness acceptance (p < .001), social support (p = .001), and current life satisfaction, and depression (p = .012), illness acceptance (p = .015), and illness burden. A trend in association was noted for HIV stigma, with current life satisfaction and illness related anxiety but did not reach statistical significance (p = .097 and p = .109 respectively). Interventions that effectively decrease stigma and depression and increase social support and illness acceptance will likely improve the well-being and quality of life of HIV-infected adolescent women. PMID:21966746

  2. Don't fret, be supportive! maternal characteristics linking child shyness to psychosocial and school adjustment in kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Coplan, Robert J; Arbeau, Kimberley A; Armer, Mandana

    2008-04-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the moderating role of maternal personality and parenting characteristics in the links between shyness and adjustment in kindergarten. Participants were 197 children enrolled in kindergarten programs (and their mothers and teachers). Multisource assessment was employed, including maternal ratings, behavioral observations, teacher ratings, and individual child interviews. Results indicated that shyness was associated with a wide range of socio-emotional and school adjustment difficulties in kindergarten. Moreover, support for the moderating role of parenting was also found. Relations between shyness and certain indices of maladjustment were stronger among children with mothers characterized by higher neuroticism, BIS sensitivity, and an overprotective parenting style, and weaker for mothers characterized by high agree-ableness and an authoritative parenting style. PMID:17899358

  3. Faith Is Confidence: The Implication of Psychosocial Components in Faith-Based Educational Programs on Expressive Communication Skills of Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Erin M.

    2016-01-01

    Faith-based programs for adult learners have environmental factors that differentiate them from non-faith based programs, but explicit empirical studies evaluating the impact of the psychosocial factors have been lacking in the literature. This study comparatively examines the achievement level of expressive communication skills as measured…

  4. Adult Attachment, Culturally Adjusted Attachment, and Interpersonal Difficulties of Taiwanese Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chia-Chih DC; Scalise, Dominick A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the applicability of Western adult attachment perspectives to interpersonal difficulties experienced by individuals with indigenous Chinese cultural backgrounds. A total of 275 Taiwanese university students completed self-report surveys of adult attachment, ideal attachment, and interpersonal problems. Culturally adjusted…

  5. Associations of frailty and psychosocial factors with autonomy in daily activities: a cross-sectional study in Italian community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Mulasso, Anna; Roppolo, Mattia; Giannotta, Fabrizia; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Frailty has been recognized as a risk factor for geriatric adverse events. Little is known of the role of psychosocial factors associated with frailty in explaining negative outcomes of aging. This study was aimed at 1) evaluating the differences in psychosocial factors among robust, prefrail, and frail individuals and 2) investigating whether there was any interaction effect of frailty status with empirically identified clusters of psychosocial factors on autonomy in the activities of daily living (ADLs). Two-hundred and ten older adults (age 73±6 years, 66% women) were involved in this study. Frailty was assessed using an adapted version of the frailty phenotype. The psychosocial factors investigated were depressive symptoms using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, social isolation using the Friendship Scale, and loneliness feeling using the eight-item UCLA Loneliness Scale. The autonomy in ADLs was measured with the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. Thirty-one percent of participants were robust, 55% prefrail, and 14% frail. We performed an analysis of covariance which showed differences between robust, prefrail, and frail individuals for all the psychosocial variables: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, F(2, 205)=18.48, P<0.001; Friendship Scale, F(2, 205)=4.59, P=0.011; UCLA Loneliness Scale, F(2, 205)=5.87, P=0.003, controlling for age and sex. Using the same covariates, the two-way analysis of covariance indicated an interaction effect of frailty with psychosocial factors in determining ADLs, F(4, 199)=3.53, P=0.008. This study demonstrates the close relationship between frailty and psychosocial factors, suggesting the need to take into account simultaneously physical and psychosocial components of human functioning. PMID:26811675

  6. Associations of frailty and psychosocial factors with autonomy in daily activities: a cross-sectional study in Italian community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Mulasso, Anna; Roppolo, Mattia; Giannotta, Fabrizia; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Frailty has been recognized as a risk factor for geriatric adverse events. Little is known of the role of psychosocial factors associated with frailty in explaining negative outcomes of aging. This study was aimed at 1) evaluating the differences in psychosocial factors among robust, prefrail, and frail individuals and 2) investigating whether there was any interaction effect of frailty status with empirically identified clusters of psychosocial factors on autonomy in the activities of daily living (ADLs). Two-hundred and ten older adults (age 73±6 years, 66% women) were involved in this study. Frailty was assessed using an adapted version of the frailty phenotype. The psychosocial factors investigated were depressive symptoms using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, social isolation using the Friendship Scale, and loneliness feeling using the eight-item UCLA Loneliness Scale. The autonomy in ADLs was measured with the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. Thirty-one percent of participants were robust, 55% prefrail, and 14% frail. We performed an analysis of covariance which showed differences between robust, prefrail, and frail individuals for all the psychosocial variables: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, F(2, 205)=18.48, P<0.001; Friendship Scale, F(2, 205)=4.59, P=0.011; UCLA Loneliness Scale, F(2, 205)=5.87, P=0.003, controlling for age and sex. Using the same covariates, the two-way analysis of covariance indicated an interaction effect of frailty with psychosocial factors in determining ADLs, F(4, 199)=3.53, P=0.008. This study demonstrates the close relationship between frailty and psychosocial factors, suggesting the need to take into account simultaneously physical and psychosocial components of human functioning. PMID:26811675

  7. Co-rumination via cellphone moderates the association of perceived interpersonal stress and psychosocial well-being in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Karla Klein; Gorman, Sarah; Robbins, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents' and emerging adults' social interactions increasingly revolve around cellphone use, but little research has investigated the psychological properties of cellphone interactions. The current study explored co-rumination via cellphone; that is, the use of cellphone functions to excessively communicate about problems or negative feelings. Face-to-face co-rumination and co-rumination via cellphone were examined as potential moderators of the association between perceived interpersonal stress and psychosocial well-being (i.e., positive mental health and social burnout) in a sample of 142 college students. Face-to-face co-rumination was not a moderator. However, co-rumination via cellphone was a significant moderator such that higher levels of perceived interpersonal stress were associated with lower levels of well-being only among college students who reported higher levels of co-rumination via cellphone. Co-rumination via cellphone should be further investigated to elucidate its developmental trajectory and mental health correlates.

  8. Psychosocial factors in adults with chronic kidney disease: characteristics of pilot participants in the Tasmanian Chronic Kidney Disease study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychosocial factors including depression, anxiety and lower social support are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However the influence of these potentially modifiable risk factors on morbidity and mortality in this renal population is unknown. The Tasmanian Chronic Kidney Disease study is a prospective cohort study which aims to examine the influence of both biomedical and psychosocial factors on disease progression, decision making and length and quality of life in adults with severe CKD, prior to kidney replacement therapy (KRT). This paper describes the recruitment, baseline characteristics and initial follow-up of pilot participants. Methods Adults aged > 18 years with stage 4 CKD (eGFR 15–29 mls/min/1.73 m2) and not receiving dialysis were recruited via treating physicians. Measures included depression (9-item Patient Health Questionnaire), anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory) and social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support). Primary outcomes were kidney disease progression, use of KRT and health-related quality of life (Kidney Disease and Quality of Life Short Form and the EQ-5D). Results Of those invited (n = 105), 49 provided consent and completed baseline assessment. There were no significant differences between responders and non-responders in age, gender and socio-economic status (all p > 0.05). Participants were predominantly male (63.3%) with a mean age of 72.6 ± 10.2 years. Mean serum creatinine was 241 ± 62 μmol/L with mean eGFR 22 ± 5 mls/min/1.73 m2. Prevalence of major depression and moderate to severe anxiety was 10% and 9% respectively. Less severe depression and fewer anxiety symptoms were associated with higher health-related quality of life. Follow-up at 10-months showed CKD progression in 34% of participants (use of KRT in 16%, stage 5 CKD without KRT in 18%), one death, with the remainder stable at CKD stage 3 or 4. Conclusions Results indicate that a

  9. The relationship between structural aspects of self-concept and psychosocial adjustment in adolescents from alcoholic families.

    PubMed

    Polak, Katarzyna Anna; Puttler, Leon I; Ilgen, Mark Andrew

    2012-06-01

    Sixty adolescents from alcoholic families living in two large cities in Poland were examined in 2008 and 2009. Richness, stability, and certainty of their self-concepts, as well as levels of school adjustment, anxiety, and depression, were evaluated using a set of questionnaires. In a series of bivariate analyses, the strongest associations found were between richness of the self-concept and the social withdrawal syndrome, and between stability of the self-concept and depression. Both relationships remained significant, using multiple regression models, after controlling for possible confounding factors. Possible explanations and implications for the findings, as well as the study's limitations, are noted and discussed.

  10. Psychosocial Predictors of Sexual HIV Transmission Risk Behavior among HIV-Positive Adults with a Sexual Abuse History in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Meade, Christina S.; Kochman, Arlene; Fox, Ashley M.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with HIV sexual risk behavior. Although many psychosocial correlates of sexual risk among HIV-positive persons have been identified, studies predicting continued risk among HIV-positive adults with histories of CSA are limited. This cross-sectional study identified variables predictive of sexual transmission risk behavior among an ethnically diverse sample of 256 HIV-positive adults (women and men who have sex with men; MSM) with CSA histories. Participants were assessed for trauma symptoms, shame related to HIV and sexual trauma, substance use, coping style, and sexual risk behavior. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify variables predictive of unprotected sexual behavior in the past 4 months. Unprotected sex was significantly associated with substance use and trauma-related behavioral difficulties among women and men, and less spiritual coping among men. Unprotected sex with HIV negative or serostatus unknown partners was significantly associated with greater trauma-related behavioral difficulties, more HIV-related shame, and fewer active coping strategies. Thus, trauma symptoms, shame, coping style, and substance use were significantly associated with sexual risk behavior among HIV-positive adults with histories of CSA, with models of prediction differing by gender and partner serostatus. HIV prevention intervention for persons with HIV and CSA histories should address trauma-related behavioral difficulties and enhance coping skills to reduce sexual transmission risk behavior. PMID:17999171

  11. Postural adjustment errors during lateral step initiation in older and younger adults

    PubMed Central

    Sparto, Patrick J.; Fuhrman, Susan I.; Redfern, Mark S.; Perera, Subashan; Jennings, J. Richard; Furman, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to examine age differences and varying levels of step response inhibition on the performance of a voluntary lateral step initiation task. Seventy older adults (70 – 94 y) and twenty younger adults (21 – 58 y) performed visually-cued step initiation conditions based on direction and spatial location of arrows, ranging from a simple choice reaction time task to a perceptual inhibition task that included incongruous cues about which direction to step (e.g. a left pointing arrow appearing on the right side of a monitor). Evidence of postural adjustment errors and step latencies were recorded from vertical ground reaction forces exerted by the stepping leg. Compared with younger adults, older adults demonstrated greater variability in step behavior, generated more postural adjustment errors during conditions requiring inhibition, and had greater step initiation latencies that increased more than younger adults as the inhibition requirements of the condition became greater. Step task performance was related to clinical balance test performance more than executive function task performance. PMID:25595953

  12. College female and male heavy internet users' profiles of practices and their academic grades and psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su-Yen; Tzeng, Jeng-Yi

    2010-06-01

    This study presents the profiles of heavy Internet users and provides empirical evidence that it is not how much time university students spend online but what they do online that is associated with academic grades and psychological adjustment. Using a nationally representative sample from Taiwan, we employed K-mean cluster analysis and identified profiles based on nine Internet practices in which users engaged. Female heavy users favoring information seeking and chatting had better academic performance but tended to feel more depressed than nonheavy users, while those favoring information seeking, chatting, and online games had lower academic grades and greater loneliness, physical illness, and depression scores than nonheavy users. In contrast, only male heavy users favoring online games had lower academic grades, whereas those who favored information seeking, chatting, and online games were more likely than nonheavy users to feel physically ill and depressed. PMID:20557244

  13. Ethnic identity trajectories among Mexican-origin girls during early and middle adolescence: Predicting future psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A; Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y; Allen, Kimberly

    2016-05-01

    We examined trajectories of ethnic identity exploration, resolution, and affirmation and their associations with depressive symptoms and self-esteem 3.5 years later among early and middle adolescent Mexican-origin girls (N = 338). Findings indicated that exploration, resolution, and affirmation increased over time for both cohorts. Among early adolescents, growth in exploration was associated with more depressive symptoms during middle adolescence, whereas higher initial levels and greater rates of change of affirmation predicted fewer subsequent depressive symptoms. Among middle adolescents, higher baseline levels of exploration and affirmation predicted fewer depressive symptoms in late adolescence. Higher initial levels and greater change in affirmation predicted higher self-esteem among both cohorts. Findings highlight the developmental and multifaceted quality of ethnic identity and that associations between ethnic identity and adjustment may vary by adolescent developmental stage. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26986228

  14. Ethnic identity trajectories among Mexican-origin girls during early and middle adolescence: Predicting future psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A; Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y; Allen, Kimberly

    2016-05-01

    We examined trajectories of ethnic identity exploration, resolution, and affirmation and their associations with depressive symptoms and self-esteem 3.5 years later among early and middle adolescent Mexican-origin girls (N = 338). Findings indicated that exploration, resolution, and affirmation increased over time for both cohorts. Among early adolescents, growth in exploration was associated with more depressive symptoms during middle adolescence, whereas higher initial levels and greater rates of change of affirmation predicted fewer subsequent depressive symptoms. Among middle adolescents, higher baseline levels of exploration and affirmation predicted fewer depressive symptoms in late adolescence. Higher initial levels and greater change in affirmation predicted higher self-esteem among both cohorts. Findings highlight the developmental and multifaceted quality of ethnic identity and that associations between ethnic identity and adjustment may vary by adolescent developmental stage. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Vocational identity and psychological adjustment: a study in French adolescents and emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Lannegrand-Willems, Lyda; Perchec, Cyrille; Marchal, Clotilde

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present research was to study vocational identity in French adolescent and emerging adult students by using a French adaptation of the Vocational Identity Status Assessment (VISA), and to analyze the links between vocational identity formation and negative and positive psychological adjustment. Participants were 1077 French students who completed self-report scales about vocational identity, depression and satisfaction with life. The French version of the VISA showed good psychometric properties and six identity statuses were derived by means of cluster analysis: achievement, foreclosure, moratorium, searching moratorium, diffused diffusion and carefree diffusion. The main findings show that diffused diffusion and moratorium represent the dark sides of identity because of their negative psychological adjustment, and that the two processes of reconsideration of commitment were differently associated with psychological adjustment. These findings demonstrate that clinical interventions should be adapted to the individual's identity profile.

  16. Childhood celebrity, parental attachment, and adult adjustment: the young performers study.

    PubMed

    Rapport, L J; Meleen, M

    1998-06-01

    The associations between celebrity, parental attachment, and adult adjustment were examined among 74 famous, former young performers in television and film. As adults, former young performers whose parents served as their professional managers viewed their mothers as less caring and more overcontrolling than did performers whose parents were not their managers. Other factors affecting the quality of the parent-child relationship included dissatisfaction with money management, poor peer support, the perception that involvement in acting was determined by others, and the specific nature of professional experience. Together, these variables accounted for 59% of the variance in perceived caring and 40% of the variance in perceived autonomy support. The relation could not be attributed to a generalized response bias, as attachment was unrelated to degree of positive thinking. A Celebrity x Parental Attachment interaction indicated that the quality of the parent-child relationship moderated the effects of celebrity on adult adjustment: Among participants with good parental attachment, there was no relation between professional experience and adjustment; however, among participants with poor attachment, this relation was strong. Possible implications for parenting child actors and analogous populations of talented children in high-stress arenas are discussed.

  17. A stress and coping model of adjustment to caring for an adult with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Christina; Pakenham, Kenneth I

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the utility of a stress and coping framework for identifying factors associated with adjustment to informal caregiving to adults with mental illness. Relations between stress and coping predictors and negative (distress) and positive (positive affect, life satisfaction, benefit finding, health) carer adjustment outcomes were examined. A total of 114 caregivers completed questionnaires. Predictors included relevant background variables (carer and care recipient characteristics and caregiving context), coping resources (optimism, social support, carer-care recipient relationship quality), appraisal (threat, control, challenge) and coping strategies (problem-focused, avoidance, acceptance, meaning-focused). Results indicated that after controlling for relevant background variables (burden, caregiving frequency, care recipient symptom unpredictability), better caregiver adjustment was related to higher social support and optimism, better quality of carer-care recipient relationship, lower threat and higher challenge appraisals, and less reliance on avoidance coping, as hypothesised. Coping resources emerged as the most consistent predictor of adjustment. Findings support the utility of stress and coping theory in identifying risk and protective factors associated with adaptation to caring for an adult with mental illness.

  18. The value of impulsivity to define subgroups of addicted individuals differing in personality dysfunction, craving, psychosocial adjustment, and wellbeing: a latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Albein-Urios, Natalia; Pilatti, Angelina; Lozano, Oscar; Martínez-González, José M; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    High impulsivity is common to substance and gambling addictions. Despite these commonalities, there is still substantial heterogeneity on impulsivity levels within these diagnostic groups, and variations in impulsive levels predict higher severity of symptoms and poorer outcomes. We addressed the question of whether impulsivity scores can yield empirically driven subgroups of addicted individuals that will exhibit different clinical presentations and outcomes. We applied latent class analysis (LCA) to trait (UPPS-P impulsive behavior scale) and cognitive impulsivity (Stroop and d2 tests) scores in three predominantly male addiction diagnostic groups: Cocaine with Personality Disorders, Cocaine Non-comorbid, and Gambling and analyzed the usefulness of the resulting subgroups to differentiate personality beliefs and relevant outcomes: Craving, psychosocial adjustment, and quality of life. In accordance with impulsivity scores, the three addiction diagnostic groups are best represented as two separate classes: Class 1 characterized by greater trait impulsivity and poorer cognitive impulsivity performance and Class 2 characterized by lower trait impulsivity and better cognitive impulsivity performance. The two empirically derived classes showed significant differences on personality features and outcome variables (Class 1 exhibited greater personality dysfunction and worse clinical outcomes), whereas conventional diagnostic groups showed non-significant differences on most of these measures. Trait and cognitive impulsivity scores differentiate subgroups of addicted individuals with more versus less severe personality features and clinical outcomes.

  19. The value of impulsivity to define subgroups of addicted individuals differing in personality dysfunction, craving, psychosocial adjustment, and wellbeing: a latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Albein-Urios, Natalia; Pilatti, Angelina; Lozano, Oscar; Martínez-González, José M; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    High impulsivity is common to substance and gambling addictions. Despite these commonalities, there is still substantial heterogeneity on impulsivity levels within these diagnostic groups, and variations in impulsive levels predict higher severity of symptoms and poorer outcomes. We addressed the question of whether impulsivity scores can yield empirically driven subgroups of addicted individuals that will exhibit different clinical presentations and outcomes. We applied latent class analysis (LCA) to trait (UPPS-P impulsive behavior scale) and cognitive impulsivity (Stroop and d2 tests) scores in three predominantly male addiction diagnostic groups: Cocaine with Personality Disorders, Cocaine Non-comorbid, and Gambling and analyzed the usefulness of the resulting subgroups to differentiate personality beliefs and relevant outcomes: Craving, psychosocial adjustment, and quality of life. In accordance with impulsivity scores, the three addiction diagnostic groups are best represented as two separate classes: Class 1 characterized by greater trait impulsivity and poorer cognitive impulsivity performance and Class 2 characterized by lower trait impulsivity and better cognitive impulsivity performance. The two empirically derived classes showed significant differences on personality features and outcome variables (Class 1 exhibited greater personality dysfunction and worse clinical outcomes), whereas conventional diagnostic groups showed non-significant differences on most of these measures. Trait and cognitive impulsivity scores differentiate subgroups of addicted individuals with more versus less severe personality features and clinical outcomes. PMID:24014137

  20. Maternal depression across the first years of life compromises child psychosocial adjustment; relations to child HPA-axis functioning.

    PubMed

    Apter-Levi, Yael; Pratt, Maayan; Vakart, Adam; Feldman, Michal; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Feldman, Ruth

    2016-02-01

    Maternal depression across the first years of life negatively impacts children's development. One pathway of vulnerability may involve functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We utilize a community cohort of 1983 women with no comorbid risk repeatedly assessed for depression from birth to six years to form two groups; chronically depressed (N=40) and non-depressed (N=91) women. At six years, mother and child underwent psychiatric diagnosis, child salivary cortisol (CT) was assessed three times during a home-visit, mother-child interaction was videotaped, and child empathy was coded from behavioral paradigms. Latent Growth curve Model using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) estimated the links between maternal depression and mother's negative parenting and three child outcomes; psychopathology, social withdrawal, and empathy as related to child CT baseline and variability. Depressed mothers displayed more negative parenting and their children showed more Axis-I psychopathology and social withdrawal. SEM analysis revealed that maternal depression was associated with reduced CT variability, which predicted higher child psychopathology and social withdrawal. Whereas all children exhibited similar initial levels of CT, children of controls reduced CT levels over time while children of depressed mothers maintained high, non-flexible levels. Mother negativity was related to lower initial CT levels, which predicted decreased empathy. Findings suggest that chronic maternal depression may compromise children's social-emotional adjustment by diminishing HPA-system flexibility as well as limiting the mother's capacity to provide attuned and predictable caregiving.

  1. Maternal depression across the first years of life compromises child psychosocial adjustment; relations to child HPA-axis functioning.

    PubMed

    Apter-Levi, Yael; Pratt, Maayan; Vakart, Adam; Feldman, Michal; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Feldman, Ruth

    2016-02-01

    Maternal depression across the first years of life negatively impacts children's development. One pathway of vulnerability may involve functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We utilize a community cohort of 1983 women with no comorbid risk repeatedly assessed for depression from birth to six years to form two groups; chronically depressed (N=40) and non-depressed (N=91) women. At six years, mother and child underwent psychiatric diagnosis, child salivary cortisol (CT) was assessed three times during a home-visit, mother-child interaction was videotaped, and child empathy was coded from behavioral paradigms. Latent Growth curve Model using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) estimated the links between maternal depression and mother's negative parenting and three child outcomes; psychopathology, social withdrawal, and empathy as related to child CT baseline and variability. Depressed mothers displayed more negative parenting and their children showed more Axis-I psychopathology and social withdrawal. SEM analysis revealed that maternal depression was associated with reduced CT variability, which predicted higher child psychopathology and social withdrawal. Whereas all children exhibited similar initial levels of CT, children of controls reduced CT levels over time while children of depressed mothers maintained high, non-flexible levels. Mother negativity was related to lower initial CT levels, which predicted decreased empathy. Findings suggest that chronic maternal depression may compromise children's social-emotional adjustment by diminishing HPA-system flexibility as well as limiting the mother's capacity to provide attuned and predictable caregiving. PMID:26610204

  2. Parental control, parental warmth, and psychosocial adjustment in a sample of substance-abusing mothers and their school-aged and adolescent children.

    PubMed

    Suchman, Nancy E; Rounsaville, Bruce; DeCoste, Cindy; Luthar, Suniya

    2007-01-01

    Parenting interventions for substance-abusing adults have been broadly based on two approaches, one emphasizing parental control as a means to managing children's behavior and the second emphasizing parental warmth and sensitivity as means to fostering children's psychological development. In this investigation, we examined associations of parental control and parental warmth, respectively, with children's behavioral and psychological adjustment in a sample of 98 women enrolled in methadone maintenance and their school-aged and adolescent children. Using collateral data collected during the baseline phase of a randomized clinical trial (Luthar, S. S., Suchman, N. E., & Altomare, M. [in press]. Relational Psychotherapy Mothers Group: A randomized clinical trial for substance abusing mothers [in preparation]), we tested predictions that (a) parental control would be more strongly associated with children's behavioral adjustment and (b) parental warmth would be more strongly associated with children's psychological adjustment. Both predictions were generally confirmed, although some crossover among parenting and child dimensions was also evident. Results support the theoretical stance that parental limit setting and autonomy support, as well as nurturance and involvement, are important factors, respectively, in children's behavioral and psychological adjustment. PMID:17175393

  3. Psychosocial determinants of fruit and vegetable intake in adult population: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence suggests that fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) plays a protective role against major diseases. Despite this protective role and the obesity pandemic context, populations in Western countries usually eat far less than five servings of fruits and vegetables per day. In order to increase the efficiency of interventions, they should be tailored to the most important determinants or mediators of FVI. The objective was to systematically review social cognitive theory-based studies of FVI and to identify its main psychosocial determinants. Methods Published papers were systematically sought using Current Contents (2007-2009) and Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Proquest and Thesis, as well as Cinhal (1980-2009). Additional studies were identified by a manual search in the bibliographies. Search terms included fruit, vegetable, behaviour, intention, as well as names of specific theories. Only studies predicting FVI or intention to eat fruits and vegetables in the general population and using a social cognitive theory were included. Independent extraction of information was carried out by two persons using predefined data fields, including study quality criteria. Results A total of 23 studies were identified and included, 15 studying only the determinants of FVI, seven studying the determinants of FVI and intention and one studying only the determinants of intention. All pooled analyses were based on random-effects models. The random-effect R2 observed for the prediction of FVI was 0.23 and it was 0.34 for the prediction of intention. Multicomponent theoretical frameworks and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) were most often used. A number of methodological moderators influenced the efficacy of prediction of FVI. The most consistent variables predicting behaviour were habit, motivation and goals, beliefs about capabilities, knowledge and taste; those explaining intention were beliefs about capabilities, beliefs about consequences and perceived

  4. Post-error adjustments and ADHD symptoms in adults: The effect of laterality and state regulation.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Saleh M H; Börger, Norbert A; Geuze, Reint H; van der Meere, Jaap J

    2016-10-01

    Evidence is accumulating that individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) do not adjust their responses after committing errors. Post-error response adjustments are taken to reflect, among others, error monitoring that is essential for learning, flexible behavioural adaptation, and achieving future goals. Many behavioural studies have suggested that atypical lateral brain functions and difficulties in allocating effort to protect performance against stressors (i.e., state regulation) are key factors in ADHD. Whether these factors contribute to the absence of post-error response adjustments in ADHD is unknown. The aim of the present study is to investigate the contribution of the left and right hemispheres and the deficiency in effort allocation to deviant post-error processing in adults with high ADHD symptoms. From a pool of 87 university students, two groups were formed: a group with higher (n=30) and a group with lower (n=26) scores on the ADHD index subscale of the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales. The groups performed a lateralized lexical decision task with a fast and slower stimulus presentation rate. Post-error slowing and post-error response accuracy to stimuli presented in the left and right visual field were measured in each stimulus presentation rate. Results indicated that subjects with the lower ADHD scores slowed down and improved their response accuracy after errors, especially when stimuli were presented in the right visual field at the slower rate. In contrast, subjects with the higher ADHD scores showed no post-error adjustments. Results suggest that during lexical decision performance, impaired error processing in adults with ADHD is associated with affected ability of the left hemisphere to compensate for errors, especially when extra effort allocation is needed to meet task demands.

  5. Post-error adjustments and ADHD symptoms in adults: The effect of laterality and state regulation.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Saleh M H; Börger, Norbert A; Geuze, Reint H; van der Meere, Jaap J

    2016-10-01

    Evidence is accumulating that individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) do not adjust their responses after committing errors. Post-error response adjustments are taken to reflect, among others, error monitoring that is essential for learning, flexible behavioural adaptation, and achieving future goals. Many behavioural studies have suggested that atypical lateral brain functions and difficulties in allocating effort to protect performance against stressors (i.e., state regulation) are key factors in ADHD. Whether these factors contribute to the absence of post-error response adjustments in ADHD is unknown. The aim of the present study is to investigate the contribution of the left and right hemispheres and the deficiency in effort allocation to deviant post-error processing in adults with high ADHD symptoms. From a pool of 87 university students, two groups were formed: a group with higher (n=30) and a group with lower (n=26) scores on the ADHD index subscale of the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales. The groups performed a lateralized lexical decision task with a fast and slower stimulus presentation rate. Post-error slowing and post-error response accuracy to stimuli presented in the left and right visual field were measured in each stimulus presentation rate. Results indicated that subjects with the lower ADHD scores slowed down and improved their response accuracy after errors, especially when stimuli were presented in the right visual field at the slower rate. In contrast, subjects with the higher ADHD scores showed no post-error adjustments. Results suggest that during lexical decision performance, impaired error processing in adults with ADHD is associated with affected ability of the left hemisphere to compensate for errors, especially when extra effort allocation is needed to meet task demands. PMID:27429094

  6. Identifying Psychosocial Variables That Predict Safer Sex Intentions in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Brüll, Phil; Ruiter, Robert A C; Wiers, Reinout W; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-01-01

    Young people are especially vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The triad of deliberate and effective safer sex behavior encompasses condom use, combined with additional information about a partner's sexual health, and the kind of sex acts usually performed. To identify psychosocial predictors of young people's intentions to have safer sex, as related to this triad, we conducted an online study with 211 sexually active participants aged between 18 and 24 years. Predictors [i.e., perceived behavioral control (PBC), subjective norms, and intention] taken from Fishbein and Ajzen's Reasoned Action Approach (RAA), were combined with more distal variables (e.g., behavioral inhibition, sensation seeking, parental monitoring, and knowledge about STIs). Beyond the highly predictive power of RAA variables, additional variance was explained by the number of instances of unprotected sexual intercourse (SI) during the last 12 months and reasons for using barrier protection during first SI. In particular, past condom non-use behavior moderated PBC related to intended condom use. Further, various distal variables showed significant univariate associations with intentions related to the three behaviors of interest. It may, therefore, be helpful to include measures of past behavior as well as certain additional distal variables in future safer sex programs designed to promote health-sustaining sexual behavior.

  7. Identifying Psychosocial Variables That Predict Safer Sex Intentions in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Brüll, Phil; Ruiter, Robert A C; Wiers, Reinout W; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-01-01

    Young people are especially vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The triad of deliberate and effective safer sex behavior encompasses condom use, combined with additional information about a partner's sexual health, and the kind of sex acts usually performed. To identify psychosocial predictors of young people's intentions to have safer sex, as related to this triad, we conducted an online study with 211 sexually active participants aged between 18 and 24 years. Predictors [i.e., perceived behavioral control (PBC), subjective norms, and intention] taken from Fishbein and Ajzen's Reasoned Action Approach (RAA), were combined with more distal variables (e.g., behavioral inhibition, sensation seeking, parental monitoring, and knowledge about STIs). Beyond the highly predictive power of RAA variables, additional variance was explained by the number of instances of unprotected sexual intercourse (SI) during the last 12 months and reasons for using barrier protection during first SI. In particular, past condom non-use behavior moderated PBC related to intended condom use. Further, various distal variables showed significant univariate associations with intentions related to the three behaviors of interest. It may, therefore, be helpful to include measures of past behavior as well as certain additional distal variables in future safer sex programs designed to promote health-sustaining sexual behavior. PMID:27148520

  8. Identifying Psychosocial Variables That Predict Safer Sex Intentions in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brüll, Phil; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-01-01

    Young people are especially vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The triad of deliberate and effective safer sex behavior encompasses condom use, combined with additional information about a partner’s sexual health, and the kind of sex acts usually performed. To identify psychosocial predictors of young people’s intentions to have safer sex, as related to this triad, we conducted an online study with 211 sexually active participants aged between 18 and 24 years. Predictors [i.e., perceived behavioral control (PBC), subjective norms, and intention] taken from Fishbein and Ajzen’s Reasoned Action Approach (RAA), were combined with more distal variables (e.g., behavioral inhibition, sensation seeking, parental monitoring, and knowledge about STIs). Beyond the highly predictive power of RAA variables, additional variance was explained by the number of instances of unprotected sexual intercourse (SI) during the last 12 months and reasons for using barrier protection during first SI. In particular, past condom non-use behavior moderated PBC related to intended condom use. Further, various distal variables showed significant univariate associations with intentions related to the three behaviors of interest. It may, therefore, be helpful to include measures of past behavior as well as certain additional distal variables in future safer sex programs designed to promote health-sustaining sexual behavior. PMID:27148520

  9. Enhancing psychosocial outcomes for young adult childhood CNS cancer survivors: importance of addressing vocational identity and community integration.

    PubMed

    Strauser, David R; Wagner, Stacia; Wong, Alex W K

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between vocational identity, community integration, positive and negative affect, and satisfaction with life in a group of young adult central nervous system (CNS) cancer survivors. Participants in this study included 45 young adult CNS cancer survivors who ranged in age from 18 to 30 years (mean=22, SD=3.62), with a mean age at diagnosis of 8.8 years. Four standardized instruments were used to assess the individual's affect, satisfaction with life, vocational identity, and self-perceived level of community integration. Pearson correlation analyses were carried out to examine the relationships between the satisfaction with life and positive and negative affect, vocational identify, and community integration. A hierarchical linear regression was then performed to determine how well these variables predict satisfaction with life among CNS cancer survivors. Significant positive correlations were found between life satisfaction and positive affect (r=0.423, P<0.01), as well as life satisfaction and community integration (r=-505, P<0.001). A positive correlation between life satisfaction and vocational identity was only marginally significant (r=0.312, P<0.05). Regression results indicate that the model explained 29% of the variance with community integration making a unique contribution. The largest contribution of this study is that the findings provide initial evidence that addressing vocational identity and community integration may be important constructs in improving young adult CNS survivors' overall levels of satisfaction with life. These constructs have not been typically addressed in psychosocial cancer treatment programs.

  10. Cardiovascular Responses to Psychosocial Stress Reflect Motivation State in Adults Born at Extremely Low Birth Weight.

    PubMed

    Mathewson, Karen J; Pyhälä, Riikka; Hovi, Petteri; Räikkönen, Katri; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Boyle, Michael H; Saigal, Saroj; Morrison, Katherine M; Kajantie, Eero; Schmidt, Louis A

    2015-01-01

    Background. Adults born extremely preterm appear to have more difficulty managing the stresses of early adulthood than their term-born peers. Objective. To examine the effects of being born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight < 1000 g) versus at full term on cardiovascular responses to stress. Method. Cardiovascular responses were elicited during administration of a widely used laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results. Term-born adults exhibited a larger decrease in total peripheral resistance and larger increase in cardiac output for TSST performance, reflecting greater resilience, than did ELBW adults. Furthermore, in ELBW participants but not controls, cardiovascular responses were correlated with anxiety, suggesting that their responses reflected feelings of stress. Conclusions. Skills-training and practice with relevant stressors may be necessary to increase the personal resources of ELBW participants for managing stress as they transition to adulthood. PMID:27335948

  11. Autonomic and Neuroendocrine Responses to a Psychosocial Stressor in Adults with Autistic Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Gispen-de Wied, Christine C.; Wiegant, Victor M.; Westenberg, Herman G. M.; Lahuis, Bertine E.; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Objective of the study was to replicate in adults our previous findings of decreased heart rate and normal endocrine responses to stress in autistic children and to elucidate the discrepancy between autonomic and endocrine stress responses by including epinephrine, norepinephrine, oxytocin and vasopressin measurements. Ten autistic spectrum…

  12. Patterns of Romantic Involvement among Emerging Adults: Psychosocial Correlates and Precursors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shmuel; Scharf, Miri; Livne, Yaara; Barr, Tamuz

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined patterns of romantic involvement in 100 Israeli emerging adults (54 males) who were followed from age 22 to 29 years. Analyses of interviews at age 29 yielded four distinctive relational patterns that are associated with different levels of concurrent wellbeing: Intimately committed, Intimate, Non- intimately committed,…

  13. Perceived Social Support from Friends and Family and Psychosocial Functioning in Bisexual Young Adult College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheets, Raymond L., Jr.; Mohr, Jonathan J.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the degree to which perceived social support was associated with depression, life satisfaction, and internalized binegativity in a sample of 210 bisexual young adult college students. Two types of social support (general and sexuality specific) and 2 sources of social support (family and friends) were…

  14. Training Effects on Older Adults in Information and Communication Technologies Considering Psychosocial Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Sónia; Torres, Ana; Mealha, Óscar; Veloso, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to contribute knowledge about the impact of the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) on the self-concept, mood, and quality of life of institutionalized older adults in retirement homes and day care centers (Portuguese institutions). It also studies the influence of independent variables such as…

  15. Career Pursuit Pathways among Emerging Adult Men and Women: Psychosocial Correlates and Precursors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shmuel; Barr, Tamuz; Livneh, Yaara; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Vasalampi, Kati; Pratt, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined career pursuit pathways in 100 Israeli emerging adults (54 men) who were followed from age 22 to 29. Employing a semi-structured interview at the age of 29, participants were asked about current work and educational status, work and educational goals and status changes in recent years, and to reflect on the meaning of…

  16. Longitudinal psychosocial factors related to symptoms of Internet addiction among adults in early midlife.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S; Leukefeld, Carl G; Brook, David W

    2016-11-01

    In this longitudinal study, we applied structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the psychosocial factors from adolescence to adulthood as related to symptoms of Internet addiction (IA) during early midlife. We gathered longitudinal data on a prospective cohort of community-dwelling men and women (N=548) followed from adolescence to early midlife (mean age=43; SD=2.8). The findings supported a meditational model: adolescent (mean age=16) conflictual parent-child relationship was associated with internalizing problem behaviors at mean age 21 in emerging adulthood (b=0.13, p<0.01), which, in turn, were associated with both alcohol/drug use problems at mean age 27-32 (b=0.24, p<0.001) and affective disorders at mean age 37 (b=0.29, p<0.001), which, ultimately, were associated with symptoms of IA in early midlife (b=0.23, p<0.01; b=0.21, p<0.05, respectively). In addition, alcohol/drug use problems were associated with affective disorders (b=0.22, p<0.05). Among the constructs, alcohol/drug use problems had the greatest total effects on symptoms of IA in early midlife (b=0.28, p<0.001). Findings suggest that family therapy focused on an increase in the affectionate relationship between the adolescent and his/her parents, cognitive-behavioral treatment of internalizing problem behaviors, and effective treatment of individuals who have alcohol/drug use problems may reduce the likelihood of having symptoms of IA in early midlife. PMID:27341513

  17. The fruits of their labors: a longitudinal exploration of parent personality and adjustment in their adult children.

    PubMed

    Solomon, M

    2000-04-01

    This longitudinal study of several aspects of parenting examines how children "turn out" as adults. Ratings of adjustment (educational and occupational attainment as well as social and emotional maturity) in young adult children (aged 25-37) were made on the basis of information from 64 mothers who were participants in a longitudinal study of women's lives. As hypothesized, mothers who were demanding yet responsive, sensitive, and psychologically mature at ages 27 and 43 had children with higher overall adult adjustment scores. Other factors correlated with adjustment included the mother's long-term commitment to being a wife and mother, and the cohesiveness of the home environment. In their 50s, characteristics of parents associated with adult child adjustment were different for men and women (competence in women and forcefulness and individuality in men). Divorce was not a negative factor, and mothers' paid work (after age 27) was positive at a trend level.

  18. Exploring psychosocial support online: a content analysis of messages in an adolescent and young adult cancer community.

    PubMed

    Love, Brad; Crook, Brittani; Thompson, Charee M; Zaitchik, Sarah; Knapp, Jessica; Lefebvre, Leah; Jones, Barbara; Donovan-Kicken, Erin; Eargle, Emily; Rechis, Ruth

    2012-10-01

    The increased usage of online cancer support groups as a resource for health-related information and social support has sparked numerous discussions about the role of online support in healthcare. However, little is known about the role of social-networking groups focused on supporting adolescents and young adults (AYAs) dealing with cancer. The current investigation report findings from a content analysis designed to explore how AYAs use an online support group to meet their psychosocial needs. Overall, members of the community focused on exchanging emotional and informational support, coping with difficult emotions through expression, describing experiences of being an AYA dealing with cancer through language (metaphors), enacting identity through evaluations of the new normal (life with and after cancer), and communicating membership as an AYA with cancer. This study highlights the unique needs of the AYA cancer community and offers a preliminary roadmap for practitioners, and network members, such as family and friends, to attempt to meet the needs of this unique community. PMID:22970826

  19. Elements of Psychocardiology in the Psychosocial Handling of Adults with Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Callus, Edward; Quadri, Emilia; Chessa, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to the role of the clinical psychology in the cardiac settings, or psychocardiology, there is often a focus on acquired cardiac illnesses in the rehabilitation settings. However, the increase of adults with congenital heart disease due to technological advances in cardiology and cardiac surgery have created a new emergency. It is thus necessary to reflect upon the elements of psychocardiology adapting them to this new population, also when it comes to interventional hospital settings of cardiology and cardiac surgery. This perspective article is an effort in this direction. PMID:21833204

  20. Food addiction in adults seeking weight loss treatment. Implications for psychosocial health and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Burmeister, Jacob M; Hinman, Nova; Koball, Afton; Hoffmann, Debra A; Carels, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined food addiction symptomology and its relationship to eating pathology and psychological distress among adults seeking weight loss treatment. A primary interest was an examination of the relationship between food addiction symptoms and short-term weight loss. Adults beginning a behavioral weight loss program (N=57) were given the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) as well as measures of psychological distress, disordered eating, weight bias, and weight-focused attitudes. Weight loss was measured after 7 weeks. Severity of food addiction was related to increased depression, emotional eating, binge eating, anti-fat attitudes, internalized weight bias, body shame, and low eating self-efficacy, but not body satisfaction. Increased food addiction symptomology was also related to less weight lost at 7 weeks. Findings suggest that individuals attempting to lose weight while combating symptoms of food addiction may be especially prone to eating-related pathologies, internalized weight bias, and body shame. Importantly, findings provide evidence that food addiction may undermine efforts to lose weight. The pathology associated with addiction (e.g., tolerance, withdrawal) could make the adoption of more healthful eating habits especially difficult.

  1. Effects of gender and psychosocial factors on "friends with benefits" relationships among young adults.

    PubMed

    Owen, Jesse; Fincham, Frank D

    2011-04-01

    Friends with benefits relationships (FWB) are a blend of friendship and physical intimacy outside of a committed romantic relationship. This study examined young adults' (n = 889) engagement in, and reactions to, a FWB relationship in the past year based on their gender, psychological distress, alcohol use, and relationship attitudes. Men (54.3%) were more likely than women (42.9%) to report at least one FWB relationship and both men and women reported that FWB relationships were associated with more positive emotional reactions than negative ones although this difference was larger for men. Greater alcohol use was related to engaging in a FWB relationship and this relationship was stronger for women. Further, thoughtfulness about relationship decisions moderated the relationship between alcohol use and engaging in FWB relationships, and again this moderation effect was stronger for women than men. Young adults with more psychological distress and who felt constrained in the FWB relationship were more likely to report negative emotional reactions. Implications for psychoeducational programs and future research are offered.

  2. Influence of adult attachment insecurities on parenting self-esteem: the mediating role of dyadic adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Vincenzo; Bianco, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Background: Parenting self-esteem includes two global components, parents’ self-efficacy and satisfaction with their parental role, and has a crucial role in parent–child interactions. The purpose of this study was to develop an integrative model linking adult attachment insecurities, dyadic adjustment, and parenting self-esteem. Methods: The study involved 118 pairs (236 subjects) of heterosexual parents of a firstborn child aged 0–6 years. They were administered the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) questionnaire, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale. Results: Path analysis was used to design and test a theoretical integrative model, achieving a good fit with the data. Findings showed that dyadic adjustment mediates the negative influence on parenting self-efficacy of both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. Parenting satisfaction is positively influenced by parenting self-efficacy and negatively affected by child’s age. Attachment anxiety negatively influences parenting satisfaction. Conclusion: Our findings are in line with the theoretical expectations and have promising implications for future research and intervention programs designed to improve parenting self-esteem. PMID:26441811

  3. Cognitive and Psychosocial Consequences of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita Among Middle-Aged, Older, and Oldest-Old Adults in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS).

    PubMed

    Cherry, Katie E; Su, L Joseph; Welsh, David A; Galea, Sandro; Jazwinski, S Michal; Silva, Jennifer L; Erwin, Marla J

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the impact of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on cognitive and psychosocial functioning among middle-aged (45-64 years), older (65-89 years) and oldest-old adults (90 years and over) in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Analyses of pre- and post-disaster cognitive data showed storm-related decrements in working memory for the middle-aged and older adults, but not for the oldest-old adults. Regression analyses confirmed that measures of social engagement and storm-related disruption significantly predicted pre- to post-disaster differences in short-term and working memory performance for the middle-aged and older adults only. These results are consistent with a burden perspective on post-disaster psychological reactions. Implications for current views of disaster reactions are discussed.

  4. Preattentive sensory processing as indexed by the MMN and P3a brain responses is associated with cognitive and psychosocial functioning in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Light, Gregory A; Swerdlow, Neal R; Braff, David L

    2007-10-01

    Understanding the basic neural processes that underlie complex higher order cognitive operations and psychosocial functioning is a fundamental goal of cognitive neuroscience. Event-related potentials allow investigators to probe the earliest stages of information processing. Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a are auditory event-related potential components that reflect automatic sensory discrimination. The aim of the present study was to determine if MMN and P3a are associated with higher order cognitive operations and psychosocial functioning in clinically normal healthy subjects. Twenty adults were assessed using standardized clinical, cognitive, and psychosocial functional instruments. All individuals were within the normal range on cognitive tests and functional ratings. Participants were also tested on a duration-deviant MMN/P3a paradigm (50-msec standard tones, p = .90; 100-msec deviant tones, p = .10; stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA] = 505 msec). Across fronto-central electrode regions, significant correlations were observed between psychosocial functioning and MMN (r = -.62, p < .01) and P3a (r = .63, p < .01) amplitudes. P3a amplitude was also highly associated with immediate and delayed recall of verbal information with robust correlations widely distributed across fronto-central recording areas (e.g., r = .72, p < .001). The latency of the P3a response was significantly associated with both working memory performance (r = -.53, p < .05) and functional ratings (r = -.48, p < .05). Neurophysiological measures of relatively automatic auditory sensory information processing are associated with higher order cognitive abilities and psychosocial functioning in normal subjects. Efficiency at elementary levels of information processing may underlie the successful encoding, retrieval, and discrimination of task-relevant information, which, in turn, facilitates the iterative and responsive processing necessary for adaptive cognitive and social functioning. PMID

  5. Overcoming psychosocial and developmental barriers to blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) in an adolescent/young adult (AYA) transgender patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Khazal, Sajad; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Kapoor, Neena; Mahadeo, Kris M

    2014-11-01

    Adolescents/young adults (AYAs) afflicted with cancer face unique barriers to potentially standard curative therapies, such as blood and marrow transplantation (BMT). Transgender AYAs face additional barriers and there is a dearth of published literature regarding their oncology-related experience. We present the case of an AYA male-to-female (MTF) transgender patient on cross-sex hormone therapy, with a history of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) and significant psychosocial barriers, which initially served as a barrier to BMT at two different centers; we modified our standard consent and education process and was able to successfully proceed with BMT and subsequently cure her CML. Despite unique challenges, AYA and transgender patients with significant psychosocial barriers may achieve successful outcomes with BMT. Research is needed regarding guidelines for cross-sex hormone therapy administration for patients undergoing BMT and other issues, which may be unique to the transgender experience.

  6. Dietary supplement consumption among urban adults influenced by psychosocial stress: its pronounced influence upon persons with a less healthy lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hui-Jing; Nakamura, Keiko; Shimbo, Mari; Takano, Takehito

    2005-09-01

    In order to examine the consumption of dietary supplements among urban adults and the impact of psychological stress on supplement use in relation to lifestyle, 375 interviews of a population-based sample of urban Japanese in 2002 were analysed. The usage of various supplements, stress process (daily stressors, psychological moderators, stress outcomes), personal health practices (smoking, alcohol drinking, physical exercise, fruit and vegetable juice consumption, health-conscious eating habits) and other background factors were measured. We examined the impacts of stress on the use of vitamin tablets and capsules, vitamin-enriched health drinks and health drinks for intestinal adjustment. The percentages of these three categories of supplement user were 26.9, 18.7 and 35.7%, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjects with 'two or more' daily stressors out of the eight stressors investigated consistently showed 2-fold higher levels of consumption of either vitamin tablets and capsules or vitamin-enriched drinks compared with their counterparts with 'one or less' daily stressors. Stress-outcome indicators also related, to a greater or less extent, to the elevated consumption of various supplements. Further lifestyle-stratified analyses revealed that the stress-supplementation relationships were weaker in subjects fulfilling more than three of the five investigated health practices (i.e. the healthy lifestyle group), but stronger in subjects with fewer than two healthy practices (i.e. the less healthy lifestyle group). In conclusion, dietary supplement consumption is independently associated with stress in urban adults. The uncontrolled use of supplements for the self-medication of stress or to compensate for unhealthy behaviour represents a health concern for the general population.

  7. Adult Attachment, Social Adjustment, and Well-Being in Drug-Addicted Inpatients.

    PubMed

    Delvecchio, Elisa; Di Riso, Daniela; Lis, Adriana; Salcuni, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, attachment studies have gathered overwhelming evidence for a relation between insecure attachment and drug addiction. The existing literature predominantly addresses attachment styles and little attention is given to attachment-pattern-oriented studies. The current study explored how attachment, social adjustment, and well-being interact in 40 (28 men, 12 women; ages 20-52 years, M = 32.3, SD = 9.4) inpatients with drug addiction. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-report (SAS-SR), and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) were administered. Descriptive statistics were computed as well as differences between patterns of attachment in all variables were measured. None of the inpatients showed a secure attachment pattern: 7 scored as dismissing (18%), 5 preoccupied (12%) and 28 unresolved (70%). AAP stories were mainly connected with themes of danger, lack of protection, and helplessness. Inpatients classified as unresolved reported significantly higher maladjustment on the SAS-SR and GHQ-28 than those with resolved attachment patterns. Implications for clinicians and researchers are presented.

  8. Adult Attachment, Social Adjustment, and Well-Being in Drug-Addicted Inpatients.

    PubMed

    Delvecchio, Elisa; Di Riso, Daniela; Lis, Adriana; Salcuni, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, attachment studies have gathered overwhelming evidence for a relation between insecure attachment and drug addiction. The existing literature predominantly addresses attachment styles and little attention is given to attachment-pattern-oriented studies. The current study explored how attachment, social adjustment, and well-being interact in 40 (28 men, 12 women; ages 20-52 years, M = 32.3, SD = 9.4) inpatients with drug addiction. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-report (SAS-SR), and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) were administered. Descriptive statistics were computed as well as differences between patterns of attachment in all variables were measured. None of the inpatients showed a secure attachment pattern: 7 scored as dismissing (18%), 5 preoccupied (12%) and 28 unresolved (70%). AAP stories were mainly connected with themes of danger, lack of protection, and helplessness. Inpatients classified as unresolved reported significantly higher maladjustment on the SAS-SR and GHQ-28 than those with resolved attachment patterns. Implications for clinicians and researchers are presented. PMID:27154381

  9. Longitudinal Assessment of Cognitive and Psychosocial Functioning After Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Exploring Disaster Impact on Middle-Aged, Older, and Oldest-Old Adults.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Katie E; Brown, Jennifer Silva; Marks, Loren D; Galea, Sandro; Volaufova, Julia; Lefante, Christina; Su, L Joseph; Welsh, David A; Jazwinski, S Michal

    2011-12-01

    The authors examined the effects of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (HKR) on cognitive and psychosocial functioning in a lifespan sample of adults 6 to 14 months after the storms. Participants were recruited from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Most were assessed during the immediate impact period and retested for this study. Analyses of pre-and post-disaster cognitive data confirmed that storm-related decrements in working memory for middle-aged and older adults observed in the immediate impact period had returned to pre-hurricane levels in the post-disaster recovery period. Middle-aged adults reported more storm-related stressors and greater levels of stress than the two older groups at both waves of testing. These results are consistent with a burden perspective on post-disaster psychological reactions.

  10. Psychosocial Adjustment of Low-Income African American Youth from Single Mother Homes: The Role of the Youth-Coparent Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterrett, Emma M.; Jones, Deborah J.; Kincaid, Carlye

    2009-01-01

    African American youth from single mother homes are at greater risk for internalizing and externalizing problems relative to their peers from two-parent homes. Although the predominance of psychosocial research on these youth has focused on maternal parenting and mother-child relationship quality, far less attention has been devoted to the quality…

  11. [How do parents adjust to a child with cancer? A clinical study of the psychosocial status of parents of children with cancer].

    PubMed

    Boesenecker, U; Hoffmeister, M; Niethammer, D

    1992-06-01

    As chronic life-threatening diseases, cancer or leukemia in children generates an extreme situation for the family involved that can go on for years. Psychosocial care for all family members by a pediatric oncologist should be integrated into the treatment plan, as this is both helpful and necessary.

  12. Impact of Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games upon the Psychosocial Well-Being of Adolescents and Young Adults: Reviewing the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Porter-Armstrong, Alison P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. For many people, the online environment has become a significant arena for everyday living, and researchers are beginning to explore the multifaceted nature of human interaction with the Internet. The burgeoning global popularity and distinct design features of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) have received particular attention, and discourses about the phenomenon suggest both positive and negative impact upon gamer health. Aim. The purpose of this paper was to critically appraise the research literature to determine if playing MMORPGs impacts upon the psychosocial well-being of adolescents and young adults. Method. Initial searches were conducted on nine databases spanning the years 2002 to 2012 using key words, such as online gaming, internet gaming, psychosocial, and well-being, which, in addition to hand searching, identified six studies meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria for this review. Results. All six studies strongly associated MMORPG playing with helpful and harmful impact to the psychosocial well-being of the populations under study; however due to the methodologies employed, only tentative conclusions may be drawn. Conclusion. Since both helpful and harmful effects were reported, further multidisciplinary research is recommended to specifically explore the clinical implications and therapeutic potentialities of this modern, growing phenomenon. PMID:24236279

  13. Impact of Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games upon the Psychosocial Well-Being of Adolescents and Young Adults: Reviewing the Evidence.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jonathan; Porter-Armstrong, Alison P

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. For many people, the online environment has become a significant arena for everyday living, and researchers are beginning to explore the multifaceted nature of human interaction with the Internet. The burgeoning global popularity and distinct design features of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) have received particular attention, and discourses about the phenomenon suggest both positive and negative impact upon gamer health. Aim. The purpose of this paper was to critically appraise the research literature to determine if playing MMORPGs impacts upon the psychosocial well-being of adolescents and young adults. Method. Initial searches were conducted on nine databases spanning the years 2002 to 2012 using key words, such as online gaming, internet gaming, psychosocial, and well-being, which, in addition to hand searching, identified six studies meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria for this review. Results. All six studies strongly associated MMORPG playing with helpful and harmful impact to the psychosocial well-being of the populations under study; however due to the methodologies employed, only tentative conclusions may be drawn. Conclusion. Since both helpful and harmful effects were reported, further multidisciplinary research is recommended to specifically explore the clinical implications and therapeutic potentialities of this modern, growing phenomenon.

  14. Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Middle-Aged versus Younger Adults Enrolled in a Clinical Trial of a Web-Delivered Psychosocial Treatment for Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kalapatapu, Raj K.; Campbell, Aimee; Aharonovich, Efrat; Hu, Mei-Chen; Levin, Frances R.; Nunes, Edward V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Evidence suggests that substance abuse is becoming more prevalent in middle-aged adults. The objective of this secondary analysis was to add to the growing empirical literature on the unique features of middle-aged substance abuse populations. Methods We descriptively compared baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of middle-aged (age 45–62, n = 111) and younger (age 18–44, n = 395) substance abusers entering a web-based psychosocial treatment study as part of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Results A significantly greater percentage of middle-aged adults were non-Caucasian and had a marital status other than single/never married. There was a significant association between frequency of Internet use and the age group. Forty-six percent of middle-aged adults versus 21% of younger adults reported no Internet use in the prior 90 days. A significantly greater percentage of middle-aged adults used cocaine, and a significantly greater percentage of younger adults used marijuana and opioids. Clinically significant cognitive impairment (z less than −1.0) was found for the average participant in both groups on logical association of familiar concepts. Conclusions This secondary analysis of a NIDA CTN study provides additional information on the unique features of middle-aged substance abusers. Increasing knowledge of similarities and differences between younger and middle-aged substance abusers can help with potential age-specific substance abuse treatment planning. PMID:23340711

  15. Social and Behavioral Characteristics of Young Adult Drink/Drivers Adjusted for Level of Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, C. Raymond; Elliott, Michael R.; Shope, Jean T.

    2007-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption and drink/driving are positively correlated and many predictors of alcohol use also predict drink/driving. Past research has not fully distinguished the contributions of personal risk factors from the level of alcohol use in the prediction of drink/driving. As a result, the extent to which predictors are specific to drink/driving, versus due to a mutual association to alcohol use, is unclear. Methods This study examined the unique and shared risk factors for drink/driving and alcohol use, and examined the attributable risk (AR) associated with predictors of drink/driving while adjusting for alcohol use. Study data were from a telephone survey of 3,480 Michigan-licensed young adults who were drinkers. Four groups of drink/drivers were formed based on the prior 12-month maximum severity of drink/driving: (1) never drink/driving; (2) driving at least once within an hour of 1 or 2 drinks; (3) driving within an hour of 3 or more drinks or while feeling the effects of alcohol; and (4) drinking while driving. Results Lower perceived risk of drink/driving, greater social support for drinking and drink/driving, greater aggression and delinquency, more cigarette smoking, and more risky driving behaviors uniquely predicted drink/driving severity in models adjusted for alcohol use. The largest ARs were associated with social support for drinking and drink/driving and perceived risk of drink/driving. Conclusions These results confirm that alcohol use and drink/driving share risk factors, but also indicate that part of the variation in these factors is specific to drink/driving. Implications for interventions to reduce drink/driving are discussed. PMID:17374045

  16. Protocol for a systematic review of telephone delivered psychosocial interventions on relapse prevention, adherence to psychiatric medication and health risk behaviours in adults with a psychotic disorder

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Alison K; Baker, Amanda; Turner, Alyna; Haddock, Gillian; Kelly, Peter J; Berry, Katherine; Bucci, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The mental and physical health of individuals with a psychotic illness are typically poor. When adhered to, medication can reduce relapse. However, despite adherence, relapse remains common and functional outcomes often remain compromised. Compliance is also typically low. Cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality is also elevated, along with several important modifiable health risk behaviours. Access to psychosocial interventions is therefore important, but currently limited. Telephone delivered interventions represent a promising solution, although further clarity is needed. Accordingly, we aim to provide an overview and critical analysis of the current state of evidence for telephone delivered psychosocial interventions targeting key health priorities in adults with a psychotic disorder, including (1) relapse, (2) adherence to psychiatric medication and/or (3) modifiable cardiovascular health risk behaviours. Methods and analysis Our methods are informed by published guidelines. The review is registered and any protocol amendments will be tracked. Ten electronic peer-reviewed and four grey literature databases have been identified. Preliminary searches have been conducted for literature on psychosocial telephone interventions targeting relapse, medication adherence and/or health risk behaviours in adults with a psychotic disorder. Articles classified as ‘evaluation’ will be assessed against standardised criteria and checked by an independent assessor. The searches will be re-run just before final analyses and further studies retrieved for inclusion. A narrative synthesis will be reported, structured around intervention type and content, population characteristics and outcomes. Where possible, ‘summary of findings’ tables will be generated for each comparison. For the primary outcome of each trial, when data are available, we will calculate a risk ratio and its 95% CI (dichotomous outcomes) and/or effect size according to Cohen's formula

  17. Psychosocial and Neurocognitive Outcomes in Adult Survivors of Adolescent and Early Young Adult Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Pinki K.; Hardy, Kristina K.; Zhang, Nan; Edelstein, Kim; Srivastava, Deokumar; Zeltzer, Lonnie; Stovall, Marilyn; Seibel, Nita L.; Leisenring, Wendy; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L.; Krull, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To characterize psychological and neurocognitive function in long-term cancer survivors diagnosed during adolescence and early young adulthood (AeYA). Methods Six thousand one hundred ninety-two survivors and 390 siblings in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study completed the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 and a Neurocognitive Questionnaire. Treatment and demographic predictors were examined, and associations with social attainment (employment, education, and living independently) were evaluated. Logistic regression models were used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% CIs. Results Among survivors, 2,589 were diagnosed when AeYA (11 to 21 years old). Adjusted for current age and sex, these survivors, compared with siblings, self-reported higher rates of depression (11.7% v 8.0%, respectively; OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.04 to 2.30) and anxiety (7.4% v 4.4%, respectively; OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.17 to 3.43) and more problems with task efficiency (17.2% v 10.8%, respectively; OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.21 to 2.43), emotional regulation (19.1% v 14.1%, respectively; OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.26 to 2.40), and memory (25.9% v 19.0%, respectively; OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.89). Few differences were noted between survivors diagnosed with leukemia or CNS tumor before 11 years old versus during later adolescence, although those diagnosed with lymphoma or sarcoma during AeYA were at reduced risk for self-reported psychosocial and neurocognitive problems. Unemployment was associated with self-reports of impaired task efficiency (OR, 2.93; 95% CI, 2.28 to 3.77), somatization (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.77 to 2.98), and depression (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.43 to 2.63). Conclusion We demonstrated that risk for poor functional outcome is not limited to survivors' diagnoses in early childhood. AeYA is a critical period of development, and cancer during this period can impact neurocognitive and emotional function and disrupt vocational attainment. PMID:26150441

  18. A Preliminary Report on the Pilot Study: "The Effect of Adult Basic Education on the Occupational Adjustment and Acculturation of the Low Literate Adult."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearon, Ronald W.; Puder, William H.

    A Pilot Phase of an evaluative study of adult basic education was included to develop and evaluate data-gathering instruments to measure sociopsychological variables bearing on levels of, and potentials for, adjustment; to describe participants and nonparticipants by these measures and assess changes over time; and to examine changes in potentials…

  19. Reciprocal effects of treatment-induced increases in exercise and improved eating, and their psychosocial correlates, in obese adults seeking weight loss: a field-based trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A better understanding of interrelations of exercise and improved eating, and their psychosocial correlates of self-efficacy, mood, and self-regulation, may be useful for the architecture of improved weight loss treatments. Theory-based research within field settings, with samples possessing high probabilities of health risks, might enable rapid application of useful findings. Methods Adult volunteers with severe obesity (body mass index [BMI] 35–50 kg/m2; age = 43.0 ± 9.5 y; 83% female) were randomly assigned to six monthly cognitive-behavioral exercise support sessions paired with either group-based nutrition education (n = 145) or cognitive behavioral methods applied to improved eating (n = 149). After specification of mediation models using a bias-corrected bootstrapping procedure, a series of reciprocal effects analyses assessed: a) the reciprocal effects of changes in exercise and fruit and vegetable intake, resulting from the treatments, b) the reciprocal effects of changes in the three psychosocial variables tested (i.e. self-efficacy, mood, and self-regulation) and fruit and vegetable change, resulting from change in exercise volume, and c) the reciprocal effects of changes in the three psychosocial variables and exercise change, resulting from change in fruit and vegetable intake. Results Mediation analyses suggested a reciprocal effect between changes in exercise volume and fruit and vegetable intake. After inclusion of psychosocial variables, also found were reciprocal effects between change in fruit and vegetable intake and change in mood, self-efficacy for controlled eating, and self-regulation for eating; and change in exercise volume and change in mood and exercise-related self-regulation. Conclusion Findings had implications for behavioral weight-loss theory and treatment. Specifically, results suggested that treatments should focus upon, and leverage, the transfer effects from each of the primary weight

  20. Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiff, Cara J.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Mason, W. Alex

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Furthermore, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal…

  1. Distress and adjustment among adolescents and young adults with cancer: an empirical and conceptual review

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer must simultaneously navigate the challenges associated with their cancer experience, whilst striving to achieve a number of important developmental milestones at the cusp of adulthood. The disruption caused by their cancer experience at this critical life-stage is assumed to be responsible for significant distress among AYAs living with cancer. The quality and severity of psychological outcomes among AYAs remain poorly documented, however. This review examined the existing literature on psychological outcomes among AYAs living with cancer. All psychological outcomes (both distress and positive adjustment) were included, and AYAs were included across the cancer trajectory, ranging from newly-diagnosed patients, to long-term cancer survivors. Four key research questions were addressed. Section 1 answered the question, “What is the nature and prevalence of distress (and other psychological outcomes) among AYAs living with cancer?” and documented rates of clinical distress, as well as evidence for the trajectory of this distress over time. Section 2 examined the individual, cancer/treatment-related and socio-demographic factors that have been identified as predictors of these outcomes in this existing literature. Section 3 examined current theoretical models relevant to explaining psychological outcomes among AYAs, including developmental models, socio-cognitive and family-systems models, stress-coping frameworks, and cognitive appraisal models (including trauma and meaning making models). The mechanisms implicated in each model were discussed, as was the existing evidence for each model. Converging evidence implicating the potential role of autobiographical memory and future thinking systems in how AYAs process and integrate their cancer experience into their current sense of self and future goals are highlighted. Finally, Section 4 addressed the future of psycho-oncology in understanding and conceptualizing

  2. Sharing the Love: Prebirth Adult Attachment Status and Coparenting Adjustment During Early Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Jean A.; Baker, Jason K.; McHale, James P.

    2009-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective The purpose of this study to consider whether attachment security in mothers and fathers promotes more successful early coparenting adjustment, to assess the role of marital quality in amplifying or diminishing any such effects, and to examine interactive effects of maternal and paternal attachment status on coparenting. Design Eighty-five couples transitioning to new parenthood completed Main and Goldwyn’s Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) and a multimethod marital evaluation during the pregnancy’s third trimester and participated in comprehensive assessments of coparenting conflict and cohesion at 3 months postpartum. Results Maternal Insecure attachment status predicted higher levels of coparental conflict, as did father Secure status. Families with Insecure fathers exhibited lower coparental cohesion on the whole. Maternal attachment status moderated the relation between paternal attachment status and cohesion, with Insecure father/Secure mother dyads exhibiting the lowest levels of cohesion, and Secure/Secure dyads showing the highest levels. Prenatal marital quality predicted 3-month coparenting cohesion, but not conflict. Prenatal marital quality did not interact with parental attachment status in the prediction of coparenting, but relations between parents’ attachment status and coparenting maintained after controlling for marital quality. Conclusion Prenatally assessed attachment status in both mothers and fathers predicts dimensions of coparenting early in the family life cycle. The impact of attachment status differs in important ways as a function of parent gender, and security in some cases exacerbated rather than buffered the negative impact of partner insecurity on coparental functioning. Effects of parental attachment security on coparenting cannot be properly estimated without reference to contextual factors. PMID:19662107

  3. Psychosocial well-being in persons with aphasia participating in a nursing intervention after stroke.

    PubMed

    Bronken, Berit Arnesveen; Kirkevold, Marit; Martinsen, Randi; Wyller, Torgeir Bruun; Kvigne, Kari

    2012-01-01

    The psychosocial adjustment process after stroke is complicated and protracted. The language is the most important tool for making sense of experiences and for human interplay, making persons with aphasia especially prone to psychosocial problems. Persons with aphasia are systematically excluded from research projects due to methodological challenges. This study explored how seven persons with aphasia experienced participating in a complex nursing intervention aimed at supporting the psychosocial adjustment process and promoting psychosocial well-being. The intervention was organized as an individual, dialogue-based collaboration process based upon ideas from "Guided self-determination." The content addressed psychosocial issues as mood, social relationships, meaningful activities, identity, and body changes. Principles from "Supported conversation for adults with aphasia" were used to facilitate the conversations. The data were obtained by participant observation during the intervention, qualitative interviews 2 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after the intervention and by standardized clinical instruments prior to the intervention and at 2 weeks and 12 months after the intervention. Assistance in narrating about themselves and their experiences with illness, psychological support and motivation to move on during the difficult adjustment process, and exchange of knowledge and information were experienced as beneficial and important by the participants in this study. PMID:22888417

  4. Psychosocial Well-Being in Persons with Aphasia Participating in a Nursing Intervention after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bronken, Berit Arnesveen; Kirkevold, Marit; Martinsen, Randi; Wyller, Torgeir Bruun; Kvigne, Kari

    2012-01-01

    The psychosocial adjustment process after stroke is complicated and protracted. The language is the most important tool for making sense of experiences and for human interplay, making persons with aphasia especially prone to psychosocial problems. Persons with aphasia are systematically excluded from research projects due to methodological challenges. This study explored how seven persons with aphasia experienced participating in a complex nursing intervention aimed at supporting the psychosocial adjustment process and promoting psychosocial well-being. The intervention was organized as an individual, dialogue-based collaboration process based upon ideas from “Guided self-determination.” The content addressed psychosocial issues as mood, social relationships, meaningful activities, identity, and body changes. Principles from “Supported conversation for adults with aphasia” were used to facilitate the conversations. The data were obtained by participant observation during the intervention, qualitative interviews 2 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after the intervention and by standardized clinical instruments prior to the intervention and at 2 weeks and 12 months after the intervention. Assistance in narrating about themselves and their experiences with illness, psychological support and motivation to move on during the difficult adjustment process, and exchange of knowledge and information were experienced as beneficial and important by the participants in this study. PMID:22888417

  5. Dyadic adjustment and parenting stress in internationally adoptive mothers and fathers: the mediating role of adult attachment dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Salcuni, Silvia; Miconi, Diana; Altoè, Gianmarco; Moscardino, Ughetta

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that a positive marital functioning represents a resource in adoptive families, leading to a decrease in parenting stress, but little is known about the factors mediating such a relationship. This study aimed to explore whether adult attachment avoidance and anxiety mediate the effect of dyadic functioning on parenting stress in 90 internationally adoptive couples (mothers and fathers) who had adopted a child (aged 3–10 years) in the last 36 months. Participants completed self-report measures of dyadic adjustment, adult attachment, and parenting stress. A series of path analyses supported the mediation hypothesis, but differentially for mothers and fathers. Among mothers, there was a direct and negative relationship between dyadic adjustment and parenting stress. In addition, a better dyadic adjustment was related to lower levels of attachment anxiety, which in turn were associated with less parenting stress. Among fathers, increased dyadic adjustment was related to lower levels of attachment avoidance, which in turn were associated with reduced parenting stress. These findings suggest the importance of including both mothers and fathers in adoption research. Adoptive parents could benefit from specific interventions aimed at reducing attachment avoidance and anxiety by supporting parental sense of competence and involvement for mothers and fathers, respectively. PMID:26388799

  6. Effects of Yoga on Symptoms, Physical Function, and Psychosocial Outcomes in Adults with Osteoarthritis: A Focused Review.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Corjena; Park, Juyoung; Wyman, Jean F

    2016-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a highly prevalent and disabling chronic condition. Because physical activity is a key component in OA management, effective exercise interventions are needed. Yoga is an increasingly popular multimodal mind-body exercise that aims to promote flexibility, strength, endurance, and balance. Its gentle approach is potentially a safe and effective exercise option for managing OA. The purpose of this focused review is to examine the effects of yoga on OA symptoms and physical and psychosocial outcomes. A comprehensive search was conducted using seven electronic databases. Twelve reports met inclusion criteria involving a total of 589 participants with OA-related symptoms. A variety of types, frequencies, and durations of yoga interventions were reported; Hatha and Iyengar yoga were the most commonly used types. Frequency of intervention ranged from once a week to 6 days a week. Duration of the interventions ranged from 45 to 90 mins per session for 6 to 12 wks. Yoga intervention resulted in reductions in pain, stiffness, and swelling, but results on physical function and psychosocial well-being were inconclusive because of a variety of outcome measures being used.

  7. Gait parameter adjustments for walking on a treadmill at preferred, slower, and faster speeds in older adults with down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Smith, Beth A; Kubo, Masayoshi; Ulrich, Beverly D

    2012-01-01

    The combined effects of ligamentous laxity, hypotonia, and decrements associated with aging lead to stability-enhancing foot placement adaptations during routine overground walking at a younger age in adults with Down syndrome (DS) compared to their peers with typical development (TD). Our purpose here was to examine real-time adaptations in older adults with DS by testing their responses to walking on a treadmill at their preferred speed and at speeds slower and faster than preferred. We found that older adults with DS were able to adapt their gait to slower and faster than preferred treadmill speeds; however, they maintained their stability-enhancing foot placements at all speeds compared to their peers with TD. All adults adapted their gait patterns similarly in response to faster and slower than preferred treadmill-walking speeds. They increased stride frequency and stride length, maintained step width, and decreased percent stance as treadmill speed increased. Older adults with DS, however, adjusted their stride frequencies significantly less than their peers with TD. Our results show that older adults with DS have the capacity to adapt their gait parameters in response to different walking speeds while also supporting the need for intervention to increase gait stability.

  8. Unemployment and smoking: does psychosocial stress matter?

    PubMed Central

    De Vogli, R; Santinello, M

    2005-01-01

    Aim: Research indicates that cigarette smoking is strongly associated with unemployment. However, little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms explaining this relationship. The aim of this study is to examine the role of psychosocial factors as potential mediators between unemployment and smoking. Participants: 4002 non-institutionalised, civilian adults living in the Veneto region of Italy. Design: The study was based on a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI). Linear by linear association tests were used to examine bivariate associations between unemployment, psychosocial factors, and smoking. Logistic regression models were developed to analyse the relationship between unemployment and smoking when adjusting for psychological factors. Results: The odds of smoking among the unemployed was 2.78 times (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.68 to 4.62) greater than that of higher managers and professionals controlling for demographic factors. The relationship between unemployment and smoking weakened (odds ratio 2.41, 95% CI 1.43 to 4.05) when psychosocial factors were entered into the analysis. The odds of the inability to control important things in life was 1.39 times (95% CI 1.11 to 1.75) greater, and the odds of emotional isolation was 1.45 times (95% CI 1.06 to 1.99) greater, among smokers compared to non-smokers controlling, for all other factors. Conclusions: Given that the data were cross sectional, firm conclusions cannot be drawn regarding the causal pathway connecting unemployment and smoking. However, this study suggests that psychosocial factors such as the inability to control and emotional isolation may be plausible mediators for the relationship. PMID:16319362

  9. Psychosocial Readjustment of Canadian Vietnam Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stretch, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    Examined the psychosocial readjustment of 164 Canadian Vietnam veterans. Found significantly greater rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared with U.S. Vietnam veterans and evidence of other psychosocial adjustment problems. Suggests that problems are a result, in part, of prolonged isolation from other Vietnam veterans, lack of…

  10. Enhancing Psychosocial Outcomes for Young Adult Childhood CNS Cancer Survivors: Importance of Addressing Vocational Identity and Community Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauser, David R.; Wagner, Stacia; Wong, Alex W. K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between vocational identity, community integration, positive and negative affect, and satisfaction with life in a group of young adult central nervous system (CNS) cancer survivors. Participants in this study included 45 young adult CNS cancer survivors who ranged in age from 18 to 30 years…

  11. Developmental Language Disorders--A Follow-Up in Later Adult Life. Cognitive, Language and Psychosocial Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, J.; Hollis, C.; Mawhood, L.; Rutter, M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Little is known on the adult outcome and longitudinal trajectory of childhood developmental language disorders (DLD) and on the prognostic predictors. Method: Seventeen men with a severe receptive DLD in childhood, reassessed in middle childhood and early adult life, were studied again in their mid-thirties with tests of intelligence…

  12. Transitions from School for Young Adults with Intellectual Disability: Parental Perspectives on "Life as an Adjustment"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Michael D.; Beamish, Wendi

    2009-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated transition programs and outcomes for young adults with disabilities as viewed from the parent perspective. The current Australian study provided a voice for parents to report on the experiences of and outcomes for young adults following their recent transition from school into post-school life. Method: A…

  13. Adjusting the Fulcrum: How Prior Learning Is Recognized and Regarded in University Adult Education Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawalilak, Colleen; Wihak, Wihak

    2013-01-01

    Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition (PLAR) offers adults formal recognition for learning obtained through non-formal and informal means. The practice reflects both equity and economic development concerns (Keeton, 2000). In the field of Adult Education as a formal study, however, tensions exist between honouring the learner and honouring the…

  14. Psychological Adjustment among Hispanic Adult Children of Alcoholics: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Marsha J.; Arbona, Consuelo

    1991-01-01

    Compares Hispanic adult children of alcoholics with Hispanic adult children of nonalcoholics on Diagnostic Inventory of Personality and Symptoms. Finds significantly higher scores in Somatoform Disorders and Psychological Factors Affecting Physical Conditions scales among children of alcoholics. Women displayed higher scores than men on Affective…

  15. Psychosocial Results from a Phase I Trial of a Nonsurgical Circumcision Device for Adult Men in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Kasprzyk, Danuta; Montaño, Daniel E; Hamilton, Deven T; Down, Kayla L; Marrett, Karl D; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Mugurungi, Owen

    2016-01-01

    Male circumcision (MC), an effective HIV prevention tool, has been added to Zimbabwe's Ministry of Health and Child Care HIV/AIDS Prevention Program. A Phase I safety trial of a nonsurgical male circumcision device was conducted and extensive psychosocial variables were assessed. Fifty-three men (18 and older) were recruited for the device procedure; 13 follow-up clinical visits were completed. Interviews conducted three times (before the procedure, at 2 weeks and 90 days post-procedure) assessed: Satisfaction; expectations; actual experience; activities of daily living; sexual behavior; and HIV risk perception. Using the Integrated Behavioral Model, attitudes towards MC, sex, and condoms, and sources of social influence and support were also assessed. Men (mean age 32.5, range 18-50; mean years of education = 13.6; 55% employed) were satisfied with device circumcision results. Men understand that MC is only partially protective against HIV acquisition. Most (94.7%) agreed that they will continue to use condoms to protect themselves from HIV. Pain ratings were surprisingly negative for a procedure billed as painless. Men talked to many social networks members about their MC experience; post-procedure (mean of 14 individuals). Minimal impact on activities of daily living and absenteeism indicate possible cost savings of device circumcisions. Spontaneous erections occurred frequently post-procedure. The results had important implications for changes in the pre-procedure clinical counseling protocol. Clear-cut counseling to manage pain and erection expectations should result in improved psychosocial outcomes in future roll-out of device circumcisions. Men's expectations must be managed through evidence-based counseling, as they share their experiences broadly among their social networks. PMID:26745142

  16. Evaluation of a Group Counseling Program Designed to Enhance Social Adjustment of Mentally Retarded Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Dong Yul

    1977-01-01

    Moderately retarded institutionalized residents received 10 weeks of structured group counseling focused on five areas of social and personal adjustment. Results showed that in each of the above variables, the experimental group showed a greater mean score than that of the control group. (Author)

  17. Institutionalized and Non-Institutionalized Elderly Adults' Psychological Adjustment: An Ecological Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zandi, Taher; And Others

    Much evidence has indicated that personal networks with family, friends, and community members can enhance health and improve psychological adjustment. Personal networks provide elderly persons in particular with companionship, practical help, and useful advice. The ecological models proposed by Bronfenbrenner (1979) portrays the social networks…

  18. A best practice fall prevention exercise program to improve balance, strength / power, and psychosocial health in older adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With increasing age neuromuscular deficits (e.g., sarcopenia) may result in impaired physical performance and an increased risk for falls. Prominent intrinsic fall-risk factors are age-related decreases in balance and strength / power performance as well as cognitive decline. Additional studies are needed to develop specifically tailored exercise programs for older adults that can easily be implemented into clinical practice. Thus, the objective of the present trial is to assess the effects of a fall prevention program that was developed by an interdisciplinary expert panel on measures of balance, strength / power, body composition, cognition, psychosocial well-being, and falls self-efficacy in healthy older adults. Additionally, the time-related effects of detraining are tested. Methods/Design Healthy old people (n = 54) between the age of 65 to 80 years will participate in this trial. The testing protocol comprises tests for the assessment of static / dynamic steady-state balance (i.e., Sharpened Romberg Test, instrumented gait analysis), proactive balance (i.e., Functional Reach Test; Timed Up and Go Test), reactive balance (i.e., perturbation test during bipedal stance; Push and Release Test), strength (i.e., hand grip strength test; Chair Stand Test), and power (i.e., Stair Climb Power Test; countermovement jump). Further, body composition will be analysed using a bioelectrical impedance analysis system. In addition, questionnaires for the assessment of psychosocial (i.e., World Health Organisation Quality of Life Assessment-Bref), cognitive (i.e., Mini Mental State Examination), and fall risk determinants (i.e., Fall Efficacy Scale – International) will be included in the study protocol. Participants will be randomized into two intervention groups or the control / waiting group. After baseline measures, participants in the intervention groups will conduct a 12-week balance and strength / power exercise intervention 3 times per week, with

  19. Social Cognitive Career Theory, the Theory of Work Adjustment, and Work Satisfaction of Retirement-Age Adults

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Pamela F.; Lytle, Megan C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a recent increase in the number of adults who work past traditional retirement age, existing theories of vocational behavior have not yet received adequate empirical support. In a large sample of adults age 60–87, we evaluated the relationship between theorized predictors of work satisfaction proposed by Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), work satisfaction as a predictor of continued work, as proposed by the Theory of Work adjustment (TWA), as well as the influence of reported experiences of discrimination on these relationships. While the results supported most of the predicted relationships, the effects of discrimination were stronger than the variables proposed by either SCCT or TWA for the present sample. PMID:26101456

  20. Evaluating psychosocial function in elderly dental patients.

    PubMed

    Gironda, Melanie W

    2007-03-01

    Comprehensive dental care for older adults includes an understanding of, and sensitivity to, the psychosocial changes with age that can influence oral health care, including emotional functioning, anxiety, depression, cognitive functioning, alcohol and substance use, social support, and elder abuse and neglect. A case vignette highlights the contribution of an interdisciplinary psychosocial assessment to the oral health care of elderly patients.

  1. Changes in emotion regulation and psychological adjustment following use of a group psychosocial support program for women recently diagnosed with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Linda D; Booth, Roger J; Schlatter, Melanie; Ziginskas, Danute; Harman, John E

    2007-03-01

    This study assesses the efficacy of a group intervention in altering emotion regulation processes and promoting adjustment in women with breast cancer. Using a design with 10 alternating phases of availability of the intervention versus standard care, we assessed women participating in one of three conditions: a 12-week group intervention (N = 54); a decliner group who refused the intervention (N = 56), and a standard care group who were not offered the intervention (N = 44). The intervention included training in relaxation, guided imagery, meditation, emotional expression, and exercises promoting control beliefs and benefit-finding. Emotion regulation processes and adjustment were assessed at baseline (following diagnosis), 4 months (corresponding with the end of the intervention), 6 months, and 12 months. At 4 months, intervention participants (compared to decliners and standard care participants) reported greater increases in use of relaxation-oriented techniques, perceived control, emotional well-being, and coping efficacy, and, greater decreases in perceived risk of recurrence, cancer worry, and anxiety. Intervention participants also reported relatively greater decreases in emotional suppression from baseline to 12 months, suggesting that the intervention had a delayed impact on these tendencies. The findings suggest an emotion regulation intervention can beneficially influence emotional experiences and regulation over the first year following diagnosis.

  2. Psychosocial judgements and perceptions of adolescents with acne vulgaris: A blinded, controlled comparison of adult and peer evaluations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of the current survey was to evaluate how teenagers and adults view teens with acne as compared to those with smooth, clear skin. We also surveyed teens and adults about their experiences with acne. Methods We hypothesized that teens with acne would be perceived in a more negative fashion as compared to teens with smooth, clear skin. We presented digitally altered photographs to our responders and asked how they perceived the two groups. No mention was made of acne. In the first survey (n = 1,002), both adults and teens provided their impressions on photo images of teenagers with either clear skin or acne. In the second survey (n = 1,006), the adults and teens also answered questions about their own experiences with acne. Results Survey 1. With respect to impressions of photo images, the first thing teens and adults noticed about a person with acne was their skin (65% and 75%, respectively). Teenagers with acne were perceived most often by other teens and adults (teen responder %, adult responder %) as being shy (39%, 43%), nerdy (31%, 21%), stressed (24%, 20%), lonely (23%, 22%), boring (15%, 6%), unkempt (13%, 7%), unhealthy (12%, 8%), introverted (9%, 23%), and rebellious (7%, 5%). Survey 2. Most teenagers with acne (64%) felt embarrassed by it and thought that getting acne was the most difficult aspect of puberty (55%). Teenagers with acne reported lower self-confidence or shyness (71%); difficulty finding dates (43%), problems making friends (24%), challenges with school (21%), and trouble getting a job (7%). Conclusions Teens with smooth, clear skin were rated higher on every favorable characteristic and lower on every unfavorable characteristic by both teens and adults. In most cases, the first thing that respondents noticed was the skin of teens with acne. Teenagers and adults alike perceived other teens with acne as generally being shy, less socially active, more likely to be bullied, and less successful in terms of finding a job

  3. Psychosocial perception of adults with onychomycosis: a blinded, controlled comparison of 1,017 adult Hong Kong residents with or without onychomycosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A survey was conducted amongst 1,017 Hong Kong residents ages 18 and over to determine their knowledge of fungal nail infections (onychomycosis) and the psychosocial impact of the disease on the relationships, social lives and careers of sufferers. Methods The Fungal Nail Perception Survey was conducted by email and online between May 29th and June 10th, 2013. Participants were shown three photographs of people with and without onychomycosis of the toenails. Respondents were asked ten questions (repeated for each picture) to ascertain their perceptions of the people in the pictures. Questions were related to perceptions around the ability of sufferers and non-sufferers to form relationships with others, social activities of sufferers and non-sufferers, perceptions of the effect of the disease on the potential for career success, and awareness of fungal nail disease and health. The sub-population who themselves suffered from onychomycosis were asked about self-perception as well as their perception of others with onychomycosis. Results Compared with non-sufferers, survey respondents perceived those with onychomycosis as less likely to be able to form good relationships. They also indicated that they would be more likely to exclude sufferers than non-sufferers from social activities and that they would be more likely to feel uncomfortable when sitting or standing beside an infected person than beside an uninfected person. Respondents perceived people with onychomycosis to be less able to perform well in their chosen career than with someone without onychomycosis. Interestingly, those respondents who themselves were infected felt socially excluded, upset and embarrassed by their infection. Conclusions Onychomycosis may lead to stigmatization and social exclusion. Misconceptions of onychomycosis are high and education about the disease needs to be improved. Early recognition and treatment of the disease is essential to avoid complications and improve

  4. Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Survivors, Caregivers and Family Members—One Size Does Not Fit All: My Perspective as a Young Adult Survivor, Advocate and Oncology Social Worker” a personal reflection by Mary Grace Bontempo - Office of Cancer Survivorship

    Cancer.gov

    Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Survivors, Caregivers and Family Members—One Size Does Not Fit All: My Perspective as a Young Adult Survivor, Advocate and Oncology Social Worker” a personal reflection by Mary Grace Bontempo page

  5. Building Psychosocial Programming in Geriatrics Fellowships: A Consortium Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Ronald D.; Ansell, Pamela; Breckman, Risa; Snow, Caitlin E.; Ehrlich, Amy R.; Greene, Michele G.; Greenberg, Debra F.; Raik, Barrie L.; Raymond, Joshua J.; Clabby, John F.; Fields, Suzanne D.; Breznay, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    Geriatric psychosocial problems are prevalent and significantly affect the physical health and overall well-being of older adults. Geriatrics fellows require psychosocial education, and yet to date, geriatrics fellowship programs have not developed a comprehensive geriatric psychosocial curriculum. Fellowship programs in the New York tristate area…

  6. Adult patients' adjustability to orthodontic appliances. Part I: a comparison between Labial, Lingual, and Invisalign™.

    PubMed

    Shalish, Miri; Cooper-Kazaz, Rena; Ivgi, Inbal; Canetti, Laura; Tsur, Boaz; Bachar, Eytan; Chaushu, Stella

    2012-12-01

    This prospective study examined the adult patient's perception of recovery after insertion of three types of orthodontic appliances: Buccal, Lingual and Invisalign. The sample consisted of sixty-eight adult patients (45 females and 23 males) who comprised three groups: 28 Buccal, 19 Lingual, and 21 Invisalign patients. After appliance insertion, patients completed a Health-Related Quality of Life questionnaire daily for the first week and again on day 14, in order to assess patients' perception of pain and analgesic consumption. In addition, four areas of dysfunction were assessed: oral dysfunction, eating disturbances, general activity parameters, and oral symptoms. Lingual appliance was associated with more severe pain and analgesic consumption, the greatest oral and general dysfunction, and the most difficult and longest recovery. The Invisalign patients complained of relatively high levels of pain in the first days after insertion; however this group was characterized by the lowest level of oral symptoms and by a similar level of general activity disturbances and oral dysfunction compared to the Buccal appliance. Many Lingual and some Buccal patients did not reach a full recovery from their eating difficulties by the end of the study period. The present study provides information to adult patients and clinicians assisting them in choosing the most appropriate treatment modality in relation to Health-Related Quality of Life parameters.

  7. Alcohol-Specific Coping Styles of Adult Children of Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders and Associations with Psychosocial Functioning.

    PubMed

    Drapkin, Michelle L; Eddie, David; Buffington, Angela J; McCrady, Barbara S

    2015-07-01

    Parental alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been conceptualized as a chronic stressor that can lead to deleterious long-term outcomes in children of individuals with AUDs. Yet, while many individuals are detrimentally affected by their parents' problematic alcohol use, and go on to manifest psychological problems, others do not. How individuals cope with the stress of having a parent with an AUD is believed to be an important moderator of this differential outcome. This study assessed whether individuals' alcohol-specific coping styles predicted alcohol use, positive or negative life events, and depression, using a sample of 465 college students, of whom 20% were adult children of individuals with alcohol use disorders, colloquially known as adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs), and a battery of well-validated, self-report measures. Participant ACOAs reported less 'engaged' and 'total' alcohol-specific coping strategies and more 'withdrawal' alcohol-specific coping strategies than their non adult children of alcoholics (NACOAs) counterparts. Across participants, women reported more 'engaged', 'tolerant/inactive', and 'total' coping than men. Although ACOAs reported significantly more negative life events, which predicted more passive coping styles, they did not differ significantly from NACOAs on measures of problematic alcohol use or depression, supporting theories of resilience in ACOAs regardless of their alcohol-specific coping styles. For NACOAs, 'tolerant' coping predicted greater depression and alcohol-related problems; 'engaged' coping predicted fewer alcohol problems. Results suggest that ACOAs cope differently with problematic alcohol use among relatives and friends compared with NACOAs and are more likely to experience negative life events. Additionally, alcohol-related coping strategies have more predictive utility in NACOAs than ACOAs. PMID:25802055

  8. Adult People with Language Impairment and Their Life Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrnqvist, Maria Carlson; Thulin, Sofia; Segnestam, Ylva; Horowitz, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Psychosocial outcome of language impairment (LI) was explored in interviews with three adults with LI (as children attended specialized boarding school) and four of their parents. The informants with LI expressed acceptance of LI and described themselves as independent. With driving education with adjusted pedagogy and initial governmental…

  9. Early Adolescent Peer Foundations of Late Adolescent and Young Adult Psychological Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Chango, Joanna M.; Allen, Joseph P.; Szwedo, David; Schad, Megan M.

    2014-01-01

    The long-term impacts of failing to establish autonomy and relatedness within close friendships are poorly understood. Adolescent behaviors undermining autonomy and relatedness in friendships at 13 were examined as predictors of friendship competence at 18 and depressive symptoms and social withdrawal at 21. A diverse community sample of 184 adolescents participated in self, peer, and observational assessments. Teens’ inability to establish autonomy and connection with friends at 13 predicted decreases in friendship competence at 18 (ß=-.20, p=.02). Direct links to increases in depressive symptoms (ß=.34, p<.001) and social withdrawal (ß=.18, p=.03) were observed, with friendship competence partially mediating these relations. Results highlight the importance of problematic adolescent peer relationships as risk factors for the development of young adult internalizing symptoms. PMID:26640356

  10. Enhancement of anticipatory postural adjustments in older adults as a result of a single session of ball throwing exercise.

    PubMed

    Aruin, Alexander S; Kanekar, Neeta; Lee, Yun-Ju; Ganesan, Mohan

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the role of short-term training in improvement of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and its effect on subsequent control of posture in older adults. Nine healthy older adults were exposed to self-initiated and predictable external perturbations before and after a single training session consisting of throwing a medicine ball. EMG activity of eight trunk and leg muscles and ground reaction forces were recorded before and immediately after the training session. Muscle onsets and center of pressure displacements were analyzed during the anticipatory and compensatory phases of postural control. The training involving throwing of a medicine ball resulted in enhancement of the generation of APAs seen as significantly early onsets of leg and trunk muscle activity prior to the bilateral arm flexion task. Significantly early activation of postural muscles observed prior to the predictable external perturbation, the task that was not a part of training, indicates the transfer of the effect of the single training session. The observed training-related improvements of APAs suggest that APA-focused rehabilitation could be effective in improving postural control, functional balance, mobility, and quality of life in the elderly.

  11. Ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological adjustment among transracially adopted and nonadopted ethnic minority adults.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Tara; Braje, Sopagna Eap; Kawahara, Debra; Shuman, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Little is known on how transracial adoptees (TRA) navigate issues of race and ethnicity. Using Shared Fate Theory as a framework, this study was interested in the moderating role of adoption status among a group of ethnic minority adults in explaining the relationship between ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and mental health outcomes. Nonadopted (NA; n = 83) and TRA (n = 87) ethnic minorities responded to measures on ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes administered online. TRA and NA ethnic minorities reported similar levels of ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes (depression and self-esteem). Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with depression for both TRA and NA ethnic minorities. Ordinal Least Squares (OLS) regressions that were run for a moderated moderational analysis suggest that the protective role of ethnic socialization depended on adoption status. Among the different forms of ethnic socialization, cultural socialization and preparation for bias significantly buffered against the effects of perceived discrimination, but the effects were more pronounced for TRA than for NA ethnic minorities. Because NA and TRA ethnic minorities were similarly affected by discrimination, it suggests that being a TRA does not confer any additional risk when experiencing discrimination. Additionally, the study found that ethnic socialization may continue to serve a protective role against the effects of discrimination into adulthood for TRA, but less so for NA ethnic minorities. These results have policy implications regarding the role of parental ethnicity in adoption decisions as well as the importance of educating adopted parents about ethnic socialization for ethnic minority children. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological adjustment among transracially adopted and nonadopted ethnic minority adults.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Tara; Braje, Sopagna Eap; Kawahara, Debra; Shuman, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Little is known on how transracial adoptees (TRA) navigate issues of race and ethnicity. Using Shared Fate Theory as a framework, this study was interested in the moderating role of adoption status among a group of ethnic minority adults in explaining the relationship between ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and mental health outcomes. Nonadopted (NA; n = 83) and TRA (n = 87) ethnic minorities responded to measures on ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes administered online. TRA and NA ethnic minorities reported similar levels of ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes (depression and self-esteem). Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with depression for both TRA and NA ethnic minorities. Ordinal Least Squares (OLS) regressions that were run for a moderated moderational analysis suggest that the protective role of ethnic socialization depended on adoption status. Among the different forms of ethnic socialization, cultural socialization and preparation for bias significantly buffered against the effects of perceived discrimination, but the effects were more pronounced for TRA than for NA ethnic minorities. Because NA and TRA ethnic minorities were similarly affected by discrimination, it suggests that being a TRA does not confer any additional risk when experiencing discrimination. Additionally, the study found that ethnic socialization may continue to serve a protective role against the effects of discrimination into adulthood for TRA, but less so for NA ethnic minorities. These results have policy implications regarding the role of parental ethnicity in adoption decisions as well as the importance of educating adopted parents about ethnic socialization for ethnic minority children. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27078053

  13. Effect of Adding McKenzie Syndrome, Centralization, Directional Preference, and Psychosocial Classification Variables to a Risk-Adjusted Model Predicting Functional Status Outcomes for Patients With Lumbar Impairments.

    PubMed

    Werneke, Mark W; Edmond, Susan; Deutscher, Daniel; Ward, Jason; Grigsby, David; Young, Michelle; McGill, Troy; McClenahan, Brian; Weinberg, Jon; Davidow, Amy L

    2016-09-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort. Background Patient-classification subgroupings may be important prognostic factors explaining outcomes. Objectives To determine effects of adding classification variables (McKenzie syndrome and pain patterns, including centralization and directional preference; Symptom Checklist Back Pain Prediction Model [SCL BPPM]; and the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire subscales of work and physical activity) to a baseline risk-adjusted model predicting functional status (FS) outcomes. Methods Consecutive patients completed a battery of questionnaires that gathered information on 11 risk-adjustment variables. Physical therapists trained in Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy methods classified each patient by McKenzie syndromes and pain pattern. Functional status was assessed at discharge by patient-reported outcomes. Only patients with complete data were included. Risk of selection bias was assessed. Prediction of discharge FS was assessed using linear stepwise regression models, allowing 13 variables to enter the model. Significant variables were retained in subsequent models. Model power (R(2)) and beta coefficients for model variables were estimated. Results Two thousand sixty-six patients with lumbar impairments were evaluated. Of those, 994 (48%), 10 (<1%), and 601 (29%) were excluded due to incomplete psychosocial data, McKenzie classification data, and missing FS at discharge, respectively. The final sample for analyses was 723 (35%). Overall R(2) for the baseline prediction FS model was 0.40. Adding classification variables to the baseline model did not result in significant increases in R(2). McKenzie syndrome or pain pattern explained 2.8% and 3.0% of the variance, respectively. When pain pattern and SCL BPPM were added simultaneously, overall model R(2) increased to 0.44. Although none of these increases in R(2) were significant, some classification variables were stronger predictors compared with some other variables included in

  14. Effect of Adding McKenzie Syndrome, Centralization, Directional Preference, and Psychosocial Classification Variables to a Risk-Adjusted Model Predicting Functional Status Outcomes for Patients With Lumbar Impairments.

    PubMed

    Werneke, Mark W; Edmond, Susan; Deutscher, Daniel; Ward, Jason; Grigsby, David; Young, Michelle; McGill, Troy; McClenahan, Brian; Weinberg, Jon; Davidow, Amy L

    2016-09-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort. Background Patient-classification subgroupings may be important prognostic factors explaining outcomes. Objectives To determine effects of adding classification variables (McKenzie syndrome and pain patterns, including centralization and directional preference; Symptom Checklist Back Pain Prediction Model [SCL BPPM]; and the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire subscales of work and physical activity) to a baseline risk-adjusted model predicting functional status (FS) outcomes. Methods Consecutive patients completed a battery of questionnaires that gathered information on 11 risk-adjustment variables. Physical therapists trained in Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy methods classified each patient by McKenzie syndromes and pain pattern. Functional status was assessed at discharge by patient-reported outcomes. Only patients with complete data were included. Risk of selection bias was assessed. Prediction of discharge FS was assessed using linear stepwise regression models, allowing 13 variables to enter the model. Significant variables were retained in subsequent models. Model power (R(2)) and beta coefficients for model variables were estimated. Results Two thousand sixty-six patients with lumbar impairments were evaluated. Of those, 994 (48%), 10 (<1%), and 601 (29%) were excluded due to incomplete psychosocial data, McKenzie classification data, and missing FS at discharge, respectively. The final sample for analyses was 723 (35%). Overall R(2) for the baseline prediction FS model was 0.40. Adding classification variables to the baseline model did not result in significant increases in R(2). McKenzie syndrome or pain pattern explained 2.8% and 3.0% of the variance, respectively. When pain pattern and SCL BPPM were added simultaneously, overall model R(2) increased to 0.44. Although none of these increases in R(2) were significant, some classification variables were stronger predictors compared with some other variables included in

  15. The Cost-Effectiveness of Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding in the Morbidly Obese Adult Population of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Yi; Veerman, J. Lennert; Barendregt, Jan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background To examine the cost-effectiveness of providing laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) surgery to all morbidly obese adults in the 2003 Australian population. Methods and Findings Analyzed costs and benefits associated with two intervention scenarios, one providing LAGB surgery to individuals with BMI >40 and another to individuals with BMI >35, with each compared relative to a ‘do nothing’ scenario. A multi-state, multiple cohort Markov model was used to determine the cost-effectiveness of LAGB surgery over the lifetime of each cohort. All costs and health outcomes were assessed from an Australian health sector perspective and were discounted using a 3% annual rate. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyzes were conducted to test the robustness of model outcomes. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were measured in 2003 Australian dollars per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted. The ICER for the scenario providing LAGB surgery to all individuals with a BMI >40 was dominant [95% CI: dominant - $588] meaning that the intervention led to both improved health and cost savings. The ICER when providing surgery to those with a BMI >35 was $2 154/DALY averted [95% CI: dominant - $6 033]. Results were highly sensitive to changes in the likelihood of long-term complications. Conclusion LAGB surgery is highly cost-effective when compared to the $50 000/DALY threshold for cost-effectiveness used in Australia. LAGB surgery also ranks highly in terms of cost-effectiveness when compared to other population-level interventions for weight loss in Australia. The results of this study are in line with other economic evaluations on LAGB surgery. This study recommends that the Australian federal government provide a full subsidy for LAGB surgery to morbidly obese Australians with a BMI >40. PMID:23717680

  16. Maternal socialization goals, parenting styles, and social-emotional adjustment among Chinese and European American young adults: testing a mediation model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Costanzo, Philip R; Putallaz, Martha

    2010-01-01

    The authors compared the associations among perceived maternal socialization goals (self-development, filial piety, and collectivism), perceived maternal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and training), and the social-emotional adjustment (self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and depression) between Chinese and European American young adults. The mediation processes in which socialization goals relate to young adults' adjustment outcomes through parenting styles were examined. Results showed that European American participants perceived higher maternal self-development socialization goals, whereas Chinese participants perceived higher maternal collectivism socialization goals as well as more authoritarian parenting. Cross-cultural similarities were found in the associations between perceived maternal authoritative parenting and socioemotional adjustment (e.g., higher self-esteem and higher academic self-efficacy) across the two cultural groups. However, perceived maternal authoritarian and training parenting styles were found only to be related to Chinese participants' adjustment (e.g., higher academic self-efficacy and lower depression). The mediation analyses showed that authoritative parenting significantly mediated the positive associations between the self-development and collectivism goal and socioemotional adjustment for both cultural groups. Additionally, training parenting significantly mediated the positive association between the filial piety goal and young adults' academic self-efficacy for the Chinese group only. Findings of this study highlight the importance of examining parental socialization goals in cross-cultural parenting research. PMID:21171548

  17. Maternal socialization goals, parenting styles, and social-emotional adjustment among Chinese and European American young adults: testing a mediation model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Costanzo, Philip R; Putallaz, Martha

    2010-01-01

    The authors compared the associations among perceived maternal socialization goals (self-development, filial piety, and collectivism), perceived maternal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and training), and the social-emotional adjustment (self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and depression) between Chinese and European American young adults. The mediation processes in which socialization goals relate to young adults' adjustment outcomes through parenting styles were examined. Results showed that European American participants perceived higher maternal self-development socialization goals, whereas Chinese participants perceived higher maternal collectivism socialization goals as well as more authoritarian parenting. Cross-cultural similarities were found in the associations between perceived maternal authoritative parenting and socioemotional adjustment (e.g., higher self-esteem and higher academic self-efficacy) across the two cultural groups. However, perceived maternal authoritarian and training parenting styles were found only to be related to Chinese participants' adjustment (e.g., higher academic self-efficacy and lower depression). The mediation analyses showed that authoritative parenting significantly mediated the positive associations between the self-development and collectivism goal and socioemotional adjustment for both cultural groups. Additionally, training parenting significantly mediated the positive association between the filial piety goal and young adults' academic self-efficacy for the Chinese group only. Findings of this study highlight the importance of examining parental socialization goals in cross-cultural parenting research.

  18. Iowa Statewide Follow-Up Study. Changes in the Adult Adjustment of Graduates with Mental Disabilities, One vs. Three Years Out of School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitlington, Patricia L.; And Others

    This study investigated the adult adjustment of students with mental disabilities in high-school graduating classes of 1984 and 1985, 1 and 3 years after they exited high school. Two hundred sixty students from the class of 1984 were interviewed 1 year out of high school; 166 from this same class were interviewed 3 years out of school. Three…

  19. Adjustment to Cancer: Anxiety and Distress (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the difficult emotional responses many cancer patients experience. This summary focuses on normal adjustment issues, psychosocial distress, and adjustment disorders.

  20. Adjustment to Cancer: Anxiety and Distress (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the difficult emotional responses many cancer patients experience. This summary focuses on normal adjustment issues, psychosocial distress, and adjustment disorders.

  1. Social Support and Parental Adjustment to Pediatric Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Gary R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Assessed the psychosocial adjustment of (N=107) parents whose children had cancer. Different patterns of association between 11 sources of social support and adjustment were found among groups of parents. Psychosocial adjustment of parents with a child in treatment was correlated more frequently with perceived social support. (Author)

  2. Adults' Narratives of Growing up With a Cleft Lip and/or Palate: Factors Associated With Psychological Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Stock, Nicola Marie; Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Rumsey, Nichola

    2016-03-01

    Background Growing up with a cleft lip and/or palate presents a number of challenges for those affected and their families. Understanding why some individuals cope well while others struggle is key to psychological research in this field. A better appreciation of the factors and processes that contribute to psychological adjustment to cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) from the patient perspective would be of value to both researchers and clinicians. Design Qualitative data elicited from individual interviews with 52 adults born with CL/P. Results Inductive thematic analysis identified three main themes: "background" factors (age, gender, sexual orientation, culture, additional conditions, socioeconomic status, and adoption), "external" factors (treatment autonomy, familial coping and support, salience, public understanding, psychological input, and peer support), and "internal" psychological factors (perceptions of difference, noticeability and teasing, social confidence, internalization of beauty ideals, valence, expectations of treatment, responding to challenges, social comparisons, acceptance, faith, dispositional style, and recognition of strengths and positive growth). Conclusions The number and breadth of factors identified in this study are testament to the importance of psychology in the field of CL/P and may offer guidance in relation to developing and assessing the value of psychological interventions. There is a clear role for psychologists in tackling appearance-related concerns, designing materials, supporting patient decision making, and improving social interaction, as well as providing specialist psychological support. The findings illustrate the potential degree of individual variation in perspectives and offer insight into the conflicting results found within current literature.

  3. Ethnic Identity and Psychosocial Functioning in Navajo Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Matthew D.; Galliher, Renee V.

    2007-01-01

    The current study assessed associations among theoretically driven measures of ethnic identity and psychosocial adjustment among 137 Navajo adolescents. For both sexes, measures of students' sense of affirmation and belonging to their ethnic heritage emerged as a strong predictor of positive psychosocial functioning. Less-consistent patterns of…

  4. Cervical Cancer: A Review of the Psychosocial Factors Following Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland, Kevin Clark

    Cervical cancer is a diagnosis that has a profound psychosocial impact, constituting a physical and emotional crisis for patients as well as family. In general, research indicates that the choice of treatment and the stage of the disease are instrumental in determining the psychosocial adjustment. Disruptions are likely to occur in self-esteem,…

  5. The Association between Body Weight Misperception and Psychosocial Factors in Korean Adult Women Less than 65 Years Old with Normal Weight.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoonhee; Choi, Eunjoo; Shin, Doosup; Park, Sang Min; Lee, Kiheon

    2015-11-01

    With society's increasing interest in weight control and body weight, we investigated the association between psychological factors and body image misperception in different age groups of adult Korean women with a normal weight. On a total of 4,600 women from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009, a self-report questionnaire was used to assess body weight perception and 3 psychological factors: self-rated health status, stress recognition, and depressed mood. Through logistic regression analysis, a poor self-rated health status (P = 0.001) and a higher recognition of stress (P = 0.001) were significantly associated with body image misperception and this significance remained after controlling for several sociodemographic (Model 1: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-2.00), health behavior and psychological factors (Model 2: aOR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.29-1.96; Model 3: aOR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.84). Especially, highly stressed middle-aged (50-64 yr) women were more likely to have body image misperception (Model 2: aOR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.30-6.26). However, the correlation between depressed mood and self-reported body weight was inconsistent between different age groups. In conclusion, self-rated health status and a high recognition rate of severe stress were related to body weight misperception which could suggest tailored intervention to adult women especially women in younger age or low self-rated health status or a high recognition rate of severe stress. PMID:26538998

  6. The Association between Body Weight Misperception and Psychosocial Factors in Korean Adult Women Less than 65 Years Old with Normal Weight.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoonhee; Choi, Eunjoo; Shin, Doosup; Park, Sang Min; Lee, Kiheon

    2015-11-01

    With society's increasing interest in weight control and body weight, we investigated the association between psychological factors and body image misperception in different age groups of adult Korean women with a normal weight. On a total of 4,600 women from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009, a self-report questionnaire was used to assess body weight perception and 3 psychological factors: self-rated health status, stress recognition, and depressed mood. Through logistic regression analysis, a poor self-rated health status (P = 0.001) and a higher recognition of stress (P = 0.001) were significantly associated with body image misperception and this significance remained after controlling for several sociodemographic (Model 1: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-2.00), health behavior and psychological factors (Model 2: aOR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.29-1.96; Model 3: aOR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.84). Especially, highly stressed middle-aged (50-64 yr) women were more likely to have body image misperception (Model 2: aOR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.30-6.26). However, the correlation between depressed mood and self-reported body weight was inconsistent between different age groups. In conclusion, self-rated health status and a high recognition rate of severe stress were related to body weight misperception which could suggest tailored intervention to adult women especially women in younger age or low self-rated health status or a high recognition rate of severe stress.

  7. The Association between Body Weight Misperception and Psychosocial Factors in Korean Adult Women Less than 65 Years Old with Normal Weight

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoonhee; Choi, Eunjoo; Shin, Doosup; Park, Sang Min

    2015-01-01

    With society's increasing interest in weight control and body weight, we investigated the association between psychological factors and body image misperception in different age groups of adult Korean women with a normal weight. On a total of 4,600 women from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009, a self-report questionnaire was used to assess body weight perception and 3 psychological factors: self-rated health status, stress recognition, and depressed mood. Through logistic regression analysis, a poor self-rated health status (P = 0.001) and a higher recognition of stress (P = 0.001) were significantly associated with body image misperception and this significance remained after controlling for several sociodemographic (Model 1: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-2.00), health behavior and psychological factors (Model 2: aOR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.29-1.96; Model 3: aOR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.84). Especially, highly stressed middle-aged (50-64 yr) women were more likely to have body image misperception (Model 2: aOR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.30-6.26). However, the correlation between depressed mood and self-reported body weight was inconsistent between different age groups. In conclusion, self-rated health status and a high recognition rate of severe stress were related to body weight misperception which could suggest tailored intervention to adult women especially women in younger age or low self-rated health status or a high recognition rate of severe stress. PMID:26538998

  8. Observed Macro- and Micro-Level Parenting Behaviors During Preadolescent Family Interactions as Predictors of Adjustment in Emerging Adults With and Without Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Amaro, Christina M.; Devine, Katie A.; Psihogios, Alexandra M.; Murphy, Lexa K.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine observed autonomy-promoting and -inhibiting parenting behaviors during preadolescence as predictors of adjustment outcomes in emerging adults with and without spina bifida (SB). Methods Demographic and videotaped interaction data were collected from families with 8/9-year-old children with SB (n = 68) and a matched group of typically developing youth (n = 68). Observed interaction data were coded with macro- and micro-coding schemes. Measures of emerging adulthood adjustment were collected 10 years later (ages 18/19 years; n = 50 and n = 60 for SB and comparison groups, respectively). Results Autonomy-promoting (behavioral control, autonomy-relatedness) and -inhibiting (psychological control) observed preadolescent parenting behaviors prospectively predicted emerging adulthood adjustment, particularly within educational, social, and emotional domains. Interestingly, high parent undermining of relatedness predicted better educational and social adjustment in the SB sample. Conclusions Parenting behaviors related to autonomy have long-term consequences for adjustment in emerging adults with and without SB. PMID:24864277

  9. Adults' Narratives of Growing up With a Cleft Lip and/or Palate: Factors Associated With Psychological Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Stock, Nicola Marie; Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Rumsey, Nichola

    2016-03-01

    Background Growing up with a cleft lip and/or palate presents a number of challenges for those affected and their families. Understanding why some individuals cope well while others struggle is key to psychological research in this field. A better appreciation of the factors and processes that contribute to psychological adjustment to cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) from the patient perspective would be of value to both researchers and clinicians. Design Qualitative data elicited from individual interviews with 52 adults born with CL/P. Results Inductive thematic analysis identified three main themes: "background" factors (age, gender, sexual orientation, culture, additional conditions, socioeconomic status, and adoption), "external" factors (treatment autonomy, familial coping and support, salience, public understanding, psychological input, and peer support), and "internal" psychological factors (perceptions of difference, noticeability and teasing, social confidence, internalization of beauty ideals, valence, expectations of treatment, responding to challenges, social comparisons, acceptance, faith, dispositional style, and recognition of strengths and positive growth). Conclusions The number and breadth of factors identified in this study are testament to the importance of psychology in the field of CL/P and may offer guidance in relation to developing and assessing the value of psychological interventions. There is a clear role for psychologists in tackling appearance-related concerns, designing materials, supporting patient decision making, and improving social interaction, as well as providing specialist psychological support. The findings illustrate the potential degree of individual variation in perspectives and offer insight into the conflicting results found within current literature. PMID:25650758

  10. Psychosocial impact of cystic fibrosis in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Harrop, Michele

    2007-12-01

    Over 8,000 children, young people and adults in the UK are affected by cystic fibrosis and although no cure exists, comprehensive therapy started early and administered consistently delays disease progression. This article explores three aspects of the psychosocial effects of cystic fibrosis on the adolescent/young adult: the effect on the family, the effect on relationships and adherence to treatment. Much of the early research on the psychosocial impact of cystic fibrosis on the adolescent and the family presented a dismal picture of dysfunction. More recent studies indicate that cystic fibrosis patients generally lead active, age-appropriate social lives, that good information and support can reduce negative effects on families and that treatment regimes continue to cause difficulties for young people. Further research is needed into the psychosocial impact of cystic fibrosis on the increasing numbers of young people and adults with the disease.

  11. Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy in Adults with Learning Disability: Current Uptake and Adjustments to Facilitate Equality of Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilling, Rachel F.

    2015-01-01

    Equality of access to health care for adults with learning disability has been in the spotlight in the UK in recent years due to publication of several reports. Adults with learning disability are thought to account for a significant proportion of the diabetic population in the UK. A list of adults known to the learning disability health…

  12. Psychosocial Issues in Counseling Mastectomy Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schain, Wendy S.

    1976-01-01

    This article reports that breast cancer is an increasingly widespread illness among women. It notes that there are many severe psychosocial adjustments to be made to having the disease and explores ways that counselors and therapists can help women undergoing this ordeal. (NG)

  13. Age- and education-adjusted normative data for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in older adults age 70-99.

    PubMed

    Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Powell, Jessica J; Belden, Christine M; O'Connor, Kathy; Evans, Linda; Coon, David W; Nieri, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The original validation study for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) suggests a cutoff score of 26; however, this may be too stringent for older adults, particularly for those with less education. Given the rapidly increasing number of older adults and associated risk of dementia, this study aims to provide appropriate age- and education-adjusted norms for the MoCA. Data from 205 participants in an ongoing longevity study were used to derive normative data. Individuals were grouped based on age (70-79, 80-89, 90-99) and education level (≤12 Years, 13-15, ≥16 Years). There were significant differences between age and education groups with younger and more educated participants outperforming their counterparts. Forty-six percent of our sample scored below the suggested cutoff of 26. These normative data may provide a more accurate representation of MoCA performance in older adults for specific age and education stratifications.

  14. Psychological Adjustment in Bullies and Victims of School Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estevez, Estefania; Murgui, Sergio; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined psychosocial adjustment in the following four groups of students: victims, bullies, bully/victims and a control group of adolescents not involved in bullying or victimization problems. Psychosocial adjustment was measured considering as indicators: level of self-esteem, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress,…

  15. [Psychosocial stress and cardiology].

    PubMed

    Houppe, Jean-Pierre

    2013-06-01

    Psychosocial stress is a major independent risk and prognostic factor of cardiovascular events. It includes psychological, sociological and socioeconomic factors. Cardiovascular diseases are important providers of psychosocial stress. The knowledge of the cerebral development throughout the time allows to a better understanding of the relationship between psychosocial stress and cardiovascular risk. Psychosocial stress leads, on top of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, to the development or to the worsening of an endothelial dysfunction, of an inflammatory response and prothrombotic phenomenon. Anxiolytics and antidepressors are not very effective against psychosocial stress. Physical activity and psychotherapy are much more indicated, particularly cognitve-behavioral therapy. The ESC recommends an evaluation of psychosocial stress through a short questionnaire.

  16. Positive and Negative Posttraumatic Change Following Childhood Sexual Abuse Are Associated With Youths' Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Simon, Valerie A; Smith, Erin; Fava, Nicole; Feiring, Candice

    2015-11-01

    Meanings made of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) experiences are important to psychosocial adjustment. The current study examined adolescents' and young adults' perceptions of posttraumatic change (PTC) in the self, relationships, sexuality, and worldviews attributed to prior CSA experiences. We sought to document the prevalence of positive and negative PTC and examine their unique and joint associations with psychosocial adjustment. Participants included 160 youth with confirmed cases of CSA (73% female; 8-14 years at abuse discovery) who were part of a longitudinal study of the long-term effects of CSA. Six years after discovery, youth were interviewed about their abuse experiences. Interviews were coded for the valence and strength of PTC. The majority of youth reported PTC, and negative changes were more frequent and stronger than positive changes. Controlling for age, gender, abuse severity, and negative PTC, positive PTC was associated with lower abuse stigmatization for all youth. Controlling for age, gender, abuse severity, and positive PTC, negative PTC was associated with greater abuse stigmatization, post-traumatic stress disorder, sexual problems, and dating aggression for all youth. Relations of positive PTC with depression and support from friends and romantic partner were moderated by negative PTC, such that positive PTC was associated with better adjustment for youth with low versus high levels of negative PTC. Results highlight the importance of both negative and positive PTC for understanding meanings made of CSA experiences and their implications for psychosocial adjustment and intervention. PMID:26092440

  17. The relationship between adult sexual adjustment and childhood experiences regarding exposure to nudity, sleeping in the parental bed, and parental attitudes toward sexuality.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R J; Janda, L H

    1988-08-01

    The relationship between adult sexual functioning and childhood experiences with exposure to nudity, sleeping in the parents' bed, and parental attitudes toward sexuality was examined. Although a variety of experts have provided their opinion on this issue, empirical research on this topic has been lacking. In this study, male and female college students were asked to retrospectively report on the frequency of sleeping in the parental bed as a child, the frequency of seeing others nude during childhood, and parental attitudes regarding sexuality. Information on current sexual functioning and adjustment was also obtained. The results suggest that childhood experiences with exposure to nudity and sleeping in the parental bed are not adversely related to adult sexual functioning and adjustment. In fact, there is modest support that these childhood experiences are positively related to indices of adjustment. Results also suggest that a positive attitude toward sexuality can be beneficial for a child's comfort with his/her sexuality. Finally, examination of gender differences revealed that male and female experience paternal attitudes toward sexuality differently but are similar in their perceptions of maternal attitudes. PMID:3421828

  18. [The role of the pharmacist in dispensing medication in Adult Psychosocial Care Centers in the city of São Paulo, Capital of the State of São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Zanella, Carolina Gomes; Aguiar, Patricia Melo; Storpirtis, Sílvia

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of the pharmacist in dispensing medication by conducting cross-sectional exploratory-descriptive research in eight Adult Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS) in São Paulo. The pharmacists responsible for each of the dispensing units studied filled out a semi-structured questionnaire about the service provided. Two Adult CAPS units were selected from each of the North, South, Eastand West regions of São Paulo. The central region has no Adult CAPS, and was therefore not included in the study. Most of the respondents were aged between 35 and 40 years and were predominantly female. It was found that half of the respondents performed only 25% of dispensations and few conducted an analysis of all prescriptions before dispensing medication. All respondents contacted the prescriber if any medication-related problems a rose. However, few pharmaceutical interventions were commonly performed. Furthermore, one respondent indicated that all his/her functions in the pharmacy could be delegated to another professional. These findings reveal the pressing need for actions that ensure the ongoing training of pharmacists to enable them to be clinically prepared to deal with patients with mental disorders.

  19. Effects of priming exercise on the speed of adjustment of muscle oxidative metabolism at the onset of moderate-intensity step transitions in older adults.

    PubMed

    De Roia, Gabriela; Pogliaghi, Silvia; Adami, Alessandra; Papadopoulou, Christina; Capelli, Carlo

    2012-05-15

    Aging is associated with a functional decline of the oxidative metabolism due to progressive limitations of both O(2) delivery and utilization. Priming exercise (PE) increases the speed of adjustment of oxidative metabolism during successive moderate-intensity transitions. We tested the hypothesis that such improvement is due to a better matching of O(2) delivery to utilization within the working muscles. In 21 healthy older adults (65.7 ± 5 yr), we measured contemporaneously noninvasive indexes of the overall speed of adjustment of the oxidative metabolism (i.e., pulmonary Vo(2) kinetics), of the bulk O(2) delivery (i.e., cardiac output), and of the rate of muscle deoxygenation (i.e., deoxygenated hemoglobin, HHb) during moderate-intensity step transitions, either with (ModB) or without (ModA) prior PE. The local matching of O(2) delivery to utilization was evaluated by the ΔHHb/ΔVo(2) ratio index. The overall speed of adjustment of the Vo(2) kinetics was significantly increased in ModB compared with ModA (P < 0.05). On the contrary, the kinetics of cardiac output was unaffected by PE. At the muscle level, ModB was associated with a significant reduction of the "overshoot" in the ΔHHb/ΔVo(2) ratio compared with ModA (P < 0.05), suggesting an improved O(2) delivery. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that, in older adults, PE, prior to moderate-intensity exercise, beneficially affects the speed of adjustment of oxidative metabolism due to an acute improvement of the local matching of O(2) delivery to utilization.

  20. Early Life Stress and Physical and Psychosocial Functioning in Late Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Alastalo, Hanna; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B.; Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J. P.; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe stress experienced in early life may have long-term effects on adult physiological and psychological health and well-being. We studied physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood in subjects separated temporarily from their parents in childhood during World War II. Methods The 1803 participants belong to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, born 1934–44. Of them, 267 (14.8%) had been evacuated abroad in childhood during WWII and the remaining subjects served as controls. Physical and psychosocial functioning was assessed with the Short Form 36 scale (SF-36) between 2001 and 2004. A test for trends was based on linear regression. All analyses were adjusted for age at clinical examination, social class in childhood and adulthood, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, body mass index, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Results Physical functioning in late adulthood was lower among the separated men compared to non-separated men (b = −0.40, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: −0.71 to −0.08). Those men separated in school age (>7 years) and who were separated for a duration over 2 years had the highest risk for lower physical functioning (b = −0.89, 95% CI: −1.58 to −0.20) and (b = −0.65, 95% CI: −1.25 to −0.05), respectively). Men separated for a duration over 2 years also had lower psychosocial functioning (b = −0.70, 95% CI: −1.35 to −0.06). These differences in physical and psychosocial functioning were not observed among women. Conclusion Early life stress may increase the risk for impaired physical functioning in late adulthood among men. Timing and duration of the separation influenced the physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood. PMID:23861956

  1. Parental Divorce and Couples' Adjustment during the Transition to Parenthood: The Role of Parent-Adult Child Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchard, Genevieve; Doucet, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the associations between parental divorce, quality of relationships with parents, and dyadic adjustment during transition of 114 couples to parenthood. Data were collected during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 9 months postpartum. As predicted, the authors found that women from divorced families…

  2. Brief Report: No Association between Premorbid Adjustment in Adult-Onset Schizophrenia and Genetic Variation in Dysbindin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schirmbeck, Frederike; Georgi, Alexander; Strohmaier, Jana; Schmael, Christine; Boesshenz, Katja V.; Muhleisen, Thomas W.; Herms, Stefan; Hoffmann, Per; Jamra, Rami Abou; Schumacher, Johannes; Maier, Wolfgang; Propping, Peter; Nothen, Markus M.; Cichon, Sven; Rietschel, Marcella; Schulze, Thomas G.

    2008-01-01

    Whereas "Dysbindin" is considered a schizophrenia vulnerability gene, there is no consistency of findings. Phenotype refinement approaches may help to increase the genetic homogeneity and thus reconcile conflicting results. Premorbid adjustment (PMA) has been suggested to aid the phenotypic dissection. Gornick et al. ("J Autism Dev Disord"…

  3. Comparing the Experiential and Psychosocial Dimensions of Chronic Pain in African Americans and Caucasians: Findings from a National Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ruehlman, Linda S.; Karoly, Paul; Newton, Craig

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To ascertain whether non-Hispanic African American and Caucasian chronic pain sufferers differ or converge in their self-reports of pain experience and pain adjustment. Research Design A telephone survey of U.S. English-speaking adults selected via random-digit dialing procedures and constrained to locate persons with chronic pain within selected gender by age groupings. Subjects A national sample of 2,407 participants contained a total of 214 non-Hispanic African Americans. A sample of 214 non-Hispanic Caucasians was randomly selected from the larger set of 1,935 Caucasian participants to serve as a comparison group for the present study. Measures Participants provided responses to interviewer questions that assessed pain experience (severity, interference, and emotional burden) and psychosocial outcomes (coping, attitudes and beliefs, catastrophizing, social support and hindrance, pain’s interference with daily life activities, treatment status, and medication taking). Results Although African American and Caucasian adults with chronic pain did not differ significantly in pain severity, interference, emotional burden, or current treatment status, multivariate analyses revealed differences in several domains of psychosocial functioning. Compared to Caucasians, African Americans reported greater pain-related interference with daily living, deficiencies in coping, and counterproductive attitudes and beliefs. African Americans also reported greater impatience and insensitivity from the most important person in their lives. Conclusions Psychosocial dimensions of chronic pain differed between community-residing African American and Caucasian adults surveyed as part of a national sample. PMID:15669950

  4. Guideline 3: Psychosocial Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    The third in seven sets of guidelines based on the consensus of experts in the treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in mental retardation (MR) focuses on psychosocial treatment. Guidelines cover general principles, choosing among psychosocial treatments, severity of MR and psychiatric/behavior symptoms, diagnosable disorders, target…

  5. Psychosocial Communication and Computerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Gunilla; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the effect of computerization of the work environment on psychosocial communication. The RAM program, developed at Stockholm University to explore the effect of computers on the structure of organizations and the psychosocial work environment, is described; theoretical models are explained; and the future use of knowledge-based systems…

  6. Variations in internet-related problems and psychosocial functioning in online sexual activities: implications for social and sexual development of young adults.

    PubMed

    Boies, Sylvain C; Cooper, Al; Osborne, Cynthia S

    2004-04-01

    This survey of 760 university students examined differences in Internet-related problems and psychosocial functioning between four patterns of participation in online sexual information and entertainment activities. Students who did not participate in either online sexual activity were more satisfied with their offline life and more connected to friends and family. Those who engaged in both online sexual activities were more dependent on the Internet and reported lower offline functioning. Students who only sought sexual information maintained strong offline affiliations. Those who only sought entertainment did not report lower offline functioning. Respondents most deficient in offline social support did not report compensatory online support. Despite students' common participation in online sexual activities (OSA) as a venue for social and sexual development, those relying on the Internet and the affiliations it provides appear at risk of decreased social integration. The authors discussed the finding's implications for social and sexual development. PMID:15140364

  7. The Association between Cumulative Psychosocial Risk and Cervical HPV Infection Among Female Adolescents in a Free Vaccination Program

    PubMed Central

    Linares, Lourdes Oriana; Shankar, Viswanathan; Diaz, Angela; Nucci-Sack, Anne; Strickler, Howard D.; Peake, Ken; Weiss, Jocelyn; Burk, Robert D.; Schlecht, Nicolas F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the association of cervical Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection with cumulative psychosocial risk reflecting family disadvantage, psychological distress, and unhealthy life style. Methods The sample (N=745) was comprised of sexually-active female adolescent patients (12-19 years), primarily ethnic minorities, enrolled in a free HPV vaccination program. Subjects completed questionnaires and provided cervical swabs for HPV DNA testing. Unweighted and weighted Principal Component Analyses (PCA) for categorical data were used to derive multi-systemic psychosocial risk indices using nine indicators: low socioeconomic status, lack of adult involvement, not attending high-school/college, history of treatment for depression/anxiety, antisocial/delinquent behavior, number of recent sexual partners, use of alcohol, use of drugs, and dependency risk for alcohol/drugs. The association between cervical HPV (any-type, high risk-types, vaccine-types) assayed by polymerase chain reaction and self-reported number of psychosocial risk indicators was estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Results Subjects had a median of three psychosocial risk indicators. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed associations with unweighted and weighted number of psychosocial indicators for HPV any-type (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.2 ); with the strongest associations between weighted drug/alcohol use, drug/alcohol dependency risk, and antisocial/delinquent behavior and detection of HPV vaccine-types (aOR=1.5; 95%CI: 1.1-2.0) independent of number of recent sexual partners and vaccine dose (0-3). Conclusion Increased HPV infections including HPV vaccine-types were associated with greater number of psychosocial risk indicators even after controlling for demographics, sexual behavior, history of chlamydia, and vaccine dose. PMID:25985216

  8. Family beyond Parents? An Exploration of Family Configurations and Psychological Adjustment in Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widmer, Eric D.; Kempf, Nadine; Sapin, Marlene; Galli-Carminati, Giuliana

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the family configurations of young adults with intellectual disability. Based on a sample of 40 individuals interviewed two times in a year, we found as many as four types of family configurations, with distinct compositions, and different types of social capital. This diversity is not without consequences for individual…

  9. The Impact of the Adult-Child Relationship on School Adjustment for Children at Risk of Serious Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Shu-Fei; Cheney, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the adult-child relationship on students' social outcomes, academic competence and school engagement in a two-year Tier 2 intervention, the Check, Connect and Expect program. One hundred and three students from 2nd through 5th grade, their classroom teachers, and nine school-based coaches participated in this…

  10. Abuse and Parental Characteristics, Attributions of Blame, and Psychological Adjustment in Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinzow, Heidi; Seth, Puja; Jackson, Joan; Niehaus, Ashley; Fitzgerald, Monica

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of abuse and parental characteristics on attributional content and determine the relative contribution of different attributions of blame in predicting psychological symptomatology among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. One hundred eighty-three female undergraduates with a history of…

  11. The Effects of Positive and Negative Support from Children on Widowed Older Adults' Psychological Adjustment: A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Jung-Hwa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines the extent to which positive and negative support from children prior to and after spousal loss and changes in support from pre- to post-loss affect widowed older adults' depressive symptoms, anxiety, and anger 18 months following widowhood. Design and Methods: Analyses are based on the Changing Lives of Older…

  12. [Psychosocial interventions in dementia].

    PubMed

    Kurz, A

    2013-01-01

    Psychosocial interventions improve cognitive abilities (cognitive stimulation, cognitive training), enhance emotional well-being (activity planning, reminiscence), reduce behavioral symptoms (aromatherapy, music therapy) and promote everyday functioning (occupational therapy). Through these effects they reinforce and augment pharmacological treatments for dementia. In addition, psychosocial interventions complement the treatment of patients by supporting family caregivers (educational groups, support programs). The potential of psychosocial interventions in dementia needs to be explored further in studies using improved methodology to determine effective components, clinical relevance and duration of effects, predictors of individual treatment response and health-economic implications. PMID:23306213

  13. [Psychosocial interventions in dementia].

    PubMed

    Kurz, A

    2013-01-01

    Psychosocial interventions improve cognitive abilities (cognitive stimulation, cognitive training), enhance emotional well-being (activity planning, reminiscence), reduce behavioral symptoms (aromatherapy, music therapy) and promote everyday functioning (occupational therapy). Through these effects they reinforce and augment pharmacological treatments for dementia. In addition, psychosocial interventions complement the treatment of patients by supporting family caregivers (educational groups, support programs). The potential of psychosocial interventions in dementia needs to be explored further in studies using improved methodology to determine effective components, clinical relevance and duration of effects, predictors of individual treatment response and health-economic implications.

  14. PTSD Symptoms and Self-Rated Recovery among Adult Sexual Assault Survivors: The Effects of Traumatic Life Events and Psychosocial Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Ullman, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that self-blame is predictive of more posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and poorer recovery (Frazier, 2003; Koss, Figueredo, & Prince, 2002), and perceived control over recovery is associated with less distress (Frazier, 2003) in adult sexual assault (ASA) survivors. A structural equation model was…

  15. Psychosocial Factors and Theory in Physical Activity Studies in Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Mama, Scherezade K.; McNeill, Lorna H.; McCurdy, Sheryl A.; Evans, Alexandra E.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Adamus-Leach, Heather J.; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To summarize the effectiveness of interventions targeting psychosocial factors to increase physical activity (PA) among ethnic minority adults and explore theory use in PA interventions. Methods Studies (N = 11) were identified through a systematic review and targeted African American/Hispanic adults, specific psychosocial factors, and PA. Data were extracted using a standard code sheet and the Theory Coding Scheme. Results Social support was the most common psychosocial factor reported, followed by motivational readiness, and self-efficacy, as being associated with increased PA. Only 7 studies explicitly reported using a theoretical framework. Conclusions Future efforts should explore theory use in PA interventions and how integration of theoretical constructs, including psychosocial factors, increases PA. PMID:25290599

  16. Weaker error signals do not reduce the effectiveness of post-error adjustments: comparing error processing in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Strozyk, Jessica Vanessa; Jentzsch, Ines

    2012-06-15

    In this study we investigated age-related differences in error processing, comparing performance measures and physiological indicators of error processing of middle-aged (41-59years) and young (18-31years) adults using a version of the Eriksen flanker task. Although middle-aged participants were overall slower, both groups showed a comparable decrease in reaction time on error trials as well as slower and more accurate post-error performance. Despite the preserved error speeding and post-error slowing effects, we found an amplitude reduction in the Ne/ERN, contradicting the existence of a direct relationship between the amplitude of this component and post-error adjustments. This was further supported by the lack of significant correlations between the single-trial Ne/ERN amplitude and error-related reaction times. The single-trial Ne/ERN distribution showed a reduced variance for middle-aged compared to young participants, suggesting that weaker overall error signals rather than lapses in error detection are responsible for the observed Ne/ERN amplitude reductions. However, we argue that the signal still reached the necessary threshold to trigger normal post-error adjustments. Finally, the early Pe showed a reduction in amplitude and an increase in latency for middle-aged compared to young adults. Together, the findings suggest clear signs of a physiological decline in error processing at an earlier age than previously known, but these changes do not yet affect implementation of adaptive behavioral changes in middle-aged participants. PMID:22578713

  17. Attachment and adolescent psychosocial functioning.

    PubMed

    Allen, J P; Moore, C; Kuperminc, G; Bell, K

    1998-10-01

    To explore the meaning and function of attachment organization during adolescence, its relation to multiple domains of psychosocial functioning was examined in a sample of 131 moderately at-risk adolescents. Attachment organization was assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview; multiple measures of functioning were obtained from parents, adolescents, and their peers. Security displayed in adolescents' organization of discourse about attachment experiences was related to competence with peers (as reported by peers), lower levels of internalizing behaviors (as reported by adolescents), and lower levels of deviant behavior (as reported by peers and by mothers). Preoccupation with attachment experiences, seen in angry or diffuse and unfocused discussion of attachment experiences, was linked to higher levels of both internalizing and deviant behaviors. These relations generally remained even when other attachment-related constructs that had been previously related to adolescent functioning were covaried in analysis. Results are interpreted as suggesting an important role for attachment organization in a wide array of aspects of adolescent psychosocial development. PMID:9839424

  18. Developmental trajectories of adolescent cannabis use and their relationship to young adult social and behavioural adjustment: A longitudinal study of Australian youth.

    PubMed

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Evans-Whipp, Tracy J; Toumbourou, John W; Patton, George C

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to identify distinct developmental trajectories (sub-groups of individuals who showed similar longitudinal patterns) of cannabis use among Australian adolescents, and to examine associations between trajectory group membership and measures of social and behavioural adjustment in young adulthood. Participants (n=852, 53% female) were part of the International Youth Development Study. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify distinct trajectories of cannabis use frequency from average ages 12 to 19, across 6 waves of data. Logistic regression analyses and analyses of covariance were used to examine relationships between trajectory group membership and young adult (average age: 21) adjustment, controlling for a range of covariates. Three trajectories were identified: abstainers (62%), early onset users (11%), and late onset occasional users (27%). The early onset users showed a higher frequency of antisocial behaviour, violence, cannabis use, cannabis-related harms, cigarette use, and alcohol harms, compared to the abstinent group in young adulthood. The late onset occasional users reported a higher frequency of cannabis use, cannabis-related harms, illicit drug use, and alcohol harms, compared to the abstinent group in young adulthood. There were no differences between the trajectory groups on measures of employment, school completion, post-secondary education, income, depression/anxiety, or alcohol use problems. In conclusion, early onset of cannabis use, even at relatively low frequency during adolescence, is associated with poorer adjustment in young adulthood. Prevention and intervention efforts to delay or prevent uptake of cannabis use should be particularly focussed on early adolescence prior to age 12.

  19. Developmental trajectories of adolescent cannabis use and their relationship to young adult social and behavioural adjustment: A longitudinal study of Australian youth.

    PubMed

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Evans-Whipp, Tracy J; Toumbourou, John W; Patton, George C

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to identify distinct developmental trajectories (sub-groups of individuals who showed similar longitudinal patterns) of cannabis use among Australian adolescents, and to examine associations between trajectory group membership and measures of social and behavioural adjustment in young adulthood. Participants (n=852, 53% female) were part of the International Youth Development Study. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify distinct trajectories of cannabis use frequency from average ages 12 to 19, across 6 waves of data. Logistic regression analyses and analyses of covariance were used to examine relationships between trajectory group membership and young adult (average age: 21) adjustment, controlling for a range of covariates. Three trajectories were identified: abstainers (62%), early onset users (11%), and late onset occasional users (27%). The early onset users showed a higher frequency of antisocial behaviour, violence, cannabis use, cannabis-related harms, cigarette use, and alcohol harms, compared to the abstinent group in young adulthood. The late onset occasional users reported a higher frequency of cannabis use, cannabis-related harms, illicit drug use, and alcohol harms, compared to the abstinent group in young adulthood. There were no differences between the trajectory groups on measures of employment, school completion, post-secondary education, income, depression/anxiety, or alcohol use problems. In conclusion, early onset of cannabis use, even at relatively low frequency during adolescence, is associated with poorer adjustment in young adulthood. Prevention and intervention efforts to delay or prevent uptake of cannabis use should be particularly focussed on early adolescence prior to age 12. PMID:26414206

  20. Markers of Resilience and Risk: Adult Lives in a Vulnerable Population

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Stuart T.; Stott, Cori; Billings, Rebecca L.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2006-01-01

    In this report, we drew on data from an ongoing longitudinal study that began in 1978 (Hauser, Powers, Noam, Jacobson, Weiss, & Folansbee, 1984). Focusing on late, young-adult life among individuals who were psychiatrically hospitalized during adolescence, we examined markers of resilience empirically defined in terms of adult success and well-being. The study includes a demographically similar group recruited from a public high school. Major goals were to (a) develop preliminary models of adaptive functioning among adults in their 30s, (b) examine the extent to which adults with histories of serious mental disorders can be characterized by these models, and (c) explore predictors of successful adult lives from indicators of individuals' psychosocial adjustment at age 25. Results showed significant cohort effects on indexes of adaptive functioning, especially for men. Findings suggest that social relations as well as self-views of competence and relatedness play important roles in characterizing adjustment during the adult years. In addition, indexes of psychosocial adjustment as well as symptoms of psychiatric distress and hard drug use at age 25 made a difference in adult social functioning and well-being, providing hints of possible mechanisms likely to facilitate the ability to “bounce back” after a difficult adolescence. PMID:16951709

  1. Fear of falling is associated with prolonged anticipatory postural adjustment during gait initiation under dual-task conditions in older adults.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Kazuki; Yamada, Minoru; Nagai, Koutatsu; Tanaka, Buichi; Mori, Shuhei; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2012-02-01

    Little is known about dynamic balance control under dual-task conditions in older adults with fear of falling (FoF). The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of FoF on anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) during gait initiation under dual-task conditions in older adults. Fifty-seven elderly volunteers (age, 79.2 [6.8] years) from the community participated in this study. Each participant was categorised into either the Fear (n=24) or No-fear (n=33) group on the basis of the presence or absence of FoF. Under single- and dual-task conditions, centre of pressure (COP) data were collected while the participants performed gait initiation trials from a starting position on a force platform. We also performed a 10-m walking test (WT), a timed up & go test (TUG), and a functional reach test (FR). The reaction and APA phases were measured from the COP data. The results showed that under the dual-task condition, the Fear group had significantly longer APA phases than the No-fear group, although no significant differences were observed between the 2 groups in the reaction and APA phases under the single-task condition and in any clinical measurements (WT, TUG, and FR). Our findings suggest that specific deficits in balance control occur in subjects with FoF during gait initiation while dual tasking, even if their physical functions are comparable to subjects without FoF.

  2. The effect of marriage on young adult heavy drinking and its mediators: results from two methods of adjusting for selection into marriage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Matthew R; Chassin, Laurie; Mackinnon, David

    2010-12-01

    This study tested the effect of marriage on young adult heavy drinking and tested whether this effect was mediated by involvement in social activities, religiosity, and self-control reasons for limiting drinking. The sample of 508 young adults was taken from an ongoing longitudinal study of familial alcoholism that over-sampled children of alcoholics (Chassin, Rogosch, & Barrera, 1991). In order to distinguish role socialization effects of marriage from confounding effects of role selection into marriage, analyses used both the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) method and the change score method of adjusting for pre-marriage levels of heavy drinking and the mediators. Results showed role socialization effects of marriage on post-marriage declines in heavy drinking. This effect was mediated by involvement in social activities such that marriage predicted decreased involvement in social activities, which in turn predicted decreased heavy drinking. There were no statistically significant mediated effects of religiosity. The mediated effect of self-control reasons for limiting drinking was supported by the ANCOVA method only, and further investigation suggested that this result was detected erroneously due to violation of an assumption of the ANCOVA method that is not shared by the change score method. Findings from this study offer an explanation for the maturing out of heavy drinking that takes place for some individuals over the course of young adulthood. Methodologically, results suggest that the ANCOVA method should be employed with caution, and that the change score method is a viable approach to confirming results from the ANCOVA method.

  3. Gender and other psychosocial factors as predictors of adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in adults with comorbid HIV/AIDS, psychiatric and substance-related disorder.

    PubMed

    Applebaum, Allison J; Richardson, Mark A; Brady, Stephen M; Brief, Deborah J; Keane, Terence M

    2009-02-01

    This study assessed adherence to HAART among 67 HIV-infected adults, and the degree to which gender and psychological factors-including depression, drug and alcohol use, quality of life, and medication side effects-influenced adherence. Although overall adherence was greater than rates reported in similar studies, no significant difference in adherence was observed between men and women in the present sample. Medication side effects were a significant predictor of non-adherence in the sample at large and among women in particular, while alcohol dependence was a significant predictor of non-adherence only in women. Possible explanations are explored.

  4. Psychosocial work environment and emotional exhaustion among middle-aged employees

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study examined the associations of job control, organizational justice and bullying at the workplace with emotional exhaustion. This was done by adjusting firstly for age and occupational class, secondly physical work factors, thirdly mutually adjusting for the three psychosocial factors and fourthly adjusting for all studied variables simultaneously. Data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study baseline surveys conducted in 2001 and 2002, including 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki (n = 5819, response rate 66%). Exhaustion was measured with a six-item subscale from Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Psychosocial factors included Karasek's job control, organizational justice and bullying at the workplace. Logistic regression analysis was used. Results Among women 23% and among men 20% reported symptoms of emotional exhaustion. Among women all psychosocial factors were associated with exhaustion when adjusted for age and occupational class as confounders. When physical work factors were additionally adjusted for, the associations slightly attenuated but remained. When psychosocial work factors were simultaneously adjusted for each other, their associations with exhaustion attenuated but remained. Among men all psychosocial factors were associated with exhaustion when adjusted for confounders only. When adjusted for physical work factors the associations slightly attenuated. When psychosocial factors were simultaneously adjusted for each other, associations of organizational justice and bullying with exhaustion attenuated but remained whereas job control lost its association. Conclusions Identifying risk factors for emotional exhaustion is vital for preventing subsequent processes leading to burnout. Psychosocial factors are likely to contribute to exhaustion among female as well as male employees. Thus management and occupational health care should devote more attention to the psychosocial work environment in order to be able to

  5. AIDS: Psychosocial Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Dan

    1986-01-01

    In order to provide comprehensive care to patients who have AIDS, it is important for the family physician to understand the psychosocial elements of the disease. Homosexual men who have AIDS face particular problems, such as the disclosure of sexual orientation to family and friends. Issues discussed in this article include the reactions of the patient, family and friends to the diagnosis, the stigma of AIDS, the patient's support network, and preparations for disability and death. The facts about AIDS are discussed briefly, and the psychosocial implications of the illness for patients and their “significant others” are examined. The role of the family physician is highlighted. PMID:21267233

  6. Childhood Psychosocial Cumulative Risks and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

    PubMed Central

    Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Elovainio, Marko; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Juonala, Markus; Kivimäki, Mika; Josefsson, Kim; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli T

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adverse experiences in childhood may influence cardiovascular risk in adulthood. We examined the prospective associations between types of psychosocial adversity as well as having multiple adversities (e.g., cumulative risk) with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and its progression among young adults. Higher cumulative risk score in childhood was expected to be associated with higher IMT and its progression. Methods Participants were 2265 men and women (age range: 24-39 years in 2001) from the on-going Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study whose carotid IMT were measured in 2001 and 2007. A cumulative psychosocial risk score, assessed at the study baseline in 1980, was derived from four separate aspects of the childhood environment that may impose risk (childhood stressful life-events, parental health behavior family, socioeconomic status, and childhood emotional environment). Results The cumulative risk score was associated with higher IMT in 2007 (b=.004; se=.001; p<.001) and increased IMT progression from 2001 to 2007 (b=.003; se=.001; p=.001). The associations were robust to adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and adulthood, including adulthood health behavior, adulthood socioeconomic status and depressive symptoms. Among the individual childhood psychosocial risk categories, having more stressful life-events was associated with higher IMT in 2001 (b=.007; se=.003; p=.016) and poorer parental health behavior predicted higher IMT in 2007 (b=.004; se=.002; p=.031) after adjustment for age, sex and childhood cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Early life psychosocial environment influences cardiovascular risk later in life and considering cumulative childhood risk factors may be more informative than individual factors in predicting progression of preclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood. PMID:26809108

  7. [Structural adjustment, cultural adjustment?].

    PubMed

    Dujardin, B; Dujardin, M; Hermans, I

    2003-12-01

    Over the last two decades, multiple studies have been conducted and many articles published about Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs). These studies mainly describe the characteristics of SAPs and analyse their economic consequences as well as their effects upon a variety of sectors: health, education, agriculture and environment. However, very few focus on the sociological and cultural effects of SAPs. Following a summary of SAP's content and characteristics, the paper briefly discusses the historical course of SAPs and the different critiques which have been made. The cultural consequences of SAPs are introduced and are described on four different levels: political, community, familial, and individual. These levels are analysed through examples from the literature and individual testimonies from people in the Southern Hemisphere. The paper concludes that SAPs, alongside economic globalisation processes, are responsible for an acute breakdown of social and cultural structures in societies in the South. It should be a priority, not only to better understand the situation and its determining factors, but also to intervene and act with strategies that support and reinvest in the social and cultural sectors, which is vital in order to allow for individuals and communities in the South to strengthen their autonomy and identify.

  8. Functional impairment, stress, and psychosocial intervention in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Miklowitz, David J

    2011-12-01

    The longitudinal course of bipolar disorder (BD) is highly impairing. This article reviews recent research on functional impairment in the course of BD, the roles of social and intrafamilial stress in relapse and recovery, and the role of adjunctive psychosocial interventions in reducing risk and enhancing functioning. Comparative findings in adult and childhood BD are highlighted. Life events and family-expressed emotion have emerged as significant predictors of the course of BD. Studies of social information processing suggest that impairments in the recognition of facial emotions may characterize both adult- and early-onset bipolar patients. Newly developed psychosocial interventions, particularly those that focus on family and social relationships, are associated with more rapid recovery from episodes and better psychosocial functioning. Family-based psychoeducational approaches are promising as early interventions for children with BD or children at risk of developing the disorder. For adults, interpersonal therapy, mindfulness-based strategies, and cognitive remediation may offer promise in enhancing functioning.

  9. Psychosocial Interventions Pre and Post Bariatric Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kalarchian, Melissa A; Marcus, Marsha D

    2015-11-01

    Despite positive results overall, a substantial number of patients experience poor long-term outcomes following bariatric surgery. One reason for variability in weight loss may be difficulty in making and sustaining changes in dietary intake and physical activity; post-surgery binge eating has also been associated with poorer weight outcomes. In this paper, we review available evidence on adjunctive psychosocial interventions for bariatric surgery patients. Although the literature is limited, evidence suggests that bariatric surgery patients may benefit from a comprehensive approach targeting diet, activity and psychological factors. We think the optimal time to initiate adjunctive intervention is after surgery, but before significant weight regain has occurred. Adaptive interventions incorporating advances in technology may prove to be effective for promoting behavioural self-management and psychosocial adjustment following bariatric surgery. For some patients, pharmacotherapy and reoperation may also play a role in a personalized approach to post-surgery care. PMID:26364715

  10. Psychosocial profile of Swiss sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Curtin, F; Niveau, G

    1998-07-01

    Background data on psychosocial characteristics of sexual offenders are sparse in Europe. From 67 experts' reports done between 1982 and 1995 in Geneva, Switzerland, demographic, criminological and psychiatric characteristics were collected for three groups of sexual offenders: offenders against adults, offenders against non-relative minors (< 18 yr), and offenders against minors with incest. The results showed that the offenders against adults were younger (p = 0.02), more frequently single (p = 0.0007) and with a lower educational level (p = 0.05) than the offenders against minors. Incest offenders had no prior conviction compared with 50% of the other offenders. Violence was more often used by offenders against adults (86%) than by offenders against minors (45%) (p = 0.005). About two-thirds of the sexual offenders had no psychiatric history, but a personality disorder (mainly borderline) was diagnosed in half of the offenders. A history of sexual abuse during childhood was reported by a third of the offenders against minors and by 5% of the offenders against adults (p = 0.04). It is concluded that a low socio-economic status and social isolation characterized offenders against adults, whereas offenders against minors had a relatively normal psychosocial profile. PMID:9670495

  11. The effect of marriage on young adult heavy drinking and its mediators: results from two methods of adjusting for selection into marriage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Matthew R; Chassin, Laurie; Mackinnon, David

    2010-12-01

    This study tested the effect of marriage on young adult heavy drinking and tested whether this effect was mediated by involvement in social activities, religiosity, and self-control reasons for limiting drinking. The sample of 508 young adults was taken from an ongoing longitudinal study of familial alcoholism that over-sampled children of alcoholics (Chassin, Rogosch, & Barrera, 1991). In order to distinguish role socialization effects of marriage from confounding effects of role selection into marriage, analyses used both the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) method and the change score method of adjusting for pre-marriage levels of heavy drinking and the mediators. Results showed role socialization effects of marriage on post-marriage declines in heavy drinking. This effect was mediated by involvement in social activities such that marriage predicted decreased involvement in social activities, which in turn predicted decreased heavy drinking. There were no statistically significant mediated effects of religiosity. The mediated effect of self-control reasons for limiting drinking was supported by the ANCOVA method only, and further investigation suggested that this result was detected erroneously due to violation of an assumption of the ANCOVA method that is not shared by the change score method. Findings from this study offer an explanation for the maturing out of heavy drinking that takes place for some individuals over the course of young adulthood. Methodologically, results suggest that the ANCOVA method should be employed with caution, and that the change score method is a viable approach to confirming results from the ANCOVA method. PMID:21198229

  12. Convergence and Non-convergence in the Quality of Adolescent Relationships and its Association with Adolescent Adjustment and Young Adult Relationship Quality

    PubMed Central

    Jager, Justin

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of identifying and examining both converging (matched relationship quality across one’s set of relationships) and non-converging (mixed relationship quality across one’s set of relationships), the present study used a pattern-centered approach to examine the different ways adolescent relationships pattern together among a large, national sample of U.S adolescents (aged 13–19). The study also examined how adolescent adjustment and young adult relationship quality varied across the different relationship patterns or constellations. The current study used latent class analysis and data from Add Health (n = 4,233), a national U.S. longitudinal study that spans adolescence and young adulthood, to uncover heterogeneity in adolescent relations with parents, friends, romantic partners, peers, and teachers. As predicted, patterns of both convergence and non-convergence were found, though patterns of non-convergence were more common than expected. Some patterns of non-convergence appear more stable (i.e., similar pattern found during both adolescence and young adulthood) than others. Also, no “high” converging pattern was found, indicating that few adolescents have “first-rate” relations in every relational domain. PMID:22334764

  13. Neuroplasticity, Psychosocial Genomics, and the Biopsychosocial Paradigm in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Eric L.; Howard, Matthew Owen

    2009-01-01

    The biopsychosocial perspective is a foundation of social work theory and practice. Recent research on neuroplasticity and psychosocial genomics lends compelling support to this perspective by elucidating mechanisms through which psychosocial forces shape neurobiology. Investigations of neuroplasticity demonstrate that the adult brain can continue…

  14. Psychosocial Treatment of Bipolar Disorders in Adolescents: A Proposed Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Feeny, Norah C.; Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Eric A.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the severity of bipolar disorder (BP) and the amount of attention the psychosocial treatment of BP among adults has been given (e.g., Basco & Rush, 1996; Miklowitz, Frank, & George, 1996), no published outcome study or psychosocial treatment manual to date exists for children with this disorder. Based upon what is known about the…

  15. Sun Protection during Snow Sports: An Analysis of Behavior and Psychosocial Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Eva; van Kann, Dave; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian; van Osch, Liesbeth

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated sun protective behavior during snow sports and its psychosocial determinants. A longitudinal study was conducted among 418 Dutch adults who planned to go on a ski holiday. Participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire before and after their ski trip. In the baseline questionnaire several psychosocial factors were…

  16. Measuring the psychosocial consequences of hearing loss in a working adult population: focus on validity and reliability of the Italian translation of the Hearing Handicap Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Monzani, D; Genovese, E; Palma, S; Rovatti, V; Borgonzoni, M; Martini, A

    2007-01-01

    Summary Despite increasing demand for questionnaires for assessing hearing handicap and the effectiveness of some tools across different languages, empirical studies to evaluate the reliability and the validity of translations of original English questionnaires into an Italian version have not been reported in the literature, thus making comparisons of Italian experimental and clinical data across cultures and countries impossible. This study tested the global assumption that the Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults (HHIA), that is one of the most widely used instruments in English-speaking countries, can be adapted to the Italian language maintaining the reliability and clinical validity of the original version. The English version of this 25-item, self-assessment questionnaire was developed by Newman et al. in 1990 and special emphasis was placed on emotional reaction and social limitations perceived by hearing-impaired subjects and scored separately. This tool was translated into the Italian language by a forward and backward technique, as established by the IQOLA (International Quality of Life Assessment) project. Overall, 94 subjects, aged 18-65 years, with acquired hearing impairment and 104 individuals with no hearing problems, well-matched for socio-demographic variables, were enrolled in the study in a case-control design. Reliability of the Italian version of HHIA was tested by measuring internal consistency and test-retest reproducibility. Validity was assessed by using construct, convergent and discriminant methods. A Cronbach’s alpha coefficient near 0.90 confirmed a more than acceptable internal consistency and a highly statistically significant Spearman’s correlation coefficient (< 0.005) between scores of the two administrations at an interval of one month documented an excellent stability of the questionnaire over time. Construct validity was demonstrated by a correlation between the severity of hearing loss and the score of questionnaire (< 0

  17. Potential Psychosocial Risk Factors for Chronic TMD: Descriptive Data and Empirically Identified Domains from the OPPERA Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Fillingim, Roger B.; Ohrbach, Richard; Greenspan, Joel D.; Knott, Charles; Dubner, Ronald; Bair, Eric; Baraian, Cristina; Slade, Gary D.; Maixner, William

    2011-01-01

    Case-control studies have consistently associated psychosocial factors with chronic pain in general, and with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) specifically. Moreover, a handful of prospective studies suggest that pre-existing psychosocial characteristics represent risk factors for new onset TMD. The current study presents psychosocial findings from the baseline case-control study of the Orofacial Pain Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA) cooperative agreement. For this study, 1,633 TMD-free controls and 185 TMD cases completed a battery of psychosocial instruments assessing general psychosocial adjustment and personality, affective distress, psychosocial stress, somatic awareness, and pain coping and catastrophizing. In bivariate and demographically-adjusted analyses, odds of TMD were associated with higher levels of psychosocial symptoms, affective distress, somatic awareness, and pain catastrophizing. Among controls, significant gender and ethnic group differences in psychosocial measures were observed, consistent with previous findings. Principal component analysis was undertaken to identify latent constructs revealing four components: stress and negative affectivity, global psychosocial symptoms, passive pain coping, and active pain coping. These findings provide further evidence of associations between psychosocial factors and TMD. Future prospective analyses in the OPPERA cohort will determine if the premorbid presence of these psychosocial factors predicts increased risk for developing new-onset TMD. PMID:22074752

  18. The Psychosocial Impact of Fabry Disease on Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Bugescu, Nicolle; Naylor, Paige E; Hudson, Kyr; Aoki, Christa D; Cordova, Matthew J; Packman, Wendy

    2016-09-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is a multisystemic disease that has previously been reported to result in poorer quality of life and psychosocial functioning in impacted adults. However, prior to the current study, limited data were available on the impact of FD in children and adolescents. Therefore, the present study examined the differences of quality of life, psychosocial functioning, and depression in children with FD as compared with a healthy sample. Results indicated that children with FD were experiencing poorer quality of life than their healthy counterparts. Notably, results consistently identified adolescents with FD as more heavily impacted than younger children, although not to the same degree as adults with FD as reported in previous studies. Therefore, adolescence may be a critical point in the development of individuals with FD during which effective multidisciplinary interventions could be utilized to prevent poor quality of life and psychosocial functioning in adulthood. PMID:27617155

  19. Psychosocial Aspects of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Beck, Amy R

    2016-01-01

    This article is the sixth in a series of the comorbidities of childhood obesity and reviews psychosocial aspects with a focus on weight-based victimization and discrimination stemming from weight bias and stigma. Outcomes from these bullying and discriminatory experiences are pervasive and impact youth across all settings, including school. Lastly, this article provides recommendations on how to reduce bias and stigma to better serve these students in the school environment. PMID:26739931

  20. Pediatric AIDS: psychosocial impact.

    PubMed

    Mangos, J A; Doran, T; Aranda-Naranjo, B; Rodriguez-Escobar, Y; Scott, A; Setzer, J R

    1990-06-01

    There is no question that the domain of the American family has been invaded by the HIV infection/AIDS epidemic. The disease, and particularly its form affecting children (pediatric AIDS), has had marked psychosocial impact on patients and families (intellectual/cognitive, emotional/behavioral, spiritual, and financial) and on our society in general (adverse or favorable). These impacts of pediatric AIDS are discussed in the present communication. PMID:2371699

  1. [Adolescent psychosocial development].

    PubMed

    Gaete, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly necessary that pediatricians have greater knowledge of adolescent health. To begin with they should be familiar with the psychosocial development of this period, an issue which is imperative for the health care of the age group. With that purpose, this article reviews the normal adolescent psychosocial development. Adolescence is a stage that has been progressively prolonged, during which fast and big changes occur, that lead human beings to become biologically, psychologically and socially mature, and potentially able to live independently. Developmental tasks of this period are the establishment of identity and the achievement of autonomy. Although it is a process of high individual variability in terms of its beginning and end, the progression through stages, the synchrony of development between the various areas, and in other aspects, the psychosocial development of this period usually have common characteristics and a progressive pattern of 3 phases: early, middle and late adolescence. Psychological, cognitive, social, sexual and moral development of young people in each of them are described in this article. PMID:26342392

  2. [Adolescent psychosocial development].

    PubMed

    Gaete, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly necessary that pediatricians have greater knowledge of adolescent health. To begin with they should be familiar with the psychosocial development of this period, an issue which is imperative for the health care of the age group. With that purpose, this article reviews the normal adolescent psychosocial development. Adolescence is a stage that has been progressively prolonged, during which fast and big changes occur, that lead human beings to become biologically, psychologically and socially mature, and potentially able to live independently. Developmental tasks of this period are the establishment of identity and the achievement of autonomy. Although it is a process of high individual variability in terms of its beginning and end, the progression through stages, the synchrony of development between the various areas, and in other aspects, the psychosocial development of this period usually have common characteristics and a progressive pattern of 3 phases: early, middle and late adolescence. Psychological, cognitive, social, sexual and moral development of young people in each of them are described in this article.

  3. Young child socioemotional/behavioral problems and cumulative psychosocial risk.

    PubMed

    Weitzman, Carol; Edmonds, Diana; Davagnino, Judith; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2014-01-01

    Limited information is available about the rates and risk correlates of socioemotional/behavioral problems in young children in pediatric primary care settings serving low-income families. Our objective was to determine rates of clinically significant socioemotional/behavior problems in 12- to 48-month-olds from low-income families and identify associations between problems and individual and cumulative demographic and psychosocial risks. In this study, 378 Spanish- and English-speaking mothers attending a pediatric primary care practice serving low-income families were surveyed before well-child visits to assess socioemotional/behavioral problems (Brief Infant-Toddler Social-Emotional Assessment; M.J. Briggs-Gowan & A.S. Carter, ) and psychosocial and demographic risks (e.g., unemployment, low social support) (Parent Risk Questionnaire; D.I. Lowell, A.S. Carter, L. Godoy, B. Paulicin, & M.J. Briggs-Gowan, ). We found that 19.8% of children had clinically significant problems, and 53.2% experienced one or more psychosocial risks. Clinically significant socioemotional/behavioral problems were modestly to strongly associated with individual psychosocial risks, with the strongest associations with parental medical problems, parent depression/anxiety, and extreme parental distress, Adjusted Relative Risk (ARR) = 4.8-6.6, p < .0001. Cumulative demographic and psychosocial risk were uniquely associated with clinically significant problems, particularly among children experiencing three to four psychosocial risks, ARR = 3.0-11.6, p < .05. Psychosocial risks affect the majority of low-income families with young children, with a steep increase in likelihood of clinically significant socioemotional/behavioral problems as risks accumulate, underscoring the need to address both socioemotional/behavioral issues and psychosocial risk in young children.

  4. Insomnia and Psychosocial Crisis: Two Studies of Erikson's Developmental Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Karen Dineen; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examines the role of internal stressors in the development of sleep disturbances in two studies of 122 older adults and 66 college students. Results confirmed Erikson's (1959) developmental theory. Failure to resolve the psychosocial crises of old age and adolescence were related to insomnia. (WAS)

  5. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Skin Self-Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jakob D.; Moriarty, Cortney M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined psychosocial factors associated with skin self-exam (SSE) performance by young adults. Participants and Methods: The authors administered surveys to 218 US college students (aged 18-26 years) attending a large midwestern university. Results: Contrary to prior research, men (44%) and women (49%) were relatively…

  6. Psychosocial Factors in Mainstreaming Visually Impaired Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrawal, R.

    1992-01-01

    Seven visually impaired men in India were interviewed regarding their attitudes toward integration and the problems they were facing. Their Intelligence Quotients and levels of anxiety were also assessed. It was found that, for successful mainstreaming, the characteristics of individuals are as important as the social environments in which they…

  7. Couples facing death. I-Psychosocial aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Stedeford, A

    1981-01-01

    Forty-one couples facing the prospect of separation by death were followed up from the time of admission to a continuing care unit through death of the patient to an interview with the bereaved spouse. Half the patients were found to have anxiety or depression or both, usually as a result of failure to cope with specific difficulties. These fell into four groups: unsatisfactory communication, direct effects of illness and treatment, failure to adjust lifestyles to changing circumstances, and pre-existing marital and family problems. This paper examines in detail the problems in the second and third groups. Support was offered to the patient and family in an attempt to help them to adjust and make the best use of their resources. The responses obtained suggest that some of the suffering of terminal illness can be relieved when psychosocial problems are recognised and appropriated help is given. PMID:6794752

  8. Psychosocial outcomes in patients with recurrent major depressive disorder during 2 years of maintenance treatment with venlafaxine extended release

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Dunner, David L.; Kornstein, Susan G.; Thase, Michael E.; Zajecka, John M.; Rothschild, Anthony J.; Friedman, Edward S.; Shelton, Richard C.; Keller, Martin B.; Kocsis, James H.; Gelenberg, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychosocial outcomes from the Prevention of Recurrent Episodes of Depression with Venlafaxine ER for Two Years (PREVENT) study were evaluated. Methods Adult outpatients with recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) and response or remission following 6-month continuation treatment with venlafaxine extended release (ER) were randomized to receive venlafaxine ER or placebo for 1 year. Patients without recurrence on venlafaxine ER during year 1 were randomized to venlafaxine ER or placebo for year 2. Psychosocial functioning was assessed using the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire—Short Form (Q-LES-Q), Life EnjoymentScale—Short Version (LES-S), Social Adjustment Scale—Self-Report (SAS-SR) total and individual factors, Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) (vitality, social functioning, and role function-emotional items), and Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE). Results At year 1 end, better overall psychosocial functioning was seen among patients randomly assigned to venlafaxine ER (n=129) vs placebo (n=129), with significant differences at end point on SF-36 role function-emotional, Q-LES-Q, and SAS-SR total, and work, house work, social/leisure, and extended-family factor scores (p≤0.05). At year 2 end, significant differences favored venlafaxine ER (n=43) vs placebo (n=40)on SF-36 vitality and rolefunction-emotional, Q-LES-Q, LES-S, LIFE, and SAS-SR total, social/leisure, and extended-family factor scores (p≤0.05). Limitations Patients with chronic MDD or treatment resistance were excluded and long-term specialist care was a financial incentive for treatment compliance. Discontinuation-related adverse events may have compromised the integrity of the treatment blind. Conclusions For patients with recurrent MDD, 2 years’ maintenance therapy with venlafaxine ER may improve psychosocial functioning vs placebo. PMID:20510459

  9. Latent Constructs in Psychosocial Factors Associated with Cardiovascular Disease: An Examination by Race and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Cari Jo; Henderson, Kimberly M.; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes; Guo, Hongfei; Lunos, Scott; Evans, Denis A.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines race and sex differences in the latent structure of 10 psychosocial measures and the association of identified factors with self-reported history of coronary heart disease (CHD). Participants were 4,128 older adults from the Chicago Health and Aging Project. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with oblique geomin rotation was used to identify latent factors among the psychosocial measures. Multi-group comparisons of the EFA model were conducted using exploratory structural equation modeling to test for measurement invariance across race and sex subgroups. A factor-based scale score was created for invariant factor(s). Logistic regression was used to test the relationship between the factor score(s) and CHD adjusting for relevant confounders. Effect modification of the relationship by race–sex subgroup was tested. A two-factor model fit the data well (comparative fit index = 0.986; Tucker–Lewis index = 0.969; root mean square error of approximation = 0.039). Depressive symptoms, neuroticism, perceived stress, and low life satisfaction loaded on Factor I. Social engagement, spirituality, social networks, and extraversion loaded on Factor II. Only Factor I, re-named distress, showed measurement invariance across subgroups. Distress was associated with a 37% increased odds of self-reported CHD (odds ratio: 1.37; 95% confidence intervals: 1.25, 1.50; p-value < 0.0001). This effect did not differ by race or sex (interaction p-value = 0.43). This study identified two underlying latent constructs among a large range of psychosocial variables; only one, distress, was validly measured across race–sex subgroups. This construct was robustly related to prevalent CHD, highlighting the potential importance of latent constructs as predictors of cardiovascular disease. PMID:22347196

  10. Psychosocial Recovery and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Antai-Otong, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    This article discusses a psychosocial recovery and rehabilitation recovery model that uses an intensive case management approach. The approach offers an interdisciplinary model that integrates pharmacotherapy, social skills training, cognitive remediation, family involvement, and community integration. This evidence-based plan of care instills hope and nurtures one's capacity to learn and improve function and quality of life. It is cost-effective and offers psychiatric nurses opportunities to facilitate symptomatic remission, facilitate self-efficacy, and improve communication and social cognition skills. Nurses in diverse practice settings must be willing to plan and implement innovative treatment models that provide seamless mental health care across the treatment continuum. PMID:27229282

  11. [Psychosocial aspects of preeclampsia].

    PubMed

    Szita, Bernadett; Baji, Ildikó; Rigó, János

    2015-12-13

    Distress conditions during pregnancy may contribute to the development of preeclampsia by altering functions of the neuroendocrine and immune systems, e.g. activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increase in plasma proinflammatory cytokines. Preeclampsia may also precipitate mental health problems due to long-term hospitalization or unpredictable and uncontrollable events such as preterm labor and newborn complications. Besides, preeclampsia may induce persistent neurocognitive complaints with a negative impact on patients' quality of life. As growing evidence indicates that poor maternal mental health has an adverse effect on pregnancy outcome and fetal development, psychosocial interventions may be beneficial for women with preeclampsia.

  12. Psychosocial Assessment as a Standard of Care in Pediatric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kazak, Anne E; Abrams, Annah N; Banks, Jaime; Christofferson, Jennifer; DiDonato, Stephen; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Kabour, Marianne; Madan-Swain, Avi; Patel, Sunita K; Zadeh, Sima; Kupst, Mary Jo

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the evidence for a standard of care for psychosocial assessment in pediatric cancer. An interdisciplinary group of investigators utilized EBSCO, PubMed, PsycINFO, Ovid, and Google Scholar search databases, focusing on five areas: youth/family psychosocial adjustment, family resources, family/social support, previous history/premorbid functioning, and family structure/function. Descriptive quantitative studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses (n = 149) were reviewed and evaluated using grading of recommendations, assessment development, and evaluation (GRADE) criteria. There is high quality evidence to support a strong recommendation for multifaceted, systematic assessments of psychosocial health care needs of youth with cancer and their families as a standard of care in pediatric oncology.

  13. Can they recover? An assessment of adult adjustment problems among males in the abstainer, recovery, life-course persistent, and adolescence-limited pathways followed up to age 56 in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Wesley G; Rocque, Michael; Fox, Bryanna Hahn; Piquero, Alex R; Farrington, David P

    2016-05-01

    Much research has examined Moffitt's developmental taxonomy, focusing almost exclusively on the distinction between life-course persistent and adolescence-limited offenders. Of interest, a handful of studies have identified a group of individuals whose early childhood years were marked by extensive antisocial behavior but who seemed to recover and desist (at least from severe offending) in adolescence and early adulthood. We use data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development to examine the adult adjustment outcomes of different groups of offenders, including a recoveries group, in late middle adulthood, offering the most comprehensive investigation of this particular group to date. Findings indicate that abstainers comprise the largest group of males followed by adolescence-limited offenders, recoveries, and life-course persistent offenders. Furthermore, the results reveal that a host of adult adjustment problems measured at ages 32 and 48 in a number of life-course domains are differentially distributed across these four offender groups. In addition, the recoveries and life-course persistent offenders often show the greatest number of adult adjustment problems relative to the adolescence-limited offenders and abstainers.

  14. Adjustment Problems of Iranian International Students in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehdizadeh, Narjes; Scott, Gill

    2005-01-01

    Despite the important contribution of the adjustment of international students to successful academic performance in the host country, little research has been done in the United Kingdom. The aim of this study was to collect factual information about adjustment problems of Iranian international students in Scotland, such as psycho-social and…

  15. Maternal Adjustment Following Preterm Birth: Contributions of Experiential Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greco, Laurie A.; Heffner, Michelle; Poe, Susannah; Ritchie, Susan; Polak, Mark; Lynch, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    The birth of a preterm infant has been linked with parental distress and adjustment difficulties, yet little is known about the psychosocial factors contributing to this association. Using a cross-sectional design, we therefore examined maternal adjustment following preterm birth, with an emphasis on the potential role of experiential avoidance.…

  16. Model for assessing psychosocial problems.

    PubMed Central

    Tannenbaum, D.; McGillivray, M.

    1996-01-01

    The Model for the Assessment of Psychosocial Problems (MAPP) can help family medicine residents effectively assess patients with psychosocial problems. Following a patient-centred clinical method, MAPP provides a guide to exploring problems and an approach that allows residents and patients jointly to define problems and decide upon management. Emphasis is placed on clarifying patients' expectations of physicians. PMID:9222578

  17. Adolescent Personality Types and Subtypes and Their Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholte, Ron H. J.; van Lieshout, Cornelis F. M.; de Wit, Cees A. M.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested the existence of three personality types: resilients, overcontrollers, and undercontrollers. In this article, we searched for subtypes within each of the three main personality types. Using cluster analysis on the Big Five personality self-descriptions of 3,284 Dutch adolescent boys and girls, we distinguished…

  18. Associations between Early Childhood Temperament Clusters and Later Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanson, Ann; Letcher, Primrose; Smart, Diana; Prior, Margot; Toumbourou, John W.; Oberklaid, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The study adopted a person-centered approach to examine whether clusters of children could be identified on the basis of temperament profiles assessed on four occasions from infancy to early childhood, and if so whether differing temperament clusters were associated with subsequent differences in behavior problems, social skills, and school…

  19. Socioeconomic and Psychosocial Gradients in Cardiovascular Pathogen Burden and Immune Response: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Aiello, Allison E.; Diez-Roux, Ana; Noone, Anne-Michelle; Ranjit, Nalini; Cushman, Mary; Tsai, Michael Y.; Szklo, Moyses

    2009-01-01

    Background The biologic mechanisms linking socioeconomic position and psychosocial factors to cardiovascular disease (CVD) are not well understood. Immune response to persistent pathogens may be one of these mechanisms. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (N=999) composed of adults age 45–84. Log-binomial regression and ordinal logistic regression models were used to examine associations of socioeconomic factors and psychosocial factors with pathogen burden and immune response among those infected. Pathogen burden was assessed based on seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus-1, and Chlamydia pneumoniae and antibody levels were used to characterize high immune response to all four pathogens. Results Low education was a strong and significant independent predictor of higher pathogen burden after adjustment for covariates (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37, 1.19–1.57). Among subjects seropositive for all four pathogens, low education and a higher level of chronic psychosocial stress showed a positive association with higher antibody response, although associations were no longer significant in models with all covariates included (OR = 1.64, 95%CI 0.82–3.31 for lowest vs. highest educational category and OR= 1.29, 95%CI 0.96–1.73 for a one level increase in chronic stress). Conclusion Pathogen burden and heightened immune response may represent a biological pathway by which low socioeconomic position and chronic stress are related to increased rates of cardiovascular disease. PMID:19150399

  20. Neurodevelopmental and psychosocial aspects of Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ross, J; Zinn, A; McCauley, E

    2000-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is the complex phenotype of human females with complete or partial absence of the second sex chromosome, or monosomy X. A characteristic neurocognitive and psychosocial profile has also been described in TS females. Typically, specific deficits in visual-spatial/perceptual abilities, nonverbal memory function, motor function, executive function, and attentional abilities occur in TS children and adults of varying races and socioeconomic status. TS-associated psychosocial difficulties occur in the areas of maturity and social skills. We hypothesize that a subset of the neurocognitive deficits (visual-spatial/perceptual abilities) are genetically determined and result from abnormal expression of one or more X chromosome genes. In addition, a different subset of these neurocognitive deficits (memory, reaction time, and speeded motor function) result from estrogen deficiency and are at least somewhat reversible with estrogen treatment. The TS-associated psychosocial problems are most likely linked to these core neurocognitive deficits and do not reflect a separate and independent component of the syndrome. Turner syndrome research has progressed significantly over the last decade. The field has moved from descriptive reports based on single individuals or small clinical samples to the use of experimental designs with larger, more diverse and representative samples. This degree of variability among individuals with Turner syndrome in all domains (karyotype or genetic constitution, physical attributes, neurocognitive and social functioning) suggests the need to identify risk and protective factors contributing to the heterogeneity in the phenotype. Active education about TS and participation in patient advocacy groups such as the Turner Syndrome Society of the United States (http://www. turner-syndrome-us.org/) has provided new information for TS adults and families as well as a supportive peer group. MRDD Research Reviews 2000;6:135-141.

  1. Social capital and depressive symptoms: the association of psychosocial and network dimensions of social capital with depressive symptoms in Montreal, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Emma; Moore, Spencer

    2013-06-01

    Depression is the most common mental illness worldwide, and although aspects of the social environment, including social capital, have been linked to depression, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we assessed whether (1) network and psychosocial dimensions of individual social capital were each associated with depressive symptoms, and (2) the association varied according to the location of the capital, i.e., outside or inside a person's neighbourhood. The current study used data from the Montreal Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Ageing Study (MoNNET-HA). MoNNET-HA consisted of a representative sample of 2707 adults from 300 census tracts in the Montreal Metropolitan Area. The CESD-10 instrument was used to assess the presence of depressive symptoms with a cut off of more than three symptoms used to indicate depressive symptomatology. Name and position generator instruments were used to assess the existence of a core tie, core tie diversity, and network social capital both inside and outside the neighbourhood. Questions on generalized trust, trust in neighbours, and neighbourhood cohesion were used to assess psychosocial dimensions of social capital inside and outside the neighbourhood. Community and general group participation were also included as structural dimensions of social capital. Analyses adjusted for a range of socio-demographic and economic characteristics. Results from multilevel logistic regressions indicated that the core tie diversity as well as the psychosocial dimensions of generalized trust, trust in neighbours, and perceptions of neighbourhood cohesion reduced the likelihood of depressive symptoms in urban-dwelling adults. Network and psychosocial components of social capital within neighbourhood contexts should be considered when examining social capital and depressive symptoms.

  2. Rehabilitation and social adjustment of people with burns in society.

    PubMed

    Din, Sirajud; Shah, Mussawar; Asadullah; Jamal, Humera; Bilal, Muhammad

    2015-02-01

    The present study was conducted on rehabilitation and social adjustment of people with burns in society with the main objective to determine the relationship between social adjustment of people with burns and their psychosocial rehabilitation. The study was limited to the Burn Unit, Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan. At bi-variate level, the following were observed: the relationship of psychosocial rehabilitation was highly significant (P=0.000) considering that people with burns feel shame in the society, a highly significant relation (P=0.000) was found between psychosocial rehabilitation and burn as the hurdle to contact other members of the society, a highly significant (P=0.000) relation was found between psychosocial rehabilitation and perception that society provides social support to people with burns, a highly significant (P=0.000) relationship between psychosocial rehabilitation and people with burns feel alienated from the society, a significant association (P=0.024) was found between psychosocial rehabilitation and loss of social network, and a significant (P=0.002) association between psychosocial rehabilitation and society insult toward people with burns. Regular provision of treatment, quota in job allocation for people with burns, initiation of stipend through Benazir Income Support Program, and keeping and updating record of burns at the district level in census centers were suggested as recommendations in light of the study.

  3. Psychosocial Working Conditions and Cognitive Complaints among Swedish Employees

    PubMed Central

    Stenfors, Cecilia U. D.; Magnusson Hanson, Linda; Oxenstierna, Gabriel; Theorell, Töres; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2013-01-01

    Background Cognitive complaints involving problems with concentration, memory, decision-making and thinking are relatively common in the work force. The sensitivity of both subjective and objective cognitive functioning to common psychiatric conditions, stress levels and to cognitive load makes it plausible that psychosocial working conditions play a role in cognitive complaints. Thus, this study aimed to test the associations between psychosocial work factors and cognitive complaints in nationally representative samples of the Swedish work force. Cross-sectional (n = 9751) and prospective (n = 3644; two time points two years apart) sequential multiple regression analyses were run, adjusting for general confounders, depressive- and sleeping problems. Additional prospective analyses were run adjusting for baseline cognitive complaints. Cross-sectional results High quantitative demands, information and communication technology (ICT) demands, underqualification and conflicts were positively associated with cognitive complaints, while social support, good resources at work and overqualification were negatively associated with cognitive complaints in all models. Skill discretion and decision authority were weakly associated with cognitive complaints. Conflicts were more strongly associated with cognitive complaints in women than in men, after adjustment for general confounders. Prospective results Quantitative job demands, ICT demands and underqualification were positively associated with future cognitive complaints in all models, including when adjusted for baseline cognitive complaints. Decision authority was weakly positively associated with future cognitive complaints, only after adjustment for depressive- and sleeping problems respectively. Social support was negatively associated with future cognitive complaints after adjustment for general confounders and baseline cognitive complaints. Skill discretion and resources were negatively associated with future

  4. Cognitive control adjustments in healthy older and younger adults: Conflict adaptation, the error-related negativity (ERN), and evidence of generalized decline with age.

    PubMed

    Larson, Michael J; Clayson, Peter E; Keith, Cierra M; Hunt, Isaac J; Hedges, Dawson W; Nielsen, Brent L; Call, Vaughn R A

    2016-03-01

    Older adults display alterations in neural reflections of conflict-related processing. We examined response times (RTs), error rates, and event-related potential (ERP; N2 and P3 components) indices of conflict adaptation (i.e., congruency sequence effects) a cognitive control process wherein previous-trial congruency influences current-trial performance, along with post-error slowing, correct-related negativity (CRN), error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) amplitudes in 65 healthy older adults and 94 healthy younger adults. Older adults showed generalized slowing, had decreased post-error slowing, and committed more errors than younger adults. Both older and younger adults showed conflict adaptation effects; magnitude of conflict adaptation did not differ by age. N2 amplitudes were similar between groups; younger, but not older, adults showed conflict adaptation effects for P3 component amplitudes. CRN and Pe, but not ERN, amplitudes differed between groups. Data support generalized declines in cognitive control processes in older adults without specific deficits in conflict adaptation.

  5. Nutrition in older adults.

    PubMed

    DiMaria-Ghalili, Rose Ann; Amella, Elaine

    2005-03-01

    Both physiologic and psychosocial changes affect the nutritional status of adults over the age of 65. Malnutrition is, in fact, a greater threat to this population than obesity. This article reviews the intake requirements of older adults and discusses the risk factors that can lead to malnutrition, including diet, limited income, isolation, chronic illness, and physiologic changes. Assessment and nursing interventions are also addressed.

  6. Associations between Distal Upper Extremity Job Physical Factors and Psychosocial Measures in a Pooled Study

    PubMed Central

    Thiese, Matthew S.; Hegmann, Kurt T.; Kapellusch, Jay; Merryweather, Andrew; Bao, Stephen; Silverstein, Barbara; Garg, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. There is an increasing body of literature relating musculoskeletal diseases to both job physical exposures and psychosocial outcomes. Relationships between job physical exposure measures and psychosocial factors have not been well examined or quantified. These exploratory analyses evaluate relationships between quantified exposures and psychosocial outcomes. Methods. Individualized quantification of duration, repetition, and force and composite scores of the Strain Index (SI) and the Threshold Limit Value for Hand Activity Level (TLV for HAL) were compared to 10 psychosocial measures. Relationships and predicted probabilities were assessed using ordered logistic regression. Analyses were adjusted for age, BMI, and gender. Results and Discussion. Among 1834 study participants there were multiple statistically significant relationships. In general, as duration, repetition, and force increased, psychosocial factors worsened. However, general health and mental exhaustion improved with increasing job exposures. Depression was most strongly associated with increased repetition, while physical exhaustion was most strongly associated with increased force. SI and TLV for HAL were significantly related to multiple psychosocial factors. These relationships persisted after adjustment for strong confounders. Conclusion. This study quantified multiple associations between job physical exposures and occupational and nonoccupational psychosocial factors. Further research is needed to quantify the impacts on occupational health outcomes. PMID:26557686

  7. Demonstration of Benefits of Early Identification of Psychosocial Problems and Early Intervention Toward Rehabilitation of Cancer Patients. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diller, Leonard; And Others

    Early identification of psychosocial problems and early intervention with cancer patients can be beneficial to patient rehabilitation. This report focusses on: (1) developing and implementing an effective "model program" of psychosocial intervention for adult cancer patients; (2) evaluating the impact of intervention in ameliorating cancer…

  8. Cell phones: the psychosocial risks.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2013-01-01

    Cell phones are a relatively novel and evolving technology. While the potential benefits of this technology continue to emerge, so do the potential psychosocial risks. For example, one psychosocial risk is user stress, which appears to be related to feeling compelled to promptly respond to cell-phone activity in order to maintain spontaneity and access with others. Other potential psychosocial risks include disruptions in sleep; the user's risk of exposure to cyberbullying, particularly the unwanted exposure of photographs and/or videos of the victim; and overuse, particularly among adolescents. With regard to the latter phenomenon, the boundaries among overuse, misuse, dependence, and addiction are not scientifically clear. Therefore, while cell phones are a convenient and expedient technology, they are not without their potential psychosocial hazards.

  9. Adult Development and the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffernan, James M.

    Little attention has been given to how adults develop through their lifetimes and what roles their workplace environments play in that development. Research and theory regarding adult psychosocial development have confirmed the developmental life-cycle phases of adulthood. These are: leaving the family (ages 16-22), getting into the adult world…

  10. Psychosocial work environment and antidepressant medication: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bonde, Jens Peter E; Munch-Hansen, Torsten; Wieclaw, Joanna; Westergaard-Nielsen, Niels; Agerbo, Esben

    2009-01-01

    Background Adverse psychosocial work environments may lead to impaired mental health, but it is still a matter of conjecture if demonstrated associations are causal or biased. We aimed at verifying whether poor psychosocial working climate is related to increase of redeemed subscription of antidepressant medication. Methods Information on all antidepressant drugs (AD) purchased at pharmacies from 1995 through 2006 was obtained for a cohort of 21,129 Danish public service workers that participated in work climate surveys carried out during the period 2002–2005. Individual self-reports of psychosocial factors at work including satisfaction with the work climate and dimensions of the job strain model were obtained by self-administered questionnaires (response rate 77,2%). Each employee was assigned the average score value for all employees at his/her managerial work unit [1094 units with an average of 18 employees (range 3–120)]. The risk of first-time AD prescription during follow-up was examined according to level of satisfaction and psychosocial strain by Cox regression with adjustment for gender, age, marital status, occupational status and calendar year of the survey. Results The proportion of employees that received at least one prescription of ADs from 1995 through 2006 was 11.9% and prescriptions rose steadily from 1.50% in 1996 to the highest level 6.47% in 2006. ADs were prescribed more frequent among women, middle aged, employees with low occupational status and those living alone. None of the measured psychosocial work environment factors were consistently related to prescription of antidepressant drugs during the follow-up period. Conclusion The study does not indicate that a poor psychosocial work environment among public service employees is related to prescription of antidepressant pharmaceuticals. These findings need cautious interpretation because of lacking individual exposure assessments. PMID:19635130

  11. Psychosocial Factors Related to Cannabis Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Finch, Stephen J.; Koppel, Jonathan; Brook, David W.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the association between psychosocial risk and protective factors and cannabis use disorders (CUDs) in a cohort of African American and Puerto Rican young adults. A representative sample (N=838) from the East Harlem area of New York City was assessed at four points in time (at mean ages 14.1, 19.2, 24.5, and 29.2). The psychosocial measures came from six domains: personality attributes, family, peer, work, neighborhood, and substance use The psychosocial measures were assessed at each of the first three waves of the study, and CUDs were assessed at the fourth and final wave of the study. Multivariate logistic regression and a cumulative risk analysis were conducted. Increased psychological symptoms (OR=1.21; 95% CI, 1.05–1.39; p<.01), problems resulting from cannabis use (OR=2.69; 95% CI, 1.33–5.46; p<.01), frequent arguments with one’s partner (OR=1.84; 95% CI, 1.09–3.10; p<.05), high levels of deviance (OR=1.81; 95% CI, 1.21–2.71; p<.01), and frequent acts of violence directed toward the participant (OR=1.19; 95% CI, 1.01–1.42; p<.05) were all associated with an increased risk for CUDs. An increase in the number of risks was associated with an increase in the probability of having CUDs at the fourth wave (again, at a mean age of 29.2). A decrease in the number of risk factors may lead to a decrease in CUDs. PMID:22014255

  12. Brief Report: Teen Sexting and Psychosocial Health

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Jeff R.; Le, Vi Donna; van den Berg, Patricia; Ling, Yan; Paul, Jonathan A.; Temple, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines whether adolescents who report sexting exhibit more psychosocial health problems, compared to their non-sexting counterparts. Participants included 937 ethnically diverse male and female adolescents recruited and assessed from multiple high schools in southeast Texas. Measures included self-report of sexting, impulsivity, alcohol and drug use, and depression and anxiety symptoms. Teen sexting was significantly associated with symptoms of depression, impulsivity, and substance use. When adjusted for prior sexual behavior, age, gender, race/ethnicity, and parent education, sexting was only related to impulsivity and substance use. While teen sexting appears to correlate with impulsive and high-risk behaviors (substance use), we did not find sexting to be a marker of mental health. PMID:24331302

  13. Brief report: Teen sexting and psychosocial health.

    PubMed

    Temple, Jeff R; Le, Vi Donna; van den Berg, Patricia; Ling, Yan; Paul, Jonathan A; Temple, Brian W

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines whether adolescents who report sexting exhibit more psychosocial health problems, compared to their non-sexting counterparts. Participants included 937 ethnically diverse male and female adolescents recruited and assessed from multiple high schools in southeast Texas. Measures included self-report of sexting, impulsivity, alcohol and drug use, and depression and anxiety symptoms. Teen sexting was significantly associated with symptoms of depression, impulsivity, and substance use. When adjusted for prior sexual behavior, age, gender, race/ethnicity, and parent education, sexting was only related to impulsivity and substance use. While teen sexting appears to correlate with impulsive and high-risk behaviors (substance use), we did not find sexting to be a marker of mental health.

  14. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, H.H.

    1988-03-11

    Abstract and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus. 3 figs.

  15. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  16. Psychosocial aspects of abortion

    PubMed Central

    Illsley, Raymond; Hall, Marion H.

    1976-01-01

    The literature on psychosocial aspects of abortion is confusing. Individual publications must be interpreted in the context of cultural, religious, and legal constraints obtaining in a particular society at a given time, with due attention to the status and availability of alternatives to abortion that might be chosen by a woman with an “unwanted” pregnancy. A review of the literature shows that, where careful pre- and post-abortion assessments are made, the evidence is that psychological benefit commonly results, and serious adverse emotional sequelae are rare. The outcome of refused abortion seems less satisfactory, with regrets and distress frequently occurring. Research on the administration of abortion services suggests that counselling is often of value, that distress is frequently caused by delays in deciding upon and in carrying out abortions, and by unsympathetic attitudes of service providers. The phenomenon of repeated abortion seeking should be seen in the context of the availability and cost of contraception and sterilization. The place of sterilization with abortion requires careful study. A recommendation is made for observational descriptive research on populations of women with potentially unwanted pregnancies in different cultures, with comparisons of management systems and an evaluation of their impact on service users. PMID:1085671

  17. Psychosocial consequences of therapeutic abortion King's termination study III.

    PubMed

    Greer, H S; Lal, S; Lewis, S C; Belsey, E M; Beard, R W

    1976-01-01

    A follow-up study is reported of a consecutive series of 360 women who underwent termination of first trimester pregnancies by vacuum aspiration. Each patient received brief counselling before termination. Follow-up examinations were carried out by means of detailed, structured interviews at three months and between 15 months and two years (mean: 18 months) after termination. Outcome was assessed in terms of psychiatric symptoms, guilt feelings, and adjustment in marital and other interpersonal relationships, sexual responsiveness and work record. Compared with ratings of psychosocial adjustment before termination, significant improvement had occurred at follow-up in respect of psychiatric symptoms, guilt feelings and interpersonal and sexual adjustment; there was no significant change in marital adjustment. Adverse psychiatric and social sequelae were rare.

  18. Effects of psychosocial education on adaptation in elderly hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Mathers, T R

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this experimental field pilot study was to determine whether the application of psychosocial education sessions had an effect on the adaptation level of elderly hemodialysis patients. A pretest, posttest control group design with two randomly selected groups was used. Ten patients, 4 males and 6 females, age 65 years and older, were randomly selected and stratified according to gender, with 2 males and 3 females assigned to either an experimental or a control group. The Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale, Self-Report (PAIS-SR) was administered as a pretest 1 week prior to implementation of the intervention with the experimental group. It was again given as a posttest 30 days after completion of the intervention. The intervention, 7 psychosocial educational sessions with 7 audiotapes and a companion text module, provided information. These sessions were conducted with the experimental group, 2 days a week, during the subjects' hemodialysis treatments, taking approximately 20 minutes each, over a period of 4 1/2 weeks. Data were analyzed utilizing t-tests and descriptive statistics. No significant differences were found between the scores of the pretest and posttest when comparing the two groups. However, a significant value of 0.035 (p < 0.05) was evident in one domain of the PAIS-SR, the domestic environment, when comparing the scores of the pretest and posttest of the experimental group. The application of psychosocial education sessions did not have a significant effect on the adaptation level of elderly hemodialysis patients.

  19. Long-term effects of STN DBS on mood: psychosocial profiles remain stable in a 3-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Iris; Kryspin-Exner, Ilse; Brücke, Thomas; Volc, Dieter; Alesch, François

    2008-01-01

    Background Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus significantly improves motor function in patients with severe Parkinson's disease. However, the effects on nonmotor aspects remain uncertain. The present study investigated the effects of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation on mood and psychosocial functions in 33 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease in a three year follow-up. Methods Self-rating questionnaires were administered to 33 patients prior to surgery as well as three, six, twelve and 36 months after surgery. Results In the long run, motor function significantly improved after surgery. Mood and psychosocial functions transiently improved at one year but returned to baseline at 36 months after surgery. In addition, we performed cluster and discriminant function analyses and revealed four distinct psychosocial profiles, which remained relatively stable in the course of time. Two profiles featured impaired psychosocial functioning while the other two of them were characterized by greater psychosocial stability. Conclusion Compared to baseline no worsening in mood and psychosocial functions was found three years after electrode implantation. Moreover, patients can be assigned to four distinct psychosocial profiles that are relatively stable in the time course. Since these subtypes already exist preoperatively the extent of psychosocial support can be anticipatory adjusted to the patients' needs in order to enhance coping strategies and compliance. This would allow early detection and even prevention of potential psychiatric adverse events after surgery. Given adequate psychosocial support, these findings imply that patients with mild psychiatric disturbances should not be excluded from surgery. PMID:19014430

  20. The influence of maternal psychosocial characteristics on infant feeding styles.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Katherine J; Thompson, Amanda L; Bentley, Margaret E

    2016-08-01

    Maternal feeding styles in infancy and early childhood are associated with children's later risk for overweight and obesity. Maternal psychosocial factors that influence feeding styles during the complementary feeding period, the time during which infants transition from a milk-based diet to one that includes solid foods and other non-milk products, have received less attention. The present study explores how maternal psychosocial factors-specifically self-esteem, parenting self-efficacy, parenting satisfaction, and depression symptoms-influence mothers' infant feeding styles at nine months of age, a time during which solid foods eating habits are being established. Participants included 160 low-income, African-American mother-infant pairs in central North Carolina who were enrolled in the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study. Regression models tested for associations between maternal psychosocial characteristics and pressuring and restrictive feeding styles. Models were first adjusted for maternal age, education, marital status and obesity status. To account for infant characteristics, models were then adjusted for infant weight-for-length, distress to limitations and activity level scores. Maternal self-esteem was negatively associated with pressuring to soothe. Maternal parenting self-efficacy was positively associated with restriction-diet quality. Maternal parenting satisfaction and depression symptoms were not associated with feeding styles in the final models. Focusing on strengthening maternal self-esteem and parenting self-efficacy may help to prevent the development of less desirable infant feeding styles. PMID:27174251

  1. The influence of maternal psychosocial characteristics on infant feeding styles.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Katherine J; Thompson, Amanda L; Bentley, Margaret E

    2016-08-01

    Maternal feeding styles in infancy and early childhood are associated with children's later risk for overweight and obesity. Maternal psychosocial factors that influence feeding styles during the complementary feeding period, the time during which infants transition from a milk-based diet to one that includes solid foods and other non-milk products, have received less attention. The present study explores how maternal psychosocial factors-specifically self-esteem, parenting self-efficacy, parenting satisfaction, and depression symptoms-influence mothers' infant feeding styles at nine months of age, a time during which solid foods eating habits are being established. Participants included 160 low-income, African-American mother-infant pairs in central North Carolina who were enrolled in the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study. Regression models tested for associations between maternal psychosocial characteristics and pressuring and restrictive feeding styles. Models were first adjusted for maternal age, education, marital status and obesity status. To account for infant characteristics, models were then adjusted for infant weight-for-length, distress to limitations and activity level scores. Maternal self-esteem was negatively associated with pressuring to soothe. Maternal parenting self-efficacy was positively associated with restriction-diet quality. Maternal parenting satisfaction and depression symptoms were not associated with feeding styles in the final models. Focusing on strengthening maternal self-esteem and parenting self-efficacy may help to prevent the development of less desirable infant feeding styles.

  2. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Vale, S

    2005-01-01

    Fifty five years after the first finding relating mood disturbances and cardiovascular diseases, there is still debate on the formation of a cogent conception embracing all the fragments of insight within the various aspects relating psychosocial stress to cardiovascular diseases. The clinical comorbidity is empirically evident, but there are ambiguous research results limiting the value of the proposed pathophysiological mechanisms. Psychosocial stress represents here any event that relates psychological phenomena to the social environment and to the associated pathophysiological changes. Stress denotes the external or environmental factors to which people are exposed, as well as the behavioural or biological reaction to it (response that some authors call "distress"). Cardiovascular diseases will be considered here only when being the consequence of chronic inflammatory disease of arteries (atherosclerosis).The question is: Are there pathophysiological reliable mechanisms relating psychosocial stress to the development of cardiovascular diseases? PMID:15998817

  3. Psychosocial support of the pediatric cancer patient: lessons learned over the past 50 years.

    PubMed

    Askins, Martha A; Moore, Bartlett D

    2008-11-01

    Advances in pediatric cancer treatment over the past 50 years have dramatically improved survival rates. Once considered almost uniformly fatal, pediatric cancer's overall survival rates now approach 85%. Formerly, little psychosocial support existed for the child with cancer other than that provided by nurses and family. The prospect for long-term survival was so remote that plans for the future (eg, school, social relationships, late effects of treatment, and emotional adjustment) were abandoned. As the survival rate for children with cancer improved, so did the need for and quality of psychosocial care, largely because of hope for a cure. Today children with cancer benefit from comprehensive behavioral pediatric psychosocial support programs in psychiatry, psychology, neuropsychology, child life, education (school), creative arts, chaplaincy, social work, and career and vocational counseling. Pediatric psycho-oncology research has provided insights into clinical care and the psychosocial adaptation of children and families to cancer treatment and survivorship.

  4. Work-aged stroke survivors’ psychosocial challenges narrated during and after participating in a dialogue-based psychosocial intervention: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies point to the lack of psychosocial support and rehabilitation services that are adjusted to the work-aged stroke survivors’ specific needs in order to promote psychosocial well-being. The aim of the study was to illuminate the psychosocial challenges work-aged participants (i.e. aged 18–67 years) thematised during and after participating a dialogue-based psychosocial intervention during the first year following a stroke. Methods The study was a feasibility study guided by the UK Medical Research Council Framework for developing and evaluating complex interventions. Qualitative data from in-depth interviews with fourteen stroke-survivors aged 33–66 years, researcher field notes and log notes written during the intervention were analysed applying a hermeneutic-phenomenological approach. Results The stroke and its consequences had a substantial impact on family and work life. Their experiences were summarised in the two themes The threat of becoming marginalised in family life and The threat of becoming marginalised in work life. Conclusion Life as a work-aged stroke survivor was experienced as challenging and created a threat of becoming marginalised in family and work life. The study highlights the need to understand the specific psychosocial challenges and needs facing work-aged stroke survivors’ in order to promote their psychosocial well-being. More research is needed concerning specific life-span challenges amongst work-aged stroke survivors in order to further develop appropriate interventions that helps address this issue. PMID:24066840

  5. Improving Outcome of Psychosocial Treatments by Enhancing Memory and Learning

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Allison G.; Lee, Jason; Williams, Joseph; Hollon, Steven D.; Walker, Matthew P.; Thompson, Monique A.; Smith, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Mental disorders are prevalent and lead to significant impairment. Progress toward establishing treatments has been good. However, effect sizes are small to moderate, gains may not persist, and many patients derive no benefit. Our goal is to highlight the potential for empirically-supported psychosocial treatments to be improved by incorporating insights from cognitive psychology and research on education. Our central question is: If it were possible to improve memory for content of sessions of psychosocial treatments, would outcome substantially improve? This question arises from five lines of evidence: (a) mental illness is often characterized by memory impairment, (b) memory impairment is modifiable, (c) psychosocial treatments often involve the activation of emotion, (d) emotion can bias memory and (e) memory for psychosocial treatment sessions is poor. Insights from scientific knowledge on learning and memory are leveraged to derive strategies for a transdiagnostic and transtreatment cognitive support intervention. These strategies can be applied within and between sessions and to interventions delivered via computer, the internet and text message. Additional novel pathways to improving memory include improving sleep, engaging in exercise and imagery. Given that memory processes change across the lifespan, services to children and older adults may benefit from cognitive support. PMID:25544856

  6. Boredom proneness and psychosocial development.

    PubMed

    Watt, J D; Vodanovich, S J

    1999-05-01

    The effect of boredom proneness as measured by the Boredom Proneness Scale (R. F. Farmer & N. D. Sundberg, 1986) on college students' psychosocial development was investigated via the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment (SDTLA; R. B. Winston, T. K. Miller, & J. S. Prince, 1995). Low boredom-prone students had significantly higher scores on the following SDTLA measures: career planning, lifestyle planning, peer relationships, educational involvement, instrumental autonomy, emotional autonomy, interdependence, academic autonomy, and salubrious lifestyle. Gender differences on boredom proneness and psychosocial development measures are discussed. PMID:10319449

  7. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  8. Recommendations for the presurgical psychosocial evaluation of bariatric surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Sogg, Stephanie; Lauretti, Jennifer; West-Smith, Lisa

    2016-05-01

    Psychosocial factors have significant potential to affect long-term outcomes of bariatric surgery, including emotional adjustment, adherence to the recommended postoperative lifestyle regimen, weight loss outcomes, and co-morbidity improvement and or resolution. Thus, it is recommended that bariatric behavioral health clinicians with specialized knowledge and experience be involved in the evaluation and care of patients both before and after surgery. The evaluating clinician plays a number of important roles in the multidisciplinary treatment of the bariatric patient. Central among these is the role of identifying factors that may pose challenges to optimal surgical outcome and providing recommendations to the patient and bariatric team on how to address these issues. This document outlines recommendations for the psychosocial evaluation of bariatric surgery patients, appropriate qualifications of those conducting these evaluations, communication of evaluation results and suggested treatment plan, and the extension of behavioral healthcare of the bariatric patient to the entire span of the surgical and postsurgical process.

  9. The effects of parental divorce on adult tobacco and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Wolfinger, N H

    1998-09-01

    I use data from the 1977-1994 National Opinion Research Council General Social Survey to examine the impact of parental divorce on the alcohol and tobacco consumption of adult offspring. Divorce greatly increases the likelihood of being a smoker and, for men, a problem drinker. Parental remarriage completely offsets the effects of parental divorce on men's drinking but does not substantially affect cigarette use. Respondent socioeconomic characteristics accounted for a portion of the relationship between parental divorce and smoking but did not affect rates of problem drinking. Social control and psychosocial adjustment--two established explanations for the effects of parental divorce--could not adequately explain my findings.

  10. The need for a systematic approach to disaster psychosocial response: a suggested competency framework.

    PubMed

    Cox, Robin S; Danford, Taryn

    2014-04-01

    providers can improve their response capacity by utilizing differences in levels of expertise and training. The competencies outlined in this paper can thus be used to standardize expectations about levels of psychosocial support interventions. In addition this approach provides an adaptable framework that can be adjusted for various contexts. PMID:24636284

  11. The need for a systematic approach to disaster psychosocial response: a suggested competency framework.

    PubMed

    Cox, Robin S; Danford, Taryn

    2014-04-01

    providers can improve their response capacity by utilizing differences in levels of expertise and training. The competencies outlined in this paper can thus be used to standardize expectations about levels of psychosocial support interventions. In addition this approach provides an adaptable framework that can be adjusted for various contexts.

  12. Cooley's Anemia: A Psychosocial Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    The directory is intended to aid patients and their families who are coping with the genetic disorder of Cooley's anemia. A brief review of the disease covers background, genetics, symptoms, effect on the patient, treatment, and current research. The next section looks at psychosocial needs at various times (time of diagnosis, infancy and toddler…

  13. Cyberaddictions: toward a psychosocial perspective.

    PubMed

    Suissa, Amnon Jacob

    2014-12-01

    The concept of cyberaddiction is far from being unanimously accepted by scientists (Ko, Yen, Yen, Chen, & Chen, 2012; Pezoa-Jares, Espinoza-Luna & Vasquez-Medina, 2012; Nadeau & et al. 2011; Perraton, Fusaro & Bonenfant, 2011. The same is true of addiction to videogames (Hellman, Schoenmakers, Nordstrom, & Van Holst 2013); Coulombe (2010); or to Facebook (Andreassen et al. 2012; Levard & Soulas, 2010). While certain researchers wished to see this condition included in the DSM-5, others question the operational and practical basis for the diagnostic criteria (Block, 2008). Through a review of litterature and results from research findings; the aim of this article is to propose a psychosocial perspective for the cyberaddiction phenomenon. By a psychosocial perspective, we mean the inclusion of social determinants (weak social ties, social exclusion, hyper individualism, poverty, unemployment, etc) and not only the individual characteristics associated with the disease model in the addiction field. To what extent social conditions and cyberaddiction behaviors constitute a potential pathology ? Can we include a psychosocial approach to gain a more general picture of this contemporary issue? In response to these questions, a contextualization and an attempt to define cyberaddiction will be followed by an analysis of some major issues in the development of this type of addiction. As a conclusion, a demonstration of the cycle of addiction on how people develop addictions, including cyberaddictions, will be done within a psychosocial perspective in order to seize the multifactorial aspects of this addiction. PMID:25173593

  14. Cyberaddictions: toward a psychosocial perspective.

    PubMed

    Suissa, Amnon Jacob

    2014-12-01

    The concept of cyberaddiction is far from being unanimously accepted by scientists (Ko, Yen, Yen, Chen, & Chen, 2012; Pezoa-Jares, Espinoza-Luna & Vasquez-Medina, 2012; Nadeau & et al. 2011; Perraton, Fusaro & Bonenfant, 2011. The same is true of addiction to videogames (Hellman, Schoenmakers, Nordstrom, & Van Holst 2013); Coulombe (2010); or to Facebook (Andreassen et al. 2012; Levard & Soulas, 2010). While certain researchers wished to see this condition included in the DSM-5, others question the operational and practical basis for the diagnostic criteria (Block, 2008). Through a review of litterature and results from research findings; the aim of this article is to propose a psychosocial perspective for the cyberaddiction phenomenon. By a psychosocial perspective, we mean the inclusion of social determinants (weak social ties, social exclusion, hyper individualism, poverty, unemployment, etc) and not only the individual characteristics associated with the disease model in the addiction field. To what extent social conditions and cyberaddiction behaviors constitute a potential pathology ? Can we include a psychosocial approach to gain a more general picture of this contemporary issue? In response to these questions, a contextualization and an attempt to define cyberaddiction will be followed by an analysis of some major issues in the development of this type of addiction. As a conclusion, a demonstration of the cycle of addiction on how people develop addictions, including cyberaddictions, will be done within a psychosocial perspective in order to seize the multifactorial aspects of this addiction.

  15. Psychosocial Issues in Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisler, Alice B.

    1983-01-01

    Emotional development from infancy to adolescence is traced and the effects of psychosocial issues on a child with a learning disability are considered for five of E. Erikson's seven proposed stages (trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, adolescence). The need for intervention and parent counseling at each state is emphasized. (CL)

  16. Psychosocial impacts of infertility on Greek couples.

    PubMed

    Tarlatzis, I; Tarlatzis, B C; Diakogiannis, I; Bontis, J; Lagos, S; Gavriilidou, D; Mantalenakis, S

    1993-03-01

    Psychosocial impacts of infertility were investigated in couples undergoing different treatment procedures in our clinic. Couples were interviewed in a semi-structured way by a psychologist or a psychiatrist and responded to three specially structured questionnaires: the Life Events Scale, the Marlowe-Crowne/Taylor Scale and the Side Effect Checklist. The data were analysed in terms of demographic characteristics as well as treatment procedure. The psychosocial, psychosexual and emotional outcomes of their infertility problem and Greek traditional culture laws are discussed. Stress has been identified in both sexes, depression mostly in women, while men showed a tendency towards repressed anxiety and thus a greater risk of psychosomatic illness, a finding supported by their response to the Side Effect Checklist. Women showed a high defensive anxiety and also reported numerous psychosomatic symptoms. These couples seem to have special needs and fears, both general and treatment specific. Very few of our couples would be considered as severely emotionally disturbed. Women seem to have more difficulties in social adjustment. Sexual dysfunction was reported by almost half of our subjects, although this was associated with a degree of deterioration in their marriage. Guilt feelings, particularly connected with previous abortions, seem to be torturing most women. Finally, both partners seem to have psychological problems irrespective of the one in whom the aetiological problem was found. Moreover, traditional rules seem to impose a special burden on people coming from rural areas. Our results strongly support the belief that infertile couples undergoing different treatments need psychological counselling and supportive psychotherapy. PMID:8473455

  17. A systematic review of literature on psychosocial aspects of gynecomastia in adolescents and young men.

    PubMed

    Rew, Lynn; Young, Cara; Harrison, Tracie; Caridi, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Gynecomastia represents a serious psychosocial challenge for many adolescent and young adult males, but short of surgery, little attention has been given to this concern. The purpose of this paper is to report findings from a systematic review of the literature about psychosocial correlates, psychosocial interventions, and quality of research evidence about young males with gynecomastia. From an initial 233 published papers, 10 studies were identified and reviewed. Five were descriptive case studies and included no statistical analyses. The other studies were all conducted with small samples. Despite the limited evidence, findings suggest that many young men suffer emotional distress concerning gynecomastia, but this distress has received few interventions beyond surgical removal of the breast tissue. Future studies are needed to address this problem more fully so that more aggressive measures such as frequent assessments of the physical and psychosocial aspects of the condition can be done by healthcare professionals.

  18. Measuring psychosocial environments using individual responses: an application of multilevel factor analysis to examining students in schools.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Erin C; Masyn, Katherine E; Jones, Stephanie M; Subramanian, S V; Koenen, Karestan C

    2015-07-01

    Interest in understanding how psychosocial environments shape youth outcomes has grown considerably. School environments are of particular interest to prevention scientists as many prevention interventions are school-based. Therefore, effective conceptualization and operationalization of the school environment is critical. This paper presents an illustration of an emerging analytic method called multilevel factor analysis (MLFA) that provides an alternative strategy to conceptualize, measure, and model environments. MLFA decomposes the total sample variance-covariance matrix for variables measured at the individual level into within-cluster (e.g., student level) and between-cluster (e.g., school level) matrices and simultaneously models potentially distinct latent factor structures at each level. Using data from 79,362 students from 126 schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (formerly known as the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health), we use MLFA to show how 20 items capturing student self-reported behaviors and emotions provide information about both students (within level) and their school environment (between level). We identified four latent factors at the within level: (1) school adjustment, (2) externalizing problems, (3) internalizing problems, and (4) self-esteem. Three factors were identified at the between level: (1) collective school adjustment, (2) psychosocial environment, and (3) collective self-esteem. The finding of different and substantively distinct latent factor structures at each level emphasizes the need for prevention theory and practice to separately consider and measure constructs at each level of analysis. The MLFA method can be applied to other nested relationships, such as youth in neighborhoods, and extended to a multilevel structural equation model to better understand associations between environments and individual outcomes and therefore how to best implement preventive interventions.

  19. Effects of maternal L-tryptophan depletion and corticosterone administration on neurobehavioral adjustments in mouse dams and their adolescent and adult daughters.

    PubMed

    Zoratto, Francesca; Berry, Alessandra; Anzidei, Francesca; Fiore, Marco; Alleva, Enrico; Laviola, Giovanni; Macrì, Simone

    2011-08-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD), a pathology characterized by mood and neurovegetative disturbances, depends on a multi-factorial contribution of individual predisposition (e.g., diminished serotonergic transmission) and environmental factors (e.g., neonatal abuse or neglect). Despite its female-biased prevalence, MDD basic research has mainly focused on male rodents. Most of present models of depression are also devalued due to the fact that they typically address only one of the aforementioned pathogenetic factors. In this paper we first describe the basic principles behind mouse model development and evaluation and then articulate that current models of depression are intrinsically devalued due to poor construct and/or external validity. We then report a first attempt to overcome this limitation through the design of a mouse model in which the genetic and the environmental components of early risk factors for depression are mimicked together. Environmental stress is mimicked through the supplementation of corticosterone in the maternal drinking water while biological predisposition is mimicked through maternal access to an L-tryptophan (the serotonin precursor) deficient diet during the first week of lactation. CD1 dams and their offspring exposed to the L-tryptophan deficient diet (T) and to corticosterone (80mg/l; C) were compared to animal facility reared (AFR) subjects. T and C mice served as intermediate reference groups. Adolescent TC offspring, compared to AFR mice, showed decreased time spent floating in the forced-swim test and increased time spent in the open sectors of an elevated 0-maze. Adult TC offspring showed reduced preference for novelty, decreased breakpoints in the progressive ratio operant procedure and major alterations in central BDNF levels and altered HPA regulation. The route of administration and the possibility to control the independent variables predisposing to depressive-like symptoms disclose novel avenues towards the development

  20. [Psychopharmacotherapy improves psychosocial functioning in adolescents with borderline personality disorder].

    PubMed

    Wöckel, Lars; Goth, Kirstin; Zepf, Florian Daniel; Matic, Nina; Holtmann, Martin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Poustka, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) has undergone significant changes within the last decades. Although there is no specific pharmacological treatment approach for BPD per se, there is evidence for a beneficial effect of psychopharmacological treatment in adults. As there is a significant lack of data regarding such treatment in adolescents we aim to investigate the effects of psychopharmacological treatment retrospectively focusing on the first period of treatment. The study sample comprised 2,778 subjects (inpatients and outpatients) from a population on demand of psychiatric services referred to our department, with 39 patients (aged 16,2 +/- 1,7 yrs.) having a diagnosis of BPD. Psychosocial functioning as indexed on axis VI was assessed within the BADO documentation algorithm before and after treatment. Effects of treatment in terms of improved psychosocial functioning under different medications as well as different risk variables were assessed. Moreover, medicated and un-medicated patients were compared as regards effects of treatment. Upon admission inpatients showed a significantly higher impairment in their psychosocial functioning compared with outpatients. There was no significant difference between medicated and un-medicated patients with respect to the different risk variables assessed. Psychosocial functioning improved under pharmacological treatment, with this effect being unrelated to in- or outpatient status. About 80% of the prescribed medications were antidepressants and neuroleptics, with a combination of two drugs being the most frequent treatment approach to be observed. The data of the present study indicate that psychopharmacological treatment of adolescents with BPD can improve psychosocial functioning. PMID:20491428

  1. Parents' Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Their Children's Psychosocial Adaptation during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steca, Patrizia; Bassi, Marta; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Fave, Antonella Delle

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown that parents' perceived parental self-efficacy (PSE) plays a pivotal role in promoting their children's successful adjustment. In this study, we further explored this issue by comparing psychosocial adaptation in children of parents with high and low PSE during adolescence. One hundred and thirty Italian teenagers (55 males and…

  2. Psychosocial Management of Leukemias in children and Youth NIMH Report to Physicians - 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, Stephen P.

    Originally presented as a paper at a 1974 Conference on Psychiatric Problems of Childhood, the pamphlet presents a discussion of the psychosocial aspects of adjustment and management of leukemia in children and youth. The increasing length of remissions in acute lymphocytic leukemia is thought to require physicians to consider nonmedical needs of…

  3. Psychosocial and Academic Effects of an Intervention Program among Minority School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, James P.; And Others

    In addition to achievement, school climate and psychosocial adjustment among students are important criteria in evaluating school based intervention programs. This study examined the effectiveness of the School Development Program (SDP) in an inner city school system. The program applies principles of social and behavioral science to every aspect…

  4. Psycho-Social Characteristics of Children and Adolescents with Siblings on the Autistic Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stampoltzis, Aglaia; Defingou, Georgia; Antonopoulou, Katerina; Kouvava, Sofia; Polychronopoulou, Stavroula

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the psycho-social characteristics of typically developing children who have siblings with autism and their sibling relationship. Children's adjustment at school, their self-esteem and social relations, as well as their friends' attitudes towards their autistic siblings were examined. Participants were 22 siblings…

  5. Getting Off on the Right Foot: The Many Roles of the Psychosocial Evaluation in the Bariatric Surgery Practice.

    PubMed

    Sogg, Stephanie; Friedman, Kelli E

    2015-11-01

    A thorough and specialized pre-operative psychosocial assessment is an important part of a comprehensive bariatric treatment protocol. Over time, the presurgical psychosocial evaluation has evolved from a cut-and-dried process of recommending whether a patient should or should not undergo surgery to a more nuanced and multifaceted process that serves multiple functions. In this article, we review the many ways in which the pre-operative psychosocial evaluation can enhance patient outcomes and adjustment and even the functioning of the interdisciplinary bariatric surgery team. PMID:26294256

  6. Psychosocial predictors of non-adherence to chronic medication: systematic review of longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Zwikker, Hanneke E; van den Bemt, Bart J; Vriezekolk, Johanna E; van den Ende, Cornelia H; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Several cross-sectional studies suggest that psychosocial factors are associated with non-adherence to chronic preventive maintenance medication (CPMM); however, results from longitudinal associations have not yet been systematically summarized. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Materials and methods PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO databases were searched for studies meeting our inclusion criteria. The reference lists and the ISI Web of Knowledge of the included studies were checked. Studies were included if they had an English abstract, involved adult populations using CPMM living in Western countries, and if they investigated associations between psychosocial predictors and medication non-adherence using longitudinal designs. Data were extracted according to a literature-based extraction form. Study quality was independently judged by two researchers using a framework comprising six bias domains. Studies were considered to be of high quality if ≥four domains were free of bias. Psychosocial predictors for non-adherence were categorized into five pre-defined categories: beliefs/cognitions; coping styles; social influences and social support; personality traits; and psychosocial well-being. A qualitative best evidence synthesis was performed to synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Results Of 4,732 initially-identified studies, 30 (low-quality) studies were included in the systematic review. The qualitative best evidence synthesis demonstrated limited evidence for absence of a longitudinal association between CPMM non-adherence and the psychosocial categories. The strength of evidence for the review’s findings is limited by the low quality of included studies. Conclusion The results do not provide psychosocial targets for the development of new

  7. Sexual dysfunction within an adult developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Fagan, P J; Meyer, J K; Schmidt, C W

    1986-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the adult who has adequately mastered the oedipal stage of psychosexual development and who presents with a sexual dysfunction. Drawing on the developmental sequence of Erik Erikson, the authors suggest that failure to address adequately an adult psychosocial crisis may result in sexual dysfunction. There may be both adult developmental deficits and regression to adolescent and adult stages previously negotiated. Both may be symptomatically represented by sexual dysfunction. The authors urge that the sexual and marital problems be evaluated within an adult developmental framework and that the therapy address the psychosocial issues which are appropriate to the developmental stage of the patient.

  8. Sexual dysfunction within an adult developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Fagan, P J; Meyer, J K; Schmidt, C W

    1986-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the adult who has adequately mastered the oedipal stage of psychosexual development and who presents with a sexual dysfunction. Drawing on the developmental sequence of Erik Erikson, the authors suggest that failure to address adequately an adult psychosocial crisis may result in sexual dysfunction. There may be both adult developmental deficits and regression to adolescent and adult stages previously negotiated. Both may be symptomatically represented by sexual dysfunction. The authors urge that the sexual and marital problems be evaluated within an adult developmental framework and that the therapy address the psychosocial issues which are appropriate to the developmental stage of the patient. PMID:3820320

  9. Improving Outcome of Psychosocial Treatments by Enhancing Memory and Learning.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Allison G; Lee, Jason; Williams, Joseph; Hollon, Steven D; Walker, Matthew P; Thompson, Monique A; Smith, Rita

    2014-03-01

    Mental disorders are prevalent and can lead to significant impairment. Some progress has been made toward establishing treatments; however, effect sizes are small to moderate, gains may not persist, and many patients derive no benefit. Our goal is to highlight the potential for empirically supported psychosocial treatments to be improved by incorporating insights from cognitive psychology and research on education. Our central question is: If it were possible to improve memory for the content of sessions of psychosocial treatments, would outcome substantially improve? We leverage insights from scientific knowledge on learning and memory to derive strategies for transdiagnostic and transtreatment cognitive support interventions. These strategies can be applied within and between sessions and to interventions delivered via computer, the Internet, and text message. Additional novel pathways to improving memory include improving sleep, engaging in exercise, and using imagery. Given that memory processes change across the lifespan, services to children and older adults may benefit from different types and amounts of cognitive support.

  10. Attachment insecurity and psychological resources associated with adjustment disorders.

    PubMed

    Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Levov, Kathy; Schultz, Yakov; Radomislensky, Ira

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the adult attachment styles, interpersonal distance from potential attachment figures and strangers, coping strategies, perceived social support, and stress-related self-variables among patients diagnosed with adjustment disorders (AJD). Seventy patients at an outpatient clinic and 61 matched controls completed a battery of standardized questionnaires. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to evaluate the parameters of interest. Using attachment theory (J. Bowlby, 1988) and the dynamic stress-vulnerability model of depressive disorder (G. W. Brown & T. O. Harris, 1989) as the analytical frameworks, the authors hypothesized that participants with AJD would: (a) display more insecure attachment styles, (b) be less tolerant of close interpersonal proximity, (c) use more emotion-oriented coping strategies, (d) display lower self-efficacy and self-esteem, and (e) perceive less social support from family, friends, and significant others. We further hypothesized that these variables would be predictive of depressive symptoms. All of the hypotheses were confirmed. The results suggest that the insecure fearful-avoidant attachment style is associated with severe depressive symptoms in patients with AJD. However, other psychosocial factors, such as low self-esteem and poor social support from friends, were more predictive of AJD symptoms. The findings warrant further studies on the risk and protective effects of these factors in the development of AJD and other stress-induced disorders.

  11. The Association between Job-Related Psychosocial Factors and Prolonged Fatigue among Industrial Employees in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Feng-Cheng; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Shu-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Prolonged fatigue is common among employees, but the relationship between prolonged fatigue and job-related psychosocial factors is seldom studied. This study aimed (1) to assess the individual relations of physical condition, psychological condition, and job-related psychosocial factors to prolonged fatigue among employees, and (2) to clarify the associations between job-related psychosocial factors and prolonged fatigue using hierarchical regression when demographic characteristics, physical condition, and psychological condition were controlled. Methods A cross-sectional study was employed. A questionnaire was used to obtain information pertaining to demographic characteristics, physical condition (perceived physical health and exercise routine), psychological condition (perceived mental health and psychological distress), job-related psychosocial factors (job demand, job control, and workplace social support), and prolonged fatigue. Results A total of 3,109 employees were recruited. Using multiple regression with controlled demographic characteristics, psychological condition explained 52.0% of the variance in prolonged fatigue. Physical condition and job-related psychosocial factors had an adjusted R2 of 0.370 and 0.251, respectively. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that, among job-related psychosocial factors, job demand and job control showed significant associations with fatigue. Conclusion Our findings highlight the role of job demand and job control, in addition to the role of perceived physical health, perceived mental health, and psychological distress, in workers’ prolonged fatigue. However, more research is required to verify the causation among all the variables. PMID:26930064

  12. Workplace gender composition and psychological distress: the importance of the psychosocial work environment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health consequences of the gender segregated labour market have previously been demonstrated in the light of gender composition of occupations and workplaces, with somewhat mixed results. Associations between the gender composition and health status have been suggested to be shaped by the psychosocial work environment. The present study aims to analyse how workplace gender composition is related to psychological distress and to explore the importance of the psychosocial work environment for psychological distress at workplaces with different gender compositions. Methods The study population consisted of participants from the Northern Swedish Cohort with a registered workplace in 2007 when the participants were 42 years old (N = 795). Questionnaire data were supplemented with register data on the gender composition of the participants’ workplaces divided into three groups: workplaces with more women, mixed workplaces, and workplaces with more men. Associations between psychological distress and gender composition were analysed with multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for socioeconomic position, previous psychological distress, psychosocial work environment factors and gender. Logistic regression analyses (including interaction terms for gender composition and each work environment factor) were also used to assess differential associations between psychosocial work factor and psychological distress according to gender composition. Results Working at workplaces with a mixed gender composition was related to a higher likelihood of psychological distress compared to workplaces with more men, after adjustments for socioeconomic position, psychological distress at age 21, psychosocial work environment factors and gender. Psychosocial work environment factors did not explain the association between gender composition and psychological distress. Conclusions The association between gender composition and psychological distress cannot be

  13. Psychosocial rehabilitation in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rangaswamy, Thara; Sujit, John

    2012-10-01

    Psychosocial rehabilitation (PSR) is an essential component in the management of schizophrenia. It is especially relevant in the improvement of functioning and the quality of life of these individuals. The scarcity of mental health personnel and lack of training in many low and middle income countries (LAMIC) has led to low priority being accorded to PSR. This paper describes some of the PSR initiatives in LAMIC, especially those undertaken after disasters, home-based interventions and community-based rehabilitation programmes.

  14. Socioemotional Factors Contributing to Adjustment among Early-Entrance College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Sheryl M.; Henderson, Craig E.; Henderson, John; Fleming, Donna L.

    2002-01-01

    A study investigated the influence of self-concept and perceived family environment on psychosocial adjustment among 180 early-entrance college students (ages 14-17). Family cohesion, conflict, and expressiveness and overall self-concept were predictive of adjustment to college. Family cohesion, organization, control, conflict, and overall…

  15. Psychological Control Associated with Youth Adjustment and Risky Behavior in African American Single Mother Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, Carlye; Jones, Deborah J.; Cuellar, Jessica; Gonzalez, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    A distinction between parental behavioral control and psychological control has been elucidated in the literature, yet far less is known about the role of psychological control in youth adjustment broadly or risky behavior in particular. We examined the interrelationship of maternal psychological control, youth psychosocial adjustment, and youth…

  16. Examining the Components of Children's Peer Liking as Antecedents of School Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Lucy R.; Rotenberg, Ken J.; Trueman, Mark; Stiller, James

    2012-01-01

    Children's social interactions with their peers influence their psychosocial adjustment; consequently, the relationship between class-wide peer liking, same-gender peer liking, and school adjustment was explored in two age groups. Peer liking was analysed using the social relations model (SRM). In Study 1, 205 children (103 female and 102 male,…

  17. Adjustment to University and Academic Performance among Disadvantaged Students in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Il-haam; Louw, Johann; Dumont, Kitty

    2009-01-01

    Adjustment to the university environment is regarded as an important factor in predicting university outcomes. This study explores the pathways taken by adjustment and other psychosocial variables (help-seeking, academic motivation, self-esteem, perceived stress, and perceived academic overload), in relation to the success of economically and…

  18. Adjusting to Retirement: Considerations for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBauve, Bill J.; Robinson, Chester R.

    1999-01-01

    Examines retirement, while focusing on issues older adults face in adjusting to retirement, and suggests implications for counseling people who are making this transition. Discusses adjustment to retirement in terms of role, disengagement, activity, continuity, crisis, and compromise/negotiation theories. (Author/MKA)

  19. Does Fall History Influence Residential Adjustments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Natalie; Porell, Frank; Murphy, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: To determine whether reported falls at baseline are associated with an older adult's decision to make a residential adjustment (RA) and the type of adjustment made in the subsequent 2 years. Design and Methods: Observations (n = 25,036) were from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative sample of…

  20. Personality, emotional adjustment, and cardiovascular risk: marriage as a mechanism.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy W; Baron, Carolynne E; Grove, Jeremy L

    2014-12-01

    A variety of aspects of personality and emotional adjustment predict the development and course of coronary heart disease (CHD), as do indications of marital quality (e.g., satisfaction, conflict, strain, disruption). Importantly, the personality traits and aspects of emotional adjustment that predict CHD are also related to marital quality. In such instances of correlated risk factors, traditional epidemiological and clinical research typically either ignores the potentially overlapping effects or examines independent associations through statistical controls, approaches that can misrepresent the key components and mechanisms of psychosocial effects on CHD. The interpersonal perspective in personality and clinical psychology provides an alternative and integrative approach, through its structural and process models of interpersonal behavior. We present this perspective on psychosocial risk and review research on its application to the integration of personality, emotional adjustment, and marital processes as closely interrelated influences on health and disease. PMID:24118013

  1. Personality, emotional adjustment, and cardiovascular risk: marriage as a mechanism.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy W; Baron, Carolynne E; Grove, Jeremy L

    2014-12-01

    A variety of aspects of personality and emotional adjustment predict the development and course of coronary heart disease (CHD), as do indications of marital quality (e.g., satisfaction, conflict, strain, disruption). Importantly, the personality traits and aspects of emotional adjustment that predict CHD are also related to marital quality. In such instances of correlated risk factors, traditional epidemiological and clinical research typically either ignores the potentially overlapping effects or examines independent associations through statistical controls, approaches that can misrepresent the key components and mechanisms of psychosocial effects on CHD. The interpersonal perspective in personality and clinical psychology provides an alternative and integrative approach, through its structural and process models of interpersonal behavior. We present this perspective on psychosocial risk and review research on its application to the integration of personality, emotional adjustment, and marital processes as closely interrelated influences on health and disease.

  2. Psychosocial Mediators of a Faith-Based Physical Activity Intervention: Implications and Lessons Learned from Null Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Blair, Steve; Hooker, Steve; Hussey, Jim; Saunders, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Mediation analyses in faith-based physical activity (PA) interventions targeting African-American adults are lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychosocial mediators of a faith-based PA intervention with African-American adults. Churches were randomly assigned to receive immediate or delayed (1-year later) training in PA…

  3. Psychosocial and Physical Effects of Adjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hislop, Thomas Gregory; Elwood, J. Mark; Waxler-Morrison, Nancy; Ragaz, Joseph; Skippen, Diane Hazel; Turner, I.D.

    1991-01-01

    Breast cancer patients younger than 55 completed a questionnaire on psychosocial factors and physical side effects shortly after diagnosis and 9 to 15 months after diagnosis. Those who had used adjuvant chemotherapy were more likely than those who had not to report physical side effects; there was little difference in psychosocial factors. Recent users were more likely than ex-users to report physical side effects, difficulties with domestic chores, and improvement in psychosocial factors. PMID:21229020

  4. Psychosocial Factors and Central Sensitivity Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Leah M.; Turk, Dennis C.

    2016-01-01

    Central sensitivity syndromes (CSSs) represent a heterogeneous group of disorders (e.g., fibromyalgia [FM], irritable bowel syndrome [IBS], chronic headache, temporomandibular disorders [TMDs], pelvic pain syndromes) that share common symptoms, with persistent pain being the most prominent feature. Although the etiology and pathophysiology of CSSs are currently incompletely understood, central sensitization has emerged as one of the significant mechanisms. Given that there are currently no known cures for CSSs, people living with these disorders must learn to cope with and manage their symptoms throughout their lives. Medical interventions alone have not proven to be sufficient for helping people with CSSs manage their symptoms. A biopsychosocial perspective that considers the ways that biological, psychological, and social factors work independently and jointly to affect a person's experience is the most effective conceptualization and guide for effective treatment. In this article, we discuss several psychological and social features that may influence the experience of a person with CSS and their symptom management, regardless of their specific diagnosis. We highlight the longitudinal aspect of adjustment to illness, the distinction between psychosocial factors as causes of symptoms versus modifiers and perpetuators of symptoms, dispel the notion that all patients with the same diagnosis are a homogeneous group (the “patient-uniformity myth”), and acknowledge the importance of environmental and situational context on symptom management for individuals with any CSS. PMID:26088211

  5. Differentiation between autism and multiple complex developmental disorder in response to psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Lucres M C; Gispen-de Wied, Christine C; van der Gaag, Rutger-Jan; van Engeland, Herman

    2003-03-01

    Multiple Complex Developmental Disorder (MCDD) represents a distinct group within the autistic spectrum based on symptomatology. Unlike autistic children, part of MCDD children develop schizophrenia in adult life. Despite the differences, patients of both disorders are mainly characterized by abnormal reactions to their social environment. At the biological level, we showed in a previous study that MCDD children have a reduced cortisol response to psychosocial stress. Given the fact that autistic children clinically show more social impairments, it was hypothesized that they may have even further decreased cortisol responses to psychosocial stress than MCDD patients. Therefore, 10 autistic children were compared to 10 MCDD children and 12 healthy control children in their response to a psychosocial stressor, consisting of a public speaking task. In order to test whether any impairments in the biological stress response are specific for psychosocial stress, the autistic children were compared with 11 MCDD children and 15 control children in their response to a physical stressor, consisting of 10 min of bicycle exercise. Heart rate and salivary cortisol levels were used as indicators of response to the stress tests. Autistic children showed a relatively elevated cortisol response to psychosocial stress, in contrast to MCDD children who showed a reduced cortisol response. No differences in heart rate or cortisol responses to the physical stress test were found. The specific difference between autistic and MCDD children in their cortisol response to psychosocial stress indicates that the disturbed reactions to the social environment observed in these disorders may have different biological backgrounds.

  6. Work-Related Psychosocial Hazards and Arteriosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chou, Li-Ping; Li, Chung-Yi; Hu, Susan C

    2015-01-01

    The association of psychosocial stress with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between arteriosclerosis and various work-related conditions among medical employees with various job titles.A total of 576 medical employees of a regional hospital in Taiwan with a mean age of 43 years and female gender dominance (85%) were enrolled. Arteriosclerosis was evaluated by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Workrelated conditions included job demands, job control, social support, shift work, work hours, sleep duration, and mental health. The crude relationship between each of the selected covariates and baPWV was indicated by Spearman correlation coefficients. A multiple linear regression model was further employed to estimate the adjusted associations of selected covariates with arteriosclerosis.The mean baPWV of participants was 11.4 ± 2.2 m/s, with the value for males being significantly higher than that for females. The baPWV was associated with gender, age, medical profession, work hours, work type, depression, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting glucose, and cholesterol. After being fully adjusted by these factors, only sleep duration of less than 6 hours and weekly work hours longer than 60 hours were significantly associated with increased risk of arteriosclerosis. The conditions of job demands, job control, social support, shift work, and depression showed no significant association with baPWV.Longer work hours and shorter sleep durations were associated with an increased risk of arteriosclerosis. These findings should make it easier for the employer or government to stipulate rational work hours in order to avoid the development of cardiovascular disease among their employees.

  7. Work-Related Psychosocial Hazards and Arteriosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chou, Li-Ping; Li, Chung-Yi; Hu, Susan C

    2015-01-01

    The association of psychosocial stress with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between arteriosclerosis and various work-related conditions among medical employees with various job titles.A total of 576 medical employees of a regional hospital in Taiwan with a mean age of 43 years and female gender dominance (85%) were enrolled. Arteriosclerosis was evaluated by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Workrelated conditions included job demands, job control, social support, shift work, work hours, sleep duration, and mental health. The crude relationship between each of the selected covariates and baPWV was indicated by Spearman correlation coefficients. A multiple linear regression model was further employed to estimate the adjusted associations of selected covariates with arteriosclerosis.The mean baPWV of participants was 11.4 ± 2.2 m/s, with the value for males being significantly higher than that for females. The baPWV was associated with gender, age, medical profession, work hours, work type, depression, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting glucose, and cholesterol. After being fully adjusted by these factors, only sleep duration of less than 6 hours and weekly work hours longer than 60 hours were significantly associated with increased risk of arteriosclerosis. The conditions of job demands, job control, social support, shift work, and depression showed no significant association with baPWV.Longer work hours and shorter sleep durations were associated with an increased risk of arteriosclerosis. These findings should make it easier for the employer or government to stipulate rational work hours in order to avoid the development of cardiovascular disease among their employees. PMID:26549394

  8. The psychosocial work environment and alcohol dependence: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Head, J; Stansfeld, S; Siegrist, J

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To examine whether a stressful psychosocial work environment predicts alcohol dependence. Methods: Alcohol dependence of participants in the Whitehall II occupational cohort of London based civil servants (1985–88) was measured in 1991–93 using the CAGE questionnaire. The psychosocial work environment was measured by self report questions on the job demand-support-control model and on the model of effort-reward imbalance. Potential mediators including physical illness and poor mental health (GHQ) were measured at follow up in 1989. Results: Effort-reward imbalance at work was associated with alcohol dependence in men after adjustment for employment grade and other baseline factors related to alcohol dependence. Although effort-reward imbalance predicted future longstanding illness, poor mental health and negative aspects of close relationships, the association between effort-reward imbalance and alcohol dependence in men was only partially mediated through these health and social support measures. In women, low decision latitude was related to alcohol dependence to some extent, but alcohol dependence among women was more prevalent in higher occupational grades. Men with high job demands or with low work social supports had a slightly reduced risk of alcohol dependence. No association was found between objectively assessed demands, job control, and alcohol dependence in either men or women. Conclusion: A stressful psychosocial work environment in terms of effort-reward imbalance was found to be a risk factor for alcohol dependence in men. In view of the public health importance of alcohol dependence in working populations these findings call for more emphasis on psychosocial factors in occupational health research and prevention. PMID:14985516

  9. Effects of orthostasis on endocrine responses to psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Nater, Urs M; Ditzen, Beate; Strahler, Jana; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2013-12-01

    Standardized psychological procedures have been designed to induce physiological stress responses. However, the impact of standing (orthostasis) on the physiological reaction after psychological stress remains unclear. The purpose of the current analysis was to examine and quantify the relative contribution of orthostasis to the physiological stress response by comparing a "standing with stress" to a "standing without stress" condition. We investigated the effect of standing with and without stress on responses of the sympathetic-adrenomedullary (SAM) system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis using a standardized psychosocial stress protocol (Trier Social Stress Test) and a non-stress condition in a repeated measures design. Subjects (N=30) were exposed to both conditions in randomized order and had to maintain a standing, upright position for 10minutes. In the "standing with stress" condition, significant increases in repeatedly assessed plasma norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EP), as well as in saliva cortisol were found, while in the "standing without stress" condition, no significant changes in plasma epinephrine and saliva cortisol were observed. Calculations of the relative contribution of orthostasis to physiological stress responses revealed that 25.61% of the NE increase, 82.94% of the EP increase, and 68.91% of the cortisol increase, could be attributed to psychosocial stress adjusted for the effects of orthostasis and basal endocrine output. Although these results are indicative for a marked endocrine reaction that is caused by psychosocial stress alone, our findings show that the contribution of orthostasis must be taken into account when interpreting endocrine data collected in a psychosocial stress test.

  10. Psychosocial Interventions for Children and Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Marietta; Kaslow, Nadine; Doepke, Karla; Eckman, James; Johnson, Marjorie

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the existing literature on psychosocial interventions for children and adolescents with sickle cell disease and suggests some developmentally appropriate modifications for approaches designed for adults. Particular attention is paid to nonpharmacological pain management strategies that include coping skill training, educational programs,…

  11. Child Sexual Abuse: Psychosocial Aspects of 101 Cases Seen in an Urban Malaysian Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassim, Kasmini; Kasim, Mohd. Sham

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of 101 cases of child sexual abuse in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) found overrepresentation of the Indian ethnic group and a mean age of children involved of 6 to 8 years. Associated psychosocial factors included the absence of a protective adult at home, unemployment, and history of perpetrator drug abuse. (DB)

  12. Psychosocial Family Treatment for a 10-Year-Old with Schizoaffective Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaus, Nicole M.; Fristad, Mary A.; Malkin, Catherine; Mackinaw-Koons, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are rare in childhood and little is known about their psychosocial treatment. Relevant findings from the adult and child literature are reviewed. The case of 10-year-old "Michael" is presented, who participated in a randomized clinical trial of a psychoeducational family treatment for mood disorders. Following…

  13. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Non-Smoking Adolescents' Intentions to Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brian N.; Bean, Melanie K.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Speizer, Ilene S.; Fries, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is the most preventable cause of death in the United States. Most adult smokers began smoking during adolescence, making youth tobacco prevention an especially important public health goal. Guided by an extension of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study examined the role of psychosocial factors in accounting for adolescents'…

  14. Why Does ADHD Confer Risk for Cigarette Smoking? A Review of Psychosocial Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Kerrie; Flory, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Research has documented that adolescents and young adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for cigarette smoking, but less attention has examined why this risk exists. The current paper reviews the literature on different psychosocial mechanisms [self-medication hypothesis, social factors (social modeling,…

  15. Cystic Fibrosis through a Female Perspective: Psychosocial Issues and Information Concerning Puberty and Motherhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannesson, Marie; Carlson, Margareta; Brucefors, Agneta Bergsten; Hjelte, Lena

    1998-01-01

    Investigates psychosocial issues concerning puberty and motherhood among adult women with cystic fibrosis (CF) to see how they had obtained information on these matters and how they would like information to be given. Results reveal problems with destructive behavior during puberty. Information about puberty and fertility should be given…

  16. Psychosocial Characteristics and Correlates of Symptom Distress in Nonoffending Mothers of Sexually Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deblinger, Esther; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Nonoffending mothers' (n=99) self-reported symptom distress was measured across 3 groups of sexual abuse types: incest, relative, and nonrelative. A multiple regression analysis of psychosocial characteristics indicated that a mother's perceived aloneness in facing the crisis and a personal history of adult sexual assault were positively related…

  17. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Eating Problems and Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keel, Pamela K.; Haedt, Alissa

    2008-01-01

    Eating disorders represent a significant source of psychological impairment among adolescents. However, most controlled treatment studies have focused on adult populations. This review provides a synthesis of existing data concerning the efficacy of various psychosocial interventions for eating disorders in adolescent samples. Modes of therapy…

  18. Work, Postsecondary Education, and Psychosocial Functioning Following the Transition from High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aseltine, Robert H., Jr.; Gore, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Through a two-wave panel study of emerging adults, the authors examine how living situation, work and school roles, and experiences in those roles affect psychosocial functioning following the transition from high school. Enrollment in college programs and fulltime work are associated with lower levels of depressed mood and more positive quality…

  19. Midlife Eriksonian Psychosocial Development: Setting the Stage for Late-Life Cognitive and Emotional Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Johanna C.; Liu, Sabrina R.; Vaillant, George E.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Waldinger, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Erikson's (1950) model of adult psychosocial development outlines the significance of successful involvement within one's relationships, work, and community for healthy aging. He theorized that the consequences of not meeting developmental challenges included stagnation and emotional despair. Drawing on this model, the present study uses…

  20. Do Children Endorse Psychosocial Factors in the Transmission of Illness and Disgust?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Lakshmi; Gelman, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    The present studies examined beliefs concerning the impact of psychosocial factors in the transmission of contagious illness, injuries, and disgust. In Studies 1 and 2, participants ranging from preschoolers through adults judged the likelihood that a character would get sick (or injured) after being contaminated by another individual who was…

  1. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Inner City Black Diabetic Patients' Adherence with Insulin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzoma, Catherine U.; Feldman, Robert H. L.

    1989-01-01

    Results from a study of 100 innercity adult Black diabetics indicate that perceived self-efficacy and age were strong predictors of adherence to an insulin regime. Additional psychosocial factors examined include perceived barriers to treatment, perceived severity of illness, and perceived social support. Results indicated gender differences. (IAH)

  2. Health Related Quality of Life among Insulin-Dependent Diabetics: Disease-Related and Psychosocial Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aalto, Anna-Mari; Uutela, Antti; Aro, Arja R.

    1997-01-01

    The associations of health and psychosocial factors with the Health Related Quality of Life Questionnaire were examined in adult type 1 diabetic patients (N=385). The most important factors from multivariate analysis were self-efficacy and diabetes-related social support, especially among those in good physical condition. Diabetes-specific factors…

  3. Sex hormones adjust "sex-specific" reactive and diurnal cortisol profiles.

    PubMed

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Raymond, Catherine; Desrochers, Alexandra Bisson; Bourdon, Olivier; Durand, Nadia; Wan, Nathalie; Pruessner, Jens C; Lupien, Sonia J

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in stress hormone functions are presumed to depend on sex hormones. And yet, surprisingly few psychoneuroendocrine studies actually assess within-sex variations of testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone when investigating sex-specific activities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In this methodological study of 204 healthy adults (60 men), we assessed whether cortisol profiles would differ between the sexes when unadjusted or adjusted for basal sex hormones among both sexes. Reactive cortisol was sampled using 6 saliva samples measured every 10-min as part of the Trier Social Stress Test that generally activates cortisol among men more than women. Diurnal cortisol was sampled over two days at (1) awakening, (2) 30-min thereafter, (3) 1400 h, (4) 1600 h, and (5) bedtime. Sex hormones were collected at baseline before the psychosocial stressor and on two occasions during diurnal cortisol assessment. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance controlled for key covariates in analyses unadjusted or adjusted for sex hormones. Results revealed that men had higher reactive cortisol than women in unadjusted analysis, but this sex difference was attenuated when adjusting for sex hormones. While diurnal cortisol showed no sex differences in unadjusted models, adjusting for sex hormones revealed that women have higher morning cortisol. Correlations using area under the curve formulae revealed intriguing sex-specific associations with progesterone in men and testosterone in women that we propose have implications for social and affective neuroscience. In summary, our results reveal that adjusting for sex hormones alters "sex-specific" reactive and diurnal cortisol profiles.

  4. Confronting suffering and death at the end of life: the impact of religiosity, psychosocial factors, and life regret among hospice patients.

    PubMed

    Neimeyer, Robert A; Currier, Joseph M; Coleman, Rachel; Tomer, Adrian; Samuel, Emily

    2011-10-01

    Although the role of spiritual, psychological, and social factors is receiving increasing attention in the end of life (EOL) context, we know far less than we need to about how these factors shape attitudes toward life and death in the face of looming loss. The present study begins to remedy these limitations by examining the relative impact of demographic characteristics, religious and psychosocial factors, and life regret on death attitudes and psychological wellbeing for a diverse group of 153 hospice patients. In addition to relying on well-validated quantitative assessments, qualitative interviews were conducted with participants to further illustrate the role of study factors in shaping various dimensions of death anxiety or acceptance and quality of life. In general, results showed that factors assessed in this investigation were significantly correlated with death attitudes and emotional health. When study factors were examined simultaneously, gender, ethnicity, intrinsic religiosity, social support, and future-related regret each were shown to have a unique impact on various aspects of EOL adjustment and distress. The article concludes by offering direction to researchers interested in integrating and extending the empirical study of the attitudes of adults facing serious illness, and underscoring the clinical implications of these findings for professionals offering psychosocial and spiritual care at the end of life.

  5. The pattern of physical comorbidity and the psychosocial determinants of depression: a prospective cohort study on a representative sample of family practice attendees in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to present the patterns of physical comorbidity in depressed patients and factors strongly associated with depression in a representative sample of Slovenian family practice attendees. Methods Medical data was obtained for 911 general practice attendees. Of them, 221 (24.3%) were diagnosed as depressed. The depressive states of the subjects were evaluated using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Physical comorbidity was assessed with a questionnaire covering the most common health problems in the Slovenian adult population. Several psycho-social factors were also analysed. Results Those variables significantly related to ICD depression were included in multivariate binary logistic regression analysis, adjusted by age, gender and education. The calculation included the chi-square, odds ratio (OR) with confidence interval (95% CI) and P-value. A P-value < 0.05 was marked as statistically significant. Conclusions There was no significant difference in the number of concurrent chronic diseases in depressed and non-depressed subjects. The risk of depression was increased by the presence of several concomitant factors. The burden of somatic co-morbidity was shown to be smaller than the impact of psychosocial determinants, which also acted as protective factors: the feeling of safety at home and the absence of problems in intimate relationships. The abuse of alcohol and drugs by a family member and current poor financial situation were strongly associated with depression. The impact of concurrent incontinence and chronic bowel disease was also important, though somewhat weaker. PMID:22942896

  6. Does class matter? SES and psychosocial health among Hungarian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Piko, B; Fitzpatrick, K M

    2001-09-01

    Previous research finds a significant relationship between socioeconomic inequalities and health status: individuals with lower income, education, and occupational prestige have and report more health problems. Interestingly, this relationship is not consistent across the life cycle: health differences among adolescents across socioeconomic groups are not as clearly defined. Using data (n = 1,039) on adolescents from southern Hungary, we examine the role of socioeconomic differences in predicting psychosocial health. We argue that this investigation is of particular importance in a post-communist system where the general perception of SES is undergoing significant transformation. Findings show that classical' SES (socioeconomic status) indicators (manual/nonmanual occupational status) were not significant predictors of psychosocial health in this sample of Hungarian adolescents. While parents' employment status as a 'objective' SES indicator had limited effect, SES self-assessment, as a subjective SES variable, proved to be a strong predictor of adolescents' psychosocial health. We discuss the implications of these findings for the broader SES-health literature with specific attention paid to the impact these relationships may have for adolescent and young adult development in a post-communist country like Hungary. PMID:11511056

  7. Psychosocial correlates of internet use among Italian students.

    PubMed

    Casale, Silvia; Fioravanti, Giulia

    2011-08-01

    Davis (2001) introduced a cognitive-behavioral theory of generalized pathological internet use (GPIU) that attempts to model the etiology, development, and outcomes associated with PIU. According to this model, pre-existing psychosocial problems (depression, loneliness, or low levels of social support) predispose an individual to GPIU cognitions, behaviors, and negative outcomes. An exploratory study intended to investigate whether GPIU is associated with psychosocial health (loneliness, depression, self-esteem, and shyness), also taking account of types of internet services used, was conducted in a sample of Italian undergraduate students. A cross-sectional and descriptive correlational design was used. The participants were 157 undergraduate students (34 male and 123 female) enrolled at The University of Florence. The results revealed a stronger correlation between the frequency of use of communicative services (as opposed to leisure or informational services) and GPIU levels. Among services, the most significant predictor of GPIU was the frequency of use of chat rooms and "adult" websites. All psychosocial health variables were correlated with GPIU, with the exception of shyness; however, general loneliness was the only significant predictor of GPIU. Depression and self-esteem were not significant predictors of GPIU. These results are consistent with the assumption that GPIU is related to the social aspect of the internet (e.g., online chatting) and arises from the unique communicative environment found online. In accordance with recent studies, social wellbeing (i.e. loneliness) seems to play a greater role than psychological health in deriving negative effects from internet use. PMID:22044272

  8. A community-based, environmental chronic disease prevention intervention to improve healthy eating psychosocial factors and behaviors in indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Mead, Erin L; Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Corriveau, André; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-10-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are highly prevalent among indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic. A community-based, multi-institutional nutritional and lifestyle intervention-Healthy Foods North-was implemented to improve food-related psychosocial factors and behaviors among Inuit and Inuvialuit in four intervention communities (with two comparison communities) in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories, Canada, in 2008. The 12-month program was developed from theory (social cognitive theory and social ecological models), formative research, and a community participatory process. It included an environmental component to increase healthy food availability in local stores and activities consisting of community-wide and point-of-purchase interactive educational taste tests and cooking demonstrations, media (e.g., radio ads, posters, shelf labels), and events held in multiple venues, including recreation centers and schools. The intervention was evaluated using pre- and postassessments with 246 adults from intervention and 133 from comparison communities (311 women, 68 men; mean age 42.4 years; 78.3% retention rate). Outcomes included psychosocial constructs (healthy eating knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions), frequency of healthy and unhealthy food acquisition, healthiness of commonly used food preparation methods, and body mass index (kg/m(2)). After adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic status, and body mass index variables, respondents living in intervention communities showed significant improvements in food-related self-efficacy (β = 0.15, p = .003) and intentions (β = 0.16, p = .001) compared with comparison communities. More improvements from the intervention were seen in overweight, obese, and high socioeconomic status respondents. A community-based, multilevel intervention is an effective strategy to improve psychosocial factors for healthy nutritional behavior change to reduce chronic disease in indigenous Arctic populations.

  9. Psychosocial assessment of children with short stature: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Skuse, D; Gilmour, J; Tian, C S; Hindmarsh, P

    1994-12-01

    Previous studies that have examined the psychosocial adjustment of children with short stature have often been flawed, for two main reasons: first, a lack of sample homogeneity and, secondly, the measures of adjustment used have been limited in terms of their sensitivity. This paper examines psychological functioning in the following four broad areas: cognition, social behaviour, emotional adjustment and self-concept. A sample of children referred to growth clinics (mean height below -2 SDS) and a comparison group, recruited from the referred childrens' classes at school, were assessed. Children were prepubertal (age range, 6-11 years) and had no organic cause for their short stature. Parent, teacher and peer reports were used in the assessment, which included sociometric measures in the classroom. The children with short stature described themselves as equally well supported as the comparison children in terms of social support by parents, teachers, peers and friends. Peers reported the short children to be well accepted within their class. Compared with control children, there was a trend for short children to be described by their peers as socially better adjusted than average. Teacher and parental accounts revealed significant group differences in terms of reported behaviour, with poorer attention and more thought problems among the children with short stature. Further analysis suggested, however, that their slightly lower IQ than children of normal height (95.8 +/- 18.7 (mean +/- SD) compared with 105 +/- 15.4) accounted for a greater proportion of the variance in these findings than short stature per se. There is little evidence to indicate that short prepubertal children are psychosocially maladjusted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7734805

  10. Psychosocial determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption.

    PubMed

    Brug, J; Lechner, L; De Vries, H

    1995-12-01

    Psychosocial correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption were studied in an adult Dutch population (n = 367) based on the ASE model of attitudes, social influence and self-efficacy. Attitudes were a summation of beliefs about taste, different health consequences, and costs in time and money. Social influences were measured through the social stimulation respondents expected to get from important others to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables and by asking the subjects about the behaviour of important others. Self-efficacy reflected the respondents' ability to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables in various situations. Self-efficacy and attitudes were consistently and significantly associated with consumption of boiled or otherwise heated vegetables, of salads, and of fruit. Furthermore, respondents reporting low consumption of these food groups had lower self-efficacy expectations and less positive attitudes than subjects with relatively high consumption of fruit and vegetables. It is concluded that nutrition education aimed at stimulating fruit and vegetable consumption should focus especially on changing attitudes and self efficacy expectations.

  11. Antenatal psychosocial risk factors associated with adverse postpartum family outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, L M; Reid, A J; Midmer, D K; Biringer, A; Carroll, J C; Stewart, D E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the strength of the association between antenatal psychosocial risk factors and adverse postpartum outcomes in the family, such as assault of women by their partner, child abuse, postpartum depression, marital dysfunction and physical illness. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Cinahl, Famli, Psych Abstracts and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials were searched from relevant articles published from Jan. 1, 1980, to Dec. 31, 1993, with the use of MeSH terms "depression, involutional," "child abuse," "child neglect," "domestic violence," "family," "marital adjustment," "family health," "newborn health," "child health," "physical illness," "social support," "psychosocial risk," "prediction," "risk factors," "obstetrics" and "prenatal care." Further articles were identified from bibliographies. STUDY SELECTION: Of the 370 articles identified through the search, 118 were included for review. Studies were included if they examined the association between psychosocial risk factors and the outcomes of interest. Articles were excluded if they were reviews of poor quality or they had one or more of the following features: insufficient description of the sample, a high attrition rate, a lack of standardized outcome measures, outcomes other than the ones of interest or results that had already been reported in a previous study. DATA EXTRACTION: The strength of evidence of each study was evaluated. On the basis of the evidence, each risk factor was assigned a rating of the strength of its association with each of the postpartum outcomes. The ratings were class A (good evidence of association), class B (fair evidence) and class C (no clear evidence). Of the 129 antenatal psychosocial risk factors studied, 15 were found to have a class A association with at least one of the postpartum outcomes. DATA SYNTHESIS: Child abuse and abuse of the mother by her partner were most strongly correlated (class A evidence) with a history of lack of social support, recent life

  12. Explorations in Knowing: Thinking Psychosocially about Legitimacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Anne; Ernest, Paul; Ludhra, Geeta; Mendick, Heather

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we look at what engaging with psychoanalysis, through psychosocial accounts of subjectivity, has contributed to our struggles for legitimacy and security within our ways of knowing. The psychosocial, with its insistence on the unconscious and the irrational, features as both a source of security and of insecurity. We use three…

  13. Habitus and the Psychosocial: Bourdieu with Feelings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reay, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of habitus to provide a window on the psychosocial. The paper works with a notion of psychosocial study as inquiry into the mutual constitution of the individual and the social relations within which they are enmeshed. At the same time it attempts to deepen and enrich notions of habitus. Although the strong focus…

  14. Foster Family Resources, Psychosocial Functioning, and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Kathryn W.; Orme, John G.; Cox, Mary Ellen; Buehler, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the effect of family resources and psychosocial problems on retention for foster families. Almost 50 percent of families who started preservice training did not complete it. Families with more psychosocial problems and fewer resources were more likely to express uncertainly about continuing. These results have…

  15. Psychosocial Treatment for Recurrent Genital Herpes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, David J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes…

  16. Personality Profiles of Physically Impaired Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Lynn C.; Harper, Dennis C.

    1980-01-01

    Different forms of chronic observable disability may have differing impacts on adult personality adjustment. Young adults with cleft lip/palate display fewer personality adjustment problems than those with orthopedic impairment. (Author)

  17. Alcohol and cigarette use and misuse among Hurricane Katrina survivors: psychosocial risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Flory, Kate; Hankin, Benjamin L; Kloos, Bret; Cheely, Catherine; Turecki, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined survivors' use and misuse of cigarettes and alcohol following Hurricane Katrina. We also examined several psychosocial factors that we expected would be associated with higher or lower rates of substance use following the hurricane. Participants were 209 adult survivors of Hurricane Katrina interviewed in Columbia, SC or New Orleans, LA between October 31, 2005 and May 13, 2006. Results revealed that survivors were smoking cigarettes, consuming alcohol, and experiencing alcohol consumption-related problems at a substantially higher rate than expected based on pre-hurricane prevalence data. Results also suggested that certain psychosocial factors were associated with participants' substance use and misuse following the hurricane.

  18. [Psychosocial risks at work and occupational health].

    PubMed

    Gil-Monte, Pedro R

    2012-06-01

    The changes on work processes and job design in recent decades are focused in the demographic, economic, political, and technological aspects. These changes have created new psychosocial risks at work that affect the health and quality of workplace, increasing stress levels among workers. The aim of this study is to present such risks, their consequences, and some recommendations to promote health at the workplace as a strategy to improve public health of the population. The study is divided into five points in which: (1) introduces the concept of risk factors and psychosocial work, (2) describes the main emerging psychosocial risks labor, (3) provides some information on the prevalence of psychosocial risks at work in Europe and its consequences, (4) recommendations for health promotion in the workplace, and (5) describes the objective of Occupational Health Psychology and concludes with the recommendations to promote psychosocial health in the workplace as a strategy to improve public health of the population.

  19. Psychosocial Factors in End-Stage Kidney Disease Patients at a Tertiary Hospital in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Bale, Charan; Jegatheesan, Dev; Pham, Linh; Huynh, Sonny; Mulay, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Aim. This study seeks to review the psychosocial factors affecting patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) from a tertiary hospital in Australia. Methods. We audited patients with ESKD, referred to social work services from January 2012 to December 2014. All patients underwent psychosocial assessments by one, full-time renal social worker. Patient demographics, cumulative social issues, and subsequent interventions were recorded directly into a database. Results. Of the 244 patients referred, the majority were >60 years (58.6%), male (60.7%), born in Australia (62.3%), on haemodialysis (51.6%), and reliant on government financial assistance (88%). Adjustment issues (41%), financial concerns (38.5%), domestic assistance (35.2%), and treatment nonadherence (21.3%) were the predominant reasons for social work consultation. Younger age, referral prior to start of dialysis, and unemployment were significant independent predictors of increased risk of adjustment issues (p = 0.004, <0.001, and =0.018, resp.). Independent risk factors for treatment nonadherence included age and financial and employment status (p = 0.041, 0.052, and 0.008, resp.). Conclusion. Psychosocial and demographic factors were associated with treatment nonadherence and adjustment difficulties. Additional social work support and counselling, in addition to financial assistance from government and nongovernment agencies, may help to improve adjustment to the diagnosis and treatment plans as patients approach ESKD. PMID:27807482

  20. Dental Composite Restorations and Psychosocial Function in Children

    PubMed Central

    Trachtenberg, Felicia L.; Hauser, Russ; McKinlay, Sonja; Shrader, Peter; Tavares, Mary; Bellinger, David C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Resin-based dental materials may intraorally release their chemical components and bisphenol A. The New England Children’s Amalgam Trial found that children randomized to amalgam had better psychosocial outcomes than those assigned to composites for posterior tooth restorations. The objective of this study was to examine whether greater exposure to dental composites is associated with psychosocial problems in children. METHODS: Analysis of treatment-level data from the New England Children’s Amalgam Trial, a 2-group randomized safety trial comparing amalgam with the treatment plan of bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate (bisGMA)-based composite and urethane dimethacrylate–based polyacid-modified composite (compomer), among 534 children aged 6 to 10 years at baseline. Psychosocial function at follow-up (n = 434) was measured by using the self-reported Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC-SR) and parent-reported Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). RESULTS: Children with higher cumulative exposure to bisGMA-based composite had poorer follow-up scores on 3 of 4 BASC-SR global scales: Emotional Symptoms (β = 0.8, SE = 0.3, P = .003), Clinical Maladjustment (β = 0.7, SE = 0.3, P = .02), and Personal Adjustment (β = –0.8, SE = 0.2, P = .002). Associations were stronger with posterior-occlusal (chewing) surfaces, where degradation of composite was more likely. For CBCL change, associations were not statistically significant. At-risk or clinically significant scores were more common among children with greater exposure for CBCL Total Problem Behaviors (16.3% vs 11.2%, P-trend = .01) and numerous BASC-SR syndromes (eg, ≥13 vs 0 surface-years, Interpersonal Relations 13.7% vs 4.8%, P-trend = .01). No associations were found with compomer, nor with amalgam exposure levels among children randomized to amalgam. CONCLUSIONS: Greater exposure to bisGMA-based dental composite restorations was associated with impaired psychosocial function