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Sample records for adult psychosocial adjustment

  1. Exploring the Psychosocial and Behavioral Adjustment Outcomes of Multi-Type Abuse among Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the psychosocial and behavioral adjustment outcomes associated with verbal, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse among homeless young adults as well as the associations among abuse types. Convenience sampling was used to select 28 homeless young adults (ages 18 to 24) from one drop-in center. Overall, subjects experienced…

  2. Gender-Nonconforming Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth: School Victimization and Young Adult Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Russell B.; Ryan, Caitlin; Diaz, Rafael M.; Card, Noel A.; Russell, Stephen T.

    2010-01-01

    Past research documents that both adolescent gender nonconformity and the experience of school victimization are associated with high rates of negative psychosocial adjustment. Using data from the Family Acceptance Project's young adult survey, we examined associations among retrospective reports of adolescent gender nonconformity and adolescent…

  3. Life-Course Pathways and the Psychosocial Adjustment of Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    We examined 7 life-course pathways from adolescence through the early adult years and their links with general health and psychosocial adjustment among 2,290 women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Young women who followed a pathway involving college attendance to full-time employment with no family-formation transitions…

  4. Gender-nonconforming lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth: school victimization and young adult psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Russell B; Ryan, Caitlin; Diaz, Rafael M; Card, Noel A; Russell, Stephen T

    2010-11-01

    Past research documents that both adolescent gender nonconformity and the experience of school victimization are associated with high rates of negative psychosocial adjustment. Using data from the Family Acceptance Project's young adult survey, we examined associations among retrospective reports of adolescent gender nonconformity and adolescent school victimization due to perceived or actual lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) status, along with current reports of life satisfaction and depression. The participants included 245 LGBT young adults ranging in age from 21 to 25 years. Using structural equation modeling, we found that victimization due to perceived or actual LGBT status fully mediates the association between adolescent gender nonconformity and young adult psychosocial adjustment (i.e., life satisfaction and depression). Implications are addressed, including specific strategies that schools can implement to provide safer environments for gender-nonconforming LGBT students. PMID:20822214

  5. Psychosocial factors in diabetes control: adjustment of insulin-treated adults.

    PubMed

    Peyrot, M; McMurry, J F

    1985-01-01

    Twenty insulin-treated diabetic adults were studied to identify psychosocial factors important in diabetic (blood glucose) control. Diabetic control was assessed by glycosylated hemoglobin, a measure of long-term glucose control. Subjects were equally divided between "good" and "poor" glucose control groups with sex balanced in each group. A multifactorial biopsychosocial model was proposed and tested. This model incorporated both direct (psychophysiologic) and indirect (behavioral) components. The behavioral variables investigated included predisposing (orientational), enabling (resource/barrier), and conditioning (inhibiting and motivating) factors. The psychophysiologic variables investigated were stress-response factors (elevating and dampening). Univariate and multivariate analysis demonstrated significant relationships between glucose control and each category of variables, using measures of diabetes knowledge and attitudes, health locus of control, and coping styles. The findings support both the stress-coping-illness and health-belief/illness-behavior models of diabetic adjustment and control. PMID:3906735

  6. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Adults Who Stutter: Psychosocial Adjustment and Speech Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beilby, Janet M.; Byrnes, Michelle L.; Yaruss, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy group intervention program for adults who stutter (N = 20). The program consisted of 2-h therapeutic sessions conducted weekly for eight consecutive weeks. It was an integrated program designed to improve: (a) psychosocial functioning, (b)…

  7. Maternal and Paternal Parenting during Adolescence: Forecasting Early Adult Psychosocial Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah J.; Forehand, Rex; Beach, Steven R. H.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the relationship of maternal and paternal parenting behavior during adolescence to four domains of early adult functioning. Higher levels of maternal firm control were associated with more secure early adult romantic attachment and lower levels of educational achievement. There were no main effects for fathers, but paternal parenting…

  8. The Quality of Parent/Child Relationships in Adolescence Is Associated with Poor Adult Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudino, Alessandra; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2013-01-01

    This study used data gathered over the course of a New Zealand longitudinal study (N = 924) to examine the relationships between measures of parental bonding and attachment in adolescence (age 15-16) and later personal adjustment (major depression; anxiety disorder; suicidal behaviour; illicit drug abuse/dependence; crime) assessed up to the age…

  9. Psychosocial Experiences and Adjustment among Adult Swedes with Superior General Mental Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalnacke, Jannica; Smedler, Ann-Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    In Sweden, special needs of high-ability individuals have received little attention. For this purpose, adult Swedes with superior general mental ability (GMA; N = 302), defined by an IQ score greater than 130 on tests of abstract reasoning, answered a questionnaire regarding their views of themselves and their giftedness. The participants also…

  10. Factors Affecting Psychosocial Adjustment of Deaf Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Filiz

    2003-01-01

    A study involving 1,097 elementary and secondary students who are deaf found that degree of hearing loss, additional disability, and age at onset were negatively related to psychosocial adjustment. However, there was a positive relationship with the use of hearing aids, speech intelligibility, academic achievement, parental hearing status, and…

  11. Religiosity and Psychosocial Adjustment Among 100 Homng Refugees.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, Joseph; Nugent, Sean

    1994-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE PAPER. The purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between religiosity and psychosocial adjustment in a group of Asian refugees from Laos. SUMMARY OF METHODS UTILIZED. Subjects consisted of 100 adult Hmong refugees from Laos who had relocated one decade earlier to Minnesota. At the time of the interview, about 80% remained in Minnesota; the remainder were interviewed in their respective communities. Five measures of religiosity were operationalized: Religious Belief (animism versus monotheism); recent Religious Practice (present/absent in previous monthrpar;; Religious Conversion lpar;present/absent in the U.S.rpar;; having a Home Altar (present/absent today); and having a shamanistic Trance Ritual (present/absent in the last five years). These five indices of religiosity were then compared against four general areas of psychosocial adaptation as follows: demographic characteristics lpar;5 itemsrpar;; sociocultural indices of adaptation lpar;5 items, including 2 scales) health care seeking over the previous five years (6 items); and psychiatric signs and symptoms (4 psychiatric scales). SUMMARY OF METHODS UTILIZED. Methods of data collection were as follows: (1) questionnaire-based interviewing by Hmong research assistants to provide data on religion affiliation, belief and practice; demographic information; psychosocial function; cultural affiliations and behaviors; and health care seeking; (2rpar; a psychiatric interview by the senior author followed by completion of two psychosocial scales (Axis 4 Psychosocial Stressors and Axis 5 Psychosocial Function using DSM-III criteriarpar; and several psychiatric rating scales lpar;Hamilton Anxiety Scale, Hamilton Depression Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and Global Assessment Scalerpar;. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Religious Pracitice in the last month was highly associated with several measures of psychosocial adaptation. Conversely, any Trance Ritual in the last five years was associated

  12. Psychosocial adjustment and craniofacial malformations in childhood.

    PubMed

    Pertschuk, M J; Whitaker, L A

    1985-02-01

    Forty-three children between the ages of 6 and 13 years with congenital facial anomalies underwent psychosocial evaluation prior to surgery. Also evaluated were healthy children matched to the craniofacial subjects by sex, age, intelligence, and economic background. Relative to this comparison group, the craniofacial children were found to have poorer self-concept, greater anxiety at the time of evaluation, and more introversion. Parents of the craniofacial children noted more frequent negative social encounters for their children and more hyperactive behavior at home. Teachers reported more problematic classroom behavior. Examination of these results revealed craniofacial malformations to be associated with psychosocial limitations rather than marked deficits. These children tended to function less well than the comparison children, but with few exceptions, they were not functioning in a psychosocially deviant range. Explanations for the observed circumscribed impact of facial deformity include the use of denial as a coping mechanism, possible diminished significance of appearance for younger children, and the restricted environment experienced by most of the subjects. It can be predicted that time would render these protective influences ineffective, so that adolescent and young adult patients could be at far greater psychosocial risk. PMID:3969404

  13. Recurrent Dreams and Psychosocial Adjustment in Preteenaged Children.

    PubMed

    Gauchat, Aline; Zadra, Antonio; Tremblay, Richard E; Zelazo, Philip David; Séguin, Jean R

    2009-06-01

    Research indicates that recurrent dreams in adults are associated with impoverished psychological well-being. Whether similar associations exist in children remains unknown. The authors hypothesized that children reporting recurrent dreams would show poorer psychosocial adjustment than children without recurrent dreams. One hundred sixty-eight 11-year-old children self-reported on their recurrent dreams and on measures of psychosocial adjustment. Although 35% of children reported having experienced a recurrent dream during the past year, our hypothesis was only partially supported. Multivariate analyses revealed a marginally significant interaction between gender and recurrent dream presence and a significant main effect of gender. Univariate analyses revealed that boys reporting recurrent dreams reported significantly higher scores on reactive aggression than those who did not (d = 0.58). This suggests that by age 11 years, the presence of recurrent dreams may already reflect underlying emotional difficulties in boys but not necessarily in girls. Challenges in addressing this developmental question are discussed. PMID:24976740

  14. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS. PMID:26441696

  15. Engagement in activities revealing the body and psychosocial adjustment in adults with a trans-tibial prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Donovan-Hall, M K; Yardley, L; Watts, R J

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the appearance of a prosthesis on social behaviour, social discomfort and psychological well-being in eleven amputees taking delivery of a prosthesis with a silicone cover. Two new scales were developed: the 'Engagement in everyday activities involving revealing the body' (EEARB); and the 'Discomfort-Engagement in everyday activities involving revealing the body' (Discomfort-EEARB) scales. The psychometric properties of these scales were determined using a sample of 101 able-bodied adults. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were also used to measure psychological well-being in the amputee sample. The EEARB and Discomfort-EEARB proved to have good reliability and validity. Comparison of amputees' scores prior to receiving the silicone cosmesis with those of the able-bodied adults revealed significant behavioural limitations and social discomfort, associated with low self-esteem, anxiety and depression. There was a significant increase in amputees' scores three months afier taking delivery of their prosthesis, indicating that amputees reported engaging in more activities which involved revealing their body, and that they would feel more comfortable in situations which involved revealing the body. As the amputee sample available was small and self-selected, it is not possible to generalise these findings to the amputee population as a whole. However, since there is little previous research investigating the effects of the appearance of the prosthesis, these findings demonstrate the need for further research in this area. PMID:12043922

  16. Romantic Experience and Psychosocial Adjustment in Middle Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Wyndol; Low, Sabina; Ho, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent and longitudinal relations between the amount of romantic experience and psychosocial adjustment were examined in a 1-year study of a community based sample of 200 tenth graders. Adolescents, parents, and friends completed measures of psychosocial adjustment. The amount of romantic experience was associated with higher reports of social…

  17. Clefting and psychosocial adjustment. Influence of facial aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Tobiasen, J M; Hiebert, J M

    1993-10-01

    This article briefly reviewed the research literature on the psychosocial correlates of facial clefts and described a program of research to study the relationship between severity of cleft impairment and psychosocial adjustment. In the past 40 years, there has been increasing recognition and research literature on the psychologic implications of facial clefts to patients and their families. Advances in both the knowledge base and the science of the psychologic correlates of facial clefts have been made. Children with clefts are not at greater risk for psychopathology than are individuals without clefts; however, they are at significant risk for social competence problems relating to development of friendships, progress in school, and participation in organizations. Problems with social competence have a negative effect on development. The ability of all children to make friends and to be liked by others is considered by most parents, teachers, and child development specialists to be a major developmental milestone. Not having friends and social withdrawal can cause parents or teachers to refer noncleft children to mental health professionals and is a predictor of impaired adult social competence and mental health. Studies of adults with clefts are consistent with studies of adults without clefts. Adults with repaired clefts are less likely to marry than are their noncleft siblings, and they have more problems with social withdrawal. Because facial attractiveness is well-known to affect peer acceptance, we hypothesized that the severity of the cleft deformity may have a significant impact on social competence. Consequently, we undertook a program of research to examine this question.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8275628

  18. Epigenetic Patterns Modulate the Connection between Developmental Dynamics of Parenting and Offspring Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naumova, Oksana Yu.; Hein, Sascha; Suderman, Matthew; Barbot, Baptiste; Lee, Maria; Raefski, Adam; Dobrynin, Pavel V.; Brown, Pamela J.; Szyf, Moshe; Luthar, Suniya S.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2016-01-01

    This study attempted to establish and quantify the connections between parenting, offspring psychosocial adjustment, and the epigenome. The participants, 35 African American young adults (19 females and 16 males; age = 17-29.5 years), represented a subsample of a 3-wave longitudinal 15-year study on the developmental trajectories of low-income…

  19. Vietnamese Amerasians: Psychosocial Adjustment and Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bemak, Fred; Chung, Rita Chi-Ying

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the literature on Amerasians and offers suggestions for directions in psychotherapy. Provides a brief chronology of Amerasian emigration and associated psychological issues, followed by a discussion of myths and generalizations about Amerasians, research findings, and adjustment issues. (RJM)

  20. Adolescent Leisure Dimensions, Psychosocial Adjustment, and Gender Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Graham L.; Inglis, Brad C.

    2012-01-01

    Leisure provides the context for much of adolescent behaviour and development. While both theory and research point to the benefits of participation in leisure activities that are highly structured, the association between structured leisure and psychosocial adjustment is not uniformly high. This paper presents a model of adolescent leisure…

  1. Psychosocial Adjustment of College Students with Tattoos and Piercings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberti, Jonathan W.; Storch, Eric A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between body modification practices and psychosocial adjustment. Participants were 198 undergraduate college students, 129 of whom had I or more piercings (other than in earlobe) or tattoos. Findings showed that individuals with body modifications reported more symptoms of depression and…

  2. Physical Status and Psychosocial Adjustment in Children with Spina Bifida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallander, Jan L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The study, in which mothers of 62 children with spina bifida completed the Child Behavior Checklist, found that children with differing degrees of physical problems and disability (determined from medical charts) did not differ significantly in their psychosocial adjustment. (Author/DB)

  3. Psychosocial adjustment among pediatric cancer patients and their parents.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chia-Chen; Chen, Sue-Huei; Wang, Chia-Yu; Wu, Yin-Chang; Yeh, Chao-Hsing

    2003-02-01

    Children with cancer face both physical and psychosocial challenges. However, there is not enough empirical evidence in Taiwan regarding how they and their families cope with their illness. The purpose of the present study was to explore the psychosocial impact of cancer on target children and their families as well as the degree of depression experienced by these children. Twenty-four pediatric cancer patients, aged 8 through 17 years, completed the Chinese version of Children Depression Inventory (CDI). Both these patients and 18 parents completed questionnaires about their psychosocial adjustment since the diagnosis of cancer. The results showed: (i) patients did not perceive significant changes in their psychosocial adjustment, whereas parents indicated significantly lower mood of patients and a slight decrease in the number of friends; (ii) both parents and siblings showed positive adjustment; and (iii) there was neither significant difference on the CDI scores between the pediatric cancer patients and a normative group, nor significant relationships between patients' CDI scores and demographic characteristics of both patients and their parents, parenting attitudes, as well as variables related to the illness. Lastly, the results are discussed in terms of issues of methodology and instruments. Possible direction for further investigations is suggested. PMID:12519458

  4. Psychosocial Distress and Stroke Risk in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Kimberly M.; Clark, Cari J.; Lewis, Tené T.; Aggarwal, Neelum T.; Beck, Todd; Guo, Hongfei; Lunos, Scott; Brearley, Ann; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.; Evans, Denis A.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association of psychosocial distress with risk of stroke mortality and incident stroke in older adults. Methods Data were from the Chicago Health and Aging Project, a longitudinal population-based study conducted in three contiguous neighborhoods on the south side of Chicago, Illinois. Participants were community-dwelling black and non-Hispanic white adults, age 65 and older (N=4,120 for stroke mortality; N=2,649 for incident stroke). Psychosocial distress was an analytically-derived composite measure of depressive symptoms, perceived stress, neuroticism, and life dissatisfaction. Cox proportional hazards models examined the association of distress with stroke mortality and incident stroke over 6 years of follow-up. Results 151 stroke deaths and 452 incident strokes were identified. Adjusting for age, race, and sex, the hazard ratio (HR) for each 1-SD increase in distress was 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.28–1.70) for stroke mortality and 1.18 (95% CI, 1.07–1.30) for incident stroke. Associations were reduced following adjustment for stroke risk factors and remained significant for stroke mortality (HR=1.29; 95% CI=1.10–1.52) but not for incident stroke (HR=1.09; 95% CI=0.98–1.21). Secondary analyses of stroke subtypes showed that distress was strongly related to incident hemorrhagic strokes (HR=1.70; 95% CI=1.28–2.25) but not ischemic strokes (HR=1.02; 95% CI=0.91–1.15) in fully adjusted models. Conclusions Increasing levels of psychosocial distress are related to excess risk of both fatal and nonfatal stroke in older black and white adults. Additional research is needed to examine pathways linking psychosocial distress to cerebrovascular disease risk. PMID:23238864

  5. Longitudinal Associations Between Humor Styles and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Fox, Claire Louise; Hunter, Simon Christopher; Jones, Siân Emily

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female) aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem) and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer). In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. PMID:27547255

  6. Longitudinal Associations Between Humor Styles and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Claire Louise; Hunter, Simon Christopher; Jones, Siân Emily

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female) aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem) and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer). In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. PMID:27547255

  7. Adolescent suicide attempts and adult adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Brière, Frédéric N.; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Klein, Daniel; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent suicide attempts are disproportionally prevalent and frequently of low severity, raising questions regarding their long-term prognostic implications. In this study, we examined whether adolescent attempts were associated with impairments related to suicidality, psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning in adulthood (objective 1) and whether these impairments were better accounted for by concurrent adolescent confounders (objective 2). Method 816 adolescents were assessed using interviews and questionnaires at four time points from adolescence to adulthood. We examined whether lifetime suicide attempts in adolescence (by T2, mean age 17) predicted adult outcomes (by T4, mean age 30) using linear and logistic regressions in unadjusted models (objective 1) and adjusting for sociodemographic background, adolescent psychopathology, and family risk factors (objective 2). Results In unadjusted analyses, adolescent suicide attempts predicted poorer adjustment on all outcomes, except those related to social role status. After adjustment, adolescent attempts remained predictive of axis I and II psychopathology (anxiety disorder, antisocial and borderline personality disorder symptoms), global and social adjustment, risky sex, and psychiatric treatment utilization. However, adolescent attempts no longer predicted most adult outcomes, notably suicide attempts and major depressive disorder. Secondary analyses indicated that associations did not differ by sex and attempt characteristics (intent, lethality, recurrence). Conclusions Adolescent suicide attempters are at high risk of protracted and wide-ranging impairments, regardless of the characteristics of their attempt. Although attempts specifically predict (and possibly influence) several outcomes, results suggest that most impairments reflect the confounding contributions of other individual and family problems or vulnerabilites in adolescent attempters. PMID:25421360

  8. Psychosocial interventions for adults with visible differences: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Some individuals with visible differences have been found to experience psychosocial adjustment problems that can lead to social anxiety and isolation. Various models of psychosocial intervention have been used to reduce social anxiety and appearance related distress in this population. The objective of this review was to update a previous systematic review assessing the efficacy of psychosocial intervention programs for adults with visible differences. The original review (Bessell & Moss, 2007) identified 12 papers for inclusion. Methods. A search protocol identified studies from 13 electronic journal databases. Methods: Studies were selected in accordance with pre-set inclusion criteria and relevant data were extracted. Results. This update identified an additional four papers that met the inclusion criteria. Two papers provided very limited evidence for the efficacy of a combined cognitive-behavioural and social skills training approach. None of the papers provided sufficient evidence for the optimal duration, intensity or setting of psychosocial interventions for this population. Discussion. The review concluded that a greater number of Randomised Controlled Trials and experimental studies were required to increase the methodological validity of intervention studies. PMID:25861556

  9. Psychosocial Impact of Epilepsy in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Manacheril, Rinu; Faheem, Urooba; Labiner, David; Drake, Kendra; Chong, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to describe the quality of life of older adults with seizures or epilepsy and compare its psychosocial impact between those who were new diagnosed and those diagnosed before the age of 65. Methods: In-depth face to face interviews with open ended questions were conducted with two participant groups: Incident group: 42 older adults (>65 years) with new onset or newly diagnosed after age of 65; and Prevalent group: 15 older adults (>65 years) diagnosed before age of 65. Interviews were reviewed and coded using a list of themes and results were compared between the two groups. Eight topics were selected from the participants’ responses to questions about the psychosocial impact of epilepsy and seizures. The topics were then analyzed and compared between the two groups. Results: The topics analyzed were: Emotional and physical impact, significant life changes, co-morbidities, information gathering, stigma, AED side effects, changes in relationships and attitude toward diagnosis. Conclusion: We concluded that the age at onset and duration does seem to have a negative correlation with health related quality of life. However, the perceived health status of older adults with chronic epilepsy was significantly better and reflected in their more positive approach to the diagnosis of seizures or epilepsy probably because they have had a longer opportunity to learn to cope with their diagnosis.

  10. Exposure to parental violence and outcomes of child psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Ellonen, Noora; Piispa, Minna; Peltonen, Kirsi; Oranen, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    Prior research suggests that exposure to violence at home increases the likelihood of mental health problems in children. Studies have also shown that children exposed to violence are more prone to delinquent behavior and regular alcohol use. This study examines the effects of witnessing and experiencing physical violence at home on the psychosocial adjustment of children. Children who both witnessed and personally experienced physical violence exhibited the highest levels of adjustment problems. However, having either one of these risk factors was also associated with negative outcomes. The data are based on the Finnish Child Victim Survey 2008 with a sample of 13,459 students aged 12-13 years and 15-16 years. PMID:23520829

  11. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Follow-Up Study of Psychosocial Adjustment and Community Reintegration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T.; Whitfield, Theodore H.; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (ages 10-18; n = 156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the 2-year period of follow-up, youth who had wounded or killed…

  12. Autonomy, Attachment and Psychosocial Adjustment during Adolescence: A Double-Edged Sword.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noom, Marc J.; Dekovic, Maja; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the assumption that a high level of autonomy within a context of attachment provides the best constellation for psychosocial adjustments with adolescents (N=400). Results show that attitudinal, emotional, and functional autonomy were connected with attachment to father, mother, and peers to predict indices of psychosocial adjustment:…

  13. Being out at school: the implications for school victimization and young adult adjustment.

    PubMed

    Russell, Stephen T; Toomey, Russell B; Ryan, Caitlin; Diaz, Rafael M

    2014-11-01

    Many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adolescents disclose their sexual and/or gender identities to peers at school. Disclosure of LGBT status is linked with positive psychosocial adjustment for adults; however, for adolescents, "coming out" has been linked to school victimization, which in turn is associated with negative adjustment. This study investigates the associations among adolescent disclosure of LGBT status to others at school, school victimization, and young adult psychosocial adjustment using a sample of 245 LGBT young adults (aged 21-25 years, living in California). After accounting for the association between school victimization and later adjustment, being out at high school was associated with positive psychosocial adjustment in young adulthood. Results have significant implications for training of school-based health and mental health providers, education and guidance for parents and caregivers, fostering positive development of LGBT youth, and developing informed school policies and educational practices. PMID:25545431

  14. A Literature Review of the Psychosocial Development of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to examine existing models of psychosocial development of older adults especially framed around human mortality as a point of discussion that informs all aspects of human development in older adulthood. Well known, in addition to burgeoning, human psychosocial development models that considered older…

  15. Interparental violence and children's long-term psychosocial adjustment: the mediating role of parenting practices.

    PubMed

    Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Almendros, Carmen; Carrobles, José Antonio; Muñoz-Rivas, Marina

    2012-03-01

    The objectives of this study were: (a) to examine the direct and indirect relationships among witnessing interparental violence, parenting practices, and children's long-term psychosocial adjustment; (b) to analyze the possible gender differences in the relationships specified. The sample consisted of 1295 Spanish university students (M age = 21.21, SD = 4.04). We performed statistical analyses using structural equation modeling. The results showed that witnessing parental violence as a child is related to poor long-term psychosocial adjustment during the child's adult years. Furthermore, we found that parenting practices fully mediated the relation between witnessing interparental violence and the child's long-term adjustment. The multigroup analyses showed that most of the relations among the variables did not differ significantly by gender. However, the relation between harsh discipline and antisocial behavior was stronger for males, whereas the relation between harsh discipline and depressive symptoms was stronger for females. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for the clinicians and specialists who plan and develop intervention programs for populations at risk. PMID:22379705

  16. Measuring Acculturation Gap Conflicts among Hispanics: Implications for Psychosocial and Academic Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Basáñez, Tatiana; Dennis, Jessica M.; Crano, William; Stacy, Alan; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure and validity of the Acculturation Gap Conflicts Inventory (AGCI), a new instrument developed to measure the types of recurring conflicts that young people experience as part of the parent–child acculturation gap. Participants included 283 Hispanic young adults who completed the AGCI and existing measures of acculturation, family dynamics, psychosocial, and academic adjustment. Principal axis factor analysis revealed three factors with good internal consistency: Autonomy Conflicts, Conflicts over Preferred-Culture, and Dating/Being Out Late Conflicts. These factors correlated in the expected direction with acculturative stress and family dynamics variables. Autonomy Conflicts explained more than 25% of the variance in the acculturation gap conflicts items investigated, and this factor demonstrated incremental validity in predicting psychosocial and academic adjustment beyond the variance accounted for by other acculturative stress variables. The AGCI can be valuable to researchers from a variety of disciplines interested in measuring acculturation-related intergenerational conflicts among Hispanic youth that may be predictive of adjustment. PMID:26855464

  17. Correlates of Psychosocial Adjustment in Deaf Adolescents with and without Cochlear Implants: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, Irene W.; Maxwell-McCaw, Deborah; Bat-Chava, Yael; Christiansen, John B.

    2009-01-01

    The number of children who have received cochlear implants (CIs) has increased dramatically in the past two decades. In view of potential concerns about their psychosocial adjustment, our aim was to assess the effect of implants on the adolescents' psychosocial functioning among a group of 57 deaf adolescents with and without CIs, using published…

  18. Adult Children as Informants about Parents' Psychosocial Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Brian D.; Lee, Monica; Ruckdeschel, Katy; Van Haitsma, Kimberly S.; Feldman, Penny H.

    2006-01-01

    Utilizing data from 80 adult children-older parent dyads, this study examined the degree to which adult children could predict the psychosocial preferences of their older parents. Overall, children demonstrated good knowledge about parent preferences, although there was wide variability within the sample and across preference domains. Children…

  19. Psychosocial Functioning of Adult Epileptic and MS Patients and Adult Normal Controls on the WPSI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Siang-Yang

    1986-01-01

    Psychosocial functioning of adult epileptic outpatients as assessed by the Washington Psychosocial Seizure Inventory (WPSI) was compared to that of adult multiple sclerosis (MS) outpatients and normal subjects. When only valid WPSI profiles were considered, the only significant finding was that the epilepsy group and the MS group had more…

  20. Mental Health and Psychosocial Adjustment of Cuban Immigrants in South Florida

    PubMed Central

    Cislo, Andrew M.; Spence, Naomi J; Gayman, Mathew D

    2010-01-01

    Given documented variation in pre-migration and migration-related experiences, Cuban immigrants in the U.S. who arrived during or subsequent to 1980 may be disadvantaged in mental health and psychosocial adjustment relative to earlier arrivals. Using wave 1 of the Physical Challenge and Health study, we compare earlier and later arriving immigrants in levels of depression, anxiety, and self-esteem and test whether adversity and social support, acculturation-related factors, or pre-migration conditions account for any differences observed among a sample of adults living in South Florida (N=191). Bivariate analyses reveal that later arrivals are relatively disadvantaged in anxiety and self-esteem and marginally so in depression. While later arrivals do not report more adversity in the U.S., they have lower levels of family support to cope with any adversity experienced. Later arrivals are also less likely to interview in English or to have a strong American identity, and they were more likely to have arrived as adults. Relative disadvantages in anxiety and self-esteem are best explained by indicators of acculturation and family support. Policies and programs that address acculturation difficulties and increase family support could improve the health and adjustment of these and similar immigrants. PMID:20643498

  1. Psychosocial and Health Behavior Outcomes of Young Adults with Asthma or Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Bauer, Katherine W.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Denny, Kara; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Previous research has shown a relationship between childhood/adolescent chronic conditions and negative health behaviors, psychological outcomes, and social outcomes. Less is known about whether these negative outcomes are experienced by young adults with chronic health conditions. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how young adults’ BMI, health behaviors, and psychological and social outcomes differ depending on whether they have diabetes, asthma, or neither of these chronic conditions. Methods Data were drawn from the third wave of Project EAT-III: Eating and Activity in Young Adults, a population-based study of 2287 young adults (mean age = 25.3; range 19.8 – 31.2). General linear models were used to test differences in BMI, health behaviors (e.g., fast food intake) and psychosocial outcomes (e.g. depressive symptoms) by young adults’ chronic disease status. Results Young adults with diabetes had higher BMIs, engaged in less physical activity and more unhealthy weight control behaviors and binge eating, had lower self-esteem and lower body satisfaction, and experienced more depressive symptoms and appearance-based teasing compared to young adults with asthma or no chronic conditions, after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES) and, when relevant, for BMI. There were no significant differences between young adults with asthma and young adults with no chronic condition on all of the psychosocial and health behavior outcomes. Conclusions Young adults with diabetes reported higher prevalence of negative health behaviors and psychosocial outcomes. Providers may find it useful to assess for negative health behaviors and psychosocial variables with young adults with diabetes in order to improve treatment and quality of life for these individuals. PMID:24298429

  2. Longitudinal Associations between Fathers' Heavy Drinking Patterns and Children's Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; O'Farrell, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    Psychosocial adjustment in children of alcoholics (N = 114) was examined in the year before and at three follow-ups in the 15 months after their alcoholic fathers entered alcoholism treatment, testing the hypothesis that children's adjustment problems will vary over time as a function of their fathers' heavy drinking patterns. Three unique…

  3. Spouse Adjustment to Spinal Cord Injury: Long-Term Medical and Psychosocial Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kester, Barbara L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined female's adjustment (N=25) to a partner's spinal cord injury (SCI) as a function of time since injury. Found that spouse adjustment to the effects of living with a partner who had a SCI was a highly stressful process with major medical and psychosocial consequences. (Author/ABL)

  4. Which psychosocial factors best predict cognitive performance in older adults?

    PubMed

    Zahodne, Laura B; Nowinski, Cindy J; Gershon, Richard C; Manly, Jennifer J

    2014-05-01

    Negative affect (e.g., depression) is associated with accelerated age-related cognitive decline and heightened dementia risk. Fewer studies examine positive psychosocial factors (e.g., emotional support, self-efficacy) in cognitive aging. Preliminary reports suggest that these variables predict slower cognitive decline independent of negative affect. No reports have examined these factors in a single model to determine which best relate to cognition. Data from 482 individuals 55 and older came from the normative sample for the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function. Negative and positive psychosocial factors, executive functioning, working memory, processing speed, and episodic memory were measured with the NIH Toolbox Emotion and Cognition modules. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling characterized independent relations between psychosocial factors and cognition. Psychosocial variables loaded onto negative and positive factors. Independent of education, negative affect and health status, greater emotional support was associated with better task-switching and processing speed. Greater self-efficacy was associated with better working memory. Negative affect was not independently associated with any cognitive variables. Findings support the conceptual distinctness of negative and positive psychosocial factors in older adults. Emotional support and self-efficacy may be more closely tied to cognition than other psychosocial variables. PMID:24685143

  5. Development of Food Safety Psychosocial Questionnaires for Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd-Bredbenner, C.; Wheatley, V.; Schaffner, D.; Bruhn, C.; Blalock, L.; Maurer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Food mishandling is thought to be more acute among young adults; yet little is known about why they may engage in risky food handling behaviors. The purpose of this study was to create valid, reliable instruments for assessing key food safety psychosocial measures. Development of the measures began by examining published studies and behavior…

  6. Is involvement in school bullying associated with general health and psychosocial adjustment outcomes in adulthood?

    PubMed

    Sigurdson, J F; Wallander, J; Sund, A M

    2014-10-01

    The aim was to examine prospectively associations between bullying involvement at 14-15 years of age and self-reported general health and psychosocial adjustment in young adulthood, at 26-27 years of age. A large representative sample (N=2,464) was recruited and assessed in two counties in Mid-Norway in 1998 (T1) and 1999/2000 (T2) when the respondents had a mean age of 13.7 and 14.9, respectively, leading to classification as being bullied, bully-victim, being aggressive toward others or non-involved. Information about general health and psychosocial adjustment was gathered at a follow-up in 2012 (T4) (N=1,266) with a respondent mean age of 27.2. Logistic regression and ANOVA analyses showed that groups involved in bullying of any type in adolescence had increased risk for lower education as young adults compared to those non-involved. The group aggressive toward others also had a higher risk of being unemployed and receiving any kind of social help. Compared with the non-involved, those being bullied and bully-victims had increased risk of poor general health and high levels of pain. Bully-victims and those aggressive toward others during adolescence subsequently had increased risk of tobacco use and lower job functioning than non-involved. Further, those being bullied and aggressive toward others had increased risk of illegal drug use. Relations to live-in spouse/partner were poorer among those being bullied. Involvement in bullying, either as victim or perpetrator, has significant social costs even 12 years after the bullying experience. Accordingly, it will be important to provide early intervention for those involved in bullying in adolescence. PMID:24972719

  7. Adult International Students: Problems of Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntley, Helen S.

    This paper examines research findings on adult international students and their adjustment problems while attending U.S. schools of higher education. Specific areas related to the adult student, some of which may also involve related issues of gender and country of origin, are discussed, as well as problem areas and hurdles unique to foreign…

  8. Recent developments in the psychosocial treatment of adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Knouse, Laura E.; Cooper-Vince, Christine; Sprich, Susan; Safren, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an increasingly recognized Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV psychiatric disorder associated with significant functional impairment in multiple domains. Although stimulant and other pharmacotherapy regimens have the most empirical support as treatments for ADHD in adults, many adults with the disorder continue to experience significant residual symptoms. In the present manuscript, we review the published studies examining group and individual psychosocial treatments for adult ADHD. We include a discussion of coaching interventions and how they differ from cognitive–behavioral therapy. We conclude that the available data support the use of structured, skills-based psychosocial interventions as a viable treatment for adults with residual symptoms of ADHD. Common elements across the various treatment packages include psychoeducation, training in concrete skills (e.g., organization and planning strategies) and emphasis on outside practice and maintenance of these strategies in daily life. These treatments, however, require further study for replication, extension and refinement. Finally, we suggest future directions for the application of psychosocial treatments to the problems of adults with ADHD. PMID:18928346

  9. Adjustment to Cancer: A Psychosocial and Rehabilitative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollum, Paul S.

    1978-01-01

    Initial reaction to cancer is typically shock and denial followed by various coping strategies. A surgical or chemotherapeutic period is entered with concomitant adjustment reactions. The third adjustment period comes after treatment and may evolve into a prolonged death crisis which brings difficult changes and pressures to the patient and his or…

  10. Cross-lagged relations among parenting, children's emotion regulation, and psychosocial adjustment in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Otterpohl, Nantje; Wild, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported substantive correlations between indicators of parenting, children's emotion regulation (ER), and children's psychosocial adjustment. However, studies on underlying mechanisms are scarce. Particularly in early adolescence, it is still unclear whether relations between parenting and ER are caused by adolescent behavior, by parent behavior, or by reciprocal processes. Moreover, it is unclear whether ER can be seen as an antecedent or a consequence of psychosocial adjustment. The aim of this study was to examine predictive relations among parenting and adolescents' ER, and adolescents' ER and psychosocial adjustment, respectively. We collected longitudinal, multiple informant data at two measurement occasions (Grade 6, Grade 7). All told, 1,100 adolescents (10-14 years) and their parents filled out questionnaires assessing responsiveness and psychological control, adolescents' anger regulation, and adolescents' problem and prosocial behavior. Cross-lagged analyses revealed reciprocal effects between parenting, ER, and adjustment for the parent and boys', but not for the girls', report. Moreover, relations were different for adolescents with versus without clinically elevated symptoms of psychopathology. Our findings support the assumption that reciprocal relations between parenting, ER, and psychosocial adjustment are likely to persist until early adolescence. Nevertheless, the moderating role of gender and psychopathology should be taken into account. Possible reasons for the different findings, and practical implications, are discussed. PMID:24320075

  11. Psychosocial Adjustment in School-age Girls With a Family History of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Angela R.; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Schwartz, Lisa; Egleston, Brian; Sands, Colleen Burke; Chung, Wendy K.; Glendon, Gord; McDonald, Jasmine A.; Moore, Cynthia; Rauch, Paula; Tuchman, Lisa; Andrulis, Irene L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Frost, Caren J.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Knight, Julia A.; Terry, Mary Beth; John, Esther M.; Daly, Mary B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Understanding how young girls respond to growing up with breast cancer family histories is critical given expansion of genetic testing and breast cancer messaging. We examined the impact of breast cancer family history on psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors among >800 girls in the multicenter LEGACY Girls Study. METHODS Girls aged 6 to 13 years with a family history of breast cancer or familial BRCA1/2 mutation (BCFH+), peers without a family history (BCFH−), and their biological mothers completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment (maternal report for 6- to 13-year-olds, self-report for 10- to 13-year-olds), breast cancer–specific distress, perceived risk of breast cancer, and health behaviors (10- to 13-year-olds). RESULTS BCFH+ girls had better general psychosocial adjustment than BCFH− peers by maternal report. Psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors did not differ significantly by self-report among 10- to 13-year-old girls. BCFH+ girls reported higher breast cancer–specific distress (P = .001) and were more likely to report themselves at increased breast cancer risk than BCFH− peers (38.4% vs 13.7%, P < .001), although many girls were unsure of their risk. In multivariable analyses, higher daughter anxiety was associated with higher maternal anxiety and poorer family communication. Higher daughter breast cancer–specific distress was associated with higher maternal breast cancer-specific distress. CONCLUSIONS Although growing up in a family at risk for breast cancer does not negatively affect general psychosocial adjustment among preadolescent girls, those from breast cancer risk families experience greater breast cancer–specific distress. Interventions to address daughter and mother breast cancer concerns and responses to genetic or familial risk might improve psychosocial outcomes of teen daughters. PMID:26482668

  12. Psychosocial adjustment of adolescent siblings of hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Packman, Wendy; Gong, Kimberly; VanZutphen, Kelly; Shaffer, Tani; Crittenden, Mary

    2004-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a widely practiced therapy for many life-threatening childhood disorders. The authors investigated the psychosocial effects of HSCT on siblings of pediatric HSCT patients (n = 44; 21 donors, 23 nondonors, ages 6 to 18 years). Donor siblings reported significantly more anxiety and lower self-esteem than did nondonors. Nondonors showed significantly more school problems. Approximately one third of all siblings reported moderate to severe posttraumatic stress. The study drew on the developmental theory of Erik Erikson and the psychosocial model of posttraumatic stress. As part of the study, the authors used the Measures of Psychosocial Development (MPD), a self-report measure based on Eriksonian constructs. The MPD was used to assess the psychosocial adjustment of 12 siblings who were adolescents (> or =13 years) at the time the study was conducted. In this article, findings are presented from the MPD as well as salient findings from the larger study. PMID:15490868

  13. The Role of Parental and Extrafamilial Social Support in the Psychosocial Adjustment of Children with a Chronically Ill Father.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotchick, Beth A.; Summers, Peter; Forehand, Rex; Steele, Ric G.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the relation between social support and psychosocial adjustment in children of men with hemophilia. Results, based on 53 families, indicate that the impact of illness, not the severity of illness itself, related to children's psychosocial adjustment. Main effects were observed for parental support on child- and parent-reported…

  14. Acculturation and Social Support in Relation to Psychosocial Adjustment of Adolescent Refugees Resettled in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacev, Lydia; Shute, Rosalyn

    2004-01-01

    This study examined how different modes of acculturation and perceived social support are related to adolescent refugee psychosocial adjustment, as measured by global self-worth and peer social acceptance. The 83 participants, aged between 12 and 19 and now resident in Australia, were from the former Republic of Yugoslavia. Those who had the most…

  15. Social Capital in Promoting the Psychosocial Adjustment of Chinese Migrant Children: Interaction across Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Qiaobing; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; He, Xuesong

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon a sample of 772 migrant children and their parents in Shanghai, China, this study investigated how the interactions of social capital embedded in a range of social contexts (i.e., family, school, peer, and community) influenced the psychosocial adjustment of Chinese migrant children. Results of multiple-group structural equation…

  16. Psychosocial Adjustment, School Outcomes, and Romantic Relationships of Adolescents With Same-Sex Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainright, Jennifer L.; Russell, Stephen T.; Patterson, Charlotte J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents); family and relationship variables; and the psychosocial adjustment, school outcomes, and romantic attractions and behaviors of adolescents. Participants included 44 12- to 18-year-old adolescents parented by same-sex couples and 44 same-aged adolescents…

  17. Stress and Coping as Predictors of Young Children's Development and Psychosocial Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, David K.; Swanson, Dee M.

    A total of 38 children of 5-6 years in one of four early childhood or kindergarten programs participated in a study of the predictive relationship of stress and coping to development and psychosocial adjustment. Measures of independent variables included the Life Events Scale for Children, Family Invulnerability Test, Hassles Scale for Children,…

  18. Psychosocial Adjustment and Life Satisfaction until 5 Years after Severe Brain Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorbo, Ann K.; Blomqvist, Maritha; Emanuelsson, Ingrid M.; Rydenhag, Bertil

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe psychosocial adjustment and outcome over time for severely brain-injured patients and to find suitable outcome measures for clinical practice during the rehabilitation process and for individual rehabilitation planning after discharge from hospital. The methods include a descriptive, prospective,…

  19. Towards an Integrated Model of Individual, Psychosocial, and Organizational Predictors of Retirement Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Jessica Y.; Earl, Joanne K.

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examines three predictors of retirement adjustment: individual (demographic and health), psychosocial (work centrality), and organizational (conditions of workforce exit). It also examines the effect of work centrality on post-retirement activity levels. Survey data was collected from 394 retirees (aged 45-93 years).…

  20. High School Drinker Typologies Predict Alcohol Involvement and Psychosocial Adjustment during Acclimation to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, Matthew A.; Hussong, Andrea M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined differences among distinct types of high school drinkers on their alcohol involvement and psychosocial adjustment during the first semester of college. Participants were 147 college freshmen (66% female; 86% Caucasian) from a large Southeastern public university who reported on high school drinking and college stress, affect,…

  1. Classroom Behavior and Psychosocial Adjustment of Single- and Two-Parent Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Edythe

    This study compared the psychosocial adjustment and social behavior of children from divorced or separated single-parent families with that of children from two-parent families. The theory of attachment was adopted as the conceptual framework for the study because of similarities between the behavioral response of children to parental separation…

  2. Thriving, Managing, and Struggling: A Mixed Methods Study of Adolescent African Refugees’ Psychosocial Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Weine, Stevan Merrill; Ware, Norma; Tugenberg, Toni; Hakizimana, Leonce; Dahnweih, Gonwo; Currie, Madeleine; Wagner, Maureen; Levin, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this mixed method study was to characterize the patterns of psychosocial adjustment among adolescent African refugees in U.S. resettlement. Methods A purposive sample of 73 recently resettled refugee adolescents from Burundi and Liberia were followed for two years and qualitative and quantitative data was analyzed using a mixed methods exploratory design. Results Protective resources identified were the family and community capacities that can promote youth psychosocial adjustment through: 1) Finances for necessities; 2) English proficiency; 3) Social support networks; 4) Engaged parenting; 5) Family cohesion; 6) Cultural adherence and guidance; 7) Educational support; and, 8) Faith and religious involvement. The researchers first inductively identified 19 thriving, 29 managing, and 25 struggling youths based on review of cases. Univariate analyses then indicated significant associations with country of origin, parental education, and parental employment. Multiple regressions indicated that better psychosocial adjustment was associated with Liberians and living with both parents. Logistic regressions showed that thriving was associated with Liberians and higher parental education, managing with more parental education, and struggling with Burundians and living parents. Qualitative analysis identified how these factors were proxy indicators for protective resources in families and communities. Conclusion These three trajectories of psychosocial adjustment and six domains of protective resources could assist in developing targeted prevention programs and policies for refugee youth. Further rigorous longitudinal mixed-methods study of adolescent refugees in U.S. resettlement are needed. PMID:24205467

  3. Curvilinear Associations between Benefit Finding and Psychosocial Adjustment to Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lechner, Suzanne C.; Carver, Charles S.; Antoni, Michael H.; Weaver, Kathryn E.; Phillips, Kristin M.

    2006-01-01

    Two previously studied cohorts of women with nonmetastatic breast cancer (Ns = 230 and 136) were reexamined. Participants were assessed during the year after surgery and 5-8 years later. Associations were examined between benefit finding (BF) and several indicators of psychosocial adjustment (e.g., perceived quality of life, positive affect,…

  4. Being Bullied and Psychosocial Adjustment among Middle School Students in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yulan; Newman, Ian M.; Qu, Ming; Mbulo, Lazarous; Chai, Yan; Chen, Yan; Shell, Duane F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Using the Chinese version of the Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS), this article describes the prevalence of being bullied among a nationally representative sample of Chinese students in grades 6-10 and explores the relationships between being bullied and selected indicators of psychosocial adjustment. Methods: A total of 9015…

  5. Stress and Coping as Predictors of Young Children's Development and Psychosocial Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, David K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Found that recent stressful life events were negatively associated with aspects of children's social development. Also found that certain coping styles and family characteristics were more predictive of children's social development than were other coping styles and were more predictive of children's psychosocial adjustment than their cognitive…

  6. Social Cognition and Its Relation to Psychosocial Adjustment in Children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galway, Tanya M.; Metsala, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined social cognitive skills in children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) compared to normally achieving (NA) children. The relation between social cognitive skills and psychosocial adjustment was also investigated. There were no group differences on children's ability to represent orally presented social vignettes.…

  7. A Genetically Informed Study of Associations between Family Functioning and Child Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schermerhorn, Alice C.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Turkheimer, Eric; Ganiban, Jody M.; Spotts, Erica L.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2011-01-01

    Research has documented associations between family functioning and offspring psychosocial adjustment, but questions remain regarding whether these associations are partly due to confounding genetic factors and other environmental factors. The current study used a genetically informed approach, the Children of Twins design, to explore the…

  8. The Potential Role of Conflict Resolution Schemas in Adolescent Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jutengren, Goran; Palmerus, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Four specific schemas of cognitive structures that adolescents may hold concerning interpersonal disagreements with their parents were identified, each reflecting an authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or a neglecting parenting style. To examine the occurrence of such schemas across high and low levels of psychosocial adjustment, 120 Swedish…

  9. Applied Behavior Analysis Programs for Autism: Sibling Psychosocial Adjustment during and Following Intervention Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cebula, Katie R.

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial adjustment in siblings of children with autism whose families were using a home-based, applied behavior analysis (ABA) program was compared to that of siblings in families who were not using any intensive autism intervention. Data gathered from parents, siblings and teachers indicated that siblings in ABA families experienced neither…

  10. Family Relationships and the Psychosocial Adjustment of School-Aged Children in Intact Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakvoort, Esther M.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Van Balen, Frank; Hermanns, Jo M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the quality of three family relationships (i.e., marital, parent-child, sibling) in intact families are associated with each other and with children's psychosocial adjustment. Data were collected by means of maternal and child reports (N = 88) using standardized instruments (i.e., Marital Satisfaction Scale,…

  11. Parental Problem Drinking and Adolescent Psychosocial Adjustment: The Mediating Role of Adolescent-Parent Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relations between parental problem drinking, adolescent-parent communication, and adolescent psychosocial adjustment. Surveys were administered to a diverse sample of 683 15-17-years-old adolescents in the spring of 2007 and again in the spring of 2008. Results indicated that paternal problem drinking directly predicted…

  12. Subtypes of Nonsocial Play and Psychosocial Adjustment in Malaysian Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Mei Sze; Xu, Yiyuan; Haron, P. Fatimah

    2012-01-01

    This study examined subtypes of nonsocial play and their relation to psychosocial adjustment in Malaysian preschool children (N = 141, 72 boys, M age = 4.65 years). Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a three-factor model that distinguished social reticence, solitary-active play, and solitary-passive play fit the data reasonably well, and…

  13. Relationship between Levels of Giftedness and Psychosocial Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Antony D.; Ramsay, Shula G.; Martray, Carl R.; Roberts, Julia L.

    1999-01-01

    A study compared two groups of gifted adolescents, highly (n=74) and moderately (N=163) gifted, on self-concept, emotional autonomy, and anxiety. Results indicated no significant differences on self-concept and adjustment. Age correlated with emotional stability and parent relationships. Girls outscored boys on measures of honesty and…

  14. Psychosocial Adjustment to Unsuccessful IVF and GIFT Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Susan M.; Clifford, Ellen; Hay, Douglas M.; Robinson, John

    1997-01-01

    Couples for whom in vitro fertilization (IVF) or gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) treatment failed (N=20) were followed up and compared with successful couples. Current mental-health status, quality of life, and marital adjustment were assessed via questionnaires; experiences were explored by interview. Results and recommendations for…

  15. Catastrophe, Chaos, and Complexity Models and Psychosocial Adjustment to Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Randall M.; Schaller, James; Hansmann, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Rehabilitation professionals may unknowingly rely on stereotypes and specious beliefs when dealing with people with disabilities, despite the formulation of theories that suggest new models of the adjustment process. Suggests that Catastrophe, Chaos, and Complexity Theories hold considerable promise in this regard. This article reviews these…

  16. Executive function and psychosocial adjustment in healthy children and adolescents: A latent variable modelling investigation.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Adam R

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish latent executive function (EF) and psychosocial adjustment factor structure, to examine associations between EF and psychosocial adjustment, and to explore potential development differences in EF-psychosocial adjustment associations in healthy children and adolescents. Using data from the multisite National Institutes of Health (NIH) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Study of Normal Brain Development, the current investigation examined latent associations between theoretically and empirically derived EF factors and emotional and behavioral adjustment measures in a large, nationally representative sample of children and adolescents (7-18 years old; N = 352). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was the primary method of data analysis. CFA results revealed that, in the whole sample, the proposed five-factor model (Working Memory, Shifting, Verbal Fluency, Externalizing, and Internalizing) provided a close fit to the data, χ(2)(66) = 114.48, p < .001; RMSEA = .046; NNFI = .973; CFI = .980. Significant negative associations were demonstrated between Externalizing and both Working Memory and Verbal Fluency (p < .01) factors. A series of increasingly restrictive tests led to the rejection of the hypothesis of invariance, thereby precluding formal statistical examination of age-related differences in latent EF-psychosocial adjustment associations. Findings indicate that childhood EF skills are best conceptualized as a constellation of interconnected yet distinguishable cognitive self-regulatory skills. Individual differences in certain domains of EF track meaningfully and in expected directions with emotional and behavioral adjustment indices. Externalizing behaviors, in particular, are associated with latent Working Memory and Verbal Fluency factors. PMID:25569593

  17. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Follow-up Study of Psychosocial Adjustment and Community Reintegration

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Borisova, Ivelina Ivanova; Williams, Timothy Philip; Brennan, Robert T.; Whitfield, T. Hatch; de la Soudiere, Marie; Williamson, John; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    This is the first prospective study to investigate psychosocial adjustment in male and female former child soldiers (n=156, 12% female). The study began in Sierra Leone in 2002 and was designed to examine both risk and protective factors in psychosocial adjustment. Over the two-year period of follow up, youth who had wounded or killed others during the war demonstrated increases in hostility. Youth who survived rape had higher levels of anxiety and hostility, but also demonstrated greater confidence and prosocial attitudes at follow up. Of the potential protective resources examined, improved community acceptance was associated with reduced depression at follow up and improved confidence and prosocial attitudes regardless of levels of violence exposure. Retention in school was also associated with greater prosocial attitudes. PMID:20636683

  18. A Systematic Review of Psychosocial Interventions for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Minshew, Nancy J.; Eack, Shaun M.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) spend the majority of their lives as adults, and psychosocial interventions show promise for improving outcomes in this population. This research conducted a systematic review of all peer-review studies evaluating psychosocial interventions for adults with ASD. A total of 1,217 studies were…

  19. Exposure to interparental violence and psychosocial maladjustment in the adult life course: advocacy for early prevention

    PubMed Central

    Roustit, C; Renahy, E; Guernec, G; Lesieur, S; Parizot, I; Chauvin, P

    2009-01-01

    Background: Early family-level and social-level stressors are both assumed to be the components of two main path models explaining the association between exposure to interparental violence in childhood and its long-term consequences on mental health explored through life-course epidemiological studies. Aims: To investigate the association between exposure to interparental violence in childhood and mental health outcomes in adulthood when taking into account early family and social stressors. Methods: A retrospective French cohort study of 3023 adults representative of the general population in the Paris metropolitan area was conducted in 2005 through at-home, face-to-face interviews. The outcomes measures were current depression and lifetime suicide attempt, intimate partner violence, violence against children and alcohol dependence. Results: The adults exposed to interparental violence during childhood had a higher risk of psychosocial maladjustment. After adjusting for family- and social-level stressors in childhood, this risk was, respectively, 1.44 (95% CI 1.03 to 2.00) for depression, 3.17 (1.75 to 5.73) for conjugal violence, 4.75 (1.60 to 14.14) for child maltreatment and 1.75 (1.19 to 2.57) for alcohol dependence. Conclusions: The adult consequences of parental violence in childhood—and this independently of the other forms of domestic violence and the related psychosocial risks—should lead to intensifying the prevention of and screening for this form of maltreatment of children. PMID:19477880

  20. Institutional and personal spirituality/religiosity and psychosocial adjustment in adolescence: concurrent and longitudinal associations.

    PubMed

    Good, Marie; Willoughby, Teena

    2014-05-01

    Spirituality/religiosity is hypothesized to promote positive adjustment among adolescents. The goals of this study were to assess the unique and joint associations between two dimensions of spirituality/religiosity--institutional and personal--and a range of domains of psychosocial adjustment (intrapersonal well-being, quality of parent-child relationship, substance use, and academic orientation) and to evaluate the direction of effects in these associations. Participants included 803 predominately Canadian-born adolescents (53 % female) from Ontario, Canada, who completed a survey in grade 11 and grade 12. At the concurrent level, higher personal spirituality/religiosity consistently and uniquely predicted more positive adjustment in terms of well-being, parental relationship, and academic orientation. Higher institutional spirituality/religiosity uniquely and consistently predicted lower substance use, particularly when personal spirituality/religiosity also was high. With regard to the direction of effects (i.e., longitudinal associations), institutional spirituality/religiosity predicted lower future substance use. The results imply that the personal and institutional dimensions of spirituality/religiosity may be associated differentially with psychosocial adjustment, and it may be only in the domain of substance use that spirituality/religiosity predicts change in behavior over time. PMID:23955323

  1. Differences between school classes in preschoolers' psychosocial adjustment: evidence for the importance of children's interpersonal relations.

    PubMed

    van den Oord, E J; Rispens, J

    1999-03-01

    We examined differences between school classes with respect to three aspects of psychosocial adjustment at school, namely the extent that children in the class liked to play with each other, the number of teacher-reported behaviour problems, and children's feelings of wellbeing at school. The sample consisted of 1282 4- to 5-year-olds from 94 school classes and 51 schools, but due to nonresponse actual sample sizes were somewhat smaller for most analyses. Multilevel analyses showed that on average 87% of the variance was at the child level, 11% at the class level, and 3% at the school level. This indicated that a non-negligible amount of variance could not be accounted for by factors at the child level. Furthermore, this variance was mainly associated with differences between classes instead of differences between schools. A set of variables that pertained to sociodemographic characteristics of schools, school facilities, organisational aspects of classrooms, and the teacher did not provide an adequate explanation for the differences in adjustment levels. In contrast to these traditional variables, social network indices yielded substantial correlations, showed consistent trends across the different adjustment measures, and fulfilled the necessary requirement that to explain differences between school classes the predictor variables themselves should differ for classes within the same school. These results suggested that aspects of the interpersonal relations of children in the classroom such as proximity, integration, and the amount of contact could be determinants of differences between school classes in psychosocial adjustment. PMID:10190343

  2. The report of coping strategies and psychosocial adjustment in Korean mothers of children with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hae-Ra; Cho, Eun Joo; Kim, Daehee; Kim, Jiyun

    2011-01-01

    Objective Parents of children with cancer must cope with multiple challenges over time. As most research on parental coping has been conducted in Western countries, little information is available on the parental experience of coping in non-Western countries. Using a new cultural sample of Korean mothers, this study describes their coping strategies. In addition, the association of particular coping patterns with mothers’ report of psychosocial adjustment is investigated. Methods A total of 200 Korean mothers of children with cancer participated in the study. Coping strategies were measured by the Coping Health Inventory for Parents in the following three categories: Maintaining Family Integration and an Optimistic Outlook for the Situation, Seeking Social Support, and Seeking Information. Maternal psychosocial adjustment was measured by psychological distress, family relationship, and social relationship subscales from the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale. Results Korean mothers reported coping strategies related to Maintaining Family Integration and an Optimistic Outlook for the Situation as being most helpful. More frequent use of coping pattern, Maintaining Family Integration and an Optimistic Outlook for the Situation, and less frequent use of coping pattern, Information-Seeking were significantly associated with lower psychological distress and better family relationship after children’s medical and maternal characteristics were controlled for. Coping pattern, Seeking Social Support was only predictive of social relationships. Conclusions This study suggests that culture may play a significant role in the report of coping among Korean mothers. Future studies should consider culturally preferred coping methods and available resources as they relate to different adjustment outcomes. PMID:19117279

  3. Psycho-Trauma, Psychosocial Adjustment, and Symptomatic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Internally Displaced Persons in Kaduna, Northwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Taiwo Lateef; Mohammed, Abdulaziz; Agunbiade, Samuel; Ike, Joseph; Ebiti, William N.; Adekeye, Oluwatosin

    2014-01-01

    Background: In April 2011, a post election violent conflict in Northern Nigeria led to resettlement of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in a camp in Kaduna, the worst affected state. We set out to determine prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among IDPs. We also determined types of psycho-trauma experienced by the IDPs and their psychosocial adjustment. Methods: Cross-sectional systematic random sampling was used to select 258 adults IDPs. We used Harvard trauma questionnaire to diagnose “symptomatic PTSD,” composite international diagnostic interview (CIDI) for diagnosis of depression, and communal trauma event inventory to determine exposure to psycho-trauma. We assessed social adjustment using social provision scale. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent predictors of PTSD. Results: Of the 258 IDPs, 109 (42.2%) had a diagnosis of PTSD, 204 (79.1%) had poor living conditions, and only 12 (4.7%) had poor social provision. The most frequent psycho-traumas were destruction of personal property (96.1%), been evacuated from their town (96%) and witnessing violence (88%). More than half (58%) of IDPs had experienced 11–15 of the 19 traumatic events. Independent predictors of PTSD among respondents were having a CIDI diagnosis of depression (adjusted odds ratios 3.5, 95% confidence interval 1.7–7.5; p = 0.001) and witnessing death of a family member (3.7, 1.2–11.5; p = 0.0259). Conclusion: We concluded that exposure to psycho-trauma among IDPs in Kaduna led to post conflict PTSD. Death of a family member and co-morbid depression were independent predictors of PTSD among IDPs. Though their living condition was poor, the IDPs had good psychosocial adjustment. We recommended a structured psychosocial intervention among the IDP targeted at improving living condition and dealing with the psychological consequences of psycho-trauma. PMID:25309461

  4. Belonging and connection to school in resettlement: young refugees, school belonging, and psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Kia-Keating, Maryam; Ellis, B Heidi

    2007-01-01

    Schools are one of the first and most influential service systems for young refugees. There is a burgeoning interest in developing school-based refugee mental health services, in part to reduce stigma and increase treatment access for this population. Despite the relevance of gaining a better understanding of how refugee students experience schools in resettlement and how this relates to psychosocial adjustment, belonging and connection to school have not been previously investigated among a population of resettled refugees. This study examines school belonging and psychosocial adjustment among a sample of 76 Somali adolescents resettled in the United States. A greater sense of school belonging was associated with lower depression and higher self-efficacy, regardless of the level of past exposure to adversities. Notably, more than one-quarter of the variation in self-efficacy was explained uniquely by a sense of school belonging. School belonging was not significantly associated with posttraumatic stress symptom severity and did not moderate the effect of exposure to adversities on psychological adjustment. These results suggest that investigating ways of improving school experiences would be particularly useful in the effort towards continued development of school-based mental health programs for young refugees. PMID:17375808

  5. Adult psychosocial outcomes of children with specific language impairment, pragmatic language impairment and autism

    PubMed Central

    Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Watt, Helen J; Line, E A; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2009-01-01

    Background: The few studies that have tracked children with developmental language disorder to adulthood have found that these individuals experience considerable difficulties with psychosocial adjustment (for example, academic, vocational and social aptitude). Evidence that some children also develop autistic symptomatology over time has raised suggestions that developmental language disorder may be a high-functioning form of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It is not yet clear whether these outcomes vary between individuals with different subtypes of language impairment. Aims: To compare the adult psychosocial outcomes of children with specific language impairment (SLI), pragmatic language impairment (PLI) and ASD. Methods & Procedures: All participants took part in research as children. In total, there were 19 young adults with a childhood history of Specific Language Impairment (M age = 24;8), seven with PLI (M age = 22;3), 11 with high functioning ASD (M age = 21;9) and 12 adults with no history of developmental disorder (Typical; n = 12; M age = 21;6). At follow-up, participants and their parents were interviewed to elicit information about psychosocial outcomes. Outcomes & Results: Participants in the SLI group were most likely to pursue vocational training and work in jobs not requiring a high level of language/literacy ability. The PLI group tended to obtain higher levels of education and work in ‘skilled’ professions. The ASD participants had lower levels of independence and more difficulty obtaining employment than the PLI and SLI participants. All groups had problems establishing social relationships, but these difficulties were most prominent in the PLI and ASD groups. A small number of participants in each group were found to experience affective disturbances. The PLI and SLI groups showed lower levels of autistic symptomatology than the ASD group. Conclusions & Implications: The between-group differences in autistic symptomatology provide

  6. Conduct Disorder and Psychosocial Outcomes at Age 30: Early Adult Psychopathology as a Potential Mediator

    PubMed Central

    Seeley, John R.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is associated with a number of adverse psychosocial outcomes in adulthood. There is consistent evidence that CD is predictive of antisocial behavior, but mixed evidence that CD is predictive of other externalizing and internalizing disorders. Further, externalizing and internalizing disorders are often associated with similar psychosocial outcomes as CD. However, relatively little work has examined whether forms of psychopathology (e.g., externalizing and/or internalizing disorders) mediates the relationship between youth CD and adult psychosocial outcomes. The present study examined associations between youth CD and adult psychosocial outcomes and sought to identify forms of psychopathology that may potentially mediate this relationship. Participants completed self-report measures of psychosocial functioning and semi-structured diagnostic interviews during adolescence and young adulthood. Analyses found that most domains of adult psychosocial functioning were associated with youth CD. Adult antisocial behavior was the only form of psychopathology predicted by CD. Adult antisocial behavior appeared to mediate the relationship between CD and marital status, life satisfaction, and being in jail and partially mediated the relationship between CD and family support and global functioning. These data suggest that reducing the progression to adult antisocial behavior may improve multiple psychosocial outcomes among those with a history of CD. PMID:20521096

  7. Assessing adult adjustment to relationship separation: the Psychological Adjustment to Separation Test (PAST).

    PubMed

    Sweeper, Susie; Halford, Kim

    2006-12-01

    Relationship separation is associated with substantial adult adjustment problems. The Psychological Adjustment to Separation Test (PAST) was developed as a self-report measure of 3 key dimensions of separation adjustment problems: lonely negativity, ex-partner attachment and coparenting conflict. Two independent samples (n = 219 and n = 169, respectively) of recently separated adults, 60% of whom had children, completed the PAST and other measures of general adjustment. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated a replicable 3-factor structure, with each factor showing satisfactory test-retest and internal reliability and good convergent and discriminant validity. The PAST meets initial criteria for a potentially useful new measure of adult separation adjustment. PMID:17176198

  8. A Systematic Review of Psychosocial Interventions for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Minshew, Nancy J.; Eack, Shaun M.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) spend the majority of their lives as adults, and psychosocial interventions show promise for improving outcomes in this population. This research conducted a systematic review of all peer-review studies evaluating psychosocial interventions for adults with ASD. A total of 1217 studies were reviewed, only 13 met inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were single case studies or non-randomized controlled trials, and most focused on applied behavior analysis or social cognition training. Effects of psychosocial treatment in adult ASD were largely positive ranging from d = .14 to 3.59, although the quantity and quality of studies is limited. There is substantial need for the rigorous development and evaluation of psychosocial treatments for adults with ASD. PMID:22825929

  9. Psychosocial adjustments in patients with prostate cancer from pre-diagnosis to 6 months post-treatment.

    PubMed

    Chien, Ching-Hui; Chuang, Cheng-Keng; Liu, Kuan-Lin; Huang, Xuan-Yi; Liu, Hsueh-Erh

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated changes in psychosocial adjustment over time and its associated factors in prostate cancer patients. A total of 69 patients with prostate cancer were surveyed at pre-diagnosis, 1 month and 6 months post-treatment. The questionnaires distributed to the patients consisted of the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale and the UCLA Prostate Cancer Index. The generalized estimating equations were used to analyse the collected data. The results of adjustments to psychological distress, the domestic environment and the social environment worsened post-treatment. However, the adjustment to health-care orientation was worst at the time of pre-diagnosis and improved during post-treatment. Patients who perceived an unfavourable health status reported poor adjustment in psychological distress. Patients exhibiting poor urinary function poorly adjusted to the domestic environment. Patients with sexual dysfunction exhibited poor adjustment to the social environment. Patients with low education demonstrated poor adjustment to health-care orientation. Further studies should assess the psychosocial adjustment among prostate cancer patients and provide interventions following pre-diagnosis. PMID:25307968

  10. Psychosocial adjustment of low-income African American youth from single mother homes: the role of the youth-coparent relationship.

    PubMed

    Sterrett, Emma M; Jones, Deborah J; Kincaid, Carlye

    2009-05-01

    African American youth from single mother homes are at greater risk for internalizing and externalizing problems relative to their peers from two-parent homes. Although the predominance of psychosocial research on these youth has focused on maternal parenting and mother-child relationship quality, far less attention has been devoted to the quality of the relationships that youth have with "nonmarital coparents," or other adults and family members who assist African American single mothers with childrearing. This study examined the contribution of the youth-coparent relationship to psychosocial adjustment among African American youth from single mother families (n = 141). Findings revealed that maternal parenting and youth-coparent relationship quality interacted to predict both youth internalizing and externalizing problems. Specifically, greater youth-coparent relationship quality enhanced the protective role of maternal positive parenting. Findings suggest the potential role of broader familial and social contexts for enhancing the protective effects of positive parenting. PMID:19437302

  11. Psychosocial Correlates of Sunburn among Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn J.; Darlow,  Susan; Cohen-Filipic,  Jessye; Kloss,  Jacqueline D.; Munshi,  Teja; Perlis,  Clifford S.

    2012-01-01

    Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement), lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that young women who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk young women in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ. PMID:22829801

  12. Psychosocial and Family Functioning in Spina Bifida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Devine, Katie A.

    2010-01-01

    A developmentally oriented bio-neuropsychosocial model is introduced to explain the variation in family functioning and psychosocial adjustment in youth and young adults with spina bifida (SB). Research on the family functioning and psychosocial adjustment of individuals with SB is reviewed. The findings of past research on families of youth with…

  13. Evaluating a theory of stress and adjustment when predicting long-term psychosocial outcome after brain injury.

    PubMed

    Rutterford, Neil A; Wood, Rodger L

    2006-05-01

    Kendall and Terry (1996) include many psychosocial predictors in their theoretical model that explains individual differences in psychosocial adjustment (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). The model depicts appraisal and coping variables as mediating relationships between situation factors, environmental and personal resources, and multidimensional outcome. The aim of this study was to explore these theoretical relationships at very late stages of recovery from traumatic brain injury. A total of 131 participants who were more than 10 years post-injury (mean = 15.31 years) completed several psychosocial measures relating to outcome dimensions comprising employment, community integration, life satisfaction, quality of life (QoL), and emotion. There was no evidence that appraisal and coping variables mediated relationships between psychosocial and any of the outcome variables. However, when appraisal and coping variables were combined with psychosocial variables as direct predictors of outcome, every outcome except employment status was reliably predicted, accounting for between 31 and 46% of the variance. Personality significantly influenced all predicted outcomes. Self-efficacy contributed to the prediction of all outcomes except QoL. Data did not support for the theory of stress and adjustment as a framework for explaining the nature of predictive relationships between psychosocial variables and very long-term, multidimensional outcome after brain injury. PMID:16903128

  14. A comparative study of the psychosocial assets of adults with cystic fibrosis and their healthy peers.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, S L; Hovell, M F; Harwood, I R; Granger, L E; Hofstetter, C R; Molgaard, C; Kaplan, R M

    1990-06-01

    Psychosocial assets of 37 adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) and 46 of their healthy peers were assessed by mailed questionnaire. Major sociodemographic variables did not differ significantly between the two groups, nor did indices of emotional social support, social network density, self-esteem, or current life satisfaction. This study revealed adults with CF to function on a par with their healthy peers in nearly all respects, a finding at odds with those from uncontrolled studies and which suggests to us that many previous conclusions about the psychosocial health of adults with CF have been unwarranted. Future psychosocial studies involving patients with CF should include control groups and inferences about the effect of these patients' physical illness on their psychosocial health should not be made in the absence of normative data. PMID:2347214

  15. Violence and Victimization During Incarceration: Relations to Psychosocial Adjustment During Reentry to the Community.

    PubMed

    Schappell, Ashley; Docherty, Meagan; Boxer, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed male ex-offenders (N = 100) about their experiences during and prior to incarceration to assess the role of these factors in psychosocial adjustment postrelease. Participants completed measures of preincarceration mental health problems and severe victimization and feelings of safety during incarceration; they also self-reported emotional distress, antisocial behavior, and posttraumatic stress (PTS). Moderator analyses of PTS outcomes revealed two key interactions between preincarceration mental health problems and severe victimization during incarceration as well as preincarceration mental health problems by feelings of safety during incarceration. In those without preincarceration mental health problems, victimization and PTS were significantly positively related; this was not the case for those with preexisting mental problems. Furthermore, the positive relation between feeling unsafe and PTS was stronger among those with preexisting mental problems. Findings are discussed with respect to implications for reentry services. PMID:26830297

  16. A Meta-analytic Review of the Psychosocial Adjustment of Youth with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hommel, Kevin A.; Nebel, Justin; Raboin, Tara; Li, Shun-Hwa; Simpson, Pippa; Mackner, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Objective To conduct a meta-analytic review of psychosocial adjustment of youth with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods Nineteen studies with a total of 1167 youth with IBD (M age = 14.33, 50% female) were included. Effect size (ES) estimates were calculated for anxiety symptoms & disorders, depressive symptoms & disorders, internalizing symptoms & disorders, externalizing symptoms, quality of life (QOL), social functioning, and self-esteem. Separate ESs were calculated for comparisons between IBD and youth with chronic illnesses versus healthy youth. Results Youth with IBD had higher rates of depressive disorders and internalizing disorders than youth with other chronic conditions. Youth with IBD had higher parent-reported internalizing symptoms, lower parent- and youth-reported QOL, and lower youth-reported social functioning compared to healthy youth. Conclusions Clinical attention to depressive disorders, QOL, and social functioning may be particularly salient in the context of pediatric IBD. PMID:20123705

  17. Tracking Psychosocial Health in Adults with Epilepsy—Estimates from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kobau, R; Cui, W; Kadima, N; Zack, MM; Sajatovic, M; Kaiboriboon, K; Jobst, B

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study provides population-based estimates of psychosocial health among U.S. adults with epilepsy from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Methods Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the prevalence of the following measures of psychosocial health among adults with and those without epilepsy: 1) the Kessler-6 scale of Serious Psychological Distress; 2) cognitive limitation; the extent of impairments associated with psychological problems; and work limitation; 3) Social participation; and 4) the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System Global Health scale. Results Compared with adults without epilepsy, adults with epilepsy, especially those with active epilepsy, reported significantly worse psychological health, more cognitive impairment, difficulty in participating in some social activities, and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Conclusions These disparities in psychosocial health in U.S. adults with epilepsy serve as baseline national estimates of their HRQOL, consistent with Healthy People 2020 national objectives on HRQOL. PMID:25305435

  18. Comparing Psychosocial Adjustment across the College Transition in a Matched Heterosexual and Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsch, Alexandra C.; Conley, Colleen S.; Riley, Tracey J.

    2015-01-01

    We compared a matched sample of heterosexual and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students on 5 psychosocial adjustment composites, longitudinally across the transitional first year of college. Both LGB and heterosexual students experienced a significant increase in psychological distress over the first semester, along with significant decreases…

  19. New Prof Omeje Pornography Addiction as Correlate of Psychosocial and Academic Adjustment of Students in Universities in Lagos State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohuakanwa, Chijioke Ephraim; Omeje, Joachim Chinweike; Eskay, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The study sought to investigate the relationship between pornography addiction and psychosocial and academic adjustment of students in universities in Lagos State. In order to achieve this objective, five research questions were formulated and two hypotheses postulated. The subjects for the study consisted of 616 full-time third-year undergraduate…

  20. Trajectories of Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescents with Spina Bifida: A 6-Year, Four-Wave Longitudinal Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; DeLucia, Christian; Essner, Bonnie; Kelly, Lauren; Zebracki, Kathy; Friedman, Deborah; Jandasek, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objective: As a follow-up to an earlier cross-sectional study (Holmbeck et al., 2003), the current multimethod, multi-informant investigation examined individual growth in psychosocial adjustment across the adolescent transition in 2 samples: young adolescents with spina bifida (SB) and typically developing adolescents (N = 68 in both groups at…

  1. The Psychosocial Adjustment of African American Youth from Single Mother Homes: The Relative Contribution of Parents and Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chester, Charlene; Jones, Deborah J.; Zalot, Alecia; Sterrett, Emma

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relative roles of parents and peers in the psychosocial adjustment of African American youth (7-15 years old) from single mother homes (N = 242). Main effects of both positive parenting and peer relationship quality were found for youth depressive symptoms. In addition, a main effect of peer relationship quality and an…

  2. Role of Family Resources and Paternal History of Substance Use Problems in Psychosocial Adjustment among School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the role of family resources (parenting style and family cohesion) and paternal history of substance abuse on the psychosocial adjustment of their school-aged children. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 (72 of fathers with history of substance use disorder, 76 children of fathers with no substance use…

  3. A Genetically Informed Study of Associations between Family Functioning and Child Psychosocial Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Schermerhorn, Alice C.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Turkheimer, Eric; Ganiban, Jody M.; Spotts, Erica L.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2010-01-01

    Research has documented associations between family functioning and offspring psychosocial adjustment, but questions remain regarding whether these associations are partly due to confounding genetic factors and other environmental factors. The current study used a genetically informed approach, the Children of Twins design, to explore the associations between family functioning (family conflict, marital quality, and agreement about parenting) and offspring psychopathology. Participants were 867 twin pairs (388 MZ; 479 DZ) from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden (TOSS), their spouses, and children (51.7% female; M = 15.75 years). The results suggested associations between exposure to family conflict (assessed by the mother, father, and child) and child adjustment were independent of genetic factors and other environmental factors. However, when family conflict was assessed using only children’s reports, the results indicated that genetic factors also influenced these associations. In addition, the analyses indicated that exposure to low marital quality and agreement about parenting was associated with children’s internalizing and externalizing problems, and that genetic factors also contributed to the associations of marital quality and agreement about parenting with offspring externalizing problems. PMID:21142367

  4. Attitudinal and Psychosocial Outcomes of a Fitness and Health Education Program on Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Tamar; Hsieh, Kelly; Rimmer, James H.

    2004-01-01

    Attitudinal and psychosocial outcomes of a fitness and health education program for adults with Down syndrome were examined. Participants were 53 adults with Down syndrome ages 30 years and older (29 females, 24 males, M age = 39.72 years) who were randomized into a training (n = 32) or control group (n = 21). The training group participated in a…

  5. Psychosocial adjustment in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus infected or exposed children – a Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Zalwango, Sarah K; Kizza, Florence N; Nkwata, Allan K; Sekandi, Juliet N; Kakaire, Robert; Kiwanuka, Noah; Whalen, Christopher C; Ezeamama, Amara E

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether perinatal HIV infection and exposure adversely affected psychosocial adjustment (PA) between 6 and 18 years of life (i.e. during school-age and adolescence). Methods We enrolled 58 perinatally HIV-infected, 56 HIV-exposed uninfected and 54 unexposed controls from Kampala, Uganda. Perinatal HIV status was determined by 18 months of age using a DNA-polymerase chain-reaction test and was confirmed via HIV rapid diagnostic test at psychosocial testing when the children were 6 to 18 years old. Five indicators of PA (depressive symptoms, distress, hopelessness, positive future orientation and esteem) were measured using validated, culturally adapted and translated instruments. Multivariable linear regression analyses estimated HIV-status-related percent differences (β) in PA indicators and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results During school-age and adolescence, positive outlook (β=−3.8, 95% CI: −7.2, −0.1) and self-esteem (β=−4.3, 95% CI: −6.7, −1.8) scores were significantly lower, whereas depressive (β=11.4, 95% CI: 3.3, 19.5) and distress (β=12.3, 95% CI: 5.9, 18.7) symptoms were elevated for perinatally HIV-infected, compared to unexposed controls and exposed uninfected children. Similarly, positive outlook (β=−4.3, 95% CI: −7.3, −1.2) and self-esteem were lower for exposed controls versus HIV-unexposed children. Hopelessness was similar by perinatal HIV status. Likewise, the distress and depressive symptom levels were comparable for HIV-exposed uninfected and HIV-unexposed children. Conclusions Perinatal HIV infection predicted higher distress and depressive symptoms, while HIV-affected status (infection/exposure) predicted low self-esteem and diminished positive outlook in the long term. However, HIV-affected status had no impact on hopelessness, suggesting that psychosocial interventions as an integral component of HIV care for infected children or primary care exposed uninfected children may

  6. Supportive Non-Parental Adults and Adolescent Psychosocial Functioning: Using Social Support as a Theoretical Framework

    PubMed Central

    Sterrett, E. M.; Jones, D. J.; McKee, L. G.; Kincaid, C.

    2014-01-01

    Supportive Non-Parental Adults (SNPAs), or non-parental adults who provide social support to youth, are present in the lives of many adolescents; yet to date, a guiding framework for organizing the existing literature on the provision of support provided by multiple types of SNPAS, such as teachers, natural mentors, and extended family members, as well as to inform future research efforts, is lacking. The aim of the current paper is to utilize the well-established lens of social support to integrate, across this broad range of literatures, recent findings regarding associations between SNPAs and four indices of adolescent psychosocial adjustment: academic functioning, self-esteem, and behavioral and emotional problems. Beyond offering an integrative framework for understanding the link between SNPAs and adolescent functioning, the issues reviewed here have potentially far-reaching consequences for adolescents and their families, as well as the professionals working with adolescents and their families in the health care, school, and community settings. PMID:21384233

  7. The patient–body relationship and the “lived experience” of a facial burn injury: a phenomenological inquiry of early psychosocial adjustment

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Loyola M; Rogers, Vanessa; Kornhaber, Rachel; Proctor, Marie-Therese; Kwiet, Julia; Streimer, Jeffrey; Vandervord, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Throughout development and into adulthood, a person’s face is the central focus for interpersonal communication, providing an important insight into one’s identity, age, sociocultural background, and emotional state. The face facilitates important social, including nonverbal, communication. Therefore, sustaining a severe burn, and in particular a facial burn, is a devastating and traumatizing injury. Burn survivors may encounter unique psychosocial problems and experience higher rates of psychosocial maladjustment, although there may be a number of potentially mediating factors. Objectives The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the early recovery experience of patients with a facial burn. In particular, this study focused on how the injury impacted on the participants’ relationship with their own body and the challenges of early psychosocial adjustment within the first 4 months of sustaining the injury. Methods In 2011, six adult participants encompassing two females and four males ranging from 29 to 55 years of age with superficial to deep dermal facial burns (with background burns of 0.8%–55% total body surface area) were recruited from a severe burn injury unit in Australia for participation in a Burns Modified Adult Attachment Interview. Narrative data were analyzed thematically and informed by Colaizzi’s method of data analysis. Results Three overarching themes emerged: relationship to self/other, coping, and meaning-making. Themes identified related to how the experience affected the participants’ sense of relationship with their own bodies and with others, as well as other challenges of early psychosocial adjustment. All participants indicated that they had experienced some early changes in their relationship with their body following their burn injury. Conclusion These findings highlight the struggle burn survivors experienced with postburn adjustment, but expressed altruism and optimism around their recovery. Past

  8. Attachment Relationships and Psychological Adjustment of Married Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaleque, Abdul; Shirin, Anjuman; Uddin, Muhammad Kamal

    2013-01-01

    The present study explored relations among remembered parental (paternal and maternal) acceptance in childhood, spouse acceptance and psychological adjustment of adults. It also explored whether remembered childhood experiences of parental acceptance mediate the relation between perceived spouse acceptance and psychological adjustment. The sample…

  9. [Weight-for-height in adults: comparison of classifications adjusted and non adjusted by frame size].

    PubMed

    Hernández Hernández, R A; Hernández de Valera, Y

    1998-03-01

    The present study is to analyze the concordance, agreements and divergence of anthropometry nutritional classification of weight-height (WH) in adults, using criteria that include frame size adjustments and no adjustment at all. 224 adults were studied (127 female and 117 males) from the "Simón Bolívar" University Administrative Employees Health Project, 1993. Using as basis, the variables weight, height, wrist circumference and elbow breadth, we determined: a) frame size by wrist circumference methods (WC) (Grant, 1980) and elbow breadth (EB) (Frame index 2 by Frisancho, 1989); b) classification by weight-height (WH) according to table by frame size (Frisancho, 1984). 57%, 38% and 6% corresponded to small, medium and large frame sizes, by WC. 16%, 60% and 25% by EB. When classifying by WH those results showed differences between 16-25% in female and 15-21% in males. When contrasting the three criteria, it was observed a bigger coincidence between WH without frame size adjustment and WH adjustment by EB. The smallest coincidence between WH adjusted by WC method and weight height without frame size adjustment in the whole group, while male and female got the biggest coincidence in WH adjustment by WC and HW without frame size adjustment. The smallest concordance (k = 0.37) was obtained when contrasting WH frame size adjustment by EB vs weight-height without adjustment in female, and biggest concordance (k = 0.60) when contrasting WH by WC and without adjustment in males. This results show that, there are significative differences in nutritional classification of weight-height in adults adjusted and non adjusted by frame size within the same group of persons. PMID:9754399

  10. Depression and Psychosocial Risk Factors among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Theng, Yin-Leng; Foo, Schubert

    2015-12-01

    Depression is the most common mental and emotional disorder that emerges in the late stages of life. It is closely associated with poor health, disability, mortality, and suicide. The study examines the risk factors of depression in late life, especially the psychosocial factors, among a sample comprising 162 community-dwelling Singaporean adults aged 65 years and above. An interview-based structured survey was conducted in multiple senior activity centers located in different parts of Singapore. Results from the hierarchical regression analysis show that 32.9% of the variance in geriatric depression can be explained by the three psychosocial factors, among which loneliness, perceived social support, and the emotional regulation component of resilience are significantly associated with depression in older adults. Large-scale studies should be conducted to confirm the findings of the present study, and to further examine the predictive effects of these psychosocial factors on depression among older adults. PMID:26428668

  11. Adult Adjustment of Survivors of Institutional Child Abuse in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Alan; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzpatrick, Mark; Flanagan, Edel; Flanagan-Howard, Roisin; Tierney, Kevin; White, Megan; Daly, Margaret; Egan, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To document the adult adjustment of survivors of childhood institutional abuse. Method: Two hundred and forty-seven adult survivors of institutional abuse with a mean age of 60 were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, modules from the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I Disorders of DSM IV…

  12. Psychosocial stress and changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate among adults with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Annor, Francis B.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Okosun, Ike S.; Roblin, Douglas W.; Goodman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychosocial stress has been hypothesized to impact renal changes, but this hypothesis has not been adequately tested. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between psychosocial stress and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and to examine other predictors of eGFR changes among persons with diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods Data from a survey conducted in 2005 by a major health maintenance organization located in the southeastern part of the United States, linked to patients’ clinical and pharmacy records (n=575) from 2005 to 2008, was used. Study participants were working adults aged 25–59 years, diagnosed with DM but without advanced microvascular or macrovascular complications. eGFR was estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. A latent psychosocial stress variable was created from five psychosocial stress subscales. Using a growth factor model in a structural equation framework, we estimated the association between psychosocial stress and eGFR while controlling for important covariates. Results The psychosocial stress variable was not directly associated with eGFR in the final model. Factors found to be associated with changes in eGFR were age, race, insulin use, and mean arterial pressure. Conclusion Among fairly healthy DM patients, we did not find any evidence of a direct association between psychosocial stress and eGFR changes after controlling for important covariates. Predictors of eGFR change in our population included age, race, insulin use, and mean arterial pressure. PMID:26484039

  13. Evidence-based Assessment in Pediatric Psychology: Measures of Psychosocial Adjustment and Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Thill, Azure Welborn; Bachanas, Pamela; Garber, Judy; Miller, Karen Bearman; Abad, Mona; Bruno, Elizabeth Franks; Carter, Jocelyn Smith; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Jandasek, Barbara; Mennuti-Washburn, Jean E.; O’Mahar, Kerry; Zukerman, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Objective To provide an evidence-based review of measures of psychosocial adjustment and psychopathology, with a specific focus on their use in the field of pediatric psychology. Methods As part of a larger survey of pediatric psychologists from the Society of Pediatric Psychology e-mail listserv (American Psychological Association, APA, Division 54), 37 measures were selected for this psychometric review. Measures that qualified for the review fell into one of the following three categories: (a) internalizing or externalizing rating scales, (b) broad-band rating scales, and (c) self-related rating scales. Results Psychometric characteristics (i.e., three types of reliability, two types of validity) were strong for the majority of measures reviewed, with 34 of the 37 measures meeting “well-established” evidence-based assessment (EBA) criteria. Strengths and weaknesses of existing measures were noted. Conclusions Recommendations for future work in this area of assessment are presented, including suggestions that more fine-grained EBA criteria be developed and that evidence-based “profiles” be devised for each measure. PMID:17728305

  14. Disparities in Psychosocial Functioning in a Diverse Sample of Adults with Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Moitra, Ethan; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Stout, Robert L.; Angert, Erica; Weisberg, Risa B.; Keller, Martin B.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are associated with psychosocial functional impairments, but no study has compared how these impairments might vary by ethno-racial status. We examined whether minority status was uniquely associated with functional impairments in 431 adults with anxiety disorders. Functioning was measured in the rater-assessed domains of: global assessment of functioning (GAF); global psychosocial functioning; work, relationship, and recreational functioning; and, self-reported: life satisfaction, mental health functioning, physical functioning, and disability status. After controlling for demographic and clinical variables, results revealed evidence of disparities, whereby African Americans (AAs), particularly those with low income, had worse GAF, worse global psychosocial functioning, and were more likely to be disabled compared to non-Latino Whites. Latinos, particularly those with low income, had worse global psychosocial functioning than non-Latino Whites. Results suggest AAs and Latinos are at increased risk for functional impairments not better accounted for by other demographic or clinical variables. PMID:24685821

  15. Disparities in psychosocial functioning in a diverse sample of adults with anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Moitra, Ethan; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Stout, Robert L; Angert, Erica; Weisberg, Risa B; Keller, Martin B

    2014-04-01

    Anxiety disorders are associated with psychosocial functional impairments, but no study has compared how these impairments might vary by ethno-racial status. We examined whether minority status was uniquely associated with functional impairments in 431 adults with anxiety disorders. Functioning was measured in the rater-assessed domains of: Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF); global psychosocial functioning; work, relationship, and recreational functioning; and, self-reported: life satisfaction, mental health functioning, physical functioning, and disability status. After controlling for demographic and clinical variables, results revealed evidence of disparities, whereby African Americans (AAs), particularly those with low income, had worse GAF, worse global psychosocial functioning, and were more likely to be disabled compared to non-Latino Whites. Latinos, particularly those with low income, had worse global psychosocial functioning than non-Latino Whites. Results suggest AAs and Latinos are at increased risk for functional impairments not better accounted for by other demographic or clinical variables. PMID:24685821

  16. Adult Psychosocial Outcomes of Children with Specific Language Impairment, Pragmatic Language Impairment and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Watt, Helen J.; Line, E. A.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The few studies that have tracked children with developmental language disorder to adulthood have found that these individuals experience considerable difficulties with psychosocial adjustment (for example, academic, vocational and social aptitude). Evidence that some children also develop autistic symptomatology over time has raised…

  17. Psychosocial Adjustment to Sex Reassignment Surgery: A Qualitative Examination and Personal Experiences of Six Transsexual Persons in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Jokić-Begić, Nataša; Jurin, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    In Croatia, transgender individuals face numerous social and medical obstacles throughout the process of transition. The aim of this study was to depict the factors contributing to the psychosocial adjustment of six transsexual individuals living in Croatia following sex reassignment surgery (SRS). A combination of quantitative and qualitative self-report methods was used. Due to the specificity of the sample, the data were collected online. Standardized questionnaires were used to assess mental health and quality of life alongside a series of open-ended questions divided into 4 themes: the decision-making process regarding SRS; social and medical support during the SRS process; experience of discrimination and stigmatizing behaviors; psychosocial adjustment after SRS. Despite the unfavorable circumstances in Croatian society, participants demonstrated stable mental, social, and professional functioning, as well as a relative resilience to minority stress. Results also reveal the role of pretransition factors such as high socioeconomic status, good premorbid functioning, and high motivation for SRS in successful psychosocial adjustment. During and after transition, participants reported experiencing good social support and satisfaction with the surgical treatment and outcomes. Any difficulties reported by participants are related to either sexual relationships or internalized transphobia. The results also demonstrate the potentially protective role that a lengthier process of transition plays in countries such as Croatia. PMID:24790589

  18. PERSONAL COMPETENCIES, SOCIAL RESOURCES, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF PRIMIPAROUS WOMEN OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE AND THEIR PARTNERS.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Maryse; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) characterize the personal competencies, the social resources, and the psychosocial adjustment (psychological distress, quality of life, and parenting self-perceptions) during the early postpartum period of primiparous women of advanced age (≥35 years at the time of delivery) and their partners (older parents) compared with that of younger first-time mothers (20-34 years) and their partners (younger parents); and (b) explore the role of personal competencies and social resources in couples' psychosocial adjustment, depending on the age group. Older (n = 74) and younger parents (n = 71) completed self-report measures to assess personal competencies and social resources (third trimester of pregnancy), psychological distress, and quality of life (third trimester of pregnancy and 1-month' postpartum) and parenting self-perceptions (1-month' postpartum). Older parents were more similar than different from younger parents regarding personal competencies, social resources, and psychosocial adjustment during the first postnatal month. Regardless of the age group, higher personal competencies and social resources predicted lower anxiety and more positive parenting self-perceptions in women. Beyond higher personal competencies, older maternal age also predicted higher quality of life. In men, higher personal competencies were protective against anxiety, but only at older maternal age. PMID:26331727

  19. Psychosocial adjustment to sex reassignment surgery: a qualitative examination and personal experiences of six transsexual persons in croatia.

    PubMed

    Jokić-Begić, Nataša; Lauri Korajlija, Anita; Jurin, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    In Croatia, transgender individuals face numerous social and medical obstacles throughout the process of transition. The aim of this study was to depict the factors contributing to the psychosocial adjustment of six transsexual individuals living in Croatia following sex reassignment surgery (SRS). A combination of quantitative and qualitative self-report methods was used. Due to the specificity of the sample, the data were collected online. Standardized questionnaires were used to assess mental health and quality of life alongside a series of open-ended questions divided into 4 themes: the decision-making process regarding SRS; social and medical support during the SRS process; experience of discrimination and stigmatizing behaviors; psychosocial adjustment after SRS. Despite the unfavorable circumstances in Croatian society, participants demonstrated stable mental, social, and professional functioning, as well as a relative resilience to minority stress. Results also reveal the role of pretransition factors such as high socioeconomic status, good premorbid functioning, and high motivation for SRS in successful psychosocial adjustment. During and after transition, participants reported experiencing good social support and satisfaction with the surgical treatment and outcomes. Any difficulties reported by participants are related to either sexual relationships or internalized transphobia. The results also demonstrate the potentially protective role that a lengthier process of transition plays in countries such as Croatia. PMID:24790589

  20. Adult Attachment and Dyadic Adjustment: The Mediating Role of Shame.

    PubMed

    Martins, Teresa C; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Moreira, Helena

    2016-07-01

    Although it is widely recognized that adult attachment is associated with romantic relationship quality, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the mediating role of external and internal shame on the association between attachment and dyadic adjustment. A battery of self-report measures was completed by 228 Portuguese participants and a serial multiple mediation model was tested. Data showed that, in the population under study, attachment dimensions were associated with worse dyadic adjustment through high external and internal shame. Internal shame alone also mediated the association between attachment avoidance and dyadic adjustment. This study identifies a new putative mechanism linking adult attachment and intimate relationship functioning that may be targeted in couples therapy to promote a better dyadic adjustment and relationship functioning. PMID:26759960

  1. A systematic review of the psychological correlates of adjustment outcomes in adults with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Cheryl; Sin, Jacqueline; Fear, Nicola T; Chalder, Trudie

    2016-07-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic long term condition which poses significant psychosocial adjustment challenges. The purpose of this review was to systematically identify psychological factors related to adjustment in adults with IBD with the aim of suggesting evidence based targets that may be modifiable though psychological intervention. Twenty five studies met inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review and a narrative synthesis was conducted. A wide range of psychological variables were addressed covering six broad categories; personality traits, interpersonal traits, stress and coping, emotions and emotional control, IBD related cognitions and non IBD related cognitions. The most consistent relationship was found between certain emotion focused coping strategies and worse adjustment outcomes in IBD. Some evidence also hi-lighted a relationship between personality traits (such as neuroticism,) perceived stress, emotions and emotional control (such as alexithymia) and IBD related cognitions (such as illness perceptions) and negative adjustment outcomes. The results of this review suggest that interventions to improve adjustment in IBD may benefit from a focus on coping strategies, perceived stress and IBD related cognitions. PMID:27318795

  2. Psychosocial Factors of Stages of Change among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Sharon; Fernhall, Bo; Hui, Stanley Sai Chuen; Halle, James

    2011-01-01

    Relationships among full constructs of the transtheoretical model using a sample of 121 adults with mild intellectual disabilities in Taiwan were examined. Self-reports of stages of change and transtheoretical model psychosocial measures were gathered through interviews. Although MANCOVA revealed that behavioral processes of change, cognitive…

  3. Using Classroom Psychosocial Environment in the Evaluation of Adult Computer Application Courses in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Khoo Hock; Fraser, Barry J.

    2008-01-01

    Reviews of past research on psychosocial learning environments show that relatively few studies have involved the use of environment dimensions either as criterion variables in the evaluation computer education programs or with adult learners (in contrast to elementary and secondary school students). This study is distinctive in that it used a…

  4. Further Validation of the Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites Scale among Employed Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteat, V. Paul; Spanierman, Lisa B.

    2008-01-01

    To examine the validity and test the generalizability of the Psychosocial Costs of Racism to Whites Scale (PCRW) beyond the original college student sample, a geographically dispersed sample of employed White adults (N = 284) in eight states completed the measure to assess for White empathic reactions toward racism, White guilt, and White fear of…

  5. Psychosocial Treatments for Major Depression and Dysthymia in Older Adults: A Review of the Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalaquett, Carlos P.; Stens, Andrea N.

    2006-01-01

    Older adults represent a growing segment of the population with the highest suicide rate and an increasing need of counseling services for major depression and dysthymia. The present study examined the literature with the purpose of identifying research addressing psychosocial treatments of depression in later life. A summary of treatments…

  6. Do television and electronic games predict children's psychosocial adjustment? Longitudinal research using the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Parkes, Alison; Sweeting, Helen; Wight, Daniel; Henderson, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Background Screen entertainment for young children has been associated with several aspects of psychosocial adjustment. Most research is from North America and focuses on television. Few longitudinal studies have compared the effects of TV and electronic games, or have investigated gender differences. Purpose To explore how time watching TV and playing electronic games at age 5 years each predicts change in psychosocial adjustment in a representative sample of 7 year-olds from the UK. Methods Typical daily hours viewing television and playing electronic games at age 5 years were reported by mothers of 11 014 children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Conduct problems, emotional symptoms, peer relationship problems, hyperactivity/inattention and prosocial behaviour were reported by mothers using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Change in adjustment from age 5 years to 7 years was regressed on screen exposures; adjusting for family characteristics and functioning, and child characteristics. Results Watching TV for 3 h or more at 5 years predicted a 0.13 point increase (95% CI 0.03 to 0.24) in conduct problems by 7 years, compared with watching for under an hour, but playing electronic games was not associated with conduct problems. No associations were found between either type of screen time and emotional symptoms, hyperactivity/inattention, peer relationship problems or prosocial behaviour. There was no evidence of gender differences in the effect of screen time. Conclusions TV but not electronic games predicted a small increase in conduct problems. Screen time did not predict other aspects of psychosocial adjustment. Further work is required to establish causal mechanisms. PMID:23529828

  7. The Impact of Psycho-Educational Trainingon the Psychosocial Adjustment of Caregivers ofOsteogenesis Imperfecta Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Satı; Arabacı, Leyla Baysan; Vara, Şenay; Özen, Samim; Gökşen, Damla; Darcan, Şükran

    2014-01-01

    Ob­jec­ti­ve: To investigate the impact of a psycho-educational program developed for the caregivers of patients diagnosed with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Methods: The participants consisted of 16 caregivers. The study was designed as a quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test type study consisting of 10 semi-structured three-hour training sessions. The data were collected using the “Introductory Information Form” and appropriate scales (Burden Interview, Coping Strategies Scale, Problem-Solving Inventory and Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale). The results were evaluated by descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, one-way variance analysis and Bonferroni analysis. Results: Psychosocial adjustment levels of the caregivers of OI patients before their participation in the educational program were found to be associated with styles of coping with stress, problem-solving skills and care burden. After the psycho-educational training, the majority of the participants reported favorable changes in their lives. Following the offered psycho-education resulted in positive changes in the mean scores of the caregivers (p<0.05). Conclusion: Before the education program, the participants were not able to deal efficiently with many aspects of their caregiver responsibilities and suffered from an emotional burden due to lack of knowledge. The program appears to have provided them both with support to achieve significant psychosocial transformation and with an opportunity to reconsider their lives in multiple dimensions. PMID:24932601

  8. Parental Attachment, Interparental Conflict, and Young Adults' Emotional Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Jennifer; Fuertes, Jairo

    2010-01-01

    This study extends Engels et al.'s model of emotional adjustment to young adults and includes the constructs of interparental conflict and conflict resolution. Results indicate that parental attachment is better conceived as a two-factor construct of mother and father attachment and that although attachment to both mothers and fathers directly…

  9. Adult Children of Alcoholics: Adjustment to a College Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Heather A.; Radford, Amy

    1999-01-01

    Provides a literature review of family-of-origin issues related to adult children of alcoholics (ACOA) and their adjustment to college. Implications for college personnel are presented, as is a case study to illustrate the many issues an ACOA college student may face in his or her transition. (Author/GCP)

  10. Adult Adjustment of Recent Graduates of Iowa Mental Disabilities Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Alan R.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The study investigated the adult adjustment of 318 former special education students labelled mentally retarded, 1 year after graduation. Current living situation, marital status, and leisure activities were examined as were variables related to employment (job type and status, hours worked per week, wages earned), and high school predictor…

  11. Type 1 diabetes mellitus: psychosocial factors and adjustment of pediatric patient and his/her family. Review.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Marín, Marián; Gómez-Rico, Irene; Montoya-Castilla, Inmaculada

    2015-04-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is the most common chronic endocrine disease in children, with a very low incidence in the first months of life and reaching its peak during puberty (10-15 years old is the age group with the highest incidence at the time of onset). Based on the review of the scientific literature, our objective is to study the main psychosocial factors associated with the adjustment of these pediatric patients and their families. Research underscore the following risk factors: situational (stressful life events), personal (additional physical diseases, low self-esteem, emotional disturbances), and interpersonal (family breakdown and conflicts), and also protection factors (coping strategies, social support, fluent communication). There is a pressing need to deal with the disturbances that affect these diabetic patients and their families, by implementing effective health care psychological interventions that take into account psychosocial factors associated with the course of type 1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25727829

  12. Role of family resources and paternal history of substance use problems in psychosocial adjustment among school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the role of family resources (parenting style and family cohesion) and paternal history of substance abuse on the psychosocial adjustment of their school-aged children. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 (72 of fathers with history of substance use disorder, 76 children of fathers with no substance use problems) and their mothers. Results draw attention to the differences between the subjective experiences of the child and those of the mother, and by indicating that the effect of the interaction between the father's and the mother's control parenting style on the child's psychosocial outcome is greater than the sum total of influences of each of them separately. PMID:19157043

  13. Parental loss, trusting relationship with current caregivers, and psychosocial adjustment among children affected by AIDS in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junfeng; Li, Xiaoming; Barnett, Douglas; Lin, Xiuyun; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Guoxiang; Naar-King, Sylvie; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between parental loss, trusting relationship with current caregivers, and psychosocial adjustment among children affected by AIDS in China. In this study, cross-sectional data were collected from 755 AIDS orphans (296 double orphans and 459 single orphans), 466 vulnerable children living with HIV-infected parents, and 404 comparison children in China. The trusting relationship with current caregivers was measured with a 15-item scale (Cronbach's α = 0.84) modified from the Trusting Relationship Questionnaire developed by Mustillo et al. in 2005 (Quality of relationships between youth and community service providers: Reliability and validity of the trusting relationship questionnaire. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 14, 577-590). The psychosocial measures include rule compliance/acting out, anxiety/withdrawal, peer social skills, school interest, depressive symptoms, loneliness, self-esteem, future expectation, hopefulness about future, and perceived control over the future. Group mean comparisons using analysis of variance suggested a significant association (p < 0.0001) between the trusting relationship with current caregivers and all the psychosocial measures, except anxiety and depression. These associations remained significant in General Linear Model analysis, controlling for children's gender, age, family socioeconomic status, orphan status (orphans, vulnerable children, and comparison children), and appropriate interaction terms among factor variables. The findings in the current study support the global literature on the importance of attachment relationship with caregivers in promoting children's psychosocial development. Future prevention intervention efforts to improve AIDS orphans' psychosocial well-being will need to take into consideration the quality of the child's attachment relationships with current caregivers and help their current caregivers to improve the quality of care for

  14. Parental Loss, Trusting Relationship with Current Caregivers and Psychosocial Adjustment among Children Affected by AIDS in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Junfeng; Li, Xiaoming; Barnett, Douglas; Lin, Xiuyun; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Guoxiang; Naar-King, Sylvie; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-01-01

    Objective to examine the relationship between parental loss, trusting relationship with current caregivers, and psychosocial adjustment among children affected by AIDS in China. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected from 755 AIDS orphans (296 double orphans and 459 single orphans), 466 vulnerable children living with HIV-infected parents, and 404 comparison children in China. The trusting relationship with current caregivers was measured with a 15-item scale (Cronbach alpha=.84) modified from the Trusting Relationship Questionnaire (TRQ) developed by Mustillo and colleagues (2005). The psychosocial measures include rule compliance/acting out, anxiety/withdrawal, peer social skills, school interest, depressive symptoms, loneliness, self-esteem, future expectation, hopefulness about future, and perceived control over the future. Results Group mean comparisons using ANOVA suggested a significant association (p<.0001) between the trusting relationship with current caregivers and all the psychosocial measures except anxiety and depression. These associations remained significant in General Linear Model analysis, controlling for children's gender, age, family SES, orphan status (orphans, vulnerable children, and comparison children), and appropriate interaction terms among factor variables. Discussion The findings in the current study support the global literature on the importance of attachment relationship with caregivers in promoting children's psychosocial development. Future prevention intervention efforts to improve AIDS orphans' psychosocial well-being will need to take into consideration the quality of the child's attachment relationships with current caregivers and help their current caregivers to improve the quality of care for these children. Future study is needed to explore the possible reasons for the lack of association between a trusting relationship and some internalizing symptoms such as anxiety and depression among children affected by HIV

  15. Development of a New Psychosocial Treatment for Adult ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solanto, Mary V.; Marks, David J.; Mitchell, Katherine J.; Wasserstein, Jeanette; Kofman, Michele D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a new manualized group Meta-Cognitive Therapy (MCT) for adults with ADHD that extends the principles and practices of cognitive-behavioral therapy to the development of executive self-management skills. Method: Thirty adults diagnosed with ADHD completed an 8- or 12-week…

  16. Predictors of positive psychosocial functioning of older adults in residential care facilities.

    PubMed

    Schanowitz, Jeff Y; Nicassio, Perry M

    2006-04-01

    This research examined the contributions of active and passive coping for health problems, and meaning-based coping, to positive psychosocial functioning in a sample of 100 individuals in residential care with a mean age of 83.11 years old. Study participants resided in skilled care, intermediate care, or assisted living facilities. Based on interview data collected on site in participants' residential settings, hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that active and passive coping and meaning-based coping had separate influences on measures of positive psychosocial functioning. Active coping was correlated with higher positive affect, whereas passive coping was associated with higher negative affect and self-acceptance. Positive reappraisal, a meaning-based coping strategy, was uniquely associated with higher positive affect, positive social relations, and self-acceptance. Positive religious coping was not independently associated with positive psychosocial functioning indices, whereas negative religious coping was related to higher negative affect. Health functioning did not contribute to positive psychosocial functioning in this sample. The results confirm the separate importance of health-related and meaning-based coping strategies in explaining positive psychosocial functioning in older adults living in residential care settings. PMID:16453068

  17. A systematic review of the psychosocial correlates of intuitive eating among adult women.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Lauren J; Ricciardelli, Lina A

    2016-01-01

    Intuitive eating has been proposed as an eating style that fosters a positive attitude towards food, the body, and physical activity. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to examine intuitive eating in relation to disordered eating, body image, emotional functioning, and other psychosocial correlates in adult women. Articles were identified through Academic Search Complete, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Health Source (Nursing and Academic Edition), Medline Complete, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, PubMed and Scopus. Eligible studies were those that examined women aged 18 years and older, measured intuitive eating, and assessed a psychosocial correlate of intuitive eating. Twenty-four cross-sectional studies, published between 2006 and September 2015, met eligibility criteria. Intuitive eating was associated with less disordered eating, a more positive body image, greater emotional functioning, and a number of other psychosocial correlates that have been examined less extensively. However, given that all studies used cross-sectional designs, no conclusions regarding the direction of the relationship between intuitive eating and psychosocial correlates can be drawn. Participants in the majority of studies were university students in the United States so findings cannot be generalised to the wider population of female adults. Prospective studies are now needed to verify these cross-sectional findings, and show if intuitive eating may reduce disordered eating and body image concerns, and promote women's psychological health and well-being. PMID:26474781

  18. Individual Differences in Adolescents' Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Functioning Moderate Associations between Family Environment and Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lisa M.; Fagundes, Christopher P.; Cribbet, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    The present study tested whether individual differences in autonomic nervous system functioning interact with environmental risk factors to predict adolescents' psychosocial functioning. The authors assessed skin conductance and respiratory sinus arrhythmia at rest and during laboratory stressors in 110 14-year-olds. Subsequently, adolescents and…

  19. Mother-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Autonomy as Predictors of Psychosocial Adjustment among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Mia Smith; Kotchick, Beth A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the role of mother-adolescent relationship quality and autonomy in the psychosocial outcomes in a sample of African American adolescents drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The results indicated that positive mother-adolescent relationship quality and greater autonomy were associated with higher…

  20. Long-term psychosocial and behavioral adjustment in individuals receiving genetic test results in Lynch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Esplen, M J; Wong, J; Aronson, M; Butler, K; Rothenmund, H; Semotiuk, K; Madlensky, L; Way, C; Dicks, E; Green, J; Gallinger, S

    2015-06-01

    A cross-sectional study of 155 participants who underwent genetic testing for Lynch syndrome (LS) examined long-term psychosocial and behavioral outcomes. Participants completed standardized measures of perceived risk, psychosocial functioning, knowledge, and a questionnaire of screening activities. Participants were on average 47.3 years and had undergone testing a mean of 5.5 years prior. Eighty four (54%) tested positive for a LS mutation and 71 (46%) negative. For unaffected carriers, perceived lifetime risk of colorectal cancer was 68%, and surprisingly, 40% among those testing negative. Most individuals demonstrated normative levels of psychosocial functioning. However, 25% of those testing negative had moderate depressive symptoms, as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale, and 31% elevated state anxiety on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Being female and a stronger escape - avoidant coping style were predictive of depressive symptoms. For state anxiety, similar patterns were observed. Quality of life and social support were significantly associated with lower anxiety. Carriers maintained higher knowledge compared to those testing negative, and were more engaged in screening. In summary, most individuals adapt to genetic test results over the long term and continue to engage in screening. A subgroup, including some non-carriers, may require added psychosocial support. PMID:25297893

  1. Long-term Psychosocial and Behavioral Adjustment in Individuals Receiving Genetic Test Results in Lynch Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Esplen, MJ; Wong, J; Aronson, M; Butler, K; Rothenmund, H; Semotiuk, K; Madlensky, L; Way, C; Dicks, E; Green, J; Gallinger, S

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 155 participants who underwent genetic testing for Lynch Syndrome (LS) examined long-term psychosocial and behavioral outcomes. Participants completed standardized measures of perceived risk, psychosocial functioning, knowledge, and a questionnaire of screening activities. Participants were on average 47.3 years and had undergone testing a mean of 5.5 years prior. Eighty four (54%) tested positive for a LS mutation and 71 (46%) negative. For unaffected carriers, perceived lifetime risk of colorectal cancer was 68%, and surprisingly, 40% among those testing negative. Most individuals demonstrated normative levels of psychosocial functioning. However, 25% of those testing negative had moderate depressive symptoms, as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale, and 31% elevated state anxiety on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Being female and a stronger escape – avoidant coping style were predictive of depressive symptoms. For state anxiety, similar patterns were observed. Quality of life and social support were significantly associated with lower anxiety. Carriers maintained higher knowledge compared to those testing negative, and were more engaged in screening. In summary, most individuals adapt to genetic test results over the long term and continue to engage in screening. A subgroup, including some non-carriers, may require added psychosocial support. PMID:25297893

  2. Physical and psychosocial challenges in adult hemophilia patients with inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    duTreil, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Numerous challenges confront adult hemophilia patients with inhibitors, including difficulty in controlling bleeding episodes, deterioration of joints, arthritic pain, physical disability, emotional turmoil, and social issues. High-intensity treatment regimens often used in the treatment of patients with inhibitors also impose significant scheduling, economic, and emotional demands on patients and their families or primary caregivers. A comprehensive multidisciplinary assessment of the physical, emotional, and social status of adult hemophilia patients with inhibitors is essential for the development of treatment strategies that can be individualized to address the complex needs of these patients. PMID:25093002

  3. Psychosocial Predictors of Emerging Adults' Risk and Reckless Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Graham; Wildman, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Studied risk and reckless behavior in 375 emerging adults using self-report measures and a cross-sectional design. Risk behaviors were found to be reliably predicted by sensation seeking, but not by antisocial peer pressure, while the reverse pattern was more true in relation to "reckless" behaviors. (SLD)

  4. Patient-Oncologist Alliance, Psychosocial Well-Being, and Treatment Adherence Among Young Adults With Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Trevino, Kelly M.; Fasciano, Karen; Prigerson, Holly G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Patients who develop a strong alliance with their health care providers have been shown to have higher levels of psychosocial well-being and rates of treatment adherence. Young adults with cancer have lower levels of psychosocial well-being and treatment adherence relative to patients with cancer in other age groups. This study sought to evaluate the relationships between the patient-oncologist alliance, psychosocial well-being, and treatment adherence in young adults with advanced cancer. Patients and Methods Ninety-five young adults (age 20 to 40 years) with advanced cancer were administered measures of alliance, psychosocial well-being, willingness to adhere to treatment, and treatment adherence. Relationships between alliance and psychosocial well-being were examined bivariately. Multiple linear regression models examined the relationship between alliance and adherence, controlling for confounding influences (eg, psychosocial well-being). Results Alliance was significantly (P ≤ .01) and positively associated with greater perceived social support and less severe illness-related grief. After controlling for significant confounding influences (ie, metastases, appraised support, and grief), alliance remained significantly (P ≤ .01) associated with greater willingness to adhere to treatment and greater adherence to oral medication. Conclusion By developing a strong alliance, oncologists may enhance psychosocial well-being and increase treatment adherence in young adult patients with advanced cancer. PMID:23530105

  5. Risk and protection factors in the peer context: how do other children contribute to the psychosocial adjustment of the adolescent?

    PubMed

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Trempe, Sophie-Caroline; Paiva, Alexandra Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    As children become adolescents, peers assume greater importance in their lives. Peer experiences can either help them thrive or negatively affect their psychosocial adjustment. In this review article definitions for the types of peer experiences are provided followed by an overview of common psychosocial issues encountered by adolescents. Past research that has pointed to risk and protection factors that emerge from peer experiences during adolescence and the role of peer influences in the context of current issues relevant to adolescent education are discussed. Research suggests that friendships with deviant peers, involvement in bullying and the experience of rejection from the overall peer group are related to adjustment problems, whereas friendships with prosocial and academically oriented peers and social acceptance in the peer group are related to healthy development. Friendship quality, popularity among peers, and involvement in friendship cliques cannot be clearly categorized as either positive or negative influences, because they interact with other factors in shaping the development of adolescents. The promotion of social skills and positive youth leadership as an integral part of the student's learning process in school is recommended. PMID:24714885

  6. Postservice Psychosocial Adjustment of Former Spinal Cord Injured Rehabilitation Clients. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Daniel W.

    A study examined the long-term adjustment of spinal cord-injured vocational rehabilitation clients by isolating major dimensions of postservice adjustment, correlating preservice status with adjustment followup, and by measuring client pre- to postservice psychological change. Three self-report instruments (a needs satisfaction inventory, a goal…

  7. Psychosocial Predictors of Adjustment among First Year College of Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salami, Samuel O.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of psychological and social factors to the prediction of adjustment to college. A total of 250 first year students from colleges of education in Kwara State, Nigeria, completed measures of self-esteem, emotional intelligence, stress, social support and adjustment. Regression analyses…

  8. Longitudinal Associations between Keeping a Secret and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frijns, Tom; Finkenauer, Catrin

    2009-01-01

    Increasing bodies of evidence suggest that keeping secrets may be detrimental to well-being and adjustment, whereas confiding secrets may alleviate the detriments of secrecy and benefit well-being and adjustment. However, few studies have addressed the consequences of keeping and confiding secrets simultaneously, and even fewer have done so…

  9. Interpersonal circumplex descriptions of psychosocial risk factors for physical illness: application to hostility, neuroticism, and marital adjustment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy W; Traupman, Emily K; Uchino, Bert N; Berg, Cynthia A

    2010-06-01

    Personality risk factors for physical illness are typically studied individually and apart from risk factors reflecting the social environment, potentially fostering a piecemeal understanding of psychosocial influences on health. Because it can be used to describe both personality and social relationship processes, the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) provides an integrative approach to psychosocial risk. In 301 married couples we examined IPC correlates of 3 risk factor domains: anger, hostility, and aggressiveness; neuroticism; and marital adjustment. Risk factors displayed IPC locations ranging from hostile dominance (e.g., verbal aggressiveness, marital conflict) to hostility (e.g., anger) to hostile submissiveness (e.g., anxiety, depression); protective factors (marital satisfaction and support) reflected warmth or friendliness in the IPC. Similar descriptions were found using self-reports and spouse ratings of IPC dimensions, indicating that interpersonal styles associated with risk factors do not simply reflect common method variance. Findings identify interpersonal processes reflecting low affiliation or high hostility as a common component of risk and indicate distinctions among risk factors along the dominance dimension. PMID:20573134

  10. The psychosocial adjustment of African American youth from single mother homes: the relative contribution of parents and peers.

    PubMed

    Chester, Charlene; Jones, Deborah J; Zalot, Alecia; Sterrett, Emma

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relative roles of parents and peers in the psychosocial adjustment of African American youth (7-15 years old) from single mother homes (N = 242). Main effects of both positive parenting and peer relationship quality were found for youth depressive symptoms. In addition, a main effect of peer relationship quality and an interaction of Positive Parenting x Peer Relationship Quality emerged for youth externalizing symptoms. When mothers engaged in higher levels of positive parenting behavior, peer relationship quality was not associated with youth externalizing symptomatology. When mothers engaged in lower levels of positive parenting behavior, however, higher peer relationship quality was associated with greater youth externalizing symptomatology. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:17658980

  11. Daily School Peer Victimization Experiences Among Mexican-American Adolescents: Associations with Psychosocial, Physical and School Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Nancy A.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    School bullying incidents, particularly experiences with victimization, are a significant social and health concern among adolescents. The current study extended past research by examining the daily peer victimization experiences of Mexican-American adolescents and examining how chronic (mean-level) and episodic (daily-level) victimization incidents at school are associated with psychosocial, physical and school adjustment. Across a two-week span, 428 ninth and tenth grade Mexican-American students (51 % female) completed brief checklists every night before going to bed. Hierarchical linear model analyses revealed that, at the individual level, Mexican-American adolescents’ who reported more chronic peer victimization incidents across the two-weeks also reported heightened distress and academic problems. After accounting for adolescent’s mean levels of peer victimization, daily victimization incidents were associated with more school adjustment problems (i.e., academic problems, perceived role fulfillment as a good student). Additionally, support was found for the mediation model in which distress accounts for the mean-level association between peer victimization and academic problems. The results from the current study revealed that everyday peer victimization experiences among Mexican-American high school students have negative implications for adolescents’ adjustment, across multiple domains. PMID:23238764

  12. Father Involvement, Nurturant Fathering, and Young Adult Psychosocial Functioning: Differences among Adoptive, Adoptive Stepfather, and Nonadoptive Stepfamilies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Finley, Gordon E.

    2006-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate differences in nurturant fathering, father involvement, and young adult psychosocial functioning among small samples of three nontraditional family forms. A total of 168 young-adult university students from three family forms (27 adoptive, 22 adoptive stepfather, 119 nonadoptive stepfather) completed…

  13. Psychosocial Experiences Associated with Confirmed and Self-Identified Dyslexia: A Participant-Driven Concept Map of Adult Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalavany, Blace Arthur; Carawan, Lena Williams; Rennick, Robyn A.

    2011-01-01

    Concept mapping (a mixed qualitative-quantitative methodology) was used to describe and understand the psychosocial experiences of adults with confirmed and self-identified dyslexia. Using innovative processes of art and photography, Phase 1 of the study included 15 adults who participated in focus groups and in-depth interviews and were asked to…

  14. Psychosocial Effects of Health Disparities of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Zelle, Andraya; Arms, Tamatha

    2015-07-01

    The 1.5 million older adults who self-identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) are expected to double in number by 2030. Research suggests that health disparities are closely linked with societal stigma, discrimination, and denial of civil and human rights. More LGBT older adults struggle with depression, substance abuse, social isolation, and acceptance compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Despite individual preferences, most health care providers recognize the right of any individual to have access to basic medical services. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services requires that all hospitals receiving funds from Medicare and Medicaid respect visitation and medical decision-making rights to all individuals identifying as LGBT. The Joint Commission also requires a non-discrimination statement for accreditation. The current literature review examines LGBT health disparities and the consequential psychosocial impact on LGBT older adults as well as brings awareness to the needs of this underserved and underrepresented population. PMID:26151148

  15. The Psychosocial Problems of Cancer Patients: A Prospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Wayne; And Others

    The course of psychosocial adjustment to cancer was examined in 105 adults with cancer of the lung, breast and skin. Half of the patients received a program of systematic psychosocial rehabilitation plus evaluation, and the other half received only an evaluation, consisting of a series of psychometric instruments and a problem-oriented structured…

  16. Environmental enrichment requires adult neurogenesis to facilitate the recovery from psychosocial stress

    PubMed Central

    Schloesser, R J; Lehmann, M; Martinowich, K; Manji, H K; Herkenham, M

    2010-01-01

    The subgranular zone of the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus contains a pool of neural stem cells that continuously divide and differentiate into functional granule cells. It has been shown that production of new hippocampal neurons is necessary for amelioration of stress-induced behavioral changes by antidepressants in animal models of depression. The survival of newly born hippocampal neurons is decreased by chronic psychosocial stress and increased by exposure to enriched environments. These observations suggest the existence of a link between hippocampal neurogenesis, stress-induced behavioral changes, and the beneficial effects of enriched environment. To show causality, we subjected transgenic mice with conditionally suppressed neurogenesis to psychosocial stress followed by environmental enrichment. First, we showed that repeated social defeat coupled with chronic exposure to an aggressor produces robust and quantifiable indices of submissive and depressive-like behaviors; second, subsequent exposure to an enriched environment led to extinction of the submissive phenotype, while animals exposed to an impoverished environment retained the submissive phenotype; and third, enrichment was not effective in reversing the submissive and depressive-like behaviors in transgenic mice lacking neurogenesis. Our data show two main findings. First, living in an enriched environment is highly effective in extinguishing submissive behavioral traits developed during chronic social stress, and second, these effects are critically dependent on adult neurogenesis, indicating that beneficial behavioral adaptations are dependent on intact adult neurogenesis. PMID:20308988

  17. Past horrors, present struggles: the role of stigma in the association between war experiences and psychosocial adjustment among former child soldiers in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Gilman, Stephen E; Williams, David R; Ellis, B Heidi

    2010-01-01

    Upon returning to their communities, children formerly associated with armed forces and armed groups--commonly referred to as child soldiers--often confront significant community stigma. Much research on the reintegration and rehabilitation of child soldiers has focused on exposure to past war-related violence and mental health outcomes, yet no empirical work has yet examined the role that post-conflict stigma plays in shaping long-term psychosocial adjustment. Two waves of data are used in this paper from the first prospective study of male and female former child soldiers in Sierra Leone. We examined the role of stigma (manifest in discrimination as well as lower levels of community and family acceptance) in the relationship between war-related experiences and psychosocial adjustment (depression, anxiety, hostility and adaptive behaviors). Former child soldiers differ from one another with regard to their post-war experiences, and these differences profoundly shape their psychosocial adjustment over time. Consistent with social stress theory, we observed that post-conflict factors such as stigma can play an important role in shaping psychosocial adjustment in former child soldiers. We found that discrimination was inversely associated with family and community acceptance. Additionally, higher levels of family acceptance were associated with decreased hostility, while improvements in community acceptance were associated with adaptive attitudes and behaviors. We found that post-conflict experiences of discrimination largely explained the relationship between past involvement in wounding/killing others and subsequent increases in hostility. Stigma similarly mediated the relationship between surviving rape and depression. However, surviving rape continued to demonstrate independent effects on increases in anxiety, hostility and adaptive/prosocial behaviors after adjusting for other variables. These findings point to the complexity of psychosocial adjustment and

  18. Past horrors, present struggles: The role of stigma in the association between war experiences and psychosocial adjustment among former child soldiers in Sierra Leone☆

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Gilman, Stephen E.; Williams, David R.; Ellis, B. Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Upon returning to their communities, children formerly associated with armed forces and armed groups–commonly referred to as child soldiers–often confront significant community stigma. Much research on the reintegration and rehabilitation of child soldiers has focused on exposure to past war-related violence and mental health outcomes, yet no empirical work has yet examined the role that post-conflict stigma plays in shaping long-term psychosocial adjustment. Two waves of data are used in this paper from the first prospective study of male and female former child soldiers in Sierra Leone. We examined the role of stigma (manifest in discrimination as well as lower levels of community and family acceptance) in the relationship between war-related experiences and psychosocial adjustment (depression, anxiety, hostility and adaptive behaviors). Former child soldiers differ from one another with regard to their post-war experiences, and these differences profoundly shape their psychosocial adjustment over time. Consistent with social stress theory, we observed that post-conflict factors such as stigma can play an important role in shaping psychosocial adjustment in former child soldiers. We found that discrimination was inversely associated with family and community acceptance. Additionally, higher levels of family acceptance were associated with decreased hostility, while improvements in community acceptance were associated with adaptive attitudes and behaviors. We found that post-conflict experiences of discrimination largely explained the relationship between past involvement in wounding/killing others and subsequent increases in hostility. Stigma similarly mediated the relationship between surviving rape and depression. However, surviving rape continued to demonstrate independent effects on increases in anxiety, hostility and adaptive/prosocial behaviors after adjusting for other variables. These findings point to the complexity of psychosocial adjustment and

  19. Research Review: Psychosocial Adjustment and Mental Health in Former Child Soldiers--A Systematic Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Borisova, Ivelina; Williams, Timothy P.; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah E.; Rubin-Smith, Julia E.; Annan, Jeannie; Kohrt, Brandon A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims and scope: This article reviews the available quantitative research on psychosocial adjustment and mental health among children (age less than 18 years) associated with armed forces and armed groups (CAAFAG)--commonly referred to as child soldiers. Methods: PRISMA standards for systematic reviews were used to search PubMed, PsycInfo, JSTOR,…

  20. Applying the Transactional Stress and Coping Model to Sickle Cell Disorder and Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus: Identifying Psychosocial Variables Related to Adjustment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, Matthew C.; Lochman, John E.

    2005-01-01

    This review paper examines the literature on psychosocial factors associated with adjustment to sickle cell disease and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in children through the framework of the transactional stress and coping (TSC) model. The transactional stress and coping model views adaptation to a childhood chronic illness as mediated by…

  1. A matter of timing: developmental theories of romantic involvement and psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Furman, Wyndol; Collibee, Charlene

    2014-11-01

    The present study compared two theories of the association between romantic involvement and adjustment: a social timetable theory and a developmental task theory. We examined seven waves of longitudinal data on a community based sample of 200 participants (Wave 1 mean age = 15 years, 10 months). In each wave, multiple measures of substance use, externalizing symptoms, and internalizing symptoms were gathered, typically from multiple reporters. Multilevel modeling revealed that greater levels of romantic involvement in adolescence were associated with higher levels of substance use and externalizing symptoms but became associated with lower levels in adulthood. Having a romantic partner was associated with greater levels of substance use, externalizing symptoms, and internalizing symptoms in adolescence but was associated with lower levels in young adulthood. The findings were not consistent with a social timetable theory, which predicts that nonnormative involvement is associated with poor adjustment. Instead, the findings are consistent with a developmental task theory, which predicts that precocious romantic involvement undermines development and adaptation, but when romantic involvement becomes a salient developmental task in adulthood, it is associated with positive adjustment. Discussion focuses on the processes that may underlie the changing nature of the association between romantic involvement and adjustment. PMID:24703413

  2. In Vitro Fertilization and the Family: Quality of Parenting, Family Functioning, and Child Psychosocial Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Chun-Shin; DiPietro, Janet A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined associations between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and parenting quality, family functioning, and emotional/behavioral adjustment of 3- to 7-year-olds. Found that IVF mothers reported greater protectiveness than mothers of naturally conceived children. Teachers rated IVF mothers as displaying greater warmth but not overprotective or…

  3. Perceived Partner Reactions to Diagnosis and Treatment of Breast Cancer: Impact on Psychosocial and Psychosexual Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimberly, Sarah R.; Carver, Charles S.; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Harris, Suzanne D.; Antoni, Michael H.

    2005-01-01

    Two studies examined breast cancer patients' perceptions of their partners' reactions to their diagnosis and treatment as influences on 3 aspects of patients' well-being: psychosexual adjustment, emotional distress, and marital satisfaction. Study 1, cross-sectional, indicated that partner initiation of sex, frequency of sex, a positive 1st sexual…

  4. Peer Victimization, Social Support, and Psychosocial Adjustment of Sexual Minority Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Trish; Connolly, Jennifer; Pepler, Debra; Craig, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the link between sexual orientation and adjustment in a community sample of 97 sexual minority (gay male, lesbian, bisexual, and questioning) high school students, taking into account their experiences of peer victimization and social support within peer and family contexts. Adolescents were identified in a large-scale…

  5. Relation between Assertiveness, Academic Self-Efficacy, and Psychosocial Adjustment among International Graduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poyrazli, Senel; Arbona, Consuelo; Nora, Amaury; McPherson, Robert; Pisecco, Stewart

    2002-01-01

    Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, Academic Self-Efficacy Scale, The Inventory for Student Adjustment Strain, and UCLA Loneliness Scale were used to examine a total of 122 graduate international students. Findings indicate that English proficiency, assertiveness, and academic self-efficacy contributed uniquely to the variance in students' general…

  6. Youth Psychosocial Adjustment Following Wildfire: The Role of Family Resilience, Emotional Support, and Concrete Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Caryll M.; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Felix, Erika; Afifi, Tamara; Reyes, Gilbert; Afifi, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Natural disasters can have a significant impact on youth and family mental health and well-being. However, the relationship between family protective factors and youth adjustment in the aftermath of disaster remains unclear. Objective: In order to address the present gaps in the field, this study investigated perceived disaster-related…

  7. Masculinity, Femininity, and Psychosocial Adjustment in Medical Students: Two-Year Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeldow, Peter B.; And Others

    Although research on masculinity and femininity has increased over the past decade, longitudinal studies addressing predictive elements are lacking. The Rush Medical College Longitudinal Study examines the correlation between masculinity and femininity on the one hand and adjustment, interpersonal functioning, and impairment on the other. During…

  8. A Social-Cognitive-Ecological Framework for Understanding the Impact of Exposure to Persistent Ethnic-Political Violence on Children’s Psychosocial Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Boxer, Paul

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we describe a theoretical framework for understanding how persistent and extreme exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence interacts with cognitive, emotional, and self processes to influence children’s psychosocial adjustment. Three recent strands of theorizing guide our approach. First, we focus on how observational and social learning processes combine to influence the development of social-cognitive structures and processes that affect behavior. Second, we focus on the role of developing self and identity processes in shaping the child’s interactions with the world and the consequences of those interactions. Third, we build on the complex systems perspective on development and assume that human development can only be understood accurately by examining how the multiple contexts affecting children and the adults in their lives interact to moderate biosocial factors which predispose individuals to develop in certain directions. We review the recent empirical literature on children’s exposure to ethnic-political violence and we apply the social-cognitive-ecological framework to the empirical findings in this literature. Finally, we propose future directions for research and clinical implications derived from this framework. PMID:19430904

  9. Navigating the cultural transition alone: psychosocial adjustment of Korean early study abroad students.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Okazaki, Sumie

    2014-04-01

    Precollege study abroad in English-speaking countries is an increasingly popular educational strategy among Asian families. We used grounded theory method to construct a model of cultural adjustment process for unaccompanied minors based the retrospective narratives of 10 (8 male) South Korean adolescents who came to the United States, unaccompanied by parents, to attend middle schools or high schools. We found that unaccompanied minors' cultural adjustment progressed from their predeparture ambivalence to initial sense of vulnerability to an eventual sense of reengagement. Unaccompanied minor students' pervasive sense of vulnerability upon arrival was heightened not only by their lack of English fluency but also their reluctance to seek the support of parents in Korea and of local Korean peers. This study has implications for educators and counselors in secondary schools who work with international students who are unaccompanied minors. PMID:24099484

  10. Reciprocal influences among adrenocortical activation, psychosocial processes, and the behavioral adjustment of clinic-referred children.

    PubMed

    Granger, D A; Weisz, J R; McCracken, J T; Ikeda, S C; Douglas, P

    1996-12-01

    The reciprocal effects among cognitive-behavioral, environmental, and biological influences on clinic-referred children's (N = 64; 34 boys; M age 12.71 years) short-term psychological and psychiatric adjustment were studied. At clinic intake and 6 months later, standardized measures of adjustment and control-related beliefs were assessed. Before and after conflict-oriented parent-child interaction tasks the children's saliva was sampled. Adrenocortical responses (i.e., increases in salivary cortisol) to the social conflict task predicted children's internalizing problem behaviors and anxiety disorders at follow-up. Consistently high adrenocortical reactivity at intake and follow-up was associated with deflated social competence over the 6-month period. Also, specific patterns of discontinuity in children's internalizing behavior problems predicted individual differences in their subsequent adrenocortical responsiveness. Specifically, rising behavior problem levels across time predicted higher and declining behavior problem levels predicted lower adrenocortical reactivity at follow-up. Findings are among the first to suggest links among internalizing behavior problems, adrenocortical responsiveness to social challenge, and clinic-referred children's short-term cognitive-behavioral and emotional adjustment. PMID:9071780

  11. Psychiatric and psychosocial problems in adults with normal-intelligence autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hofvander, Björn; Delorme, Richard; Chaste, Pauline; Nydén, Agneta; Wentz, Elisabet; Ståhlberg, Ola; Herbrecht, Evelyn; Stopin, Astrid; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Gillberg, Christopher; Råstam, Maria; Leboyer, Marion

    2009-01-01

    Background Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) often display symptoms from other diagnostic categories. Studies of clinical and psychosocial outcome in adult patients with ASDs without concomitant intellectual disability are few. The objective of this paper is to describe the clinical psychiatric presentation and important outcome measures of a large group of normal-intelligence adult patients with ASDs. Methods Autistic symptomatology according to the DSM-IV-criteria and the Gillberg & Gillberg research criteria, patterns of comorbid psychopathology and psychosocial outcome were assessed in 122 consecutively referred adults with normal intelligence ASDs. The subjects consisted of 5 patients with autistic disorder (AD), 67 with Asperger's disorder (AS) and 50 with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD NOS). This study group consists of subjects pooled from two studies with highly similar protocols, all seen on an outpatient basis by one of three clinicians. Results Core autistic symptoms were highly prevalent in all ASD subgroups. Though AD subjects had the most pervasive problems, restrictions in non-verbal communication were common across all three subgroups and, contrary to current DSM criteria, so were verbal communication deficits. Lifetime psychiatric axis I comorbidity was very common, most notably mood and anxiety disorders, but also ADHD and psychotic disorders. The frequency of these diagnoses did not differ between the ASD subgroups or between males and females. Antisocial personality disorder and substance abuse were more common in the PDD NOS group. Of all subjects, few led an independent life and very few had ever had a long-term relationship. Female subjects more often reported having been bullied at school than male subjects. Conclusion ASDs are clinical syndromes characterized by impaired social interaction and non-verbal communication in adulthood as well as in childhood. They also carry a high risk for co

  12. Sleep, Psychosocial Functioning, and Device-Specific Adjustment in Patients with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (ICDs).

    PubMed

    McCrae, Christina S; Roth, Alicia J; Ford, Jessica; Crew, Earl C; Conti, Jamie B; Berry, Richard B; Sears, Samuel F

    2016-01-01

    Rates of sleep disorders and associated adjustment were examined in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs; n = 42; Mage = 61.57, SD = 12.60). One night of ambulatory polysomnography, 14 days of sleep diaries, and questionnaires (mood, sleepiness, fatigue, device acceptance) were administered. Controlling for ischemia, MANCOVA examined adjustment by sleep diagnosis. Apnea was most common (28.6%), followed by Insomnia (16.7%) and Comorbid Insomnia/Apnea (11.9%). Patients with insomnia reported poorer mood, greater sleepiness, and lower device acceptance than good sleepers; they also demonstrated poorer mood and less ICD device acceptance than patients with sleep apnea. Patients with comorbid insomnia/apnea also exhibited poorer mood and less ICD device acceptance than good sleepers; however, comorbid patients did not significantly differ from insomnia or apnea patients on any measure. Those with disordered sleep (regardless of type) reported greater fatigue than good sleepers. Assessment (and treatment) of difficulties with sleep, mood, fatigue, and device acceptance may be important for the comprehensive clinical management of ICD patients. Further research appears warranted. PMID:25174823

  13. A randomized controlled evaluation of a psychosocial intervention in adults with chronic lung disease.

    PubMed

    Blake, R L; Vandiver, T A; Braun, S; Bertuso, D D; Straub, V

    1990-01-01

    The effect of a stress management program on morbidity and psychosocial and physical function in patients with chronic lung disease was assessed. Adults attending either a VA pulmonary clinic or university hospital pulmonary rehabilitation clinic who met criteria for obstructive or restrictive pulmonary disease were randomly assigned to receive the intervention or to a control group. The intervention was provided by a nurse and included one to three teaching sessions, reading material, audiotapes, and telephone follow-up. The program focused on stress management techniques such as cognitive restructuring, progressive relaxation, breathing exercises, and visual imagery. The 45 experimental subjects were similar to the 49 controls with respect to baseline characteristics. Experimental and control subjects had similar rates of mortality, hospital days, bed-disability days, restricted-activity days, and physician visits during the 12-month follow-up. There were no differences between the two groups in physical or psychosocial function at six months or in levels of stressful life changes, social supports, and self-esteem at six and 12 months. Intervention recipients had better function at 12 months, suggesting a possible benefit of the intervention. PMID:2227172

  14. Sociodemographic and psychosocial factors in childhood as predictors of adult mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, J E; Friedman, H S; Tucker, J S; Tomlinson-Keasey, C; Wingard, D L; Criqui, M H

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Childhood sociodemographic, psychosocial, and environmental factors are often assumed to affect adult health and longevity. These relationships were prospectively tested by using the 7-decade Terman Life Cycle Study of Children With High Ability (n = 1285). METHODS: Parental socioeconomic status, childhood health, objective childhood stressors (e.g., death or divorce of parents), and childhood personality were considered as potential predictors in hazard regression analyses of longevity through 1991. RESULTS: Parental divorce during childhood predicted decreased longevity, with sex controlled. Other potential social predictors failed to show significant associations with longevity. Three dimensions of childhood personality--conscientiousness, lack of cheerfulness, and permanency of mood (males only)--predicted increased longevity. The effects of parental divorce and childhood personality were largely independent and did not account for any of the gender difference in mortality. CONCLUSIONS: A small number of childhood factors significantly predicted mortality across the life span in this sample. Further research should focus on how these psychosocial factors influence longevity. PMID:7661231

  15. Effects of Psychosocial and Situational Variables on Substance Abuse among Homeless Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Judith A.; Dixon, Elizabeth L.; Nyamathi, Adeline M.

    2009-01-01

    Finding direct and indirect influences of salient psychosocial and situational variables on problem substance use among homeless people is important in designing evidence-based, effective, and relevant interventions for this special population. A stress-coping paradigm in conjunction with situational items specialized for homeless people was used to explore predictive relationships in a sample of homeless adults (N = 664) among 1) psychosocial variables of self-esteem, social support, positive and negative coping, and emotional distress, 2) situational variables of homelessness history and quality of their recent housing, and 3) outcomes of alcohol use, injection drug use (IDU), and non-IDU. Lower self-esteem predicted greater emotional distress, lower positive coping, greater negative coping, and more alcohol use. Social support predicted less emotional distress, and more positive coping. Chronic homelessness predicted more emotional distress, less positive coping, greater alcohol use and IDU. Poor housing was associated with more alcohol use and IDU. Substance abuse interventions among the homeless should have a dual focus that includes attention to psychological issues and negative coping patterns while also addressing situational, environmental factors including encouraging provision of permanent supportive housing. PMID:18778134

  16. Identification and Analysis of Learning Preferences of Mentally Ill Adults in Rehabilitative Psychosocial Therapy at the Anderson Mental Health Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Michael K.

    A study identified and analyzed the learning preferences of 17 seriously and chronically mentally ill adults participating in the rehabilitative psychosocial therapy program at the Toxaway Church Site of the Anderson Mental Health Center. Staff perceived as boring and unfocused the traditional treatment approach that relied mainly upon…

  17. The Impact of the Developmental Timing of Trauma Exposure on PTSD Symptoms and Psychosocial Functioning among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogle, Christin M.; Rubin, David C.; Siegler, Ilene C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of the developmental timing of trauma exposure on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and psychosocial functioning in a large sample of community-dwelling older adults (N = 1,995). Specifically, we investigated whether the negative consequences of exposure to traumatic events were greater for traumas…

  18. The Ethnic Identity, Other-Group Attitudes, and Psychosocial Functioning of Asian American Emerging Adults from Two Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda P.; Nguyen, Huong H.; Lin, Yunghui

    2006-01-01

    Drawing from two samples of Asian American emerging adults, one in an ethnically concentrated context (n = 108) and the other in an ethnically-dispersed, mainly White context (n = 153), we examined (a) how ethnic identity and other-group attitudes were related to psychosocial functioning (i.e., depression, self-esteem, and connectedness to…

  19. Psychosocial Adaptation to Visual Impairment and Its Relationship to Depressive Affect in Older Adults with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Jennifer; Hill, Robert D.; Kleinschmidt, Julia J.; Gregg, Charles H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: In this study we examined psychosocial adaptation to vision loss and its relationship to depressive symptomatology in legally blind older adults with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Design and Methods: The 144 study participants were outpatients of a large regional vision clinic that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of…

  20. Alcoholism and Intimate Partner Violence: Effects on Children’s Psychosocial Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Klostermann, Keith; Kelley, Michelle L.

    2009-01-01

    It is widely recognized that alcoholism and relationship violence often have serious consequences for adults; however, children living with alcoholic parents are susceptible to the deleterious familial environments these caregivers frequently create. Given the prevalence of IPV among patients entering substance abuse treatment, coupled with the negative familial consequences associated with these types of behavior, this review explores what have been, to this point, two divergent lines of research: (a) the effects of parental alcoholism on children, and (b) the effects of children’s exposure to intimate partner violence. In this article, the interrelationship between alcoholism and IPV is examined, with an emphasis on the developmental impact of these behaviors (individually and together) on children living in the home and offers recommendations for future research directions. PMID:20049253

  1. Psychosocial factors and adjustment to chronic pain in spinal cord injury: replication and cross-validation.

    PubMed

    Molton, Ivan R; Stoelb, Brenda L; Jensen, Mark P; Ehde, Dawn M; Raichle, Katherine A; Cardenas, Diana D

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have documented the importance of psychological factors in the experience of chronic pain in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). The current study sought to replicate and extend previous work demonstrating associations among specific pain-related beliefs, coping, mental health, and pain outcomes in persons with SCI. A return-by-mail survey assessing psychological functioning and pain was completed by 130 individuals with SCI. Measures included short forms of the Survey of Pain Attitudes and the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory. After factor analysis, multiple regression was used to predict pain outcomes (psychological functioning and pain interference) after controlling for pain intensity. Results indicated that psychological factors, particularly beliefs about pain (including catastrophizing) and pain-related coping strategies (including passive coping), were significant predictors of pain outcomes and accounted for 21% to 25% of unique variance. Zero-order correlations suggested that the specific variables most closely associated with negative pain outcomes were perception of oneself as disabled, perceptions of low control over pain, and tendency to catastrophize. In general, negative attributions and coping were stronger predictors of pain adjustment than were positive ones. Results highlight the importance of psychological factors in understanding chronic pain in persons with SCI and provide further support for the biopsychosocial model. PMID:19533518

  2. Promoting Psychosocial Adjustment and Stress Management in First-Year College Students: The Benefits of Engagement in a Psychosocial Wellness Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Colleen S.; Travers, Lea V.; Bryant, Fred B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective/Methods: This research evaluates the effectiveness of a psychosocial wellness seminar for first-year college students, from 2009 to 2011, using an 8-month prospective quasi-experimental design. Participants/Results: Compared with controls ("n" = 22) involved in an alternative seminar, intervention participants ("n" =…

  3. Young adults with MSUD and their transition to adulthood: psychosocial issues.

    PubMed

    Packman, Wendy; Mehta, Indira; Rafie, Samantha; Mehta, Jayanthi; Naldi, Mariana; Mooney, Kim Hart

    2012-10-01

    Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive condition with an incidence of 1 in 185,000 births worldwide. Regardless of the type of MSUD, treatment includes immediate and lifelong dietary restriction of isoleucine, leucine and valine. There is little known about the psychosocial impact of MSUD on the developmental milestones of emerging adulthood. We used a qualitative case study approach to explore the human experiences of MSUD on young adults (n = 8) and parents (n = 8). All participants were administered a semi-structured, qualitative interview as well as quantitative measures. Six core themes emerged: 1) lifelong strain of dietary management; 2) social isolation from peers and impact on dating; 3) impact of MSUD on academics and employment; 4) medical experiences and transition to adult care; 5) impact on family functioning; and 6) positive effects and growth. The results of this investigation highlight and expand awareness of the psychological and social needs of young adults with MSUD. This study calls for a collaborative, multidisciplinary effort in the treatment of these patients and their families. PMID:22350623

  4. Physical and Psychosocial Functions of Adults with Lower Limb Congenital Deficiencies and Amputations in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Montesinos-Magraner, Ll.; Issa-Benítez, D.; Pagès-Bolíbar, E.; Meléndez-Plumed, M.; González-Viejo, M. A.; Castellano-Tejedor, C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To describe the epidemiological and medical features of a sample with LLA and LLD in childhood and (2) to explore their relationship with subsequent physical and psychosocial functions in adulthood. Methods. Cross-sectional survey. Demographics, medical data, Locomotor Capabilities Index (LCI), and Discomfort-Engagement in Everyday Activities Involving Revealing the Body Scale (D-EEARB) were collected from thirty-two adults who suffered from LLA in childhood or LLD. Results. Most of the sample (53.1% males) was working (84.4%), living independently (75%), and single (75%). Mean age was 33.16 (SD = 7.64, range 18–50). Leading causes for LLA were traumatic (40.6%) and oncologic (25%). LLD was present in 6 cases (18.8%). LCI scores revealed a high performance among males (t17,464 = 2.976, p = .008). D-EEARB scores showed that 56.25% stated feeling “quite” or “totally comfortable” in situations which involved revealing their body, but 43.75% stated the contrary (“uncomfortable” or “very uncomfortable”). LLD and traumatic LLA show higher scores in D-EEARB than vascular and oncological LLA (χ2 = 7.744, df = 3, p = .05). Conclusions. Adults suffering from LLDs and LLAs during childhood seem to perform well once they are adults. However, 43.75% of patients express considerable discomfort in situations that involve revealing the body. PMID:27195152

  5. Body image, psychosocial functioning, and personality: how different are adolescents and young adults applying for plastic surgery?

    PubMed

    Simis, K J; Verhulst, F C; Koot, H M

    2001-07-01

    This study addressed three questions: (1) Do adolescents undergoing plastic surgery have a realistic view of their body? (2) How urgent is the psychosocial need of adolescents to undergo plastic surgery? (3) Which relations exist between bodily attitudes and psychosocial functioning and personality? From 1995 to 1997, 184 plastic surgical patients aged 12 to 22, and a comparison group of 684 adolescents and young adults from the general population aged 12 to 22 years, and their parents, were interviewed and completed questionnaires and standardised rating scales. Adolescents accepted for plastic surgery had realistic appearance attitudes and were psychologically healthy overall. Patients were equally satisfied with their overall appearance as the comparison group, but more dissatisfied with the specific body parts concerned for operation, especially when undergoing corrective operations. Patients had measurable appearance-related psychosocial problems. Patient boys reported less self-confidence on social areas than all other groups. There were very few patient-comparison group differences in correlations between bodily and psychosocial variables, indicating that bodily attitudes and satisfaction are not differentially related to psychosocial functioning and self-perception in patients than in peers. We concluded that adolescents accepted for plastic surgery have considerable appearance-related psychosocial problems, patients in the corrective group reporting more so than in the reconstructive group. Plastic surgeons may assume that these adolescents in general have a realistic attitude towards their appearance. are psychologically healthy, and are mainly dissatisfied about the body parts concerned for operation. corrective patients more so than reconstructive patients. Introverted patients may need more attention from plastic surgeons during the psychosocial assessment. PMID:11464971

  6. Racial Differences in Clinical Characteristics, Perceptions and Behaviors, and Psychosocial Impact of Adult Female Acne

    PubMed Central

    Alexis, Andrew F.; Daniels, Selena R.; Kawata, Ariane K.; Burk, Caroline T.; Wilcox, Teresa K.; Taylor, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Limited data are available on racial differences in clinical characteristics and burden in adult female acne. The objective was to describe racial differences in clinical characteristics, psychosocial impact, perceptions, behaviors, and treatment satisfaction in facial adult female acne. Design: Cross-sectional, web-based survey. Setting: Diverse sample of United States women. Participants: Women between the ages of 25 and 45 years with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions). Measurements: Outcomes included sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial impacts, perceptions, behaviors, and treatment satisfaction. Racial differences were evaluated using descriptive statistics and t-test/chi-square analyses. Results: 208 females participated (mean age 35±6 years); 51.4 percent were White/Caucasian and 48.6 percent were non-White/Caucasian women [Black/African American (n=51); Hispanic/Latina (n=23); Asian (n=16); Other (n=ll)]. Age of acne onset (mean 14.8±5 vs. 17.0±8 years, p<0.05) and acne concern occurred earlier (16.6±7 vs. 19.3±9 years, p<0.05) in White/Caucasian than non-White/Caucasian subjects. Facial acne primarily presented on chin (28.0%) and cheeks (30.8%) for White/Caucasian women versus cheeks (58.4%) for non-White/Caucasian women. Non-White/Caucasian women experienced more postinflammatory hyperpigmentation than White/Caucasian women (p<0.0001). Facial acne negatively affected quality of life (QoL) in both groups, and most participants (>70%) reported some depression/anxiety symptoms. More White/Caucasian than non-White/Caucasian women were troubled by facial acne (88.8% vs. 76.2%, p<0.05). Lesion clearance was most important to White/Caucasian women (57.9 vs. non-White/Caucasian 31.7%, p<0.001); non-White/Caucasian females focused on postinflammatory hyperpigmentation clearance (41.6% vs. Caucasian 8.4%, p<0.0001). Conclusion: Results highlight racial differences in participant-reported clinical characteristics, attitudes, behaviors, and

  7. Research Review: Psychosocial adjustment and mental health in former child soldiers – a systematic review of the literature and recommendations for future research

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Borisova, Ivelina; Williams, Timothy P.; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah E.; Rubin-Smith, Julia E.; Annan, Jeannie; Kohrt, Brandon A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims and scope This article reviews the available quantitative research on psychosocial adjustment and mental health among children (age <18 years) associated with armed forces and armed groups (CAAFAG) – commonly referred to as child soldiers. Methods PRISMA standards for systematic reviews were used to search PubMed, PsycInfo, JSTOR, and Sociological Abstracts in February 2012 for all articles on former child soldiers and CAAFAG. Twenty-one quantitative studies from 10 countries were analyzed for author, year of publication, journal, objectives, design, selection population, setting, instruments, prevalence estimates, and associations with war experiences. Opinion pieces, editorials, and qualitative studies were deemed beyond the scope of this study. Quality of evidence was rated according to the Systematic Assessment of Quality in Observational Research (SAQOR). Findings According to SAQOR criteria, among the available published studies, eight studies were of high quality, four were of moderate quality, and the remaining nine were of low quality. Common limitations were lack of validated mental health measures, unclear methodology including undefined sampling approaches, and failure to report missing data. Only five studies included a comparison group of youth not involved with armed forces/armed groups, and only five studies assessed mental health at more than one point in time. Across studies, a number of risk and protective factors were associated with postconflict psychosocial adjustment and social reintegration in CAAFAG. Abduction, age of conscription, exposure to violence, gender, and community stigma were associated with increased internalizing and externalizing mental health problems. Family acceptance, social support, and educational/economic opportunities were associated with improved psychosocial adjustment. Conclusions Research on the social reintegration and psychosocial adjustment of former child soldiers is nascent. A number of gaps in the

  8. Investigating the psychosocial determinants of physical activity in older adults: A qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Kosteli, Maria-Christina; Williams, Sarah E.; Cumming, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Despite the benefits of physical activity (PA), only one-third of older adults meet the recommended levels. The present study focused on psychosocial determinants of PA following retirement. Social cognitive theory (SCT) was used to better understand pre- and post-retirement adults’ thoughts about PA, the reasons why some individuals are more active than others, and how PA is incorporated into daily life after retirement. Design: Seven focus groups of older adults (N = 37, M = 64, SD = 5.20; males = 20) representing a range of PA levels and retirement length participated in one of seven focus groups. Results: Aligned with SCT, self-efficacy beliefs along with perceptions about barriers and benefits of PA were among the major determinants of PA. Findings highlighted the importance of social support, positive outcome expectations and self-regulatory strategies as motivators. The lack of structure in retirement was a hindrance to incorporating PA into daily routine but, when incorporated, PA provided a sense of purpose in the lives of retired individuals. Conclusion: It is important to understand the meaning of retirement as a life transition and how it affects beliefs about PA to inform SCT-based health promotion interventions targeting individuals in retirement age. PMID:26964473

  9. Positive parenting and child psychosocial adjustment in inner-city single-parent African American families. The role of maternal optimism.

    PubMed

    Jones, Deborah J; Forehand, Rex; Brody, Gene H; Armistead, Lisa

    2002-09-01

    The primary purposes of this study were to examine whether maternal optimism is related to positive parenting and child adjustment and whether it contributes beyond maternal depressive symptoms to our understanding. The participants were 141 African American single mothers and one of their children. Findings revealed that maternal optimism was associated with positive parenting and this association was only partially mediated by maternal depressive symptoms. Maternal optimism was not associated with child psychosocial adjustment, but positive parenting was associated with lower levels of both internalizing and externalizing difficulties. The utility of understanding the link between maternal optimism and parenting for prevention and intervention efforts aimed at enhancing quality of life and subsequent child adjustment is discussed, as well as directions for future research on maternal optimism. PMID:12205822

  10. Psychosocial Correlates of Sun Protection Behaviors among U.S. Hispanic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Coups, Elliot J.; Stapleton, Jerod L.; Manne, Sharon L.; Hudson, Shawna V.; Medina-Forrester, Amanda; Rosenberg, Stephen A.; Gordon, Marsha; Tatum, Kristina S.; Robinson, June K.; Natale-Pereira, Ana; Goydos, James S.

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of skin cancer among U.S. Hispanics increased 1.3% annually from 1992 to 2008. However, little research has focused on skin cancer prevention among the rapidly growing Hispanic population. In this study, we examined theory-driven, psychosocial correlates of sun protection behaviors in a population-based sample of 787 Hispanic adults (49.6% female, mean age = 41.0 years) residing in five southern or western U.S. states. Participants completed an English- or Spanish-language online survey in September 2011. The outcomes of focus were sunscreen use, shade seeking, and use of sun protective clothing. The correlates included suntan benefits, sun protection benefits and barriers, skin color preference, perceived natural skin protection, photo-aging concerns, perceived skin cancer risk, skin cancer worry, skin cancer fatalism, and sun protection descriptive norms. Results of multiple linear regression analyses revealed the following: sun protection barriers were negatively associated with each outcome; descriptive norms were positively associated with each outcome; perceived natural skin protection was inversely associated with sunscreen use; skin cancer worry was positively associated with shade seeking and use of sun protective clothing; skin cancer fatalism was negatively associated with shade seeking; and skin color preference was negatively associated with use of sun protective clothing. A number of additional statistically significant associations were identified in bivariate correlation analyses. This study informs the potential content of interventions to promote engagement in sun protection behaviors among U.S. Hispanics. PMID:24532153

  11. Cortisol reactivity to experimentally manipulated psychosocial stress in young adults at varied risk for depression.

    PubMed

    Morris, Matthew C; Rao, Uma; Wang, Lily; Garber, Judy

    2014-01-01

    This study examined cortisol and affective reactivity to a psychosocial stress task in 102 young adults who varied in risk for depression (56 remitted depressed, 46 never depressed). Participants were randomly assigned to either a stress (i.e., social-evaluative threat) or control (i.e., no social-evaluative threat) condition. For never-depressed individuals, cortisol responses were significantly greater in the stress compared to the control condition. Moreover, cortisol responses were significantly greater for never-depressed than remitted-depressed individuals in the stress condition. For individuals with a history of depression, cortisol responses did not differ significantly between the stress and control conditions. Negative affective reactivity also was higher for never depressed, but not remitted depressed, individuals in the stress compared to the control condition. Moreover, cortisol responses were inversely related to negative affect during the recovery phase in both stress and control conditions. Findings indicate the lack of a robust cortisol response to social evaluation stress among remitted-depressed individuals as compared to that of never-depressed controls. Future studies should investigate unique and interactive links between these hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and affective reactivity alterations and risk for subsequent depressive episodes. PMID:23606237

  12. Psychosocial Strength Enhancing Resilience in Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Akiko; Okamura, Jun; Ueda, Reiko; Sunami, Shosuke; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Ogawa, Junko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore ways of enhancing psychosocial strengths in newly diagnosed and relapsed adolescents and young adults (AYAs) to improve their resilience. A descriptive case study was used. The adolescent resilience model (ARM) and the self-sustaining process model were applied as theories. The data were analyzed using pattern-matching logic. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 18 patients aged 12 to 24 years and discharged within 10 years. We found that the newly diagnosed and the relapsing AYAs developed the 5 strength factors of the ARM during and after treatment. Whether the individuals cultivated a positive attitude and sense of purpose early or late, the AYAs developed resilience eventually. A positive attitude and sense of purpose during the early phase of care may be essential for improving resilience. The AYAs benefited from the support of their parents, friends, and previous experience. Individualized support and social resources may be important to develop these strengths. Further research is needed to develop strengths and improve resilience in newly diagnosed AYAs. PMID:25862715

  13. Demographic, developmental and psychosocial predictors of the development of anxiety in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Grogan, Katie; Bramham, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate potential demographic, developmental and psychosocial predictors of anxiety in the context of ADHD. Participants included 267 adults with a diagnosis of ADHD (168 males:99 females) and an age range of 18-70 years (M = 31 years; SD = 10.03 years). A background interview, parent questionnaire and rating scales were used to gather participant information. Correlations, independent t tests and one-way analysis of variances were used to identify variables associated with anxiety, and a stepwise multiple regression was used to identify potential predictors of anxiety. Variables associated with anxiety included childhood aggression, employment status, difficulties making friends, number of children and caffeine intake. Childhood aggression and caffeine intake were the potential predictors. Clinicians should be aware of these potential predictors of anxiety in the context of ADHD in order to minimise the likelihood of the development or maintenance of comorbid anxiety. Future research is needed in order to draw any conclusions on cause and effect. PMID:26487156

  14. Psychosocial Care for Adolescent and Young Adult Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Liz; Chung, Carol; Grant, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    Psychological issues following Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (HCT) are unfortunately common. Literature specific to the transplant experience for the needs of adolescents and young adults (AYA) is lacking. The purpose of this article is to 1) describe the allogeneic transplant experience for AYA transplant patients during the first year following transplantation including demographic and treatment characteristics, 2) present AYA data obtained during and following a six-part post transplant discharge study, 3) illustrate typical AYA experiences using case studies and 4) propose AYA intervention strategies within Erickson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development. A Quality of Life (QOL) model provided both the research conceptual framework, and the content analysis framework for the qualitative research. Themes that emerged within each domain were the following: sexuality/fertility, fatigue, depression/poor coping/habits, adherence issues, use of technology, dependency issues, changes in roles/relationships, issues with school/education, financial issues, family problems/issues, miscellaneous, religion/spirituality, fear of future, uncertainty, life, death, more life appreciation. These data guide us for providing targeted interventions for the needs of this AYA population. This paper has presented literature and developmental theory, qualitative and qualitative data from an intervention study, and clinical cases in order to propose a developmental treatment model for AYA transplant patients. A coordinated and multidisciplinary approach is needed for the HCT patient who is an AYA. PMID:21966725

  15. Psychosocial correlates of sun protection behaviors among U.S. Hispanic adults.

    PubMed

    Coups, Elliot J; Stapleton, Jerod L; Manne, Sharon L; Hudson, Shawna V; Medina-Forrester, Amanda; Rosenberg, Stephen A; Gordon, Marsha; Tatum, Kristina S; Robinson, June K; Natale-Pereira, Ana; Goydos, James S

    2014-12-01

    The incidence of skin cancer among U.S. Hispanics increased 1.3% annually from 1992 to 2008. However, little research has focused on skin cancer prevention among the rapidly growing Hispanic population. In this study, we examined theory-driven, psychosocial correlates of sun protection behaviors in a population-based sample of 787 Hispanic adults (49.6% female, mean age = 41.0 years) residing in five southern or western U.S. states. Participants completed an English- or Spanish-language online survey in September 2011. The outcomes of focus were sunscreen use, shade seeking, and use of sun protective clothing. The correlates included suntan benefits, sun protection benefits and barriers, skin color preference, perceived natural skin protection, photo-aging concerns, perceived skin cancer risk, skin cancer worry, skin cancer fatalism, and sun protection descriptive norms. Results of multiple linear regression analyses revealed the following: sun protection barriers were negatively associated with each outcome; descriptive norms were positively associated with each outcome; perceived natural skin protection was inversely associated with sunscreen use; skin cancer worry was positively associated with shade seeking and use of sun protective clothing; skin cancer fatalism was negatively associated with shade seeking; and skin color preference was negatively associated with use of sun protective clothing. A number of additional statistically significant associations were identified in bivariate correlation analyses. This study informs the potential content of interventions to promote engagement in sun protection behaviors among U.S. Hispanics. PMID:24532153

  16. Psychosocial functioning of young adults with cystic fibrosis and their families.

    PubMed Central

    Blair, C.; Cull, A.; Freeman, C. P.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The psychosocial functioning of adolescents and young adults with cystic fibrosis still living in the parental home was investigated. With its proven genetic aetiology cystic fibrosis is an ideal model with which to assess the impact of a chronic and life threatening disorder on family and individual psychological and social functioning. METHODS--Twenty nine patients with cystic fibrosis and their families were compared with those of 27 patients with anorexia nervosa and 31 well controls. Assessments were made using self reporting, interview, and observational methods. RESULTS--Most patients with cystic fibrosis were in robust psychological health and only differed from their healthy peers in that they were much less likely to be in employment. Mothers of patients with cystic fibrosis or anorexia nervosa were more likely than the mothers of the well group to be emotionally distressed, although this was not so for fathers. Young people in both illness groups were more likely to have parents with high levels of expressed emotion. Most families of patients with cystic fibrosis had good problem solving abilities. CONCLUSIONS--In spite of the burden of illness in cystic fibrosis psychological functioning in many respects matches that of well young people. PMID:8091327

  17. Concurrent and longitudinal effects of ethnic identity and experiences of discrimination on psychosocial adjustment of Navajo adolescents.

    PubMed

    Galliher, Renee V; Jones, Matthew D; Dahl, Angie

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we examined concurrent and longitudinal relations among Navajo adolescents' ethnic identity, experiences of discrimination, and psychosocial outcomes (i.e., self-esteem, substance use, and social functioning). At Time 1, 137 Navajo adolescents (67 male, 70 female), primarily in Grades 9 and 10, completed a written survey assessing ethnic identity, discrimination experiences, and a range of internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Two years later, 92 participants completed the same survey again. Ethnic and cultural identification was assessed via the Multiethnic Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM; Phinney, 1992) and the Orthogonal Cultural Identification Scale (OCIS; Oetting & Beauvais, 1990). At Time 1, MEIM Affirmation and Belonging, MEIM Exploration, and OCIS White American identification all demonstrated strong, positive associations with adaptive functioning for male and female adolescents, whereas discrimination experiences were linked to lower self-esteem and social functioning for male adolescents. By Time 2, fewer significant concurrent associations between ethnic identity and psychosocial functioning scores remained, and discrimination experiences emerged as the most consistent correlate of poorer psychosocial functioning for male adolescents. Controlling for Time 1 psychosocial functioning, relatively few direct effects of ethnic and cultural identification variables predicted psychosocial functioning longitudinally, but discrimination experiences demonstrated strong and consistent longitudinal links with boys' substance use. Finally, interaction effects assessing the moderating influence of ethnic and cultural identification on negative links between discrimination and psychosocial functioning suggested that embeddedness in and connection to Navajo culture and, in some cases, connection to White American culture, served as a buffer to the negative effects of discrimination experiences. PMID:21142373

  18. Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Kiff, Cara J.; Cortes, Rebecca; Lengua, Lilana; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Mason, W. Alex

    2012-01-01

    Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment Abstract Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Further, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal sample (N = 808) was followed from age 10 through 27. Perceptions of neighborhood in childhood predicted depression, alcohol use disorders, and HIV risk in young adulthood. Further, the timing of adversity was important in determining the type of problem experienced in adulthood. Youth adjustment predicted adult outcomes, and in some cases, mediated the relation between adversity and outcomes. These findings support the importance of adversity in predicting adjustment and elucidate factors that affect outcomes into young adulthood. PMID:22754271

  19. Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Kiff, Cara J; Cortes, Rebecca; Lengua, Lilana; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J David; Mason, W Alex

    2012-06-01

    Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment Abstract Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Further, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal sample (N = 808) was followed from age 10 through 27. Perceptions of neighborhood in childhood predicted depression, alcohol use disorders, and HIV risk in young adulthood. Further, the timing of adversity was important in determining the type of problem experienced in adulthood. Youth adjustment predicted adult outcomes, and in some cases, mediated the relation between adversity and outcomes. These findings support the importance of adversity in predicting adjustment and elucidate factors that affect outcomes into young adulthood. PMID:22754271

  20. Stress, Coping, and Psychological Adjustment of Adults with Sickle Cell Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Robert J., Jr.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined psychological adjustment to sickle cell disease (SCD) among 109 African-American adults. Good psychological adjustment was associated with lower levels of perceived daily stress and stress regarding SCD illness tasks, higher efficacy expectations, less use of palliative coping methods and negative thinking/passive adherence pain-coping…

  1. Exploring Post-Program Psychological Adjustment for Adult Staff Facilitating a Wilderness Adventure Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence-Wood, Ellie; Raymond, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a pilot study of the post-program psychological adjustment outcomes of adult staff facilitating an Australian-based wilderness adventure program for youth at risk. The descriptive and correlational survey study (N = 62) examined the psychological adjustment processes staff underwent following program completion, and the factors…

  2. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adolescent School Victimization: Implications for Young Adult Health and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Stephen T.; Ryan, Caitlin; Toomey, Russell B.; Diaz, Rafael M.; Sanchez, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adolescent school victimization due to lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) status is commonplace, and is associated with compromised health and adjustment. Few studies have examined the long-term implications of LGBT school victimization for young adult adjustment. We examine the association between reports of LGBT school…

  3. Concurrent and Longitudinal Effects of Ethnic Identity and Experiences of Discrimination on Psychosocial Adjustment of Navajo Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galliher, Renee V.; Jones, Matthew D.; Dahl, Angie

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined concurrent and longitudinal relations among Navajo adolescents' ethnic identity, experiences of discrimination, and psychosocial outcomes (i.e., self-esteem, substance use, and social functioning). At Time 1, 137 Navajo adolescents (67 male, 70 female), primarily in Grades 9 and 10, completed a written survey assessing…

  4. Gender, Pre-loss Marital Dependence, and Older Adults Adjustment to Widowhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    I examine how pre-loss emotional and instrumental dependence on one's spouse affects older adults psychological adjustment to widowhood. Analyses are based on 297 persons from the Changing Lives of Older Couples CLOC study, a prospective study of widowhood among adults aged 65 and older. Women who were most emotionally dependent on their spouses…

  5. How Older Rural Adults Utilize Self-Directed Learning in Late Life Adjustments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The increasing numbers and influence of older adults is causing many segments of western society to re-evaluate the concept of old age. Medical advances and personal lifestyles have resulted in older adults living longer and healthier lives. As one ages, adjustments in work, family, and health must be made. Self-directed learning (SDL) is one way…

  6. Relationships over 1 year between lymphocyte subsets and psychosocial variables among adults with infection by human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Perry, S; Fishman, B; Jacobsberg, L; Frances, A

    1992-05-01

    To examine relationships between immune and psychosocial variables among adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1, 221 subjects without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were assessed for degree of depression, anxiety, psychiatric symptoms, social support, stressful life events, hardiness, hopelessness, bereavement, and intrusive and avoidant thoughts about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. At entry, none of 22 psychosocial variables significantly correlated with lymphocyte subsets. Among subjects seen 6 and 12 months later, severity of physical symptoms was associated with greater emotional distress, but the CD4 cell count was predicted by neither clinical ratings of psychopathology and global functioning nor by standardized self-report measures of constructs used in psychoimmune research. We conclude that among our sample, physical symptoms contributed to emotional distress, but emotional distress did not contribute to the CD4 cell count, a marker of disease progression. PMID:1586275

  7. "I will guide you" The indirect link between overparenting and young adults' adjustment.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Sofie; Scharf, Miri

    2015-08-30

    This study addresses knowledge gaps regarding family dynamics, and identifies young adults at-risk for psychopathological symptoms. In particular, we examined overparenting and its associations with young adults' adjustment (distress and interpersonal sensitivity). Both direct and indirect relations were assessed, the latter through young adults' relational characteristics (attachment, psychological control perception, and boundaries diffusion perception). Also, the contribution of gender of parents and young adults was addressed. Questionnaires were collected from 89 Jewish-Israeli intact families. Mothers reported significantly more use of overparenting than fathers. More overparenting of fathers had a direct relation with less adjustment in young adults. This direct relation was partially mediated by higher levels of young adults' attachment anxiety (for the dependent variables distress and interpersonal sensitivity) and young adults' perceptions of parental psychological control (for the dependent variable distress). More overparenting of mothers was related to less interpersonal sensitivity for male young adults and for young adults who reported less parental psychological control. This study showed that parenting qualities and their interplay with young adults' relational characteristics continue to play an important role in the lives of young adult offspring. Therefore, clinicians dealing with young adults at risk for, or suffering from, psychopathology, should be attentive to overparenting and its possible implications. PMID:26051175

  8. The effect of a music therapy intergenerational program on children and older adults' intergenerational interactions, cross-age attitudes, and older adults' psychosocial well-being.

    PubMed

    Belgrave, Melita

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of participation in a music-based intergenerational music program on cross-age interactions and cross-age attitudes of elementary-age children and older adults, and older adults' psychosocial well-being. Twenty-one children in the 4th grade volunteered to participate in the experimental (n = 12) or control (n = 9) group. Twenty-six older adults from a retirement living facility also volunteered to participate in the experimental (n = 14) or control (n = 12) group. Ten 30-min music sessions occurred in which participants engaged in singing, structured conversation, moving to music, and instrument playing interventions. Data analysis of cross-age interactions revealed that the interventions "structured conversation" and "moving to music" were more effective in eliciting interaction behaviors than the interventions "singing" and "instrument playing." Standardized measures revealed that children's attitudes towards older adults improved, though not significantly so, after participation in the intergenerational program. Results of biweekly post-session questionnaires revealed a decrease in negative descriptions of older adults and an increase in positive descriptions of older adults--suggesting a more positive view towards aging. Results revealed that older adults' attitudes towards children improved significantly after their participation in the intergenerational program. While standardized measures revealed that older adults did not perceive a significant improvement in their psychosocial well-being, their bi-weekly post-session questionnaires showed they perceived increased feelings of usefulness and other personal benefits from the intergenerational interactions. Suggestions for future research, the utility of varied measurement instruments, and implications for practice are discussed. PMID:22506301

  9. Psychosocial and Family Functioning in Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Devine, Katie A.

    2010-01-01

    A developmentally-oriented bio-neuropsychosocial model is introduced to explain variation in family functioning and psychosocial adjustment in youth and young adults with spina bifida (SB). Research on the family functioning and psychosocial adjustment of individuals with SB is reviewed. The findings of past research on families of youth with SB support a resilience-disruption view of family functioning. That is, the presence of a child with SB disrupts normative family functioning, but many families adapt to such disruption and exhibit considerable resilience in the face of adversity. Parents of youth with SB, and particularly those from lower SES homes, are at-risk for psychosocial difficulties. Individuals with SB are at-risk for developing internalizing symptoms, attention problems, educational difficulties, social maladjustment, and delays in the development of independent functioning. Emerging adults are often delayed in achieving milestones related to this stage of development (e.g., vocational and educational achievements). Methodologically-sound, longitudinal, and theory-driven studies of family and psychosocial functioning are needed, as are randomized family-based intervention trials, to promote adaptive functioning and better psychosocial outcomes in families of individuals with SB. PMID:20419770

  10. Comprehensive Assessment of Quality of Life and Psychosocial Adjustment in Patients with Renal Tumors Undergoing Open, Laparoscopic, and Nephron-Sparing Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Patricia A.; Swartz, Richard; Fellman, Bryan; Urbauer, Diana; Li, Yisheng; Pisters, Louis L.; Rosser, Charles J.; Wood, Christopher G.; Matin, Surena F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We prospectively evaluated the general and cancer-specific quality of life (QOL) and psychosocial adjustment of patients with a renal mass who underwent radical versus partial nephrectomy performed by laparoscopic or open approaches. Materials and Methods 172 patients with renal tumors completed questionnaires before surgery and again at 3 weeks, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months post-surgery. We assessed general QOL (SF-36), cancer-specific-QOL (CARES-SF), intrusive thoughts and avoidance behaviors, and fear of recurrence. We used mixed model regression analyses to compare these measures across surgery types over the course of the study and adjusted for tumor size, histology, stage and renal function. Results The physical component score of the SF-36 different significantly by surgery type over time (p = 0.04). Patients who had laparoscopy improved by month 2 whereas those who had open surgery had poorer QOL until month 3. Better cancer-specific QOL was reported in patients undergoing radical versus partial nephrectomy. Age also had significant effects on outcomes. Conclusions We report on one of the most comprehensive patient-reported prospective QOL studies in RCC patients. There were significant differences in QOL and psychosocial adjustment outcomes over the course of one year among patients who had one of four commonly accepted surgical renal procedures, and we show that these outcomes must be evaluated in the context of tumor characteristics, cancer-specific outcomes and renal function. These QOL issues may be important to consider when choosing surgical procedures for patients with renal tumors. PMID:22245327

  11. Psychosocial Adjustment and Sibling Relationships in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Risk and Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared sibling adjustment and relationships in siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD-Sibs; n = 69) and siblings of children with typical development (TD-Sibs; n = 93). ASD-Sibs and TD-Sibs demonstrated similar emotional/behavioral adjustment. Older male ASD-Sibs were at increased risk for difficulties. Sibling…

  12. The Psychosocial Challenges and Care of Older Adults with Diabetes: "Can't Do What I Used To Do; Can't Be Who I Once Was".

    PubMed

    Beverly, Elizabeth A; Ritholz, Marilyn D; Shepherd, Chelsea; Weinger, Katie

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing in older populations worldwide. Older adults with diabetes have unique psychosocial and medical challenges that impact self-care and glycemic control. These challenges may include psychological factors such as depression or anxiety, social factors such loss of independence and removal from home environment/placement in a facility, and medical factors such as multiple comorbidities and polypharmacy. Importantly, these challenges interact and complicate the everyday life of the older adult with diabetes. Thus, timely identification and interventions for psychosocial and medical challenges are a necessary component of diabetes care. This review summarizes the current literature, research findings, and clinical recommendations for psychosocial care in older adults with diabetes. PMID:27085863

  13. The Effect of Preventive Consultations on Young Adults with Psychosocial Problems: A Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freund, Kirsten S.; Lous, Jorgen

    2012-01-01

    Patients with many problems often face difficulties in modifying their behavior as desired. Uncovered basic needs may be an important barrier. This research tests the effect of patient-centered consultations for 20- to 44-year-old patients with multiple psychosocial and lifestyle problems. We focus on resources and barriers for obtaining…

  14. Psychosocial Outcomes of Adult Children of Mothers with Depression and Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Carol T.; Mowbray, Orion P.

    2006-01-01

    Research has established that children of parents with mental illness, compared with normative samples, are more likely to have emotional/behavioral problems or psychiatric diagnoses themselves. Few studies have examined these children at adulthood, however, to document their diverse psychosocial outcomes and the parenting and contextual variables…

  15. The transmission of trauma in refugee families: associations between intra-family trauma communication style, children's attachment security and psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Dalgaard, Nina Thorup; Todd, Brenda Kathryn; Daniel, Sarah I F; Montgomery, Edith

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the transmission of trauma in 30 Middle Eastern refugee families in Denmark, where one or both parents were referred for treatment of PTSD symptoms and had non-traumatized children aged 4-9 years. The aim of the study was to explore potential risk and protective factors by examining the association between intra-family communication style regarding the parents' traumatic experiences from the past, children's psychosocial adjustment and attachment security. A negative impact of parental trauma on children might be indicated, as children's Total Difficulties Scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) were significantly higher than the Danish norms. A negative association between children's attachment security as measured by the Attachment and Traumatization Story Task and higher scores on the SDQ Total Difficulties Scale approached significance, suggesting that the transmission of trauma may be associated with disruptions in children's attachment representations. Furthermore a significant association between parental trauma communication and children's attachment style was found. PMID:26608277

  16. Bridging the Divide: Openness in Adoption and Post-adoption Psychosocial Adjustment among Birth and Adoptive Parents

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xiaojia; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Martin, David; Leve, Leslie; Neiderhiser, Jenae; Shaw, Daniel S.; Villareal, Georgette; Scaramella, Laura; Reid, John; Reiss, David

    2008-01-01

    Using 323 matched parties of birth mothers and adoptive parents, this study examined the association between the degree of adoption openness (e.g., contact and knowledge between parties) and birth and adoptive parents’ post-adoption adjustment shortly after the adoption placement (6 to 9 months). Data from birth fathers (N=112), an understudied sample, also were explored. Openness was assessed by multiple informants. Results indicated that openness was significantly related to satisfaction with adoption process among adoptive parents and birth mothers. Increased openness was positively associated with birth mothers’ post-placement adjustment as indexed by birth mothers’ self reports and the interviewers’ impression of birth mothers’ adjustment. Birth fathers’ report of openness was associated with their greater satisfaction with the adoption process and better post-adoption adjustment. PMID:18729667

  17. Distinct health behavior and psychosocial profiles of young adult survivors of childhood cancers: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Kincaid; Escoffery, Cam; Mertens, Ann C.; Berg, Carla J.

    2016-01-01

    Background We used a mixed-methods approach to examine health behavior profiles of young adult cancer survivors and characterize related sociodemographic and psychosocial factors. Methods We conducted a mail-based survey assessing sociodemographics, cancer treatment, health behaviors (e.g., tobacco use, physical activity), healthcare provider interactions, and psychosocial factors (e.g., Profile of Moods States [POMS]) among 106 young adult survivors from a southeastern cancer center and semi-structured interviews among a subset of 26. Results A k-means cluster analysis using eight health behaviors yielded three distinct health behavior profiles: high risk (n = 25), moderate risk (n = 39), and low risk (n = 40). High risks had the highest current alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use; physical activity; and number of sexual partners (p’s < 0.001). They had higher symptoms of POMS tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, fatigue-inertia, and confusion-bewilderment (p’s < 0.05). Moderate risks had lowest physical activity (p < 0.05) but otherwise had moderate health behaviors. Low risks had the lowest alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use and fewest sexual partners (p’s < 0.05). They had the lowest levels of tension-anxiety, depression-dejection, fatigue-inertia, and confusion-bewilderment (p’s < 0.05). Qualitative interviews showed that cancer had a range of effects on health behaviors and variable experiences regarding how healthcare providers address these behaviors. Conclusions Assessing health behavior profiles, rather than individual health behaviors, is informative in characterizing young adult cancer survivors and targeting survivorship care. Implications for Cancer Survivors Young adult cancer survivors demonstrate distinct health behavior profiles and are differentially impacted by the experience of cancer. Healthcare providers should be consistently intervening to ensure that survivors understand their specific health risks. PMID:26688575

  18. Cancer in adolescents and young adults psychosocial aspects. Long-term survivors.

    PubMed

    Zeltzer, L K

    1993-05-15

    Survivors of cancer diagnosed during adolescence and young adulthood have had to muster the resources to cope with cancer treatment while accomplishing the tasks unique to this developmental period, tasks such as the accomplishment of economic and emotional independence, capacity for intimacy, solidification of career goals, and formation of a comfortable identity. Studies of survivors of childhood cancer have not found major psychiatric disorders but have pointed out some adjustment difficulties, such as increased health concerns, worries about the development of second neoplasms, increased somatic complaints, and academic problems. Marriage may be delayed, and women, unlike men, worry about their fertility and the health of their future offspring. Survivors of both genders do not appear to be troubled by obvious-to-the-observer physical sequelae. Future studies should examine the quality of life issues pertinent to the successful accomplishment of adult tasks and should include assessment of the facilitators and impediments to carrying out these tasks, particularly during the transition from adolescence into young adulthood. The ultimate goal of the above assessments is to permit not only survival but quality survival. PMID:8490896

  19. Psychosocial Aspects of Siblings' Experiences of Pediatric Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Marla; Brack, Gregory

    1994-01-01

    Identified those aspects of experiences of siblings of children with cancer that might have impact on school functioning. Also examined extent to which parents and siblings concurred in their reports of siblings' psychosocial functioning and adjustment. Findings from 15 children and adults attending pediatric oncology camp revealed that most…

  20. Social Networking Site Use Predicts Changes in Young Adults' Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szwedo, David E.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Allen, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined youths' friendships and posted pictures on social networking sites as predictors of changes in their adjustment over time. Observational, self-report, and peer-report data were obtained from a community sample of 89 young adults interviewed at age 21 and again at age 22. Findings were consistent with a leveling effect for…

  1. Factors Associated with Community Adjustment of Young Adults with Serious Emotional Disturbance: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Kathleen H.; Dedrick, Robert F.; Greenbaum, Paul E.

    2003-01-01

    Rates of change in behaviors in relation to community adjustment were examined for 292 participants in the 7-year longitudinal National Adolescent and Child Treatment Study (NACTS) as they transitioned to the adult world. Participants with initially higher social-adaptive behavior and whose behavior improved over time attained higher adjustment…

  2. A Structural Equation Modeling Approach to the Study of Stress and Psychological Adjustment in Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asberg, Kia K.; Bowers, Clint; Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    Today's society puts constant demands on the time and resources of all individuals, with the resulting stress promoting a decline in psychological adjustment. Emerging adults are not exempt from this experience, with an alarming number reporting excessive levels of stress and stress-related problems. As a result, the present study addresses the…

  3. Mechanisms in Psychosocial Interventions for Adults Living with Cancer: Opportunity for Integration of Theory, Research, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Annette L.; Luecken, Linda J.; MacKinnon, David P.; Thompson, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The diagnosis and treatment of cancer are highly stressful experiences that can profoundly affect emotional and physical well-being. Hundreds of longitudinal investigations that identify risk and protective factors for psychological and physical adjustment in adults living with cancer and numerous randomized controlled psychosocial…

  4. Gain beyond cosmesis: Demonstration of psychosocial and functional gains following successful strabismus surgery using the adult strabismus questionnaire adult strabismus 20

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Danish; Khan, Adeeb Alam; Bani, Sadat AO; Sharma, Richa; Amitava, Abadan K

    2014-01-01

    Background: Strabismus adversely affects psychosocial and functional aspects; while its correction impacts positively. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the gains in scores: Overall scores (OASs), psychosocial subscale scores (PSSs) and functional subscale scores (FSSs) following successful surgical alignment. Settings and Design: We evaluated changed scores in the adult strabismus 20 (AS-20) questionnaire, administered before and after successful surgery. Materials and Methods: Thirty adults horizontal strabismics, were administered the AS-20, at baseline, and at 6-week and 3-month. Group-wise analysis was carried out based on gender, strabismus type (esotropia [ET] or exotropia [XT]), back-ground and amblyopia. Statistical Analysis: We used Wilcoxon, and Mann-Whitney U-tests. Significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: At baseline, there were no significant differences within the groups, except that those with amblyopia significantly scored less than nonamblyopes in OAS (median scores: 53.8 vs. 71.3; P = 0.009) and FSS (56.3 vs. 85.3; P = 0.009). OAS, PSS and FSS showed significant gains at 6-week and 3-month (all Wilcoxon P < 0.001). Compared with males, females showed significantly more gain at 3-month (OAS: 37.9 vs. 28.7; P = 0.02), on account of PSS gain (49.6 vs. 37.5; P = 0.01). The ET performed better than XT only on the FSS at 6-week (28.7 vs. 15.0; P = 0.02). Vis-à-vis the nonamblyopes, the amblyopes showed significantly more benefit at 6-week alone (OAS: 18.7 vs. 28.7; P = 0.04), largely due to gains in PSS. Conclusions: Successful strabismus surgery has demonstrated significant gains in psychosocial, functional and overall functions. There is some evidence that gains may be more in females; with a trend to better outcomes in ET and amblyopes up to 6-week. PMID:25116774

  5. Early Developmental and Psychosocial Risks and Longitudinal Behavioral Adjustment Outcomes for Preschool-Age Girls Adopted from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tony Xing; Marfo, Kofi; Dedrick, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    The central goal of this longitudinal study was to examine behavioral adjustment outcomes in a sample of preschool-age adopted Chinese girls. Research examining the effects of institutional deprivation on post-adoption behavioral outcomes for internationally adopted children has been constrained by the frequent unavailability of data on the…

  6. Don't Fret, Be Supportive! Maternal Characteristics Linking Child Shyness to Psychosocial and School Adjustment in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplan, Robert J.; Arbeau, Kimberley A.; Armer, Mandana

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the moderating role of maternal personality and parenting characteristics in the links between shyness and adjustment in kindergarten. Participants were 197 children enrolled in kindergarten programs (and their mothers and teachers). Multisource assessment was employed, including maternal ratings, behavioral…

  7. Observed and perceived parental overprotection in relation to psychosocial adjustment in preadolescents with a physical disability: the mediational role of behavioral autonomy.

    PubMed

    Holmbeck, Grayson N; Johnson, Sharon Z; Wills, Karen E; McKernon, Wendy; Rose, Brigid; Erklin, Shannon; Kemper, Therese

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to tes a mediational model of associations between parental overprotectiveness (OP), behavioral autonomy. and psychosocial adjustment in 68 families with 8- and 9-year-old preadolescents with spipa bifida and a demographically matched sample of 68 families with able-bodied children. Measures included questionnaire and observational assessments of parental OP; parent and child reports of behavioral autonomy; and parent, child, and teacher reports of preadolescent adjustment. On the basis of both questionnaire and observational measures of OP, mothers and fathers of children with spina bifida were significantly more overprotective than their counterparts in the able-bodied sample, although this group difference was partially mediated by children's cognitive ability. Across samples, mothers were more likely to be overprotective than fathers. Both questionnaire and observational measures of parental OP were associated with lower levels of preadolescent decision-making autonomy as well as with parents being less willing to grant autonomy to their offspring in the future. For the questionnaire measure of OP, and only for the spina bifida sample. the mediational model was supported such that parental OP was associated with less behavioral autonomy, which was, in turn, associated with more externalizing problems. Findings are discussed in relation to the literature on parenting, autonomy development, and pediatric psychology. PMID:11860060

  8. Adult Attachment, Culturally Adjusted Attachment, and Interpersonal Difficulties of Taiwanese Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chia-Chih DC; Scalise, Dominick A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the applicability of Western adult attachment perspectives to interpersonal difficulties experienced by individuals with indigenous Chinese cultural backgrounds. A total of 275 Taiwanese university students completed self-report surveys of adult attachment, ideal attachment, and interpersonal problems. Culturally adjusted…

  9. HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE AND PSYCHOSOCIAL CORRELATES AMONG HIV-INFECTED ADOLESCENT AND YOUNG ADULT WOMEN IN THE US

    PubMed Central

    Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Clum, Gretchen; Murphy, Debra A.; Harper, Gary; Perez, Lori; Xu, Jiahong; Cunningham, Shayna; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study HIV health-related quality of life (HIV-HRQOL) is examined among 179 behaviorally infected adolescent and young adult women. Modifiable psychosocial variables including depression, stigma, social support, and illness acceptance, and the biological end-points of CD4 cell count and viral load were explored in relation to HIV-HRQOL. The three factors of the HIV-HRQOL measure include current life satisfaction, illness related anxiety and illness burden. Bivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated statistically significant associations for all psychosocial variables and HIV-HRQOL factors (p < .01), but not for biological end-points. In multivariate linear regression analysis significant associations remained between: depression (p = .006), illness acceptance (p < .001), social support (p = .001), and current life satisfaction, and depression (p = .012), illness acceptance (p = .015), and illness burden. A trend in association was noted for HIV stigma, with current life satisfaction and illness related anxiety but did not reach statistical significance (p = .097 and p = .109 respectively). Interventions that effectively decrease stigma and depression and increase social support and illness acceptance will likely improve the well-being and quality of life of HIV-infected adolescent women. PMID:21966746

  10. Cognitive and Psychosocial Factors in the Long-Term Development of Implicit and Explicit Second Language Knowledge in Adult Learners of Spanish at Increasing Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafini, Ellen Johnson

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the second language (L2) development of adult learners of Spanish at three levels of proficiency during and after a semester of instruction. A fundamental goal was to identify cognitive and psychosocial individual differences (IDs) that can explain between-learner variation over time in order to expand our understanding of the…

  11. Don't fret, be supportive! maternal characteristics linking child shyness to psychosocial and school adjustment in kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Coplan, Robert J; Arbeau, Kimberley A; Armer, Mandana

    2008-04-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the moderating role of maternal personality and parenting characteristics in the links between shyness and adjustment in kindergarten. Participants were 197 children enrolled in kindergarten programs (and their mothers and teachers). Multisource assessment was employed, including maternal ratings, behavioral observations, teacher ratings, and individual child interviews. Results indicated that shyness was associated with a wide range of socio-emotional and school adjustment difficulties in kindergarten. Moreover, support for the moderating role of parenting was also found. Relations between shyness and certain indices of maladjustment were stronger among children with mothers characterized by higher neuroticism, BIS sensitivity, and an overprotective parenting style, and weaker for mothers characterized by high agree-ableness and an authoritative parenting style. PMID:17899358

  12. Associations of frailty and psychosocial factors with autonomy in daily activities: a cross-sectional study in Italian community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Mulasso, Anna; Roppolo, Mattia; Giannotta, Fabrizia; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Frailty has been recognized as a risk factor for geriatric adverse events. Little is known of the role of psychosocial factors associated with frailty in explaining negative outcomes of aging. This study was aimed at 1) evaluating the differences in psychosocial factors among robust, prefrail, and frail individuals and 2) investigating whether there was any interaction effect of frailty status with empirically identified clusters of psychosocial factors on autonomy in the activities of daily living (ADLs). Two-hundred and ten older adults (age 73±6 years, 66% women) were involved in this study. Frailty was assessed using an adapted version of the frailty phenotype. The psychosocial factors investigated were depressive symptoms using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, social isolation using the Friendship Scale, and loneliness feeling using the eight-item UCLA Loneliness Scale. The autonomy in ADLs was measured with the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. Thirty-one percent of participants were robust, 55% prefrail, and 14% frail. We performed an analysis of covariance which showed differences between robust, prefrail, and frail individuals for all the psychosocial variables: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, F(2, 205)=18.48, P<0.001; Friendship Scale, F(2, 205)=4.59, P=0.011; UCLA Loneliness Scale, F(2, 205)=5.87, P=0.003, controlling for age and sex. Using the same covariates, the two-way analysis of covariance indicated an interaction effect of frailty with psychosocial factors in determining ADLs, F(4, 199)=3.53, P=0.008. This study demonstrates the close relationship between frailty and psychosocial factors, suggesting the need to take into account simultaneously physical and psychosocial components of human functioning. PMID:26811675

  13. Associations of frailty and psychosocial factors with autonomy in daily activities: a cross-sectional study in Italian community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Mulasso, Anna; Roppolo, Mattia; Giannotta, Fabrizia; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Frailty has been recognized as a risk factor for geriatric adverse events. Little is known of the role of psychosocial factors associated with frailty in explaining negative outcomes of aging. This study was aimed at 1) evaluating the differences in psychosocial factors among robust, prefrail, and frail individuals and 2) investigating whether there was any interaction effect of frailty status with empirically identified clusters of psychosocial factors on autonomy in the activities of daily living (ADLs). Two-hundred and ten older adults (age 73±6 years, 66% women) were involved in this study. Frailty was assessed using an adapted version of the frailty phenotype. The psychosocial factors investigated were depressive symptoms using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, social isolation using the Friendship Scale, and loneliness feeling using the eight-item UCLA Loneliness Scale. The autonomy in ADLs was measured with the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. Thirty-one percent of participants were robust, 55% prefrail, and 14% frail. We performed an analysis of covariance which showed differences between robust, prefrail, and frail individuals for all the psychosocial variables: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, F(2, 205)=18.48, P<0.001; Friendship Scale, F(2, 205)=4.59, P=0.011; UCLA Loneliness Scale, F(2, 205)=5.87, P=0.003, controlling for age and sex. Using the same covariates, the two-way analysis of covariance indicated an interaction effect of frailty with psychosocial factors in determining ADLs, F(4, 199)=3.53, P=0.008. This study demonstrates the close relationship between frailty and psychosocial factors, suggesting the need to take into account simultaneously physical and psychosocial components of human functioning. PMID:26811675

  14. Psychosocial oncofertility issues faced by adolescents and young adults over their lifetime: a review of the research.

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, Marilyn

    2013-03-01

    This review considers psychosocial oncofertility research relevant to adolescents and young adults over their lifetime. There is growing awareness of the fertility preservation needs of younger males including lowering practical barriers and attending to emotional impact. Despite decisional challenges facing females--the experimental nature of procedures, time involved and potential involvement of partners/donors (for embryo cryopreservation)--findings suggest they too benefit from fertility information at diagnosis and access to fertility specialists. Studies consistently report that fertility concerns affect well-being, relationships and life planning. Both genders thus want fertility issues to be raised proactively by professionals in the years following diagnosis: to help them make informed decisions at a time relevant to them, develop coping strategies for current and future related areas and to be referred to specialist and/or therapeutic help if needed. Little is known about why cancer survivors are less likely to marry or have children, or about their parenthood experiences. PMID:23009083

  15. Postural adjustment errors during lateral step initiation in older and younger adults

    PubMed Central

    Sparto, Patrick J.; Fuhrman, Susan I.; Redfern, Mark S.; Perera, Subashan; Jennings, J. Richard; Furman, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to examine age differences and varying levels of step response inhibition on the performance of a voluntary lateral step initiation task. Seventy older adults (70 – 94 y) and twenty younger adults (21 – 58 y) performed visually-cued step initiation conditions based on direction and spatial location of arrows, ranging from a simple choice reaction time task to a perceptual inhibition task that included incongruous cues about which direction to step (e.g. a left pointing arrow appearing on the right side of a monitor). Evidence of postural adjustment errors and step latencies were recorded from vertical ground reaction forces exerted by the stepping leg. Compared with younger adults, older adults demonstrated greater variability in step behavior, generated more postural adjustment errors during conditions requiring inhibition, and had greater step initiation latencies that increased more than younger adults as the inhibition requirements of the condition became greater. Step task performance was related to clinical balance test performance more than executive function task performance. PMID:25595953

  16. Spiritual Coping and Psychosocial Adjustment of Adolescents with Chronic Illness: The Role of Cognitive Attributions, Age, and Disease Group

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Nina; Mrug, Sylvie; Guion, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Spiritual coping is an important determinant of adjustment in youth with chronic illness, but the mechanisms through which it affects outcomes have not been elucidated. It is also unknown whether the role of spiritual coping varies by age or disease group. This study evaluated whether general cognitive attributions explain the effects of spiritual coping on internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescents with cystic fibrosis and diabetes and whether these relationships vary by age or disease group. Methods In this cross-sectional study, adolescents (N=128; M=14.7 yrs) diagnosed with cystic fibrosis or diabetes completed measures of spiritual coping and attributional style. Adolescents and their caregivers reported on adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing problems. Results Overall, positive spiritual coping was associated with fewer internalizing and externalizing problems. Negative spiritual coping was related to more externalizing problems, and for adolescents with cystic fibrosis only, also internalizing problems. Optimistic attributions mediated the effects of positive spiritual coping among adolescents with diabetes. The results did not vary by age. Conclusions An optimistic attribution style may help explain the effects of positive, but not negative, spiritual coping on adjustment of youth with diabetes. Youth with progressive, life-threatening illnesses, such as cystic fibrosis, may be more vulnerable to the harmful effects of negative spiritual coping. Future research should examine if addressing spiritual concerns and promoting optimistic attributions improves adolescents’ emotional and behavioral functioning. PMID:23298988

  17. Vocational identity and psychological adjustment: a study in French adolescents and emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Lannegrand-Willems, Lyda; Perchec, Cyrille; Marchal, Clotilde

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present research was to study vocational identity in French adolescent and emerging adult students by using a French adaptation of the Vocational Identity Status Assessment (VISA), and to analyze the links between vocational identity formation and negative and positive psychological adjustment. Participants were 1077 French students who completed self-report scales about vocational identity, depression and satisfaction with life. The French version of the VISA showed good psychometric properties and six identity statuses were derived by means of cluster analysis: achievement, foreclosure, moratorium, searching moratorium, diffused diffusion and carefree diffusion. The main findings show that diffused diffusion and moratorium represent the dark sides of identity because of their negative psychological adjustment, and that the two processes of reconsideration of commitment were differently associated with psychological adjustment. These findings demonstrate that clinical interventions should be adapted to the individual's identity profile. PMID:26603910

  18. Childhood celebrity, parental attachment, and adult adjustment: the young performers study.

    PubMed

    Rapport, L J; Meleen, M

    1998-06-01

    The associations between celebrity, parental attachment, and adult adjustment were examined among 74 famous, former young performers in television and film. As adults, former young performers whose parents served as their professional managers viewed their mothers as less caring and more overcontrolling than did performers whose parents were not their managers. Other factors affecting the quality of the parent-child relationship included dissatisfaction with money management, poor peer support, the perception that involvement in acting was determined by others, and the specific nature of professional experience. Together, these variables accounted for 59% of the variance in perceived caring and 40% of the variance in perceived autonomy support. The relation could not be attributed to a generalized response bias, as attachment was unrelated to degree of positive thinking. A Celebrity x Parental Attachment interaction indicated that the quality of the parent-child relationship moderated the effects of celebrity on adult adjustment: Among participants with good parental attachment, there was no relation between professional experience and adjustment; however, among participants with poor attachment, this relation was strong. Possible implications for parenting child actors and analogous populations of talented children in high-stress arenas are discussed. PMID:9760740

  19. College female and male heavy internet users' profiles of practices and their academic grades and psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su-Yen; Tzeng, Jeng-Yi

    2010-06-01

    This study presents the profiles of heavy Internet users and provides empirical evidence that it is not how much time university students spend online but what they do online that is associated with academic grades and psychological adjustment. Using a nationally representative sample from Taiwan, we employed K-mean cluster analysis and identified profiles based on nine Internet practices in which users engaged. Female heavy users favoring information seeking and chatting had better academic performance but tended to feel more depressed than nonheavy users, while those favoring information seeking, chatting, and online games had lower academic grades and greater loneliness, physical illness, and depression scores than nonheavy users. In contrast, only male heavy users favoring online games had lower academic grades, whereas those who favored information seeking, chatting, and online games were more likely than nonheavy users to feel physically ill and depressed. PMID:20557244

  20. Ethnic identity trajectories among Mexican-origin girls during early and middle adolescence: Predicting future psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A; Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y; Allen, Kimberly

    2016-05-01

    We examined trajectories of ethnic identity exploration, resolution, and affirmation and their associations with depressive symptoms and self-esteem 3.5 years later among early and middle adolescent Mexican-origin girls (N = 338). Findings indicated that exploration, resolution, and affirmation increased over time for both cohorts. Among early adolescents, growth in exploration was associated with more depressive symptoms during middle adolescence, whereas higher initial levels and greater rates of change of affirmation predicted fewer subsequent depressive symptoms. Among middle adolescents, higher baseline levels of exploration and affirmation predicted fewer depressive symptoms in late adolescence. Higher initial levels and greater change in affirmation predicted higher self-esteem among both cohorts. Findings highlight the developmental and multifaceted quality of ethnic identity and that associations between ethnic identity and adjustment may vary by adolescent developmental stage. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26986228

  1. Association of Psychosocial Conditions, Oral Health, and Dietary Variety with Intellectual Activity in Older Community-Dwelling Japanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Kimiko; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kurumatani, Norio; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examined the factors related to intellectual activity in community-dwelling elderly persons. Methods Self-administered questionnaires mailed to all people aged ≥65 years in a dormitory suburb in Japan (n = 15,210). The response rate was 72.2%. Analytical subjects (n = 8,910) were those who lived independently and completely answered questions about independent and dependent variables and covariates. Independent variables included psychosocial conditions (i.e., social activities, hobbies, and a sense that life is worth living (ikigai)), oral health (i.e., dental health behaviors and oral function evaluated by chewing difficulties, swallowing difficulties, and oral dryness), and dietary variety measured using the dietary variety score (DVS). A dependent variable was intellectual activity measured using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Covariates included age, gender, family structure, pensions, body mass index, alcohol, smoking, medical history, self-rated health, medications, cognitive function, depression, and falling. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for poor intellectual activity. Results Poor intellectual activity was reported by 28.9% of the study population. After adjustment for covariates and independent variables, poor intellectual activity was significantly associated with nonparticipation in social activities (OR = 1.90, 95%CI = 1.61–2.24), having neither hobbies nor ikigai (3.13, 2.55–3.84), having neither regular dental visits nor daily brushing (1.70, 1.35–2.14), the poorest oral function (1.61, 1.31–1.98), and the lowest DVS quartile (1.96, 1.70–2.26). Conclusion These results indicate that psychosocial conditions, oral health, and dietary variety are independently associated with intellectual activity in elderly persons. The factors identified in this study may be used in community health programs for maintaining the intellectual activity ability of the

  2. Adolescent obesity and future substance use: Incorporating the psychosocial context.

    PubMed

    Lanza, H Isabella; Grella, Christine E; Chung, Paul J

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of work has shown that obese adolescents are at risk of engaging in problematic substance use, but mixed findings highlight the complexity of the relationship. Incorporating the psychosocial context into this research may inform past discrepancies. The current study assessed whether obese adolescents had a higher likelihood of experiencing a psychosocial context that predicted problematic substance use in young adulthood. Latent class analysis on 10,637 adolescents from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) identified four psychosocial classes in adolescence: Adjusted, Deviant Peer/Victimization, Moderate Depression, and Maladjusted. Obese adolescents were more likely to belong to the Maladjusted class, characterized by higher levels of depression and deviant peer affiliation. Those in the Maladjusted class had the second highest levels of cigarette smoking and marijuana use in young adulthood. Obese adolescents' psychosocial context should be considered in future research linking obesity and substance use. PMID:26349450

  3. Mutual influences in adult romantic attachment, religious coping, and marital adjustment.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Sara E; Riggs, Shelley A; Hook, Joshua N

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we examined associations among romantic attachment anxiety and avoidance, positive and negative religious coping, and marital adjustment in a community sample of 81 heterosexual couples. Multilevel modeling (MLM) for the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM; Cook & Kenny, 2005) was used to analyze data from both spouses. Romantic attachment avoidance was associated with less positive religious coping, and romantic attachment anxiety was associated with more negative religious coping. Findings are discussed in light of Hall, Fujikawa, Halcrow, Hill, and Delaney's (2009) Implicit Internal Working Model Correspondence framework. We also found support for Sullivan's (2001) compensation model for attachment avoidance but not for attachment anxiety. That is, positive religious coping buffered the deleterious relationship between attachment avoidance and marital adjustment. However, positive religious coping did not attenuate the negative impact of attachment anxiety on marital adjustment and was associated with higher marital adjustment only for those individuals with low attachment anxiety. Surprisingly, negative religious coping reduced the negative impact of the partner's attachment anxiety on respondents' marital adjustment. Results suggest that attachment theory is one useful approach to conceptualizing religious coping, highlight the complexity of these associations, and point to future research directions. Findings also support the consideration of both attachment dimensions and religious coping in research and applied work with adults and couples. PMID:24798813

  4. Looking back: the experience of first sexual intercourse and current sexual adjustment in young heterosexual adults.

    PubMed

    Reissing, Elke D; Andruff, Heather L; Wentland, Jocelyn J

    2012-01-01

    A young person's first consensual sexual intercourse experience is often a remarkable and memorable experience. However, little systematic information exists regarding contextual factors of first intercourse, the affective salience of the experience, possible effects on sexual attitudes and beliefs, and subsequent sexual development and adjustment. This retrospective study aimed to examine these in a sample of 475 young adults. Overall, young men and women experienced intercourse for the first time around age 17, were in a committed relationship, and reported positive affective responses. Affective reactions to the first sexual intercourse experience, sexual self-efficacy, sexual aversion, and age at first intercourse affected individuals' current sexual adjustment; however, only sexual self-efficacy mediated between first intercourse and current sexual adjustment in young men and women. Older age at first intercourse was associated with less sexual self-efficacy and lower current sexual adjustment for women. This study provides initial data to suggest that the first sexual intercourse experience significantly impacts current sexual adjustment by affecting beliefs about sexual self-efficacy. PMID:21161815

  5. Maternal depression across the first years of life compromises child psychosocial adjustment; relations to child HPA-axis functioning.

    PubMed

    Apter-Levi, Yael; Pratt, Maayan; Vakart, Adam; Feldman, Michal; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Feldman, Ruth

    2016-02-01

    Maternal depression across the first years of life negatively impacts children's development. One pathway of vulnerability may involve functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We utilize a community cohort of 1983 women with no comorbid risk repeatedly assessed for depression from birth to six years to form two groups; chronically depressed (N=40) and non-depressed (N=91) women. At six years, mother and child underwent psychiatric diagnosis, child salivary cortisol (CT) was assessed three times during a home-visit, mother-child interaction was videotaped, and child empathy was coded from behavioral paradigms. Latent Growth curve Model using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) estimated the links between maternal depression and mother's negative parenting and three child outcomes; psychopathology, social withdrawal, and empathy as related to child CT baseline and variability. Depressed mothers displayed more negative parenting and their children showed more Axis-I psychopathology and social withdrawal. SEM analysis revealed that maternal depression was associated with reduced CT variability, which predicted higher child psychopathology and social withdrawal. Whereas all children exhibited similar initial levels of CT, children of controls reduced CT levels over time while children of depressed mothers maintained high, non-flexible levels. Mother negativity was related to lower initial CT levels, which predicted decreased empathy. Findings suggest that chronic maternal depression may compromise children's social-emotional adjustment by diminishing HPA-system flexibility as well as limiting the mother's capacity to provide attuned and predictable caregiving. PMID:26610204

  6. The Role of Coparents in African American Single-Mother Families: The Indirect Effect of Coparent identity On Youth Psychosocial Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Parent, Justin; Jones, Deborah J.; Forehand, Rex; Cuellar, Jessica; Shoulberg, Erin K.

    2014-01-01

    The majority (67%) of African American youth live in single-parent households, a shift in the family structure that has been linked to increased risk for both internalizing and externalizing problems behaviors. Although the majority of single mothers endorse the assistance of another adult or family member in childrearing, relatively little is known about who is engaged in this non-marital coparenting role (i.e., grandmother, father/social father, aunt, and female family friend) and how it relates to coparenting quality, maternal parenting, and youth psychosocial outcomes (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems). This question, which is critical to the advancement of family-focused programming for youth in these families, is addressed in this study. The participants examined in the current study were 159 African American single-mother child dyads. Adolescents' maternal grandmothers constituted the largest proportion of coparents in the sample (37.2%), followed by the mothers' female family friends (22.5%), adolescents' maternal aunts (12.7%), and adolescents' fathers/social fathers (11%). Differences emerged among groups of coparents in support and conflict with the mother. Specifically, grandmothers, aunts, and female family friends provided significantly more instrumental support than fathers. Furthermore, grandmothers and fathers had more conflict with the mother, both generally and specifically in front of the child, than aunts or female family friends. In turn, these differences were associated directly and indirectly through maternal parenting with internalizing and externalizing problems. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:23398615

  7. Adult trauma and HIV status among Latinas: effects upon psychological adjustment and substance use.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, Michael D; Carmona, Jennifer Vargas

    2004-12-01

    Latinas have unique cultural factors that can contribute to their health, including recent immigration, documentation status, and language barriers. Additional stressors and experiencing traumatic events can further compromise their psychological adjustment and substance use. This study tests the differential contribution of adult trauma and other life stressors to psychological adjustment and substance use among Latinas who differ in their HIV status and level of acculturation. Baseline and 1-year follow-up data on a community sample of 113 (79 HIV-positive and 34 HIV-negative) 1 to 50 year old Latinas were examined with path analyses to estimate the influence of acculturation, HIV status, and adult trauma, including intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual assault, on subsequent changes in psychological adjustment (depression) and substance use 1 year later. Age, education, and relationship status were controlled and further analyses examined the interactive influence of HIV status and acculturation and trauma on the outcomes. Findings indicate that both acculturation and HIV status were related to the outcome variables, but did not influence these over time, emphasizing the developmental stability of these processes. Education was the most prominent variable in protecting these women from HIV, depression, and intimate partner violence (IPV), but placed them at greater risk for illicit drug use. The primary predictors of change in the outcome variables were domestic and sexual trauma were exacerbated by HIV positive status. Implications for future research and culturally relevant prevention and intervention programs are discussed. PMID:15690115

  8. Identifying Psychosocial Variables That Predict Safer Sex Intentions in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Brüll, Phil; Ruiter, Robert A C; Wiers, Reinout W; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-01-01

    Young people are especially vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The triad of deliberate and effective safer sex behavior encompasses condom use, combined with additional information about a partner's sexual health, and the kind of sex acts usually performed. To identify psychosocial predictors of young people's intentions to have safer sex, as related to this triad, we conducted an online study with 211 sexually active participants aged between 18 and 24 years. Predictors [i.e., perceived behavioral control (PBC), subjective norms, and intention] taken from Fishbein and Ajzen's Reasoned Action Approach (RAA), were combined with more distal variables (e.g., behavioral inhibition, sensation seeking, parental monitoring, and knowledge about STIs). Beyond the highly predictive power of RAA variables, additional variance was explained by the number of instances of unprotected sexual intercourse (SI) during the last 12 months and reasons for using barrier protection during first SI. In particular, past condom non-use behavior moderated PBC related to intended condom use. Further, various distal variables showed significant univariate associations with intentions related to the three behaviors of interest. It may, therefore, be helpful to include measures of past behavior as well as certain additional distal variables in future safer sex programs designed to promote health-sustaining sexual behavior. PMID:27148520

  9. Identifying Psychosocial Variables That Predict Safer Sex Intentions in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brüll, Phil; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Kok, Gerjo

    2016-01-01

    Young people are especially vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The triad of deliberate and effective safer sex behavior encompasses condom use, combined with additional information about a partner’s sexual health, and the kind of sex acts usually performed. To identify psychosocial predictors of young people’s intentions to have safer sex, as related to this triad, we conducted an online study with 211 sexually active participants aged between 18 and 24 years. Predictors [i.e., perceived behavioral control (PBC), subjective norms, and intention] taken from Fishbein and Ajzen’s Reasoned Action Approach (RAA), were combined with more distal variables (e.g., behavioral inhibition, sensation seeking, parental monitoring, and knowledge about STIs). Beyond the highly predictive power of RAA variables, additional variance was explained by the number of instances of unprotected sexual intercourse (SI) during the last 12 months and reasons for using barrier protection during first SI. In particular, past condom non-use behavior moderated PBC related to intended condom use. Further, various distal variables showed significant univariate associations with intentions related to the three behaviors of interest. It may, therefore, be helpful to include measures of past behavior as well as certain additional distal variables in future safer sex programs designed to promote health-sustaining sexual behavior. PMID:27148520

  10. The impact of psychosocial factors on subjective well-being among homeless young adults.

    PubMed

    Barczyk, Amanda N; Thompson, Sanna J; Rew, Lynn

    2014-08-01

    Homeless young adults are one of this country's most vulnerable populations, and information surrounding issues of subjective well-being among this particularly diverse population is scarce. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact social support, future expectations, and homeless cultural factors have on subjective well-being among homeless young adults. A purposive sample of 185 homeless young people, ages 18 to 23, and known to use alcohol or drugs, participated in the study. Multiple regression analyses showed that participants who had a higher level of subjective well-being reported significantly higher levels of social support, more optimistic expectations of the future, and a better perception of the flow of time. More fatalistic views of the future significantly predicted lower levels of subjective well-being. Findings suggest that service providers should focus on understanding the strengths of individuals and, specifically, gain a deeper understanding of homeless young adults' support networks and views of the future. PMID:25095630

  11. Cardiovascular Responses to Psychosocial Stress Reflect Motivation State in Adults Born at Extremely Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Pyhälä, Riikka; Hovi, Petteri; Räikkönen, Katri; Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Boyle, Michael H.; Saigal, Saroj; Morrison, Katherine M.; Kajantie, Eero; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Adults born extremely preterm appear to have more difficulty managing the stresses of early adulthood than their term-born peers. Objective. To examine the effects of being born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight < 1000 g) versus at full term on cardiovascular responses to stress. Method. Cardiovascular responses were elicited during administration of a widely used laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results. Term-born adults exhibited a larger decrease in total peripheral resistance and larger increase in cardiac output for TSST performance, reflecting greater resilience, than did ELBW adults. Furthermore, in ELBW participants but not controls, cardiovascular responses were correlated with anxiety, suggesting that their responses reflected feelings of stress. Conclusions. Skills-training and practice with relevant stressors may be necessary to increase the personal resources of ELBW participants for managing stress as they transition to adulthood. PMID:27335948

  12. Cardiovascular Responses to Psychosocial Stress Reflect Motivation State in Adults Born at Extremely Low Birth Weight.

    PubMed

    Mathewson, Karen J; Pyhälä, Riikka; Hovi, Petteri; Räikkönen, Katri; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Boyle, Michael H; Saigal, Saroj; Morrison, Katherine M; Kajantie, Eero; Schmidt, Louis A

    2015-01-01

    Background. Adults born extremely preterm appear to have more difficulty managing the stresses of early adulthood than their term-born peers. Objective. To examine the effects of being born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight < 1000 g) versus at full term on cardiovascular responses to stress. Method. Cardiovascular responses were elicited during administration of a widely used laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results. Term-born adults exhibited a larger decrease in total peripheral resistance and larger increase in cardiac output for TSST performance, reflecting greater resilience, than did ELBW adults. Furthermore, in ELBW participants but not controls, cardiovascular responses were correlated with anxiety, suggesting that their responses reflected feelings of stress. Conclusions. Skills-training and practice with relevant stressors may be necessary to increase the personal resources of ELBW participants for managing stress as they transition to adulthood. PMID:27335948

  13. Career Pursuit Pathways among Emerging Adult Men and Women: Psychosocial Correlates and Precursors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shmuel; Barr, Tamuz; Livneh, Yaara; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Vasalampi, Kati; Pratt, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined career pursuit pathways in 100 Israeli emerging adults (54 men) who were followed from age 22 to 29. Employing a semi-structured interview at the age of 29, participants were asked about current work and educational status, work and educational goals and status changes in recent years, and to reflect on the meaning of…

  14. Perceived Social Support from Friends and Family and Psychosocial Functioning in Bisexual Young Adult College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheets, Raymond L., Jr.; Mohr, Jonathan J.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the degree to which perceived social support was associated with depression, life satisfaction, and internalized binegativity in a sample of 210 bisexual young adult college students. Two types of social support (general and sexuality specific) and 2 sources of social support (family and friends) were…

  15. Autonomic and Neuroendocrine Responses to a Psychosocial Stressor in Adults with Autistic Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Gispen-de Wied, Christine C.; Wiegant, Victor M.; Westenberg, Herman G. M.; Lahuis, Bertine E.; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Objective of the study was to replicate in adults our previous findings of decreased heart rate and normal endocrine responses to stress in autistic children and to elucidate the discrepancy between autonomic and endocrine stress responses by including epinephrine, norepinephrine, oxytocin and vasopressin measurements. Ten autistic spectrum…

  16. Training Effects on Older Adults in Information and Communication Technologies Considering Psychosocial Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Sónia; Torres, Ana; Mealha, Óscar; Veloso, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to contribute knowledge about the impact of the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) on the self-concept, mood, and quality of life of institutionalized older adults in retirement homes and day care centers (Portuguese institutions). It also studies the influence of independent variables such as…

  17. Patterns of Romantic Involvement among Emerging Adults: Psychosocial Correlates and Precursors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shmuel; Scharf, Miri; Livne, Yaara; Barr, Tamuz

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined patterns of romantic involvement in 100 Israeli emerging adults (54 males) who were followed from age 22 to 29 years. Analyses of interviews at age 29 yielded four distinctive relational patterns that are associated with different levels of concurrent wellbeing: Intimately committed, Intimate, Non- intimately committed,…

  18. Longitudinal psychosocial factors related to symptoms of Internet addiction among adults in early midlife.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S; Leukefeld, Carl G; Brook, David W

    2016-11-01

    In this longitudinal study, we applied structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the psychosocial factors from adolescence to adulthood as related to symptoms of Internet addiction (IA) during early midlife. We gathered longitudinal data on a prospective cohort of community-dwelling men and women (N=548) followed from adolescence to early midlife (mean age=43; SD=2.8). The findings supported a meditational model: adolescent (mean age=16) conflictual parent-child relationship was associated with internalizing problem behaviors at mean age 21 in emerging adulthood (b=0.13, p<0.01), which, in turn, were associated with both alcohol/drug use problems at mean age 27-32 (b=0.24, p<0.001) and affective disorders at mean age 37 (b=0.29, p<0.001), which, ultimately, were associated with symptoms of IA in early midlife (b=0.23, p<0.01; b=0.21, p<0.05, respectively). In addition, alcohol/drug use problems were associated with affective disorders (b=0.22, p<0.05). Among the constructs, alcohol/drug use problems had the greatest total effects on symptoms of IA in early midlife (b=0.28, p<0.001). Findings suggest that family therapy focused on an increase in the affectionate relationship between the adolescent and his/her parents, cognitive-behavioral treatment of internalizing problem behaviors, and effective treatment of individuals who have alcohol/drug use problems may reduce the likelihood of having symptoms of IA in early midlife. PMID:27341513

  19. Anticipatory Postural Adjustments in Standing Reach Tasks Among Middle-Aged Adults With Diplegic Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Su, Ivan Y W; Chow, Daniel H K

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies reported that children with cerebral palsy (CP) exhibited premature anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) with high variability and excessive activity in the frontal plane. To better understand the effects of gross motor functioning level on APAs over the life course, the authors examined the presence and consistency of APAs in 11 adults with diplegia at 2 functioning levels against 8 age-matched healthy adults during unilateral and bilateral reaching. Results revealed an anticipatory vertical torque (TZ) and an increased likelihood of APAs during bilateral reaching for the lower functioning group. It is postulated that APAs may first emerge in TZ in CP. Results also indicated an excessive premovement postural activity in the frontal plane in both CP groups. PMID:26730748

  20. Co-rumination via cellphone moderates the association of perceived interpersonal stress and psychosocial well-being in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Karla Klein; Gorman, Sarah; Robbins, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents' and emerging adults' social interactions increasingly revolve around cellphone use, but little research has investigated the psychological properties of cellphone interactions. The current study explored co-rumination via cellphone; that is, the use of cellphone functions to excessively communicate about problems or negative feelings. Face-to-face co-rumination and co-rumination via cellphone were examined as potential moderators of the association between perceived interpersonal stress and psychosocial well-being (i.e., positive mental health and social burnout) in a sample of 142 college students. Face-to-face co-rumination was not a moderator. However, co-rumination via cellphone was a significant moderator such that higher levels of perceived interpersonal stress were associated with lower levels of well-being only among college students who reported higher levels of co-rumination via cellphone. Co-rumination via cellphone should be further investigated to elucidate its developmental trajectory and mental health correlates. PMID:25460677

  1. Comorbidity Structure of Psychological Disorders in the Online e-PASS Data as Predictors of Psychosocial Adjustment Measures: Psychological Distress, Adequate Social Support, Self-Confidence, Quality of Life, and Suicidal Ideation

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Britt; Meyer, Denny

    2014-01-01

    Background A relative newcomer to the field of psychology, e-mental health has been gaining momentum and has been given considerable research attention. Although several aspects of e-mental health have been studied, 1 aspect has yet to receive attention: the structure of comorbidity of psychological disorders and their relationships with measures of psychosocial adjustment including suicidal ideation in online samples. Objective This exploratory study attempted to identify the structure of comorbidity of 21 psychological disorders assessed by an automated online electronic psychological assessment screening system (e-PASS). The resulting comorbidity factor scores were then used to assess the association between comorbidity factor scores and measures of psychosocial adjustments (ie, psychological distress, suicidal ideation, adequate social support, self-confidence in dealing with mental health issues, and quality of life). Methods A total of 13,414 participants were assessed using a complex online algorithm that resulted in primary and secondary Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision) diagnoses for 21 psychological disorders on dimensional severity scales. The scores on these severity scales were used in a principal component analysis (PCA) and the resulting comorbidity factor scores were related to 4 measures of psychosocial adjustments. Results A PCA based on 17 of the 21 psychological disorders resulted in a 4-factor model of comorbidity: anxiety-depression consisting of all anxiety disorders, major depressive episode (MDE), and insomnia; substance abuse consisting of alcohol and drug abuse and dependency; body image–eating consisting of eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorders; depression–sleep problems consisting of MDE, insomnia, and hypersomnia. All comorbidity factor scores were significantly associated with psychosocial measures of adjustment (P<.001). They were

  2. Influence of adult attachment insecurities on parenting self-esteem: the mediating role of dyadic adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Vincenzo; Bianco, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Background: Parenting self-esteem includes two global components, parents’ self-efficacy and satisfaction with their parental role, and has a crucial role in parent–child interactions. The purpose of this study was to develop an integrative model linking adult attachment insecurities, dyadic adjustment, and parenting self-esteem. Methods: The study involved 118 pairs (236 subjects) of heterosexual parents of a firstborn child aged 0–6 years. They were administered the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) questionnaire, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale. Results: Path analysis was used to design and test a theoretical integrative model, achieving a good fit with the data. Findings showed that dyadic adjustment mediates the negative influence on parenting self-efficacy of both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. Parenting satisfaction is positively influenced by parenting self-efficacy and negatively affected by child’s age. Attachment anxiety negatively influences parenting satisfaction. Conclusion: Our findings are in line with the theoretical expectations and have promising implications for future research and intervention programs designed to improve parenting self-esteem. PMID:26441811

  3. Individual characteristics and relocation factors affecting adjustment among relocated American and Egyptian older adults.

    PubMed

    Bekhet, Abir K; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2014-02-01

    Worldwide, the population of elders is increasing significantly. Relocation can be a positive or a negative experience, depending on many factors, including culture. The purpose of this study is to compare individual characteristics (age, gender, marital status, education, perceived health status, activities of daily living), relocation factors (movement preparation, time passed since relocation, closeness of prior home to the present, and whether relocation was from home or another facility), and adjustment in relocated American and Egyptian elders. This secondary analysis study merged data from two cross-sectional descriptive studies of a 104 elders relocated to retirement communities in Northeast Ohio and 94 elders relocated to retirement communities in Alexandria, Egypt. Our findings indicated that American elders have greater independence in daily activities (t (161.23) = -3.03, p = .003); better perceived health (χ(2)[3, N = 198] = 53.21, p < .001), better education (χ(2)[1, N = 198] = 47.28, p < .001), better preparation before the move (χ(2)[1, N = 198] = 40.58, p < .001), and better relocation adjustment (t (196) = 9.42, p < .001) than relocated Egyptian elders. Our results indicate that culture should be taken into account when caring for older adults who relocate to retirement communities. Additionally, interventions, such as counseling, and preparation before relocation are needed to help elders adjust to relocation. PMID:24502465

  4. Food addiction in adults seeking weight loss treatment. Implications for psychosocial health and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Burmeister, Jacob M; Hinman, Nova; Koball, Afton; Hoffmann, Debra A; Carels, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined food addiction symptomology and its relationship to eating pathology and psychological distress among adults seeking weight loss treatment. A primary interest was an examination of the relationship between food addiction symptoms and short-term weight loss. Adults beginning a behavioral weight loss program (N=57) were given the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) as well as measures of psychological distress, disordered eating, weight bias, and weight-focused attitudes. Weight loss was measured after 7 weeks. Severity of food addiction was related to increased depression, emotional eating, binge eating, anti-fat attitudes, internalized weight bias, body shame, and low eating self-efficacy, but not body satisfaction. Increased food addiction symptomology was also related to less weight lost at 7 weeks. Findings suggest that individuals attempting to lose weight while combating symptoms of food addiction may be especially prone to eating-related pathologies, internalized weight bias, and body shame. Importantly, findings provide evidence that food addiction may undermine efforts to lose weight. The pathology associated with addiction (e.g., tolerance, withdrawal) could make the adoption of more healthful eating habits especially difficult. PMID:23017467

  5. Preattentive sensory processing as indexed by the MMN and P3a brain responses is associated with cognitive and psychosocial functioning in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Light, Gregory A; Swerdlow, Neal R; Braff, David L

    2007-10-01

    Understanding the basic neural processes that underlie complex higher order cognitive operations and psychosocial functioning is a fundamental goal of cognitive neuroscience. Event-related potentials allow investigators to probe the earliest stages of information processing. Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a are auditory event-related potential components that reflect automatic sensory discrimination. The aim of the present study was to determine if MMN and P3a are associated with higher order cognitive operations and psychosocial functioning in clinically normal healthy subjects. Twenty adults were assessed using standardized clinical, cognitive, and psychosocial functional instruments. All individuals were within the normal range on cognitive tests and functional ratings. Participants were also tested on a duration-deviant MMN/P3a paradigm (50-msec standard tones, p = .90; 100-msec deviant tones, p = .10; stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA] = 505 msec). Across fronto-central electrode regions, significant correlations were observed between psychosocial functioning and MMN (r = -.62, p < .01) and P3a (r = .63, p < .01) amplitudes. P3a amplitude was also highly associated with immediate and delayed recall of verbal information with robust correlations widely distributed across fronto-central recording areas (e.g., r = .72, p < .001). The latency of the P3a response was significantly associated with both working memory performance (r = -.53, p < .05) and functional ratings (r = -.48, p < .05). Neurophysiological measures of relatively automatic auditory sensory information processing are associated with higher order cognitive abilities and psychosocial functioning in normal subjects. Efficiency at elementary levels of information processing may underlie the successful encoding, retrieval, and discrimination of task-relevant information, which, in turn, facilitates the iterative and responsive processing necessary for adaptive cognitive and social functioning. PMID

  6. Adult Attachment, Social Adjustment, and Well-Being in Drug-Addicted Inpatients.

    PubMed

    Delvecchio, Elisa; Di Riso, Daniela; Lis, Adriana; Salcuni, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, attachment studies have gathered overwhelming evidence for a relation between insecure attachment and drug addiction. The existing literature predominantly addresses attachment styles and little attention is given to attachment-pattern-oriented studies. The current study explored how attachment, social adjustment, and well-being interact in 40 (28 men, 12 women; ages 20-52 years, M = 32.3, SD = 9.4) inpatients with drug addiction. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-report (SAS-SR), and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) were administered. Descriptive statistics were computed as well as differences between patterns of attachment in all variables were measured. None of the inpatients showed a secure attachment pattern: 7 scored as dismissing (18%), 5 preoccupied (12%) and 28 unresolved (70%). AAP stories were mainly connected with themes of danger, lack of protection, and helplessness. Inpatients classified as unresolved reported significantly higher maladjustment on the SAS-SR and GHQ-28 than those with resolved attachment patterns. Implications for clinicians and researchers are presented. PMID:27154381

  7. Dietary supplement consumption among urban adults influenced by psychosocial stress: its pronounced influence upon persons with a less healthy lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hui-Jing; Nakamura, Keiko; Shimbo, Mari; Takano, Takehito

    2005-09-01

    In order to examine the consumption of dietary supplements among urban adults and the impact of psychological stress on supplement use in relation to lifestyle, 375 interviews of a population-based sample of urban Japanese in 2002 were analysed. The usage of various supplements, stress process (daily stressors, psychological moderators, stress outcomes), personal health practices (smoking, alcohol drinking, physical exercise, fruit and vegetable juice consumption, health-conscious eating habits) and other background factors were measured. We examined the impacts of stress on the use of vitamin tablets and capsules, vitamin-enriched health drinks and health drinks for intestinal adjustment. The percentages of these three categories of supplement user were 26.9, 18.7 and 35.7%, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, subjects with 'two or more' daily stressors out of the eight stressors investigated consistently showed 2-fold higher levels of consumption of either vitamin tablets and capsules or vitamin-enriched drinks compared with their counterparts with 'one or less' daily stressors. Stress-outcome indicators also related, to a greater or less extent, to the elevated consumption of various supplements. Further lifestyle-stratified analyses revealed that the stress-supplementation relationships were weaker in subjects fulfilling more than three of the five investigated health practices (i.e. the healthy lifestyle group), but stronger in subjects with fewer than two healthy practices (i.e. the less healthy lifestyle group). In conclusion, dietary supplement consumption is independently associated with stress in urban adults. The uncontrolled use of supplements for the self-medication of stress or to compensate for unhealthy behaviour represents a health concern for the general population. PMID:16176612

  8. Midlife sexuality among Thai adults: Adjustment to aging in the Thai family context

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Kathleen; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess views of age related changes in sexual behavior among married Thai adults age 53 to 57. Results are viewed in the context of life course theory. In-depth interviews were conducted with 44 Thai adults in Bangkok and the four regions of Thailand. Topics covered include changing sexual behavior with age, adjustment to this change, gender differences in behavior, attitudes toward commercial sex and other non-marital sexual partners, and condom use. Most respondents were aware of this change and saw a decrease in sexual activity and desire more often among women compared to men. At the same time, many respondents viewed sexuality as important to a marriage. Some respondents accepted the decrease in sexual activity and focused more on work, family and temple activities. Thai Buddhism was seen as an important resource for people who were dealing with changes due to aging. Other persons turned to other partners including both commercial and non-commercial partners. The influence of the HIV epidemic that began in the 1990s was seen in concerns about disease transmission with extramarital partners and consequent attitudes toward condom use. The acceptability of extramarital partners in the family and community ranged from acceptance to strong disapproval of extramarital relationships PMID:22582023

  9. Impact of Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games upon the Psychosocial Well-Being of Adolescents and Young Adults: Reviewing the Evidence.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jonathan; Porter-Armstrong, Alison P

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. For many people, the online environment has become a significant arena for everyday living, and researchers are beginning to explore the multifaceted nature of human interaction with the Internet. The burgeoning global popularity and distinct design features of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) have received particular attention, and discourses about the phenomenon suggest both positive and negative impact upon gamer health. Aim. The purpose of this paper was to critically appraise the research literature to determine if playing MMORPGs impacts upon the psychosocial well-being of adolescents and young adults. Method. Initial searches were conducted on nine databases spanning the years 2002 to 2012 using key words, such as online gaming, internet gaming, psychosocial, and well-being, which, in addition to hand searching, identified six studies meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria for this review. Results. All six studies strongly associated MMORPG playing with helpful and harmful impact to the psychosocial well-being of the populations under study; however due to the methodologies employed, only tentative conclusions may be drawn. Conclusion. Since both helpful and harmful effects were reported, further multidisciplinary research is recommended to specifically explore the clinical implications and therapeutic potentialities of this modern, growing phenomenon. PMID:24236279

  10. Impact of Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games upon the Psychosocial Well-Being of Adolescents and Young Adults: Reviewing the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Porter-Armstrong, Alison P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. For many people, the online environment has become a significant arena for everyday living, and researchers are beginning to explore the multifaceted nature of human interaction with the Internet. The burgeoning global popularity and distinct design features of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) have received particular attention, and discourses about the phenomenon suggest both positive and negative impact upon gamer health. Aim. The purpose of this paper was to critically appraise the research literature to determine if playing MMORPGs impacts upon the psychosocial well-being of adolescents and young adults. Method. Initial searches were conducted on nine databases spanning the years 2002 to 2012 using key words, such as online gaming, internet gaming, psychosocial, and well-being, which, in addition to hand searching, identified six studies meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria for this review. Results. All six studies strongly associated MMORPG playing with helpful and harmful impact to the psychosocial well-being of the populations under study; however due to the methodologies employed, only tentative conclusions may be drawn. Conclusion. Since both helpful and harmful effects were reported, further multidisciplinary research is recommended to specifically explore the clinical implications and therapeutic potentialities of this modern, growing phenomenon. PMID:24236279

  11. Psychosocial Adjustment of Low-Income African American Youth from Single Mother Homes: The Role of the Youth-Coparent Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterrett, Emma M.; Jones, Deborah J.; Kincaid, Carlye

    2009-01-01

    African American youth from single mother homes are at greater risk for internalizing and externalizing problems relative to their peers from two-parent homes. Although the predominance of psychosocial research on these youth has focused on maternal parenting and mother-child relationship quality, far less attention has been devoted to the quality…

  12. Social and Behavioral Characteristics of Young Adult Drink/Drivers Adjusted for Level of Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, C. Raymond; Elliott, Michael R.; Shope, Jean T.

    2007-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption and drink/driving are positively correlated and many predictors of alcohol use also predict drink/driving. Past research has not fully distinguished the contributions of personal risk factors from the level of alcohol use in the prediction of drink/driving. As a result, the extent to which predictors are specific to drink/driving, versus due to a mutual association to alcohol use, is unclear. Methods This study examined the unique and shared risk factors for drink/driving and alcohol use, and examined the attributable risk (AR) associated with predictors of drink/driving while adjusting for alcohol use. Study data were from a telephone survey of 3,480 Michigan-licensed young adults who were drinkers. Four groups of drink/drivers were formed based on the prior 12-month maximum severity of drink/driving: (1) never drink/driving; (2) driving at least once within an hour of 1 or 2 drinks; (3) driving within an hour of 3 or more drinks or while feeling the effects of alcohol; and (4) drinking while driving. Results Lower perceived risk of drink/driving, greater social support for drinking and drink/driving, greater aggression and delinquency, more cigarette smoking, and more risky driving behaviors uniquely predicted drink/driving severity in models adjusted for alcohol use. The largest ARs were associated with social support for drinking and drink/driving and perceived risk of drink/driving. Conclusions These results confirm that alcohol use and drink/driving share risk factors, but also indicate that part of the variation in these factors is specific to drink/driving. Implications for interventions to reduce drink/driving are discussed. PMID:17374045

  13. Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Middle-Aged versus Younger Adults Enrolled in a Clinical Trial of a Web-Delivered Psychosocial Treatment for Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kalapatapu, Raj K.; Campbell, Aimee; Aharonovich, Efrat; Hu, Mei-Chen; Levin, Frances R.; Nunes, Edward V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Evidence suggests that substance abuse is becoming more prevalent in middle-aged adults. The objective of this secondary analysis was to add to the growing empirical literature on the unique features of middle-aged substance abuse populations. Methods We descriptively compared baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of middle-aged (age 45–62, n = 111) and younger (age 18–44, n = 395) substance abusers entering a web-based psychosocial treatment study as part of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Results A significantly greater percentage of middle-aged adults were non-Caucasian and had a marital status other than single/never married. There was a significant association between frequency of Internet use and the age group. Forty-six percent of middle-aged adults versus 21% of younger adults reported no Internet use in the prior 90 days. A significantly greater percentage of middle-aged adults used cocaine, and a significantly greater percentage of younger adults used marijuana and opioids. Clinically significant cognitive impairment (z less than −1.0) was found for the average participant in both groups on logical association of familiar concepts. Conclusions This secondary analysis of a NIDA CTN study provides additional information on the unique features of middle-aged substance abusers. Increasing knowledge of similarities and differences between younger and middle-aged substance abusers can help with potential age-specific substance abuse treatment planning. PMID:23340711

  14. Correlation between heart rate variability and pulmonary function adjusted by confounding factors in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Bianchim, M S; Sperandio, E F; Martinhão, G S; Matheus, A C; Lauria, V T; da Silva, R P; Spadari, R C; Gagliardi, A R T; Arantes, R L; Romiti, M; Dourado, V Z

    2016-03-01

    The autonomic nervous system maintains homeostasis, which is the state of balance in the body. That balance can be determined simply and noninvasively by evaluating heart rate variability (HRV). However, independently of autonomic control of the heart, HRV can be influenced by other factors, such as respiratory parameters. Little is known about the relationship between HRV and spirometric indices. In this study, our objective was to determine whether HRV correlates with spirometric indices in adults without cardiopulmonary disease, considering the main confounders (e.g., smoking and physical inactivity). In a sample of 119 asymptomatic adults (age 20-80 years), we evaluated forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). We evaluated resting HRV indices within a 5-min window in the middle of a 10-min recording period, thereafter analyzing time and frequency domains. To evaluate daily physical activity, we instructed participants to use a triaxial accelerometer for 7 days. Physical inactivity was defined as <150 min/week of moderate to intense physical activity. We found that FVC and FEV1, respectively, correlated significantly with the following aspects of the RR interval: standard deviation of the RR intervals (r =0.31 and 0.35), low-frequency component (r =0.38 and 0.40), and Poincaré plot SD2 (r =0.34 and 0.36). Multivariate regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical inactivity, and cardiovascular risk, identified the SD2 and dyslipidemia as independent predictors of FVC and FEV1 (R2=0.125 and 0.180, respectively, for both). We conclude that pulmonary function is influenced by autonomic control of cardiovascular function, independently of the main confounders. PMID:26840706

  15. Correlation between heart rate variability and pulmonary function adjusted by confounding factors in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Bianchim, M.S.; Sperandio, E.F.; Martinhão, G.S.; Matheus, A.C.; Lauria, V.T.; da Silva, R.P.; Spadari, R.C.; Gagliardi, A.R.T.; Arantes, R.L.; Romiti, M.; Dourado, V.Z.

    2016-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system maintains homeostasis, which is the state of balance in the body. That balance can be determined simply and noninvasively by evaluating heart rate variability (HRV). However, independently of autonomic control of the heart, HRV can be influenced by other factors, such as respiratory parameters. Little is known about the relationship between HRV and spirometric indices. In this study, our objective was to determine whether HRV correlates with spirometric indices in adults without cardiopulmonary disease, considering the main confounders (e.g., smoking and physical inactivity). In a sample of 119 asymptomatic adults (age 20-80 years), we evaluated forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). We evaluated resting HRV indices within a 5-min window in the middle of a 10-min recording period, thereafter analyzing time and frequency domains. To evaluate daily physical activity, we instructed participants to use a triaxial accelerometer for 7 days. Physical inactivity was defined as <150 min/week of moderate to intense physical activity. We found that FVC and FEV1, respectively, correlated significantly with the following aspects of the RR interval: standard deviation of the RR intervals (r =0.31 and 0.35), low-frequency component (r =0.38 and 0.40), and Poincaré plot SD2 (r =0.34 and 0.36). Multivariate regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical inactivity, and cardiovascular risk, identified the SD2 and dyslipidemia as independent predictors of FVC and FEV1 (R 2=0.125 and 0.180, respectively, for both). We conclude that pulmonary function is influenced by autonomic control of cardiovascular function, independently of the main confounders. PMID:26840706

  16. Sex differences in relations among remembered parental behavior in childhood, adults' current psychological adjustment, and career indecision.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Ronald P; Rising, David G; Sayre-Scibona, Jessica

    2009-04-01

    The goal was to assess sex differences in career indecision's association with different levels of self-reported psychological adjustment and with different remembrances of maternal and paternal acceptance and behavioral control in childhood. 126 participants responded to the Career Decision Scale, the Adult version of the Parental Acceptance-Rejection/Control Questionnaire, and the Adult version of the Personality Assessment Questionnaire. Results showed that career indecision among women but not men was significantly correlated with remembered maternal and paternal acceptance in childhood, as well as with self-reported psychological adjustment and age. Only women's self-reported psychological adjustment made a unique contribution to variance in reported career indecision. No predictor variables were significantly associated with career indecision among men. PMID:19610486

  17. Psychosocial and Neurocognitive Outcomes in Adult Survivors of Adolescent and Early Young Adult Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Pinki K.; Hardy, Kristina K.; Zhang, Nan; Edelstein, Kim; Srivastava, Deokumar; Zeltzer, Lonnie; Stovall, Marilyn; Seibel, Nita L.; Leisenring, Wendy; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L.; Krull, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To characterize psychological and neurocognitive function in long-term cancer survivors diagnosed during adolescence and early young adulthood (AeYA). Methods Six thousand one hundred ninety-two survivors and 390 siblings in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study completed the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 and a Neurocognitive Questionnaire. Treatment and demographic predictors were examined, and associations with social attainment (employment, education, and living independently) were evaluated. Logistic regression models were used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% CIs. Results Among survivors, 2,589 were diagnosed when AeYA (11 to 21 years old). Adjusted for current age and sex, these survivors, compared with siblings, self-reported higher rates of depression (11.7% v 8.0%, respectively; OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.04 to 2.30) and anxiety (7.4% v 4.4%, respectively; OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.17 to 3.43) and more problems with task efficiency (17.2% v 10.8%, respectively; OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.21 to 2.43), emotional regulation (19.1% v 14.1%, respectively; OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.26 to 2.40), and memory (25.9% v 19.0%, respectively; OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.89). Few differences were noted between survivors diagnosed with leukemia or CNS tumor before 11 years old versus during later adolescence, although those diagnosed with lymphoma or sarcoma during AeYA were at reduced risk for self-reported psychosocial and neurocognitive problems. Unemployment was associated with self-reports of impaired task efficiency (OR, 2.93; 95% CI, 2.28 to 3.77), somatization (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.77 to 2.98), and depression (OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.43 to 2.63). Conclusion We demonstrated that risk for poor functional outcome is not limited to survivors' diagnoses in early childhood. AeYA is a critical period of development, and cancer during this period can impact neurocognitive and emotional function and disrupt vocational attainment. PMID:26150441

  18. Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiff, Cara J.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Mason, W. Alex

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Furthermore, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal…

  19. Distress and adjustment among adolescents and young adults with cancer: an empirical and conceptual review

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer must simultaneously navigate the challenges associated with their cancer experience, whilst striving to achieve a number of important developmental milestones at the cusp of adulthood. The disruption caused by their cancer experience at this critical life-stage is assumed to be responsible for significant distress among AYAs living with cancer. The quality and severity of psychological outcomes among AYAs remain poorly documented, however. This review examined the existing literature on psychological outcomes among AYAs living with cancer. All psychological outcomes (both distress and positive adjustment) were included, and AYAs were included across the cancer trajectory, ranging from newly-diagnosed patients, to long-term cancer survivors. Four key research questions were addressed. Section 1 answered the question, “What is the nature and prevalence of distress (and other psychological outcomes) among AYAs living with cancer?” and documented rates of clinical distress, as well as evidence for the trajectory of this distress over time. Section 2 examined the individual, cancer/treatment-related and socio-demographic factors that have been identified as predictors of these outcomes in this existing literature. Section 3 examined current theoretical models relevant to explaining psychological outcomes among AYAs, including developmental models, socio-cognitive and family-systems models, stress-coping frameworks, and cognitive appraisal models (including trauma and meaning making models). The mechanisms implicated in each model were discussed, as was the existing evidence for each model. Converging evidence implicating the potential role of autobiographical memory and future thinking systems in how AYAs process and integrate their cancer experience into their current sense of self and future goals are highlighted. Finally, Section 4 addressed the future of psycho-oncology in understanding and conceptualizing

  20. Distress and adjustment among adolescents and young adults with cancer: an empirical and conceptual review.

    PubMed

    Sansom-Daly, Ursula M; Wakefield, Claire E

    2013-10-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer must simultaneously navigate the challenges associated with their cancer experience, whilst striving to achieve a number of important developmental milestones at the cusp of adulthood. The disruption caused by their cancer experience at this critical life-stage is assumed to be responsible for significant distress among AYAs living with cancer. The quality and severity of psychological outcomes among AYAs remain poorly documented, however. This review examined the existing literature on psychological outcomes among AYAs living with cancer. All psychological outcomes (both distress and positive adjustment) were included, and AYAs were included across the cancer trajectory, ranging from newly-diagnosed patients, to long-term cancer survivors. Four key research questions were addressed. Section 1 answered the question, "What is the nature and prevalence of distress (and other psychological outcomes) among AYAs living with cancer?" and documented rates of clinical distress, as well as evidence for the trajectory of this distress over time. Section 2 examined the individual, cancer/treatment-related and socio-demographic factors that have been identified as predictors of these outcomes in this existing literature. Section 3 examined current theoretical models relevant to explaining psychological outcomes among AYAs, including developmental models, socio-cognitive and family-systems models, stress-coping frameworks, and cognitive appraisal models (including trauma and meaning making models). The mechanisms implicated in each model were discussed, as was the existing evidence for each model. Converging evidence implicating the potential role of autobiographical memory and future thinking systems in how AYAs process and integrate their cancer experience into their current sense of self and future goals are highlighted. Finally, Section 4 addressed the future of psycho-oncology in understanding and conceptualizing

  1. Profiles of resistance training behavior and sedentary time among older adults: Associations with health-related quality of life and psychosocial health☆

    PubMed Central

    Bampton, Erin A.; Johnson, Steven T.; Vallance, Jeff K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The primary objective of this study was to gain a better understanding of the associations of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and psychosocial factors (e.g., satisfaction with life, level of self-esteem, anxiety, depression) with resistance training and sedentary behavior profiles. Methods For this cross-sectional study, 358 older adults (≥ 55 years of age) across Alberta, Canada, completed self-reported measures of resistance training behavior, sedentary time, HRQoL, and psychosocial health (e.g., depression, anxiety, self-esteem, satisfaction with life). Participants were placed into one of four profiles with respect to their sedentary and resistance training behaviors. Data were collected in Alberta, Canada between August 2013 and January 2014. Results Pairwise comparisons indicated that those in the low SED/low RT group had a higher mental health composite (MHC) score compared to those in the high SED/low RT group (Mdiff = 3.9, p = 0.008). Compared to those in the high SED/low RT group, those in the low SED/high RT groups had significantly higher MHC scores (Mdiff = 4.8, p < 0.001). Those in the low SED/high RT group reported significantly higher physical health composite scores (PHC) (Mdiff = 3.7, p = 0.019), compared to the high SED/low RT group. Lower depression symptom scores were observed in the low SED/high RT groups compared to the high SED/low RT group, (Mdiff = − 0.60, p < 0.001). Conclusion Resistance training, regardless of sedentary time, was significantly associated with HRQoL and psychosocial health. PMID:26844148

  2. Dyadic adjustment and parenting stress in internationally adoptive mothers and fathers: the mediating role of adult attachment dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Salcuni, Silvia; Miconi, Diana; Altoè, Gianmarco; Moscardino, Ughetta

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that a positive marital functioning represents a resource in adoptive families, leading to a decrease in parenting stress, but little is known about the factors mediating such a relationship. This study aimed to explore whether adult attachment avoidance and anxiety mediate the effect of dyadic functioning on parenting stress in 90 internationally adoptive couples (mothers and fathers) who had adopted a child (aged 3–10 years) in the last 36 months. Participants completed self-report measures of dyadic adjustment, adult attachment, and parenting stress. A series of path analyses supported the mediation hypothesis, but differentially for mothers and fathers. Among mothers, there was a direct and negative relationship between dyadic adjustment and parenting stress. In addition, a better dyadic adjustment was related to lower levels of attachment anxiety, which in turn were associated with less parenting stress. Among fathers, increased dyadic adjustment was related to lower levels of attachment avoidance, which in turn were associated with reduced parenting stress. These findings suggest the importance of including both mothers and fathers in adoption research. Adoptive parents could benefit from specific interventions aimed at reducing attachment avoidance and anxiety by supporting parental sense of competence and involvement for mothers and fathers, respectively. PMID:26388799

  3. Bidirectional associations between sleep (quality and duration) and psychosocial functioning across the university years.

    PubMed

    Tavernier, Royette; Willoughby, Teena

    2014-03-01

    Despite extensive research on sleep and psychosocial functioning, an important gap within the literature is the lack of inquiry into the direction of effects between these 2 constructs. The purpose of the present 3-year longitudinal study was to examine bidirectional associations between sleep (quality and duration) and 3 indices of psychosocial functioning (intrapersonal adjustment, friendship quality, and academic achievement). We also assessed the role of gender as a possible moderator of the patterns of results. Participants were 942 (71.5% female) emerging adults enrolled at a mid-sized university in southern Ontario, Canada, who ranged in age from 17 to 25 years (M = 19.01 years, SD = 0.90) at the first assessment. Students completed surveys in the winter term for 3 consecutive years, beginning in their first year of university. Survey measures included demographics, sleep quality and duration, intrapersonal adjustment (depressive symptoms, stress, and self-esteem), friendship quality, and academic achievement. Results of path analyses indicated a significant bidirectional association between sleep quality and intrapersonal adjustment. We also found evidence for unidirectional associations, such that better friendship quality and higher academic achievement predicted better sleep quality over time. Overall, psychosocial functioning was more strongly associated with sleep quality relative to sleep duration. Our findings highlight the importance of a longitudinal and holistic approach in understanding the link between sleep and psychosocial functioning among emerging adults at university. PMID:23978302

  4. Effects of Yoga on Symptoms, Physical Function, and Psychosocial Outcomes in Adults with Osteoarthritis: A Focused Review.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Corjena; Park, Juyoung; Wyman, Jean F

    2016-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a highly prevalent and disabling chronic condition. Because physical activity is a key component in OA management, effective exercise interventions are needed. Yoga is an increasingly popular multimodal mind-body exercise that aims to promote flexibility, strength, endurance, and balance. Its gentle approach is potentially a safe and effective exercise option for managing OA. The purpose of this focused review is to examine the effects of yoga on OA symptoms and physical and psychosocial outcomes. A comprehensive search was conducted using seven electronic databases. Twelve reports met inclusion criteria involving a total of 589 participants with OA-related symptoms. A variety of types, frequencies, and durations of yoga interventions were reported; Hatha and Iyengar yoga were the most commonly used types. Frequency of intervention ranged from once a week to 6 days a week. Duration of the interventions ranged from 45 to 90 mins per session for 6 to 12 wks. Yoga intervention resulted in reductions in pain, stiffness, and swelling, but results on physical function and psychosocial well-being were inconclusive because of a variety of outcome measures being used. PMID:26495816

  5. The influence of adult attachment styles on the association between marital adjustment and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rogina L; Cordova, James V

    2002-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that attachment styles moderate the relationship between marital adjustment and depressive symptoms among husbands and wives. In a sample of 91 married couples, ratings of the anxious-ambivalent attachment style moderated the relationship between marital adjustment and depressive symptoms for both husbands and wives. Additionally, ratings of the secure attachment style moderated the relationship between marital adjustment and depressive symptoms for wives, with a trend for husbands. These findings suggest a relationship between insecurity and a predisposition to depressive symptoms in marital relationships. PMID:12085732

  6. Educational Technology Research with Older Adults: Adjustments in Protocol, Materials, and Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boechler, Patricia M.; Foth, Dennis; Watchorn, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    To determine the optimal uses of educational hypermedia for older adult learners, it is prudent to conduct research focusing on this particular participant group. However, the value of research findings, especially in cross-sectional studies, may depend on attentiveness towards the specific needs of older adults. Ignoring these needs may lead to…

  7. Psychological Adjustment among Hispanic Adult Children of Alcoholics: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Marsha J.; Arbona, Consuelo

    1991-01-01

    Compares Hispanic adult children of alcoholics with Hispanic adult children of nonalcoholics on Diagnostic Inventory of Personality and Symptoms. Finds significantly higher scores in Somatoform Disorders and Psychological Factors Affecting Physical Conditions scales among children of alcoholics. Women displayed higher scores than men on Affective…

  8. Enhancing Psychosocial Outcomes for Young Adult Childhood CNS Cancer Survivors: Importance of Addressing Vocational Identity and Community Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauser, David R.; Wagner, Stacia; Wong, Alex W. K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between vocational identity, community integration, positive and negative affect, and satisfaction with life in a group of young adult central nervous system (CNS) cancer survivors. Participants in this study included 45 young adult CNS cancer survivors who ranged in age from 18 to 30 years…

  9. Developmental Language Disorders--A Follow-Up in Later Adult Life. Cognitive, Language and Psychosocial Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, J.; Hollis, C.; Mawhood, L.; Rutter, M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Little is known on the adult outcome and longitudinal trajectory of childhood developmental language disorders (DLD) and on the prognostic predictors. Method: Seventeen men with a severe receptive DLD in childhood, reassessed in middle childhood and early adult life, were studied again in their mid-thirties with tests of intelligence…

  10. Psychosocial Results from a Phase I Trial of a Nonsurgical Circumcision Device for Adult Men in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Kasprzyk, Danuta; Montaño, Daniel E; Hamilton, Deven T; Down, Kayla L; Marrett, Karl D; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Mugurungi, Owen

    2016-01-01

    Male circumcision (MC), an effective HIV prevention tool, has been added to Zimbabwe's Ministry of Health and Child Care HIV/AIDS Prevention Program. A Phase I safety trial of a nonsurgical male circumcision device was conducted and extensive psychosocial variables were assessed. Fifty-three men (18 and older) were recruited for the device procedure; 13 follow-up clinical visits were completed. Interviews conducted three times (before the procedure, at 2 weeks and 90 days post-procedure) assessed: Satisfaction; expectations; actual experience; activities of daily living; sexual behavior; and HIV risk perception. Using the Integrated Behavioral Model, attitudes towards MC, sex, and condoms, and sources of social influence and support were also assessed. Men (mean age 32.5, range 18-50; mean years of education = 13.6; 55% employed) were satisfied with device circumcision results. Men understand that MC is only partially protective against HIV acquisition. Most (94.7%) agreed that they will continue to use condoms to protect themselves from HIV. Pain ratings were surprisingly negative for a procedure billed as painless. Men talked to many social networks members about their MC experience; post-procedure (mean of 14 individuals). Minimal impact on activities of daily living and absenteeism indicate possible cost savings of device circumcisions. Spontaneous erections occurred frequently post-procedure. The results had important implications for changes in the pre-procedure clinical counseling protocol. Clear-cut counseling to manage pain and erection expectations should result in improved psychosocial outcomes in future roll-out of device circumcisions. Men's expectations must be managed through evidence-based counseling, as they share their experiences broadly among their social networks. PMID:26745142

  11. Social Cognitive Career Theory, the Theory of Work Adjustment, and Work Satisfaction of Retirement-Age Adults

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Pamela F.; Lytle, Megan C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a recent increase in the number of adults who work past traditional retirement age, existing theories of vocational behavior have not yet received adequate empirical support. In a large sample of adults age 60–87, we evaluated the relationship between theorized predictors of work satisfaction proposed by Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), work satisfaction as a predictor of continued work, as proposed by the Theory of Work adjustment (TWA), as well as the influence of reported experiences of discrimination on these relationships. While the results supported most of the predicted relationships, the effects of discrimination were stronger than the variables proposed by either SCCT or TWA for the present sample. PMID:26101456

  12. The Health Education for Lupus Patients Study: A Randomized Controlled Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention Targeting Psychosocial Adjustment and Quality of Life in Adolescent Females with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ronald T.; Shaftman, Stephanie R.; Tilley, Barbara C.; Anthony, Kelly K.; Kral, Mary C.; Maxson, Bonnie; Mee, Laura; Bonner, Melanie J.; Vogler, Larry B.; Schanberg, Laura E.; Connelly, Mark A.; Wagner, Janelle L.; Silver, Richard M.; Nietert, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Examine in a randomize controlled feasibility clinical trial the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to manage pain, enhance disease adjustment and adaptation, and improve quality of life among female adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Female adolescents (N = 53) ranging in age from 12 to 18 years were randomized to one of three groups including a cognitive-behavioral intervention, an education-only arm, and a no-contact control group. Participants were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and at three-and six-month intervals following completion of the intervention. Results No significant differences were revealed among the three treatment arms for any of the dependent measures at any of the assessment points. For the mediator variables, a post-hoc secondary analysis did reveal increases in coping skills from baseline to post-intervention among the participants in the cognitive-behavioral intervention group compared to both the no-contact control group and the education-only group. Conclusion Although no differences were detected in the primary outcome, a possible effect on female SLE adolescent coping was detected in this feasibility study. Whether the impact of training in the area of coping was of sufficient magnitude to generalize to other areas of functioning, such as adjustment and adaptation, is unclear. Future Phase III randomized trials will be needed to assess additional coping models, and to evaluate the dose of training and its influence on pain management, adjustment, and health-related quality of life. PMID:22996139

  13. Psychosocial judgements and perceptions of adolescents with acne vulgaris: A blinded, controlled comparison of adult and peer evaluations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of the current survey was to evaluate how teenagers and adults view teens with acne as compared to those with smooth, clear skin. We also surveyed teens and adults about their experiences with acne. Methods We hypothesized that teens with acne would be perceived in a more negative fashion as compared to teens with smooth, clear skin. We presented digitally altered photographs to our responders and asked how they perceived the two groups. No mention was made of acne. In the first survey (n = 1,002), both adults and teens provided their impressions on photo images of teenagers with either clear skin or acne. In the second survey (n = 1,006), the adults and teens also answered questions about their own experiences with acne. Results Survey 1. With respect to impressions of photo images, the first thing teens and adults noticed about a person with acne was their skin (65% and 75%, respectively). Teenagers with acne were perceived most often by other teens and adults (teen responder %, adult responder %) as being shy (39%, 43%), nerdy (31%, 21%), stressed (24%, 20%), lonely (23%, 22%), boring (15%, 6%), unkempt (13%, 7%), unhealthy (12%, 8%), introverted (9%, 23%), and rebellious (7%, 5%). Survey 2. Most teenagers with acne (64%) felt embarrassed by it and thought that getting acne was the most difficult aspect of puberty (55%). Teenagers with acne reported lower self-confidence or shyness (71%); difficulty finding dates (43%), problems making friends (24%), challenges with school (21%), and trouble getting a job (7%). Conclusions Teens with smooth, clear skin were rated higher on every favorable characteristic and lower on every unfavorable characteristic by both teens and adults. In most cases, the first thing that respondents noticed was the skin of teens with acne. Teenagers and adults alike perceived other teens with acne as generally being shy, less socially active, more likely to be bullied, and less successful in terms of finding a job

  14. Problem gambling patterns among Australian young adults: Associations with prospective risk and protective factors and adult adjustment.

    PubMed

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Toumbourou, John W; Dowling, Nicki A

    2016-04-01

    There is instability in the developmental course of problem gambling [PG] over time; however, studies that examine PG at an aggregate level obscure these variations. The current study employed data from a longitudinal study of Australian young adults to investigate: 1) PG patterns (i.e., resistance, persistence, desistence, and new incidence); 2) prospective risk and protective factors for these patterns; and 3) behavioural outcomes associated with these patterns. A sample of 2261 young adults (55.73% female) from Victoria, Australia, who were part of the International Youth Development Study completed a survey in 2010 (T1, age 21) and 2012 (T2, age 23) measuring PG (two items based on established measures), risk and protective factors, and behavioural outcomes. The majority of the sample (91.69%) were resistors (no PG at T1 and T2), 3.62% were new incidence PG cases, 2.63% were desistors (PG at T1 but not T2), and 2.07% reported persistent PG at T1 and T2. Individual civic activism was protective of new incidence PG, while affiliation with antisocial peers and frequent alcohol use increased the risk of persistence. Persistent problem gamblers also experienced the greatest number of poor behavioural outcomes at T2. New incidence was associated with internalising symptoms at T2, while desistance was not associated with any behavioural outcomes. In conclusion, each PG pattern was associated with different predictors and outcomes, highlighting the need to consider variation in the course of young adult PG in order to provide efficacious prevention and intervention approaches, and to protect against relapse. PMID:26790138

  15. Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Survivors, Caregivers and Family Members—One Size Does Not Fit All: My Perspective as a Young Adult Survivor, Advocate and Oncology Social Worker” a personal reflection by Mary Grace Bontempo - Office of Cancer Survivorship

    Cancer.gov

    Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Survivors, Caregivers and Family Members—One Size Does Not Fit All: My Perspective as a Young Adult Survivor, Advocate and Oncology Social Worker” a personal reflection by Mary Grace Bontempo page

  16. Multiple Social Identities and Adjustment in Young Adults from Ethnically Diverse Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Yip, Tiffany; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    A person-centered approach was used to determine how identification across multiple social domains (ethnic, American, family, religious) was associated with distinct identity clusters. Utilizing data from 222 young adults from European, Filipino, Latin, and Asian American backgrounds, four clusters were found (Many Social Identities, Blended/Low…

  17. Psychosocial perception of adults with onychomycosis: a blinded, controlled comparison of 1,017 adult Hong Kong residents with or without onychomycosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A survey was conducted amongst 1,017 Hong Kong residents ages 18 and over to determine their knowledge of fungal nail infections (onychomycosis) and the psychosocial impact of the disease on the relationships, social lives and careers of sufferers. Methods The Fungal Nail Perception Survey was conducted by email and online between May 29th and June 10th, 2013. Participants were shown three photographs of people with and without onychomycosis of the toenails. Respondents were asked ten questions (repeated for each picture) to ascertain their perceptions of the people in the pictures. Questions were related to perceptions around the ability of sufferers and non-sufferers to form relationships with others, social activities of sufferers and non-sufferers, perceptions of the effect of the disease on the potential for career success, and awareness of fungal nail disease and health. The sub-population who themselves suffered from onychomycosis were asked about self-perception as well as their perception of others with onychomycosis. Results Compared with non-sufferers, survey respondents perceived those with onychomycosis as less likely to be able to form good relationships. They also indicated that they would be more likely to exclude sufferers than non-sufferers from social activities and that they would be more likely to feel uncomfortable when sitting or standing beside an infected person than beside an uninfected person. Respondents perceived people with onychomycosis to be less able to perform well in their chosen career than with someone without onychomycosis. Interestingly, those respondents who themselves were infected felt socially excluded, upset and embarrassed by their infection. Conclusions Onychomycosis may lead to stigmatization and social exclusion. Misconceptions of onychomycosis are high and education about the disease needs to be improved. Early recognition and treatment of the disease is essential to avoid complications and improve

  18. Building Psychosocial Programming in Geriatrics Fellowships: A Consortium Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Ronald D.; Ansell, Pamela; Breckman, Risa; Snow, Caitlin E.; Ehrlich, Amy R.; Greene, Michele G.; Greenberg, Debra F.; Raik, Barrie L.; Raymond, Joshua J.; Clabby, John F.; Fields, Suzanne D.; Breznay, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    Geriatric psychosocial problems are prevalent and significantly affect the physical health and overall well-being of older adults. Geriatrics fellows require psychosocial education, and yet to date, geriatrics fellowship programs have not developed a comprehensive geriatric psychosocial curriculum. Fellowship programs in the New York tristate area…

  19. Resilience in Families with Children and Adult Members with Intellectual Disabilities: Tracing Elements of a Psycho-Social Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Gordon; Ramcharan, Paul; Flynn, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Aim: This paper seeks to illumine how families with children and adult members with intellectual disabilities manage to manifest a buoyant and durable capacity over time. It is therefore concerned centrally with the idea of resilience. Method: Drawing from diverse theoretical literatures from child development and protection and gerontology, the…

  20. Insulin regimens and insulin adjustments in diabetic children, adolescents and young adults: personal experience.

    PubMed

    Dorchy, H

    2000-12-01

    Because recent multicenter studies, even those performed in developed countries without financial restriction, show that treatment of childhood diabetes is inadequate in general and that levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) are very different, diabetes treatment teams should individually explore the reasons for failure, without any prejudice or bias. The "good" treatment is signed by good HbA1c associated with good quality of life, and is not necessarily exportable without adjustment to the local way of life. HbA1c must be under 7%, if the upper normal limit is about 6%, which is possible, in our experience, even in diabetic children and adolescents. Our "recipes" are summarized. The number of daily insulin injections, 2 or 4, by itself does not necessarily give better results, but the 4-injection regimen allows greater freedom, taking into account that the proper insulin adjustment is difficult before adolescence. Successful glycemic control in young patients depends mainly on the quality and intensity of diabetes education. Any dogmatism must be avoided; only the objective result is important. PMID:11173723

  1. Adult People with Language Impairment and Their Life Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrnqvist, Maria Carlson; Thulin, Sofia; Segnestam, Ylva; Horowitz, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Psychosocial outcome of language impairment (LI) was explored in interviews with three adults with LI (as children attended specialized boarding school) and four of their parents. The informants with LI expressed acceptance of LI and described themselves as independent. With driving education with adjusted pedagogy and initial governmental…

  2. Alcohol-Specific Coping Styles of Adult Children of Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders and Associations with Psychosocial Functioning.

    PubMed

    Drapkin, Michelle L; Eddie, David; Buffington, Angela J; McCrady, Barbara S

    2015-07-01

    Parental alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been conceptualized as a chronic stressor that can lead to deleterious long-term outcomes in children of individuals with AUDs. Yet, while many individuals are detrimentally affected by their parents' problematic alcohol use, and go on to manifest psychological problems, others do not. How individuals cope with the stress of having a parent with an AUD is believed to be an important moderator of this differential outcome. This study assessed whether individuals' alcohol-specific coping styles predicted alcohol use, positive or negative life events, and depression, using a sample of 465 college students, of whom 20% were adult children of individuals with alcohol use disorders, colloquially known as adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs), and a battery of well-validated, self-report measures. Participant ACOAs reported less 'engaged' and 'total' alcohol-specific coping strategies and more 'withdrawal' alcohol-specific coping strategies than their non adult children of alcoholics (NACOAs) counterparts. Across participants, women reported more 'engaged', 'tolerant/inactive', and 'total' coping than men. Although ACOAs reported significantly more negative life events, which predicted more passive coping styles, they did not differ significantly from NACOAs on measures of problematic alcohol use or depression, supporting theories of resilience in ACOAs regardless of their alcohol-specific coping styles. For NACOAs, 'tolerant' coping predicted greater depression and alcohol-related problems; 'engaged' coping predicted fewer alcohol problems. Results suggest that ACOAs cope differently with problematic alcohol use among relatives and friends compared with NACOAs and are more likely to experience negative life events. Additionally, alcohol-related coping strategies have more predictive utility in NACOAs than ACOAs. PMID:25802055

  3. Early Adolescent Peer Foundations of Late Adolescent and Young Adult Psychological Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Chango, Joanna M.; Allen, Joseph P.; Szwedo, David; Schad, Megan M.

    2014-01-01

    The long-term impacts of failing to establish autonomy and relatedness within close friendships are poorly understood. Adolescent behaviors undermining autonomy and relatedness in friendships at 13 were examined as predictors of friendship competence at 18 and depressive symptoms and social withdrawal at 21. A diverse community sample of 184 adolescents participated in self, peer, and observational assessments. Teens’ inability to establish autonomy and connection with friends at 13 predicted decreases in friendship competence at 18 (ß=-.20, p=.02). Direct links to increases in depressive symptoms (ß=.34, p<.001) and social withdrawal (ß=.18, p=.03) were observed, with friendship competence partially mediating these relations. Results highlight the importance of problematic adolescent peer relationships as risk factors for the development of young adult internalizing symptoms. PMID:26640356

  4. An outdoor adventure program for young adults with cancer: positive effects on body image and psychosocial functioning.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Robin S; Lange, Whitney; Zebrack, Brad; Moulton, Samuel; Kosslyn, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychological effects of an outdoor adventure program on young adult cancer survivors (ages 18-39). The 6-day adventure program included personal instruction and supervision on the basics of kayaking, surfing, or climbing. Compared to a wait-list control group, participants who took part in the program for the first time had improved (relative to pretest) body image, self-compassion and self-esteem, and less depression and alienation. Participants who took part for the second time, though also helped by the program in similar ways, were no better off psychologically than participants who took part for the first time. Possible explanations for the positive effects and their apparent short duration are offered. PMID:24988227

  5. Effect of Adding McKenzie Syndrome, Centralization, Directional Preference, and Psychosocial Classification Variables to a Risk-Adjusted Model Predicting Functional Status Outcomes for Patients With Lumbar Impairments.

    PubMed

    Werneke, Mark W; Edmond, Susan; Deutscher, Daniel; Ward, Jason; Grigsby, David; Young, Michelle; McGill, Troy; McClenahan, Brian; Weinberg, Jon; Davidow, Amy L

    2016-09-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort. Background Patient-classification subgroupings may be important prognostic factors explaining outcomes. Objectives To determine effects of adding classification variables (McKenzie syndrome and pain patterns, including centralization and directional preference; Symptom Checklist Back Pain Prediction Model [SCL BPPM]; and the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire subscales of work and physical activity) to a baseline risk-adjusted model predicting functional status (FS) outcomes. Methods Consecutive patients completed a battery of questionnaires that gathered information on 11 risk-adjustment variables. Physical therapists trained in Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy methods classified each patient by McKenzie syndromes and pain pattern. Functional status was assessed at discharge by patient-reported outcomes. Only patients with complete data were included. Risk of selection bias was assessed. Prediction of discharge FS was assessed using linear stepwise regression models, allowing 13 variables to enter the model. Significant variables were retained in subsequent models. Model power (R(2)) and beta coefficients for model variables were estimated. Results Two thousand sixty-six patients with lumbar impairments were evaluated. Of those, 994 (48%), 10 (<1%), and 601 (29%) were excluded due to incomplete psychosocial data, McKenzie classification data, and missing FS at discharge, respectively. The final sample for analyses was 723 (35%). Overall R(2) for the baseline prediction FS model was 0.40. Adding classification variables to the baseline model did not result in significant increases in R(2). McKenzie syndrome or pain pattern explained 2.8% and 3.0% of the variance, respectively. When pain pattern and SCL BPPM were added simultaneously, overall model R(2) increased to 0.44. Although none of these increases in R(2) were significant, some classification variables were stronger predictors compared with some other variables included in

  6. Maternal socialization goals, parenting styles, and social-emotional adjustment among Chinese and European American young adults: testing a mediation model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Costanzo, Philip R; Putallaz, Martha

    2010-01-01

    The authors compared the associations among perceived maternal socialization goals (self-development, filial piety, and collectivism), perceived maternal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and training), and the social-emotional adjustment (self-esteem, academic self-efficacy, and depression) between Chinese and European American young adults. The mediation processes in which socialization goals relate to young adults' adjustment outcomes through parenting styles were examined. Results showed that European American participants perceived higher maternal self-development socialization goals, whereas Chinese participants perceived higher maternal collectivism socialization goals as well as more authoritarian parenting. Cross-cultural similarities were found in the associations between perceived maternal authoritative parenting and socioemotional adjustment (e.g., higher self-esteem and higher academic self-efficacy) across the two cultural groups. However, perceived maternal authoritarian and training parenting styles were found only to be related to Chinese participants' adjustment (e.g., higher academic self-efficacy and lower depression). The mediation analyses showed that authoritative parenting significantly mediated the positive associations between the self-development and collectivism goal and socioemotional adjustment for both cultural groups. Additionally, training parenting significantly mediated the positive association between the filial piety goal and young adults' academic self-efficacy for the Chinese group only. Findings of this study highlight the importance of examining parental socialization goals in cross-cultural parenting research. PMID:21171548

  7. Iowa Statewide Follow-Up Study. Changes in the Adult Adjustment of Graduates with Mental Disabilities, One vs. Three Years Out of School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitlington, Patricia L.; And Others

    This study investigated the adult adjustment of students with mental disabilities in high-school graduating classes of 1984 and 1985, 1 and 3 years after they exited high school. Two hundred sixty students from the class of 1984 were interviewed 1 year out of high school; 166 from this same class were interviewed 3 years out of school. Three…

  8. Adjustment to Cancer: Anxiety and Distress (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the difficult emotional responses many cancer patients experience. This summary focuses on normal adjustment issues, psychosocial distress, and adjustment disorders.

  9. Adjustment to Cancer: Anxiety and Distress (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the difficult emotional responses many cancer patients experience. This summary focuses on normal adjustment issues, psychosocial distress, and adjustment disorders.

  10. Observed Macro- and Micro-Level Parenting Behaviors During Preadolescent Family Interactions as Predictors of Adjustment in Emerging Adults With and Without Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Amaro, Christina M.; Devine, Katie A.; Psihogios, Alexandra M.; Murphy, Lexa K.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine observed autonomy-promoting and -inhibiting parenting behaviors during preadolescence as predictors of adjustment outcomes in emerging adults with and without spina bifida (SB). Methods Demographic and videotaped interaction data were collected from families with 8/9-year-old children with SB (n = 68) and a matched group of typically developing youth (n = 68). Observed interaction data were coded with macro- and micro-coding schemes. Measures of emerging adulthood adjustment were collected 10 years later (ages 18/19 years; n = 50 and n = 60 for SB and comparison groups, respectively). Results Autonomy-promoting (behavioral control, autonomy-relatedness) and -inhibiting (psychological control) observed preadolescent parenting behaviors prospectively predicted emerging adulthood adjustment, particularly within educational, social, and emotional domains. Interestingly, high parent undermining of relatedness predicted better educational and social adjustment in the SB sample. Conclusions Parenting behaviors related to autonomy have long-term consequences for adjustment in emerging adults with and without SB. PMID:24864277

  11. Cervical Cancer: A Review of the Psychosocial Factors Following Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliland, Kevin Clark

    Cervical cancer is a diagnosis that has a profound psychosocial impact, constituting a physical and emotional crisis for patients as well as family. In general, research indicates that the choice of treatment and the stage of the disease are instrumental in determining the psychosocial adjustment. Disruptions are likely to occur in self-esteem,…

  12. Ethnic Identity and Psychosocial Functioning in Navajo Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Matthew D.; Galliher, Renee V.

    2007-01-01

    The current study assessed associations among theoretically driven measures of ethnic identity and psychosocial adjustment among 137 Navajo adolescents. For both sexes, measures of students' sense of affirmation and belonging to their ethnic heritage emerged as a strong predictor of positive psychosocial functioning. Less-consistent patterns of…

  13. Supportive relationships within ongoing families: cross-lagged effects between components of support and adjustment in parents and young adult children.

    PubMed

    Lanz, M; Tagliabue, S

    2014-12-01

    Italy is the first country in which the phenomenon of cohabitation of parents and young adult children was examined. From the earliest studies, it seemed clear that the transition to adulthood occurs within the family of origin: indeed, the successful outcome of this transition depends on the quality of family relationships. Using the Social Relations Model, this study examines the importance of the components of support within family relationships during the transition of young adults from university to job contexts (Kenny & La Voie, 1984). The cross-lagged influence among the components of perceived support and the adjustment of family members has also been investigated. Findings show that family components of support are significant for perception in both parents and young adults. Furthermore, cross-lagged models reveal different results for parents than for young adults. Discussion of results regarding the transition to adulthood and family theory is provided. PMID:25154544

  14. The Association between Body Weight Misperception and Psychosocial Factors in Korean Adult Women Less than 65 Years Old with Normal Weight

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoonhee; Choi, Eunjoo; Shin, Doosup; Park, Sang Min

    2015-01-01

    With society's increasing interest in weight control and body weight, we investigated the association between psychological factors and body image misperception in different age groups of adult Korean women with a normal weight. On a total of 4,600 women from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009, a self-report questionnaire was used to assess body weight perception and 3 psychological factors: self-rated health status, stress recognition, and depressed mood. Through logistic regression analysis, a poor self-rated health status (P = 0.001) and a higher recognition of stress (P = 0.001) were significantly associated with body image misperception and this significance remained after controlling for several sociodemographic (Model 1: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-2.00), health behavior and psychological factors (Model 2: aOR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.29-1.96; Model 3: aOR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.84). Especially, highly stressed middle-aged (50-64 yr) women were more likely to have body image misperception (Model 2: aOR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.30-6.26). However, the correlation between depressed mood and self-reported body weight was inconsistent between different age groups. In conclusion, self-rated health status and a high recognition rate of severe stress were related to body weight misperception which could suggest tailored intervention to adult women especially women in younger age or low self-rated health status or a high recognition rate of severe stress. PMID:26538998

  15. Adults' Narratives of Growing up With a Cleft Lip and/or Palate: Factors Associated With Psychological Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Stock, Nicola Marie; Feragen, Kristin Billaud; Rumsey, Nichola

    2016-03-01

    Background Growing up with a cleft lip and/or palate presents a number of challenges for those affected and their families. Understanding why some individuals cope well while others struggle is key to psychological research in this field. A better appreciation of the factors and processes that contribute to psychological adjustment to cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) from the patient perspective would be of value to both researchers and clinicians. Design Qualitative data elicited from individual interviews with 52 adults born with CL/P. Results Inductive thematic analysis identified three main themes: "background" factors (age, gender, sexual orientation, culture, additional conditions, socioeconomic status, and adoption), "external" factors (treatment autonomy, familial coping and support, salience, public understanding, psychological input, and peer support), and "internal" psychological factors (perceptions of difference, noticeability and teasing, social confidence, internalization of beauty ideals, valence, expectations of treatment, responding to challenges, social comparisons, acceptance, faith, dispositional style, and recognition of strengths and positive growth). Conclusions The number and breadth of factors identified in this study are testament to the importance of psychology in the field of CL/P and may offer guidance in relation to developing and assessing the value of psychological interventions. There is a clear role for psychologists in tackling appearance-related concerns, designing materials, supporting patient decision making, and improving social interaction, as well as providing specialist psychological support. The findings illustrate the potential degree of individual variation in perspectives and offer insight into the conflicting results found within current literature. PMID:25650758

  16. Investigation of the relationship between psychosocial stress and temporomandibular disorder in adults by measuring salivary cortisol concentration: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Salameh, Ebtisam; Alshaarani, Fandi; Hamed, Hussein Abou; Nassar, Jihad Abou

    2015-01-01

    Background/Purpose of the Study: Psychological factors, particularly psychosocial stress, have been implicated as risk indicators for temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The aim of this study was to assess any differences in salivary cortisol concentration, scores of perceived stress scale (PSS), and scores of depression and distress between TMD patients and matched controls. Materials and Methods: This case-control study comprised two groups; the patient group consisted of 60 patients attending the Department of Fixed Prosthodontics at the Faculty of Dentistry who met the inclusion criteria (42 females and 18 males aged 19–44), whereas the control group was selected to match the patient group in number, age and sex. Two questionnaires were used for stress assessment: The PSS 10 and the psychosocial measure of Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for TMD axis II. Salivary cortisol levels were measured by a competitive immunoenzymatic colorimetric method. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA test, and independent t-test were used. Results: This study showed statistically significant differences between the patient group and the control group at the three measures of psychosocial stress (P < 0.05). Increased occurrence of this disorder in women has been observed. Conclusion: Psychosocial stress plays an important role in the etiopathogenesis of TMD. Women are at increased risk of TMD when compared to men. Sub-types TMD patients approximately have the same level of stress. Muscle disorders were the most common. PMID:26929502

  17. RELIGIOUS EXCLUSIVITY AND PSYCHOSOCIAL FUNCTIONING.

    PubMed

    Gegelashvili, M; Meca, A; Schwartz, S J

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we sought to clarify links between religious exclusivity, as form of intergroup favoritism, and indices of psychosocial functioning. The study of in group favoritism has generally been invoked within Social Identity Theory and related perspectives. However, there is a lack of literature regarding religious exclusivity from the standpoint of social identity. In particular, the ways in which religious exclusivity is linked with other dimensions of religious belief and practice, and with psychosocial functioning, among individuals from different religious backgrounds are not well understood. A sample of 8545 emerging-adult students from 30 U.S. universities completed special measures. Measure of religious exclusivity was developed and validated for this group. The results suggest that exclusivity appears as predictor for impaired psychosocial functioning, low self-esteem and low psychosocial well-being for individuals from organized faiths, as well as for those identifying as agnostic, atheist, or spiritual/nonreligious. These findings are discussed in terms of Social Identity Theory and Terror Management Theory (TMT). PMID:26177135

  18. Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy in Adults with Learning Disability: Current Uptake and Adjustments to Facilitate Equality of Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilling, Rachel F.

    2015-01-01

    Equality of access to health care for adults with learning disability has been in the spotlight in the UK in recent years due to publication of several reports. Adults with learning disability are thought to account for a significant proportion of the diabetic population in the UK. A list of adults known to the learning disability health…

  19. Psychosocial factors in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    MacCarthy, B; Brown, R

    1989-02-01

    Self-report measures were administered to 136 patients with Parkinson's disease in order to explore the relationships between aspects of psychological adjustment (depression, positive affect and acceptance of illness) and physical illness (duration of the illness, stage of illness and functional disability). Many psychosocial variables which, it was hypothesized, might intervene in the relationship between physical and psychological status were also measured. These were coping style, social support, self-esteem, attributions about the onset and course of the illness, perceived control and previous psychiatric history. A variable pattern of relationships between the different indices of psychological adjustment and physical illness emerged. Self-esteem, coping style and practical support contributed significantly to the variance in psychological adjustment. It was concluded that well-being in Parkinsonian patients is not exclusively dependent on a simple relationship between disability and depression, and that other factors should be taken into account in the clinical management of the illness. PMID:2924026

  20. Achievement Motivation Training's Effects on Psychosocial Self-Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Larry G.

    1983-01-01

    A study identified the psychosocial needs of low-literate adults by using an instrument based on Erikson's ego-stage development model. It also tested the effectiveness of Achievement Motivation Training in counterbalancing the negative impact of school experiences on students' psychosocial development. (Author/SK)

  1. Associations of adult separation anxiety disorder with conflict-related trauma, ongoing adversity, and the psychosocial disruptions of mass conflict among West Papuan refugees.

    PubMed

    Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Rees, Susan; Kareth, Moses; Silove, Derrick

    2016-03-01

    Refugees commonly experience traumatic events that threaten the self and close others, suggesting the possibility that they may experience overlapping symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD). We examine this possibility among West Papua refugees (n = 230) displaced to Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. We also examine associations between the combined PTSD-SAD construct and indices of past trauma exposure, ongoing adversity, and the psychosocial disruptions caused by mass conflict and displacement. We applied culturally adapted interview modules to assess symptoms of PTSD, SAD, traumatic events (TEs), ongoing adversity, and 5 psychosocial dimensions. Latent class analysis identified a PTSD class (23%), a posttraumatic (PT) SAD class (22%), and a low-symptom class (55%). Compared with the low-symptom class, both the PTSD and PT-SAD classes endorsed higher levels of exposure to all domains of TEs (conflict-related trauma, witnessing murder, childhood related adversities, traumatic losses, and health stress) and ongoing adversity (access to health care, displacement/separation, safety in the community, and access to basic needs), but the 2 comorbid groups did not differ on these indices. The PT-SAD class alone scored higher than the low-symptom reference class in relation to disruptions to the psychosocial domains (safety/security, bonds/network, access to justice, roles/identities, existential meaning) and higher than the PTSD class on safety/security, justice and roles/identities. Our findings suggest that the PT-SAD pattern may represent a response to the most severe forms of psychosocial disruptions of mass conflict among refugees. A focus on separation anxiety may enhance psychotherapies designed to treat PTSD in refugees. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26752442

  2. Psychological Adjustment in Bullies and Victims of School Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estevez, Estefania; Murgui, Sergio; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined psychosocial adjustment in the following four groups of students: victims, bullies, bully/victims and a control group of adolescents not involved in bullying or victimization problems. Psychosocial adjustment was measured considering as indicators: level of self-esteem, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress,…

  3. Positive and Negative Posttraumatic Change Following Childhood Sexual Abuse Are Associated With Youths' Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Simon, Valerie A; Smith, Erin; Fava, Nicole; Feiring, Candice

    2015-11-01

    Meanings made of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) experiences are important to psychosocial adjustment. The current study examined adolescents' and young adults' perceptions of posttraumatic change (PTC) in the self, relationships, sexuality, and worldviews attributed to prior CSA experiences. We sought to document the prevalence of positive and negative PTC and examine their unique and joint associations with psychosocial adjustment. Participants included 160 youth with confirmed cases of CSA (73% female; 8-14 years at abuse discovery) who were part of a longitudinal study of the long-term effects of CSA. Six years after discovery, youth were interviewed about their abuse experiences. Interviews were coded for the valence and strength of PTC. The majority of youth reported PTC, and negative changes were more frequent and stronger than positive changes. Controlling for age, gender, abuse severity, and negative PTC, positive PTC was associated with lower abuse stigmatization for all youth. Controlling for age, gender, abuse severity, and positive PTC, negative PTC was associated with greater abuse stigmatization, post-traumatic stress disorder, sexual problems, and dating aggression for all youth. Relations of positive PTC with depression and support from friends and romantic partner were moderated by negative PTC, such that positive PTC was associated with better adjustment for youth with low versus high levels of negative PTC. Results highlight the importance of both negative and positive PTC for understanding meanings made of CSA experiences and their implications for psychosocial adjustment and intervention. PMID:26092440

  4. Adjustable sutures in children.

    PubMed

    Engel, J Mark; Guyton, David L; Hunter, David G

    2014-06-01

    Although adjustable sutures are considered a standard technique in adult strabismus surgery, most surgeons are hesitant to attempt the technique in children, who are believed to be unlikely to cooperate for postoperative assessment and adjustment. Interest in using adjustable sutures in pediatric patients has increased with the development of surgical techniques specific to infants and children. This workshop briefly reviews the literature supporting the use of adjustable sutures in children and presents the approaches currently used by three experienced strabismus surgeons. PMID:24924284

  5. The relationship between adult sexual adjustment and childhood experiences regarding exposure to nudity, sleeping in the parental bed, and parental attitudes toward sexuality.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R J; Janda, L H

    1988-08-01

    The relationship between adult sexual functioning and childhood experiences with exposure to nudity, sleeping in the parents' bed, and parental attitudes toward sexuality was examined. Although a variety of experts have provided their opinion on this issue, empirical research on this topic has been lacking. In this study, male and female college students were asked to retrospectively report on the frequency of sleeping in the parental bed as a child, the frequency of seeing others nude during childhood, and parental attitudes regarding sexuality. Information on current sexual functioning and adjustment was also obtained. The results suggest that childhood experiences with exposure to nudity and sleeping in the parental bed are not adversely related to adult sexual functioning and adjustment. In fact, there is modest support that these childhood experiences are positively related to indices of adjustment. Results also suggest that a positive attitude toward sexuality can be beneficial for a child's comfort with his/her sexuality. Finally, examination of gender differences revealed that male and female experience paternal attitudes toward sexuality differently but are similar in their perceptions of maternal attitudes. PMID:3421828

  6. Psychosocial Challenges/Transition to Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Carla

    2016-08-01

    Advances in the health care of individuals with cystic fibrosis have resulted in more than half of the population older than the age of 18 living longer, fuller lives. This success brings about the need for new areas of improvement and development including the mastery of transitioning from pediatric to adult health care and attention to psychosocial needs. This article reviews key components of the process of transitioning to adult care and some important psychosocial considerations. PMID:27469185

  7. [The role of the pharmacist in dispensing medication in Adult Psychosocial Care Centers in the city of São Paulo, Capital of the State of São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Zanella, Carolina Gomes; Aguiar, Patricia Melo; Storpirtis, Sílvia

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of the pharmacist in dispensing medication by conducting cross-sectional exploratory-descriptive research in eight Adult Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS) in São Paulo. The pharmacists responsible for each of the dispensing units studied filled out a semi-structured questionnaire about the service provided. Two Adult CAPS units were selected from each of the North, South, Eastand West regions of São Paulo. The central region has no Adult CAPS, and was therefore not included in the study. Most of the respondents were aged between 35 and 40 years and were predominantly female. It was found that half of the respondents performed only 25% of dispensations and few conducted an analysis of all prescriptions before dispensing medication. All respondents contacted the prescriber if any medication-related problems a rose. However, few pharmaceutical interventions were commonly performed. Furthermore, one respondent indicated that all his/her functions in the pharmacy could be delegated to another professional. These findings reveal the pressing need for actions that ensure the ongoing training of pharmacists to enable them to be clinically prepared to deal with patients with mental disorders. PMID:25715126

  8. Effects of priming exercise on the speed of adjustment of muscle oxidative metabolism at the onset of moderate-intensity step transitions in older adults.

    PubMed

    De Roia, Gabriela; Pogliaghi, Silvia; Adami, Alessandra; Papadopoulou, Christina; Capelli, Carlo

    2012-05-15

    Aging is associated with a functional decline of the oxidative metabolism due to progressive limitations of both O(2) delivery and utilization. Priming exercise (PE) increases the speed of adjustment of oxidative metabolism during successive moderate-intensity transitions. We tested the hypothesis that such improvement is due to a better matching of O(2) delivery to utilization within the working muscles. In 21 healthy older adults (65.7 ± 5 yr), we measured contemporaneously noninvasive indexes of the overall speed of adjustment of the oxidative metabolism (i.e., pulmonary Vo(2) kinetics), of the bulk O(2) delivery (i.e., cardiac output), and of the rate of muscle deoxygenation (i.e., deoxygenated hemoglobin, HHb) during moderate-intensity step transitions, either with (ModB) or without (ModA) prior PE. The local matching of O(2) delivery to utilization was evaluated by the ΔHHb/ΔVo(2) ratio index. The overall speed of adjustment of the Vo(2) kinetics was significantly increased in ModB compared with ModA (P < 0.05). On the contrary, the kinetics of cardiac output was unaffected by PE. At the muscle level, ModB was associated with a significant reduction of the "overshoot" in the ΔHHb/ΔVo(2) ratio compared with ModA (P < 0.05), suggesting an improved O(2) delivery. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that, in older adults, PE, prior to moderate-intensity exercise, beneficially affects the speed of adjustment of oxidative metabolism due to an acute improvement of the local matching of O(2) delivery to utilization. PMID:22422668

  9. Brief Report: No Association between Premorbid Adjustment in Adult-Onset Schizophrenia and Genetic Variation in Dysbindin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schirmbeck, Frederike; Georgi, Alexander; Strohmaier, Jana; Schmael, Christine; Boesshenz, Katja V.; Muhleisen, Thomas W.; Herms, Stefan; Hoffmann, Per; Jamra, Rami Abou; Schumacher, Johannes; Maier, Wolfgang; Propping, Peter; Nothen, Markus M.; Cichon, Sven; Rietschel, Marcella; Schulze, Thomas G.

    2008-01-01

    Whereas "Dysbindin" is considered a schizophrenia vulnerability gene, there is no consistency of findings. Phenotype refinement approaches may help to increase the genetic homogeneity and thus reconcile conflicting results. Premorbid adjustment (PMA) has been suggested to aid the phenotypic dissection. Gornick et al. ("J Autism Dev Disord"…

  10. Parental Divorce and Couples' Adjustment during the Transition to Parenthood: The Role of Parent-Adult Child Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchard, Genevieve; Doucet, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the associations between parental divorce, quality of relationships with parents, and dyadic adjustment during transition of 114 couples to parenthood. Data were collected during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 9 months postpartum. As predicted, the authors found that women from divorced families…

  11. Adult Adjustment of Individuals with Behavioral Disorders. Three vs. One Year Out of School. Iowa Statewide Follow-up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitlington, Patricia L.; And Others

    This study investigated the adjustment of randomly selected Iowa students with behavioral disorders in the classes of 1984 and 1985, 1 and 3 years after exiting high school. Ninety-five (86 percent of those selected) individuals from the class of 1984 were interviewed 1 year out of high school; 50 students from this same class were interviewed 3…

  12. Young Adult Identities and Their Pathways: A Developmental and Life Course Model

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Janel E.; Elder, Glen H.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental and life course studies of young adult identities have focused on two dimensions, subjective age and psychosocial maturity. This study examines the developmental synchrony of these two processes. In a longitudinal sample of young adults from Add Health (18 to 22), a person-centered analysis of indicators of these dimensions identified four identity profiles. Two depict early and late patterns of identity; the others represent contrasting types of discordance, “pseudo-adult”, subjective age more advanced than maturation level and “anticipatory”, with subjective age less advanced than maturational level. The profiles vary by gender, socioeconomic status, and race-ethnicity as well as by adolescent (ages12–16) pubertal maturation, psychosocial adjustment, and family context. These results provide support for a more holistic, interdisciplinary understanding of adult identity, and show that young adult identities in the Add Health sample follow differentiated paths into the adult years, with largely unknown consequences for the subsequent life course. PMID:21668096

  13. Comparing the Experiential and Psychosocial Dimensions of Chronic Pain in African Americans and Caucasians: Findings from a National Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ruehlman, Linda S.; Karoly, Paul; Newton, Craig

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To ascertain whether non-Hispanic African American and Caucasian chronic pain sufferers differ or converge in their self-reports of pain experience and pain adjustment. Research Design A telephone survey of U.S. English-speaking adults selected via random-digit dialing procedures and constrained to locate persons with chronic pain within selected gender by age groupings. Subjects A national sample of 2,407 participants contained a total of 214 non-Hispanic African Americans. A sample of 214 non-Hispanic Caucasians was randomly selected from the larger set of 1,935 Caucasian participants to serve as a comparison group for the present study. Measures Participants provided responses to interviewer questions that assessed pain experience (severity, interference, and emotional burden) and psychosocial outcomes (coping, attitudes and beliefs, catastrophizing, social support and hindrance, pain’s interference with daily life activities, treatment status, and medication taking). Results Although African American and Caucasian adults with chronic pain did not differ significantly in pain severity, interference, emotional burden, or current treatment status, multivariate analyses revealed differences in several domains of psychosocial functioning. Compared to Caucasians, African Americans reported greater pain-related interference with daily living, deficiencies in coping, and counterproductive attitudes and beliefs. African Americans also reported greater impatience and insensitivity from the most important person in their lives. Conclusions Psychosocial dimensions of chronic pain differed between community-residing African American and Caucasian adults surveyed as part of a national sample. PMID:15669950

  14. Guideline 3: Psychosocial Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    The third in seven sets of guidelines based on the consensus of experts in the treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in mental retardation (MR) focuses on psychosocial treatment. Guidelines cover general principles, choosing among psychosocial treatments, severity of MR and psychiatric/behavior symptoms, diagnosable disorders, target…

  15. Family beyond Parents? An Exploration of Family Configurations and Psychological Adjustment in Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widmer, Eric D.; Kempf, Nadine; Sapin, Marlene; Galli-Carminati, Giuliana

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the family configurations of young adults with intellectual disability. Based on a sample of 40 individuals interviewed two times in a year, we found as many as four types of family configurations, with distinct compositions, and different types of social capital. This diversity is not without consequences for individual…

  16. The Impact of the Adult-Child Relationship on School Adjustment for Children at Risk of Serious Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Shu-Fei; Cheney, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the adult-child relationship on students' social outcomes, academic competence and school engagement in a two-year Tier 2 intervention, the Check, Connect and Expect program. One hundred and three students from 2nd through 5th grade, their classroom teachers, and nine school-based coaches participated in this…

  17. Abuse and Parental Characteristics, Attributions of Blame, and Psychological Adjustment in Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinzow, Heidi; Seth, Puja; Jackson, Joan; Niehaus, Ashley; Fitzgerald, Monica

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of abuse and parental characteristics on attributional content and determine the relative contribution of different attributions of blame in predicting psychological symptomatology among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. One hundred eighty-three female undergraduates with a history of…

  18. Psychosocial Outcomes after Bilateral Hand Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mansher; Oser, Megan; Zinser, Jennifer; Sisk, Geoffroy; Carty, Matthew J; Sampson, Christian; Pribaz, Julian J; Pomahac, Bohdan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since the first successful hand transplantation in 1998, there have been multiple reports about surgical technique, transplant survival, and immunosuppression. However, very limited published data exist on psychosocial outcomes following hand transplantation. Methods: We report psychosocial outcomes in a patient with bilateral hand transplants at the midforearm level with serial follow-ups over 3.5 years. Different metrics used to study psychosocial outcomes included the following: SF-12, CES-D, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Rosenberg SE, and EQ-5D. Result: Preoperatively, our patient did not have any evidence of depression (CES-D = 3), had a nonstressful relationship with his spouse (Dyadic Adjustment Scale = 100), and self-esteem was in the normal range (Rosenberg SE = 21). These metrics and his additional scales (SF-12 MCS, EQ-5D, and EQ-VAS) did not change appreciably and were within the normal range for the entire duration of 3.5-year follow-up at all different time points. Conclusion: With the increasing popularity of hand transplantation and the increasing awareness of the importance of psychosocial parameters in overall success, appropriate, comprehensive, and standardized measurements are important. These should be an integral part of patients’ screening and follow-up. PMID:26579339

  19. [Psychosocial interventions in dementia].

    PubMed

    Kurz, A

    2013-01-01

    Psychosocial interventions improve cognitive abilities (cognitive stimulation, cognitive training), enhance emotional well-being (activity planning, reminiscence), reduce behavioral symptoms (aromatherapy, music therapy) and promote everyday functioning (occupational therapy). Through these effects they reinforce and augment pharmacological treatments for dementia. In addition, psychosocial interventions complement the treatment of patients by supporting family caregivers (educational groups, support programs). The potential of psychosocial interventions in dementia needs to be explored further in studies using improved methodology to determine effective components, clinical relevance and duration of effects, predictors of individual treatment response and health-economic implications. PMID:23306213

  20. PTSD Symptoms and Self-Rated Recovery among Adult Sexual Assault Survivors: The Effects of Traumatic Life Events and Psychosocial Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Ullman, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that self-blame is predictive of more posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and poorer recovery (Frazier, 2003; Koss, Figueredo, & Prince, 2002), and perceived control over recovery is associated with less distress (Frazier, 2003) in adult sexual assault (ASA) survivors. A structural equation model was…

  1. Psychosocial Factors and Theory in Physical Activity Studies in Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Mama, Scherezade K.; McNeill, Lorna H.; McCurdy, Sheryl A.; Evans, Alexandra E.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Adamus-Leach, Heather J.; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To summarize the effectiveness of interventions targeting psychosocial factors to increase physical activity (PA) among ethnic minority adults and explore theory use in PA interventions. Methods Studies (N = 11) were identified through a systematic review and targeted African American/Hispanic adults, specific psychosocial factors, and PA. Data were extracted using a standard code sheet and the Theory Coding Scheme. Results Social support was the most common psychosocial factor reported, followed by motivational readiness, and self-efficacy, as being associated with increased PA. Only 7 studies explicitly reported using a theoretical framework. Conclusions Future efforts should explore theory use in PA interventions and how integration of theoretical constructs, including psychosocial factors, increases PA. PMID:25290599

  2. Weaker error signals do not reduce the effectiveness of post-error adjustments: comparing error processing in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Strozyk, Jessica Vanessa; Jentzsch, Ines

    2012-06-15

    In this study we investigated age-related differences in error processing, comparing performance measures and physiological indicators of error processing of middle-aged (41-59years) and young (18-31years) adults using a version of the Eriksen flanker task. Although middle-aged participants were overall slower, both groups showed a comparable decrease in reaction time on error trials as well as slower and more accurate post-error performance. Despite the preserved error speeding and post-error slowing effects, we found an amplitude reduction in the Ne/ERN, contradicting the existence of a direct relationship between the amplitude of this component and post-error adjustments. This was further supported by the lack of significant correlations between the single-trial Ne/ERN amplitude and error-related reaction times. The single-trial Ne/ERN distribution showed a reduced variance for middle-aged compared to young participants, suggesting that weaker overall error signals rather than lapses in error detection are responsible for the observed Ne/ERN amplitude reductions. However, we argue that the signal still reached the necessary threshold to trigger normal post-error adjustments. Finally, the early Pe showed a reduction in amplitude and an increase in latency for middle-aged compared to young adults. Together, the findings suggest clear signs of a physiological decline in error processing at an earlier age than previously known, but these changes do not yet affect implementation of adaptive behavioral changes in middle-aged participants. PMID:22578713

  3. Developmental trajectories of adolescent cannabis use and their relationship to young adult social and behavioural adjustment: A longitudinal study of Australian youth.

    PubMed

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Evans-Whipp, Tracy J; Toumbourou, John W; Patton, George C

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to identify distinct developmental trajectories (sub-groups of individuals who showed similar longitudinal patterns) of cannabis use among Australian adolescents, and to examine associations between trajectory group membership and measures of social and behavioural adjustment in young adulthood. Participants (n=852, 53% female) were part of the International Youth Development Study. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify distinct trajectories of cannabis use frequency from average ages 12 to 19, across 6 waves of data. Logistic regression analyses and analyses of covariance were used to examine relationships between trajectory group membership and young adult (average age: 21) adjustment, controlling for a range of covariates. Three trajectories were identified: abstainers (62%), early onset users (11%), and late onset occasional users (27%). The early onset users showed a higher frequency of antisocial behaviour, violence, cannabis use, cannabis-related harms, cigarette use, and alcohol harms, compared to the abstinent group in young adulthood. The late onset occasional users reported a higher frequency of cannabis use, cannabis-related harms, illicit drug use, and alcohol harms, compared to the abstinent group in young adulthood. There were no differences between the trajectory groups on measures of employment, school completion, post-secondary education, income, depression/anxiety, or alcohol use problems. In conclusion, early onset of cannabis use, even at relatively low frequency during adolescence, is associated with poorer adjustment in young adulthood. Prevention and intervention efforts to delay or prevent uptake of cannabis use should be particularly focussed on early adolescence prior to age 12. PMID:26414206

  4. Markers of Resilience and Risk: Adult Lives in a Vulnerable Population

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Stuart T.; Stott, Cori; Billings, Rebecca L.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2006-01-01

    In this report, we drew on data from an ongoing longitudinal study that began in 1978 (Hauser, Powers, Noam, Jacobson, Weiss, & Folansbee, 1984). Focusing on late, young-adult life among individuals who were psychiatrically hospitalized during adolescence, we examined markers of resilience empirically defined in terms of adult success and well-being. The study includes a demographically similar group recruited from a public high school. Major goals were to (a) develop preliminary models of adaptive functioning among adults in their 30s, (b) examine the extent to which adults with histories of serious mental disorders can be characterized by these models, and (c) explore predictors of successful adult lives from indicators of individuals' psychosocial adjustment at age 25. Results showed significant cohort effects on indexes of adaptive functioning, especially for men. Findings suggest that social relations as well as self-views of competence and relatedness play important roles in characterizing adjustment during the adult years. In addition, indexes of psychosocial adjustment as well as symptoms of psychiatric distress and hard drug use at age 25 made a difference in adult social functioning and well-being, providing hints of possible mechanisms likely to facilitate the ability to “bounce back” after a difficult adolescence. PMID:16951709

  5. Psychosocial work environment and emotional exhaustion among middle-aged employees

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study examined the associations of job control, organizational justice and bullying at the workplace with emotional exhaustion. This was done by adjusting firstly for age and occupational class, secondly physical work factors, thirdly mutually adjusting for the three psychosocial factors and fourthly adjusting for all studied variables simultaneously. Data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study baseline surveys conducted in 2001 and 2002, including 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki (n = 5819, response rate 66%). Exhaustion was measured with a six-item subscale from Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Psychosocial factors included Karasek's job control, organizational justice and bullying at the workplace. Logistic regression analysis was used. Results Among women 23% and among men 20% reported symptoms of emotional exhaustion. Among women all psychosocial factors were associated with exhaustion when adjusted for age and occupational class as confounders. When physical work factors were additionally adjusted for, the associations slightly attenuated but remained. When psychosocial work factors were simultaneously adjusted for each other, their associations with exhaustion attenuated but remained. Among men all psychosocial factors were associated with exhaustion when adjusted for confounders only. When adjusted for physical work factors the associations slightly attenuated. When psychosocial factors were simultaneously adjusted for each other, associations of organizational justice and bullying with exhaustion attenuated but remained whereas job control lost its association. Conclusions Identifying risk factors for emotional exhaustion is vital for preventing subsequent processes leading to burnout. Psychosocial factors are likely to contribute to exhaustion among female as well as male employees. Thus management and occupational health care should devote more attention to the psychosocial work environment in order to be able to

  6. Childhood Psychosocial Cumulative Risks and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

    PubMed Central

    Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Elovainio, Marko; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Juonala, Markus; Kivimäki, Mika; Josefsson, Kim; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli T

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adverse experiences in childhood may influence cardiovascular risk in adulthood. We examined the prospective associations between types of psychosocial adversity as well as having multiple adversities (e.g., cumulative risk) with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and its progression among young adults. Higher cumulative risk score in childhood was expected to be associated with higher IMT and its progression. Methods Participants were 2265 men and women (age range: 24-39 years in 2001) from the on-going Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study whose carotid IMT were measured in 2001 and 2007. A cumulative psychosocial risk score, assessed at the study baseline in 1980, was derived from four separate aspects of the childhood environment that may impose risk (childhood stressful life-events, parental health behavior family, socioeconomic status, and childhood emotional environment). Results The cumulative risk score was associated with higher IMT in 2007 (b=.004; se=.001; p<.001) and increased IMT progression from 2001 to 2007 (b=.003; se=.001; p=.001). The associations were robust to adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and adulthood, including adulthood health behavior, adulthood socioeconomic status and depressive symptoms. Among the individual childhood psychosocial risk categories, having more stressful life-events was associated with higher IMT in 2001 (b=.007; se=.003; p=.016) and poorer parental health behavior predicted higher IMT in 2007 (b=.004; se=.002; p=.031) after adjustment for age, sex and childhood cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Early life psychosocial environment influences cardiovascular risk later in life and considering cumulative childhood risk factors may be more informative than individual factors in predicting progression of preclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood. PMID:26809108

  7. AIDS: Psychosocial Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Dan

    1986-01-01

    In order to provide comprehensive care to patients who have AIDS, it is important for the family physician to understand the psychosocial elements of the disease. Homosexual men who have AIDS face particular problems, such as the disclosure of sexual orientation to family and friends. Issues discussed in this article include the reactions of the patient, family and friends to the diagnosis, the stigma of AIDS, the patient's support network, and preparations for disability and death. The facts about AIDS are discussed briefly, and the psychosocial implications of the illness for patients and their “significant others” are examined. The role of the family physician is highlighted. PMID:21267233

  8. General practitioners' knowledge of their patients' psychosocial problems: multipractice questionnaire survey.

    PubMed Central

    Gulbrandsen, P.; Hjortdahl, P.; Fugelli, P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate general practitioners' knowledge of a range of psychosocial problems among their patients and to explore whether doctors' recognition of psychosocial problems depends on previous general knowledge about the patient or the type of problem or on certain characteristics of the doctor or the patient. DESIGN: Multipractice survey of consecutive adult patients consulting general practitioners. Doctors and patients answered written questions. SETTING: Buskerud county, Norway. SUBJECTS: 1401 adults attending 89 general practitioners during one regular working day in March 1995. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Doctors' knowledge of nine predefined psychosocial problems in patients; these problems were assessed by the patients as affecting their health on the day of consultation; odds ratios for the doctor's recognition of each problem, adjusted for characteristics of patients, doctors, and practices; and the doctor's assessment of previous general knowledge about the patient. RESULTS: Doctors' knowledge of the problems ranged from 53% (108/203) of "stressful working conditions" to 19% (12/63) of a history of "violence or threats." Good previous knowledge of the patient increased the odds for the doctor's recognition of "sorrow," "violence or threats," "substance misuse in close friend or relative," and "difficult conflict with close friend or relative." Age and sex of doctor and patient, patient's educational level and living situation, and location of practice influenced the doctor's awareness. CONCLUSIONS: Variation in the patients' communication abilities, the need for confidence in the doctor-patient relationship before revealing intimate problems, and a tendency for the doctors to be entrapped by their expectations may explain these findings. PMID:9112847

  9. Psychosocial Interventions Pre and Post Bariatric Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kalarchian, Melissa A; Marcus, Marsha D

    2015-11-01

    Despite positive results overall, a substantial number of patients experience poor long-term outcomes following bariatric surgery. One reason for variability in weight loss may be difficulty in making and sustaining changes in dietary intake and physical activity; post-surgery binge eating has also been associated with poorer weight outcomes. In this paper, we review available evidence on adjunctive psychosocial interventions for bariatric surgery patients. Although the literature is limited, evidence suggests that bariatric surgery patients may benefit from a comprehensive approach targeting diet, activity and psychological factors. We think the optimal time to initiate adjunctive intervention is after surgery, but before significant weight regain has occurred. Adaptive interventions incorporating advances in technology may prove to be effective for promoting behavioural self-management and psychosocial adjustment following bariatric surgery. For some patients, pharmacotherapy and reoperation may also play a role in a personalized approach to post-surgery care. PMID:26364715

  10. Psychosocial profile of Swiss sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Curtin, F; Niveau, G

    1998-07-01

    Background data on psychosocial characteristics of sexual offenders are sparse in Europe. From 67 experts' reports done between 1982 and 1995 in Geneva, Switzerland, demographic, criminological and psychiatric characteristics were collected for three groups of sexual offenders: offenders against adults, offenders against non-relative minors (< 18 yr), and offenders against minors with incest. The results showed that the offenders against adults were younger (p = 0.02), more frequently single (p = 0.0007) and with a lower educational level (p = 0.05) than the offenders against minors. Incest offenders had no prior conviction compared with 50% of the other offenders. Violence was more often used by offenders against adults (86%) than by offenders against minors (45%) (p = 0.005). About two-thirds of the sexual offenders had no psychiatric history, but a personality disorder (mainly borderline) was diagnosed in half of the offenders. A history of sexual abuse during childhood was reported by a third of the offenders against minors and by 5% of the offenders against adults (p = 0.04). It is concluded that a low socio-economic status and social isolation characterized offenders against adults, whereas offenders against minors had a relatively normal psychosocial profile. PMID:9670495

  11. Is there a bi-directional relationship between depression and obesity among adult men and women? Systematic review and bias-adjusted meta analysis.

    PubMed

    Mannan, Munim; Mamun, Abdullah; Doi, Suhail; Clavarino, Alexandra

    2016-06-01

    The rapidly increasing prevalence of both obesity and depression represent two major public health concerns worldwide. But the evidence regarding the direction and strength of the association between these two disorders, for both adult men and women, are remain inconclusive. We systematically reviewed publications from five different databases: Pubmed, Embase, BIOSIS, CINAHL and PsychINFO. A total of 21 articles were included for the systematic review and 19 of them for the meta-analysis using a bias-adjusted (quality effect) model. This resulted in the inclusion of approximately 226,063 (33.7% men) participants. Those who were depressed had a 37% (RR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.48) increased risk of being obese, and who were obese had an 18% increased risk of being depressed (RR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.35). Those who were depressed had a 2% (RD: 0.02, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.03) excess risk of obesity, however, the reciprocal associations were not significant. The association between overweight and depression was not found significant in either direction. Both men and women were at risk of obesity and depression bi-directionally. In sensitivity analyses bi-directional associations were more pronounced among young and middle aged adults and in studies with longer follow-up. The findings of this study suggest that the strength of the association is greater for the direction leading from depression to obesity and this link was more pronounced for young and middle aged women. PMID:27208458

  12. The effect of marriage on young adult heavy drinking and its mediators: results from two methods of adjusting for selection into marriage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Matthew R; Chassin, Laurie; Mackinnon, David

    2010-12-01

    This study tested the effect of marriage on young adult heavy drinking and tested whether this effect was mediated by involvement in social activities, religiosity, and self-control reasons for limiting drinking. The sample of 508 young adults was taken from an ongoing longitudinal study of familial alcoholism that over-sampled children of alcoholics (Chassin, Rogosch, & Barrera, 1991). In order to distinguish role socialization effects of marriage from confounding effects of role selection into marriage, analyses used both the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) method and the change score method of adjusting for pre-marriage levels of heavy drinking and the mediators. Results showed role socialization effects of marriage on post-marriage declines in heavy drinking. This effect was mediated by involvement in social activities such that marriage predicted decreased involvement in social activities, which in turn predicted decreased heavy drinking. There were no statistically significant mediated effects of religiosity. The mediated effect of self-control reasons for limiting drinking was supported by the ANCOVA method only, and further investigation suggested that this result was detected erroneously due to violation of an assumption of the ANCOVA method that is not shared by the change score method. Findings from this study offer an explanation for the maturing out of heavy drinking that takes place for some individuals over the course of young adulthood. Methodologically, results suggest that the ANCOVA method should be employed with caution, and that the change score method is a viable approach to confirming results from the ANCOVA method. PMID:21198229

  13. The Psychosocial Burden of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is associated with several comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, and several forms of cancer. Obesity and its comorbidities also come with a significant psychosocial burden, impacting numerous areas of psychosocial functioning. The evaluation of psychosocial functioning is an important part of the assessment and treatment planning for the patient with obesity. This article provides an overview of the psychosocial burden of obesity. The article also describes the psychological changes typically seen with weight loss. A particular focus is on the psychosocial functioning of individuals with extreme obesity who present for and undergo bariatric surgery. PMID:27519139

  14. Sun Protection during Snow Sports: An Analysis of Behavior and Psychosocial Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Eva; van Kann, Dave; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian; van Osch, Liesbeth

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated sun protective behavior during snow sports and its psychosocial determinants. A longitudinal study was conducted among 418 Dutch adults who planned to go on a ski holiday. Participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire before and after their ski trip. In the baseline questionnaire several psychosocial factors were…

  15. Psychosocial Treatment of Bipolar Disorders in Adolescents: A Proposed Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Feeny, Norah C.; Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Eric A.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the severity of bipolar disorder (BP) and the amount of attention the psychosocial treatment of BP among adults has been given (e.g., Basco & Rush, 1996; Miklowitz, Frank, & George, 1996), no published outcome study or psychosocial treatment manual to date exists for children with this disorder. Based upon what is known about the…

  16. Neuroplasticity, Psychosocial Genomics, and the Biopsychosocial Paradigm in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Eric L.; Howard, Matthew Owen

    2009-01-01

    The biopsychosocial perspective is a foundation of social work theory and practice. Recent research on neuroplasticity and psychosocial genomics lends compelling support to this perspective by elucidating mechanisms through which psychosocial forces shape neurobiology. Investigations of neuroplasticity demonstrate that the adult brain can continue…

  17. Malnutrition in cystic fibrosis: psychosocial functioning of patients and their families.

    PubMed

    Brennan, J L; Todd, A L; Jools, P A; Gaskin, K J

    1990-02-01

    The relationship between nutritional status and psychosocial functioning was examined in 35 children with cystic fibrosis, aged 7-16 years. Twelve malnourished children and their families were compared with 23 well nourished children and their families. Established measures of adjustment and coping in the children, parents and families were used. Few statistically significant differences between the two groups emerged, and all comparisons of psychosocial functioning were not significant. The results of the study suggest that there is no relationship between the nutritional status of the child with cystic fibrosis and the current psychosocial adjustment and coping of child, parents and family. PMID:2331416

  18. Psychological Adjustment of Adolescents with Myelodysplasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Mary M.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The psychosocial development of 20 adolescents with congenital paralysis due to myelodysplasia is compared to 20 age-and gender-matched subjects with no physical handicaps. On many of the measures, the myelodysplasia group showed poorer social and emotional adjustment and lower self esteem than the controls. (Author/GDC)

  19. The Psychosocial Impact of Fabry Disease on Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Bugescu, Nicolle; Naylor, Paige E; Hudson, Kyr; Aoki, Christa D; Cordova, Matthew J; Packman, Wendy

    2016-09-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is a multisystemic disease that has previously been reported to result in poorer quality of life and psychosocial functioning in impacted adults. However, prior to the current study, limited data were available on the impact of FD in children and adolescents. Therefore, the present study examined the differences of quality of life, psychosocial functioning, and depression in children with FD as compared with a healthy sample. Results indicated that children with FD were experiencing poorer quality of life than their healthy counterparts. Notably, results consistently identified adolescents with FD as more heavily impacted than younger children, although not to the same degree as adults with FD as reported in previous studies. Therefore, adolescence may be a critical point in the development of individuals with FD during which effective multidisciplinary interventions could be utilized to prevent poor quality of life and psychosocial functioning in adulthood. PMID:27617155

  20. Young child socioemotional/behavioral problems and cumulative psychosocial risk.

    PubMed

    Weitzman, Carol; Edmonds, Diana; Davagnino, Judith; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2014-01-01

    Limited information is available about the rates and risk correlates of socioemotional/behavioral problems in young children in pediatric primary care settings serving low-income families. Our objective was to determine rates of clinically significant socioemotional/behavior problems in 12- to 48-month-olds from low-income families and identify associations between problems and individual and cumulative demographic and psychosocial risks. In this study, 378 Spanish- and English-speaking mothers attending a pediatric primary care practice serving low-income families were surveyed before well-child visits to assess socioemotional/behavioral problems (Brief Infant-Toddler Social-Emotional Assessment; M.J. Briggs-Gowan & A.S. Carter, ) and psychosocial and demographic risks (e.g., unemployment, low social support) (Parent Risk Questionnaire; D.I. Lowell, A.S. Carter, L. Godoy, B. Paulicin, & M.J. Briggs-Gowan, ). We found that 19.8% of children had clinically significant problems, and 53.2% experienced one or more psychosocial risks. Clinically significant socioemotional/behavioral problems were modestly to strongly associated with individual psychosocial risks, with the strongest associations with parental medical problems, parent depression/anxiety, and extreme parental distress, Adjusted Relative Risk (ARR) = 4.8-6.6, p < .0001. Cumulative demographic and psychosocial risk were uniquely associated with clinically significant problems, particularly among children experiencing three to four psychosocial risks, ARR = 3.0-11.6, p < .05. Psychosocial risks affect the majority of low-income families with young children, with a steep increase in likelihood of clinically significant socioemotional/behavioral problems as risks accumulate, underscoring the need to address both socioemotional/behavioral issues and psychosocial risk in young children. PMID:25424401

  1. Psychosocial Aspects of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Beck, Amy R

    2016-01-01

    This article is the sixth in a series of the comorbidities of childhood obesity and reviews psychosocial aspects with a focus on weight-based victimization and discrimination stemming from weight bias and stigma. Outcomes from these bullying and discriminatory experiences are pervasive and impact youth across all settings, including school. Lastly, this article provides recommendations on how to reduce bias and stigma to better serve these students in the school environment. PMID:26739931

  2. [Adolescent psychosocial development].

    PubMed

    Gaete, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly necessary that pediatricians have greater knowledge of adolescent health. To begin with they should be familiar with the psychosocial development of this period, an issue which is imperative for the health care of the age group. With that purpose, this article reviews the normal adolescent psychosocial development. Adolescence is a stage that has been progressively prolonged, during which fast and big changes occur, that lead human beings to become biologically, psychologically and socially mature, and potentially able to live independently. Developmental tasks of this period are the establishment of identity and the achievement of autonomy. Although it is a process of high individual variability in terms of its beginning and end, the progression through stages, the synchrony of development between the various areas, and in other aspects, the psychosocial development of this period usually have common characteristics and a progressive pattern of 3 phases: early, middle and late adolescence. Psychological, cognitive, social, sexual and moral development of young people in each of them are described in this article. PMID:26342392

  3. Psychosocial Intimacy and Identity: From Early Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Marilyn J.

    2005-01-01

    Age and gender differences in patterns of behavior and experience, cognitive beliefs, affective involvement, and psychosocial functioning in romantic relationships were observed in 473 adolescents and emerging adults (ages 12-24). Older adolescents indicated more dating experiences, times in love, passion, identity, and intimacy. They also…

  4. Which Psychosocial Factors Are Related to Drinking among Rural Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jennifer A.; Botvin, Gilbert J.; Spoth, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of psychosocial factors with alcohol use for adolescents residing in rural Iowa. This association was also tested separately for boys and girls. Seventh graders (N = 1673) self-reported alcohol use, peer drinking norms, adult drinking norms, drug refusal assertiveness, drug refusal techniques, life skills,…

  5. Insomnia and Psychosocial Crisis: Two Studies of Erikson's Developmental Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Karen Dineen; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examines the role of internal stressors in the development of sleep disturbances in two studies of 122 older adults and 66 college students. Results confirmed Erikson's (1959) developmental theory. Failure to resolve the psychosocial crises of old age and adolescence were related to insomnia. (WAS)

  6. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Skin Self-Exam Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jakob D.; Moriarty, Cortney M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined psychosocial factors associated with skin self-exam (SSE) performance by young adults. Participants and Methods: The authors administered surveys to 218 US college students (aged 18-26 years) attending a large midwestern university. Results: Contrary to prior research, men (44%) and women (49%) were relatively…

  7. Psychosocial factors as a potential trigger of oxidative DNA damage in human leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Irie, M; Asami, S; Nagata, S; Ikeda, M; Miyata, M; Kasai, H

    2001-03-01

    Although numerous studies have been carried out on the stress-cancer linkage, the results are still inconclusive. One of the useful, but rarely applied, methods to assess this linkage is to examine the relationship between psychosocial stress and cancer-predisposing genetic alterations simultaneously. We investigated whether various psychosocial factors can be associated with the levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), a biomarker of cancer-related oxidative DNA damage, in peripheral blood leukocytes in 362 healthy workers (276 males and 86 females). After adjustments for age, body mass index, cigarette smoking, and alcohol use, female subjects showed positive relationships between the amount of 8-OH-dG and the Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Rejection, Anger-Hostility, Fatigue, and Confusion scores of the Profile of Mood States, respectively. The levels of 8-OH-dG also increased reliably in the female subjects who had poor stress-coping behaviors, particularly wishful thinking strategy, in the NIOSH general job stress instrument. There were positive relationships of the 8-OH-dG levels to average working hours, a self-blame coping strategy, and recent loss of a close family member in male subjects. These findings in a nonclinical sample of healthy adults not only provide evidence of a stress-cancer linkage, but also suggest possible sex differences in the mechanisms of stress-related cancer initiation. PMID:11267949

  8. Psychosocial support for youth living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Jaime; Chakraborty, Rana

    2014-03-01

    This clinical report provides guidance for the pediatrician in addressing the psychosocial needs of adolescents and young adults living with HIV, which can improve linkage to care and adherence to life-saving antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Recent national case surveillance data for youth (defined here as adolescents and young adults 13 to 24 years of age) revealed that the burden of HIV/AIDS fell most heavily and disproportionately on African American youth, particularly males having sex with males. To effectively increase linkage to care and sustain adherence to therapy, interventions should address the immediate drivers of ARV compliance and also address factors that provide broader social and structural support for HIV-infected adolescents and young adults. Interventions should address psychosocial development, including lack of future orientation, inadequate educational attainment and limited health literacy, failure to focus on the long-term consequences of near-term risk behaviors, and coping ability. Associated challenges are closely linked to the structural environment. Individual case management is essential to linkage to and retention in care, ARV adherence, and management of associated comorbidities. Integrating these skills into pediatric and adolescent HIV practice in a medical home setting is critical, given the alarming increase in new HIV infections in youth in the United States. PMID:24567016

  9. A prospective study of positive early life psychosocial factors and favorable cardiovascular risk in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Appleton, Allison A.; Buka, Stephen L.; Loucks, Eric B.; Rimm, Eric; Martin, Laurie T.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2013-01-01

    Background The American Heart Association’s national goals for cardiovascular health promotion emphasize that cardiovascular risk originates early in life, but little is known about child factors that may increase the likelihood of having favorable cardiovascular risk (FCR) in adulthood. We examined the prospective association between positive child factors and likelihood of midlife FCR. We also considered pathways through which child factors may influence FCR. Methods and Results We studied 415 adults (mean age=42.2 years) of the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a national cohort initiated in 1959–1966. We examined three positive child factors assessed at age 7 years: attention regulation (ability to stay focused), cognitive ability and positive home environment. 10.6% had FCR in midlife. Adjusting for demographics and child cardiovascular health, a one unit increase in child attention regulation, cognitive ability and positive home environment was associated with 2.4 (95%CI: 1.1 to 4.7), 1.8 (95%CI: 1.1 to 2.9), and 1.3 (95%CI: 1.1 to 1.6) higher respective odds of having midlife FCR. The association with child attention regulation was maintained when accounting for adult factors; education and diet partly explained the associations with child cognitive ability and home environment. The effect of each attribute was additive as those with high levels of each child factor had 4.3 higher odds (95%CI: 1.01 to 18.2) of midlife FCR compared to those low in all factors. Conclusions Positive child psychosocial factors may promote healthy adult cardiovascular functioning. Primordial prevention efforts aimed at preventing the development of cardiovascular risk should consider building on child psychosocial resources. PMID:23339873

  10. Psychosocial outcomes in patients with recurrent major depressive disorder during 2 years of maintenance treatment with venlafaxine extended release

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Dunner, David L.; Kornstein, Susan G.; Thase, Michael E.; Zajecka, John M.; Rothschild, Anthony J.; Friedman, Edward S.; Shelton, Richard C.; Keller, Martin B.; Kocsis, James H.; Gelenberg, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychosocial outcomes from the Prevention of Recurrent Episodes of Depression with Venlafaxine ER for Two Years (PREVENT) study were evaluated. Methods Adult outpatients with recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) and response or remission following 6-month continuation treatment with venlafaxine extended release (ER) were randomized to receive venlafaxine ER or placebo for 1 year. Patients without recurrence on venlafaxine ER during year 1 were randomized to venlafaxine ER or placebo for year 2. Psychosocial functioning was assessed using the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire—Short Form (Q-LES-Q), Life EnjoymentScale—Short Version (LES-S), Social Adjustment Scale—Self-Report (SAS-SR) total and individual factors, Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) (vitality, social functioning, and role function-emotional items), and Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE). Results At year 1 end, better overall psychosocial functioning was seen among patients randomly assigned to venlafaxine ER (n=129) vs placebo (n=129), with significant differences at end point on SF-36 role function-emotional, Q-LES-Q, and SAS-SR total, and work, house work, social/leisure, and extended-family factor scores (p≤0.05). At year 2 end, significant differences favored venlafaxine ER (n=43) vs placebo (n=40)on SF-36 vitality and rolefunction-emotional, Q-LES-Q, LES-S, LIFE, and SAS-SR total, social/leisure, and extended-family factor scores (p≤0.05). Limitations Patients with chronic MDD or treatment resistance were excluded and long-term specialist care was a financial incentive for treatment compliance. Discontinuation-related adverse events may have compromised the integrity of the treatment blind. Conclusions For patients with recurrent MDD, 2 years’ maintenance therapy with venlafaxine ER may improve psychosocial functioning vs placebo. PMID:20510459

  11. Influence of Psychosocial Factors and Habitual Behavior in Temporomandibular Disorder–Related Symptoms in a Working Population in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Akira; Kino, Koji; Sugisaki, Masashi; Tsukagoshi, Kaori

    2012-01-01

    Background: The symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are directly influenced by numerous factors, and it is thought that additional factors exert indirect influences. However, the relationships between TMD-related symptoms (TRS) and these contributing factors are largely unknown. Thus, the goal of the present study was to investigate influences on TRS in a working population by determining the prevalence of TRS, analyzing contributing factors, and determining their relative influences on TRS. Materials and Methods: The study subjects were 2203 adults who worked for a single company. Subjects completed a questionnaire assessing TRS, psychosocial factors (stress, anxiety, depressed mood, and chronic fatigue), tooth-contacting habit, and sleep bruxism-related morning symptoms, using a 5-point numeric rating scale. Our analysis proceeded in 2 phases. First, all variables of the descriptor were divided into parts by using an exploratory factor analysis. Second, this factorial structure was verified by using a confirmatory factor analysis with structural equation modeling. Results: Of 2203 employees, 362 reported experiencing TRS (16.4%). Structural equation modeling generated a final model with a goodness of fit index of 0.991, an adjusted goodness of fit index of 0.984, and a root mean square error of approximately 0.021. These indices indicate a strong structural model. The standardized path coefficients for “habitual behavioral factors and TRS,” “psychosocial factors and habitual behavioral factors,” “psychosocial factors and TRS,” and “gender and habitual behavior factors” were 0.48, 0.38, 0.14, and 0.18, respectively. Conclusions: Habitual behavioral factors exert a stronger effect on TRS than do psychosocial factors. PMID:23346261

  12. Latent Constructs in Psychosocial Factors Associated with Cardiovascular Disease: An Examination by Race and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Cari Jo; Henderson, Kimberly M.; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes; Guo, Hongfei; Lunos, Scott; Evans, Denis A.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines race and sex differences in the latent structure of 10 psychosocial measures and the association of identified factors with self-reported history of coronary heart disease (CHD). Participants were 4,128 older adults from the Chicago Health and Aging Project. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with oblique geomin rotation was used to identify latent factors among the psychosocial measures. Multi-group comparisons of the EFA model were conducted using exploratory structural equation modeling to test for measurement invariance across race and sex subgroups. A factor-based scale score was created for invariant factor(s). Logistic regression was used to test the relationship between the factor score(s) and CHD adjusting for relevant confounders. Effect modification of the relationship by race–sex subgroup was tested. A two-factor model fit the data well (comparative fit index = 0.986; Tucker–Lewis index = 0.969; root mean square error of approximation = 0.039). Depressive symptoms, neuroticism, perceived stress, and low life satisfaction loaded on Factor I. Social engagement, spirituality, social networks, and extraversion loaded on Factor II. Only Factor I, re-named distress, showed measurement invariance across subgroups. Distress was associated with a 37% increased odds of self-reported CHD (odds ratio: 1.37; 95% confidence intervals: 1.25, 1.50; p-value < 0.0001). This effect did not differ by race or sex (interaction p-value = 0.43). This study identified two underlying latent constructs among a large range of psychosocial variables; only one, distress, was validly measured across race–sex subgroups. This construct was robustly related to prevalent CHD, highlighting the potential importance of latent constructs as predictors of cardiovascular disease. PMID:22347196

  13. Can they recover? An assessment of adult adjustment problems among males in the abstainer, recovery, life-course persistent, and adolescence-limited pathways followed up to age 56 in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Wesley G; Rocque, Michael; Fox, Bryanna Hahn; Piquero, Alex R; Farrington, David P

    2016-05-01

    Much research has examined Moffitt's developmental taxonomy, focusing almost exclusively on the distinction between life-course persistent and adolescence-limited offenders. Of interest, a handful of studies have identified a group of individuals whose early childhood years were marked by extensive antisocial behavior but who seemed to recover and desist (at least from severe offending) in adolescence and early adulthood. We use data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development to examine the adult adjustment outcomes of different groups of offenders, including a recoveries group, in late middle adulthood, offering the most comprehensive investigation of this particular group to date. Findings indicate that abstainers comprise the largest group of males followed by adolescence-limited offenders, recoveries, and life-course persistent offenders. Furthermore, the results reveal that a host of adult adjustment problems measured at ages 32 and 48 in a number of life-course domains are differentially distributed across these four offender groups. In addition, the recoveries and life-course persistent offenders often show the greatest number of adult adjustment problems relative to the adolescence-limited offenders and abstainers. PMID:26027850

  14. Maternal Adjustment Following Preterm Birth: Contributions of Experiential Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greco, Laurie A.; Heffner, Michelle; Poe, Susannah; Ritchie, Susan; Polak, Mark; Lynch, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    The birth of a preterm infant has been linked with parental distress and adjustment difficulties, yet little is known about the psychosocial factors contributing to this association. Using a cross-sectional design, we therefore examined maternal adjustment following preterm birth, with an emphasis on the potential role of experiential avoidance.…

  15. Psychosocial Assessment as a Standard of Care in Pediatric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kazak, Anne E; Abrams, Annah N; Banks, Jaime; Christofferson, Jennifer; DiDonato, Stephen; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Kabour, Marianne; Madan-Swain, Avi; Patel, Sunita K; Zadeh, Sima; Kupst, Mary Jo

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the evidence for a standard of care for psychosocial assessment in pediatric cancer. An interdisciplinary group of investigators utilized EBSCO, PubMed, PsycINFO, Ovid, and Google Scholar search databases, focusing on five areas: youth/family psychosocial adjustment, family resources, family/social support, previous history/premorbid functioning, and family structure/function. Descriptive quantitative studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses (n = 149) were reviewed and evaluated using grading of recommendations, assessment development, and evaluation (GRADE) criteria. There is high quality evidence to support a strong recommendation for multifaceted, systematic assessments of psychosocial health care needs of youth with cancer and their families as a standard of care in pediatric oncology. PMID:26700916

  16. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum ...

  17. Psychosocial Recovery and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Antai-Otong, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    This article discusses a psychosocial recovery and rehabilitation recovery model that uses an intensive case management approach. The approach offers an interdisciplinary model that integrates pharmacotherapy, social skills training, cognitive remediation, family involvement, and community integration. This evidence-based plan of care instills hope and nurtures one's capacity to learn and improve function and quality of life. It is cost-effective and offers psychiatric nurses opportunities to facilitate symptomatic remission, facilitate self-efficacy, and improve communication and social cognition skills. Nurses in diverse practice settings must be willing to plan and implement innovative treatment models that provide seamless mental health care across the treatment continuum. PMID:27229282

  18. [Psychosocial aspects of preeclampsia].

    PubMed

    Szita, Bernadett; Baji, Ildikó; Rigó, János

    2015-12-13

    Distress conditions during pregnancy may contribute to the development of preeclampsia by altering functions of the neuroendocrine and immune systems, e.g. activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increase in plasma proinflammatory cytokines. Preeclampsia may also precipitate mental health problems due to long-term hospitalization or unpredictable and uncontrollable events such as preterm labor and newborn complications. Besides, preeclampsia may induce persistent neurocognitive complaints with a negative impact on patients' quality of life. As growing evidence indicates that poor maternal mental health has an adverse effect on pregnancy outcome and fetal development, psychosocial interventions may be beneficial for women with preeclampsia. PMID:26639644

  19. Associations between Early Childhood Temperament Clusters and Later Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanson, Ann; Letcher, Primrose; Smart, Diana; Prior, Margot; Toumbourou, John W.; Oberklaid, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The study adopted a person-centered approach to examine whether clusters of children could be identified on the basis of temperament profiles assessed on four occasions from infancy to early childhood, and if so whether differing temperament clusters were associated with subsequent differences in behavior problems, social skills, and school…

  20. Issues in the Psycho-Social Adjustment of Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Porath, Yossef S.

    The refugee experience--migrating against one's will--is a source of immense psychological stress. This paper therefore draws on empirical findings and theoretical discussions from the psychological, psychiatric, nursing, social work, sociological, and anthropological literature in order to identify the major stressors encountered in the…

  1. Rehabilitation and social adjustment of people with burns in society.

    PubMed

    Din, Sirajud; Shah, Mussawar; Asadullah; Jamal, Humera; Bilal, Muhammad

    2015-02-01

    The present study was conducted on rehabilitation and social adjustment of people with burns in society with the main objective to determine the relationship between social adjustment of people with burns and their psychosocial rehabilitation. The study was limited to the Burn Unit, Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan. At bi-variate level, the following were observed: the relationship of psychosocial rehabilitation was highly significant (P=0.000) considering that people with burns feel shame in the society, a highly significant relation (P=0.000) was found between psychosocial rehabilitation and burn as the hurdle to contact other members of the society, a highly significant (P=0.000) relation was found between psychosocial rehabilitation and perception that society provides social support to people with burns, a highly significant (P=0.000) relationship between psychosocial rehabilitation and people with burns feel alienated from the society, a significant association (P=0.024) was found between psychosocial rehabilitation and loss of social network, and a significant (P=0.002) association between psychosocial rehabilitation and society insult toward people with burns. Regular provision of treatment, quota in job allocation for people with burns, initiation of stipend through Benazir Income Support Program, and keeping and updating record of burns at the district level in census centers were suggested as recommendations in light of the study. PMID:24934521

  2. Urticarial dermographism: clinical features and response to psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Wallengren, Joanna; Isaksson, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Studies report that urticarial dermographism is exacerbated by "life events" and emotions. The aim of this study was to determine what aspects of life quality are affected by symptomatic dermographism and whether acute stress is a potential triggering factor. A total of 21 adult patients with urticarial dermographism completed a questionnaire on symptoms and quality of life. Twelve patients agreed to enrol in the study, which involved provocation by prick test and dermographism before and after a standardized psychosocial stress test (Trier Social Stress Test). Seventeen age-matched controls underwent corresponding tests. Of the patients answering the questionnaire, 43% reported that their disease had an impact on their quality of life and 33% that psychosocial stress precipitated the symptoms. However, the dermographic reaction in patients with urticaria factitia was not significantly intensified after the stress test. We conclude that the acute psychosocial stress test does not alter the magnitude of the dermographic reactions. PMID:17989886

  3. Assessing Psychosocial Stressors Among Hispanic Outpatients: Does Clinician Ethnicity Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Luis R.; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Zayas, Luis H.; Alvarez-Sánchez, Thyria

    2014-01-01

    Objective Psychosocial and environmental stressors are a well-documented factor in the etiology, progression, and maintenance of psychiatric disorders. Clear guidelines on identifying them are lacking. When the patient and provider are of different cultures, the clinician may not properly understand and identify stressors. This study explored clinician ethnicity and identification of stressors. Methods A total of 88 adult Hispanic outpatients in a community clinic were separately evaluated by pairs of clinicians (Hispanic and non-Hispanic) drawn from a pool of 47, as part of a larger study. Axis IV data are reported here. Results Clinicians identified few psychosocial stressors. Non-Hispanic clinicians identified significantly more problems related to the primary support group and educational problems than Hispanic clinicians. Conclusions Clinician ethnicity played a role in identification of psychosocial and environmental problems. Because stressors often affect the presenting problem and course of treatment, failure to properly identify and address them in treatment may influence service outcomes. PMID:18511592

  4. Psychosocial Working Conditions and Cognitive Complaints among Swedish Employees

    PubMed Central

    Stenfors, Cecilia U. D.; Magnusson Hanson, Linda; Oxenstierna, Gabriel; Theorell, Töres; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2013-01-01

    Background Cognitive complaints involving problems with concentration, memory, decision-making and thinking are relatively common in the work force. The sensitivity of both subjective and objective cognitive functioning to common psychiatric conditions, stress levels and to cognitive load makes it plausible that psychosocial working conditions play a role in cognitive complaints. Thus, this study aimed to test the associations between psychosocial work factors and cognitive complaints in nationally representative samples of the Swedish work force. Cross-sectional (n = 9751) and prospective (n = 3644; two time points two years apart) sequential multiple regression analyses were run, adjusting for general confounders, depressive- and sleeping problems. Additional prospective analyses were run adjusting for baseline cognitive complaints. Cross-sectional results High quantitative demands, information and communication technology (ICT) demands, underqualification and conflicts were positively associated with cognitive complaints, while social support, good resources at work and overqualification were negatively associated with cognitive complaints in all models. Skill discretion and decision authority were weakly associated with cognitive complaints. Conflicts were more strongly associated with cognitive complaints in women than in men, after adjustment for general confounders. Prospective results Quantitative job demands, ICT demands and underqualification were positively associated with future cognitive complaints in all models, including when adjusted for baseline cognitive complaints. Decision authority was weakly positively associated with future cognitive complaints, only after adjustment for depressive- and sleeping problems respectively. Social support was negatively associated with future cognitive complaints after adjustment for general confounders and baseline cognitive complaints. Skill discretion and resources were negatively associated with future

  5. Asking fathers: a study of psychosocial adaptation.

    PubMed

    Herrick, E K; Nussbaum, R; Holtzman, N A; Wissow, L

    2004-09-01

    Although few contemporary studies specifically address paternal adaptation, the theme of paternal estrangement from medical care and from family relationships is pervasive in the psychosocial literature on haemophilia. This estrangement has been shown to have a negative effect on fathers' psychological well-being, marital relationships and the adaptive outcome of their sons who have haemophilia. The goals of this study were to provide contemporary data on the psychosocial adaptation of fathers of boys with haemophilia and to examine specific variables that might influence their adjustment. Eighty-three eligible fathers returned a survey instrument that collected demographic and medical information, as well as scores on self-measures of adaptation in marital and parenting roles. Statistically significant direct correlations (P < 0.01) were found between fathers' scores on the Marital Adjustment Test and the Parenting Sense of Competence subscales (parenting efficacy and satisfaction). Variables specific to rearing a son with haemophilia that negatively affected fathers' marital adjustment scores included: feeling left out of medical decision making by their wives or partners, worry about their sons' having limited activity, and the presence of a secondary diagnosis in the affected child. Scores on the parenting efficacy subscale of the PSOC were statistically significantly reduced (i.e. fathers felt less effective in the parenting role) in men who 'rarely' or 'never' infused their sons (42/80, 53%). Variables that negatively affected scores on the parenting satisfaction subscale included frustrating interactions with medical staff and concern about their sons' potential to contract an infection or secondary diagnosis. This paper presents a model to examine the interrelationships among the data and discusses the clinical implications. PMID:15357787

  6. Demonstration of Benefits of Early Identification of Psychosocial Problems and Early Intervention Toward Rehabilitation of Cancer Patients. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diller, Leonard; And Others

    Early identification of psychosocial problems and early intervention with cancer patients can be beneficial to patient rehabilitation. This report focusses on: (1) developing and implementing an effective "model program" of psychosocial intervention for adult cancer patients; (2) evaluating the impact of intervention in ameliorating cancer…

  7. Associations between Distal Upper Extremity Job Physical Factors and Psychosocial Measures in a Pooled Study

    PubMed Central

    Thiese, Matthew S.; Hegmann, Kurt T.; Kapellusch, Jay; Merryweather, Andrew; Bao, Stephen; Silverstein, Barbara; Garg, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. There is an increasing body of literature relating musculoskeletal diseases to both job physical exposures and psychosocial outcomes. Relationships between job physical exposure measures and psychosocial factors have not been well examined or quantified. These exploratory analyses evaluate relationships between quantified exposures and psychosocial outcomes. Methods. Individualized quantification of duration, repetition, and force and composite scores of the Strain Index (SI) and the Threshold Limit Value for Hand Activity Level (TLV for HAL) were compared to 10 psychosocial measures. Relationships and predicted probabilities were assessed using ordered logistic regression. Analyses were adjusted for age, BMI, and gender. Results and Discussion. Among 1834 study participants there were multiple statistically significant relationships. In general, as duration, repetition, and force increased, psychosocial factors worsened. However, general health and mental exhaustion improved with increasing job exposures. Depression was most strongly associated with increased repetition, while physical exhaustion was most strongly associated with increased force. SI and TLV for HAL were significantly related to multiple psychosocial factors. These relationships persisted after adjustment for strong confounders. Conclusion. This study quantified multiple associations between job physical exposures and occupational and nonoccupational psychosocial factors. Further research is needed to quantify the impacts on occupational health outcomes. PMID:26557686

  8. The psychosocial care needs of patients with HPV-related head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Gold, Dorothy

    2012-08-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) suffer disproportionate psychosocial distress because of the nature of the tumor site, the possible impact on facial appearance and function, and the symptom burden resulting from treatment. Unmet psychosocial needs can negatively impact many aspects of care, from compliance to successful survivorship. This article reviews the challenges that patients with HNC confront throughout the disease trajectory from diagnosis to treatment, recovery, and long-term survivorship. It also provides a framework for understanding psychosocial adjustment and quality of life both for the general population of patients with HNC, and those with human papillomavirus-related diagnoses. PMID:22793858

  9. Using focus groups to identify psychosocial issues of urban black individuals with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R M; Barr, P A; Edwards, G J; Funnell, M M; Fitzgerald, J T; Wisdom, K

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this focus group research was to identify issues that could serve as topics for a series of educational videos portraying psychosocial issues of urban black individuals with diabetes. Four focus groups involving 34 black adults were conducted in the Detroit area. Psychosocial issues were identified and rated in order of priority by an expert panel. The major psychosocial issues identified were the importance of food and eating in the black culture, the necessity for learning more about diabetes and its complications, learning to interact effectively with healthcare providers and systems, and the need for help and support in managing psychosocial issues related to diabetes. Black individuals with diabetes face unique psychosocial challenges. Focus groups are an effective method for obtaining relevant, culturally specific, in-depth information about living with diabetes from patients who are members of minority groups. PMID:8697953

  10. Adjustable microforceps.

    PubMed

    Bao, J Y

    1991-04-01

    The commonly used microforceps have a much greater opening distance and spring resistance than needed. A piece of plastic ring or rubber band can be used to adjust the opening distance and reduce most of the spring resistance, making the user feel more comfortable and less fatigued. PMID:2051437

  11. Adult Development and the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffernan, James M.

    Little attention has been given to how adults develop through their lifetimes and what roles their workplace environments play in that development. Research and theory regarding adult psychosocial development have confirmed the developmental life-cycle phases of adulthood. These are: leaving the family (ages 16-22), getting into the adult world…

  12. Cell phones: the psychosocial risks.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2013-01-01

    Cell phones are a relatively novel and evolving technology. While the potential benefits of this technology continue to emerge, so do the potential psychosocial risks. For example, one psychosocial risk is user stress, which appears to be related to feeling compelled to promptly respond to cell-phone activity in order to maintain spontaneity and access with others. Other potential psychosocial risks include disruptions in sleep; the user's risk of exposure to cyberbullying, particularly the unwanted exposure of photographs and/or videos of the victim; and overuse, particularly among adolescents. With regard to the latter phenomenon, the boundaries among overuse, misuse, dependence, and addiction are not scientifically clear. Therefore, while cell phones are a convenient and expedient technology, they are not without their potential psychosocial hazards. PMID:23439568

  13. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  14. Psychosocial Factors Related to Cannabis Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Finch, Stephen J.; Koppel, Jonathan; Brook, David W.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the association between psychosocial risk and protective factors and cannabis use disorders (CUDs) in a cohort of African American and Puerto Rican young adults. A representative sample (N=838) from the East Harlem area of New York City was assessed at four points in time (at mean ages 14.1, 19.2, 24.5, and 29.2). The psychosocial measures came from six domains: personality attributes, family, peer, work, neighborhood, and substance use The psychosocial measures were assessed at each of the first three waves of the study, and CUDs were assessed at the fourth and final wave of the study. Multivariate logistic regression and a cumulative risk analysis were conducted. Increased psychological symptoms (OR=1.21; 95% CI, 1.05–1.39; p<.01), problems resulting from cannabis use (OR=2.69; 95% CI, 1.33–5.46; p<.01), frequent arguments with one’s partner (OR=1.84; 95% CI, 1.09–3.10; p<.05), high levels of deviance (OR=1.81; 95% CI, 1.21–2.71; p<.01), and frequent acts of violence directed toward the participant (OR=1.19; 95% CI, 1.01–1.42; p<.05) were all associated with an increased risk for CUDs. An increase in the number of risks was associated with an increase in the probability of having CUDs at the fourth wave (again, at a mean age of 29.2). A decrease in the number of risk factors may lead to a decrease in CUDs. PMID:22014255

  15. Achievement Motivation Training--Effects on ABE/ASE Students' Psychosocial Self-Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Larry G.

    A study was conducted to identify psychosocial needs of Adult Basic Education (ABE)/Adult Secondary Education (ASE) students by using the Self-Description Questionnaire (SDQ). A second purpose was to test effectiveness of Achievement Motivation Training (AMT) as a technique to counterbalance the negative impact of these students' former…

  16. Developmental and psychosocial issues in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Michelle M; Johnson, Mark C; Stark, Lori J

    2011-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multisystemic life-limiting genetic disorder, primarily affecting respiratory functioning. Most patients with CF are diagnosed by 2 years of age, and the current median predicted survival rate is 37.4 years old, with 95% of patients dying from complications related to pulmonary infection. Given the chronic, progressive, and disabling nature of CF, multiple treatments are prescribed, most on a daily basis. Thus, this illness requires children, with the aid of their families, to adopt multiple health-related behaviors in addition to managing more typical developmental demands. The morbidity and mortality factors pose cognitive, emotional, and behavioral challenges for many children with CF and their families. This article applies a developmental perspective to describing the psychosocial factors affecting psychological adjustment and health-related behaviors relevant to infants, preschool and school-age children, and adolescents with CF. Topics particularly pertinent to developmental periods and medical milestones are noted, with clinical implications highlighted. PMID:21855711

  17. Correlates of Hypertension Among Adult Men and Women in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Hashani, Valdet; Roshi, Enver; Burazeri, Genc

    2014-01-01

    Aim: We aimed to assess the independent socioeconomic, behavioral and psychosocial correlates of hypertension among the adult population of Kosovo. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Pristina in 2012-2013 which included a large representative sample of 1793 consecutive primary health care users aged ≥35 years (mean age: 51.2±6.7 years; 52.5% women; overall response: 95%). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured, whereas demographic and socioeconomic characteristics (age, sex, marital status, place of residence, education, employment status and income), lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol intake, physical exercise and dietary fat intake) and psychosocial factors (hostility and reaction to transition) were assessed through a structured questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted binary logistic regression was used to assess the independent “predictors” of hypertension. Results: Upon simultaneous adjustment in a backward stepwise elimination procedure for all socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle factors and psychosocial factors, significant positive correlates of hypertension were older age (OR=1.03, 95%CI=1.01-1.05), male gender (OR=1.41, 95%CI=1.19-1.58), a lower educational attainment (OR=1.36, 95%CI=1.08-1.67), smoking (OR=1.53, 95%CI=1.28-2.16), physical inactivity (OR=1.98, 95%CI=1.46-2.74) and hostility (OR=1.42, 95%CI=1.17-2.08). Conclusions: Findings from this study conducted in transitional Kosovo are generally in line with previous reports from the Western Balkan countries and beyond. Decision-makers and policymakers should be aware of the rising trend and socioeconomic, behavioral and psychosocial determinants of hypertension in post-war Kosovo. PMID:25126020

  18. Psychosocial aspects of abortion

    PubMed Central

    Illsley, Raymond; Hall, Marion H.

    1976-01-01

    The literature on psychosocial aspects of abortion is confusing. Individual publications must be interpreted in the context of cultural, religious, and legal constraints obtaining in a particular society at a given time, with due attention to the status and availability of alternatives to abortion that might be chosen by a woman with an “unwanted” pregnancy. A review of the literature shows that, where careful pre- and post-abortion assessments are made, the evidence is that psychological benefit commonly results, and serious adverse emotional sequelae are rare. The outcome of refused abortion seems less satisfactory, with regrets and distress frequently occurring. Research on the administration of abortion services suggests that counselling is often of value, that distress is frequently caused by delays in deciding upon and in carrying out abortions, and by unsympathetic attitudes of service providers. The phenomenon of repeated abortion seeking should be seen in the context of the availability and cost of contraception and sterilization. The place of sterilization with abortion requires careful study. A recommendation is made for observational descriptive research on populations of women with potentially unwanted pregnancies in different cultures, with comparisons of management systems and an evaluation of their impact on service users. PMID:1085671

  19. Psychosocial consequences of therapeutic abortion King's termination study III.

    PubMed

    Greer, H S; Lal, S; Lewis, S C; Belsey, E M; Beard, R W

    1976-01-01

    A follow-up study is reported of a consecutive series of 360 women who underwent termination of first trimester pregnancies by vacuum aspiration. Each patient received brief counselling before termination. Follow-up examinations were carried out by means of detailed, structured interviews at three months and between 15 months and two years (mean: 18 months) after termination. Outcome was assessed in terms of psychiatric symptoms, guilt feelings, and adjustment in marital and other interpersonal relationships, sexual responsiveness and work record. Compared with ratings of psychosocial adjustment before termination, significant improvement had occurred at follow-up in respect of psychiatric symptoms, guilt feelings and interpersonal and sexual adjustment; there was no significant change in marital adjustment. Adverse psychiatric and social sequelae were rare. PMID:943199

  20. Psychosocial factors associated with smoking in Air Force recruits.

    PubMed

    Jex, T T; Lombard, T

    1998-04-01

    The ability to identify modifiable risk factors associated with smoking in U.S. Air Force recruits may prove useful in developing smoking prevention programs. We assessed 257 recruits for selected psychosocial factors previously found to be associated with smoking in young adults in the general population. Cross-sectional analysis revealed significant differences between smokers and nonsmokers for six of the eight factors addressed. Implications for the development of smoking prevention programs are discussed. PMID:9575766

  1. Psychosocial factors associated with in postsurgical prognosis of temporal lobe epilepsy related to hippocampal sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Neide Barreira; Mazetto, Lenon; de Araújo Filho, Gerardo Maria; Vidal-Dourado, Marcos; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas; Centeno, Ricardo Silva

    2015-12-01

    We examined the long-term psychosocial trajectory in a consecutive and homogeneous series of 120 patients followed up for five years after corticoamygdalohippocampectomy (CAH). Evaluation of psychosocial variables at baseline and at five-year follow-up were compared. After five years of CAH, a significant improvement in educational level (p=0.004) and employment status (p<0.001) was observed, although retirement (p<0.001) and divorce (p=0.021) rates increased. In a long-term follow-up, a tendency to have similar QOL profile was observed between Engel classes IA and IB (p>0.05). A more favorable surgical outcome (Engel IA) was related to better psychiatric status (p=0.012). Poor psychosocial adjustment before surgery was the most important predictor of QOL outcome (p<0.05). Patients' trajectory after surgical treatment showed positive effects mainly in those with better seizure outcome. Our results emphasized the influence regarding baseline psychosocial functioning on postoperative psychosocial adjustment. Furthermore, many psychosocial gains and difficulties after surgery may be similar in developing and developed countries. PMID:26520878

  2. [Transition from adolescence to young adulthood. Empirical comparative studies of the psychosocial development and problems of psychiatric patients and healthy control probands].

    PubMed

    Kapfhammer, H P; Mayer, C; Neumeier, R; Scherer, J

    1994-01-01

    The passage from adolescence to young adulthood is characterized by a series of decisive developmental tasks. The significance of the adaptational patterns established in these years derives from their long-lasting influences on the psychosocial development during adult life. The psychosocial development of psychiatrically ill and healthy young adults was compared in respect to self image (Offer), identity status (Adams) and level of ego functionality (Loevinger). Patients showed serious deficits in general psychosocial adaptation (self image) especially pronounced in the areas of private personality development and family life. They were significantly less able to respect a developmental logic of exploration and commitment in the formation of identity. And their level of ego functions was primarily unmature, preconformist. There were important differences in the adaptational patterns of patient subgroups indicating a remarkably unfavourable psychosocial development of the nonpsychotic patients. Subjective (self image) and objective criteria (premorbid adaptation, actual psychosocial competence) of psychosocial development corresponded well. PMID:8146268

  3. RPI-AM and RPI-AF, a pair of mesh-based, size-adjustable adult male and female computational phantoms using ICRP-89 parameters and their calculations for organ doses from monoenergetic photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Juying; Hum Na, Yong; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes the development of a pair of adult male and adult female computational phantoms that are compatible with anatomical parameters for the 50th percentile population as specified by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The phantoms were designed entirely using polygonal mesh surfaces—a Boundary REPresentation (BREP) geometry that affords the ability to efficiently deform the shape and size of individual organs, as well as the body posture. A set of surface mesh models, from Anatomium™ 3D P1 V2.0, including 140 organs (out of 500 available) was adopted to supply the basic anatomical representation at the organ level. The organ masses were carefully adjusted to agree within 0.5% relative error with the reference values provided in the ICRP Publication 89. The finalized phantoms have been designated the RPI adult male (RPI-AM) and adult female (RPI-AF) phantoms. For the purposes of organ dose calculations using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code, these phantoms were subsequently converted to voxel formats. Monoenergetic photons between 10 keV and 10 MeV in six standard external photon source geometries were considered in this study: four parallel beams (anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior, left lateral and right lateral), one rotational and one isotropic. The results are tabulated as fluence-to-organ-absorbed-dose conversion coefficients and fluence-to-effective-dose conversion coefficients and compared against those derived from the ICRP computational phantoms, REX and REGINA. A general agreement was found for the effective dose from these two sets of phantoms for photon energies greater than about 300 keV. However, for low-energy photons and certain individual organs, the absorbed doses exhibit profound differences due to specific anatomical features. For example, the position of the arms affects the dose to the lung by more than 20% below 300 keV in the lateral source directions, and the vertical position of the testes

  4. RPI-AM and RPI-AF, a pair of mesh-based, size-adjustable adult male and female computational phantoms using ICRP-89 parameters and their calculations for organ doses from monoenergetic photon beams

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juying; Na, Yong Hum; Caracappa, Peter F; Xu, X George

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a pair of adult male and adult female computational phantoms that are compatible with anatomical parameters for the 50th percentile population as specified by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The phantoms were designed entirely using polygonal mesh surfaces—a Boundary REPresentation (BREP) geometry that affords the ability to efficiently deform the shape and size of individual organs, as well as the body posture. A set of surface mesh models, from Anatomium™ 3D P1 V2.0, including 140 organs (out of 500 available) was adopted to supply the basic anatomical representation at the organ level. The organ masses were carefully adjusted to agree within 0.5% relative error with the reference values provided in the ICRP Publication 89. The finalized phantoms have been designated the RPI adult male (RPI-AM) and adult female (RPI-AF) phantoms. For the purposes of organ dose calculations using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code, these phantoms were subsequently converted to voxel formats. Monoenergetic photons between 10 keV and 10 MeV in six standard external photon source geometries were considered in this study: four parallel beams (anterior–posterior, posterior–anterior, left lateral and right lateral), one rotational and one isotropic. The results are tabulated as fluence-to-organ-absorbed-dose conversion coefficients and fluence-to-effective-dose conversion coefficients and compared against those derived from the ICRP computational phantoms, REX and REGINA. A general agreement was found for the effective dose from these two sets of phantoms for photon energies greater than about 300 keV. However, for low-energy photons and certain individual organs, the absorbed doses exhibit profound differences due to specific anatomical features. For example, the position of the arms affects the dose to the lung by more than 20% below 300 keV in the lateral source directions, and the vertical position of the testes

  5. The influence of maternal psychosocial characteristics on infant feeding styles.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Katherine J; Thompson, Amanda L; Bentley, Margaret E

    2016-08-01

    Maternal feeding styles in infancy and early childhood are associated with children's later risk for overweight and obesity. Maternal psychosocial factors that influence feeding styles during the complementary feeding period, the time during which infants transition from a milk-based diet to one that includes solid foods and other non-milk products, have received less attention. The present study explores how maternal psychosocial factors-specifically self-esteem, parenting self-efficacy, parenting satisfaction, and depression symptoms-influence mothers' infant feeding styles at nine months of age, a time during which solid foods eating habits are being established. Participants included 160 low-income, African-American mother-infant pairs in central North Carolina who were enrolled in the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study. Regression models tested for associations between maternal psychosocial characteristics and pressuring and restrictive feeding styles. Models were first adjusted for maternal age, education, marital status and obesity status. To account for infant characteristics, models were then adjusted for infant weight-for-length, distress to limitations and activity level scores. Maternal self-esteem was negatively associated with pressuring to soothe. Maternal parenting self-efficacy was positively associated with restriction-diet quality. Maternal parenting satisfaction and depression symptoms were not associated with feeding styles in the final models. Focusing on strengthening maternal self-esteem and parenting self-efficacy may help to prevent the development of less desirable infant feeding styles. PMID:27174251

  6. Intrauterine growth retardation and premature delivery: the influence of maternal smoking and psychosocial factors.

    PubMed Central

    Nordentoft, M; Lou, H C; Hansen, D; Nim, J; Pryds, O; Rubin, P; Hemmingsen, R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study investigated the influence of psychosocial stress, maternal schooling, social support, psychological well-being, alcohol, and smoking on intrauterine growth retardation and premature delivery. METHODS. At a Copenhagen university hospital, 2432 pregnant women completed a questionnaire on general health, psychosocial stressors, and sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS. In 212 cases (8.7%) the women delivered prematurely. Preterm delivery as associated with psychosocial stress (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.14 for each 1-point increase on the psychosocial stressor 5-point scale and 1.92 for the whole scale) and poor school education (adjusted OR=2.62 for 7-9 years of schooling, 1.91 for 10 years, and 1.0 for 11-13 years). In 152 cases (6.3%), infants had a birthweight below the 10th percentile. Intrauterine growth retardation was associated with smoking, daily drinking, school education, and social network variables. In a multiple logistic regression model, intrauterine growth retardation was associated with smoking habits (adjusted OR=2.40 for 0-9 cigarettes daily, 2.68 for 10-15 daily, and 2.88 for more than 15 daily). CONCLUSIONS. Psychosocial stressors and limited duration of schooling appeared to influence preterm delivery. Smoking habits influenced intrauterine growth retardation. PMID:8604759

  7. Improving Outcome of Psychosocial Treatments by Enhancing Memory and Learning

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Allison G.; Lee, Jason; Williams, Joseph; Hollon, Steven D.; Walker, Matthew P.; Thompson, Monique A.; Smith, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Mental disorders are prevalent and lead to significant impairment. Progress toward establishing treatments has been good. However, effect sizes are small to moderate, gains may not persist, and many patients derive no benefit. Our goal is to highlight the potential for empirically-supported psychosocial treatments to be improved by incorporating insights from cognitive psychology and research on education. Our central question is: If it were possible to improve memory for content of sessions of psychosocial treatments, would outcome substantially improve? This question arises from five lines of evidence: (a) mental illness is often characterized by memory impairment, (b) memory impairment is modifiable, (c) psychosocial treatments often involve the activation of emotion, (d) emotion can bias memory and (e) memory for psychosocial treatment sessions is poor. Insights from scientific knowledge on learning and memory are leveraged to derive strategies for a transdiagnostic and transtreatment cognitive support intervention. These strategies can be applied within and between sessions and to interventions delivered via computer, the internet and text message. Additional novel pathways to improving memory include improving sleep, engaging in exercise and imagery. Given that memory processes change across the lifespan, services to children and older adults may benefit from cognitive support. PMID:25544856

  8. Boredom proneness and psychosocial development.

    PubMed

    Watt, J D; Vodanovich, S J

    1999-05-01

    The effect of boredom proneness as measured by the Boredom Proneness Scale (R. F. Farmer & N. D. Sundberg, 1986) on college students' psychosocial development was investigated via the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment (SDTLA; R. B. Winston, T. K. Miller, & J. S. Prince, 1995). Low boredom-prone students had significantly higher scores on the following SDTLA measures: career planning, lifestyle planning, peer relationships, educational involvement, instrumental autonomy, emotional autonomy, interdependence, academic autonomy, and salubrious lifestyle. Gender differences on boredom proneness and psychosocial development measures are discussed. PMID:10319449

  9. "I washed and fed my mother before going to school": Understanding the psychosocial well-being of children providing chronic care for adults affected by HIV/AIDS in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Skovdal, Morten; Ogutu, Vincent O

    2009-01-01

    With improved accessibility to life-prolonging antiretroviral therapy, the treatment and care requirements of people living with HIV and AIDS resembles that of more established chronic diseases. As an increasing number of people living with HIV and AIDS in Kenya have access to ART, the primary caregivers of poor resource settings, often children, face the challenge of meeting the requirements of rigid ART adherence schedules and frequent relapses. This, and the long-term duty of care, has an impact on the primary caregiver's experience of this highly stigmatised illness – an impact that is often described in relation to psychological deprivation. Reflecting the meanings attached to caregiving by 48 children in Western Kenya, articulated in writing, through photography and drawing, individual and group interviews, this paper presents three case studies of young caregiving. Although all the children involved in the study coped with their circumstances, some better than others, we found that the meanings they attach to their circumstances impact on how well they cope. Our findings suggest that only a minority of young caregivers attach either positive or negative meanings to their circumstances, whilst the majority attaches a mix of positive and negative meanings depending on the context they are referring to. Through a continuum of psychosocial coping, we conclude that to provide appropriate care for young carers, health professionals must align their understanding and responses to the psychosocial cost of chronic care, to a more nuanced and contextual understanding of children's social agency and the social and symbolic resources evident in many African communities. PMID:19698177

  10. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  11. Disability and Psychosocial Development in Old Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivnick, Helen Q.

    1985-01-01

    Explores the impact of disability on psychosocial development in old age and vice versa. Considers both the ways that physiological disabilities influence normative psychosocial development in the final stage of the life cycle and the kinds of influence psychosocial factors may have on the older person's experience of disability. (Author/BL)

  12. Psychosocial problems in families of disabled children.

    PubMed

    Singhi, P D; Goyal, L; Pershad, D; Singhi, S; Walia, B N

    1990-06-01

    Psychosocial problems faced by parents and other family members were studied in 50 families with a physically disabled child (PD group), 50 with a mentally retarded child (MR group) and 50 with a healthy child (control group). A semi-structured questionnaire assisted interview and standardized scales were used to measure social burden, marital adjustment and maternal neuroticism. Families with disabled children perceived greater financial stress, frequent disruption of family routine and leisure, poor social interaction, and ill effects on their physical and mental health as compared to families of control children. The overall social burden scores were significantly higher in both the groups with disabled children as compared to controls (mean scores PD 17.8, MR 14.6, C 0.72, p less than .001), and showed a significant inverse correlation with the socio-economic and educational status of parents. The neuroticism scores were also significantly higher (PD 23.7, MR 19.0, C 9.6, p less than .01), and the marital adjustment scores lower (PD 75, MR 79, C 86, p less than .01) in families with disabled children. Appropriate management of these problems should be part of rehabilitation programmes. PMID:2142891

  13. Assessing Planning Ability Across the Adult Life Span: Population-Representative and Age-Adjusted Reliability Estimates for the Tower of London (TOL-F).

    PubMed

    Kaller, Christoph P; Debelak, Rudolf; Köstering, Lena; Egle, Johanna; Rahm, Benjamin; Wild, Philipp S; Blettner, Maria; Beutel, Manfred E; Unterrainer, Josef M

    2016-03-01

    Planning ahead the consequences of future actions is a prototypical executive function. In clinical and experimental neuropsychology, disc-transfer tasks like the Tower of London (TOL) are commonly used for the assessment of planning ability. Previous psychometric evaluations have, however, yielded a poor reliability of measuring planning performance with the TOL. Based on theory-grounded task analyses and a systematic problem selection, the computerized TOL-Freiburg version (TOL-F) was developed to improve the task's psychometric properties for diagnostic applications. Here, we report reliability estimates for the TOL-F from two large samples collected in Mainz, Germany (n = 3,770; 40-80 years) and in Vienna, Austria (n = 830; 16-84 years). Results show that planning accuracy on the TOL-F possesses an adequate internal consistency and split-half reliability (>0.7) that are stable across the adult life span while the TOL-F covers a broad range of graded difficulty even in healthy adults, making it suitable for both research and clinical application. PMID:26715472

  14. Empirical Dimensions of Adjustment among the Indochinese Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicassio, Perry M.

    A survey among Indochinese refugee household heads in Illinois investigated (1) relationships among indicators of socioeconomic, psychosocial, and sociocultural dimensions of adjustment; and (2) the effect of length of residence in the United States on these indicators. The indicators included measures of feelings of alienation and self concept in…

  15. Effects of maternal L-tryptophan depletion and corticosterone administration on neurobehavioral adjustments in mouse dams and their adolescent and adult daughters.

    PubMed

    Zoratto, Francesca; Berry, Alessandra; Anzidei, Francesca; Fiore, Marco; Alleva, Enrico; Laviola, Giovanni; Macrì, Simone

    2011-08-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD), a pathology characterized by mood and neurovegetative disturbances, depends on a multi-factorial contribution of individual predisposition (e.g., diminished serotonergic transmission) and environmental factors (e.g., neonatal abuse or neglect). Despite its female-biased prevalence, MDD basic research has mainly focused on male rodents. Most of present models of depression are also devalued due to the fact that they typically address only one of the aforementioned pathogenetic factors. In this paper we first describe the basic principles behind mouse model development and evaluation and then articulate that current models of depression are intrinsically devalued due to poor construct and/or external validity. We then report a first attempt to overcome this limitation through the design of a mouse model in which the genetic and the environmental components of early risk factors for depression are mimicked together. Environmental stress is mimicked through the supplementation of corticosterone in the maternal drinking water while biological predisposition is mimicked through maternal access to an L-tryptophan (the serotonin precursor) deficient diet during the first week of lactation. CD1 dams and their offspring exposed to the L-tryptophan deficient diet (T) and to corticosterone (80mg/l; C) were compared to animal facility reared (AFR) subjects. T and C mice served as intermediate reference groups. Adolescent TC offspring, compared to AFR mice, showed decreased time spent floating in the forced-swim test and increased time spent in the open sectors of an elevated 0-maze. Adult TC offspring showed reduced preference for novelty, decreased breakpoints in the progressive ratio operant procedure and major alterations in central BDNF levels and altered HPA regulation. The route of administration and the possibility to control the independent variables predisposing to depressive-like symptoms disclose novel avenues towards the development

  16. Measuring psychosocial environments using individual responses: an application of multilevel factor analysis to examining students in schools.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Erin C; Masyn, Katherine E; Jones, Stephanie M; Subramanian, S V; Koenen, Karestan C

    2015-07-01

    Interest in understanding how psychosocial environments shape youth outcomes has grown considerably. School environments are of particular interest to prevention scientists as many prevention interventions are school-based. Therefore, effective conceptualization and operationalization of the school environment is critical. This paper presents an illustration of an emerging analytic method called multilevel factor analysis (MLFA) that provides an alternative strategy to conceptualize, measure, and model environments. MLFA decomposes the total sample variance-covariance matrix for variables measured at the individual level into within-cluster (e.g., student level) and between-cluster (e.g., school level) matrices and simultaneously models potentially distinct latent factor structures at each level. Using data from 79,362 students from 126 schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (formerly known as the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health), we use MLFA to show how 20 items capturing student self-reported behaviors and emotions provide information about both students (within level) and their school environment (between level). We identified four latent factors at the within level: (1) school adjustment, (2) externalizing problems, (3) internalizing problems, and (4) self-esteem. Three factors were identified at the between level: (1) collective school adjustment, (2) psychosocial environment, and (3) collective self-esteem. The finding of different and substantively distinct latent factor structures at each level emphasizes the need for prevention theory and practice to separately consider and measure constructs at each level of analysis. The MLFA method can be applied to other nested relationships, such as youth in neighborhoods, and extended to a multilevel structural equation model to better understand associations between environments and individual outcomes and therefore how to best implement preventive interventions

  17. Measuring Psychosocial Environments Using Individual Responses: an Application of Multilevel Factor Analysis to Examining Students in Schools

    PubMed Central

    Masyn, Katherine E.; Jones, Stephanie M.; Subramanian, S. V.; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2015-01-01

    Interest in understanding how psychosocial environments shape youth outcomes has grown considerably. School environments are of particular interest to prevention scientists as many prevention interventions are school-based. Therefore, effective conceptualization and operationalization of the school environment is critical. This paper presents an illustration of an emerging analytic method called multilevel factor analysis (MLFA) that provides an alternative strategy to conceptualize, measure, and model environments. MLFA decomposes the total sample variance-covariance matrix for variables measured at the individual level into within-cluster (e.g., student level) and between-cluster (e.g., school level) matrices and simultaneously models potentially distinct latent factor structures at each level. Using data from 79,362 students from 126 schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (formerly known as the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health), we use MLFA to show how 20 items capturing student self-reported behaviors and emotions provide information about both students (within level) and their school environment (between level). We identified four latent factors at the within level: (1) school adjustment, (2) externalizing problems, (3) internalizing problems, and (4) self-esteem. Three factors were identified at the between level: (1) collective school adjustment, (2) psychosocial environment, and (3) collective self-esteem. The finding of different and substantively distinct latent factor structures at each level emphasizes the need for prevention theory and practice to separately consider and measure constructs at each level of analysis. The MLFA method can be applied to other nested relationships, such as youth in neighborhoods, and extended to a multilevel structural equation model to better understand associations between environments and individual outcomes and therefore how to best implement preventive interventions

  18. Psychosocial impacts of infertility on Greek couples.

    PubMed

    Tarlatzis, I; Tarlatzis, B C; Diakogiannis, I; Bontis, J; Lagos, S; Gavriilidou, D; Mantalenakis, S

    1993-03-01

    Psychosocial impacts of infertility were investigated in couples undergoing different treatment procedures in our clinic. Couples were interviewed in a semi-structured way by a psychologist or a psychiatrist and responded to three specially structured questionnaires: the Life Events Scale, the Marlowe-Crowne/Taylor Scale and the Side Effect Checklist. The data were analysed in terms of demographic characteristics as well as treatment procedure. The psychosocial, psychosexual and emotional outcomes of their infertility problem and Greek traditional culture laws are discussed. Stress has been identified in both sexes, depression mostly in women, while men showed a tendency towards repressed anxiety and thus a greater risk of psychosomatic illness, a finding supported by their response to the Side Effect Checklist. Women showed a high defensive anxiety and also reported numerous psychosomatic symptoms. These couples seem to have special needs and fears, both general and treatment specific. Very few of our couples would be considered as severely emotionally disturbed. Women seem to have more difficulties in social adjustment. Sexual dysfunction was reported by almost half of our subjects, although this was associated with a degree of deterioration in their marriage. Guilt feelings, particularly connected with previous abortions, seem to be torturing most women. Finally, both partners seem to have psychological problems irrespective of the one in whom the aetiological problem was found. Moreover, traditional rules seem to impose a special burden on people coming from rural areas. Our results strongly support the belief that infertile couples undergoing different treatments need psychological counselling and supportive psychotherapy. PMID:8473455

  19. Sexual dysfunction within an adult developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Fagan, P J; Meyer, J K; Schmidt, C W

    1986-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the adult who has adequately mastered the oedipal stage of psychosexual development and who presents with a sexual dysfunction. Drawing on the developmental sequence of Erik Erikson, the authors suggest that failure to address adequately an adult psychosocial crisis may result in sexual dysfunction. There may be both adult developmental deficits and regression to adolescent and adult stages previously negotiated. Both may be symptomatically represented by sexual dysfunction. The authors urge that the sexual and marital problems be evaluated within an adult developmental framework and that the therapy address the psychosocial issues which are appropriate to the developmental stage of the patient. PMID:3820320

  20. Psychosocial Issues in Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisler, Alice B.

    1983-01-01

    Emotional development from infancy to adolescence is traced and the effects of psychosocial issues on a child with a learning disability are considered for five of E. Erikson's seven proposed stages (trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, adolescence). The need for intervention and parent counseling at each state is emphasized. (CL)

  1. PSYCHOSOCIAL PHENOMENA AND BUILDING DESIGN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IZUMI, KIYOSHI

    THE DEPTH OF PSYCHOSOCIAL CONSIDERATION VARIES WITH ARCHITECTURAL FUNCTION. THESE FACTORS INCREASE AS A BUILDING USAGE BECOMES MORE ANTHROPOPHILIC. SITUATIONS RELATING TO AMBIGUOUS DESIGN MUST BE ELIMINATED IN BUILDING DESIGN. PROBLEMS INVOLVING VISUAL PERCEPTION SUCH AS (1) GLASS DOORS, (2) APPARENT INSECURITY OF STRUCTURE, (3) AMBIGUOUS SYMBOLIC…

  2. Cyberaddictions: toward a psychosocial perspective.

    PubMed

    Suissa, Amnon Jacob

    2014-12-01

    The concept of cyberaddiction is far from being unanimously accepted by scientists (Ko, Yen, Yen, Chen, & Chen, 2012; Pezoa-Jares, Espinoza-Luna & Vasquez-Medina, 2012; Nadeau & et al. 2011; Perraton, Fusaro & Bonenfant, 2011. The same is true of addiction to videogames (Hellman, Schoenmakers, Nordstrom, & Van Holst 2013); Coulombe (2010); or to Facebook (Andreassen et al. 2012; Levard & Soulas, 2010). While certain researchers wished to see this condition included in the DSM-5, others question the operational and practical basis for the diagnostic criteria (Block, 2008). Through a review of litterature and results from research findings; the aim of this article is to propose a psychosocial perspective for the cyberaddiction phenomenon. By a psychosocial perspective, we mean the inclusion of social determinants (weak social ties, social exclusion, hyper individualism, poverty, unemployment, etc) and not only the individual characteristics associated with the disease model in the addiction field. To what extent social conditions and cyberaddiction behaviors constitute a potential pathology ? Can we include a psychosocial approach to gain a more general picture of this contemporary issue? In response to these questions, a contextualization and an attempt to define cyberaddiction will be followed by an analysis of some major issues in the development of this type of addiction. As a conclusion, a demonstration of the cycle of addiction on how people develop addictions, including cyberaddictions, will be done within a psychosocial perspective in order to seize the multifactorial aspects of this addiction. PMID:25173593

  3. Cooley's Anemia: A Psychosocial Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    The directory is intended to aid patients and their families who are coping with the genetic disorder of Cooley's anemia. A brief review of the disease covers background, genetics, symptoms, effect on the patient, treatment, and current research. The next section looks at psychosocial needs at various times (time of diagnosis, infancy and toddler…

  4. [Psychosocial rehabilitation in advanced age].

    PubMed

    Haag, G

    1985-02-01

    The psychosocial rehabilitation of older persons is one of the main problems in health policy. About one quarter of the over 65-year-olds face psychic problems, without, to a large extent, receiving adequate treatment and rehabilitative care. Substantial deficits exist above all in the out-patient and non-residential service sectors. In in-patient care, existing methods for psychosocial intervention (such as psychoanalysis, behavioural, client-centered, family, Gestalt, milieu, or music and dance therapy, psychodrama, reality orientation training, or resensitization techniques) are hardly ever used. This absence of applied geronto-psychology is attributable to the shortcomings of available assessment methods, multiple methodical problems of intervention research, and--above all--to insufficient staff positions for psychosocial professions in the gerontological sector. Provision of further permanent posts for psychosocial workers; development of age-specific assessment methods; interdisciplinary and systematic interventional research; the development of ambulatory, community-based services as well as intensive support for existing self-help efforts are therefore called for. PMID:3983463

  5. Youth Suicide: A Psychosocial Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendin, Herbert

    1987-01-01

    Draws on studies in different cultures and subcultures and in different age groups to develop a psychosocial perspective for viewing youthful suicide. Uses disciplines ranging from demography to psychodynamics to discuss relationship of violence to suicide; role of families in producing youngsters who become preoccupied with death and suicide; and…

  6. Parents' Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Their Children's Psychosocial Adaptation during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steca, Patrizia; Bassi, Marta; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Fave, Antonella Delle

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown that parents' perceived parental self-efficacy (PSE) plays a pivotal role in promoting their children's successful adjustment. In this study, we further explored this issue by comparing psychosocial adaptation in children of parents with high and low PSE during adolescence. One hundred and thirty Italian teenagers (55 males and…

  7. Psychosocial Management of Leukemias in children and Youth NIMH Report to Physicians - 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, Stephen P.

    Originally presented as a paper at a 1974 Conference on Psychiatric Problems of Childhood, the pamphlet presents a discussion of the psychosocial aspects of adjustment and management of leukemia in children and youth. The increasing length of remissions in acute lymphocytic leukemia is thought to require physicians to consider nonmedical needs of…

  8. Psycho-Social Characteristics of Children and Adolescents with Siblings on the Autistic Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stampoltzis, Aglaia; Defingou, Georgia; Antonopoulou, Katerina; Kouvava, Sofia; Polychronopoulou, Stavroula

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the psycho-social characteristics of typically developing children who have siblings with autism and their sibling relationship. Children's adjustment at school, their self-esteem and social relations, as well as their friends' attitudes towards their autistic siblings were examined. Participants were 22 siblings…

  9. The Psychosocial Context of Homeless Mothers with Young Children: Program and Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dail, Paula W.

    1990-01-01

    Study explores the psychosocial difficulties facing homeless mothers with young children. Variables include impulse control, emotional tonality, social relationships, morality, goal orientation, coping, psychopathology, social adjustment, and sense of fatalism or control. Addresses value of results for designing social intervention programs for…

  10. Getting Off on the Right Foot: The Many Roles of the Psychosocial Evaluation in the Bariatric Surgery Practice.

    PubMed

    Sogg, Stephanie; Friedman, Kelli E

    2015-11-01

    A thorough and specialized pre-operative psychosocial assessment is an important part of a comprehensive bariatric treatment protocol. Over time, the presurgical psychosocial evaluation has evolved from a cut-and-dried process of recommending whether a patient should or should not undergo surgery to a more nuanced and multifaceted process that serves multiple functions. In this article, we review the many ways in which the pre-operative psychosocial evaluation can enhance patient outcomes and adjustment and even the functioning of the interdisciplinary bariatric surgery team. PMID:26294256

  11. Psychosocial predictors of non-adherence to chronic medication: systematic review of longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Zwikker, Hanneke E; van den Bemt, Bart J; Vriezekolk, Johanna E; van den Ende, Cornelia H; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Several cross-sectional studies suggest that psychosocial factors are associated with non-adherence to chronic preventive maintenance medication (CPMM); however, results from longitudinal associations have not yet been systematically summarized. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Materials and methods PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO databases were searched for studies meeting our inclusion criteria. The reference lists and the ISI Web of Knowledge of the included studies were checked. Studies were included if they had an English abstract, involved adult populations using CPMM living in Western countries, and if they investigated associations between psychosocial predictors and medication non-adherence using longitudinal designs. Data were extracted according to a literature-based extraction form. Study quality was independently judged by two researchers using a framework comprising six bias domains. Studies were considered to be of high quality if ≥four domains were free of bias. Psychosocial predictors for non-adherence were categorized into five pre-defined categories: beliefs/cognitions; coping styles; social influences and social support; personality traits; and psychosocial well-being. A qualitative best evidence synthesis was performed to synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Results Of 4,732 initially-identified studies, 30 (low-quality) studies were included in the systematic review. The qualitative best evidence synthesis demonstrated limited evidence for absence of a longitudinal association between CPMM non-adherence and the psychosocial categories. The strength of evidence for the review’s findings is limited by the low quality of included studies. Conclusion The results do not provide psychosocial targets for the development of new

  12. The Association between Job-Related Psychosocial Factors and Prolonged Fatigue among Industrial Employees in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Feng-Cheng; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Shu-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Prolonged fatigue is common among employees, but the relationship between prolonged fatigue and job-related psychosocial factors is seldom studied. This study aimed (1) to assess the individual relations of physical condition, psychological condition, and job-related psychosocial factors to prolonged fatigue among employees, and (2) to clarify the associations between job-related psychosocial factors and prolonged fatigue using hierarchical regression when demographic characteristics, physical condition, and psychological condition were controlled. Methods A cross-sectional study was employed. A questionnaire was used to obtain information pertaining to demographic characteristics, physical condition (perceived physical health and exercise routine), psychological condition (perceived mental health and psychological distress), job-related psychosocial factors (job demand, job control, and workplace social support), and prolonged fatigue. Results A total of 3,109 employees were recruited. Using multiple regression with controlled demographic characteristics, psychological condition explained 52.0% of the variance in prolonged fatigue. Physical condition and job-related psychosocial factors had an adjusted R2 of 0.370 and 0.251, respectively. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that, among job-related psychosocial factors, job demand and job control showed significant associations with fatigue. Conclusion Our findings highlight the role of job demand and job control, in addition to the role of perceived physical health, perceived mental health, and psychological distress, in workers’ prolonged fatigue. However, more research is required to verify the causation among all the variables. PMID:26930064

  13. Exploring mediating factors in the association between parental psychological distress and psychosocial maladjustment in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Campoy, Eric; Chaix, Basile; Chauvin, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Parental psychopathology is associated with increased psychosocial maladjustment in adolescents. We examined, from a psychosocial perspective, the association between parental psychological distress and psychosocial maladjustment in adolescents and assessed the mediating role of psychosocial covariates. This is a cross-sectional survey and the setting include representative sample of Quebec adolescents in 1999. The participants of the study include 13- and 16-year-old children (N = 2,346) in the Social and Health Survey of Quebec Children and Adolescents. The main outcome measures are internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders, substance use, and alcohol consumption. For statistical analysis, we used structural equation modeling to test for mediation. Internalizing and externalizing disorders were significantly associated with parental psychological distress, but not substance use or alcohol consumption. The higher the parental distress, the higher the risk of adolescent mental health disorders. The association between parental psychological distress and internalizing disorders was mediated by adolescent self-esteem, parental emotional support and extrafamilial social support. As for externalizing disorders, these variables only had an independent effect. In conclusion, A family’s well being is a necessary condition for psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. Beyond the psychiatric approach, psychosocial considerations need to be taken into consideration to prevent negative mental health outcomes in children living in homes with distressed parents. PMID:20127380

  14. Psychological Control Associated with Youth Adjustment and Risky Behavior in African American Single Mother Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, Carlye; Jones, Deborah J.; Cuellar, Jessica; Gonzalez, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    A distinction between parental behavioral control and psychological control has been elucidated in the literature, yet far less is known about the role of psychological control in youth adjustment broadly or risky behavior in particular. We examined the interrelationship of maternal psychological control, youth psychosocial adjustment, and youth…

  15. Adjustment to University and Academic Performance among Disadvantaged Students in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Il-haam; Louw, Johann; Dumont, Kitty

    2009-01-01

    Adjustment to the university environment is regarded as an important factor in predicting university outcomes. This study explores the pathways taken by adjustment and other psychosocial variables (help-seeking, academic motivation, self-esteem, perceived stress, and perceived academic overload), in relation to the success of economically and…

  16. Workplace gender composition and psychological distress: the importance of the psychosocial work environment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health consequences of the gender segregated labour market have previously been demonstrated in the light of gender composition of occupations and workplaces, with somewhat mixed results. Associations between the gender composition and health status have been suggested to be shaped by the psychosocial work environment. The present study aims to analyse how workplace gender composition is related to psychological distress and to explore the importance of the psychosocial work environment for psychological distress at workplaces with different gender compositions. Methods The study population consisted of participants from the Northern Swedish Cohort with a registered workplace in 2007 when the participants were 42 years old (N = 795). Questionnaire data were supplemented with register data on the gender composition of the participants’ workplaces divided into three groups: workplaces with more women, mixed workplaces, and workplaces with more men. Associations between psychological distress and gender composition were analysed with multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for socioeconomic position, previous psychological distress, psychosocial work environment factors and gender. Logistic regression analyses (including interaction terms for gender composition and each work environment factor) were also used to assess differential associations between psychosocial work factor and psychological distress according to gender composition. Results Working at workplaces with a mixed gender composition was related to a higher likelihood of psychological distress compared to workplaces with more men, after adjustments for socioeconomic position, psychological distress at age 21, psychosocial work environment factors and gender. Psychosocial work environment factors did not explain the association between gender composition and psychological distress. Conclusions The association between gender composition and psychological distress cannot be

  17. Personality, emotional adjustment, and cardiovascular risk: marriage as a mechanism.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy W; Baron, Carolynne E; Grove, Jeremy L

    2014-12-01

    A variety of aspects of personality and emotional adjustment predict the development and course of coronary heart disease (CHD), as do indications of marital quality (e.g., satisfaction, conflict, strain, disruption). Importantly, the personality traits and aspects of emotional adjustment that predict CHD are also related to marital quality. In such instances of correlated risk factors, traditional epidemiological and clinical research typically either ignores the potentially overlapping effects or examines independent associations through statistical controls, approaches that can misrepresent the key components and mechanisms of psychosocial effects on CHD. The interpersonal perspective in personality and clinical psychology provides an alternative and integrative approach, through its structural and process models of interpersonal behavior. We present this perspective on psychosocial risk and review research on its application to the integration of personality, emotional adjustment, and marital processes as closely interrelated influences on health and disease. PMID:24118013

  18. [Psychosocial interventions and caregiver support].

    PubMed

    Hüll, M; Wernher, I

    2010-07-01

    Despite an increasing number of trials on the effects of psychosocial interventions in dementia, recommendations concerning these interventions are still based on limited evidence. The S3 dementia guidelines, initiated by the German associations of psychiatry and neurology (DGPPN and DGN), suggest the use of procedures including reality orientation, reminiscence, and cognitive stimulation at recommendation level C. Occupational therapy (including caregiver education), physical activation and music therapy are also suggested at recommendation level C. On a higher level of recommendation (level B), structured support of the caregiver is recommended. Based on the German healthcare system and depending on local structures, this may be offered at the medical office of a general practitioner, a specialist for neurology or psychiatry or at a memory clinic or an outpatient clinic. Furthermore, caregiver support is provided by local branches of the German Alzheimer Association. An increase in recent high level trials suggests an upcoming improvement of the evidence base for psychosocial interventions. PMID:20567961

  19. [Psychosexual and psychosocial development of patients with hypospadias].

    PubMed

    Mureau, M A

    1997-01-25

    Recently results were published concerning the long-term effects of surgical correction of hypospadias on psychosexual and psychosocial development and on genital perception. Hypospadias patients (9-38 years) were compared with age-matched males operated for inguinal hernia. A semi-structured interview and standardised psychological questionnaires were used. Hypospadias patients did not show a disturbed psychosexual adjustment, but they reported significantly more inhibitions with seeking sexual contacts as a result of embarrassment about their penile appearance. Also, hypospadias patients were significantly less satisfied with their penile appearance, mostly because of the circumcised appearance and a smaller length. No differences were found between psychosocial functioning of hypospadias patients and the control males. Following the investigations 8% of the patients were reoperated because of a poor functional or cosmetic operative result. It is recommended that all hypospadias patients be seen at least once during adolescence as a standard therapeutic procedure, to give optimal care to the small group of patients with psychosexual or psychosocial problems. PMID:9064526

  20. Psychosocial Mediators of a Faith-Based Physical Activity Intervention: Implications and Lessons Learned from Null Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Blair, Steve; Hooker, Steve; Hussey, Jim; Saunders, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Mediation analyses in faith-based physical activity (PA) interventions targeting African-American adults are lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychosocial mediators of a faith-based PA intervention with African-American adults. Churches were randomly assigned to receive immediate or delayed (1-year later) training in PA…

  1. Psychosocial development and corrective shoewear use in childhood.

    PubMed

    Driano, A N; Staheli, L; Staheli, L T

    1998-01-01

    To assess the short- and long-term psychosocial effects of wearing modified shoes during childhood, we compared measures of self-esteem and self-image of 46 adults who wore shoe modifications during childhood with 92 adult controls. The treated cases characterized their remembrance of the experience through a subjective report questionnaire. Those who wore shoe modifications during childhood showed lower self-esteem than controls (p < 0.05). In addition, the treated recalled a decrease in their self-image (41%), the experience as negative (57%), being teased about their footwear (47%), and having their activities limited (41%). These findings show that wearing shoe modifications during childhood, in addition to being ineffective and unnecessary as demonstrated in prior studies, is a negative experience in childhood and is associated with lower self-esteem in adult life. Such data suggest that children who wore modified footwear may fall into the spectrum of the vulnerable child syndrome. PMID:9600561

  2. Inborn errors of metabolism: psychosocial challenges and proposed family systems model of intervention.

    PubMed

    Weber, Stacy L; Segal, Summer; Packman, Wendy

    2012-04-01

    Inborn errors of metabolism result in psychosocial crises that challenge individual and familial modes of functioning across the life cycle. Increased stress, mood disorders, interpersonal challenges, decreased quality of life, and grief reactions are all common for patients and their families. To effectively care for these patients, a holistic approach to their care, which incorporates their social context, is essential. Patients and their families need support as they focus on immediate practical demands, grieve over illness-related losses, and reorient future expectations. A family systems based model provides a flexible and individualized approach to care that allows for optimal psychosocial adjustment throughout the disease process. PMID:22532988

  3. Adolescent Psychosocial Risk Factors for Severe Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined prospective measures of psychosocial risk factors as predictors of severe intimate partner violence among a community sample of 610 young adults at risk for intergenerational transmission of depression. The hypothesized risk factors were youth history of depression by age 15 and maternal history of depression. Youth social…

  4. Midlife Eriksonian Psychosocial Development: Setting the Stage for Late-Life Cognitive and Emotional Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Johanna C.; Liu, Sabrina R.; Vaillant, George E.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Waldinger, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Erikson's (1950) model of adult psychosocial development outlines the significance of successful involvement within one's relationships, work, and community for healthy aging. He theorized that the consequences of not meeting developmental challenges included stagnation and emotional despair. Drawing on this model, the present study uses…

  5. Why Does ADHD Confer Risk for Cigarette Smoking? A Review of Psychosocial Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Kerrie; Flory, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Research has documented that adolescents and young adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for cigarette smoking, but less attention has examined why this risk exists. The current paper reviews the literature on different psychosocial mechanisms [self-medication hypothesis, social factors (social modeling,…

  6. Psychosocial Interventions for Children and Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Marietta; Kaslow, Nadine; Doepke, Karla; Eckman, James; Johnson, Marjorie

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the existing literature on psychosocial interventions for children and adolescents with sickle cell disease and suggests some developmentally appropriate modifications for approaches designed for adults. Particular attention is paid to nonpharmacological pain management strategies that include coping skill training, educational programs,…

  7. Child Sexual Abuse: Psychosocial Aspects of 101 Cases Seen in an Urban Malaysian Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassim, Kasmini; Kasim, Mohd. Sham

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of 101 cases of child sexual abuse in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) found overrepresentation of the Indian ethnic group and a mean age of children involved of 6 to 8 years. Associated psychosocial factors included the absence of a protective adult at home, unemployment, and history of perpetrator drug abuse. (DB)

  8. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Non-Smoking Adolescents' Intentions to Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brian N.; Bean, Melanie K.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Speizer, Ilene S.; Fries, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is the most preventable cause of death in the United States. Most adult smokers began smoking during adolescence, making youth tobacco prevention an especially important public health goal. Guided by an extension of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study examined the role of psychosocial factors in accounting for adolescents'…

  9. Do Children Endorse Psychosocial Factors in the Transmission of Illness and Disgust?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Lakshmi; Gelman, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    The present studies examined beliefs concerning the impact of psychosocial factors in the transmission of contagious illness, injuries, and disgust. In Studies 1 and 2, participants ranging from preschoolers through adults judged the likelihood that a character would get sick (or injured) after being contaminated by another individual who was…

  10. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Inner City Black Diabetic Patients' Adherence with Insulin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzoma, Catherine U.; Feldman, Robert H. L.

    1989-01-01

    Results from a study of 100 innercity adult Black diabetics indicate that perceived self-efficacy and age were strong predictors of adherence to an insulin regime. Additional psychosocial factors examined include perceived barriers to treatment, perceived severity of illness, and perceived social support. Results indicated gender differences. (IAH)

  11. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Eating Problems and Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keel, Pamela K.; Haedt, Alissa

    2008-01-01

    Eating disorders represent a significant source of psychological impairment among adolescents. However, most controlled treatment studies have focused on adult populations. This review provides a synthesis of existing data concerning the efficacy of various psychosocial interventions for eating disorders in adolescent samples. Modes of therapy…

  12. Health Related Quality of Life among Insulin-Dependent Diabetics: Disease-Related and Psychosocial Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aalto, Anna-Mari; Uutela, Antti; Aro, Arja R.

    1997-01-01

    The associations of health and psychosocial factors with the Health Related Quality of Life Questionnaire were examined in adult type 1 diabetic patients (N=385). The most important factors from multivariate analysis were self-efficacy and diabetes-related social support, especially among those in good physical condition. Diabetes-specific factors…

  13. Psychosocial Characteristics and Correlates of Symptom Distress in Nonoffending Mothers of Sexually Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deblinger, Esther; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Nonoffending mothers' (n=99) self-reported symptom distress was measured across 3 groups of sexual abuse types: incest, relative, and nonrelative. A multiple regression analysis of psychosocial characteristics indicated that a mother's perceived aloneness in facing the crisis and a personal history of adult sexual assault were positively related…

  14. Psychosocial Family Treatment for a 10-Year-Old with Schizoaffective Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaus, Nicole M.; Fristad, Mary A.; Malkin, Catherine; Mackinaw-Koons, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are rare in childhood and little is known about their psychosocial treatment. Relevant findings from the adult and child literature are reviewed. The case of 10-year-old "Michael" is presented, who participated in a randomized clinical trial of a psychoeducational family treatment for mood disorders. Following…

  15. Work, Postsecondary Education, and Psychosocial Functioning Following the Transition from High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aseltine, Robert H., Jr.; Gore, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Through a two-wave panel study of emerging adults, the authors examine how living situation, work and school roles, and experiences in those roles affect psychosocial functioning following the transition from high school. Enrollment in college programs and fulltime work are associated with lower levels of depressed mood and more positive quality…

  16. Cystic Fibrosis through a Female Perspective: Psychosocial Issues and Information Concerning Puberty and Motherhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannesson, Marie; Carlson, Margareta; Brucefors, Agneta Bergsten; Hjelte, Lena

    1998-01-01

    Investigates psychosocial issues concerning puberty and motherhood among adult women with cystic fibrosis (CF) to see how they had obtained information on these matters and how they would like information to be given. Results reveal problems with destructive behavior during puberty. Information about puberty and fertility should be given…

  17. Developmental and psychosocial issues in CF

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Michelle M.; Johnson, Mark C.; Stark, Lori J.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a multi-systemic life-limiting genetic disorder, primarily impacting respiratory functioning. Most patients with CF are diagnosed by 2 years of age, and the current median predicted survival rate is 37.4 years old, with 95% of patients dying from complications relate to pulmonary infection. Given the chronic, progressive and disabling nature of CF, multiple treatments are prescribed, most on a daily basis. Thus, this illness requires children, with the aid of their families, to adopt multiple health-related behaviors in addition to managing more typical developmental demands. The morbidity and mortality factors pose cognitive, emotional and behavioral challenges for many children with CF and their families. This article will apply a developmental perspective to describing the psychosocial factors impacting psychological adjustment and health-related behaviors relevant to infants, preschool and school age children, and adolescents with CF. Topics particularly pertinent to developmental periods and medical milestones will be noted, with clinical implications highlighted. PMID:20478499

  18. Psychosocial Factors and Central Sensitivity Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Leah M.; Turk, Dennis C.

    2016-01-01

    Central sensitivity syndromes (CSSs) represent a heterogeneous group of disorders (e.g., fibromyalgia [FM], irritable bowel syndrome [IBS], chronic headache, temporomandibular disorders [TMDs], pelvic pain syndromes) that share common symptoms, with persistent pain being the most prominent feature. Although the etiology and pathophysiology of CSSs are currently incompletely understood, central sensitization has emerged as one of the significant mechanisms. Given that there are currently no known cures for CSSs, people living with these disorders must learn to cope with and manage their symptoms throughout their lives. Medical interventions alone have not proven to be sufficient for helping people with CSSs manage their symptoms. A biopsychosocial perspective that considers the ways that biological, psychological, and social factors work independently and jointly to affect a person's experience is the most effective conceptualization and guide for effective treatment. In this article, we discuss several psychological and social features that may influence the experience of a person with CSS and their symptom management, regardless of their specific diagnosis. We highlight the longitudinal aspect of adjustment to illness, the distinction between psychosocial factors as causes of symptoms versus modifiers and perpetuators of symptoms, dispel the notion that all patients with the same diagnosis are a homogeneous group (the “patient-uniformity myth”), and acknowledge the importance of environmental and situational context on symptom management for individuals with any CSS. PMID:26088211

  19. Psychosocial and Physical Effects of Adjuvant Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hislop, Thomas Gregory; Elwood, J. Mark; Waxler-Morrison, Nancy; Ragaz, Joseph; Skippen, Diane Hazel; Turner, I.D.

    1991-01-01

    Breast cancer patients younger than 55 completed a questionnaire on psychosocial factors and physical side effects shortly after diagnosis and 9 to 15 months after diagnosis. Those who had used adjuvant chemotherapy were more likely than those who had not to report physical side effects; there was little difference in psychosocial factors. Recent users were more likely than ex-users to report physical side effects, difficulties with domestic chores, and improvement in psychosocial factors. PMID:21229020

  20. Receipt of Psychosocial Care Among Cancer Survivors in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Forsythe, Laura P.; Kent, Erin E.; Weaver, Kathryn E.; Buchanan, Natasha; Hawkins, Nikki A.; Rodriguez, Juan L.; Ryerson, A. Blythe; Rowland, Julia H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Given the importance of psychosocial care for cancer survivors, this study used population-based data to characterize survivors who reported a discussion with health care provider(s) about the psychosocial effects of cancer and who reported using professional counseling or support groups (PCSG) and tested associations between receipt of psychosocial care and satisfaction with care. Patients and Methods We examined survivors of adult cancers from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (N = 1,777). Multivariable logistic regression models examined factors associated with receipt of and satisfaction with psychosocial care. Results Most survivors (55.1%) reported neither provider discussions nor use of PCSG; 31.4% reported provider discussion only, 4.4% reported use of PCSG only, and 8.9% reported both. Non-Hispanic blacks (v non-Hispanic whites), married survivors, survivors of breast cancer (v prostate or less prevalent cancers), those treated with chemotherapy, and survivors reporting past research study/clinical trial participation were more likely to report provider discussion(s) (P < .01). Hispanics (v non-Hispanic whites), survivors age 40 to 49 years (v ≤ 39 years), survivors of breast cancer (v melanoma or less prevalent cancers), those diagnosed ≤ 1 year ago (v > 5 years ago), survivors treated with radiation, and past research participants were more likely to report use of PCSG (P < .05). Survivors reporting any psychosocial care were more likely to be “very satisfied” with how their needs were met (P < .001). Conclusion Many survivors do not report a discussion with providers about the psychosocial effects of cancer, which reflects a missed opportunity to connect survivors to psychosocial services. These data can benchmark the success of efforts to improve access to cancer-related psychosocial care. PMID:23610114

  1. Psychosocial correlates of internet use among Italian students.

    PubMed

    Casale, Silvia; Fioravanti, Giulia

    2011-08-01

    Davis (2001) introduced a cognitive-behavioral theory of generalized pathological internet use (GPIU) that attempts to model the etiology, development, and outcomes associated with PIU. According to this model, pre-existing psychosocial problems (depression, loneliness, or low levels of social support) predispose an individual to GPIU cognitions, behaviors, and negative outcomes. An exploratory study intended to investigate whether GPIU is associated with psychosocial health (loneliness, depression, self-esteem, and shyness), also taking account of types of internet services used, was conducted in a sample of Italian undergraduate students. A cross-sectional and descriptive correlational design was used. The participants were 157 undergraduate students (34 male and 123 female) enrolled at The University of Florence. The results revealed a stronger correlation between the frequency of use of communicative services (as opposed to leisure or informational services) and GPIU levels. Among services, the most significant predictor of GPIU was the frequency of use of chat rooms and "adult" websites. All psychosocial health variables were correlated with GPIU, with the exception of shyness; however, general loneliness was the only significant predictor of GPIU. Depression and self-esteem were not significant predictors of GPIU. These results are consistent with the assumption that GPIU is related to the social aspect of the internet (e.g., online chatting) and arises from the unique communicative environment found online. In accordance with recent studies, social wellbeing (i.e. loneliness) seems to play a greater role than psychological health in deriving negative effects from internet use. PMID:22044272

  2. A community-based, environmental chronic disease prevention intervention to improve healthy eating psychosocial factors and behaviors in indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Mead, Erin L; Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Corriveau, André; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-10-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are highly prevalent among indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic. A community-based, multi-institutional nutritional and lifestyle intervention-Healthy Foods North-was implemented to improve food-related psychosocial factors and behaviors among Inuit and Inuvialuit in four intervention communities (with two comparison communities) in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories, Canada, in 2008. The 12-month program was developed from theory (social cognitive theory and social ecological models), formative research, and a community participatory process. It included an environmental component to increase healthy food availability in local stores and activities consisting of community-wide and point-of-purchase interactive educational taste tests and cooking demonstrations, media (e.g., radio ads, posters, shelf labels), and events held in multiple venues, including recreation centers and schools. The intervention was evaluated using pre- and postassessments with 246 adults from intervention and 133 from comparison communities (311 women, 68 men; mean age 42.4 years; 78.3% retention rate). Outcomes included psychosocial constructs (healthy eating knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions), frequency of healthy and unhealthy food acquisition, healthiness of commonly used food preparation methods, and body mass index (kg/m(2)). After adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic status, and body mass index variables, respondents living in intervention communities showed significant improvements in food-related self-efficacy (β = 0.15, p = .003) and intentions (β = 0.16, p = .001) compared with comparison communities. More improvements from the intervention were seen in overweight, obese, and high socioeconomic status respondents. A community-based, multilevel intervention is an effective strategy to improve psychosocial factors for healthy nutritional behavior change to reduce chronic disease in indigenous Arctic populations

  3. Personality Profiles of Physically Impaired Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Lynn C.; Harper, Dennis C.

    1980-01-01

    Different forms of chronic observable disability may have differing impacts on adult personality adjustment. Young adults with cleft lip/palate display fewer personality adjustment problems than those with orthopedic impairment. (Author)

  4. Psychosocial assessment of children with short stature: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Skuse, D; Gilmour, J; Tian, C S; Hindmarsh, P

    1994-12-01

    Previous studies that have examined the psychosocial adjustment of children with short stature have often been flawed, for two main reasons: first, a lack of sample homogeneity and, secondly, the measures of adjustment used have been limited in terms of their sensitivity. This paper examines psychological functioning in the following four broad areas: cognition, social behaviour, emotional adjustment and self-concept. A sample of children referred to growth clinics (mean height below -2 SDS) and a comparison group, recruited from the referred childrens' classes at school, were assessed. Children were prepubertal (age range, 6-11 years) and had no organic cause for their short stature. Parent, teacher and peer reports were used in the assessment, which included sociometric measures in the classroom. The children with short stature described themselves as equally well supported as the comparison children in terms of social support by parents, teachers, peers and friends. Peers reported the short children to be well accepted within their class. Compared with control children, there was a trend for short children to be described by their peers as socially better adjusted than average. Teacher and parental accounts revealed significant group differences in terms of reported behaviour, with poorer attention and more thought problems among the children with short stature. Further analysis suggested, however, that their slightly lower IQ than children of normal height (95.8 +/- 18.7 (mean +/- SD) compared with 105 +/- 15.4) accounted for a greater proportion of the variance in these findings than short stature per se. There is little evidence to indicate that short prepubertal children are psychosocially maladjusted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7734805

  5. Antenatal psychosocial risk factors associated with adverse postpartum family outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, L M; Reid, A J; Midmer, D K; Biringer, A; Carroll, J C; Stewart, D E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the strength of the association between antenatal psychosocial risk factors and adverse postpartum outcomes in the family, such as assault of women by their partner, child abuse, postpartum depression, marital dysfunction and physical illness. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Cinahl, Famli, Psych Abstracts and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials were searched from relevant articles published from Jan. 1, 1980, to Dec. 31, 1993, with the use of MeSH terms "depression, involutional," "child abuse," "child neglect," "domestic violence," "family," "marital adjustment," "family health," "newborn health," "child health," "physical illness," "social support," "psychosocial risk," "prediction," "risk factors," "obstetrics" and "prenatal care." Further articles were identified from bibliographies. STUDY SELECTION: Of the 370 articles identified through the search, 118 were included for review. Studies were included if they examined the association between psychosocial risk factors and the outcomes of interest. Articles were excluded if they were reviews of poor quality or they had one or more of the following features: insufficient description of the sample, a high attrition rate, a lack of standardized outcome measures, outcomes other than the ones of interest or results that had already been reported in a previous study. DATA EXTRACTION: The strength of evidence of each study was evaluated. On the basis of the evidence, each risk factor was assigned a rating of the strength of its association with each of the postpartum outcomes. The ratings were class A (good evidence of association), class B (fair evidence) and class C (no clear evidence). Of the 129 antenatal psychosocial risk factors studied, 15 were found to have a class A association with at least one of the postpartum outcomes. DATA SYNTHESIS: Child abuse and abuse of the mother by her partner were most strongly correlated (class A evidence) with a history of lack of social support, recent life

  6. Psychosocial Resolution and Counsellor Trainee Empathy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Joshua M.

    1992-01-01

    Entry-level counseling students (n=74) were surveyed to investigate the relationship between resolution of Erikson's psychosocial stage of intimacy/isolation and counselor trainee empathy. Results revealed a significant positive relationship between measures of psychosocial stage resolution and counselor empathy and a significant main effect for…

  7. Habitus and the Psychosocial: Bourdieu with Feelings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reay, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of habitus to provide a window on the psychosocial. The paper works with a notion of psychosocial study as inquiry into the mutual constitution of the individual and the social relations within which they are enmeshed. At the same time it attempts to deepen and enrich notions of habitus. Although the strong focus…

  8. Psychosocial Treatment for Recurrent Genital Herpes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, David J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes…

  9. Explorations in Knowing: Thinking Psychosocially about Legitimacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Anne; Ernest, Paul; Ludhra, Geeta; Mendick, Heather

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we look at what engaging with psychoanalysis, through psychosocial accounts of subjectivity, has contributed to our struggles for legitimacy and security within our ways of knowing. The psychosocial, with its insistence on the unconscious and the irrational, features as both a source of security and of insecurity. We use three…

  10. Psychosocial Stress in Nurses With Shift Work Schedule Is Associated With Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Seong-Joon; Kim, Mingoo; Oh, Da Yeon; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Lee, Kook Lae; Kim, Ji Won

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the role of psychosocial problems and their associations with rotating shift work in the development of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Methods In this cross-sectional observation study, survey was administered to nurses and nurse assistants in a referral hospital. In addition to demographic questions, subjects were asked to complete the Rome III Questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Rome III Psychosocial Alarm Questionnaire. Results Responses from 301 subjects were assessed. The overall prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional dyspepsia (FD) were 15.0% and 19.6%, respectively. Psychosocial alarms were prevalent in the nursing personnel (74.8% with alarm presence and 23.3% with serious condition) and were more frequent among rotating shift workers (84.7% vs. 74.5% for alarm presence and 28.1% vs. 13.3% for serious condition). The prevalence of both IBS and FD significantly increased with psychosocial risk. An independent risk factor for IBS was serious psychosocial alarm (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 10.75; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.30–88.99; P = 0.028). Serious psychosocial alarm was an independent risk factor for FD (aOR, 7.84; 95% CI, 1.98–31.02; P = 0.003). Marriage (aOR 0.30; 95% CI, 0.09–0.93; P = 0.037) was associated with the decreased risk of FD. Conclusions The high prevalence of psychosocial stress among nurses who work rotating shifts is associated with the development of functional gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:25230903

  11. Relationship between psychosocial stress and hypertension among Ghanaians in Amsterdam, the Netherlands – the GHAIA study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypertension is highly prevalent among recent sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in western countries and some tend to associate their hypertension to psychosocial stress. However data on the relationship between hypertension and psychosocial stress among SSA migrants are rare. We assessed the relationship between psychosocial stress and hypertension among the largest SSA migrant population (Ghanaians) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Methods Data were obtained from structured interviews along with medical examination among 212 participants from a cross-sectional study: the GHAIA study in 2010 in Amsterdam. Blood pressure was measured with a validated Oscillometric automated digital blood pressure device. Psychosocial stress was assessed by questionnaires on perceived discrimination, depressive symptoms and financial problems. Binary logistic regression was used to study associations between psychosocial stress and hypertension. Results The overall prevalence of hypertension was 54.7%. About two thirds of the study population experienced a moderate (31%) or high (36%) level of discrimination. 20.0% of the participants had mild depressive symptoms, whilst 9% had moderate depressive symptoms. The prevalence of financial stress was 34.8%. The psychosocial stresses we assessed were not significantly associated with hypertension: adjusted odds ratios comparing those with low levels and those with high levels were 0.99 (95% CI, 0.47–2.08) for perceived discrimination, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.26–2.49) for depressive symptoms and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.37–1.36) for financial stress, respectively. Conclusion We did not find evidence for the association between psychosocial stress and hypertension among recent SSA migrants. More efforts are needed to unravel other potential factors that may underlie the high prevalence of hypertension among these populations. PMID:25001592

  12. Psychosocial Functioning and Intelligence Both Partly Explain Socioeconomic Inequalities in Premature Death. A Population-Based Male Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Falkstedt, Daniel; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Deary, Ian J.; Melin, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Objective The possible contributions of psychosocial functioning and intelligence differences to socioeconomic status (SES)-related inequalities in premature death were investigated. None of the previous studies focusing on inequalities in mortality has included measures of both psychosocial functioning and intelligence. Methods The study was based on a cohort of 49 321 men born 1949–1951 from the general community in Sweden. Data on psychosocial functioning and intelligence from military conscription at ∼18 years of age were linked with register data on education, occupational class, and income at 35–39 years of age. Psychosocial functioning was rated by psychologists as a summary measure of differences in level of activity, power of initiative, independence, and emotional stability. Intelligence was measured through a multidimensional test. Causes of death between 40 and 57 years of age were followed in registers. Results The estimated inequalities in all-cause mortality by education and occupational class were attenuated with 32% (95% confidence interval: 20–45%) and 41% (29–52%) after adjustments for individual psychological differences; both psychosocial functioning and intelligence contributed to account for the inequalities. The inequalities in cardiovascular and injury mortality were attenuated by as much as 51% (24–76%) and 52% (35–68%) after the same adjustments, and the inequalities in alcohol-related mortality were attenuated by up to 33% (8–59%). Less of the inequalities were accounted for when those were measured by level of income, with which intelligence had a weaker correlation. The small SES-related inequalities in cancer mortality were not attenuated by adjustment for intelligence. Conclusions Differences in psychosocial functioning and intelligence might both contribute to the explanation of observed SES-related inequalities in premature death, but the magnitude of their contributions likely varies with measure of socioeconomic

  13. Psychosocial aspects of cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Stiefel, F

    1993-05-01

    Pain, and especially cancer pain, is not a pure nociceptive, physical experience, but involves different dimensions of man, such as personality, affect, cognition, behavior and social relations. Cancer pain is best conceptualized as the convergence of multiple activated systems with feedback mechanisms to a complex, multidimensional model. The psychosocial aspects of this multidimensional model will be analyzed with special emphasis on results from recent research. Although most research has been conducted on the role of affect and cognition in cancer pain, data on other factors such as personality, behavior or social aspects exist and will be presented. In the second part of this paper the implications of these results for therapeutic strategies in clinical work will be discussed. Although a considerable body of knowledge exists to support the hypothesis of a multidimensional model of cancer pain, where psychosocial variables play an important role, only a few studies address the issue of to what degree different factors exercise their influence. This may be different from patient to patient and may change over the course of the disease. Whatever importance these single variables in the multidimensional model of cancer pain may have, the patient is best treated when none of these aspects is neglected in the assessment and all are taken care of in the treatment. A multidisciplinary team, with a psychiatrist as one of the team members, is often best prepared to fulfill this task. PMID:8149139

  14. [Parental attitude and adjustment to childhood epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Ju, S H; Chang, P F; Chen, Y J; Huang, C C; Tsai, J J

    1990-01-01

    Parental attitude and adjustment were examined in 20 epileptic children (ages 6.8-16.6 yrs), using semi-structured interview. The results indicated that parental understandings of epilepsy were generally poor and incorrect. Fifteen (75%) of 20 parents had their own interpretations of causality and 19 (95%) had unrealistic hope for early and complete cure. Parents tended to overprotect and overrestrict their children. Sixteen (80%) concealed the illness for fear of social prejudice, therefore the social support systems were generally poorly utilized. As in other chronic diseases, all parents went through feelings of shock, denial, anger, guilt, fear, anxiety and depression. Family relationships were not affected much, however, poor communications were commonly found between parents and children. Thirteen (65%) parents never talked to their children about epilepsy. We concluded that parents of epileptic children showed negative attitudes toward their children and had difficulties in their psychosocial adjustment probably related to social stigmata and misunderstanding of the illness. Therefore, communication between physician and parents in both medical and psychosocial aspects should be encouraged. PMID:2275364

  15. Psychosocial Work Factors and Musculoskeletal Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study among Swedish Flight Baggage Handlers

    PubMed Central

    Bergsten, Eva L.; Mathiassen, S. E.; Vingård, E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Flight baggage handlers sort and load luggage to airplanes. This study aimed at investigating associations between psychosocial exposures and low back and shoulder musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among Swedish flight baggage handlers. Methods. A questionnaire addressing MSDs (Standardized Nordic Questionnaire) and psychosocial factors (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, COPSOQ) was answered by 525 baggage handlers in six Swedish airports. Results. Low back (LBP) and shoulder pain (SP) were reported by 70% and 60%, respectively. Pain was reported to interfere with work (PIW) by 30% (low back) and 18% (shoulders), and intense pain (PINT) occurred in 34% and 28% of the population. Quality of leadership was the most dissatisfying psychosocial factor, while the most positive was social community at work. Low ratings in the combined domain Work organization and job content were significantly associated with PIW in both low back and shoulders (Adjusted Hazard Ratios 3.65 (95% CI 1.67–7.99) and 2.68 (1.09–6.61)) while lower ratings in the domain Interpersonal relations and leadership were associated with PIW LBP (HR 2.18 (1.06–4.49)) and PINT LBP and SP (HRs 1.95 (1.05–3.65) and 2.11 (1.08–4.12)). Conclusion. Severity of pain among flight baggage handlers was associated with psychosocial factors at work, suggesting that they may be a relevant target for intervention in this occupation. PMID:26558282

  16. Psychosocial problems in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes: number and characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rane, K; Wajngot, A; Wändell, P E; Gåfvels, C

    2011-09-01

    Early in the course of diabetes, it is important to identify and support patients whose psychosocial situations and reactions to the diagnosis may affect their ability to adjust or take adequate responsibility for self-care. We aimed to identify (a) the number and characteristics of patients, 18-65 years, newly diagnosed with diabetes, who needed psychosocial interventions and (b) the type of psychosocial problems they had. A total of 106 patients (72 men) were included in the study. Interviews showed that 41.5% had psychosocial problems. Fifteen dropped out early in the study; 38% of those remaining had psychosocial problems (PSP). More than half had problems with their life situation; most commonly in relationships. About a third had problems related to diabetes, most commonly, work-related. Compared to other participants, PSP patients lived in more strained social situations, especially regarding personal finances and social support. More of the PSP patients were anxious and depressed. They used negative coping strategies more often and more frequently expected that diabetes would negatively affect their future. In conclusion, early in the course of diabetes, screening instruments should be used to identify PSP patients. Treatment by medical social workers skilled in diabetes care should be offered. PMID:21636163

  17. Change in Psychosocial Functioning and Depressive Symptoms during Acute-Phase Cognitive Therapy for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Todd W.; Vittengl, Jeffrey R.; Clark, Lee Anna; Carmody, Thomas; Thase, Michael E.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is highly prevalent, is recurrent, and impairs people’s work, relationships, and leisure. Acute-phase treatments improve psychosocial impairment associated with MDD, but how these improvements occur is unclear. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that reductions in depressive symptoms exceed, precede, and predict improvements in psychosocial functioning. Method Patients with recurrent MDD (N = 523; 68% women, 81% Caucasian; M = 42 years old) received acute-phase Cognitive Therapy (CT; Beck, Rush, Shaw & Emery, 1979). We measured functioning and symptom severity with the Social Adjustment Scale—Self-Report (Weissman & Bothwell, 1976), Range of Impaired Functioning Tool (Leon et al., 1999), Beck Depression Inventory (Beck, Ward, Mendelson, Mock, & Erbaugh, 1961), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Hamilton, 1960) and Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology—Self-Report (Rush et al., 1996). We tested cross-lagged correlations between functioning and symptoms measured at baseline and the beginning, middle and end of acute phase CT. Results Pre- to post- treatment improvement in psychosocial functioning and depressive symptoms was large and inter-correlated. Depressive symptoms improved more and sooner than did psychosocial functioning. But among four assessments across the course of treatment, improvements in functioning more strongly predicted later improvement in symptoms than vice versa. Conclusions Improvements in psychosocial functioning and depressive symptoms correlate substantially during acute-phase CT, and improvements in functioning may play a role in subsequent symptom reduction during acute-phase CT. PMID:21781377

  18. The association between adult attachment style and delusional-like experiences in a community sample of women.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Daniel; Scott, James G; Bor, William; Williams, Gail M; Najman, Jake M; McGrath, John J

    2013-06-01

    Community-based surveys have found that many otherwise well individuals endorse delusional-like experiences (DLEs). There is extensive literature that describes the demographic and psychosocial correlates of DLE; however, we know little about the association between DLE and attachment style. The association between DLEs (assessed by the Peters Delusional Inventory [PDI]) and interpersonal relationship style (as assessed by the Adult Attachment Questionnaire and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale) was examined in 3360 women. When adjusted for the presence of depressive and anxiety symptoms, high scores on the PDI (lowest versus highest quartiles) were associated with a) difficulties in adult attachment style particularly in the discomfort with closeness and preoccupation with relationships subscales and b) conflictual dyadic adjustment (adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, 2.43 and 1.94-3.04, 2.50 and 1.99-3.14, and 2.90 and 1.38-6.06, respectively). The association between adult attachment style and DLE provides new clues into the causal pathway underpinning these common experiences. PMID:23686161

  19. The Experiences of Korean Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Photovoice Study.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jaehee; Kim, Min Ah; An, Sangmin

    2016-07-01

    Photovoice was used to understand the impact of childhood cancer on Korean young adult survivors. Seven survivors of childhood cancer (currently aged 20-27 years), diagnosed before the age of 19 and with cancer treatment completed, participated in five sessions. The participants took photographs that captured their group's weekly topics and participated in discussions about their feelings and experiences. Fifty-six photo images with narratives on the survivors' experiences were produced on these four participant-selected themes: Relationships With Others, Stigma, Overcoming Difficulties, and The Future This study on Korean childhood cancer survivors sheds light on their perspectives about the impact of cancer. Using an innovative methodology that takes the participants' point of view, this study contributes to the literature on young adult cancer survivors' quality of life and their psychosocial adjustment. The results can inform educational programs and increase public awareness by providing survivors' schoolteachers and peers with knowledge about childhood cancer. PMID:26265716

  20. Neuroplasticity, Psychosocial Genomics, and the Biopsychosocial Paradigm in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric; Howard, Matthew Owen

    2010-01-01

    The biopsychosocial perspective is a foundation of social work theory and practice. Recent research on neuroplasticity and psychosocial genomics lends compelling support to this perspective by elucidating mechanisms through which psychosocial forces shape neurobiology. Investigations of neuroplasticity demonstrate that the adult brain can continue to form novel neural connections and grow new neurons in response to learning or training even into old age. These findings are complemented by the contributions of psychosocial genomics, a field of scientific inquiry that explores the modulating effects of experience on gene expression. Findings from these new sciences provide external validation for the biopsychosocial perspective and offer important insights into the manifold means by which socioenvironmental experiences influence neurobiological structure and function across the life course. PMID:19728478

  1. Psychosocial impact of sickle cell disorder: perspectives from a Nigerian setting

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Sickle Cell Disorder is a global health problem with psychosocial implications. Nigeria has the largest population of people with sickle cell disorder, with about 150,000 births annually. This study explored the psychosocial impact of sickle cell disorder in 408 adolescents and adults attending three hospitals in Lagos, Nigeria. A questionnaire was designed for the study, with some of commonly described areas of psychosocial impact including general public perceptions and attitudes, education, employment, and healthcare issues, and emotional responses. The majority of participants thought that society in general had a negative image of SCD, and reported negative perceptions and attitudes. Some issues in education, employment, and healthcare were expressed, however these were in the minority of cases. The results also showed that depressive feelings were experienced in almost half the study population, even though feelings of anxiety or self-hate were uncommon. Clinical implications of these findings are considered. PMID:20170540

  2. Vulnerability to alcohol consumption, spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being: test of a theory 1

    PubMed Central

    Heredia, Luz Patricia Díaz; Sanchez, Alba Idaly Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to demonstrate the relations among vulnerability, self-transcendence and well-being in the young adult population and the effect of each of these variables on the adoption of low-risk consumption conducts. Method: quantitative and cross-sectional correlation study using structural equations analysis to test the relation among the variables. Results: an inverse relation was evidenced between vulnerability to alcohol consumption and spiritual transcendence (β-0.123, p 0.025) and a direct positive relation between spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being (β 0.482, p 0.000). Conclusions: the relations among the variables spiritual transcendence, vulnerability to alcohol consumption and psychosocial well-being, based on Reed's Theory, are confirmed in the population group of young college students, concluding that psychosocial well-being can be achieved when spiritual transcendence is enhanced, as the vulnerability to alcohol consumption drops. PMID:27276017

  3. IQ scores among homeless older adolescents: characteristics of intellectual performance and associations with psychosocial functioning.

    PubMed

    Rohde, P; Noell, J; Ochs, L

    1999-06-01

    Intellectual performance and the associations of IQ with the quality of psychosocial functioning were studied in a sample of homeless older adolescents. Fifty homeless older adolescents (ages 16-21) completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) and a questionnaire assessing psychosocial functioning and sexual risk factors. The WAIS-R scores were comparable to population means, with performance IQ scores tending to be higher than verbal IQ scores. The IQ was unrelated to the duration of homelessness. Higher IQ scores were significantly correlated with only a minority of the measures of psychosocial functioning, including less self-reported depression and lower reported delinquency, but also less self-control in high-risk sexual situations, less perceived peer support for safer sex, and a higher perceived likelihood of acquiring HIV. PMID:10462423

  4. Dietary supplement use and smoking are important correlates of biomarkers of water-soluble vitamin status after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables in a representative sample of U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Christine M; Sternberg, Maya R; Schleicher, Rosemary L; Rybak, Michael E

    2013-06-01

    Biochemical indicators of water-soluble vitamin (WSV) status were measured in a nationally representative sample of the U.S. population in NHANES 2003-2006. To examine whether demographic differentials in nutritional status were related to and confounded by certain variables, we assessed the association of sociodemographic (age, sex, race-ethnicity, education, income) and lifestyle (dietary supplement use, smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity) variables with biomarkers of WSV status in adults (aged ≥ 20 y): serum and RBC folate, serum pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), serum 4-pyridoxic acid, serum total cobalamin (vitamin B-12), plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), plasma methylmalonic acid (MMA), and serum ascorbic acid. Age (except for PLP) and smoking (except for MMA) were generally the strongest significant correlates of these biomarkers (|r| ≤ 0.43) and together with supplement use explained more of the variability compared with the other covariates in bivariate analysis. In multiple regression models, sociodemographic and lifestyle variables together explained from 7 (vitamin B-12) to 29% (tHcy) of the biomarker variability. We observed significant associations for most biomarkers (≥ 6 of 8) with age, sex, race-ethnicity, supplement use, smoking, and BMI and for some biomarkers with PIR (5 of 8), education (1 of 8), alcohol consumption (4 of 8), and physical activity (5 of 8). We noted large estimated percentage changes in biomarker concentrations between race-ethnic groups (from -24 to 20%), between supplement users and nonusers (from -12 to 104%), and between smokers and nonsmokers (from -28 to 8%). In summary, age, sex, and race-ethnic differentials in biomarker concentrations remained significant after adjusting for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables. Supplement use and smoking were important correlates of biomarkers of WSV status. PMID:23576641

  5. Midlife Eriksonian psychosocial development: Setting the stage for late-life cognitive and emotional health.

    PubMed

    Malone, Johanna C; Liu, Sabrina R; Vaillant, George E; Rentz, Dorene M; Waldinger, Robert J

    2016-03-01

    Erikson's (1950) model of adult psychosocial development outlines the significance of successful involvement within one's relationships, work, and community for healthy aging. He theorized that the consequences of not meeting developmental challenges included stagnation and emotional despair. Drawing on this model, the present study uses prospective longitudinal data to examine how the quality of assessed Eriksonian psychosocial development in midlife relates to late-life cognitive and emotional functioning. In particular we were interested to see whether late-life depression mediated the relationship between Eriksonian development and specific domains of cognitive functioning (i.e., executive functioning and memory). Participants were 159 men from the over-75 year longitudinal Study of Adult Development. The sample was comprised of men from both higher and lower socioeconomic strata. Eriksonian psychosocial development was coded from men's narrative responses to interviews between the ages of 30-47 (Vaillant & Milofsky, 1980). In late life (ages 75-85) men completed a performance-based neuropsychological assessment measuring global cognitive status, executive functioning, and memory. In addition depressive symptomatology was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale. Our results indicated that higher midlife Eriksonian psychosocial development was associated with stronger global cognitive functioning and executive functioning, and lower levels of depression 3 to 4 decades later. There was no significant association between Eriksonian development and late-life memory. Late-life depression mediated the relationship between Eriksonian development and both global cognition and executive functioning. All of these results controlled for highest level of education and adolescent intelligence. Findings have important implications for understanding the lasting benefits of psychosocial engagement in mid-adulthood for late-life cognitive and emotional health. In addition

  6. Emotions, Coping and the Need for Support in Families of Children with Cancer: A Model for Psychosocial Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Last, Bob F.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.

    1998-01-01

    Most children and parents use strategies that protect them from psychopathology in coping with cancer. Studies involving children with cancer, their parents, their perceptions, emotions, and coping strategies are reviewed. A psychosocial support model is proposed which may be helpful when support is needed with problems of adjustment. (Author/EMK)

  7. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Mama, Scherezade K; Li, Yisheng; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W; Nguyen, Nga T; Reitzel, Lorraine R; McNeill, Lorna H

    2016-01-01

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans. PMID:27119366

  8. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E.; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.

    2016-01-01

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans. PMID:27119366

  9. Psychosocial aspects of rehabilitation in sports.

    PubMed

    Covassin, Tracey; Beidler, Erica; Ostrowski, Jennifer; Wallace, Jessica

    2015-04-01

    When an athlete is injured, the primary focus of the sports medicine team is to treat the physical effects of the injury. However, many injured athletes experience negative psychological responses that should also be addressed throughout the rehabilitation process. Sports medicine professions should use psychosocial skills to help decrease the negative consequences of the injury, such as fear of reinjury, anxiety, depression, and adherence to rehabilitation. These psychosocial skills include goal setting, imagery, relaxation techniques, motivation, and self-talk. This article addresses the negative consequences of injury, psychosocial skills used to aid in the rehabilitation process, and clinical implications of the psychological aspects of rehabilitation in sport. PMID:25818709

  10. Psychosocial Factors in Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Ruth A; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that is increasing in prevalence globally. Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in diabetes, and lifestyle and clinical risk factors do not fully account for the link between the conditions. This article provides an overview of the evidence concerning the role of psychosocial stress factors in diabetes risk, as well as in cardiovascular complications in people with existing diabetes. Several types of psychosocial factors are discussed including depression, other types of emotional distress, exposure to stressful conditions, and personality traits. The potential behavioral and biological pathways linking psychosocial factors to diabetes are presented and implications for patient care are highlighted. PMID:27566328

  11. Advances in the Psychosocial Treatment of Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Dallery, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis The authors present an overview of empirically supported psychosocial interventions for individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs), including recent advances in the field. They also identify barriers to the adoption of evidence-based psychosocial treatments in community-based systems of care, and the promise of leveraging technology (computers, web, mobile phone, and emerging technologies) to markedly enhance the reach of these treatments. Technology-based interventions may provide “on-demand,” ubiquitous access to therapeutic support in diverse settings. A brief discussion of important next steps in developing, refining, and disseminating technology-delivered psychosocial interventions concludes the review. PMID:22640767

  12. Responding to the psychosocial needs of children and families in disasters.

    PubMed

    Murray, John S

    2010-12-01

    Pediatric health care professionals play a critical role in disaster response by assisting parents, teachers, and health care organizations to meet the unique needs of children, adolescents, and families during all phases of disaster. Addressing the psychosocial needs of this vulnerable population by providing age-appropriate care and facilitating adaptive coping strategies has the potential to decrease the long-term behavioral health consequences and help children positively adjust to a stressful life experience. PMID:21095556

  13. Cigarette Experimentation in Mexican Origin Youth: Psychosocial and Genetic Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Anna V.; Bondy, Melissa L.; Wu, Xifeng; Wang, Jian; Dong, Qiong; D’Amelio, Anthony M.; Prokhorov, Alexander V.; Pu, Xia; Yu, Robert K.; Etzel, Carol J.; Shete, Sanjay; Spitz, Margaret R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Established psychosocial risk factors increase the risk for experimentation among Mexican-origin youth. Now we comprehensively investigate the added contribution of select polymorphisms in candidate genetic pathways associated with sensation seeking, risk taking, and smoking phenotypes to predict experimentation. Methods Participants, (N=1,118 Mexican origin youth) recruited from a large population-based cohort study in Houston, Texas, provided prospective data on cigarette experimentation over three years. Psychosocial data were elicited twice—baseline and final follow-up. Participants were genotyped for 672 functional and tagging variants in the dopamine, serotonin and opioid pathways. Results After adjusting for gender and age, with a Bayesian False Discovery Probability set at 0.8 and prior probability of 0.05, six gene variants were significantly associated with risk of experimentation. After controlling for established risk factors, multivariable analyses revealed that participants with six or more risk alleles were 2.25 (95%CI: 1.62–3.13) times more likely to have experimented since baseline compared to participants with five or fewer. Among committed never smokers (N=872), three genes (OPRM1, SNAP25, HTR1B) were associated with experimentation as were all psychosocial factors. Among susceptible youth (N=246) older age at baseline, living with a smoker, and three different genes (HTR2A, DRD2, SLC6A3) predicted experimentation. Conclusions Our findings, which have implications for development of culturally-specific interventions, need to be validated in other ethnic groups. Impact These results suggest that variations in select genes interact with a cognitive predisposition toward smoking. In susceptible adolescents, the impact of the genetic variants appears to be larger compared to committed never smokers. PMID:22028400

  14. Gender Dysphoria in Adults.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Kenneth J; Lawrence, Anne A; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C

    2016-03-28

    Gender dysphoria (GD), a term that denotes persistent discomfort with one's biologic sex or assigned gender, replaced the diagnosis of gender identity disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 2013. Subtypes of GD in adults, defined by sexual orientation and age of onset, have been described; these display different developmental trajectories and prognoses. Prevalence studies conclude that fewer than 1 in 10,000 adult natal males and 1 in 30,000 adult natal females experience GD, but such estimates vary widely. GD in adults is associated with an elevated prevalence of comorbid psychopathology, especially mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and suicidality. Causal mechanisms in GD are incompletely understood, but genetic, neurodevelopmental, and psychosocial factors probably all contribute. Treatment of GD in adults, although largely standardized, is likely to evolve in response to the increasing diversity of persons seeking treatment, demands for greater client autonomy, and improved understanding of the benefits and limitations of current treatment modalities. PMID:26788901

  15. Discrimination, Other Psychosocial Stressors, and Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Slopen, Natalie; Williams, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To advance understanding of the relationship between discrimination and sleep duration and difficulties, with consideration of multiple dimensions of discrimination, and attention to concurrent stressors; and to examine the contribution of discrimination and other stressors to racial/ ethnic differences in these outcomes. Design: Cross-sectional probability sample. Setting: Chicago, IL. Participants: There were 2,983 black, Hispanic, and white adults. Measurements and Results: Outcomes included self-reported sleep duration and difficulties. Discrimination, including racial and nonracial everyday and major experiences of discrimination, workplace harassment and incivilities, and other stressors were assessed via questionnaire. In models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, greater exposure to racial (β = -0.14)) and nonracial (β = -0.08) everyday discrimination, major experiences of discrimination attributed to race/ethnicity (β = -0.17), and workplace harassment and incivilities (β = -0.14) were associated with shorter sleep (P < 0.05). The association between major experiences of discrimination attributed to race/ethnicity and sleep duration (β = -0.09, P < 0.05) was independent of concurrent stressors (i.e., acute events, childhood adversity, and financial, community, employment, and relationship stressors). Racial (β = 0.04) and non-racial (β = 0.05) everyday discrimination and racial (β = 0.04) and nonracial (β = 0.04) major experiences of discrimination, and workplace harassment and incivilities (β = 0.04) were also associated with more (log) sleep difficulties, and associations between racial and nonracial everyday discrimination and sleep difficulties remained after adjustment for other stressors (P < 0.05). Racial/ethnic differences in sleep duration and difficulties were not significant after adjustment for discrimination (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Discrimination was associated with shorter sleep and more sleep difficulties

  16. ADJUSTABLE DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-08-01

    >A modulator pulse source having adjustable pulse width and adjustable pulse spacing is described. The generator consists of a cross coupled multivibrator having adjustable time constant circuitry in each leg, an adjustable differentiating circuit in the output of each leg, a mixing and rectifying circuit for combining the differentiated pulses and generating in its output a resultant sequence of negative pulses, and a final amplifying circuit for inverting and square-topping the pulses. (AEC)

  17. The perinatal assessment of psychosocial risk.

    PubMed

    Haglund, L J; Britton, J R

    1998-06-01

    Although evaluation of psychosocial risk factors prior to perinatal hospital discharge has been advocated, the means for accomplishing such an evaluation are not well established. This article reviews several major psychosocial risk factors together with instruments that have been utilized to assess them during the perinatal period. Formal constructs reviewed include anxiety, depression, self-concept, general attitudes, life events, stress, adaptation, social support, marital and family functioning, and the home environment. Ongoing assessment of psychosocial status using formal instruments during routine perinatal care may provide a more complete picture of the psychosocial needs of the individual mother and her family, allowing for more appropriate, timely intervention and utilization of social and health care resources. PMID:9647002

  18. Are psychosocial stressors associated with the relationship of alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown a protective association of moderate alcohol intake with mortality. However, it remains unclear whether this relationship could be due to misclassification confounding. As psychosocial stressors are among those factors that have not been sufficiently controlled for, we assessed whether they may confound the relationship between alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality. Methods Three cross-sectional MONICA surveys (conducted 1984–1995) including 11,282 subjects aged 25–74 years were followed up within the framework of KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg), a population-based cohort, until 2002. The prevalences of diseases as well as of lifestyle, clinical and psychosocial variables were compared in different alcohol consumption categories. To assess all-cause mortality risks, hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models which included lifestyle, clinical and psychosocial variables. Results Diseases were more prevalent among non-drinkers than among drinkers: Moreover, non-drinkers showed a higher percentage of an unfavourable lifestyle and were more affected with psychosocial stressors at baseline. Multivariable-adjusted HRs for moderate alcohol consumption versus no consumption were 0.74 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58-0.94) in men and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.66-1.16) in women. In men, moderate drinkers had a significantly lower all-cause mortality risk than non-drinkers or heavy drinkers (p = 0.002) even after multivariable adjustment. In women, moderate alcohol consumption was not associated with lowered risk of death from all causes. Conclusions The present study confirmed the impact of sick quitters on mortality risk, but failed to show that the association between alcohol consumption and mortality is confounded by psychosocial stressors. PMID:24708657

  19. Psychosocial perspectives in the treatment of pediatric chronic pain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain in children and adolescents is associated with major disruption to developmental experiences crucial to personal adjustment, quality of life, academic, vocational and social success. Caring for these patients involves understanding cognitive, affective, social and family dynamic factors associated with persistent pain syndromes. Evaluation and treatment necessitate a comprehensive multimodal approach including psychological and behavioral interventions that maximize return to more developmentally appropriate physical, academic and social activities. This article will provide an overview of major psychosocial factors impacting on pediatric pain and disability, propose an explanatory model for conceptualizing the development and maintenance of pain and functional disability in medically difficult-to-explain pain syndromes, and review representative evidence-based cognitive behavioral and systemic treatment approaches for improving functioning in this pediatric population. PMID:22676345

  20. Psychosocial perspectives in the treatment of pediatric chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Carter, Bryan D; Threlkeld, Brooke M

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain in children and adolescents is associated with major disruption to developmental experiences crucial to personal adjustment, quality of life, academic, vocational and social success. Caring for these patients involves understanding cognitive, affective, social and family dynamic factors associated with persistent pain syndromes. Evaluation and treatment necessitate a comprehensive multimodal approach including psychological and behavioral interventions that maximize return to more developmentally appropriate physical, academic and social activities. This article will provide an overview of major psychosocial factors impacting on pediatric pain and disability, propose an explanatory model for conceptualizing the development and maintenance of pain and functional disability in medically difficult-to-explain pain syndromes, and review representative evidence-based cognitive behavioral and systemic treatment approaches for improving functioning in this pediatric population. PMID:22676345