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Sample records for adult reading habits

  1. Adult Reading Habits and Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Alice M.; Rhee, Ock

    2001-01-01

    Examines the reading habits and patterns of White and Asian American adults. Hypothesizes that when grouped by demographic variables, participants' responses about their reading habits and patterns would not differ. Concludes that gender, race, and education were predictors for participants' reading habits; education and race were predictors for…

  2. Changes in Reading Habits by Low Literate Adults through Extensive Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigo, Victoria; Greenberg, Daphne; Segal, Don

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the effect of two reading interventions on reading habits by 181 low literate adults who read at the 3-5.9 grade levels. One intervention implemented extensive reading (ER group) and the other one had direct instruction (no-ER group). A Reading Pattern survey was administered at the beginning, at the end, and 6 months after the…

  3. Reading Habits of Senegalese Adults and College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Alice M.; Burley, JoAnne E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses factors contributing to high level of illiteracy in Senegal. Reports on study of Senegalese reading habits--participants enjoy reading, read newspapers often, would like to read better, and would take reading improvement courses if they were offered. (CMG)

  4. Reading Habits of Elderly Adults: Implications for Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Alice M.; Biggs, Shirley A.

    1987-01-01

    Elderly adults responded to the Survey of Elderly Reading Attitudes instrument. Most felt they had time to read, more married than single subjects reported buying magazines and daily newspapers, and more females than males reported reading advertisements without difficulty. (Author/KS)

  5. The Influence of Reading and Writing Habits Associated with Education on the Neuropsychological Performance of Brazilian Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlowski, Josiane; Remor, Eduardo; de Mattos Pimenta Parente, Maria Alice; de Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli; Fonseca, Rochele Paz; Bandeira, Denise Ruschel

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the frequency of reading and writing habits (RWH) associated with education on the performance of adults in brief neuropsychological tasks. A sample of 489 Brazilian subjects, composed of 71% women, aged 21-80 years, with 2-23 years of formal education, was evaluated by the Brazilian Brief Neuropsychological…

  6. Beginning Readers' Reading Performance and Reading Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppanen, Ulla; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective relationships between reading performance and reading habits among Finnish children during the first and second grades of primary school. One hundred and ninety-five children were examined twice during their first primary school year and once during the spring term of Grade 2. The results showed, first, that…

  7. Encouraging the Lifetime Reading Habit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanacore, Joseph

    Educators must accept the challenge of encouraging the lifetime reading habit in school. Students who are surrounded with books, newspapers, magazines, and other materials will be tempted to browse and to read from these sources. When selecting materials for the classroom, educators should work closely with the library media specialist who is…

  8. The Leisure Reading Habits of Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes-Hassell, Sandra; Rodge, Pradnya

    2007-01-01

    Research indicates that there is a strong relationship between leisure reading and school achievement, but the leisure reading habits of urban adolescents have rarely been studied. From their investigation of the leisure reading habits of 584 urban minority middle school students, the authors identify these key findings: (1) More than two-thirds…

  9. The Online Reading Habits of Malaysian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abidin, Mohammad Jafre Bin Zainol; Pourmohammadi, Majid; Varasingam, Nalini A/P; Lean, Ooi Choon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to ascertain the differences in online reading habits between genders and investigate the relationship between socio-economic status and online reading habits. Using a questionnaire, a quantitative approach was administered to 240 Form-Four students from four secondary schools in Penang Island, Malaysia. Findings…

  10. Family Reading Habits and Children's Progress in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamme, Linda; Olmsted, Pat

    This study examined the influences of the home on children's attitudes toward reading, perceptions of reading, reading habits, and reading achievement. Participating in the study were 38 low-income white children (and their parents) from nine first-grade classrooms involved in the Florida Parent Education Follow Through project. Data were obtained…

  11. Improving Children's Habits in Recreational Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Kris; Papp, Stacy; Richmond, Barbara

    An action research project described a program for improving elementary children's recreational reading habits through a combination of modeling by the teacher plus incentives to enhance students' intrinsic motivation to read for enjoyment. The targeted population consisted of three suburban public schools, grades 2 and 4. Analysis of probable…

  12. Exploring the Relationship between Adolescent's Reading Skills, Reading Motivation and Reading Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Duncan, Lynne G.; Griffiths, Yvonne M.; Stothard, Sue E.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the extent to which adolescents' reading affect (reading motivation) and behaviour (reading habits) predict different components of reading (word reading, comprehension, summarisation and text reading speed) and also adds to the limited research examining group differences (gender, age, ability) in adolescents' reading…

  13. Younger Americans' Reading and Library Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zickuhr, Kathryn; Rainie, Lee; Purcell, Kristen; Madden, Mary; Brenner, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    More than eight in ten Americans between the ages of 16 and 29 read a book in the past year, and six in ten used their local public library. At the youngest end of the spectrum, high schoolers in their late teens (ages 16-17) and college-aged young adults (ages 18-24) are especially likely to have read a book or used the library in the past 12…

  14. Who's Reading and Why: Reading Habits of 1st Grade through Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Deanne

    2007-01-01

    The habit of reading develops over a period of time. This study explored reading habits across a wide range of students. An open-ended survey of reading habits involved 242 participants from grades 1, 4, 6, 8, 11, undergraduate non-education majors, undergraduate elementary majors, and graduate reading majors. As data were analyzed, themes emerged…

  15. Does Johnny's Reading Teacher Love to Read? How Teachers' Personal Reading Habits Affect Instructional Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKool, Sharon S.; Gespass, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between teachers' personal reading habits and their instructional practices. Teachers responded to a questionnaire that revealed their attitudes toward reading, the amount of time they spent reading per day and the kind of literacy practices that they used in their classrooms. Results indicate: (1) while…

  16. Sustained Silent Reading Practice: Its Effects upon Student Reading Habits and Attitudes toward Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einhorn, Judith Ann

    Eighty-one fifth grade students from a suburban parochial school were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups in a study designed to determine the effect of daily sustained silent reading (SSR) on student reading habits and attitudes toward reading. One teacher supervised 40 students in daily fifteen-minute periods of SSR, using…

  17. A New Measure of Reading Habit: Going Beyond Behavioral Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Fabian T. C.; Retelsdorf, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Reading habit is considered an important construct in reading research as it serves as a significant predictor of reading achievement. However, there is still no consensus on how to best measure reading habit. In recent research, it has mostly been measured as behavioral frequency; this approach neglects the fact that repeated behavior does not cover the broad content of habitual behavior—such as automaticity and the expression of one’s identity. In this study, we aimed to adapt a 10-item scale on the basis of the Self-Report Habit Index by Verplanken and Orbell (2003) that is comprehensive but still economical for measuring reading habit. It was tested by drawing on a sample of N = 1,418 upper secondary school students. The scale showed good psychometric properties and the internal and external validity was supported. Moreover, the scale predicted reading achievement and decoding speed over and above reading frequency. The implications of an elaborated but still economical way of measuring reading habit are discussed giving new impetus on research on reading habit, challenging conventional approaches of traditional measures.

  18. A New Measure of Reading Habit: Going Beyond Behavioral Frequency.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Fabian T C; Retelsdorf, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Reading habit is considered an important construct in reading research as it serves as a significant predictor of reading achievement. However, there is still no consensus on how to best measure reading habit. In recent research, it has mostly been measured as behavioral frequency; this approach neglects the fact that repeated behavior does not cover the broad content of habitual behavior-such as automaticity and the expression of one's identity. In this study, we aimed to adapt a 10-item scale on the basis of the Self-Report Habit Index by Verplanken and Orbell (2003) that is comprehensive but still economical for measuring reading habit. It was tested by drawing on a sample of N = 1,418 upper secondary school students. The scale showed good psychometric properties and the internal and external validity was supported. Moreover, the scale predicted reading achievement and decoding speed over and above reading frequency. The implications of an elaborated but still economical way of measuring reading habit are discussed giving new impetus on research on reading habit, challenging conventional approaches of traditional measures. PMID:27660619

  19. A New Measure of Reading Habit: Going Beyond Behavioral Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Fabian T. C.; Retelsdorf, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Reading habit is considered an important construct in reading research as it serves as a significant predictor of reading achievement. However, there is still no consensus on how to best measure reading habit. In recent research, it has mostly been measured as behavioral frequency; this approach neglects the fact that repeated behavior does not cover the broad content of habitual behavior—such as automaticity and the expression of one’s identity. In this study, we aimed to adapt a 10-item scale on the basis of the Self-Report Habit Index by Verplanken and Orbell (2003) that is comprehensive but still economical for measuring reading habit. It was tested by drawing on a sample of N = 1,418 upper secondary school students. The scale showed good psychometric properties and the internal and external validity was supported. Moreover, the scale predicted reading achievement and decoding speed over and above reading frequency. The implications of an elaborated but still economical way of measuring reading habit are discussed giving new impetus on research on reading habit, challenging conventional approaches of traditional measures. PMID:27660619

  20. The Professional Reading Habits of Teachers: Implications for Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudland, Neale; Kemp, Coral

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the literature pertaining to the professional reading habits of teachers. Particular attention is given to those teachers working with students with special education needs. The value of professional reading is considered along with the quantity of professional reading of teachers from Australia and overseas, the types of…

  1. Self-Contained to Departmentalized: How Reading Habits Changed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamme, Linda Leonard

    1976-01-01

    Examined the reading habits of four 4th grade classes before and after a changeover from self-contained to departmentalized instruction. Results indicated a slightly lower mean number of books read and far less variation among classes in the number of books read after departmentalization. (JMB)

  2. Book Reading in Leisure Time: Long-Term Changes in Young Peoples' Book Reading Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnsson-Smaragdi, Ulla; Jonsson, Annelis

    2006-01-01

    Visual and ICT media are often perceived as a threat to book reading in leisure time. They are accused of taking time and interest away from children and adolescents' book reading by offering them more approachable alternatives. Children and adolescents' book reading habits and the way these habits have changed over time are in focus. Is there any…

  3. Getting Students Hooked on the Reading Habit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrell, Linda B.

    2015-01-01

    We know that students who enjoy reading are likely to choose to read more often than students who do not enjoy reading. We also know that the more students read the better readers they become. The bottom line is that reading proficiency has been linked to a better and more productive academic, social, and civic life. We really don't need to be…

  4. Adjusting Lecture Style to Accommodate Student Reading Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Socash, Richard R.

    2007-01-01

    The reasons behind the reading habits of undergraduate MIS students were examined to learn from the students' point of view why many don't read the textbook. Willingness to work hard on homework and project assignments and an appreciation of what is expected of them appears to be in place. However, carrots, sticks, ruses and requests all meet with…

  5. Reading and the Adult Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Laura S., Ed.

    This monograph consists of selected International Reading Association convention and journal articles that describe reading programs for adult learners in the United States. The focus of the articles is on continuing adult education and developing advanced reading skills rather than on remedial or basic skills. Topics of selections include…

  6. The Professional Reading Habits of American Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Susan M.

    This research project studied the perceived quality of the library and information science literature and asked questions regarding international librarianship. Additionally, it questioned what librarians read, how they choose their reading material, and how they use the literature for their decision making. The sample consisted of librarians from…

  7. Screen Reading Habits among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenhoek, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Among the numerous areas of education which have been impacted by technology, the growth of reading texts from computer screens is one of the most widespread. This trend is perhaps most evident at universities with academic journal articles increasing being stored and accessed in this format. As with any technological changes, the spread of screen…

  8. Do Reading Habits Influence Aesthetic Preferences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treiman, Rebecca; Allaith, Zainab

    2013-01-01

    We tested the idea that the directionality of a person's primary writing system has influences outside the domain of reading and writing, specifically influences on aesthetic preferences. The results of several previous studies suggest that people whose primary writing system goes from left to right prefer pictures of moving and static…

  9. Reading Habits of College Students in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, SuHua; Capps, Matthew; Blacklock, Jeff; Garza, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This study employed a convergent mixed-method research design to investigate reading habits of American college students. A total of 1,265 (466 male and 799 female) college students voluntarily participated in the study by completing a self-reported survey. Twelve students participated in semi-structured interviews and classroom observations.…

  10. The Reading Habits of Church Active Mormon Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleton, Marianne; Cranney, A. Garr

    Data from 149 female members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (LDS) were used to construct a composite of the reading habits and their relation to other characterisitics of this group. The typical respondent was a married woman between 26 and 40 years old who had attended college but remained at home to care for children under…

  11. Uncovering Reading Habits of University Students in Uganda: Does ICT Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mlay, Samali V.; Sabi, Humphrey M.; Tsuma, Clive K.; Langmia, Kehbuma

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can improve reading habits among university students. We also investigated the influence of home culture, school culture and disposable income on reading habit. Our main objective was to assess the effect of ICT on the reading habit of particularly university students in…

  12. Effect of Book Reading Method upon Attitudes of Students towards Learning and Reading Habit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmet, Kara; Ali, Ünisen; Eyup, Izci

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of lessons trained through large group discussion method in a classroom environment during 10-15 min at the end of silent book reading activity for the first thirty minutes during a term upon attitudes of students towards learning and reading habit. The research was carried out with totally 89…

  13. Print exposure, reading habits, and reading achievement among deaf and hearing college students.

    PubMed

    Marschark, Marc; Sarchet, Thomastine; Convertino, Carol M; Borgna, Georgianna; Morrison, Carolyn; Remelt, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This study explored relations of print exposure, academic achievement, and reading habits among 100 deaf and 100 hearing college students. As in earlier studies, recognition tests for book titles and magazine titles were used as measures of print exposure, college entrance test scores were used as measures of academic achievement, and students provided self-reports of reading habits. Deaf students recognized fewer magazine titles and fewer book titles appropriate for reading levels from kindergarten through Grade 12 while reporting more weekly hours of reading. As in previous studies with hearing college students, the title recognition test proved a better predictor of deaf and hearing students' English achievement than how many hours they reported reading. The finding that the recognition tests were relatively more potent predictors of achievement for deaf students than hearing students may reflect the fact that deaf students often obtain less information through incidental learning and classroom presentations.

  14. The Effects of the Sustained Silent Reading Program on Cultivating Students' Habits and Attitudes in Reading Books for Leisure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chua, Siah Poh

    2008-01-01

    The author examines the effects of the sustained silent reading program on cultivating students' habits and attitudes in reading books for leisure. The author used a time-series design and measured students' reading habits and attitudes three times in twelve months. It was expected that if the program created positive effects on cultivating…

  15. Adult Reading Development. An Information Awareness Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCrow, Roger, Ed.

    A digest of findings from a national survey by Louis Harris and Associates of adult reading skills comprises this edition of Adult Reading Development, a publication of the National Reading Center. The study measured the ability of adults to respond to practical real-life situations such as reading direct-dial instructions in a telephone directory…

  16. Print Exposure, Reading Habits, and Reading Achievement among Deaf and Hearing College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschark, Marc; Sarchet, Thomastine; Convertino, Carol M.; Borgna, Georgianna; Morrison, Carolyn; Remelt, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This study explored relations of print exposure, academic achievement, and reading habits among 100 deaf and 100 hearing college students. As in earlier studies, recognition tests for book titles and magazine titles were used as measures of print exposure, college entrance test scores were used as measures of academic achievement, and students…

  17. La lecture et les adultes (Reading and Adults).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caceres, Benigno

    1980-01-01

    Discusses methods used to help adults improve their reading skills and read with more enjoyment. Particular attention is paid to the Reading Club method. An illustration is given of a particular exercise used at a center in Paris. (AMH)

  18. Evaluation of Reading Habits of Teacher Candidates: Study of Scale Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkan, Senem Seda Sahenk; Dagal, Asude Balaban; Tezcan, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable scale for printed and digital competencies ("The Printed and Digital Reading Habits Scale"). The problem statement of this research can be expressed as: "The Printed and Digital Reading Habits Scale: is a valid and reliable scale?" In this study, the scale…

  19. Reading Habits and Attitudes of Pre-Service Teachers: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Amy Lynn Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to uncover pre-service teacher's reading habits and attitudes and to examine if participants' attitudes changed after taking a course in children's literature. In this case study, data was analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively will be used. The reading habits of pre-service and in-service teachers have been…

  20. Study Habits and Attitudes of Disadvantaged Students in A College Reading and Study Skills Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, George O., Sr.

    The importance of the nonintellective factors, study habits and attitudes of the learner, was investigated. Tested were the effects of different methods of reading and study skills instruction upon the study habits and attitudes of 102 disadvantaged black college freshmen enrolled in a reading and study skills course at North Carolina Central…

  1. Family reading habits and academic achievement of children from polygynous, monogamous, divorced, and nondivorced families.

    PubMed

    Cherian, V I

    1994-08-01

    This study investigated the relationship between family reading habits and the academic achievement of 1021 Xhosa-speaking children whose mean age was 15.3 yr. A questionnaire was administered to identify each pupil's family status. Analysis of variance indicated positive and statistically significant main effects for the two variables on a reading habits score.

  2. Nutritional habits and cognitive performance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Mallidou, Anastasia; Cartie, Mario

    2015-06-01

    Healthy nutritional habits, including drinking plenty of water and maintaining hydration, are fundamental components for sustaining life, health and wellbeing. Evidence has suggested that certain dietary patterns and lifestyles could help delay the ageing process and reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease. This article explores the potential association between nutritional habits and the cognitive performance of older adults and identifies research gaps that could be filled by future studies on healthy ageing.

  3. What Are Teenagers Reading? Adolescent Fiction Reading Habits and Reading Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Rosemary

    2005-01-01

    What are adolescents choosing to read? This is an important question because of potential divergence between school students' reading interests and reading expectations in school. This article considers the findings from a study of the reading over one week in May 2002 of 707 school students aged between 11 and 15, undertaken in 30 schools in the…

  4. Returning to Reading: An Online Course in French Offers a Snapshot of L2 Reading Habits and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gascoigne, Carolyn; Parnell, Juliette

    2016-01-01

    With todays' students spending increasing amounts of time involved in online activities, there is a growing need to study their online reading habits. Indeed, it is not only students' out-of-class engagement with electronic media that calls for increased attention to the reading skill, in general, and online reading, in particular, but it is also…

  5. SSR: Its Effects on Students' Reading Habits after They Complete the Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiesendanger, Katherine D.; Bader, Lois

    1989-01-01

    Studies the effect of sustained silent reading (SSR) on recreational reading habits after termination of instruction. Finds that SSR students read more than those not in the program, and that SSR has no impact on above average readers, great impact on average readers, and little impact on below average readers. (RS)

  6. Reading difficulties in Spanish adults with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies show that dyslexia persists into adulthood, even in highly educated and well-read people. The main characteristic that adults with dyslexia present is a low speed when reading. In Spanish, a shallow orthographic system, no studies about adults with dyslexia are available; and it is possible that the consistency of the orthographic system favours the reading fluency. The aim of this study was to get an insight of the reading characteristics of Spanish adults with dyslexia and also to infer the reading strategies that they are using. For that purpose, a group of 30 dyslexics (M age = 32 years old) and an age-matched group of 30 adults without reading disabilities completed several phonological and reading tasks: phonological awareness tasks, rapid automatic naming, lexical decision, word and pseudoword reading, letter detection and text reading. The results showed that highly educated Spanish dyslexics performed significantly worse than the control group in the majority of the tasks. Specifically, they showed difficulties reading long pseudowords, indicating problems in automating the grapheme-phoneme rules, but they also seem to present difficulties reading words, which indicate problems with the lexical route. It seems that the Spanish dyslexic adults, as in deep orthographies, continue having difficulties in phonological awareness tasks, rapid naming and reading.

  7. Reading difficulties in Spanish adults with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies show that dyslexia persists into adulthood, even in highly educated and well-read people. The main characteristic that adults with dyslexia present is a low speed when reading. In Spanish, a shallow orthographic system, no studies about adults with dyslexia are available; and it is possible that the consistency of the orthographic system favours the reading fluency. The aim of this study was to get an insight of the reading characteristics of Spanish adults with dyslexia and also to infer the reading strategies that they are using. For that purpose, a group of 30 dyslexics (M age = 32 years old) and an age-matched group of 30 adults without reading disabilities completed several phonological and reading tasks: phonological awareness tasks, rapid automatic naming, lexical decision, word and pseudoword reading, letter detection and text reading. The results showed that highly educated Spanish dyslexics performed significantly worse than the control group in the majority of the tasks. Specifically, they showed difficulties reading long pseudowords, indicating problems in automating the grapheme-phoneme rules, but they also seem to present difficulties reading words, which indicate problems with the lexical route. It seems that the Spanish dyslexic adults, as in deep orthographies, continue having difficulties in phonological awareness tasks, rapid naming and reading. PMID:25836629

  8. Strategies to Overcome Negative Reading Habits of ABE Participants: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfel, Jane E.

    1996-01-01

    The author theorizes that her students, single-parent welfare recipients, develop negative reading habits to camouflage low literacy. She describes instructional strategies that fail to help and methods she found effective. (SK)

  9. Reading Difficulties in Spanish Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies show that dyslexia persists into adulthood, even in highly educated and well-read people. The main characteristic that adults with dyslexia present is a low speed when reading. In Spanish, a shallow orthographic system, no studies about adults with dyslexia are available; and it is possible that the consistency of the orthographic…

  10. Oakland Adult Reading Lab. Building Comprehension in Adult Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Suzanne

    Many adult poor readers do not organize what they read in a way that best facilitates good comprehension. To help students overcome this problem, the Adult Day and Evening School in Oakland, California, organized a reading laboratory for their mostly low-income, educationally disadvantaged students with a diverse range of needs. Instruction in the…

  11. Children Reading Habits and Availability of Books in Botswana Primary Schools: Implications for Achieving Quality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tella, Adenyinka; Akande, Samson

    2007-01-01

    "In an age when browsing the net, playing with funky handsets and passing non-stop SMSs seem to be the order of the day, reading a book in a peaceful corner of a library has become an archaic idea for most people. While technology is slowly taking a steady control over individual lives, the reading habit is fast vanishing into thin…

  12. Middle Schoolers and Magazines: What Teachers Can Learn from Students' Leisure Reading Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Rachael; Allington, Richard; Billen, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Teachers, parents, and librarians are constantly looking for methods and materials that engage students as readers and motivate them to increase the time they spend reading. In this article we describe findings from a study of middle schoolers' magazine reading habits that gave us a close look at the power of magazines as supplemental supports for…

  13. Reading Interests and Habits of Connecticut Students in Grades Four through Twelve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Donald R.

    Drawing from data obtained from a two-page student questionnaire mailed to a number of Connecticut English and reading teachers in all types of schools, this paper reports on the reading interests and habits of students in grades four through twelve. Usable responses were received from 3,339 students from 51 schools in 37 different towns and…

  14. An evaluation of warning habits and beliefs across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Hancock, H E; Rogers, W A; Fisk, A D

    2001-01-01

    Beliefs about warnings and habits associated with reading them were assessed for 863 individuals of various ages. Information gathered for various common household products included (a) how frequently people attend to warning information, (b) the degree of risk they believe is involved during product usage, and (c) how important they believe warnings are for different product types. Also assessed were perceived helpfulness and comprehension for symbols commonly found on product labels or on signs in the environment. Respondents 55 years and older reported reading product warnings more frequently than did younger adults, although they generally perceived warnings as less important. However, no overall age-related differences were found for perceived level of risk involved in using different product types. Although older adults generally perceived symbols to be very helpful when using a particular product, their comprehension levels were poorer than those of younger adults for half of the symbols. Overall, these data suggest that adults of all ages do read warnings on a variety of product types and that they believe warning information is important. This research illustrates the importance of including older adults in usability studies during the development of warning systems, given age-related effects may be associated with some aspects of the warning processing but not others. PMID:11866191

  15. Teachers' Leisure Reading Habits and Knowledge of Children's Books: Do They Relate to the Teaching Practices of Elementary School Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Stephen R.; Sargent, Stephan; Smith, Melinda; Hill, Nancy; Morrison, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Several authors have suggested that a teacher's ability to encourage a disposition to read may be linked to their personal reading habits and views of literacy. This study examined the relationship between elementary school teachers' reading habits, knowledge of children's literature, and their use of literacy best practices in the classroom. One…

  16. Polanyi's Philosophy and Adult Reading Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownhill, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    Utilizing Michael Polanyi's theory of knowledge as a framework, the author outlines an approach in which illiterate adults might increase their motivation and chances of success in developing reading skill. (EM)

  17. Reading Mechanisms in Orally Educated Deaf Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, Ana-Belen; Alegria, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed at determining the reading mechanisms used by deaf adults who had completed secondary or higher education. Our main hypothesis was that they used a reading strategy consisting of identifying (some of) the key words of sentences and deriving an overall representation of their meaning. All the predictions derived from this…

  18. Adult Reading of Ancient Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casler, Frederick H.

    Traditionally, students of ancient languages have been taught to translate rather than read. The four most popular current approaches to language instruction--the grammar-translation method, the direct-reading or inductive approach, the audiolingual method, and the structural approach--all have inherent deficiencies that are magnified when applied…

  19. Reading Habits, Perceptual Learning, and Recognition of Printed Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazir, Tatjana A.; Ben-Boutayab, Nadia; Decoppet, Nathalie; Deutsch, Avital; Frost, Ram

    2004-01-01

    The present work aims at demonstrating that visual training associated with the act of reading modifies the way we perceive printed words. As reading does not train all parts of the retina in the same way but favors regions on the side in the direction of scanning, visual word recognition should be better at retinal locations that are frequently…

  20. Providing a "Safety Net" for Students Lacking a Reading Habit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, William E.

    Current educational writing and reporting suggests a need for making reading a more vital experience for the student. One of the ways being tried in the Rye Public Schools (New York) is an integrated, guided, out-of-class reading program that is keyed to the inquiry curriculum. Starting in the third grade, each inquiry unit has specially selected…

  1. How directional change in reading/writing habits relates to directional change in displayed pictures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hachoung; Oh, Songjoo

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that reading/writing habits may influence the appreciation of pictures. For example, people who read and write in a rightward direction have an aesthetic preference for pictures that face rightward over pictures that face leftward, and vice versa. However, correlations for this phenomenon have only been found in cross-cultural studies. Will a directional change in reading/writing habits within a culture relate to changes in picture preference? Korea is a good place to research this question because the country underwent gradual changes in reading/writing direction habits, from leftward to rightward, during the 20th century. In this study, we analyzed the direction of drawings and photos published in the two oldest newspapers in Korea from 1920-2013. The results show that the direction of the drawings underwent a clear shift from the left to the right, but the direction of the photos did not change. This finding suggests a close psychological link between the habits of reading/writing and drawing that cannot be accounted for simply by an accidental correspondence across different cultures.

  2. The dynamic effect of reading direction habit on spatial asymmetry of image perception.

    PubMed

    Afsari, Zaeinab; Ossandón, José P; König, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Exploration of images after stimulus onset is initially biased to the left. Here, we studied the causes of such an asymmetry and investigated effects of reading habits, text primes, and priming by systematically biased eye movements on this spatial bias in visual exploration. Bilinguals first read text primes with right-to-left (RTL) or left-to-right (LTR) reading directions and subsequently explored natural images. In Experiment 1, native RTL speakers showed a leftward free-viewing shift after reading LTR primes but a weaker rightward bias after reading RTL primes. This demonstrates that reading direction dynamically influences the spatial bias. However, native LTR speakers who learned an RTL language late in life showed a leftward bias after reading either LTR or RTL primes, which suggests the role of habit formation in the production of the spatial bias. In Experiment 2, LTR bilinguals showed a slightly enhanced leftward bias after reading LTR text primes in their second language. This might contribute to the differences of native RTL and LTR speakers observed in Experiment 1. In Experiment 3, LTR bilinguals read normal (LTR, habitual reading) and mirrored left-to-right (mLTR, nonhabitual reading) texts. We observed a strong leftward bias in both cases, indicating that the bias direction is influenced by habitual reading direction and is not secondary to the actual reading direction. This is confirmed in Experiment 4, in which LTR participants were asked to follow RTL and LTR moving dots in prior image presentation and showed no change in the normal spatial bias. In conclusion, the horizontal bias is a dynamic property and is modulated by habitual reading direction. PMID:27611064

  3. Messages Are Everywhere: Reading Perceptions, Habits, and Preferences of Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadelson, Louis S.; Villagómez, Amanda; Konkol, Danielle; Haskell, Chris; McCulley, Meleah; Campbell, Denise

    2013-01-01

    As society continues to evolve, so do the methods that are used for text-based communication. Electronic books, mobile phone text messaging, and an array of internet-based texts are now combined with traditional print forms of text, broadly expanding text-based communication. However, student perceptions of reading may still be limited to…

  4. Reading Habits of the Students with Bengali Medium Background at the English Medium Private Universities in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirza, Md. Golam Hoshain; Mahmud, Khaled

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates into the reading habits of the English medium private university students with Bengali medium background. It analyses the realities in the context, which are both nurturing the old and shaping new reading habits of the students. The data gathered by means of interview schedule have been analyzed both quantitatively and…

  5. Racial Harmony & Heroes: A Content Analysis of the Pearson Reading Program "Good Habits, Great Readers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosolt, Brandelyn; Love, Bettina L.

    2011-01-01

    Multicultural education is a term with a variety of definitions growing from a number of different disciplines. These authors conducted a content analysis of the Pearson reading program "Good Habits, Great Readers" for grades four and five. The qualitative approach of content analysis allowed researchers to examine text "through the…

  6. The Reading Habits and Literacy Attitudes of Inservice and Prospective Teachers: Results of a Questionnaire Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Steven; Pruslow, John; Levitt, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a questionnaire survey of 747 students enrolled in a graduate school of education, who are currently teachers or prospective teachers. The Literacy Habits Questionnaire, developed by Applegate and Applegate, was administered in September 2006. Findings suggest a high prevalence of aliteracy, the ability to read but a…

  7. Young and Older Adults' Reading of Distracters.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Susan; McDowd, Joan; Metcalf, Kim; Liu, Chiung-Ju

    2008-06-01

    We used eye-tracking technology to examine young and older adults' performance in the reading with distraction paradigm. One-, 2- and 4-word distracters that formed meaningful phrases were used. There were marked age differences in fixation patterns. Young adults' fixations to the distracters and targets increased with distracter length, suggesting that they were attempting to integrate the distracters with the sentence and had more and more difficulty doing so as the distracters increased in length. Young adults did have better comprehension of the sentences than older adults and also better recognition memory for target words and distracters.

  8. Adults' Reading Practices and Activities: Age, Educational and Occupational Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Cecil; Stahl, Norman A.

    Interest in adults' everyday reading practices has a lengthy history in the study of the psychology of reading. Several studies have examined the extent of, and variability in, adults' reading activities. Different social contexts have been shown to influence the type of reading performed. The present study examined the reading patterns and…

  9. Nutritional assessment and eating habits analysis in young adults.

    PubMed

    Nieradko-Iwanicka, Barbara; Borzecki, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    Good eating habit is an essential part of a healthy lifestyle. It helps prevent civilisation diseases. The BMI and eating plan analysis are useful in individual's nutritional assessment. The aim of the study was to assess nutritional status and eating habits in young adults. An average BMI was 23.63 kg/ m2 in the interviewed men, and 20.6 kg/m2 in women. Caloric value of the daily eating plans was average: in men 2943 kcal, in women 2272 kcal. Four people were on diets, but none of BMI over 25 kg/m2. There were no people suffering from food allergies nor gastrointestinal diseases. Only one male did sports (weight-lifting) regularly. The majority of the students ate at lunchtime at the university cafeteria or prepared meals themselves. The eating plans varied very much: the majority was based on the Eating Guide Pyramid and consisted of three balanced meals during the day-time; there were also single cases where students stuck to eating high-calorie meals at night-time mostly. PMID:16146124

  10. Nutritional assessment and eating habits analysis in young adults.

    PubMed

    Nieradko-Iwanicka, Barbara; Borzecki, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    Good eating habit is an essential part of a healthy lifestyle. It helps prevent civilisation diseases. The BMI and eating plan analysis are useful in individual's nutritional assessment. The aim of the study was to assess nutritional status and eating habits in young adults. An average BMI was 23.63 kg/ m2 in the interviewed men, and 20.6 kg/m2 in women. Caloric value of the daily eating plans was average: in men 2943 kcal, in women 2272 kcal. Four people were on diets, but none of BMI over 25 kg/m2. There were no people suffering from food allergies nor gastrointestinal diseases. Only one male did sports (weight-lifting) regularly. The majority of the students ate at lunchtime at the university cafeteria or prepared meals themselves. The eating plans varied very much: the majority was based on the Eating Guide Pyramid and consisted of three balanced meals during the day-time; there were also single cases where students stuck to eating high-calorie meals at night-time mostly.

  11. The Relationship between Reading Proficiency and Reading Strategy Use: A Study of Adult ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jiuhan; Nisbet, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between reading strategy use and reading proficiency among 121 adult ESL learners. Reading strategy use was measured by the SORS, and reading proficiency was determined by the CASAS Reading Test and BEST Literacy Test. Findings of the study reveal that (a) adult ESL learners are active strategies users; (b)…

  12. Student Academic Reading Preferences: A Study of Online Reading Habits and Inclinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podolsky, Tim; Soiferman, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore student preferences regarding reading print materials or online reading materials for academic purposes, as well as to examine how students adapt traditional reading strategies such as underlining, highlighting, and taking marginal notes when reading electronic texts. A total of 61 participants (32…

  13. Do They Read for Pleasure? Recreational Reading Habits of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallik, Jude D.

    1999-01-01

    Surveys college students to investigate whether a relationship exists between academic achievement and the time spent in recreational reading. Finds a significant and positive relationship between cumulative grade-point average and time spent reading for pleasure during vacations. Examines how much students read, who reads the most, and what they…

  14. Jefferson County Adult Reading Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson County Board of Education, Louisville, KY.

    The 1980-81 Jefferson County (Kentucky) Adult Reading Program served 601 students functioning below 6.0 grade level during the 1980-81 year. The project's instructional methods and materials were developed based on the experiences of the program for the previous two years. The program was considered a success not only from the viewpoint of the…

  15. Reading Skills and Activities for the Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Faite Royjier-Poncefonte

    This book contains more than 200 one-page exercises designed to give adults practice in basic reading and handwriting skills. The exercises are arranged according to the areas with which they deal: visual discrimination; letter recognition; manuscript practice and sequence; script practice; numeral writing; initial consonants; final consonants;…

  16. Teacher Prediction of Students' Reading Attitudes: An Examination of Teacher Judgment Compared to Student-Peer Judgment in Assessing Student Reading Attitude and Habit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikulecky, Larry J.

    Fifteen high school English teachers and 544 students in their classes participated in a study to determine how well teachers assess student reading habits and attitudes and to compare the accuracy of their judgments with those of student-peers. Each student was administered a measure of reading ability and of reading attitude; additional data…

  17. The Effect of a Librarian-Centered Reading Guidance Program on the Reading Skills and Habits of Elementary School Pupils. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Florence D.; And Others

    The effects of a strong librarian-centered reading guidance program on the reading habits and skills of elementary school pupils were studied. Seventy-nine fifth graders in a rural Florida school were divided into three matched groups according to eye-movement photography scores. Experimental group A received a library reading guidance program and…

  18. An Investigation of the Relationship between Adult Attitudes toward Reading and Reading Skills Before and After a Reading Improvement Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, George Leo

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between attitudes toward reading and the reading skills of a population of adults who are good readers. Two hundred adults enrolled in eight reading classes were involved in this study. Initially a reading test and a form of the Semantic Differential were administered to all subjects.…

  19. Children's Book Reading Habits: A New Criterion for Literacy. Reading Education Report No. 63.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Paul T.; And Others

    To the traditional arguments for teaching children to read can be added the contemporary idea that literacy is a tool, the necessary skill for full participation in society, and the ticket to social mobility and success. New reasons for reading books have emerged from recent gains in the understanding of the comprehension process and the nature of…

  20. Reading Practices and Profiles of Older Adults in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Su-Yen

    2008-01-01

    Using data from a national survey of adults in Taiwan, this study presents findings regarding older adults' reading practices with respect to newspapers, magazines, books, and Internet information. The study also identifies four reading profiles defined by the frequency and diversification of the material read: the nonreaders, the less diversified…

  1. Reading Interests of Young Adults in Medina County, Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fronius, Sandra K.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reading interests of the young adult participants in the summer reading program at Medina County District Library (Ohio). Findings were compared to research done in other locations and to current bibliographies of recommended reading for young adults. The study looked at a systematic sample of reader…

  2. Habit as moderator of the intention-physical activity relationship in older adults: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    van Bree, Rob J H; van Stralen, Maartje M; Bolman, Catherine; Mudde, Aart N; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether habit strength moderates the intention-physical activity (PA) relationship in older adults, within the framework of the attitude-social influences-efficacy (ASE) model and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). A total of 1836 older adults (Mage = 62.95 years, SDage = 8.17) completed a questionnaire on social cognitive constructs and PA habit strength at baseline, and six months later a measure of PA. Three PA habit groups (i.e., low, medium and high) were composed, based on tertiles of the mean index score. Multi-group structural equation modelling analyses showed that intention significantly determined PA behaviour only in participants with a low or medium habit strength towards PA. This result suggests that PA is not intentional at high levels of habit strength and demonstrates the usefulness of incorporating habit in the ASE and TPB models. Results also showed that about half of the participants with a strong PA habit did not meet the recommended PA level. As strong habits may prevent intentional behavioural change and may hinder the receptiveness and openness for informational PA change strategies, additional intervention strategies, such as awareness raising and the use of implementation intentions, are needed for strongly habitual, but insufficiently active older adults. PMID:23244776

  3. Reading and Writing Self-Efficacy of Incarcerated Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lise Oen; Varberg, Jeanette; Manger, Terje; Eikeland, Ole-Johan; Asbjornsen, Arve

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the first to examine the Reading and Writing Self-Efficacy Scale among incarcerated adults. The aim was to examine whether performance of reading and spelling tests (Reading Speed, Nonsense Words and Spelling) explained individual differences in the participants' efficacy beliefs in reading and writing. Six hundred subjects rated…

  4. Reading in French-Speaking Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jennifer; Cole, Pascale; Leuwers, Christel; Casalis, Severine; Zorman, Michel; Sprenger-Charolles, Liliane

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the reading and reading-related skills of 15 French-speaking adults with dyslexia, whose performance was compared with that of chronological-age controls (CA) and reading-level controls (RL). Experiment 1 assessed the efficiency of their phonological reading-related skills (phonemic awareness, phonological short-term…

  5. The Effects of Weekly, Sustained Silent Reading Time on Recreational Reading Habits and Attitudes in a 9th Grade English Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Mary C.

    Sustained Silent Reading (SSR) has been around in various forms for over 40 years. While this subject has received much study in elementary schools, the influence of SSR on typical, non-at-risk high school students' reading habits appears to be lacking. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of SSR on ninth grade students' recreational…

  6. Measuring Adult Literacy Students' Reading Skills Using the Gray Oral Reading Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Daphne; Pae, Hye Kyeong; Morris, Robin D.; Calhoon, Mary Beth; Nanda, Alice O.

    2009-01-01

    There are not enough reading tests standardized on adults who have very low literacy skills, and therefore tests standardized on children are frequently administered. This study addressed the complexities and problems of using a test normed on children to measure the reading comprehension skills of 193 adults who read at approximately third…

  7. Let's Read Together: Improving Literacy Outcomes with the Adult-Child Interactive Reading Inventory (ACIRI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruin-Parecki, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Everyone knows how important it is to read to young children--but it is the "quality" of shared reading that really affects emergent literacy. How well are adults engaging and teaching children as they read together? How well are children listening and responding? The first and only tool to measure the quality of adult and child interactions…

  8. The National Reading Conference: The College and Adult Reading Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Norman A.; Smith-Burke, M. Trika

    1999-01-01

    Delves into the birth, childhood, and adolescence of the National Reading Conference, with direct attention given to the germination of the "Journal of Reading Behavior," the former title of this journal. Notes the National Reading Conference has a long and honored history spanning a period of nearly 50 years. (RS)

  9. Reading aids for adults with low vision

    PubMed Central

    Virgili, Gianni; Acosta, Ruthy; Grover, Lori L; Bentley, Sharon A; Giacomelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of low-vision rehabilitation is to allow people to resume or to continue to perform daily living tasks, with reading being one of the most important. This is achieved by providing appropriate optical devices and special training in the use of residual-vision and low-vision aids, which range from simple optical magnifiers to high-magnification video magnifiers. Objectives To assess the effects of reading aids for adults with low vision. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 1), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE, (January 1950 to January 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to January 2013), OpenGrey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov/) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 31 January 2013. We searched the reference lists of relevant articles and used the Science Citation Index to find articles that cited the included studies and contacted investigators and manufacturers of low-vision aids. We handsearched the British Journal of Visual Impairment from 1983 to 1999 and the Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness from 1976 to 1991. Selection criteria This review includes randomised and quasi-randomised trials in which any device or aid used for reading had been compared to another device or aid in people aged 16 or over with low vision as defined by the study investigators. Data collection and analysis At least two authors independently

  10. Transfer of lexical information in adults with reading disorders.

    PubMed

    Walker, M M

    2001-08-01

    This study was designed to test whether adults with reading disorders differ from adults with normal reading abilities in their interhemispheric transfer rates during a lexical decision task. Correlations of performance were completed between lexical decision vocal reaction times (msec.), interhemispheric reaction rates (RVF vocal reaction times-LVF vocal reaction times) and measures of decoding skills, including sight word decoding and phonological decoding for 20 adults with reading disorders and 20 with normal reading abilities. Following a series of Pearson product-moment correlations, the correlation between interhemispheric transfer time and sightword recognition was significant and negative for the adults with reading disorders. This value indicates a significant association between the direction of the interhemispheric transfer time times and sight-word recognition for reading-disordered adults. When correlations were negative (LVF) reaction times < RVF reaction times), stronger sight-word recognition scores were found. The correlation between interhemispheric transfer time and sight-word recognition was not significant for the normal reading adults. For both groups, the correlations between interhemispheric transfer time and phonological decoding were not significant so an association between phonological decoding and interhemispheric transfer time was not evident, The current findings suggest a strong relationship between reading proficiency and reaction times in completing the lexical decision task for the reading-disordered adults.

  11. Retrieval Speed as a Determinant of Adult Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haupt, Edward J.; Jacobowitz, Tina

    More than 100 college students enrolled in a reading and study skills course participated in a study designed to show the effects of retrieval speed on adult reading comprehension. A microcomputer version of the Posner task was used to measure memory retrieval speed, and reading and listening comprehension were measured from McCall-Crabbs…

  12. Thematic Solutions Using Young Adult Literature to Increase Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jill; Bushman, John H.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss thematic solutions using young adult literature to increase reading comprehension. Here, they emphasize that prior knowledge plays a very important role in the reading process. As students read, they actively "construct meaning through the integration of existing and new knowledge and the flexible use of…

  13. Complex Word Reading in Dutch Deaf Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Hoogmoed, Anne H.; Knoors, Harry; Schreuder, Robert; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2013-01-01

    Children who are deaf are often delayed in reading comprehension. This delay could be due to problems in morphological processing during word reading. In this study, we investigated whether 6th grade deaf children and adults are delayed in comparison to their hearing peers in reading complex derivational words and compounds compared to…

  14. Advanced Mind-Reading in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponnet, Koen S.; Roeyers, Herbert; Buysse, Ann; De Clercq, Armand; Van Der Heyden, Eva

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the mind-reading abilities of 19 adults with Asperger syndrome and 19 typically developing adults. Two static mind-reading tests and a more naturalistic empathic accuracy task were used. In the empathic accuracy task, participants attempted to infer the thoughts and feelings of target persons, while viewing a videotape of…

  15. The Reading Strategies of Proficient and Less Proficient Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majid, Faizah Abdul; Azman, Norzaini; Jelas, Zalizan Mohd

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a study that examined the choice and use of academic reading strategies of adult learners who were identified as proficient and less proficient readers. The major objective was to explore the potential influence of their adult characteristics on their use of their academic reading strategies. Data were gathered using…

  16. IMPROVING THE READING LEVEL OF DISADVANTAGED ADULTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKEE, JOHN M.; AND OTHERS

    TO HELP DISADVANTAGED INMATES WITH LOW READING LEVELS AND THOSE CONSIDERED FUNCTIONALLY ILLITERATE, THE DRAPER CORRECTIONAL CENTER IN ALABAMA EXPERIMENTED WITH VARIOUS READING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMS. MOST SUCCESSFUL WAS THE READING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM USING THE PERCEPTOSCOPE. ALL APPLICANTS WHO SCORED BELOW THE SEVENTH GRADE READING LEVEL IN THE…

  17. Reading Motivation, Reading Amount, and Text Comprehension in Deaf and Hearing Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parault, Susan J.; Williams, Heather M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the variables of reading motivation, reading amount, and text comprehension in deaf and hearing adults. Research has shown that less than 50% of deaf students leave high school reading at or above a fourth-grade level (Allen, 1994). Our question is, how does this affect the levels of…

  18. Reading Electronic and Printed Books with and without Adult Instruction: Effects on Emergent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal-Drori, Ora; Korat, Ofra; Shamir, Adina; Klein, Pnina S.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of electronic book (e-book) and printed book reading on children's emergent reading with and without adult instruction were investigated. One hundred twenty-eight 5- to 6-year-old kindergarten children from low SES families were randomly assigned to one of four groups (32 children each): (1) independently reading the e-book (EB); (2)…

  19. Reading Aloud in Lewisham: An Exploration of Adult Reading-Aloud Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Sam

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses initial findings of a qualitative pilot study of the reading-aloud practices of 17 adults in the London Borough of Lewisham. Although the dominant contemporary image of reading is that of a silent activity and within literacy provision it is frequently assumed that reading aloud is not a "natural" "real…

  20. Read Aloud to Adult Learners? Of Course!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitts, Sandra Kelton

    1986-01-01

    Describes a project in which underprepared college freshmen in a basic skills English class heard materials read aloud while they followed along in the text. Concludes that the students made gains in writing skills but not in reading. (FL)

  1. Relationship between Critical Thinking Levels and Attitudes towards Reading Habits among Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulgurcuoglu, Ahmet Nusret

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present research is to define the critical thinking levels and reading habits of students studying at the department of physical education and sports teaching and analysing the relationship between these. The participants of the present research are 136 pre-service physical education teachers studying at Mugla Sitki Kocman…

  2. The Professional Reading Habits of Senior Housing Officers at ACUHO-I Member Institutions in the Great Lakes Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Kyle

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the professional reading habits of Senior Housing Officers (SHOs) at ACUHO-I member institutions in the Great Lakes region, which encompasses the states of Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, and Indiana. The findings were based on data from the survey responses of SHOs at 71 colleges and universities across the Great Lakes region of the…

  3. Book Reading, Borrowing and Buying Habits (Eighteenth Congress, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, June 9-15 1968). Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, R. E. M. van den

    Investigation into the book buying, reading and borrowing habits is in many countries still in its infancy. Furthermore it is not yet possible to link up scientifically the socio-economic factors and market behavior. However it is justifiable to take the following principles: (1) the standard of economic development of a country determines the…

  4. Reading Newspapers: The Practices of America's Young Adults. A Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsch, Irwin S.; And Others

    Using the data base provided by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) through its literacy assessment of young adults, researchers probed the newspaper reading practices of 21-25 year olds. The 1985 survey used home interviews of 3,600 young adults in the 48 contiguous states, representative of the 21 million adults in this age…

  5. Electric Reading: Powerful Books for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesesne, Teri S.

    Research shows that middle school students overwhelmingly cite three characteristics that they like in books they read: (1) humor; (2) mystery and suspense; and (3) reality (true stories about real people). Matching students with appropriate books helps turn students "on" to reading, and it is this "electric" reading that encourages lifetime…

  6. ATTITUDES OF ADULT ILLITERATES TOWARD READING MATERIALS AND EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROWN, DON; NEWMAN, ANNABEL

    ADULT ILLITERATES OF WESTERN NEW YORK WERE STUDIED TO DETERMINE THEIR ATTITUDES TOWARD READING MATERIALS AND EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS. THE EXPERIENCE INVENTORY WAS USED TO INVESTIGATE EACH SUBJECT'S IDENTIFICATION AND BACKGROUND, THE EXTENT OF HIS FUNCTIONAL AND GENERAL KNOWLEDGE, AND HIS READING-ASSOCIATED INTERESTS. EIGHTEEN HIGH ACHIEVERS AND 22…

  7. Teaching Reading and Comprehension Skills to Sub-Literate Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, M. R.; Dockrill, F. J.

    Forty sub-literate adults were given reading and comprehension skill training. Twenty of the subjects were taught using a multimedia, multimodal and multilevel communication skill system (Experimental Group). The other twenty were taught in a traditional manner using standard reading texts (Control Group). Both Groups received an average of 265…

  8. Beverage Habits and Mortality in Chinese Adults12

    PubMed Central

    Odegaard, Andrew O; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Pereira, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is limited research examining beverage habits, one of the most habitual dietary behaviors, with mortality risk. Objective: This study examined the association between coffee, black and green tea, sugar-sweetened beverages (soft drinks and juice), and alcohol and all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Methods: A prospective data analysis was conducted with the use of the Singapore Chinese Health Study, including 52,584 Chinese men and women (aged 45–74 y) free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer at baseline (1993–1998) and followed through 2011 with 10,029 deaths. Beverages were examined with all-cause and cause-specific (cancer, CVD, and respiratory disease) mortality risk with the use of Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: The associations between coffee, black tea, and alcohol intake and all-cause mortality were modified by smoking status. Among never-smokers there was an inverse dose-response association between higher amounts of coffee and black tea intake and all-cause, respiratory-related, and CVD mortality (black tea only). The fully adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality for coffee for <1/d, 1/d, and ≥2/d relative to no coffee intake were 0.89, 0.86, and 0.83, respectively (P-trend = 0.0003). For the same black tea categories the HRs were 0.95, 0.90, and 0.72, respectively (P-trend = 0.0005). Among ever-smokers there was no association between coffee or black tea and the outcomes. Relative to no alcohol, light to moderate intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.96) in never-smokers with a similar magnitude of association in ever-smokers. There was no association between heavy alcohol intake and all-cause mortality in never-smokers and a strong positive association in ever-smokers (HR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.40, 1.74). Green tea and sugar-sweetened beverages were not associated with all-cause or cause-specific mortality. Conclusions: Higher coffee and black tea intake was

  9. Connected Text Reading and Differences in Text Reading Fluency in Adult Readers

    PubMed Central

    Wallot, Sebastian; Hollis, Geoff; van Rooij, Marieke

    2013-01-01

    The process of connected text reading has received very little attention in contemporary cognitive psychology. This lack of attention is in parts due to a research tradition that emphasizes the role of basic lexical constituents, which can be studied in isolated words or sentences. However, this lack of attention is in parts also due to the lack of statistical analysis techniques, which accommodate interdependent time series. In this study, we investigate text reading performance with traditional and nonlinear analysis techniques and show how outcomes from multiple analyses can used to create a more detailed picture of the process of text reading. Specifically, we investigate reading performance of groups of literate adult readers that differ in reading fluency during a self-paced text reading task. Our results indicate that classical metrics of reading (such as word frequency) do not capture text reading very well, and that classical measures of reading fluency (such as average reading time) distinguish relatively poorly between participant groups. Nonlinear analyses of distribution tails and reading time fluctuations provide more fine-grained information about the reading process and reading fluency. PMID:23977177

  10. Connected text reading and differences in text reading fluency in adult readers.

    PubMed

    Wallot, Sebastian; Hollis, Geoff; van Rooij, Marieke

    2013-01-01

    The process of connected text reading has received very little attention in contemporary cognitive psychology. This lack of attention is in parts due to a research tradition that emphasizes the role of basic lexical constituents, which can be studied in isolated words or sentences. However, this lack of attention is in parts also due to the lack of statistical analysis techniques, which accommodate interdependent time series. In this study, we investigate text reading performance with traditional and nonlinear analysis techniques and show how outcomes from multiple analyses can used to create a more detailed picture of the process of text reading. Specifically, we investigate reading performance of groups of literate adult readers that differ in reading fluency during a self-paced text reading task. Our results indicate that classical metrics of reading (such as word frequency) do not capture text reading very well, and that classical measures of reading fluency (such as average reading time) distinguish relatively poorly between participant groups. Nonlinear analyses of distribution tails and reading time fluctuations provide more fine-grained information about the reading process and reading fluency.

  11. Examining the Relationships of Component Reading Skills to Reading Comprehension in Struggling Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The current study employed a meta-analytic approach to investigate the relative importance of component reading skills to reading comprehension in struggling adult readers. A total of 10 component skills were consistently identified across 16 independent studies and 2,707 participants. Random effects models generated 76 predictor-reading…

  12. College and Adult Reading XI: The Eleventh Yearbook of the North Central Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Joseph A., Ed.

    This yearbook contains selected papers presented at the twenty-third and twenty-fourth annual meetings of the North Central Reading Association, held in October of 1981 and 1982. Papers in the yearbook include: "History of Adult Reading Programs" (Clarence Anderson); "About Creativity and Study Skills" (Mark E. Thompson); "Recent Changes in…

  13. Tracking Reading: Dual Task Costs of Oral Reading for Young versus Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Susan; Bontempo, Daniel; Schmalzried, RaLynn; McKedy, Whitney; Tagliaferri, Bruno; Kieweg, Doug

    2014-01-01

    A digital pursuit rotor was used to monitor oral reading costs by time-locking tracking performance to the auditory wave form produced as young and older adults were reading out short paragraphs. Multilevel modeling was used to determine how paragraph-level predictors of length, grammatical complexity, and readability and person-level predictors…

  14. Assessing the Reading Comprehension of Adults with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, F. W.; Long, K.; Finlay, W. M. L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study's aim was to begin the process of measuring the reading comprehension of adults with mild and borderline learning disabilities, in order to generate information to help clinicians and other professionals to make written material for adults with learning disabilities more comprehensible. Methods: The Test for the Reception of…

  15. Adult Basic Education; A Resource Book of Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke, W. Michael, Ed.

    The publication is a collection of relevant readings in adult basic education (ABE), with special emphasis on the Canadian environment. They were selected for their potential value in helping the professional development of all adult basic educators and an attempt was made to re-integrate research and practice in the field. Fourteen articles were…

  16. Deficits in Working Memory in Young Adults with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Mimran, Ravit; Sapir, Shimon

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the extent to which reading disabilities (RD) in young adults are related to deficits in specific aspects of temporary storage of verbal information, namely, memory span and the central executive (CE) component of working memory. Thirty-two native Hebrew-speaking young adults with and without RD were…

  17. Adult Education in India: A Book of Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordia, Anil, Ed.; And Others

    The book contains articles and excerpts from works of leading educators and scholars associated with problems of adult education in India. The readings are presented in five sections. The first section, Historical Perspective, deals with the progress of adult education (from the beginning of British rule to the present day) and extension services.…

  18. The Non-Fiction Reading Habits of Young Successful Boy Readers: Forming Connections between Masculinity and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Susannah

    2004-01-01

    The reading experiences of six young successful boy readers were studied over a two-year period. In this article, their non-fiction reading is analysed and ways in which the boys make positive connections between masculinity and reading are identified. The boys' non-fiction reading centres on typical boy interest areas and hobbies (for example,…

  19. Independent Reading and the "Social Turn:" How Adolescent Reading Habits and Motivation Relate to Cultivating Social Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoester, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that independent reading outside of school is a strong indicator of school and reading success. However, studies also suggest that student recreational reading significantly decreases in the middle school years. This article explores some of the reasons adolescent students choose to read independently or are reluctant to do so.…

  20. Tracking reading: dual task costs of oral reading for young versus older adults.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Susan; Bontempo, Daniel; Schmalzried, RaLynn; McKedy, Whitney; Tagliaferri, Bruno; Kieweg, Doug

    2014-02-01

    A digital pursuit rotor was used to monitor oral reading costs by time-locking tracking performance to the auditory wave form produced as young and older adults were reading out short paragraphs. Multilevel modeling was used to determine how paragraph-level predictors of length, grammatical complexity, and readability and person-level predictors such as speaker age or working memory capacity predicted reading and tracking performance. In addition, sentence-by-sentence variation in tracking performance was examined during the production of individual sentences and during the pauses before upcoming sentences. The results suggest that dual tasking has a greater impact on older adults' reading comprehension and tracking performance. At the level of individual sentences, young and older adults adopt different strategies to deal with grammatically complex and propositionally dense sentences.

  1. Computer-based compensation of adult reading disabilities.

    PubMed

    Elkind, J; Black, M S; Murray, C

    1996-01-01

    We studied the use of computer readers, and especially their speech synthesis component, as a compensatory tool for adults with dyslexia. We first explored the enhancement of reading skills in a group of college students and working adults. Their unaided reading was very slow, and most participants in the study could sustain reading for only short periods. Although their timed comprehension was poor, their untimed comprehension was above average. The computer reader enhanced the reading rate and comprehension of most participants and enabled them to sustain reading longer. The difference between aided and unaided reading rate was inversely proportional to the unaided rate. Slower readers experienced greater enhancement than faster ones. The enhancement of comprehension was also inversely proportional to unaided scores, and good predictions of the enhancement were obtained from multiple regression models that included scores from specific standard tests of auditory and visual cognitive abilities. We also explored the use of computer readers in the workplace and show through case studies that their use can have important positive effects on individual careers and self-confidence when specific conditions exist. Finally, we investigated the use of computer readers to supplement an adult remediation program. The readers allowed and motivated the students to read more and, as a result, to progress more rapidly.

  2. Relationships among reading skills of adults with low literacy.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, John P; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Shore, Jane R; Scarborough, Hollis S

    2010-01-01

    In this study, confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the interrelationships among latent factors of the simple view model of reading comprehension (word recognition and language comprehension) and hypothesized additional factors (vocabulary and reading fluency) in a sample of 476 adult learners with low literacy levels. The results provided evidence for reliable distinctions between word recognition, fluency, language comprehension, and vocabulary skills as components of reading. Even so, the data did not support the hypothesis that the simple view needs to be expanded to include vocabulary or fluency factors, as has been posited in a few prior studies of younger and more able readers. Rather, word recognition and language comprehension alone were found to account adequately for variation in reading comprehension in adults with low literacy.

  3. An investigation into the lifestyle, health habits and risk factors of young adults.

    PubMed

    Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Lyons, Mark; Dodd, Lorna J; Al-Nuaim, Anwar

    2015-04-01

    This project examined the lifestyle, health habits and risk factors of young adults at Qatar University. It explored the clustering and differences in dietary habits, body mass index (BMI) and physical activity (PA) amongst male and female students, both Qatari and non-Qatari. Seven hundred thirty two students aged 18-25 years completed a self-reported questionnaire and an objective measure of BMI. Males and females had a high prevalence of being overweight and obesity and low levels of PA, according to well-established international standards. Three clusters were identified based on the students' lifestyle and dietary habits. Cluster 1 (high risk factors) included those who engaged the least in healthy dietary practices and consumed the most unhealthy foods, participated in less PA and had the highest BMI. Cluster 2 (moderate risk factors) included those with considerably more habits falling into the moderate category, engagement in the most PA, the least TV and computer viewing time and had the lowest BMI. Cluster 3 (low risk factors) included those who engaged the most with the four healthy dietary practices, the least with the four unhealthy dietary practices and participated in moderate PA per week. This project provides valuable data that could be used by policy makers to address issues concerning student's health.

  4. Quality of adult book reading affects children's emergent literacy.

    PubMed

    Reese, E; Cox, A

    1999-01-01

    The authors assessed the relative benefits of 3 styles of adult book reading for preschoolers' emergent literacy. A describer style focused on describing pictures during the reading, a comprehender style focused on story meaning, and a performance-oriented style introduced the book and discussed story meaning on completion. Forty-eight 4-year-olds were randomly assigned to receive 1 of the 3 reading styles over a 6-week period. Pretests and posttests measured children's receptive vocabulary, print, and story comprehension skills. A describer style of reading resulted in the greatest overall benefits for children's vocabulary and print skills, but a performance-oriented style was also beneficial when children's initial skill levels were taken into account. Future book-reading interventions should be tailored to children's initial skill levels.

  5. How Adults Read. A Staff Development Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rance-Roney, Judith A.; Ditmars, Jane W.

    This textbook/sourcebook and accompanying trainer's guide, which were issued as part of a project to republish important staff development project reports/materials, are updated and repackaged versions of a staff development curriculum in adult literacy and learning. The first part of the sourcebook contains 20 "keys" or quick overviews of the…

  6. Dialogic Reading: Adult Learners Crossing Cultural Borders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallart, Marta Soler

    A two-year ethnographic study of dialogic literary circles in Spain explored the learning experience of adults who participated in them. In a dialogic society, educational projects providing real opportunities for transformation and overcoming inequalities usually had a dialogic orientation and promoted instrumental learning as well as critical…

  7. Blue Ridge Technical College Adult Reading Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Caren

    The development and implementation of a tutor training program designed to eliminate adult illiteracy in one area of North Carolina are described in this paper. Various sections of the paper provide information about (1) the history of the program, which was initiated by staff members at the learning center of the Blue Ridge Technical College in…

  8. Associations between the settings of exercise habits and health-related outcomes in community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Keitaro; Ihira, Hikaru; Mizumoto, Atsushi; Shimizu, Kotaro; Ishida, Toyoaki; Furuna, Taketo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between the settings of exercise habits and health-related outcomes in community-dwelling older adults. [Subjects] A total of 304 Japanese community-dwelling older adults (70.3 ± 4.1 years; 113 males and 191 females) participated in this study. [Methods] Demographic characteristics, medical conditions, exercise habits, and health-related outcomes were assessed by face-to-face interviews and self-reported questionnaires. Older adults who had exercise habits were classified into two groups: individual- and group-based exercise habits groups, and the health-related outcomes were compared between groups. [Results] The scores for the Geriatric Depression Scale, exercise self-efficacy, and dietary variety of older adults who had group-based exercise habits were better than those of older adults who had individual-based exercise habits. In addition, the exercise settings (individual- and group-based) were significantly associated with scores for the Geriatric Depression Scale (odds ratio = 0.76) and exercise self-efficacy (odds ratio = 1.26), even after adjusting for age and gender. [Conclusion] These results implied that habitual exercise in group settings may have an effective role in promoting exercise self-efficacy and mental health. PMID:26311955

  9. Nutritional Status and Food Habits of Middle-aged Adults in Selected Areas of Selangor.

    PubMed

    Karim, Norimah A; Mydenkather, Hajamohaideen

    2003-09-01

    A food habits and health status study was carried out among 100 Malay adults aged 40 years and above. The study protocol incorporated anthropometric measurements, evaluation of food habits and determination of blood glucose, cholesterol and blood pressure. Mean body mass index (BMI) for men and women were 27.2 ± 4.2 kg/m2 and 27.0 ± 5.2 kg/m2 respectively, which on average showed that the subjects were overweight. Food habits evaluation indicated that rice, fish and vegetables were the foods consumed almost everyday by the majority of the subjects. Meat, dairy products and fruits were eaten once to three times per week. Food intake score for sugar and salt demonstrated that a majority of men and women consumed moderate amounts of these foods. Most subjects exercised twice to three times a week for 15 min per session. Blood glucose tests revealed a mean of 5.04 ± 1.60 mmol/l in men and 4.86 ± 2.10 mmol/l for women. Mean cholesterol for men was 5.06 ± 1.22 mmol/l while it was 4.90 ± 1.34 mmol/l in women. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure in men was normal of 127.69 ± 13.60 mm Hg dan 85.87 ± 7.97 mm Hg, while in women it was 127.42 ± 17.54 mm Hg, 83.53 ± 9.50 mm Hg. The mean value for glucose, cholesterol and blood pressure increased with age. The food habits of these adults were satisfactory; however blood test for the nutrients of interest exhibited an increasing trend towards blood pressure, blood cholesterol and glucose with age. Middle-aged adults should adapt to a more active lifestyle and be more cautious of their food habits. This is to ensure a healthy well being throughout their life span.

  10. Underlying Reading-Related Skills and Abilities among Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Woods, Kari L.; Md Desa, Z. Deana; Vuyk, M. Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study identified underlying skill and ability differences among subgroups of adolescent and young adult struggling readers (N = 290) overall and in relation to a fluency-based instructional grouping method. We used principal axis factoring of participants' scores on 18 measures of reading-related skills and abilities identified in…

  11. Writing Versus Reading in Traditional and Functional Adult Literacy Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonanni, C.

    1971-01-01

    The author suggests a novel approach to adult literacy education - stressing expressive writing instead of primer reading, and relating the basic spelling patterns of the written language to the already possessed corresponding sound patterns of the spoken language rather than teaching alphabets and letters. (AN)

  12. Phonological Awareness and Reading Proficiency in Adults with Profound Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlonger, Brett; Holmes, Virginia M.; Rickards, Field W.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated differences in the phonological knowledge and reading skill of deaf adults using three experimental conditions that tested sensitivity to syllables, rhyme, and phonemes. Analysis of response latencies and accuracy in the three awareness tasks demonstrated that skilled deaf readers had superior phonological awareness skill…

  13. 1969 Review of Research on College-Adult Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliesmer, Emery P.

    A total of 180 reports found relevant fo r the annual review of research on college-adult reading was treated under five major headings. Studies that dealt with trends, origin and development of programs, descriptions of specific programs, and the evaluation of the improvement of program participants were classified under the heading of programs.…

  14. Recognize the Signs: Reading Young Adult Literature to Address Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pytash, Kristine E.; Morgan, Denise N.; Batchelor, Katherine E.

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes preservice teachers' experiences in a book club that read young adult literature focused on issues related to bullying. Preservice teachers learned to recognize various incidents of bullying in the books. They also began to consider how they might handle incidents of bullying in their future classrooms. (Contains 2 figures.)

  15. Camp Verde Adult Reading Program. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, David A.

    This document begins with a four-page performance report describing how the Camp Verde Adult Reading Program site was relocated to the Community Center Complex, and the Town Council contracted directly with the Friends of the Camp Verde Library to provide for the requirements of the program. The U.S. Department of Education grant allowed the…

  16. Factors that Influence the Decision to Read: An Investigation of Fifth Grade Students' Out-of-School Reading Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKool, Sharon S.

    2007-01-01

    According to recent research, there is a strong relationship between the amount of out-of-school reading a student engages in and his or her success in school in reading (Anderson, Fielding, & Wilson, 1988; Stanovich, 1986; Taylor, Frye, & Maruyama, 1990; Walberg & Tsai, 1984). This relationship reveals the importance of investigating why so few…

  17. Children's and Young People's Reading Habits and Preferences: The Who, What, Why, Where and When

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christina; Foster, Amelia

    2005-01-01

    This report, based on a recent survey of over 8,000 primary and secondary pupils in England, explores why some pupils choose to read and others do not. The research literature shows that reading for pleasure benefits children in numerous ways. Yet, research also shows that young people's reading enjoyment may be declining. Given current political…

  18. Extracurricular Reading Habits of College Students in Taiwan: Findings from Two National Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Su-Yen

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese people have great regard for those who read widely, yet little is known of the extracurricular reading behaviors of Chinese students. This study drew on data from two national surveys to investigate the amount of time Taiwanese college students spend on extracurricular reading. Findings are interpreted in relation to prior research on…

  19. Health habits of U.S. adults, 1985: the "Alameda 7" revisited.

    PubMed

    Schoenborn, C A

    1986-01-01

    Seven health habits, commonly referred to as the "Alameda 7," were shown to be associated with physical health status and mortality in a pioneer longitudinal study initiated in 1965 in Alameda County, CA. These habits are having never smoked, drinking less than five drinks at one sitting, sleeping 7-8 hours a night, exercising, maintaining desirable weight for height, avoiding snacks, and eating breakfast regularly. The Alameda study focused attention on the importance of everyday practices for the maintenance of good health and, ultimately, for longer life. This report presents selected findings on the prevalence of the seven Alameda practices (defined slightly differently in some cases) among the general U.S. population aged 18 years and older, by sex, according to age, education, income, and race. In general, men are more likely than women to smoke, drink, and exercise. Younger people are more likely than older people to skip breakfast, snack, and drink, and younger women are more likely than older women to smoke. Education, income, and racial differences were found for most health practices. Of all subgroups discussed, blacks, particularly black women, are the most likely to have lifestyles that would be considered unhealthy using the Alameda criteria. Overall, the data reported suggest that although large numbers of U.S. adults have healthy habits, many do not, particularly persons in socially and economically disadvantaged groups.

  20. Adult Literacy. A Compendium of Articles from the Journal of Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radencich, Marguerite C., Ed.

    The following articles are included: "Reconceptualizing the Language of Adult Literacy" (Ilsley, Stahl); "Expanding the Definition of Literacy for Adult Remedial Readers" (Heathington); "Adult Literacy Programs" (Davis); "Stages in the Reading Development of Adults" (Norman, Malicky); "Reading Concepts and Strategies of Adult Nonreaders" (Malicky,…

  1. Associations between food consumption habits with meal intake behaviour in Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Keller, Kristin; Rodríguez López, Santiago; Carmenate Moreno, M Margarita; Acevedo Cantero, Paula

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore the contribution of different types of meal intake behaviour on a healthy diet and seeks to find associations with food consumption habits. A cross-sectional survey with data from 1332 Spanish adults aged between 20 and 79 years was conducted. The survey was carried out during the cardiovascular health event 'Semanas del Corazon 2008' in four Spanish cities. Several food consumption habits such as the recommended intake of fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy products, as well as the regular consumption of fatty and salty food and ready-made meals, were used as dependent variables in logistic regression. We evaluated different meal intake behaviour such as the type of meals, snacking, and drinks taken with a meal. Our survey revealed that snacking is positively associated with the regular consumption of salty and fatty food, and having sugary drinks with meals was positively associated with the regular consumption of ready-made meals. Having a forenoon meal is positively associated with the consumption of two or more portions of milk and dairy products and vegetables, and taking an afternoon meal with the recommended intake of milk and dairy products and fruits. Drinking water during a meal increases the probability of consuming two or more portions of fruits and vegetables. Our results enhance the understanding of the contribution that meal intake behaviour makes to a healthy diet based on food consumption habits. This work provides an insight into eating behaviour and would make a useful contribution to interventions aimed at promoting healthier eating habits.

  2. Associations between food consumption habits with meal intake behaviour in Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Keller, Kristin; Rodríguez López, Santiago; Carmenate Moreno, M Margarita; Acevedo Cantero, Paula

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to explore the contribution of different types of meal intake behaviour on a healthy diet and seeks to find associations with food consumption habits. A cross-sectional survey with data from 1332 Spanish adults aged between 20 and 79 years was conducted. The survey was carried out during the cardiovascular health event 'Semanas del Corazon 2008' in four Spanish cities. Several food consumption habits such as the recommended intake of fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy products, as well as the regular consumption of fatty and salty food and ready-made meals, were used as dependent variables in logistic regression. We evaluated different meal intake behaviour such as the type of meals, snacking, and drinks taken with a meal. Our survey revealed that snacking is positively associated with the regular consumption of salty and fatty food, and having sugary drinks with meals was positively associated with the regular consumption of ready-made meals. Having a forenoon meal is positively associated with the consumption of two or more portions of milk and dairy products and vegetables, and taking an afternoon meal with the recommended intake of milk and dairy products and fruits. Drinking water during a meal increases the probability of consuming two or more portions of fruits and vegetables. Our results enhance the understanding of the contribution that meal intake behaviour makes to a healthy diet based on food consumption habits. This work provides an insight into eating behaviour and would make a useful contribution to interventions aimed at promoting healthier eating habits. PMID:25127937

  3. Braille in the Sighted: Teaching Tactile Reading to Sighted Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bola, Łukasz; Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Hańczur, Paweł; Szwed, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Blind people are known to have superior perceptual abilities in their remaining senses. Several studies suggest that these enhancements are dependent on the specific experience of blind individuals, who use those remaining senses more than sighted subjects. In line with this view, sighted subjects, when trained, are able to significantly progress in relatively simple tactile tasks. However, the case of complex tactile tasks is less obvious, as some studies suggest that visual deprivation itself could confer large advantages in learning them. It remains unclear to what extent those complex skills, such as braille reading, can be learnt by sighted subjects. Here we enrolled twenty-nine sighted adults, mostly braille teachers and educators, in a 9-month braille reading course. At the beginning of the course, all subjects were naive in tactile braille reading. After the course, almost all were able to read whole braille words at a mean speed of 6 words-per-minute. Subjects with low tactile acuity did not differ significantly in braille reading speed from the rest of the group, indicating that low tactile acuity is not a limiting factor for learning braille, at least at this early stage of learning. Our study shows that most sighted adults can learn whole-word braille reading, given the right method and a considerable amount of motivation. The adult sensorimotor system can thus adapt, to some level, to very complex tactile tasks without visual deprivation. The pace of learning in our group was comparable to congenitally and early blind children learning braille in primary school, which suggests that the blind’s mastery of complex tactile tasks can, to a large extent, be explained by experience-dependent mechanisms. PMID:27187496

  4. Braille in the Sighted: Teaching Tactile Reading to Sighted Adults.

    PubMed

    Bola, Łukasz; Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Hańczur, Paweł; Szwed, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Blind people are known to have superior perceptual abilities in their remaining senses. Several studies suggest that these enhancements are dependent on the specific experience of blind individuals, who use those remaining senses more than sighted subjects. In line with this view, sighted subjects, when trained, are able to significantly progress in relatively simple tactile tasks. However, the case of complex tactile tasks is less obvious, as some studies suggest that visual deprivation itself could confer large advantages in learning them. It remains unclear to what extent those complex skills, such as braille reading, can be learnt by sighted subjects. Here we enrolled twenty-nine sighted adults, mostly braille teachers and educators, in a 9-month braille reading course. At the beginning of the course, all subjects were naive in tactile braille reading. After the course, almost all were able to read whole braille words at a mean speed of 6 words-per-minute. Subjects with low tactile acuity did not differ significantly in braille reading speed from the rest of the group, indicating that low tactile acuity is not a limiting factor for learning braille, at least at this early stage of learning. Our study shows that most sighted adults can learn whole-word braille reading, given the right method and a considerable amount of motivation. The adult sensorimotor system can thus adapt, to some level, to very complex tactile tasks without visual deprivation. The pace of learning in our group was comparable to congenitally and early blind children learning braille in primary school, which suggests that the blind's mastery of complex tactile tasks can, to a large extent, be explained by experience-dependent mechanisms.

  5. Braille in the Sighted: Teaching Tactile Reading to Sighted Adults.

    PubMed

    Bola, Łukasz; Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Hańczur, Paweł; Szwed, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Blind people are known to have superior perceptual abilities in their remaining senses. Several studies suggest that these enhancements are dependent on the specific experience of blind individuals, who use those remaining senses more than sighted subjects. In line with this view, sighted subjects, when trained, are able to significantly progress in relatively simple tactile tasks. However, the case of complex tactile tasks is less obvious, as some studies suggest that visual deprivation itself could confer large advantages in learning them. It remains unclear to what extent those complex skills, such as braille reading, can be learnt by sighted subjects. Here we enrolled twenty-nine sighted adults, mostly braille teachers and educators, in a 9-month braille reading course. At the beginning of the course, all subjects were naive in tactile braille reading. After the course, almost all were able to read whole braille words at a mean speed of 6 words-per-minute. Subjects with low tactile acuity did not differ significantly in braille reading speed from the rest of the group, indicating that low tactile acuity is not a limiting factor for learning braille, at least at this early stage of learning. Our study shows that most sighted adults can learn whole-word braille reading, given the right method and a considerable amount of motivation. The adult sensorimotor system can thus adapt, to some level, to very complex tactile tasks without visual deprivation. The pace of learning in our group was comparable to congenitally and early blind children learning braille in primary school, which suggests that the blind's mastery of complex tactile tasks can, to a large extent, be explained by experience-dependent mechanisms. PMID:27187496

  6. Evaluating Child-Based Reading Constructs and Assessments with Struggling Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanda, Alice Owens

    2009-01-01

    Due to the paucity of research on struggling adult readers, researchers rely on child-based reading constructs and measures when investigating the reading skills of adults struggling with reading. The purpose of the two studies in this investigation was to evaluate the appropriateness of using child-based reading constructs and assessments with…

  7. Adult age differences in the perceptual span during reading.

    PubMed

    Risse, Sarah; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2011-06-01

    Following up on research suggesting an age-related reduction in the rightward extent of the perceptual span during reading (Rayner, Castelhano, & Yang, 2009), we compared old and young adults in an N + 2-boundary paradigm in which a nonword preview of word N + 2 or word N + 2 itself is replaced by the target word once the eyes cross an invisible boundary located after word N. The intermediate word N + 1 was always three letters long. Gaze durations on word N + 2 were significantly shorter for identical than nonword N + 2 preview both for young and for old adults, with no significant difference in this preview benefit. Young adults, however, did modulate their gaze duration on word N more strongly than old adults in response to the difficulty of the parafoveal word N + 1. Taken together, the results suggest a dissociation of preview benefit and parafoveal-on-foveal effect. Results are discussed in terms of age-related decline in resilience towards distributed processing while simultaneously preserving the ability to integrate parafoveal information into foveal processing. As such, the present results relate to proposals of regulatory compensation strategies older adults use to secure an overall reading speed very similar to that of young adults. PMID:21401266

  8. Understanding everyday life of morbidly obese adults-habits and body image

    PubMed Central

    Borge, Lisbet; Fagermoen, May Solveig

    2012-01-01

    Background Morbid obesity is a progressive, chronic condition associated with failed attempts at change and repeated relapses. Aim There seems to be little previous research into the understanding of the everyday life of morbidly obese adults. We wanted to gain more knowledge about characteristics of eating habits and body image as well as motivational forces for change. Methods A qualitative approach was chosen in order to gain insight into how morbidly obese adults experience everyday life. Qualitative interviews are well suited to provide insight into themes from the interviewee's life story from the subjects’ own perspectives. To gain insight into such processes, a narrative approach that allowed the informants to give voice to their ways of doing, thinking and feeling in daily life, was adopted. The informants comprised seven women and four men aged of 26–56 years, recruited from a population of obese individuals who had participated in a weight reduction course. A hermeneutic approach was used where the research question was the basis for a reflective interpretation. Results The following meaning-units were identified: to be perceived as overweight; and to see oneself as overweight. Ingrained habits: the struggle between knowing and doing; acting without knowing; and eating is soothing. Conclusions Seeing oneself as an obese person is a gradual process that implied experiencing oneself as different from significant others, such as (slim) siblings and friends. To experience a gap between knowing and doing concerning food habits in everyday life indicates that informants value they have a choice. This is an important insight to consider when framing interventions to support this vulnerable group. PMID:22866062

  9. Auditory processing deficits in reading disabled adults.

    PubMed

    Amitay, Sygal; Ahissar, Meray; Nelken, Israel

    2002-09-01

    The nature of the auditory processing deficit of disabled readers is still an unresolved issue. The quest for a fundamental, nonlinguistic, perceptual impairment has been dominated by the hypothesis that the difficulty lies in processing sequences of stimuli at presentation rates of tens of milliseconds. The present study examined this hypothesis using tasks that require processing of a wide range of stimulus time constants. About a third of the sampled population of disabled readers (classified as "poor auditory processors") had difficulties in most of the tasks tested: detection of frequency differences, detection of tones in narrowband noise, detection of amplitude modulation, detection of the direction of sound sources moving in virtual space, and perception of the lateralized position of tones based on their interaural phase differences. Nevertheless, across-channel integration was intact in these poor auditory processors since comodulation masking release was not reduced. Furthermore, phase locking was presumably intact since binaural masking level differences were normal. In a further examination of temporal processing, participants were asked to discriminate two tones at various intervals where the frequency difference was ten times each individual's frequency just noticeable difference (JND). Under these conditions, poor auditory processors showed no specific difficulty at brief intervals, contrary to predictions under a fast temporal processing deficit assumption. The complementary subgroup of disabled readers who were not poor auditory processors showed some difficulty in this condition when compared with their direct controls. However, they had no difficulty on auditory tasks such as amplitude modulation detection, which presumably taps processing of similar time scales. These two subgroups of disabled readers had similar reading performance but those with a generally poor auditory performance scored lower on some cognitive tests. Taken together, these

  10. Prevalence and determinants of obesity and dietary habits among adults in rural area, Chile.

    PubMed

    Nozue, Miho; Miyoshi, Miki; Okumura, Junko; Sanchez, Hugo; Andreu, Juan; Kuroiwa, Chushi

    2007-12-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the prevalence of obesity and its determinants among adults in a rural area of Chile. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in April-June 2004 in San Carlos (8th region). Height, weight, and waist and hip circumferences were measured for 603 adults (female 447, male 156) aged 20-64 years, and data on socio-economic factors, dietary intake, and dietary habits were obtained by questionnaire interviews. The prevalence of obese individuals was 45.2% among females and 30.1% among males, whereas that of overweight individuals was higher among males than females. Obesity was associated with socio-economic factors for females but not for males. With regard to diet, different patterns between females and males were observed in terms of frequency of food intake, as well as in dietary habits. Our findings of a high prevalence of obese/overweight individuals, together with the characteristics of their diets including changes in the cooking process, suggest that nutrition transition is underway in rural regions as well. Appropriate interventions, therefore, should be introduced to control obesity among women and to enhance health awareness among men throughout the country.

  11. Behavior Modification Program for First Graders to Improve Study Skills and Habits in Relation to Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roets, Lois F.

    This paper discusses behavior modification principles designed and implemented to increase the on-task performance of 22 first-graders during study and class time for two daily reading periods. Acceptable behavior in class included listening and participation in activities and, during study time, included keeping busy with reading activities and…

  12. Libraries and Reading Habits among Elementary School Children: The Concept of the Classroom Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoham, Snunith

    The elementary school regards the development of reading skills and the cultivation of free reading among the students as one of its tasks. One of its ways of achieving this is to operate libraries in the school. Some schools provide only a central library. Some societies or locales, however, also believe in operating classroom collections in the…

  13. Listening and Reading Comprehension at Story Time: How to Build Habits of the Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mary Ruth; Hall, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Understanding a story is an active process, whether children have listened to it being read aloud or, when they are older and read it for themselves. When children grasp a story, they (1) attend to what is important; (2) anticipate what is to come; and (3) build meaningful patterns from the many details. These active interactions with a story can…

  14. "Manga" Literacy: Popular Culture and the Reading Habits of Japanese College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kate; Ingulsrud, John E.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that "manga"--Japanese comics--constitute the most popular kind of reading material in Japan. Discusses the skills needed to read manga. Surveys 297 Japanese college students. Suggests that many manga readers can be considered engaged readers as they are highly motivated and have developed a range of strategies to help them understand texts.…

  15. Reading Habits of Third-Year Medical Students during an Integrated Endocrinology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedberg, Mark; Mahanaimi, David; Lev-Zion, Rafael; Sidi, Aviel; Glick, Shimon

    1998-01-01

    Independent reading by medical students beyond formal classroom activities is considered central to medical education. This study examines self-directed study among third-year students in a six-year medical program. Students averaged 151 minutes daily on independent study using lecture notes, textbooks, and reading articles. Suggests ways to…

  16. The Impact of Internet and Television Use on the Reading Habits and Practices of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Reichard, Carla A.; Gardner, Anne

    2009-01-01

    How much time do college students spend reading for recreational and academic purposes? Do Internet and television use displace or interfere with reading time? In this study, we used an innovative time-diary survey method to explore whether the time students spend on the Internet or watching television displaces time that would be spent reading…

  17. Looking Ahead with Hope: Reviving the Reading Maturity Construct as Social Science for Adolescent and Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Matt

    2013-01-01

    "Reading maturity" is a construct that looks broadly at reading development encompassing not only basic reading skills but reading habits, attitudes, and dispositions. It has a rich history and this article calls for a need to make reading maturity a necessary part of the literacy curriculum. It offers a working description and reviews…

  18. Dietary habits and body image perception among Polish adolescents and young adults - a population based study.

    PubMed

    Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Bergier, Barbara; Diatczyk, Julia; Niedźwiecka, Joanna; Biliński, Przemysław; Wojtyła, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of nutritional behaviours shaped in childhood and during the period of adolescents are mostly continued in adult life, and on these patterns, to a great degree, depends the risk of development of many chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between dietary habits and body image perception among Polish adolescents and young adults. The study group covered 14,511 adolescents/young adults: 10,081 children attending high schools and secondary schools, and 4,428 university students. More than 87% of schoolchildren and students admitted that that they snacked between meals everyday, and 1/3 of them mentioned that they consumed meals at night. As many as 41.40% of schoolchildren, and 46.70% of students experienced the feeling of overeating at least several times a week. Analysis of the respondents BMI showed that in the group of students there were considerably more respondents obese or overweight, compared to the group of schoolchildren. Fear of gaining weight was mentioned by 9.90% of respondents, including 6.90% of those with normal body structure, 1.40% with underweight or overweight, and 0.40% of those obese. As many as 54.60% of the total number of respondents described their body structure as remaining within the normal, 23.7% - as slim, 13.9% reported that they were overweight, 6% - thin, while 1.7% considered themselves as obese. A comprehensive analysis of the data available, including attempts at dieting or gaining weight, indicated that approximately ¾ of obese respondents had undertaken attempts in the past to reduce their body weight. The importance of physical activity and healthy eating habits should be given due attention not only to prevent obesity but also other eating disorder.

  19. Reading Disabilities in Adults: A Selective Meta-Analysis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee; Hsieh, Ching-Ju

    2009-01-01

    This article synthesizes the experimental literature that compares the academic, cognitive, and behavioral performance of adults with reading disabilities to those of average-achieving adult readers. The central question posed by this review is to what extent and in what manner do adults with reading disabilities differ from adults without reading…

  20. The Development of Informal Tests of Reading and the Analysis of the Reading Performance of Adults Attending Basic Education Classes. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibert, Robert E.

    This project developed an informal reading test from adult basic education teaching materials and investigated reading performance at six levels among adults attending basic education classes. Graded word lists, readiness oral reading passages, and graded oral reading passages were administered to 37 adults. The six most discriminating word lists…

  1. Cognition and Indicators of Dietary Habits in Older Adults from Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    França, Vivian Francielle; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues; D’Orsi, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between unhealthy dietary habits and cognition in older adults from Southern Brazil. Methods This cross-sectional study analyzed data from the second wave of a population- and household-based epidemiological survey (2013–2014) conducted in the city of Florianópolis. A total of 1,197 older adults (778 women) over 60 years old participated in the study. Cognition, the dependent variable, was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The independent variables were the following indicators of unhealthy dietary habits: low intake of fruits and vegetables (≤ 4 servings/day); fish (< 1 serving/week); and habitual fatty meat intake (yes/no). Adjustments were made for age, education level, income, smoking status, alcohol intake, leisure-time physical activity, depression symptoms, chronic diseases, and body mass index. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were performed, considering sampling weights and stratification by gender. Results The mean MMSE scores for men and women were 25.15 ± 5.56 and 24.26 ± 5.68, respectively (p = 0.009). After adjustments, in women low fruit and vegetable intake (≤ 4 servings/day) was independently associated with the lowest MMSE scores. No associations were found in men. Additionally, women’s mean MMSE scores increased as their daily frequency of fruit and vegetable intake increased (p = 0.001). Conclusion Women with low fruit and vegetable intake according to the World Health Organization (WHO) have lower cognition scores. Regular intake of fruits, vegetables, and fish in exchange of fatty meats may be a viable public policy strategy to preserve cognition in aging. PMID:26894259

  2. Word Reading and Word Spelling in French Adult Literacy Students: The Relationship with Oral Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eme, Elsa; Lambert, Eric; Alamargot, Denis

    2014-01-01

    We analysed word reading and spelling in French adults with low levels of literacy (A-IL). As well as examining phonological and lexical processes, we explored the relationship between literacy and oral language skills. Fifty-two adult literacy students were compared with reading level-matched pupils in Years 1-3 of primary school on reading tasks…

  3. Applying Research in Reading Instruction for Adults: First Steps for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McShane, Susan

    2005-01-01

    This book is a resource for adult education teachers who want to build and strengthen adults' reading skills. It aims first to build background knowledge about reading and scientifically based reading instruction, but the focus is in applying the research on modeling thinking, planning, and problem solving in the context of fictional adult…

  4. The Peter Effect Revisited: Reading Habits and Attitudes of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applegate, Anthony J.; Applegate, Mary DeKonty; Mercantini, Martha A.; McGeehan, Catherine M.; Cobb, Jeanne B.; DeBoy, Joanne R.; Modla, Virginia B.; Lewinski, Kimberly E.

    2014-01-01

    Certainly a primary goal of literacy education is the creation of avid, enthusiastic, and highly motivated readers. However, in this article revisiting the Peter Effect (Applegate & Applegate, 2004), researchers surveyed more than 1,000 college sophomores and found strikingly low levels of enthusiasm for reading. Only 46.6% of surveyed…

  5. The New York Times Report on Teenage Reading Tastes and Habits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiberger, Rema

    In order to learn whether teenagers are reading books and, if so, which books they choose, "The New York Times" conducted a fact-finding project. Questionnaires were mailed to the school librarians and English chairmen of 7000 secondary and intermediate schools. The wide variety of answers to observable trends necessitated the analysis of a random…

  6. Inquiry into Urban Adolescent Independent Reading Habits: Can Gee's Theory of Discourses Provide Insight?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoester, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    This study explores connections among adolescent engagement with reading, peer relationships, and identity development. The author chose and interviewed 10 of his former students, their parents, and the students' current teachers, and analyzed themes, drawing on Gee's theory of primary and secondary Discourses. The case studies illustrate how…

  7. Evaluation of a Reading Comprehension Strategy Package to Improve Reading Comprehension of Adult College Students with Acquired Brain Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Gina G.

    2013-01-01

    Adults with mild to moderate acquired brain injury (ABI) often pursue post-secondary or professional education after their injuries in order to enter or re-enter the job market. An increasing number of these adults report problems with reading-to-learn. The problem is particularly concerning given the growing population of adult survivors of ABI.…

  8. Understanding Oral Reading Fluency among Adults with Low Literacy: Dominance Analysis of Contributing Component Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Anthony, Jason L.; Woods, Kari L.

    2012-01-01

    This study extends the literature on the component skills involved in oral reading fluency. Dominance analysis was applied to assess the relative importance of seven reading-related component skills in the prediction of the oral reading fluency of 272 adult literacy learners. The best predictors of oral reading fluency when text difficulty was…

  9. Cognitive and Affective Contributions of the Literature Circles Method on the Acquisition of Reading Habits and Comprehension Skills in Primary Level Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avci, Suleyman; Yuksel, Arzu

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of literature circles on fourth grade primary students' reading habits and comprehension skills and collected the opinions of students and teachers about the method. In this study, quantitative (pre-test and post-test designs) and qualitative (case study) methods were employed together. The study was…

  10. N170 Visual Word Specialization on Implicit and Explicit Reading Tasks in Spanish Speaking Adult Neoliterates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Laura V.

    2014-01-01

    Adult literacy training is known to be difficult in terms of teaching and maintenance (Abadzi, 2003), perhaps because adults who recently learned to read in their first language have not acquired reading automaticity. This study examines fast word recognition process in neoliterate adults, to evaluate whether they show evidence of perceptual…

  11. Reading Profiles for Adults with Low-Literacy: Cluster Analysis with Power and Speeded Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Fall, Emily; Mark, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    The United States' National Institute for Literacy's (NIFL) review of adult literacy instruction research recommended adult education (AE) programs assess underlying reading abilities in order to plan appropriate instruction for low-literacy learners. This study developed adult reading ability groups using measures from power tests and speeded…

  12. Improving the Reading Comprehension Skills of Minority Adults from Educationally Disadvantaged Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Gina; Verhulst, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a synergistic reading comprehension program to help minority adults from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds improve their reading skills in preparation for academics, standardized testing, and medical school. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  13. Literacy through Literature: A Reading Club with Imprisoned Youth and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budweg, Peter; Schins, Marie-Therese

    1991-01-01

    A prison reading club can provide motivation to learn to read and write, reinforce conventional learning, and support individual development. The literate environment created is a tool for resocialization of incarcerated youth and young adults. (SK)

  14. A Study of the Personal Factors Relating to Reading Proficiency among Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, G. Ramana; Ramachandra, V.; Kumari, P. Vasantha; Reddy, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    A reading proficiency test administered to 200 adult learners in India resulted in an average score of only 38%. Gender, caste, income, and occupation were significant factors in the level of reading proficiency. (SK)

  15. The Predictive Impact of Biological and Sociocultural Factors on Executive Processing: The Role of Age, Education, and Frequency of Reading and Writing Habits.

    PubMed

    Cotrena, Charles; Branco, Laura D; Cardoso, Caroline O; Wong, Cristina Elizabeth I; Fonseca, Rochele P

    2016-01-01

    Although the impact of education and age on executive functions (EF) has been widely studied, the influence of daily cognitive stimulation on EF has not been sufficiently investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the age, education, and frequency of reading and writing habits (FRWH) of healthy adults could predict their performance on measures of inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Inhibition speed, inhibitory control, and set shifting were assessed using speed, accuracy, and discrepancy scores on the Trail-Making Test (TMT) and Hayling Test. Demographic characteristics and the FRWH were assessed using specialized questionnaires. Regression analyses showed that age and the FRWH predicted speed and accuracy on the TMT. The FRWH predicted both speed and accuracy on the Hayling Test, for which speed and accuracy scores were also partly explained by age and education, respectively. Surprisingly, only the FRWH was associated with Hayling Test discrepancy scores, considered one of the purest EF measures. This highlights the importance of regular cognitive stimulation over the number of years of formal education on EF tasks. Further studies are required to investigate the role of the FRWH so as to better comprehend its relationship with EF and general cognition.

  16. [Nursing professionals' reading habits; a study in a hospital in Granada].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez del Castillo Martín, M; Rodríguez del Aguila, M M; Herrera Espiñeira, C; Quero Rufián, A; Sánchez Fernández, C; Aguayo de Hoyos, E

    2006-03-01

    In all the hospital library standards, as well as in the existing Accreditation Norms for hospitals, a section is included which cites the distinct professionals who work at the institution which the library services must attend to provide for their scientific information needs. Among the sanitary collectives, nursing professionals are explicitly listed. Nonetheless, since the creation of hospital library services in Spain, many librarians have noticed that the nursing professionals, which compose the most numerous group in a hospital, have a very low library visitation rate in relationship to other collectives such as doctors in particular. Desiring to have objective data regarding library use, and not merely perceptions, the authors planned out a study in a large, 1.200 bed, hospital where more than 1.000 professionals comprise the nursing staff. The authors wanted to verify the nursing staff's needs for scientific information, their habits regarding their scientific information needs, and the possible difficulties which they encounter trying to acquire this type of information; furthermore, the authors wanted to know the nursing professionals' attitude towards this issue.

  17. Reading component skills of learners in adult basic education.

    PubMed

    MacArthur, Charles A; Konold, Timothy R; Glutting, Joseph J; Alamprese, Judith A

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the reliability and construct validity of measures of reading component skills with a sample of adult basic education (ABE) learners, including both native and nonnative English speakers, and to describe the performance of those learners on the measures. Investigation of measures of reading components is needed because available measures were neither developed for nor normed on ABE populations or with nonnative speakers of English. The study included 486 students, 334 born or educated in the United States (native) and 152 not born or educated in the United States (nonnative) but who spoke English well enough to participate in English reading classes. All students had scores on 11 measures covering five constructs: decoding, word recognition, spelling, fluency, and comprehension. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test three models: a two-factor model with print and meaning factors; a three-factor model that separated out a fluency factor; and a five-factor model based on the hypothesized constructs. The five-factor model fit best. In addition, the CFA model fit both native and nonnative populations equally well without modification, showing that the tests measure the same constructs with the same accuracy for both groups. Group comparisons found no difference between the native and nonnative samples on word recognition, but the native sample scored higher on fluency and comprehension and lower on decoding than did the nonnative sample. Students with self-reported learning disabilities scored lower on all reading components. Differences by age and gender were also analyzed.

  18. Evaluation of use of reading comprehension strategies to improve reading comprehension of adult college students with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Gina G; Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Kirk, Cecilia; Fickas, Stephen; Biancarosa, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Adults with mild to moderate acquired brain injury (ABI) often pursue post-secondary or professional education after their injuries in order to enter or re-enter the job market. An increasing number of these adults report problems with reading-to-learn. The problem is particularly concerning given the growing population of adult survivors of ABI. Despite the rising need, empirical evaluation of reading comprehension interventions for adults with ABI is scarce. This study used a within-subject design to evaluate whether adult college students with ABI with no more than moderate cognitive impairments benefited from using reading comprehension strategies to improve comprehension of expository text. Integrating empirical support from the cognitive rehabilitation and special education literature, the researchers designed a multi-component reading comprehension strategy package. Participants read chapters from an introductory-level college anthropology textbook in two different conditions: strategy and no-strategy. The results indicated that reading comprehension strategy use was associated with recall of more correct information units in immediate and delayed free recall tasks; more efficient recall in the delayed free recall task; and increased accuracy recognising statements from a sentence verification task designed to reflect the local and global coherence of the text. The findings support further research into using reading comprehension strategies as an intervention approach for the adult ABI population. Future research needs include identifying how to match particular reading comprehension strategies to individuals, examining whether reading comprehension performance improves further through the incorporation of systematic training, and evaluating texts from a range of disciplines and genres. PMID:25712402

  19. Evaluation of use of reading comprehension strategies to improve reading comprehension of adult college students with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Gina G; Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Kirk, Cecilia; Fickas, Stephen; Biancarosa, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Adults with mild to moderate acquired brain injury (ABI) often pursue post-secondary or professional education after their injuries in order to enter or re-enter the job market. An increasing number of these adults report problems with reading-to-learn. The problem is particularly concerning given the growing population of adult survivors of ABI. Despite the rising need, empirical evaluation of reading comprehension interventions for adults with ABI is scarce. This study used a within-subject design to evaluate whether adult college students with ABI with no more than moderate cognitive impairments benefited from using reading comprehension strategies to improve comprehension of expository text. Integrating empirical support from the cognitive rehabilitation and special education literature, the researchers designed a multi-component reading comprehension strategy package. Participants read chapters from an introductory-level college anthropology textbook in two different conditions: strategy and no-strategy. The results indicated that reading comprehension strategy use was associated with recall of more correct information units in immediate and delayed free recall tasks; more efficient recall in the delayed free recall task; and increased accuracy recognising statements from a sentence verification task designed to reflect the local and global coherence of the text. The findings support further research into using reading comprehension strategies as an intervention approach for the adult ABI population. Future research needs include identifying how to match particular reading comprehension strategies to individuals, examining whether reading comprehension performance improves further through the incorporation of systematic training, and evaluating texts from a range of disciplines and genres.

  20. Really Reading: What Does Accelerated Reader Teach Adults and Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Renita

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative work analyzes what parents, teachers, and children say about reading when Accelerated Reader and Reading Renaissance are used for reading instruction. Critical discourse analysis offered a glimpse at beliefs about reading and how power relations were embedded in what teachers, parents, and children said about AR and reading.…

  1. Examining the Relationships of Component Reading Skills to Reading Comprehension in Struggling Adult Readers: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tighe, Elizabeth L; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    The current study employed a meta-analytic approach to investigate the relative importance of component reading skills to reading comprehension in struggling adult readers. A total of 10 component skills were consistently identified across 16 independent studies and 2,707 participants. Random effects models generated 76 predictor-reading comprehension effect sizes among the 10 constructs. The results indicated that six of the component skills exhibited strong relationships with reading comprehension (average rs ≥ .50): morphological awareness, language comprehension, fluency, oral vocabulary knowledge, real word decoding, and working memory. Three of the component skills yielded moderate relationships with reading comprehension (average rs ≥ .30 and < .50): pseudoword decoding, orthographic knowledge, and phonological awareness. Rapid automatized naming (RAN) was the only component skill that was weakly related to reading comprehension (r = .15). Morphological awareness was a significantly stronger correlate of reading comprehension than phonological awareness and RAN. This study provides the first attempt at a systematic synthesis of the recent research investigating the reading skills of adults with low literacy skills, a historically understudied population. Directions for future research, the relation of our results to the children's literature, and the implications for researchers and adult basic education programs are discussed.

  2. Lifestyle habits and obesity progression in overweight and obese American young adults: Lessons for promoting cardiometabolic health.

    PubMed

    Cha, EunSeok; Akazawa, Margeaux K; Kim, Kevin H; Dawkins, Colleen R; Lerner, Hannah M; Umpierrez, Guillermo; Dunbar, Sandra B

    2015-12-01

    Obesity among young adults is a growing problem in the United States and is related to unhealthy lifestyle habits, such as high caloric intake and inadequate exercise. Accurate assessment of lifestyle habits across obesity stages is important for informing age-specific intervention strategies to prevent and reduce obesity progression. Using a modified version of the Edmonton Obesity Staging System (mEOSS), a new scale for defining obesity risk and predicting obesity morbidity and mortality, this cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence of overweight/obese conditions in 105 young adults and compared their lifestyle habits across the mEOSS stages. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and one-way analyses of variance were performed. Eighty percent of participants (n = 83) fell into the mEOSS-2 group and had obesity-related chronic disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension, and/or dyslipidemia. There were significant differences in dietary quality and patterns across the mEOSS stages. Findings highlighted the significance of prevention and early treatment for overweight and obese young adults to prevent and cease obesity progression.

  3. Essential Practices as Adults Read To Meet the Needs of Deaf or Hard of Hearing Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A review of the research literature on teaching deaf or hard-of-hearing students to read led to identification of 10 recommended practices for adults reading to these children. Practices include: focusing on the purpose and enjoyment of reading, using the child's dominant language in interactive dialogue, relating the child's life to the text, and…

  4. Testing Adult Basic Education Students for Reading Ability and Progress: How Many Tests to Administer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Daphne; Levy, Susan R.; Rasher, Sue; Kim, Yoonsang; Carter, Sarah Deardorff; Berbaum, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between TABE-R performance and performance on selected, more focused reading component tests after 42 hours of adult education classroom instruction. Specifically, measures of expressive vocabulary, reading fluency, sight word reading, and decoding were administered to 98 participants along with the TABE-R.…

  5. Reading Difficulties in Adult Deaf Readers of French: Phonological Codes, Not Guilty!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Nathalie N.; Baum, Shari R.; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2012-01-01

    Deaf people often achieve low levels of reading skills. The hypothesis that the use of phonological codes is associated with good reading skills in deaf readers is not yet fully supported in the literature. We investigated skilled and less skilled adult deaf readers' use of orthographic and phonological codes in reading. Experiment 1 used a masked…

  6. Improving Oral Reading in Mentally Handicapped Adults through Increased Opportunity and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillette, Tracy L.

    A project developed a plan to improve oral reading in 12 mentally handicapped adults by stressing observation of punctuation marks, reading in phrases, using proper volume, and increasing confidence levels. Identifying the parts of a book and identifying new words were also included. The 12 students were reading below their potential, as shown by…

  7. Adult Second-Language Reading Research: How May It Inform Assessment and Instruction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlo, Maria S.; Sylvester, Ellen Skilton

    Research studies on how adults learn and develop second-language reading competence were considered in the context of a componential theory of reading. In particular, C. A. Perfetti's Verbal Efficiency Theory (VET) was used as a framework in which to organize and evaluate the studies' contribution to the field of second-language reading. The…

  8. Relationships among Cortical Thickness, Reading Skill, and Print Exposure in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Jason G.; Manis, Frank R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated relationships among cortical thickness in the left-hemisphere reading network, and reading skill and experience in adult nonimpaired readers. Given the relationship between print exposure and reading, it is possible that print exposure is related to cortical structure. The pattern of correlations indicated that individuals…

  9. The Relationship between Expressive Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skills for Adult Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Ryan; Greenberg, Daphne; Laures-Gore, Jacqueline; Pae, Hye K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined expressive vocabulary and its relationship to reading skills for 232 native English-speaking adults who read between the third- and fifth-grade levels. The Boston Naming Test (BNT) was used to measure expressive vocabulary. Participants scored lower than the normative sample of adults on all aspects of the test; they had fewer…

  10. Incorporating a Computer Assisted Reading Program into an Adult Vocational Basic Skills Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vescial, Ann; And Others

    A computer-assisted reading program was implemented in the VESL (Vocational English as a Second Language) Center at Hacienda La Puente Adult Schools (California), which provides support services to adult special needs vocational students. The purpose of the program was to improve the technical reading skills of the vocational students. The basic…

  11. The Adult Reading History Questionnaire (ARHQ) in Icelandic: Psychometric Properties and Factor Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Halldorsson, Jonas G.; Steinberg, Stacy; Hansdottir, Ingunn; Kristjansson, Kristleifur; Stefansson, Hreinn; Stefansson, Kari

    2014-01-01

    This article describes psychometric testing of an Icelandic adaptation of the "Adult Reading History Questionnaire" (ARHQ), designed to detect a history of reading difficulties indicative of dyslexia. Tested in a large and diverse sample of 2,187 adults, the Icelandic adaptation demonstrated internal consistency reliability…

  12. Modeling Child-Based Theoretical Reading Constructs with Struggling Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanda, Alice O.; Greenberg, Daphne; Morris, Robin

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether measurement constructs behind reading-related tests for struggling adult readers are similar to what is known about measurement constructs for children. The sample included 371 adults reading between the third-and fifth-grade levels, including 127 men and 153 English speakers of other languages. Using measures of skills…

  13. Interword Spacing and Landing Position Effects during Chinese Reading in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zang, Chuanli; Liang, Feifei; Bai, Xuejun; Yan, Guoli; Liversedge, Simon P.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined children and adults' eye movement behavior when reading word spaced and unspaced Chinese text. The results showed that interword spacing reduced children and adults' first pass reading times and refixation probabilities indicating spaces between words facilitated word identification. Word spacing effects occurred to a…

  14. We Spent Our Summer Chasing Unicorns: A Young Adult Reading Game Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgerton, Cathi

    1986-01-01

    Describes a young adult summer reading game which is offered in three age-level versions from grades 1 through 12 at Enoch Pratt Free Library (Maryland). Benefits of young adult reading games in public libraries, game rules and sample questions, and the game finale visit to Walters Art Gallery are highlighted. (EJS)

  15. Relation and interactions among reading fluency and competence for adult education learners

    PubMed Central

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Fall, Emily E.; Woods, Kari L.

    2013-01-01

    Statistical analyses of data from an academically diverse sample of 276 adult basic and secondary education learners extends understanding of the relation of and interactions between oral reading fluency and reading competence indices. Significant interactions between total word rate and word error rate that differed in relation to two measures of reading competence suggest that adult literacy instructors should emphasize fluency instruction to a greater or lesser degree depending on whether the major goal of instruction is academic reading (e.g., being able to comprehend a textbook) or functional reading (e.g., being able to fill out a job application). PMID:23935242

  16. Enhanced habit-based learning and decreased neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus in a murine model of chronic social stress.

    PubMed

    Ferragud, A; Haro, A; Sylvain, A; Velázquez-Sánchez, C; Hernández-Rabaza, V; Canales, J J

    2010-06-26

    Stress can induce preferential engagement of habit learning mediated by the basal ganglia, relative to learning that involves complex spatial associations contributed by the hippocampal formation. We explored in mice the influence that chronic episodes of social stress exert on the selection of cognitive/spatial vs. habit-based learning strategies. Male mice were exposed to repeated episodes of social confrontation and were categorized as dominant, subordinate or undetermined according to quantitative ethologically relevant parameters of aggression. Mice were then trained in a conditional discrimination task in the T-maze in the presence of allocentric cues until five correct choices were made. The T-maze was then turned 180 degrees and mice were categorized as "cue-learners" or "place-learners" on the basis of their first response in the probe test. Mice showed a graded preference for place vs. cue learning strategies depending on their social categorization (control>undetermined>dominant>subordinate), which ranged from 55% in controls to only 10% in subordinate mice. The response of subordinate mice differed significantly from controls. Hippocampal neurogenesis was studied in the different groups of mice. In keeping with the tendency to engage habit learning, 2,5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation in the DG was reduced in mice that experienced agonistic encounters, and so was the expression of doublecortin, a marker for immature neurons. These observations suggest that chronic social stress impairs neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, weakens spatial learning and strengthens habit-like responses.

  17. Reading and writing skills in young adults with spina bifida and hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Marcia; Dennis, Maureen; Hetherington, Ross

    2004-09-01

    Reading and writing were studied in 31 young adults with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH). Like children with this condition, young adults with SBH had better word decoding than reading comprehension, and, compared to population means, had lower scores on a test of writing fluency. Reading comprehension was predicted by word decoding and listening comprehension. Writing was predicted by fine motor finger function, verbal intelligence, and short-term and working memory. These findings are consistent with cognitive models of reading and writing. Writing, but not reading, was related to highest level of education achieved and writing fluency predicted several aspects of functional independence. Reading comprehension and writing remain deficient in adults with SBH and have consequences for educational attainments and functional independence.

  18. Speed discrimination predicts word but not pseudo-word reading rate in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Main, Keith L; Pestilli, Franco; Mezer, Aviv; Yeatman, Jason; Martin, Ryan; Phipps, Stephanie; Wandell, Brian

    2014-11-01

    Visual processing in the magnocellular pathway is a reputed influence on word recognition and reading performance. However, the mechanisms behind this relationship are still unclear. To explore this concept, we measured reading rate, speed-discrimination, and contrast detection thresholds in adults and children with a wide range of reading abilities. We found that speed discrimination thresholds are higher in children than in adults and are correlated with age. Speed discrimination thresholds are also correlated with reading rates but only for real words, not pseudo-words. Conversely, we found no correlations between contrast detection thresholds and the reading rates. We also found no correlations between speed discrimination or contrast detection and WASI subtest scores. These findings indicate that familiarity is a factor in magnocellular operations that may influence reading rate. We suggest this effect supports the idea that the magnocellular pathway contributes to word reading through an analysis of letter position.

  19. Children and Adults Reading Interactively: The Social Benefits of an Exploratory Intergenerational Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaki, Emi; Harmon, Mary Towle

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory Intergenerational Program (IGP) focused on reading to determine whether it affects mood and communication in older adults with mild dementia and neurocognitive deficits, and if it influences school-aged children's perceptions of older adults over time. Six older adults with cognitive-communication deficits and 12 school-aged…

  20. Relative Effectiveness of Reading Intervention Programs for Adults with Low Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabatini, John P.; Shore, Jane; Holtzman, Steven; Scarborough, Hollis S.

    2011-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of instructional programs for adult learners with basic reading skills below the 7th-grade level, 300 adults were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 supplementary tutoring programs designed to strengthen decoding and fluency skills, and gains were examined for the 148 adult students who completed the program. The 3 intervention…

  1. Adults with Reading Disabilities: Converting a Meta-Analysis to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the results of a meta-analysis of the experimental published literature that compares the academic, cognitive, and behavioral performance of adults with reading disabilities (RD) with average achieving adult readers. The meta-analysis shows that deficits independent of the classification measures emerged for adults with RD on…

  2. College and Adult Reading XIV: The Fourteenth Yearbook of the North Central Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Kay E., Ed.; Fisher, Joseph A., Ed.

    Containing selections from the 1987 and 1988 annual meetings of the North Central Reading Association, this yearbook includes sections on research; reviews of research; professional issues; and program descriptions. Papers include: "The Effects of a Secondary Reading Methods Course on Undergraduate Students' Awareness of Reading Skills" (Bruce A.…

  3. Perceptual Organization, Phonological Awareness, and Reading Comprehension in Adults with and without Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stothers, Margot; Klein, Perry D.

    2010-01-01

    It is not clear from research whether, or to what extent, reading comprehension is impaired in adults who have learning disabilities (LD). The influence of perceptual organization (PO) and phonological awareness (PA) on reading comprehension was investigated. PO and PA are cognitive functions that have been examined in previous research for their…

  4. Relation and Interactions among Reading Fluency and Competence for Adult Education Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellard, Daryl F.; Fall, Emily E.; Woods, Kari L.

    2013-01-01

    Statistical analyses of data from an academically diverse sample of 276 adult basic and secondary education learners extends understanding of the relation of and interactions between oral reading fluency and reading competence indices. Significant interactions between total word rate and word error rate that differed in relation to two measures of…

  5. Adult Reading in a Foreign Language: A Necessary Competence for Knowledge Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra-Treviño, Marta Elena

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents several "tips" for Spanish speaking adults who start a reading comprehension course in English. The document is the product of my twenty-five years of experience as a language teacher. By using these practical pieces of advice, learners understand the differences between English and their own language, are able read,…

  6. Profiles of Cognitive Precursors to Reading Acquisition. Contributions to a Developmental Perspective of Adult Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian, Christian; Moretti, Renato

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses conceptual and empirical elements concerning the development of cognitive processes that function as precursors of reading, and their association with the acquisition of reading skills in an adult population participating in literacy courses. It connects emergent literacy research with historical-cultural and bioecological…

  7. Mind-Reading in Young Adults with ASD: Does Structure Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponnet, Koen; Buysse, Ann; Roeyers, Herbert; De Clercq, Armand

    2008-01-01

    This study further elaborates on the mind-reading impairments of young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The hypothesis is that differences in mind-reading abilities between subjects with ASD and control subjects become more apparent when they have to infer thoughts and feelings of other persons in a less structured or more chaotic…

  8. Sustained Silent Reading and Young Adult Short Stories for High School Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Terry L.; Jensen, Valarie S.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the implementation of a version of Sustained Silent Reading (SSR), called the DEAR (Drop Everything And Read) program, throughout their school. Presents their experience with the program in the KWL format (what we KNOW, what we WANTED to know, and what we LEARNED). Provides a bibliography of 12 young adult short stories used in the…

  9. Swallows and Amazons Forever: How Adults and Children Engage in Reading a Classic Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine, Fiona; Waller, Alison

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative case study explores the nature of reading engagement, taking a reader response approach to analysing and discussing the experiences and perspectives of real readers. The paper reports a collaborative research project in which a group of five primary-age children and a group of five adults of different ages were asked to read and…

  10. A Reason to Read: A Report on an International Symposium on the Promotion of the Reading Habit (New Paltz, New York, May 5-8, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, George

    Two purposes guided delegates' discussions at a 1976 international symposium: to analyze and discuss various problems associated with motivating people both to learn to read and to continue reading and to recommend programs of action and research in reading motivation. This report is a condensation of that meeting in which the participants…

  11. Eye movements and the perceptual span during first- and second-language sentence reading in bilingual older adults.

    PubMed

    Whitford, Veronica; Titone, Debra

    2016-02-01

    This study addressed a central yet previously unexplored issue in the psychological science of aging, namely, whether the advantages of healthy aging (e.g., greater lifelong experience with language) or disadvantages (e.g., decreases in cognitive and sensory processing) drive L1 and L2 reading performance in bilingual older adults. To this end, we used a gaze-contingent moving window paradigm to examine both global aspects of reading fluency (e.g., reading rates, number of regressions) and the perceptual span (i.e., allocation of visual attention into the parafovea) in bilingual older adults during L1 and L2 sentence reading, as a function of individual differences in current L2 experience. Across the L1 and L2, older adults exhibited reduced reading fluency (e.g., slower reading rates, more regressions), but a similar perceptual span compared with matched younger adults. Also similar to matched younger adults, older adults' reading fluency was lower for L2 reading than for L1 reading as a function of current L2 experience. Specifically, greater current L2 experience increased L2 reading fluency, but decreased L1 reading fluency (for global reading measures only). Taken together, the dissociation between intact perceptual span and impaired global reading measures suggests that older adults may prioritize parafoveal processing despite age-related encoding difficulties. Consistent with this interpretation, post hoc analyses revealed that older adults with higher versus lower executive control were more likely to adopt this strategy. PMID:26866589

  12. Adults Who Read Like Children: The Psycholinguistic Bases. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Charles

    A study examined basic reading skills among men in prison, comparing poor and adequate readers with respect to comprehension, decoding, short-term memory, and speech perception. Subjects, 88 inmates of normal intelligence, normal hearing, and no significant speech abnormalities, at a minimum-security prison, were given reading comprehension tests…

  13. Sizzling Summer Reading Programs for Young Adults: Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Katharine L.

    2006-01-01

    Summer reading programs are a staple in libraries nationwide and provide a valuable service: keeping teens productive and occupied when they are no longer busy in school. Producing creative programs at the library can be challenging when faced with this easily distracted teen demographic; that's where "Sizzling Summer Reading Programs" steps in.…

  14. Adults with reading disabilities: converting a meta-analysis to practice.

    PubMed

    Swanson, H Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the results of a meta-analysis of the experimental published literature that compares the academic, cognitive, and behavioral performance of adults with reading disabilities (RD) with average achieving adult readers. The meta-analysis shows that deficits independent of the classification measures emerged for adults with RD on measures of vocabulary, math, spelling, and specific cognitive process related to naming speed, phonological processing, and verbal memory. The results also showed that adults with high verbal IQs (scores > 100) but low word recognition standard scores (< 90) yielded greater deficits related to their average reading counterparts when compared to studies that included adults with RD with verbal IQ and reading scores in the same low range. Implications of the findings related to assessment and intervention are discussed.

  15. Evaluating measurement error in readings of blood pressure for adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Bauldry, Shawn; Bollen, Kenneth A; Adair, Linda S

    2015-04-01

    Readings of blood pressure are known to be subject to measurement error, but the optimal method for combining multiple readings is unknown. This study assesses different sources of measurement error in blood pressure readings and assesses methods for combining multiple readings using data from a sample of adolescents/young adults who were part of a longitudinal epidemiological study based in Cebu, Philippines. Three sets of blood pressure readings were collected at 2-year intervals for 2127 adolescents and young adults as part of the Cebu National Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Study. Multi-trait, multi-method (MTMM) structural equation models in different groups were used to decompose measurement error in the blood pressure readings into systematic and random components and to examine patterns in the measurement across males and females and over time. The results reveal differences in the measurement properties of blood pressure readings by sex and over time that suggest the combination of multiple readings should be handled separately for these groups at different time points. The results indicate that an average (mean) of the blood pressure readings has high validity relative to a more complicated factor-score-based linear combination of the readings. PMID:25548966

  16. Preferred sound levels of portable music players and listening habits among adults: a field study.

    PubMed

    Kähäri, Kim R; Aslund, T; Olsson, J

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this descriptive field study was to explore music listening habits and preferred listening levels with portable music players (PMPs). We were also interested in seeing whether any exposure differences could be observed between the sexes. Data were collected during 12 hours at Stockholm Central Station, where people passing by were invited to measure their preferred PMP listening level by using a KEMAR manikin. People were also asked to answer a questionnaire about their listening habits. In all, 60 persons (41 men and 19 women) took part in the questionnaire study and 61 preferred PMP levels to be measured. Forty-one of these sound level measurements were valid to be reported after consideration was taken to acceptable measuring conditions. The women (31 years) and the men (33 years) started to use PMPs on a regular basis in their early 20s. Ear canal headphones/ear buds were the preferred headphone types. Fifty-seven percent of the whole study population used their PMP on a daily basis. The measured LAeq60 sec levels corrected for free field ranged between 73 and 102 dB, with a mean value of 83 dB. Sound levels for different types of headphones are also presented. The results of this study indicate that there are two groups of listeners: people who listen less frequently and at lower, safer sound levels, and people with excessive listening habits that may indeed damage their hearing sensory organ in time.

  17. Perceptual organization, phonological awareness, and reading comprehension in adults with and without learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Stothers, Margot; Klein, Perry D

    2010-12-01

    It is not clear from research whether, or to what extent, reading comprehension is impaired in adults who have learning disabilities (LD). The influence of perceptual organization (PO) and phonological awareness (PA) on reading comprehension was investigated. PO and PA are cognitive functions that have been examined in previous research for their roles in nonverbal LD and phonological dyslexia, respectively. Nonverbal tests of PO and non-reading tests of PA were administered to a sample of adults with postsecondary education. Approximately two thirds of the sample had previously been diagnosed as having LD. In a multiple regression analysis, tests of PO and PA were used to predict scores for tests of reading comprehension and mechanics. Despite the nonverbal nature of the perceptual organizational test stimuli, PO strongly predicted reading comprehension. Tests of PA predicted decoding and reading speed. Results were interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that integrative processes usually characterized as nonverbal were nonetheless used by readers with and without disabilities to understand text. The study's findings have implications for understanding the reading of adults with learning disabilities, and the nature of reading comprehension in general.

  18. Reading Performance of Young Adults With ADHD Diagnosed in Childhood: Relations With Executive Functioning.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Colomer, Carla

    2013-10-22

    Objective: To study reading performance of young adults with ADHD and its relation with executive functioning. Method: Thirty young adults with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD and 30 with normal development (ND) were compared on reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. Furthermore, ADHD with reading disabilities (ADHD+RD) and ADHD without reading disabilities (ADHD-RD) subgroups were compared using self-report and informant-report versions of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A). Results: Adults with ADHD obtained significantly worse results than the ND adults on reading speed, responses to literal questions, and a cloze test. Although the comparison of the ADHD+RD and ADHD-RD groups did not show significant differences on the BRIEF-A subscales, the ADHD+RD group surpassed the critical percentile (85) on more subscales, with working memory and metacognition especially affected. Conclusion: The findings point out that reading should be assessed in individuals with ADHD as part of their evaluation to design effective early interventions. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX).

  19. Reading Performance of Young Adults With ADHD Diagnosed in Childhood: Relations With Executive Functioning.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Colomer, Carla

    2013-10-22

    Objective: To study reading performance of young adults with ADHD and its relation with executive functioning. Method: Thirty young adults with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD and 30 with normal development (ND) were compared on reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. Furthermore, ADHD with reading disabilities (ADHD+RD) and ADHD without reading disabilities (ADHD-RD) subgroups were compared using self-report and informant-report versions of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A). Results: Adults with ADHD obtained significantly worse results than the ND adults on reading speed, responses to literal questions, and a cloze test. Although the comparison of the ADHD+RD and ADHD-RD groups did not show significant differences on the BRIEF-A subscales, the ADHD+RD group surpassed the critical percentile (85) on more subscales, with working memory and metacognition especially affected. Conclusion: The findings point out that reading should be assessed in individuals with ADHD as part of their evaluation to design effective early interventions. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24149941

  20. Speed discrimination predicts word but not pseudo-word reading rate in adults and children

    PubMed Central

    Main, Keith L.; Pestilli, Franco; Mezer, Aviv; Yeatman, Jason; Martin, Ryan; Phipps, Stephanie; Wandell, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Word familiarity may affect magnocellular processes of word recognition. To explore this idea, we measured reading rate, speed-discrimination, and contrast detection thresholds in adults and children with a wide range of reading abilities. We found that speed-discrimination thresholds are higher in children than in adults and are correlated with age. Speed discrimination thresholds are also correlated with reading rate, but only for words, not for pseudo-words. Conversely, we found no correlation between contrast sensitivity and reading rate and no correlation between speed discrimination thresholds WASI subtest scores. These findings support the position that reading rate is influenced by magnocellular circuitry attuned to the recognition of familiar word-forms. PMID:25278418

  1. Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems Braille Reading Assessment: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey, Virginia K.; Henderson, Barbara W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This exploratory study determined whether transcribing selected test items on an adult life and work skills reading test into braille could maintain the same approximate scale-score range and maintain fitness within the item response theory model as used by the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (CASAS) for developing…

  2. Why Johnny's Dad Can't Read: The Elusive Goal of Universal Adult Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Meredith

    1991-01-01

    Discusses efforts to achieve higher rates of adult literacy and pedagogical approaches to learning to read. Describes definitions of literacy, school standards, and possible reasons for high rates of adult illiteracy. Discusses teaching methods, particularly the Nellie Thomas method, which has had success in prison literacy programs. (JB)

  3. Competency Based Reading and Math Program for Adult Students Entering Vocational Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palagi, Robert G.

    The Testing and Assessment Department of Dawson Technical Institute (Illinois) determined that approximately 25-30 percent of the students taking the entrance Test of Adult Basic Education do not meet the academic level required to start a training program. A competency-based adult reading and math program was developed, and the decision was made…

  4. Comparing Hypertext Reading in L1 and L2: The Case of Filipino Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruspe, Michael Angelo M.; Marinas, Christian Joshua L.; Villasin, Marren Nicole F.; Villanueva, Ariel Josephe Therese R.; Vizconde, Camilla J.

    2015-01-01

    This research probed into the reading experiences of adult readers in their first language (L1) and second language (L2). Qualitative in nature, the investigation focused on twelve (12) adult readers , six (6) males and six (6) females, whose first language is Filipino. Data were gathered through interviews and focus-group discussions. Based on…

  5. Filtered text reveals adult age differences in reading: evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Kevin B; McGowan, Victoria A; Jordan, Timothy R

    2013-06-01

    Sensitivity to certain spatial frequencies declines with age and this may have profound effects on reading performance. However, the spatial frequency content of text actually used by older adults (aged 65+), and how this differs from that used by young adults (aged 18-30), remains to be determined. To investigate this issue, the eye movement behavior of young and older adult readers was assessed using a gaze-contingent moving-window paradigm in which text was shown normally within a region centered at the point of gaze, whereas text outside this region was filtered to contain only low, medium, or high spatial frequencies. For young adults, reading times were affected by spatial frequency content when windows of normal text extended up to nine characters wide. Within this processing region, the reading performance of young adults was affected little when text outside the window contained either only high or medium spatial frequencies, but was disrupted substantially when text contained only low spatial frequencies. By contrast, the reading performance of older adults was affected by spatial frequency content when windows extended up to 18 characters wide. Moreover, within this extended processing region, reading performance was disrupted when text contained any one band of spatial frequencies, but was disrupted most of all when text contained only high spatial frequencies. These findings indicate that older adults are sensitive to the spatial frequency content of text from a much wider region than young adults, and rely much more than young adults on coarse-scale components of text when reading.

  6. What, Why, and How They Read: Reading Preferences and Patterns of Rural Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becnel, Kim; Moeller, Robin A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the reading patterns and preferences of rural teen readers and the cultures of reading that do or do not exist in the rural communities in which the teens reside. In addition, the researchers sought to discover, by conducting a series of focus groups, whether rural teen readers felt connected to…

  7. College and Adult Reading X: The Tenth Yearbook of the North Central Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Joseph A., Ed.

    Including sections on research, programs, and professional problems and issues, this yearbook contains presentations given at the 1978 and 1979 meetings of the North Central Reading Association. Papers include: "The Effects of Anxiety on Reading Comprehension" (David Wark and others); "Some Effects of Anxiety on University Students" (J. Michael…

  8. The Association between Taking Dietary Supplements and Healthy Habits among Korean Adults: Results from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2010–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, So-Hye; Kim, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyung-Do; Kwack, Tae-Eung; Kim, Bo-Seon; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Jo, Eun-Bae; Park, Young-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, the number of people interested in health in South Korea has increased, and the rate of dietary supplement use is rising. Researchers have hypothesized that the rate of practicing healthy habits is higher among those who use dietary supplements than those who do not. Therefore, this study aimed to discover the association between taking dietary supplements and practicing various healthy habits in the Korean, adult population. Methods The sample included 15,789 adults over 19 years old who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The user group was defined as those taking dietary supplements for more than 2 weeks during the previous year or once during the past month. Measures for the seven healthy habits were based on those included in the Alameda study and were analyzed accounting for the complex sampling design. Results The rate of taking dietary supplements was significantly higher in women, middle aged participants, urban residents, those with a higher income, those with a higher education level, and nonsmokers as well as among women with a moderate subjective health status, women who limited their alcohol content, and women with dyslipidemia. In the adjusted analysis, the rate of performing three of the 'Alameda 7' habits—eating breakfast regularly, restricting snacking, and limiting drinking—was higher in the female dietary supplement user group than in the other groups. Women practiced more healthy habits and had a higher dietary supplement intake rate than men. Conclusion We found that taking dietary supplements in Korean adults is highly associated with demographic and social factors. Taking dietary supplements had a relationship with dietary habits, and there was no significant association between dietary supplement and other healthy habits. Thus in the health clinic, we suggest that taking dietary supplements complements a patient's healthy habits, with the exception of dietary habits, for

  9. The neural underpinnings of reading skill in deaf adults.

    PubMed

    Emmorey, Karen; McCullough, Stephen; Weisberg, Jill

    2016-09-01

    We investigated word-level reading circuits in skilled deaf readers (N=14; mean reading age=19.5years) and less skilled deaf readers (N=14; mean reading age=12years) who were all highly proficient users of American Sign Language. During fMRI scanning, participants performed a semantic decision (concrete concept?), a phonological decision (two syllables?), and a false-font control task (string underlined?). No significant group differences were observed with the full participant set. However, an analysis with the 10 most and 10 least skilled readers revealed that for the semantic task (vs. control task), proficient deaf readers exhibited greater activation in left inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri than less proficient readers. No group differences were observed for the phonological task. Whole-brain correlation analyses (all participants) revealed that for the semantic task, reading ability correlated positively with neural activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus and in a region associated with the orthography-semantics interface, located anterior to the visual word form area. Reading ability did not correlate with neural activity during the phonological task. Accuracy on the semantic task correlated positively with neural activity in left anterior temporal lobe (a region linked to conceptual processing), while accuracy on the phonological task correlated positively with neural activity in left posterior inferior frontal gyrus (a region linked to syllabification processes during speech production). Finally, reading comprehension scores correlated positively with vocabulary and print exposure measures, but not with phonological awareness scores. PMID:27448530

  10. The neural underpinnings of reading skill in deaf adults.

    PubMed

    Emmorey, Karen; McCullough, Stephen; Weisberg, Jill

    2016-09-01

    We investigated word-level reading circuits in skilled deaf readers (N=14; mean reading age=19.5years) and less skilled deaf readers (N=14; mean reading age=12years) who were all highly proficient users of American Sign Language. During fMRI scanning, participants performed a semantic decision (concrete concept?), a phonological decision (two syllables?), and a false-font control task (string underlined?). No significant group differences were observed with the full participant set. However, an analysis with the 10 most and 10 least skilled readers revealed that for the semantic task (vs. control task), proficient deaf readers exhibited greater activation in left inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri than less proficient readers. No group differences were observed for the phonological task. Whole-brain correlation analyses (all participants) revealed that for the semantic task, reading ability correlated positively with neural activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus and in a region associated with the orthography-semantics interface, located anterior to the visual word form area. Reading ability did not correlate with neural activity during the phonological task. Accuracy on the semantic task correlated positively with neural activity in left anterior temporal lobe (a region linked to conceptual processing), while accuracy on the phonological task correlated positively with neural activity in left posterior inferior frontal gyrus (a region linked to syllabification processes during speech production). Finally, reading comprehension scores correlated positively with vocabulary and print exposure measures, but not with phonological awareness scores.

  11. Calibration of Self-Reports of Anxiety and Physiological Measures of Anxiety While Reading in Adults With and Without Reading Disability.

    PubMed

    Meer, Yael; Breznitz, Zvia; Katzir, Tami

    2016-08-01

    Reading difficulty has been linked to anxiety in adults yet and has not been systematically studied especially in compensated adults with dyslexia. This study examined the relationships between anxiety ratings and physiological arousal while reading among adults with reading disability (RD) compared to skilled readers (SR). Nineteen compensated adults with RD and 20 SR adults were administered a battery of reading tasks and anxiety self-report questionnaires. Physiological measures of arousal were recorded during text reading task. Adults with RD scored significantly lower than SR on all cognitive and reading related measures. They showed no differences on any of the self-report anxiety measures. Interestingly, in the skilled readers' sample, physiological arousal while reading correlated with trait anxiety. No correlations between physiological and self-reported data were found in the RD sample. These findings suggest a model of resiliency in compensated adults with reading disabilities that includes lower anxiety levels and a discord between anxiety reports and actual arousal rates. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27465210

  12. Eating habits of preschool children and the risk of obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in adults.

    PubMed

    Kostecka, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objective : Nutrient excess and nutrient deficiency in the diets of preschool children can lead to permanent modification of metabolic pathways and increased risk of diet-dependent diseases in adults. Children are most susceptible to the adverse consequences of bad eating habits.The objective of this study was to evaluate the eating habits and the diets of preschool children as risk factors for excessive weight, obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Methods : The study was conducted on 350 randomly selected preschool children attending kindergartens in south-eastern Poland. Three-day dietary recalls were processed and evaluated in the Dieta 5 application. Results : The analyzed diets were characterized by low diversity and a high share of processed foods, such as pate, sausages, ketchup, mayonnaise, fried meat, French fries and fast-food. The dietary content of vegetables, raw fruit, dairy products and whole grain products was alarmingly low. Conclusions : Diets characterized by excessive energy value and nutritional deficiency can lead to health problems. In most cases, excessive weight gain in children can be blamed on parents and caretakers who are not aware of the health consequences of high-calorie foods rich in fats and sugar.

  13. Eating habits of preschool children and the risk of obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in adults.

    PubMed

    Kostecka, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objective : Nutrient excess and nutrient deficiency in the diets of preschool children can lead to permanent modification of metabolic pathways and increased risk of diet-dependent diseases in adults. Children are most susceptible to the adverse consequences of bad eating habits.The objective of this study was to evaluate the eating habits and the diets of preschool children as risk factors for excessive weight, obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Methods : The study was conducted on 350 randomly selected preschool children attending kindergartens in south-eastern Poland. Three-day dietary recalls were processed and evaluated in the Dieta 5 application. Results : The analyzed diets were characterized by low diversity and a high share of processed foods, such as pate, sausages, ketchup, mayonnaise, fried meat, French fries and fast-food. The dietary content of vegetables, raw fruit, dairy products and whole grain products was alarmingly low. Conclusions : Diets characterized by excessive energy value and nutritional deficiency can lead to health problems. In most cases, excessive weight gain in children can be blamed on parents and caretakers who are not aware of the health consequences of high-calorie foods rich in fats and sugar. PMID:25674127

  14. Improved reading measures in adults with dyslexia following transcranial direct current stimulation treatment.

    PubMed

    Heth, Inbahl; Lavidor, Michal

    2015-04-01

    To better understand the contribution of the dorsal system to word reading, we explored transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) effects when adults with developmental dyslexia received active stimulation over the visual extrastriate area MT/V5, which is dominated by magnocellular input. Stimulation was administered in 5 sessions spread over two weeks, and reading speed and accuracy as well as reading fluency were assessed before, immediately after, and a week after the end of the treatment. A control group of adults with developmental dyslexia matched for age, gender, reading level, vocabulary and block-design WAIS-III sub-tests and reading level was exposed to the same protocol but with sham stimulation. The results revealed that active, but not sham stimulation, significantly improved reading speed and fluency. This finding suggests that the dorsal stream may play a role in efficient retrieval from the orthographic input lexicon in the lexical route. It also underscores the potential of tDCS as an intervention tool for improving reading speed, at least in adults with developmental dyslexia.

  15. Units of analysis in nonword reading: evidence from children and adults.

    PubMed

    Brown, G D; Deavers, R P

    1999-07-01

    Four experiments examined variations in children's (chronological age range: 5 years 7 months to 9 years 10 months) and adults' reading strategy as a function of task demands. Experiment 1 found that less skilled readers (mean reading age: 8 years 8 months), though able to make use of rime-based spelling-to-sound correspondences (reading "by analogy"), predominantly used simple grapheme-phoneme-level correspondences in reading isolated unfamiliar items. Skilled children (mean reading age: 11 years 6 months) were more likely to adopt an analogy strategy. Experiments 2 and 3 adopted versions of the "clue word" technique used by U. Goswami (1986, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 42, 73-83; 1988, Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 40A, 239-268) and found a much higher incidence of analogical responding by children of all ages, suggesting that reading strategy is task-dependent. Experiment 4 showed that adults' nonword-reading strategy is determined by list composition, in that grapheme-phoneme correspondences are used more when the list context contains nonwords. It is concluded that both adults and young children exhibit considerable flexibility and task-dependence in the levels of spelling-to-sound correspondence (analogies vs decoding) that they use and that grapheme-phoneme correspondences are preferred when maximum generalization to unfamiliar items is required.

  16. Serving Adolescents' Reading Interests through Young Adult Literature. Fastback 258.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lucy

    Intended to help parents and teachers select books for young people that reflect the actual interests of adolescents, this booklet discusses titles that both appeal to teenagers and help adults gain insight into their needs, their concerns, and their values. Titles of chapters in the booklet are as follows: (1) "Are Young Adult Books Literature?";…

  17. Individual differences in white matter anatomy predict dissociable components of reading skill in adults.

    PubMed

    Welcome, Suzanne E; Joanisse, Marc F

    2014-08-01

    We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate relationships between white matter anatomy and different reading subskills in typical-reading adults. A series of analytic approaches revealed that phonological decoding ability is associated with anatomical markers that do not relate to other reading-related cognitive abilities. Thus, individual differences in phonological decoding might relate to connectivity between a network of cortical regions, while skills like sight word reading might rely less strongly on integration across regions. Specifically, manually-drawn ROIs and probabilistic tractography revealed an association between the volume and integrity of white matter underlying primary auditory cortex and nonword reading ability. In a related finding, more extensive cross-hemispheric connections through the isthmus of the corpus callosum predicted better phonological decoding. Atlas-based white matter ROIs demonstrated that relationships with nonword reading were strongest in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and uncinate fasciculus that connect occipital and anterior temporal cortex with inferior frontal cortex. In contrast, tract volume underlying the left angular gyrus was related to nonverbal IQ. Finally, connectivity underlying functional ROIs that are differentially active during phonological and semantic processing predicted nonword reading and reading comprehension, respectively. Together, these results provide important insights into how white matter anatomy may relate to both typical reading subskills, and perhaps a roadmap for understanding neural connectivity in individuals with reading impairments.

  18. Children's and adults' on-line processing of syntactically ambiguous sentences during reading.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Holly S S L; Liversedge, Simon P

    2013-01-01

    While there has been a fair amount of research investigating children's syntactic processing during spoken language comprehension, and a wealth of research examining adults' syntactic processing during reading, as yet very little research has focused on syntactic processing during text reading in children. In two experiments, children and adults read sentences containing a temporary syntactic ambiguity while their eye movements were monitored. In Experiment 1, participants read sentences such as, 'The boy poked the elephant with the long stick/trunk from outside the cage' in which the attachment of a prepositional phrase was manipulated. In Experiment 2, participants read sentences such as, 'I think I'll wear the new skirt I bought tomorrow/yesterday. It's really nice' in which the attachment of an adverbial phrase was manipulated. Results showed that adults and children exhibited similar processing preferences, but that children were delayed relative to adults in their detection of initial syntactic misanalysis. It is concluded that children and adults have the same sentence-parsing mechanism in place, but that it operates with a slightly different time course. In addition, the data support the hypothesis that the visual processing system develops at a different rate than the linguistic processing system in children.

  19. Changing circumstances, disrupting habits.

    PubMed

    Wood, Wendy; Witt, Melissa Guerrero; Tam, Leona

    2005-06-01

    The present research investigated the mechanisms guiding habitual behavior, specifically, the stimulus cues that trigger habit performance. When usual contexts for performance change, habits cannot be cued by recurring stimuli, and performance should be disrupted. Thus, the exercising, newspaper reading, and TV watching habits of students transferring to a new university were found to survive the transfer only when aspects of the performance context did not change (e.g., participants continued to read the paper with others). In some cases, the disruption in habits also placed behavior under intentional control so that participants acted on their current intentions. Changes in circumstances also affected the favorability of intentions, but changes in intentions alone could not explain the disruption of habits. Furthermore, regardless of whether contexts changed, nonhabitual behavior was guided by intentions. PMID:15982113

  20. Undernutrition among adult Bengalees of Dearah, Hooghly District, West Bengal, India: relationship with educational status and food habit.

    PubMed

    Bose, Kaushik; Bisai, Samiran; Sadhukhan, Sanjay; Mukhopadhyay, Ashish; Bhadra, Mithu

    2009-06-01

    A cross-sectional study of 1203 adult (> 18 years of age) Bengalees of Dearah, Hooghly District, West Bengal, India, was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of undernutrition and the relationship of educational level and food habit with undernutrition. Height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) computed following the standard equation. A BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 was classified as undernutrition or chronic energy deficiency (CED) as per World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. The public health problem of low BMI in this population was classified according to the WHO criteria. Educational status was coded as: no formal education, 1-8 years of schooling and > 8 years of schooling. Food habit was recorded as vegetarian or non-vegetarian. The mean ages of males and females were (39.6 +/- 15.0 years) and (39.6 +/- 15.0 years), respectively. There were significant (p < 0.001) sex differences in mean height and weight; both sexes had a similar BMI. The overall (sex combined) prevalence of undernutrition was 27.7%. The frequency of undernutrition was significantly (p < 0.001) higher among females (31.7%) compared to males (23.6%). According to the WHO classification of low BMI, the prevalence of CED was high (20-39%) indicating a serious situation. There existed a significant (p < 0.001) relationship between the level of formal education and nutritional status. Overall, the frequencies of CED (43.5%) were much higher than overweight (7.0%) among subjects with no formal education. The frequencies of CED and overweight among subjects with 1-8 years of formal education were 25.7% and 9.7%, respectively. Similarly, significantly (p < 0.001) higher rates of CED were found among subjects with no formal education in both sexes (males = 39.5%; females = 45.6%) compared to the presence of overweight (males = 1.8%; females = 9.8%). Sex-combined frequency of undernutrition was significantly (p < 0.001) higher among vegetarians (48.3%) compared with non

  1. Writing and Reading with Art: Adult Literacy, Transformation, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Nair Rios; Goncalves, Maria Jose

    2012-01-01

    Especially in a time of economic and social crisis, besides poverty and social segregation, immigrants face an additional difficulty to get integrated in a new society: lack of oral and written knowledge of the language of the country they are now living in. This paper describes an on-going research project--Writing and Reading with Art (WRAP)…

  2. Factors Underlying Second Language Reading Motivation of Adult EAP Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komiyama, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    Characteristics of English for Academic Purposes students' second language (L2) motivation were examined by identifying underlying motivational factors. Using the motivation constructs created by first language reading researchers, a survey was developed and administered to 2,018 students from 53 English language programs in the U.S. Survey…

  3. What's it all about? Investigating reading comprehension strategies in young adults with down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Michelle; Moni, Karen B; Jobling, Anne

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of reading is for the reader to construct meaning from the text. For many young adults with Down syndrome, knowing what the text is all about is difficult, and so for them the activity of reading becomes simply the practice of word calling. It is suggested in the literature that for those individuals with Down syndrome, learning can continue into adolescence and that this may be the optimal time for learning to occur. However, a review of the literature revealed limited empirical research specifically relating to the reading comprehension of young adults with Down syndrome. Recent findings from Latch-On (Literacy And Technology Hands On), a research-based literacy and technology program for young adults with Down syndrome at the University of Queensland, revealed that comprehension remained the significant area of difficulty and showed least improvement (Moni & Jobling, 2001). It was suggested by Moni and Jobling (2001) that explicit instruction in comprehension using a variety of strategies and meaningful, relevant texts was required to improve the ability of young adults with Down syndrome to construct meaning from written texts. This paper is based on an action research project that was developed within the Latch-On program. The project utilised a modification of Elliot's (1991) action research model and was conducted to investigate specific teaching and learning strategies that would enhance the reading comprehension of young adults with Down syndrome. The participants were 6 young adults with Down syndrome ranging in age from 18 to 25 years. As the data from this project are still being analysed, preliminary findings of one participant are presented as a case study. The preliminary findings appear to indicate that the program of specific teaching and learning reading comprehension strategies used in this project was beneficial in the participant's reading comprehension.

  4. Reading speed in the peripheral visual field of older adults: Does it benefit from perceptual learning?

    PubMed

    Yu, Deyue; Cheung, Sing-Hang; Legge, Gordon E; Chung, Susana T L

    2010-04-21

    Enhancing reading ability in peripheral vision is important for the rehabilitation of people with central-visual-field loss from age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Previous research has shown that perceptual learning, based on a trigram letter-recognition task, improved peripheral reading speed among normally-sighted young adults (Chung, Legge, & Cheung, 2004). Here we ask whether the same happens in older adults in an age range more typical of the onset of AMD. Eighteen normally-sighted subjects, aged 55-76years, were randomly assigned to training or control groups. Visual-span profiles (plots of letter-recognition accuracy as a function of horizontal letter position) and RSVP reading speeds were measured at 10 degrees above and below fixation during pre- and post-tests for all subjects. Training consisted of repeated measurements of visual-span profiles at 10 degrees below fixation, in four daily sessions. The control subjects did not receive any training. Perceptual learning enlarged the visual spans in both trained (lower) and untrained (upper) visual fields. Reading speed improved in the trained field by 60% when the trained print size was used. The training benefits for these older subjects were weaker than the training benefits for young adults found by Chung et al. Despite the weaker training benefits, perceptual learning remains a potential option for low-vision reading rehabilitation among older adults.

  5. Reading comprehension skills of young adults with childhood diagnoses of dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Ransby, Marilyn J; Swanson, H Lee

    2003-01-01

    This study explores the contribution of cognitive processes to comprehension skills in adults who suffered from childhood developmental dyslexia (CD). The performance of adults with CD (ages 17 to 23), chronological age-matched (CA) adults, and reading level-matched (RL) children was compared on measures of phonological processing, naming speed, working memory (WM), general knowledge, vocabulary, and comprehension. The results showed that adults with CD scored lower on measures of phonological processing, naming speed, WM, general knowledge, and vocabulary when compared to CA readers but were comparable to RL children on the majority of process measures. Phonological processing, naming speed, vocabulary, general knowledge, and listening comprehension contributed independent variance to reading comprehension accuracy, whereas WM, intelligence, phonological processing, and listening comprehension contributed independent variance to comprehension fluency. Adults with CD scored lower than CA adults and higher than RL children on measures of lexical processing, WM, and listening comprehension when word recognition and intelligence were partialed from the analysis. In summary, constraints in phonological processing and naming speed mediate only some of the influence of high-order processes on reading comprehension. Furthermore, adults with CD experience difficulties in WM, listening comprehension, and vocabulary independently of their word recognition problems and intellectual ability.

  6. Does Extra Interletter Spacing Help Text Reading in Skilled Adult Readers?

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Giner, Lourdes; Marcet, Ana; Gomez, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    A number of experiments have shown that, in skilled adult readers, a small increase in interletter spacing speeds up the process of visual word recognition relative to the default settings (i.e., judge faster than judge). The goal of the present experiment was to examine whether this effect can be generalized to a more ecological scenario: text reading. Each participant read two stories (367 words each) taken from a standardized reading test. The stories were presented with the standard interletter spacing or with a small increase in interletter spacing (+1.2 points to default) in a within-subject design. An eyetracker was used to register the participants' eye movements. Comprehension scores were also examined. Results showed that, on average, fixation durations were shorter while reading the text with extra spacing than while reading the text with the default settings (237 vs. 245 ms, respectively; η2 =. 41, p = .01). However, the number of fixations (while nonsignificant) was slightly higher in the text with extra spacing than in the text with the default spacing, and cancelled out the effect of interletter spacing in total reading times (F < 1). Comprehension scores were similar in the two spacing conditions (F < 1). Thus, at least for skilled adult readers, interletter spacing does not seem to play a consistently facilitative role during text reading. PMID:27210581

  7. Do adult readers know how they read? Evidence from eye movement patterns and verbal reports.

    PubMed

    Hyönä, Jukka; Nurminen, Anna-Mari

    2006-02-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate individual differences in reading styles among competent adult readers and to examine whether readers are aware of their reading style. Individual reading strategies were studied by having the participants read a long expository text while their eye fixation patterns were registered. A cluster analysis was performed on the eye movement data to distinguish between different reading styles. The analysis revealed three types of readers that were coined, following Hyönä, Lorch, and Kaakinen (2002), fast linear readers, slow linear readers, and topic structure processors. Readers' procedural awareness of their reading behaviour was assessed by a questionnaire. The verbal reports obtained by the questionnaire were then correlated with the corresponding eye behaviour to investigate the extent to which the readers behave the way they report doing. The correlations showed that adult readers are well aware of their general reading speed and reasonably aware of their lookback and rereading behaviour. The amount of time spent looking back in text also correlated positively with the relative success in recalling the main points expressed in the text. It is concluded that systematic and extensive looking back in text is indicative of strategic behaviour. PMID:16464286

  8. College and Adult Reading XIII: The Thirteenth Yearbook of the North Central Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Joseph A., Ed.

    Containing selections of the papers presented at the 1984 and 1985 annual meetings of the North Central Reading Association, this yearbook includes sections on research; reviews of research; professional issues; and program descriptions. Papers include: "Twenty-Five Years of Professional Progress" (James E. Walker); "A Study of Student Alienation…

  9. College and Adult Reading VII: The Seventh Yearbook of the North Central Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wark, David M., Ed.

    Spanning the annual meetings of the North Central Reading Association from 1971 to 1974, this yearbook presents papers dealing with programs and centers, materials and techniques, a new research field, and in honor of Roger S. Pepper. Papers include: "Attitudinal Factors among Marginal Admission Students" (Roger S. Pepper and John A. Drexler,…

  10. College and Adult Reading XII: The Twelfth Yearbook of the North Central Reading Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Joseph A., Ed.

    Consisting of a selection of papers presented at the 1982 and 1983 meetings of the North Central Reading Association, this yearbook includes sections on computers, research, professional issues, and programs. Papers include: "The Computerized Broom Will Sweep Our Future Classrooms: But Not Necessarily Clean" (George E. Mason); "Beyond the…

  11. The Adult Reading History Questionnaire (ARHQ) in Icelandic: Psychometric Properties and Factor Structure.

    PubMed

    Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Halldorsson, Jonas G; Steinberg, Stacy; Hansdottir, Ingunn; Kristjansson, Kristleifur; Stefansson, Hreinn; Stefansson, Kari

    2014-01-01

    This article describes psychometric testing of an Icelandic adaptation of the Adult Reading History Questionnaire (ARHQ), designed to detect a history of reading difficulties indicative of dyslexia. Tested in a large and diverse sample of 2,187 adults, the Icelandic adaptation demonstrated internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha = .92) and test-retest reliability (r = .93). Validity was established by comparing scores of adults who as children received ICD-10 diagnoses of specific reading disorder (F81.0; n = 419) to those of adults defined as nondyslexics (n = 679). ROC curve analysis resulted in an area under the curve of .92 (95% CI = .90, .93, p < .001) and a cutoff score of .43 with sensitivity of 84.5% and specificity of 83.7%. An exploratory factor analysis (n = 2,187) suggested three subscales, Dyslexia Symptoms, Current Reading, and Memory, the mean scores of which differed significantly among diagnosed dyslexics, relatives of dyslexics, and population controls. Our results support the applicability of the ARHQ in Icelandic as a self-report screening tool for adult dyslexia in Iceland. PMID:23456983

  12. Development and validation of an assessment of adult educators' reading instructional knowledge.

    PubMed

    Bell, Sherry Mee; McCallum, R Steve; Ziegler, Mary; Davis, C A; Coleman, Maribeth

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe briefly the development and utility of the Assessment of Reading Instructional Knowledge-Adults (ARIK-A), the only nationally normed (n = 468) measure of adult reading instructional knowledge, created to facilitate professional development of adult educators. Developmental data reveal reliabilities ranging from 0.73 to 0.85 for five ARIK-A scales (alphabetics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, and assessment) and 0.91 for the composite score; factor analytic data and expert review provide support for construct validity as well. Information on how to use the ARIK-A to determine mastery and relative standing is presented. With two alternate forms, the ARIK-A is a promising and needed tool for adult education practitioners within continuing education and professional development contexts. PMID:23152145

  13. Physical Exercise Habits Correlate with Gray Matter Volume of the Hippocampus in Healthy Adult Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killgore, William D. S.; Olson, Elizabeth A.; Weber, Mareen

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity facilitates neurogenesis of dentate cells in the rodent hippocampus, a brain region critical for memory formation and spatial representation. Recent findings in humans also suggest that aerobic exercise can lead to increased hippocampal volume and enhanced cognitive functioning in children and elderly adults. However, the association between physical activity and hippocampal volume during the period from early adulthood through middle age has not been effectively explored. Here, we correlated the number of minutes of self-reported exercise per week with gray matter volume of the hippocampus using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 61 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 45 years of age. After controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume, total minutes of weekly exercise correlated significantly with volume of the right hippocampus. Findings highlight the relationship between regular physical exercise and brain structure during early to middle adulthood.

  14. Supplemental Reading for Ninth Graders: Classic or Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Katherine Jane Roney

    2012-01-01

    The project addressed the debate over supplemental literature: young adult or classic selections to better support teaching ninth graders Tennessee's English I curriculum standards. Research supported both classical and contemporary literature for teaching ninth graders, making it difficult to determine which type of literature might produce…

  15. Cover Art, Consumerism, and YA [Young Adult] Reading Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kies, Cosette

    Cover art has long been used as a marketing device for books, particularly with books aimed at young adults (YAs) aged 12 to 18. An examination of some of the teen thrillers published by novelist Lois Duncan since the 1970s yields several discoveries about changes in cover art that come with various editions. Many covers have been resigned to…

  16. Smoking habits and coenzyme Q10 status in healthy European adults

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Alexandra; Onur, Simone; Paulussen, Michael; Menke, Thomas; Döring, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a lipophilic endogenously synthesised antioxidant that is present in nearly all human tissues and plays an important role in mitochondrial energy production. It has been postulated that smoking has a consumptive effect on CoQ10. Material and methods To further define the relation between smoking and the serum CoQ10 status, 276 healthy volunteers aged 19 to 62 years were grouped into non-smokers (n = 113; 77 male, 36 female) and smokers (n = 163; 102 male, 61 female). Serum lipid profile was analysed by standard clinical chemistry. Coenzyme Q10 concentration and redox status were analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Results Male smokers showed higher serum CoQ10 levels than female smokers. This sex-related difference was accounted for when CoQ10 was related to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol as the main carrier of CoQ10 in the circulation. Neither LDL-adjusted CoQ10 concentration nor redox status significantly differed when smokers and non-smokers were compared. Regarding the smoking history, the number of cigarettes consumed per day did not significantly affect the CoQ10 status. Interestingly, with increasing time of smoking habit we observed increasing levels of LDL-adjusted serum CoQ10 concentration (Spearman's p < 0.002) and of the reduced form of CoQ10 (Spearman's p < 0.0001). Conclusions As an adaptive response to oxidative stress in long-term smokers an increased demand for antioxidant capacity may be covered by increasing levels of LDL-adjusted CoQ10 serum concentrations and by a concomitantly increased availability of the reduced, active form of CoQ10, possibly by induction of enzymes that are involved in converting CoQ10ox to CoQ10red. PMID:27478450

  17. Does testing with feedback improve adult spelling skills relative to copying and reading?

    PubMed

    Pan, Steven C; Rubin, Benjamin R; Rickard, Timothy C

    2015-12-01

    We examined testing's ability to enhance adult spelling acquisition, relative to copying and reading. Across 3 experiments in which testing with feedback was compared with copying, the spelling improvement after testing matched that following the same amount of time spent copying. A potent testing advantage, however, was observed for spelling words free-recalled. In the fourth experiment, a large testing advantage for both word free recall and spelling was observed, versus reading. Subjects also generally preferred testing and rated it as more effective than copying or reading. The equivalent performance of testing and copying for spelling contrasts with prior work involving children and suggests that retrieval practice may not be the only effective mechanism for spelling skill acquisition. Rather, we suggest that the critical learning event for spelling is focused study on phoneme-to-grapheme mappings for previously unlearned letter sequences. For adults with extensive spelling expertise, focused study is more automatic during both copying and testing with feedback than for individuals with beginning spelling skills. Reading, however, would not be expected to produce efficient focused study of phoneme-to-grapheme mappings, regardless of expertise level. Overall, adult spelling skill acquisition benefits both from testing and copying, and substantially less from reading.

  18. Does testing with feedback improve adult spelling skills relative to copying and reading?

    PubMed

    Pan, Steven C; Rubin, Benjamin R; Rickard, Timothy C

    2015-12-01

    We examined testing's ability to enhance adult spelling acquisition, relative to copying and reading. Across 3 experiments in which testing with feedback was compared with copying, the spelling improvement after testing matched that following the same amount of time spent copying. A potent testing advantage, however, was observed for spelling words free-recalled. In the fourth experiment, a large testing advantage for both word free recall and spelling was observed, versus reading. Subjects also generally preferred testing and rated it as more effective than copying or reading. The equivalent performance of testing and copying for spelling contrasts with prior work involving children and suggests that retrieval practice may not be the only effective mechanism for spelling skill acquisition. Rather, we suggest that the critical learning event for spelling is focused study on phoneme-to-grapheme mappings for previously unlearned letter sequences. For adults with extensive spelling expertise, focused study is more automatic during both copying and testing with feedback than for individuals with beginning spelling skills. Reading, however, would not be expected to produce efficient focused study of phoneme-to-grapheme mappings, regardless of expertise level. Overall, adult spelling skill acquisition benefits both from testing and copying, and substantially less from reading. PMID:26460674

  19. The Test-Taking Behaviors, Knowledge and Perceptions of Adult Basic Education Students on a Standardized Reading Comprehension Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schierloh, Jane M.

    A qualitative study investigated the test-taking behaviors, knowledge, and perceptions of 20 urban, adult basic education students reading at third to fifth grade equivalency levels. The entire reading comprehension subtest of the Test of Adult Basic Education, levels E and M, was administered under standardized conditions. A combination of…

  20. An Evaluation of Words in Color or Morphologico-Algebraic Approach to Teaching Reading to Functionally Illiterate Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinds, Lillian R.

    Seventy Cleveland, Ohio, inner city adult illiterates, 33 from an experimental group and 37 from a contrast group, were studied to determine the efficiency and effectiveness of Words in Color or the Morphologico-Algebraic approach to teaching reading. Results indicated that the reading achievement gain of functionally illiterate adults taught by…

  1. Are Phonological Processes the Same or Different in Low Literacy Adults and Children with or without Reading Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Juan E.; Garcia, Eduardo; Venegas, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study reported here was to examine whether phonological processes are the same or different in low literacy adults and children with or without reading disabilities in a consistent orthography. A sample of 150 subjects was selected and organized into four different groups: 53 low literacy adults, 29 reading disabled…

  2. What component of executive functions contributes to normal and impaired reading comprehension in young adults?

    PubMed

    Georgiou, George K; Das, J P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: (a) to examine what component of executive functions (EF) - planning and working memory - predicts reading comprehension in young adults (Study 1), and (b) to examine if less skilled comprehenders experience deficits in the EF components (Study 2). In Study 1, we assessed 178 university students (120 females; mean age=21.82 years) on planning (Planned Connections, Planned Codes, and Planned Patterns), working memory (Listening Span, Digit Span Backward, and Digit Memory), and reading comprehension (Nelson-Denny Reading Test). The results of structural equation modeling indicated that only planning was a significant predictor of reading comprehension. In Study 2, we assessed 30 university students with a specific reading comprehension deficit (19 females; mean age=23.01 years) and 30 controls (18 females; mean age=22.77 years) on planning (Planned Connections and Crack the Code) and working memory (Listening Span and Digit Span Backward). The results showed that less skilled comprehenders performed significantly poorer than controls only in planning. Taken together, the findings of both studies suggest that planning is the preeminent component of EF that is driving its relationship with reading comprehension in young adults.

  3. Forgetting How to Read, or Just Re-Locating It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    A study conducted by the National Endowment for the Arts found that the percentage of American adults who read literature has declined rapidly over the past two decades, indicating an imminent cultural crisis. Digital revolution, which has had a tremendous impact on young people's reading habits, is considered as the major culprit of this decline…

  4. Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM): A Quick Reading Test for Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Peggy W.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes a reading recognition test called Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) that is designed to identify low literacy levels in patients. Notes that information thus obtained is useful in directing patient-physician communications and in promoting patient understanding of commonly used oral and written medical information. (SR)

  5. Vocational Education and Training for Adult Prisoners and Offenders in Australia. Research Readings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawe, Susan, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book of research readings provides clear evidence that adult prisoners and offenders who participate in vocational education and training (VET) during their sentence are less likely to re-offend. A reduction in recidivism represents significant cost savings to the community. The book highlights recent improvements in the delivery of VET for…

  6. The Association between Music Training, Background Music, and Adult Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haning, Marshall

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine whether music training is correlated with increased reading comprehension skills in young adults. In addition, an attempt was made to replicate Patson and Tippett's (2011) finding that background music impairs language comprehension scores in musicians but not in nonmusicians. Participants with musical…

  7. "Up Close and Personal": Middle School Students Read and Meet Young Adult Authors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maminski, Dolores

    1993-01-01

    Describes a public and school library cooperative project with a year-long focus on young adult authors that culminated in a conference open to all middle school students with presentations by five authors. Securing funding, the planning process, authors' contracts, problems about recommended reading lists, and enthusiastic feedback from students…

  8. Comparing Reading Comprehension in Spanish and English by Adult Hispanics Entering a Two-Year College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aron, Helen

    This study compared three reading skill areas (recalling details, understanding a main idea not explicitly stated, and making inferences) in Spanish, the subjects' native language, and American English, their second language. The sample consisted of 47 adults from nine Latin American countries and Puerto Rico who were completing an intensive ESOL…

  9. Adult Fans of Comic Books: What They Get out of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botzakis, Stergios

    2009-01-01

    This interview study is an exploration of the popular cultural and lifelong literacy practices of adult readers of comic books. Focusing on 4 participants from a pool of 12, the researcher used Kvale's (1996) method of meaning interpretation to analyze utterances and speak to the various uses reading held for these people. Aaron, Kyle, Peter, and…

  10. The Cognitive Profile of Adult Dyslexics and Its Relation to Their Reading Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beidas, Hanin; Khateb, Asaid; Breznitz, Zvia

    2013-01-01

    The question of which cognitive impairments are primarily associated with dyslexia has been a source of continuous debate. This study examined the cognitive profile of Hebrew-speaking compensated adult dyslexics and investigated whether their cognitive abilities accounted for a unique variance in their reading performance. Sixty-nine young adults…

  11. Vocational Education and Training for Adult Prisoners and Offenders in Australia: Research Readings. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Justice

    2007-01-01

    This book of research readings provides clear evidence that adult prisoners and offenders who participate in vocational education and training (VET) during their sentence are less likely to re-offend. A reduction in recidivism represents significant cost savings to the community. The book highlights recent improvements in the delivery of VET for…

  12. Effects of the Paraphrasing Strategy on Expository Reading Comprehension of Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Youjia; Woods-Groves, Suzanne; Ford, Jeremy W.; Nobles, Kelly A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of teaching a three-step paraphrasing strategy on expository reading comprehension of young adults with intellectual disability. Ten learners from a postsecondary education program for individuals with disability participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to the control and…

  13. Indicators of Reading Difficulty: Discrimination between Instructional- and Frustration-Range Performance of Functionally Illiterate Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bristow, Page Simpson; Leslie, Lauren

    1988-01-01

    Examines the validity of oral reading accuracy and comprehension as indicators of difficulty for functionally illiterate adults and the feasibility of using four less commonly measured variables as additional indicators of difficulty. Indicates that accuracy and comprehension are valid indicators of difficulty. Rate and miscue quality are strong…

  14. Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD): An Evaluation of a Semistructured Reading Discussion Group for African American Female Adult-Literacy Students with Histories of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jayatta D.

    2012-01-01

    Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD), a reading discussion group geared toward African American female adult-literacy students with self-defined histories of trauma, was an outgrowth of research identifying links between trauma, women's struggles with literacy, and the need to be conscious of emotional health…

  15. Mind-reading in young adults with ASD: does structure matter?

    PubMed

    Ponnet, Koen; Buysse, Ann; Roeyers, Herbert; De Clercq, Armand

    2008-05-01

    This study further elaborates on the mind-reading impairments of young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The hypothesis is that differences in mind-reading abilities between subjects with ASD and control subjects become more apparent when they have to infer thoughts and feelings of other persons in a less structured or more chaotic conversation, than when they have to do so in a more structured conversation. Conform to the empathic accuracy design, subjects viewed two videotaped interactions depicting two strangers and attempted to infer thoughts and feelings. One of the videotaped conversations was less structured than in the other. The results underscore the significance of structure to the mind-reading abilities of young adults with ASD. PMID:17929156

  16. Enduring links from childhood mathematics and reading achievement to adult socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Stuart J; Bates, Timothy C

    2013-07-01

    Understanding the determinants of socioeconomic status (SES) is an important economic and social goal. Several major influences on SES are known, yet much of the variance in SES remains unexplained. In a large, population-representative sample from the United Kingdom, we tested the effects of mathematics and reading achievement at age 7 on attained SES by age 42. Mathematics and reading ability both had substantial positive associations with adult SES, above and beyond the effects of SES at birth, and with other important factors, such as intelligence. Achievement in mathematics and reading was also significantly associated with intelligence scores, academic motivation, and duration of education. These findings suggest effects of improved early mathematics and reading on SES attainment across the life span.

  17. Preservation of memory-based automaticity in reading for older adults.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Katherine A; Touron, Dayna R

    2015-12-01

    Concerning age-related effects on cognitive skill acquisition, the modal finding is that older adults do not benefit from practice to the same extent as younger adults in tasks that afford a shift from slower algorithmic processing to faster memory-based processing. In contrast, Rawson and Touron (2009) demonstrated a relatively rapid shift to memory-based processing in the context of a reading task. The current research extended beyond this initial study to provide more definitive evidence for relative preservation of memory-based automaticity in reading tasks for older adults. Younger and older adults read short stories containing unfamiliar noun phrases (e.g., skunk mud) followed by disambiguating information indicating the combination's meaning (either the normatively dominant meaning or an alternative subordinate meaning). Stories were repeated across practice blocks, and then the noun phrases were presented in novel sentence frames in a transfer task. Both age groups shifted from computation to retrieval after relatively few practice trials (as evidenced by convergence of reading times for dominant and subordinate items). Most important, both age groups showed strong evidence for memory-based processing of the noun phrases in the transfer task. In contrast, older adults showed minimal shifting to retrieval in an alphabet arithmetic task, indicating that the preservation of memory-based automaticity in reading was task-specific. Discussion focuses on important implications for theories of memory-based automaticity in general and for specific theoretical accounts of age effects on memory-based automaticity, as well as fruitful directions for future research. PMID:26302027

  18. Preservation of memory-based automaticity in reading for older adults.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Katherine A; Touron, Dayna R

    2015-12-01

    Concerning age-related effects on cognitive skill acquisition, the modal finding is that older adults do not benefit from practice to the same extent as younger adults in tasks that afford a shift from slower algorithmic processing to faster memory-based processing. In contrast, Rawson and Touron (2009) demonstrated a relatively rapid shift to memory-based processing in the context of a reading task. The current research extended beyond this initial study to provide more definitive evidence for relative preservation of memory-based automaticity in reading tasks for older adults. Younger and older adults read short stories containing unfamiliar noun phrases (e.g., skunk mud) followed by disambiguating information indicating the combination's meaning (either the normatively dominant meaning or an alternative subordinate meaning). Stories were repeated across practice blocks, and then the noun phrases were presented in novel sentence frames in a transfer task. Both age groups shifted from computation to retrieval after relatively few practice trials (as evidenced by convergence of reading times for dominant and subordinate items). Most important, both age groups showed strong evidence for memory-based processing of the noun phrases in the transfer task. In contrast, older adults showed minimal shifting to retrieval in an alphabet arithmetic task, indicating that the preservation of memory-based automaticity in reading was task-specific. Discussion focuses on important implications for theories of memory-based automaticity in general and for specific theoretical accounts of age effects on memory-based automaticity, as well as fruitful directions for future research.

  19. Improvement of the Error-detection Mechanism in Adults with Dyslexia Following Reading Acceleration Training.

    PubMed

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi

    2016-05-01

    The error-detection mechanism aids in preventing error repetition during a given task. Electroencephalography demonstrates that error detection involves two event-related potential components: error-related and correct-response negativities (ERN and CRN, respectively). Dyslexia is characterized by slow, inaccurate reading. In particular, individuals with dyslexia have a less active error-detection mechanism during reading than typical readers. In the current study, we examined whether a reading training programme could improve the ability to recognize words automatically (lexical representations) in adults with dyslexia, thereby resulting in more efficient error detection during reading. Behavioural and electrophysiological measures were obtained using a lexical decision task before and after participants trained with the reading acceleration programme. ERN amplitudes were smaller in individuals with dyslexia than in typical readers before training but increased following training, as did behavioural reading scores. Differences between the pre-training and post-training ERN and CRN components were larger in individuals with dyslexia than in typical readers. Also, the error-detection mechanism as represented by the ERN/CRN complex might serve as a biomarker for dyslexia and be used to evaluate the effectiveness of reading intervention programmes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Improvement of the Error-detection Mechanism in Adults with Dyslexia Following Reading Acceleration Training.

    PubMed

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi

    2016-05-01

    The error-detection mechanism aids in preventing error repetition during a given task. Electroencephalography demonstrates that error detection involves two event-related potential components: error-related and correct-response negativities (ERN and CRN, respectively). Dyslexia is characterized by slow, inaccurate reading. In particular, individuals with dyslexia have a less active error-detection mechanism during reading than typical readers. In the current study, we examined whether a reading training programme could improve the ability to recognize words automatically (lexical representations) in adults with dyslexia, thereby resulting in more efficient error detection during reading. Behavioural and electrophysiological measures were obtained using a lexical decision task before and after participants trained with the reading acceleration programme. ERN amplitudes were smaller in individuals with dyslexia than in typical readers before training but increased following training, as did behavioural reading scores. Differences between the pre-training and post-training ERN and CRN components were larger in individuals with dyslexia than in typical readers. Also, the error-detection mechanism as represented by the ERN/CRN complex might serve as a biomarker for dyslexia and be used to evaluate the effectiveness of reading intervention programmes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27072047

  1. The relation between overweight and subjective health according to age, social class, slimming behavior and smoking habits in Dutch adults.

    PubMed Central

    Seidell, J C; Bakx, K C; Deurenberg, P; Burema, J; Hautvast, J G; Huygen, F J

    1986-01-01

    Subjective health status was assessed in relation to overweight by administering a list of 51 health complaints to adult men and women who were either chronically overweight as defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) or not overweight, in a continuous morbidity registration in four general practices during the period 1967-83. Responses were received from 455 men (182 overweight) and 790 women (386 overweight), ages 26-66 years. Response rate (71 per cent) and age distribution (mean age 48) were similar in overweight and non-overweight groups of both sexes. BMI was correlated with the total number of complaints in women (r = 0.15) but not in men (r = 0.07). Multiple regression analysis revealed, however, that age was an effect modifier in this relation, there being a negative association between BMI and subjective health in younger men and a positive association in older men, whereas in women the association between BMI and subjective health was much more pronounced at younger ages than at older ages. In addition, current smoking habits and social class (in men and women) and reported slimming behavior (in women) had an independent relation to the total number of health complaints. BMI was also related to specific complaints and groups of complaints, particularly in women. PMID:3777287

  2. Reading Their World: The Young Adult Novel in the Classroom. Second Edition. Young Adult Literature Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monseau, Virginia R., Ed.; Salvner, Gary M., Ed.

    This book was born of a desire to provide students, teachers, and all interested readers with a collection of essays that address issues of selection, pedagogy, and worth of the young adult novel. A primary purpose of the book is to enter the world of young adult readers through a literary form they know well, the modern young adult novel. Another…

  3. Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulford, Jeremy, Ed.

    1971-01-01

    A collection of articles reflecting the underlying concern of British contributors with continuity--conceiving reading and learning as a whole throughout the school years--comprises this special issue of "English in Education." Specific topics treated are: "What Children Learn in Learning to Read" by R. Morris; "Reading without Primers" by W.…

  4. An analysis of the reading strategies used by adult and student deaf readers.

    PubMed

    Banner, Alyssa; Wang, Ye

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and examine effective reading strategies used by adult deaf readers compared with student deaf readers. There were a total of 11 participants: 5 deaf adults ranging from 27 to 36 years and 6 deaf students ranging from 16 to 20 years. Assessment methods included interview and think-aloud procedures in which individuals were interrupted 3 times during the reading of a text to answer questions about their internal cognitive processes. It was found that both student and adult groups had highly skilled readers who demonstrated higher level reading strategies and less skilled readers who demonstrated lower level strategies, and only the highest skilled reader demonstrated both breadth and depth of strategies in all three categories: "constructing meaning," "monitoring and improving comprehension," and "evaluating comprehension." The study contributes evidence toward two identified gaps in the existing body of research: (a) the lack of investigation into the reading strategies utilized by deaf readers in text comprehension and (b) the overemphasis of most research on studying less skilled deaf readers while overlooking highly proficient deaf readers.

  5. Evidence-Based Reading and Writing Assessment for Dyslexia in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Kathleen; Abbott, Robert; Griffin, Whitney; Lott, Joe; Raskind, Wendy; Berninger, Virginia W.

    2016-01-01

    The same working memory and reading and writing achievement phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variants) validated in prior research with younger children and older adults in a multi-generational family genetics study of dyslexia were used to study 81 adolescent and young adults (ages 16 to 25) from that study. Dyslexia is impaired word reading and spelling skills below the population mean and ability to use oral language to express thinking. These working memory predictor measures were given and used to predict reading and writing achievement: Coding (storing and processing) heard and spoken words (phonological coding), read and written words (orthographic coding), base words and affixes (morphological coding), and accumulating words over time (syntax coding); Cross-Code Integration (phonological loop for linking phonological name and orthographic letter codes and orthographic loop for linking orthographic letter codes and finger sequencing codes), and Supervisory Attention (focused and switching attention and self-monitoring during written word finding). Multiple regressions showed that most predictors explained individual difference in at least one reading or writing outcome, but which predictors explained unique variance beyond shared variance depended on outcome. ANOVAs confirmed that research-supported criteria for dyslexia validated for younger children and their parents could be used to diagnose which adolescents and young adults did (n=31) or did not (n=50) meet research criteria for dyslexia. Findings are discussed in reference to the heterogeneity of phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variables) and their application to assessment for accommodations and ongoing instruction for adolescents and young adults with dyslexia. PMID:26855554

  6. Screening for Meares-Irlen sensitivity in adults: can assessment methods predict changes in reading speed?

    PubMed

    Hollis, Jarrod; Allen, Peter M

    2006-11-01

    Two methods of assessing candidates for coloured overlays were compared with the aim of determining which method had the most practical utility. A total of 58 adults were assessed as potential candidates for coloured overlays, using two methods; a questionnaire, which identified self-reported previous symptoms, and a measure of perceptual distortions immediately prior to testing. Participants were classified as normal, Meares-Irlen sensitive, and borderline sensitive. Reading speed was measured with and without coloured overlays, using the Wilkins Rate of Reading Test and the change in speed was calculated. Participants classified as normal did not show any significant benefit from reading with an overlay. In contrast, a significant reading advantage was found for the borderline and Meares-Irlen participants. Current symptom rating was found to be a significant predictor of the change in reading speed, however the previous symptom rating was not found to be a reliable predictor. These data indicate that the assessment of perceptual distortions immediately prior to measuring colour preference and reading speed is the most meaningful method of assessing pattern glare and determining the utility of coloured overlays.

  7. Brain routes for reading in adults with and without autism: EMEG evidence.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Rachel L; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Mohr, Bettina; Lombardo, Michael V; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Shtyrov, Yury

    2014-01-01

    Reading utilises at least two neural pathways. The temporal lexical route visually maps whole words to their lexical entries, whilst the nonlexical route decodes words phonologically via parietal cortex. Readers typically employ the lexical route for familiar words, but poor comprehension plus precocity at mechanically 'sounding out' words suggests that differences might exist in autism. Combined MEG/EEG recordings of adults with autistic spectrum conditions (ASC) and controls while reading revealed preferential recruitment of temporal areas in controls and additional parietal recruitment in ASC. Furthermore, a lack of differences between semantic word categories was consistent with previous suggestion that people with ASC may lack a 'default' lexical-semantic processing mode. These results are discussed with reference to dual-route models of reading.

  8. Project ALMS: Adult Literacy Mission Support. An Adult Basic Reading Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polley, Beulah M.

    Project ALMS (Adult Literacy Mission Support) was designed to improve the communication skills of semi-literate or illiterate adults, help participants become more self-sufficient, provide an ongoing program for other such individuals, and provide a manual of guidelines and suggestions for other programs. Three groups were established to make a…

  9. Eating habits in relations to anxiety symptoms among apparently healthy adults. A pattern analysis from the ATTICA Study.

    PubMed

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Pitsavos, Christos; Tsetsekou, Efi; Fappa, Evaggelia; Papageorgiou, Charalabos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2008-11-01

    The effect of anxiety on dietary intake of humans has been investigated through a number of laboratory, clinical and cross-sectional studies; no prior study, however, has examined potential associations between anxiety and overall dietary patterns. Aim of the present work was to describe dietary patterns in relation to anxiety trait in a nationally representative sample of Greek adults from the ATTICA Study. A sample of 453 men and 400 women were randomly selected from various areas of Attica region, Greece. Anxiety levels were assessed through Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Dietary habits, socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics were recorded for all participants. Principal component analysis was used for the extraction of dietary patterns. More anxious, compared to less anxious, men and women exhibited different dietary patterns. In particular, the "light" dietary patterns that were emerged in the less anxious men and women did not appear as distinct patterns among men and women in the upper anxiety tertile. In women, a "Western-type" diet explained two times greater variance of food intake of those in the upper-anxiety tertile, compared to their counterparts in the low tertile. A vegetarian pattern was found only among the less anxious women, who also exhibited the lowest consumption of red meat and sweets. Regression analysis supported and further elucidated previous results: after adjusting for potential confounders, sweets intake, as well as meat and products intake, were positively associated with anxiety score in females; in males a negative association was found with legumes/cereals intake. From a public health point of view, given the increased prevalence of anxiety and other mental disorders, these findings should be taken into account when designing and evaluating interventions for the general population.

  10. Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, James Paul

    1992-01-01

    Explores what is meant by reading, noting that to read is to respond appropriately to a specific consensus centered on certain values and that the consensus is achieved among persons whose paths through life have come together with members of dominant discourses in society. (SLD)

  11. Nonword repetition and nonword reading abilities in adults who do and do not stutter

    PubMed Central

    Sasisekaran, Jayanthi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In the present study a nonword repetition and a nonword reading task were used to investigate the behavioral (speech accuracy) and speech kinematic (movement variability measured as lip aperture variability index; speech duration) profiles of groups of young adults who do (AWS) and do not stutter (control). Method Participants were 9 AWS (8 males, Mean age = 32.2, SD = 14.7) and 9 age- and sex-matched control participants (Mean age = 31.8, SD = 14.6). For the nonword repetition task, participants were administered the Nonword Repetition Test (Dolloghan & Campbell, 1998). For the reading task, participants were required to read out target nonwords varying in length (6 vs. 11 syllables). Repeated measures ANOVA were conducted to compare the groups in percent speech accuracy for both tasks; only for the nonword reading task, the groups were compared in movement variability and speech duration. Results The groups were comparable in percent accuracy in nonword repetition. Findings from nonword reading revealed a trend for the AWS to show a lower percent of accurate productions compared to the control group. AWS also showed significantly higher movement variability and longer speech durations compared to the control group in nonword reading. Some preliminary evidence for group differences in practice effect (seen as differences between the early vs. later 5 trials) was evident in speech duration. Conclusions Findings suggest differences between AWS and control groups in phonemic encoding and/or speech motor planning and production. Findings from nonword repetition vs. reading highlight the need for careful consideration of nonword properties. PMID:24238389

  12. The Relation of Morphological Awareness and Syntactic Awareness to Adults' Reading Comprehension: Is Vocabulary Knowledge a Mediating Variable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ying; Roehrig, Alysia D.; Williams, Rihana S.

    2011-01-01

    The authors' goal was to examine the structural relationships among vocabulary knowledge, morphological awareness, syntactic awareness, and reading comprehension in English-speaking adults. Structural equation analysis of data collected from 151 participants revealed that morphological awareness affected reading comprehension directly. Syntactic…

  13. Metacognitive Awareness and Strategy Use in Academic English Reading among Adult English as a Second Language (ESL) Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwai, Yuko

    2009-01-01

    This mixed method research study explored the role of metacognitive awareness in reading among adult English as a Second Language (ESL) students of various academic levels enrolled in a university in the southeastern part of the United States of America while engaged in academic reading. In addition, this study examined metacognitive reading…

  14. Does Silent Reading Speed in Normal Adult Readers Depend on Early Visual Processes? Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korinth, Sebastian Peter; Sommer, Werner; Breznitz, Zvia

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship of reading speed and early visual processes in normal readers. Here we examined the association of the early P1, N170 and late N1 component in visual event-related potentials (ERPs) with silent reading speed and a number of additional cognitive skills in a sample of 52 adult German readers utilizing a Lexical…

  15. Participants in Adult Basic Skills Classes Using Intertextual and Metacognitive Skills and Strategies to Aid Reading Comprehension and Written Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMonagle, William Peter

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to seek evidence of awareness of metacognitive processes and intertextuality in the reading comprehension of students in an adult basic education class. Its purpose was to interweave several strands of research investigation and theory to explain the reading and writing capabilities of a representative population…

  16. Using a Multidimensional Measure of Resilience to Explain Life Satisfaction and Academic Achievement of Adults with Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack-Cutler, Holly L.; Parrila, Rauno K.; Torppa, Minna

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the impact of intrapersonal and interpersonal resilience, persistence, and number of difficulties in addition to reading problems on life satisfaction (general, social, and self) and academic achievement. A total of 120 adults with reading difficulties who either were completing a university degree or were recent graduates responded to…

  17. Habit formation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kyle S.; Graybiel, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network. PMID:27069378

  18. Habit formation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kyle S; Graybiel, Ann M

    2016-03-01

    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network.

  19. Individual differences in skilled adult readers reveal dissociable patterns of neural activity associated with component processes of reading.

    PubMed

    Welcome, Suzanne E; Joanisse, Marc F

    2012-03-01

    We used fMRI to examine patterns of brain activity associated with component processes of visual word recognition and their relationships to individual differences in reading skill. We manipulated both the judgments adults made on written stimuli and the characteristics of the stimuli. Phonological processing led to activation in left inferior frontal and temporal regions whereas semantic processing was associated with bilateral middle frontal activation. Individual differences in reading subskills were reflected in differences in the degree to which cortical regions were engaged during reading. Variation in sight word reading efficiency was associated with degree of activation in visual cortex. Increased phonological decoding skill was associated with greater activation in left temporo-parietal cortex. Greater reading comprehension ability was associated with decreased activation in anterior cingulate and temporal regions. Notably, associations between reading ability and neural activation indicate that brain/behavior relationships among skilled readers differ from patterns associated with dyslexia and reading development.

  20. Resource allocation in on-line reading by younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Stine-Morrow, E A; Loveless, M K; Soederberg, L M

    1996-09-01

    Younger and older adults read a series of expository passages for immediate recall by self-pacing the presentation sector-by-sector on a computer screen. Regression analysis of sector reading times (RT) was used to estimate the time allocated by individuals to word-level (i.e., syllable length and mean word frequency), text-level (i.e., number of propositions, number of new concepts introduced, and total Yngve depth), and discourse-level (i.e., serial position) features. Age differences were found in the pattern of reading time allocation that engendered high levels of recall. Specifically, younger adults who achieved high recall were more responsive to word frequency and the introduction of new concepts. By contrast, high recall among the old was related to a greater degree of on-line contextual facilitation (i.e., a steeper serial position effect). These data suggest that there is an age difference in how the allocation of resources at encoding optimizes subsequent memory performance.

  1. Practice in Reading Values: Reflections on Adult Literacy Teaching. Adult Literacy Research Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Delia, Ed.

    These 15 papers cover a wide range of topics and perspectives on the work of Adult Literacy and Basic Education (ALBE) practitioners in Victoria, Australia, in the contemporary ideological and political context. A preface (John Wilson) and introduction (Delia Bradshaw) begin the anthology. The papers are as follows: "...A Critical-Transformative…

  2. Adult age differences in information foraging in an interactive reading environment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaomei; Chin, Jessie; Payne, Brennan R; Fu, Wai-Tat; Morrow, Daniel G; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L

    2016-05-01

    When learning about a single topic in natural reading environments, readers are confronted with multiple sources varying in the type and amount of information. In this situation, readers are free to adaptively respond to the constraints of the environment (e.g., through selection of resources and time allocation for study), but there may be costs of exploring and switching between sources (e.g., disruption of attention, opportunity costs for study). From an ecological perspective, such properties of the environment are expected to influence learning strategies. In the current study, we used a novel reading paradigm to investigate age differences in the effects of information richness (i.e., sentence elaboration) and costs of switching between texts (i.e., time delay) on selection of sources and study time allocation. Consistent with the ecological view, participants progressed from less informative to more informative texts. Furthermore, increased switch cost led to a tendency to allocate more effort to easier materials and to greater persistence in reading, which in turn, led to better memory in both immediate and delayed recall. Older adults showed larger effects of switch cost, such that the age difference in delayed recall was eliminated in the high switch cost condition. Based on an ecological paradigm of reading that affords choice and self-regulation, our study provided evidence for preservation with age in the ability to adapt to changing learning environments so as to improve performance. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Reading Intervention Outcomes for Adults with Disabilities in a Vocational Rehabilitation Setting: Results of a 3-Year Research and Demonstration Grant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderberg, Laura E.; Pierce, Margaret E.; Disney, Laurel J.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on an examination of the effectiveness of a reading intervention for adults with disabilities in a vocational rehabilitation setting. Participants were 57 adults with disabilities and low reading skills enrolled at the Reading Clinic at the Michigan Career and Technical Institute. As part of a 3-year research and demonstration…

  4. Development, psychometric properties, and validity of the hopkins adult reading test (HART).

    PubMed

    Schretlen, David J; Winicki, Jessica M; Meyer, Stephen M; Testa, S Marc; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Gordon, Barry

    2009-08-01

    We describe the development of a 35-item, oral word-reading test with two equivalent forms (HART-A and HART-B) designed to estimate premorbid abilities. Both forms show excellent internal consistency (coefficients alpha>.91) and test-retest reliability (Pearson rs >.90). HART performance was combined with demographic variables to generate regression equations that predict IQ scores obtained concurrently and 4-8 years earlier. The resulting models explained 61% of full scale IQ (FSIQ) variability in 327 healthy adults. The FSIQs that can be estimated range from below 73 to above 131. Combined with demographic variables, these two brief word reading tests accurately predict a broader range of IQs than Blair and Spreen's (1989) longer version. Equivalent forms make it especially useful for longitudinal studies.

  5. An Examination of the Relationship between Self-Reported and Measured Reading and Spelling Skills among Incarcerated Adults in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lise Oen; Asbjornsen, Arve; Manger, Terje; Eikeland, Ole-Johan

    2011-01-01

    The present paper investigates the relationship between the revised Adult Dyslexia Check List (ADCL), and the performance on a standardized battery of reading and spelling tests in adults, when used in an incarcerated population in Norway. The paper reports two sub studies. Study 1 examined the psychometric attributes of the ADCL by analysing the…

  6. "I Just Didn't Have Enough Time..." Assisting the Busy Adult Learner Develop Critical Reading and Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Lefebvre, Rene

    Several factors are related to adult students' completion or noncompletion of reading assignments before class--lack of study time, their motivation for taking college classes, their need to feel involved in the learning process, and their expectations for success in the classroom. One of the biggest fears of adults returning to a school…

  7. "On the Hurricane Deck of a Mule": Teaching Adults To Read Using Language-Experience and Oral History Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bear, Donald R.

    Designed to instruct adult literacy teachers in using Language-Experience and Oral History techniques and distributed statewide to teachers in Nevada, this manual presents reading materials, diagnostic packages, and guidelines for adult literacy program organization. The first of three chapters begins with an introduction to the manual, and…

  8. Neural correlates of single word reading in bilingual children and adults.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Arturo E; Woods, Elizabeth A; Bradley, Kailyn A L

    2015-04-01

    The present study compared the neural correlates of language processing in children and adult Spanish-English bilinguals. Participants were asked to perform a visual lexical processing task in both Spanish and English while being scanned with fMRI. Both children and adults recruited a similar network of left hemisphere "language" areas and showed similar proficiency profiles in Spanish. In terms of behavior, adults showed better language proficiency in English relative to children. Furthermore, neural activity in adults was observed in the bilateral MTG. Age-related differences were observed in Spanish in the right MTG. The current results confirm the presence of neural activity in a set of left hemisphere areas in both adult and child bilinguals when reading words in each language. They also reveal that differences in neural activity are not entirely driven by changes in language proficiency during visual word processing. This indicates that both skill development and age can play a role in brain activity seen across development.

  9. C.U.B.E. Reading. Goal III. A Reading Program for Adult Basic Education. 0-6 Grade Students. Book 2 of Three Books in This Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincennes Univ., IN.

    A part of the adult basic education teaching/learning management system called CUBE (Continuity and Unity in Basic Education), this manual is designed to help those teaching students with "splinter skills" to piece together the students' deficient skills and develop an individualized reading program. It consists of three sections. Addressed in…

  10. Global Processing Speed in Children with Low Reading Ability and in Children and Adults with Typical Reading Ability: Exploratory Factor Analytic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Beate; Matsushita, Mark; Raskind, Wendy H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate processing speed as a latent dimension in children with dyslexia and children and adults with typical reading skills. Method: Exploratory factor analysis (FA) was based on a sample of multigenerational families, each ascertained through a child with dyslexia. Eleven measures--6 of them timed--represented verbal and…

  11. Literacy Attitudes, Habits and Achievements of Future Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benevides, Tina; Stagg Peterson, Shelley

    2010-01-01

    Pre-service teachers' reading habits and their literacy abilities affect their views toward teaching reading and writing and how they implement literacy instruction. This study explored the relationship between the past and current reading habits of pre-service teachers in relation to their reading and writing abilities. Participating teacher…

  12. Reading in the brain of children and adults: a meta-analysis of 40 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Martin, Anna; Schurz, Matthias; Kronbichler, Martin; Richlan, Fabio

    2015-05-01

    We used quantitative, coordinate-based meta-analysis to objectively synthesize age-related commonalities and differences in brain activation patterns reported in 40 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of reading in children and adults. Twenty fMRI studies with adults (age means: 23-34 years) were matched to 20 studies with children (age means: 7-12 years). The separate meta-analyses of these two sets showed a pattern of reading-related brain activation common to children and adults in left ventral occipito-temporal (OT), inferior frontal, and posterior parietal regions. The direct statistical comparison between the two meta-analytic maps of children and adults revealed higher convergence in studies with children in left superior temporal and bilateral supplementary motor regions. In contrast, higher convergence in studies with adults was identified in bilateral posterior OT/cerebellar and left dorsal precentral regions. The results are discussed in relation to current neuroanatomical models of reading and tentative functional interpretations of reading-related activation clusters in children and adults are provided.

  13. Problems, Programs, and Projects in College-Adult Reading; Yearbook of the Annual Meeting of the National Reading Conference (11th, Fort Worth, Texas, December 7-9, 1961).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliesmer, Emery P., Ed.; Staiger, Ralph C., Ed.

    Focusing on problems, programs, and projects in college and adult reading, the papers in this volume were drawn from the eleventh annual meeting of the National Reading Conference held in 1961. The 29 papers are grouped into three sections, the first of which contains studies and theoretical papers that deal with reading speed and comprehension.…

  14. Habitable Trinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Maruyama, S.

    2013-12-01

    We propose a new concept of a habitable environment in the search for life beyond Earth that goes beyond the follow-the-water paradigm, newly named Habitable Trinity. Habitable Trinity is the coexistence of an atmosphere (consisting largely of C and N), an ocean (H and O), and a landmass (supplier of nutrients). It is the minimum requirement for the beginning of life to satisfy (1) formation of membrane, (2) metabolism, and (3) self-replication as we know it. A habitable planet, which has largely been defined as having an adequate climate, a sufficient atmosphere, and the presence of liquid water on its surface, is insufficient to meet the requirements to bear life. Also, material circulation driven by the Sun must be maintained with Habitable Trinity to continue the supply of elements necessary to sustain organic radical reactions that is the basis of life. The Sun is the major engine that links the three components primarily through hydrological cycling, including weathering, erosion, and transport of nutrient-enriched landmass materials to the ocean via far-reaching river systems. Habitable Trinity can be applied to other planets and moons to discuss the presence of extraterrestrial life. Mars is considered to be the best target to test the hypothesis of whether life exists elsewhere in our solar system, as it records an ancient Habitable Trinity (i.e., lakes and oceans which interacted with a landmass (cratered southern highlands) and an atmosphere). Other terrestrial planets, as well as satellites of the gaseous giants such as Europa and Titan, have little chance to harbor life as we know it because they lack Habitable Trinity. Going beyond 'the-follow-the-water-approach', the Habitable-Trinity concept provides an index in the quest for life-containing planetary bodies beyond our solar system as the reconnaissance systems become increasingly autonomous and at higher resolution, affording greater perspective during this golden age of international and

  15. Modeling the Relations Among Morphological Awareness Dimensions, Vocabulary Knowledge, and Reading Comprehension in Adult Basic Education Students.

    PubMed

    Tighe, Elizabeth L; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This study extended the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) by investigating the predictive utility of separate dimensions of morphological awareness as well as vocabulary knowledge to reading comprehension in adult basic education (ABE) students. We competed two- and three-factor structural equation models of reading comprehension. A three-factor model of real word morphological awareness, pseudoword morphological awareness, and vocabulary knowledge emerged as the best fit and accounted for 79% of the reading comprehension variance. The results indicated that the constructs contributed jointly to reading comprehension; however, vocabulary knowledge was the only potentially unique predictor (p = 0.052), accounting for an additional 5.6% of the variance. This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a latent variable modeling approach to examine individual differences in the reading comprehension skills of ABE students. Further, this study replicates the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) on the importance of differentiating among dimensions of morphological awareness in this population.

  16. Modeling the Relations Among Morphological Awareness Dimensions, Vocabulary Knowledge, and Reading Comprehension in Adult Basic Education Students.

    PubMed

    Tighe, Elizabeth L; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This study extended the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) by investigating the predictive utility of separate dimensions of morphological awareness as well as vocabulary knowledge to reading comprehension in adult basic education (ABE) students. We competed two- and three-factor structural equation models of reading comprehension. A three-factor model of real word morphological awareness, pseudoword morphological awareness, and vocabulary knowledge emerged as the best fit and accounted for 79% of the reading comprehension variance. The results indicated that the constructs contributed jointly to reading comprehension; however, vocabulary knowledge was the only potentially unique predictor (p = 0.052), accounting for an additional 5.6% of the variance. This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a latent variable modeling approach to examine individual differences in the reading comprehension skills of ABE students. Further, this study replicates the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) on the importance of differentiating among dimensions of morphological awareness in this population. PMID:26869981

  17. Modeling the Relations Among Morphological Awareness Dimensions, Vocabulary Knowledge, and Reading Comprehension in Adult Basic Education Students

    PubMed Central

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This study extended the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) by investigating the predictive utility of separate dimensions of morphological awareness as well as vocabulary knowledge to reading comprehension in adult basic education (ABE) students. We competed two- and three-factor structural equation models of reading comprehension. A three-factor model of real word morphological awareness, pseudoword morphological awareness, and vocabulary knowledge emerged as the best fit and accounted for 79% of the reading comprehension variance. The results indicated that the constructs contributed jointly to reading comprehension; however, vocabulary knowledge was the only potentially unique predictor (p = 0.052), accounting for an additional 5.6% of the variance. This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a latent variable modeling approach to examine individual differences in the reading comprehension skills of ABE students. Further, this study replicates the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) on the importance of differentiating among dimensions of morphological awareness in this population. PMID:26869981

  18. Association of Oral Fat Sensitivity with Body Mass Index, Taste Preference, and Eating Habits in Healthy Japanese Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Asano, Masanobu; Hong, Guang; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Wang, Weiqi; Izumi, Satoshi; Izumi, Masayuki; Toda, Takashi; Kudo, Tada-Aki

    2016-01-01

    Oral fat sensitivity (OFS, the ability to detect fat) may be related to overeating-induced obesity. However, it is largely unknown whether OFS affects taste preference and eating habits. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate (1) the association between body mass index (BMI) and OFS and (2) the relationship of OFS with four types of taste preference (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) and eating habits using serial concentrations of oleic acid (OA) homogenized in non-fat milk and a self-reported questionnaire. Participants were 25 healthy Japanese individuals (mean age: 27.0 ± 5.6 years), among whom the OA detection threshold was significantly associated with BMI. Participants were divided into two subgroups based on oral sensitivity to 2.8 mM OA: hypersensitive (able to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 16) and hyposensitive (unable to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 9). The degree of sweet taste preference of the hypersensitive group was significantly higher than that of the hyposensitive group. Furthermore, there was significantly higher degree of preference for high-fat sweet foods than low-fat sweet foods in the hypersensitive group. There was also a significant inverse correlation between the OA detection threshold and the degree of both spare eating and postprandial satiety. Thus, OFS is associated not only with BMI, but also with the preference for high-fat sweet foods and eating habits. The present study provides novel insights that measuring OFS may be useful for assessing the risk of obesity associated with overeating in countries, including Japan, where BMI is increasing in the population. PMID:26797054

  19. Association of Oral Fat Sensitivity with Body Mass Index, Taste Preference, and Eating Habits in Healthy Japanese Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Asano, Masanobu; Hong, Guang; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Wang, Weiqi; Izumi, Satoshi; Izumi, Masayuki; Toda, Takashi; Kudo, Tada-Aki

    2016-01-01

    Oral fat sensitivity (OFS, the ability to detect fat) may be related to overeating-induced obesity. However, it is largely unknown whether OFS affects taste preference and eating habits. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate (1) the association between body mass index (BMI) and OFS and (2) the relationship of OFS with four types of taste preference (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) and eating habits using serial concentrations of oleic acid (OA) homogenized in non-fat milk and a self-reported questionnaire. Participants were 25 healthy Japanese individuals (mean age: 27.0 ± 5.6 years), among whom the OA detection threshold was significantly associated with BMI. Participants were divided into two subgroups based on oral sensitivity to 2.8 mM OA: hypersensitive (able to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 16) and hyposensitive (unable to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 9). The degree of sweet taste preference of the hypersensitive group was significantly higher than that of the hyposensitive group. Furthermore, there was significantly higher degree of preference for high-fat sweet foods than low-fat sweet foods in the hypersensitive group. There was also a significant inverse correlation between the OA detection threshold and the degree of both spare eating and postprandial satiety. Thus, OFS is associated not only with BMI, but also with the preference for high-fat sweet foods and eating habits. The present study provides novel insights that measuring OFS may be useful for assessing the risk of obesity associated with overeating in countries, including Japan, where BMI is increasing in the population.

  20. Reading Comics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilley, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…

  1. Climatic Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegel, David S.; Menou, K.; Scharf, C. A.

    2008-05-01

    It is likely that, in the next several years, the Corot and Kepler satellites will find many terrestrial planets around other stars. In order to judge what fraction of these planets are likely to be hospitable to life, it is important to reassess the notion of the habitable zone. Classical considerations of habitability, in the context of extrasolar planets, have often regarded it as a binary property (either a planet is or is not habitable). But according to the standard liquid water definition, the Earth itself is only partially habitable. I will describe a way to use energy balance climate models to assess the spatial and temporal habitability of terrestrial planets that are not too different from the Earth. Initial investigations of model planets' temperature distributions indicate that climate varies with observable features of planets (e.g., how far they are from their star) and unobservable features (e.g., how fast they are spinning, how much surface water they have, what their obliquity is). The habitability of model pseudo-Earths with different rotation rates or land-ocean fractions, for instance, generally differs significantly from that of the Earth itself.

  2. EMG reactivity and oral habits among young adult headache sufferers and painfree controls in a scheduled-waiting task.

    PubMed

    Ong, Jason C; Nicholson, Robert A; Gramling, Sandra E

    2003-12-01

    Previous research has shown that patients with facial pain exhibit a pattern of physiological and behavioral reactivity to scheduled-waiting tasks that may help account for the development of facial pain. The present study extended this line of research by examining the psychophysiological reactivity of headache sufferers in a similar task. A total of 34 frequent headache sufferers screened by International Headache Society (IHS) criteria and 13 painfree controls completed a psychophysiological assessment consisting of 4 phases (adaptation, free-play, scheduled-play, and recovery) that included a scheduled-waiting condition (scheduled-play) designed to produce adjunctive behavior. Masseter and frontalis EMG were measured continuously during each phase and self-reported oral habits and pain ratings were collected following each phase. A significant interaction and group effect was found on frontalis EMG, with the headache group exhibiting elevated EMG levels across the phases, whereas the control group exhibited increasing EMG levels that peaked during the scheduled-play phase. Only a significant phase effect was found on masseter EMG, with the highest EMG levels recorded during the scheduled-play phase for both groups. In addition, a significant phase effect was found on self-reported oral habits data. Overall, these results provide general support for the adjunctive behavior effect, but the predicted difference in magnitude between the groups was not found.

  3. Effects of sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits on body mass index change among adult women in India: findings from a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits on body mass index (BMI) change in a follow-up study of 325 women (aged 15-49 years) in Delhi, systematically selected from the 1998-1999 National Family Health Survey samples who were re-interviewed after 4 years in 2003. Information was collected on height, weight, dietary habits, and sedentary lifestyle through face-to-face interviews. Overall, a 2.0-point increase in mean BMI was found among women in just 4 years. Every second normal-BMI woman, two in five overweight women, and every fourth obese woman experienced a > 2.0-point increase in her mean BMI. High sedentary lifestyle (OR: 2.63; 95% CI: 1.29-5.35) emerged as the main predictor of a > 2.0-point increase in mean BMI in adjusted analysis, but there was weak evidence of association with the dietary covariates. Our findings suggest that a high sedentary lifestyle is a determinant of weight gain among adult women in urban India.

  4. Novel Word Learning of Preschoolers Enrolled in Head Start Regular and Bilingual Classrooms: Impact of Adult Vocabulary Noneliciting Questions during Shared Storybook Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Bridget A.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation study employed quantitative methods to investigate the impact of adult questioning styles on children's novel vocabulary acquisition during shared storybook reading. In an effort to examine adult qualitative variations in shared storybook readings, two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of noneliciting questions…

  5. Health communication in multilingual contexts: a study of reading preferences, practices, and proficiencies among literate adults in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Carol; Serlemitsos, Elizabeth; Macwangi, Mubiana

    2007-06-01

    Comprehension of health materials and messages is a necessary, though not sufficient, condition for the development of health literacy; in the case of print materials, reading comprehension is elemental. Assessments of the population's ability to read and comprehend written materials are complex and highly salient in multilingual countries, such as Zambia, particularly when an excolonial language is but one of multiple official languages. Yet no study has contrasted adult Zambians' reading comprehension of health materials in the major Zambian languages with comparable English-language materials. This article reports the results of a survey of 2,009 literate Zambian adults who were tested for reading comprehension of health materials written at fourth- and eighth-grade levels. The analysis found that respondents who had not gone beyond primary school scored significantly higher on Zambian- than on English-language reading comprehension tests. Respondents with at least an eighth-grade education scored equally well or better on English-language compared with Zambian-language tests. Overall, respondents were more likely to pass the grade-four than the grade-eight reading comprehension tests. In the multilingual context of Zambia it is vital to produce health communication print materials written at or near a grade-four readability level in English and, when warranted, in appropriate Zambian languages.

  6. A Quantile Regression Approach to Understanding the Relations among Morphological Awareness, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension in Adult Basic Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the joint and unique contributions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge at five reading comprehension levels in adult basic education (ABE) students. We introduce the statistical technique of multiple quantile regression, which enabled us to assess the predictive utility of morphological…

  7. Effects of Vocabulary Instruction Using Constant Time Delay on Expository Reading of Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Youjia; Woods-Groves, Suzanne; Kaldenberg, Erica R.; Scheidecker, Bethany J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of using constant time delay (CTD) with young adults with intellectual disability on their vocabulary acquisition and retention, as well as expository reading comprehension. Four learners, ages 19 to 21 years, from a postsecondary education program for individuals with disabilities participated in the study.…

  8. S.T.A.R. Junior First Aid. An Easy-To-Read Manual for Children and Adults. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeley, Sheila

    This book, stressing safety and prevention of accidents, is designed for children and adults to read together. Each chapter uses a Stop, Think, Act, and Remember (S.T.A.R.) formula to guide children through common situations that require first aid skills. Each first aid topic begins by presenting one or more problem situations that are solved by…

  9. The Effect of Interactive CD-ROM/Digitized Audio Courseware on Reading among Low-Literate Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gretes, John A.; Green, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Compares a multimedia adult literacy instructional course, Reading to Educate and Develop Yourself (READY), to traditional classroom instruction by studying effects of replacing conventional learning tools with computer-assisted instruction (CD-ROMs and audio software). Results reveal that READY surpassed traditional instruction for virtually…

  10. Taxonomy of Reading Skills and Materials for Youths and Adults. A System of Prescribing for Individual Skill Deficiencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giuliano, Helen Solana; And Others

    This Taxonomy was designed to assist the instructor or reading specialist in the identification and location of specific instructional materials that can be used for remediation of skill deficiencies. The Taxonomy was developed by the White Plains Adult Education Center, and a description of the Center's program and method of integrating the…

  11. Use of the Automated Readability Index for Evaluating Peer-Prepared Material for Use in Adult Reading Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinkaid, J. Peter; And Others

    Stories relating to life experiences were tape-recorded in an informal setting using natural language patterns and familiar topics in this study of peer-prepared reading materials for black adults. Three of the stories were written at different levels of difficulty according to the Automated Readability Index (ARI). The stories were presented to a…

  12. Teaching Generalized Reading of Product Warning Labels to Young Adults with Autism Using the Constant Time Delay Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogoe, Maud S.; Banda, Devender R.; Lock, Robin H.; Feinstein, Rita

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the constant timed delay procedure for teaching two young adults with autism to read, define, and state the contextual meaning of keywords on product warning labels of common household products. Training sessions were conducted in the dyad format using flash cards. Results indicated that both participants…

  13. Reading Development Electrified: Semantic and Syntactic Integration during Sentence Comprehension in School-Age Children and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDyke, Justine M.

    2011-01-01

    Adults are able to access semantic and syntactic information rapidly as they hear or read in real-time in order to interpret sentences. Young children, on the other hand, tend to rely on syntactically-based parsing routines, adopting the first noun as the agent of a sentence regardless of plausibility, at least during oral comprehension. Little is…

  14. Students with Reading and Writing Challenges: Using Informal Assessment to Assist in Planning for the Transition to Adult Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitlington, Patricia L.

    2008-01-01

    The transition to adult life for students with reading and writing challenges is an area that is not often addressed. The purpose of this article is to relate the informal assessment process to the broader context of high stakes assessment, high school exit exams, diploma options, and transition planning; identify the competencies needed for a…

  15. An fMRI study of nonverbally gifted reading disabled adults: has deficit compensation effected gifted potential?

    PubMed Central

    Gilger, Jeffrey W.; Talavage, Thomas M.; Olulade, Olumide A.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscience has advanced our understanding of the neurological basis of reading disability (RD). Yet, no functional imaging work has been reported on the twice-exceptional dyslexic: individuals exhibiting both non-verbal-giftedness and RD. We compared groups of reading-disabled (RD), non-verbally-gifted (G), non-verbally-gifted-RD (GRD), and control (C) adults on validated word-rhyming and spatial visualization fMRI tasks, and standardized psychometric tests, to ascertain if the neurological functioning of GRD subjects was similar to that of typical RD or G subjects, or perhaps some unique RD subtype. Results demonstrate that GRD adults resemble non-gifted RD adults in performance on paper-and-pencil reading, math and spatial tests, and in patterns of functional activation during rhyming and spatial processing. Data are consistent with what may be a shared etiology of RD and giftedness in GRD individuals that yields a lifespan interaction with reading compensation effects, modifying how their adult brain processes text and spatial stimuli. PMID:24009572

  16. An fMRI study of nonverbally gifted reading disabled adults: has deficit compensation effected gifted potential?

    PubMed

    Gilger, Jeffrey W; Talavage, Thomas M; Olulade, Olumide A

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscience has advanced our understanding of the neurological basis of reading disability (RD). Yet, no functional imaging work has been reported on the twice-exceptional dyslexic: individuals exhibiting both non-verbal-giftedness and RD. We compared groups of reading-disabled (RD), non-verbally-gifted (G), non-verbally-gifted-RD (GRD), and control (C) adults on validated word-rhyming and spatial visualization fMRI tasks, and standardized psychometric tests, to ascertain if the neurological functioning of GRD subjects was similar to that of typical RD or G subjects, or perhaps some unique RD subtype. Results demonstrate that GRD adults resemble non-gifted RD adults in performance on paper-and-pencil reading, math and spatial tests, and in patterns of functional activation during rhyming and spatial processing. Data are consistent with what may be a shared etiology of RD and giftedness in GRD individuals that yields a lifespan interaction with reading compensation effects, modifying how their adult brain processes text and spatial stimuli.

  17. Individual Differences in Skilled Adult Readers Reveal Dissociable Patterns of Neural Activity Associated with Component Processes of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welcome, Suzanne E.; Joanisse, Marc F.

    2012-01-01

    We used fMRI to examine patterns of brain activity associated with component processes of visual word recognition and their relationships to individual differences in reading skill. We manipulated both the judgments adults made on written stimuli and the characteristics of the stimuli. Phonological processing led to activation in left inferior…

  18. Clustering of chronic disease risk factors with tobacco smoking habits among adults in the work place in Sousse, Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Sonia, Hmad; Jihene, Maatoug; Imed, Harrabi; Rim, Ghammem; Mylene, Belkacem; Mounir, Saadi; Souad, Amimi; Khaoula, Knani; Mustafa, Al’Absi; Harry, Lando; Najib, Mrizak; Hassen, Ghannem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of our study was to explore the major non-communicable risk factors (unhealthy diet, sedentarily, alcohol consumption) of smokers and nonsmokers in workplaces. Methods A cross-sectional study was derived from an initial assessment in workplaces which was part of a community-based intervention to prevent chronic disease risk factors conducted in 2009 in the region of Sousse, Tunisia. The surveyed subjects were employees in six factories spread across three delegations in the region. Overall, 1770 of 2250 employees participated in the assessment. In this study, the clustering of non-communicable diseases risk factors with smoking habits was made only for male employees including in this study 1099 among 2250. Data were collected at worksites by a questionnaire, via interview or self-report. The main items assessed socio-demographics characteristics, smoking status, eating habits, level of physical activity and alcohol use of the participants. Results The percentage of male smokers was 54.0%(n=594). Their average age of daily smoking initiation was 19.22 (±4.24 years). The percentage of male smokers consuming 5 fruits and vegetables per day was significantly lower than nonsmokers (57.2% vs 63.5%, p=0.04). The proportion of male smokers consuming alcohol was about three times that of nonsmokers (16.5% vs 5.8%, p=0.001). The proportion of male employees who agree with anti-smoking laws in work places was higher for nonsmokers than for smokers. Conclusion A strong association existed between smoking and risky lifestyles factors in the work place. Such findings are potentially useful in directing intervention efforts regarding smoking cessation in occupational settings. PMID:27800075

  19. White matter lateralization and interhemispheric coherence to auditory modulations in normal reading and dyslexic adults.

    PubMed

    Vandermosten, Maaike; Poelmans, Hanne; Sunaert, Stefan; Ghesquière, Pol; Wouters, Jan

    2013-09-01

    Neural activation of slow acoustic variations that are important for syllable identification is more lateralized to the right hemisphere than activation of fast acoustic changes that are important for phoneme identification. It has been suggested that this complementary function at different hemispheres is rooted in a different degree of white matter myelination in the left versus right hemisphere. The present study will investigate this structure-function relationship with Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and Auditory Steady-State Responses (ASSR), respectively. With DTI we examined white matter lateralization in the cortical auditory and language regions (i.e. posterior region of the superior temporal gyrus and the arcuate fasciculus) and white matter integrity in the splenium of the corpus callosum. With ASSR we examined interhemispheric coherence to slow, syllabic-rate (i.e. 4 Hz) and fast, phonemic-rate (i.e. 20 Hz) modulations. These structural and functional techniques were applied in a group of normal reading adults and a group of dyslexic adults for whom previously reduced functional interhemispheric connectivity at 20 Hz has been reported (Poelmans et al. (2012). Ear and Hearing, 33, 134-143). This sample was chosen since it is hypothesized that in dyslexic readers insufficient hemispheric asymmetry in myelination might relate to their auditory and phonological problems. Results demonstrate reduced white matter lateralization in the posterior superior temporal gyrus and the arcuate fasciculus in the dyslexic readers. Additionally, white matter lateralization in the posterior superior temporal gyrus and white matter integrity in the splenium of the corpus callosum related to interhemispheric coherence to phonemic-rate modulations (i.e. 20 Hz). Interestingly, this correlation pattern was opposite in normal versus dyslexic readers. These results might imply that less pronounced left white matter dominance in dyslexic adults might relate to their problems to

  20. Does silent reading speed in normal adult readers depend on early visual processes? evidence from event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Korinth, Sebastian Peter; Sommer, Werner; Breznitz, Zvia

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship of reading speed and early visual processes in normal readers. Here we examined the association of the early P1, N170 and late N1 component in visual event-related potentials (ERPs) with silent reading speed and a number of additional cognitive skills in a sample of 52 adult German readers utilizing a Lexical Decision Task (LDT) and a Face Decision Task (FDT). Amplitudes of the N170 component in the LDT but, interestingly, also in the FDT correlated with behavioral tests measuring silent reading speed. We suggest that reading speed performance can be at least partially accounted for by the extraction of essential structural information from visual stimuli, consisting of a domain-general and a domain-specific expertise-based portion.

  1. Affective Considerations in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickler, Darryl J.

    1978-01-01

    Schools can influence beginning readers' concepts, interests, attitudes, and values--these are the raw materials from which reading habits develop. Guidelines for promoting children's interest in reading involve reading/language arts programs, provision of reading materials, classroom climate, and specific teacher behaviors. (CP)

  2. Selection of the optimum font type and size interface for on screen continuous reading by young adults: an ergonomic approach.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Jayeeta; Bhattacharyya, Moushum

    2011-12-01

    There is a rapid shifting of media: from printed paper to computer screens. This transition is modifying the process of how we read and understand text. The efficiency of reading is dependent on how ergonomically the visual information is presented. Font types and size characteristics have been shown to affect reading. A detailed investigation of the effect of the font type and size on reading on computer screens has been carried out by using subjective, objective and physiological evaluation methods on young adults. A group of young participants volunteered for this study. Two types of fonts were used: Serif fonts (Times New Roman, Georgia, Courier New) and Sans serif fonts (Verdana, Arial, Tahoma). All fonts were presented in 10, 12 and 14 point sizes. This study used a 6 X 3 (font type X size) design matrix. Participants read 18 passages of approximately the same length and reading level on a computer monitor. Reading time, ranking and overall mental workload were measured. Eye movements were recorded by a binocular eye movement recorder. Reading time was minimum for Courier New l4 point. The participants' ranking was highest and mental workload was least for Verdana 14 point. The pupil diameter, fixation duration and gaze duration were least for Courier New 14 point. The present study recommends using 14 point sized fonts for reading on computer screen. Courier New is recommended for fast reading while for on screen presentation Verdana is recommended. The outcome of this study will help as a guideline to all the PC users, software developers, web page designers and computer industry as a whole.

  3. Public Libraries and Literacy: Young People's Reading Habits and Attitudes to Public Libraries, and an Exploration of the Relationship between Public Library Use and School Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christina; Hawkins, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents additional information from the 2009 survey of young people's reading and writing. The authors conducted an online survey of 17,089 pupils aged 8 to 16 from 112 schools, conducted in November-December 2009, which consisted of 32 questions exploring young people's background, reading and writing behaviour, perceived ability and…

  4. Linking School Libraries and Literacy: Young People's Reading Habits and Attitudes to Their School Library, and an Exploration of the Relationship between School Library Use and School Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christina

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents additional information from the authors' 2009 survey of young people's reading and writing--for more information see their forthcoming report Clark and Douglas (2010) "Young People's Reading and Writing: An in-depth study focusing on enjoyment, behaviour, attitudes and attainment." To support the School Library Commission's…

  5. Mobility and Reading Habits of the Blind; An Inquiry Made for the Ministry of Health, Covering the Registered Blind of England and Wales in 1965. Government Social Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, P.G.; Todd, Jean E.

    A random sample of registered blind people in England and Wales (5% of those aged 16 to 65 and 1.7% of those aged 65 to 79) was interviewed in 1965 regarding mobility, orientation, and reading. Data included age, age when blindness occurred, sex, residual sight for mobility, residual sight for reading, other disabilities, and ability to walk…

  6. Assessing Children's Silent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yule, Valerie

    1987-01-01

    Less is known about how children read connected text in silent reading, and the range of reading strategies used in an ordinary primary school classroom, than about the reading of single words, oral reading and reading by skilled adults. This paper describes and evaluates a method of testing children's silent reading in which they are their own…

  7. Planetary Habitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, James F.

    1997-01-01

    This grant was entitled 'Planetary Habitability' and the work performed under it related to elucidating the conditions that lead to habitable, i.e. Earth-like, planets. Below are listed publications for the past two and a half years that came out of this work. The main thrusts of the research involved: (1) showing under what conditions atmospheric O2 and O3 can be considered as evidence for life on a planet's surface; (2) determining whether CH4 may have played a role in warming early Mars; (3) studying the effect of varying UV levels on Earth-like planets around different types of stars to see whether this would pose a threat to habitability; and (4) studying the effect of chaotic obliquity variations on planetary climates and determining whether planets that experienced such variations might still be habitable. Several of these topics involve ongoing research that has been carried out under a new grant number, but which continues to be funded by NASA's Exobiology program.

  8. Classroom Collections and Reading Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoham, Snunith

    This study examined the reading habits of 301 fourth-grade pupils in Israel. The objective was to investigate the relationship between the type of school library and the pupils' reading habits over the long range. The hypothesis was that pupils who have a central library in their school together with classroom collections read more than pupils…

  9. A Quantile Regression Approach to Understanding the Relations Among Morphological Awareness, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension in Adult Basic Education Students.

    PubMed

    Tighe, Elizabeth L; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the joint and unique contributions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge at five reading comprehension levels in adult basic education (ABE) students. We introduce the statistical technique of multiple quantile regression, which enabled us to assess the predictive utility of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge at multiple points (quantiles) along the continuous distribution of reading comprehension. To demonstrate the efficacy of our multiple quantile regression analysis, we compared and contrasted our results with a traditional multiple regression analytic approach. Our results indicated that morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge accounted for a large portion of the variance (82%-95%) in reading comprehension skills across all quantiles. Morphological awareness exhibited the greatest unique predictive ability at lower levels of reading comprehension whereas vocabulary knowledge exhibited the greatest unique predictive ability at higher levels of reading comprehension. These results indicate the utility of using multiple quantile regression to assess trajectories of component skills across multiple levels of reading comprehension. The implications of our findings for ABE programs are discussed.

  10. Spectral Fingerprints of Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltenegger, L.; Selsis, F.

    2010-01-01

    The emerging field of extrasolar planet search has shown an extraordinary ability to combine research by astrophysics, chemistry, biology and geophysics into a new and exciting interdisciplinary approach to understand our place in the universe. Are there other worlds like ours? How can we characterize those planets and assess if they are habitable? After a decade rich in giant exoplanet detections, observation techniques have now reached the ability to find planets of less than 10 M_Earth (so called Super-Earths) that may potentially be habitable. The detection and characterization of Earth-like planet is approaching rapidly with dedicated space observatories already in operation (Corot) or in development phase (Kepler, James Webb Space Telescope, Extremely Large Telescope (ELT), Darwin/TPF). Space missions like CoRoT (CNES, Rouan et al. 1998) and Kepler (NASA, Borucki et al. 1997) will give us statistics on the number, size, period and orbital distance of planets, extending to terrestrial planets on the lower mass range end as a first step, while missions like Darwin/TPF are designed to characterize their atmospheres. In this chapter we discuss how we can read a planet's spectral fingerprint and characterize if it is potentially habitable. We discuss the first steps to detect a habitable planet and set biomarker detection in context in Section 1. In Section 2 we focus on biomarkers, their signatures at different wavelengths, abiotic sources and cryptic photosynthesis - using Earth as our primary example - the only habitable planet we know of so far. Section 3 concentrates on planets around different stars, and Section 4 summarizes the chapter.

  11. Using Text-to-Speech Reading Support for an Adult with Mild Aphasia and Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Judy; Hux, Karen; Snell, Jeffry

    2013-01-01

    This single case study served to examine text-to-speech (TTS) effects on reading rate and comprehension in an individual with mild aphasia and cognitive impairment. Findings showed faster reading, given TTS presented at a normal speaking rate, but no significant comprehension changes. TTS may support reading in people with aphasia when time…

  12. Adult Learners: New Norms on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test for Healthcare Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haught, Patricia A.; Walls, Richard T.

    2002-01-01

    Presents new norms on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test for healthcare-professional students. Notes that it is generally accepted that professional and graduate schools require students with good reading ability because of the quantity of material to be read. Presents standard scores, percentile ranks, and stanine scores as revised norms based on test…

  13. The effects of orthographic transparency and familiarity on reading Hebrew words in adults with and without dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Yael, Weiss; Tami, Katzir; Tali, Bitan

    2015-07-01

    The current study examined the effects of transparency and familiarity on word recognition in adult Hebrew dyslexic readers with a phonological processing deficit as compared to typical readers. We measured oral reading response time and accuracy of single nouns in several conditions: diacritics that provide transparent but less familiar information and vowel letters that increase orthographic transparency without compromise familiarity. In line with former studies with adult dyslexics, Hebrew-speaking adults with dyslexia were significantly slower than controls. However, both dyslexic and typical readers read unpointed words faster when vowel letters were present, indicating that they may benefit from increase in orthographic transparency, when the graphemic representations are familiar. Only dyslexics read pointed words slower than unpointed words and were more sensitive to word frequency. In unpointed words, only typical readers benefitted from the reduced competition of orthographic neighbors of longer words. Results indicate that both orthographic transparency and familiarity play an important role in word recognition. Dyslexics are impaired in decoding of smaller units and are more sensitive to reduction in the familiarity of words.

  14. The Reading Venture: Accelerating Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sifontes, Aida I.; Baez, Dodie

    This presentation describes how to use reading to improve second language acquisition. Part 1, "Building Awareness of Reading Habits and Attitudes," has students report their habits and attitudes about reading in English and their native language and recognize the importance of reading for improving English skills. Part 2, "Choosing a Book," has…

  15. Characteristics of Beverage Consumption Habits among a Large Sample of French Adults: Associations with Total Water and Energy Intakes

    PubMed Central

    Szabo de Edelenyi, Fabien; Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie; Arnault, Nathalie; González, Rebeca; Buscail, Camille; Galan, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adequate hydration is a key factor for correct functioning of both cognitive and physical processes. In France, public health recommendations about adequate total water intake (TWI) only state that fluid intake should be sufficient, with particular attention paid to hydration for seniors, especially during heatwave periods. The objective of this study was to calculate the total amount of water coming from food and beverages and to analyse characteristics of consumption in participants from a large French national cohort. Methods: TWI, as well as contribution of food and beverages to TWI was assessed among 94,939 adult participants in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort (78% women, mean age 42.9 (SE 0.04)) using three 24-h dietary records at baseline. Statistical differences in water intakes across age groups, seasons and day of the week were assessed. Results: The mean TWI was 2.3 L (Standard Error SE 4.7) for men and 2.1 L (SE 2.4) for women. A majority of the sample did comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) adequate intake recommendation, especially women. Mean total energy intake (EI) was 1884 kcal/day (SE 1.5) (2250 kcal/day (SE 3.6) for men and 1783 kcal/day (SE 1.5) for women). The contribution to the total EI from beverages was 8.3%. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by hot beverages. The variety score, defined as the number of different categories of beverages consumed during the three 24-h records out of a maximum of 8, was positively correlated with TWI (r = 0.4); and with EI (r = 0.2), suggesting that beverage variety is an indicator of higher consumption of food and drinks. We found differences in beverage consumptions and water intakes according to age and seasonality. Conclusions: The present study gives an overview of the water intake characteristics in a large population of French adults. TWI was found to be globally in line with public health recommendations. PMID:27727164

  16. The attentional blink is related to phonemic decoding, but not sight-word recognition, in typically reading adults.

    PubMed

    Tyson-Parry, Maree M; Sailah, Jessica; Boyes, Mark E; Badcock, Nicholas A

    2015-10-01

    This research investigated the relationship between the attentional blink (AB) and reading in typical adults. The AB is a deficit in the processing of the second of two rapidly presented targets when it occurs in close temporal proximity to the first target. Specifically, this experiment examined whether the AB was related to both phonological and sight-word reading abilities, and whether the relationship was mediated by accuracy on a single-target rapid serial visual processing task (single-target accuracy). Undergraduate university students completed a battery of tests measuring reading ability, non-verbal intelligence, and rapid automatised naming, in addition to rapid serial visual presentation tasks in which they were required to identify either two (AB task) or one (single target task) target/s (outlined shapes: circle, square, diamond, cross, and triangle) in a stream of random-dot distractors. The duration of the AB was related to phonological reading (n=41, β=-0.43): participants who exhibited longer ABs had poorer phonemic decoding skills. The AB was not related to sight-word reading. Single-target accuracy did not mediate the relationship between the AB and reading, but was significantly related to AB depth (non-linear fit, R(2)=.50): depth reflects the maximal cost in T2 reporting accuracy in the AB. The differential relationship between the AB and phonological versus sight-word reading implicates common resources used for phonemic decoding and target consolidation, which may be involved in cognitive control. The relationship between single-target accuracy and the AB is discussed in terms of cognitive preparation.

  17. The attentional blink is related to phonemic decoding, but not sight-word recognition, in typically reading adults.

    PubMed

    Tyson-Parry, Maree M; Sailah, Jessica; Boyes, Mark E; Badcock, Nicholas A

    2015-10-01

    This research investigated the relationship between the attentional blink (AB) and reading in typical adults. The AB is a deficit in the processing of the second of two rapidly presented targets when it occurs in close temporal proximity to the first target. Specifically, this experiment examined whether the AB was related to both phonological and sight-word reading abilities, and whether the relationship was mediated by accuracy on a single-target rapid serial visual processing task (single-target accuracy). Undergraduate university students completed a battery of tests measuring reading ability, non-verbal intelligence, and rapid automatised naming, in addition to rapid serial visual presentation tasks in which they were required to identify either two (AB task) or one (single target task) target/s (outlined shapes: circle, square, diamond, cross, and triangle) in a stream of random-dot distractors. The duration of the AB was related to phonological reading (n=41, β=-0.43): participants who exhibited longer ABs had poorer phonemic decoding skills. The AB was not related to sight-word reading. Single-target accuracy did not mediate the relationship between the AB and reading, but was significantly related to AB depth (non-linear fit, R(2)=.50): depth reflects the maximal cost in T2 reporting accuracy in the AB. The differential relationship between the AB and phonological versus sight-word reading implicates common resources used for phonemic decoding and target consolidation, which may be involved in cognitive control. The relationship between single-target accuracy and the AB is discussed in terms of cognitive preparation. PMID:26277018

  18. Martian Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, F.

    2012-09-01

    Due to the reported Mars surface environmental conditions (Klein, 1978) (oxidative stress, high UV radiation levels, etc.) the possibility for life development in the surface of the red planet is very small. The identification of water-ice on the subsurface on Mars by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer onboard of the Mars Odyssey (Kieffer and Titus, 2001) and from the High Energy Neutron Detector (Litvak, et al., 2006) has important astrobiological connotations, because in addition to be a potential source for water, these locations are shielding habitats against the harsh conditions existing on the planet, like UV radiation (Gomez, et al., 2007; Gomez, et al., 2012). Martian habitability potential could change in particular located micro-niches. Salt deliquescence and hard environmental parameters modification could be relevant for life under protected niches. An example could be endolithic niches inside salt deposits used by phototrophs for taking advantage of sheltering particular light wavelengths. Similar acidic salts deposits are located in Río Tinto extreme environment with shelter life forms which are difficult to localize by eye. Techniques for its localization and study during space missions are needed to develop. Extreme environments are good scenarios where to test and train those techniques and where hypothetical Astrobiological space missions could be simulated for increasing possibilities of micro niches identification. Here we will report some experiments of bacteria exposition to Martian surface conditions in Mars Simulation chamber. Bacteria were shelter and exposed included in simulated salty endolithic micro niches. High percentage of bacteria resistance and adaptation to harsh extreme those conditions was reported (Gómez, F. et al., 2010). These results were used to develop and implement a Habitability Index to study Martian habitability during the next MSL mission to Mars landed on August 2012 on the surface of the red planet.

  19. Exoplanet habitability.

    PubMed

    Seager, Sara

    2013-05-01

    The search for exoplanets includes the promise to eventually find and identify habitable worlds. The thousands of known exoplanets and planet candidates are extremely diverse in terms of their masses or sizes, orbits, and host star type. The diversity extends to new kinds of planets, which are very common yet have no solar system counterparts. Even with the requirement that a planet's surface temperature must be compatible with liquid water (because all life on Earth requires liquid water), a new emerging view is that planets very different from Earth may have the right conditions for life. The broadened possibilities will increase the future chances of discovering an inhabited world.

  20. Exoplanet habitability.

    PubMed

    Seager, Sara

    2013-05-01

    The search for exoplanets includes the promise to eventually find and identify habitable worlds. The thousands of known exoplanets and planet candidates are extremely diverse in terms of their masses or sizes, orbits, and host star type. The diversity extends to new kinds of planets, which are very common yet have no solar system counterparts. Even with the requirement that a planet's surface temperature must be compatible with liquid water (because all life on Earth requires liquid water), a new emerging view is that planets very different from Earth may have the right conditions for life. The broadened possibilities will increase the future chances of discovering an inhabited world. PMID:23641111

  1. Braille Reading Rates as a Function of Reading Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, M.; Wetzel, R.

    1996-01-01

    This study of the cognitive processes of braille reading compared the reading of 23 adult braille readers in 4 different reading conditions: oral reading, silent reading, studying, and scanning. The findings support the idea that braille reading is process driven and that reading rates vary, depending on the purpose of the reading task. (Author)

  2. Reading and Study Skills and Instruction: College and Adult: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1981 (Vol. 41 Nos. 7 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The ten titles deal with the following topics: (1) the composing process of adult basic writing students; (2) an integrated approach to reading and writing for college students; (3) the teaching and learning of reading in the…

  3. Characteristic Reading Problems of Adult Illiterates. Report Number 3. Summary Reports of Paths to Literacy and Illiteracy in Newfoundland and Labrador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Mona

    A study examined the reading problems of adults in Newfoundland (Canada) with low reading ability. It explored the genesis of these problems through a retrospective analysis of their lives as school children; and determined the relationship between literacy development and personal background factors, school factors, physiological factors, and…

  4. The Content Area Reading Project: An Inservice Education Program for Junior High School Teachers and Teachers of Adults. Appendix C, Model Teaching Materials. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuis, Mary M.; Askov, Eunice N.

    Materials developed by teacher participants in the Content Area Reading Project are presented in this appendix to the Project report. The first section provides group informal reading inventories developed for use in adult education, teaching English as a second language, and nine content areas; it then presents cloze tests developed for use in…

  5. Adult Books for Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Considers the differences between young adult and adult books and maintains that teachers must be familiar with young adults' tastes for both. Suggests that traffic between these publishing divisions is a two-way street, with young adults reading adult books and adults reading young adult books. (TB)

  6. The Reading Level Paradox: Why Children's Picture Books Are Less Cohesive than Adult Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Roberta; Surber, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments explored how pictures in award-winning children's storybooks contribute to their cohesion. In Experiment 1, one group of college students read storybooks with pictures, and another group read them with the pictures removed. Both groups answered questions inserted periodically. The source for about one half of the questions was…

  7. PATHWAYS: An Adult Pre-GED Reading Skills Workbook. Level II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, Ollie M.

    Written to prepare the American Indian student entering a General Educational Development (GED) program, the Pre-GED Level II reading skills student workbook of the PATHWAYS Curriculum provides lessons that will teach skills needed to pass the reading and writing sections of the GED examination, along with writing skills for seeking employment.…

  8. PATHWAYS: An Adult Pre-GED Reading Skills Workbook. Level III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, Ollie M.

    Utilizing Southwestern Indian myths, legends, poems, history, and information on religious beliefs, architecture, fine arts, music, dance, and social practices, this Pre-GED (General Educational Development) Level III reading skills workbook, part of the PATHWAYS Curriculum, provides a culture-based GED preparatory reading and writing curriculum…

  9. PATHWAYS: An Adult Pre-GED Reading Skills Workbook. Level 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, Ollie M.

    Written to prepare the American Indian student entering a General Educational Development (GED) program, the Pre-GED Level I reading skills student workbook of the PATHWAYS Curriculum provides lessons that will teach skills needed to pass the reading and writing sections of the GED examination, along with writing skills for seeking employment. The…

  10. Reading and Spelling in Adults: Are There Lexical and Sub-Lexical Subtypes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Jennifer S.; Heffernan, Maree E.

    2012-01-01

    The dual-route model of reading proposes distinct lexical and sub-lexical procedures for word reading and spelling. Lexically reliant and sub-lexically reliant reader subgroups were selected from 78 university students on the basis of their performance on lexical (orthographic) and sub-lexical (phonological) choice tests, and on irregular and…

  11. A Reading Skills Development Program for Adult Non-Readers. Featuring: Supplementary Graphics and Sound (Voice Tutorials). Volumes 1 and 2. The TRS-80 Computer Assisted Instruction Series for Adult Basic Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Antonio State Hospital, TX. Office of Education Services.

    This instructional manual consists of materials for use in implementing a computer-assisted instructional program in reading skills development for adult nonreaders. Discussed first are the project during which this instructional program and manual were developed and the goals of the computer-assisted beginning reading program, a major feature of…

  12. Literacy Theory in Practice: Assessing Reading and Writing of Low-Literate Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytle, Susan L.; And Others

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a short-term longitudinal study of the impact of literacy instruction on the lives of 76 adults enrolled in a literacy program at the Center for Literacy in Philadelphia. It begins with an extensive review of literature on literacy, adult literacy and adult literacy assessment. It describes the…

  13. Occupational therapy interventions to improve the reading ability of older adults with low vision: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Smallfield, Stacy; Clem, Kari; Myers, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review of the literature examined available evidence regarding the effectiveness of occupational therapy interventions for improving the reading performance of older adults with low vision. We reviewed 32 studies and found strong evidence supporting low vision programs that included occupational therapy and moderately strong evidence supporting the use of electronic magnification. Moderate evidence supported the influence of illumination on reading ability. Limited evidence was found to support eccentric viewing training and optical magnification. More evidence of higher quality is needed to validate the effectiveness of optical magnifiers, text eccentric viewing, characteristic preferences, and line guides within optical magnification. Additionally, further research is needed to develop a standard low vision rehabilitation program. The results of this review support the need for occupational therapy to be included in low vision rehabilitation. The implications of the findings for occupational therapy practice, research, and education are discussed.

  14. On the Practice Teaching of English Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yonghong

    2009-01-01

    The main task of practice teaching of English Reading is to train students' independent reading ability and good reading habits. Extra-curricular reading of English literature and English newspapers and magazines plays an active role in improving English reading ability. The principle of selecting reading materials, the scope of selection and the…

  15. Reading and Study Skills: College and Adult: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," July 1978 through June 1979 (Vol. 39 Nos. 1 through 12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL.

    This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 29 titles deal with a variety of topics, including the following: the relationship between readability of written material and reading competency of upper middle class adult readers, the economic benefits of adult basic education…

  16. Voyager: Reading and Writing for Today's Adults. Levels 7 and 8 Teacher's Resource Guide [and] Student Book [and] Student Workbook [and] Puzzles [and] Vocabulary Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains the 9 publications constituting the fourth stage of the Voyager program, which is a four-stage program that utilizes contemporary content and instructional approaches to teach the reading, writing, critical thinking, and communication skills that adults need in today's world and to take adult learners from the beginning…

  17. Reading Disability and Adult Attained Education and Income: Evidence from a 30-Year Longitudinal Study of a Population-Based Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Margaret J.; Speirs, Katherine E.; Shenassa, Edmond D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the impact of childhood reading disability (RD) on adult educational attainment and income. Participants' (N = 1,344) RD was assessed at age 7, and adult educational attainment and income were assessed in midlife using categorical variables. Participants with RD at age 7 were 74% (95% CI: 0.18, 0.37) less likely to attain…

  18. The Relationship of the Component Skills of Reading to IALS Performance: Tipping Points and Five Classes of Adult Literacy Learners. NCSALL Reports #29

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strucker, John; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Kirsch, Irwin

    2007-01-01

    This study's aim was to understand the relationship of the component skills of reading, such as word recognition, vocabulary, and spelling, to large-scale measures of literacy, such as the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) (Kirsch, Jungleblut, Jenkins, & Kolstad, 1993) and the closely related International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS)…

  19. Theory of Mind Skills in Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Investigating the Influence of Peer Coaches and Mind Reading Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Mary Murphy

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated Theory of Mind in young adults with autism. The young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) consisted of four students between the ages of 18 and 19 from an on-campus program for students with autism located at Marywood University in Northeastern Pennsylvania. It was hypothesized that "Mind Reading",…

  20. What Work of Adult Fiction or Nonfiction Do You Recommend to Other Teachers for Summer Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Susanne; Isaac, Megan; Watts, Linda S.; Barnhouse, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    Includes four teachers' recommendations of summer reading for other teachers. Details Anita Shreve's "The Last Time They Met"; Barbara Kingsolver's "Small Wonder"; Lynda Barry's "Cruddy"; and Ina Rilke's "Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress." (PM)

  1. Alternate Reading Strategies and Variable Asymmetry of the Planum Temporale in Adult Resilient Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welcome, Suzanne E.; Leonard, Christiana M.; Chiarello, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Resilient readers are characterized by impaired phonological processing despite skilled text comprehension. We investigated orthographic and semantic processing in resilient readers to examine mechanisms of compensation for poor phonological decoding. Performance on phonological (phoneme deletion, pseudoword reading), orthographic (orthographic…

  2. Mind-wandering in younger and older adults: converging evidence from the Sustained Attention to Response Task and reading for comprehension.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Jonathan D; Balota, David A

    2012-03-01

    One mechanism that has been hypothesized to contribute to older adults' changes in cognitive performance is goal neglect or impairment in maintaining task set across time. Mind-wandering and task-unrelated thought may underlie these potential age-related changes. The present study investigated age-related changes in mind-wandering in three different versions of the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART), along with self-reported mind-wandering during a reading for comprehension task. In the SART, both younger and older adults produced similar levels of faster reaction times before No-Go errors of commission, whereas, older adults produced disproportionate post-error slowing. Subjective self-reports of mind-wandering recorded during the SART and the reading task indicated that older adults were less likely to report mind-wandering than younger adults. Discussion focuses on cognitive and motivational mechanisms that may account for older adults' relatively low levels of reported mind-wandering.

  3. Reading for a Better World: Teaching for Social Responsibility with Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolk, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Teaching for social responsibility should be one of the vital aims of our schools. Young adult literature offers an authentic, meaningful, and critical way to teach for social responsibility. This article offers an overview of the different elements of social responsibility and some young adult novels and graphic novels that could be used to teach…

  4. Behavior Modification of Adult Illiterates and Functional Illiterates Who Learned To Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warsh, Herman Enoch

    The present study examined some effects of literacy achievement on the lives of 184 of the 215 adults who had successfully completed literacy training between 1962 and 1966 in the Flint, Michigan, Adult High School. Interviews and public records were used to gather data on student background, experiences during literary training, participants'…

  5. Transitions and Pathways: Self-Help Reading and Informal Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Scott; Vermeylen, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Through presenting empirical research exploring the connections between popular culture and informal learning, we argue that, as predicted by concepts such as self-directed learning and transformational learning, the experience of transition has a meaningful impact on adult learning. Specifically, transitions encourage adults to engage in learning…

  6. How Do Adult New Readers Locate High-Interest, East-To-Read Books?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scates, Denni Kay

    1999-01-01

    Investigates how the needs of adult new readers are being met in five North Texas public library systems using the PLA's (Public Library Association) list of recommended titles for "Adult New Readers" for 1993-97 as the comparative sample. All the libraries had titles from the sample, though there was considerable variance. Only one library has an…

  7. Test Review: The Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS) Life Skills Reading Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, David; Ernst, Megan L.

    2004-01-01

    Lifelong learning has become an important goal of education over the last decade. According to the United States Department of Education (2001), nearly 3 million students over age 17 (excluding those institutionalized) enrolled in adult basic education, adult secondary education, or English as a second language classes in the United States.…

  8. Analysis of reading strategies in deaf adults as a function of their language and meta-phonological skills.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Ana-Belén; Carrillo, María-Soledad; Pérez, Maria Del Mar; Alegría, Jesus

    2014-07-01

    The first aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms used in reading sentences by deaf adults who had completed secondary or higher education. Previous data allowed us to hypothesize that they used the key word strategy, consisting of identifying (some of) the frequent content words, and deriving an overall representation of the sentence's meaning ignoring the function words. The results supported the hypothesis. The second aim was to establish the relationships between this strategy and the linguistic and phonological abilities of deaf participants. The results show that vocabulary increased with reading level, but syntax, evaluated with the use of function words, did not. This suggests that using the key word strategy during long periods of time increases knowledge of content words but not syntax, probably because function words are neglected by this strategy. The results also showed that the deaf participants had a fairly large orthographical lexicon. This implies that the extensive use of the key word strategy allows them to store lexical information. The next question was whether the written word representations of the deaf participants were memorized as mere logograms, or if they had been stored in connection with the phonological representations of the corresponding words. The metaphonological tasks conducted produced evidence indicating that deaf participants used both orthographic and phonological representations. A factor analysis of the metaphonological tasks together with reading and spelling confirmed that both factors were necessary to explain the whole variance in the deaf group. PMID:24751906

  9. Analysis of reading strategies in deaf adults as a function of their language and meta-phonological skills.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Ana-Belén; Carrillo, María-Soledad; Pérez, Maria Del Mar; Alegría, Jesus

    2014-07-01

    The first aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms used in reading sentences by deaf adults who had completed secondary or higher education. Previous data allowed us to hypothesize that they used the key word strategy, consisting of identifying (some of) the frequent content words, and deriving an overall representation of the sentence's meaning ignoring the function words. The results supported the hypothesis. The second aim was to establish the relationships between this strategy and the linguistic and phonological abilities of deaf participants. The results show that vocabulary increased with reading level, but syntax, evaluated with the use of function words, did not. This suggests that using the key word strategy during long periods of time increases knowledge of content words but not syntax, probably because function words are neglected by this strategy. The results also showed that the deaf participants had a fairly large orthographical lexicon. This implies that the extensive use of the key word strategy allows them to store lexical information. The next question was whether the written word representations of the deaf participants were memorized as mere logograms, or if they had been stored in connection with the phonological representations of the corresponding words. The metaphonological tasks conducted produced evidence indicating that deaf participants used both orthographic and phonological representations. A factor analysis of the metaphonological tasks together with reading and spelling confirmed that both factors were necessary to explain the whole variance in the deaf group.

  10. Reading Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Lorna

    This guide is intended for use in conducting a reading lab for a broad group of workers ranging from nonreaders to persons reading at a fifth-grade level. Presented first is a course overview that includes the following: information on the course's targeted population, student selection process, and demographics; strategies for adult remediation;…

  11. [Blood and hair arsenic, lead and cadmium analysis of adults and correlation analysis with special reference to eating habits and other behavioral influences].

    PubMed

    Paulsen, F; Mai, S; Zellmer, U; Alsen-Hinrichs, C

    1996-01-01

    In the present work the background burden of arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) was determined in blood (B) and hair (H) samples of male and female adults. The results were combined with personal data like food consumption habits and other confounding factors, and were evaluated by correlation analyses. As, Pb, and Cd determination was performed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), using graphite-furnace AAS for the determination of Pb and Cd, and fluid injection AAS for the determination of As, respectively. All persons participating in this study were not unusually exposed to these elements, neither in their working places nor at home. As, Pb and Cd concentration in the B- and H-samples were in a very low range corresponding to similar data presented in the literature. Although the number of samples was too small for definite conclusions, the following significant correlations between the element concentration in B- and H-samples as well as between the other confounding factors should be considered: H-As depends on B-As; H-Pb depends on B-Pb; H-Pb corresponds to H-Cd; H-Cd, H-Pb distal > proximal; H-As distal < proximal; B-Cd, B-As, H-Pb in smokers > non smokers; H-As, B-Pb, H-Pb males > females; B-Pb positively correlated to wine drinking: B-Pb negatively correlated to daily consumption of mineral water; B-Pb positively correlated to daily consumption of vegetables; B-As positively correlated to fish consumption; B-Pb, H-Pb increase with increasing age of houses. Due to the low concentration of As, Pb and Cd found in the B- and H-samples contamination must be regarded as high risk. The application of AAS for the metal determination in blood is generally accepted and has become a routine method for this purpose. The possibilities of contamination are well known and can be avoided. However, the element determination in hair samples by AAS bares a great risk of falsification by contamination, especially, when the determination is performed only in one or

  12. An Oral Reading Fluency Assessment for Young Adult Career and Technical Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellard, Daryl; Woods, Kari; Md Desa, Zairul

    2012-01-01

    Educators confront a difficult challenge of quickly and efficiently identifying students with literacy skill deficits in academically diverse career and technical education classes. A statistical examination of oral reading fluency (ORF) of 296 at-risk students participating in Job Corps tests the hypothesis that a 2-minute, two-dimensional ORF…

  13. PATHWAYS: An Adult Pre-GED Reading Skills Workbook. Level II. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, Ollie M.

    The teacher's guide for the Pre-GED (General Educational Development) Level II reading skills student workbook of the PATHWAYS Curriculum contains a concise explanation of each skill, suggested teaching strategies, answers to the exercises, and a list of available commercial materials that may be used to supplement the exercises for each lesson.…

  14. PATHWAYS: An Adult Pre-GED Reading Skills Workbook. Level 1. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, Ollie M.

    This document, the accompanying teacher's guide to the Pre-GED (General Educational Development) Level I reading skills student workbook of the PATHWAYS Curriculum, provides for each lesson in the student workbook a concise explanation of each skill, suggested teaching strategies, answers to the exercises, and a list of available commercial…

  15. PATHWAYS: An Adult Pre-GED Reading Skills Workbook. Level III. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, Ollie M.

    The teacher's guide for the Pre-GED (General Educational Development) Level III reading skills student workbook path of the PATHWAYS Curriculum contains a concise explanation of each skill, suggested teaching strategies, answers to the exercises, and a list of available commercial materials that may be used to supplement the exercises for each…

  16. Brain Routes for Reading in Adults with and without Autism: EMEG Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Rachel L.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Mohr, Bettina; Lombardo, Michael V.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Shtyrov, Yury

    2014-01-01

    Reading utilises at least two neural pathways. The temporal lexical route visually maps whole words to their lexical entries, whilst the nonlexical route decodes words phonologically via parietal cortex. Readers typically employ the lexical route for familiar words, but poor comprehension plus precocity at mechanically "sounding out"…

  17. Mixed Metaphors for Reading and Writing the Qualitative Thesis in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lander, Dorothy

    2000-01-01

    Examination of writing and reading graduate theses from the perspectives of theorists, graduate students, and faculty advisors resulted in the conceptualization of the process as dialogical storytelling and rewriting of each other's metaphors. Instead of modernist beginning-to-end narratives, postmodern qualitative research is perceived as…

  18. Reading, Writing, and Friendship: Adult Implications of Effective Literacy Instruction for Students with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forts, Ann M.; Luckasson, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Reading and literacy are important not only for instrumental reasons such as knowing exit signs and recognizing initial consonants but also have tremendous human functioning implications in areas such as initiating and sustaining friendships, communicating care and affection, and enhancing work, leisure, and play. Many people with intellectual…

  19. Topography of Syllable Change-Detection Electrophysiological Indices in Children and Adults with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hommet, Caroline; Vidal, Julie; Roux, Sylvie; Blanc, Romuald; Barthez, Marie Anne; De Becque, Brigitte; Barthelemy, Catherine; Bruneau, Nicole; Gomot, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a frequent language-based learning disorder. The predominant etiological view postulates that reading problems originate from a phonological impairment. Method: We studied mismatch negativity (MMN) and Late Discriminative Negativity (LDN) to syllables change in both children (n = 12; 8-12 years) and…

  20. Vocabulary Acquisition without Adult Explanations in Repeated Shared Book Reading: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Mary Ann; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2013-01-01

    When preschoolers listen to storybooks, are their eye movements related to their vocabulary acquisition in this context? This study addressed this question with 36 four-year-old French-speaking participants by assessing their general receptive vocabulary knowledge and knowledge of low-frequency words in 3 storybooks. These books were read verbatim…

  1. Idea Sharing: The Use of Read-Share-Act to Promote Extensive Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charumanee, Nisakorn

    2014-01-01

    Nisakorn Charumanee believes that a reading teacher has an active role in cultivating reading culture or reading habit and in activating students to "want" to read. One way to do this is to integrate extensive reading into the classroom (Day and Bamford, 1998; Bamford and Day, 2004) where extensive reading can be enhanced if the teacher…

  2. Occupational Disparities in the Association between Self-Reported Salt-Eating Habit and Hypertension in Older Adults in Xiamen, China

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Manqiong; Chen, Wei; Teng, Bogang; Fang, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Blood pressure responses to sodium intake are heterogeneous among populations. Few studies have assessed occupational disparities in the association between sodium intake and hypertension in older people. We used cross-sectional data from 14,292 participants aged 60 years or older in Xiamen, China, in 2013. Self-reported salt-eating habit was examined with three levels: low, medium, and high. The main lifetime occupation was classified into indoor laborer and outdoor laborer. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations of hypertension with self-reported salt-eating habit, main lifetime occupation, and their interactions by adjusting for some covariates, with further stratification by sex. Overall, 13,738 participants had complete data, of whom 30.22% had hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension was 31.57%, 28.63%, and 31.97% in participants who reported to have low, medium, and high salt-eating habit, respectively. Outdoor laborers presented significantly lower prevalence of hypertension than indoor laborers (26.04% vs. 34.26%, p < 0.001). Indoor laborers with high salt-eating habit had the greatest odds of hypertension (OR = 1.32, 95% CI [1.09–1.59]). An increased trend of odds in eating habit as salt-heavier was presented in indoor laborers (p-trend = 0.048), especially for women (p-trend = 0.001). No clear trend presented in men. Conclusively, sex-specific occupational disparities exist in the association between self-reported salt-eating habit and hypertension in older individuals. Overlooking the potential moderating role of sex and occupation might affect the relationship between sodium intake and hypertension. PMID:26805865

  3. Alternate reading strategies and variable asymmetry of the planum temporale in adult resilient readers

    PubMed Central

    Welcome, Suzanne E.; Leonard, Christiana M.; Chiarello, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Resilient readers are characterized by impaired phonological processing despite skilled text comprehension. We investigated orthographic and semantic processing in resilient readers to examine mechanisms of compensation for poor phonological decoding. Performance on phonological (phoneme deletion, pseudoword reading), orthographic (orthographic choice, orthographic analogy), and semantic (semantic priming, homograph resolution) tasks was compared between resilient, poor and proficient readers. Asymmetry of the planum temporale was investigated in order to determine whether atypical readers showed unusual morphology in this language-relevant region. Resilient readers showed deficits on phonological tasks similar to those shown by poor readers. We obtained no evidence that resilient readers compensate via superior orthographic processing, as they showed neither exceptional orthographic skill nor increased reliance on orthography to guide pronunciation. Resilient readers benefited more than poor or proficient readers from semantic relationships between words and experienced greater difficulty when such relationships were not present. We suggest, therefore, that resilient readers compensate for poor phonological decoding via greater reliance on word meaning relationships. The reading groups did not differ in mean asymmetry of the planum temporale. However, resilient readers showed greater variability in planar asymmetry than proficient readers. Poor readers also showed a trend towards greater variability in planar asymmetry, with more poor readers than proficient readers showing extreme asymmetry. Such increased variability suggests that university students with less reading skill display less well regulated brain anatomy than proficient readers. PMID:20223512

  4. The Virtues of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupfer, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    In Danny DeVito's film "Matilda," Harry Wormwood berates his young daughter, the title character, when she insists on reading. He tells her, "There's nothing you can get from a book that you can't get faster from television." Matilda's would-be visionary father, however, is blind to crucial habits of mind fostered by reading books that are not…

  5. Uninterrupted Sustained Silent Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Rick

    A study investigated the effect Sustained Silent Reading (SSR) has had on literacy at Estancia High School in California which recently implemented an SSR program. It also examined the role SSR has on language development, comprehension, vocabulary, student attitudes, and its corollary consequence on the development of reading habits. A survey of…

  6. Somatic Cough Syndrome (Previously Referred to as Psychogenic Cough) and Tic Cough (Previously Referred to as Habit Cough) in Adults and Children

    PubMed Central

    Murad, Mohammad H.; Pringsheim, Tamara; Feinstein, Anthony; Chang, Anne B.; Newcombe, Peter A.; Rubin, Bruce K.; McGarvey, Lorcan P.; Weir, Kelly; Altman, Kenneth W.; Weinberger, Miles; Irwin, Richard S.; Adams, Todd M.; Altman, Kenneth W.; Barker, Alan F.; Birring, Surinder S.; Blackhall, Fiona; Bolser, Donald C.; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Braman, Sidney S.; Brightling, Christopher; Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla; Canning, Brendan J.; Chang, Anne B.; Coeytaux, Remy; Cowley, Terrie; Davenport, Paul; Diekemper, Rebecca L.; Ebihara, Satoru; El Solh, Ali A.; Escalante, Patricio; Feinstein, Anthony; Field, Stephen K.; Fisher, Dina; French, Cynthia T.; Gibson, Peter; Gold, Philip; Gould, Michael K.; Grant, Cameron; Harding, Susan M.; Harnden, Anthony; Hill, Adam T.; Irwin, Richard S.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Keogh, Karina A.; Lane, Andrew P.; Lim, Kaiser; Malesker, Mark A.; Mazzone, Peter; Mazzone, Stuart; McCrory, Douglas C.; McGarvey, Lorcan; Molasiotis, Alex; Murad, M. Hassan; Newcombe, Peter; Nguyen, Huong Q.; Oppenheimer, John; Prezant, David; Pringsheim, Tamara; Restrepo, Marcos I.; Rosen, Mark; Rubin, Bruce; Ryu, Jay H.; Smith, Jaclyn; Tarlo, Susan M.; Vertigan, Anne E.; Wang, Gang; Weinberger, Miles; Weir, Kelly; Wiener, Renda Soylemez

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We conducted a systematic review on the management of psychogenic cough, habit cough, and tic cough to update the recommendations and suggestions of the 2006 guideline on this topic. METHODS: We followed the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) methodologic guidelines and the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework. The Expert Cough Panel based their recommendations on data from the systematic review, patients’ values and preferences, and the clinical context. Final grading was reached by consensus according to Delphi methodology. RESULTS: The results of the systematic review revealed only low-quality evidence to support how to define or diagnose psychogenic or habit cough with no validated diagnostic criteria. With respect to treatment, low-quality evidence allowed the committee to only suggest therapy for children believed to have psychogenic cough. Such therapy might consist of nonpharmacologic trials of hypnosis or suggestion therapy, or combinations of reassurance, counseling, and referral to a psychologist, psychotherapy, and appropriate psychotropic medications. Based on multiple resources and contemporary psychologic, psychiatric, and neurologic criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition and tic disorder guidelines), the committee suggests that the terms psychogenic and habit cough are out of date and inaccurate. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the 2006 CHEST Cough Guidelines, the major change in suggestions is that the terms psychogenic and habit cough be abandoned in favor of somatic cough syndrome and tic cough, respectively, even though the evidence to do so at this time is of low quality. PMID:25856777

  7. Young Adult Literature in the Classroom: Reading It, Teaching It, Loving It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Joan B., Ed.; Dupuis, Mary M., Ed.

    Young adult (YA) literature, which is written for readers in grades 6-10, is a relatively new part of the literary spectrum. In the few decades it has been around, YA literature has developed a following among students, teachers, and librarians. This collection of 12 essays explores the reasons YA literature is so popular, and ways it can be used…

  8. Morphological Awareness Intervention: Improving Spelling, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangs, Kathryn E.; Binder, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    Adult Basic Education programs are under pressure to develop and deliver instruction that promotes rapid and sustained literacy development. We describe a novel approach to a literacy intervention that focuses on morphemes, which are the smallest meaningful units contained in words. We argue that if you teach learners that big words are comprised…

  9. Reading Men Differently: Alternative Portrayals of Masculinity in Contemporary Young Adult Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Thomas W.; Harper, Helen

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the nature and performance of masculinity as portrayed in three popular young adult novels: two novels featuring male protagonists and one featuring a female protagonist. Drawing on emerging theory and scholarship, researchers view masculinity, like femininity, as a gendered performance, socially scripted but amenable to…

  10. Reading Ability as an Estimator of Premorbid Intelligence: Does It Remain Stable Among Ethnically Diverse HIV+ Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, J. Pat; Fellows, Robert P.; Rivera-Mindt, Monica; Morgello, Susan; Byrd, Desiree A.

    2015-01-01

    The Wide Range Achievement Test, 3rd edition, Reading-Recognition subtest (WRAT-3 RR) is an established measure of premorbid ability. Furthermore, its long-term reliability is not well documented, particularly in diverse populations with CNS-relevant disease. Objective: We examined test-retest reliability of the WRAT-3 RR over time in an HIV+ sample of predominantly racial/ethnic minority adults. Method: Participants (N = 88) completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, including the WRAT-3 RR, on at least two separate study visits. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were computed using scores from baseline and follow-up assessments to determine the test-retest reliability of the WRAT-3 RR across racial/ethnic groups and changes in medical (immunological) and clinical (neurocognitive) factors. Additionally, Fisher’s Z tests were used to determine the significance of the differences between ICCs. Results: The average test-retest interval was 58.7 months (SD=36.4). The overall WRAT-3 RR test-retest reliability was high (r = .97, p < .001), and remained robust across all demographic, medical, and clinical variables (all r’s > .92). Intraclass correlation coefficients did not differ significantly between the subgroups tested (all Fisher’s Z p’s > .05). Conclusions: Overall, this study supports the appropriateness of word-reading tests, such as the WRAT-3 RR, for use as stable premorbid IQ estimates among ethnically diverse groups. Moreover, this study supports the reliability of this measure in the context of change in health and neurocognitive status, and in lengthy inter-test intervals. These findings offer strong rationale for reading as a “hold” test, even in the presence of a chronic, variable disease such as HIV. PMID:26689235

  11. Methodological Variables in Choral Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poore, Meredith A.; Ferguson, Sarah Hargus

    2008-01-01

    This preliminary study explored changes in prosodic variability during choral reading and investigated whether these changes are affected by the method of eliciting choral reading. Ten typical adult talkers recorded three reading materials (poetry, fiction and textbook) in three reading conditions: solo (reading aloud alone), track (reading aloud…

  12. Rekindle the Love of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isero, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This author describes a reading project using Kindles that was designed to increase the reading habits of 9th graders. With a selection of 500 titles for classroom usage, students were encouraged to read any book they chose--in addition to those required for their school term. Isero states that, in the past, many of his students would not risk…

  13. The Effect of the Location of Questions in Reading Material on Long-Term Retention of Specific Facts by Adult Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor, Norman

    This study investigated how the location of questions in factual reading matter (before, after, or interspersed throughout) affected retention by 60 adult subjects divided among six treatment groups. It was hypothesized that: (1) pre-positioned questions will prove superior to interspersing in terms of mean retention scores; (2) interspersed…

  14. The Influence of Cross-Linguistic Input and L2 Proficiency on L2 Reading Comprehension among Spanish-Speaking Adults Learning English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Astrid Sussette

    2010-01-01

    Developing literacy and language proficiency in English is essential to thrive in school and in the workforce in American society. Research on cross-linguistic influences on text-level skills is scant, especially studies investigating reading comprehension among language-minority adults. The present study investigated the effects of…

  15. The SpeechEasy device in stuttering and nonstuttering adults: fluency effects while speaking and reading.

    PubMed

    Foundas, Anne L; Mock, Jeffrey R; Corey, David M; Golob, Edward J; Conture, Edward G

    2013-08-01

    The SpeechEasy is an electronic device designed to alleviate stuttering by manipulating auditory feedback via time delays and frequency shifts. Device settings (control, default, custom), ear-placement (left, right), speaking task, and cognitive variables were examined in people who stutter (PWS) (n=14) compared to controls (n=10). Among the PWS there was a significantly greater reduction in stuttering (compared to baseline) with custom device settings compared to the non-altered feedback (control) condition. Stuttering was reduced the most during reading, followed by narrative and conversation. For the conversation task, stuttering was reduced more when the device was worn in the left ear. Those individuals with a more severe stuttering rate at baseline had a greater benefit from the use of the device compared to individuals with less severe stuttering. Our results support the view that overt stuttering is associated with defective speech-language monitoring that can be influenced by manipulating auditory feedback. PMID:23712191

  16. Changing your sleep habits

    MedlinePlus

    Insomnia - sleep habits; Sleep disorder - sleep habits; Problems falling asleep; Sleep hygiene ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 86. Vaughn BV. Disorders of sleep. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  17. Activating & Engaging Habits of Mind. A Developmental Series, Book 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Arthur L., Ed.; Kallick, Bena, Ed.

    This book is the second in a four-book series on habits of mind. It translates a habits of mind approach to education into action using classroom-tested advice. Contributions come from practitioners in literature, math, music, foreign language, reading, character education, and social science. After "Series Foreword: Thinking on the Road of Life"…

  18. The Contribution of Phonological and Orthographic Processing Skills to Adult ESL Reading: Evidence from Native Speakers of Farsi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassaji, Hossein; Geva, Esther

    1999-01-01

    Investigated the role of phonological and orthographic processing skills in second-language reading of 60 native-Farsi-speaking English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) graduate students. Three types of ESL reading variables were used: reading and comprehension, silent reading rate, and ability to recognize individual words. Efficiency in phonological…

  19. Can Reading Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Ponders the effect of September 11th on teenagers. Proposes that reading books can help teenagers sort out complicated issues. Recommends young adult novels that offer hope for overcoming tragedy. Lists 50 short story collections worth reading. (PM)

  20. Writing Our Practice. Support Documents for the Reading & Writing and the Oral Communication Streams of the "Certificates of General Education for Adults within the Victorian Adult English Language, Literacy and Numeracy Accreditation Framework."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult, Community, and Further Education Board, Melbourne (Australia).

    This collection of 14 articles focuses on the Reading and Writing and Oral Communication Streams of the Certificates of General Education (CGE) for Adults in the context of literacy teaching practices. Section 1 contains 11 case studies and articles with a practical focus. Practitioners discuss aspects of their curriculum development related to…

  1. [Phonological and orthographic processes of reading and spelling in young adolescents and adults with and without dyslexia in German and English: impact on foreign language learning].

    PubMed

    Romonath, Roswitha; Wahn, Claudia; Gregg, Noel

    2005-01-01

    The present study addressed the question whether there is a relationship between phonological and orthographic processes of reading and spelling in adolescents and young adults with and without dyslexia in German and English. On the evidence of the Linguistic Coding Differences Hypothesis and results of the latest research in foreign language learning the hypothesis is tested if there is a relationship between phonological and orthographic knowledge on the one hand and decoding and spelling performance on the other hand in German adolescents and young adults reading and spelling German and English words. This hypothesis was tested with the statistical method of structural equation modeling and therefore the research population was divided into the following groups: group 1 with dyslexia in reading (n = 93), group 2 with dyslexia in spelling (n = 93), group 3 without dyslexia in reading (n = 95), and group 4 without dyslexia in spelling (n = 95). Results of data analysis show that the postulated prediction model fits only the data of the dyslexia group for reading and spelling, but not for the control group. Also the model for both groups does not fit. The results of the pilot study show that it is necessary to modify diagnostic instruments of measurement and to separate scales of phonological and orthographic processes.

  2. Binocular Coordination during Reading and Non-Reading Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkby, Julie A.; Webster, Lisa A. D.; Blythe, Hazel I.; Liversedge, Simon P.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this review is to evaluate the literature on binocular coordination during reading and non-reading tasks in adult, child, and dyslexic populations. The review begins with a description of the basic characteristics of eye movements during reading. Then, reading and non-reading studies investigating binocular coordination are evaluated.…

  3. Habitability: A Review.

    PubMed

    Cockell, C S; Bush, T; Bryce, C; Direito, S; Fox-Powell, M; Harrison, J P; Lammer, H; Landenmark, H; Martin-Torres, J; Nicholson, N; Noack, L; O'Malley-James, J; Payler, S J; Rushby, A; Samuels, T; Schwendner, P; Wadsworth, J; Zorzano, M P

    2016-01-01

    Habitability is a widely used word in the geoscience, planetary science, and astrobiology literature, but what does it mean? In this review on habitability, we define it as the ability of an environment to support the activity of at least one known organism. We adopt a binary definition of "habitability" and a "habitable environment." An environment either can or cannot sustain a given organism. However, environments such as entire planets might be capable of supporting more or less species diversity or biomass compared with that of Earth. A clarity in understanding habitability can be obtained by defining instantaneous habitability as the conditions at any given time in a given environment required to sustain the activity of at least one known organism, and continuous planetary habitability as the capacity of a planetary body to sustain habitable conditions on some areas of its surface or within its interior over geological timescales. We also distinguish between surface liquid water worlds (such as Earth) that can sustain liquid water on their surfaces and interior liquid water worlds, such as icy moons and terrestrial-type rocky planets with liquid water only in their interiors. This distinction is important since, while the former can potentially sustain habitable conditions for oxygenic photosynthesis that leads to the rise of atmospheric oxygen and potentially complex multicellularity and intelligence over geological timescales, the latter are unlikely to. Habitable environments do not need to contain life. Although the decoupling of habitability and the presence of life may be rare on Earth, it may be important for understanding the habitability of other planetary bodies. PMID:26741054

  4. Habitability: A Review.

    PubMed

    Cockell, C S; Bush, T; Bryce, C; Direito, S; Fox-Powell, M; Harrison, J P; Lammer, H; Landenmark, H; Martin-Torres, J; Nicholson, N; Noack, L; O'Malley-James, J; Payler, S J; Rushby, A; Samuels, T; Schwendner, P; Wadsworth, J; Zorzano, M P

    2016-01-01

    Habitability is a widely used word in the geoscience, planetary science, and astrobiology literature, but what does it mean? In this review on habitability, we define it as the ability of an environment to support the activity of at least one known organism. We adopt a binary definition of "habitability" and a "habitable environment." An environment either can or cannot sustain a given organism. However, environments such as entire planets might be capable of supporting more or less species diversity or biomass compared with that of Earth. A clarity in understanding habitability can be obtained by defining instantaneous habitability as the conditions at any given time in a given environment required to sustain the activity of at least one known organism, and continuous planetary habitability as the capacity of a planetary body to sustain habitable conditions on some areas of its surface or within its interior over geological timescales. We also distinguish between surface liquid water worlds (such as Earth) that can sustain liquid water on their surfaces and interior liquid water worlds, such as icy moons and terrestrial-type rocky planets with liquid water only in their interiors. This distinction is important since, while the former can potentially sustain habitable conditions for oxygenic photosynthesis that leads to the rise of atmospheric oxygen and potentially complex multicellularity and intelligence over geological timescales, the latter are unlikely to. Habitable environments do not need to contain life. Although the decoupling of habitability and the presence of life may be rare on Earth, it may be important for understanding the habitability of other planetary bodies.

  5. The Beginning Stages of Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, Fiona, Comp.

    Noting that in the beginning stages of reading it is helpful for children to be surrounded by the written word and to be read to by adults, this article offers brief encapsulations of and responses to five articles about beginning reading and reading readiness. The five articles are as follows: (1) "Three-Year-Olds in Their Reading Corner" by…

  6. Space Station Habitability Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Center is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  7. Space Station habitability research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clearwater, Y. A.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Cente is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  8. Basic Reading Skills and the Literacy of America's Least Literate Adults: Results from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) Supplemental Studies. NCES 2009-481

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Justin; Kutner, Mark; Sabatini, John; White, Sheida

    2009-01-01

    The 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) assessed the English literacy of adults in the United States for the first time since the 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey. The assessment was administered to more than 19,000 adults (ages 16 and older) in households and prisons. The tasks included on the assessment were designed to measure…

  9. Using Basic Reading Skills Instruction and Formative Assessments to Teach an Adult with Traumatic Brain Injury to Read: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Yvonne; Rinderknecht, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Literacy expectations for persons with cognitive impairments, including impairments caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI), have remained quite low. Some researchers have suggested that educators move from a focus on teaching functional skills to teaching basic reading skills in a manner similar to instruction for nondisabled learners. The purpose…

  10. Effects of Combined Reading and Question Generation on Reading Fluency and Comprehension of Three Young Adults with Autism and Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Youjia; Hendrickson, Jo M.; Therrien, William J.; Woods-Groves, Suzanne; Ries, Pamela S.; Shaw, Julia J.

    2012-01-01

    Reread-Adapt and Answer-Comprehend (RAAC) is a reading intervention designed to target fluency and comprehension for students with disabilities. Previous researchers have demonstrated the effectiveness of the intervention for students with learning disabilities. This study extended the research by using the RAAC intervention with three…

  11. Reading Is Your Thing (Even if You're Not a Reading Teacher)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwiers, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    The activities described in this article, Prediction Path and Quotation Cafe, are adapted from the IRA book "Building Reading Comprehension Habits in Grades 6-12." They highlight the reading comprehension habit of making inferences and predictions, which can be used across content areas and grade levels. In creating this toolkit of activities, the…

  12. A Discourse of Disconnect: Young People from the Eastern Cape Talk about the Failure of Adult Communications to Provide Habitable Sexual Subject Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jearey-Graham, Nicola; Macleod, Catriona

    2015-01-01

    Face-to-face adult communication with young people about sexuality is, for the most part, assigned to two main groups of people: educators tasked with teaching school-based sexuality education that is provided as part of the compulsory Life Orientation (LO) learning area, and parents. In this paper, we report on a study conducted with Further…

  13. Elaborative Processing in the Korsakoff Syndrome: Context versus Habit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Damme, Ilse; d'Ydewalle, Gery

    2008-01-01

    Using a procedure of Hay and Jacoby [Hay, J. F., & Jacoby, L. L. (1999). "Separating habit and recollection in young and older adults: Effects of elaborative processing and distinctiveness." "Psychology and Aging," 14, 122-134], Korsakoff patients' capacity to encode and retrieve elaborative, semantic information was investigated. Habits were…

  14. Evolution of galaxy habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobat, R.; Hong, S. E.

    2016-08-01

    We combine a semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution with constraints on circumstellar habitable zones and the distribution of terrestrial planets in order to probe the suitability of galaxies of different mass and type to host habitable planets, and how it evolves with time. We find that the fraction of stars with terrestrial planets in their habitable zone (known as habitability) depends only weakly on galaxy mass, with a maximum around 4 × 1010M⊙. We estimate that 0.7% of all stars in Milky Way-type galaxies to host a terrestrial planet within their habitable zone, consistent with the value derived from Kepler observations. On the other hand, the habitability of passive galaxies is slightly but systematically higher, unless we assume an unrealistically high sensitivity of planets to supernovae. We find that the overall habitability of galaxies has not changed significantly in the last ~8 Gyr, with most of the habitable planets in local disk galaxies having formed ~1.5 Gyr before our own solar system. Finally, we expect that ~1.4 ×109 planets similar to present-day Earth have existed so far in our galaxy.

  15. From “Aisle” to “Labile”: A Hierarchical National Adult Reading Test Scale Revealed by Mokken Scaling

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Decline in cognitive ability is a core diagnostic criterion for dementia. Knowing the extent of decline requires a baseline score from which change can be reckoned. In the absence of prior cognitive ability scores, vocabulary-based cognitive tests are used to estimate premorbid cognitive ability. It is important that such tests are short yet informative, to maximize information and practicability. The National Adult Reading Test (NART) is commonly used to estimate premorbid intelligence. People are asked to pronounce 50 words ranging from easy to difficult but whether its words conform to a hierarchy is unknown. Five hundred eighty-seven healthy community-dwelling older people with known age 11 IQ scores completed the NART as part of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 study. Mokken analysis was used to explore item responses for unidimensional, ordinal, and hierarchical scales. A strong hierarchical scale (“mini-NART”) of 23 of the 50 items was identified. These items are invariantly ordered across all ability levels. The validity of the interpretation of this briefer scale’s score as an estimate of premorbid ability was examined using the actual age 11 IQ score. The mini-NART accounted for a similar amount of the variance in age 11 IQ as the full NART (NART = 46.5%, mini-NART = 44.8%). The mini-NART is proposed as a useful short clinical tool to estimate prior cognitive ability. The mini-NART has clinical relevance, comprising highly discriminatory, invariantly ordered items allowing for sensitive measurement, and adaptive testing, reducing test administration time, and patient stress. PMID:26302224

  16. Reading Fluency as an Indicator of Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basaran, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between fourth grade primary school students' reading habits/conditions/ situations and their comprehension regarding what they read. For this purpose, a correlational survey method was used in the study. 90 fourth-grade students who were attending a state primary school in the center of Ku¨tahya…

  17. Reading: United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Rose-Marie

    1983-01-01

    An exploration of the increasingly important role of linguistics in literacy research and instruction reviews literature on reading comprehension, written language, orthography, metalinguistics, classroom language use, reading disabilities, native tongues, nonstandard dialects, bilingual education, adult literacy, and second-language reading. (86…

  18. Creating a Love of Reading = Susciter le Gout de la Lecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, John Daniel

    To develop good reading habits, children must be surrounded with books, stories and reading not only in the classroom but in the home and the community. Children who read and are read to outside of school do better than those who do not read and are not read to outside of school. Parents and other family members should make books and reading aloud…

  19. Learn to Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelson, Marilyn; And Others

    The Learn to Read project was designed to provide a supportive setting in which functionally illiterate adult students from suburban Cook County, Illinois, and surrounding areas could develop reading and writing skills. The target population included English-dominant adults with basic oral competency but no literacy skills, as well as…

  20. A Dual-Route Cascaded Model of Reading by Deaf Adults: Evidence for Grapheme to Viseme Conversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Eeva A.; Braun, Mario; Kuhlmann, Michael; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2012-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate whether deaf individuals access phonology when reading, and if so, what impact the ability to access phonology might have on reading achievement. However, the debate so far has been theoretically unspecific on two accounts: (a) the phonological units deaf individuals may have of oral language have not been specified and…

  1. Use of Context in the Word Recognition Process by Adults with a Significant History of Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkett, Julie K.; Parrila, Rauno

    2008-01-01

    We examined whether university students who report a significant history of reading difficulties (RD; n=24) differed from university students with no history of reading difficulties (NRD; n=31) in how sentence context affects word recognition. Experiment 1 found no differences in how congruent sentence primes or syntactic manipulations of the…

  2. Understanding the Nature and Impact of Young Readers' Literacy Interactions with Talking Books and during Adult Reading Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Clare; Pillinger, Claire; Jackson, Emma

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports an extended analysis of the study reported in [Wood, C. (2005). "Beginning readers' use of 'talking books' software can affect their reading strategies." "Journal of Research in Reading, 28," 170-182.], in which five and six-year-old children received either six sessions using specially designed talking books or six sessions of…

  3. Reading Ahead: Adult Music Students' Eye Movements in Temporally Controlled Performances of a Children's Song

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penttinen, Marjaana; Huovinen, Erkki; Ylitalo, Anna-Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, education majors minoring in music education (n = 24) and music performance majors (n =14) read and performed the original version and melodically altered versions of a simple melody in a given tempo. Eye movements during music reading and piano performances were recorded. Errorless trials were analyzed to explore the…

  4. Dieting Habits of Men.

    PubMed

    Vining, Virginia L; Cotugna, Nancy; Fang, Chengshun; Sue Snider, O

    2016-08-01

    There is little research involving the US male population regarding weight control and behavior that may affect weight status. Gender-specific weight-control programs for men aren't the standard. Our study objectives were to survey dieting and health habits of an adult male employee population and to determine if the population would be interested in gender-specific programming. Demographics, weight-control practices and interest in gender-specific weight-control programs were examined cross sectionally. A 50-question web-based survey was posted via email from October 2-30, 2014 to male employees at a Mid-Atlantic university. Statistical analyses included frequencies, means and percentages. Chi square and t tests were conducted. The 254 participants were ages 18-65+ years, predominantly white, college educated with annual incomes above $50,000. Sources of nutrition knowledge ranged from a high of web sites (65 %) to a low of registered dietitians (9 %). Macronutrient restrictions reported for dieting were carbohydrates 77 %, fats 40 % and protein 19 %. The >30 age group was more likely to have: decreased amount of food intake P = .001), reducing overall calories (P = .047), skipping meals (P = .006) or trying commercial programs (P = .011). There was nothing of significance for those <30. Among all respondents, interest in gender-specific programs was compared with these variables: current weight satisfaction (P = .032), education (P = .008), income (P = . 006) and BMI (P = .004). Men who were dissatisfied with their weight were most likely to be interested in a gender-specific weight control program, especially those over age 30 years. Further research should address whether offering male-specific diet programs would offer incentive and motivation for males to lose and maintain weight loss. PMID:26758439

  5. [Diabetes and sleeping habits].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shinsuke; Inaba, Masaaki

    2012-07-01

    Number of diabetic patients has continued to increase in the world, disturbance of sleep habits have been pointed out as one of the factor recently. Sleep habits are categorized into quantity and quality of sleep. Inappropriate sleep duration and decline in quality of sleep have caused the exacerbation and onset of diabetes. On the other hand, it is known that many patients with diabetes have already suffered from sleep disorders. Here, we will give an outline of the relationship between sleep habits and diabetes.

  6. Etiology of oral habits.

    PubMed

    Bayardo, R E; Mejia, J J; Orozco, S; Montoya, K

    1996-01-01

    The pedodontic admission histories of 1600 Mexican children were analyzed, to determine general epidemiologic factors or oral habits, as well as their relationship with identifiable biopsychosociologic factors. Fifty-six percent of the children gave evidence of an oral habit, with significant predisposition among female patients, single children, subjects in poor physical health (particularly from allergies), as well as children with histories of chronic health problems. Oral habits should be considered a major health hazard because of their high incidence. Successful treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach to the basic cause of the problem.

  7. Damaging oral habits.

    PubMed

    Kamdar, Rajesh J; Al-Shahrani, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Oral habits, if persist beyond certain developmental age, can pose great harm to the developing teeth, occlusion, and surrounding oral tissues. In the formative years, almost all children engage in some non-nutritive sucking habits. Clinicians, by proper differential diagnosis and thorough understanding of natural growth and developmental processes, should take a decision for intervening. This article describes case series reports of thumb sucking, finger sucking, and tongue thrusting habits, which have been successfully treated by both removable and fixed orthodontic appliances. The cases shown are ranging from the age group of 9-19 years presenting combination of both mixed and permanent dentition development. All cases show satisfactory correction of habits and stable results.

  8. Habitability study shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Studies of the habitability of the space shuttle orbiter are briefly summarized. Selected illustrations and descriptions are presented for: crew compartment, hygiene facilities, food system and galley, and storage systems.

  9. Habitability: CAMELOT 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alequin, W.; Barragan, A.; Carro, M.; Garcia, F.; Gonzalez, I.; Mercado, J. A.; Negron, N.; Lopez, D.; Rivera, L. A.; Rivera, M.

    1990-01-01

    During 1988 to 1989 the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program sponsored research and design efforts aimed at developing habitability criteria and at defining a habitability concept as a useful tool in understanding and evaluating dwellings for prolonged stays in extraterrestrial space. The Circulating Auto sufficient Mars-Earth Luxurious Orbital Transport (CAMELOT) was studied as a case in which the students would try to enhance the quality of life of the inhabitants by applying architectural design methodology. The study proposed 14 habitability criteria considered necessary to fulfill the defined habitability concept, which is that state of equilibrium that results from the interaction between components of the Individual Architecture Mission Complex, which allows a person to sustain physiological homeostatis, adequate performance, and acceptable social relationships. Architecture, design development, refinements and revisions to improve the quality of life, new insights on artificial gravity, form and constitution problems, and the final design concept are covered.

  10. Healthy Sleep Habits

    MedlinePlus

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient Sleep Syndrome Long Sleeper Sleep Breathing Disorders Sleep Apnea Snoring Central Sleep Apnea Overview & Facts ...

  11. A Review of Habit Reversal with Childhood Habit Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Douglas W.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper first reviews four classes of habit disorders in children: motor and vocal tics, nervous habits, stuttering, and Tourette's disorder. It then describes the habit reversal procedure and reviews the literature on its use and variations to treat each of the four classes of habit disorders. Emphasis is on simplified versions of the original…

  12. Voyager: Reading and Writing for Today's Adults. Foundation and Level 1 Teacher's Resource Guide [and] Student Book [and] Student Workbook [and] Puzzles [and] Vocabulary Workbook. Voyager Placement Tool for Levels Foundation-6 Student Booklet [and] Teacher Scoring Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains the 11 publications constituting the first stage of the Voyager program, which is a four-stage program that utilizes contemporary content and instructional approaches to teach the reading, writing, critical thinking, and communication skills that adults need in today's world and to take adult learners from the beginning…

  13. Voyager: Reading and Writing for Today's Adults. Levels 2 and 3 Teacher's Resource Guide [and] Student Book [and] Student Workbook [and] Puzzles [and] Vocabulary Workbook. Voyager Placement Tool for Levels Foundation-6 Student Booklet [and] Teacher Scoring Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains the 11 publications constituting the second stage of the Voyager program, which is a four-stage program that utilizes contemporary content and instructional approaches to teach the reading, writing, critical thinking, and communication skills that adults need in today's world and to take adult learners from the beginning…

  14. Voyager: Reading and Writing for Today's Adults. Levels 4, 5 and 6 Teacher's Resource Guide [and] Student Book [and] Student Workbook [and] Puzzles [and] Vocabulary Workbook. Voyager Placement Tool for Levels Foundation-6 Student Booklet [and] Teacher Scoring Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains the 15 publications constituting the third stage of the Voyager program, which is a four-stage program that utilizes contemporary content and instructional approaches to teach the reading, writing, critical thinking, and communication skills that adults need in today's world and to take adult learners from the beginning…

  15. Keys to Reading among Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nichole; Day, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    A recent decline in reading has become a major issue, as Americans are not reading out of necessity or as a leisure activity. In addition, a connection has been found between children's leisure reading habits and their level of academic achievement, causing even more concern. (Contains 1 table.)

  16. The Future of Reading and Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, David M.; Horava, Tony

    2015-01-01

    The e-book is raising fundamental questions around the dynamics and habits of reading; the role of books in the academic library; and the role of librarians in addressing new realities of reading and learning. Print and digital texts foster different styles of reading and different ways of thinking and doing research. This paper examines…

  17. Teen Summer Reading Program, 1999. Read around the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Library, Richmond.

    This guide for the 1999 Virginia teen summer reading program for public libraries, "Read around the World," includes the following chapters: (1) "Reading and Teens," including serving the underserved, tips for teens, and a recipe for choosing a book to read for fun; (2) "Programming and Teens," including "The Why of YA [Youth Adult] Programming"…

  18. Word Reading Efficiency, Text Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension among Chinese Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Xiangying; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Sabatini, John

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among word reading efficiency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension for adult English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Data from 185 adult Chinese EFL learners preparing to take the Test-of-English-as-a-Foreign-Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) were analyzed in this study. The participants completed a…

  19. "Passageless" Administration of the Nelson-Denny Reading Comprehension Test: Associations with IQ and Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ready, Rebecca E.; Chaudhry, Maheen F.; Schatz, Kelly C.; Strazzullo, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    There are few tests that assess reading comprehension in adults, but these tests are needed for a comprehensive assessment of reading disorders (RD). "The Nelson-Denny Reading Test" (NDRT) has a long-passage reading comprehension component that can be used with adolescents and adults. A problem with the NDRT is that reading comprehension test…

  20. The effect of head up tilting on bioreactance cardiac output and stroke volume readings using suprasternal transcutaneous Doppler as a control in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Critchley, Lester A H; Lee, Daniel C W; Khaw, Kim S; Lee, Shara W Y

    2016-10-01

    To compare the performance of a bioreactance cardiac output (CO) monitor (NICOM) and transcutaneous Doppler (USCOM) during head up tilting (HUT). Healthy young adult subjects, age 22 ± 1 years, 7 male and 7 female, were tilted over 3-5 s from supine to 70° HUT, 30° HUT and back to supine. Positions were held for 3 min. Simultaneous readings of NICOM and USCOM were performed 30 s into each new position. Mean blood pressure (MBP), heart rate (HR), CO and stroke volume (SV), and thoracic fluid content (TFC) were recorded. Bland-Altman, percentage changes and analysis of variance for repeated measures were used for statistical analysis. Pre-tilt NICOM CO and SV readings (6.1 ± 1.0 L/min and 113 ± 25 ml) were higher than those from USCOM (4.1 ± 0.6 L/min and 77 ± 9 ml) (P < 0.001). Bland-Altman limits of agreement for CO were wide with a percentage error of 38 %. HUT increased MBP and HR (P < 0.001). CO and SV readings decreased with HUT. However, the percentage changes in USCOM and NICOM readings did not concur (P < 0.001). Whereas USCOM provided gravitational effect proportional changes in SV readings of 23 ± 15 % (30° half tilt) and 44 ± 11 % (70° near full tilt), NICOM changes did not being 28 ± 10 and 33 ± 11 %. TFC decreased linearly with HUT. The NICOM does not provide linear changes in SV as predicted by physiology when patients are tilted. Furthermore there is a lack of agreement with USCOM measurements at baseline and during tilting.

  1. A Read-Aloud for Science (Read It Aloud).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Judy S.; Breen, Margaret

    1996-01-01

    Recommends a young adult read-aloud selection for science classes on endangered species. Describes listening, writing, discussing, investigating, and debating activities capitalizing on this read-aloud. (SR)

  2. Improving Reading Rate Activities for EFL Students: Timed Reading and Repeated Oral Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Anna C. -S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of timed reading (TR) and repeated oral reading (RR) on 35 adult students of English as a foreign language. Students in the TR (n =18) and RR (n =17) groups read 52 and 26 passages respectively over a 13-week period. Reading rates and comprehension levels were measured at three occasions: pre-intervention,…

  3. Reading Improvement in English- and Hebrew-Speaking Children with Reading Difficulties after Reading Acceleration Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Cicchino, Nicole; Amiel, Merav; Holland, Scott K.; Breznitz, Zvia

    2014-01-01

    A reading acceleration program known to improve reading fluency in Hebrew-speaking adults was tested for its effect on children. Eighty-nine Hebrew- and English-speaking children with reading difficulties were divided into a waiting list group and two training groups (Hebrew and English) and underwent 4 weeks of reading acceleration training.…

  4. Eating habits of a population undergoing a rapid dietary transition: portion sizes of traditional and non-traditional foods and beverages consumed by Inuit adults in Nunavut, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the portion sizes of traditional and non-traditional foods being consumed by Inuit adults in three remote communities in Nunavut, Canada. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between June and October, 2008. Trained field workers collected dietary data using a culturally appropriate, validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ) developed specifically for the study population. Results Caribou, muktuk (whale blubber and skin) and Arctic char (salmon family), were the most commonly consumed traditional foods; mean portion sizes for traditional foods ranged from 10 g for fermented seal fat to 424 g for fried caribou. Fried bannock and white bread were consumed by >85% of participants; mean portion sizes for these foods were 189 g and 70 g, respectively. Sugar-sweetened beverages and energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods were also widely consumed. Mean portion sizes for regular pop and sweetened juices with added sugar were 663 g and 572 g, respectively. Mean portion sizes for potato chips, pilot biscuits, cakes, chocolate and cookies were 59 g, 59 g, 106 g, 59 g, and 46 g, respectively. Conclusions The present study provides further evidence of the nutrition transition that is occurring among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic. It also highlights a number of foods and beverages that could be targeted in future nutritional intervention programs aimed at obesity and diet-related chronic disease prevention in these and other Inuit communities. PMID:23724920

  5. Encouraging Recreational Reading (The Printout).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balajthy, Ernest

    1988-01-01

    Describes computer software, including "The Electronic Bookshelf" and "Return to Reading," which provides motivation for recreational reading in various ways, including: quizzes, games based on books, and whole language activities for children's literature and young adult fiction. (MM)

  6. Age aspects of habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonova, M.; Murthy, J.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.

    2016-04-01

    A `habitable zone' of a star is defined as a range of orbits within which a rocky planet can support liquid water on its surface. The most intriguing question driving the search for habitable planets is whether they host life. But is the age of the planet important for its habitability? If we define habitability as the ability of a planet to beget life, then probably it is not. After all, life on Earth has developed within only ~800 Myr after its formation - the carbon isotope change detected in the oldest rocks indicates the existence of already active life at least 3.8 Gyr ago. If, however, we define habitability as our ability to detect life on the surface of exoplanets, then age becomes a crucial parameter. Only after life had evolved sufficiently complex to change its environment on a planetary scale, can we detect it remotely through its imprint on the atmosphere - the so-called biosignatures, out of which the photosynthetic oxygen is the most prominent indicator of developed (complex) life as we know it. Thus, photosynthesis is a powerful biogenic engine that is known to have changed our planet's global atmospheric properties. The importance of planetary age for the detectability of life as we know it follows from the fact that this primary process, photosynthesis, is endothermic with an activation energy higher than temperatures in habitable zones, and is sensitive to the particular thermal conditions of the planet. Therefore, the onset of photosynthesis on planets in habitable zones may take much longer time than the planetary age. The knowledge of the age of a planet is necessary for developing a strategy to search for exoplanets carrying complex (developed) life - many confirmed potentially habitable planets are too young (orbiting Population I stars) and may not have had enough time to develop and/or sustain detectable life. In the last decade, many planets orbiting old (9-13 Gyr) metal-poor Population II stars have been discovered. Such planets had had

  7. Does Rapid Reading Training Really Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, David L.

    1972-01-01

    How successful are speed reading courses for adults? Author, who teaches speed reading and improvement of reading comprehension, backs up his assertion of their effectiveness with test result tables showing businessmen in particular benefit from such training. (PD)

  8. Lecturas sobre educacion de adultos en America latina (Readings on Adult Education in Latin America). Serie: Retablo de Papel 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latapi, Pablo, Comp.; Castillo, Alfonso, Comp.

    Twelve essays written in Spanish on the state of adult education in Latin America are presented. The essays are organized into three main sections, including: "Concepto y evolucion historica de la educacion de adultos" (Conception and Historical Evolution of Adult Education); "Aspectos particulares" (Specific Subjects); and "Tendencias y…

  9. How does reading performance modulate the impact of orthographic knowledge on speech processing? A comparison of normal readers and dyslexic adults.

    PubMed

    Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Nelis, Aubéline; Kolinsky, Régine

    2014-04-01

    Studies on proficient readers showed that speech processing is affected by knowledge of the orthographic code. Yet, the automaticity of the orthographic influence depends on task demand. Here, we addressed this automaticity issue in normal and dyslexic adult readers by comparing the orthographic effects obtained in two speech processing tasks that are or not sensitive to strategies developed by participants. Our finding showed that while participants' performance in a metaphonological task, which is known to be strategy prone, was affected by their orthographic knowledge regardless of the childhood diagnosis of dyslexia or of their actual reading-related skills, this latter factor significantly modulated the orthographic influence found in a more natural speech recognition task. The finding supports the claim that while any individuals who know a reading code are able to resort to their orthographic knowledge when they process speech, a more profound modification of the speech processing system by the orthographic code takes place only in readers who have reached a certain level of reading expertise.

  10. Planet Formation and Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    alibert, yann

    2016-04-01

    Extrasolar planetary systems show an extreme diversity in mass and orbital architecture, and, very likely, in habitability. Explaining this diversity is one of the key challenges for theoretical models and requires understanding the formation, composition and evolution of planetary systems from the stage of the protoplanetary disk up to the full mature planetary system. I will review in this contribution the different models of planet formation and how they can be related to planetary habitability. In a first part, I will review the main planetary system formation models, and how, from these models, the composition of planets can be predicted. In a second part, I will link the results of these early phases of planetary systems, to the potential planetary habitability. Finally, I will show how it is possible, from transit observations, to put constraints on the water content of extrasolar planets.

  11. Mars Surface Habitability Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott; Simon, Matthew; Smitherman, David; Howard, Robert; Toups, Larry; Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on current habitability concepts for an Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) prepared by the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT). For many years NASA has investigated alternative human Mars missions, examining different mission objectives, trajectories, vehicles, and technologies; the combinations of which have been referred to as reference missions or architectures. At the highest levels, decisions regarding the timing and objectives for a human mission to Mars continue to evolve while at the lowest levels, applicable technologies continue to advance. This results in an on-going need for assessments of alternative system designs such as the habitat, a significant element in any human Mars mission scenario, to provide meaningful design sensitivity characterizations to assist decision-makers regarding timing, objectives, and technologies. As a subset of the Evolvable Mars Campaign activities, the habitability team builds upon results from past studies and recommends options for Mars surface habitability compatible with updated technologies.

  12. Can the computer replace the adult for storybook reading? A meta-analysis on the effects of multimedia stories as compared to sharing print stories with an adult.

    PubMed

    Takacs, Zsofia K; Swart, Elise K; Bus, Adriana G

    2014-01-01

    The present meta-analysis challenges the notion that young children necessarily need adult scaffolding in order to understand a narrative story and learn words as long as they encounter optimally designed multimedia stories. Including 29 studies and 1272 children, multimedia stories were found more beneficial than encounters with traditional story materials that did not include the help of an adult for story comprehension (g+ = 0.40, k = 18) as well as vocabulary (g+ = 0.30, k = 11). However, no significant differences were found between the learning outcomes of multimedia stories and sharing traditional print-like stories with an adult. It is concluded that multimedia features like animated illustrations, background music and sound effects provide similar scaffolding of story comprehension and word learning as an adult. PMID:25520684

  13. Can the computer replace the adult for storybook reading? A meta-analysis on the effects of multimedia stories as compared to sharing print stories with an adult.

    PubMed

    Takacs, Zsofia K; Swart, Elise K; Bus, Adriana G

    2014-01-01

    The present meta-analysis challenges the notion that young children necessarily need adult scaffolding in order to understand a narrative story and learn words as long as they encounter optimally designed multimedia stories. Including 29 studies and 1272 children, multimedia stories were found more beneficial than encounters with traditional story materials that did not include the help of an adult for story comprehension (g+ = 0.40, k = 18) as well as vocabulary (g+ = 0.30, k = 11). However, no significant differences were found between the learning outcomes of multimedia stories and sharing traditional print-like stories with an adult. It is concluded that multimedia features like animated illustrations, background music and sound effects provide similar scaffolding of story comprehension and word learning as an adult.

  14. Can the computer replace the adult for storybook reading? A meta-analysis on the effects of multimedia stories as compared to sharing print stories with an adult

    PubMed Central

    Takacs, Zsofia K.; Swart, Elise K.; Bus, Adriana G.

    2014-01-01

    The present meta-analysis challenges the notion that young children necessarily need adult scaffolding in order to understand a narrative story and learn words as long as they encounter optimally designed multimedia stories. Including 29 studies and 1272 children, multimedia stories were found more beneficial than encounters with traditional story materials that did not include the help of an adult for story comprehension (g+ = 0.40, k = 18) as well as vocabulary (g+ = 0.30, k = 11). However, no significant differences were found between the learning outcomes of multimedia stories and sharing traditional print-like stories with an adult. It is concluded that multimedia features like animated illustrations, background music and sound effects provide similar scaffolding of story comprehension and word learning as an adult. PMID:25520684

  15. Evaluating the Relationship between Teacher Credential Students' Ability to Read and Their Interest in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockerham, Barbara Jean

    2013-01-01

    Teacher enthusiasm for reading has considerable influence on students' reading interest and reading ability. The purpose of this study was to better understand the relationship between reading ability and reading interest among adults who plan to become teachers. This study tested whether there is a relationship between reading ability as measured…

  16. Transferences of Teacher-Casting and Projections of Redemption: Teacher Education, Young Adult Literature and the Psychic Life of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewkowich, David

    2015-01-01

    As the psychic life of reading is imbued with desire, transferences and other forms of emotional turbulence, readers invariably and often unconsciously project their anxieties, hopes and worries onto the lives of fictional characters. Using the lens of psychoanalytic theory, this article explores the meanings produced in the convergence of teacher…

  17. TECFORS: A Newsletter for Instructors of Writing and Reading to ESL and Bi-Lingual Adult Students. Volume 7, 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TECFORS, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Numbers 1 through 5 of the 1984 TECFORS newsletter include these articles: "The Skills that Cannot Wait: Improving the Academic Performance of Underprepared Students through Integrated Curriculum" (Laurel Corona); "Meeting Culture Shock Head On," part 2 (Michele Molinaire); "Directing First Language Reading Research toward Second Language…

  18. TECFORS, A Newsletter for Instructors of Writing and Reading to ESL and Bi-Lingual Adult Students. Volume 4, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TECFORS, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Numbers 3 through 5 of the 1981 TECFORS newsletter include these articles: "Pre-Writing Activities" (Sandra L. McKay); "Errors in Advanced-Level Discourse" (Robert B. Kaplan); "Sensory Imagery" (Elizabeth Jamison Hodges); "Introducing Advanced Concepts of Reading and Writing in the Beginning ESL Class" (Christine Pearson); "On Looking into Adult…

  19. Student Reading Practices in Print and Electronic Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foasberg, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a diary-based qualitative study on college students' reading habits with regard to print and electronic media. Students used a form to record information about their reading practices for twelve days, including length of reading event, location, format used, and the purpose of reading. Students tended to use print for academic…

  20. Reading Preferences and Expectations of Multilingual Israeli University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensoussan, Marsha

    2009-01-01

    Israeli students need to be multilingually literate to read academic texts, mainly in Hebrew, Arabic, Russian and English. In fact, little is known about students' reading habits despite a variety of university reading comprehension courses in different languages. The present study examines students' reading preferences and textual expectations,…

  1. Book Reading Motivation Scale: Reliability and Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katranci, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Book reading enhances the intellectual world of people. It is very important to know the factors that motivate children to read books as it will help to instill book reading habit in them. As such, the present study aims to develop a "Book Reading Motivation Scale" to determine elementary and secondary school students' reading…

  2. Becoming the Reading Mentors Our Adolescents Deserve: Developing a Successful Sustained Silent Reading Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Valarie

    2011-01-01

    Today's adolescents must meet increasing demands for high levels of literacy. However, low self-efficacy and motivation for reading often prohibit adolescents from developing and sustaining positive reading habits. Consequently, educators must provide opportunities for students to experience reading as a rewarding and useful endeavor. Research…

  3. Tides and Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R.

    2014-04-01

    The relatively low luminosities of M dwarfs, white dwarfs, and brown dwarfs result in habitable zones that are close enough in for strong tidal processes between the planet and its host to occur. As is well known, tidal despinning can result in slow or synchronous rotation for close-in planets, but recent investigations have revealed that tides impact habitability in other ways. Tides can drive planetary obliquity to 0, eliminating seasons and creating strong cold traps at the poles. Tides can force a migration of the semi-major axis, possibly removing planets from the habitable zone. Tidal despinning and orbital evolution produces internal heating that can alter both the interior and the atmosphere. For modest eccentricities, tidal heating can be comparable to the modern Earth's (non-tidal) energy sources, changing the thermal profile in the planet and possibly quenching dynamo generation. For larger eccentricities tidal heating can be orders of magnitude larger, suggesting some super-Earths are actually "super-Ios." In extreme cases tidal heating could trigger a runaway greenhouse for hundreds of millions of years, threatening permanent sterilization. Tides damp eccentricity, which lowers the heating rate, but companion planets can perturb orbits and maintain non-zero eccentricities. In some cases, tidal heating sustained by companions could power geochemical cycles that permit habitability for trillions of years.

  4. Making Mars habitable.

    PubMed

    McKay, C P; Toon, O B; Kasting, J F

    1991-08-01

    Mars is believed to be lifeless, but it may be possible to transform it into a planet suitable for habitation by plants, and conceivably humans. The success of such an enterprise would depend on the abundance, distribution and form of materials on the planet that could provide carbon dioxide, water and nitrogen. PMID:11538095

  5. ". . . This Is a Lifetime Thing." Outcomes for Adult Basic Education Students from Hackney Adult Education Institute and the Hackney Reading Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Julia

    A project invesitgated the current whereabouts of students whose names appeared on adult basic education class registers during October 1986 in Hackney, England. The city was identified by 1981 census data as the most deprived local authority area in England and Wales. Returns were received from 375 students (out of 506 to whom questionnaires were…

  6. Enablement, Constraint, and "The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlone, David

    2001-01-01

    Uses interviews to examine how the self-help book "The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People" shapes the identity of organization members who read and use the book. Suggests that such people are simultaneously enabled and constrained as they confront tensions between individualism and community, competition and cooperation, and domination and…

  7. Improving Reading Programs for College Students and Adults; 1952 Yearbook of the Annual Meeting of the Southwest Reading Conference for Colleges and Universities (2nd, Texas Christian University, December 12-13, 1952).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Causey, Oscar S., Ed.

    This document contains papers from the 1952 Southwest Reading Conference for Colleges and Universities. Included are such papers as "Recent Research in Reading on the College Level" by Emery Bliesmer; "Assessing Student Reaction to a College Developmental Reading Program" by A. J. Kingston, Jr.; "Vocabulary Development in College Reading Programs"…

  8. Trajectories of Martian Habitability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Beginning from two plausible starting points—an uninhabited or inhabited Mars—this paper discusses the possible trajectories of martian habitability over time. On an uninhabited Mars, the trajectories follow paths determined by the abundance of uninhabitable environments and uninhabited habitats. On an inhabited Mars, the addition of a third environment type, inhabited habitats, results in other trajectories, including ones where the planet remains inhabited today or others where planetary-scale life extinction occurs. By identifying different trajectories of habitability, corresponding hypotheses can be described that allow for the various trajectories to be disentangled and ultimately a determination of which trajectory Mars has taken and the changing relative abundance of its constituent environments. Key Words: Mars—Habitability—Liquid water—Planetary science. Astrobiology 14, 182–203. PMID:24506485

  9. Exoplanets, extremophiles and habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janot Pacheco, E.; Bernardes, L.

    2012-09-01

    Estimates of the average surface temperature and CO2 partial atmospheric pressure of already discovered exoplanets supposed to be in their Habitable Zone of their stars were surveyed from the Exoplanet Encyclopedia database. Moreover, since planetary surface temperature strongly depends on its albedo and geodynamic conditions, we have been feeding exoplanetary data into a comprehensive model of Earth's atmosphere to get better estimations. We also investigated the possible presence of "exomoons" belonging to giant planets capable of harbour dynamic stability and to retain atmospheric layers and keep geodynamic activity for long time spans. Collected information on biological data of micro-organisms classified as "extremophiles" indicate that such kind of microbial species could dwell in many of them. We thus propose an extension of the more astronomically defined "Habitable Zone" concept into the more astrobiologically "Extremophile Zone", taking into account other refined parameters allowing survival of more robust life forms.

  10. Trajectories of martian habitability.

    PubMed

    Cockell, Charles S

    2014-02-01

    Beginning from two plausible starting points-an uninhabited or inhabited Mars-this paper discusses the possible trajectories of martian habitability over time. On an uninhabited Mars, the trajectories follow paths determined by the abundance of uninhabitable environments and uninhabited habitats. On an inhabited Mars, the addition of a third environment type, inhabited habitats, results in other trajectories, including ones where the planet remains inhabited today or others where planetary-scale life extinction occurs. By identifying different trajectories of habitability, corresponding hypotheses can be described that allow for the various trajectories to be disentangled and ultimately a determination of which trajectory Mars has taken and the changing relative abundance of its constituent environments.

  11. Highest permanent human habitation.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to determine the altitude of the highest permanent human habitation in the hope that this will throw some light on what determines the highest altitude that a community can tolerate indefinitely. A number of places where people have lived at very high altitudes for long periods of time are reviewed. Individuals have lived for as long as 2 yr at an altitude of 5950 m, and there was a miner's camp at 5300 m for several years. The highest permanently inhabited town in the world at the present time appears to be La Rinconada, a mining village of over 7000 people in southern Peru at an altitude of up to 5100 m, which has been in existence for over 40 yr. The altitude of the highest permanent human habitation is determined partly by economic factors, rather than solely by human tolerance to hypoxia. PMID:12631426

  12. [Dietary habit and longevity].

    PubMed

    Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2007-03-01

    Obesity is one of the most important causes of life-style related diseases, and recently its pathophysiology is emphasized as metabolic syndrome. Preventing obesity by good dietary habit is a key to achieve healthy longevity. However, a lean body is not always good for health. There is an ideal body size for each person. This ideal body size differs according to age. Especially in the elderly, to prevent weight loss is more important for maintaining health and longevity than to be obese. Malnutrition is a critical factor of diseases and death in the elderly. Problems in nutritional status, and dietary intake, and methods of nutritional assessment in the elderly are discussed. Ideal body size for health and longevity, the relationship of body fat distribution and intra-abdominal fat accumulation health, and the effects of rapid weight change are also discussed to clarify the association of dietary habit and nutrition with longevity.

  13. Trajectories of martian habitability.

    PubMed

    Cockell, Charles S

    2014-02-01

    Beginning from two plausible starting points-an uninhabited or inhabited Mars-this paper discusses the possible trajectories of martian habitability over time. On an uninhabited Mars, the trajectories follow paths determined by the abundance of uninhabitable environments and uninhabited habitats. On an inhabited Mars, the addition of a third environment type, inhabited habitats, results in other trajectories, including ones where the planet remains inhabited today or others where planetary-scale life extinction occurs. By identifying different trajectories of habitability, corresponding hypotheses can be described that allow for the various trajectories to be disentangled and ultimately a determination of which trajectory Mars has taken and the changing relative abundance of its constituent environments. PMID:24506485

  14. A Validation Study of the Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, and Successive (PASS) Theory and Its Relationship to Reading Achievement in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Justin Moore

    2010-01-01

    This study set out to determine if the Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive (PASS) cognitive processing model, a model previously investigated with children, would hold its factorial structure with adults. A collection of PASS experimental tasks were analyzed through Maximum Likelihood Factor Analysis. A four-factor solution consistent…

  15. Early Learning Canada: Workshop Leader Guide [and] Participant Resource [and] Trainer Manual. Learning & Reading Partners Adult Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estey, Nancy; MacIsaac, Maitland; Rendell, Sandra

    Based on the understanding that the capacity to learn is optimized in the early years, Early Learning Canada (ELC) is a community workshop program for parents and adults who work with children from birth to age 6 and their families to facilitate life-long learning. This workshop leader guide explains the ELC principles, examines learning styles…

  16. Never Too Old: A How-to Guide for Developing Adult Readers' Oral Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortlieb, Evan; Young, Chase; Majors, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Despite efforts to promote literacy in the early years, millions of people in the United States and countless more abroad are functionally illiterate. The importance of improving adult literacy proficiency is unquestionable; however, the pedagogical approaches to support this monumental undertaking have been scarcely researched. Moreover, the…

  17. Effective Physics Study Habits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the methods of efficient study habits and how they can be used by students to help them improve learning physics. In particular, we deal with ideas pertaining to the most effective techniques needed to help students improve their physics study skills. These ideas were developed as part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), an outreach grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. This project is motivated by a major pressing local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. In the presentation, focus on topics such as the skills of how to develop long term memory, how to improve concentration power, how to take class notes, how to prepare for and take exams, how to study scientific subjects such as physics. We argue that the student who conscientiously uses the methods of efficient study habits will be able to achieve higher results than the student who does not; moreover, a student equipped with the proper study skills will spend much less time to learn a subject than a student who has no good study habits. The underlying issue here is not the quantity of time allocated to the study efforts by the student, but the efficiency and quality of actions. This work is supported by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education as part of IMPACTSEED grant.

  18. Sleep habits and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Larcher, S; Benhamou, P-Y; Pépin, J-L; Borel, A-L

    2015-09-01

    Sleep duration has been constantly decreasing over the past 50 years. Short sleep duration, sleep quality and, recently, long sleep duration have all been linked to poor health outcomes, increasing the risk of developing metabolic diseases and cardiovascular events. Beyond the duration of sleep, the timing of sleep may also have consequences. Having a tendency to go early to bed (early chronotype) compared with the habit of going to bed later (late chronotype) can interfere considerably with social schedules (school, work). Eventually, a misalignment arises in sleep timing between work days and free days that has been described as 'social jet lag'. The present review looks at how different sleep habits can interfere with diabetes, excluding sleep breathing disorders, and successively looks at the effects of sleep duration, chronotype and social jet lag on the risk of developing diabetes as well as on the metabolic control of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Finally, this review addresses the current state of knowledge of physiological mechanisms that could be linking sleep habits and metabolic health.

  19. Reading with Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara; Hayes, P. Lynn

    1997-01-01

    Most students who are deaf or hard of hearing do not read proficiently. When adults read regularly to these students, the students' language and literacy abilities improve. Ten essential practices for adults to use when reading aloud are presented with examples. Also included are activities in which students read to adults. Contains 24 references.…

  20. Adult EFL Reading Selection: Influence on Literacy (Procesos de selección de lecturas en estudiantes adultos de inglés como lengua extranjera y su influencia en la habilidad lectora)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basallo Gómez, Juan Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    This paper is about the impact of systematic reading selection used to promote English as foreign language learning in adult students. A qualitative action research methodology was used to carry out this project. Ten class sessions were designed to provide students an opportunity to select texts according to criteria based upon their language…