Greenberg, Daphne; Pae, Hye Kyeong; Morris, Robin D.; Calhoon, Mary Beth; Nanda, Alice O.
There are not enough reading tests standardized on adults who have very low literacy skills, and therefore tests standardized on children are frequently administered. This study addressed the complexities and problems of using a test normed on children to measure the reading comprehension skills of 193 adults who read at approximately third…
Smith, M. Cecil
A study examined the extent to which adults engage in reading tasks to meet a variety of personal purposes and needs, asking when engaged reading is most likely to occur for types of text sources, reading purposes, reading settings, educational attainment groups, and occupational groups. Subjects included 159 adults who represented a wide range of…
McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger
Millions of adults in the United States lack the necessary literacy skills for most living wage jobs. For students from adult learning classes, we used a lexical decision task to measure their knowledge of words and we used a decision-making model (Ratcliff's, 1978, diffusion model) to abstract the mechanisms underlying their performance from their RTs and accuracy. We also collected scores for each participant on standardized IQ tests and standardized reading tests used commonly in the education literature. We found significant correlations between the model's estimates of the strengths with which words are represented in memory and scores for some of the standardized tests but not others. The findings point to the feasibility and utility of combining a test of word knowledge, lexical decision, that is well-established in psycholinguistic research, a decision-making model that supplies information about underlying mechanisms, and standardized tests. The goal for future research is to use this combination of approaches to understand better how basic processes relate to standardized tests with the eventual aim of understanding what these tests are measuring and what the specific difficulties are for individual, low-literacy adults.
McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger
Millions of adults in the United States lack the necessary literacy skills for most living wage jobs. For students from adult learning classes, we used a lexical decision task to measure their knowledge of words and we used a decision-making model (Ratcliff’s, 1978, diffusion model) to abstract the mechanisms underlying their performance from their RTs and accuracy. We also collected scores for each participant on standardized IQ tests and standardized reading tests used commonly in the education literature. We found significant correlations between the model’s estimates of the strengths with which words are represented in memory and scores for some of the standardized tests but not others. The findings point to the feasibility and utility of combining a test of word knowledge, lexical decision, that is well-established in psycholinguistic research, a decision-making model that supplies information about underlying mechanisms, and standardized tests. The goal for future research is to use this combination of approaches to understand better how basic processes relate to standardized tests with the eventual aim of understanding what these tests are measuring and what the specific difficulties are for individual, low-literacy adults. PMID:26550803
Bright, Peter; Hale, Emily; Gooch, Vikki Jayne; Myhill, Thomas; van der Linde, Ian
Since publication in 1982, the 50-item National Adult Reading Test (NART; Nelson, 1982 ; NART-R; Nelson & Willison, 1991 ) has remained a widely adopted method for estimating premorbid intelligence both for clinical and research purposes. However, the NART has not been standardised against the most recent revisions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III; Wechsler, 1997 , and WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008 ). Our objective, therefore, was to produce reliable standardised estimates of WAIS-IV IQ from the NART. Ninety-two neurologically healthy British adults were assessed and regression equations calculated to produce population estimates of WAIS-IV full-scale IQ (FSIQ) and constituent index scores. Results showed strong NART/WAIS-IV FSIQ correlations with more moderate correlations observed between NART error and constituent index scores. FSIQ estimates were closely similar to the published WAIS and WAIS-R estimates at the high end of the distribution, but at the lower end were approximately equidistant from the highly discrepant WAIS (low) and WAIS-R (high) values. We conclude that the NART is likely to remain an important tool for estimating the impact of neurological damage on general cognitive ability. We advise caution in the use of older published WAIS and/or WAIS-R estimates for estimating premorbid WAIS-IV FSIQ, particularly for those with low NART scores.
Pan, Steven C; Rubin, Benjamin R; Rickard, Timothy C
We examined testing's ability to enhance adult spelling acquisition, relative to copying and reading. Across 3 experiments in which testing with feedback was compared with copying, the spelling improvement after testing matched that following the same amount of time spent copying. A potent testing advantage, however, was observed for spelling words free-recalled. In the fourth experiment, a large testing advantage for both word free recall and spelling was observed, versus reading. Subjects also generally preferred testing and rated it as more effective than copying or reading. The equivalent performance of testing and copying for spelling contrasts with prior work involving children and suggests that retrieval practice may not be the only effective mechanism for spelling skill acquisition. Rather, we suggest that the critical learning event for spelling is focused study on phoneme-to-grapheme mappings for previously unlearned letter sequences. For adults with extensive spelling expertise, focused study is more automatic during both copying and testing with feedback than for individuals with beginning spelling skills. Reading, however, would not be expected to produce efficient focused study of phoneme-to-grapheme mappings, regardless of expertise level. Overall, adult spelling skill acquisition benefits both from testing and copying, and substantially less from reading.
McKoon, Gai; Ratcliff, Roger
Millions of adults in the United States lack the necessary literacy skills for most living wage jobs. For students from adult learning classes, we used a lexical decision task to measure their knowledge of words and we used a decision-making model (Ratcliff's, 1978, diffusion model) to abstract the mechanisms underlying their performance from…
Roberts, Bette H.; Russell, Sheldon Noel
In order to identify the reading behavior and instructional needs of functionally illiterate adults reading below fourth grade level, 50 adults were identified and diagnosed on the Durrell Analysis of Reading Difficulty test and the Slosson Intelligence Test for Children and Adults. In addition, a questionnaire was administered to Oklahoma City…
Hutson, Barbara A.; Liebermann, Jo
Measures of syntactic knowledge and reading achievement were obtained for 41 students in an adult basic education center. Adults reading at or below fourth-grade level showed significantly less knowledge of syntax than adults at higher levels, even though the language test involved neither reading nor writing. (Author/CT)
MILLER, JUSTIN H.
TRENDS EVIDENT IN ADULT READING DURING THE 1960'S IN THE AREAS OF ADMINISTRATION, PROGRAMS, TEACHING, TECHNIQUES, RESEARCH PROJECTS, AND METHODS OF PROMOTION OF READING PROGRAMS ARE DISCUSSED. TWO INSTANCES OF COMMERCIAL EXPLOITATION BASED ON INTENSE AND OFTEN FALLACIOUS ADVERTISING AND ON PUBLIC IGNORANCE ARE CITED. A POSITIVE TREND IN THE AREA…
Haught, Patricia A.; Walls, Richard T.
Presents new norms on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test for healthcare-professional students. Notes that it is generally accepted that professional and graduate schools require students with good reading ability because of the quantity of material to be read. Presents standard scores, percentile ranks, and stanine scores as revised norms based on test…
Kiely, Kim M; Luszcz, Mary A; Piguet, Olivier; Christensen, Helen; Bennett, Hayley; Anstey, Kaarin J
This study investigates the functional equivalence of two measures of irregular word pronunciation--National Adult Reading Test (NART) and Schonell--which are popular instruments used to assess verbal neurocognitive functioning and to estimate premorbid IQ. We report norms for the NART in a pooled sample from 3 Australian population-based studies of adults aged 65-103 years. Norms were stratified by sex and age left school in 5-year age groups. The NART and the Schonell had a strong linear relation, allowing for the imputation of NART scores based on Schonell performance within 1 study. Neither measure was sensitive to the effects of sex after adjusting for the effects of age and education. Early school leavers performed worse on both measures. Data pooling enables greater precision and improved generalizability of NART norms than do methods that use single older adult samples.
Kemper, Susan; And Others
Investigates older adults' reading comprehension skills through syntactic measures and measures of sentence content. Analyzes the apparent reading difficulties of older adults. Provides guidelines for the preparation of prose materials for older readers. (HB)
Gorman, David; Ernst, Megan L.
Lifelong learning has become an important goal of education over the last decade. According to the United States Department of Education (2001), nearly 3 million students over age 17 (excluding those institutionalized) enrolled in adult basic education, adult secondary education, or English as a second language classes in the United States.…
McGrory, Sarah; Austin, Elizabeth J; Shenkin, Susan D; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J
Decline in cognitive ability is a core diagnostic criterion for dementia. Knowing the extent of decline requires a baseline score from which change can be reckoned. In the absence of prior cognitive ability scores, vocabulary-based cognitive tests are used to estimate premorbid cognitive ability. It is important that such tests are short yet informative, to maximize information and practicability. The National Adult Reading Test (NART) is commonly used to estimate premorbid intelligence. People are asked to pronounce 50 words ranging from easy to difficult but whether its words conform to a hierarchy is unknown. Five hundred eighty-seven healthy community-dwelling older people with known age 11 IQ scores completed the NART as part of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 study. Mokken analysis was used to explore item responses for unidimensional, ordinal, and hierarchical scales. A strong hierarchical scale ("mini-NART") of 23 of the 50 items was identified. These items are invariantly ordered across all ability levels. The validity of the interpretation of this briefer scale's score as an estimate of premorbid ability was examined using the actual age 11 IQ score. The mini-NART accounted for a similar amount of the variance in age 11 IQ as the full NART (NART = 46.5%, mini-NART = 44.8%). The mini-NART is proposed as a useful short clinical tool to estimate prior cognitive ability. The mini-NART has clinical relevance, comprising highly discriminatory, invariantly ordered items allowing for sensitive measurement, and adaptive testing, reducing test administration time, and patient stress.
Huang, Jiuhan; Nisbet, Deanna
This article explores the relationship between reading strategy use and reading proficiency among 121 adult ESL learners. Reading strategy use was measured by the SORS, and reading proficiency was determined by the CASAS Reading Test and BEST Literacy Test. Findings of the study reveal that (a) adult ESL learners are active strategies users; (b)…
Ready, Rebecca E.; Chaudhry, Maheen F.; Schatz, Kelly C.; Strazzullo, Sarah
There are few tests that assess reading comprehension in adults, but these tests are needed for a comprehensive assessment of reading disorders (RD). "The Nelson-Denny Reading Test" (NDRT) has a long-passage reading comprehension component that can be used with adolescents and adults. A problem with the NDRT is that reading comprehension…
The oral Red Cloud Reading Test provides a complete analysis of reading level and skills for American Indian students in grades 1-7 or for high school and adult students reading at or below high school levels. The test determines the basic and recreational reading levels, identifies reading problems, determines reading speeds, and analyzes the…
Hock, Mike; Mellard, Daryl
Although research on improving child literacy is converging, no such body of research exists for adult literacy. Yet the need is no less significant. This study extends the knowledge garnered with younger populations by determining the reading comprehension strategies most important to adults' success on adult literacy outcome measures and aligning them with previously researched interventions. According to an analysis of key adult literacy outcome measures (i.e., competency-based, standardized tests of literacy commonly accepted as reasonable proxies for the global construct of adult literacy: Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System [CASAS], General Educational Development [GED], and National Assessment of Educational Progress [NAEP]), adults should benefit from strategies that teach looking for clues in or generating questions about a text. Additionally, adults need to learn how to summarize and draw inferences in order to address higher-level literacy demands. Adult learners also need a metacognitive strategy to self-regulate reading behavior (e.g., choose a strategy to use, evaluate its effectiveness, and abandon and choose another strategy if necessary.) Furthermore, when using a competency-based standardized test, adult learners need to be coincidentally taught test-taking skills to reduce the test-related task demands and produce a better index of a learner's reading comprehension skills.
Green, Robin E A; Melo, Brenda; Christensen, Bruce; Ngo, Le-Anh; Monette, Georges; Bradbury, Cheryl
Estimation of premorbid IQ in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is clinically and scientifically valuable because it permits the quantification of the cognitive impact of injury. This is achieved by comparing performances on tests of current ability to estimates of premorbid IQ, thereby enabling current capacity to be interpreted in light of preinjury ability. However, the validity of premorbid IQ tests that are commonly used for TBI has been questioned. In the present study, we examined the psychometric properties of a recently developed test, the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR), which has yet to be examined for TBI. The cognitive performance of a group of 24 patients recovering from TBI (with a mean Glasgow Coma Scale score in the severely impaired range) was measured at 2 and 5 months postinjury. On both occasions, patients were administered three tests that have been used to measure premorbid IQ (the WTAR and the Vocabulary and Matrix Reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 3rd Edition, WAIS-III) and three tests of current ability (Symbol Digit Modalities Test-Oral and Similarities and Block Design subtests of the WAIS-III). We found that performance significantly improved on tests of current cognitive ability, confirming recovery. In contrast, stable performance was observed on the WTAR from Assessment 1 (M = 34.25/50) to Assessment 2 (M = 34.21/50; r = .970, p < .001). Mean improvement across assessments was negligible (t = -0.086, p = .47; Cohen's d = -.005), and minimal individual participant change was observed (modal scaled score change = 0). WTAR scores were also highly similar to scores on a demographic estimate of premorbid IQ. Thus, converging evidence--high stability during recovery from TBI and similar IQ estimates to those of a demographic equation suggests that the WTAR is a valid measure of premorbid IQ for TBI. Where word pronunciation tests are indicated (i.e., in patients for whom English is spoken and read fluently
Hutson, Barbara A.; Liebermann, Jo
In an examination of the relationship between language skill and reading achievement in adults, measures of syntactic knowledge and reading achievement were obtained for 41 students in an adult basic education center. Moderate correlations were found for language skill and reading achievement, with students reading at or below the fourth grade…
van den Berg, Esther; Nys, Gudrun M S; Brands, Augustina M A; Ruis, Carla; van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Kessels, Roy P C
Previous studies have shown that the discrepancy between performance on "fluid" and "crystallized" intelligence measures may serve as an indicator for intellectual decline. The validity of this procedure in older persons is unknown. The present study developed a multiple regression equation, to predict the Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) score from the National Adult Reading Test (NART) score and demographic variables in a large sample of healthy older persons (n = 270). The discrepancy between the predicted and observed Raven APM scores was transformed into a percentile distribution as an indicator of intellectual decline, which can be used in clinical practice. The validity of the procedure was further examined by comparing the proportion of persons with a significant decline (at the -1 and -1.65 SD level) between two older patient samples (87 patients with cerebral stroke and 387 patients with diabetes mellitus) by means of χ(2) tests. There was a significantly higher rate of intellectual decline at the -1 SD ("below average") and -1.65 SD ("impaired") cutoff levels for patients with stroke compared with patients with diabetes (stroke, 34% and 14%; diabetes, 16% and 5%, p < .05). These findings suggest that the Raven APM-NART discrepancy may be a useful measure of intellectual decline in older persons.
Watson, G. R.; And Others
Fifty adults (ages 28-86) with macular degeneration were given the Low Vision Reading Comprehension Assessment (LVRCA) to test its reliability and validity in evaluating the reading comprehension of those with vision impairments. The LVRCA was found to take only nine minutes to administer and was a valid and reliable tool. (CR)
Athanasou, James A.
Reading is theorised as a key aspect of one's educational and vocational adjustment. The reading scores on the "Wide-Range Achievement Test 3" of 465 adult vocational assessment clients were examined. Reading varied across a range of social factors and the overall results were consistent with earlier studies, especially the "Adult…
Ponnet, Koen S.; Roeyers, Herbert; Buysse, Ann; De Clercq, Armand; Van Der Heyden, Eva
This study investigated the mind-reading abilities of 19 adults with Asperger syndrome and 19 typically developing adults. Two static mind-reading tests and a more naturalistic empathic accuracy task were used. In the empathic accuracy task, participants attempted to infer the thoughts and feelings of target persons, while viewing a videotape of…
Wood, Nancy V.
To help college reading teachers develop an awareness of what standardized reading tests do and do not reveal about students' reading abilities, a study examined the testing of reading and criticized four major standardized tests. Results indicated that reading is tested through (1) reading passages accompanied by multiple choice questions, (2)…
Ready, Rebecca E; Chaudhry, Maheen F; Schatz, Kelly C; Strazzullo, Sarah
There are few tests that assess reading comprehension in adults, but these tests are needed for a comprehensive assessment of reading disorders (RD). The Nelson-Denny Reading Test (NDRT) has a long-passage reading comprehension component that can be used with adolescents and adults. A problem with the NDRT is that reading comprehension test items can be answered correctly without reading the associated passage. The current study determined how IQ, verbal comprehension, and reading skills were associated with scores on a passageless administration of the NDRT. Results indicated that IQ, verbal comprehension, and broad reading skills were significantly associated with greater NDRT passageless scores. Results raise questions about the validity of the reading comprehension component of the NDRT and suggest that the test may have differential validity based on individual differences in vocabulary, general fund of knowledge, and broad reading skills.
Discusses the use of computerized placement testing at Santa Fe Community College to enable students needing only a short review of reading skills to exit early from a College Preparatory Reading Class (CPRC). Describes CPRC placement, structure, curriculum, and exit criteria; the Early Exit Reading Project; and project results. (DMM)
Hawk, Jane Ward; Lester, Virda K.
One of the most effective means of achieving a successful program in reading is the use of the young adult novel to stimulate the adolescent's interest in free reading or even to instill an interest where there is none. A novel which provides pleasurable reading experiences with interesting material at the proper level (such as novels by Judy…
Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando
Recent studies show that dyslexia persists into adulthood, even in highly educated and well-read people. The main characteristic that adults with dyslexia present is a low speed when reading. In Spanish, a shallow orthographic system, no studies about adults with dyslexia are available; and it is possible that the consistency of the orthographic…
Many adult poor readers do not organize what they read in a way that best facilitates good comprehension. To help students overcome this problem, the Adult Day and Evening School in Oakland, California, organized a reading laboratory for their mostly low-income, educationally disadvantaged students with a diverse range of needs. Instruction in the…
CLOWARD, ROBERT D.; COHEN, S. ALAN
THE TEST WAS DESIGNED TO ASSESS SPEED OF READING COMPREHENSION. IT CONSISTED OF NUMBERED PASSAGES, ONE TO THREE SENTENCES IN LENGTH, ARRANGED IN PARAGRAPH FORM TO SIMULATE THE NORMAL READING EXERCISE. TOWARD THE END OF EACH PASSAGE, A WORD WAS INSERTED WHICH SPOILED THE MEANING OF THE PASSAGE. THE PUPILS WERE INSTRUCTED TO FIND THE WORD THAT…
Brownhill, R. J.
Utilizing Michael Polanyi's theory of knowledge as a framework, the author outlines an approach in which illiterate adults might increase their motivation and chances of success in developing reading skill. (EM)
Jones, F. W.; Long, K.; Finlay, W. M. L.
Background: This study's aim was to begin the process of measuring the reading comprehension of adults with mild and borderline learning disabilities, in order to generate information to help clinicians and other professionals to make written material for adults with learning disabilities more comprehensible. Methods: The Test for the Reception of…
Kemper, Susan; Mcdowd, Joan; Metcalf, Kim; Liu, Chiung-Ju
Eye-tracking technology was employed to examine young and older adults' performance in the reading with distraction paradigm. Distracters of 1, 2, and 4 words that formed meaningful phrases were used. There were marked age differences in fixation patterns. Young adults' fixations to the distracters and targets increased with distracter length.…
Rakow, Steven J.; Gee, Thomas C.
Reviews some of the ways researchers estimate readability with a focus on multiple choice test items in science. Presents criteria to consider for minimizing readability problems in test items. Examines samples from the National Assessment of Educational Progress test bank for readability. (ML)
Smith, M. Cecil; Stahl, Norman A.
Interest in adults' everyday reading practices has a lengthy history in the study of the psychology of reading. Several studies have examined the extent of, and variability in, adults' reading activities. Different social contexts have been shown to influence the type of reading performed. The present study examined the reading patterns and…
Paul, Gina; Verhulst, Steve
This article presents a synergistic reading comprehension program to help minority adults from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds improve their reading skills in preparation for academics, standardized testing, and medical school. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)
Braze, David; Tabor, Whitney; Shankweiler, Donald P; Mencl, W Einar
This study is part of a broader project aimed at developing cognitive and neurocognitive profiles of adolescent and young adult readers whose educational and occupational prospects are constrained by their limited literacy skills. We explore the relationships among reading-related abilities in participants ages 16 to 24 years spanning a wide range of reading ability. Two specific questions are addressed: (a) Does the simple view of reading capture all nonrandom variation in reading comprehension? (b) Does orally assessed vocabulary knowledge account for variance in reading comprehension, as predicted by the lexical quality hypothesis? A comprehensive battery of cognitive and educational tests was employed to assess phonological awareness, decoding, verbal working memory, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, word knowledge, and experience with print. In this heterogeneous sample, decoding ability clearly played an important role in reading comprehension. The simple view of reading gave a reasonable fit to the data, although it did not capture all of the reliable variance in reading comprehension as predicted. Orally assessed vocabulary knowledge captured unique variance in reading comprehension even after listening comprehension and decoding skill were accounted for. We explore how a specific connectionist model of lexical representation and lexical access can account for these findings.
Scales, Alice M.; Zikri, Lawrence B.
Investigating the reading habits of adults in Egypt, East Africa, a study examined 294 Egyptians (233 males and 61 females) in post-secondary education in Cairo, and in the industrial cities of Shopra El-Khema, and Impapa, El-Giza. Marital status, sex, and occupation were used to group the subjects. Subjects completed a 29-item questionnaire…
Mellard, Daryl F.; Fall, Emily; Mark, Caroline
The United States' National Institute for Literacy's (NIFL) review of adult literacy instruction research recommended adult education (AE) programs assess underlying reading abilities in order to plan appropriate instruction for low-literacy learners. This study developed adult reading ability groups using measures from power tests and speeded…
Furlonger, Brett; Holmes, Virginia M.; Rickards, Field W.
This study investigated differences in the phonological knowledge and reading skill of deaf adults using three experimental conditions that tested sensitivity to syllables, rhyme, and phonemes. Analysis of response latencies and accuracy in the three awareness tasks demonstrated that skilled deaf readers had superior phonological awareness skill…
Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Halldorsson, Jonas G.; Steinberg, Stacy; Hansdottir, Ingunn; Kristjansson, Kristleifur; Stefansson, Hreinn; Stefansson, Kari
This article describes psychometric testing of an Icelandic adaptation of the "Adult Reading History Questionnaire" (ARHQ), designed to detect a history of reading difficulties indicative of dyslexia. Tested in a large and diverse sample of 2,187 adults, the Icelandic adaptation demonstrated internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's…
Rodrigo, Victoria; Greenberg, Daphne; Segal, Don
This study analyzes the effect of two reading interventions on reading habits by 181 low literate adults who read at the 3-5.9 grade levels. One intervention implemented extensive reading (ER group) and the other one had direct instruction (no-ER group). A Reading Pattern survey was administered at the beginning, at the end, and 6 months after the…
Virgili, Gianni; Acosta, Ruthy; Grover, Lori L; Bentley, Sharon A; Giacomelli, Giovanni
Background The purpose of low-vision rehabilitation is to allow people to resume or to continue to perform daily living tasks, with reading being one of the most important. This is achieved by providing appropriate optical devices and special training in the use of residual-vision and low-vision aids, which range from simple optical magnifiers to high-magnification video magnifiers. Objectives To assess the effects of reading aids for adults with low vision. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 1), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE, (January 1950 to January 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to January 2013), OpenGrey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov/) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 31 January 2013. We searched the reference lists of relevant articles and used the Science Citation Index to find articles that cited the included studies and contacted investigators and manufacturers of low-vision aids. We handsearched the British Journal of Visual Impairment from 1983 to 1999 and the Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness from 1976 to 1991. Selection criteria This review includes randomised and quasi-randomised trials in which any device or aid used for reading had been compared to another device or aid in people aged 16 or over with low vision as defined by the study investigators. Data collection and analysis At least two authors independently
Parault, Susan J; Williams, Heather M
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the variables of reading motivation, reading amount, and text comprehension in deaf and hearing adults. Research has shown that less than 50% of deaf students leave high school reading at or above a fourth-grade level (Allen, 1994). Our question is, how does this affect the levels of reading motivation and amount of reading in which deaf adults engage? Assessments of 30 hearing and 24 deaf adults showed that deaf participants reported significantly higher levels of reading motivation despite having been found to read at less than a sixth-grade level. No significant difference in the amount of reading between hearing and deaf adults was found. Amount of reading for personal reasons was found to be the best predictor of text comprehension in the deaf participants, and intrinsic motivation was found to be the best predictor of amount of reading in the deaf participants.
This manual provides strategies for developing young adult collections, outlines a reading club designed specifically for young adults, suggests promotional ideas for the young adult reading club and young adult programming in general, and provides age-appropriate ideas for both formal and passive programming. Specific topics covered in the…
Lewin, Beverly A.
Schemata based notions need not replace, but should be reflected in, product-centered reading tests. The contributions of schema theory to the psycholinguistic model of reading has been thoroughly reviewed. Schemata-based reading tests provide several advantages: (1) they engage the appropriate conceptual processes for the student which frees the…
Nanda, Alice O.; Greenberg, Daphne; Morris, Robin
This study examined whether measurement constructs behind reading-related tests for struggling adult readers are similar to what is known about measurement constructs for children. The sample included 371 adults reading between the third-and fifth-grade levels, including 127 men and 153 English speakers of other languages. Using measures of skills…
Greenberg, Daphne; Rodrigo, Victoria; Berry, Angelee; Brinck, Tanya; Joseph, Holly
Extensive reading is an approach to teaching reading that has been utilized with English as a Second Language (ESL) learners, but not widely used in the adult literacy classroom. This article investigates whether this approach can be utilized in a classroom for adults who have difficulty with reading. A description of our implementation of…
Fronius, Sandra K.
The purpose of this study was to determine the reading interests of the young adult participants in the summer reading program at Medina County District Library (Ohio). Findings were compared to research done in other locations and to current bibliographies of recommended reading for young adults. The study looked at a systematic sample of reader…
Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing. Michigan Educational Assessment Program.
Background information is provided about the Michigan Educational Assessment Program (MEAP) reading test, a test developed to meet the objectives specified by the State Board of Education in 1986. The revised test measures reading in a more interactive manner than did previous tests. The rationale of the test is presented, the revised reading…
Raygor, Alton L., Ed.
This yearbook is a report of the papers presented at the Fourth Annual Meeting of the North Central Reading Association. The titles and authors of the papers included are: "Recent Research in College and Adult Reading" by Edward G. Summers; "The Definition of Reading" by Earl F. Rankin; "The Effect of Reading Training on College Achievement" by…
Chang, Kathryn L.
The concept of content area reading (CAR) is introduced and implications are drawn for the teaching of reading in adult literacy and basic education programs. Included are (1) a definition of the concept, (2) background of reading-related problems, (3) practical approaches to functional reading instruction, and (4) the relationship between CAR and…
This article presents the results of a qualitative study into how adult literacy learners perceive reading. Individual interviews and focus groups were used to ask 37 adult literacy learners at a London further education college what reading is. It follows a grounded theory approach to build a model, or narrative, of reading in the form of six…
A BIBLIOGRAPHY SUITABLE FOR USE WITH ADULT GROUPS AND INDIVIDUALS WHO ARE ILLITERATE, FUNCTIONALLY ILLITERATE, OR WHOSE READING SKILLS ARE LATENT OR UNDERDEVELOPED WAS COMPILED BY THE COMMITTEE ON READING IMPROVEMENT FOR ADULTS OF THE AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION ADULT SERVICES DIVISION. THIS LIST REPRESENTS A COMPLETELY EDITED AND ANNOTATED…
Watson, G.; And Others
The Pepper Visual Skills for Reading Test was assessed as a measure of reading ability with meaningful text in 38 adults with macular degeneration; scores were compared with assessment made using the Gray Oral Reading Test, a previously standardized assessment. The test's validity was confirmed. (Author/JDD)
Medland, Coraley; Walter, Helen; Woodhouse, J Margaret
The literature concerning subjects who have reading difficulties has repeatedly noted their abnormal eye movements. The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test was developed on the assumption that poor eye movement control is a major cause of reading difficulties. The hypothesis tested by this study was that practice in fluent reading trains the eye movements that result in a good DEM score, whilst poor readers will exhibit low DEM scores due to insufficient training. English readers (43 children, 20 adults), and Arabic readers (six children, five adults) were recruited. The DEM test was administered twice, performed once reading the horizontal section in the habitual reading direction and secondly in the opposite direction, thus enabling the subjects' eye movements to be compared when reading in their habitual direction and when reading in a direction which is relatively unpracticed. Paired t-tests showed that the difference in eye movements (quantified via the DEM test ratio) between the two opposing reading directions was significant in English reading adults, English reading children and Arabic reading children, but not significant in the Arabic adults, who were equally practised in reading in the two directions. The results support the hypothesis that abnormal eye movements are more likely to be an effect and not the cause of reading difficulties. The DEM test should not be used to diagnose eye movement difficulties in a patient with poor reading ability.
Stahl, Norman A.; Smith-Burke, M. Trika
Delves into the birth, childhood, and adolescence of the National Reading Conference, with direct attention given to the germination of the "Journal of Reading Behavior," the former title of this journal. Notes the National Reading Conference has a long and honored history spanning a period of nearly 50 years. (RS)
Mellard, Daryl F; Woods, Kari L; Md Desa, Z Deana; Vuyk, M Alexandra
This exploratory study identified underlying skill and ability differences among subgroups of adolescent and young adult struggling readers (N = 290) overall and in relation to a fluency-based instructional grouping method. We used principal axis factoring of participants' scores on 18 measures of reading-related skills and abilities identified in the research literature to identify a smaller set of generally uncorrelated constructs. The four underlying factors of the 18 measures explained 62.7% of the variance. We labeled these factors Encode/Decode (44.5%), Vocabulary (9.5%), Processing Speed (5.2%), and Working Memory (3.5%). Regression analysis demonstrated Working Memory, Encode/Decode, and Vocabulary collectively predicted 45.9% functional reading as measured by the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System. Alternatively, when measured by the Test of Adult Basic Education, Vocabulary and Encode/Decode predicted 47.1% of variance in reading. Differences in predictive utility of the factors by fluency group suggest approaches to tailoring instruction for each group. Future research might examine the optimal mix of instructional approaches that support the identified factors.
Adams, Jill; Bushman, John H.
In this article, the authors discuss thematic solutions using young adult literature to increase reading comprehension. Here, they emphasize that prior knowledge plays a very important role in the reading process. As students read, they actively "construct meaning through the integration of existing and new knowledge and the flexible use of…
van Hoogmoed, Anne H.; Knoors, Harry; Schreuder, Robert; Verhoeven, Ludo
Children who are deaf are often delayed in reading comprehension. This delay could be due to problems in morphological processing during word reading. In this study, we investigated whether 6th grade deaf children and adults are delayed in comparison to their hearing peers in reading complex derivational words and compounds compared to…
MCKEE, JOHN M.; AND OTHERS
TO HELP DISADVANTAGED INMATES WITH LOW READING LEVELS AND THOSE CONSIDERED FUNCTIONALLY ILLITERATE, THE DRAPER CORRECTIONAL CENTER IN ALABAMA EXPERIMENTED WITH VARIOUS READING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMS. MOST SUCCESSFUL WAS THE READING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM USING THE PERCEPTOSCOPE. ALL APPLICANTS WHO SCORED BELOW THE SEVENTH GRADE READING LEVEL IN THE…
Segal-Drori, Ora; Korat, Ofra; Shamir, Adina; Klein, Pnina S.
The effects of electronic book (e-book) and printed book reading on children's emergent reading with and without adult instruction were investigated. One hundred twenty-eight 5- to 6-year-old kindergarten children from low SES families were randomly assigned to one of four groups (32 children each): (1) independently reading the e-book (EB); (2)…
Parault, Susan J.; Williams, Heather M.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the variables of reading motivation, reading amount, and text comprehension in deaf and hearing adults. Research has shown that less than 50% of deaf students leave high school reading at or above a fourth-grade level (Allen, 1994). Our question is, how does this affect the levels of…
Barnes, Marcia; Dennis, Maureen; Hetherington, Ross
Reading and writing were studied in 31 young adults with spina bifida and hydrocephalus (SBH). Like children with this condition, young adults with SBH had better word decoding than reading comprehension, and, compared to population means, had lower scores on a test of writing fluency. Reading comprehension was predicted by word decoding and listening comprehension. Writing was predicted by fine motor finger function, verbal intelligence, and short-term and working memory. These findings are consistent with cognitive models of reading and writing. Writing, but not reading, was related to highest level of education achieved and writing fluency predicted several aspects of functional independence. Reading comprehension and writing remain deficient in adults with SBH and have consequences for educational attainments and functional independence.
Posey, Virginia K.; Henderson, Barbara W.
Introduction: This exploratory study determined whether transcribing selected test items on an adult life and work skills reading test into braille could maintain the same approximate scale-score range and maintain fitness within the item response theory model as used by the Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (CASAS) for developing…
Short, N. J.
This rating form concerns the measurement of basic skills in connection with assessing reading readiness. Motor skills, ability to adjust to learning situations, familiarity with the alphabet, and general knowledge are assessed. See TM 001 111 for details of the Regional PIC program in which it is used. (DLG)
Sadden, Leah Jane; Reid, Janet
Reports on a study of the use of cloze passages in a developmental reading assessment program. The cloze procedure provides students with opportunities to practice their improved reading skills, while affording complete student-as-reader profiles. Concedes the value of standardized tests in determining student readiness to exit developmental…
Nanda, Alice O; Greenberg, Daphne; Morris, Robin
This study examined whether measurement constructs behind reading-related tests for struggling adult readers are similar to what is known about measurement constructs for children. The sample included 371 adults reading between the third-and fifth-grade levels, including 127 men and 153 English speakers of other languages. Using measures of skills and subskills, confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test child-based theoretical measurement models of reading: an achievement model of reading skills, a core deficit model of reading subskills, and an integrated model containing achievement and deficit variables. Although the findings present the best measurement models, the contribution of this article is the description of the difficulties encountered when applying child-based assumptions to developing measurement models for struggling adult readers.
Bygum, Anette; Mortz, Charlotte Gotthard; Andersen, Klaus Ejner
The clinical interpretation and reproducibility of atopy patch tests was studied in 23 selected young adult patients with atopic dermatitis and 25 healthy controls using standard inhalant allergens. Non-invasive measurements were used for objective assessment of test reactions and the participants were retested after 6 weeks. Ten of 19 (53%) evaluable patients with atopic dermatitis had at least one positive atopy patch test. However, there was no clear clinical relevance of the atopy patch test results when related to patient history and distribution of dermatitis. Reproducible and dose-dependent results were obtained with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, grass and cat with a reproducibility rate of 0.69 to 0.81 in patients and 0.60-0.96 in controls. A unique finding was a significant positive correlation between a positive atopy patch test, allergen dose and increase in transepidermal water loss and erythema, while measurement of capacitance did not distinguish between positive and negative reactions. The results of the present study do not support the routine use of atopy patch tests in the evaluation of adult patients with atopic dermatitis.
Biggs, Shirley A.; Bruder, Mary N.
Structured interviews with 128 poor readers and nonreaders probed subjects' early reading experiences and attitudes about those experiences. Topics covered include subjects' perception of personal reading ability, family environment, and school experience. Findings indicate poor self-images result from bad reading experiences, including reading…
Stallworth-Clark, Rosemarie; Cochran, Jeff; Nolen, Martha T.; Tuggle, Durelle L.; Scott, Janice S.
Describes a 20 item self-report psychometric scale that was used to assess test anxiety levels in 67 students. Reports that the higher the anxiety level, as measured by the Revised Test Anxiety Scale (RTA), the lower the score on a reading and writing competency exam taken subsequently, and that students who received extra time on the reading test…
Ingraham, Cynthia L.; Andrews, Jean F.
Deafblind readers are heterogeneous in reading skill acquisition. This qualitative study uses in-depth interviews and protocol analyses and queries the three deafblind adult participants in describing their metacomprehension, metacognitive and metalinguistic strategies used when reading different types of text. Using retrospective analysis, the…
BROWN, DON; NEWMAN, ANNABEL
ADULT ILLITERATES OF WESTERN NEW YORK WERE STUDIED TO DETERMINE THEIR ATTITUDES TOWARD READING MATERIALS AND EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS. THE EXPERIENCE INVENTORY WAS USED TO INVESTIGATE EACH SUBJECT'S IDENTIFICATION AND BACKGROUND, THE EXTENT OF HIS FUNCTIONAL AND GENERAL KNOWLEDGE, AND HIS READING-ASSOCIATED INTERESTS. EIGHTEEN HIGH ACHIEVERS AND 22…
Wallot, Sebastian; Hollis, Geoff; van Rooij, Marieke
The process of connected text reading has received very little attention in contemporary cognitive psychology. This lack of attention is in parts due to a research tradition that emphasizes the role of basic lexical constituents, which can be studied in isolated words or sentences. However, this lack of attention is in parts also due to the lack of statistical analysis techniques, which accommodate interdependent time series. In this study, we investigate text reading performance with traditional and nonlinear analysis techniques and show how outcomes from multiple analyses can used to create a more detailed picture of the process of text reading. Specifically, we investigate reading performance of groups of literate adult readers that differ in reading fluency during a self-paced text reading task. Our results indicate that classical metrics of reading (such as word frequency) do not capture text reading very well, and that classical measures of reading fluency (such as average reading time) distinguish relatively poorly between participant groups. Nonlinear analyses of distribution tails and reading time fluctuations provide more fine-grained information about the reading process and reading fluency. PMID:23977177
This National Reading Conference Policy Brief provides information related to high stakes reading tests and reading assessment. High stakes reading tests are those with highly consequential outcomes for students, teachers, and schools. These outcomes may include student promotion or retention, student placement in reading groups, school funding…
Kemper, Susan; Bontempo, Daniel; Schmalzried, RaLynn; McKedy, Whitney; Tagliaferri, Bruno; Kieweg, Doug
A digital pursuit rotor was used to monitor oral reading costs by time-locking tracking performance to the auditory wave form produced as young and older adults were reading out short paragraphs. Multilevel modeling was used to determine how paragraph-level predictors of length, grammatical complexity, and readability and person-level predictors…
Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher
The current study employed a meta-analytic approach to investigate the relative importance of component reading skills to reading comprehension in struggling adult readers. A total of 10 component skills were consistently identified across 16 independent studies and 2,707 participants. Random effects models generated 76 predictor-reading…
Fisher, Joseph A., Ed.
This yearbook contains selected papers presented at the twenty-third and twenty-fourth annual meetings of the North Central Reading Association, held in October of 1981 and 1982. Papers in the yearbook include: "History of Adult Reading Programs" (Clarence Anderson); "About Creativity and Study Skills" (Mark E. Thompson); "Recent Changes in…
Jones, Paul L.; Armitage, Bonnie J.
Having implemented a testing procedure using the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests to identify recruits with reading deficiencies, the United States Navy conducted a study comparing the performance of recruits on three different reading tests. A total of 716 recruits completed the comprehension portion of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, the Tests…
A written examination may discriminate against candidates if the reading difficulty level of the test is higher than the minimum educational level required for entry into the position for which the examination is used as a screening device. Tests used for examining applicants for positions in a large heterogeneous merit jurisdiction and in a city…
Harber, Jean R.
Characteristics which should be considered in reviewing any standardized reading test include validity, reliability, standardization sample, areas assessed by the test, type of response required by the child, individual versus group administration, time needed for administration, availability of equivalent forms, scoring options available,…
Brooke, W. Michael, Ed.
The publication is a collection of relevant readings in adult basic education (ABE), with special emphasis on the Canadian environment. They were selected for their potential value in helping the professional development of all adult basic educators and an attempt was made to re-integrate research and practice in the field. Fourteen articles were…
Keenan, Janice M; Meenan, Chelsea E
The authors examined the implications of test differences for defining and diagnosing comprehension deficits using reading comprehension tests. They had 995 children complete the Gray Oral Reading Test-3, the Qualitative Reading Inventory-3, the Woodcock-Johnson Passage Comprehension-3, and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test and compared which children were identified by each test as being in the lowest 10%. Although a child who performs so poorly might be expected to do poorly on all tests, the authors found that the average overlap between tests in diagnosing comprehension difficulties was only 43%. Consistency in diagnosis was greater for younger children, when comprehension deficits are the result of weaker decoding skills, than for older children. Inconsistencies between tests were just as evident when identifying the top performers. The different children identified as having a comprehension deficit by each test were compared on four profile variables-word decoding skill, IQ, ADHD symptoms, and working memory skill-to understand the nature of the different deficits assessed by each test. Theoretical and practical implications of these test differences in defining and diagnosing comprehension deficits are discussed.
Masterson, Jackie; Hayes, Maureen
The Nelson Denny Reading Test (Brown, Fishco & Hanna, 1993) provides measures of comprehension, reading rate and vocabulary. It is widely used in research studies with high school and undergraduate students and for assessment purposes in the USA. No widely used test of this kind exists for adults in the UK. The present paper reports data from 197…
Weigle, Sara Cushing; Yang, WeiWei; Montee, Megan
Integrated reading/writing tasks are becoming more common in large-scale language tests. Much of the research on these tasks has focused on writing through reading; assessing reading through writing is a less explored area. In this article we describe a reading-into-writing task that is intended to measure both reading comprehension and language…
Amitay, Sygal; Ahissar, Meray; Nelken, Israel
The nature of the auditory processing deficit of disabled readers is still an unresolved issue. The quest for a fundamental, nonlinguistic, perceptual impairment has been dominated by the hypothesis that the difficulty lies in processing sequences of stimuli at presentation rates of tens of milliseconds. The present study examined this hypothesis using tasks that require processing of a wide range of stimulus time constants. About a third of the sampled population of disabled readers (classified as "poor auditory processors") had difficulties in most of the tasks tested: detection of frequency differences, detection of tones in narrowband noise, detection of amplitude modulation, detection of the direction of sound sources moving in virtual space, and perception of the lateralized position of tones based on their interaural phase differences. Nevertheless, across-channel integration was intact in these poor auditory processors since comodulation masking release was not reduced. Furthermore, phase locking was presumably intact since binaural masking level differences were normal. In a further examination of temporal processing, participants were asked to discriminate two tones at various intervals where the frequency difference was ten times each individual's frequency just noticeable difference (JND). Under these conditions, poor auditory processors showed no specific difficulty at brief intervals, contrary to predictions under a fast temporal processing deficit assumption. The complementary subgroup of disabled readers who were not poor auditory processors showed some difficulty in this condition when compared with their direct controls. However, they had no difficulty on auditory tasks such as amplitude modulation detection, which presumably taps processing of similar time scales. These two subgroups of disabled readers had similar reading performance but those with a generally poor auditory performance scored lower on some cognitive tests. Taken together, these
The commentary (1) uses the U. S. National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) as a prototype for examining standardized reading achievement tests at the item level, and (2) sketches an alternative based on an initiative underway in the United Kingdom.
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Pupil Testing and Advisory Services.
This publication lists and describes diagnostic reading tests available from United States publishers. Critical reviews by outside experts are included and supplemented by the compiler's comments. The external reviews are abstracted from "The Mental Measurements Yearbooks," edited by O. K. Buros, and cited by Yearbook edition and entry number. The…
Sabatini, John P.; Shore, Jane R.; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Scarborough, Hollis S.
In this study, confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the interrelationships among latent factors of the Simple View of reading comprehension (word recognition and language comprehension) and hypothesized additional factors (vocabulary and reading fluency) in a sample of 476 adult learners with low literacy levels. The results provided evidence for reliable distinctions between word recognition, fluency, language comprehension, and vocabulary skills as components of reading. Even so, the data did not support the hypothesis that the Simple View needs to be expanded to include vocabulary or fluency factors, as has been posited in a few prior studies of younger and more able readers. Rather, word recognition and language comprehension alone were found to account adequately for variation in reading comprehension in adults with low literacy. PMID:20179307
Golan, Ofer; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Hill, Jacqueline J.; Rutherford, M. D.
This study reports a revised version of the "Reading the Mind in the Voice" (RMV) task. The original task (Rutherford et al., (2002), "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32," 189-194) suffered from ceiling effects and limited sensitivity. To improve that, the task was shortened and two more foils were added to each of the remaining…
Heth, Inbahl; Lavidor, Michal
To better understand the contribution of the dorsal system to word reading, we explored transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) effects when adults with developmental dyslexia received active stimulation over the visual extrastriate area MT/V5, which is dominated by magnocellular input. Stimulation was administered in 5 sessions spread over two weeks, and reading speed and accuracy as well as reading fluency were assessed before, immediately after, and a week after the end of the treatment. A control group of adults with developmental dyslexia matched for age, gender, reading level, vocabulary and block-design WAIS-III sub-tests and reading level was exposed to the same protocol but with sham stimulation. The results revealed that active, but not sham stimulation, significantly improved reading speed and fluency. This finding suggests that the dorsal stream may play a role in efficient retrieval from the orthographic input lexicon in the lexical route. It also underscores the potential of tDCS as an intervention tool for improving reading speed, at least in adults with developmental dyslexia.
Gallart, Marta Soler
A two-year ethnographic study of dialogic literary circles in Spain explored the learning experience of adults who participated in them. In a dialogic society, educational projects providing real opportunities for transformation and overcoming inequalities usually had a dialogic orientation and promoted instrumental learning as well as critical…
Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Halldorsson, Jonas G; Steinberg, Stacy; Hansdottir, Ingunn; Kristjansson, Kristleifur; Stefansson, Hreinn; Stefansson, Kari
This article describes psychometric testing of an Icelandic adaptation of the Adult Reading History Questionnaire (ARHQ), designed to detect a history of reading difficulties indicative of dyslexia. Tested in a large and diverse sample of 2,187 adults, the Icelandic adaptation demonstrated internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha = .92) and test-retest reliability (r = .93). Validity was established by comparing scores of adults who as children received ICD-10 diagnoses of specific reading disorder (F81.0; n = 419) to those of adults defined as nondyslexics (n = 679). ROC curve analysis resulted in an area under the curve of .92 (95% CI = .90, .93, p < .001) and a cutoff score of .43 with sensitivity of 84.5% and specificity of 83.7%. An exploratory factor analysis (n = 2,187) suggested three subscales, Dyslexia Symptoms, Current Reading, and Memory, the mean scores of which differed significantly among diagnosed dyslexics, relatives of dyslexics, and population controls. Our results support the applicability of the ARHQ in Icelandic as a self-report screening tool for adult dyslexia in Iceland.
Bull, Kelly Byrne
Preparing teachers to understand their students' reading processes so that they can guide their students toward connecting with texts in meaningful and personal ways are goals that can be met through the study of young adult literature. Twenty-first century learners live in an increasingly interconnected world and have access to countless texts…
Mellard, Daryl F.; Woods, Kari L.; Md Desa, Z. Deana; Vuyk, M. Alexandra
This exploratory study identified underlying skill and ability differences among subgroups of adolescent and young adult struggling readers (N = 290) overall and in relation to a fluency-based instructional grouping method. We used principal axis factoring of participants' scores on 18 measures of reading-related skills and abilities identified in…
This study investigated the relationship of first language (L1) grammatical knowledge to English second language reading (ESLR), with the objective of understanding this relationship in the context of the transfer of L1 skills to second language (L2) academic processes. Fifty-five adult, native Spanish-speaking English-language learners were given…
Huang, Jiuhan; Nisbet, Deanna
This article is written as a practical guide to aid teachers in metacognitive reading strategy instruction. The nature of metacognitive strategies is explored, followed by specific procedures for implementing effective metacognitive strategy instruction in the adult ESL classroom. Chamot and O'Malley's (1994) five-phase strategy instruction…
Braze, David; Tabor, Whitney; Shankweiler, Donald P.; Mencl, W. Einar
This study is part of a broader project aimed at developing cognitive and neurocognitive profiles of adolescent and young adult readers whose educational and occupational prospects are constrained by their limited literacy skills. We explore the relationships among reading-related abilities in participants ages 16 to 24 years spanning a wide range…
Pytash, Kristine E.; Morgan, Denise N.; Batchelor, Katherine E.
This article summarizes preservice teachers' experiences in a book club that read young adult literature focused on issues related to bullying. Preservice teachers learned to recognize various incidents of bullying in the books. They also began to consider how they might handle incidents of bullying in their future classrooms. (Contains 2 figures.)
Van Horn, Leigh
Notes how adolescents through young adult literature begin to discover the meaning behind the words and to explore their own emotions. Describes the use of small groups and an introduction of the concept of a literacy community. Discusses a whole-class reading and response to S.E. Hinton's novel "The Outsiders." (SC)
Maynard, David A.
This document begins with a four-page performance report describing how the Camp Verde Adult Reading Program site was relocated to the Community Center Complex, and the Town Council contracted directly with the Friends of the Camp Verde Library to provide for the requirements of the program. The U.S. Department of Education grant allowed the…
Coleman, Chris; Lindstrom, Jennifer; Nelson, Jason; Lindstrom, William; Gregg, K Noël
The comprehension section of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test (NDRT) is widely used to assess the reading comprehension skills of adolescents and adults in the United States. In this study, the authors explored the content validity of the NDRT Comprehension Test (Forms G and H) by asking university students (with and without at-risk status for learning disorders) to answer the multiple-choice comprehension questions without reading the passages. Overall accuracy rates were well above chance for both NDRT forms and both groups of students. These results raise serious questions about the validity of the NDRT and its use in the identification of reading disabilities.
Radencich, Marguerite C., Ed.
The following articles are included: "Reconceptualizing the Language of Adult Literacy" (Ilsley, Stahl); "Expanding the Definition of Literacy for Adult Remedial Readers" (Heathington); "Adult Literacy Programs" (Davis); "Stages in the Reading Development of Adults" (Norman, Malicky); "Reading Concepts and Strategies of Adult Nonreaders" (Malicky,…
Nanda, Alice Owens
Due to the paucity of research on struggling adult readers, researchers rely on child-based reading constructs and measures when investigating the reading skills of adults struggling with reading. The purpose of the two studies in this investigation was to evaluate the appropriateness of using child-based reading constructs and assessments with…
Bola, Łukasz; Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Hańczur, Paweł; Szwed, Marcin
Blind people are known to have superior perceptual abilities in their remaining senses. Several studies suggest that these enhancements are dependent on the specific experience of blind individuals, who use those remaining senses more than sighted subjects. In line with this view, sighted subjects, when trained, are able to significantly progress in relatively simple tactile tasks. However, the case of complex tactile tasks is less obvious, as some studies suggest that visual deprivation itself could confer large advantages in learning them. It remains unclear to what extent those complex skills, such as braille reading, can be learnt by sighted subjects. Here we enrolled twenty-nine sighted adults, mostly braille teachers and educators, in a 9-month braille reading course. At the beginning of the course, all subjects were naive in tactile braille reading. After the course, almost all were able to read whole braille words at a mean speed of 6 words-per-minute. Subjects with low tactile acuity did not differ significantly in braille reading speed from the rest of the group, indicating that low tactile acuity is not a limiting factor for learning braille, at least at this early stage of learning. Our study shows that most sighted adults can learn whole-word braille reading, given the right method and a considerable amount of motivation. The adult sensorimotor system can thus adapt, to some level, to very complex tactile tasks without visual deprivation. The pace of learning in our group was comparable to congenitally and early blind children learning braille in primary school, which suggests that the blind's mastery of complex tactile tasks can, to a large extent, be explained by experience-dependent mechanisms.
Bola, Łukasz; Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Hańczur, Paweł; Szwed, Marcin
Blind people are known to have superior perceptual abilities in their remaining senses. Several studies suggest that these enhancements are dependent on the specific experience of blind individuals, who use those remaining senses more than sighted subjects. In line with this view, sighted subjects, when trained, are able to significantly progress in relatively simple tactile tasks. However, the case of complex tactile tasks is less obvious, as some studies suggest that visual deprivation itself could confer large advantages in learning them. It remains unclear to what extent those complex skills, such as braille reading, can be learnt by sighted subjects. Here we enrolled twenty-nine sighted adults, mostly braille teachers and educators, in a 9-month braille reading course. At the beginning of the course, all subjects were naive in tactile braille reading. After the course, almost all were able to read whole braille words at a mean speed of 6 words-per-minute. Subjects with low tactile acuity did not differ significantly in braille reading speed from the rest of the group, indicating that low tactile acuity is not a limiting factor for learning braille, at least at this early stage of learning. Our study shows that most sighted adults can learn whole-word braille reading, given the right method and a considerable amount of motivation. The adult sensorimotor system can thus adapt, to some level, to very complex tactile tasks without visual deprivation. The pace of learning in our group was comparable to congenitally and early blind children learning braille in primary school, which suggests that the blind’s mastery of complex tactile tasks can, to a large extent, be explained by experience-dependent mechanisms. PMID:27187496
Yu, Deyue; Cheung, Sing-Hang; Legge, Gordon E; Chung, Susana T L
Enhancing reading ability in peripheral vision is important for the rehabilitation of people with central-visual-field loss from age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Previous research has shown that perceptual learning, based on a trigram letter-recognition task, improved peripheral reading speed among normally-sighted young adults (Chung, Legge, & Cheung, 2004). Here we ask whether the same happens in older adults in an age range more typical of the onset of AMD. Eighteen normally-sighted subjects, aged 55-76years, were randomly assigned to training or control groups. Visual-span profiles (plots of letter-recognition accuracy as a function of horizontal letter position) and RSVP reading speeds were measured at 10 degrees above and below fixation during pre- and post-tests for all subjects. Training consisted of repeated measurements of visual-span profiles at 10 degrees below fixation, in four daily sessions. The control subjects did not receive any training. Perceptual learning enlarged the visual spans in both trained (lower) and untrained (upper) visual fields. Reading speed improved in the trained field by 60% when the trained print size was used. The training benefits for these older subjects were weaker than the training benefits for young adults found by Chung et al. Despite the weaker training benefits, perceptual learning remains a potential option for low-vision reading rehabilitation among older adults.
Yu, Deyue; Cheung, Sing-Hang; Legge, Gordon E.; Chung, Susana T. L.
Enhancing reading ability in peripheral vision is important for the rehabilitation of people with central-visual-field loss from age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Previous research has shown that perceptual learning, based on a trigram letter-recognition task, improved peripheral reading speed among normally-sighted young adults (Chung, Legge & Cheung, 2004). Here we ask whether the same happens in older adults in an age range more typical of the onset of AMD. Eighteen normally-sighted subjects, aged 55 to 76 years, were randomly assigned to training or control groups. Visual-span profiles (plots of letter-recognition accuracy as a function of horizontal letter position) and RSVP reading speeds were measured at 10° above and below fixation during pre- and post-tests for all subjects. Training consisted of repeated measurements of visual-span profiles at 10° below fixation, in 4 daily sessions. The control subjects did not receive any training. Perceptual learning enlarged the visual spans in both trained (lower) and untrained (upper) visual fields. Reading speed improved in the trained field by 60% when the trained print size was used. The training benefits for these older subjects were weaker than the training benefits for young adults found by Chung et al. Despite the weaker training benefits, perceptual learning remains a potential option for low-vision reading rehabilitation among older adults. PMID:20156473
Perea, Manuel; Giner, Lourdes; Marcet, Ana; Gomez, Pablo
A number of experiments have shown that, in skilled adult readers, a small increase in interletter spacing speeds up the process of visual word recognition relative to the default settings (i.e., judge faster than judge). The goal of the present experiment was to examine whether this effect can be generalized to a more ecological scenario: text reading. Each participant read two stories (367 words each) taken from a standardized reading test. The stories were presented with the standard interletter spacing or with a small increase in interletter spacing (+1.2 points to default) in a within-subject design. An eyetracker was used to register the participants' eye movements. Comprehension scores were also examined. Results showed that, on average, fixation durations were shorter while reading the text with extra spacing than while reading the text with the default settings (237 vs. 245 ms, respectively; η2 =. 41, p = .01). However, the number of fixations (while nonsignificant) was slightly higher in the text with extra spacing than in the text with the default spacing, and cancelled out the effect of interletter spacing in total reading times (F < 1). Comprehension scores were similar in the two spacing conditions (F < 1). Thus, at least for skilled adult readers, interletter spacing does not seem to play a consistently facilitative role during text reading.
Mason, Jana; And Others
Two contrasting kindergarten reading programs (book-focused and letter-focused) were chosen for a study that evaluated the ability of the Early Reading Test to probe children's knowledge of stories as well as letters, sounds, and words. The test also evaluated the kinds of strategies children use to attempt reading tasks and, through interview…
Ritchie, Stuart J; Bates, Timothy C
Understanding the determinants of socioeconomic status (SES) is an important economic and social goal. Several major influences on SES are known, yet much of the variance in SES remains unexplained. In a large, population-representative sample from the United Kingdom, we tested the effects of mathematics and reading achievement at age 7 on attained SES by age 42. Mathematics and reading ability both had substantial positive associations with adult SES, above and beyond the effects of SES at birth, and with other important factors, such as intelligence. Achievement in mathematics and reading was also significantly associated with intelligence scores, academic motivation, and duration of education. These findings suggest effects of improved early mathematics and reading on SES attainment across the life span.
Swanson, H. Lee; Hsieh, Ching-Ju
This article synthesizes the experimental literature that compares the academic, cognitive, and behavioral performance of adults with reading disabilities to those of average-achieving adult readers. The central question posed by this review is to what extent and in what manner do adults with reading disabilities differ from adults without reading…
Georgiou, George K; Das, J P
The purpose of this study was two-fold: (a) to examine what component of executive functions (EF) - planning and working memory - predicts reading comprehension in young adults (Study 1), and (b) to examine if less skilled comprehenders experience deficits in the EF components (Study 2). In Study 1, we assessed 178 university students (120 females; mean age=21.82 years) on planning (Planned Connections, Planned Codes, and Planned Patterns), working memory (Listening Span, Digit Span Backward, and Digit Memory), and reading comprehension (Nelson-Denny Reading Test). The results of structural equation modeling indicated that only planning was a significant predictor of reading comprehension. In Study 2, we assessed 30 university students with a specific reading comprehension deficit (19 females; mean age=23.01 years) and 30 controls (18 females; mean age=22.77 years) on planning (Planned Connections and Crack the Code) and working memory (Listening Span and Digit Span Backward). The results showed that less skilled comprehenders performed significantly poorer than controls only in planning. Taken together, the findings of both studies suggest that planning is the preeminent component of EF that is driving its relationship with reading comprehension in young adults.
Swanson, H. Lee
This longitudinal study assessed (a) whether performance changes in working memory (WM) as a function of dynamic testing were related to growth in reading comprehension and (b) whether WM performance among subgroups of children with reading disabilities (RD; children with RD only, children with both reading and arithmetic deficits, and low verbal…
Thomas, P. Ann
The focus of the investigation is on a sixth grade population not performing reading on grade level and not achieving high-stakes test score proficiency causing the school to fail adequate yearly progress (AYP). The lack of reading skills causes the students to repeat grades in middle school and high school. Reading technology instruction is the…
Mucherah, Winnie; Yoder, Alyssa
This study examined middle school students' reading motivation and its relations to their performance on a standardized test (ISTEP+) in reading. Participants included 388 sixth- and eighth-grade students from two public middle schools. There were 229 females and 159 males. Participants responded to the Reading Motivation Questionnaire after they…
representing the four types of Army job reading tasks identified in prior research (Locating Job Information in an Index , in Tables and Graphs,DD re I= 3 E...categories of Army job reading tasks established in prior research: Locating Job Information in an Index , in Tables and Graphs, and in Narrative Descriptions...as the index of general reading ability. This decision was based on a known correlation of approximately 0.80 between FA and the Metropolitan Reading
Jones, Lise Oen; Asbjornsen, Arve; Manger, Terje; Eikeland, Ole-Johan
The present paper investigates the relationship between the revised Adult Dyslexia Check List (ADCL), and the performance on a standardized battery of reading and spelling tests in adults, when used in an incarcerated population in Norway. The paper reports two sub studies. Study 1 examined the psychometric attributes of the ADCL by analysing the…
Williams, Rihana Shiri; Ari, Omer; Santamaria, Carmen Nicole
Recent investigations challenge the construct validity of sustained silent reading tests. Performance of two groups of post-secondary students (e.g. struggling and non-struggling) on a sustained silent reading test and two types of cloze test (i.e. maze and open-ended) was compared in order to identify the test format that contributes greater…
Olson, Arthur V.; Rosen Carl L.
A variety of factor analysis techniques were employed to explore the structure of five reading readiness instruments (Gates Reading Readiness Test, Developmental Tests of Visual Perception, Metropolitan Readiness Tests, Specially Constructed Readiness Test by Olson, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) as predictor variables of performance on…
Reynolds, Irene; Williams, Virginia
The DPI Criterion-Referenced Pre-Reading Screening Test is to be used as one means of identifying some strengths and weaknesses in certain areas of pre-reading skills. It is intended to be used as a screening instrument for beginning first graders. The areas of pre-reading skills to be screened are (1) auditory perception, (2) letter knowledge,…
Mellard, Daryl F; Fall, Emily; Woods, Kari L
Adult literacy interventions often rely on models of reading validated with children or adult populations with a broad range of reading abilities. Such models do not fully satisfy the need for intervention research and development for adults with low literacy. Thus, the authors hypothesized that a model representing the relationship between reading component skills would be predictive of reading comprehension for an adult population with low literacy and beneficial to adult literacy researchers. Using data from 174 adults participating in adult basic education and secondary education programs, the authors performed a path analysis of component skills' contribution to reading comprehension. The findings are clear that existing reading models do not describe this population. The implications are discussed in terms of instructional and curricular interventions.
Griffiths, Gina G.
Adults with mild to moderate acquired brain injury (ABI) often pursue post-secondary or professional education after their injuries in order to enter or re-enter the job market. An increasing number of these adults report problems with reading-to-learn. The problem is particularly concerning given the growing population of adult survivors of ABI.…
Olson, Arthur V.
Discusses two frequently recommended tests for the evaluation of visual perception in relation to reading ability: the Frostig Development Test of Visual Perception and the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test. Questions the content validity of the former and suggests that the latter is a reasonable predictor of reading achievement. (FL)
Hirsch, E. D., Jr.; Pondiscio, Robert
For millions of American schoolchildren, taking a test for which they are completely unprepared is like a nightmare from which they cannot wake. It is a trial visited upon them each year when the law requires them to take reading tests with little preparation. Formally preparing for reading tests has become more than just a ritual for schools. It…
Bosshardt, H G
The hypothesis tested was that stutterers subvocalize more slowly than nonstutterers and that they need more time for the overt production of the fluent parts of their speech. We also investigated whether rate differences could only be observed for those words on which the stutterers expect to stutter. Fifty-nine school children (27 stutterers and 32 nonstutterers) and 19 adults (18 stutterers and 21 nonstutterers) performed a reading task in which a noun was presented together with its definite article. The presentation times of the reading material were controlled by the subjects. Half of the material had to be read silently, the other half orally. In oral reading, only the data from those trials without any indication of disfluencies were used. Dependent variables were presentation times, speech latency, and speech duration. The stutterers' silent presentation times were significantly longer than those of nonstutterers and this difference was significantly greater for children than for adults. In oral reading all stutterers, regardless of age, had longer presentation times, speech latencies, and article durations than the nonstutterers. Some nouns, however, were uttered significantly more rapidly by stutterers than by nonstutterers. These time differences were found to be independent of the stutterers' expectation to stutter. Our results indicate that a strictly motoric explanation of stuttering is inadequate. The data show that the stutterers and nonstutterers differ with respect to the temporal parameters not only during speech execution, but during speech planning as well.
Bell, Sherry Mee; McCallum, R. Steve; Ziegler, Mary; Davis, C. A.; Coleman, MariBeth
The purpose of this paper is to describe briefly the development and utility of the "Assessment of Reading Instructional Knowledge-Adults" ("ARIK-A"), the only nationally normed (n?=?468) measure of adult reading instructional knowledge, created to facilitate professional development of adult educators. Developmental data…
Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.
Intended for students taking the Grade 9 English Language Arts Achievement Test in Alberta, Canada, this reading test (to be administered along with the questions booklet) contains eight short reading selections taken from fiction, nonfiction, and poetry, including the following: "Thieving Raffles" (Eric Nicol); "Flight of the…
Masterson, Jackie; Hayes, Maureen
Author and book title recognition tests have been used extensively in reading-related research with both children and adults. The present paper reports the development of a book title and author recognition test and data from a UK sample of adults. Higher scores were obtained on the Author test than on the Title test. It is suggested that the…
Ghafournia, Narjes; Afghari, Akbar
The study scrutinized the probable interaction between using cognitive test-taking strategies, reading proficiency, and reading comprehension test performance of Iranian postgraduate students, who studied English as a foreign language. The study also probed the extent to which the participants' test performance was related to the use of certain…
Huang, Jiuhuan; Newbern, Claudia
This article reports on a study that examines the effects of metacognitive reading strategy instruction on reading performance of adult ESL learners with limited English and literacy skills. The strategy instruction was implemented over a period of four months with a group of 18 learners who were enrolled in a high beginning literacy course in an…
Pressures to help students pass high-stakes tests affect teachers' reading instruction, their responsiveness to students' learning needs, and their professional effectiveness. This article reports on how one reading specialist responded to testing pressures in her urban elementary school. She believed that what was "right" for her…
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Griffiths, Gina G; Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Kirk, Cecilia; Fickas, Stephen; Biancarosa, Gina
Adults with mild to moderate acquired brain injury (ABI) often pursue post-secondary or professional education after their injuries in order to enter or re-enter the job market. An increasing number of these adults report problems with reading-to-learn. The problem is particularly concerning given the growing population of adult survivors of ABI. Despite the rising need, empirical evaluation of reading comprehension interventions for adults with ABI is scarce. This study used a within-subject design to evaluate whether adult college students with ABI with no more than moderate cognitive impairments benefited from using reading comprehension strategies to improve comprehension of expository text. Integrating empirical support from the cognitive rehabilitation and special education literature, the researchers designed a multi-component reading comprehension strategy package. Participants read chapters from an introductory-level college anthropology textbook in two different conditions: strategy and no-strategy. The results indicated that reading comprehension strategy use was associated with recall of more correct information units in immediate and delayed free recall tasks; more efficient recall in the delayed free recall task; and increased accuracy recognising statements from a sentence verification task designed to reflect the local and global coherence of the text. The findings support further research into using reading comprehension strategies as an intervention approach for the adult ABI population. Future research needs include identifying how to match particular reading comprehension strategies to individuals, examining whether reading comprehension performance improves further through the incorporation of systematic training, and evaluating texts from a range of disciplines and genres.
Wark, David M.
Shows that the Test Anxiety Scale (TAS) is a reliable and valid instrument for separating test anxious readers in a population of students. Offers suggestions for reducing reading anxiety. Includes the 16-item TAS measure. (FL)
LEIBERT, ROBERT E.
A STUDY DESIGNED TO IDENTIFY SOME OF THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE RESPONSES ON THE GATES ADVANCED PRIMARY READING TEST AND THE KINDS OF RESPONSES OBTAINED FROM AN INFORMAL READING INVENTORY (IRI) IS REPORTED. SUBJECTS WERE 65 THIRD-GRADE PUPILS IN WEST BABYLON, NEW YORK. PUPILS AT THE SAME INSTRUCTIONAL LEVEL SCORED HIGHER IN THE RECOGNITION TEST…
Elbro, Carsten; Daugaard, Hanne Trebbien; Gellert, Anna S.
Dyslexia is hard to diagnose in a second language. Poor performance on a test of reading may be caused by poor language proficiency in the second language or by limited schooling rather than by poor reading ability per se. This confound was supported in a study of 88 adult second language learners and 65 native language speakers. The incidence of…
Short, N. J.
This diagnostic skills checklist enables the methods and materials specialists to note the reading and spelling skills the child has mastered, those skills which are weak or not developed, and those skills which are clearly beyond the child's capability of mastering because of insufficiently developed abilities at lower, prerequisite levels. Also…
Llorens Tatay, Ana Cristina; Gil Pelluch, Laura; Vidal-Abarca Gámez, Eduardo; Martínez Giménez, Tomás; Mañá Lloriá, Amelia; Gilabert Pérez, Ramiro
A new test to evaluate reading literacy, the Test of Reading Literacy for Secondary Education (CompLEC) is presented. CompLEC is based on the PISA assessment framework and new definitions of reading literacy. The test, easy to apply and score, assesses the level of reading literacy of children between 11 and 14 years of age in several reading situations (i.e., public, educational, personal and occupational) and with different types of texts (i.e., continuous and non-continuous). The scale has been standardized with a sample of 1,854 students from five different Spanish regions. Empirical results show that CompLEC is a homogeneous, reliable and valid instrument.
Blanchard, Jay S.
Evaluates the Computer-Based Assessment Instrument (CRAI) as a test for reading proficiency. Notes strengths of CRAI, including its use as a quick assessment of silent reading comprehension level, and the problems with readability and content specific words lists and the lack of scoring features. (JC)
If the purpose of language learning is communication, then improving students' reading comprehension competence becomes an overall goal in language teaching. This paper examines the online resources of reading comprehension tests with non-English major college students, and tackles the problem with the teaching method of integrating web-based…
These instructional materials provide reading materials, recipes, and exercises to help students prepare for the practical reading section of the General Educational Development (GED) Tests. The passages can also help students learn and practice some important life skills in the areas of nutrition and food safety. Basic skill improvement is in…
Otto, Wayne; Harper, Betty
As part of a larger project on teaching reading, this paper describes the work involved in constructing an effective instrument to evaluate teachers' knowledge of reading pedagogy. Existing tests were reviewed and rejected because of their focus on specific knowledge and diagnostic concepts rather than on measuring the knowledge implicitly tied to…
Johansson, Stefan; Myrberg, Eva; Rosen, Monica
The purpose of the present study was to examine validity aspects of teachers' judgements of pupils' reading skills. Data come from Sweden's participation in the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001, for Grades 3 and 4. For pupils at the same achievement levels, as measured by PIRLS 2001 test, teachers' judgements of…
Tirre, William C.; Pena, Carmen M.
Two experiments with approximately 377 newly enlisted Air Force personnel and 182 college students investigated the validity of a reading span test combining a knowledge verification task with a word memorization task. Results support the hypothesis that word recall reflects the amount of working memory functional in reading. (SLD)
Rodrigo, Victoria; Greenberg, Daphne; Burke, Victoria; Hall, Ryan; Berry, Angelee; Brinck, Tanya; Joseph, Holly; Oby, Michael
This article describes the implementation of an extensive reading (ER) program with 43 first language (L1) and second language (L2) adult literacy students. Among them, 16% were nonnative speakers of English. The main principles considered in the design of the program were (a) purpose of reading, (b) reading tactics, (c) material used, and (d) …
Belanger, Nathalie N.; Baum, Shari R.; Mayberry, Rachel I.
Deaf people often achieve low levels of reading skills. The hypothesis that the use of phonological codes is associated with good reading skills in deaf readers is not yet fully supported in the literature. We investigated skilled and less skilled adult deaf readers' use of orthographic and phonological codes in reading. Experiment 1 used a masked…
Goldman, Jason G.; Manis, Frank R.
This study investigated relationships among cortical thickness in the left-hemisphere reading network, and reading skill and experience in adult nonimpaired readers. Given the relationship between print exposure and reading, it is possible that print exposure is related to cortical structure. The pattern of correlations indicated that individuals…
Vescial, Ann; And Others
A computer-assisted reading program was implemented in the VESL (Vocational English as a Second Language) Center at Hacienda La Puente Adult Schools (California), which provides support services to adult special needs vocational students. The purpose of the program was to improve the technical reading skills of the vocational students. The basic…
Raygor, Alton L., Ed.
This yearbook contains the papers presented at the Fifth Annual Meeting of the North Central Reading Association. The titles and authors of the papers included are: "Speed Reading vs. Effective Developmental Reading" by Lester Van Gilder; "Counseling and Reading, Their Interrelationship" by Boyd Jackson; "Recent Research in College and Adult…
Cotner, Susan, Comp.
The Leisure Reading Selection Guide is part of an effort by the Appalachian Adult Education Cetner to aid librarians and adult basic education personnel in the selection of materials for undereducated adults. It is a listing of those leisure reading materials most frequently used by adult learners in four Appalachian Adult Education Center…
Dupuis, Mary M.; Askov, Eunice N.
Materials developed by teacher participants in the Content Area Reading Project are presented in this appendix to the Project report. The first section provides group informal reading inventories developed for use in adult education, teaching English as a second language, and nine content areas; it then presents cloze tests developed for use in…
Canale, Michael; And Others
Outlines the main testing needs, problems, and recommendations formulated by Michael Canale and by the four authors who reacted to his paper, "Considerations in the Testing of Reading and Listening Proficiency." Discusses three major and interrelated needs and two key problems found in receptive skills testing and makes recommendations.…
Kendeou, Panayiota; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Spanoudis, George
In the present study we examined the processing demands of three reading comprehension tests, namely the Woodcock-Johnson Passage Comprehension (WJPC), a Curriculum-Based Measure test (CBM-Maze), and a Recall test, in the early elementary years. Our investigation was theoretically motivated by Perfetti's Verbal Efficiency Theory and examined the…
Swanson, H. Lee
This article reviews the results of a meta-analysis of the experimental published literature that compares the academic, cognitive, and behavioral performance of adults with reading disabilities (RD) with average achieving adult readers. The meta-analysis shows that deficits independent of the classification measures emerged for adults with RD on…
White, Sheida; Chen, Jing; Forsyth, Barbara
This article presents data on the types and duration of reading-related activities reported by a volunteer sample of 400 adults (demographically similar to the U.S. adult population age 20 and older in terms of race, ethnicity, education, and working status) in the 2005 Real-World Tasks Study. This diary study revealed that adults spent, on…
Sabatini, John P.; Shore, Jane; Holtzman, Steven; Scarborough, Hollis S.
To compare the efficacy of instructional programs for adult learners with basic reading skills below the 7th-grade level, 300 adults were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 supplementary tutoring programs designed to strengthen decoding and fluency skills, and gains were examined for the 148 adult students who completed the program. The 3 intervention…
Isaki, Emi; Harmon, Mary Towle
This exploratory Intergenerational Program (IGP) focused on reading to determine whether it affects mood and communication in older adults with mild dementia and neurocognitive deficits, and if it influences school-aged children's perceptions of older adults over time. Six older adults with cognitive-communication deficits and 12 school-aged…
Binder, Katherine S.; Tighe, Elizabeth; Jiang, Yue; Kaftanski, Katharine; Qi, Cynthia; Ardoin, Scott P.
The purpose of the current study was to explore the relationship between prosody, which is the expressive quality of reading out loud, and reading comprehension in adults with low literacy skills compared to skilled readers. All participants read a passage orally, and we extracted prosodic measures from the recordings. We examined pitch changes and how long readers paused at various points while reading. Finally, for the adults with low literacy skills, we collected information on decoding, word recognition, and reading comprehension. We found several interesting results. First, adults with low literacy skills paused longer than skilled readers and paused at a substantially greater number of punctuation marks. Second, while adults with low literacy skills do mark the end of declarative sentences with a pitch declination similar to skilled readers, their readings of questions lack a change in pitch. Third, decoding and word recognition skills were related to pauses while reading; readers with lower skills made longer and more frequent and inappropriate pauses. Finally, pausing measures explained a significant amount of variance in reading comprehension among the adults with low literacy skills. PMID:23687406
Fisher, Kay E., Ed.; Fisher, Joseph A., Ed.
Containing selections from the 1987 and 1988 annual meetings of the North Central Reading Association, this yearbook includes sections on research; reviews of research; professional issues; and program descriptions. Papers include: "The Effects of a Secondary Reading Methods Course on Undergraduate Students' Awareness of Reading Skills"…
Foster, Harold M.; And Others
Describes Patti Cleary, an eighth-grade teacher, and her students. Discusses their perceptions of young adult literature and the reading workshop. Lists and describes new young adult titles that may appeal to fans of romances, S. E. Hinton, short books, and sports novels. (TB)
The testing and measurement movement has certainly become important in United States education. Test scores are looked upon as being quite valuable in ascertaining student achievement, especially in the reading curriculum. Percentiles, standard deviations, stanine scores, and other indicators are given to show objectively how well the reading…
MacArthur, Charles A.; Alamprese, Judith A.; Knight, Deborah
"Making Sense of Decoding and Spelling: An Adult Reading Course of Study" is an evidence-based course of study designed to teach adult learners to decode and spell words more accurately and fluently. It is designed to be used as one component of a comprehensive adult reading course. The target population for the course is adult basic education…
Guerra-Treviño, Marta Elena
This paper presents several "tips" for Spanish speaking adults who start a reading comprehension course in English. The document is the product of my twenty-five years of experience as a language teacher. By using these practical pieces of advice, learners understand the differences between English and their own language, are able read,…
Ard, Lisa M.; Beverly, Brenda L.
Adults naturally comment and pose questions during joint book reading (JBR), a recognized context for vocabulary acquisition. An original story containing 10 nonsense words mapped to novel referents was read to 40 typically developing preschoolers. Children who heard scripted questions and comments identified approximately two more words than…
Maine, Fiona; Waller, Alison
This qualitative case study explores the nature of reading engagement, taking a reader response approach to analysing and discussing the experiences and perspectives of real readers. The paper reports a collaborative research project in which a group of five primary-age children and a group of five adults of different ages were asked to read and…
Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Dept. of Adult and Continuing Education.
The teaching of reading is an important aspect of the total Adult Basic Education (ABE) program. The basic problem was: How is the teaching of reading in Nebraska being carried out? In trying to answer this question the document lays the groundwork by opening with a review of related literature and then discusses in detail the type of data…
Stothers, Margot; Klein, Perry D.
It is not clear from research whether, or to what extent, reading comprehension is impaired in adults who have learning disabilities (LD). The influence of perceptual organization (PO) and phonological awareness (PA) on reading comprehension was investigated. PO and PA are cognitive functions that have been examined in previous research for their…
Ponnet, Koen; Buysse, Ann; Roeyers, Herbert; De Clercq, Armand
This study further elaborates on the mind-reading impairments of young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The hypothesis is that differences in mind-reading abilities between subjects with ASD and control subjects become more apparent when they have to infer thoughts and feelings of other persons in a less structured or more chaotic…
Whitford, Veronica; Titone, Debra
This study addressed a central yet previously unexplored issue in the psychological science of aging, namely, whether the advantages of healthy aging (e.g., greater lifelong experience with language) or disadvantages (e.g., decreases in cognitive and sensory processing) drive L1 and L2 reading performance in bilingual older adults. To this end, we used a gaze-contingent moving window paradigm to examine both global aspects of reading fluency (e.g., reading rates, number of regressions) and the perceptual span (i.e., allocation of visual attention into the parafovea) in bilingual older adults during L1 and L2 sentence reading, as a function of individual differences in current L2 experience. Across the L1 and L2, older adults exhibited reduced reading fluency (e.g., slower reading rates, more regressions), but a similar perceptual span compared with matched younger adults. Also similar to matched younger adults, older adults' reading fluency was lower for L2 reading than for L1 reading as a function of current L2 experience. Specifically, greater current L2 experience increased L2 reading fluency, but decreased L1 reading fluency (for global reading measures only). Taken together, the dissociation between intact perceptual span and impaired global reading measures suggests that older adults may prioritize parafoveal processing despite age-related encoding difficulties. Consistent with this interpretation, post hoc analyses revealed that older adults with higher versus lower executive control were more likely to adopt this strategy.
Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.
The teacher handbook for Progressive Achievement Tests (PATs) in Reading presents an overall description of these survey tests in reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge for school years 3 to 9. There are two alternative forms of each test: (1) the Reading Comprehension tests are designed to measure two major aspects of reading skills…
Sparfeldt, Jorn R.; Kimmel, Rumena; Lowenkamp, Lena; Steingraber, Antje; Rost, Detlef H.
Multiple-choice (MC) reading comprehension test items comprise three components: text passage, questions about the text, and MC answers. The construct validity of this format has been repeatedly criticized. In three between-subjects experiments, fourth graders (N[subscript 1] = 230, N[subscript 2] = 340, N[subscript 3] = 194) worked on three…
Henricson, Cecilia; Lidestam, Björn; Lyxell, Björn; Möller, Claes
Objective: To investigate working memory (WM), phonological skills, lexical skills, and reading comprehension in adults with Usher syndrome type 2 (USH2). Design: The participants performed tests of phonological processing, lexical access, WM, and reading comprehension. The design of the test situation and tests was specifically considered for use with persons with low vision in combination with hearing impairment. The performance of the group with USH2 on the different cognitive measures was compared to that of a matched control group with normal hearing and vision (NVH). Study Sample: Thirteen participants with USH2 aged 21–60 years and a control group of 10 individuals with NVH, matched on age and level of education. Results: The group with USH2 displayed significantly lower performance on tests of phonological processing, and on measures requiring both fast visual judgment and phonological processing. There was a larger variation in performance among the individuals with USH2 than in the matched control group. Conclusion: The performance of the group with USH2 indicated similar problems with phonological processing skills and phonological WM as in individuals with long-term hearing loss. The group with USH2 also had significantly longer reaction times, indicating that processing of visual stimuli is difficult due to the visual impairment. These findings point toward the difficulties in accessing information that persons with USH2 experience, and could be part of the explanation of why individuals with USH2 report high levels of fatigue and feelings of stress (Wahlqvist et al., 2013). PMID:25859232
Kan, Katharine L.
Summer reading programs are a staple in libraries nationwide and provide a valuable service: keeping teens productive and occupied when they are no longer busy in school. Producing creative programs at the library can be challenging when faced with this easily distracted teen demographic; that's where "Sizzling Summer Reading Programs" steps in.…
Lisman, Linda C.
Fifty-seven seventh and 60 eighth graders were divided into three reading ability groups. All were given the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) prior to the study and the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test Survey E for grades 7 to 9 immediately after the study. A practice sample was given before the tests on prepared vowel deletion and…
Loshin, David S.; Wensveen, Janice; Juday, Richard D.; Barton, R. S.
NASA and the University of Houston College of Optometry are examining the efficacy of image warping as a possible prosthesis for at least two forms of low vision - maculopathy and retinitis pigmentosa. Before incurring the expense of reducing the concept to practice, one would wish to have confidence that a worthwhile improvement in visual function would result. NASA's Programmable Remapper (PR) can warp an input image onto arbitrary geometric coordinate systems at full video rate, and it has recently been upgraded to accept computer-generated video text. We have integrated the Remapper with an SRI eye tracker to simulate visual malfunction in normal observers. A reading performance test has been developed to determine if the proposed warpings yield an increase in visual function; i.e., reading speed. We will describe the preliminary experimental results of this reading test with a simulated central field defect with and without remapped images.
Koyama, Maki S; Di Martino, Adriana; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Kelly, Clare; Mennes, Maarten; Jutagir, Devika R; Castellanos, F Xavier; Milham, Michael P
Task-based neuroimaging studies face the challenge of developing tasks capable of equivalently probing reading networks across different age groups. Resting-state fMRI, which requires no specific task, circumvents these difficulties. Here, in 25 children (8-14 years) and 25 adults (21-46 years), we examined the extent to which individual differences in reading competence can be related to resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of regions implicated in reading. In both age groups, reading standard scores correlated positively with RSFC between the left precentral gyrus and other motor regions, and between Broca's and Wernicke's areas. This suggests that, regardless of age group, stronger coupling among motor regions, as well as between language/speech regions, subserves better reading, presumably reflecting automatized articulation. We also observed divergent RSFC-behavior relationships in children and adults, particularly those anchored in the left fusiform gyrus (FFG) (the visual word form area). In adults, but not children, better reading performance was associated with stronger positive correlations between FFG and phonology-related regions (Broca's area and the left inferior parietal lobule), and with stronger negative relationships between FFG and regions of the "task-negative" default network. These results suggest that both positive RSFC (functional coupling) between reading regions and negative RSFC (functional segregation) between a reading region and default network regions are important for automatized reading, characteristic of adult readers. Together, our task-independent RSFC findings highlight the importance of appreciating developmental changes in the neural correlates of reading competence, and suggest that RSFC may serve to facilitate the identification of reading disorders in different age groups.
Rakes, Thomas A.; McWilliams, Lana J.
A random sample of 300 seventh, eighth, and ninth grade students participated in a comparative study of performance on social studies cloze tests, social studies group reading inventories (GRI), and a popular standardized test (Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, Survey E). It was found that cloze tests and GRIs constructed from social studies content…
Barnes, Adrienne E.; Kim, Young-Suk
Adults enrolled in basic education exhibit poor academic performance, often reading at elementary and middle-school levels. The current study investigated the similarities and differences of reading skills and eye movement behavior between a sample of 25 low-skilled adult readers and 25 first grade students matched on word reading skill. t tests…
Hollinger, Jamie L.
The purpose of this correlational study was twofold: to examine the relationship of students' reading performance on six different diagnostic reading assessments and the third grade Ohio Reading Achievement Test; and to assist educators in choosing the diagnostic assessments that best identify students at risk of failing the third grade Ohio…
Kennedy, Lauren; Stansfeld, Charles W.
The Reading Proficiency Interview (RPI) is a new reading proficiency test format that was created in response to the US government's need to rapidly produce a cost effective and credible reading proficiency assessment format for small-population languages. The RPI was developed in response to a requirement by the National Language Service Corps…
To investigate the construct validly of a section of a high stakes test, an exploratory factor analysis using principal components analysis was employed. The rotation used was varimax with the suppression level of 0.30. Eleven factors were extracted out of 35 reading comprehension items. The fact that these factors emerged speak to the construct…
Guo, Qian; Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Yang, Li; Liu, Lihui
Previewing answer-choice options before finishing reading the text is a widely employed test-taking behavior. In the present study we examined whether previewing is related to item response accuracy and response time, using data from Chinese learners of varying English proficiency levels and English native speakers. We examined eye movement…
Becnel, Kim; Moeller, Robin A.
The purpose of this study is to better understand the reading patterns and preferences of rural teen readers and the cultures of reading that do or do not exist in the rural communities in which the teens reside. In addition, the researchers sought to discover, by conducting a series of focus groups, whether rural teen readers felt connected to…
Fisher, Joseph A., Ed.
Including sections on research, programs, and professional problems and issues, this yearbook contains presentations given at the 1978 and 1979 meetings of the North Central Reading Association. Papers include: "The Effects of Anxiety on Reading Comprehension" (David Wark and others); "Some Effects of Anxiety on University Students" (J. Michael…
Main, Keith L.; Pestilli, Franco; Mezer, Aviv; Yeatman, Jason; Martin, Ryan; Phipps, Stephanie; Wandell, Brian
Word familiarity may affect magnocellular processes of word recognition. To explore this idea, we measured reading rate, speed-discrimination, and contrast detection thresholds in adults and children with a wide range of reading abilities. We found that speed-discrimination thresholds are higher in children than in adults and are correlated with age. Speed discrimination thresholds are also correlated with reading rate, but only for words, not for pseudo-words. Conversely, we found no correlation between contrast sensitivity and reading rate and no correlation between speed discrimination thresholds WASI subtest scores. These findings support the position that reading rate is influenced by magnocellular circuitry attuned to the recognition of familiar word-forms. PMID:25278418
Gruspe, Michael Angelo M.; Marinas, Christian Joshua L.; Villasin, Marren Nicole F.; Villanueva, Ariel Josephe Therese R.; Vizconde, Camilla J.
This research probed into the reading experiences of adult readers in their first language (L1) and second language (L2). Qualitative in nature, the investigation focused on twelve (12) adult readers , six (6) males and six (6) females, whose first language is Filipino. Data were gathered through interviews and focus-group discussions. Based on…
van den Bos, K. P.; Nakken, H.; Nicolay, P. G.; van Houten, E. J.
Background: Adults with a mild intellectual disability (ID) often show poor decoding and reading comprehension skills. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of teaching text comprehension strategies to these adults. Specific research goals were to determine (1) the effects of two instruction conditions, i.e. strategy instruction to…
Stone, David E.; Glock, Marvin D.
This research is designed to explore the manner in which people read and use procedural information presented in text and illustrations. Recent theories are considered for their implications in this issue. (Author/GK)
Suggestions are made regarding ways teachers can help adult learners reduce their test anxiety. These general comments apply to content-oriented courses and may have some general applicability to all testing situations. The suggestions include clearly characterizing the test prior to its administration, planning for last-minute questions on test…
consistency reliability ( Kuder - Richardson Formula 20), test meai . ,andard deviation. Means for Army samples were adjusted in order to control for test...92 AFRAT B N 540 540 736 736 Rel .92 .90 .87 .94 Note. Internal consistency reliabililies (Ret) based on formula KR-20. Reliabilities were not as high...administrative and psychometric specifications. AFRAT appears to be a highly reliable instrument and is recommended as a replacement for commercial reading
Berninger, V W; Chen, A C; Abbott, R D
Within the framework of Society of Mind Theory (Minsky, 1986), learning to read is conceptualized as a process of creating new communication links or neural connections between an existing visual society and an existing linguistic society. Four visual-linguistic connections may become functional: letter-phonemic code, whole word-semantic code, whole word-name code, letter sequence-aural syllabic code. The hypothesis was tested that more than one of these visual-linguistic connections must be taken into account in predicting reading achievement. Results showed that the combination of the composite letter-phoneme variable and the composite whole word-semantic code variable accounted for significantly more variance in oral reading than did either single variable at the end of the first grade. Groups with large absolute discrepancy (1 or more standard scores) or small absolute discrepancy (1/3 standard score or less) on corresponding visual and linguistic skills differed significantly in both oral (whole word-semantic code composite) and silent reading (whole word-semantic code and letter sequence-aural syllabic code composites). There was a relationship between the number of large discrepancies and reading achievement. Results are discussed in reference to neuropsychological models of connectionism (Rumelhart & McClelland, 1986) and working brain systems (Luria, 1973).
Aryadoust, Vahid; Zhang, Limei
The present study used the mixed Rasch model (MRM) to identify subgroups of readers within a sample of students taking an EFL reading comprehension test. Six hundred and two (602) Chinese college students took a reading test and a lexico-grammatical knowledge test and completed a Metacognitive and Cognitive Strategy Use Questionnaire (MCSUQ)…
Meer, Yael; Breznitz, Zvia; Katzir, Tami
Reading difficulty has been linked to anxiety in adults yet and has not been systematically studied especially in compensated adults with dyslexia. This study examined the relationships between anxiety ratings and physiological arousal while reading among adults with reading disability (RD) compared to skilled readers (SR). Nineteen compensated adults with RD and 20 SR adults were administered a battery of reading tasks and anxiety self-report questionnaires. Physiological measures of arousal were recorded during text reading task. Adults with RD scored significantly lower than SR on all cognitive and reading related measures. They showed no differences on any of the self-report anxiety measures. Interestingly, in the skilled readers' sample, physiological arousal while reading correlated with trait anxiety. No correlations between physiological and self-reported data were found in the RD sample. These findings suggest a model of resiliency in compensated adults with reading disabilities that includes lower anxiety levels and a discord between anxiety reports and actual arousal rates. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sabatini, John P.; Venezky, Richard L.; Kharik, Polina; Jain, Richa
The Study of Adult Reading Acquisition (SARA) is a longitudinal research project designed to measure the development of reading subskills in adults enrolled in instructional programs. The study participants are all students enrolled in a variety of adult education sites and settings, including correctional institutions, community-based programs,…
Zhang, Limei; Zhang, Lawrence Jun
This article investigates the relationships between test takers' strategy use and test performance on an EFL reading test. For this study 209 Chinese college students were invited to participate in a reading comprehension test and answer a 30-item strategy use questionnaire. Results showed that two factors underlay test takers' reading test…
Calvo, M G; Carreiras, M
The aim of this research is to explore whether comprehension is impaired by test anxiety, whether the anxious person spends compensatory reading time, and which cognitive processes are affected. High- and low-anxiety students read texts word by word with the moving-window technique under test conditions. Multiple regression analyses on word-reading times were computed with a number of psycholinguistic variables--assumed to map onto specific processes--serving as predictors. Results indicated that anxiety did not impair comprehension, but increased word-reading times, which were affected interactively by anxiety and specific psycholinguistic variables (end of clause, serial position within the text, narrativity, and summary). These data reveal that anxious readers need to employ a greater amount of processing resources than their non-anxious counterparts to obtain a similar comprehension level. Furthermore, the interactive effects suggest that anxiety is selectively detrimental to the efficiency of text-level processes, such as those involved in integrating information across sentences. In contrast, anxiety does not impair low-level processes, such as encoding and lexical access.
Cockerham, Barbara Jean
Teacher enthusiasm for reading has considerable influence on students' reading interest and reading ability. The purpose of this study was to better understand the relationship between reading ability and reading interest among adults who plan to become teachers. This study tested whether there is a relationship between reading ability as measured…
Welcome, Suzanne E; Joanisse, Marc F
We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate relationships between white matter anatomy and different reading subskills in typical-reading adults. A series of analytic approaches revealed that phonological decoding ability is associated with anatomical markers that do not relate to other reading-related cognitive abilities. Thus, individual differences in phonological decoding might relate to connectivity between a network of cortical regions, while skills like sight word reading might rely less strongly on integration across regions. Specifically, manually-drawn ROIs and probabilistic tractography revealed an association between the volume and integrity of white matter underlying primary auditory cortex and nonword reading ability. In a related finding, more extensive cross-hemispheric connections through the isthmus of the corpus callosum predicted better phonological decoding. Atlas-based white matter ROIs demonstrated that relationships with nonword reading were strongest in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and uncinate fasciculus that connect occipital and anterior temporal cortex with inferior frontal cortex. In contrast, tract volume underlying the left angular gyrus was related to nonverbal IQ. Finally, connectivity underlying functional ROIs that are differentially active during phonological and semantic processing predicted nonword reading and reading comprehension, respectively. Together, these results provide important insights into how white matter anatomy may relate to both typical reading subskills, and perhaps a roadmap for understanding neural connectivity in individuals with reading impairments.
Huddleston, Andrew P.; Rockwell, Elizabeth C.
This historical critique of high-stakes testing in reading focuses on selected events from three historical movements: 1) the history of standardized testing, 2) the history of standardized reading tests, and 3) the history of high-stakes testing. These three interrelated histories have produced the high-stakes, standardized reading tests used in…
Craig, Holly K.; Thompson, Connie A.; Washington, Julie A.; Potter, Stephanie L.
Purpose: African American students perform disproportionately more poorly on standardized reading assessments than their majority peers. Poor reading performances may be related to test biases inherent in standardized reading instruments. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the appropriateness of the Gray Oral Reading Tests-Third…
Pellegrine, R. J.
The Diagnostic Reading Tests were designed to assess the reading skills of college students enrolled in reading centers. To assess the reliability of the Diagnostic Reading Tests, Survey Section, Form E (DRTE), a study was conducted with university freshmen as subjects. The DRTE was administered to 31 students in an Educational Opportunity Program…
Intended to help parents and teachers select books for young people that reflect the actual interests of adolescents, this booklet discusses titles that both appeal to teenagers and help adults gain insight into their needs, their concerns, and their values. Titles of chapters in the booklet are as follows: (1) "Are Young Adult Books…
Bergman, Zachary R
The majority of the nation's adult films are produced in California, and within California, most production occurs in Los Angeles. In order to regulate that content, the County of Los Angeles passed the Safer Sex in the Adult Film Industry Act (Measure B) by way of referendum in November 2012. Measure B requires that adult film producers wishing to film in Los Angeles County obtain permits from the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, and it also mandates that adult film performers use condoms while filming and "engaging in anal or vaginal sexual intercourse." Nevertheless, between August 2013 and January 2014, several adult film performers in California tested positive for HIV, and the threat of infection remains. Although Measure B is not the best way forward for Los Angeles County, elements of the ordinance should be incorporated into future legislative efforts. Given the economic ramifications of industry flight due to more localized regulations, this Note concludes that California should pass statewide comprehensive reform. Any such new legislation must treat "independent contractors," the classification generally used for adult film performs, as if they were regular employees. Legislation should also couple mandatory testing mechanisms with provisions granting performers the right to choose whether they use condoms. Finally, legislation must include mechanisms that ensure performers' preferences are not improperly tainted by outside forces and pressures. While there will always be risks associated with the production of adult content, if undertaken, these reforms could significantly mitigate those hazards.
Characteristics of English for Academic Purposes students' second language (L2) motivation were examined by identifying underlying motivational factors. Using the motivation constructs created by first language reading researchers, a survey was developed and administered to 2,018 students from 53 English language programs in the U.S. Survey…
Azevedo, Nair Rios; Goncalves, Maria Jose
Especially in a time of economic and social crisis, besides poverty and social segregation, immigrants face an additional difficulty to get integrated in a new society: lack of oral and written knowledge of the language of the country they are now living in. This paper describes an on-going research project--Writing and Reading with Art (WRAP)…
Kemper, Susan; Bontempo, Daniel; Schmalzried, RaLynn; McKedy, Whitney; Tagliaferri, Bruno; Kieweg, Doug
A digital pursuit rotor was used to monitor oral reading costs by time-locking tracking performance to the auditory wave form produced as young and older adults were reading out short paragraphs. Multilevel modeling was used to determine how paragraph-level predictors of length, grammatical complexity, and readability and person-level predictors such as speaker age or working memory capacity predicted reading and tracking performance. In addition, sentence-by-sentence variation in tracking performance was examined during the production of individual sentences and during the pauses before upcoming sentences. The results suggest that dual tasking has a greater impact on older adults’ reading comprehension and tracking performance. At the level of individual sentences, young and older adults adopt different strategies to deal with grammatically complex and propositionally dense sentences. PMID:23463405
Ghafournia, Narjes; Afghari, Akbar
The study scrutinized the interaction between reading proficiency and strategic competence via reading comprehension test performance of Iranian EFL learners. The further concern was to scrutinize the extent to which strategic competence affected the participants' test performance. The participants were 506 postgraduate students who took a reading…
Acha, Joana; Laka, Itziar; Perea, Manuel
Do typological properties of language, such as agglutination (i.e., the morphological process of adding affixes to the lexeme of a word), have an impact on the development of visual word recognition? To answer this question, we carried out an experiment in which beginning, intermediate, and adult Basque readers (n=32 each, average age=7, 11, and 22 years, respectively) needed to read correctly versus incorrectly inflected words embedded in sentences. Half of the targets contained high-frequency stems, and the other half contained low-frequency stems. To each stem, four inflections of different lengths were attached (-a, -ari, -aren, and -arentzat, i.e., inflectional sequences). To test whether the process of word recognition was modulated by the knowledge of word structure in the language, half of the participants' native language was Basque and the other half's native language was Spanish. Children showed robust effects of frequency and length of inflection that diminished with age. In addition, the effect of length of inflection was modulated by the frequency of the stem and by the native language. Taken together, these results suggest that word recognition develops from a decoding strategy to a direct lexical access strategy and that this process is modulated by children's knowledge of the inflectional structure of words from the beginning of their reading experience.
Baghaei, Purya; Ravand, Hamdollah
In this study the magnitudes of local dependence generated by cloze test items and reading comprehension items were compared and their impact on parameter estimates and test precision was investigated. An advanced English as a foreign language reading comprehension test containing three reading passages and a cloze test was analyzed with a…
Chiu, Ming Ming; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lin, Dan
The authors tested the component model of reading (CMR) among 186,725 fourth grade students from 38 countries (45 regions) on five continents by analyzing the 2006 Progress in International Reading Literacy Study data using measures of ecological (country, family, school, teacher), psychological, and cognitive components. More than 91% of the differences in student difficulty occurred at the country (61%) and classroom (30%) levels (ecological), with less than 9% at the student level (cognitive and psychological). All three components were negatively associated with reading difficulties: cognitive (student's early literacy skills), ecological (family characteristics [socioeconomic status, number of books at home, and attitudes about reading], school characteristics [school climate and resources]), and psychological (students' attitudes about reading, reading self-concept, and being a girl). These results extend the CMR by demonstrating the importance of multiple levels of factors for reading deficits across diverse cultures.
D). Glock Technical Report No. 1I10 Repducionin whole or part is permitted for any purpose of the United This research was sponsored by the Personnel...and Training Research Program Psychological Sciences Division, Office of Naval Research , under Contract No. IU0001-80-C-0372, Contract Authority...Identification Number WMlS7-1.52. This report, No. 2, Series B, is issued by the Reading Research Group, *. Department of Education, New York State
Fisher, Joseph A., Ed.
Consisting of a selection of papers presented at the 1982 and 1983 meetings of the North Central Reading Association, this yearbook includes sections on computers, research, professional issues, and programs. Papers include: "The Computerized Broom Will Sweep Our Future Classrooms: But Not Necessarily Clean" (George E. Mason); "Beyond the…
Wark, David M., Ed.
Spanning the annual meetings of the North Central Reading Association from 1971 to 1974, this yearbook presents papers dealing with programs and centers, materials and techniques, a new research field, and in honor of Roger S. Pepper. Papers include: "Attitudinal Factors among Marginal Admission Students" (Roger S. Pepper and John A. Drexler,…
Fisher, Joseph A., Ed.
Drawn from presentations at the 1977 meeting of the North Central Reading Association, this yearbook includes sections on programs and centers; professional training; clinical problems and methods; research; the Roger Pepper Research Award presentation; and the invitational address. Papers include: "Use of Galvanic Skin Response, Heart Rate,…
Fisher, Joseph A., Ed.
Containing selections of the papers presented at the 1984 and 1985 annual meetings of the North Central Reading Association, this yearbook includes sections on research; reviews of research; professional issues; and program descriptions. Papers include: "Twenty-Five Years of Professional Progress" (James E. Walker); "A Study of Student Alienation…
Jiang, Xiangying; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Sabatini, John
This study examined the relationship among word reading efficiency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension for adult English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Data from 185 adult Chinese EFL learners preparing to take the Test-of-English-as-a-Foreign-Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) were analyzed in this study. The participants completed a…
Williams, Lunetta M.; Hedrick, Wanda B.; Tuschinski, Linda
Motivating children to read on their own has been less of a priority than improving reading achievement in recent years, but many teachers are still asking, "How do I get my students to want to read?" The omission of motivation as a major component of reading instruction by the National Reading Panel (2000) was interpreted by many schools as a…
Bell, Sherry Mee; McCallum, R Steve; Ziegler, Mary; Davis, C A; Coleman, Maribeth
The purpose of this paper is to describe briefly the development and utility of the Assessment of Reading Instructional Knowledge-Adults (ARIK-A), the only nationally normed (n = 468) measure of adult reading instructional knowledge, created to facilitate professional development of adult educators. Developmental data reveal reliabilities ranging from 0.73 to 0.85 for five ARIK-A scales (alphabetics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, and assessment) and 0.91 for the composite score; factor analytic data and expert review provide support for construct validity as well. Information on how to use the ARIK-A to determine mastery and relative standing is presented. With two alternate forms, the ARIK-A is a promising and needed tool for adult education practitioners within continuing education and professional development contexts.
Cuevas, Joshua A.; Irving, Miles A.; Russell, L. Roxanne
This study implemented an independent silent reading (ISR) program with 145 10th grade students. Students were measured on total reading ability, vocabulary, reading comprehension, a state-mandated high stakes end-of-course test (EOCT), and reading attribution. After controlling for initial skill and disposition levels, the results indicated that…
... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedures for air flow tests of micronaire reading... micronaire reading. In determining in terms of micronaire readings, the fiber fineness and maturity, in... cotton in terms of micronaire reading on the curvilinear scale adopted in September 1950 by...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedures for air flow tests of micronaire reading... micronaire reading. In determining in terms of micronaire readings, the fiber fineness and maturity, in... cotton in terms of micronaire reading on the curvilinear scale adopted in September 1950 by...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedures for air flow tests of micronaire reading... micronaire reading. In determining in terms of micronaire readings, the fiber fineness and maturity, in... cotton in terms of micronaire reading on the curvilinear scale adopted in September 1950 by...
Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Cicchino, Nicole; Amiel, Merav; Holland, Scott K.; Breznitz, Zvia
A reading acceleration program known to improve reading fluency in Hebrew-speaking adults was tested for its effect on children. Eighty-nine Hebrew- and English-speaking children with reading difficulties were divided into a waiting list group and two training groups (Hebrew and English) and underwent 4 weeks of reading acceleration training.…
Martinez, Rebecca S.; Aricak, O. Tolga; Jewell, Jeremy
Despite widespread efforts to prevent reading problems and an abundance of research about best practices in remediating reading skills deficits, reading continues to be exceptionally difficult for many students. Researchers have become interested in investigating the degree to which affective factors such as reading attitude relates to reading…
Hill, Katherine Jane Roney
The project addressed the debate over supplemental literature: young adult or classic selections to better support teaching ninth graders Tennessee's English I curriculum standards. Research supported both classical and contemporary literature for teaching ninth graders, making it difficult to determine which type of literature might produce the…
Cover art has long been used as a marketing device for books, particularly with books aimed at young adults (YAs) aged 12 to 18. An examination of some of the teen thrillers published by novelist Lois Duncan since the 1970s yields several discoveries about changes in cover art that come with various editions. Many covers have been resigned to…
Phillips, Linda M.
The design and development of a test of inference ability in reading comprehension for grades 6, 7, and 8 (the Phillips-Patterson Test of Inference Ability in Reading Comprehension) are described. After development of a contemporary theoretical framework for the test of inference ability in reading comprehension, the design, item development, and…
Ramulu, Pradeep Y.; Swenor, Bonnielin K.; Jefferys, Joan L.; Rubin, Gary S.
Purpose. To construct and validate a test of sustained silent reading. Methods. Standardized 7300 and 7600 word passages were written to evaluate sustained silent reading. Two hundred forty subjects validated whether comprehension questions could discriminate subjects who did and did not read the passage. To evaluate test–retest properties, 49 subjects silently read the standardized passages on separate days. Sixty glaucoma suspect controls and 64 glaucoma subjects had their out loud reading evaluated with the MNRead card and an International Reading Speed Texts (IReST) passage, and their silent reading measured using the 7300 word passage. Sustained silent reading parameters included reading speed and reading speed slope over time. Results. Comprehension questions distinguished individuals who had and had not read passage materials. Bland-Altman analyses of intersession sustained reading speed and reading speed slope demonstrated 95% coefficients of repeatability of 57 words per minute (wpm) and 2.76 wpm/minute. Sustained silent reading speed was less correlated with MNRead (r = 0.59) or IReST passage (r = 0.68) reading speeds than the correlation of these two measures of out loud reading speed with each other (r = 0.72). Sustained silent reading speed was more likely to differ from IReST reading speed by more than 50% in rapid silent readers (odds ratio [OR] = 29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10–87), and comparisons of sustained and out loud reading speeds demonstrated proportional error in Bland-Altman analyses. Conclusions. Tests of out loud reading do not accurately reflect silent reading speed in individuals with normal vision or glaucoma. The described test offers a standardized way to evaluate the impact of eye disease and/or visual rehabilitation on sustained silent reading. PMID:23258146
Burt, Jennifer S.; Heffernan, Maree E.
The dual-route model of reading proposes distinct lexical and sub-lexical procedures for word reading and spelling. Lexically reliant and sub-lexically reliant reader subgroups were selected from 78 university students on the basis of their performance on lexical (orthographic) and sub-lexical (phonological) choice tests, and on irregular and…
Jones, Jayatta D.
Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD), a reading discussion group geared toward African American female adult-literacy students with self-defined histories of trauma, was an outgrowth of research identifying links between trauma, women's struggles with literacy, and the need to be conscious of emotional health…
Ajideh, Parviz; Mozaffarzadeh, Sorayya
Cloze tests have been widely used for measuring reading comprehension since their introducing to the testing world by Taylor in 1953. But in 1982, Klein-Braley criticized cloze procedure mostly for their deletion and scoring problems. They introduced their newly developed testing procedure, C-test, which was an evolved form of cloze tests without…
Tyson-Parry, Maree M; Sailah, Jessica; Boyes, Mark E; Badcock, Nicholas A
This research investigated the relationship between the attentional blink (AB) and reading in typical adults. The AB is a deficit in the processing of the second of two rapidly presented targets when it occurs in close temporal proximity to the first target. Specifically, this experiment examined whether the AB was related to both phonological and sight-word reading abilities, and whether the relationship was mediated by accuracy on a single-target rapid serial visual processing task (single-target accuracy). Undergraduate university students completed a battery of tests measuring reading ability, non-verbal intelligence, and rapid automatised naming, in addition to rapid serial visual presentation tasks in which they were required to identify either two (AB task) or one (single target task) target/s (outlined shapes: circle, square, diamond, cross, and triangle) in a stream of random-dot distractors. The duration of the AB was related to phonological reading (n=41, β=-0.43): participants who exhibited longer ABs had poorer phonemic decoding skills. The AB was not related to sight-word reading. Single-target accuracy did not mediate the relationship between the AB and reading, but was significantly related to AB depth (non-linear fit, R(2)=.50): depth reflects the maximal cost in T2 reporting accuracy in the AB. The differential relationship between the AB and phonological versus sight-word reading implicates common resources used for phonemic decoding and target consolidation, which may be involved in cognitive control. The relationship between single-target accuracy and the AB is discussed in terms of cognitive preparation.
Li, Hongli; Suen, Hoi K.
This study examines how Chinese ESL learners recognize English words while responding to a multiple-choice reading test as compared to Romance-language-speaking ESL learners. Four adult Chinese ESL learners and three adult Romance-language-speaking ESL learners participated in a think-aloud study with the Michigan English Language Assessment…
Beidas, Hanin; Khateb, Asaid; Breznitz, Zvia
The question of which cognitive impairments are primarily associated with dyslexia has been a source of continuous debate. This study examined the cognitive profile of Hebrew-speaking compensated adult dyslexics and investigated whether their cognitive abilities accounted for a unique variance in their reading performance. Sixty-nine young adults…
Dawe, Susan, Ed.
This book of research readings provides clear evidence that adult prisoners and offenders who participate in vocational education and training (VET) during their sentence are less likely to re-offend. A reduction in recidivism represents significant cost savings to the community. The book highlights recent improvements in the delivery of VET for…
This interview study is an exploration of the popular cultural and lifelong literacy practices of adult readers of comic books. Focusing on 4 participants from a pool of 12, the researcher used Kvale's (1996) method of meaning interpretation to analyze utterances and speak to the various uses reading held for these people. Aaron, Kyle, Peter, and…
The purpose of this research was to determine whether music training is correlated with increased reading comprehension skills in young adults. In addition, an attempt was made to replicate Patson and Tippett's (2011) finding that background music impairs language comprehension scores in musicians but not in nonmusicians. Participants with musical…
Hua, Youjia; Woods-Groves, Suzanne; Ford, Jeremy W.; Nobles, Kelly A.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of teaching a three-step paraphrasing strategy on expository reading comprehension of young adults with intellectual disability. Ten learners from a postsecondary education program for individuals with disability participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to the control and…
Mulford, Jeremy, Ed.
A collection of articles reflecting the underlying concern of British contributors with continuity--conceiving reading and learning as a whole throughout the school years--comprises this special issue of "English in Education." Specific topics treated are: "What Children Learn in Learning to Read" by R. Morris; "Reading without Primers" by W.…
The error-detection mechanism aids in preventing error repetition during a given task. Electroencephalography demonstrates that error detection involves two event-related potential components: error-related and correct-response negativities (ERN and CRN, respectively). Dyslexia is characterized by slow, inaccurate reading. In particular, individuals with dyslexia have a less active error-detection mechanism during reading than typical readers. In the current study, we examined whether a reading training programme could improve the ability to recognize words automatically (lexical representations) in adults with dyslexia, thereby resulting in more efficient error detection during reading. Behavioural and electrophysiological measures were obtained using a lexical decision task before and after participants trained with the reading acceleration programme. ERN amplitudes were smaller in individuals with dyslexia than in typical readers before training but increased following training, as did behavioural reading scores. Differences between the pre-training and post-training ERN and CRN components were larger in individuals with dyslexia than in typical readers. Also, the error-detection mechanism as represented by the ERN/CRN complex might serve as a biomarker for dyslexia and be used to evaluate the effectiveness of reading intervention programmes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Discusses research on the National Curriculum Key Stage Two reading tests for years 1998, 1999 and 2000. Shows that in 1999 and 2000 the reading tests were progressively easier: the number of questions requiring higher-order reading skills, particularly those of inference and deduction, decreased each year, while the number of questions requiring…
Marinus, Eva; Kohnen, Saskia; McArthur, Genevieve
This paper reports provisional Australian comparison data and scoring instructions for the "Test of Word Reading Efficiency" (TOWRE). The TOWRE is a popular reading fluency test used in reading research, classroom assessment and clinical practice. Approximate "norms" were obtained from children attending four primary schools in…
Zhang, Limei; Goh, Christine C. M.; Kunnan, Antony John
This study investigates the relationships between test takers' metacognitive and cognitive strategy use through a questionnaire and their test performance on an English as a Foreign Language reading test. A total of 593 Chinese college test takers responded to a 38-item metacognitive and cognitive strategy questionnaire and a 50-item reading test.…
Johnson, Kary A.; Wilson, Celia M.; Williams-Rossi, Dara
This exploratory study investigated how reading comprehension was conceptualized on the new high-stakes test, the 2011-2012 State of Texas Assessment of Academic Readiness (STAAR). Specifically, comprehension, rate, and accuracy scores on the Gray Oral Reading Test 4 (GORT-4) from a group of struggling, low-SES, Hispanic middle school students (n…
Grasby, Katrina L; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K
Each year, all Australian students in grades 3, 5, 7, and 9 sit nationwide large-scale tests in literacy and numeracy, which have their validity frequently questioned. We compared the performance of Grade 3 twins on these large-scale reading tests with their performance on three individually administered literacy tests in comprehension, word reading and vocabulary within a genetically sensitive design. Comprehension, word reading, and vocabulary accounted for a substantial amount of the variance in school reading tests. Performance on large-scale reading tests and individually administered tests was moderately to substantially heritable and the same genes contributed to performance in both types of test. These results confirm that large-scale school reading tests measure, at least in part, the literacy skills tapped by individual tests that are frequently considered to be the “gold-standard” in testing. PMID:27721516
Khorashad, Behzad S.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Roshan, Ghasem M.; Kazemian, Mojtaba; Khazai, Ladan; Aghili, Zahra; Talaei, Ali; Afkhamizadeh, Mozhgan
The psychometric properties of the Persian "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" test were investigated, so were the predictions from the Empathizing-Systemizing theory of psychological sex differences. Adults aged 16-69 years old (N = 545, female = 51.7%) completed the test online. The analysis of items showed them to be generally acceptable.…
Nevo, Einat; Brande, Sigalit; Shaul, Shelley
It has been well established that poor reading skills in the first grades of primary school can lead to poor reading skills in all coming years. A reading acceleration program (RAP) known to improve reading skills in adults and children with and without reading difficulties (RD) was tested for its effect on children in second grade with standard…
Monseau, Virginia R., Ed.; Salvner, Gary M., Ed.
This book was born of a desire to provide students, teachers, and all interested readers with a collection of essays that address issues of selection, pedagogy, and worth of the young adult novel. A primary purpose of the book is to enter the world of young adult readers through a literary form they know well, the modern young adult novel. Another…
Nielsen, Kathleen; Abbott, Robert; Griffin, Whitney; Lott, Joe; Raskind, Wendy; Berninger, Virginia W.
The same working memory and reading and writing achievement phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variants) validated in prior research with younger children and older adults in a multi-generational family genetics study of dyslexia were used to study 81 adolescent and young adults (ages 16 to 25) from that study. Dyslexia is impaired word reading and spelling skills below the population mean and ability to use oral language to express thinking. These working memory predictor measures were given and used to predict reading and writing achievement: Coding (storing and processing) heard and spoken words (phonological coding), read and written words (orthographic coding), base words and affixes (morphological coding), and accumulating words over time (syntax coding); Cross-Code Integration (phonological loop for linking phonological name and orthographic letter codes and orthographic loop for linking orthographic letter codes and finger sequencing codes), and Supervisory Attention (focused and switching attention and self-monitoring during written word finding). Multiple regressions showed that most predictors explained individual difference in at least one reading or writing outcome, but which predictors explained unique variance beyond shared variance depended on outcome. ANOVAs confirmed that research-supported criteria for dyslexia validated for younger children and their parents could be used to diagnose which adolescents and young adults did (n=31) or did not (n=50) meet research criteria for dyslexia. Findings are discussed in reference to the heterogeneity of phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variables) and their application to assessment for accommodations and ongoing instruction for adolescents and young adults with dyslexia. PMID:26855554
Nielsen, Kathleen; Abbott, Robert; Griffin, Whitney; Lott, Joe; Raskind, Wendy; Berninger, Virginia W
The same working memory and reading and writing achievement phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variants) validated in prior research with younger children and older adults in a multi-generational family genetics study of dyslexia were used to study 81 adolescent and young adults (ages 16 to 25) from that study. Dyslexia is impaired word reading and spelling skills below the population mean and ability to use oral language to express thinking. These working memory predictor measures were given and used to predict reading and writing achievement: Coding (storing and processing) heard and spoken words (phonological coding), read and written words (orthographic coding), base words and affixes (morphological coding), and accumulating words over time (syntax coding); Cross-Code Integration (phonological loop for linking phonological name and orthographic letter codes and orthographic loop for linking orthographic letter codes and finger sequencing codes), and Supervisory Attention (focused and switching attention and self-monitoring during written word finding). Multiple regressions showed that most predictors explained individual difference in at least one reading or writing outcome, but which predictors explained unique variance beyond shared variance depended on outcome. ANOVAs confirmed that research-supported criteria for dyslexia validated for younger children and their parents could be used to diagnose which adolescents and young adults did (n=31) or did not (n=50) meet research criteria for dyslexia. Findings are discussed in reference to the heterogeneity of phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variables) and their application to assessment for accommodations and ongoing instruction for adolescents and young adults with dyslexia.
Calvo, M G; Eysenck, M W
Texts were presented sentence by sentence (Experiment 1) or word by word (Experiment 2) at a fixed rate to subjects high or low in test anxiety, under various conditions: no interference, concurrent articulatory suppression, and concurrent irrelevant speech (presented auditorily). High-anxiety subjects produced overt articulation more frequently than low-anxiety subjects, especially in the irrelevant speech condition. The most salient finding was an interaction between anxiety and interference on comprehension performance: under word-by-word-but not under sentence-by-sentence-presentation, anxious subjects showed poorer comprehension than non-anxious subjects in both conditions known to interfere with the articulatory loop (i.e. articulatory suppression, and irrelevant speech), but equivalent comprehension in the no interference condition. These findings suggest (a) that the articulatory loop has a special compensatory role for anxious individuals in reading comprehension, and (b) that the importance of this auxiliary mechanism is enhanced when other strategies, such as regressive fixations and control of reading speed, cannot be used.
An investigation was conducted to determine the best criterion for advancement to a new reading passage during the commonly used classroom strategy of repeated reading. Knowing when to move students to a new passage during the repeated reading process was considered of value to teachers in efficiently using student learning time. The study also…
Snell, Blaire; Fullmer, Susan; Eggett, Dennis L
Indirect calorimetry is often done early in the morning in a fasting state, with the subject unshowered and abstained from caffeine or other stimulants. Subjects often fall asleep, resulting in measurement of a sleeping metabolic rate rather than a resting metabolic rate. The objective of this study was to determine whether listening to self-selected relaxing music or reading an electronic device or magazine affects resting energy expenditure (REE) during measurement in healthy adults. A randomized trial comparing three different conditions (ie, resting, reading, and listening to music) was performed. Sixty-five subjects (36 female and 29 male) were used in final data analysis. Inclusion criteria included healthy subjects between the ages of 18 and 50 years with a stable weight. Exclusion criteria included pregnant or lactating women or use of medications known to affect metabolism. Results showed that reading either a magazine or an electronic device significantly increased REE by 102.7 kcal/day when compared with resting (P<0.0001); however, there was no difference in REE between the electronic device and magazine. Listening to self-selected relaxing music increased REE by 27.6 kcal/day compared with rest (P=0.0072). Based on our results, we recommend subjects refrain from reading a magazine or electronic device during an indirect calorimetry test. Whether or not the smaller difference found while listening to music is practically significant would be a decision for the indirect calorimetry test administrator.
The research described in this article investigates test takers' cognitive processing while completing onscreen IELTS (International English Language Testing System) reading test items. The research aims, among other things, to contribute to our ability to evaluate the cognitive validity of reading test items (Glaser, 1991; Field, in press). The…
Gafoor, K. Abdul
Design of a screening test for identifying reading difficult students in Malayalam and validation thereof among boys is made to help schools proactively intervene with such students. A battery of tests developed based on extant literature on screening tests, reviewed difficulties in reading Malayalam, and discrimination power of the draft tests is…
Fernandes, Tânia; Araújo, Susana; Sucena, Ana; Reis, Alexandra; Castro, São Luís
Reading is a central cognitive domain, but little research has been devoted to standardized tests for adults. We, thus, examined the psychometric properties of the 1-min version of Teste de Idade de Leitura (Reading Age Test; 1-min TIL), the Portuguese version of Lobrot L3 test, in three experiments with college students: typical readers in Experiment 1A and B, dyslexic readers and chronological age controls in Experiment 2. In Experiment 1A, test-retest reliability and convergent validity were evaluated in 185 students. Reliability was >.70, and phonological decoding underpinned 1-min TIL. In Experiment 1B, internal consistency was assessed by presenting two 45-s versions of the test to 19 students, and performance in these versions was significantly associated (r = .78). In Experiment 2, construct validity, criterion validity and clinical utility of 1-min TIL were investigated. A multiple regression analysis corroborated construct validity; both phonological decoding and listening comprehension were reliable predictors of 1-min TIL scores. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristics analyses revealed the high accuracy of this test in distinguishing dyslexic from typical readers. Therefore, the 1-min TIL, which assesses reading comprehension and potential reading difficulties in college students, has the necessary psychometric properties to become a useful screening instrument in neuropsychological assessment and research. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Reviews 32 studies about the utility of the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test (BG) as a predictor of reading, its relationship to reading achievement, and ability to differentiate between good and poor readers. Results question the use of the BG (scored using discrete error systems) in a diagnostic reading battery. (BH)
With 73 students at an Iranian university, the present study investigated teacher's effect in topic familiarization in L2 reading context. The participants--Group B with and Group A without the presence of a teacher--experienced four pre-reading treatments and read four passages of unfamiliar topics, after which they were tested on comprehension…
McMahon, Don; Wright, Rachel; Cihak, David F.; Moore, Tara C.; Lamb, Richard
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a digitized podcast to deliver read-aloud testing accommodations on mobile devices to students with disabilities and reading difficulties. The total sample for this study included 47 middle school students with reading difficulties. Of the 47 students, 16 were identified as students with…
Duesbery, Luke; Braun-Monegan, Jenelle; Werblow, Jacob; Braun, Drew
In this series of studies, we explore the ideal frequency, duration, and relative effectiveness of measuring oral reading fluency. In study one, a sample of 389 fifth graders read out loud for 1 min and then took a traditional state-level standardized reading test. Results suggest administering three passages and using the median yields the…
Polley, Beulah M.
Project ALMS (Adult Literacy Mission Support) was designed to improve the communication skills of semi-literate or illiterate adults, help participants become more self-sufficient, provide an ongoing program for other such individuals, and provide a manual of guidelines and suggestions for other programs. Three groups were established to make a…
Current emphasis on adequate academic progress monitored by standardized assessments has increased focus on student acquisition of required skills. Reading ability can be assessed through student achievement on Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) measures. This study investigated the effectiveness of using ORF measures to predict achievement on high stakes…
Paul, Gina; Verhulst, Steve
Problem: Minority students often score lower than majority students on the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) Verbal Reasoning section. Method: To determine what role schema plays in reading comprehension in 64 adult minority students, the Treatment group viewed a slide presentation regarding a topic that both groups would be tested on in a…
CULICIDAE, *COLLECTING METHODS, REPRINTS, BLOOD SUCKING INSECTS, FIELD TESTS, HAND HELD, EFFICIENCY, LABORATORY EQUIPMENT, MORTALITY RATES , ADULTS, AEDES, ASPIRATORS, CULICIDAE, TEST AND EVALUATION, REPRINTS
Östberg, Per; Backlund, Charlotte; Lindström, Emma
Few comprehensive spelling tests are available in Swedish, and none have been validated in adults with reading and writing disorders. The recently developed STAVUX test includes word and pseudoword spelling subtests with high internal consistency and adult norms stratified by education. This study evaluated the convergent and diagnostic validity of STAVUX in adults with dyslexia. Forty-six adults, 23 with dyslexia and 23 controls, took STAVUX together with a standard word-decoding test and a self-rated measure of spelling skills. STAVUX subtest scores showed moderate to strong correlations with word-decoding scores and predicted self-rated spelling skills. Word and pseudoword subtest scores both predicted dyslexia status. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed excellent diagnostic discriminability. Sensitivity was 91% and specificity 96%. In conclusion, the results of this study support the convergent and diagnostic validity of STAVUX.
Betjemann, Rebecca S.; Keenan, Janice M.; Olson, Richard K.; DeFries, John C.
Does the choice of test for assessing reading comprehension influence the outcome of genetic analyses? A twin design compared two types of reading comprehension tests classified as primarily associated with word decoding (RC-D) or listening comprehension (RC-LC). For both types of tests, the overall genetic influence is high and nearly identical.…
Hollingworth, Liz; Drake, Hilleary M.
"Teach Reading, Not Testing" reinforces what teachers already know--test preparation worksheets and drill-and-kill activities do not make children into lifelong readers. The authors' conscientious approach to reading instruction combines an insider perspective on the development of high-stakes tests with classroom experience in achieving…
Stack-Cutler, Holly L.; Parrila, Rauno K.; Torppa, Minna
We assessed the impact of intrapersonal and interpersonal resilience, persistence, and number of difficulties in addition to reading problems on life satisfaction (general, social, and self) and academic achievement. A total of 120 adults with reading difficulties who either were completing a university degree or were recent graduates responded to…
MacMonagle, William Peter
The purpose of this research was to seek evidence of awareness of metacognitive processes and intertextuality in the reading comprehension of students in an adult basic education class. Its purpose was to interweave several strands of research investigation and theory to explain the reading and writing capabilities of a representative population…
Guo, Ying; Roehrig, Alysia D.; Williams, Rihana S.
The authors' goal was to examine the structural relationships among vocabulary knowledge, morphological awareness, syntactic awareness, and reading comprehension in English-speaking adults. Structural equation analysis of data collected from 151 participants revealed that morphological awareness affected reading comprehension directly. Syntactic…
Burt, Jennifer S
One hundred and twelve university students completed 7 tests assessing word-reading accuracy, print exposure, phonological sensitivity, phonological coding and knowledge of English morphology as predictors of spelling accuracy. Together the tests accounted for 71% of the variance in spelling, with phonological skills and morphological knowledge emerging as strong predictors of spelling accuracy for words with both regular and irregular sound-spelling correspondences. The pattern of relationships was consistent with a model in which, as a function of the learning opportunities that are provided by reading experience, phonological skills promote the learning of individual word orthographies and structural relationships among words.
This article features FAST-R, or Formative Assessments of Student Thinking in Reading, a new assessment tool that measures critical-reading skills. FAST-R was developed by the the nonprofit Boston Plan for Excellence (BPE), a local education foundation, to provide teachers with information about what students are thinking when they try to find…
Hamdan, Jihad; Diab, Turki
A study examined the role of the native language (Arabic) in assessing the reading comprehension of learners of English as a second language. Subjects were 60 secondary school students in two comparable classes in Jordan. After receiving instruction for one month using reading material in the prescribed textbook, students were administered a…
Colenbrander, Danielle; Nickels, Lyndsey; Kohnen, Saskia
Response to Intervention (RTI) models of reading instruction have received much attention in the literature (Fuchs, Mock, Morgan, & Young, 2003; Hosp & Ardoin, 2008; Justice, 2006). Such models call for frequent and high-quality assessment of students' skills. One skill that is vital in the process of learning to read is the ability to…
de Araújo Vilhena, Douglas; Sucena, Ana; Castro, São Luís; Pinheiro, Ângela Maria Vieira
Our aim was to analyse the linguistic structure of the Lobrot's Lecture 3 (L3) reading test and to describe the procedure for its adaptation to a Brazilian cultural-linguistic context. The resulting adapted version is called the Reading Test-Sentence Comprehension [Teste de Leitura: Compreensão de Sentenças (TELCS)] and was developed using the European Portuguese adaptation of L3 as a reference. The present study was conducted in seven steps: (1) classification of the response alternatives of L3 test; (2) adaptation of the original sentences into Brazilian Portuguese; (3) back-translation; (4) adaptation of the distractors from TELCS; (5) configuration of TELCS; (6) pilot study; and (7) validation and standardization. In comparison with L3, TELCS included new linguistic and structural variables, such as frequency of occurrence of the distractors, gender neutrality and position of the target words. The instrument can be used for a collective screening or individual clinical administration purposes to evaluate the reading ability of second-to-fifth-grade and 7-to-11-year-old students.
Romonath, Roswitha; Wahn, Claudia; Gregg, Noel
The present study addressed the question whether there is a relationship between phonological and orthographic processes of reading and spelling in adolescents and young adults with and without dyslexia in German and English. On the evidence of the Linguistic Coding Differences Hypothesis and results of the latest research in foreign language learning the hypothesis is tested if there is a relationship between phonological and orthographic knowledge on the one hand and decoding and spelling performance on the other hand in German adolescents and young adults reading and spelling German and English words. This hypothesis was tested with the statistical method of structural equation modeling and therefore the research population was divided into the following groups: group 1 with dyslexia in reading (n = 93), group 2 with dyslexia in spelling (n = 93), group 3 without dyslexia in reading (n = 95), and group 4 without dyslexia in spelling (n = 95). Results of data analysis show that the postulated prediction model fits only the data of the dyslexia group for reading and spelling, but not for the control group. Also the model for both groups does not fit. The results of the pilot study show that it is necessary to modify diagnostic instruments of measurement and to separate scales of phonological and orthographic processes.
Elbaum, Batya; Arguelles, Maria Elena; Campbell, Yvonne; Saleh, Maya Bardawil
In this study, we investigated the impact of a student-reads-aloud accommodation on the performance of middle school and high school students with and without learning disabilities (LD) on a test of reading comprehension. Data for the analyses came from 311 students (n = 230 with LD) who took alternate forms of a reading test in a standard and an…
Pan, Yun; Tong, Wen; Liu, Nina
The effect of aging on the process of word encoding for fixated words and words presented to the right of the fixation point during the reading of sentences in Chinese was investigated with two disappearing text experiments. The results of Experiment 1 showed that only the 40-ms onset disappearance of word n disrupted young adults’ reading performance. However, for old readers, the disappearance of word n caused disruptions until the onset time was 120 ms. The results of Experiment 2 showed that the disappearance of word n + 1 did not cause disruptions to young adults, but these conditions made old readers spend more time reading a sentence compared to the normal display condition. These results indicated a reliable aging effect on the process of word encoding when reading Chinese, and that the encoding process in the preview frame was more susceptible to normal aging compared to that in the fixation frame. We propose that sensory, cognitive, and specific factors related to the Chinese language are important contributors to these age-related differences. PMID:28123911
Vanderberg, Laura E.; Pierce, Margaret E.; Disney, Laurel J.
This study reports on an examination of the effectiveness of a reading intervention for adults with disabilities in a vocational rehabilitation setting. Participants were 57 adults with disabilities and low reading skills enrolled at the Reading Clinic at the Michigan Career and Technical Institute. As part of a 3-year research and demonstration…
Underhill, Patricia Annette
The use of advance organizers was first introduced by Ausubel in his learning theory of meaningful learning. Subsequent research focused on the efficacy of advance organizers. Although, earlier research produced inconclusive results, more recent research suggests advance organizers do facilitate recall. However, the bulk of the research focused on older subjects (students in high school and college and adults). Prior research did not consider that a subject's reading ability may affect the effectiveness of an advance organizer. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether (1) an advance organizer facilitates both immediate and delayed recall, (2) the reading ability of students and the type of pre-instructional material they receive effect recall, and (3) reading ability has an effect on recall with younger students. Seventy-five seventh-grade students were divided into three groups. One group received a written organizer, one group received a graphic organizer, and one group received an introductory passage before reading a learning passage. After completing the reading passage, all subjects received an immediate posttest. Fourteen days later, subjects received the same posttest incorporated in an end-of-the-chapter test. Results of the study indicate the following: (1) no significant difference in immediate and delayed recall of learning material between students who received a written organizer, a graphic organizer, or an introductory passage, (2) there was a main effect for time of testing and a main effect for reading ability, and (3) there was not an interaction between reading ability and the type of pre-instructional material. These findings did not support previous research.
Awabdy, Graziella Whipple
An investigation of the relationship between background knowledge and reading comprehension performance on standardized reading tests (the California STAR Test) was conducted with sixth, seventh, and eighth-grade ethnic minority children from low-income backgrounds (N = 68). Predictor variables examined included perceived background knowledge…
Romes Beziat, Tara Lynne
One way to improve students' academic performance is to improve their reading comprehension. Previous investigations demonstrated that testing students on learning material as well as having them use metacognitive strategies have independently improved reading comprehension. The test used in the learning phase in previous investigates has…
Jones, Maryann Clementi
A study determined the relationship between life stress and reading comprehension test scores on the IOWA Tests of Basic Skills. Subjects, 41 middle-school students attending Lincoln School in Garwood, New Jersey, were surveyed as to the amount of life stress prevalent in their lives. In addition, the Iowa scores for reading comprehension were…
Addresses issues surrounding the effect of mode of presentation on second language (L2) reading test performance, reviewing the literature in cognitive ability testing in educational and psychological measurement and the non-assessment literature in ergonomics, education, psychology, and first language reading research. Generalization of the…
Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.
Designed for use in the selection of apprentices, trainees, technical and trade personnel, and any other persons who need to read and understand text of a technical nature, this Applied Reading Test specimen set contains six passages and 32 items, has a 30-minute time limit, and is presented in a reusable multiple choice test booklet. The specimen…
This teaching tip describes an intervention used in a third-grade classroom implemented to help students pass an end-of-grade reading comprehension test. Low scores on a practice end-of-grade comprehension test prompted a re-examination of classroom reading instruction and a plan for intervention. This teaching tip describes the phases implemented…
Melowsky, Fred; Ray, Joseph B.
A comparison of test results on the Visual Discrimination Test was made between a group of 22 reading disabled children and 22 children who were reading on or above grade level. Both groups were of average or above-average intelligence and the two groups were matched for age and sex. The mean age was 10 years and 3 months and all the reading…
This article is written in response to the article published in issue 39.3 of this journal, in November 2005, on the nature of the Key Stage 2 National Curriculum reading tests: "Examining England's National Curriculum assessments: an analysis of the KS2 reading test questions" by Anne Kispal of the National Foundation for Educational…
Heintschel, Karen L.
The purpose of this study is to analyze a relationship between adult, male inmate's criminal attitudes and reading level. Data is derived from the secondary assessments, Criminal Sentiments Scale-Modified (CSS-M) and the reading scores from the Test of Adult Basic Education (TABE). The sample size is 112 adult, males incarcerated at California…
Several factors are related to adult students' completion or noncompletion of reading assignments before class--lack of study time, their motivation for taking college classes, their need to feel involved in the learning process, and their expectations for success in the classroom. One of the biggest fears of adults returning to a school…
Darkenwald, Gordon G.; Silvestri, Kenneth
An assessment of the Newark Literacy Campaign's (NLC's) Adult Tutorial Reading Program studied 20 long-term (in the program for at least 1 year) and 20 new adult learners; all but 2 were African-Americans. The following data sources were used: in-depth interviews with learners, logs completed by tutors, follow-up interviews 6-8 months later,…
Peter, Beate; Matsushita, Mark; Raskind, Wendy H.
Purpose: To investigate processing speed as a latent dimension in children with dyslexia and children and adults with typical reading skills. Method: Exploratory factor analysis (FA) was based on a sample of multigenerational families, each ascertained through a child with dyslexia. Eleven measures--6 of them timed--represented verbal and…
Davis, Sara D; Meade, Michelle L
In the present study, we examined the impacts of participant age and confederate age on social memory processes. During a collaborative recall phase, young and older adult participants were exposed to the erroneous memory reports of a young or an older adult confederate. On a subsequent individual recall test, young and older adult participants were equally likely to incorporate the confederates' erroneous suggestions into their memory reports, suggesting that participant age had a minimal effect on social memory processes. However, confederate age did have a marked effect: Young adult participants were less likely to incorporate misleading suggestions from older adult confederates and less likely to report "remembering" items suggested by older adult confederates. Critically, older adult participants were also less likely to incorporate misleading information from fellow older adult confederates. Both young and older adult participants discounted older adult confederates' contributions to a memory test.
This study examined the "Tejas LEE or El Inventario de Lectura en Espanol de Tejas" (Grade 1) to determine if a relationship existed between reading comprehension in Spanish and the tested skills on the diagnostic assessment. This quantitative research design evaluated the psychometric characteristics of the Tejas LEE and followed customary…
Hernandez, Arturo E; Woods, Elizabeth A; Bradley, Kailyn A L
The present study compared the neural correlates of language processing in children and adult Spanish-English bilinguals. Participants were asked to perform a visual lexical processing task in both Spanish and English while being scanned with fMRI. Both children and adults recruited a similar network of left hemisphere "language" areas and showed similar proficiency profiles in Spanish. In terms of behavior, adults showed better language proficiency in English relative to children. Furthermore, neural activity in adults was observed in the bilateral MTG. Age-related differences were observed in Spanish in the right MTG. The current results confirm the presence of neural activity in a set of left hemisphere areas in both adult and child bilinguals when reading words in each language. They also reveal that differences in neural activity are not entirely driven by changes in language proficiency during visual word processing. This indicates that both skill development and age can play a role in brain activity seen across development.
Moog, Ute; de Die-Smulders, Christine; Martens, Herman; Schrander-Stumpel, Connie; Spaapen, Leo
In order to add to the knowledge on adult phenotypes of metabolic disorders associated with intellectual disability (ID) and to evaluate criteria for recommending metabolic testing of adolescents and adults with unexplained ID, the authors analyzed retrospectively the outcome of metabolic investigations performed during a 10-year period on 256…
Popp, Helen M.
In the Learning Research and Development Center (LRDC) Beginning Reading Program, vowels are color-coded so that different spellings, representing a single vowel sound, maintain some feature in common. Such color-coding imposes a structure which effectively reduces the uncertainty in associating visually different stimuli with a similar oral…
Stone, Elizabeth; Cook, Linda; Laitusis, Cara
This study presents secondary analyses on a 2-stage test of reading comprehension for students with reading-based learning disabilities (RLD). The present paper describes student perceptions of the test and its features as well as analyses focused on the routing test and associated cut score. The routing test contained typical state assessment…
Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Cicchino, Nicole; Amiel, Merav; Holland, Scott K; Breznitz, Zvia
A reading acceleration program known to improve reading fluency in Hebrew-speaking adults was tested for its effect on children. Eighty-nine Hebrew- and English-speaking children with reading difficulties were divided into a waiting list group and two training groups (Hebrew and English) and underwent 4 weeks of reading acceleration training. Results of pre- and post-testing of reading abilities point to a significant main effect of the test, demonstrating improvements in silent contextual reading speed, reading comprehension, and speed of processing in both Hebrew and English training groups as compared to their performance before the intervention. This study indicates that the Reading Acceleration Program might be an effective program for improving reading abilities in children, independent of language.
Sayegh, Philip; Arentoft, Alyssa; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Dean, Andy C.; Thames, April D.
The current study examined whether self-rated education quality predicts Wide Range Achievement Test-4th Edition (WRAT-4) Word Reading subtest and neurocognitive performance, and aimed to establish this subtest's construct validity as an educational quality measure. In a community-based adult sample (N = 106), we tested whether education quality both increased the prediction of Word Reading scores beyond demographic variables and predicted global neurocognitive functioning after adjusting for WRAT-4. As expected, race/ethnicity and education predicted WRAT-4 reading performance. Hierarchical regression revealed that when including education quality, the amount of WRAT-4's explained variance increased significantly, with race/ethnicity and both education quality and years as significant predictors. Finally, WRAT-4 scores, but not education quality, predicted neurocognitive performance. Results support WRAT-4 Word Reading as a valid proxy measure for education quality and a key predictor of neurocognitive performance. Future research should examine these findings in larger, more diverse samples to determine their robust nature. PMID:25404004
Pell Institute for the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education, 2011
Data is reported as percentages based on proficiency in the subject. "Low-income" on this data sheet means students who qualify for the National School Lunch Program. Reading data is from 2009 National Center for Education Statistics assessments and writing data is from 2002 and 2007. A brief list of references and resources is included.
Cole, Randy Drue
This study investigated the effects of hypnosis on the learning of reading skills and academic skills. The general hypothesis was that hypnotic suggestions related to the curriculum of a course for improvement of academic and study skills would facilitate students' academic skill learning. Ninety-three male and female students enrolled in a course…
The National Assessment of Title I, Final Report reported discrepancies in sustaining gains in the reading achievement of 4th grade students who have received Title I intervention services and sustaining those gains when students return to general education classroom. This study was based on a differentiated theory that includes instructional…
Howland, Karole; Scaler Scott, Kathleen
As school districts nationwide have moved toward data driven intervention, oral reading fluency measures have become a prevalent means to monitor progress by assessing the degree to which a child is becoming a fast (and therefore fluent) reader. This article reviews results of a survey of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) working with children…
This article highlights the complexity of becoming a reader in public school classrooms, by describing the ways students' reading bodies constituted the sites and discursive means for the performance of diverse reader identities. Drawing on sociocultural literacy and post-structural performance theories to suggest the notion of embodied…
This article consists of a battery of tests designed to evaluate the communicative competence of German students studying English in Volkshochschule. The battery includes tests of reading comprehension, written production, listening comprehension, vocabulary and structures, and oral production. (CFM)
This study considers whether or not the various sentence structures in standardized reading tests cohere to facilitate the extraction of information. In the context of the theoretical framework of the study, a schema theory of reading, a diffuse discourse structure may legitimately activate more than one way of conceptualizing an answer to a test…
Lim, Hyo Jin
The present study investigated longitudinal changes of the reading achievement among schools populated with English learners. It also examined the heterogeneity in the English learners group in terms of students' performance in high stakes reading tests. Historically, English learners have often been considered the students who are in the process…
Colvin, Ruth J.; Root, Jane H.
Intended for those who have had no technical training in the teaching of basic reading, this manual provided step-by-step instructions so that inexperienced tutors can apply professional approaches to teaching reading. The chapters of the book discuss the problem of functional illiteracy, the profile of a good literacy teacher, the profile of an…
Elbro, Carsten; Daugaard, Hanne Trebbien; Gellert, Anna S
Dyslexia is hard to diagnose in a second language. Poor performance on a test of reading may be caused by poor language proficiency in the second language or by limited schooling rather than by poor reading ability per se. This confound was supported in a study of 88 adult second language learners and 65 native language speakers. The incidence of dyslexia in the second language learners varied widely depending on the measure of reading. In order to reduce language and schooling confounds, a dynamic test of acquisition of basic decoding ability was developed. In the dynamic test, participants are taught three novel letters and to synthesise the letter sounds into new words. Results from the study indicated that the dynamic test provided results in accordance with the current IDA definition of dyslexia, while significantly reducing the influence second language vocabulary and amount of schooling. With the dynamic measure, the same cut-off point between dyslexic and non-dyslexic performance appeared valid in both native language speakers and second language learners.
Bhola, Harbans S.
A model of social writing, for use in writing socially relevant, easy-to-read, follow-up books for neo-literate adults, is presented. The model was fully developed and tested in the context of a series of writers' workshops during 1981-87; and incorporates all of the three aspects of writing: the expressive, the cognitive, and the social. Specifically, the following elements are included: selection of subject and topic within a dialectic of national development needs and community learning needs; negotiable definitions of general and specific objectives; acquiring knowledge of subject matter, and establishing necessary collaboration with subject-matter specialists; content planning to choose content and language of discourse, participatively with the future community of readers; choice of treatment of content as didactic or dramatic; outlining of manuscript as argument, dialogue or story; writing easy-to-read yet interesting materials; trying out the manuscript and making revisions; working with the illustrator and the editor; and preparing the manuscript for printing. Both the development and the testing of the model involved reflection-in-action and not stand-alone research exercises. The successful use of the model in workshops to train writers of post-literacy materials provided one source of support for the model. A comparison of this model of social writing with other models of writing available in literature has provided further support for the conceptual and procedural structure of the model. Transfers of the model to other cultural settings as well as to the writing of other types of educational materials, such as distance education texts and units, have also proved effective.
Casaletto, K. B.; Cattie, J.; Franklin, D. R.; Moore, D. J.; Woods, S. P.; Grant, I.; Heaton, R. K.
Background In order to detect HIV-associated neurocognitive decline, it is important to accurately estimate individuals’ premorbid levels of cognitive functioning. Although previous studies have operated under the assumption that word reading tests are valid and stable indicators of premorbid abilities in HIV infection, studies of other populations have found this is not always the case. Therefore, it is important to empirically examine the validity of word reading tests as estimates of premorbid functioning specifically within the HIV population. Methods The Wide Range Achievement Test-4 Reading subtest (WRAT-4 Reading) was administered along with comprehensive neurocognitive assessments to 150 HIV seropositive (HIV+) and 76 HIV seronegative (HIV-) age-, education-, and sex-matched participants at baseline; a subset of 48 HIV+ individuals completed a second study visit (M=14.4 months), in which the alternate version of the WRAT-4 was administered. Results Although HIV+ individuals evidenced worse current neurocognitive functioning than HIV- participants, WRAT-4 Reading performance was comparable between groups. Longitudinally, HIV+ participants evidenced improved disease and neuropsychological functioning, yet WRAT-4 Reading demonstrated strong test-retest reliability, no practice effect, and did not differ between the initial and follow-up assessments. Test-retest differences in reading performance were minor and not associated with changes in neurocognitive performance or changes in HIV disease. Conclusions We found no evidence of WRAT-4 Reading performance decline in HIV infection, despite HIV+/HIV- group differences in neurocognitive functioning. Additionally, reading performances among HIV+ individuals demonstrated consistency across study visits. These results begin to support the validity of the WRAT-4 Reading subtest as an indicator of premorbid cognitive functioning in HIV+ individuals. PMID:25283135
Betjemann, Rebecca S.; Keenan, Janice M.; Olson, Richard K.; DeFries, John C.
Does the choice of test for assessing reading comprehension influence the outcome of genetic analyses? A twin design compared two types of reading comprehension tests classified as primarily associated with word decoding (RC-D) or listening comprehension (RC-LC). For both types of tests, the overall genetic influence is high and nearly identical. However, the tests differed significantly in how they covary with the genes associated with decoding and listening comprehension. Although Cholesky decomposition showed that both types of comprehension tests shared significant genetic influence with both decoding and listening comprehension, RC-D tests shared most genetic variance with decoding, and RC-LC tests shared most with listening comprehension. Thus, different tests used to measure the same construct may manifest very different patterns of genetic covariation. These results suggest that the apparent discrepancies among the findings of previous twin studies of reading comprehension could be due at least in part to test differences. PMID:21804757
Tilley, Carol L.
Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…
Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher
This study extended the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) by investigating the predictive utility of separate dimensions of morphological awareness as well as vocabulary knowledge to reading comprehension in adult basic education (ABE) students. We competed two- and three-factor structural equation models of reading comprehension. A three-factor model of real word morphological awareness, pseudoword morphological awareness, and vocabulary knowledge emerged as the best fit and accounted for 79% of the reading comprehension variance. The results indicated that the constructs contributed jointly to reading comprehension; however, vocabulary knowledge was the only potentially unique predictor (p = 0.052), accounting for an additional 5.6% of the variance. This study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a latent variable modeling approach to examine individual differences in the reading comprehension skills of ABE students. Further, this study replicates the findings of Tighe and Schatschneider (2015) on the importance of differentiating among dimensions of morphological awareness in this population. PMID:26869981
Bolt, Daniel; Ackerman, Terry
The 1993 Illinois Goal Assessment Program (IGAP) Reading Tests measured reading comprehension using both narrative and expository reading passages. Noticeable differences in mean scaled scores occurred depending on whether the 1993 results were equated back to the 1992 narrative test or the 1993 expository test (Hsu and Ackerman, 1994). In an…
Pagán, Ascensión; Blythe, Hazel I; Liversedge, Simon P
Although previous research has shown that letter position information for the first letter of a parafoveal word is encoded less flexibly than internal word beginning letters (Johnson, Perea & Rayner, 2007; White et al., 2008), it is not clear how positional encoding operates over the initial trigram in English. This experiment explored the preprocessing of letter identity and position information of a parafoveal word's initial trigram by adults and children using the boundary paradigm during normal sentence reading. Seven previews were generated: Identity (captain); transposed letter and substituted letter nonwords in Positions 1 and 2 (acptain-imptain); 1 and 3 (pactain-gartain), and 2 and 3 (cpatain-cgotain). Results showed a transposed letter effect (TLE) in Position 13 for gaze duration in the pretarget word; and TLE in Positions 12 and 23 but not in Position 13 in the target word for both adults and children. These findings suggest that children, similar to adults, extract letter identity and position information flexibly using a spatial coding mechanism; supporting isolated word recognition models such as SOLAR (Davis, 1999, 2010) and SERIOL (Whitney, 2001) models.
Rentz, R. Robert; Bashaw, W. L.
This volume contains tables of item analysis results obtained by following procedures associated with the Rasch Model for those reading tests used in the Anchor Test Study. Appendix I gives the test names and their corresponding analysis code numbers. Section I (Basic Item Analyses) presents data for the item analysis of each test in a two part…
Burden, Mitzi K.
Students in a senior (grade 12) basic English class were not motivated to read books unless required to do so by their teacher; they did little or no reading for pleasure. To increase recreational reading and instill a love of reading in the 17 subjects, a practicum, in the form of a reading program lasting about 2 months, developed strategies…
McMahon, Don; Wright, Rachel; Cihak, David F.; Moore, Tara C.; Lamb, Richard
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a digitized podcast to deliver read-aloud testing accommodations on mobile devices to students with disabilities and reading difficulties. The total sample for this study included 47 middle school students with reading difficulties. Of the 47 students, 16 were identified as students with disabilities who received special education services. Participants were randomly assigned to three experimental testing conditions, standard administration, teacher-controlled read-aloud in traditional group delivery format, and student-controlled read-aloud delivered as a podcast and accessed on a mobile device, and given sample end-of-year science assessments. Based on a factorial analysis of variances, with test conditions and student status as the fixed factors, both student groups demonstrated statistically significant gains based on their testing conditions. Results support the use of podcast delivery as a viable alternative to the traditional teacher-delivered read-aloud test accommodation. Conclusions are discussed in the context of universal design for learning testing accommodations for future research and practice.
With the increase of high-stakes testing and the subsequent consequences it is essential that educators understand the validity and the inferences based on the scores produced by these tests. The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between the underlying constructs of the grade six reading TAKS, the Test of Reading…
Khorashad, Behzad S; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Roshan, Ghasem M; Kazemian, Mojtaba; Khazai, Ladan; Aghili, Zahra; Talaei, Ali; Afkhamizadeh, Mozhgan
The psychometric properties of the Persian "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" test were investigated, so were the predictions from the Empathizing-Systemizing theory of psychological sex differences. Adults aged 16-69 years old (N = 545, female = 51.7 %) completed the test online. The analysis of items showed them to be generally acceptable. Test-retest reliability, as measured by Intra-class correlation coefficient, was 0.735 with a 95 % CI of (0.514, 0.855). The percentage of agreement for each item in the test-retest was satisfactory and the mean difference between test-retest scores was -0.159 (SD = 3.42). However, the internal consistency of Persian version, calculated by Cronbach's alpha (0.371), was poor. Females scored significantly higher than males but academic degree and field of study had no significant effect.
Acheson, Daniel J.; Wells, Justine B.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.
The relationship between print exposure and measures of reading skill was examined in college students (N = 99, 58 female; mean age = 20.3 years). Print exposure was measured with several new self-reports of reading and writing habits, as well as updated versions of the Author Recognition Test and the Magazine Recognition Test (Stanovich & West, 1989). Participants completed a sentence comprehension task with syntactically complex sentences, and reading times and comprehension accuracy were measured. An additional measure of reading skill was provided by participants’ scores on the verbal portions of the ACT, a standardized achievement test. Higher levels of print exposure were associated with higher sentence processing abilities and superior verbal ACT performance. The relative merits of different print exposure assessments are discussed. PMID:18411551
Xue, Jin; Jiang, Xiaoming
The present research aimed to explore the developmental relationship between bilingual morphological awareness and reading for Chinese natives learning English as a foreign language (EFL learners). Pre- and post-tests were conducted with in an interval of 9 months. Morphological and reading measures in Chinese and English were administered to 139…
Petrosky, Anthony R.
In discussing the third national assessment of reading and literature, four major points can be made. First, norm-referenced tests and criterion-referenced tests ignore serious ethical and measurement problems, namely, we don't know enough about individual differences to do such testing and the outcome, social class tracking, is ethically…
Wheldall, Kevin; McMurtry, Sarah
The Test of Everyday Reading Comprehension (TERC) has recently been presented as an addition to the armoury of tests available for assessing the skills of low-progress readers. While comparison data for students of different ages are presented together with evidence for high test reliability, there is, as yet, no published evidence for its…
Brown Education Center, Louisville, KY.
The Diagnostic Prescriptive Individualized (D.P.I.) Primary Reading Criterion-Referenced Screening Test Levels 1, 2 and 3 are diagnostic tests geared toward aiding the teacher of grade 1 and 2 children in identifying the academic strengths, weaknesses, and needs of each student. These tests are concerned with the overall screening of skills of…
VanDyke, Justine M.
Adults are able to access semantic and syntactic information rapidly as they hear or read in real-time in order to interpret sentences. Young children, on the other hand, tend to rely on syntactically-based parsing routines, adopting the first noun as the agent of a sentence regardless of plausibility, at least during oral comprehension. Little is…
Giuliano, Helen Solana; And Others
This Taxonomy was designed to assist the instructor or reading specialist in the identification and location of specific instructional materials that can be used for remediation of skill deficiencies. The Taxonomy was developed by the White Plains Adult Education Center, and a description of the Center's program and method of integrating the…
Dogoe, Maud S.; Banda, Devender R.; Lock, Robin H.; Feinstein, Rita
This study examined the effectiveness of the constant timed delay procedure for teaching two young adults with autism to read, define, and state the contextual meaning of keywords on product warning labels of common household products. Training sessions were conducted in the dyad format using flash cards. Results indicated that both participants…
Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Schatschneider, Christopher
The purpose of this study was to investigate the joint and unique contributions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge at five reading comprehension levels in adult basic education (ABE) students. We introduce the statistical technique of multiple quantile regression, which enabled us to assess the predictive utility of morphological…
Welcome, Suzanne E.; Joanisse, Marc F.
We used fMRI to examine patterns of brain activity associated with component processes of visual word recognition and their relationships to individual differences in reading skill. We manipulated both the judgments adults made on written stimuli and the characteristics of the stimuli. Phonological processing led to activation in left inferior…
Yael, Weiss; Tami, Katzir; Tali, Bitan
The current study examined the effects of transparency and familiarity on word recognition in adult Hebrew dyslexic readers with a phonological processing deficit as compared to typical readers. We measured oral reading response time and accuracy of single nouns in several conditions: diacritics that provide transparent but less familiar…
Hua, Youjia; Woods-Groves, Suzanne; Kaldenberg, Erica R.; Scheidecker, Bethany J.
We investigated the effectiveness of using constant time delay (CTD) with young adults with intellectual disability on their vocabulary acquisition and retention, as well as expository reading comprehension. Four learners, ages 19 to 21 years, from a postsecondary education program for individuals with disabilities participated in the study.…
Pawlowski, Josiane; Remor, Eduardo; de Mattos Pimenta Parente, Maria Alice; de Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli; Fonseca, Rochele Paz; Bandeira, Denise Ruschel
This study evaluated the influence of the frequency of reading and writing habits (RWH) associated with education on the performance of adults in brief neuropsychological tasks. A sample of 489 Brazilian subjects, composed of 71% women, aged 21-80 years, with 2-23 years of formal education, was evaluated by the Brazilian Brief Neuropsychological…
Silvestri, Julia A.
This study is a mixed methods analysis of reading processes and language experiences of deaf and hearing readers. The sample includes four groups each with fifteen adults--identified as: deaf/high-achieving readers, deaf/struggling/non-academic readers, hearing/high-achieving readers, and hearing/non-academic readers. The purpose of this study is…
Elijah, David V., Jr.
The purpose of this study was: (1) to determine to what extent teacher rankings of reading readiness compare with reading readiness test results, (2) to determine to what extent teacher rankings of reading readiness compare with pupil socioeconomic status, and (3) to determine to what extent readiness test results compare with pupil socioeconomic…
Eastern Wyoming Coll., Torrington.
Undertaken by Eastern Wyoming College, this pilot program of adult basic counseling and testing sought to stimulate the enrollment of school dropouts in adult basic education courses, help enrollees discover their vocational interests and capabilities, and aid them in their personal and social adjustment. A full-time counselor took charge of…
In this world of increasing competition for jobs and accountability in the workplace, adults are facing many new pressures, one of which is passing tests as part of the application process. This is especially difficult for adults who are academically challenged or did not go far enough with their education to feel comfortable in testing…
Malotte, C K; Rhodes, F; Mais, K E
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the independent and combined effects of different levels of monetary incentives and a theory-based educational intervention on return for tuberculosis (TB) skin test reading in a sample of active injection drug and crack cocaine users. Prevalence of TB infection in this sample was also determined. METHODS: Active or recent drug users (n = 1004), recruited via street outreach techniques, were skin tested for TB. They were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 levels of monetary incentive ($5 and $10) provided at return for skin test reading, alone or in combination with a brief motivational education session. RESULTS: More than 90% of those who received $10 returned for skin test reading, in comparison with 85% of those who received $5 and 33% of those who received no monetary incentive. The education session had no impact on return for skin test reading. The prevalence of a positive tuberculin test was 18.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Monetary incentives dramatically increase the return rate for TB skin test reading among drug users who are at high risk of TB infection. PMID:9585747
Barth, Amy E; Denton, Carolyn A; Stuebing, Karla K; Fletcher, Jack M; Cirino, Paul T; Francis, David J; Vaughn, Sharon
The cerebellar hypothesis of dyslexia posits that cerebellar deficits are associated with reading disabilities and may explain why some individuals with reading disabilities fail to respond to reading interventions. We tested these hypotheses in a sample of children who participated in a grade 1 reading intervention study (n = 174) and a group of typically achieving children (n = 62). At posttest, children were classified as adequately responding to the intervention (n = 82), inadequately responding with decoding and fluency deficits (n = 36), or inadequately responding with only fluency deficits (n = 56). Based on the Bead Threading and Postural Stability subtests from the Dyslexia Screening Test-Junior, we found little evidence that assessments of cerebellar functions were associated with academic performance or responder status. In addition, we did not find evidence supporting the hypothesis that cerebellar deficits are more prominent for poor readers with "specific" reading disabilities (i.e., with discrepancies relative to IQ) than for poor readers with reading scores consistent with IQ. In contrast, measures of phonological awareness, rapid naming, and vocabulary were strongly associated with responder status and academic outcomes. These results add to accumulating evidence that fails to associate cerebellar functions with reading difficulties.
Padak, Nancy; Rasinski, Tim; Mraz, Maryann
The National Reading Panel (NRP) reviewed quantitative reading research focusing on grades K-3 to identify methods leading to reading success. The following areas were identified as key areas in the process of beginning to read: (1) phonemic awareness; (2) phonics; (3) fluency; (4) vocabulary; and (5) comprehension. The research findings were…
Berrios, D C; Hearst, N; Perkins, L L; Burke, G L; Sidney, S; McCreath, H E; Hulley, S B
We surveyed men and women aged 21 to 34 years to determine the rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing in blacks and whites of diverse education levels in four US cities. Responses to the anonymous, mailed questionnaire were received from 90% of 777 white women, 64% of 734 black women, 79% of 677 white men, and 48% of 541 black men. The percentages reporting HIV testing for these four race-gender groups were 29%, 22%, 30%, and 38%, respectively. The percentages reporting testing that was voluntarily sought (ie, not in connection with blood donation, military service) were 16%, 14%, 18%, and 22%, respectively. In each race-gender group, roughly half of those who had not been tested said they "might have a blood test for the AIDS virus in the future". Education level was not correlated with HIV-testing frequency. Blacks were significantly less likely than whites to be aware of "a blood test that can detect the AIDS virus infection" (58% vs 77%), but blacks who knew of the test were more likely than whites to have been tested (47% vs 37%). Eleven percent of subjects reported at least one major risk factor for HIV infection. In these people, HIV testing was most common among homosexually active men (56% tested; 52% voluntarily sought), intermediate among injection drug users (40% tested; 31% voluntarily sought), and least common among the sexual partners of injection-drug users (21% tested; 11% voluntarily sought). Health education programs need to communicate the availability of, and need for, anonymous HIV testing.
Johnson, Mark E.; Fisher, Dennis G.; Rhodes, Fen; Booth, Robert
The Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised and the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests-Revised were administered twice to 269 current drug abusers over an average time interval of 204.2 days. Overall, the study demonstrates that the two instruments have strong psychometric properties and that results from current drug abusers are reliable. (SLD)
Holmes, Charles Curtis
This study was designed to determine the effects of test anxiety level and defensiveness (lie scale) level on reading comprehension of fourth grade boys as measured by the cloze procedure. The subjects, 253 male fourth graders, were administered Sarason's Test Anxiety Scale for Children and the lie scale of the General Anxiety Scale for Children.…
Loewen, David Allen
This exploratory correlational study seeks to answer the question of whether a relationship exists between student average test score gains on state exams and teachers' rating of values on the Schwartz Values Survey. Eighty-seven randomly selected Kansas teachers of math and/or reading, grades four through eight, participated. Student test score…
Perkins, Kyle; And Others
This paper reports the results of using a three-layer backpropagation artificial neural network to predict item difficulty in a reading comprehension test. Two network structures were developed, one with and one without a sigmoid function in the output processing unit. The data set, which consisted of a table of coded test items and corresponding…
Milesky, Samuel D.
It is noted that the Wisconsin-Milesky Battery, which includes such tests as subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Goodenough-Harris Draw-A-Man Test, provides a profile of elements predictive of the young deaf child's lip reading potential. (SBH)
Green, Anthony; Unaldi, Aylin; Weir, Cyril
Providers of tests of languages for academic purposes generally claim to provide evidence on the extent to which students are likely to be able to cope with the future demands of reading in specified real-life contexts. Such claims need to be supported by evidence that the texts employed in the test reflect salient features of the texts the test…
Johnstone, Christopher J.; Thurlow, Martha L.
This article reports on findings from a review of statewide large-scale test blueprints. The qualitative and descriptive numerical review of themes found in state blueprints provides information on trends in statewide reading assessments. These trends are then set against the backdrop of testing accommodations for students with disabilities.…
A study was conducted to determine if a teacher-constructed cloze procedure correlated significantly with two standardized tests of reading achievement, thereby testing G.D. Spache's claim that most teachers are unable to design valid and reliable assessment materials. Subjects were 60 fourth and sixth grade students who were administered the…
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for air flow tests of micronaire reading... of the United States for Fiber Fineness and Maturity § 28.603 Procedures for air flow tests of...) Air flow instrument complete with accessories to measure the fineness and maturity, in combination,...
A study investigated the appropriate use of item types for testing reading at various levels of proficiency. It was specifically concerned with item types found in the standardized group-administered Defense Language Proficiency Tests. The item formats investigated were signs in the target language, identification of underlined information,…
Isaksson, M; Bruze, M; Goossens, A; Lepoittevin, J P
Budesonide is advocated as a marker molecule for corticosteroid contact allergy. When patch testing corticosteroids, one must consider their sensitizing potential but also their anti-inflammatory properties, as well as the possibility of different time courses for such properties. The dose-response relationship for budesonide was therefore investigated with regard to dose, occlusion time, and reading time. 10 patients were patch tested with budesonide in ethanol in serial dilutions from 2.0% down to 0.0002% with occlusion times of 48, 24, and 5 h. Readings were on D2, D4, and D7. The 48-h occlusion picked up most positive reactors, 8/10. The D4 reading (48-h occlusion) detected most positive reactors, 8/10, and here 0.002% picked up most contact allergies. Late readings favoured high concentrations. The "edge effect" was noted for several concentrations at early readings. Due to the individual corticosteroid reactivity, the dose-response relationship and the time courses of the elicitation and the anti-inflammatory capacity, several features may be explained, i.e., that lower concentrations may detect budesonide allergy better at early readings, that patients with an "edge reaction" can have positive reactions to lower concentrations.
Johns, Jerry L.; VanLeirsburg, Peggy
A study answered the question: are there significant differences in scores for two forms of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, Third Edition? Subjects, 23 fifth graders, were given Forms K and L, Level 5/6, of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test. The tests were administered by the regular classroom teacher in two testing sessions. Students were…
This study was carried out to seek the correlations of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests (GMRT), a norm-referenced reading test used in the United States, with the AST and the GSAT English tests, the two most important college entrance English tests held annually in Taiwan. The AST group comprised 53 students, and the GSAT group included 171…
Moore, Mariah; Gordon, Peter C
In the author recognition test (ART), participants are presented with a series of names and foils and are asked to indicate which ones they recognize as authors. The test is a strong predictor of reading skill, and this predictive ability is generally explained as occurring because author knowledge is likely acquired through reading or other forms of print exposure. In this large-scale study (1,012 college student participants), we used item response theory (IRT) to analyze item (author) characteristics in order to facilitate identification of the determinants of item difficulty, provide a basis for further test development, and optimize scoring of the ART. Factor analysis suggested a potential two-factor structure of the ART, differentiating between literary and popular authors. Effective and ineffective author names were identified so as to facilitate future revisions of the ART. Analyses showed that the ART is a highly significant predictor of the time spent encoding words, as measured using eyetracking during reading. The relationship between the ART and time spent reading provided a basis for implementing a higher penalty for selecting foils, rather than the standard method of ART scoring (names selected minus foils selected). The findings provide novel support for the view that the ART is a valid indicator of reading volume. Furthermore, they show that frequency data can be used to select items of appropriate difficulty, and that frequency data from corpora based on particular time periods and types of texts may allow adaptations of the test for different populations.
Moore, Mariah; Gordon, Peter C.
In the Author Recognition Test (ART) participants are presented with a series of names and foils and are asked to indicate which ones they recognize as authors. The test is a strong predictor of reading skill, with this predictive ability generally explained as occurring because author knowledge is likely acquired through reading or other forms of print exposure. This large-scale study (1012 college student participants) used Item Response Theory (IRT) to analyze item (author) characteristics to facilitate identification of the determinants of item difficulty, provide a basis for further test development, and to optimize scoring of the ART. Factor analysis suggests a potential two factor structure of the ART differentiating between literary vs. popular authors. Effective and ineffective author names were identified so as to facilitate future revisions of the ART. Analyses showed that the ART is a highly significant predictor of time spent encoding words as measured using eye-tracking during reading. The relationship between the ART and time spent reading provided a basis for implementing a higher penalty for selecting foils, rather than the standard method of ART scoring (names selected minus foils selected). The findings provide novel support for the view that the ART is a valid indicator of reading volume. Further, they show that frequency data can be used to select items of appropriate difficulty and that frequency data from corpora based on particular time periods and types of text may allow test adaptation for different populations. PMID:25410405
Martin, Anna; Schurz, Matthias; Kronbichler, Martin
Abstract We used quantitative, coordinate‐based meta‐analysis to objectively synthesize age‐related commonalities and differences in brain activation patterns reported in 40 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of reading in children and adults. Twenty fMRI studies with adults (age means: 23–34 years) were matched to 20 studies with children (age means: 7–12 years). The separate meta‐analyses of these two sets showed a pattern of reading‐related brain activation common to children and adults in left ventral occipito‐temporal (OT), inferior frontal, and posterior parietal regions. The direct statistical comparison between the two meta‐analytic maps of children and adults revealed higher convergence in studies with children in left superior temporal and bilateral supplementary motor regions. In contrast, higher convergence in studies with adults was identified in bilateral posterior OT/cerebellar and left dorsal precentral regions. The results are discussed in relation to current neuroanatomical models of reading and tentative functional interpretations of reading‐related activation clusters in children and adults are provided. Hum Brain Mapp 36:1963–1981, 2015. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.. PMID:25628041
Meadows, Sara; Herrick, David; Feiler, Anthony
The aim of the UK National Literacy Strategy is to raise standards in literacy. Strong evidence for its success has, however, been lacking: most of the available data comes from performance on tests administered in schools or from Office for Standards in Education reports and is vulnerable to suggestions of bias. An opportunistic analysis of data from a population cohort study extending over three school years compares school-based scores at school entry and at age 7-8 with independently administered scores on similar tests. The results show a small but statistically significant rise between 1998 and 1999 and between 1998 and 2000 in scores on both Key Stage 1 Reading Standard Assessment Tasks taken in schools and the reading component of the WORD test taken independently. This is clear evidence for a real rise in reading attainment over this period, which may be attributable to the children's experience of the National Literacy Strategy.
Chung, Wei-Lun; Jarmulowicz, Linda
For monolingual English-speaking children, judgment and production of stress in derived words, including words with phonologically neutral (e.g., -ness) and non-neutral suffixes (e.g., -ity), is important to both academic vocabulary growth and to word reading. For Mandarin-speaking adult English learners (AELs) the challenge of learning the English stress system might be complicated by cross-linguistic differences in prosodic function and features. As Mandarin-speakers become more proficient in English, patterns similar to those seen in monolingual children could emerge in which awareness and use of stress and suffix cues benefit word reading. A correlational design was used to examine the contributions of English stress in derivation with neutral and non-neutral suffixes to English word and nonword reading. Stress judgment in non-neutral derivation predicted word reading after controlling for working memory and English vocabulary; whereas stress production in neutral derivation contributed to word reading and pseudoword decoding, independent of working memory and English vocabulary. Although AELs could use stress and suffix cues for word reading, AELs were different from native English speakers in awareness of non-neutral suffix cues conditioning lexical stress placement. AELs may need to rely on lexical storage of primary stress in derivations with non-neutral suffixes.
To determine the extent to which knowledge of evidence-based reading instruction and mathematics is assessed on licensure tests for prospective special education teachers, this study drew on information provided by Educational Testing Service (ETS), the American Board for Certification of Teacher Excellence, and National Evaluation Systems (now Evaluation Systems group of Pearson). It estimated the percentage of test items on phonemic awareness, phonics, and vocabulary knowledge and on mathematics content. It also analyzed descriptions of ETS's tests of "principles of teaching and learning." Findings imply that prospective special education teachers should be required to take both a dedicated test of evidence-based reading instructional knowledge, as in California, Massachusetts, and Virginia, and a test of mathematical knowledge, as in Massachusetts. States must design their own tests of teaching principles to assess knowledge of evidence-based educational theories.
Reading comprehension tests are often assumed to measure the same, or at least similar, constructs. Yet, reading is not a single but a multidimensional form of processing, which means that variations in terms of reading material and item design may emphasize one aspect of the construct at the cost of another. The educational systems in Denmark,…
Bao, Han; Dayton, C. Mitchell; Hendrickson, Amy B.
When testlet effects and item idiosyncratic features are both considered to be the reasons of DIF in educational tests using testlets (Wainer & Kiely, 1987) or item bundles (Rosenbaum, 1988), it is interesting to investigate the phenomena of DIF amplification and cancellation due to the interactive effects of these two factors. This research…
Items in the verbal (Hebrew and English) sections of the Psychometric Entrance Test (PET) administered for university admission in Israel were studied for differential item functioning (DIF) between the sexes. Analyses were conducted for 4,354 males and 4,901 females taking Form 3 of the PET in April 1984, and 3,786 males and 3,815 females taking…
M. Witt, Rochelle; M. Galligan, Meghan; R. Despinoy, Jennifer; Segal, Rosalind
The rodent olfactory system is of increasing interest to scientists, studied, in part, in systems biology because of its stereotyped, yet accessible circuitry. In addition, this area's unique ability to generate new neurons throughout an organism's lifetime makes it an attractive system for developmental and regenerative biologists alike. Such interest necessitates a means for a quick, yet reliable assessment of olfactory function. Many tests of olfactory ability are complex, variable or not specifically designed for mice. Also, some tests are sensitive to memory deficits as well as defects in olfactory abilities, confounding obtained results. Here, we describe a simple battery of tests designed to identify defects in olfactory sensitivity and preference. First, an initial general health assessment allows for the identification of animals suitable for further testing. Second, mice are exposed to various dilutions of scents to ascertain whether there is a threshold difference. Third, mice are presented with various scents, both attractive and aversive, that allow for the assessment of olfactory preference. These simple studies should make the initial characterization of olfactory behavior accessible for labs of varied resources and expertise. PMID:19229182
Witt, Rochelle M; Galligan, Meghan M; Despinoy, Jennifer R; Segal, Rosalind
The rodent olfactory system is of increasing interest to scientists, studied, in part, in systems biology because of its stereotyped, yet accessible circuitry. In addition, this area's unique ability to generate new neurons throughout an organism's lifetime makes it an attractive system for developmental and regenerative biologists alike. Such interest necessitates a means for a quick, yet reliable assessment of olfactory function. Many tests of olfactory ability are complex, variable or not specifically designed for mice. Also, some tests are sensitive to memory deficits as well as defects in olfactory abilities, confounding obtained results. Here, we describe a simple battery of tests designed to identify defects in olfactory sensitivity and preference. First, an initial general health assessment allows for the identification of animals suitable for further testing. Second, mice are exposed to various dilutions of scents to ascertain whether there is a threshold difference. Third, mice are presented with various scents, both attractive and aversive, that allow for the assessment of olfactory preference. These simple studies should make the initial characterization of olfactory behavior accessible for labs of varied resources and expertise.
Techniques and Procedures in College and Adult Reading Programs; Yearbook of the Annual Meeting of the Southwest Reading Conference for Colleges and Universities (6th, Texas Christian University, December 7-8, 1956).
Causey, Oscar S., Ed.
The title of this volume was the theme of the sixth annual meeting of the Southwest Reading Conference for Colleges and Universities, held in December 1956. Authors of the eleven reports on successful college and adult reading programs focused on various aspects of the programs, including academic performance, program evaluation, faculty, public…
Soederberg Miller, Lisa M.; Gagne, Danielle D.
We investigated age differences in reading and rereading processes associated with problem solving and explored the extent to which prior information affects rereading processes. Participants' reading times were recorded as they read short mysteries, twice, at their own pace on a computer, with the goal of providing the solution to the mystery. We…
Harvey, Judy; Hux, Karen; Snell, Jeffry
This single case study served to examine text-to-speech (TTS) effects on reading rate and comprehension in an individual with mild aphasia and cognitive impairment. Findings showed faster reading, given TTS presented at a normal speaking rate, but no significant comprehension changes. TTS may support reading in people with aphasia when time…
Lamont, Linda S.
Exercise stress testing provides information on the aerobic capacity, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to graded exercises of a healthy adult. The reliability of exercise tests as a diagnostic procedure is discussed in relation to sensitivity and specificity and predictive accuracy. (JN)
Loshin, David S.; Wensveen, Janice; Juday, Richard D.; Barton, R. Shane
NASA and the University of Houston College of Optometry are examining the efficacy of image warping as a possible prosthesis for at least two forms of low vision -- maculopathy and retinitis pigmentosa. Before incurring the expense of reducing the concept to practice, one would wish to have confidence that a worthwhile improvement in visual function would result. NASA's Programmable Remapper (PR) can warp an input image onto arbitrary geometric coordinate systems at full video rate, and it has recently been upgraded to accept computer- generated video text. We have integrated the Remapper with an SRI eye tracker to simulate visual malfunction in normal observers. A reading performance test has been developed to determine if the proposed warpings yield an increase in visual function; i.e., reading speed. We describe the preliminary experimental results of this reading test with a simulated central field defect with and without remapped images.
Gamboz, Nadia; Borella, Erika; Brandimonte, Maria A
The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) is considered a typical executive test. However, several interesting questions are still open as to the specific executive processes underlying this task. In the present study, we explored how local and global switching, inhibition and working memory, assessed through the Number-Letter, the Stop Signal and the Reading Span tasks, relate to older adults' performance in the WCST. Results showed that older adults' performance variability in the number of perseverative errors was predicted by the local switch component of the Number-Letter task. Results also showed age-related differences in inhibition, working memory and global switching, while local switching resulted largely spared in aging. This study provides evidence that switching abilities may contribute to performance of older adults in the WCST. It also provides initial evidence suggesting that switching processes, associated with local switch costs, are involved in performance on the WCST, at least in older adults.
Hall, Anna H.; Tannebaum, Rory P.
The first edition of the Gray Oral Reading Tests (GORT, 1963) was written by Dr. William S. Gray, a founding member and the first president of the International Reading Association. The GORT was designed to measure oral reading abilities (i.e., Rate, Accuracy, Fluency, and Comprehension) of students in Grades 2 through 12 due to the noteworthy…
Since the 1970s, GH treatment has been an important tool in paediatric endocrinology for the management of growth retardation. It is now accepted that adults with severe GH deficiency (GHD) demonstrate impaired physical and psychological well-being and may benefit from replacement therapy with recombinant human GH. There is, however, an ongoing debate on how to diagnose GHD, especially in adults. A GH response below the cut-off limit of a GH-stimulation test is required in most cases for establishing GHD in adults. No 'gold standard' GH-stimulation test exists, but some GH stimulation tests may be more robust to variations in patient characteristics such as age and gender, as well as to pre-test conditions like heat exposure due to a hot bath or bicycling. However, body mass index (BMI) is negatively associated with GH-responses to all available GH-stimulation tests and glucocorticoid treatment, including conventional substitution therapy, influences the GH-responses. Recently, the role of IGF-I measurements in the clinical decision making has been discussed. The aim of this review is to discuss the available GH-stimulation tests. In this author's opinion, tests which include growth-hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) tend to be more potent and robust, especially the GHRH+arginine test which has been proven to be of clinical use. In contrast, the insulin tolerance test (ITT) and the glucagon test appear to have too many drawbacks.
Tests require a special kind of savvy, a kind of critical thinking and knowledge application that is not always a part of classroom reading experiences. Who better to teach you how to prepare your students for reading tests than someone who has written them? Charles Fuhrken has spent years working with several major testing companies and…
Dudukovic, Nicole M; Gottshall, Jackie L; Cavanaugh, Patricia A; Moody, Christine T
Memory retrieval has been shown to enhance the long-term retention of tested material; however, recent research suggests that limiting attention during retrieval can decrease the benefits of testing memory. The present study examined whether testing benefits are reduced in young adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). College students with and without ADHD read three short prose passages, each followed by a free recall test, a restudy period or a distractor task. Two days later participants recalled the passages. Although participants without ADHD did not show a significant benefit of testing over restudying, testing did produce recall benefits relative to not taking a test. These testing benefits were diminished in participants with ADHD, who did not show any advantage of testing over either restudying or no test. The absence of testing benefits in the ADHD group is likely due in part to decreased recall on the initial test. These findings have implications for improving educational practices among individuals with ADHD and also speak to the need to examine individual differences in the effectiveness of testing as a learning strategy.
Martin, Nicolas W; Hansell, Narelle K; Wainwright, Mark A; Shekar, Sri N; Medland, Sarah E; Bates, Timothy C; Burt, Jennifer S; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J
The Author Recognition Test (ART) measures print exposure and is a unique predictor of phonological and orthographic processes in reading. In a sample of adolescent and young adult twins and siblings (216 MZ/430 DZ pairs, 307 singletons; aged 11-29 years) ART scores were moderately heritable (67%) and correlated with reading and verbal abilities, with genes largely accounting for the covariance. We also examine whether high (and low) (i.e. 1SD above the mean) represents a quantitative extreme of the normal distribution. Heritability for high ART was of similar magnitude to the full sample, but, a specific genetic factor, independent from both low ART performance and high reading ability, accounted for 53-58% of the variance. This suggests a distinct genetic etiology for high ART ability and we speculate that the specific genetic influence is on orthographical processing, a critical factor in developing word recognition skills.
Little, Callie W.
The present study is an examination of the genetic and environmental effects on the associations among reading fluency, spelling and earlier reading comprehension on a later reading comprehension outcome (FCAT) in a combined sample of 3rd and 4th grade students using data from the 2011-2012 school year of the Florida Twin project on Reading (Taylor et al., 2013). A genetically sensitive model was applied to the data with results indicating a common genetic component among all four measures, along with shared and non-shared environmental influences common between reading fluency, spelling and FCAT. PMID:26770052
This guide outlines a model that adult educators can use to construct a test for their adult students, regardless of subject area, that is written at the students' reading level. The problems that written tests pose for trade and technical students in further education (FE) who have poor reading skills and the drawbacks of using commercially…
Ay, Sila; Bartan, Ozgur Sen
This study explores how readers' interest, gender, and test types (multiple-choice questions, Yes/No questions, and short-answer formats) affect second language reading comprehension in three different levels and five different categories of topics. A questionnaire was administered to 168 Turkish EFL students to find out the gender-oriented topic…
Perkins, Kyle; And Others
This article reports the results of using a three-layer back propagation artificial neural network to predict item difficulty in a reading comprehension test. Three classes of variables were examined: text structure, propositional analysis, and cognitive demand. Results demonstrate that the networks can consistently predict item difficulty. (JL)
This article outlines an empirical investigation into equivalent forms reliability using a case study of a national curriculum reading test. Within the situation being studied, there has been a genuine attempt to create several equivalent forms and so it is of interest to compare the actual behaviour of the relationship between these forms to the…
Wong, Bernice Y. L.
Successful instructional strategies for enhancing the reading comprehension and comprehension test performance of learning disabled students are described. Students are taught to self-monitor their comprehension of expository materials and stories through recognition and analysis of recurrent elements and problem passages, content summarization,…
Summers, Edward G.; Edwards, Peter
This document describes the development and application of a model for generating a core reading vocabulary screening test based on rank frequency distributions derived from a quarter of a million word corpus of 500 word samples embracing commerce, English, home economics, industrial education, mathematics, science, and social studies. The word…
Spiel, Craig Freeman; Mixon, Clifton S.; Holdaway, Alex S.; Evans, Steven W.; Harrison, Judith R.; Zoromski, Allison K.; Yost, Joanna Sadler
In this study, we intend to determine if reading tests aloud provides a differential boost to youth with elevated symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) relative to same-aged peers. Participants were 36 youth, 44% with or at risk for ADHD, who participated in a week long summer camp. Over the course of the week, youth attended…
Much of what has developed in the testing of reading harkens back to the days of the "Cult of Efficiency" movement in education that can be largely attributed to Frederick Winslow Taylor. Taylor spent most of his productive years studying time and motion in an attempt to streamline industrial production so that people could work as…
Huddleston, Andrew P.
The author uses Bourdieu's concepts of field, capital, and habitus to analyze how students, parents, teachers, and administrators are responding to Georgia's test-based grade retention policy in reading at one Georgia elementary school. In this multiple case study, the author interviewed, observed, and collected documents regarding ten fifth…
This study examined the cognitive levels of questions used by Iranian EFL teachers in advanced reading comprehension tests. Twenty teachers participated in this study and generated 215 questions which were then categorized according to Bloom's taxonomy. This taxonomy consists of six major categories which starts from the simplest behavior to the…
Damhuis, Carmen M. P.; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo
We investigated effects of listening to single or multiple storybook readings versus testing with and without feedback on children's breadth (i.e., the number of words) and depth (i.e., the quality of word knowledge) of vocabulary learning. Kindergartners (n = 125) were divided into 3 intervention and 1 control conditions. Children in the control…
Brazelton, Barry Wayne
The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between students' scores on Academy of READING (AOR) and their performance on the Georgia End of Course Test (GEOCT) for Ninth Grade Literature and Composition. The participants were ninth grade students enrolled in Ninth Grade Literature and Composition during the 2009-2010 school year at a…
This analysis evaluates the receptive tests of targeted lexical knowledge in the written medium, which are typically used in empirical research into lexical acquisition from reading foreign/second language texts. Apart from the types of second language cues or prompts, and the language of the responses, the main issues revolve around: (a) the…
De Moor, Wendy; Verguts, Tom; Brysbaert, Marc
This study provided a test of the multiple criteria concept used for lexical decision, as implemented in J. Grainger and A. M. Jacobs's (1996) multiple read-out model. This account predicts more inhibition (or less facilitation) from a masked neighbor when accuracy is stressed more but more facilitation (or less inhibition) when the speed of…
Sheriston, Lee; Critten, Sarah; Jones, Emily
Dual-route theory, which emphasizes the importance of lexical and nonlexical routes, makes specific predictions about the kinds of strategies that young students might adopt when attempting to correctly read and spell regular and irregular words. The current study tests these predictions by assessing strategy choice on regular, irregular, and…
Irvine-Niakaris, Christine; Kiely, Richard
This article examines the pedagogical content knowledge which underpins the practices in reading lessons of experienced teachers in test preparation classes. It takes as a starting point the assumption that practice is shaped by teacher cognitions, which are established through professional training and classroom experience. Thus, the study…
Throughout the United States the number of students who speak English as a second language (ESL) enrolled in United States colleges and universities has been increasing steadily over the past 20 years. ESL students may be considered an at-risk group for performance on reading comprehension portions of classroom and high stakes tests (HST) like the…
Hambleton, Ronald K.; And Others
The potential of item response theory (IRT) for solving a number of testing problems in the Maryland Functional Reading Program would appear to be substantial in view of the many other promising applications of the theory. But, it is well-known that the advantages derived from an IRT model cannot be achieved when the fit between an item response…
Ardila, A; Ostrosky-Solis, F; Mendoza, V U
Departing from the observation that illiterates significantly underscore in some neuropsychological tests, a learning-to-read method named NEUROALFA was developed. NEUROALFA is directed to reinforce these underscored abilities during the learning-to-read process. It was administered to a sample of 21 adult illiterates in Colima (Mexico). Results were compared with 2 control groups using more traditional procedures in learning to read. The NEUROPSI neuropsychological test battery was administered to all the participants before and after completing the learning-to-read training program. All 3 groups presented some improvement in the test scores. Gains, however, were significantly higher in the experimental group in Orientation in Time, Digits Backward, Visual Detection, Verbal Memory, Copy of a Semi-Complex Figure, Language Comprehension, Phonological Verbal Fluency, Similarities, Calculation Abilities, Sequences, and all the recall subtests, excluding Recognition. Performance in standard reading tests was also significantly higher in the experimental group. Correlations between pretest NEUROPSI scores and reading ability were low. However, correlations between posttest NEUROPSI scores and reading scores were higher and significant for several subtests. Results are interpreting as supporting the assumption that reinforcement of those abilities in which illiterates significantly underscore results in a significant improvement in neuropsychological test scores and strongly facilitates the learning-to-read process. The NEUROALFA method of teaching reading to adult illiterates is beginning to be used extensively in Mexico. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to apply neuropsychological principles to social problems.
This paper reports the results of an analysis of a reading comprehension test using the Q subscript 3 (Q3) statistics developed by W. Yen (1984). Yen's Q3 can be a useful tool for examining local item dependence in the context of a reading comprehension test in which a set of related items is followed by a reading passage. Q3 is basically a…
Investigates differential effects of reading and paired associate learning on vocabulary acquisition of adult English-as-a-Second-Language learners. Two groups of university students participated. One group read "Animal Farm" while the comparison group memorized a list of words preselected from the novel. Suggests that for encouraging long-term…
Marschall, Sabrina; Davis, Cynthia
The proliferation of postsecondary programs for working adults is not surprising, given the importance of a bachelor's degree to employment and higher earnings. However, the demographics of adult learners have changed significantly over the past 30 years, when degrees for adults targeted a middle-class population. Adults now return to college…
Penttinen, Marjaana; Huovinen, Erkki; Ylitalo, Anna-Kaisa
In the present study, education majors minoring in music education (n = 24) and music performance majors (n =14) read and performed the original version and melodically altered versions of a simple melody in a given tempo. Eye movements during music reading and piano performances were recorded. Errorless trials were analyzed to explore the…
Corrigan, Roberta; Surber, John R.
Three experiments explored how pictures in award-winning children's storybooks contribute to their cohesion. In Experiment 1, one group of college students read storybooks with pictures, and another group read them with the pictures removed. Both groups answered questions inserted periodically. The source for about one half of the questions was…
Wheldall, Kevin; Madelaine, Alison
The aim of this study was to develop a means of tracking the reading performance of low-progress readers on a weekly basis, so as to inform instructional decision-making. A representative sample of 261 primary school children from Years 1 to 5 were tested on 21 different text passages taken from a developing passage reading test, the Wheldall…
Comparison of the reading comprehension processes used by Hebrew-speaking students of French in both their native and second languages found that there was a transfer of strategies from the native to the second language, although in the second language, students used more strategies that did not lead to the selection of a correct response than in…
DiCerbo, Kristen Eignor; Oliver, Jill; Albers, Craig; Blanchard, Jay
The researchers examined the effects of reducing attentional demands on reading comprehension test scores. Third grade students (N=939) completed two forms (T & S) of the Stanford 9 Reading Comprehension Test (54 items, 50 min.) in the spring of 1999. Form T (state-mandated) was administered following standardized procedures in one session. Form S (alternate) was administered in multiple, divided-time sessions, that is, the total test time and items were divided in halves and thirds per session to lessen attentional demands. A repeated-measure analysis of variance yielded significant effects for average and low readers. A resource match explanation and a metacognitive explanation are offered for the results, and educational implications are discussed.
Lee, Shu-Ping; Lee, Shin-Da; Liao, Yuan-Lin; Wang, An-Chi
This study examined the effects of audio-visual aids on anxiety, comprehension test scores, and retention in reading and listening to short stories in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classrooms. Reading and listening tests, general and test anxiety, and retention were measured in English-major college students in an experimental group with audio-visual aids (n=83) and a control group without audio-visual aids (n=94) with similar general English proficiency. Lower reading test anxiety, unchanged reading comprehension scores, and better reading short-term and long-term retention after four weeks were evident in the audiovisual group relative to the control group. In addition, lower listening test anxiety, higher listening comprehension scores, and unchanged short-term and long-term retention were found in the audiovisual group relative to the control group after the intervention. Audio-visual aids may help to reduce EFL learners' listening test anxiety and enhance their listening comprehension scores without facilitating retention of such materials. Although audio-visual aids did not increase reading comprehension scores, they helped reduce EFL learners' reading test anxiety and facilitated retention of reading materials.
Cheng, Pei-Wen; Tian, Yu-Jie; Kuo, Ting-Hua; Sun, Koun-Tem
This research analyzed the brain activity of non-native English speakers while engaged in English reading tests. The brain wave event-related potentials (ERPs) of participants were used to analyze the difference between making correct and incorrect choices on English reading test items. Three English reading tests of differing levels were designed and 20 participants, 10 males and 10 females whose ages ranged from 20 to 24, voluntarily participated in the experiment. Experimental results were analyzed by performing independent t-tests on the ERPs of participants for gender, difficulty level, and correct versus wrong options. Participants who chose incorrect options elicited a larger N600, verifying results found in the literature. Another interesting result was found: For incorrectly answered items, different areas of brain showing a significant difference in ERPs between the chosen and non-chosen options corresponded to gender differences; for males, this area was located in the right hemisphere whereas for females, it was located in the left. Experimental results imply that non-native English speaking males and females employ different areas of the brain to comprehend the meaning of difficult items.
Stack-Cutler, Holly L; Parrila, Rauno K; Torppa, Minna
We assessed the impact of intrapersonal and interpersonal resilience, persistence, and number of difficulties in addition to reading problems on life satisfaction (general, social, and self) and academic achievement. A total of 120 adults with reading difficulties who either were completing a university degree or were recent graduates responded to an in-lab or online survey. Results indicated that intrapersonal resilience correlated positively with interpersonal resilience and persistence, and both resilience factors were negatively associated with number of difficulties. Using structural equation modeling, intrapersonal resilience explained general satisfaction, intrapersonal resilience and number of difficulties explained self satisfaction, and interpersonal resilience explained social satisfaction. Academic achievement did not correlate with any of the included variables.
Fox, Mary Murphy
The current study investigated Theory of Mind in young adults with autism. The young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) consisted of four students between the ages of 18 and 19 from an on-campus program for students with autism located at Marywood University in Northeastern Pennsylvania. It was hypothesized that "Mind Reading",…
McLaughlin, Margaret J.; Speirs, Katherine E.; Shenassa, Edmond D.
This study examined the impact of childhood reading disability (RD) on adult educational attainment and income. Participants' (N = 1,344) RD was assessed at age 7, and adult educational attainment and income were assessed in midlife using categorical variables. Participants with RD at age 7 were 74% (95% CI: 0.18, 0.37) less likely to attain a…
Miller, Susanne; Isaac, Megan; Watts, Linda S.; Barnhouse, Rebecca
Includes four teachers' recommendations of summer reading for other teachers. Details Anita Shreve's "The Last Time They Met"; Barbara Kingsolver's "Small Wonder"; Lynda Barry's "Cruddy"; and Ina Rilke's "Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress." (PM)
Welcome, Suzanne E.; Leonard, Christiana M.; Chiarello, Christine
Resilient readers are characterized by impaired phonological processing despite skilled text comprehension. We investigated orthographic and semantic processing in resilient readers to examine mechanisms of compensation for poor phonological decoding. Performance on phonological (phoneme deletion, pseudoword reading), orthographic (orthographic…
Stewart, S. D.; Sampson, R. S., Jr.; Stonemetz, R. E.; Rouse, S. L.
Computer programs used to process data that will be used in the evaluation of collector efficiency and solar system performance are described. The program, TAPFIL, reads data from an IBM 360 tape containing information (insolation, flowrates, temperatures, etc.) from 48 operational solar heating and cooling test sites. Two other programs, CHPLOT and WRTCNL, plot and tabulate the data from the direct access, unformatted TAPFIL file. The methodology of the programs, their inputs, and their outputs are described.
Courcol, R J; Deleersnyder, H; Roussel-Delvallez, M; Martin, G R
An automated microELISA Reader was evaluated for its ability to read and interpret microtitre plates. A total of 309 microtitre plates were investigated by automated and visual methods. There was disagreement between the methods in one hundred and twelve (0.6%) wells. However agreements between the two methods for susceptibility tests and Enterobacteriaceae identification were respectively 98.8% and 89.3%. PMID:6338058
Obana, Michael; O'Lawrence, Henry
The overall purpose of this study was to determine whether visits to the doctor in the last 12 months, education level, and annual household income for adult males increased the awareness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests. The effect of these factors for the knowledge of PSA exams was performed using statistical analysis. A retrospective secondary database was utilized for this study using the questionnaire in the California Health Interview Survey from 2009. Based on this survey, annual visits to the doctor, higher educational levels attained, and greater take-home pay were statistically significant and the results of the study were equivalent to those hypothesized. This also reflects the consideration of marketing PSA blood test screenings to those adult males who are poor, uneducated, and do not see the doctor on a consistent basis.
Szmigielska, Katarzyna; Leszczynska, Joanna; Jegier, Anna
Background. The assessment of blood pressure (BP) response during exercise test is an important diagnostic instrument in cardiovascular system evaluation. The study aim was to determine normal values of BP response to submaximal, multistage exercise test in healthy adults with regard to their age, gender, and workload. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted in randomly selected normotensive subjects (n = 1015), 512 females and 498 males, aged 18–64 years (mean age 42.1 ± 12.7 years) divided into five age groups. All subjects were clinically healthy with no chronic diseases diagnosed. Exercise stress tests were performed using Monark bicycle ergometer until a minimum of 85% of physical capacity was reached. BP was measured at rest and at peak of each exercise test stage. Results. The relations between BP, age, and workload during exercise test were determined by linear regression analysis and can be illustrated by the equations: systolic BP (mmHg) = 0.346 × load (W) + 135.76 for males and systolic BP (mmHg) = 0.103 × load (W) + 155.72 for females. Conclusions. Systolic BP increases significantly and proportionally to workload increase during exercise test in healthy adults. The relation can be described by linear equation which can be useful in diagnostics of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27703976
Vahia, Ipsit V.; Ng, Bernardo; Camacho, Alvaro; Cardenas, Veronica; Cherner, Mariana; Depp, Colin A.; Palmer, Barton W.; Jeste., Dilip V.; Agha, Zia
As the population of older Latinos in the U.S. increases, availability of culturally-adapted geriatric psychiatry services is becoming a growing concern. This issue is exacerbated for rural Latino populations. In this study, we assessed whether neurocognitive assessment via telepsychiatry (TP) using a Spanish-language battery would be comparable to in-person (IP) testing using the same battery in a sample of Spanish-speaking older adults in a rural setting. Patients (N=22) received IP and TP testing 2 weeks apart. The order of IP and TP test administrations in individual subjects was determined randomly. Comparison of scores indicated that there were no significant differences between IP and TP test performance though both groups scored non-significantly higher at the second visit. This study demonstrates feasibility and utility of neurocognitive testing in Spanish using TP among older rural Latinos. PMID:25708655
Vahia, Ipsit V; Ng, Bernardo; Camacho, Alvaro; Cardenas, Veronica; Cherner, Mariana; Depp, Colin A; Palmer, Barton W; Jeste, Dilip V; Agha, Zia
As the population of older Latinos in the U.S. increases, availability of culturally adapted geriatric psychiatry services is becoming a growing concern. This issue is exacerbated for rural Latino populations. In this study, we assessed whether neurocognitive assessment via telepsychiatry (TP) using a Spanish-language battery would be comparable to in-person (IP) testing using the same battery in a sample of Spanish-speaking older adults in a rural setting. Patients (N = 22) received IP and TP testing 2 weeks apart. The order of IP and TP test administrations in individual subjects was determined randomly. Comparison of scores indicated that there were no significant differences between IP and TP test performance though both groups scored non-significantly higher at the second visit. This study demonstrates feasibility and utility of neurocognitive testing in Spanish using TP among older rural Latinos.
Wu, Amery D.; Stone, Jake E.
This article explores an approach for test score validation that examines test takers' strategies for taking a reading comprehension test. The authors formulated three working hypotheses about score validity pertaining to three types of test-taking strategy (comprehending meaning, test management, and test-wiseness). These hypotheses were…
Razak, Norizan Abdul; Zaini, Nuramirah
Many researches have shown that different approach needed in analysing linear and non-linear reading comprehension texts and different cognitive skills are required. This research attempts to discover the relationship between Science Stream students' reading competency on linear and non-linear texts in Malaysian University English Test (MUET) with…
Rochlin, Joyce T.; Weislogel, Louis F.
The correlative features of assigned reading and in-class performance were evaluated for 75 students enrolled in psychology classes in two community colleges in Maryland. Four tests and a final examination were used to measure in-class performance as a function of rates of reading and times of attendance. Control for content was attempted by…
Huang, Heng-Tsung Danny; Hung, Shao-Ting Alan
In the literature, little research has hitherto been conducted to examine the implementation of integrated speaking test tasks. This study, in response, set out to compare the anxiety induced by a reading-to-speak task and the anxiety produced by a speaking-only task and to explore students' experiences of taking the reading-to-speak task.…
Walsh, Jennifer L; Ward, L Monique
These studies investigate connections between magazine reading and involvement and young people's sexual health knowledge, self-efficacy, intentions, and contraception use. Study 1 assessed sexual health behaviors and magazine reading among 579 undergraduate students (69% were female; 68% were White; M(age) = 19.73). As expected, more frequent reading of mainstream magazines was associated with greater sexual health knowledge, safe-sex self-efficacy, and consistency of using contraception, although results varied across sex and magazine genre. Study 2 replicated and expanded on these findings with a survey of 422 undergraduate students (51% were female; 71% were White; 49% were age 18 or younger), incorporating a more extensive knowledge scale, questions about safe-sex intentions, and measures of magazine involvement. Results suggest that magazine use is associated with positive sexual health outcomes among young people.
Domínguez, Ana-Belén; Carrillo, María-Soledad; Pérez, Maria Del Mar; Alegría, Jesus
The first aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms used in reading sentences by deaf adults who had completed secondary or higher education. Previous data allowed us to hypothesize that they used the key word strategy, consisting of identifying (some of) the frequent content words, and deriving an overall representation of the sentence's meaning ignoring the function words. The results supported the hypothesis. The second aim was to establish the relationships between this strategy and the linguistic and phonological abilities of deaf participants. The results show that vocabulary increased with reading level, but syntax, evaluated with the use of function words, did not. This suggests that using the key word strategy during long periods of time increases knowledge of content words but not syntax, probably because function words are neglected by this strategy. The results also showed that the deaf participants had a fairly large orthographical lexicon. This implies that the extensive use of the key word strategy allows them to store lexical information. The next question was whether the written word representations of the deaf participants were memorized as mere logograms, or if they had been stored in connection with the phonological representations of the corresponding words. The metaphonological tasks conducted produced evidence indicating that deaf participants used both orthographic and phonological representations. A factor analysis of the metaphonological tasks together with reading and spelling confirmed that both factors were necessary to explain the whole variance in the deaf group.
Bowers, Andrew; Saltuklaroglu, Tim; Kalinowski, Joseph
This study examined relationships between anticipatory autonomic arousal and stuttering in four reading tasks. 13 adult persons who stutter (PWS) reported their 'feared' (expected to elicit more stuttering) sounds. They read phrases initiated by feared (F) and neutral (N) phonemes. Both stimuli sets were read solo (S) and with choral accompaniment (C), creating FS, FC, NS, and NC conditions. Skin conductance (SC) and heart rate (HR) measures were made during a 9s window that followed stimulus presentation and preceded speaking. Only SC measures produced significant differences across conditions. Choral conditions produced decreases in SC measures and stuttered trials. Feared conditions produced increases in SC but not stuttering. HR measures were variable, undifferentiated by condition, but produced a gradually increasing triphasic response pattern. No differences in anticipatory SC or HR measures were found in stuttered versus fluent trial comparisons. However, the NC condition, which eliminated stuttering, produced significantly lower SC measures than the fluent utterances in the other conditions (FS, FC, NS). Furthermore, SC measures from the fluent and stuttered trials were similar in these three conditions. These findings suggest that anticipatory autonomic arousal is better differentiated by the possibility of stuttering than by a fluent/stuttered speech outcome. Trials that produced anticipatory SC responses showed greater final HR deceleration, suggesting autonomic coactivation, a response pattern that is associated with aversive stimuli and herein, likely indicative of speech-related state anxiety. However, these physiological markers of anxiety appear to be neither necessary nor sufficient to induce observable stuttering.
Warsh, Herman Enoch
The present study examined some effects of literacy achievement on the lives of 184 of the 215 adults who had successfully completed literacy training between 1962 and 1966 in the Flint, Michigan, Adult High School. Interviews and public records were used to gather data on student background, experiences during literary training, participants'…
McLean, Scott; Vermeylen, Laurie
Through presenting empirical research exploring the connections between popular culture and informal learning, we argue that, as predicted by concepts such as self-directed learning and transformational learning, the experience of transition has a meaningful impact on adult learning. Specifically, transitions encourage adults to engage in learning…
Teaching for social responsibility should be one of the vital aims of our schools. Young adult literature offers an authentic, meaningful, and critical way to teach for social responsibility. This article offers an overview of the different elements of social responsibility and some young adult novels and graphic novels that could be used to teach…
LDA of Minnesota, 2008
Minnesota Adult Basic Education (ABE) providers are mandated to use CASAS (Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System) Reading or Math or TABE (Tests for Adult Basic Education) Reading or Math. This issue of "NetNews" introduces the Test Bank: a variety of informal reading, spelling, and writing assessments available for Minnesota ABE…
Olderbak, Sally; Wilhelm, Oliver; Olaru, Gabriel; Geiger, Mattis; Brenneman, Meghan W.; Roberts, Richard D.
The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test is a popular measure of individual differences in Theory of Mind that is often applied in the assessment of particular clinical populations (primarily, individuals on the autism spectrum). However, little is known about the test's psychometric properties, including factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent validity evidence. We present a psychometric analysis of the test followed by an evaluation of other empirically proposed and statistically identified structures. We identified, and cross-validated in a second sample, an adequate short-form solution that is homogeneous with adequate internal consistency, and is moderately related to Cognitive Empathy, Emotion Perception, and strongly related to Vocabulary. We recommend the use of this short-form solution in normal adults as a more precise measure over the original version. Future revisions of the test should seek to reduce the test's reliance on one's vocabulary and evaluate the short-form structure in clinical populations. PMID:26500578
Moseley, Rachel L.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Mohr, Bettina; Lombardo, Michael V.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Shtyrov, Yury
Reading utilises at least two neural pathways. The temporal lexical route visually maps whole words to their lexical entries, whilst the nonlexical route decodes words phonologically via parietal cortex. Readers typically employ the lexical route for familiar words, but poor comprehension plus precocity at mechanically "sounding out"…
Examination of writing and reading graduate theses from the perspectives of theorists, graduate students, and faculty advisors resulted in the conceptualization of the process as dialogical storytelling and rewriting of each other's metaphors. Instead of modernist beginning-to-end narratives, postmodern qualitative research is perceived as…
Hommet, Caroline; Vidal, Julie; Roux, Sylvie; Blanc, Romuald; Barthez, Marie Anne; De Becque, Brigitte; Barthelemy, Catherine; Bruneau, Nicole; Gomot, Marie
Introduction: Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a frequent language-based learning disorder. The predominant etiological view postulates that reading problems originate from a phonological impairment. Method: We studied mismatch negativity (MMN) and Late Discriminative Negativity (LDN) to syllables change in both children (n = 12; 8-12 years) and…
Evans, Mary Ann; Saint-Aubin, Jean
When preschoolers listen to storybooks, are their eye movements related to their vocabulary acquisition in this context? This study addressed this question with 36 four-year-old French-speaking participants by assessing their general receptive vocabulary knowledge and knowledge of low-frequency words in 3 storybooks. These books were read verbatim…
Arciuli, Joanne; Simpson, Ian C.
There is little empirical evidence showing a direct link between a capacity for statistical learning (SL) and proficiency with natural language. Moreover, discussion of the role of SL in language acquisition has seldom focused on literacy development. Our study addressed these issues by investigating the relationship between SL and reading ability…
Galuschka, Katharina; Rothe, Josefine; Schulte-Körne, Gerd
This article looks at a means of objectively evaluating the quality of psychometric tests. This approach enables users to evaluate psychometric tests based on their methodological characteristics, in order to decide which instrument should be used. Reading and spelling assessment tools serve as examples. The paper also provides a review of German psychometric tests for the assessment of reading and spelling skills. This method facilitates the identification of psychometric tests.of high methodological quality which can be used for the assessment of reading and spelling skills. Reading performance should ideally be assessed with the following instruments: ELFE 1-6, LGVT 6-12, LESEN 6-7, LESEN 8-9, or WLLP-R. The tests to be used for the evaluation of spelling skills are DERET 1-2+, DERET 3-4+, WRT 1+, WRT 2+, WRT 3+, WRT 4+ or HSP 1-10.
Bradley, J.; Howard, J.; Wallace, E.; Elborn, S.
BACKGROUND—The purpose of this study was to provide some evidence of the validity of a modified shuttle test (MST) by comparing performance on the MST with peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak) measured during a treadmill test in a group of adult patients with cystic fibrosis. METHOD—Twenty patients with stable cystic fibrosis performed a ramped maximal treadmill test (STEEP protocol) and the MST using a randomised balanced design. RESULTS—The relationship between the distance achieved on the MST and V̇O2peak was strong (r = 0.95, p<0.01) with 90% of the variance in V̇O2peak explained by the variance in MST distance. The relationship was represented by the regression equation (with 95% confidence intervals) V̇O2peak = 6.83 (2.85 to 10.80) + 0.028 (0.019 to 0.024)× MST distance. CONCLUSION—This study provides evidence of the construct validity of the MST as an objective measure of exercise capacity in adults with cystic fibrosis. PMID:10212110
Conrad, Nicole J.; Deacon, S. Hélène
Prominent models of word reading concur that the development of efficient word reading depends on the establishment of lexical orthographic representations in memory. In turn, word reading skills are conceptualised as supporting the development of these orthographic representations. As such, models of word reading development make clear…
Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.
A project set out to develop and test adult performance level (APL) materials for pre-vocational programs to enable adults to develop those skills needed to seek and retain employment. Addressing the APL area of occupational knowledge only, methodology focused on (1) joint planning in material development and testing; (2) extensive training in…
Welcome, Suzanne E.; Leonard, Christiana M.; Chiarello, Christine
Resilient readers are characterized by impaired phonological processing despite skilled text comprehension. We investigated orthographic and semantic processing in resilient readers to examine mechanisms of compensation for poor phonological decoding. Performance on phonological (phoneme deletion, pseudoword reading), orthographic (orthographic choice, orthographic analogy), and semantic (semantic priming, homograph resolution) tasks was compared between resilient, poor and proficient readers. Asymmetry of the planum temporale was investigated in order to determine whether atypical readers showed unusual morphology in this language-relevant region. Resilient readers showed deficits on phonological tasks similar to those shown by poor readers. We obtained no evidence that resilient readers compensate via superior orthographic processing, as they showed neither exceptional orthographic skill nor increased reliance on orthography to guide pronunciation. Resilient readers benefited more than poor or proficient readers from semantic relationships between words and experienced greater difficulty when such relationships were not present. We suggest, therefore, that resilient readers compensate for poor phonological decoding via greater reliance on word meaning relationships. The reading groups did not differ in mean asymmetry of the planum temporale. However, resilient readers showed greater variability in planar asymmetry than proficient readers. Poor readers also showed a trend towards greater variability in planar asymmetry, with more poor readers than proficient readers showing extreme asymmetry. Such increased variability suggests that university students with less reading skill display less well regulated brain anatomy than proficient readers. PMID:20223512
Goodacre, Elizabeth J.
The reading research contributions discussed in this survey are arranged under the following headings: reading standards and tests, dyslexia and specific reading retardation, remedial and reading provision, reading development, and materials and reading interests. Each section summarizes research and findings in that area of study during 1975.…
Bunton, Kate; Leddy, Mark; Miller, Jon
The purpose of the study was to document speech intelligibility deficits for a group of five adult males with Down syndrome, and use listener based error profiles to identify phonetic dimensions underlying reduced intelligibility. Phonetic error profiles were constructed for each speaker using the Kent, Weismer, Kent, and Rosenbek (1989) word intelligibility test. The test was designed to allow for identification of reasons for the intelligibility deficit, quantitative analyses at varied levels, and sensitivity to potential speech deficits across populations. Listener generated profiles were calculated based on a multiple-choice task and a transcription task. The most disrupted phonetic features, across listening task, involved simplification of clusters in both the word initial and word final position, and contrasts involving tongue-posture, control, and timing (e.g., high-low vowel, front-back vowel, and place of articulation for stops and fricatives). Differences between speakers in the ranking of these phonetic features was found, however, the mean error proportion for the six most severely affected features correlated highly with the overall intelligibility score (0.88 based on multiple-choice task, .94 for the transcription task). The phonetic feature analyses are an index that may help clarify the suspected motor speech basis for the speech intelligibility deficits seen in adults with Down syndrome and may lead to improved speech management in these individuals. PMID:17692179
In'nami, Yo; Koizumi, Rie
A meta-analysis was conducted on the effects of multiple-choice and open-ended formats on L1 reading, L2 reading, and L2 listening test performance. Fifty-six data sources located in an extensive search of the literature were the basis for the estimates of the mean effect sizes of test format effects. The results using the mixed effects model of…
Hutchison, Laveria F.
Statistics show that illiteracy in the United States is still a problem, particularly for adults over forty-five years of age. To test the effects of preferred-interest lessons on attendance in an adult reading program, a group of 20 adults received reading instruction by traditional teaching methods (large group arrangement and commercial…
Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.
Test anxiety and its correlates were examined with college students with and without specific reading disability (RD; n = 50 in each group). Results indicated that college students with RD reported higher test anxiety than did those without RD, and the magnitude of these differences was in the medium range on two test anxiety scales. Relative to…
Burns, Pippa; Jones, Sandra C; Iverson, Don; Caputi, Peter
There are many reasons why online self-management education is attractive to both patients and providers. AsthmaWise, an online self-management program, was developed using a Moodle platform, to enable older adults to learn asthma self-management skills. This study aimed to improve AsthmaWise through conducting: usability testing with a sample of end users; a cognitive walk-through undertaken by an independent health researcher; and assessment of content readability. A Perceived Health Web Site Usability Questionnaire score of 67% was achieved, indicating that there were usability issues that needed to be addressed. The cognitive walk-through and readability assessment identified unique issues that were not identified through usability testing with end users. The testing process allowed issues to be identified and rectified before piloting AsthmaWise, creating a more accessible and refined end product. The involvement of the site designer in the testing process was valuable and is highly recommended. This study shows that usability testing involving both end users and experts is an essential part of the design process that is relatively easy and inexpensive to undertake and can be effectively conducted by a nonexpert.
Idelevich, Evgeny A.; Becker, Karsten; Schmitz, Janne; Knaack, Dennis; Peters, Georg; Köck, Robin
Results of disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing depend on individual visual reading of inhibition zone diameters. Therefore, automated reading using camera systems might represent a useful tool for standardization. In this study, the ADAGIO automated system (Bio-Rad) was evaluated for reading disk diffusion tests of fastidious bacteria. 144 clinical isolates (68 β-haemolytic streptococci, 28 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 18 viridans group streptococci, 13 Haemophilus influenzae, 7 Moraxella catarrhalis, and 10 Campylobacter jejuni) were tested on Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 5% defibrinated horse blood and 20 mg/L β-NAD (MH-F, Oxoid) according to EUCAST. Plates were read manually with a ruler and automatically using the ADAGIO system. Inhibition zone diameters, indicated by the automated system, were visually controlled and adjusted, if necessary. Among 1548 isolate-antibiotic combinations, comparison of automated vs. manual reading yielded categorical agreement (CA) without visual adjustment of the automatically determined zone diameters in 81.4%. In 20% (309 of 1548) of tests it was deemed necessary to adjust the automatically determined zone diameter after visual control. After adjustment, CA was 94.8%; very major errors (false susceptible interpretation), major errors (false resistant interpretation) and minor errors (false categorization involving intermediate result), calculated according to the ISO 20776–2 guideline, accounted to 13.7% (13 of 95 resistant results), 3.3% (47 of 1424 susceptible results) and 1.4% (21 of 1548 total results), respectively, compared to manual reading. The ADAGIO system allowed for automated reading of disk diffusion testing in fastidious bacteria and, after visual validation of the automated results, yielded good categorical agreement with manual reading. PMID:27391898
Rawls, Anita Michelle Wilson
The study discussed the importance of test validity, often established when making decisions that may affect a student's future. The decisions made by policymakers and educators must not adversely affect any particular subgroups of students (i.e., year of administration, gender, ethnicity, level English proficiency, socioeconomic status, and…
Acha, Joana; Laka, Itziar; Perea, Manuel
Do typological properties of language, such as agglutination (i.e., the morphological process of adding affixes to the lexeme of a word), have an impact on the development of visual word recognition? To answer this question, we carried out an experiment in which beginning, intermediate, and adult Basque readers (n = 32 each, average age = 7, 11,…
Elliott, Joan B., Ed.; Dupuis, Mary M., Ed.
Young adult (YA) literature, which is written for readers in grades 6-10, is a relatively new part of the literary spectrum. In the few decades it has been around, YA literature has developed a following among students, teachers, and librarians. This collection of 12 essays explores the reasons YA literature is so popular, and ways it can be used…
Bean, Thomas W.; Harper, Helen
This study explored the nature and performance of masculinity as portrayed in three popular young adult novels: two novels featuring male protagonists and one featuring a female protagonist. Drawing on emerging theory and scholarship, researchers view masculinity, like femininity, as a gendered performance, socially scripted but amenable to…
phases of this 2 -year long project. iv ... Foreword Illiteracy among young adults continues to be a major unsolved problem in modern America...training time can be markedly reduced, at least with some soldiers. viii Table of Contents The Problem . .......................... 1 The Objective and the...24 Design .. .......... ... ......... ...... 25 Participants .. ........ ........ ....... 25 Treatmens and Materials.................2 Procedure
Robson, Jodi McGeary
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of four instructional methods--context clues, definition, elaboration technique, or word parts and word families--on the vocabulary growth and acquisition of adults enrolled in a community college developmental reading course. The study investigated whether performance in any or all of the four…
Rodriguez, Astrid Sussette
Developing literacy and language proficiency in English is essential to thrive in school and in the workforce in American society. Research on cross-linguistic influences on text-level skills is scant, especially studies investigating reading comprehension among language-minority adults. The present study investigated the effects of…
Lamb, Gerald; Shu, Peter; Mather, John; Ewin, Audrey; Bowser, Jeffrey
A direct readout infrared detector array, a candidate for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) Infrared Array Camera (IRAC), has been tested. The array has a detector surface of gallium doped silicon, bump bonded to a 58x62 pixel MOSFET multiplexer on a separate chip. Although this chip and system do not meet all the SIRTF requirements, the critically important read noise is within a factor of 3 of the requirement. Significant accomplishments of this study include: (1) development of a low noise correlated double sampling readout system with a readout noise of 127 to 164 electrons (based on the detector integrator capacitance of 0.1 pF); (2) measurement of the readout noise of the detector itself, ranging from 123 to 214 electrons with bias only (best to worst pixel), and 256 to 424 electrons with full clocking in normal operation at 5.4 K where dark current is small. Thirty percent smaller read noises are obtained at a temperature of 15K; (3) measurement of the detector response versus integration time, showing significant nonlinear behavior for large signals, well below the saturation level; and (4) development of a custom computer interface and suitable software for collection, analysis and display of data.
Bangs, Kathryn E; Binder, Katherine S
Adult Basic Education programs are under pressure to develop and deliver instruction that promotes rapid and sustained literacy development. We describe a novel approach to a literacy intervention that focuses on morphemes, which are the smallest meaningful units contained in words. We argue that if you teach learners that big words are comprised of smaller components (i.e., morphemes), you will provide those students with the skills to figure out the meanings of new words. Research with children has demonstrated that teaching them about morphemes improves word recognition, spelling, vocabulary, and comprehension (Bowers & Kirby, 2009; Kirk & Gillon, 2009; Nunes, Bryant, & Olsson, 2003). Our hope is that this type of intervention will be successful with adult learners, too.
One of the fundamental problems in language testing is the lack of adequate generalizability between what a test is measuring and what fulfills the learners' real world language use needs. It is important to recognize that no matter how precise a test measures a construct, if the way that a construct is defined and the way that test tasks are…
In this article, the author insists that those seeking public office prove their literary mettle. As an English teacher, he does have a litmus test for all public officials, judges and senators included--a reading litmus test. He would require that all candidates and nominees have read and reflected on a nucleus of works whose ideas and insights…
Garganta, Soledad; Ramirez, Inez
This report discusses the importance of bilingual reading instruction for limited English speaking ability (LESA) students, and careful testing of their language dominance and reading levels. Bilingual students, and English- and Spanish-dominant students from the Fabens Independent School District, Grades K-13, were tested for the data reported…
Franco, Fabia; Itakura, Shoji; Pomorska, Krystyna; Abramowski, Anna; Nikaido, Kozue; Dimitriou, Dagmara
This study aimed to test two new, simplified tasks related to the eye-test, targeting children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing controls (TD). Test-1 assessed the recognition of emotion/mental states with displays using one word and two eye-pictures, whereas Test-2 presented displays using two words and one eye-picture. Black and white photographs of children were used as materials. A cross-cultural study (Caucasian/East-Asian) with adults was initially carried out to verify generalizability across different ethnic groups. Cross-sectional trajectory analyses were used to compare emotion recognition from the eyes in the two tests. Trajectories were constructed linking performance on both tests either to chronological age or to different measures of mental age (receptive vocabulary based on the BPVS, CARS or ASQ for the ASD group). Performance improved with chronological age in both the ASD and TD groups of children. However, performance in Test-1 was significantly superior in children with ASD, who showed delayed onset and slower rate of improvement than TD children in Test-2. In both the ASD and TD groups the lowest error rate was recorded for the item 'anger', suggesting that threat-detection cue mechanisms may be intact in autism. In general, all children showed good performance on our novel tests, thus making them good candidates for assessing younger children and those with lower general abilities.
Foundas, Anne L; Mock, Jeffrey R; Corey, David M; Golob, Edward J; Conture, Edward G
The SpeechEasy is an electronic device designed to alleviate stuttering by manipulating auditory feedback via time delays and frequency shifts. Device settings (control, default, custom), ear-placement (left, right), speaking task, and cognitive variables were examined in people who stutter (PWS) (n=14) compared to controls (n=10). Among the PWS there was a significantly greater reduction in stuttering (compared to baseline) with custom device settings compared to the non-altered feedback (control) condition. Stuttering was reduced the most during reading, followed by narrative and conversation. For the conversation task, stuttering was reduced more when the device was worn in the left ear. Those individuals with a more severe stuttering rate at baseline had a greater benefit from the use of the device compared to individuals with less severe stuttering. Our results support the view that overt stuttering is associated with defective speech-language monitoring that can be influenced by manipulating auditory feedback.
Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; López-Albán, Carlos A; La Rotta-Villamizar, Diego R; Romero-García, Jesús A; Alonso-Martinez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel
The Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) became one of the most convenient tests used to evaluate anaerobic capacity and the effectiveness of anaerobic training programs for a variety of power sports. However, its use and interpretation as an evaluative measurement are limited because there are few published reference values derived from large numbers of subjects in nonathletic populations. We present reference values for the WAnT in Colombian healthy adults (aged 20-80 years old). The sample comprised 1,873 subjects (64% men) from Cali, Colombia, who were recruited for the study between 2002 and 2012. The 30-second WAnT was performed on a Monark ergometer. The WAnT resistance was set at 0.075 kp · kg(-1) body mass (BM). The mean absolute peak power (PP), relative PP normalized to the BM, and the fatigue index (FI%) were calculated using the LMS method (L [curve Box-Cox], M [curve median], and S [curve coefficient of variation]) and expressed as tabulated percentiles from 3 to 97 and as smoothed centile curves (P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90, P97). Mean ± SD values for the patients' anthropometric data were 38.1 ± 11.7 years of age, 72.7 ± 14.2 kg weight, 1.68 ± 0.09 m height, and 25.6 ± 4.2 body mass index. Our results show that mean absolute PP value, relative PP relative values normalized to BM, and FI were 527.4 ± 131.7 W, 7.6 ± 2.3 W · kg(-1), and 29.0 ± 15.7%, respectively. Men performed better than women in terms of PP and FI values. Nevertheless, the mean PP decreased with age and sex. Age-specific PP and FI normative values among healthy Colombian adults are defined. A more specific set of reference values is useful for clinicians and researchers studying anaerobic capacity in healthy adults.
Lassiter, Kerry S.; Matthews, T. Darin; Bell, Nancy L.; Maher, Carrie M.
Ninety-four college students were administered the General Ability Measure for Adults (GAMA) and Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT). GAMA IQs were significantly and moderately correlated with KAIT Fluid, Crystallized and Composite IQs, supporting the convergent validity of this instrument. Although significant correlations…
Ponders the effect of September 11th on teenagers. Proposes that reading books can help teenagers sort out complicated issues. Recommends young adult novels that offer hope for overcoming tragedy. Lists 50 short story collections worth reading. (PM)
Castles, Anne; Coltheart, Max; Larsen, Linda; Jones, Pip; Saunders, Steven; McArthur, Genevieve
We present administration details and normative data for a new version of the word and nonword reading test originally developed by Castles and Coltheart. The new test contains an expanded set of items, with 40 each of regular words, irregular words and nonwords, rather than the original 30 items of each type. The new items extend the upper-end of…
Salmani-Nodoushan, Muhammad Ali
Studied the effects of text familiarity, task type, and language proficiency on university students' language for specific purposes test and task performances. Students majoring in electronics took the the Task Based Reading Test. Analyses indicated that text familiarity, task type, and language proficiency resulted in significant differences in…
Müller, Christoph Michael; Gmünder, Lena
Individuals with autism spectrum disorders are often considered to have difficulty with using facial cues (e.g., cues from the eye region) to understand others' mental states. One of the pioneering assessments to test competence in this skill is the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes-Test" (RMET). In order to find out more about the…
Morrison, James A.; Michael, William B.
A Spanish auditory perception test, La Prueba de Analisis Auditivo, was developed and administered to 158 Spanish-speaking Latino children, kindergarten through grade 3. Psychometric data for the test are presented, including its relationship to SOBER, a criterion-referenced Spanish reading measure. (Author/BW)
Bachman, Tori Mello
Parents can help their children prepare for reading tests in a number of ways, not only just before the test, but also with everyday activities. There are generally two types of reading tests given to students: tests given by teachers throughout the year to see what information students have retained, and more formal, often standardized, tests…
Middleton, A; Hewison, J; Mueller, R F
Recent advances within molecular genetics to identify the genes for deafness mean that it is now possible for genetic-counseling services to offer genetic testing for deafness to certain families. The purpose of this study is to document the attitudes of deaf adults toward genetic testing for deafness. A structured, self-completion questionnaire was given to delegates at an international conference on the "Deaf Nation," held at the University of Central Lancashire in 1997. The conference was aimed at well-educated people, with an emphasis on Deaf culture issues. Eighty-seven deaf delegates from the United Kingdom returned completed questionnaires. The questionnaire had been designed to quantitatively assess attitudes toward genetics, interest in prenatal diagnosis (PND) for deafness, and preference for having deaf or hearing children. The results from this study provide evidence of a predominantly negative attitude toward genetics and its impact on deaf people, in a population for whom genetic-counseling services are relevant. Fifty-five percent of the sample thought that genetic testing would do more harm than good, 46% thought that its potential use devalued deaf people, and 49% were concerned about new discoveries in genetics. When asked about testing in pregnancy, 16% of participants said that they would consider having PND, and, of these, 29% said that they would prefer to have deaf children. Geneticists need to appreciate that some deaf persons may prefer to have deaf children and may consider the use of genetic technology to achieve this. Any genetic-counseling service set up for families with deafness can only be effective and appropriate if clinicians and counselors take into consideration the beliefs and values of the deaf community at large.
Steacy, Laura M.; Elleman, Amy M.; Lovett, Maureen W.; Compton, Donald L.
In English, gains in decoding skill do not map directly onto increases in word reading. However, beyond the Self-Teaching Hypothesis, little is known about the transfer of decoding skills to word reading. In this study, we offer a new approach to testing specific decoding elements on transfer to word reading. To illustrate, we modeled word-reading…
Boudreault, Patrick; Baldwin, Erin E.; Fox, Michelle; Dutton, Loriel; Tullis, LeeElle; Linden, Joyce; Kobayashi, Yoko; Zhou, Jin; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Sininger, Yvonne; Grody, Wayne W.; Palmer, Christina G. S.
This article examines the relationship between cultural affiliation and deaf adults' motivations for genetic testing for deafness in the first prospective, longitudinal study to examine the impact of genetic counseling and genetic testing on deaf adults and the deaf community. Participants (n = 256), classified as affiliating with hearing, Deaf,…
Writing Our Practice. Support Documents for the Reading & Writing and the Oral Communication Streams of the "Certificates of General Education for Adults within the Victorian Adult English Language, Literacy and Numeracy Accreditation Framework."
Adult, Community, and Further Education Board, Melbourne (Australia).
This collection of 14 articles focuses on the Reading and Writing and Oral Communication Streams of the Certificates of General Education (CGE) for Adults in the context of literacy teaching practices. Section 1 contains 11 case studies and articles with a practical focus. Practitioners discuss aspects of their curriculum development related to…
Powers, Donald E.; Kim, Hae-Jin; Weng, Vincent Z.
To facilitate the interpretation of test scores from the redesigned TOEIC® (listening and reading) test as a measure of English language proficiency, we administered a self-assessment inventory to TOEIC examinees in Japan and Korea that gathered perceptions of their ability to perform a variety of everyday English language tasks. TOEIC scores…
Warnimont, Chad S.
The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between students' performance on the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) and the fourth and fifth grade Reading and Math Achievement Tests in Ohio. The sample utilized students from a suburban school district in Northwest Ohio. Third grade CogAT scores (2006-2007 school year), 4th…
Bolt, Sara E.; Ysseldyke, James E.
Although testing accommodations are commonly provided to students with disabilities within large-scale testing programs, research findings on how well accommodations allow for comparable measurement of student knowledge and skill remain inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which 1 commonly held belief about testing…
Burdon, Paul; Dipper, Lucy; Cocks, Naomi
Background: Social perception is an important skill. One assessment that is commonly used to assess social perception abilities is The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT). The only normative data available for this test are for Australian younger adults. Despite no normative data being available for British adults, the test is widely used…
Patel, Alpa; Panter, Grace H; Trollope, Henry T; Glennon, Yohanna C; Owen, Stewart F; Sumpter, John P; Rand-Weaver, Mariann
Human pharmaceuticals present in the environment have the potential to cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. The "read-across hypothesis" stipulates that pharmaceuticals will exhibit similar biological effects across species (e.g. human and fish) if the molecular target has been conserved and the effective drug concentrations are reached (Cmax). We tested this hypothesis by evaluating if ibuprofen, a non-selective inhibitor of prostaglandins and the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme, can mimic its primary effect in humans, on fish, at comparable plasma concentrations. The endpoints, prostaglandin E metabolite (PGEM) levels and the mRNA expression of COX (ptgs) gene, were measured in the gills of control and exposed fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), using enzyme-immunoassay and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Fish were exposed, for 24-72 h, to measured water concentrations of 9 (n = 12), 370 (n = 40) and 470 μg ibuprofen/L (n = 12). Water and blood plasma concentrations were determined using LC-MS/MS. Results showed that PGEM levels in fish exposed to 370 and 470 μg ibuprofen/L were significantly decreased compared to control fish, when mean plasma ibuprofen concentrations were 1.8-5.6-fold below the Cmax. The plasma ibuprofen concentrations and PGEM levels varied greatly between individuals. In fish exposed to 9 μg ibuprofen/L, when the mean plasma ibuprofen concentration was 224-fold below Cmax, no change in PGEM levels was observed. These data provide evidence for the read-across hypothesis, but suggest establishing a direct dose-response between internal plasma and PGEM is difficult, and would require significantly larger numbers of fish to overcome the inter-individual variation.
Kirkby, Julie A.; Webster, Lisa A. D.; Blythe, Hazel I.; Liversedge, Simon P.
The goal of this review is to evaluate the literature on binocular coordination during reading and non-reading tasks in adult, child, and dyslexic populations. The review begins with a description of the basic characteristics of eye movements during reading. Then, reading and non-reading studies investigating binocular coordination are evaluated.…
Immerman, Michael A.
To investigate the effect of time restraints on the diagnostic test scores of Native American students entering Bureau of Indian Affairs schools, two groups of students at Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute (SIPI) in Albuquerque, New Mexico, were given the Stanford Diagnostic Reading Test, (Blue Level), 1977 edition. The test scores…
Jankovic, John; Zontek, Tracy L.; Ogle, Burton R.; Hollenbeck, Scott
We examined the calibration records of two direct reading instruments designated as condensation particle counters in order to determine the number of times they were found to be out of tolerance at annual manufacturer's recalibration. For both instruments were found to be out of tolerance more times than within tolerance. And, it was concluded that annual calibration alone was insufficient to provide operational confidence in an instrument's response. Thus, a method based on subsequent agreement with data gathered from a newly calibrated instrument was developed to confirm operational readiness between annual calibrations, hereafter referred to as bump testing. The method consists of measuring source particles produced by a gas grille spark igniter in a gallon-size jar. Sampling from this chamber with a newly calibrated instrument to determine the calibrated response over the particle concentration range of interest serves as a reference. Agreement between this reference response and subsequent responses at later dates implies that the instrument is performing as it was at the time of calibration. Side-by-side sampling allows the level of agreement between two or more instruments to be determined. This is useful when simultaneously collected data are compared for differences, i.e., background with process aerosol concentrations. A reference set of data was obtained using the spark igniter. The generation system was found to be reproducible and suitable to form the basis of calibration verification. Finally, the bump test is simple enough to be performed periodically throughout the calibration year or prior to field monitoring.
Jankovic, John; Zontek, Tracy L; Ogle, Burton R; Hollenbeck, Scott
The calibration records of two direct reading instruments designated as condensation particle counters were examined to determine the number of times they were found to be out of tolerance at annual manufacturer's recalibration. Both instruments were found to be out of tolerance more times than within tolerance. And, it was concluded that annual calibration alone was insufficient to provide operational confidence in an instrument's response. Therefore, a method based on subsequent agreement with data gathered from a newly calibrated instrument was developed to confirm operational readiness between annual calibrations, hereafter referred to as bump testing. The method consists of measuring source particles produced by a gas grille spark igniter in a gallon-size jar. Sampling from this chamber with a newly calibrated instrument to determine the calibrated response over the particle concentration range of interest serves as a reference. Agreement between this reference response and subsequent responses at later dates implies that the instrument is performing as it was at the time of calibration. Side-by-side sampling allows the level of agreement between two or more instruments to be determined. This is useful when simultaneously collected data are compared for differences, i.e., background with process aerosol concentrations. A reference set of data was obtained using the spark igniter. The generation system was found to be reproducible and suitable to form the basis of calibration verification. The bump test is simple enough to be performed periodically throughout the calibration year or prior to field monitoring.
Zhou, Ling-Yun; Liu, Tie-Juan; Li, Xue-Mei
AIM To estimate the adult reference values for measured deviations by a computerized diplopia test and testify the validity. METHODS Totally 391 participants were recruited and taken the computerized diplopia test. The plots and amplitude of deviations were recorded. The differences in different gender, age and visual acuity groups were analyzed respectively. Of 30 subjects were enrolled to testify the interobserver reliability. Another 46 subjects (including 26 normal subjects and 20 patients) were taken the test and theirs deviations were recorded to testify the validity of the reference value. RESULTS The max horizontal and vertical deviations were 2.55° and 0.76° with normal corrected visual acuity while 3.88° and 1.46° for subjects with poor corrected vision. The differences between age groups was insignificant (Z=3.615, 4.758; P=0.461, 0.313 for horizontal and vertical respectively). The max horizontal deviation of female was smaller than male (Z=-2.177; P=0.029), but the difference in max vertical deviation was insignificant (Z=-1.296; P=0.195). The mean difference between observers were both -0.1°, with 95% confidence limits (CI) of -1.4° and 1.6° in max horizontal deviations while -2.1° and 1.8° in max vertical deviation. The mean deviation of 26 normal subjects was 1.02°±0.84° for horizontal and 0.47°±0.30° for vertical which both within the range of reference values. The mean deviation of 20 patients was 13.51°±11.69° for horizontal and 8.34°±8.58° for vertical which both beyond the reference range. CONCLUSION The max amplitude of horizontal and vertical deviation is pointed as the numerical parameters of computerized diplopia test. The reference values are different between normal corrected visual acuity and poor corrected vision. These values may useful for evaluating patients with diplopia in veriety conditions during clinical practice. PMID:27990370
Simpson, Katherine P.
Designing a remediation program to meet students' needs involves finding out what a student knows and needs to know. An online testing program, such as eduTest, may provide the answers. This test is a versatile instrument that offers benchmark tests, grade specific tests, and strand tests in the four content areas for grades K through 8. The…
Baker, Scott K.; Smolkowski, Keith; Chaparro, Erin A.; Smith, Jean L. M.; Fien, Hank
Multitiered systems of reading instruction and intervention, including response to intervention, are widely used in early reading by schools to provide more intense services to students who need them. Research using randomized controlled trials has compared innovative Tier 2 interventions to business-as-usual Tier 2 approaches and established a…
Fink, Rosalee, Ed.; Samuels, S. Jay, Ed.
Although recent U.S. legislation has had a profound impact on reading instruction and student achievement, some students continue to fall behind. This provocative text addresses this gap with a new perspective on reading instruction that goes beyond the realms of teacher content knowledge and methodology. The book shows how motivation and interest…
Amendum, Steven J.; Conradi, Kristin; Pendleton, Melissa J.
This article is designed to help teachers interpret reading assessment data from DIBELS beyond individual subtests to better support their students' needs. While it is important to understand the individual subtest measures, it is more vital to understand how each fits into the larger picture of reading development. The underlying construct of…
The purpose of this study was to analyze how participants' levels of hemoglobin as they performed mathematics fluency and reading fluency (reading comprehension) compare. We used Optical Topography (OT, helmet type brain-scanning system, also known as Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy or fNIRS) to measure levels of brain activity. A central…
Higgins, Jennifer; Russell, Michael; Hoffmann, Thomas
To examine the impact of transitioning 4th grade reading comprehension assessments to the computer, 219 fourth graders were randomly assigned to take a one-hour reading comprehension assessment on paper, on a computer using scrolling text to navigate through passages, or on a computer using paging text to navigate through passages. This study…
Marshall, Dorothy; Christo, Catherine; Davis, John
This study examined the performance of reading disabled children on the two Phonological Awareness Subtests of the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP). Participants performed significantly different on these two subtests with a poorer performance on the Elision subtest than Blending Words. In addition, the two subtests were not…
Mills, James W.; And Others
The Study reported here tested an application of the Linear Programming Model at the Reading Clinic of Drew University. Results, while not conclusive, indicate that this approach yields greater gains in speed scores than a traditional approach for this population. (Author)
The purpose of this synthesis was to examine the relationship between Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) and statewide achievement tests in reading. A multilevel meta-analysis was used to calculate the correlation coefficient of the population for 27 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Results showed an overall large correlation coefficient…
Walter, Richard Barry
This study investigated the relationship between instructional level scores as determined by a cloze test and instructional level scores as determined by an informal reading inventory (IRI). Fifty male and 50 female subjects were randomly selected from the total fifth grade population of five schools chosen from a total of 22 midwestern elementary…
The purpose of this study was to examine the development of reading prosody and its impact on later reading skills. Suprasegmental features of oral reading were measured for 92 children at the end of grades 1 and 2 and oral reading fluency and reading comprehension assessments at the end of the third-grade school year. Tests were carried out to determine (a) the manner in which the key features of oral reading prosody unfold with development and (b) the extent to which the development of reading prosody is predictive of later oral reading fluency and comprehension outcomes beyond word reading skills alone. Path model tests found a relationship between the presence of fewer pausal intrusions during oral reading in first grade and subsequent development of an adult-like intonation contour in second grade. Outcome model tests indicated that the intonation contour was a significant predictor of later fluency once word reading skills were taken into account. Decreases in the number of pausal intrusions between the first and second grades and early acquisition of an adult-like intonation contour predicted better comprehension later. Thus, prosodic oral reading might signal that children have achieved fluency and are more capable of understanding what they read. Results of this study support the inclusion of prosody in formal definitions of oral reading fluency. PMID:20072660
O'Rourke, Justin J.F.; Adams, William H.; Duff, Kevin; Byars, Joanne; Nopoulos, Peg; Paulsen, Jane S.; Beglinger, Leigh J.
The estimation of premorbid abilities is an essential part of a neuropsychological evaluation, especially in neurodegenerative conditions. Although word pronunciation tests are one standard method for estimating the premorbid level, research suggests that these tests may not be valid in neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, the current study sought to examine two estimates of premorbid intellect, the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT) Reading subtest and the Barona formula, in 93 patients with mild to moderate Huntington's disease (HD) to determine their utility and to investigate how these measures relate to signs and symptoms of disease progression. In 89% of participants, WRAT estimates were below the Barona estimates. WRAT estimates were related to worsening memory and motor functioning, whereas the Barona estimates had weaker relationships. Neither estimate was related to depression or functional capacity. Irregular word reading tests appear to decline with HD progression, whereas estimation methods based on demographic factors may be more robust but overestimate premorbid functioning. PMID:21147861
An existing data set for a sample of 3rd grade students was used to determine the relationship between performance during a reading intervention and short-term achievement test outcomes, and long-term risk status. Students participated in a reading intervention, one-on-one practice with a trained adult, during which weekly curriculum based…