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Sample records for adult relationship quality

  1. Complicated Grief & Depression in Young Adults: Personality & Relationship Quality

    PubMed Central

    Herberman Mash, Holly B.; Fullerton, Carol S.; Shear, M. Katherine; Ursano, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Young adults experience problematic responses to loss more often than is commonly recognized. Few empirical studies have examined the contribution of intra- and interpersonal characteristics to grief and depression in bereaved young adults. This study investigated the association of dependency and quality of the relationship with the deceased (i.e., depth and conflict) with complicated grief (CG) and depression. Participants were 157 young adults aged 17–29 who experienced loss of a family member or close friend within the past three years (M = 1.74 years). Participants completed the Inventory of Complicated Grief, Beck Depression Inventory, Depth and Conflict subscales of the Quality of Relationships Inventory, and the Dependency subscale of the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire. Relationships among dependency and interpersonal depth and conflict and CG and depression were examined through analyses of covariance. Sixteen percent of participants met criteria for CG and 34% had mild to severe depression. Dependency and depth were independently related to CG and dependency was related to depression, but the pattern of associations was somewhat different for each outcome. Greater depth was associated with CG, at both high and low levels of dependency. High levels of dependency were related to more depressive symptoms. Interpretation of the findings is limited by the relatively small sample size and cross-sectional design. CG and depression are related but distinct responses to loss. Although dependency is associated with both CG and depression following loss, relationships between the bereaved and deceased that are characterized by high levels of depth are particularly related to the development of CG symptoms. PMID:24921421

  2. Intimate Adult Relationships, Quality of Life and Psychological Adjusment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaleque, Abdul

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess relations between adult intimacy, quality of life, and psychological adjustment. Data were collected in the United States from a sample of 64 college students. The measuring instruments used were Personal Information Sheet, Adult version of the Personality Assessment Questionnaire (Adult PAQ), Intimate…

  3. Attachment States of Mind and the Quality of Young Adults' Sibling Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortuna, Keren; Roisman, Glenn I.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Groh, Ashley M.; Holland, Ashley S.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines young adults' states of mind regarding their early attachment experiences in relation to the observed and perceived quality of their sibling relationships. Sixty sibling pairs (18-25 years of age) were (a) administered the Adult Attachment Interview (George, Kaplan, & Main, 1985), (b) videotaped during a conflict resolution…

  4. Adult attachment among partnered gay men: patterns and associations with sexual relationship quality.

    PubMed

    Starks, Tyrel J; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has found secure adult attachment to be associated positively with dimensions of main partner relationship quality and negatively with sexual risk taking and sex with casual partners among heterosexuals in primary relationships. Potential associations between adult attachment and aspects of relationship functioning have received limited attention among gay men. Data were collected from both members of 344 gay male couples as part of a community survey (M age = 38.6, SD = 9.4). Participants completed a shortened version of the Adult Attachment Inventory (Collins & Read, 1990) and the Dyadic Sexual Communication Scale (Catania, 1998). They reported the frequency of sex with main partners and the number of casual male unprotected sex partners. Data were analyzed using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Securely attached individuals reported the highest levels of sexual communication and men with securely attached partners were the most likely to report having sex with their partners as least once per week. Avoidantly attached men reported significantly more casual unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) partners compared to other attachment styles. Having an avoidantly attached partner was also associated with an increase in the number of UAI partners reported. Attachment style is relevant to the sexual relationship quality and sexual safety of partnered gay men. Cognitive-interpersonal intervention approaches developed to target attachment-related cognitions and behaviors may be relevant to HIV prevention efforts in this population.

  5. Perceptions about parents' relationship and parenting quality, attachment styles, and young adults' intimate expectations: a cluster analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Einav, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the associations between young adults' perceptions of their parents' intimate relationship and the quality of their parenting as predictors of their children's expectations about intimacy in their own future relationships. A sample of 111 young adults completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions regarding their parents' intimate relationship and parenting quality, their own attachment styles, and their own expectations regarding intimate relationships. A correlational analysis revealed a positive link between the parents' relationship and parenting quality, and between parenting quality and expectations about intimacy, which supports the attachment theory. A cluster analysis identified three distinct groups of parental profiles interrelated with attachment styles that had varying effects on their children's expectations about intimacy. These findings emphasize the unique characteristics of parental relations in the family of origin relations, which have an enduring effect on the interpersonal styles of adult children, providing additional support to an integrated, intergenerational approach to family dynamics.

  6. Chest CT abnormalities and quality of life: relationship in adult cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kilcoyne, Aoife; Lavelle, Lisa P.; McCarthy, Colin J.; McEvoy, Sinead H.; Fleming, Hannah; Gallagher, Annika; Loeve, Martine; Tiddens, Harm; McKone, Edward; Gallagher, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Background To evaluate the relationship between lung parenchymal abnormalities on chest CT and health-related quality of life in adult cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods The chest CT scans of 101 consecutive CF adults (mean age 27.8±7.9, 64 males) were prospectively scored by two blinded radiologists in consensus using a modified Bhalla score. Health-related quality of life was assessed using the revised Quittner Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire (CFQ-R). Multiple regressions were performed with each of the CFQ-R domains and all clinical and imaging findings to assess independent correlations. Results There were 18 inpatients and 83 outpatients. For the cohort of inpatients, CT abnormalities were significantly (P<0.005 for all) associated with Respiratory Symptoms (Air Trapping), and also with Social Functioning (Consolidation) and Role Functioning (Consolidation). For outpatients, CT abnormalities were significantly (P<0.005 for all) associated with Respiratory Symptoms (Consolidation) and also with Physical Functioning (Consolidation), Vitality (Consolidation, Severity of Bronchiectasis), Eating Problems (airway wall thickening), Treatment Burden (Total CT Score), Body Image (Severity of Bronchiectasis) and Role Functioning (Tree-in-bud nodules). Consolidation was the commonest independent CT predictor for both inpatients (predictor for 2 domains) and outpatients (predictor in 3 domains). Several chest CT abnormalities excluded traditional measures such as FEV1 and BMI from the majority of CFQ-R domains. Conclusions Chest CT abnormalities are significantly associated with quality of life measures in adult CF, independent of clinical or spirometric measurements. PMID:27047946

  7. Complicated grief and depression in young adults: personality and relationship quality.

    PubMed

    Mash, Holly B Herberman; Fullerton, Carol S; Shear, M Katherine; Ursano, Robert J

    2014-07-01

    Young adults experience problematic responses to loss more often than is commonly recognized. Few empirical studies have examined the contribution of intrapersonal and interpersonal characteristics to grief and depression in bereaved young adults. This study investigated the association of dependency and quality of the relationship with the deceased (i.e., depth and conflict) with complicated grief (CG) and depression. Participants were 157 young adults aged 17 to 29 years who experienced loss of a family member or close friend within the past 3 years (mean = 1.74 years). Participants completed the Inventory of Complicated Grief, Beck Depression Inventory, Depth and Conflict subscales of the Quality of Relationships Inventory, and the Dependency subscale of the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire. Relationships among dependency and interpersonal depth and conflict and CG and depression were examined through analyses of covariance. Sixteen percent of participants met criteria for CG and 34% had mild to severe depression. Dependency and depth were independently related to CG and dependency was related to depression, but the pattern of associations was somewhat different for each outcome. Greater depth was associated with CG, at both high and low levels of dependency. High levels of dependency were related to more depressive symptoms. Interpretation of the findings is limited by the relatively small sample size and cross-sectional design. CG and depression are related but distinct responses to loss. Although dependency is associated with both CG and depression after loss, relationships between the bereaved and deceased that are characterized by high levels of depth are particularly related to the development of CG symptoms.

  8. Convergence and Non-convergence in the Quality of Adolescent Relationships and its Association with Adolescent Adjustment and Young Adult Relationship Quality

    PubMed Central

    Jager, Justin

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of identifying and examining both converging (matched relationship quality across one’s set of relationships) and non-converging (mixed relationship quality across one’s set of relationships), the present study used a pattern-centered approach to examine the different ways adolescent relationships pattern together among a large, national sample of U.S adolescents (aged 13–19). The study also examined how adolescent adjustment and young adult relationship quality varied across the different relationship patterns or constellations. The current study used latent class analysis and data from Add Health (n = 4,233), a national U.S. longitudinal study that spans adolescence and young adulthood, to uncover heterogeneity in adolescent relations with parents, friends, romantic partners, peers, and teachers. As predicted, patterns of both convergence and non-convergence were found, though patterns of non-convergence were more common than expected. Some patterns of non-convergence appear more stable (i.e., similar pattern found during both adolescence and young adulthood) than others. Also, no “high” converging pattern was found, indicating that few adolescents have “first-rate” relations in every relational domain. PMID:22334764

  9. Relationship duration moderates associations between attachment and relationship quality: meta-analytic support for the temporal adult romantic attachment model.

    PubMed

    Hadden, Benjamin W; Smith, C Veronica; Webster, Gregory D

    2014-02-01

    Although research has examined associations between attachment dimensions and relationship outcomes, theory has ignored how these associations change over time in adult romantic relationships. We proposed the Temporal Adult Romantic Attachment (TARA) model, which predicts that the negative associations between anxious and avoidant attachment on one hand and relationship satisfaction and commitment on the other will be more negative as relationship durations increase. Meta-analyses largely confirmed that negative associations between both insecure attachment dimensions and both relationship outcomes were more negative among longer relationship durations in cross-sectional samples. We also explored gender differences in these associations. The present review not only integrates the literature on adult attachment and romantic relationship satisfaction/commitment but also highlights the importance of relationship duration as a key moderator of the associations among these variables. We discuss the broad implications of these effects and our meta-analytic findings for the TARA model, attachment theory, and romantic relationships.

  10. Adult Attachment and Parental Bonding: Correlations between Perceived Relationship Qualities and Self-Reported Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambruster, Ellen W.; Witherington, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Adult attachment and parental bonding have been linked to anxiety disorders, but rarely have these associations been demonstrated in the same study. To fill this gap in the research literature, we utilized several different self-report measures to examine the relationships among adult attachment style, memories of early bonding experiences, and…

  11. Paranoid Thinking, Quality of Relationships with Parents, and Social Outcomes among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggio, Heidi R.; Kwong, Wing Yee

    2011-01-01

    Research based on clinical samples suggests that poor-quality relationships with parents are associated with paranoid disorders; however, no research has investigated such relations within nonclinical populations. Undergraduate students (N = 179) completed self-reports of paranoid thinking, quality of relationships with mothers and fathers,…

  12. The relationship between obesity and quality of life in Brazilian adults.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Fernanda B C; Bertrand, Elodie; Mograbi, Daniel C; Shinohara, Helene; Landeira-Fernandez, J

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions, affecting 30% of the adult population globally. During the last decade, the rising rates of obesity in developing countries has been particularly striking. One potential consequence of obesity is a decline in quality of life (QoL). Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate the possible relationship between obesity, defined by body mass index (BMI), and QoL, evaluated using the short version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) scale in a Brazilian population. The sample consisted of 30 men and 30 women, divided into three groups according to BMI: normal weight, obese, and morbidly obese. All of the subjects responded to the WHOQOL inventories. The results indicated that the groups with lower BMIs had better QoL than the groups with higher BMIs. Being overweight interfered with QoL equally in both sexes, with no difference found between men and women. The results indicate the necessity of multidisciplinary care of obese individuals.

  13. The relationship between obesity and quality of life in Brazilian adults

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, Fernanda B. C.; Bertrand, Elodie; Mograbi, Daniel C.; Shinohara, Helene; Landeira-Fernandez, J.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions, affecting 30% of the adult population globally. During the last decade, the rising rates of obesity in developing countries has been particularly striking. One potential consequence of obesity is a decline in quality of life (QoL). Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate the possible relationship between obesity, defined by body mass index (BMI), and QoL, evaluated using the short version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) scale in a Brazilian population. The sample consisted of 30 men and 30 women, divided into three groups according to BMI: normal weight, obese, and morbidly obese. All of the subjects responded to the WHOQOL inventories. The results indicated that the groups with lower BMIs had better QoL than the groups with higher BMIs. Being overweight interfered with QoL equally in both sexes, with no difference found between men and women. The results indicate the necessity of multidisciplinary care of obese individuals. PMID:26236255

  14. The quality of parent/child relationships in adolescence is associated with poor adult psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Raudino, Alessandra; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John

    2013-04-01

    This study used data gathered over the course of a New Zealand longitudinal study (N = 924) to examine the relationships between measures of parental bonding and attachment in adolescence (age 15-16) and later personal adjustment (major depression; anxiety disorder; suicidal behaviour; illicit drug abuse/dependence; crime) assessed up to the age of 30. Key findings included: 1) There were significant (p < 0.05) and pervasive associations between all measures of attachment and bonding and later outcomes. 2) Structural equation modelling showed that all measures of bonding and attachment loaded on a common factor reflecting the quality of parent/child relationships in adolescence. 3) After adjustment for covariates there were modest relationships (β = 0.16-0.17) between the quality of parent/child relationships in adolescence factor and later adjustment. The study findings suggest that the quality of parent/child relationships in adolescence is modestly related to later psychosocial functioning in adulthood.

  15. Quality of Relationships and Romantic Jealousy: Effects of Adult Attachment and Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radecki-Bush, Catherine; Bush, Joseph P.

    Individual differences in adult attachment have been the focus of recent research on personal relationships. Research has indicated that those with insecure attachment histories were more threatened by a partner's attraction to a rival than were persons reporting secure parental attachment. Higher levels of dispositional jealousy have also been…

  16. Running With the Pack: Teen Peer-Relationship Qualities as Predictors of Adult Physical Health.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph P; Uchino, Bert N; Hafen, Christopher A

    2015-10-01

    This study assessed qualities of adolescent peer relationships as long-term predictors of physical health quality in adulthood. In an intensive multimethod, multireporter study of a community sample of 171 individuals assessed repeatedly from the ages of 13 to 27 years, physical health quality in adulthood was robustly predicted by independent reports of early-adolescent close-friendship quality and by a pattern of acquiescence to social norms in adolescent peer relationships. Predictions remained after accounting for numerous potential confounds, including prior health problems, concurrent body mass index, anxious and depressive symptoms, personality characteristics, adolescent-era financial adversity, and adolescent-era physical attractiveness. These findings have important implications for understanding the unique intensity of peer relationships in adolescence. PMID:26290522

  17. Romantic relationships and health among African American young adults: linking patterns of relationship quality over time to changes in physical and mental health.

    PubMed

    Barr, Ashley B; Culatta, Elizabeth; Simons, Ronald L

    2013-01-01

    With trends in delayed marriage, scholars have begun to explore how a wide range of romantic relationships contribute to health. Although a welcome shift, this largely cross-sectional work ignores potential (in)stability in relationship supports and stressors thought to affect health. Using Family and Community Health Study data on 634 African American young adults, we extend this work by demonstrating the value of a holistic, multidimensional assessment of relationship quality for understanding the link between relationships and health. In addition, however, we also show that there is substantial instability in both the presence and quality of romantic relationships during the transition to adulthood. Importantly, particular patterns of instability are uniquely associated with changes in mental and physical health. Given persistent racial inequalities across both relationships and health, such findings prove theoretically and practically important. In particular, they highlight the need for more contextualized, life course-sensitive approaches in future work.

  18. Implications of Marital/Partner Relationship Quality and Perceived Stress for Blood Pressure Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Although higher quality marriages are associated with better health outcomes, less is known about the mechanisms accounting for this association. This study examines links among marital/partner quality, stress, and blood pressure and considers both main and moderating effects. Method. Participants from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (N = 1,854; aged 57–85 years) completed in-person interviews regarding their marital/romantic partner relationships and perceived stress. Interviews included blood pressure assessments. Results. Linear regression models revealed no main effects of spousal/partner quality or stress on blood pressure. However, spousal/partner quality moderated the link between stress and blood pressure. Specifically, there were negative associations between stress and blood pressure among people reporting more confiding, less reliance, and greater demands from spouses/partners. Discussion. Findings highlight the complexity of relationship quality. Individuals appeared to benefit from aspects of both high- and low-quality spouse/partner relations but only under high levels of stress. Findings are inconsistent with traditional moderation hypotheses, which suggest that better quality ties buffer the stress–health link and lower quality ties exacerbate the stress–health link. Results offer preliminary evidence concerning how spousal ties “get under the skin” to influence physical health. PMID:23275499

  19. Marriage, Relationship Quality, and Sleep among U.S. Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jen-Hao; Waite, Linda J.; Lauderdale, Diane S.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is a restorative behavior essential for health. Poor sleep has been linked to adverse health outcomes among older adults, however, we know little about the social processes that affect sleep. Using innovative actigraphy data from the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (N=727), we considered the role of marriage, positive marital relationship support, and negative marital relationship strain on older adults’ (aged 62–90) self-reported and actigraph-measured sleep characteristics. We found that married older adults had better actigraph-estimated but not self-reported sleep characteristics than the unmarried. However, among the married, those who reported more negative aspects of their marital relationship reported more insomnia symptoms, with the association reduced when psychosocial characteristics were added to the model. The married who reported more positive aspects of their marital relationship showed better actigraph-estimated sleep characteristics; taking characteristics of the physical and mental health and home environment into account reduced this association. PMID:26272988

  20. The Relationship between Diet Quality and Acculturation of Immigrated South Asian American Adults and Their Association with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Robert T.; Momen, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    Even though the total SA American population is increasing rapidly, there is a paucity of information on the relationship between diet quality, acculturation and health outcomes such as Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) in the low-income South Asian (SA) sub-population. Our goal was to examine diet quality, degree of acculturation and their potential influence on MetS in a diverse sample of SA Americans. A convenience sample of 401 adult SA men and women were studied using a cross-sectional study design. Volunteers from two low-income community health clinics in Maryland were interviewed by questionnaires. MetS, defined by the consensus harmonized definition by the presence of ≥ 3 of the 5 abnormal indicators, was studied. An interviewer obtained an automated self-administered 24-hour Recall (ASA24) and an acculturation index (using a previously validated (SL-ASIA). SA had a composite HEI2010 score of 68 suggesting an overall need for diet improvements. Males had a higher diet quality (mean HEI2010 score) than females. Males with MetS had lower diet quality (68) than males without MetS (73). The converse was true for females (68 vs. 65). Americanized (more acculturated) subjects had a higher diet quality compared to less acculturated SA. Small differences were found in diet quality scores among SA adults from different countries. Less acculturated females, had a higher percentage of MetS and lower diet quality compared to males. These results suggest that interventions are needed in males and females who were less acculturated because they may have greater MetS and lower diet quality compared to more Americanized SA. PMID:27299862

  1. Ambivalent Relationship Qualities between Adults and Their Parents: Implications for Both Parties' Well-being

    PubMed Central

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Pitzer, Lindsay; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Birditt, Kira S.; Mroczek, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This study considered implications of intergenerational ambivalence for each party's psychological well-being and physical health. Participants included 158 families (N = 474) with a son or daughter aged 22 to 49, their mother and father. Actor-Partner-Interaction Models (APIM) revealed that parents and offspring who self-reported greater ambivalence showed poorer psychological well-being. Partner reports of ambivalence were associated with poorer physical health. When fathers reported greater ambivalence, offspring reported poorer physical health. When grown children reported greater ambivalence, mothers reported poorer physical health. Fathers and offspring who scored lower in neuroticism showed stronger associations between ambivalence and well-being. Findings suggest that partners experience greater ambivalence when the other party's health declines and that personality moderates associations between relationship qualities and well-being. PMID:19092039

  2. Sex differences in the physical inactivity and health-related quality of life relationship among rural adults

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical inactivity (PIA) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in rural adults and examine the extent to which sex differences exist in this relationship. Methods: A total of 5617 adults 18 years of age and older who indicated residing in a rural county was included in this analysis. PIA status was assessed by questions regarding recreational physical activity during the previous month. Five HRQOL measures (physical health, mental health, inactivity health, general health, & unhealthy days) were used as primary outcome variables. PIA and HRQOL prevalence estimates were computed with 95% CIs. Multiple logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs adjusted for age, ethnicity, and income. Results: Physically inactive rural adults were significantly more likely to report poor HRQOL in all overall crude models with ORs ranging from 1.59 to 2.16. Additionally, sex-by-PIA interactions were significant across all crude HRQOL models with ORs ranging from 2.27 to 3.08 and 1.56 to 2.42 for women and men, respectively. Sex differences were maintained in fully adjusted models, except for mental health and inactivity health with ORs ranging from 1.80 to 2.58 and 1.41 to 1.79 for women and men, respectively. Conclusion: Results from this study show that PIA is a strong predictor of poor HRQOL even after controlling for confounding variables. Furthermore, physically inactive rural women appear more likely to report poor levels of HRQOL than physically inactive rural men. PMID:27766235

  3. The Quality of Parent/Child Relationships in Adolescence Is Associated with Poor Adult Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudino, Alessandra; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2013-01-01

    This study used data gathered over the course of a New Zealand longitudinal study (N = 924) to examine the relationships between measures of parental bonding and attachment in adolescence (age 15-16) and later personal adjustment (major depression; anxiety disorder; suicidal behaviour; illicit drug abuse/dependence; crime) assessed up to the age…

  4. Exploring the Relationship between Noise Sensitivity, Annoyance and Health-Related Quality of Life in a Sample of Adults Exposed to Environmental Noise

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Daniel; Welch, David; Dirks, Kim N.; Mathews, Renata

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between environmental noise and health is poorly understood but of fundamental importance to public health. This study estimated the relationship between noise sensitivity, noise annoyance and health-related quality of life in a sample of adults residing close to the Auckland International Airport, New Zealand. A small sample (n = 105) completed surveys measuring noise sensitivity, noise annoyance, and quality of life. Noise sensitivity was associated with health-related quality of life; annoyance and sleep disturbance mediated the effects of noise sensitivity on health. PMID:21139850

  5. The quality of the caregiving relationship in informal care for older adults with dementia and chronic psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Spruytte, Nele; Van Audenhove, Chantal; Lammertyn, Frans; Storms, Gerrit

    2002-09-01

    The present study focuses on the dyadic relationship between a family carer and a patient. Besides clarifying the quality of the caregiving relationship in two populations of chronically ill patients, this investigation examines whether patient characteristics, carer characteristics and network characteristics are predictive of relationship quality in dementia caregiving. Partners, children or children-in-law caring for a relative suffering from dementia (N = 144) and partners or parents of persons suffering from chronic mental illness (N = 77) were interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire. The measurement of relationship quality is based on the literature of Expressed Emotion and covers two dimensions: the level of criticism and the level of warmth. In general, the relationship between a carer and his or her chronically ill relative was marked by a low level of conflict or criticism and a high degree of warmth. The main predictors of a poorer relationship quality were disturbances in the patient's behaviour and the carer's perception of these disturbances. Our results suggest that, rather than limiting investigations to the burden experienced by the family carer, future research and interventions on chronically ill patients should focus on the quality of the carer-patient relationship and its determinants.

  6. Relationships between personal, depression and social network factors and sleep quality in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ke-Wu; Yu, Shu; Cheng, Shun-Ping; Chen, I-Ju

    2008-06-01

    Improving sleep quality is key to increasing life quality for the elderly. Clarifying the nature of sleep conditions and the factors that influence such is necessary to enrich the base of knowledge available to the clinical nursing profession and encourage effective nursing interventions in older populations. Purposes of this study were to describe sleep quality and identify the personal, depression and social network determinants of sleep quality among older people living independently. A cross-sectional research design was used, and 187 persons 65 years of age or older were recruited using two-stage random sampling from communities in Taipei City, Taiwan. All subjects were informed by the researchers and were asked to provide personal (demographic data, lifestyle behavior), depression, social network (perceived the relationships with and support from family, relatives/friends), and sleep quality (Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, C-PSQI) information. Findings revealed that 25.7% of subjects were "poor sleepers" (attaining C-PSQI global scores > 5). The study identified significant relationships between three personal variables (alcohol consumption, educational level, and depressive tendencies), one social variable (relationships with relatives/friends) and sleep quality. Depression tendency, relationships with relatives/friends, college and above educational level, and habitual alcohol consumption accounted for 46.1% of sleep quality variance. Findings enrich the knowledge base by highlighting specific personal, depression and social network factors that could help nurses to assess sleep conditions more comprehensively. Nurses caring for older people should consider depression and social network factors (particularly the relationships with relatives/friends may play a discriminating role) as important determinants of sleep quality.

  7. The Couple that Prays Together: Race and Ethnicity, Religion, and Relationship Quality among Working-Age Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Christopher G.; Burdette, Amy M.; Wilcox, W. Bradford

    2010-01-01

    A substantial body of research has shown that relationship quality tends to be (a) lower among racial and ethnic minorities and (b) higher among more religious persons and among couples in which partners share common religious affiliations, practices, and beliefs. However, few studies have examined the interplay of race or ethnicity and religion…

  8. A longitudinal study of interpersonal relationships among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents and young adults: Mediational pathways from attachment to romantic relationship quality

    PubMed Central

    Starks, Tyrel J.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the potential for mental health to mediate associations between earlier attachment to parents and peers and later relationship adjustment during adolescence and young adulthood in a sample of sexual minority youth. Secondarily, the study examined associations between peer and parental attachment and relationship/dating milestones. Participants included 219 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth who participated in six waves of data collection over 3.5 years. Parental attachment was associated with an older age of dating initiation, while peer attachment was associated with longer relationship length. Both peer and parental attachment were significantly associated with mental health in later adolescence and young adulthood. Mental health mediated the association between peer attachment and main partner relationship quality. While the total indirect effect of parental attachment on main partner relationship quality was statistically significant, specific indirect effects were not. Implications for the application of attachment theory and integration of interpersonal factors into mental health intervention with sexual minority youth are discussed. PMID:26108898

  9. Ambivalent relationship qualities between adults and their parents: implications for the well-being of both parties.

    PubMed

    Fingerman, Karen L; Pitzer, Lindsay; Lefkowitz, Eva S; Birditt, Kira S; Mroczek, Daniel

    2008-11-01

    This study considered whether intergenerational ambivalence has implications for each party's psychological well-being and physical health. Participants included 158 families (N = 474) with a mother, a father, and a son or daughter aged 22 to 49 years. Actor-partner interaction models revealed that parents and offspring who self-reported greater ambivalence showed poorer psychological well-being. Partner reports of ambivalence were associated with poorer physical health. When fathers reported greater ambivalence, offspring reported poorer physical health. When grown children reported greater ambivalence, mothers reported poorer physical health. Fathers and offspring who scored lower in neuroticism showed stronger associations between ambivalence and well-being. Findings suggest that parents or offspring may experience greater ambivalence when the other party is in poorer health and that personality moderates associations between relationship qualities and well-being.

  10. Symptoms and Behavior Problems of Adolescents and Adults with Autism: Effects of Mother-Child Relationship Quality, Warmth, and Praise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Hong, Jinkuk

    2008-01-01

    Using a cross-lagged panel design, we investigated the impact of positive family processes on change in autism symptoms and behaviors. A sample of 149 co-residing mothers and their adolescent or adult child with autism was drawn from a large, longitudinal study. Maternal warmth and praise were measured using coded speech samples in which mothers…

  11. Relationship marketing and service quality.

    PubMed

    Delene, L M

    1992-05-01

    The delivery of services in college health centers is improved through the use of relationship marketing and service quality advancement. Relationship marketing works to attract, maintain, and enhance customer or client relationships with the healthcare provider. The facets of relationship marketing are explored, with the greatest emphasis placed on internal marketing. Higher quality health services come from continuous improvement, a focus on process, and intensive staff development and participation, which build a service culture. PMID:1602093

  12. Subjective Sleep Quality as a Possible Mediator in the Relationship between Personality Traits and Depressive Symptoms in Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Huang, Vivian; Peck, Katlyn; Mallya, Sasha; Lupien, Sonia J; Fiocco, Alexandra J

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the mediating role of sleep in the relationship between personality traits and depressive symptoms in a group of community-dwelling men and women (Mage = 57.92, SD = 4.00). Participants completed the short form NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). High neuroticism and low conscientiousness was associated with poor sleep, as well as greater depressive symptom severity. Partial indirect mediation effects were found between personality traits (i.e., neuroticism and conscientiousness) and depressive symptoms through self-report sleep measures. An alternative model was also explored, entering depression as the mediator; however a smaller portion of the variance was explained by this model, compared with the hypothesized model. The current study provides preliminary information regarding the mechanisms that influence the relationship between personality traits, sleep, and depression among a group of community-dwelling middle-aged adults. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:27285159

  13. Subjective Sleep Quality as a Possible Mediator in the Relationship between Personality Traits and Depressive Symptoms in Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peck, Katlyn; Mallya, Sasha; Lupien, Sonia J.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the mediating role of sleep in the relationship between personality traits and depressive symptoms in a group of community-dwelling men and women (Mage = 57.92, SD = 4.00). Participants completed the short form NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). High neuroticism and low conscientiousness was associated with poor sleep, as well as greater depressive symptom severity. Partial indirect mediation effects were found between personality traits (i.e., neuroticism and conscientiousness) and depressive symptoms through self-report sleep measures. An alternative model was also explored, entering depression as the mediator; however a smaller portion of the variance was explained by this model, compared with the hypothesized model. The current study provides preliminary information regarding the mechanisms that influence the relationship between personality traits, sleep, and depression among a group of community-dwelling middle-aged adults. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:27285159

  14. Health, Quality of Care and Quality of Life: A Case of Frail Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Chang-Ming

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between health, quality of care of geriatric case management and quality of life for the purpose of furthering the understanding of the relationship between quality of life and geriatric case management. Using survey data from a group of frail older adults, this study assesses the relative merit of two…

  15. Relationship quality and student engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culver, Jennifer

    The purpose of this study was to examine the qualities of support, relatedness, and negative interaction within parent-child and teacher-student relationships and their association with cognitive, psychological, and behavioral engagement. Additionally, this study explored the contributions of cognitive and psychological engagement on behavioral engagement. The role of gender, grade, and ethnicity on relationship quality and engagement was also considered. Participants (n=311) were students in grades three through five from a suburban school district in southeastern Michigan. Perceptions of teacher-student relationship quality varied by grade level. In general, younger students reported greater teacher support and relatedness in comparison to older students. Conversely, older students perceived greater conflict within the teacher-student relationship. Student engagement also varied by grade level, with younger students reporting greater engagement than older students. Ethnicity also contributed to variance in student engagement, with African American students reporting significantly more engagement than Caucasian or Multiracial students. Teacher-student relationship quality was a significant predictor of student engagement, even after controlling for student characteristics and parent-child relationship variables. Results of path analysis revealed that cognitive and psychological engagement contributed significantly to behavioral engagement.

  16. Pathways to Relationship Aggression between Adult Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Dean M.; Holman, Thomas B.; Walker, Eric

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the pathways to adult aggression beginning in the family of origin (FOO) and continuing through adult relationships were investigated. With a sample of 30,600 individuals, a comprehensive model was evaluated that included the unique influences of violent victimization in the family, witnessing parental violence, perpetrating…

  17. Direct and Indirect Effects of a Family-Based Intervention in Early Adolescence on Parent-Youth Relationship Quality, Late Adolescent Health, and Early Adult Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Nowicka, Paulina

    2013-01-01

    We explored family processes in adolescence that may influence the likelihood of obesity in early adulthood using a randomized trial of a family-based intervention (the Family CheckUp, or FCU). The FCU has been shown to reduce escalations in antisocial behavior and depression in adolescence by supporting positive family management practices, but no research has examined the mechanisms by which the FCU could influence health-related attitudes and behaviors linked to obesity. Participants were 998 adolescents (n = 526 male; n = 423 European American; M age 12.21 yrs) and their families, recruited in 6th grade from 3 middle schools in the Pacific Northwest. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) and an Intent-To-Treat (ITT) design to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of the FCU on parent–youth relationship quality (ages 12–15), healthy lifestyle behaviors, eating attitudes, depressive symptoms (all measured at age 17), and obesity (age 22). We found that the FCU led to greater parent–youth relationship quality, which predicted enhanced health-related behaviors, reduced maladaptive eating attitudes, and reduced depression. In turn, reduced maladaptive eating attitudes predicted reduced odds of obesity. The indirect effect of the FCU on obesity by way of parent–youth relationship quality and eating attitudes was significant. Our findings illustrate how family processes may influence adolescent health and suggest that family functioning may be an additional factor to consider when developing intervention programs for obesity. PMID:23421838

  18. The Interdependence of Adult Relationship Quality and Parenting Behaviours among African American and European Couples in Rural, Low-Income Communities

    PubMed Central

    Zvara, Bharathi J.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Heilbron, Nicole; Clincy, Amanda; Cox, Martha J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study extends the spillover and crossover hypotheses to more carefully model the potential interdependence between parent–parent interaction quality and parent–child interaction quality in family systems. Using propensity score matching, the present study attempted to isolate family processes that are unique across African American and European American couples that are independent of other socio-demographic factors to further clarify how interparental relationships may be related to parenting in a rural, low-income sample. The Actor–Partner Interdependence Model (APIM), a statistical analysis technique that accounts for the interdependence of relationship data, was used with a sample of married and non-married cohabiting African American and European American couples (n = 82 dyads) to evaluate whether mothers' and fathers' observed parenting behaviours are related to their behaviours and their partner's behaviours observed in a couple problem-solving interaction. Findings revealed that interparental withdrawal behaviour, but not conflict behaviour, was associated with less optimal parenting for fathers but not mothers, and specifically so for African American fathers. Our findings support the notion of interdependence across subsystems within the family and suggest that African American fathers may be specifically responsive to variations in interparental relationship quality. PMID:26430390

  19. Direct and indirect effects of a family-based intervention in early adolescence on parent-youth relationship quality, late adolescent health, and early adult obesity.

    PubMed

    Van Ryzin, Mark J; Nowicka, Paulina

    2013-02-01

    We explored family processes in adolescence that may influence the likelihood of obesity in early adulthood using a randomized trial of a family-based intervention (the Family Check-Up, or FCU). The FCU has been shown to reduce escalations in antisocial behavior and depression in adolescence by supporting positive family management practices, but no research has examined the mechanisms by which the FCU could influence health-related attitudes and behaviors linked to obesity. Participants were 998 adolescents (n = 526 male; n = 423 European American; M age 12.21 years) and their families, recruited in 6th grade from 3 middle schools in the Pacific Northwest. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) and an Intent-To-Treat (ITT) design to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of the FCU on parent-youth relationship quality (ages 12-15), healthy lifestyle behaviors, eating attitudes, depressive symptoms (all measured at age 17), and obesity (age 22). We found that the FCU led to greater parent-youth relationship quality, which predicted enhanced health-related behaviors, reduced maladaptive eating attitudes, and reduced depression. In turn, reduced maladaptive eating attitudes predicted reduced odds of obesity. The indirect effect of the FCU on obesity by way of parent-youth relationship quality and eating attitudes was significant. Our findings illustrate how family processes may influence adolescent health and suggest that family functioning may be an additional factor to consider when developing intervention programs for obesity.

  20. The quality of caring relationships

    PubMed Central

    Abma, Tineke A; Oeseburg, Barth; Widdershoven, Guy AM; Verkerk, Marian

    2009-01-01

    In health care, relationships between patients or disabled persons and professionals are at least co-constitutive for the quality of care. Many patients complain about the contacts and communication with caregivers and other professionals. From a care-ethical perspective a good patient-professional relationship requires a process of negotiation and shared understanding about mutual normative expectations. Mismatches between these expectations will lead to misunderstandings or conflicts. If caregivers listen to the narratives of identity of patients, and engage in a deliberative dialogue, they will better be able to attune their care to the needs of patients. We will illustrate this with the stories of three women with multiple sclerosis. Their narratives of identity differ from the narratives that caregivers and others use to understand and identify them. Since identities give rise to normative expectations in all three cases there is a conflict between what the women expect of their caregivers and vice-versa. These stories show that the quality of care, defined as doing the right thing, at the right time, in the right way, for the right person, is dependent on the quality of caring relationships. PMID:22110320

  1. YOUNG ADULT DATING RELATIONSHIPS AND THE MANAGEMENT OF SEXUAL RISK

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.; Flanigan, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Young adult involvement in sexual behavior typically occurs within a relationship context, but we know little about the ways in which specific features of romantic relationships influence sexual decision-making. Prior work on sexual risk taking focuses attention on health issues rather than relationship dynamics. We draw on data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 475) to examine the association between qualities and dynamics of current/most recent romantic relationships such as communication and emotional processes, conflict, demographic asymmetries, and duration and the management of sexual risk. We conceptualize ‘risk management’ as encompassing multiple domains, including (1) questioning the partner about previous sexual behaviors/risks, (2) using condoms consistently, and (3) maintaining sexual exclusivity within the relationship. We identify distinct patterns of risk management among dating young adults and find that specific qualities and dynamics of these relationships are linked to variations in risk management. Results from this paper suggest the need to consider relational dynamics in efforts to target and influence young adult sexual risk-taking and reduce STIs, including HIV. PMID:23805015

  2. Intimate relationship involvement, intimate relationship quality, and psychiatric disorders in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Whisman, Mark A; Johnson, Daniel P; Li, Angela; Robustelli, Briana L

    2014-12-01

    Prior research has shown that poor relationship quality in marriage and other intimate relationships demonstrates cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with a variety of psychiatric disorders in adults. In comparison, there has been less research on the covariation between relationship quality and psychiatric disorders in adolescents, a developmental period that is associated with elevated risk of incidence of several disorders and that is important for the acquisition and maintenance of intimate relationships. The present study was conducted to examine the associations between intimate relationship involvement, intimate relationship quality, and psychiatric disorders in a population-based sample of adolescents. The associations between relationship involvement, positive and negative relationship quality, and 12-month prevalence of mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders were evaluated in adolescents from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement. Participants completed an interview-based assessment of psychiatric disorders and a self-report measure of relationship quality. Results indicated that the prevalence of broad categories of mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders, and several specific disorders were significantly associated with (a) being married, cohabiting, or involved in a serious relationship; and (b) reporting more negative (but not less positive) relationship quality. For several disorders, the association between the disorder and relationship involvement was moderated by age, wherein the strength of the association decreased in magnitude with increasing age. Findings suggest that being in an intimate relationship and reporting higher levels of negative relationship quality are associated with the prevalence of several common psychiatric disorders in adolescents. PMID:25365346

  3. Relationship of Body Mass Index in Young Adulthood and Health-Related Quality of Life Two Decades Later: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Andrea T.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Chan, Cheeling; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Jacobs, David R.; Liu, Kiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective The expanding overweight and obesity epidemic notwithstanding, little is known about their long-term effect on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The main objective of this study was to investigate whether overweight (body mass index [BMI] 25–<30 kg/m2) and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) young adults have poorer HRQoL 20 years later. Methods The authors studied 3014 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a longitudinal, community-dwelling, biracial cohort from four cities. BMI was measured at baseline and 20 years later. HRQoL was assessed via the physical component summary (PCS) and the mental component summary (MCS) scores of the Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short Form Health Survey at year 20. Higher PCS or MCS scores indicate better HRQoL. Results Mean year 20 PCS score was 52.2 for normal weight participants at baseline, 50.3 for overweight, and 46.4 for obese (P-trend <0.001). This relation persisted after adjustment for baseline demographics, general health, and physical and behavioral risk factors and after further adjustment for 20-year changes in risk factors. No association was observed for MCS scores (P-trend 0.43). Conclusion Overweight and obesity in early adulthood are adversely associated with self-reported physical HRQoL, but not mental HRQoL 20 years later. PMID:20548305

  4. Suggested Interventions for Young Adults' Relationship Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terneus, Sandra K.; Martin, H. Dan

    2005-01-01

    Professionals in the social psychology field concur that teenagers and young adults may not have the appropriate skills and ego strength to affirm healthy relationship decisions. This article reviews current research regarding partner selection from adolescence through early adulthood. It also provides appendices of interventions used in clinical…

  5. Contributors to Adult Sibling Relationships and Intention to Care of Siblings of Individuals With Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cuskelly, Monica

    2016-05-01

    The contribution of childhood sibling relationships to adult sibling relationships and intention to provide care was investigated in a sample in which one member of each dyad had Down syndrome. Thirty-nine adult siblings of an adult with Down syndrome who had participated in a study of sibling relationships in childhood/adolescence provided data about the quality of current relationships and of their intention to provide care for their brother/sister with Down syndrome in the future. Only behavior problems in the child with Down syndrome predicted warmth of the current adult relationship. Although adult sibling relationships were reported to be warm, the quality of neither the current nor the past relationship was associated with the reported intention to provide care.

  6. Adult Children and Their Fathers: Relationship Changes 20 Years after Parental Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrons, Constance R.; Tanner, Jennifer L.

    2003-01-01

    Examines adult children's reports of relationship changes with their fathers were 20 years after their parents' divorce. Findings indicated that most adult children felt that their relationships with their fathers had either improved or remained stable over time. Custody did not directly affect reported changes in the quality of their relationship…

  7. The Relationship between Visual Impairment and Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean Adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yuli; Shin, Jeong Ah; Yang, Suk Woo; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Kim, Hyun Seung; Park, Young-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Korean adults with visual impairment(VI) using various measures based on a nationally distributed sample. Methods Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008–2012) data, we compared EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) and EQ-visual analogue scale (VAS) scores after adjusting for socio-demographic and psychosocial factors as well as for comorbidities with VI. Logistic regressions were used to elucidate determinants for the lowest quintile HRQoL scales according to VI severity. Uncorrected visual acuity (VA) which implies vision of ordinary life was measured using an international standard vision chart based on Snellen scale. Results 28,825 participants (sum of weights; 37,562,376) were included in the analysis. The mean EQ-5D and EQ-VAS scores were significantly lower in the VI groups than in the normal vision (defined as VA 20/20-20/25) group based on the better or worse seeing eye (P<.0001 and P<.0001, respectively). Participants with moderate (VA 20/80-20/160) and severe VI (VA ≤20/200) had higher scores of multivariate-adjusted odd ratios (aORs) for the lowest quintile than did the normal vision group which was particularly evident in the results from EQ-5D, whereas the results of the mild VI (VA 20/32-20/63) group did not identify significant differences from the normal vision group independent of classification according to the better or the worse seeing eye. Conversely, EQ-VAS revealed significantly higher score of multivariate-aORs for the lowest quintile in participants with mild VI either for the better or worse seeing eye. Conclusions The severity of VI was definitely associated with impaired HRQoL compared with the normal vision population. The analyses presented here elicited even mild VI could potentially deteriorate the health-related quality of life (or subjective perception of health quality) and therefore, therapeutic approaches

  8. Relationship factors and quality among mixed-orientation couples.

    PubMed

    Kays, Jill L; Yarhouse, Mark A; Ripley, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    Mixed-orientation couples are defined as a heterosexual couple in which 1 partner experiences same-sex attraction and the other does not. Despite the fact that there is a sizable number of mixed-orientation couples in the U.S. adult population, few researchers have studied this population, and thus, there is limited understanding of these relationships. The authors examined the degree to which relationship commitment, partner-focused forgivingness, and marital values were associated with relationship quality, and how these variables predicted relationship quality. The total sample (N = 265) consisted of 2 independent samples-105 sexual minorities (i.e., the spouse who experiences same-sex attraction) and 160 heterosexual spouses. The data were not dyadic. Together, commitment, partner-focused forgivingness, and marital values accounted for roughly 43% of the variance in relationship quality. Relationship commitment was found to be the largest single predictor of relationship quality, followed by partner-focused forgivingness. Research and clinical implications are discussed. This study significantly adds to the current research base by quantitatively measuring various variables in these relationships, as well as expanding our understanding of relationship quality in mixed-orientation couples and factors that may play a role. PMID:24328786

  9. Negative childhood experiences and adult love relationships: the role of internal working models of attachment.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Gerard; Maughan, Barbara

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated links between internal working models of attachment and the quality of adult love relationships in a high risk sample of women (n = 34), all of whom reported negative parenting in childhood. Half of the sample was identified as having a history of satisfying adult love relationships, while the remainder had experienced ongoing adult relationship problems. Measures of internal working models of attachment were made using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). A strong association was found between attachment classifications and the quality of adult love relationships. In addition, women with satisfying love relationships demonstrated significantly higher coherence of mind ratings than those with poor relationship histories. Insecure working models of attachment were associated with problems in adult love relationships. Although secure/autonomous attachment status was linked to optimal adult relationship outcomes, some women with a history of satisfying love relationships had insecure working models of attachment. These results suggest that the ways that adults process early experiences may influence later psychosocial functioning.

  10. Adult education and the quality of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuijnman, Albert

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the complementary role of adult education in influencing people's objective and subjective quality of life. The analytical strategy used to achieve this end is to estimate parameters in a path model which includes both objective indicators such as occupational status and earned income, and subjective indicators such as job satisfaction and perceived personal wellbeing. The investigation builds on Swedish data and employs the LISREL method in the fitting of the model to the data. The results indicate that adult education positively influences objective indicators of the quality of life. Even though adult education is found to relate to measures of perceived personal wellbeing, the hypothesis that it also influences the way men assess their life situation and evaluate their subjective quality of life cannot be confirmed.

  11. Relationship Quality in Interethnic Marriages and Cohabitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohmann-Marriott, Bryndl E.; Amato, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on the factors underlying differences in relationship quality between interethnic and same-ethnic couples. Using the National Survey of Families and Households and the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, we examine relationship satisfaction, interpartner conflict and subjective assessments of relationship instability in…

  12. The quality of social relationships in ravens

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Orlaith N.; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The quality of a social relationship represents the history of past social interactions between two individuals, from which the nature and outcome of future interactions can be predicted. Current theory predicts that relationship quality comprises three separate components, its value, compatibility and security. This study is the first to investigate the components of relationship quality in a large-brained bird. Following methods recently used to obtain quantitative measures of each relationship quality component in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, we entered data on seven behavioural variables from a group of 11 ravens, Corvus corax, into a principal components analysis. The characteristics of the extracted components matched those predicted for value, compatibility and security, and were labelled as such. When the effects of kinship and sex combination on each relationship quality component were analysed, we found that kin had more valuable relationships, whereas females had less secure and compatible relationships, although the effect of sex combination on compatibility only applied to nonkin. These patterns are consistent with what little knowledge we have of raven relationships from aviary studies and show that the components of relationship quality in ravens may indeed be analogous to those in chimpanzees. PMID:25821236

  13. College Quality and Early Adult Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Mark C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of various college qualities on several early adult outcomes, using panel data from the National Education Longitudinal Study. I compare the results using ordinary least squares with three alternative methods of estimation, including instrumental variables, and the methods used by Dale and Krueger [(2002).…

  14. Quality of Life in Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koedoot, Caroline; Bouwmans, Clazien; Franken, Marie-Christine; Stolk, Elly

    2011-01-01

    Although persistent developmental stuttering is known to affect daily living, just how great the impact is remains unclear. Furthermore, little is known about the underlying mechanisms which lead to a diminished quality of life (QoL). The primary objective of this study is to explore to what extent QoL is impaired in adults who stutter (AWS). In…

  15. Intergenerational Relationship Quality Across Three Generations

    PubMed Central

    Tighe, Lauren A.; Fingerman, Karen L.; Zarit, Steven H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Studies of intergenerational relationship quality often include one or two generations. This study examined within-family differences and similarities or transmission of positive and negative relationship quality across three generations. Method. Participants included 633 middle-aged individuals (G2; 52% women, ages 40–60 years), 592 of their offspring (G3; 53% daughters; ages 18–41 years), and 337 of their parents (i.e., grandparents; G1; 69% women; ages 59–96 years). Results. Multilevel models revealed differences and similarities in relationship quality across generations. The oldest generation (G1) reported greater positive and less negative quality relationships than the middle (G2) and the younger (G3) generations. There was limited evidence of transmission. Middle-aged respondents who reported more positive and less negative ties with their parents (G1) reported more positive and less negative ties with their own children (G3). Grandmother (G1) reports of more positive relationship quality were associated with G3 reports of more positive relationship quality with G2. Discussion. Findings are consistent with the intergenerational stake hypothesis and only partially consistent with the theory of intergenerational transmission. Overall, this study suggests that there is greater within-family variability than similarities in how family members feel about one another. PMID:22628478

  16. Caffeine Consumption and Sleep Quality in Australian Adults.

    PubMed

    Watson, Emily J; Coates, Alison M; Kohler, Mark; Banks, Siobhan

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is commonly consumed to help offset fatigue, however, it can have several negative effects on sleep quality and quantity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between caffeine consumption and sleep quality in adults using a newly validated caffeine food frequency questionnaire (C-FFQ). In this cross sectional study, 80 adults (M ± SD: 38.9 ± 19.3 years) attended the University of South Australia to complete a C-FFQ and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Caffeine consumption remained stable across age groups while the source of caffeine varied. Higher total caffeine consumption was associated with decreased time in bed, as an estimate of sleep time (r = -0.229, p = 0.041), but other PSQI variables were not. Participants who reported poor sleep (PSQI global score ≥ 5) consumed 192.1 ± 122.5 mg (M ± SD) of caffeine which was significantly more than those who reported good sleep quality (PSQI global score < 5; 125.2 ± 62.6 mg; p = 0.008). The C-FFQ was found to be a quick but detailed way to collect population based caffeine consumption data. The data suggests that shorter sleep is associated with greater caffeine consumption, and that consumption is greater in adults with reduced sleep quality. PMID:27527212

  17. Caffeine Consumption and Sleep Quality in Australian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Emily J.; Coates, Alison M.; Kohler, Mark; Banks, Siobhan

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is commonly consumed to help offset fatigue, however, it can have several negative effects on sleep quality and quantity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between caffeine consumption and sleep quality in adults using a newly validated caffeine food frequency questionnaire (C-FFQ). In this cross sectional study, 80 adults (M ± SD: 38.9 ± 19.3 years) attended the University of South Australia to complete a C-FFQ and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Caffeine consumption remained stable across age groups while the source of caffeine varied. Higher total caffeine consumption was associated with decreased time in bed, as an estimate of sleep time (r = −0.229, p = 0.041), but other PSQI variables were not. Participants who reported poor sleep (PSQI global score ≥ 5) consumed 192.1 ± 122.5 mg (M ± SD) of caffeine which was significantly more than those who reported good sleep quality (PSQI global score < 5; 125.2 ± 62.6 mg; p = 0.008). The C-FFQ was found to be a quick but detailed way to collect population based caffeine consumption data. The data suggests that shorter sleep is associated with greater caffeine consumption, and that consumption is greater in adults with reduced sleep quality. PMID:27527212

  18. Caffeine Consumption and Sleep Quality in Australian Adults.

    PubMed

    Watson, Emily J; Coates, Alison M; Kohler, Mark; Banks, Siobhan

    2016-08-04

    Caffeine is commonly consumed to help offset fatigue, however, it can have several negative effects on sleep quality and quantity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between caffeine consumption and sleep quality in adults using a newly validated caffeine food frequency questionnaire (C-FFQ). In this cross sectional study, 80 adults (M ± SD: 38.9 ± 19.3 years) attended the University of South Australia to complete a C-FFQ and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Caffeine consumption remained stable across age groups while the source of caffeine varied. Higher total caffeine consumption was associated with decreased time in bed, as an estimate of sleep time (r = -0.229, p = 0.041), but other PSQI variables were not. Participants who reported poor sleep (PSQI global score ≥ 5) consumed 192.1 ± 122.5 mg (M ± SD) of caffeine which was significantly more than those who reported good sleep quality (PSQI global score < 5; 125.2 ± 62.6 mg; p = 0.008). The C-FFQ was found to be a quick but detailed way to collect population based caffeine consumption data. The data suggests that shorter sleep is associated with greater caffeine consumption, and that consumption is greater in adults with reduced sleep quality.

  19. Developmental and Dyadic Perspectives on Commitment in Adult Romantic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Oriña, M. Minda; Collins, W. Andrew; Simpson, Jeffry A.; Salvatore, Jessica E.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Kim, John S.

    2012-01-01

    We tested hypotheses concerning the developmental roots of becoming the “weak-link” (less committed) partner in adult romantic relationships, and the associations between partners’ absolute and relative levels of commitment and dyadic outcomes. We examined 78 target participants who have been studied since birth and were involved in a romantic relationship when they were 20–21 years old. As predicted, people who received lower quality support from caregivers in toddlerhood or were unable to resolve conflicts with a best friend in mid-adolescence were more likely to become the weak-link (less committed) partner in their adult romantic relationships at age 20–21. Furthermore, the lower the weak-link partner was in commitment and the greater the discrepancy in commitment between the partners, the greater the likelihood that romantic couples displayed hostility (rated by observers) during a videotaped conflict resolution task when they were 20–21 years old. These findings are discussed from developmental and dyadic perspectives. PMID:21617252

  20. Proximity as a Mediating Influence on the Perceived Aging Parent-Adult Child Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Joyce McDonough; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined proximity and relationship between aging parents (N=224) and adult children. Found no difference in quality of relationships between parents whose children lived near and those whose children lived over 60 miles away. Significant predictors for proximate group were personal sense of control and education; for distant group, child gender…

  1. The Relationship between Diabetes Mellitus and Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean Adults: The Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2009)

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yong Jun; Lee, Min Suk; An, So Yeon; Kim, Tae Ho; Han, Seung Jin; Kim, Hae Jin; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Lee, Kwan Woo

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a major health problem in Korea. However, interest in the quality of life in patients with diabetes is low. We examined the effects of diabetes on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and compared it with HRQoL in the general Korean population using the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV) (2007-2009). Methods Using KNHANES IV data, we compared EuroQol (EQ)-5D and EQ-visual analogue scale (VAS) scores after adjusting for sociodemographic and psychosocial factors as well as for comorbidities (hypertension, heart disease, stroke, arthritis, and chronic renal disease). Logistic regressions were used to explore determinants for the lowest quintile HRQoL scales in the diabetes group. Results The mean age of the 14,441 enrolled subjects (6,129 men and 8,312 women) was 52.5±14.5 years. The mean EQ-5D and EQ-VAS scores were significantly lower in the diabetes group (EQ-5D. 0.87; EQ-VAS, 71.94) than in the non-diabetes group (EQ-5D, 0.94; EQ-VAS, 77.40) (P<0.001). Self-reported depressive symptom had a significant effect on lowering the EQ-VAS (odds ratio [OR], 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 2.6) in the diabetes group. Stress level had a significant effect in lowering both the EQ-5D (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.9) and the EQ-VAS (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.9). HbA1c, diabetes duration, and treatment modalities had no significant effect on lowering HRQoL. Conclusion Diabetes was clearly associated with impaired HRQoL compared with the non-diabetic population regardless of comorbidities. Therapeutic approaches should focus much more on the subjective perception of health in patients with diabetes. PMID:22247901

  2. Parental Alcohol Use, Family Relationship Quality, Self-Esteem, and Depression in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashubeck, Susan; Christensen, Sue A.

    1995-01-01

    Family relationship quality, not parental alcohol use, predicted levels of depression and self-esteem in 201 college students. Witnessing spousal abuse related to increased depression in adult children of alcoholics, whole poorer family relationship quality was associated with lower self-esteem, suggesting the experience of paternal alcoholism is…

  3. The Relationship between Anomia and Participation in Adult Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Harold; Hensley, James

    The influence of participation in adult basic education on attitudinal changes among a selected group of adults from rural Appalachia was studied. Specific aims of the study were: (1) to determine the relationship between participation in ABE and change in anomia, (2) to determine the extent of anomia among rural Appalachian adults with…

  4. Adult Sibling Relationships with Brothers and Sisters with Severe Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetti, Zach; Hall, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine perceptions of adult sibling relationships with a brother or sister with severe disabilities and the contexts affecting the relationships. Adult siblings without disabilities (N = 79) from 19 to 72 years of age completed an online survey with four open-ended questions about their relationship…

  5. A longitudinal examination of sleep quality and physical activity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Holfeld, Brett; Ruthig, Joelle C

    2014-10-01

    The relationship between sleep quality and physical activity is bidirectional, yet prior research on older adults has mainly focused on investigating whether increasing levels of physical activity leads to improvements in sleep quality. The current longitudinal study examined both directional relationships by assessing sleep quality and physical activity twice over a two-year period among 426 community-dwelling older adults (ages 61-100). A cross-lagged panel analysis that included age, gender, perceived stress, functional ability, and severity of chronic health conditions as covariates, revealed that better initial sleep quality predicted higher levels of later physical activity beyond the effects of prior physical activity; whereas initial physical activity did not predict later sleep quality after accounting for prior sleep quality. These findings highlight sleep quality as an important contributor to a physically active lifestyle among older adults.

  6. The Mediator Role of Need Satisfaction between Subjective Well-Being and Romantic Relationships Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eryilmaz, Ali; Dogan, Tayfun

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: The most important part of identity exploration for emerging adults is love. Establishing healthy intimate relationships support the process of identity exploration. In addition to the positive and negative factors that affect romantic relationships, the concept of quality is also very important in these romantic relationships.…

  7. Depressive Symptoms and Romantic Relationship Qualities from Adolescence through Emerging Adulthood: A Longitudinal Examination of Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vujeva, Hana M.; Furman, Wyndol

    2011-01-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated the negative consequences of depression on adolescents' functioning in peer and family relationships, but little work has examined how depressive symptoms affect the quality of adolescents' and emerging adults' romantic relationships. Five waves of data on depressive symptoms, romantic relationship conflict,…

  8. Marital quality and the marital bed: Examining the covariation between relationship quality and sleep

    PubMed Central

    Troxel, Wendy M.; Robles, Theodore F.; Hall, Martica; Buysse, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    The majority of adults sleep with a partner, and for a significant proportion of couples, sleep problems and relationship problems co-occur, yet there has been little systematic study of the association between close relationships and sleep. The association between sleep and relationships is likely to be bi-directional and reciprocal—the quality of close relationships influences sleep and sleep disturbances or sleep disorders influence close relationship quality. Therefore, the purpose of the present review is to summarize the extant research on 1) the impact of co-sleeping on bed partner's sleep; 2) the impact of sleep disturbance or sleep disorders on relationship functioning; and 3) the impact of close personal relationship quality on sleep. In addition, we provide a conceptual model of biopsychosocial pathways to account for the covariation between relationship functioning and sleep. Recognizing the dyadic nature of sleep and incorporating such knowledge into both clinical practice and research in sleep medicine may elucidate key mechanisms in the etiology and maintenance of both sleep disorders and relationship problems and may ultimately inform novel treatments. PMID:17854738

  9. Self-Esteem of Young Adults Experiencing Interparental Violence and Child Physical Maltreatment: Parental and Peer Relationships as Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the joint impact of experiencing both interparental violence and child physical maltreatment on young adults' self-esteem. It also tested the hypothesis of parental and peer relationship qualities as mediators in the relationship between childhood histories of family violence and adult self-esteem. Data were collected from a…

  10. Relationships of Childhood Adverse Experiences With Mental Health and Quality of Life at Treatment Start for Adult Refugees Traumatized by Pre-Flight Experiences of War and Human Rights Violations

    PubMed Central

    Opaas, Marianne; Varvin, Sverre

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adverse and potentially traumatic experiences (PTEs) in childhood were examined among 54 adult refugee patients with pre-flight PTEs of war and human rights violations (HRVs) and related to mental health and quality of life at treatment start. Extent of childhood PTEs was more strongly related to mental health and quality of life than the extent of war and HRV experiences. Childhood PTEs were significantly related to arousal and avoidance symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to quality of life, whereas pre-flight war and HRV experiences were significantly related to reexperiencing symptoms of PTSD only. Within childhood adversities, experiences of family violence and external violence, but not of loss and illness, were significantly related to increased mental health symptoms and reduced quality of life. These results point to the importance of taking childhood adverse experiences into account in research and treatment planning for adult refugees with war and HRVs trauma. PMID:26103604

  11. Relationships of Childhood Adverse Experiences With Mental Health and Quality of Life at Treatment Start for Adult Refugees Traumatized by Pre-Flight Experiences of War and Human Rights Violations.

    PubMed

    Opaas, Marianne; Varvin, Sverre

    2015-09-01

    Adverse and potentially traumatic experiences (PTEs) in childhood were examined among 54 adult refugee patients with pre-flight PTEs of war and human rights violations (HRVs) and related to mental health and quality of life at treatment start. Extent of childhood PTEs was more strongly related to mental health and quality of life than the extent of war and HRV experiences. Childhood PTEs were significantly related to arousal and avoidance symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to quality of life, whereas pre-flight war and HRV experiences were significantly related to reexperiencing symptoms of PTSD only. Within childhood adversities, experiences of family violence and external violence, but not of loss and illness, were significantly related to increased mental health symptoms and reduced quality of life. These results point to the importance of taking childhood adverse experiences into account in research and treatment planning for adult refugees with war and HRVs trauma. PMID:26103604

  12. Relationships of Childhood Adverse Experiences With Mental Health and Quality of Life at Treatment Start for Adult Refugees Traumatized by Pre-Flight Experiences of War and Human Rights Violations.

    PubMed

    Opaas, Marianne; Varvin, Sverre

    2015-09-01

    Adverse and potentially traumatic experiences (PTEs) in childhood were examined among 54 adult refugee patients with pre-flight PTEs of war and human rights violations (HRVs) and related to mental health and quality of life at treatment start. Extent of childhood PTEs was more strongly related to mental health and quality of life than the extent of war and HRV experiences. Childhood PTEs were significantly related to arousal and avoidance symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to quality of life, whereas pre-flight war and HRV experiences were significantly related to reexperiencing symptoms of PTSD only. Within childhood adversities, experiences of family violence and external violence, but not of loss and illness, were significantly related to increased mental health symptoms and reduced quality of life. These results point to the importance of taking childhood adverse experiences into account in research and treatment planning for adult refugees with war and HRVs trauma.

  13. Intergenerational Relationship Quality, Gender, and Grandparent Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Melissa A.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Ontai, Lenna; Conger, Rand D.

    2010-01-01

    This prospective, intergenerational study (N = 181) considered how parent (G1, Generation 1) and child (G2, Generation 2) relationship quality during adolescence and adulthood is associated with G1's level of involvement with their 3- to 4-year-old grandchildren (G3, Generation 3). Path model analyses indicated different patterns of results for…

  14. [Quality of care in adult resuscitation unit].

    PubMed

    Romero Cabrera, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Nowadays the quality of care has become a key piece in medical assistance. Apart from doing things correctly we should have an objective knowledge of the opinion of the user That opinion could be known thanks to the analysis of the perceived quality care from the patient. From October to December of 2008 a descriptive, transversal and retrospective research has been developed in a resuscitation unit at a third level hospital of the Community of Madrid. This research has been for all the registrations to the service, through the Servqhos questionnaire. The aims of the research were to evaluate the quality perceived at the resuscitation unit; to know the profile of the patient treated and to identify the possible improvements and problems as well. The patients were anonymous and they presented themselves voluntary 19 of 42 registrations in total answered the questionnaire with a rate of reply of 45%. The average age registered were 57 years old with an average of stay of 11 days. The most prevalent pathologies were neoplasias and polytraumatisms. According to the quality perceived by the unity there has not been any relationship among gender study level, labor activity marital status and previous hospital stay. At the area of information to the patient there have been some deficiencies as well as some discrimination from the attending staff. Noise is valuated negatively by the patients. Further to the professionalism, is valuated positively at all the social classes. The global quality perceived of the unity were very good from the patient. PMID:25551917

  15. The Relationships among Anomia, Attitude toward Adult Education, and Nonparticipation in Formal Adult Education Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garry, Mark W.

    A study was conducted to explore the relationship between anomia (a feeling of alienation, of being cut off from society), attitude toward adult education, and nonparticipation in formal adult education activities. The subjects of the study were adults who lived in a specific area in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, which had the following characteristics:…

  16. Relationship Churning, Physical Violence, and Verbal Abuse in Young Adult Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern-Meekin, Sarah; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2013-01-01

    Young adults' romantic relationships are often unstable, commonly including breakup--reconcile patterns. From the developmental perspective of emerging adulthood exploration, such relationship "churning" is expected; however, minor conflicts are more common in churning relationships. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study ("N" =…

  17. Quality of Parent-Child Relations in Adolescence and Later Adult Parenting Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Myron D.; Woodward, Lianne J.; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Data from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 30-year prospective longitudinal study, were used to examine the associations between the quality of parent-child relations in adolescence and adult parenting behaviour 15 years later. At ages 14 and 15 years, cohort members were interviewed about the quality of their relationship with…

  18. Older Adults' Perceptions of Closeness in Sibling Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Helgola G.; And Others

    Decreasing numbers of peers in the lives of older adults give a special meaning to closeness in their sibling relationships. Interviews elicited perceptions of closeness from 30 adults. Content analyses revealed several patterns, i.e., participants perceived themselves as always having been close, as having grown more or less close over time, or…

  19. Relationships with Adult Children: Support Functions and Vulnerabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jeanne L.; And Others

    The family is the primary source of supportive services to the aged in this country. A study was undertaken to examine two issues related to developmental functions of relationships with adult children: the parent's view of assistance received from adult children, and age differences in those views; and, secondly, the functions of assistance…

  20. Family Relationships in Realistic Young Adult Fiction, 1987 to 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Cathie

    The purpose of this study was to determine how parents and family relationships are characterized in realistic young adult fiction. A random sample of 20 realistic young adult novels was selected from the American Library Association's Best Lists for the years 1987-1991. A content analysis of the novels focused on the following: (1) whether…

  1. Significance of Individuation in Adult Child--Parent Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhl, Heike M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the significance of adult children's individuation for the adult child--parent relationship. Following Youniss, individuation was assessed via its dimensions of both connectedness and individuality. A sample of 349 participants between 20 and 47 years of age were given questionnaires containing scales from the Network of…

  2. Intergenerational Relationships and Affectual Solidarity between Grandparents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monserud, Maria A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether both parents' relationships with their offspring, parents, and parents-in-law matter for young adults' perceptions of closeness to grandparents. This study focuses on two groups of grandchildren (ages 18-23) in Wave 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households: young adults with married biological parents (N =…

  3. Relationship Between Performance and Interest in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Thomas P.

    Focusing on readability and interest factors of instructional materials for adult education, the study examined the possible relationships between performance and expressed interest in individual reading passages and in categories of passages. Passages on one of three levels of difficulty were administered to 180 adult education students from…

  4. Diet Quality and Cancer Outcomes in Adults: A Systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Jennifer; Brown, Leanne; Williams, Rebecca L.; Byles, Julie; Collins, Clare E.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns influence cancer risk. However, systematic reviews have not evaluated relationships between a priori defined diet quality scores and adult cancer risk and mortality. The aims of this systematic review are to (1) describe diet quality scores used in cohort or cross-sectional research examining cancer outcomes; and (2) describe associations between diet quality scores and cancer risk and mortality. The protocol was registered in Prospero, and a systematic search using six electronic databases was conducted through to December 2014. Records were assessed for inclusion by two independent reviewers, and quality was evaluated using a validated tool. Sixty-four studies met inclusion criteria from which 55 different diet quality scores were identified. Of the 35 studies investigating diet quality and cancer risk, 60% (n = 21) found a positive relationship. Results suggest no relationship between diet quality scores and overall cancer risk. Inverse associations were found for diet quality scores and risk of postmenopausal breast, colorectal, head, and neck cancer. No consistent relationships between diet quality scores and cancer mortality were found. Diet quality appears to be related to site-specific adult cancer risk. The relationship with cancer mortality is less conclusive, suggesting additional factors impact overall cancer survival. Development of a cancer-specific diet quality score for application in prospective epidemiology and in public health is warranted. PMID:27399671

  5. Quality of Life and Psychological Distress Among Older Adults: The Role of Living Arrangements.

    PubMed

    Henning-Smith, Carrie

    2016-01-01

    This study asks (a) What are the relationships between types of living arrangements and psychological well-being for older adults? and (b) How do these relationships differ by gender? Data come from the 2010 wave of the National Health Interview Survey and include non-institutionalized adults aged 65 and older (N = 4,862). Dependent variables include self-rated quality of life and psychological distress. The study finds that older adults living alone or with others fare worse than those living with a spouse only. Yet, the outcomes of different types of living arrangements for older adults vary by gender. Women living with others are at greater risk of worse quality of life and serious psychological distress than men. Programs and policies must be responsive to the diverse needs of this population, rather than attempting a "one-size-fits-all" approach to housing and community-based services designed to promote older adults' psychological well-being and independence.

  6. Tensions in the Parent and Adult Child Relationship: Links to Solidarity and Ambivalence

    PubMed Central

    Birditt, Kira S.; Miller, Laura M.; Fingerman, Karen L.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2009-01-01

    Tensions are normative in the parent and adult child relationship, but there is little research on the topics that cause the most tension or whether tensions are associated with overall relationship quality. Adult sons and daughters, aged 22 to 49, and their mothers and fathers (N = 158 families, 474 individuals) reported the intensity of different tension topics and relationship quality (solidarity and ambivalence) with one another. Tensions varied between and within families by generation, gender and age of offspring. In comparison to tensions regarding individual issues, tensions regarding the relationship were associated with lower affective solidarity and greater ambivalence. Findings are consistent with the developmental schism hypothesis, which indicates that parent-child tensions are common and are the result of discrepancies in developmental needs which vary by generation, gender, and age. PMID:19485648

  7. The Association of Perceived Provider-Patient Communication and Relationship Quality with Colorectal Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underhill, Meghan L.; Kiviniemi, Marc T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Two-thirds of adults aged 50 years and older are adherent to recommendations for colorectal cancer screening. Provider-patient communication and characteristics of the patient-provider relationship may relate to screening behavior. Methods: The association of provider communication quality, relationship, and colorectal cancer screening…

  8. Relationships between Leisure Participation and Quality of Life of People with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badia, Marta; Orgaz, María Begoña; Verdugo, Miguel Á.; Ullán, Ana M.; Martínez, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studies of people with developmental disabilities suggest that participation in leisure activities might be a key factor for good quality of life. This study explores the relationships between objective and subjective quality of life and leisure participation of adults with developmental disabilities. Materials and Methods: A…

  9. Quality Assurance Model for Digital Adult Education Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimou, Helen; Kameas, Achilles

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present a model for the quality assurance of digital educational material that is appropriate for adult education. The proposed model adopts the software quality standard ISO/IEC 9126 and takes into account adult learning theories, Bloom's taxonomy of learning objectives and two instructional design models: Kolb's model…

  10. Health-related social control within older adults' relationships.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S

    2002-09-01

    This study examined the size and composition of older adults' social control networks and investigated behavioral and affective responses to the experience of social control. Social control in the health domain refers to regulatory attempts by others (direct), and feelings of obligation and responsibility to others (indirect), that encourage engagement in a healthy lifestyle. Participants were 181 adults aged 65-80 years who completed a mail survey. On average, older adults reported having 3-5 people in their social network who exerted a positive influence on their health behaviors, with the size and composition of this network varying somewhat by marital and parental statuses. Social control was associated with both positive and negative behavioral and affective responses, depending on both the type of social control (direct vs indirect) and level of relationship satisfaction. Results indicate the importance of better understanding the conditions under which social relationships have beneficial versus detrimental effects on the well-being of older adults.

  11. Health-related social control within older adults' relationships.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S

    2002-09-01

    This study examined the size and composition of older adults' social control networks and investigated behavioral and affective responses to the experience of social control. Social control in the health domain refers to regulatory attempts by others (direct), and feelings of obligation and responsibility to others (indirect), that encourage engagement in a healthy lifestyle. Participants were 181 adults aged 65-80 years who completed a mail survey. On average, older adults reported having 3-5 people in their social network who exerted a positive influence on their health behaviors, with the size and composition of this network varying somewhat by marital and parental statuses. Social control was associated with both positive and negative behavioral and affective responses, depending on both the type of social control (direct vs indirect) and level of relationship satisfaction. Results indicate the importance of better understanding the conditions under which social relationships have beneficial versus detrimental effects on the well-being of older adults. PMID:12198097

  12. Diet quality in older age: the influence of childhood and adult socio-economic circumstances.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Janice L; Ramsay, Sheena E; Whincup, Peter H; Morris, Richard W; Lennon, Lucy T; Wannamethee, S Goya

    2015-05-14

    Socio-economic gradients in diet quality are well established. However, the influence of material socio-economic conditions particularly in childhood, and the use of multiple disaggregated socio-economic measures on diet quality have been little studied in the elderly. In the present study, we examined childhood and adult socio-economic measures, and social relationships, as determinants of diet quality cross-sectionally in 4252 older British men (aged 60-79 years). A FFQ provided data on daily fruit and vegetable consumption and the Elderly Dietary Index (EDI), with higher scores indicating better diet quality. Adult and childhood socio-economic measures included occupation/father's occupation, education and household amenities, which combined to create composite scores. Social relationships included social contact, living arrangements and marital status. Both childhood and adult socio-economic factors were independently associated with diet quality. Compared with non-manual social class, men of childhood manual social class were less likely to consume fruit and vegetables daily (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.66, 0.97), as were men of adult manual social class (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.54, 0.79), and less likely to be in the top EDI quartile (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.61, 0.88), similar to men of adult manual social class (OR 0.66, 95 % CI 0.55, 0.79). Diet quality decreased with increasing adverse adult socio-economic scores; however, the association with adverse childhood socio-economic scores diminished with adult social class adjustment. A combined adverse childhood and adulthood socio-economic score was associated with poor diet quality. Diet quality was most favourable in married men and those not living alone, but was not associated with social contact. Diet quality in older men is influenced by childhood and adulthood socio-economic factors, marital status and living arrangements.

  13. Gender Difference in Relationship between Health-Related Quality of Life and Work Status

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Jinseok; Park, Jumin; Kim, Hyun-jung; Kwon, Young Dae

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the association of employment status with health-related quality of life in adult Koreans, as well as the gender difference in the relationship, using a large, nationally representative sample. Using data from the Korea Health Panel survey, we examined the relationship between quality of life measured by EQ-5D and work status among Korean adults. We also tested whether and how the relationship between quality of life and work status differed by gender. Quality of life among working adults was better than among non-working adults. The gap between the two groups was larger among male than female participants. Further, the gender differential effect was larger in the 41–60-year-old age group than in the 18–40-year-old and 61-or-older groups. Being employed has a positive relation to quality of life among adults. Work status plays a more important role in quality of life for men than for women, especially for the working elderly men than working elderly women. PMID:26629811

  14. Gender Difference in Relationship between Health-Related Quality of Life and Work Status.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Jinseok; Park, Jumin; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Kwon, Young Dae

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the association of employment status with health-related quality of life in adult Koreans, as well as the gender difference in the relationship, using a large, nationally representative sample. Using data from the Korea Health Panel survey, we examined the relationship between quality of life measured by EQ-5D and work status among Korean adults. We also tested whether and how the relationship between quality of life and work status differed by gender. Quality of life among working adults was better than among non-working adults. The gap between the two groups was larger among male than female participants. Further, the gender differential effect was larger in the 41-60-year-old age group than in the 18-40-year-old and 61-or-older groups. Being employed has a positive relation to quality of life among adults. Work status plays a more important role in quality of life for men than for women, especially for the working elderly men than working elderly women.

  15. Gender Difference in Relationship between Health-Related Quality of Life and Work Status.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Jinseok; Park, Jumin; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Kwon, Young Dae

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the association of employment status with health-related quality of life in adult Koreans, as well as the gender difference in the relationship, using a large, nationally representative sample. Using data from the Korea Health Panel survey, we examined the relationship between quality of life measured by EQ-5D and work status among Korean adults. We also tested whether and how the relationship between quality of life and work status differed by gender. Quality of life among working adults was better than among non-working adults. The gap between the two groups was larger among male than female participants. Further, the gender differential effect was larger in the 41-60-year-old age group than in the 18-40-year-old and 61-or-older groups. Being employed has a positive relation to quality of life among adults. Work status plays a more important role in quality of life for men than for women, especially for the working elderly men than working elderly women. PMID:26629811

  16. Quality of life (QOL) of older adult community choral singers in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Julene K; Louhivuori, Jukka; Stewart, Anita L; Tolvanen, Asko; Ross, Leslie; Era, Pertti

    2013-01-01

    Background Enhancing quality of life (QOL) of older adults is an international area of focus. Identifying factors and experiences that contribute to QOL of older adults helps promote optimal levels of functioning. This study examines the relationship between perceived benefits associated with choral singing and quality of life (QOL) among community-dwelling older adults. Methods One hundred and seventeen older adults who sing in community choirs in Jyväskylä, Finland completed self-report measures of QOL (WHOQOL-Bref), depressive symptoms, and a questionnaire about the benefits of singing in choir. Correlational analyses and linear regression models were used to examine the association between the benefits of singing in choir and QOL. Results Both correlation and regression analyses found significant relationships between the benefits of choral singing and three QOL domains: psychological, social relationships, and environment but not physical. These associations remained significant after adjusting for age and depressive symptoms. As hypothesized, older choral singers who reported greater benefits of choir singing had higher QOL in multiple domains. The older choral singers in the study also reported few symptoms of depression and high overall QOL and satisfaction with health. Conclusion Results suggest that singing in a community choir as an older adult may positively influence several aspects of QOL. These results suggest that community choral singing may one potential avenue for promoting quality of life in older adults. PMID:23574947

  17. Trajectories of Adolescent Hostile-Aggressive Behavior and Family Climate: Longitudinal Implications for Young Adult Romantic Relationship Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosco, Gregory M.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Xia, Mengya; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    The formation and maintenance of young adult romantic relationships that are free from violence and are characterized by love, connection, and effective problem-solving have important implications for later well-being and family functioning. In this study, we examined adolescent hostile-aggressive behavior (HAB) and family relationship quality as…

  18. Student Motivations, Quality and Status in Adult Higher Education (AHE) in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Naixia; Morgan, W. John

    2009-01-01

    This article examines an important and yet neglected aspect of the relationship between higher education and the labour market in contemporary China. It does this through a detailed case study of student motivations, quality and status in adult higher education (AHE) in the city of Taiyuan, Shanxi Province. This is a region which has seen major…

  19. Lifelong Education, Quality of Life and Self-Efficacy of Chinese Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Dion S. Y.; Liu, Ben C. P.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationships between lifelong learning, quality of life, and self-efficacy of older adults. One thousand and three participants of a lifelong educational program participated; the mean age was 50.6 (SD = 7.8, range: 18-78). Findings revealed that the patterns of study established a positive association with…

  20. Capturing the Magic: Assessing the Quality of Youth Mentoring Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Nancy L.; Spencer, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Mentoring programs pose some special challenges for quality assessment because they operate at two levels: that of the dyadic relationship and that of the program. Fully assessing the quality of youth mentoring relationships requires understanding the characteristics and processes of individual relationships, which are the point of service for…

  1. The Tempo of Sexual Activity and Later Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassler, Sharon; Addo, Fenaba R.; Lichter, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid sexual involvement may have adverse long-term implications for relationship quality. This study examined the tempo of sexual intimacy and subsequent relationship quality in a sample of married and cohabiting men and women. Data come from the Marital and Relationship Survey, which provides information on nearly 600 low- to moderate-income…

  2. The Relationship Between Focused Attention Meditation Practice Habits, Psychological Symptoms, and Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Bilican, F Isil

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between focused attention meditation practice habits, psychological symptoms, and quality of life. The participants were 30 adults from New York, NY, practicing Ananda Marga spirituality. They were administered the Symptom Check List-90-R and the Quality of Life Index. The findings pointed out while Ananda Marga meditation practice habits were not associated with improvements in psychological symptoms, longer years in meditation practice was associated with improvements in overall, social and psychological/spiritual quality of life. Longer periods of meditation practice per session were related to lower levels of overall quality of life and economic quality of life.

  3. Constraints on the adult-offspring size relationship in protists.

    PubMed

    Caval-Holme, Franklin; Payne, Jonathan; Skotheim, Jan M

    2013-12-01

    The relationship between adult and offspring size is an important aspect of reproductive strategy. Although this filial relationship has been extensively examined in plants and animals, we currently lack comparable data for protists, whose strategies may differ due to the distinct ecological and physiological constraints on single-celled organisms. Here, we report measurements of adult and offspring sizes in 3888 species and subspecies of foraminifera, a class of large marine protists. Foraminifera exhibit a wide range of reproductive strategies; species of similar adult size may have offspring whose sizes vary 100-fold. Yet, a robust pattern emerges. The minimum (5th percentile), median, and maximum (95th percentile) offspring sizes exhibit a consistent pattern of increase with adult size independent of environmental change and taxonomic variation over the past 400 million years. The consistency of this pattern may arise from evolutionary optimization of the offspring size-fecundity trade-off and/or from cell-biological constraints that limit the range of reproductive strategies available to single-celled organisms. When compared with plants and animals, foraminifera extend the evidence that offspring size covaries with adult size across an additional five orders of magnitude in organism size.

  4. Different dimensions, different mechanisms? Distinguishing relationship status and quality effects on desistance.

    PubMed

    Barr, Ashley Brooke; Simons, Ronald L

    2015-06-01

    This study follows from a long line of research aimed at understanding the effects of romantic relationships on desistance from crime. We expanded this work by testing the differential effects of relationship status (i.e., single, dating, cohabiting, married) and relationship quality on crime and the different mechanisms explaining these effects. We drew upon longitudinal data on African American young adults, and utilized a fixed effects approach to examine intraindividual change in relationship status, relationship quality, and offending. Results suggested that, for men, relationship status was directly associated with crime, in that coresidential unions reduced offending independent of their quality. High-quality relationships, however, were found to deter crime for both men and women no matter their form. The effect of relationship status was largely accounted for by social control processes, whereas the relationship quality effect was explained by cognitive transformation, particularly a change in the "criminogenic knowledge structure." These findings demand greater attention to multiple dimensions of relationships and the unique mechanisms through which they may foster desistance.

  5. Predictors of Coparenting Relationship Quality in African American Single Mother Families: An Ecological Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterrett, Emma; Jones, Deborah J.; Forehand, Rex; Garai, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Nonmarital coparents, or adults who assist mothers with childrearing, play a significant role in the lives of African American single mothers and their children. Yet relatively little research has examined correlates of the quality of the coparenting relationship in these families. Using a broad ecological framework, the current study examined…

  6. Intimate partner victimization, poor relationship quality, and depressive symptoms during young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Longmore, Monica A; Manning, Wendy D; Giordano, Peggy C; Copp, Jennifer E

    2014-11-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (n = 927), we examined physical victimization, poor quality, and depression among young adults in casually dating, exclusively dating, cohabiting, and marital relationships. In multivariate models, victimization was a risk factor for depression with the inclusion of prior depression, family factors reflecting the intergenerational transmission of violence, sociodemographic background, and relationship characteristics including union status. With the inclusion of indicators of poor relational quality, victimization was not a significant predictor of depression. Arguing and poor communication influenced victimization and depression. Associations between victimization and depression did not differ by gender, nor were the effects of poor quality on depression conditional on gender. Thus, victimization occurs within relationships characterized by a range of negative dynamics. Multifaceted relationship-centered prevention efforts are more useful than focusing only on the use of aggression with a partner. PMID:25131276

  7. Religiousness and health-related quality of life of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Abdala, Gina Andrade; Kimura, Miako; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; dos Santos, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine whether religiousness mediates the relationship between sociodemographic factors, multimorbidity and health-related quality of life of older adults. METHODS This population-based cross-sectional study is part of the Survey on Health, Well-Being, and Aging (SABE). The sample was composed by 911 older adults from Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. Structural equation modeling was performed to assess the mediator effect of religiousness on the relationship between selected variables and health-related quality of life of older adults, with models for men and women. The independent variables were: age, education, family functioning and multimorbidity. The outcome variable was health-related quality of life of older adults, measured by SF-12 (physical and mental components). The mediator variables were organizational, non-organizational and intrinsic religiousness. Cronbach’s alpha values were: physical component = 0.85; mental component = 0.80; intrinsic religiousness = 0.89 and family APGAR (Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve) = 0.91. RESULTS Higher levels of organizational and intrinsic religiousness were associated with better physical and mental components. Higher education, better family functioning and fewer diseases contributed directly to improved performance in physical and mental components, regardless of religiousness. For women, organizational religiousness mediated the relationship between age and physical (β = 2.401, p < 0.01) and mental (β = 1.663, p < 0.01) components. For men, intrinsic religiousness mediated the relationship between education and mental component (β = 7.158, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Organizational and intrinsic religiousness had a beneficial effect on the relationship between age, education and health-related quality of life of these older adults. PMID:26274870

  8. Personality Effects on Romantic Relationship Quality through Friendship Quality: A Ten-Year Longitudinal Study in Youths

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether individuals with different personality types (i.e., overcontrollers, undercontrollers, resilients) had different friendship quality development throughout adolescence. It also investigated whether personality types were indirectly related to romantic relationship quality in young adulthood, via friendship quality development in adolescence. The study employed six waves of longitudinal questionnaire data from Dutch youths who had a romantic relationship when they were young adults. Two age cohorts were followed, from 12 to 21 years and from 16 to 25 years, respectively. Findings showed that resilients reported higher mean levels of friendship quality during adolescence (i.e., more support from, less negative interaction with and less dominance from their best friend) than both overcontrollers and undercontrollers. Through the mean levels of friendship quality throughout adolescence, resilients indirectly experienced higher romantic relationship quality during young adulthood than both overcontrollers and undercontrollers. Thus, results provide support for a developmental model in which adolescent friendship quality is a mechanism linking personality types with young adulthood romantic relationship quality. PMID:25232964

  9. Personality effects on romantic relationship quality through friendship quality: a ten-year longitudinal study in youths.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim H J

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether individuals with different personality types (i.e., overcontrollers, undercontrollers, resilients) had different friendship quality development throughout adolescence. It also investigated whether personality types were indirectly related to romantic relationship quality in young adulthood, via friendship quality development in adolescence. The study employed six waves of longitudinal questionnaire data from Dutch youths who had a romantic relationship when they were young adults. Two age cohorts were followed, from 12 to 21 years and from 16 to 25 years, respectively. Findings showed that resilients reported higher mean levels of friendship quality during adolescence (i.e., more support from, less negative interaction with and less dominance from their best friend) than both overcontrollers and undercontrollers. Through the mean levels of friendship quality throughout adolescence, resilients indirectly experienced higher romantic relationship quality during young adulthood than both overcontrollers and undercontrollers. Thus, results provide support for a developmental model in which adolescent friendship quality is a mechanism linking personality types with young adulthood romantic relationship quality.

  10. Media exposure and romantic relationship quality: a slippery slope?

    PubMed

    Reizer, Abira; Hetsroni, Amir

    2014-02-01

    This study examines whether media consumption predicted relationship quality among 188 college students who were involved in romantic relationships. The respondents assessed their commitment to the relationship, their satisfaction from the relationship, and their tendency to engage in conflicts within the relationship. Media consumption was measured by assessing the time dedicated to television viewing in general, watching specific genres, Internet use, and newspaper reading. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that total TV viewing time statistically predicted lower commitment to the relationship, while viewing of programming focusing on romantic relationships predicted lower satisfaction and stronger tendency to engage in conflicts. Consumption of media other than television and the control factors did not predict any indicator of relationship quality. The pattern of negative associations between TV viewing and relationship quality is discussed with reference to cultivation theory and mood management theory. PMID:24765723

  11. Relationships among abilities in elderly adults: a time lag analysis.

    PubMed

    Hayslip, B; Brookshire, R G

    1985-11-01

    Previous research has suggested that relationships among primary abilities said to measure crystallized (Gc) and fluid (Gf) intelligences remain the same across cohorts if age is held constant, despite generational changes in the levels of abilities. The present study assessed differences in relationship among several components of Gf/Gc in two independent samples of elderly adults, tested in 1975 and 1979 by the same investigator. The 1975 sample consisted of 54 elderly adults aged 59 to 76 years (M = 67.7); the 1979 sample of 50 elderly adults was aged 55 to 82 (M = 69.4). Time-lagged differences in relationships among abilities measuring Gf and Gc (induction, figural relations, and verbal comprehension) were investigated using confirmatory factor analytic procedures. Although a two factor (Gf, Gc) model was common to both the 1975 and 1979 samples, significant differences in unique variances were observed across samples. Some, albeit weaker, evidence was found suggesting time-lagged differences in factor covariances. These data, for the most part, support previous research with younger individuals, suggesting consistency in factor structure across time and cohort.

  12. Construction and validation of a quality of life instrument for young adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Kasen, Stephanie; Gordan, Kathy; Dufur, Rebecca; Smailes, Elizabeth

    2004-05-01

    Assessment of quality of life (QOL) in young adults has become an increasingly important field of research as information on the QOL of children and adults accumulates. The purpose of this study is to report on the development of the Young Adult Quality Of Life (YAQOL) instrument, a measure of QOL for young adults aged 18-25. The YAQOL, which is comprised of 14 multi-item scales that assess physical health and aspects of psychological well-being, social relationships, role function, and environmental context, was administered to a general population sample of 751 young adults. Scale structure was confirmed by item-internal consistency, item discriminant validity, and inter-scale correlations. Reliability coefficients ranged from 0.88 to 0.63 across scales (mean = 0.73). Eight YAQOL scales discriminated clearly between young adults with and without chronic physical conditions, 12 scales discriminated between young adults with and without personality disorder, and negative associations were demonstrated between YAQOL scale scores and psychiatric disorder symptoms. Demographic differences in the YAQOL scales were consistent with theoretical expectations and previous empirical work. Overall, findings support the reliability and utility of the YAQOL as a measure of QOL in young adults in the general population. Additional psychometric properties will continue to be evaluated as more data become available.

  13. Contributors to Adult Sibling Relationships and Intention to Care of Siblings of Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuskelly, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of childhood sibling relationships to adult sibling relationships and intention to provide care was investigated in a sample in which one member of each dyad had Down syndrome. Thirty-nine adult siblings of an adult with Down syndrome who had participated in a study of sibling relationships in childhood/adolescence provided data…

  14. Intergenerational Patterns of Union Formation and Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassler, Sharon; Cunningham, Anna; Lichter, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine whether young adults who experienced their parents' divorce and new relationships have different relationship trajectories than those who spent their childhoods living with biological parents in married-couple families. The analysis is based on longitudinal reports from more than 1,500 children from Wave 1 of the 1987-1988…

  15. Establishment of safety paradigms and trust in emerging adult relationships

    PubMed Central

    Mullinax, Margo; Sanders, Stephanie; Higgins, Jenny; Dennis, Barbara; Reece, Michael; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2016-01-01

    There is a critical need to understand the interplay between relationship trust and public health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of emerging adult women’s processes of establishing trust in sexual relationships. Twenty-five women aged 18–24 years participated in semi-structured interviews. Throughout the interviews, women compared and contrasted experiences in which they felt comfortable engaging in sexual intercourse with a partner versus times in which they did not feel comfortable. Analysis was based on a critical qualitative research orientation. When asked to speak to instances when they felt comfortable having sex, most women spoke about relationship trust. Many participants conceptualised trust based on past experiences with bad relationships or sexual violence. Based on their previous experiences of feeling unsafe or undervalued, emotional and physical security became prioritised in relationship development. Trust was developed through friendship, communication over time, and through shared life experiences. This research is among the first to qualitatively investigate trust formation and other impersonal dynamics related to sexual health decision-making. Insights from this study should be translated into future action by public health practitioners to promote healthy sexual relationships and communication about sexual health topics as a form of trust building. PMID:26943023

  16. Social Relationships, Leisure Activity, and Health in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Po-Ju; Wray, Linda; Lin, Yeqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although the link between enhanced social relationships and better health has generally been well established, few studies have examined the role of leisure activity in this link. This study examined how leisure influences the link between social relationships and health in older age. Methods Using data from the 2006 and 2010 waves of the nationally representative U.S. Health and Retirement Study and structural equation modelling analyses, we examined data on 2,965 older participants to determine if leisure activities mediated the link between social relationships and health in 2010, controlling for race, education level, and health in 2006. Results The results demonstrated that leisure activities mediate the link between social relationships and health in these age groups. Perceptions of positive social relationships were associated with greater involvement in leisure activities, and greater involvement in leisure activities was associated with better health in older age. Discussion & Conclusions The contribution of leisure to health in these age groups is receiving increasing attention, and the results of this study add to the literature on this topic, by identifying the mediating effect of leisure activity on the link between social relationships and health. Future studies aimed at increasing leisure activity may contribute to improved health outcomes in older adults. PMID:24884905

  17. Consensual Nonmonogamy: Psychological Well-Being and Relationship Quality Correlates.

    PubMed

    Rubel, Alicia N; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2015-01-01

    Consensually nonmonogamous relationships are those in which all partners explicitly agree that each partner may have romantic or sexual relationships with others (Conley, Ziegler, Moors, Matsick, & Valentine, 2013 ). In this article, research examining the associations between consensual nonmonogamy, psychological well-being, and relationship quality is reviewed. Specifically, three types of consensual nonmonogamy are examined: swinging, open relationships (including sexually open marriage and gay open relationships), and polyamory. Swinging refers to when a couple practices extradyadic sex with members of another couple; open relationships are relationships in which partners agree that they can have extradyadic sex; and polyamory is the practice of, belief in, or willingness to engage in consensual nonmonogamy, typically in long-term and/or loving relationships. General trends in the research reviewed suggest that consensual nonmonogamists have similar psychological well-being and relationship quality as monogamists. Methodological challenges in research on consensual nonmonogamy and directions for future research are discussed.

  18. Consensual Nonmonogamy: Psychological Well-Being and Relationship Quality Correlates.

    PubMed

    Rubel, Alicia N; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2015-01-01

    Consensually nonmonogamous relationships are those in which all partners explicitly agree that each partner may have romantic or sexual relationships with others (Conley, Ziegler, Moors, Matsick, & Valentine, 2013 ). In this article, research examining the associations between consensual nonmonogamy, psychological well-being, and relationship quality is reviewed. Specifically, three types of consensual nonmonogamy are examined: swinging, open relationships (including sexually open marriage and gay open relationships), and polyamory. Swinging refers to when a couple practices extradyadic sex with members of another couple; open relationships are relationships in which partners agree that they can have extradyadic sex; and polyamory is the practice of, belief in, or willingness to engage in consensual nonmonogamy, typically in long-term and/or loving relationships. General trends in the research reviewed suggest that consensual nonmonogamists have similar psychological well-being and relationship quality as monogamists. Methodological challenges in research on consensual nonmonogamy and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25189189

  19. Sleep quality is negatively related to video gaming volume in adults.

    PubMed

    Exelmans, Liese; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Most literature on the relationship between video gaming and sleep disturbances has looked at children and adolescents. There is little research on such a relationship in adult samples. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association of video game volume with sleep quality in adults via face-to-face interviews using standardized questionnaires. Adults (n = 844, 56.2% women), aged 18-94 years old, participated in the study. Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and gaming volume was assessed by asking the hours of gaming on a regular weekday (Mon-Thurs), Friday and weekend day (Sat-Sun). Adjusting for gender, age, educational level, exercise and perceived stress, results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that video gaming volume was a significant predictor of sleep quality (β = 0.145), fatigue (β = 0.109), insomnia (β = 0.120), bedtime (β = 0.100) and rise time (β = 0.168). Each additional hour of video gaming per day delayed bedtime by 6.9 min (95% confidence interval 2.0-11.9 min) and rise time by 13.8 min (95% confidence interval 7.8-19.7 min). Attributable risk for having poor sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index > 5) due to gaming >1 h day was 30%. When examining the components of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index using multinomial regression analysis (odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals), gaming volume significantly predicted sleep latency, sleep efficiency and use of sleep medication. In general, findings support the conclusion that gaming volume is negatively related to the overall sleep quality of adults, which might be due to underlying mechanisms of screen exposure and arousal. PMID:25358428

  20. The relationships among separation anxiety disorder, adult attachment style and agoraphobia in patients with panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Pini, Stefano; Abelli, Marianna; Troisi, Alfonso; Siracusano, Alberto; Cassano, Giovanni B; Shear, Katherine M; Baldwin, David

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that separation anxiety disorder occurs more frequently in adults than children. It is unclear whether the presence of adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) is a manifestation of anxious attachment, or a form of agoraphobia, or a specific condition with clinically significant consequences. We conducted a study to examine these questions. A sample of 141 adult outpatients with panic disorder participated in the study. Participants completed standardized measures of separation anxiety, attachment style, agoraphobia, panic disorder severity and quality of life. Patients with ASAD (49.5% of our sample) had greater panic symptom severity and more impairment in quality of life than those without separation anxiety. We found a greater rate of symptoms suggestive of anxious attachment among panic patients with ASAD compared to those without ASAD. However, the relationship between ASAD and attachment style is not strong, and adult ASAD occurs in some patients who report secure attachment style. Similarly, there is little evidence for the idea that separation anxiety disorder is a form of agoraphobia. Factor analysis shows clear differentiation of agoraphobic and separation anxiety symptoms. Our data corroborate the notion that ASAD is a distinct condition associated with impairment in quality of life and needs to be better recognized and treated in patients with panic disorder.

  1. Assessing Social Support, Companionship, and Distress: NIH Toolbox Adult Social Relationship Scales

    PubMed Central

    Cyranowski, Jill M.; Zill, Nicholas; Bode, Rita; Butt, Zeeshan; Kelly, Morgen A. R.; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Salsman, John M.; Cella, David

    2013-01-01

    Objective The quality of our daily social interactions – including perceptions of support, feelings of loneliness, and distress stemming from negative social exchanges – influence physical health and well-being. Despite the importance of social relationships, brief yet precise, unidimensional scales that assess key aspects of social relationship quality are lacking. As part of the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function, we developed brief self-report scales designed to assess aspects of social support, companionship, and social distress across age cohorts. This report details the development and psychometric testing of the adult NIH Toolbox Social Relationship scales. Methods Social relationship concepts were selected, and item sets were developed and revised based on expert feedback and literature review. Items were then tested across a community-dwelling U.S. internet panel sample of adults aged 18 and above (N=692) using traditional (classic) psychometric methods and item response theory (IRT) approaches to identify items for inclusion in 5–8 item unidimensional scales. Finally, concurrent validity of the newly-developed scales was evaluated with respect to their inter-relationships with classic social relationship validation instruments. Results Results provide support for the internal reliability and concurrent validity of resulting self-report scales assessing Emotional Support, Instrumental Support, Friendship, Loneliness, Perceived Rejection, and Perceived Hostility. Conclusion These brief social relationship scales provide the pragmatic utility and enhanced precision needed to promote future epidemiological and social neuroscience research on the impact of social relationships on physical and emotional health outcomes. PMID:23437856

  2. [Study of the relationship between human quality and reliability].

    PubMed

    Long, S; Wang, C; Wang, L i; Yuan, J; Liu, H; Jiao, X

    1997-02-01

    To clarify the relationship between human quality and reliability, 1925 experiments in 20 subjects were carried out to study the relationship between disposition character, digital memory, graphic memory, multi-reaction time and education level and simulated aircraft operation. Meanwhile, effects of task difficulty and enviromental factor on human reliability were also studied. The results showed that human quality can be predicted and evaluated through experimental methods. The better the human quality, the higher the human reliability. PMID:11539889

  3. Factors linking childhood experiences to adult romantic relationships among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Landor, Antoinette M; Bryant, Chalandra M; Beach, Steven R H

    2014-06-01

    It is well known that a high-quality relationship with a romantic partner is related to a variety of positive outcomes associated with health and well-being. Establishing such relationships is an important developmental task for young adults, and past research indicates that there is a link between experiences in the family of origin and the success of later intimate relationships. It has been suggested that this association can be explained by the acquisition of social competencies (e.g., emotions, schemas, traits) that are acquired during childhood in the family of origin and, in turn, influence interaction with adult romantic partners. The current study builds on this foundation by identifying particular competencies expected to explain the association between childhood exposure to supportive and harsh parenting and later patterns of interaction with romantic partners. Specifically, we examine anger management, attachment style, hostile attribution bias, and self-control as potential mediators using prospective, longitudinal data from a sample of 345 African American young adults. Results from structural equation modeling indicate that each of the mediators in our study accounts for a significant portion of the effect of parenting on the quality of adult romantic relationships, although the constructs linking parenting to warm interactions with romantic partners are somewhat different from those that link parenting to hostile interactions with romantic partners. Even after accounting for the effect of the mediators, there is still a direct effect of parenting on both warm/loving and hostile/aggressive interactions with romantic partner. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:24730381

  4. Factors linking childhood experiences to adult romantic relationships among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Landor, Antoinette M; Bryant, Chalandra M; Beach, Steven R H

    2014-06-01

    It is well known that a high-quality relationship with a romantic partner is related to a variety of positive outcomes associated with health and well-being. Establishing such relationships is an important developmental task for young adults, and past research indicates that there is a link between experiences in the family of origin and the success of later intimate relationships. It has been suggested that this association can be explained by the acquisition of social competencies (e.g., emotions, schemas, traits) that are acquired during childhood in the family of origin and, in turn, influence interaction with adult romantic partners. The current study builds on this foundation by identifying particular competencies expected to explain the association between childhood exposure to supportive and harsh parenting and later patterns of interaction with romantic partners. Specifically, we examine anger management, attachment style, hostile attribution bias, and self-control as potential mediators using prospective, longitudinal data from a sample of 345 African American young adults. Results from structural equation modeling indicate that each of the mediators in our study accounts for a significant portion of the effect of parenting on the quality of adult romantic relationships, although the constructs linking parenting to warm interactions with romantic partners are somewhat different from those that link parenting to hostile interactions with romantic partners. Even after accounting for the effect of the mediators, there is still a direct effect of parenting on both warm/loving and hostile/aggressive interactions with romantic partner. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  5. The complexities of adolescent dating and sexual relationships: fluidity, meaning(s), and implications for young adults' well-being.

    PubMed

    Manning, Wendy D; Longmore, Monica A; Copp, Jennifer; Giordano, Peggy C

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of adolescents' dating and sexual lives is not easily operationalized with simple indicators of dating or sexual activity. While building on prior work that emphasizes the "risky" nature of adolescents' intimate relationships, we assess whether a variety of indicators reflecting the complexity of adolescents' relationships influence early adult well-being (i.e., depressive symptoms, self-esteem, gainful activity, intimate partner violence, and relationship quality). Our analysis of longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study showed that the number of adolescent dating and sexual partners does not uniformly influence indicators of young adult well-being, which is at odds with a risk framework. The number of dating partners with whom the individual was sexually active, and not the number of "casual" sex partners, increased the odds of intimate partner violence during young adulthood. Relationship churning and sexual nonexclusivity during adolescence were associated with lower relationship quality during young adulthood. Sexual nonexclusivity during adolescence influenced self-reports of depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem among young adults. Future research should develop more nuanced conceptualizations of adolescent dating and sexual relationships and integrate adolescent dating and sexual experiences into research on early adult well-being.

  6. Machiavellianism and Adult Attachment in General Interpersonal Relationships and Close Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Ináncsi, Tamás; Láng, András; Bereczkei, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Up to the present, the relationship between Machiavellianism and adult attachment has remained a question to be answered in the psychological literature. That is why this study focused on the relationship between Machiavellianism and attachment towards significant others in general interpersonal relationships and in intimate-close relationships. Two attachment tests (Relationship Questionnaire and long-form of Experiences in Close Relationship) and the Mach-IV test were conducted on a sample consisting of 185 subjects. Results have revealed that Machiavellian subjects show a dismissing-avoidant attachment style in their general interpersonal relationships, while avoidance is further accompanied by some characteristics of attachment anxiety in their intimate-close relationships. Our findings further refine the relationship between Machiavellianism and dismissing-avoidant attachment. Machiavellian individuals not only have a negative representation of significant others, but they also tend to seek symbiotic closeness in order to exploit their partners. This ambitendency in distance regulation might be particularly important in understanding the vulnerability of Machiavellian individuals. PMID:27247647

  7. Intimate Partner Victimization, Poor Relationship Quality, and Depressive Symptoms during Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Copp, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    Examining longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 927), we assessed associations between physical victimization by an intimate partner, indicators of poor relationship quality, and depressive symptoms among young adult men and women in casually dating, exclusively dating, cohabiting, and marital relationships. In zero-order models, we found that physical victimization increased depressive symptoms. In multivariate models, victimization was a risk factor for depressive symptoms with the inclusion of prior depressive symptoms, family factors reflecting the intergenerational transmission of violence, sociodemographic background, and relationship characteristics including union status. Yet with the additional inclusion of indicators of poor relational quality, victimization was not a significant predictor of depressive symptoms. Arguing and poor communication influenced victimization and depressive symptoms. The associations between victimization and depressive symptoms did not differ by gender, nor were the effects of poor relationship quality on depressive symptoms conditional on gender. Thus, depressive symptoms are similarly responsive to intimate partner victimization, and for both women and men these associations were not significant with the inclusion of indicators of poor relationship quality. Findings underscored that victimization often occurs within relationship contexts characterized by a range of negative dynamics; thus multifaceted relationship-centered prevention and intervention efforts are likely to be more useful than those focusing only on negative messages about the use of aggression with an intimate partner. PMID:25131276

  8. Adult family relationships in the context of friendship

    PubMed Central

    Fuller-Iglesias, Heather R.; Webster, Noah; Antonucci, Toni C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the complex way in which relationships with family and friends shape health and well-being in adulthood over time. Specifically, we explored whether the longitudinal effects of positive and negative family relationship quality on health and well-being differ in the context of varying levels of positive friend relationships. Data were from two waves (1992/1993 and 2005) of the Social Relations, Aging and Health Study. The sample included respondents aged 18 and older at Wave 1 who reported having a best friend at both waves (N = 455), and consisted of 291 (64%) women and 164 (36%) men. Wave 1 friend positivity and family positivity interacted to predict self-rated health but not self-esteem, indicating that among respondents with a less positive friend relationship, more positive family relationships were related to worse health at Wave 2. Wave 1 friend positivity and family negativity significantly interacted to predict self-rated health and self-esteem at Wave 2. The nature of the interactions were consistent in that among respondents with a more highly positive friend relationship, less negative family relationships were linked to better health and self-esteem at Wave 2. Findings provide insight into the complex way in which social relations impact positive outcomes in adulthood. Previous studies have documented the consistent and straightforward manner in which negative relationships impact health and well-being, whereas this study illustrates that the role of positive social relations is more variable and dependent on multiple relationship contexts. PMID:24273462

  9. Adult family relationships in the context of friendship.

    PubMed

    Fuller-Iglesias, Heather R; Webster, Noah; Antonucci, Toni C

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the complex way in which relationships with family and friends shape health and well-being in adulthood over time. Specifically, we explored whether the longitudinal effects of positive and negative family relationship quality on health and well-being differ in the context of varying levels of positive friend relationships. Data were from two waves (1992/1993 and 2005) of the Social Relations, Aging and Health Study. The sample included respondents aged 18 and older at Wave 1 who reported having a best friend at both waves (N = 455), and consisted of 291 (64%) women and 164 (36%) men. Wave 1 friend positivity and family positivity interacted to predict self-rated health but not self-esteem, indicating that among respondents with a less positive friend relationship, more positive family relationships were related to worse health at Wave 2. Wave 1 friend positivity and family negativity significantly interacted to predict self-rated health and self-esteem at Wave 2. The nature of the interactions were consistent in that among respondents with a more highly positive friend relationship, less negative family relationships were linked to better health and self-esteem at Wave 2. Findings provide insight into the complex way in which social relations impact positive outcomes in adulthood. Previous studies have documented the consistent and straightforward manner in which negative relationships impact health and well-being, whereas this study illustrates that the role of positive social relations is more variable and dependent on multiple relationship contexts.

  10. Cross Cultural Relationships of Depression, Attachment Styles, and Quality of Romantic Relationships: Cultural Difference between Taiwanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burleson, Yi-An Lo

    2013-01-01

    Relationship quality has been determined to be a positive factor in the treatment of depression (Brown, 2000; Fagan, 2009). Although the importance of marriage has been broadly studied, little research has investigated correlations among relationship quality, depressive moods, and attachment styles. Although the prevalence of depressive moods has…

  11. Gender, Emotion Work, and Relationship Quality: A Daily Diary Study

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Melissa A.; McDaniel, Brandon T.; Pollitt, Amanda M.; Totenhagen, Casey J.

    2015-01-01

    We use the gender relations perspective from feminist theorizing to investigate how gender and daily emotion work predict daily relationship quality in 74 couples (148 individuals in dating, cohabiting, or married relationships) primarily from the southwest U.S. Emotion work is characterized by activities that enhance others’ emotional well-being. We examined emotion work two ways: trait (individuals’ average levels) and state (individuals’ daily fluctuations). We examined actor and partner effects of emotion work and tested for gender differences. As outcome variables, we included six types of daily relationship quality: love, commitment, satisfaction, closeness, ambivalence, and conflict. This approach allowed us to predict three aspects of relationship quality: average levels, daily fluctuations, and volatility (overall daily variability across a week). Three patterns emerged. First, emotion work predicted relationship quality in this diverse set of couples. Second, gender differences were minimal for fixed effects: Trait and state emotion work predicted higher average scores on, and positive daily increases in, individuals’ own positive relationship quality and lower average ambivalence. Third, gender differences were more robust for volatility: For partner effects, having a partner who reported higher average emotion work predicted lower volatility in love, satisfaction, and closeness for women versus greater volatility in love and commitment for men. Neither gender nor emotion work predicted average levels, daily fluctuations, or volatility in conflict. We discuss implications and future directions pertaining to the unique role of gender in understanding the associations between daily emotion work and volatility in daily relationship quality for relational partners. PMID:26508808

  12. Daily activities and sleep quality in young adults.

    PubMed

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy; Pichler-Mowry, Rene

    2011-04-01

    Daily activity levels were investigated as related to sleep quality in young adult college students aged 18 to 30 years. 85 participants (20 men, 65 women) completed the Young Adult Daily Activity Scale (YADAS). This 37-item checklist has 34 items based on focus group discussion points of college students' typical daily activities and three blank items for students to include their daily activities if not in the listing. The tabulation of type and amount of waking daily activities represents a unique measurement of factors that may affect sleep quality. The participants also rated their typical sleep quality using a standard 5-point scale (low indicating poor sleep). Correlations of sleep ratings and activities were not significant. PMID:21667753

  13. Older Men's and Women's Relationships with Adult Kin: How Equitable Are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.; Peterson, James L.

    1988-01-01

    Sought global assessments of marital equitability from 62 older adults, and compared men's and women's global equity feelings concerning their relationships with spouses, aged parents, and adult children. Forty younger adults rated equity of their marriages and relationships with parents and grandparents. Majority of both generations' involvements…

  14. Sleep Quality, Pain and Self-Efficacy among Community-Dwelling Adults with Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Adegbola, Maxine

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to report the findings of a study examining relationships among sleep, pain, self-efficacy, and demographic attributes of community-dwelling adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Sleep difficulty has been self-reported among adults with chronic pain. Past studies have demonstrated that chronic pain results in sleep difficulties and other complications that threaten effective functioning. Community-dwelling adults with SCD are living longer and need to be evaluated for sleep quality, pain, and self-efficacy. Little is known about whether adults with SCD-related pain have disturbances in sleep and self-efficacy, and if these disturbances are affected by age and/or gender. The purpose of this descriptive, correlational study was to examine the relationships among sleep, pain, self-efficacy, and demographic attributes among community-dwelling adults with SCD, and who use support services of state SCD Associations in the United States. For this secondary data analysis, the study was conducted from June, 2014 to December, 2014 and used a descriptive correlational design to analyze data from a primary study of a convenience sample of 90 subjects with SCD, who were 18 years of age and older. Linear regression was used to compute the relationship between dependent and independent variables. All measures were self-reported. It was found that gender did not significantly affect reports of sleep, pain, or self-efficacy. Self-efficacy accounted for direct relationships with sleep and inverse relationships with pain. Some individuals (16.7%) reported sleeping very well, however, the majority (83.3%) was not sleeping very well, and a greater number of individuals (93.3%) reported having some pain. Among adults with chronic SCD pain, self-efficacy is important in maintaining a stable quality of health. Future assessments, interventions, and research should include comprehensive sleep and pain evaluations, and measures to improve self-efficacy and sleep

  15. Building Quality Relationships with Principals to Improve Organizational Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albertson, Janelle

    2009-01-01

    When it comes to keeping an organization on the cutting edge, there is one thing that effective leaders cannot afford to neglect--and that is relationships. To support a quality public relations program in school districts, one of the most important relationships to cultivate is that with building principals. Talk to any seasoned school public…

  16. Conflict Frequency and Relationship Quality across the Transition to Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluwer, Esther S.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2007-01-01

    Longitudinal data from 293 Dutch couples were used to examine the association between conflict frequency and relationship quality across the transition to parenthood, which is known as one of the most challenging events in the early stages of marriage. More frequent conflict during pregnancy was related to lower levels of relationship quality…

  17. Investigating Relationships among Quality Dimensions in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardi, Romadhani; Hidayatno, Akhmad; Zagloel, Teuku Yuri M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to assess the relationships among quality dimensions in higher education (HE) and to determine the effect of each quality dimension on students' satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire was developed and distributed to 270 final year students of an engineering faculty in an Indonesian state university.…

  18. The Relationship of Classroom Quality to Kindergarten Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burson, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative study focuses on the relationship between classroom quality and children's academic achievement. Specifically, it examines how classroom quality in three broad domains-- emotional climate, classroom management and instructional support--impact kindergarten achievement growth in mathematics and reading. The researcher collected…

  19. Body Weight and the Quality of Interpersonal Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Deborah; Friedman, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate whether underweight, normal-weight, overweight, and obese Americans differ in their evaluations of positive and negative aspects of their interpersonal relationships. Analyses are based on data from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study, a survey of more than 3,000 adults ages 25 to 74 in 1995. We find no…

  20. Adult Relationships in Multiple Contexts and Associations with Adolescent Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capp, Gordon; Berkowitz, Ruth; Sullivan, Kathrine; Astor, Ron Avi; De Pedro, Kris; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Benbenishty, Rami; Rice, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Adult relationships provide critical support for adolescents because of their potential to foster positive development and provide protective influences. Few studies examine multiple ecological layers of adult relationships in connection with well-being and depression. This study examines the influence of relationships from multiple…

  1. Adult Children of Divorce and Relationship Education: Implications for Counselors and Counselor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Veronica I.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the impact of relationship education on young adults' optimism about relationships and attitudes toward marriage whose parents were divorced and offers implications and suggestions for counselors and counselor educators. Previous research in the area of intimate and family relationships has demonstrated that adults who have…

  2. Relationship Duration Moderation of Identity Status Differences in Emerging Adults' Same-Sex Friendship Intimacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, H. Durell

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has not yielded consistent identity and intimacy associations for female and male emerging adults. Intimacy varies with time spent in a relationship, and relationship duration may explain variations in the identity process association with intimacy. Data from 278 female and 156 male emerging adults revealed relationship duration…

  3. Understanding the relationships between air quality and human health

    SciTech Connect

    S.T. Rao

    2006-09-15

    Although there has been substantial progress in improving ambient air quality in the United States, atmospheric concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) continue to exceed the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in many locations. Consequently, a large portion of the U.S. population continues to be exposed to unhealthful levels of ozone and fine particles. This issue of EM, entitled 'Understanding the relationships between air quality and human health' presents a series of articles that focus on the relationships between air quality and human health - what we know so far and the challenges that remain. Their titles are: Understanding the effects of air pollution on human health; Assessing population exposures in studies of human health effects of PM2.5; Establishing a national environmental public health tracking network; Linking air quality and exposure models; and On alert: air quality forecasting and health advisory warnings.

  4. Trends in diet quality among adolescents, adults and older adults: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Samantha Caesar de; Previdelli, Ágatha Nogueira; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to monitor diet quality and associated factors in adolescents, adults and older adults from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study involving 2376 individuals surveyed in 2003, and 1662 individuals in 2008 (Health Survey of São Paulo, ISA-Capital). Participants were of both sexes and aged 12 to 19 years old (adolescents), 20 to 59 years old (adults) and 60 years old or over (older adults). Food intake was assessed using the 24-h dietary recall method while diet quality was determined by the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI-R). The prevalence of descriptive variables for 2003 and 2008 was compared adopting a confidence interval of 95%. The means of total BHEI-R score and its components for 2003 and 2008 were compared for each age group. Associations between the BHEI-R and independent variables were evaluated for each survey year using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the mean BHEI-R increased (54.9 vs. 56.4 points) over the five-year period. However, the age group evaluation showed a deterioration in diet quality of adolescents, influenced by a decrease in scores for dark-green and orange vegetables and legumes, total grains, oils and SoFAAS (solid fat, alcohol and added sugar) components. In the 2008 survey, adults had a higher BHEI-R score, by 6.1 points on average, compared to adolescents. Compared to older adults, this difference was 10.7 points. The diet quality remains a concern, especially among adolescents, that had the worst results compared to the other age groups. PMID:27547722

  5. Associations among Physical Activity, Diet Quality, and Weight Status in U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pate, Russell R.; Taverno Ross, Sharon E.; Liese, Angela D.; Dowda, Marsha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Nearly 70% of adult Americans are overweight or obese, but the associations between physical activity, diet quality, and weight status have not been examined in a representative sample of U.S. adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations among moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), diet quality, and weight status within and across age groups in U.S. adults. Methods Participants included 2,587 men and 2,412 women ages 20 to ≥70 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004 and 2005–2006. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry. Diet quality was assessed with overall Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores. Measures of weight status, BMI and waist circumference, were assessed using standard NHANES protocols. Results Across age groups, MVPA was lower in the older age groups for both men and women while diet quality was higher (P<.001). BMI and waist circumference were also higher in the older age groups (P<0.05). Within age groups, MVPA was inversely associated with BMI and waist circumference for men and women in nearly every age group (P<0.05). Diet quality was inversely associated with the weight status variables only in men ages 30–39, 40–49 (BMI only), and 50–59 years, and women ages 50–59 years (P<0.05). Conclusions We observed clear age-related trends for measures of weight status, physical activity, and diet quality in U.S. men and women. MVPA was very consistently related to weight status in both genders. The relationship between diet quality and weight status was less consistent. These findings provide support for public health efforts to prevent obesity by promoting increased physical activity in adult Americans. PMID:25058328

  6. Interpersonal Effects of Suffering in Older Adult Caregiving Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Monin, Joan K.; Schulz, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Examining the interpersonal effects of suffering in the context of family caregiving is an important step to a broader understanding of how exposure to suffering affects humans. In this review article, we first describe existing evidence that being exposed to the suffering of a care recipient (conceptualized as psychological distress, physical symptoms, and existential/spiritual distress) directly influences caregivers’ emotional experiences. Drawing from past theory and research, we propose that caregivers experience similar, complementary, and/or defensive emotions in response to care recipient suffering through mechanisms such as cognitive empathy, mimicry, and conditioned learning, placing caregivers at risk for psychological and physical morbidity. We then describe how gender, relationship closeness, caregiving efficacy, and individual differences in emotion regulation moderate these processes. Finally, we provide directions for future research to deepen our understanding of interpersonal phenomena among older adults, and we discuss implications for clinical interventions to alleviate the suffering of both caregivers and care recipients. PMID:19739924

  7. Quality Counts: Developmental Shifts in Associations Between Romantic Relationship Qualities and Psychosocial Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Collibee, Charlene; Furman, Wyndol

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed a developmental task theory of romantic relationships by examining associations between romantic relationship qualities and adjustment across 9 years using a community based sample of 100 male and 100 female participants (M age Wave 1 = 15.83) in a Western U.S. city. Using multilevel modeling, the study examined the moderating effect of age on links between romantic relationship qualities and adjustment. Consistent with developmental task theory, high romantic quality was more associated with internalizing symptoms and dating satisfaction during young adulthood than adolescence. Romantic relationship qualities were also associated with externalizing symptoms and substance use, but the degree of association was consistent across ages. The findings underscore the significance of romantic relationship qualities across development. PMID:26283151

  8. Quality Counts: Developmental Shifts in Associations Between Romantic Relationship Qualities and Psychosocial Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Collibee, Charlene; Furman, Wyndol

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed a developmental task theory of romantic relationships by examining associations between romantic relationship qualities and adjustment across 9 years using a community-based sample of 100 male and 100 female participants (Mage Wave 1 = 15.83) in a Western U.S. city. Using multilevel modeling, the study examined the moderating effect of age on links between romantic relationship qualities and adjustment. Consistent with developmental task theory, high romantic quality was more negatively associated with internalizing symptoms and dating satisfaction during young adulthood than adolescence. Romantic relationship qualities were also associated with externalizing symptoms and substance use, but the degree of association was consistent across ages. The findings underscore the significance of romantic relationship qualities across development. PMID:26283151

  9. How the quality of peer relationships influences college alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Borsari, Brian; Carey, Kate B

    2006-07-01

    Peer relationships are consistently linked to alcohol use in college students. However, this disparate literature often reveals contradictory findings regarding the precise mechanisms of peer influence. In this review, we use an organisational framework based on social learning theory (SLT) to demonstrate how the quality of peer relationships may influence personal alcohol use. We propose that the quality of peer relationships enhance the influence of social reinforcement, modelling and cognitive processes on personal alcohol use. Research indicates that the quality of peer relationships influences drinking via three pathways: the lack or breakdown of quality peer relationships, alcohol use being an integral part of peer interactions, and if peers disapprove of alcohol use or do not drink. This conceptualisation of peer influence informs the consistent finding of gender differences in college student drinking. Limitations of the reviewed research include reliance on cross-sectional surveys, self-report and homogeneous populations. Future directions for research on quality peer relationships involve detailed longitudinal assessment and the application of advanced statistical methods.

  10. Spillover between Marital Quality and Parent-child Relationship Quality: Parental Depressive Symptoms as Moderators

    PubMed Central

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Papp, Lauren M.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Using a daily diary method, this study examined concurrent and time-lagged relations between marital and parent-child relationship qualities, providing a test of the spillover and compensatory hypotheses. Additionally, this study tested both mothers’ and fathers’ depressive symptoms as moderators of these daily linkages. Participants were 203 families, in which mothers and fathers completed daily diaries for 15 days. At the end of each reporting day, parents independently rated the emotional quality of their relationship with their spouse and with their child that day. Controlling for global levels of marital satisfaction, marital conflict, and parenting, a positive association was found between mothers’ and fathers’ daily ratings of marital quality and their ratings of parent-child relationship quality, supporting the spillover hypothesis. When considering time-lagged relations, support was found for the compensatory hypothesis for mothers: lower levels of marital quality were related to increases in mother-child relationship quality from one day to the next. Further, both maternal and paternal depressive symptoms moderated the link between marital quality and the other parent’s relationship quality with their child. Whereas maternal depressive symptoms strengthened spillover relations for fathers on the next day, paternal depression was related to less spillover for mothers on the same day. Alternative models did not find evidence for parent-child relationship quality as a predictor of changes in marital quality on the next day. The findings underscore the importance of the quality of the marital relationship for predicting the quality of other family relationships. PMID:24821519

  11. Relationship between childhood body mass index and young adult asthma

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Minto; Wegienka, Ganesa; Havstad, Suzanne; Nageotte, Christian G.; Johnson, Christine Cole; Ownby, Dennis R.; Zoratti, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between obesity and asthma is an area of debate. Objective To investigate the association of elevated body mass index (BMI) at a young age and young adult asthma. Methods BMI, questionnaires, and serologic tests results were analyzed in participants of a predominantly white, middle-class, population-based birth cohort from Detroit, Michigan at 6 to 8 and 18 years of age. Asthma diagnosis was based on medical record data. Allergen specific IgE was analyzed using UniCAP, with atopy defined as 1 or more allergen specific IgE levels of 0.35 kU/L or higher. Overweight was defined as a BMI in 85th percentile or higher. Results A total of 10.6% of overweight males at 6 to 8 years of age had current asthma at 18 to 20 years of age compared with 3.2% of males who were normal or underweight (relative risk [RR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0–11.0; P=.048). A total of 19.6% of females who were overweight at 6 to 8 years of age had asthma compared with 10.3% of females who were normal or underweight (RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.9–3.9; P=.09). After adjustment for atopy at 6 to 8 years of age, overweight males had an adjusted RR of 4.7 (95% CI, 1.4–16.2; P=.01), and overweight females had an adjusted RR of 1.7 (95% CI, 0.8–3.3; P=.15). Change in BMI between 6 to 8 years of age and 18 to 20 years of age was also examined. Patients with persistently elevated BMI exhibited increased risk of asthma as young adults (RR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2–4.7) but not with an increasing BMI (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3–2.2) or a decreasing BMI (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3–2.2). Conclusion Overweight males 6 to 8 years of age have increased risk of asthma as young adults. Being overweight remains a predictor of asthma after adjustment for early atopy. A similar but not statistically significant trend was also seen among overweight females. Overweight body habitus throughout childhood is a risk factor for young adult asthma. PMID:23176878

  12. Determining regional water quality patterns and their ecological relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaniel, Tim W.; Hunsaker, Carolyn T.; Beauchamp, John J.

    1987-08-01

    A multivariate statistical method for analyzing spatial patterns of water quality in Georgia and Kansas was tested using data in the US Environmental Protection Agency's STORET data system. Water quality data for Georgia and Kansas were organized by watersheds. We evaluated three questions: (a) can distinctive regional water quality patterns be detected and predicted using only a few water quality variables, (b) are regional water quality patterns correlated with terrestrial biotic regions, and (c) are regional water quality patterns correlated with fish distributions? Using existing data, this method can distinguish regions with water quality very different from the average conditions (as in Georgia), but it does not discriminate well between regions that do not have diverse water quality conditions (as in Kansas). Data that are spatially and temporally adequate for representing large regions and for multivariate statistical analysis are available for only a few common water quality parameters. Regional climate, lithology, and biotic regimes all have the potential to affect water quality, and terrestrial biotic regions and fish distributions do compare with regional water quality patterns, especially in a state like Georgia, where watershed characteristics are diverse. Thus, identifiable relationships between watershed characteristics and water quality should allow the development of an integrated landaquatic classification system that would be a valuable tool for resource management. Because geographical distributions of species may be limited by Zoogeographic and environmental factors, the recognition of patterns in fish distributions that correlate with regional water quality patterns could influence management strategies and aid regional assessments.

  13. Wastewater quality relationships with reuse options.

    PubMed

    Patterson, R A

    2001-01-01

    The trend towards reuse of effluent for land application of domestic and industrial wastewater is driven by the need to maximise limited water resources and benefit from the plant nutrients available in the effluent. Of significant impact upon the value of the wastewater for reuse is its chemical properties as well as biochemical oxygen demand and suspended solids. While the sewage treatment plant is expected to treat all wastewater received to a minimum environmental standard, no efforts are given to reducing the chemical load derived from uses of chemicals in the domestic household. That the regulation of industry and commerce far exceeds those of the combined effects of thousands of household is remiss of environmental regulators. This paper examines the results of research into the more common sources of chemical additives to the wastewater stream. Twenty five potable water supplies are examined for their salt load, 20 liquid and 40 powder laundry detergents and five dishwashing products were used to simulate discharges to the sewer, measured for their phosphorus, salt and sodium concentrations. The results of the research indicate that choices in the products available for general use within the house can be made only where product labelling and consumer education is improved. Technical improvements in wastewater treatment are not the answer. The improvement in effluent quality will have significant beneficial effects upon land application areas and expand the range of reuse options available for commercial operations.

  14. Quality of Life as a Mediator between Behavioral Challenges and Autistic Traits for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Villamisar, Domingo; Dattilo, John; Matson, Johnny L.

    2013-01-01

    A multiple mediation model was proposed to integrate core concepts of challenging behaviors with autistic traits to increase understanding of their relationship to quality of life (QoL). It was hypothesized that QoL is a possible mediator between the severity of challenging behaviors and autistic traits in adults with intellectual disability.…

  15. Ethnic differences in relationship orientation, marital quality and ambulatory blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bryan; Steffen, Patrick R; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne

    2013-01-01

    Mexican Americans typically have better cardiovascular health than Caucasians, despite being relatively economically disadvantaged. Given research indicating the importance of relationship quality on one's health, our study examined whether certain relationship orientations (eg, communal or exchange) differed between Caucasians and Mexican Americans and if these orientations could help explain the Hispanic Paradox. We recruited 582 adults from a community being primarily Caucasian (40%) and foreign-born Mexican Americans (55%). Participants wore 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitors and completed self-report measures of relationship satisfaction and relationship orientation. Results indicated that Caucasians tended to have more of a communal relationship orientation compared to foreign-born Mexican Americans. Communal orientation was predictive of higher relationship satisfaction and while higher relationship satisfaction predicted lower systolic blood pressure when ethnicity was added into the model this relationship was eliminated and foreign-born Mexican Americans had higher ABP compared to Caucasians. Even though communal and exchange relationship orientation don't seem to give us any more information to unravel the Hispanic Paradox, there are important ethnic differences in how we engage in marriage relationships and future research will need to examine the health effects of these differences.

  16. Personality and Relationship Quality During the Transition From High School to Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Philip D.; Lüdtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich; Roberts, Brent W.

    2013-01-01

    The post–high school transition period is believed to be associated with considerable changes in social networks, yet longitudinal studies documenting these changes are scarce. To address this gap, the current research explored 3 relevant issues. First, changes in participants’ relationship characteristics during the transition from high school were examined. Second, the roles of personality traits as antecedents of these changes were studied. Third, the association between change in relationship characteristics and personality during the transition was explored. A sample of over 2,000 German emerging adults, surveyed before leaving school and then 2 years after the transition from high school, was assessed on personality traits and a multidimensional assessment of the quality of their relationships. Findings indicated that participants experienced mostly positive changes in relationship quality during the transition from high school and that antecedent personality at school was an important predictor of the nature of this change. Finally, change in relationship quality was found to be associated with personality change during the post-school transition. Findings indicated that personality traits may influence transition success and that change in relationships during this transition may influence personality development. The implications of the research for post-school transition success are discussed. PMID:22224909

  17. Chronic Low Quality Sleep Impairs Postural Control in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Bruno da Silva B.; Abranches, Isabela Lopes Laguardia; Abrantes, Ana Flávia

    2016-01-01

    The lack of sleep, both in quality and quantity, is an increasing problem in modern society, often related to workload and stress. A number of studies have addressed the effects of acute (total) sleep deprivation on postural control. However, up to date, the effects of chronic sleep deficits, either in quantity or quality, have not been analyzed. Thirty healthy adults participated in the study that consisted of registering activity with a wrist actigraph for more than a week before performing a series of postural control tests. Sleep and circadian rhythm variables were correlated and the sum of activity of the least active 5-h period, L5, a rhythm variable, obtained the greater coefficient value with sleep quality variables (wake after sleep onset WASO and efficiency sleep). Cluster analysis was performed to classify subjects into two groups based on L5 (low and high). The balance tests scores used to asses postural control were measured using Biodex Balance System and were compared between the two groups with different sleep quality. The postural tests were divided into dynamic (platform tilt with eyes open, closed and cursor) and static (clinical test of sensory integration). The results showed that during the tests with eyes closed, the group with worse sleep quality had also worse postural control performance. Lack of vision impairs postural balance more deeply in subjects with chronic sleep inefficiency. Chronic poor sleep quality impairs postural control similarly to total sleep deprivation. PMID:27732604

  18. Relationship Characteristics and the Relationship Context of Nonmarital First Births Among Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Manlove, Jennifer; Wildsmith, Elizabeth; Welti, Kate; Scott, Mindy E.; Ikramullah, Erum

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to examine whether and how characteristics of the relationship dyad are linked to nonmarital childbearing among young adult women, additionally distinguishing between cohabiting and nonunion births. Methods We used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort and discrete-time event history methods to examine these objectives. Results Our analyses found that similarities and differences between women and their most recent sexual partner in educational attainment, disengagement from work or school, race/ethnicity, and age were linked to the risk and context of nonmarital childbearing. For example, partner disengagement (from school and work) was associated with increased odds of a nonmarital birth regardless of whether the woman herself was disengaged. Additionally, having a partner of a different race/ethnicity was associated with nonmarital childbearing for whites, but not for blacks and Hispanics. Conclusions We conclude that relationship characteristics are an important dimension of the lives of young adults that influence their odds of having a birth outside of marriage. PMID:22942478

  19. Dating after late-life spousal loss: Does it compromise relationships with adult children?

    PubMed

    Carr, Deborah; Boerner, Kathrin

    2013-12-01

    In Widowhood in an American City (1973), Helena Lopata observed that widows struggle with new romantic relationships because their children often are resentful toward these new partners. Since the publication of Lopata's classic work, however, few studies have explored empirically the ways that widow(er)'s dating affects their relationships with children. We use prospective data from the Changing Lives of Older Couples study (CLOC) to explore: (1) the impact of bereaved spouses' dating on positive and negative aspects of parent-child relationships six and 18 months postloss; (2) the extent to which these associations are explained by preloss characteristics; and (3) the factors that moderate the association between widow(er) dating and parent-child relations. Multivariate analyses show that widowers who are interested in dating six months postloss report low levels of support and high levels of conflict with their children, yet widows report enhanced relationship quality. This pattern reflects the fact that men who are interested in dating do form new relationships, whereas women's interests are not translated into actual dating. Widowers' dating six months postloss compromises parent-child closeness among those with a history of strained parent-child relations, yet enhances closeness among those with historically good relationships. Dating takes a harsher toll on parent-daughter compared to parent-son relationships. Overall, dating threatens parent-child relationships in specific cases, yet it may also strengthen widow(er) s' parent-child bonds. We discuss the implications for the well-being of older widow(er)s and adult children.

  20. Parental Mindfulness and Dyadic Relationship Quality in Low-income Cohabiting Black Stepfamilies: Associations with Parenting Experienced by Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Parent, Justin; Clifton, Jessica; Forehand, Rex; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan; Pichler, Emily R.

    2014-01-01

    Cohabitation is a family structure experienced by many Black children; yet, we have limited understanding of how personal and interpersonal processes operate within these families to influence the parenting provided to these children. Informed by both family systems theory and the spillover hypothesis and utilizing a model to account for the interdependence of the mother and her partner, the current study sought to understand the direct and indirect associations among parental mindfulness, the mother-partner relationship quality, and firm parenting practices in a sample of 121 Black cohabiting low-income stepfamilies. Assessment consisted of standardized measurements of maternal and male cohabiting partner reports on mindfulness (i.e., acting with awareness) and relationship quality (i.e., relationship satisfaction, ability to resolve conflict, and coparenting conflict) as well as adolescent report on parenting (i.e., parent’s firm control). Mindfulness was directly related to each individual’s own perceptions of relationship quality and some support emerged for a cross-informant link (e.g., mother’s mindfulness related to partner report of relationship quality). Furthermore, maternal perceptions of relationship quality, as well as mindfulness operating through relationship quality, were related to youth reports of maternal firm parenting. The results suggest that both mindfulness and the relationship quality of adults are variables deserving attention when studying the parenting received by children in cohabiting stepfamilies. Clinical implications of the findings are considered. PMID:25544936

  1. Loneliness and Quality of Life in Chronically Ill Rural Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Theeke, Laurie A.; Mallow, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Background Loneliness is a contributing factor to various health problems in older adults, including complex chronic illness, functional decline, and increased risk of mortality. Objectives A pilot study was conducted to learn more about the prevalence of loneliness in rural older adults with chronic illness and how it affects their quality of life. The purposes of the data analysis reported here were twofold: to describe loneliness, chronic illness diagnoses, chronic illness control measures, prescription medication use, and quality of life in a sample of rural older adults; and to examine the relationships among these elements. Methods A convenience sample of 60 chronically ill older adults who were community dwelling and living in Appalachia was assessed during face-to-face interviews for loneliness and quality of life, using the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale (version 3) and the CASP-12 quality of life scale. Chronic illness diagnoses, chronic illness control measures, and medication use data were collected through review of participants’ electronic medical records. Results Overall mean loneliness scores indicated significant loneliness. Participants with a mood disorder such as anxiety or depression had the highest mean loneliness scores, followed by those with lung disease and those with heart disease. Furthermore, participants with mood disorders, lung disease, or heart disease had significantly higher loneliness scores than those without these conditions. Loneliness was significantly related to total number of chronic illnesses and use of benzodiazepines. Use of benzodiazepines, diuretics, nitrates, and bronchodilators were each associated with a lower quality of life. Conclusions Nurses should assess for loneliness as part of their comprehensive assessment of patients with chronic illness. Further research is needed to design and test interventions for loneliness. PMID:23958674

  2. The quality of mentoring relationships and mentoring success.

    PubMed

    Goldner, Limor; Mayseless, Ofra

    2009-11-01

    The quality of the relationships that mentors forge with their protégés is assumed to significantly affect the success of mentoring interventions. Building on previous research, this study examined the association between relationship qualities and protégé functioning. Multiple reporters (e.g., mentors, protégés and teachers) were used in a prospective research design spanning eight months in Israel's largest mentoring program-Perach. The sample consisted of 84 protégés ranging in age from 8 to 13 years (M = 10.75). Qualities in the mentoring relationship such as closeness, dependency and unrealistic expectations for the continuation and deepening of the relationship, beyond the planned period, were positively associated with the children's social and academic adjustment, and contributed to perceived academic competence, social support and wellbeing. Generalization of positive mentoring experiences to other relationships (such as the mother-child relationship) and the role of unrealistic expectations and dependency as key elements are considered. Implications of the findings for research and mentoring intervention are discussed. PMID:19779810

  3. Nursing home staffing and training recommendations for promoting older adults' quality of care and life: Part 1. Deficits in the quality of care due to understaffing and undertraining.

    PubMed

    Maas, Meridean L; Specht, Janet P; Buckwalter, Kathleen C; Gittler, Josephine; Bechen, Kate

    2008-04-01

    Caught between the inability or unwillingness of nursing home corporations and owners to redistribute revenue and the reluctance of federal and state agencies to increase payments to nursing homes, the nation's most vulnerable older adults are not receiving the care they deserve. Widespread recognition of substandard care and quality of life of older adults in nursing homes has existed for decades. In addition, there is substantial evidence that poor quality of care is related to inadequate numbers and training of nursing staff. Still, policy makers and nursing home owners have failed to take needed action. In the first article of this two-part series, major deficits in the care of older adult nursing home residents are reviewed, and research documenting the relationship between nursing home staffing and the quality of care and life of residents is summarized.

  4. Nursing home staffing and training recommendations for promoting older adults' quality of care and life: Part 1. Deficits in the quality of care due to understaffing and undertraining.

    PubMed

    Maas, Meridean L; Specht, Janet P; Buckwalter, Kathleen C; Gittler, Josephine; Bechen, Kate

    2008-04-01

    Caught between the inability or unwillingness of nursing home corporations and owners to redistribute revenue and the reluctance of federal and state agencies to increase payments to nursing homes, the nation's most vulnerable older adults are not receiving the care they deserve. Widespread recognition of substandard care and quality of life of older adults in nursing homes has existed for decades. In addition, there is substantial evidence that poor quality of care is related to inadequate numbers and training of nursing staff. Still, policy makers and nursing home owners have failed to take needed action. In the first article of this two-part series, major deficits in the care of older adult nursing home residents are reviewed, and research documenting the relationship between nursing home staffing and the quality of care and life of residents is summarized. PMID:20078025

  5. Journal Writing for Improved Learning and Classroom Relationships in Public Schools: Applications for Disadvantaged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores-Isom, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    This review is an exploration into whether classroom methods similar to those applied by K-12 teachers are valid for adults and can be successfully applied to classrooms for disadvantaged adults: specifically, journal writing as a tool for improving learning and classroom relationships. The literature dispels the myth that teaching adults differs…

  6. The Association between Adult Attachment Styles and Conflict Resolution in Romantic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Lin

    2003-01-01

    Examined whether adult attachment was predictive of conflict resolution behaviors and satisfaction in romantic relationships. Both adult attachment dimensions, Avoidance and Anxiety, were predictive of conflict resolution behaviors and relationship satisfaction. Gender differences existed in conflict resolution behaviors, but they were not as…

  7. Control, Attachment Style, and Relationship Satisfaction among Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beesley, Denise; Stoltenberg, Cal D.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates possible differences in need for control, attachment style, and relationship satisfaction between a sample of adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and adult children of nonalcoholics. Analyses reveals that ACOAs reported a significantly higher need for control and significantly lower relationship satisfaction. Includes a discussion of…

  8. Relationship between perceived sleep and polysomnography in older adult patients

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Silva, Mayra; Bazzana, Caroline Moreira; de Souza, Altay Lino; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Tufik, Sergio; Lucchesi, Lígia M.; Lopes, Guiomar Silva

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Aging is a multifactorial process that elicits changes in the duration and quality of sleep. Polysomnography is considered to be the standard examination for the analysis of sleep and consists of the simultaneous recording of selected physiological variables during sleep. Objective The objective of this study was to use polysomnography to compare sleep reported by senior citizens. Methods We selected 40 patients, both male and female, with ages ranging from 64 to 89 years from the Center for the Study of Aging at the Federal University of São Paulo. Patients answered questions about sleep on the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment and underwent polysomnography. Results The results were compared, and agreement between perceived sleep and polysomnography was found in several areas. There was an association between difficulty sleeping and sleep onset latency (p=0.015), waking up at night with sleep onset latency (p=0.005), total sleep time with daytime sleepiness (0.005) and snoring (0.027), sleep efficiency with sleepiness (0.004), snoring (0.033) and pause in breathing (p=0.024), awakenings with snoring (p=0.012) and sleep apnea with pauses in breathing (p=0.001). Conclusion These results suggest that the older adult population have a good perception of their sleep. The questionnaires aimed at this population should be used as an alternative to polysomnography. PMID:26483948

  9. Self-esteem of young adults experiencing interparental violence and child physical maltreatment: parental and peer relationships as mediators.

    PubMed

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao

    2009-05-01

    This study examined the joint impact of experiencing both interparental violence and child physical maltreatment on young adults' self-esteem. It also tested the hypothesis of parental and peer relationship qualities as mediators in the relationship between childhood histories of family violence and adult self-esteem. Data were collected from a national probability sample of 1,924 college students in Taiwan. Research results demonstrated that experiencing both interparental violence and physical maltreatment during childhood have long-term and detrimental impact on adult self-esteem. This impact was statistically independent of other potential confounding factors. Moreover, participants experiencing dual violence during childhood reported lower self-esteem than those experiencing only one type of family violence or none at all. Male participants who experienced dual violence reported lower self-esteem than female participants who experienced dual violence. Further analyses revealed that parental and peer relationship qualities mediated the joint impact of interparental violence and physical maltreatment on adult self-esteem.

  10. Social Relationships of Dually Diagnosed Homeless Adults Following Enrollment in Housing First or Traditional Treatment Services

    PubMed Central

    Henwood, Benjamin F.; Stefancic, Ana; Petering, Robin; Schreiber, Sarah; Abrams, Courtney; Padgett, Deborah K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Strong and effective social support is a critical element of mental health recovery, yet social support is often lacking for adults experiencing homelessness. This study examines differences in the social networks of participants newly enrolled in programs that use either a Housing First (HF) approach (i.e., provides immediate access to permanent housing with ongoing consumer-driven support services) or a treatment first (TF) approach (i.e., traditional clinician-driven staircse model that requires temporary or transitional housing and treatment placements before accessing permanent housing). Method We use a mixed-methods social network analysis approach to assess group differences of 75 individuals based on program type (HF or TF) and program retention. Results Quantitative results show that compared with TF, HF participants have a greater proportion of staff members in their network. TF participants are more likely than HF participants to maintain mixed-quality relationships (i.e., relationships with elements of support and conflict). As compared with participants who remain in a program, those who disengage from programs have a greater proportion of mixed relationships and relationships that grow distant. Qualitative analyses suggest that HF participants regard housing as providing a stable foundation from which to reconnect or restore broken relationships. However, HF participants are guarded about close relationships for fear of being exploited due to their newly acquired apartments. TF participants report that they are less inclined to develop new relationships with peers or staff members due to the time-limited nature of the TF programs. Conclusions These findings suggest that HF participants are not more socially isolated than those in traditional care. Implications for practice, policy and future research are discussed. PMID:26635919

  11. College Student Mental Health and Quality of Workplace Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Allison A.; Drake, Richard R.; Haydock, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to examine the effect of quality of workplace relationships on the mental health of employed undergraduates, with work-related variables as a potential mechanism. Participants: Participants were 170 employed students (76% female, average age = 19.9) recruited in March 2011. Most worked part-time and had been…

  12. Lesbian Couples' Relationship Quality across the Transition to Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Sayer, Aline

    2006-01-01

    The transition to parenthood is a time of stress for many couples. Most research on the transition to parenthood has been conducted with middle-class, heterosexual couples. The current study uses multilevel modeling to examine predictors of change in relationship quality (love and conflict) during the transition to parenthood in 29 lesbian…

  13. On the Relationship between Morphology Knowledge and Quality of Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbabi Aski, Mohammadreza

    2008-01-01

    The present study intended to investigate whether there is any relationship between morphological knowledge and quality of legal text translation from English to Persian and to what extent do Iranian M.A students of translation use morphological knowledge to guess the meaning of words when translating legal texts from English to Persian. To…

  14. Hostility, Relationship Quality, and Health among African American Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyll, Max; Cutrona, Carolyn; Burzette, Rebecca; Russell, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the association between hostility and health and whether it is moderated by the quality of an individual's primary romantic relationship. Method: Longitudinal data were provided by 184 African Americans, including 166 women. Participants averaged 38 years old and were married or in long-term marriagelike…

  15. Children's Perceptions of the Qualities of Sibling Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Wyndol; Buhrmester, Duane

    1985-01-01

    Developed a framework for describing and assessing the qualities of sibling relationships by interviewing upper elementary school children and administering a self-report questionnaire to fifth- and sixth-grade children. Component analysis yielded four underlying factors: warmth/closeness, relative status/power, conflict, and rivalry. Relative…

  16. Financial Arrangements and Relationship Quality in Low-Income Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addo, Fenaba R.; Sassler, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the association between household financial arrangements and relationship quality using a representative sample of low-income couples with children. We detailed the banking arrangements couples utilize, assessed which factors relate to holding a joint account versus joint and separate, only separate, or no account, and analyzed…

  17. Couple Relationship Quality, Coparenting, and Fathering in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hui-Hua

    2013-01-01

    This study examined connections among couple relationship quality, coparenting, and mother and father involvement in 100 families from urban Central Taiwan. Fathers and mothers with at least one school-age child completed questionnaires regarding their couple satisfaction and consensus, coparenting techniques and consistency, and involvement in…

  18. Relationship Quality in Marital and Cohabiting Unions across Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiik, Kenneth Aarskaug; Keizer, Renske; Lappegard, Trude

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors used data from the first wave of the Generations and Gender Survey to investigate relationship quality among currently married and cohabiting individuals ages 18 to 55 (N = 41,760) in 8 European countries (Bulgaria, France, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Romania, Russia, and The Netherlands). They expected to find fewer…

  19. Prevalence of voice quality deviations in the normal adult population.

    PubMed

    Brindle, B R; Morris, H L

    1979-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of voice quality deviations in a normal adult population. One-hundred twelve subjects, aged 17 to 80, read a short paragraph aloud into a high-fidelity tape recorder and completed a case history questionnaire. A group of 11 pretrained judges rated overall performance of each taped sample on a seven-point equal-appearing intervals scale, then designated those quality components which contributed toward deviant ratings. Eighty-two percent of the group received a mean severity rating lower than 1.99; 16% had a rating between 2.00 and 2.99; and 2% was assigned a mean rating higher than 3.00.

  20. Quality of life in adolescents and adults with CHARGE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hartshorne, Nancy; Hudson, Alexandra; MacCuspie, Jillian; Kennert, Benjamin; Nacarato, Tasha; Hartshorne, Timothy; Blake, Kim

    2016-08-01

    Health-related Quality of Life and the Impact of Childhood Neurologic Disability Scale were collected for 53 patients with CHARGE syndrome aged 13-39 years with a mean academic level of 4th grade. The most prevalent new and ongoing issues included bone health issues, sleep apnea, retinal detachment, anxiety, and aggression. Sleep issues were significantly correlated with anxiety, self-abuse, conduct problems, and autistic-like behaviors. Problems with overall health, behavior, and balance most affected the number of social activities in the individual's life. Sensory impairment most affected relationships with friends. Two contrasting case studies are presented and demonstrate that the quality of life exists on a broad spectrum in CHARGE syndrome, just as its physical features range from mild to very severe. A multitude of factors, including those beyond the physical manifestations, such as anxiety and sleep problems, influence quality of life and are important areas for intervention. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Quality of life in adolescents and adults with CHARGE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hartshorne, Nancy; Hudson, Alexandra; MacCuspie, Jillian; Kennert, Benjamin; Nacarato, Tasha; Hartshorne, Timothy; Blake, Kim

    2016-08-01

    Health-related Quality of Life and the Impact of Childhood Neurologic Disability Scale were collected for 53 patients with CHARGE syndrome aged 13-39 years with a mean academic level of 4th grade. The most prevalent new and ongoing issues included bone health issues, sleep apnea, retinal detachment, anxiety, and aggression. Sleep issues were significantly correlated with anxiety, self-abuse, conduct problems, and autistic-like behaviors. Problems with overall health, behavior, and balance most affected the number of social activities in the individual's life. Sensory impairment most affected relationships with friends. Two contrasting case studies are presented and demonstrate that the quality of life exists on a broad spectrum in CHARGE syndrome, just as its physical features range from mild to very severe. A multitude of factors, including those beyond the physical manifestations, such as anxiety and sleep problems, influence quality of life and are important areas for intervention. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27273681

  2. Food choice patterns among frail older adults: The associations between social network, food choice values, and diet quality.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-O

    2016-01-01

    Social network type might affect an individual's food choice because these decisions are often made as a group rather than individually. In this study, the associations between social network type, food choice value, and diet quality in frail older adults with low socioeconomic status were investigated. For this cross-sectional study, 87 frail older adults were recruited from the National Home Healthcare Services in Seoul, South Korea. Social network types, food choice values, and diet quality were assessed using The Practitioner Assessment of Network Type Instrument, The Food Choice Questionnaire, and mean adequacy ratio, respectively. Results showed that frail older adults with close relationships with local family and/or friends and neighbors were less likely to follow their own preferences, such as taste, price, and beliefs regarding food health values. In contrast, frail older adults with a small social network and few community contacts were more likely to be influenced by their food choice values, such as price or healthiness of food. Frail older adults who tend to choose familiar foods were associated with low-quality dietary intake, while older adults who valued healthiness or use of natural ingredients were associated with a high-quality diet. The strength and direction of these associations were dependent on social network type of frail older adults. This study explored the hypothesis that food choice values are associated with a certain type of social network and consequently affect diet quality. While additional research needs to be conducted, community-based intervention intended to improve diet quality of frail older adults must carefully consider individual food choice values as well as social network types.

  3. Trajectories of adolescent hostile-aggressive behavior and family climate: Longitudinal implications for young adult romantic relationship competence.

    PubMed

    Fosco, Gregory M; Van Ryzin, Mark J; Xia, Mengya; Feinberg, Mark E

    2016-07-01

    The formation and maintenance of young adult romantic relationships that are free from violence and are characterized by love, connection, and effective problem-solving have important implications for later well-being and family functioning. In this study, we examined adolescent hostile-aggressive behavior (HAB) and family relationship quality as key individual and family level factors that may forecast later romantic relationship functioning. Guided by a family systems framework, we evaluated the reciprocal influences of adolescent hostility and family climate, to provide a more comprehensive picture of the etiology of romantic relationship functioning. We drew on a large sample (N = 974) of young adults (mean age = 19.5) that were followed starting in the fall of 6th grade, and subsequently in spring of 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th grades prior to the young adult assessment. Using a latent difference score cross-lag model (McArdle, 2009), our results indicated that a more positive family climate was associated with decreases in HAB, but HAB was not associated with changes in family climate. Further, the influence of the family climate on HAB was consistent across all time points. HAB and family climate had different predictions for young adult romantic relationships: Increasing HAB over adolescence predicted relationship violence, while maintenance in family climate was a key predictor of relationship problem-solving skills. The only predictor of love and connection in relationships was early family functioning. Implications for developmental theory and prevention science are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27337516

  4. Assessment of Relationship-Specific Incentive and Threat Sensitivities: Predicting Satisfaction and Affect in Adult Intimate Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Kleinman, Brighid M.; Kaczynski, Karen J.; Carver, Charles S.

    2010-01-01

    Self-report scales assessing relationship-specific incentive and threat sensitivity were created. Initial tests of factor structure and associations with relationship quality were conducted in a sample of persons in intimate relationships (Study 1). Associations with conceptually related measures were examined to determine convergent and…

  5. Different roles and different results: how activity orientations correspond to relationship quality and student outcomes in school-based mentoring.

    PubMed

    Keller, Thomas E; Pryce, Julia M

    2012-02-01

    This prospective, mixed-methods study investigated how the nature of joint activities between volunteer mentors and student mentees corresponded to relationship quality and youth outcomes. Focusing on relationships in school-based mentoring programs in low-income urban elementary schools, data were obtained through pre-post assessments, naturalistic observations, and in-depth interviews with mentors and mentees. Adopting an exploratory approach, the study employed qualitative case study methods to inductively identify distinctive patterns reflecting the focus of mentoring activities. The activity orientations of relationships were categorized according to the primary functional role embodied by the mentor and the general theme of interactions: teaching assistant/tutoring, friend/engaging, sage/counseling, acquaintance/floundering. Next, these categories were corroborated by comparing the groups on quantitative assessments of relationship quality and change in child outcomes over time. Relationships characterized by sage mentoring, which balanced amicable engagement with adult guidance, were rated most favorably by mentees on multiple measures of relationship quality. Furthermore, students involved in sage mentoring relationships showed declines in depressive symptoms and aggressive behaviors. For disconnected pairs (acquaintances), students reported more negative relationship experiences. Findings suggest effective mentoring relationships represent a hybrid between the friendly mutuality of horizontal relationships and the differential influence of vertical relationships.

  6. Educational Alliance: The Importance of Relationships in Adult Education with Court-Mandated Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mottern, Ron

    2012-01-01

    This conceptual study examines the importance of relationships between teachers and students in court-mandated adult education settings. Although research has been done on the importance of relationships between teachers and incarcerated students, there have been no outstanding studies on the relationships developed between teachers and students…

  7. The Relationships between Cognitive Ability and Dental Status in a National Sample of USA Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabbah, Wael; Sheiham, Aubrey

    2010-01-01

    There are very few studies on the relationship between cognitive ability and dental status in middle aged and younger adults. We postulate that lower cognitive ability is directly related to poorer dental status and that this relationship operates through the relationship between cognitive ability and health-related behaviors. The objectives of…

  8. Examining Student-Adult Relationships during K-12 School Age Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappi, Shelly J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between dependent and independent variables and the effects relationships have on K-12 students as they struggle through life stressors. Thus, the research study was based upon this over arching question: How does having positive student-adult relationships impact a student's ability to cope with life…

  9. Marriage following Adolescent Parenthood: Relationship to Adult Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Lee, Jungeun; Morrison, Diane M.; Lindhorst, Taryn

    2008-01-01

    Research suggests that adult marriages confer benefits. Does marriage following a teenage birth confer benefits similar to those observed for adults? Longitudinal data from a community sample of 235 young women who gave birth as unmarried adolescents were used to examine this question. Controlling for socioeconomic status and preexisting…

  10. The Relationship between Resourcefulness and Persistence in Adult Autonomous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponton, Michael K; Derrick, M. Gail; Carr, Paul B.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the tenability of a proposed path-analytic model relating resourcefulness and persistence in the context of adult autonomous learning. Data collected from a nonprobability sample of 492 American adults using valid and reliable measures for resourcefulness and persistence were analyzed. Results suggest…

  11. Quality of Life Impairments among Adults with Social Phobia: The Impact of Subtype

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Nina; Sarver, Dustin E.; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2011-01-01

    Social phobia is characterized by extreme fear in social or performance situations in which the individual may be exposed to embarrassment or scrutiny by others, which creates occupational, social and academic impairment. To date, there are few data examining the relationship of social phobia impairments to quality of life. In this investigation, we examined how demographic characteristics, comorbidity, and social competence are related to quality of life among patients with social phobia and normal controls. In addition, we examined the impact of social phobia subtype. Results indicated that individuals with generalized social phobia had significantly impaired quality of life when compared to individuals with no disorder or individuals with nongeneralized social phobia. Comorbid disorders decreased quality of life only for patients with nongeneralized social phobia. Hierarchical linear regression revealed that a diagnosis of social phobia and observer ratings of social effectiveness exerted strong and independent effects on quality of life scores. Results are discussed in terms of the role of social anxiety, social competence, and comorbidity on the quality of life for adults with social phobia. PMID:21964285

  12. A Community-Based Study of Quality of Life and Depression among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenjun; Guo, Chongzheng; Ping, Weiwei; Tan, Zhijun; Guo, Ying; Zheng, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the study was to assess the quality of life (QOL) and depression and provide further insights into the relationship between QOL and depression among community-dwelling elderly Chinese people. Baseline data were collected from 1168 older adults (aged ≥ 60) in a large, prospective cohort study on measurement and evaluation of health-promoting and health-protecting behaviors intervention on chronic disease in different community-dwelling age groups. QOL was assessed using the 26-item, World Health Organization Quality of Life, brief version (WHOQOL-BREF) and depression was assessed using the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The mean WHOQOL-BREF score for all dimensions was approximately 60, with the highest mean value (61.92) observed for social relationships, followed by environment, physical health, and psychological health domains. In this cohort, 26.1% of elderly urban adults met GDS criteria for depression. There were negative correlations between physical health (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.928, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.910-0.946), psychological health (OR = 0.906, 95% CI: 0.879-0.934), environment (OR = 0.966, 95% CI: 0.944-0.989) and depression among elderly people. Those with depression were older, less educated, had a lower monthly income, and were more likely to report insomnia. All WHOQOL-BREF domains, with the exception of the social domain were negatively correlated with depression.

  13. A Community-Based Study of Quality of Life and Depression among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenjun; Guo, Chongzheng; Ping, Weiwei; Tan, Zhijun; Guo, Ying; Zheng, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the study was to assess the quality of life (QOL) and depression and provide further insights into the relationship between QOL and depression among community-dwelling elderly Chinese people. Baseline data were collected from 1168 older adults (aged ≥ 60) in a large, prospective cohort study on measurement and evaluation of health-promoting and health-protecting behaviors intervention on chronic disease in different community-dwelling age groups. QOL was assessed using the 26-item, World Health Organization Quality of Life, brief version (WHOQOL-BREF) and depression was assessed using the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The mean WHOQOL-BREF score for all dimensions was approximately 60, with the highest mean value (61.92) observed for social relationships, followed by environment, physical health, and psychological health domains. In this cohort, 26.1% of elderly urban adults met GDS criteria for depression. There were negative correlations between physical health (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.928, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.910-0.946), psychological health (OR = 0.906, 95% CI: 0.879-0.934), environment (OR = 0.966, 95% CI: 0.944-0.989) and depression among elderly people. Those with depression were older, less educated, had a lower monthly income, and were more likely to report insomnia. All WHOQOL-BREF domains, with the exception of the social domain were negatively correlated with depression. PMID:27409627

  14. A Community-Based Study of Quality of Life and Depression among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Wenjun; Guo, Chongzheng; Ping, Weiwei; Tan, Zhijun; Guo, Ying; Zheng, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the study was to assess the quality of life (QOL) and depression and provide further insights into the relationship between QOL and depression among community-dwelling elderly Chinese people. Baseline data were collected from 1168 older adults (aged ≥ 60) in a large, prospective cohort study on measurement and evaluation of health-promoting and health-protecting behaviors intervention on chronic disease in different community-dwelling age groups. QOL was assessed using the 26-item, World Health Organization Quality of Life, brief version (WHOQOL-BREF) and depression was assessed using the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). The mean WHOQOL-BREF score for all dimensions was approximately 60, with the highest mean value (61.92) observed for social relationships, followed by environment, physical health, and psychological health domains. In this cohort, 26.1% of elderly urban adults met GDS criteria for depression. There were negative correlations between physical health (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.928, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.910–0.946), psychological health (OR = 0.906, 95% CI: 0.879–0.934), environment (OR = 0.966, 95% CI: 0.944–0.989) and depression among elderly people. Those with depression were older, less educated, had a lower monthly income, and were more likely to report insomnia. All WHOQOL-BREF domains, with the exception of the social domain were negatively correlated with depression. PMID:27409627

  15. Emotion dysregulation mediates the influence of relationship difficulties on non-suicidal self-injury behavior in young adults.

    PubMed

    Yurkowski, Kim; Martin, Jodi; Levesque, Christine; Bureau, Jean-François; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Cloutier, Paula

    2015-08-30

    This study examined associations between relationship difficulties with parents and peers and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Particular emphasis was placed on examining mediating pathways through emotion dysregulation, as per commonly accepted theory. Participants were 1153 university students (905 females; Mage=19.35 years, S.D.=1.49); 79 of these participants had engaged in NSSI during the previous 6 months (63 females, Mage=19.35 years, S.D.=1.51). Participants completed questionnaires assessing NSSI, quality of relationships with parents and peers, and emotion dysregulation. Hierarchical logistic regressions suggest that the quality of parent-child relationships has a greater impact on the prediction of NSSI engagement than the quality of peer relationships. Results of a structural equation model showed that feelings of alienation in both parent and peer relationships had indirect effects on NSSI through deficits in emotion regulation (ER). Results suggest the importance of examining emotion dysregulation in association with NSSI, and that both parent and peer relationships are implicated in NSSI engagement through emotion regulation deficits. Important clinical implications regarding the need to acknowledge both emotion dysregulation and interpersonal difficulties when treating NSSI in young adults are discussed.

  16. Relationship Between Dyslipidemia and Albuminuria in Hypertensive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Ho; Kim, Do Hoon; Kim, Yang-Hyun; Roh, Yong Kyun; Ju, Sang Yhun; Nam, Hyo-Yun; Nam, Ga-Eun; Choi, Jun-Seok; Lee, Jong-Eun; Sang, Jung-Eun; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to estimate the relationship between various lipid abnormalities and albuminuria in hypertensive Korean adults. Data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011 to 2012 were analyzed. The study included 2330 hypertensive participants. Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were measured. Dyslipidemia parameters were defined as high TG ≥200 mg/dL, low HDL-C as HDL-C <40 mg/dL, high TC/HDL-C as TC/HDL-C ratio ≥4, high TG/HDL-C as TG/HDL-C ratio ≥3.8, and high LDL-C/HDL-C as LDL-C/HDL-C ratio ≥2.5. Albuminuria was defined as a urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) ≥30 mg/g. Women with albuminuria showed significantly higher levels of TG, TC/HDL-C, and TG/HDL-C and a lower level of HDL-C than women without albuminuria (all P < 0.05). LogTG, TC/HDL-C, and logTG/HDL-C were positively correlated with ACR in both men and women; however, HDL-C was negatively correlated with ACR in women and non-HDL-C was positively correlated with ACR in men. In men, there was no association between ACR and lipid parameters. However, in women, higher values for logTG, TC/HDL-C, and logTG/HDL-C were associated with an increased odds ratio (OR) for albuminuria (OR [95% confidence interval]: 1.53 [1.06–2.21], 1.21 [1.02–1.45], and 1.78 [1.21–2.63], respectively) and HDL-C with a decreased OR for albuminuria (0.78 [0.67–0.92]) after adjusting for all covariates. LogTG, TC/HDL-C, and logTG/HDL-C were associated with an increased prevalence of albuminuria in hypertensive women. Screening and treatment for dyslipidemia may be necessary for hypertensive women to address potential albuminuria. PMID:27100412

  17. Loneliness mediates the relationship between childhood trauma and adult psychopathology: evidence from the adult psychiatric morbidity survey.

    PubMed

    Shevlin, Mark; McElroy, Eoin; Murphy, Jamie

    2015-04-01

    Childhood abuse (CA) has been found to be related to the development of a variety of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Although CA is also associated with adult loneliness, few studies have investigated the role of loneliness as a mediator in the relationship between CA and adult psychopathology. Using data from a large, general population sample a mediation model was proposed and tested. Controlling for a range of background variables, the results from a series of regression analyses found that loneliness mediated the association between CA and six adult psychiatric disorders. The findings of this study highlight the importance of loneliness to the development of psychopathology. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  18. Personality and Adult Sibling Relationships: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noberini, Mary Rose; And Others

    The limited research that exists about sibling relationships during adulthood has employed primarily sociological variables. Psychological aspects of the sibling relationship were explored in a sample of 35 women and 9 men with a mean age of 59. Subjects completed the California Psychological Inventory, the Scale of Sibling Relationships, and the…

  19. Relational Aggression in Adolescents' Sibling Relationships: Links to Sibling and Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Thayer, Shawna M.; Whiteman, Shawn D.; Denning, Donna J.; McHale, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the links between sibling relational aggression and other sibling relationship qualities (i.e., intimacy, negativity, and temporal involvement) and broader parenting dynamics. Participants included 185 adolescent sibling pairs and their mothers and fathers. Data were gathered during home interviews and a series of nightly phone…

  20. Quality of diets consumed by older rural adults.

    PubMed

    Vitolins, Mara Z; Quandt, Sara A; Bell, Ronny A; Arcury, Thomas A; Case, L Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Older adults residing in rural communities are at risk for low dietary quality because of a variety of social, physical and environmental circumstances. Minority elders are at additional risk because of poorer health status and lower socioeconomic status. This study evaluated the food group intake of 130 older (>70 years) African American (34%), European American (36%), and Native American (30%) residents of two rural communities in central North Carolina. An interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire was used to measure dietary intake. Food items were classified into food groups similar to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Guide Pyramid and the National Cancer Institutes 5 A Day for Better Health program. None of the survey participants met minimum intake recommendations and most over-consumed fats, oils, sweets and snacks. African Americans and Native Americans consumed fewer servings of meats,fruits and vegetables, and fats, oils, sweets and snacks than European Americans. African American men consumed the fewest servings of fruits and vegetables of all gender/ethnic groups. Consumption of fats, oils and sweets was greatest among those 85 years and older and was more common among denture users. National strategies to educate the public about the importance of consuming a varied diet based on the recommendations presented in national nutrition education campaigns may not be reaching older adults in rural communities, particularly minority group members. PMID:12043755

  1. Binge drinking, marijuana use, and friendships: the relationship between similar and dissimilar usage and friendship quality.

    PubMed

    Boman, John H; Stogner, John; Miller, Bryan Lee

    2013-01-01

    While it is commonly understood that the substance use of peers influences an individual's substance use, much less is understood about the interplay between substance use and friendship quality. Using a sample of 2,148 emerging adults nested within 1,074 dyadic friendships, this study separately investigates how concordance and discordance in binge drinking and marijuana use between friends is related to each friend's perceptions of friendship quality. Because "friendship quality" is a complex construct, we employ a measure containing five sub-elements--companionship, a lack of conflict, willingness to help a friend, relationship security, and closeness. Results for both binge drinking and marijuana use reveal that individuals in friendship pairs who are concordant in their substance use perceive significantly higher perceptions of friendship quality than individuals in dyads who are dissimilar in substance use. Specifically, concordant binge drinkers estimate significantly higher levels of companionship, relationship security, and willingness to help their friend than concordant non-users, discordant users, and discordant non-users. However, the highest amount of conflict in friendships is found when both friends engage in binge drinking and marijuana use. Several interpretations of these findings are discussed. Overall, concordance between friends' binge drinking and marijuana use appears to help some elements of friendship quality and harm others. PMID:24175486

  2. Binge drinking, marijuana use, and friendships: the relationship between similar and dissimilar usage and friendship quality.

    PubMed

    Boman, John H; Stogner, John; Miller, Bryan Lee

    2013-01-01

    While it is commonly understood that the substance use of peers influences an individual's substance use, much less is understood about the interplay between substance use and friendship quality. Using a sample of 2,148 emerging adults nested within 1,074 dyadic friendships, this study separately investigates how concordance and discordance in binge drinking and marijuana use between friends is related to each friend's perceptions of friendship quality. Because "friendship quality" is a complex construct, we employ a measure containing five sub-elements--companionship, a lack of conflict, willingness to help a friend, relationship security, and closeness. Results for both binge drinking and marijuana use reveal that individuals in friendship pairs who are concordant in their substance use perceive significantly higher perceptions of friendship quality than individuals in dyads who are dissimilar in substance use. Specifically, concordant binge drinkers estimate significantly higher levels of companionship, relationship security, and willingness to help their friend than concordant non-users, discordant users, and discordant non-users. However, the highest amount of conflict in friendships is found when both friends engage in binge drinking and marijuana use. Several interpretations of these findings are discussed. Overall, concordance between friends' binge drinking and marijuana use appears to help some elements of friendship quality and harm others.

  3. Retrospective reports of parenting received in their families of origin: relationships to adult attachment in adult children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Nair, Veena; Rawlings, Tanaya; Cash, Thomas F; Steer, Kate; Fals-Stewart, William

    2005-09-01

    The present study examined general and romantic attachment and parenting students received in their families of origin among 401 college students who resided with an alcohol-abusing parent prior to age 16 years as compared to those who did not reside with alcohol-abusing parents. Participants completed the Children's Report of Parent Behavior Instrument [Schludermann, E. and Schludermann, S. (1970). Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory (CRPBI). Canada: University of Manitoba], Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised [Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., and Brennan, K. G. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350-365], Relationship Scale Questionnaire [Griffin, D. W. and Bartholomew, K. (1994). Models of the self and other: Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 430-445], and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test [Jones, J. W. (1983). The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test: Test manual. Chicago: Camelot]. Young adults who met criteria for ACOAs reported more anxious and avoidant behavior in romantic relationships and a more fearful style of general adult attachment. Parenting behavior in one's family of origin predicted anxious behavior in romantic relationships and a fearful overall style of attachment, whereas being an ACOA and parenting in one's family of origin predicted avoidant behavior in romantic relationships. PMID:15896922

  4. Retrospective reports of parenting received in their families of origin: relationships to adult attachment in adult children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Nair, Veena; Rawlings, Tanaya; Cash, Thomas F; Steer, Kate; Fals-Stewart, William

    2005-09-01

    The present study examined general and romantic attachment and parenting students received in their families of origin among 401 college students who resided with an alcohol-abusing parent prior to age 16 years as compared to those who did not reside with alcohol-abusing parents. Participants completed the Children's Report of Parent Behavior Instrument [Schludermann, E. and Schludermann, S. (1970). Children's Report of Parent Behavior Inventory (CRPBI). Canada: University of Manitoba], Experiences in Close Relationships--Revised [Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., and Brennan, K. G. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350-365], Relationship Scale Questionnaire [Griffin, D. W. and Bartholomew, K. (1994). Models of the self and other: Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 430-445], and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test [Jones, J. W. (1983). The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test: Test manual. Chicago: Camelot]. Young adults who met criteria for ACOAs reported more anxious and avoidant behavior in romantic relationships and a more fearful style of general adult attachment. Parenting behavior in one's family of origin predicted anxious behavior in romantic relationships and a fearful overall style of attachment, whereas being an ACOA and parenting in one's family of origin predicted avoidant behavior in romantic relationships.

  5. Antisocial Behavioral Syndromes and Three-Year Quality of Life Outcomes in United States Adults

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Risë B.; Dawson, Deborah A.; Smith, Sharon M.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine 3-year quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes among United States adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), syndromal adult antisocial behavior without conduct disorder (CD) before age 15 (AABS, not a DSM-IV diagnosis), or no antisocial behavioral syndrome at baseline. Method Face-to-face interviews (n= 34,653). Psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule – DSM-IV Version. Health-related QOL was assessed using the Short-Form 12-Item Health Survey, version 2 (SF-12v2). Other outcomes included past-year Perceived Stress Scale-4 (PSS-4) scores, employment, receipt of Supplemental Security Income (SSI), welfare, and food stamps, and participation in social relationships. Results ASPD and AABS predicted poorer employment, financial dependency, social relationship, and physical health outcomes. Relationships of antisociality to SSI and food stamp receipt and physical health scales were modified by baseline age. Both antisocial syndromes predicted higher PSS-4, AABS predicted lower SF-12v2 Vitality, and ASPD predicted lower SF-12v2 Social Functioning scores in women. Conclusion Similar prediction of QOL by ASPD and AABS suggests limited utility of requiring CD before age 15 to diagnose ASPD. Findings underscore the need to improve prevention and treatment of antisocial syndromes. PMID:22375904

  6. The relationship of sleep problems to life quality and depression

    PubMed Central

    Sarıarslan, Hacı A.; Gulhan, Yıldırım B.; Unalan, Demet; Basturk, Mustafa; Delibas, Senol

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the level of depression, the level of life quality, and the relationship between these, in patients applying to sleep centers for various sleep problems. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 229 patients who applied for polysomnography at sleeping centers under supervision of the Neurology and Chest Diseases Clinics of Kayseri Education and Research Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey between June and August 2013. The data collection tools were a socio-demographical data form, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale (WHOQOL-BREF). For statistical analyses, the Student t-test, Kruskal-Wallis-variant analysis, and chi-square tests were used. Significance level was considered as p<0.05. Results: In our study, patients who were older aged, married, not working, and who had a chronic disease, and a severe depressive symptom were observed to have significantly poorer sleep quality. While patients with any chronic disease had significantly higher scores for total PSQI and depression, their physical, mental, and social WHOQOL-BREF scores were significantly lower. The PSQI total scores, and depression scores of the smoking patients were significantly higher for physical, mental, and social WHOQOL-BREF fields. There was a positive correlation between PSQI scores and BDI scores while there was a negative correlation among BDI, PSQI, and WHOQOL-BREF life quality sub-scale scores. Conclusions: Sleep quality was significantly poorer in patients who were older aged, married, not working, and who had a chronic disease, and a severe depressive symptom. There was a significantly negative correlation among depression, sleep quality, and life quality, while there was a significantly positive correlation between life quality and depression. PMID:26166591

  7. Hybrid Governance in an Adult Program: A Nuanced Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockley, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Eastern Mennonite University's adult program uses a hybrid governance structure. Functions separated from the traditional program include marketing, admissions, and student advising. Functions that remain connected to the traditional program include the registrar, financial aid, and student business accounts.

  8. The relationship between lifestyle regularity and subjective sleep quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy H.; Reynolds, Charles F 3rd; Buysse, Daniel J.; DeGrazia, Jean M.; Kupfer, David J.

    2003-01-01

    In previous work we have developed a diary instrument-the Social Rhythm Metric (SRM), which allows the assessment of lifestyle regularity-and a questionnaire instrument--the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), which allows the assessment of subjective sleep quality. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between lifestyle regularity and subjective sleep quality. Lifestyle regularity was assessed by both standard (SRM-17) and shortened (SRM-5) metrics; subjective sleep quality was assessed by the PSQI. We hypothesized that high lifestyle regularity would be conducive to better sleep. Both instruments were given to a sample of 100 healthy subjects who were studied as part of a variety of different experiments spanning a 9-yr time frame. Ages ranged from 19 to 49 yr (mean age: 31.2 yr, s.d.: 7.8 yr); there were 48 women and 52 men. SRM scores were derived from a two-week diary. The hypothesis was confirmed. There was a significant (rho = -0.4, p < 0.001) correlation between SRM (both metrics) and PSQI, indicating that subjects with higher levels of lifestyle regularity reported fewer sleep problems. This relationship was also supported by a categorical analysis, where the proportion of "poor sleepers" was doubled in the "irregular types" group as compared with the "non-irregular types" group. Thus, there appears to be an association between lifestyle regularity and good sleep, though the direction of causality remains to be tested.

  9. The Relationship between Chronotype and Sleep Quality in Korean Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Ji-Ae; Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Jeong, Kyoung-Sook; Joo, Eun-Jeong; Choi, Kyeong-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined the relationship between chronotype and sleep disturbance, and assessed various factors that might be associated with sleep disturbance in Korean firefighters. Methods Self-administered questionnaires assessing chronotype, depression, alcohol use, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), stress response and sleep quality were examined in 515 firefighters. Results Evening type firefighters more reported depression, alcohol use, PTSD, stress response and sleep disturbance. Also evening chronotype was the most significant risk factor for poor sleep quality (odds ratio [OR], 4.812; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.448–9.459), even after controlling for all other variables (OR, 3.996; 95% CI, 1.806–8.841). Conclusion Chronotype was the factor most strongly associated with sleep disturbance, and therefore should be considered an important variable in sleep quality, particularly in occupations involving stressful activities, such as firefighting. PMID:26243849

  10. Neighborhood epidemiological monitoring and adult mental health: European Quality of Life Survey, 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-04-01

    Little is monitored on perceived neighborhood noise, quality of drinking water, air quality, rubbish, traffic, etc. at a continental scale. This study was aimed to examine the relationships of such neighborhood risks and mental health in adults and the very old in an international and population-based setting across Europe. Data were retrieved from the European Quality of Life Survey, 2007-2012 including demographics, living conditions, income and financial situation, housing and local environment, family, work, health, social participation and quality of social services. Adults aged 18 and above were included for statistical analysis (n = 79,270). Analysis included chi-square test, t test and logistic regression modeling. People who lived in town or city tended to indicate certain major problems for them such as noise (odds ratio (OR) 2.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.17-2.53, P < 0.001), air quality (OR 2.76, 95% CI 2.54-3.00, P < 0.001), low quality of drinking water (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.23-1.43, P < 0.001), crime and/or violence (OR 2.92, 95% CI 2.68-3.19, P < 0.001), rubbish (OR 3.68, 95% CI 3.41-3.97, P < 0.001) and traffic congestion (OR 2.64, 95% CI 2.45-2.85, P < 0.001). People who reported major problems on noise (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.96-2.45, P < 0.001), air quality (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.87-2.37, P < 0.001), low quality of drinking water (OR 2.40, 95% CI 2.14-2.68, P < 0.001), crime and/or violence (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.88-2.41, P < 0.001), rubbish (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.77-2.11, P < 0.001) and traffic congestion (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.34-1.68, P < 0.001) were also classified as having depression. Perceived neighborhood conditions were associated with adult mental health across Europe. Future neighborhood monitoring research moving from the etiological to neighborhood management would be suggested.

  11. Neighborhood epidemiological monitoring and adult mental health: European Quality of Life Survey, 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-04-01

    Little is monitored on perceived neighborhood noise, quality of drinking water, air quality, rubbish, traffic, etc. at a continental scale. This study was aimed to examine the relationships of such neighborhood risks and mental health in adults and the very old in an international and population-based setting across Europe. Data were retrieved from the European Quality of Life Survey, 2007-2012 including demographics, living conditions, income and financial situation, housing and local environment, family, work, health, social participation and quality of social services. Adults aged 18 and above were included for statistical analysis (n = 79,270). Analysis included chi-square test, t test and logistic regression modeling. People who lived in town or city tended to indicate certain major problems for them such as noise (odds ratio (OR) 2.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.17-2.53, P < 0.001), air quality (OR 2.76, 95% CI 2.54-3.00, P < 0.001), low quality of drinking water (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.23-1.43, P < 0.001), crime and/or violence (OR 2.92, 95% CI 2.68-3.19, P < 0.001), rubbish (OR 3.68, 95% CI 3.41-3.97, P < 0.001) and traffic congestion (OR 2.64, 95% CI 2.45-2.85, P < 0.001). People who reported major problems on noise (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.96-2.45, P < 0.001), air quality (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.87-2.37, P < 0.001), low quality of drinking water (OR 2.40, 95% CI 2.14-2.68, P < 0.001), crime and/or violence (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.88-2.41, P < 0.001), rubbish (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.77-2.11, P < 0.001) and traffic congestion (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.34-1.68, P < 0.001) were also classified as having depression. Perceived neighborhood conditions were associated with adult mental health across Europe. Future neighborhood monitoring research moving from the etiological to neighborhood management would be suggested. PMID:25391235

  12. The Relationship between Expressive Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skills for Adult Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Ryan; Greenberg, Daphne; Laures-Gore, Jacqueline; Pae, Hye K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined expressive vocabulary and its relationship to reading skills for 232 native English-speaking adults who read between the third- and fifth-grade levels. The Boston Naming Test (BNT) was used to measure expressive vocabulary. Participants scored lower than the normative sample of adults on all aspects of the test; they had fewer…

  13. The Relationship between Reading Proficiency and Reading Strategy Use: A Study of Adult ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jiuhan; Nisbet, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between reading strategy use and reading proficiency among 121 adult ESL learners. Reading strategy use was measured by the SORS, and reading proficiency was determined by the CASAS Reading Test and BEST Literacy Test. Findings of the study reveal that (a) adult ESL learners are active strategies users; (b)…

  14. The Relationship between the Self-Efficacy and Life Satisfaction of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çakar, Firdevs Savi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between self-efficacy and life satisfaction of young adults. This study is cross-sectional study and variables. Data were collected between March 2012 and April 2012 from young adults who were bachelor degree and attending the Celal Bayar University Pedagogical Formation Program the academic…

  15. The Longitudinal Relationships between Rural Adolescents' Prosocial Behaviors and Young Adult Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlo, Gustavo; Crockett, Lisa J.; Wilkinson, Jamie L.; Beal, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    While many adolescents and young adults experiment with substances (e.g., alcohol, cigarette smoking, marijuana), recent research suggests that rural youth and young adults may be more at risk for substance use than their urban counterparts. This study was designed to examine the longitudinal relationships between rural adolescents' prosocial…

  16. Universities and Adult Literacy in South Africa: An Exploration of Their Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxenham, John; French, Edward

    Observations of the relationship between South Africa's universities and adult literacy are offered by a British Council consultant after a visit to South Africa. The purpose was to help university lecturers design and develop an adult literacy course and to give seminars to local literacy groups. Impressions are described on the state of…

  17. Word Reading and Word Spelling in French Adult Literacy Students: The Relationship with Oral Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eme, Elsa; Lambert, Eric; Alamargot, Denis

    2014-01-01

    We analysed word reading and spelling in French adults with low levels of literacy (A-IL). As well as examining phonological and lexical processes, we explored the relationship between literacy and oral language skills. Fifty-two adult literacy students were compared with reading level-matched pupils in Years 1-3 of primary school on reading tasks…

  18. The Family of Origin Parachute Model: Landing Safely in Adult Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Dean M.; Gardner, Brandt C.; Taniguchi, Narumi

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the utility of the family of origin parachute model in predicting longitudinal outcomes for couples in romantic relationships. This conceptual model contains common family variables that are theoretically and empirically related to later adult functioning and are believed to influence attitudes that adult children develop…

  19. Adult Children of Divorce and Intimate Relationships: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Teresa M.; Brooks, Morgan C.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research specific to the effects of parental divorce on adults in terms of relationship issues. Specific purposes of this review are to (a) explore research specific to intimacy and marital attitudes in adult children of divorce, (b) inform couple and family counselors of effects of parental divorce, and (c) relay implications for…

  20. Historical and Contemporary Aspects of the Relationship between the State and Adult Education in Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucouvalas, Marcie

    An outgrowth of earlier research on historical and contemporary adult education in Greece, this paper provides highlights of the relationship between the state and adult education in that country. The highlights are organized by the following historical periods: prehistory (c. 3000-1100 B.C.); early and archaic Greece (c. 1100-700 B.C.);…

  1. His and Hers: Economic Factors and Relationship Quality in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Geist, Claudia; Lucas, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Research has linked economic factors to relationship quality in the United States, primarily using cross-sectional data. In the current study, 2 waves of the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics data (n = 2,937) were used to test the gendered association between economic factors and relationship satisfaction among young German couples. In contrast to U.S.-based studies, the findings showed striking gender differences in the association between economic factors and relationship satisfaction for Germans. In cross-sectional models, women’s relationship satisfaction was positively associated with receiving government economic support, and men’s satisfaction was positively associated with poverty status and negatively associated with being a breadwinner. Longitudinal models revealed that changes in poverty status are associated with women’s satisfaction, but men’s satisfaction remains tied to their role as family provider. These unexpected results suggest that men’s satisfaction is positively associated with a more equal division of labor market activity between partners. PMID:25045175

  2. Relationship between impacts attributed to malocclusion and psychological stress in young Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Ekuni, Daisuke; Furuta, Michiko; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Murakami, Takashi; Yamashiro, Takashi; Ogura, Toshio; Morita, Manabu

    2011-10-01

    Identifying risk factors is important to prevent a wide range of health-damaging behaviours and to improve the quality of life of young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between impacts on daily performance attributed to malocclusion and psychological stress in healthy young Japanese adults. Medical and oral health data were collected during a cross-sectional examination conducted by the Health Service Center of Okayama University. Systemically healthy non-smoking students aged 18 and 19 years (n = 641; 329 males and 312 females) were included. Malocclusion was defined using a modified version of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). The impacts on daily performance attributed to malocclusion and psychological stress were assessed using self-reported questionnaires, the condition-specific oral impacts on daily performances (CS-OIDP), and the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist. Mann-Whitney U- and chi-square tests and structural equation modelling (SEM) were used for statistical analysis. Forty per cent of subjects had a malocclusion (n = 255). Subjects with impacts on daily performance had a significantly higher prevalence of malocclusion than those without impacts (P < 0.001). SEM showed that psychological stress, especially interpersonal sensitivity and depression, was significantly correlated with CS-OIDP and malocclusion. Negative impacts on daily performance attributed to malocclusion may contribute to psychological stress in young Japanese adults.

  3. The Impact of Caring for Adults with Intellectual Disability on the Quality of Life of Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoong, A.; Koritsas, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Because of an increase in life expectancy and de-institutionalisation, many adults with intellectual disability (ID) live with and are cared for by their parents throughout their adult lives. Because of caring demands, the quality of life (QOL) of parents may be affected. The study explored the impact of caring for an adult with ID on…

  4. Attachment Relationships and Psychological Adjustment of Married Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaleque, Abdul; Shirin, Anjuman; Uddin, Muhammad Kamal

    2013-01-01

    The present study explored relations among remembered parental (paternal and maternal) acceptance in childhood, spouse acceptance and psychological adjustment of adults. It also explored whether remembered childhood experiences of parental acceptance mediate the relation between perceived spouse acceptance and psychological adjustment. The sample…

  5. Sexual Relationships in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Understanding the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Callaghan, A. C.; Murphy, G. H.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) are known to be very vulnerable to sexual abuse. This may result partly from their lack of sexual knowledge and their powerless position in society. It could also be exacerbated by an ignorance of the law. This study investigates their understanding of the law relating to sexuality. Method:…

  6. Associations Between Sibling Relationship Quality and Friendship Quality in Early Adolescence: Looking at the Case of Twins.

    PubMed

    Bekkhus, Mona; Brendgen, Mara; Czajkowski, Nikolai O; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Bidirectional pathways between twin relationship quality and friendship quality were investigated in a large longitudinal twin cohort. We examined negative and positive relationship features in 313 monozygotic (MZ) twins and 238 same-sex dizygotic (DZ) twins from ages 13 to 14 years, using latent structural modeling. Results showed stronger stability of the twin relationship quality compared to friendship quality. Positive features in the sibling relationship were associated with increased positive features in the relationship with the best friend a year later. In contrast, no significant association between negative sibling relationship features and change in negative friendship quality features was found. These findings speak to the important role of the sibling relationship in the development of good quality friendship relations in twins. PMID:26952576

  7. Depression in older adults: exploring the relationship between goal setting and physical health.

    PubMed

    Street, Helen; O'Connor, Moira; Robinson, Hayley

    2007-11-01

    Depression in older adults is associated with a decreased quality of life, increased physical and emotional suffering and an increased risk of death and is often associated with declining physical health. Older people with physical illness have higher rates of depression and studies have also noted the particularly high rate of co-morbidity between depressive disorder and general medical conditions. However, other studies have shown those suffering from poor physical health do not necessarily become depressed and, in particular, the goal setting style of the individual impacts on the relationship between poor physical health and depression. This study argues that those who are conditional goal setters and suffer from poorer physical health will be more prone to depression as their perceived ability to achieve their goals is negatively impacted. One hundred and eighty-seven participants were recruited for this study. The participants completed the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Inventory and the physical health subscale of the SF-12 Health Survey. Participants were asked to rank their three most important goals and to give the main reason for setting each of their top three goals. The results showed that poorer physical health is associated with higher depression scores. Correlations revealed significant negative associations between physical health and depression, physical health and progress towards goal and progress towards goal and depression. A partial correlation between physical health and depression scores controlling for progress demonstrated that the relationship between physical health and depression is mediated through perceived progress. Implications for clinical practice are highlighted.

  8. Using Quality Schemes in Adult and Community Learning: A Guide for Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewens, David; Watters, Kate

    This document examines adult and community learning (ACL) and quality programs across England. The difficulties faced by local education agencies' ACL services in delivering quality are noted, along with ways quality improvement has been supported. Quality programs--whether internal or external, based on awards, or used as diagnostic tools--are…

  9. Serum Uric Acid and Hypertension in Adults: a Paradoxical Relationship in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bjornstad, Petter; Wadwa, R. Paul; Sirota, Jeffrey C.; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.; McFann, Kimberly; Rewers, Marian; Rivard, Christopher J.; Jalal, Diana; Chonchol, Michel B.; Johnson, Richard J.; Maahs, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Adults with type 1 diabetes have lower serum uric acid levels compared to non-diabetic adults. Little is known about the relationship between serum uric acid and blood pressure in type 1 diabetes and whether it differs from the positive relationship found in non-diabetic adults. We assessed the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships over 6-years between serum uric acid and blood pressure in adults with (35±9 years, n=393) and without (38±9 years n=685) T1D in the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes study. In non-diabetic adults, serum uric acid was associated with systolic blood pressure in multivariable-models adjusted for cardiovascular risk-factors. In adults with type 1 diabetes, a negative association was observed between serum uric acid and systolic blood pressure after multivariable-adjustments. A positive association was observed between serum uric acid and systolic blood pressure in non-diabetic adults. In contrast, an inverse relationship was demonstrated after multivariable-adjustments in type 1 diabetes. PMID:24667019

  10. Serum uric acid and hypertension in adults: a paradoxical relationship in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bjornstad, Petter; Paul Wadwa, R; Sirota, Jeffrey C; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K; McFann, Kimberly; Rewers, Marian; Rivard, Christopher J; Jalal, Diana; Chonchol, Michel B; Johnson, Richard J; Maahs, David M

    2014-04-01

    Adults with type 1 diabetes have lower serum uric acid levels compared with nondiabetic adults. Little is known about the relationship between serum uric acid and blood pressure in type 1 diabetes and whether it differs from the positive relationship found in nondiabetic adults. The authors assessed the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships over 6 years between serum uric acid and blood pressure in adults with (35±9 years [n=393]) and without (38±9 years [n=685]) type 1 diabetes in the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes study. In nondiabetic adults, serum uric acid was associated with systolic blood pressure in multivariable models adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors. In adults with type 1 diabetes, a negative association was observed between serum uric acid and systolic blood pressure after multivariable adjustments. A positive association was observed between serum uric acid and systolic blood pressure in nondiabetic adults. In contrast, an inverse relationship was demonstrated after multivariable adjustments in type 1 diabetes. PMID:24667019

  11. Development of a Five-Dimensional Measure of Adult Sleep Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortunato, Vincent J.; LeBourgeois, Monique K.; Harsh, John

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the development of a measure of adult sleep quality: the Adult Sleep-Wake Scale (ADSWS). The ADSWS is a self-report pencil-and-paper measure of sleep quality consisting of five behavioral dimensions (Going to Bed, Falling Asleep, Maintaining Sleep, Reinitiating Sleep, and Returning to Wakefulness). Data were collected from…

  12. Making a Difference: Leading and Managing for Quality Improvement in Adult and Community Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark; Kenway, Mike

    This guide looks at demands on leaders and managers in adult and community learning (ACL) in the roles and issues they face in the context of quality improvement (QI). It suggests practical approaches for improving the quality of provision for adults. The guide's design builds on current practice toward the desired state of excellence in all…

  13. Change in Quality of Life after Rehabilitation: Prognostic Factors for Visually Impaired Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langelaan, Maaike; de Boer, Michiel R.; van Nispen, Ruth M. A.; Wouters, Bill; Moll, Annette C.; van Rens, Ger H. M. B.

    2009-01-01

    The overall aim of rehabilitation for visually impaired adults is to improve the quality of life and (societal) participation. The objectives of this study were to obtain the short-term and long-term outcome of a comprehensive rehabilitation programme on quality of life for visually impaired adults, and prognostic baseline factors responsible for…

  14. A Model of Processes that Underpin Positive Relationships for Adults with Severe Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hilary; Douglas, Jacinta; Bigby, Christine; Iacono, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Background: Relationships develop through social interaction and assist with participation and inclusion. Little is known about how relationships develop between people with severe intellectual disability who have limited communication and others. Method: Interactions were observed between 6 adults with severe intellectual disability and paid…

  15. Childhood Abuse and Neglect and Adult Intimate Relationships: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, R.A.; Widom, C.S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: The present study extends prior research on childhood maltreatment and social functioning by examining the impact of early childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect on rates of involvement in adult intimate relationships and relationship functioning. Method:: Substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect from 1967 to 1971…

  16. Middle School Children's Career Aspirations: Relationship to Adult Occupations and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuette, Christine T.; Ponton, Michael K.; Charlton, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors explored the relationship between the career aspirations of 89 preadolescents from low socioeconomic backgrounds and the actual occupations of the working adults in their homes with regard to status, job gender identification, and interest (Holland, 1997). There was a significant relationship between boys' career aspirations and the…

  17. Relationships among Cortical Thickness, Reading Skill, and Print Exposure in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Jason G.; Manis, Frank R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated relationships among cortical thickness in the left-hemisphere reading network, and reading skill and experience in adult nonimpaired readers. Given the relationship between print exposure and reading, it is possible that print exposure is related to cortical structure. The pattern of correlations indicated that individuals…

  18. Evaluating the relationship between inattention and impulsivity-related falls in hospitalized older adults.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Barbara E; Ferrari, Marisa; Campbell, Cathy; Maddens, Michael; Whall, Ann L

    2010-01-01

    Impulsivity in older adults is poorly understood and there is limited literature on the relationship between impulsivity and falls. This retrospective study evaluated the relationship between of inattention and impulsivity related falls (IRF) in hospitalized older adults. The sample (N = 192) included patients 65 years and older with a documented in-patient fall in 2007. "Impaired judgment" was identified as the critical attribute of IRF. The Confusion Assessment Method item for inattention was extracted as the variable for inattention. Twenty-eight percent (28%) of falls were classified as IRF. A significant relationship was found between inattention on the shift prior to a fall and the fall being an IRF (Chi-square = 45.5, df = 1, p = .00, Phi = .54, p = .00). Early identification of older adults with impaired attention has potential to reduce IRF when nursing uses this assessment to implement additional safety interventions for hospitalized older adults. PMID:20159349

  19. Sensory Modulation and Sleep Quality among Adults with Learning Disabilities: A Quasi-Experimental Case-Control Design Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharfi, Kineret; Rosenblum, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Following the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) concepts, this study examines body functions such as sensory modulation and sleep quality among adults with learning disabilities (LD). Methods One hundred and ten participants, 55 adults with LD and 55 matched controls (mean age 30 years) filled in a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Adults/Adolescents Sensory Profile (AASP), and the Mini Sleep Questionnaire (MSQ). Chi-tests, Mann-Whitney tests, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were conducted to examine group differences related to socio-demographic characteristics and body functions. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between body functions. Results Significant differences were found between the groups in: (a) unique socio-demographic variables: high-schools attended, family status and number of children; (b) body functions: low registration and sensory sensitivity (p < .001), sensory avoiding (p = .002), sensory seeking (p = .021) and sleep quality (p < .001). Significant correlations were found between AASP subscale scores and the MSQ final score in each group. Regression analysis revealed that for the entire sample (N = 108), low registration accounted for 10.2% of the variance of sleep quality above group membership (p < .001), while in a separate examination of adults with LD (n = 53), low registration accounted for 19.9% of the variance of sleep quality (p < .001). Conclusions Adults with LD need to be studied through a health-related perspective such as the ICF model to gain further understanding of their unique characteristics and daily needs. Sensory and sleep functions of adults with LD should be further studied in the context of health related quality of life. PMID:25658647

  20. The Relationship Between Childhood Abuse and Adult Personality Disorder Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Kelly E.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Price, Lawrence H.; Gagne, Gerard G.; Mello, Andrea F.; Mello, Marcelo F.; Tyrka, Audrey R.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed personality disorder symptomatology in a community sample of healthy adults without diagnosable DSM-IV-TR Axis I psychiatric disorders who reported a history of childhood abuse. Twenty-eight subjects with a history of moderate to severe physical, sexual, and/or emotional abuse according to the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were compared to 33 subjects without an abuse history on symptoms of personality disorders. Subjects in the Abuse group were more likely to report subclinical symptoms of paranoid, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial, obsessive compulsive, passive-aggressive, and depressive personality disorders. These findings link reports of childhood abuse with symptoms of personality disorders in the absence of Axis I psychiatric disorders in a community sample of healthy adults. PMID:17685839

  1. Relationships among reading skills of adults with low literacy.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, John P; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Shore, Jane R; Scarborough, Hollis S

    2010-01-01

    In this study, confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the interrelationships among latent factors of the simple view model of reading comprehension (word recognition and language comprehension) and hypothesized additional factors (vocabulary and reading fluency) in a sample of 476 adult learners with low literacy levels. The results provided evidence for reliable distinctions between word recognition, fluency, language comprehension, and vocabulary skills as components of reading. Even so, the data did not support the hypothesis that the simple view needs to be expanded to include vocabulary or fluency factors, as has been posited in a few prior studies of younger and more able readers. Rather, word recognition and language comprehension alone were found to account adequately for variation in reading comprehension in adults with low literacy.

  2. Adult Daughters' Descriptions of Their Mother-Daughter Relationship in the Context of Chronic Conflict.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Carolyn E Z; Mentes, Janet C; Moon, Ailee; Pieters, Huibrie C; Phillips, Linda R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe, from the perspective of the adult daughter, the mother-daughter relationship in the context of chronic conflict. Grounded theory methodology was used. An online recruitment strategy was used to identify a sample of adult daughters (N = 13) who self-identified as having an abusive relationship with their aging mother. Data collection was completed through semi-structured telephone interviews. Daughters framed their relationship around their perceptions of past childhood injustices. These injustices invoked strong negative emotions. Daughters had equally strong motivations for sustaining the relationship, driven by desire to reconcile their negative experience through seeking validation and futile-hoping as well as a sense of obligation to do due diligence. Together these factors created an environment of inevitable confrontation and a relationship defined by chronic conflict. Findings from the study provide theoretical insights to the conceptualization of aggression, power relationships, and the development of elder abuse and neglect. PMID:26421508

  3. Adult Daughters' Descriptions of Their Mother-Daughter Relationship in the Context of Chronic Conflict.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Carolyn E Z; Mentes, Janet C; Moon, Ailee; Pieters, Huibrie C; Phillips, Linda R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe, from the perspective of the adult daughter, the mother-daughter relationship in the context of chronic conflict. Grounded theory methodology was used. An online recruitment strategy was used to identify a sample of adult daughters (N = 13) who self-identified as having an abusive relationship with their aging mother. Data collection was completed through semi-structured telephone interviews. Daughters framed their relationship around their perceptions of past childhood injustices. These injustices invoked strong negative emotions. Daughters had equally strong motivations for sustaining the relationship, driven by desire to reconcile their negative experience through seeking validation and futile-hoping as well as a sense of obligation to do due diligence. Together these factors created an environment of inevitable confrontation and a relationship defined by chronic conflict. Findings from the study provide theoretical insights to the conceptualization of aggression, power relationships, and the development of elder abuse and neglect.

  4. The Effects of Acupressure Training on Sleep Quality and Cognitive Function of Older Adults: A 1-Year Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hui; Liu, Mengjiao; Wang, Ping; Kang, Jiaxun; Lu, Fenghua; Pan, Lu

    2016-10-01

    We explored the effects of acupressure training on older adults' sleep quality and cognitive function. Ninety older adults with impaired sleep quality were selected from screened volunteers and randomly divided into equal control and experimental groups; 82 completed the 1-year follow-up. Participants in the control group were given instructions on sleep health, while those in the experimental group received sleep health instructions plus individual and small group acupressure training sessions and support to practice the intervention on their own each day. All participants were assessed by trained assistants blind to study group allocation using Chinese versions of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Mini-Mental State Examination, and four subscales from the revised Chinese version of the Wechsler Memory Scale, at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed that acupressure training improved older adults' sleep quality and cognitive function, but the mediating effect of sleep on the relationship between acupressure training and cognitive function was not supported. Given the ease, simplicity, and safety of acupressure training observed with community-dwelling older adults in China, attempts should be made to replicate these preliminary positive findings with larger samples. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27327537

  5. Effects of gender and psychosocial factors on "friends with benefits" relationships among young adults.

    PubMed

    Owen, Jesse; Fincham, Frank D

    2011-04-01

    Friends with benefits relationships (FWB) are a blend of friendship and physical intimacy outside of a committed romantic relationship. This study examined young adults' (n = 889) engagement in, and reactions to, a FWB relationship in the past year based on their gender, psychological distress, alcohol use, and relationship attitudes. Men (54.3%) were more likely than women (42.9%) to report at least one FWB relationship and both men and women reported that FWB relationships were associated with more positive emotional reactions than negative ones although this difference was larger for men. Greater alcohol use was related to engaging in a FWB relationship and this relationship was stronger for women. Further, thoughtfulness about relationship decisions moderated the relationship between alcohol use and engaging in FWB relationships, and again this moderation effect was stronger for women than men. Young adults with more psychological distress and who felt constrained in the FWB relationship were more likely to report negative emotional reactions. Implications for psychoeducational programs and future research are offered.

  6. Teacher Loyalty of Elementary Schools in Taiwan: The Contribution of Gratitude and Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Shueh-Chin; Yeh, Liang-Yin

    2014-01-01

    Gratitude was an important missing factor in the extant relationship quality and relationship loyalty model. We introduced gratitude into the model of relationship quality and relationship loyalty. Two hundred and eighteen teachers from elementary schools in Taiwan were used to conduct an empirical research. The results show that teachers'…

  7. Patient Experience Shows Little Relationship with Hospital Quality Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Groene, Oliver; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Klazinga, Niek S.; Wagner, Cordula; Bartels, Paul D.; Kristensen, Solvejg; Saillour, Florence; Thompson, Andrew; Thompson, Caroline A.; Pfaff, Holger; DerSarkissian, Maral; Sunol, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Patient-reported experience measures are increasingly being used to routinely monitor the quality of care. With the increasing attention on such measures, hospital managers seek ways to systematically improve patient experience across hospital departments, in particular where outcomes are used for public reporting or reimbursement. However, it is currently unclear whether hospitals with more mature quality management systems or stronger focus on patient involvement and patient-centered care strategies perform better on patient-reported experience. We assessed the effect of such strategies on a range of patient-reported experience measures. Materials and Methods We employed a cross-sectional, multi-level study design randomly recruiting hospitals from the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Poland, Portugal, Spain, and Turkey between May 2011 and January 2012. Each hospital contributed patient level data for four conditions/pathways: acute myocardial infarction, stroke, hip fracture and deliveries. The outcome variables in this study were a set of patient-reported experience measures including a generic 6-item measure of patient experience (NORPEQ), a 3-item measure of patient-perceived discharge preparation (Health Care Transition Measure) and two single item measures of perceived involvement in care and hospital recommendation. Predictor variables included three hospital management strategies: maturity of the hospital quality management system, patient involvement in quality management functions and patient-centered care strategies. We used directed acyclic graphs to detail and guide the modeling of the complex relationships between predictor variables and outcome variables, and fitted multivariable linear mixed models with random intercept by hospital, and adjusted for fixed effects at the country level, hospital level and patient level. Results Overall, 74 hospitals and 276 hospital departments contributed data on 6,536 patients to this study (acute

  8. Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Problems in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship among alcohol problems and alcohol consumption variables in 410 college students. Total alcohol-related problems, drinking and driving problems, and school problems increased significantly when subjects drank moderately. Physical illness problems increased during light drinking, while interpersonal and legal problems…

  9. The Relationship between Learning Disabilities and Homelessness in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markos, Patricia A.; Strawser, Sherri

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the relationship between learning disabilities (LD) and homelessness. Research describing the connection between disabilities and homelessness has focused on individuals presenting with disabilities such as mental illness, physical disabilities, medical disabilities, or substance abuse. At this time, the presence of LD in…

  10. Unresolved Issues in Adult Children's Marital Relationships Involving Intergenerational Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaton, John M.; Norris, Joan E.; Pratt, Michael W.

    2003-01-01

    When their first child was 5, 30 couples discussed an unresolved issue in their marital relationship that involved one of their parents, and how they would resolve this issue. Five intergenerational themes were identified in these disagreements: balancing nuclear vs. extended family time, changing rules and roles, pleasing parents vs. spouse,…

  11. Structural complexity and the quality of stepfather-stepchild relationships.

    PubMed

    Clingempeel, W G; Ievoli, R; Brand, E

    1984-12-01

    This research examined the effects of structural complexity and sex of stepchild on the quality of stepfather-stepchild relationships. Sixteen simple stepfather families (the wife had custody of a child from a previous marriage, but the stepfather has no biological children) and 16 complex stepfather families (the wife had custody of a child from a previous marriage, and the stepfather was a noncustodial biological parent) with half of each type (N = 8) having a male and half having a female, 9-12-year-old target child participated in a multimethod-multimeasure assessment of the stepfather-stepchild relationship. Families were recruited from marriage license records, and data collection was accomplished in a single three-and-a-half-hour home visit. Dependent variables included: (a) questionnaire measures of love and detachment relationship dimensions independently obtained from parents, stepparents, and (step)children, and (b) proportions of positive and negative stepparent and stepchild communication behaviors derived from videotaped interaction tasks. Findings revealed that simple and complex stepfather families did not differ on any questionnaire or behavioral measures. Girls, however, engaged in a lower proportion of positive verbal and greater proportion of negative problem-solving behaviors toward their stepfathers than boys did. Stepfathers did not differ on proportions of communication behaviors emitted toward boys and girls. No sex-of-child differences were obtained on the questionnaire measures. Directions for future research on structural complexity and stepfather families are discussed. PMID:6519248

  12. Emotional intelligence and health-related quality of life in institutionalised Spanish older adults.

    PubMed

    Luque-Reca, Octavio; Pulido-Martos, Manuel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther; Augusto-Landa, José María

    2015-06-01

    This study explores the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a sample of Spanish older adults who are institutionalised in long-term care (LTC) facilities. One hundred fifteen institutionalised individuals (47.82% women; 88.3 ± 7.9 years) from southern Spain completed a set of questionnaires that included measures of EI, health and personality. Data were analysed via hierarchical regression. After controlling for personality and sociodemographic variables, the EI dimensions, emotional comprehension and emotional facilitation, accounted for part of the variance in several HRQoL facets. These dimensions could have an important role in the HRQoL of residents in LTC. Moreover, the use of a performance measure addresses the limitations of previous studies that have relied on self-report measures. These aspects underscore the importance of the results of this study.

  13. Relationship of regional water quality to aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.

    1983-11-01

    Ground-water quality and associated geologic characteristics may affect the feasibility of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system development in any hydrologic region. This study sought to determine the relationship between ground-water quality parameters and the regional potential for ATES system development. Information was collected from available literature to identify chemical and physical mechanisms that could adversely affect an ATES system. Appropriate beneficiation techniques to counter these potential geochemical and lithologic problems were also identified through the literature search. Regional hydrology summaries and other sources were used in reviewing aquifers of 19 drainage regions in the US to determine generic geochemical characteristics for analysis. Numerical modeling techniques were used to perform geochemical analyses of water quality from 67 selected aquifers. Candidate water resources regions were then identified for exploration and development of ATES. This study identified six principal mechanisms by which ATES reservoir permeability may be impaired: (1) particulate plugging, (2) chemical precipitation, (3) liquid-solid reactions, (4) formation disaggregation, (5) oxidation reactions, and (6) biological activity. Specific proven countermeasures to reduce or eliminate these effects were found. Of the hydrologic regions reviewed, 10 were identified as having the characteristics necessary for ATES development: (1) Mid-Atlantic, (2) South-Atlantic Gulf, (3) Ohio, (4) Upper Mississippi, (5) Lower Mississippi, (6) Souris-Red-Rainy, (7) Missouri Basin, (8) Arkansas-White-Red, (9) Texas-Gulf, and (10) California.

  14. Social determinants and health-related dimensions of quality of life in adult patients with haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Dolatkhah, R; Fakhari, A; Pezeshki, M Z; Shabanlouei, R; Tavassoli, N; Gholchin, M

    2014-05-01

    The availability of safe and effective factor replacement therapies, in persons with haemophilia (PWH), has in some countries answered the basic need for treatment of these patients. The findings suggest that adult patients who have always been on prophylaxis reported significantly better physical functioning, and thus better quality of life. This study is designed to evaluate the QoL in adult PWH, by focusing on social determinants of QoL and their relationship with health-related dimensions, in Tabriz, Iran. The survey instrument was a self-report 36 items questionnaire, 'A36 Hemofilia - QoL', which is a disease-specific questionnaire for the assessment of the health-related QoL in adults living with haemophilia. A total of 100 haemophilia A and B patients, aged over 17 years participated in this study within 1 year. QoL total score was 71.88 (±26.89 SD). Patients who treat in our Hemophilia Treatment Center, had better QoL score (P = 0.000), and education has a significant impact on the social aspects of QoL (P = 0.18). The QoL was very poor in urban area in contrast to patients who lived in the city (54.45 vs. 74.21 respectively). Single patients have a better QoL than married patients (76.56 vs. 68.50 respectively). Our results showed that low education and lack of awareness of the diseases among PWH lead to reduce of QoL and more disease complications. More and wider treatment and psychological care for improving quality of life of these patients are seriously recommended.

  15. Relationships among Young Adults' Marital Messages Received, Marital Attitudes, and Relationship Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shurts, W. Matthew; Myers, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined relationships among university students' marital messages received (MMR), marital attitudes, and romantic relationship self-efficacy (RSE). Results indicated that students' marital attitudes and romantic relationship status predicted their level of RSE. The authors found differences in MMR, marital attitudes, and RSE on the…

  16. Relationship Between Flowability And Tank Closure Grout Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C. A.; Stefanko, D. B.; Hay, M. S.

    2012-10-08

    After completion of waste removal and chemical cleaning operations, Tanks 5-F and 6-F await final closure. The project will proceed with completing operational closure by stabilizing the tanks with grout. Savannah River Remediation's (SRR) experience with grouting Tanks 18-F and 19-F showed that slump-flow values were correlated with flow/spread inside these tanks. Less mounding was observed when using grouts with higher slump-flow. Therefore, SRNL was requested to evaluate the relationship between flowability and cured properties to determine whether the slump-flow maximum spread of Mix LP#8-16 could be increased from 28 inches to 30 inches without impacting the grout quality. A request was also made to evaluate increasing the drop height from 5 feet to 10 feet with the objective of enhancing the flow inside the tank by imparting more kinetic energy to the placement. Based on a review of the grout property data for Mix LP#8-16 collected from Tank 18-F and 19-F quality control samples, the upper limit for slump-flow measured per ASTM C 1611 can be increased from 28 to 30 inches without affecting grout quality. However, testing should be performed prior to increasing the drop height from 5 to 10 feet or observations should be made during initial filling operations to determine whether segregation occurs as a function of drop heights between 5 and 10 feet. Segregation will negatively impact grout quality. Additionally, increasing the delivery rate of grout into Tanks 5-F and 6-F by using a higher capacity concrete/grout pump will result in better grout spread/flow inside the tanks.

  17. Relationships among stress, infectious illness, and religiousness/spirituality in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Callen, Bonnie L; Mefford, Linda; Groër, Maureen; Thomas, Sandra P

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among stress, infectious illness, and religiousness/spirituality in community-dwelling older adults in the southeastern United States. Four assessment tools were completed by 82 older adults (mean age = 74, age range = 65 to 91): the Perceived Stress Scale, the Carr Infection Symptom Checklist (SCL), the Brief Multidimensional Measurement of Religiousness/Spirituality, and a demographic form. A significant correlation was found between stress and SCL scores; however, four dimensions of religiousness/spirituality moderated the relationship between stress and infection. Older adults who were unable to forgive themselves or forgive others, or feel forgiven by God, were more likely to have had an infection in the previous month. Increased infections also occurred when older participants did not feel they had religious support from their congregations. Using these findings, gerontological nurses are well positioned to deliver tailored stress management and forgiveness interventions when older adults report increased stress.

  18. "Family Comes First!" Relationships with family and friends in Italian emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Meeus, Wim

    2014-12-01

    We conducted two studies to examine relationships with family and friends in Italian emerging adults, paying attention to the potential moderating role of gender and occupational status. In Study I, we aimed at capturing emerging adults' perspective on interactions with both family and friends by means of a qualitative approach. Participants were 39 emerging adults (51% males), who were interviewed individually or within a focus group. In Study II, we sought to examine how family and friend importance to identity were related to life satisfaction through a quantitative approach. Participants were 474 (47.3% males) emerging adults who filled a self-report questionnaire. Overall, findings indicated solid family ties and a strong impact of family importance to identity for life satisfaction. Results were independent of gender and occupational status (university students vs. workers). Thus, findings highlighted that in the Italian context young people's transition to adulthood is strongly intertwined with family relationships.

  19. Relationship between Perceived Discrimination and Sedentary Behavior in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Womack, Veronica Y.; Ning, Hongyan; Lewis, Cora E.; Loucks, Eric B.; Puterman, Eli; Reis, Jared; Siddique, Juned; Sternfeld, Barbara; Van Horn, Linda; Carnethon, Mercedes R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify psychosocial factors associated with sedentary behavior, we tested whether perceived discrimination is associated with sedentary behavior. Methods Black and white men and women (N = 3270) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study reported experiences of discrimination and time engaged in total and screen time sedentary behaviors in 2010–11. Results There were no associations of discriminatory experiences with total sedentary behavior time. However, discriminatory experiences were positively associated with screen time for black men (OR 1.81, 95% CI: 1.14, 2.86) and white women (OR 1.51, 95% CI: 1.14, 2.00) after adjusting for demographic and traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. Conclusion Among black men and white women, discriminatory experiences were correlated with more screen time sedentary behavior. PMID:24933133

  20. Accentuating the Positive, Eliminating the Negative? Relationship Maintenance as a Predictor of Two-Dimensional Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malinen, Kaisa; Tolvanen, Asko; Ronka, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In this study, relationship maintenance and its connections with positive and negative relationship quality were examined among Finnish parents (N = 177 women and 153 men; i.e., partners from 150 couples and 27 women and 3 men whose partner did not participate in the study). Relationship maintenance was measured using Stafford, Dainton, and Haas's…

  1. Adult attachment orientations and anger expression in romantic relationships: a dyadic analysis.

    PubMed

    Nisenbaum, Max G; Lopez, Frederick G

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined how the gender and adult attachment orientations of romantic relationship partners contribute to each participant's experience and expression of anger in their relationship. Specifically, we collected data from both members of a heterosexual relationship to examine how a person's adult attachment orientation influences their own, and their partner's, anger-related behavior. In addition, we examined whether one partner's responses to another's anger predicted the other's anger-related response tendencies. Furthermore, we explored the contribution of participants' sex to their own and their partners' anger-related behavior. Hypotheses were tested using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM), a data analytic strategy that takes into account the nonindependence of dyadic data. Results yielded partial support for theory-based predictions about the influence of adult attachment orientations on anger-related reactions and accommodation behavior. The implications of these findings for counseling practice and future research are discussed.

  2. Appetitive traits and relationships with BMI in adults: Development of the Adult Eating Behaviour Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Hunot, Claudia; Fildes, Alison; Croker, Helen; Llewellyn, Clare H; Wardle, Jane; Beeken, Rebecca J

    2016-10-01

    The Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a validated parent-report measure of appetitive traits associated with weight in childhood. There is currently no matched measure for use in adults. The aim of this study was to adapt the CEBQ into a self-report Adult Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (AEBQ) to explore whether the associations between appetitive traits and BMI observed in children are present in adults. Two adult samples were recruited one year apart from an online survey panel in 2013 (n = 708) and 2014 (n = 954). Both samples completed the AEBQ and self-reported their weight and height. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to derive 35 items for the AEBQ in Sample 1 and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to replicate the factor structure in Sample 2. Reliability of the AEBQ was assessed using Cronbach's α and a two week test-retest in a sub-sample of 93 participants. Correlations between appetitive traits measured by the AEBQ and BMI were calculated. PCA and CFA results showed the AEBQ to be a reliable questionnaire (Cronbach's α > 0.70) measuring 8 appetitive traits similar to the CEBQ [Hunger (H), Food Responsiveness (FR), Emotional Over-Eating (EOE), Enjoyment of Food (EF), Satiety Responsiveness (SR), Emotional Under-eating (EUE), Food Fussiness (FF) and Slowness in Eating (SE)]. Associations with BMI showed FR, EF (p < 0.05) and EOE (p < 0.01) were positively associated and SR, EUE and SE (p < 0.01) were negatively associated. Overall, the AEBQ appears to be a reliable measure of appetitive traits in adults which translates well from the validated child measure. Adults with a higher BMI had higher scores for 'food approach' traits (FR, EOE and EF) and lower scores for 'food avoidance' traits (SR, EUE and SE). PMID:27215837

  3. Psychometric field study of the new haemophilia quality of life questionnaire for adults: the 'Hemofilia-QoL'.

    PubMed

    Remor, E; Arranz, P; Quintana, M; Villar, A; Jiménez-Yuste, V; Diaz, J L; Rincón, C; Marrero, C; Moreno, M; Lucia, J F; Martínez, E; Soto, I; Sedano, C; Gonzalez-Boullosa, R; Prieto, M; Garcia-Luaces, M; Hernández-Navarro, F

    2005-11-01

    Although there is a worldwide interest in the assessment of health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) in haemophilia patients, no non-disease specific instruments (for adults) are readily available. In this paper, a haemophilia-specific quality-of-life assessment measure for adults (the Hemofilia-QoL questionnaire) has been developed and tested for psychometric properties in 121 adults with haemophilia living in Spain. The Hemofilia-QoL questionnaire is a self-report modular instrument that assesses nine relevant HRQoL domains for patients with haemophilia (e.g. physical health, daily activities, joint damage, pain, treatment satisfaction, treatment difficulties, emotional functioning, mental health, relationships and social activity). Psychometric examination involved the assessment of data quality, scaling assumptions, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) and validity (concurrent; external clinical criterion and sensitivity). The Hemofilia-QoL 36-item version questionnaire had acceptable internal consistency and retest reliability values. The questionnaire shows excellent concurrent validity (with the SF-36 Health Survey) and external clinical criterion validity (haemophilia clinical status) and sensitivity (health status changes) as well. The Hemofilia-QoL is now available for adult assessment and is ready for use in clinical research in Spain.

  4. Quality of Life for Young Adults with Severe Intellectual Disability: Mothers' Thoughts and Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Laura Lee; Kraemer, Bonnie R.; Blacher, Jan; Simmerman, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Thirty mothers of transition-aged young adults (18-24 years) with severe intellectual disability were interviewed regarding their son or daughter's quality of life. All mothers completed the standardised Quality of Life Questionnaire and responded to several open-ended questions to further delineate quality of life for their child. Mothers were…

  5. Involving Tutors and Support Staff in the Adult and Community Learning Quality Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark; Ogilvie, Margaret; Ewens, David

    This booklet outlines the new policy context facing adult and community learning (ACL) providers in Great Britain in their pursuit of high-quality learning experiences for their customers. It shows how a Total Quality Management (TQM) approach to supporting staff development can be effective in securing quality. TQM components are values,…

  6. Relationships between quality of life and family function in caregiver

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There are caregivers who see their quality of life (QoL) impaired due to the demands of their caregiving tasks, while others manage to adapt and overcome the crises successfully. The influence of the family function in the main caregiver's situation has not been the subject of much evaluation. The aim of this study is to analyse the relationship between the functionality of the family and the QoL of caregivers of dependent relatives. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study including 153 caregivers. Setting: Two health centers in the city of Salamanca(Spain). Caregiver variables analysed: demographic characteristics, care recipient features; family functionality (Family APGAR-Q) and QoL (Ruiz-Baca-Q) perceived by the caregiver. Five multiple regressions are performed considering global QoL and each of the four QoL dimensions as dependent variables. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was used to study the influence of the family function questionnaire on QoL. Results Family function is the only one of the variables evaluated that presented an association both with global QoL and with each of the four individual dimensions (p < 0.05). Using the CCA, we found that the physical and mental well-being dimensions are the ones which present a closer relationship with family functionality, while social support is the quality dimension that is least influenced by the Family APGAR-Q. Conclusion We find an association between family functionality and the caregiver's QoL. This relation holds for both the global measure of QoL and each of its four individual dimensions. PMID:21496270

  7. Relationships of individual, social, and physical environmental factors with older adults' television viewing time.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Donder, Liesbeth; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Owen, Neville; Dury, Sarah; De Witte, Nico; Buffel, Tine; Verté, Dominique; Deforche, Benedicte

    2014-10-01

    Sedentary behaviors (involving prolonged sitting) can be associated detrimentally with health outcomes. Older adults, the most sedentary age group, are especially at risk due to their high levels of television viewing time. This study examined individual, social, and physical environmental correlates of older adults' television viewing. Data on daily television viewing time, plus individual, social, and physical environmental factors were collected from 50,986 noninstitutionalized older adults (≥ 65 years) in Flanders (Belgium). The results showed significant relationships between television viewing time and individual, social, and physical environmental factors. Subgroups at risk for high levels of television viewing were those who were functionally limited, less educated, widowed, and (semi)urban-dwelling older adults. Our findings illustrate a cross-sectional link between older adults' television viewing time and social composition of their neighborhood, formal participation, access to alternative activities, and safety from crime.

  8. Guidelines and Quality Standards for Adults with Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Mary Jo; McMillan, Katharine K

    2016-05-01

    Guidelines and quality measures for epilepsy care have the potential to improve the quality of epilepsy care. Quality measures are increasingly used for pay-for-performance. This article describes different guidelines and quality measures that have been used to identify best practices, types of best practices for use in clinical care developed using each of these approaches, and information on how to interpret the recommendations in specific guidelines and quality measures described elsewhere in this issue. PMID:27086980

  9. Relationship between social capital indicators and lifestyle in Brazilian adults.

    PubMed

    Loch, Mathias Roberto; Souza, Regina Kazue Tanno de; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; Martinez-Gómez, David; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    The present study examined the relationship between indicators of social capital and health-related behaviors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 1,062 participants representative of the population aged 40 years or older from a city in Southern Brazil. The following indicators of social capital were examined: number of friends, number of people they could borrow money from when in need; extent of trust in community members; number of times members of the community help each other; community safety; and extent of membership in community activities. Also, an overall score of social capital including all indicators was calculated. A poor social capital was associated with insufficient leisure-time physical activity (OR = 1.70; 95%CI: 1.07-2.70), low consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR = 1.53; 95%CI: 1.05-2.24), and smoking (OR = 1.97; 95%CI: 1.21-3.21). No clear association was found between capital social and binge drinking. A score of social capital showed an inverse relationship with the number of prevalent risk behaviors (p < 0.001). These results reinforce that policies to promote health should consider social capital.

  10. Turkish and Moroccan Young Adults in the Netherlands: The Relationship Between Acculturation and Psychological Problems.

    PubMed

    Özbek, Emel; Bongers, Ilja L; Lobbestael, Jill; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between acculturation and psychological problems in Turkish and Moroccan young adults living in the Netherlands. A sample of 131 healthy young adults aged between 18 and 24 years old, with a Turkish or Moroccan background was recruited using snowball sampling. Data on acculturation, internalizing and externalizing problems, beliefs about psychological problems, attributions of psychological problems and barriers to care were collected and analyzed using Latent Class Analysis and multinomial logistic regression. Three acculturation classes were identified in moderately to highly educated, healthy Turkish or Moroccan young adults: integration, separation and diffusion. None of the participants in the sample were marginalized or assimilated. Young adults reporting diffuse acculturation reported more internalizing and externalizing problems than those who were integrated or separated. Separated young adults reported experiencing more practical barriers to care than integrated young adults. Further research with a larger sample, including young adult migrants using mental health services, is required to improve our understanding of acculturation, psychological problems and barriers to care in this population. Including experiences of discrimination in the model might improve our understanding of the relationship between different forms of acculturation and psychological problems.

  11. Climate-water quality relationships in Texas reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gelca, Rodica; Hayhoe, Katharine; Scott-Fleming, Ian; Crow, Caleb; Dawson, D.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2015-01-01

    Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and concentrations of salts in surface water bodies can be affected by the natural environment, local human activities such as surface and ground water withdrawals, land use, and energy extraction, and variability and long-term trends in atmospheric conditions including temperature and precipitation. Here, we quantify the relationship between 121 indicators of mean and extreme temperature and precipitation and 24 water quality parameters in 57 Texas reservoirs using observational data records covering the period 1960 to 2010. We find that water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, chloride, sulfate, and phosphorus all show consistent correlations with atmospheric predictors, including high and low temperature extremes, dry days, heavy precipitation events, and mean temperature and precipitation over time scales ranging from one week to two years. Based on this analysis and published future projections for this region, we expect climate change to increase water temperatures, decrease dissolved oxygen levels, decrease pH, increase specific conductance, and increase levels of sulfate, chloride in Texas reservoirs. Over decadal time scales, this may affect aquatic ecosystems in the reservoirs, including altering the risk of conditions conducive to algae occurrence, as well as affecting the quality of water available for human consumption and recreation.

  12. The Importance of Self-Determination to Perceived Quality of Life for Youth and Young Adults with Chronic Conditions and Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougall, Janette; Evans, Jan; Baldwin, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-determination and perceived quality of life for youth and young adults with chronic conditions and disabilities over time. A total of 34 individuals completed the "Life Satisfaction Index-Adolescents" and the "Arc's Self-Determination Scale" at study baseline and again 1 year later. Controlling for…

  13. Relationships between sand and water quality at recreational beaches.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Matthew C; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Piggot, Alan M; Klaus, James S; Zhang, Yifan

    2011-12-15

    Enterococci are used to assess the risk of negative human health impacts from recreational waters. Studies have shown sustained populations of enterococci within sediments of beaches but comprehensive surveys of multiple tidal zones on beaches in a regional area and their relationship to beach management decisions are limited. We sampled three tidal zones on eight South Florida beaches in Miami-Dade and Broward counties and found that enterococci were ubiquitous within South Florida beach sands although their levels varied greatly both among the beaches and between the supratidal, intertidal and subtidal zones. The supratidal sands consistently had significantly higher (p < 0.003) levels of enterococci (average 40 CFU/g dry sand) than the other two zones. Levels of enterococci within the subtidal sand correlated with the average level of enterococci in the water (CFU/100mL) for the season during which samples were collected (r(s) = 0.73). The average sand enterococci content over all the zones on each beach correlated with the average water enterococci levels of the year prior to sand samplings (r(s) = 0.64) as well as the average water enterococci levels for the month after sand samplings (r(s) = 0.54). Results indicate a connection between levels of enterococci in beach water and sands throughout South Florida's beaches and suggest that the sands are one of the predominant reservoirs of enterococci impacting beach water quality. As a result, beaches with lower levels of enterococci in the sand had fewer exceedences relative to beaches with higher levels of sand enterococci. More research should focus on evaluating beach sand quality as a means to predict and regulate marine recreational water quality.

  14. Relationships Between Sand and Water Quality at Recreational Beaches

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Matthew C.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Piggot, Alan M.; Klaus, James S.; Zhang, Yifan

    2011-01-01

    Enterococci are used to assess the risk of negative human health impacts from recreational waters. Studies have shown sustained populations of enterococci within sediments of beaches but comprehensive surveys of multiple tidal zones on beaches in a regional area and their relationship to beach management decisions are limited. We sampled three tidal zones on eight South Florida beaches in Miami-Dade and Broward counties and found that enterococci were ubiquitous within South Florida beach sands although their levels varied greatly both among the beaches and between the supratidal, intertidal and subtidal zones. The supratidal sands consistently had significantly higher (p<0.003) levels of enterococci (average 40 CFU/g dry sand) than the other two zones. Levels of enterococci within the subtidal sand correlated with the average level of enterococci in the water (CFU/100mL) for the season during which samples were collected (rs= 0.73). The average sand enterococci content over all the zones on each beach correlated with the average water enterococci levels of the year prior to sand samplings (rs=0.64) as well as the average water enterococci levels for the month after sand samplings (rs=0.54). Results indicate a connection between levels of enterococci in beach water and sands throughout South Florida’s beaches and suggest that the sands are one of the predominant reservoirs of enterococci impacting beach water quality. As a result, beaches with lower levels of enterococci in the sand had fewer exceedences relative to beaches with higher levels of sand enterococci. More research should focus on evaluating beach sand quality as a means to predict and regulate marine recreational water quality. PMID:22071324

  15. Adult Children of Gay and Lesbian Parents: Religion and the Parent-Child Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Megan C.; Foley, Pamela F.; Aster, Amanda M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous scholars have explored various challenges facing children of gay and lesbian individuals, and some have explored the impact of a parent’s sexual orientation on the parent-child relationship. However, the impact of religion on the parent-child relationships of adult children with a gay or lesbian parent has been overlooked. In this study, 10 adult children with both a gay or lesbian parent and a heterosexual parent were interviewed and asked to retrospectively explore how religion impacted their parent-child relationships. The following themes emerged from phenomenological analysis of the interviews: (a) family break-up more difficult than the parents’ coming out; (b) discovery that parent was gay or lesbian; (c) initial shame over having gay or lesbian parent; (d) positive aspects of having a gay or lesbian parent; (e) redefined relationship with religion; and (f) impact of culture on how gay and lesbian individuals are viewed. PMID:25477556

  16. Of Sex and Romance: Late Adolescent Relationships and Young Adult Union Formation.

    PubMed

    Raley, R Kelly; Crissey, Sarah; Muller, Chandra

    2007-11-11

    To better understand the social factors that influence the diverse pathways to family formation young adults experience today, this research investigates the association between opposite-gender relationships during late adolescence and union formation in early adulthood. Using data from the first and third waves of the Add Health (n = 4,911), we show that, for both men and women, there is continuity between adolescent and adult relationship experiences. Those involved in adolescent romantic relationships at the end of high school are more likely to marry and to cohabit in early adulthood. Moreover, involvement in a nonromantic sexual relationship is positively associated with cohabitation, but not marriage. We conclude that the precursors to union formation patterns in adulthood are observable in adolescence.

  17. Adult Children of Gay and Lesbian Parents: Religion and the Parent-Child Relationship.

    PubMed

    Lytle, Megan C; Foley, Pamela F; Aster, Amanda M

    2013-05-01

    Previous scholars have explored various challenges facing children of gay and lesbian individuals, and some have explored the impact of a parent's sexual orientation on the parent-child relationship. However, the impact of religion on the parent-child relationships of adult children with a gay or lesbian parent has been overlooked. In this study, 10 adult children with both a gay or lesbian parent and a heterosexual parent were interviewed and asked to retrospectively explore how religion impacted their parent-child relationships. The following themes emerged from phenomenological analysis of the interviews: (a) family break-up more difficult than the parents' coming out; (b) discovery that parent was gay or lesbian; (c) initial shame over having gay or lesbian parent; (d) positive aspects of having a gay or lesbian parent; (e) redefined relationship with religion; and (f) impact of culture on how gay and lesbian individuals are viewed.

  18. The measurement properties of mentoring relationship quality scales for mentoring programs.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Annalise; Wells, Samantha; Speechley, Kathy Nixon; Lipman, Ellen; DeWit, David

    2014-10-01

    The measurement properties of two new scales designed to measure global and engagement mentoring relationship quality (Global Mentoring Relationship Quality Scale and Quality of Mentoring Relationship Engagement Scale) were examined among 272 mentors, 491 children, and 554 parents participating in Big Brothers Big Sisters community mentoring programs across Canada. Results demonstrated their unidimensionality, moderate convergent validity, good external validity, and weak-to-moderate reporter concordance. Longitudinal analyses demonstrated good predictive validity of mentor and parent mentoring relationship quality scales with respect to predicting mentoring relationship status.

  19. Family health history communication networks of older adults: importance of social relationships and disease perceptions.

    PubMed

    Ashida, Sato; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Goodman, Melody; Schafer, Ellen J

    2013-10-01

    Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication (have shared and intend to share new FHH information with family members) to inform public health efforts to facilitate FHH dissemination. Information on 970 social network members enumerated by 99 seniors (aged 57 years and older) at 3 senior centers in Memphis, Tennessee, through face-to-face interviews was analyzed. Participants shared FHH information with 27.5% of the network members; 54.7% of children and 24.4% of siblings. Two-level logistic regression models showed that participants had shared FHH with those to whom they provided emotional support (odds ratio [OR] = 1.836) and felt close to (OR = 1.757). Network-members were more likely to have received FHH from participants with a cancer diagnosis (OR = 2.617) and higher familiarity with (OR = 1.380) and importance of sharing FHH with family (OR = 1.474). Participants intended to share new FHH with those who provide tangible support to (OR = 1.804) and were very close to them (OR = 2.112). Members with whom participants intend to share new FHH were more likely to belong to the network of participants with higher perceived severity if family members encountered heart disease (OR = 1.329). Many first-degree relatives were not informed of FHH. Perceptions about FHH and disease risk as well as quality of social relationships may play roles in whether seniors communicate FHH with their families. Future studies may consider influencing these perceptions and relationships.

  20. The Relationship Quality Interview: evidence of reliability, convergent and divergent validity, and incremental utility.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Erika; Barry, Robin A; Brock, Rebecca L; Bunde, Mali; Langer, Amie; Ro, Eunyoe; Fazio, Emily; Mulryan, Lorin; Hunt, Sara; Madsen, Lisa; Dzankovic, Sandra

    2011-03-01

    Relationship satisfaction and adjustment have been the target outcome variables for almost all couple research and therapies. In contrast, far less attention has been paid to the assessment of relationship quality. The present study introduces the Relationship Quality Interview (RQI), a semistructured, behaviorally anchored individual interview. The RQI was designed to provide a more objective assessment of relationship quality as a dynamic, dyadic construct across 5 dimensions: (a) quality of emotional intimacy in the relationship, (b) quality of the couple's sexual relationship, (c) quality of support transactions in the relationship, (d) quality of the couple's ability to share power in the relationship, and (e) quality of conflict/problem-solving interactions in the relationship. Psychometric properties of RQI ratings were examined through scores obtained from self-report questionnaires and behavioral observation data collected cross-sectionally from a sample of 91 dating participants and longitudinally from a sample of 101 married couples. RQI ratings demonstrated strong reliability (internal consistency, interrater agreement, interpartner agreement, and correlations among scales), convergent validity (correlations between RQI scale ratings and questionnaire scores assessing similar domains of relationship quality), and divergent validity (correlations between RQI scale ratings and (a) behavioral observation codes assessing related constructs, (b) global relationship satisfaction scores, and (c) scores on individual difference measures of related constructs). Clinical implications of the RQI for improving couple assessment and interventions are discussed.

  1. The relationship of the local food environment with obesity: A systematic review of methods, study quality and results

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Laura K; Appel, Lawrence J; Franco, Manuel; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Nur, Alana; Anderson, Cheryl AM

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between local food environments and obesity and assess the quality of studies reviewed. Methods Systematic keyword searches identified studies from US and Canada that assessed the relationship of obesity to local food environments. We applied a quality metric based on design, exposure and outcome measurement, and analysis. Results We identified 71 studies representing 65 cohorts. Overall, study quality was low; 60 studies were cross-sectional. Associations between food outlet availability and obesity were predominantly null. Among non-null associations, we saw a trend toward inverse associations between supermarket availability and obesity (22 negative, 4 positive, 67 null) and direct associations between fast food and obesity (29 positive, 6 negative, 71 null) in adults. We saw direct associations between fast food availability and obesity in lower income children (12 positive, 7 null). Indices including multiple food outlets were most consistently associated with obesity in adults (18 expected, 1 not expected, 17 null). Limiting to higher quality studies did not affect results. Conclusions Despite the large number of studies, we found limited evidence for associations between local food environments and obesity. The predominantly null associations should be interpreted cautiously due to the low quality of available studies. PMID:26096983

  2. Treatment outcomes, quality of life, and impact of hemophilia on young adults (aged 18-30 years) with hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Witkop, Michelle; Guelcher, Christine; Forsyth, Angela; Hawk, Sarah; Curtis, Randall; Kelley, Laureen; Frick, Neil; Rice, Michelle; Rosu, Gabriela; Cooper, David L

    2015-12-01

    The Hemophilia Experiences, Results and Opportunities (HERO) initiative assessed psychosocial issues reported by people with moderate to severe hemophilia and was led by a multidisciplinary international advisory board. This analysis reports data from young adult respondents (aged 18-30 years), including both US and overall global (including US respondents) results, and investigates treatment outcomes, quality of life, and impacts of hemophilia on relationships. More young adults in HERO received prophylaxis than on-demand treatment, although a majority reported not using factor products exactly as prescribed, and 50% of global respondents and 26% of US respondents reported issues with access to factor replacement therapy in the previous 5 years. Many young adults with hemophilia reported comorbidities, including bone/skeletal arthritis, chronic pain, and viral infections, and nearly half of young adults reported anxiety/depression. Most reported pain interference with daily activities in the past 4 weeks, although a majority reported participating in lower-risk activities and approximately half in intermediate-risk activities. Most young adults were very or quite satisfied with the support of partners/spouses, family, and friends, although roughly one-third reported that hemophilia affected their ability to develop close relationships with a partner. A majority of young adults reported that hemophilia has had a negative impact on employment, and 62% of global respondents and 78% of US respondents were employed at least part-time. Together these data highlight the psychosocial issues experienced by young adults with hemophilia and suggest that increased focus on these issues may improve comprehensive care during the transition to adulthood.

  3. Treatment outcomes, quality of life, and impact of hemophilia on young adults (aged 18-30 years) with hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Witkop, Michelle; Guelcher, Christine; Forsyth, Angela; Hawk, Sarah; Curtis, Randall; Kelley, Laureen; Frick, Neil; Rice, Michelle; Rosu, Gabriela; Cooper, David L

    2015-12-01

    The Hemophilia Experiences, Results and Opportunities (HERO) initiative assessed psychosocial issues reported by people with moderate to severe hemophilia and was led by a multidisciplinary international advisory board. This analysis reports data from young adult respondents (aged 18-30 years), including both US and overall global (including US respondents) results, and investigates treatment outcomes, quality of life, and impacts of hemophilia on relationships. More young adults in HERO received prophylaxis than on-demand treatment, although a majority reported not using factor products exactly as prescribed, and 50% of global respondents and 26% of US respondents reported issues with access to factor replacement therapy in the previous 5 years. Many young adults with hemophilia reported comorbidities, including bone/skeletal arthritis, chronic pain, and viral infections, and nearly half of young adults reported anxiety/depression. Most reported pain interference with daily activities in the past 4 weeks, although a majority reported participating in lower-risk activities and approximately half in intermediate-risk activities. Most young adults were very or quite satisfied with the support of partners/spouses, family, and friends, although roughly one-third reported that hemophilia affected their ability to develop close relationships with a partner. A majority of young adults reported that hemophilia has had a negative impact on employment, and 62% of global respondents and 78% of US respondents were employed at least part-time. Together these data highlight the psychosocial issues experienced by young adults with hemophilia and suggest that increased focus on these issues may improve comprehensive care during the transition to adulthood. PMID:26619194

  4. The Relationship Quality Interview: Evidence of Reliability, Convergent and Divergent Validity, and Incremental Utility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Erika; Barry, Robin A.; Brock, Rebecca L.; Bunde, Mali; Langer, Amie; Ro, Eunyoe; Fazio, Emily; Mulryan, Lorin; Hunt, Sara; Madsen, Lisa; Dzankovic, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Relationship satisfaction and adjustment have been the target outcome variables for almost all couple research and therapies. In contrast, far less attention has been paid to the assessment of relationship quality. The present study introduces the Relationship Quality Interview (RQI), a semistructured, behaviorally anchored individual interview.…

  5. Mothers' Perceptions of the Quality of Childhood Sibling Relationships Affected by Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Melissa; Campbell, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    The quality of the sibling relationship has an important role in the development of psychosocial skills throughout childhood. While the literature suggests that the significance of sibling relationships is heightened when one sibling has a disability, empirical findings about the quality of these relationships are few and inconsistent. The present…

  6. Relationships between disability, quality of life and prevalence of nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Matilde; Raggi, Alberto; Pagani, Marco; Carella, Francesco; Soliveri, Paola; Albanese, Alberto; Romito, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease suffer from a variety of motor and nonmotor symptoms (NMS), report reduced quality of life and increased disability. Aims of this study are to assess the impact of Parkinson's disease on disability and quality of life, to evaluate the relationships between them and NMS prevalence. In this cross-sectional study, adult patients were consecutively enrolled and administered the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO-DAS II), the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Non Motor Symptoms Questionnaire (NMSQuest). One-sample t-test was used to compare WHO-DAS II and SF-36 scores with normative value. Pearson's correlation was performed between NMSQuest, WHO-DAS II and SF-36 summary scales. Independent-sample t-test was used to compare NMSQuest, WHO-DAS II and SF-36 scores in patients with Hoehn & Yahr stage <3 and ≥ 3. In total, 96 patients were enrolled. SF-36 and WHO-DAS II scores were significantly worse than the normative values. Correlation coefficients between NMSQuest, WHO-DAS II and SF-36's mental score were moderate, and were high between WHO-DAS II and and SF-36's physical score. Patients with Hoehn & Yahr stage ≥ 3 reported reduced quality of life, higher disability and more NMS. Parkinson's disease severity is strongly associated with reduced quality of life, increased disability and NMS prevalence. Disability and quality of life assessment tools measure psychosocial facets that are similar specifically with regard to physical health component of health-related quality of life, are sensitive enough to capture differences related to disease's progression and increased prevalence of NMS.

  7. Perception of Quality of Life for Adults with Hearing Impairment in the LGBT Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly-Campbell, Rebecca J.; Atcherson, Samuel R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the this study was to examine the perception of both generic and disease-specific quality of life (QoL) in adults with hearing impairment who are members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. Eighty-three adults who self-identified as having hearing impairment and as being members of the LGBT community and…

  8. Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Perceived Quality of Life of Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, Elizabeth A.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Perry, Tara L.; Fuller, Dana K.; Morgan, Don W.

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the health and fitness of adults with visual impairments. This article documents the physical activity levels and body-composition profiles of young and middle-aged adults with visual impairments and addresses the concomitant effects of these factors on perceived quality of life. (Contains 2 tables.)

  9. Perceived parental differential treatment in middle adulthood: curvilinear relations with individuals' experienced relationship quality to sibling and parents.

    PubMed

    Boll, Thomas; Ferring, Dieter; Filipp, Sigrun-Heide

    2003-12-01

    Guided by predictions from equity theory and the self-esteem maintenance model, links between perceptions of current parental differential treatment and the perceiver's experienced relationship quality with sibling and parents were analyzed in a sample of 1,020 adult (middle-aged) offspring. Participants rated how often they and a sibling receive parental recognition, nurture, and demands for filial responsibility. In addition, they indicated their emotions and behaviors toward sibling and parents. Data analyses showed that an individual's experienced relationship with sibling was best when both were treated equally and diminished with increasing favoritism or disfavoritism. Experienced relationship with parents was best when participants were favored a bit; the relationship worsened when participants were disfavored and worsened only slightly when they were extremely favored. Results are discussed regarding mediating processes and implications for practical applications. PMID:14640798

  10. The relationship between child maltreatment and substance abuse treatment outcomes among emerging adults and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Brooke D; Smith, Douglas C; Smith, Jane Ellen; Godley, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is the period of greatest risk for problematic substance use. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between a broad measure of child maltreatment and several key outcomes for a large clinical sample of emerging adults (n = 858) and adolescents (n = 2,697). The secondary aim was to examine the extent to which the relationship between child maltreatment and treatment outcomes differed between emerging adults and adolescents. Multilevel latent growth curve analyses revealed emerging adults and adolescents who experienced child maltreatment reported significantly greater reductions over time on several treatment outcomes (e.g., substance use, substance-related problems, and emotional problems). Overall, analyses did not support differential relationships between child maltreatment and changes over time in these substance use disorder treatment outcomes for emerging adults and adolescents. The one exception was that although emerging adults with child maltreatment did reduce their HIV risk over time, their improvements were not as great as were the improvements in HIV risk reported by adolescents who had experienced child maltreatment.

  11. Relationships between Childhood and Adult Physical Activity Patterns in a Community Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamarine, Roland J.; Polkinghorne, Ori

    This study examined the relationship between adult physical activity levels and patterns of activity that were established during childhood. A random digit telephone survey was conducted of noninstitutionalized residents in a medium sized California city. Subjects ages 18 and over who volunteered to participate were questioned about their…

  12. RELATIONSHIP OF AMEBOCYTES AND TERRESTRIAL ELEMENTS TO ADULT SHELL DEPOSITION IN EASTERN OYSTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fisher, William S. Submitted. Relationship of Amebocytes and Terrestrial Elements to Adult Shell Deposition in Eastern Oysters. J. Shellfish Res. 30 p. (ERL,GB 1197).

    Freshwater runoff contains terrestrial elements from geological deposits that may be vital to eastern oys...

  13. Adaptive Behavior among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Its Relationship to Community Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolf, Steve; Woolf, Christine Merman; Oakland, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This study examined relationships between general adaptive behavior and the degree of community independence displayed by 272 adults with intellectual disabilities. Specifically, the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II; Harrison & Oakland, 2003) was completed for each participant and compared with actual levels of work and…

  14. The Interactive Effects of Marital Conflict and Divorce on Parent-Adult Children's Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Tianyi; Pettit, Gregory S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines main effect and interactive models of the relations between marital conflict, divorce, and parent-adult child relationships and gender differences in these relations. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of a community sample (N = 585). Parental marital conflict and divorce were measured from age 5 through age 17 years.…

  15. Struggling to Recognize Their Existence: Examining Student-Adult Relationships in the Urban High School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Louie F.

    2008-01-01

    In today's reform context, much attention is placed on policies and outcomes and far less emphasis on understanding the social and cultural processes in schools. Using case-study methodology, I examine relationships between low-income, urban high school students of color, and the school adults with whom they interact. Using grounded theory,…

  16. The Relationship of Perceived Social Support with Well-Being in Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerette, Amy R.; Smedema, Susan Miller

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between perceived social support and multiple indicators of well-being in adults with visual impairments was investigated. The results included significant correlation of social support and depressive symptoms, satisfaction with life, as well as with physical, psychological, economic, family, and social well-being. Implications…

  17. Do Trauma Symptoms Mediate the Relationship between Childhood Physical Abuse and Adult Child Abuse Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joel S.; Thomsen, Cynthia J.; Crouch, Julie L.; Rabenhorst, Mandy M.; Martens, Patricia M.; Dyslin, Christopher W.; Guimond, Jennifer M.; Stander, Valerie A.; Merrill, Lex L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although the intergenerational transmission of family violence has been well documented, the mechanisms responsible for this effect have not been fully determined. The present study examined whether trauma symptoms mediate the relationship between a childhood history of child physical abuse (CPA) and adult CPA risk, and whether any such…

  18. Mapping Young Adults' Use of Fathers for Attachment Support: Implications on Romantic Relationship Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Harry; Almond, Tasha M.

    2010-01-01

    A mixed methods approach was used to examine how young adults (n = 1012) perceive fathers as targets for attachment support. Participants ranked the level of attachment support received and sought from fathers, mothers, best friends, and romantic partners, and provided relationship-specific information on additional indices of social support…

  19. Relationships between Recreation and Levels of Self-Determination for Adolescents and Young Adults with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Jayne; McDonnell, John

    2008-01-01

    Self-determination continues to be a focus for secondary students who have intellectual disabilities. This study examined the relationship between recreation and self-determination for adolescents and young adults with intellectual disabilities. Students from secondary and post-high school special education programs tracked their involvement in…

  20. Secondary Traumatization among Adult Children of PTSD Veterans: The Role of Mother-Child Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinshtein, Yula; Dekel, Rachel; Polliack, Miki

    2011-01-01

    The study examined the level of secondary traumatization among adult children of Israeli war veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as manifested in emotional distress, stress resulting from terrorist attacks, and capacity for intimacy. In addition, the role of the mother-child relationship as a moderator of these manifestations of…

  1. The Relationship of Group Structure, Task Performance, and Leadership Recognition Among Adult Basic Education Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gordon A.

    A study investigated the relationship between group structure and leader recognition and compared task performance with group structure and leader recognition to obtain a better understanding of the adult basic education participant. Fifteen women were randomly assigned to three groups and each given a list of six symbols. Their task was to…

  2. Suicide Ideation in Older Adults: Relationship to Mental Health Problems and Service Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corna, Laurie M.; Cairney, John; Streiner, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the prevalence of suicide ideation among community-dwelling older adults and the relationship between suicide ideation, major psychiatric disorder, and mental health service use. Design and Methods: We use data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 1.2: Mental Health and Well-being (CCHS 1.2). We estimate the prevalence of…

  3. Structural Relationships between Social Activities and Longitudinal Trajectories of Depression among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Song-Iee; Hasche, Leslie; Bowland, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the structural relationships between social activities and trajectories of late-life depression. Design and Methods: Latent class analysis was used with a nationally representative sample of older adults (N = 5,294) from the Longitudinal Study on Aging II to classify patterns of social activities. A latent growth curve…

  4. Psychological Abuse Perpetration in College Dating Relationships: Contributions of Gender, Stress, and Adult Attachment Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether gender, stressful problems common among college students, and adult attachment orientations (anxiety and avoidance) contributed to self-reported perpetration of psychological abuse in dating relationships among 127 college students. College men's stress levels were the strongest predictor of perpetration of…

  5. The Relationships of Drug Items Communicated by Tenenaged Interviewees to Teenaged and Adult Interviewers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward V.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses relationships of drug items communicated by teenaged interviewees to teenaged and adult interviewers. The subjects were teenagers in East, Central and West Harlem. A pool of 298 interview tapes was gathered from which 70 tapes were randomly selected. Teenagers' explanations for drug use included 10 categories established by…

  6. Support and Conflict in Ethnically Diverse Young Adults' Relationships with Parents and Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moilanen, Kristin L.; Raffaelli, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    We examined support and conflict with parents and close friends in a sample of ethnically diverse young adults (European-, Asian-, Cuban-, Latin-, and Mexican Americans). College students (N = 495) completed six subscales from the Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI; Furman & Buhrmester, 1985). Friends were rated higher than parents on global…

  7. The Relationship between Self-Directed Learning Readiness and Life Satisfaction among Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockett, Ralph G.

    1985-01-01

    Readiness for self-directed learning and perceived life satisfaction were explored among a sample of 64 adults over 60 years of age. A significant positive relationship was found between learning readiness and life satisfaction. Though not related to chronological age, learning readiness is connected to previous formal schooling. Self-directedness…

  8. Young Adult Relationship Values at the Intersection of Gender and Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Ann; Hull, Kathleen E.; Ortyl, Timothy A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent decades have brought significant social changes in the industrialized West that may influence young adults' attitudes about intimate relationships, including changes in gender expectations and behaviors and changes in sexual attitudes and practices. We used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 14,121) to…

  9. Relationships between Adult Workers' Spiritual Well-Being and Job Satisfaction: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Tracey E.; Young, J. Scott; Kelly, Virginia A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors studied the relationships between adult workers' spiritual well-being and job satisfaction. Two hundred participants completed 2 instruments: the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (C. W. Ellison & R. F. Paloutzian, 1982) and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form (D. J. Weiss, R. V. Dawis, G. W. England, & L. H. Lofquist, 1967).…

  10. The Relationship between Grey-Matter and ASD and ADHD Traits in Typical Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geurts, Hilde M.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Scholte, H. Steven

    2013-01-01

    We tested whether in 85 healthy adults (18-29 years) there is a relationship between grey-matter (GM) volume and autism and ADHD symptom severity. The structural MRI findings and autism and ADHD self-reports revealed that autism and ADHD symptom severity was correlated with GM volume in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Autism symptom-severity was…

  11. The Protective Effects of Intimate Partner Relationships on Depressive Symptomatology among Adult Parents Maltreated as Children

    PubMed Central

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Lee, Rosalyn D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We examined whether intimate partner relationships in general, and satisfying and stable intimate partner relationships in particular, protect victims of child maltreatment from depressive symptoms during young adulthood. Methods Prospective, longitudinal data on 485 parents, 99 maltreated during childhood, were used. Longitudinal multilevel models (12 annual interviews, conducted from 1999 to 2010, nested in individuals) were specified to estimate the effects of relationship characteristics on depressive symptomatology by maltreatment status. Results Relationship characteristics operated as direct protective factors for maltreated and not maltreated individuals. Higher relationship satisfaction and stability were prospectively predictive of less depressive symptomatology. Models of inter and intra-individual variability were also consistent with significant direct protective effects. Between persons, a more satisfying and stable relationship was associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Within person, periods when an individual moved into a relationship, and periods of enhanced satisfaction and stability were associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Relationship satisfaction and stability operated as significant buffering protective factors for the effect of maltreatment on depressive symptoms in most models, suggesting that positive intimate partner relationships may reduce the risk that childhood maltreatment poses for adult depressive symptoms. Conclusions The CDC identifies safe, stable, and nurturing relationships (SSNRs) as key in preventing maltreatment and its consequences. This study adds to the evidence on the protective role of SSNRs by identifying intimate partner relationship factors that may protect parents who were maltreated during childhood from depressive symptoms. PMID:25912653

  12. Preadoptive factors predicting lesbian, gay, and heterosexual couples' relationship quality across the transition to adoptive parenthood.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, Julianna Z; Kashy, Deborah A

    2010-06-01

    The authors examined preadoptive factors as predictors of relationship quality (love, ambivalence, and conflict) among 125 couples (44 lesbian couples, 30 gay male couples, and 51 heterosexual couples) across the 1st year of adoptive parenthood. On average, all new parents experienced declines in their relationship quality across the 1st year of parenthood regardless of sexual orientation, with women experiencing steeper declines in love. Parents who, preadoption, reported higher levels of depression, greater use of avoidant coping, lower levels of relationship maintenance behaviors, and less satisfaction with their adoption agencies reported lower relationship quality at the time of the adoption. The effect of avoidant coping on relationship quality varied by gender. Parents who, preadoption, reported higher levels of depression, greater use of confrontative coping, and higher levels of relationship maintenance behaviors reported greater declines in relationship quality. These findings have implications for professionals who work with adoptive parents both pre- and postadoption.

  13. The Relationship Among Heart Failure Disease Management, Quality of Care, and Hospitalizations.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eugene S; Bartone, Cheryl; Daly, Kathleen; Menon, Santosh; McDonald, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) affects 5.1 million adult patients, accounting for over 1 million hospitalizations, 1.8 million office visits, and nearly 680,000 emergency department visits annually. HF hospitalizations have been incorporated into a national measure of hospital and provider quality, with associated financial penalties based on the 30-day readmission rate after an index hospitalization for HF. However, it is not clear whether the number of HF-related hospitalizations or 30-day readmissions is consistently related to quality of care. The relationships between various measures of HF care quality and hospitalization rates were evaluated by performing a cohort study of an HF disease management program in a clinical practice setting. Following the statistical analyses assessing outcomes and survival, the conclusion was that an HF disease management program in clinical practice associated with improved utilization of evidence-based medical and device therapies tends to improve ejection fraction and survival, and reduce sex and race disparities, but not with an associated reduction in hospitalizations or total hospital days. PMID:26856029

  14. The Relationship Among Heart Failure Disease Management, Quality of Care, and Hospitalizations.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eugene S; Bartone, Cheryl; Daly, Kathleen; Menon, Santosh; McDonald, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) affects 5.1 million adult patients, accounting for over 1 million hospitalizations, 1.8 million office visits, and nearly 680,000 emergency department visits annually. HF hospitalizations have been incorporated into a national measure of hospital and provider quality, with associated financial penalties based on the 30-day readmission rate after an index hospitalization for HF. However, it is not clear whether the number of HF-related hospitalizations or 30-day readmissions is consistently related to quality of care. The relationships between various measures of HF care quality and hospitalization rates were evaluated by performing a cohort study of an HF disease management program in a clinical practice setting. Following the statistical analyses assessing outcomes and survival, the conclusion was that an HF disease management program in clinical practice associated with improved utilization of evidence-based medical and device therapies tends to improve ejection fraction and survival, and reduce sex and race disparities, but not with an associated reduction in hospitalizations or total hospital days.

  15. Late Life Immigration and Quality of Life among Asian Indian Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Anita J; Diwan, Sadhna

    2016-09-01

    Late-life immigration among seniors for purposes of family reunification is a growing phenomenon in developed countries. Using the World Health Organization's Quality of Life instrument short form (WHOQOL-BREF) and other psychosocial measures related to the political/legal context of immigration, and personal and environmental autonomy (mastery, immigration status, access to transportation, and language barrier), this study examined quality of life (QoL) in Asian Indian seniors (N = 109), who immigrated to the United States to reunite with their adult children. The sample scores on Overall QoL and QoL domains (physical and psychological health, social relationships, and environment) were similar to established norms. Although all QoL domains correlated significantly with Overall QoL at the bivariate level, multivariate analysis showed that only environmental domain contributed significantly to Overall QoL. Linear regressions indicated: Mastery contributed significantly to Overall QoL and all QoL domains; access to transport contributed to Overall QoL, physical health, and environmental QoL; immigration status (a proxy for political/legal context) contributed to environmental QoL whereas language barrier contributed to none. Implications for improving perceptions of QoL, mastery, access to transport and other services are discussed. PMID:27245988

  16. Late Life Immigration and Quality of Life among Asian Indian Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Anita J; Diwan, Sadhna

    2016-09-01

    Late-life immigration among seniors for purposes of family reunification is a growing phenomenon in developed countries. Using the World Health Organization's Quality of Life instrument short form (WHOQOL-BREF) and other psychosocial measures related to the political/legal context of immigration, and personal and environmental autonomy (mastery, immigration status, access to transportation, and language barrier), this study examined quality of life (QoL) in Asian Indian seniors (N = 109), who immigrated to the United States to reunite with their adult children. The sample scores on Overall QoL and QoL domains (physical and psychological health, social relationships, and environment) were similar to established norms. Although all QoL domains correlated significantly with Overall QoL at the bivariate level, multivariate analysis showed that only environmental domain contributed significantly to Overall QoL. Linear regressions indicated: Mastery contributed significantly to Overall QoL and all QoL domains; access to transport contributed to Overall QoL, physical health, and environmental QoL; immigration status (a proxy for political/legal context) contributed to environmental QoL whereas language barrier contributed to none. Implications for improving perceptions of QoL, mastery, access to transport and other services are discussed.

  17. Polypharmacy and Health-Related Quality of Life Among US Adults With Arthritis, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Dwibedi, Nilanjana; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Our objective was to determine the relationship between polypharmacy (treatment with prescription drugs from 6 or more drug classes concurrently) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among US adults with arthritis. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study that used 2-year longitudinal data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to analyze a cohort of 6,132 adults aged over 21 years with arthritis. Measures of HRQoL were the summary scores from the mental component summary (MCS) and physical component summary (PCS) of the 12-item short-form health survey. Unadjusted and adjusted regression models were used to evaluate the association between polypharmacy and HRQoL measures. We used SAS, version 9.4, (SAS Institute Inc) to conduct all analyses. Results In unadjusted analyses, adults with arthritis taking prescription drugs from 6 or more drug classes concurrently had significantly lower MCS and PCS scores (β, −3.11, P < .001 and β, −10.26, P < .001, respectively) than adults taking prescription drugs from fewer than 6. After controlling for the demographic characteristics, number of mental and physical chronic conditions, and baseline MCS and PCS scores, adults taking prescription drugs from 6 or more drug classes concurrently had significantly lower PCS scores (β, −1.68, P < .001), than those taking prescription drugs from fewer than 6. However, no significant difference in MCS scores was found between adults taking prescription drugs from 6 or more drug classes concurrently and those taking prescription drugs from fewer than 6 (β, −0.27, P = .46). Conclusion Polypharmacy is significantly associated with lower PCS scores among adults with arthritis. Because polypharmacy can lead to drug–drug and drug–disease interactions, health care providers need to consider the risk and adopt a cautious approach in prescribing multiple drugs to manage chronic conditions and in choosing therapies to improve HRQoL among adults with

  18. Development of the Sleep Quality Questionnaire in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tsukasa

    2014-08-01

    The Sleep Quality Questionnaire was developed and its reliability and validity were estimated. Four samples involving approximately 1400 Japanese college students and employees were used to examine the factor structure, the test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and incremental validity. Sleep Quality Questionnaire scores were associated with well-being, such as general health states, depressive symptoms, chronic fatigue, and quality of life. Test-retest estimates indicated that Sleep Quality Questionnaire scores were stable over an 8-week period. The Sleep Quality Questionnaire incrementally contributes to well-being even beyond the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and to sleep duration. Overall, the data suggest that the Sleep Quality Questionnaire scale is both reliable and valid. PMID:23720542

  19. Spatial relationship between adult malaria vector abundance and environmental factors in western Kenya highlands.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guofa; Munga, Stephen; Minakawa, Noboru; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun

    2007-07-01

    Information on the spatial relationships between disease vectors and environmental factors is fundamental to vector-borne disease control. Although it is well known that mosquito abundance is associated with the amount of rainfall and thus the number of larval breeding sites, the spatial relationship between larval habitat availability and adult mosquito abundance is not clear. We investigated the impact of environmental heterogeneity and larval habitats on the spatial distribution of Anopheles gambiae s. s. and An. funestus adult mosquitoes, the most important malaria vectors in the highlands of western Kenya. Mosquito sampling was conducted in May, August, and November 2002, and February 2003. Geographic information system layers of larval habitats, land use type, human population distribution, house structure, and hydrologic schemes were overlaid with adult mosquito abundance. Correlography was used to determine the spatial autocorrelation in adult mosquito abundance among houses and the cross-correlation between adult mosquito abundance and environmental factors. Getis' G(i)(*)(d) index was used to define focal adult mosquito abundance clusters. We found a significant autocorrelation in the vector population and a significant cross-correlation between the vector population and larval habitat availability. The threshold distances of both autocorrelation and cross-correlation were significantly varied among seasons. Focal clustering analysis revealed that the adult vector population was concentrated along the Yala River Valley where most larval habitats were found. Regression analysis found that distance of a house to the Yala River, age of the house, elevation, house structure, and tree canopy coverage significantly affected adult mosquito abundance. Our results suggest that vector control targeted at malaria transmission hotspots and supplemented by larval control may be an effective approach for epidemic malaria control in the western Kenya highlands.

  20. The relationship between adenovirus-36 seropositivity, obesity and metabolic profile in Turkish children and adults.

    PubMed

    Karamese, M; Altoparlak, U; Turgut, A; Aydogdu, S; Karamese, S Aksak

    2015-12-01

    Obesity potentially arising from viral infection is known as 'infectobesity'. The latest reports suggest that adenovirus-36 (Adv36) is related to obesity in adults and children. Our aim was not only to determine the Adv36 seropositivity in both obese and non-obese children and adults, but also to investigate correlations between antibody positivity and serum lipid profiles. Both Adv36 positivity and tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha, leptin and interleukin-6 levels were detected in blood samples collected from 146 children and 130 adults by ELISA. Fasting plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels were also measured. Adv36 positivity was determined to be 27·1% and 6% in obese and non-obese children and 17·5% and 4% in obese and non-obese adults, respectively. There was no difference with regard to total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha and interleukin-6 levels (P > 0·05). However, there was a significant difference between groups in terms of leptin levels (P < 0·05). We determined the prevalence of Adv36 positivity in obese children and adults. Our results showed that Adv36 may be an obesity agent for both adults and children, parallel with current literature data. However, the available data on a possible relationship between Adv36 infection and obesity both in children and adults do not completely solve the problem.

  1. Relationships of eating competence, sleep behaviors and quality, and overweight status among college students.

    PubMed

    Quick, Virginia; Shoff, Suzanne; Lohse, Barbara; White, Adrienne; Horacek, Tanya; Greene, Geoffrey

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the relationships between eating competence (intra-individual approach to eating and food-related attitudes and behaviors that entrain positive bio-psychosocial outcomes) and sleep behaviors and quality in college students, a high-risk group for poor eating habits, weight gain, and inadequate sleep. Thus, data from full-time college students (N=1035; 82% White; 61% female) aged 18-24 years from 5 U.S. universities were obtained from online questionnaires (eating competence (ecSI), Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), physical activity, demographics) and physical assessments (measured height, weight), to explore sleep behavior and quality between eating-competent (EC; ecSI score≥32) and non-EC groups (ecSI<32). Generalized linear models controlling for gender, body mass index, and physical activity were utilized. A higher proportion of those in the EC group reported adequate sleep quality (67% vs. 57% in non-EC, p=0.001), sleep duration of ≥7 h nightly (58% vs. 50% in non-EC, p=0.007), and infrequent daytime dysfunction (72% vs. 65% in non-EC, p=0.02). When ecSI scores were grouped as tertiles, those in the highest tertile reported a higher prevalence of no sleep disturbances (7% vs. 2% in the lowest ecSI tertile, p=0.006) and lower prevalence of sleep medication use (10% vs. 15% in the lowest ecSI tertile, p=0.04). Results suggest that competent eaters are more likely to have better overall sleep quality and fewer sleep-related issuescompared to less competent eaters. These findings may inform future longitudinal studies, and health promotion and weight management interventions for young adults.

  2. The Longitudinal Relationship between the Use of Long-Term Care and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pot, Anne Margriet; Deeg, Dorly J.H.; Twisk, Jos W.R.; Beekman, Aartjan T.F.; Zarit, Steven H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to estimate the longitudinal relationship between transitions in the use of long-term care and older adults' depressive symptoms and to investigate whether this relationship could be explained by markers of older adults' underlying health, or other variables including demographics, personality, and partner…

  3. Living and Loving “Decent”: Religion and Relationship Quality among Urban Parents◇

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, W. Bradford; Wolfinger, Nicholas H.

    2008-01-01

    Religious participation is linked to overall satisfaction among both married and unmarried couples in urban America. Less is known about what may account for the association between religious participation and relationship quality. We explore this issue using data from the first two waves of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Relationship-related behaviors (e.g., temperance) and relationship-specific behaviors (e.g., affection) can each account for the association between church attendance and relationship quality. Furthermore, religious participation appears to be more tightly linked to men's perceptions of relationship quality than women's. PMID:18784851

  4. Young Adult Relationship Values at the Intersection of Gender and Sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Kathleen E.; Ortyl, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent decades have brought significant social changes in the industrialized West that may influence young adults’ attitudes about intimate relationships, including changes in gender expectations and behaviors and changes in sexual attitudes and practices. We used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (N=14,121) to compare men to women, and sexual minorities to heterosexuals, on ratings of the importance of love, faithfulness, commitment, financial security, and racial homogamy for successful relationships. We found that nearly all young adults adhere to dominant relationship values inherent in the romantic love ideology; however, we found modest but significant differences by gender and sexual identity in relationship values. Significant interactions demonstrated that gender and sexual identity intersect to uniquely influence relationship views. PMID:23710079

  5. Protective Parenting, Relationship Power Equity, and Condom Use Among Rural African American Emerging Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Simons, Leslie G.; Chen, Yifu; Burwell, Stephanie; Brody, Gene H.

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections disproportionately affect African Americans, particularly young women. The influence of a set of interrelated protective parenting processes—instrumental and emotional support, sexual risk communication, and encouragement of goals for employment or education—on emerging adult women was examined. Parenting was hypothesized to affect consistent condom use through its association with women’s reports of power equity in their intimate relationships. Hypotheses were tested with 135 sexually active women 18 to 21 years of age living in rural southern communities. Structural equation modeling indicated that (a) parenting processes predicted women’s self-reported relationship power equity and consistent condom use, and (b) relationship power equity predicted consistent condom use. Limited support emerged for a mediational role of relationship power equity in explaining the influence of parenting on consistent condom use. Parental involvement and young women’s establishment of personal control in their intimate relationships are important goals for sexual risk reduction programs. PMID:23729949

  6. Seasoning ingredient variety, but not quality, is associated with greater intake of beans and rice among urban Costa Rican adults.

    PubMed

    Vadiveloo, Maya K; Campos, Hannia; Mattei, Josiemer

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to a variety of flavors may promote food enjoyment, but few studies have examined the relationship between food seasoning and food intake. We hypothesized that using a higher variety (number) of 11 seasonings to prepare 2 staple foods (beans, white rice) would be associated with intake of those foods in a population-based case-control study of Costa Rican adults in urban vs rural areas (n=1025), where cooking and dietary practices differ. Participants were surveyed about the variety of seasoning ingredients added when preparing beans or rice. Ingredients were also categorized by their dietary quality (healthfulness), and scores for seasoning variety and quality were created. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the association between variety and quality scores (continuously and in tertiles (T)) and intake of each staple food. Seasoning variety was positively associated with daily servings of beans (β=.02, P=.01; 1.31 and 1.23 servings/day in T2 and T3 versus 1.02 servings/day in T1, P<.05) and rice (β=.04, P=.005) in the urban areas only. No differences in ingredient quality across increasing intakes of beans or rice were noted, and the joint associations between variety and quality were not significant. In conclusion, a greater variety, but not quality, of seasoning ingredients was positively associated with intakes of beans and rice in urban Costa Rican adults. Our results suggest that increasing the variety of seasonings added to beans may be a culturally-appropriate strategy to improve intake of this healthy staple food among urban Costa Rican adults. PMID:27440532

  7. Seasoning ingredient variety, but not quality, is associated with greater intake of beans and rice among urban Costa Rican adults.

    PubMed

    Vadiveloo, Maya K; Campos, Hannia; Mattei, Josiemer

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to a variety of flavors may promote food enjoyment, but few studies have examined the relationship between food seasoning and food intake. We hypothesized that using a higher variety (number) of 11 seasonings to prepare 2 staple foods (beans, white rice) would be associated with intake of those foods in a population-based case-control study of Costa Rican adults in urban vs rural areas (n=1025), where cooking and dietary practices differ. Participants were surveyed about the variety of seasoning ingredients added when preparing beans or rice. Ingredients were also categorized by their dietary quality (healthfulness), and scores for seasoning variety and quality were created. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the association between variety and quality scores (continuously and in tertiles (T)) and intake of each staple food. Seasoning variety was positively associated with daily servings of beans (β=.02, P=.01; 1.31 and 1.23 servings/day in T2 and T3 versus 1.02 servings/day in T1, P<.05) and rice (β=.04, P=.005) in the urban areas only. No differences in ingredient quality across increasing intakes of beans or rice were noted, and the joint associations between variety and quality were not significant. In conclusion, a greater variety, but not quality, of seasoning ingredients was positively associated with intakes of beans and rice in urban Costa Rican adults. Our results suggest that increasing the variety of seasonings added to beans may be a culturally-appropriate strategy to improve intake of this healthy staple food among urban Costa Rican adults.

  8. The Quality of Self, Social, and Directive Memories: Are There Adult Age Group Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alea, Nicole; Arneaud, Mary Jane; Ali, Sideeka

    2013-01-01

    The quality of functional autobiographical memories was examined in young, middle-aged, and older adult Trinidadians ("N" = 245). Participants wrote about an event that served a self, social, and directive function, and reported on the memory's quality (e.g., significance, vividness, valence, etc.). Across age groups, directive…

  9. Family Quality of Life: Adult School Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svraka, E.; Loga, S.; Brown, I.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: This study endeavours to provide initial data on quality of life for families with adult children who have intellectual disabilities (ID) in the Canton of Sarajevo. Methods: The principal measure used was the "Family Quality of life Survey 2006-main caregivers of people with intellectual or developmental disabilities." The sample consisted…

  10. Diet quality is inversely related to cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of the study was to determine if there was an association between diet quality and cardiovascular risk factors in adults. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2008 data were used to compare diet quality, as determined by using 2005 Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores, and card...

  11. Development of a Japanese Quality of Life Instrument for Older Adults Experiencing Dementia (QLDJ)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamamoto-Mitani, Noriko; Abe, Toshiko; Okita, Yuko; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Sugishita, Chieko; Kamata, Keiko

    2002-01-01

    This study develops a quality of life instrument for older Japanese people experiencing dementia (QLDJ). Quality of life (QL) for these older adults is defined as a three dimensional construct including 1) interacting with surroundings, 2) expressing self, and 3) experiencing minimum negative behaviors. From 53 items in the initial item pool, 24…

  12. Disparities in Health and Disability Among Older Adults in Same-Sex Cohabiting Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Gilbert; Henning-Smith, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The present study compared indicators of impaired health and disability between older adults in same-sex cohabiting relationships and their peers in opposite-sex cohabiting relationships. Methods Data were obtained on men (n=698) and women (n=630) aged 50 years and older and in self-reported same-sex relationships from the National Health Interview Survey. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to estimate differences in physical health, mental health and disability status. Results Compared to their peers in married opposite-sex relationships, older men in same-sex relationships exhibited greater odds of psychological distress, and older women in same-sex relationships experienced elevated odds of poor/fair health, needing help with ADLs and IADLs, functional limitations, and psychological distress. Discussion This study adds to the limited information on health and disability among older lesbian, gay and bisexual adults. As this population grows, gerontologists must develop a better understanding of the unique issues and challenges facing them and their families. PMID:25253727

  13. Young Children's Sibling Relationship Quality: Distal and Proximal Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretschmer, Tina; Pike, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Background: Relationships within families are interdependent and related to distal environmental factors. Low socioeconomic status (SES) and high household chaos (distal factors) have been linked to less positive marital and parent-child relationships, but have not yet been examined with regard to young children's sibling relationships. The…

  14. The Association between Vitamin D and Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Sun; Baek, Jin Kyung; Cho, Ho Jin; Kim, Ye Seul

    2016-01-01

    Background We examined the relationship between vitamin D status and health-related quality of life, and explored other related factors in the general Korean population. Methods We used data from the 2007–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey on 14,104 adults, aged 20–49 years, who had consented to serum vitamin D measurement and answered health-related quality of life questions. EuroQol-5 was used for measurement. Serum vitamin D levels were measured at intervals of 0–9.99, 10–19.99, 20–29.99, and ≥30 ng/mL. Results Participants with higher serum vitamin D (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D) levels were significantly less likely to report problems with depression and anxiety. After adjustment for age, gender, income level, education level, marital status, alcohol consumption, smoking status, and the existence of depressive disorders, the odds ratio for reporting a problem with depression and anxiety was 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39–0.91). The odds ratio for the prevalence of any problem was 0.69 (95% CI, 0.53–0.89) before adjustment, but was not statistically significant after adjustment. No significant associations were observed for problems with mobility, self-care, usual activity, or pain and discomfort. Conclusion This is the first study to examine the associations between vitamin D and health-related quality of life for the general Korean population. Vitamin D status was not significantly associated with the dimensions of EuroQol-5 except for depression and anxiety problems. PMID:27468340

  15. Health Condition and Quality of Life in Older Adults: Adaptation of QOLIE-89

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efklides, Anastasia; Varsami, Maria; Mitadi, Ioanna; Economidis, Dimitrios

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed at adapting the Questionnaire Quality of Life in Epilepsy (QOLIE-89 version 1.0: Vickrey et al., 1993), Quality of Life in Epilepsy QoLIE-89 RAND (Santa Monica, CA)] so that it may be used to measure quality of life (QoL) of older adults, healthy or suffering from various chronic illnesses. The participants were 202 older adults…

  16. A REVIEW OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEG POWER AND SELECTED CHRONIC DISEASE IN OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    STROLLO, S.E.; CASEROTTI, P.; WARD, R.E.; GLYNN, N.W.; GOODPASTER, B.H.; STROTMEYER, E.S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This review investigates the relationship between leg muscle power and the chronic conditions of osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease among older adults. Current literature assessing the impact of chronic disease on leg power has not yet been comprehensively characterized. Importantly, individuals with these conditions have shown improved leg power with training. Methods A search was performed using PubMed to identify original studies published in English from January 1998 to August 2013. Leg power studies, among older adults ≥ 50 years of age, which assessed associations with osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, and/or cardiovascular disease were selected. Studies concerning post-surgery rehabilitation, case studies, and articles that did not measure primary results were excluded. Results Sixteen studies met inclusion criteria, addressing osteoarthritis (n=5), diabetes mellitus (n=5), and cardiovascular disease (n=6). Studies generally supported associations of lower leg power among older adults with chronic disease, although small sample sizes, cross-sectional data, homogenous populations, varied disease definitions, and inconsistent leg power methods limited conclusions. Conclusions Studies suggest that osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease are associated with lower leg power compared to older adults without these conditions. These studies are limited, however, by the heterogeneity in study populations and a lack of standardized measurements of leg power. Future larger studies of more diverse older adults with well-defined chronic disease using standard measures of leg power and interventions to improve leg power in these older adults with chronic disease are needed. PMID:25651453

  17. Relationships between number and space processing in adults with and without dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Mussolin, Christophe; Martin, Romain; Schiltz, Christine

    2011-09-01

    A large body of evidence indicates clear relationships between number and space processing in healthy and brain-damaged adults, as well as in children. The present paper addressed this issue regarding atypical math development. Adults with a diagnosis of dyscalculia (DYS) during childhood were compared to adults with average or high abilities in mathematics across two bisection tasks. Participants were presented with Arabic number triplets and had to judge either the number magnitude or the spatial location of the middle number relative to the two outer numbers. For the numerical judgment, adults with DYS were slower than both groups of control peers. They were also more strongly affected by the factors related to number magnitude such as the range of the triplets or the distance between the middle number and the real arithmetical mean. By contrast, adults with DYS were as accurate and fast as adults who never experienced math disability when they had to make a spatial judgment. Moreover, number-space congruency affected performance similarly in the three experimental groups. These findings support the hypothesis of a deficit of number magnitude representation in DYS with a relative preservation of some spatial mechanisms in DYS. Results are discussed in terms of direct and indirect number-space interactions. PMID:21802651

  18. Relationships of Leadership and Student Effort to University Program Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Denise L.; And Others

    Links between program quality and the quality of students' experience (or student effort) and the quality of academic leadership were explored through an examination of 10 master's programs in 81 departments at a set of regional universities. Rasmussen's leadership instrument was completed by 90 faculty members, and a modified version of the Pace…

  19. Differential parenting and sibling jealousy: Developmental correlates of young adults' romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Rauer, Amy J; Volling, Brenda L

    2007-01-01

    Data from a survey of 200 young adults assessed whether the early nonshared environment, specifically parental differential treatment, was associated with romantic relationship distress through its effects on sibling jealousy, attachment styles, and self-esteem. Individuals who received equal affection from their parents in comparison to their sibling reported equal jealousy between themselves and their sibling, had higher self-esteem, more secure attachment styles, and less romantic relationship distress. Receiving differential parental affection, regardless of whether the participant or their sibling was favored, was associated with more negative models of self and others, which in turn were associated with greater romantic relationship distress. Results indicate that early within-family experiences may be particularly relevant for later healthy romantic relationship functioning. PMID:19050748

  20. Differential parenting and sibling jealousy: Developmental correlates of young adults' romantic relationships

    PubMed Central

    Rauer, Amy J.; Volling, Brenda L.

    2009-01-01

    Data from a survey of 200 young adults assessed whether the early nonshared environment, specifically parental differential treatment, was associated with romantic relationship distress through its effects on sibling jealousy, attachment styles, and self-esteem. Individuals who received equal affection from their parents in comparison to their sibling reported equal jealousy between themselves and their sibling, had higher self-esteem, more secure attachment styles, and less romantic relationship distress. Receiving differential parental affection, regardless of whether the participant or their sibling was favored, was associated with more negative models of self and others, which in turn were associated with greater romantic relationship distress. Results indicate that early within-family experiences may be particularly relevant for later healthy romantic relationship functioning. PMID:19050748

  1. Differential parenting and sibling jealousy: Developmental correlates of young adults' romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Rauer, Amy J; Volling, Brenda L

    2007-01-01

    Data from a survey of 200 young adults assessed whether the early nonshared environment, specifically parental differential treatment, was associated with romantic relationship distress through its effects on sibling jealousy, attachment styles, and self-esteem. Individuals who received equal affection from their parents in comparison to their sibling reported equal jealousy between themselves and their sibling, had higher self-esteem, more secure attachment styles, and less romantic relationship distress. Receiving differential parental affection, regardless of whether the participant or their sibling was favored, was associated with more negative models of self and others, which in turn were associated with greater romantic relationship distress. Results indicate that early within-family experiences may be particularly relevant for later healthy romantic relationship functioning.

  2. Co-Teacher Relationship and Program Quality: Implications for Preparing Teachers for Inclusive Preschool Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Linda; Noonan, Mary Jo; Ogata, Veronica; Heck, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    A study explored associations between co-teachers' (n=20) perceptions of similarity (in philosophical beliefs, personal characteristics and traits, and professional style) with one another and two quality outcomes. With disability status controlled for, there was a significant relationship between the co-teacher relationship and quality of the…

  3. Associations between Social Understanding, Sibling Relationship Quality, and Siblings' Conflict Strategies and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recchia, Holly E.; Howe, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Sibling relationship quality and social understanding (second-order false belief, conflict interpretation, and narrative conflict perspective references) were examined as unique and interactive correlates of sibling conflict behavior in 62 dyads (older M age = 8.39 years and younger M age = 6.06 years). High-quality relationships were associated…

  4. The Salience of Adolescent Romantic Experiences for Romantic Relationship Qualities in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Stephanie D.; Collins, W. Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Conceptual links between aspects of adolescents' dating experiences (i.e., involvement and quality; ages 15-17.5) and qualities of their romantic relationships in young adulthood (ages 20-21) were examined in a prospective longitudinal design. Even after accounting for earlier relationship experiences with parents and peers, aspects of adolescent…

  5. Mother-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Autonomy as Predictors of Psychosocial Adjustment among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Mia Smith; Kotchick, Beth A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the role of mother-adolescent relationship quality and autonomy in the psychosocial outcomes in a sample of African American adolescents drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The results indicated that positive mother-adolescent relationship quality and greater autonomy were associated with higher…

  6. Validating the Relationship Qualities of Influence and Persuasion with the Family Social Relations Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, Rachel Oakley; Bagozzi, Richard P.

    2003-01-01

    Uses the family social relations model (SRM) to test for the personal relationship qualities of influence and persuasion in the family decision-making context of buying a new car. Uncovers patterns in the relationship qualities of influence and persuasion across three decisions families make when buying a new car (i.e., how much to spend, car…

  7. Toward a Transactional Model of Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Adolescent Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanti, Kostas A.; Henrich, Christopher C.; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.

    2008-01-01

    The present study includes externalizing problems, internalizing problems, mother-adolescent relationship quality, and father-adolescent relationship quality in the same structural equation model and tests the longitudinal reciprocal association among all four variables over a 1-year period. A transactional model in which adolescents'…

  8. Marital Quality in Interracial Relationships: The Role of Sex Role Ideology and Perceived Fairness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forry, Nicole D.; Leslie, Leigh A.; Letiecq, Bethany L.

    2007-01-01

    African American/White interracial couples are a rapidly growing segment of the population. However, little is known about factors related to marital quality for these couples. The authors examine the relationships between sex role ideology, perception of relationship unfairness, and marital quality among a sample of 76 married African…

  9. Desire to Institutionalize a Relative with Dementia: Quality of Premorbid Relationship and Caregiver Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Laraine; Gitlin, Laura N.; Dennis, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the relationship between individuals with dementia and their family caregivers has an impact on important clinical outcomes for both. It is unclear, however, how quality of relationship (QoR) affects caregivers' desire to place their relative in a nursing home. We examined the association of QoR with caregivers' desire to…

  10. The Continued Importance of Quality Parent-Adolescent Relationships during Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hair, Elizabeth C.; Moore, Kristin A.; Garrett, Sarah B.; Ling, Thomson; Cleveland, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    The quality of adolescents' relationships with residential parents has been found to predict many different health and behavioral youth outcomes; strong associations have also been found between these outcomes and family processes, and between relationship quality and family processes. Data from Rounds 1-5 of the National Longitudinal Survey of…

  11. Training quality job interviews with adults with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Mozingo, D; Ackley, G B; Bailey, J S

    1994-01-01

    Supported work models of vocational integration have increased the employability of individuals with developmental disabilities. Interview questions most frequently used and corresponding responses considered most beneficial to job applicants were derived from an empirical analysis of the "hiring community" and served as a basis for the development of the verbal job interview skills training package evaluated in this research. Dependent measures were objective, behavioral indices of the quality of job interview responses. One-to-one training by a direct training staff, job coach, and a trained behavior analyst resulted in improved responding by all subjects as indicated in a multiple baseline design across interview questions. Improved quality in responding to questions generalized to variations in interview questions, to a novel interviewer, and in an in vivo interview situation. Finally, global measures of social validity support the value of the quality-of-response training.

  12. Interpersonal relationship narratives of older adults with schizophrenia-spectrum diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Lydia P

    2014-11-01

    Shared themes connected to interpersonal relationships across the life courses of older adults with schizophrenia-spectrum diagnoses were identified in first-person life history narratives and explored in depth. Findings were developed through thematic narrative analysis of 35 interviews with 7 older adults currently in treatment for schizophrenia-spectrum diagnoses. A combination of open-ended questions, life history calendars, and time diaries were used to structure interviews, and narrative and analytical development. Themes of relational losses, relational voids, relational adjustments, relational adaptations, and the need for solitude were identified and located as they occurred in patterns across the life course. Specific implications for theoretical development, practice, policy, and future research on interventions that address social recovery for older adults with schizophrenia are discussed.

  13. Adult-Directed and Peer-Directed Respect for Authority: Relationships With Aggressive and Manipulative Behavior.

    PubMed

    Clemans, Katherine H; Graber, Julia A; Bettencourt, Amie F

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated whether respect for adult and peer authority are separate attitudes which have distinct relationships with aggressive and manipulative behavior. Items assessing admiration for and obedience toward parents, teachers, popular students, and friend group leaders were administered to 286 middle school students (M age = 12.6 yrs). Factor analysis revealed two primary factors which corresponded to adult-directed and peer-directed respect orientations. Results suggested that adult-directed respect was associated with lower levels of aggression and social manipulation, whereas peer-directed respect was associated with higher levels of these behaviors. The role of peer-directed respect as a risk factor for negative social behavior in adolescence is discussed.

  14. Adult-Directed and Peer-Directed Respect for Authority: Relationships With Aggressive and Manipulative Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Clemans, Katherine H.; Graber, Julia A.; Bettencourt, Amie F.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether respect for adult and peer authority are separate attitudes which have distinct relationships with aggressive and manipulative behavior. Items assessing admiration for and obedience toward parents, teachers, popular students, and friend group leaders were administered to 286 middle school students (M age = 12.6 yrs). Factor analysis revealed two primary factors which corresponded to adult-directed and peer-directed respect orientations. Results suggested that adult-directed respect was associated with lower levels of aggression and social manipulation, whereas peer-directed respect was associated with higher levels of these behaviors. The role of peer-directed respect as a risk factor for negative social behavior in adolescence is discussed. PMID:23329877

  15. Relationship Involvement Among Young Adults: Are Asian American Men an Exceptional Case?

    PubMed Central

    Balistreri, Kelly Stamper; Joyner, Kara; Kao, Grace

    2015-01-01

    Asian American men and women have been largely neglected in previous studies of romantic relationship formation and status. Using data from the first and fourth waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), we examine romantic and sexual involvement among young adults, most of who were between the ages of 25 to 32 (N=11,555). Drawing from explanations that focus on structural and cultural elements as well as racial hierarchies, we examine the factors that promote and impede involvement in romantic/sexual relationships. We use logistic regression to model current involvement of men and women separately and find, with the exception of Filipino men, Asian men are significantly less likely than white men to be currently involved with a romantic partner, even after controlling for a wide array of characteristics. Our results suggest that the racial hierarchy framework best explains lower likelihood of involvement among Asian American men. PMID:26549919

  16. Relationship between Individual Quality of Life and Family Quality of Life for People with Intellectual Disability Living in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertelli, M.; Bianco, A.; Rossi, M.; Scuticchio, D.; Brown, I.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is substantial literature investigating quality of life (QoL) of individuals with intellectual disability (ID). QoL of families of people with ID is emerging as an important field of research. Despite this, there is a lack of studies regarding their relationship. Aim: The present paper aimed to study the relationship between QoL…

  17. Social Support Modifies the Relationship between Personality and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Oddone, Cameron G.; Hybels, Celia F.; McQuoid, Douglas R.; Steffens, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between personality, social support, and depression in older adults, identify the personality trait and social support dimension most closely associated with depression, and determine if the relationship between personality and depression varies by level of social support. Design Cross-sectional analysis within longitudinal study. Participants Older patients originally diagnosed with major depression (n=108) and never depressed comparison group of older adults (n=103). Measurements Patients sufficiently recovered from major depression and comparison participants were administered the NEO Personality Inventory. Social support was measured annually for both groups. Patients were administered the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) every three months. Results Patients and comparison participants differed on four of the five NEO domains and all four social support dimensions, but personality did not significantly predict depression status (patient/comparison) in controlled analyses. Within the patient group, subjective social support was the only dimension correlated with MADRS score. In separate linear regression analyses among the patients, controlling for age, sex, and subjective social support, the domains of Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, and Extraversion were associated with MADRS score. For Neuroticism and Openness, the association varied by level of subjective social support. Conclusions Our research confirmed older patients differed from never depressed older adults in dimensions of personality and social support, and the relationship between these variables differed by depression status. The relationship between personality, social support, and depressive symptoms in older adults recovering from depression is also complex, with subjective social support modifying the association between personality and depression. PMID:21328795

  18. Relationship between Objectively Measured Transportation Behaviors and Health Characteristics in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Takemoto, Michelle; Carlson, Jordan A.; Moran, Kevin; Godbole, Suneeta; Crist, Katie; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    This study used objective Global Positioning Systems (GPS) to investigate the relationship between pedestrian and vehicle trips to physical, cognitive, and psychological functioning in older adults living in retirement communities. Older adults (N = 279; mean age = 83 ± 6 years) wore a GPS and accelerometer for 6 days. Participants completed standard health measures. The Personal Activity and Location Measurement System (PALMS) was used to calculate the average daily number of trips, distance, and minutes traveled for pedestrian and vehicle trips from the combined GPS and accelerometer data. Linear mixed effects regression models explored relationships between these transportation variables and physical, psychological and cognitive functioning. Number, distance, and minutes of pedestrian trips were positively associated with physical and psychological functioning but not cognitive functioning. Number of vehicle trips was negatively associated with fear of falls; there were no other associations between the vehicle trip variables and functioning. Vehicle travel did not appear to be related to functioning in older adults in retirement communities except that fear of falling was related to number of vehicle trips. Pedestrian trips had moderate associations with multiple physical and psychological functioning measures, supporting a link between walking and many aspects of health in older adults. PMID:26528999

  19. Relationship between Objectively Measured Transportation Behaviors and Health Characteristics in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Michelle; Carlson, Jordan A; Moran, Kevin; Godbole, Suneeta; Crist, Katie; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2015-10-30

    This study used objective Global Positioning Systems (GPS) to investigate the relationship between pedestrian and vehicle trips to physical, cognitive, and psychological functioning in older adults living in retirement communities. Older adults (N = 279; mean age = 83 ± 6 years) wore a GPS and accelerometer for 6 days. Participants completed standard health measures. The Personal Activity and Location Measurement System (PALMS) was used to calculate the average daily number of trips, distance, and minutes traveled for pedestrian and vehicle trips from the combined GPS and accelerometer data. Linear mixed effects regression models explored relationships between these transportation variables and physical, psychological and cognitive functioning. Number, distance, and minutes of pedestrian trips were positively associated with physical and psychological functioning but not cognitive functioning. Number of vehicle trips was negatively associated with fear of falls; there were no other associations between the vehicle trip variables and functioning. Vehicle travel did not appear to be related to functioning in older adults in retirement communities except that fear of falling was related to number of vehicle trips. Pedestrian trips had moderate associations with multiple physical and psychological functioning measures, supporting a link between walking and many aspects of health in older adults.

  20. The Relationship Between Outdoor Activity and Health in Older Adults Using GPS

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Marshall, Simon; Godbole, Suneeta; Neukam, Suvi; Crist, Katie; Wasilenko, Kari; Golshan, Shahrokh; Buchner, David

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) provides health benefits in older adults. Research suggests that exposure to nature and time spent outdoors may also have effects on health. Older adults are the least active segment of our population, and are likely to spend less time outdoors than other age groups. The relationship between time spent in PA, outdoor time, and various health outcomes was assessed for 117 older adults living in retirement communities. Participants wore an accelerometer and GPS device for 7 days. They also completed assessments of physical, cognitive, and emotional functioning. Analyses of variance were employed with a main and interaction effect tested for ±30 min PA and outdoor time. Significant differences were found for those who spent >30 min in PA or outdoors for depressive symptoms, fear of falling, and self-reported functioning. Time to complete a 400 m walk was significantly different by PA time only. QoL and cognitive functioning scores were not significantly different. The interactions were also not significant. This study is one of the first to demonstrate the feasibility of using accelerometer and GPS data concurrently to assess PA location in older adults. Future analyses will shed light on potential causal relationships and could inform guidelines for outdoor activity. PMID:23330225

  1. Relationships among dispositional coping strategies, suicidal ideation, and protective factors against suicide in older adults.

    PubMed

    Marty, Meghan A; Segal, Daniel L; Coolidge, Frederick L

    2010-11-01

    Older adults have a disproportionally high rate of completed suicide as compared to the general population. Whereas a large literature has focused on risk factors related to elder suicide, limited research exists on relationships between coping strategies with protective factors against suicide and suicidal ideation in this population. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 108, mean age = 71.5 years, age range = 60-95 years) completed the Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced scale, Reasons for Living inventory, and Geriatric Suicide Ideation Scale (GSIS). Problem- and emotion-focused coping were associated positively with reasons for living and negatively with suicide ideation. Dysfunctional coping was associated positively with suicide ideation, but results did not support the hypothesized negative relationship with reasons for living. Thus, problem- and emotion-focused coping appear to be adaptive, whereas dysfunctional coping appears to be somewhat less related to resilience to suicidal ideation among community-dwelling older adults. Implications of the study are that some coping strategies may serve as protective factors against suicide and that coping strategies should be evaluated as part of a thorough assessment of suicidal risk among older adults. The results also provide some evidence of convergent validity for the recently developed GSIS. PMID:21069608

  2. Off-Time Events and Life Quality of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodhart, Darlene; Zautra, Alex

    Many previous studies have found that daily life events influence community residents' perceived quality of life, which refers to the relative goodness of life as evaluated subjectively. A subsample population of 539 older residents, aged 55 and over, were interviewed in their homes. A 60-item scale was devised to measure the effects of "off-time"…

  3. Quality of life after housing first for adults with serious mental illness who have experienced chronic homelessness.

    PubMed

    Henwood, Benjamin F; Matejkowski, Jason; Stefancic, Ana; Lukens, Jonathan M

    2014-12-15

    This 1-year longitudinal study of adults who have recently transitioned from homelessness to Permanent Supportive Housing (PSH) focuses on quality of life as a primary outcome of interest. Eighty of 103 new tenants participated in structured interviews at the time of entry into their new home and at 12-months post-housing. t-tests assessed differences in community participation and quality of life measures at the 2 time points. Mixed effects models examined the impact of community participation on quality of life. Results show that time in independent housing was significantly associated with several domains of quality of life. Symptom severity was also significantly and negatively related to quality of life domains. Community participation was significantly related to frequency of social contacts only. These findings suggest that community participation is not critical to improving quality of life, and that despite concerns that individuals may feel isolated and lonely when living independently, satisfaction with one׳s living situation and family relationships nevertheless improves with housing tenure.

  4. Quality Measures for the Care of Adult Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Aurora, R. Nisha; Collop, Nancy A.; Jacobowitz, Ofer; Thomas, Sherene M.; Quan, Stuart F.; Aronsky, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent disorder associated with a multitude of adverse outcomes when left untreated. There is significant heterogeneity in the evaluation and management of OSA resulting in variation in cost and outcomes. Thus, the goal for developing these measures was to have a way to evaluate the outcomes and reliability of the processes involved with the standard care approaches used in the diagnosis and management of OSA. The OSA quality care measures presented here focus on both outcomes and processes. The AASM commissioned the Adult OSA Quality Measures Workgroup to develop quality care measures aimed at optimizing care for adult patients with OSA. These quality care measures developed by the Adult OSA Quality Measures Workgroup are an extension of the original Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) approved Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS) measures group for OSA. The measures are based on the available scientific evidence, focus on public safety, and strive to improve quality of life and cardiovascular outcomes for individual OSA patients. The three outcomes that were selected were as follows: (1) improve disease detection and categorization; (2) improve quality of life; and (3) reduce cardiovascular risk. After selecting these relevant outcomes, a total of ten process measures were chosen that could be applied and assessed for the purpose of accomplishing these outcomes. In the future, the measures described in this document may be reported through the PQRS in addition to, or as a replacement for, the current OSA measures group. The overall objective for the development of these measures is that implementation of these quality measures will result in improved patient outcomes, reduce the public health burden of OSA, and provide a measurable standard for evaluating and managing OSA. Citation: Aurora RN, Collop NA, Jacobowitz O, Thomas SM, Quan SF, Aronsky AJ. Quality measures for the care of adult patients with

  5. The Association of Couples' Relationship Status and Quality with Breastfeeding Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson-Davis, Christina M.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey (N= 3,567), we examine the links between relationship status, relationship quality, and race and ethnicity in breastfeeding initiation. We consider four relationship types: married, cohabiting, romantically involved but not cohabiting (termed visiting), and nonromantically involved…

  6. Teacher-Student Relationship Quality Type in Elementary Grades: Effects on Trajectories for Achievement and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jiun-Yu; Hughes, Jan N.; Kwok, Oi-Man

    2010-01-01

    Teacher, peer, and student reports of the quality of the teacher-student relationship were obtained for an ethnically diverse and academically at-risk sample of 706 second- and third-grade students. Cluster analysis identified four types of relationships based on the consistency of child reports of support and conflict in the relationship with…

  7. Economic Factors and Relationship Quality among Young Couples: Comparing Cohabitation and Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Lucas, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Are economic resources related to relationship quality among young couples, and to what extent does this vary by relationship type? To answer these questions, we estimated regression models predicting respondent reports of conflict and affection in cohabiting and married partner relationships using the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997…

  8. Classroom Friends and Very Best Friends: A Short-Term Longitudinal Analysis of Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McChristian, Chrystal L.; Ray, Glen E.; Tidwell, Pamela S.; LoBello, Steven G.

    2012-01-01

    Second-, third-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children evaluated relationship qualities of a self-nominated friend and a self-nominated very best friend over a 6-month school year period. Results demonstrated that 76% of the friend relationships and 50% of the very best friend relationships were maintained over the course of the study. Children in…

  9. The impacts of oral health on quality of life in working adults.

    PubMed

    Batista, Marilia Jesus; Perianes, Lílian Berta Rihs; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário de

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impacts of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) on daily activities and work productivity in adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a supermarket chain in the state of São Paulo, which included 386 workers, age-range 20 - 64 years. Participants were examined for oral disease following WHO recommendations, and the oral health impact profile (OHIP) assessment was used to determine OHRQoL. Demographic, socio-economic, use of dental services, and OHRQoL data were obtained. Answers to the OHIP were dichotomized into no impact and some impact, and the relationship to OHRQoL was determined. Poisson regression with robust variance was performed using SPSS version 17.0. Dimensions with highest OHIP scores were physical pain and psychological discomfort. Sex (male: PR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.38 - 0.80), lower family income (PR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.04 - 2.12), visiting a dentist due to pain (PR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.57 - 3.43), tooth loss (PR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.09 - 2.32), and needing treatment for caries (PR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.09 - 2.32) were most likely to impact OHRQoL. Therefore, socioeconomic and demographic status and use of dental services impacted OHRQoL. These results indicate that oral health promotion strategies should be included in work environments.

  10. Romantic Relationship Length and its Perceived Quality: Mediating Role of Facebook-Related Conflict.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, H M Saidur

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how Facebook use is leading to negative relationship outcomes such as cheating and breakup by assessing users' perceived relationship qualities. It was hypothesized that Facebook-related conflict will be negatively related with users' relationship length and will also be negatively related with their perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Facebook-related conflict further mediates the relationship between relationship length and perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Self-report data were gathered from participants (N = 101) in an online survey by employing standard questionnaires. A set of regression and mediation analyses confirmed all the hypotheses of the study. That is, Facebook-related conflict mediates the relationship between relationship length and perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Moreover, the magnitude of mediation was highest for relationship satisfaction. Implications for future research and contributions are discussed.

  11. Romantic Relationship Length and its Perceived Quality: Mediating Role of Facebook-Related Conflict.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, H M Saidur

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how Facebook use is leading to negative relationship outcomes such as cheating and breakup by assessing users' perceived relationship qualities. It was hypothesized that Facebook-related conflict will be negatively related with users' relationship length and will also be negatively related with their perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Facebook-related conflict further mediates the relationship between relationship length and perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Self-report data were gathered from participants (N = 101) in an online survey by employing standard questionnaires. A set of regression and mediation analyses confirmed all the hypotheses of the study. That is, Facebook-related conflict mediates the relationship between relationship length and perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Moreover, the magnitude of mediation was highest for relationship satisfaction. Implications for future research and contributions are discussed. PMID:27247665

  12. Romantic Relationship Length and its Perceived Quality: Mediating Role of Facebook-Related Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Rahaman, H. M. Saidur

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how Facebook use is leading to negative relationship outcomes such as cheating and breakup by assessing users’ perceived relationship qualities. It was hypothesized that Facebook-related conflict will be negatively related with users’ relationship length and will also be negatively related with their perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Facebook-related conflict further mediates the relationship between relationship length and perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Self-report data were gathered from participants (N = 101) in an online survey by employing standard questionnaires. A set of regression and mediation analyses confirmed all the hypotheses of the study. That is, Facebook-related conflict mediates the relationship between relationship length and perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Moreover, the magnitude of mediation was highest for relationship satisfaction. Implications for future research and contributions are discussed. PMID:27247665

  13. Relationships and Health among Emerging Adults with and without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Helgeson, Vicki S.; Palladino, Dianne K.; Reynolds, Kerry A.; Becker, Dorothy J.; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Objective The study's goal was to examine the impact of parent and peer relationships on health behaviors and psychological well-being of those with and without type 1 diabetes over the transition to emerging adulthood. Emerging adulthood is an understudied developmental period and a high risk period—especially for those with type 1 diabetes. Methods Youth with (n = 117) and without type 1 diabetes (n = 122) completed questionnaires during their senior year of high school and one year later. Measures included supportive and problematic aspects of parent and peer relationships, health behaviors, psychological well-being, and, for those with diabetes, self-care behavior and glycemic control. Results Prospective multiple and logistic regression analysis revealed that friend conflict was a more potent predictor than friend support of changes in health behaviors and psychological well-being. Parent support was associated with positive changes in psychological well-being and decreases in smoking, whereas parent control was related to increases in smoking and depressive symptoms. There was some evidence of cross-domain buffering such that supportive relationships in one domain buffered adverse effects of problematic relationships in the other domain on health outcomes. Conclusions This longitudinal study showed that parent relationships remain an important influence on and peer relationships continue to influence the health behaviors and psychological well-being of emerging adults with and without type 1 diabetes. Parent relationships also have the potential to buffer the adverse effects of difficulties with peers. PMID:23914816

  14. Early Adolescent Relationship Predictors of Emerging Adult Outcomes: Youth with and without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Helgeson, Vicki S.; Palladino, Dianne K.; Reynolds, Kerry A.; Becker, Dorothy; Escobar, Oscar; Siminerio, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Background Emerging adulthood is a high-risk period for mental health problems and risk behaviors for youth generally and for physical health problems among those with type 1 diabetes. Purpose To examine whether adolescents’ relationships with parents and friends predict health and risk behaviors during emerging adulthood. Method Youth with and without diabetes were enrolled at average age 12 and followed for 7 years. Parent and friend relationship variables, measured during adolescence, were used to predict emerging adulthood outcomes: depression, risk behavior, and, for those with diabetes, diabetes outcomes. Results Parent relationship quality predicted decreased depressive symptoms and, for those with diabetes, decreased alcohol use. Parent control predicted increased smoking, reduced college attendance, and, for control participants, increased depressive symptoms. For those with diabetes, parent control predicted decreased depressive symptoms and better self-care. Friend relationship variables predicted few outcomes. Conclusions Adolescent parent relationships remain an important influence on emerging adults’ lives. PMID:24178509

  15. Quality of adult book reading affects children's emergent literacy.

    PubMed

    Reese, E; Cox, A

    1999-01-01

    The authors assessed the relative benefits of 3 styles of adult book reading for preschoolers' emergent literacy. A describer style focused on describing pictures during the reading, a comprehender style focused on story meaning, and a performance-oriented style introduced the book and discussed story meaning on completion. Forty-eight 4-year-olds were randomly assigned to receive 1 of the 3 reading styles over a 6-week period. Pretests and posttests measured children's receptive vocabulary, print, and story comprehension skills. A describer style of reading resulted in the greatest overall benefits for children's vocabulary and print skills, but a performance-oriented style was also beneficial when children's initial skill levels were taken into account. Future book-reading interventions should be tailored to children's initial skill levels.

  16. Prospective relationships of physical activity with quality of life among colorectal cancer survivors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity can enhance quality of life for cancer survivors. However, few longitudinal studies have examined whether physical activity has a sustained effect on improvements in quality of life. The present study aims to examine the relationships between physical activity and quality of life o...

  17. Does Poor Spelling Equate to Slow Reading? The Relationship between Reading, Spelling, and Orthographic Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Chang, Sandra; Ouellette, Gene; Madden, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    High quality lexical representations in memory, characterized by accuracy and stability, are said to underpin fluent reading. Here, the relationship between orthographic quality and reading speed was examined by asking undergraduates (N = 74) to repeatedly read and spell words. Spelling performance over five trials indicated orthographic quality.…

  18. Quality After-School Programming and Its Relationship to Achievement-Related Behaviors and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grassi, Annemarie M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between quality social support networks developed through high quality afterschool programming and achievement amongst middle school and high school aged youth. This study seeks to develop a deeper understanding of how quality after-school programs influence a youth's developmental…

  19. Friendship Quality in Youth Sport: Relationship to Age, Gender, and Motivation Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Maureen R.; Smith, Alan L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined age and gender differences in the quality of sport friendship, noting relationships between friendship quality and motivation-related variables and reexamining the validity of the Sport Friendship Quality Scale (SFQS). Adolescent tennis players completed the SFQS and other measures. Age and gender differences in friendship emerged.…

  20. Relationships between Population Density and the Perceived Quality of Neighbourhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, D.; Murray, S. J.; Thomas, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Two overseas survey-based scales measuring perceived quality of neighbourhood were adapted and replicated in a New Zealand context. An Italian study (Bonaiuto, Fornara, and Bonnes. (2003). "Landscape and Urban Planning," 65, 41-52) measuring Perceived Residential Environmental Quality (PREQ) and an American study (Carp and Carp. (1982). "Journal…

  1. Inferior Prefrontal Cortex Mediates the Relationship between Phosphatidylcholine and Executive Functions in Healthy, Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zamroziewicz, Marta K.; Zwilling, Chris E.; Barbey, Aron K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study examines the neural mechanisms that mediate the relationship between phosphatidylcholine and executive functions in cognitively intact older adults. We hypothesized that higher plasma levels of phosphatidylcholine are associated with better performance on a particular component of the executive functions, namely cognitive flexibility, and that this relationship is mediated by gray matter structure of regions within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) that have been implicated in cognitive flexibility. Methods: We examined 72 cognitively intact adults between the ages of 65 and 75 in an observational, cross-sectional study to investigate the relationship between blood biomarkers of phosphatidylcholine, tests of cognitive flexibility (measured by the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System Trail Making Test), and gray matter structure of regions within the PFC. A three-step mediation analysis was implemented using multivariate linear regressions and we controlled for age, sex, education, income, depression status, and body mass index. Results: The mediation analysis revealed that gray matter thickness of one region within the PFC, the left inferior PFC (Brodmann’s Area 45), mediates the relationship between phosphatidylcholine blood biomarkers and cognitive flexibility. Conclusion: These results suggest that particular nutrients may slow or prevent age-related cognitive decline by influencing specific structures within the brain. This report demonstrates a novel structural mediation between plasma phosphatidylcholine levels and cognitive flexibility. Future work should examine the potential mechanisms underlying this mediation, including phosphatidylcholine-dependent cell membrane integrity of the inferior PFC and phosphatidylcholine-dependent cholinergic projections to the inferior PFC. PMID:27733825

  2. Relationship quality in lesbian and heterosexual couples undergoing treatment with assisted reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Borneskog, Catrin; Skoog Svanberg, Agneta; Lampic, Claudia; Sydsjö, Gunilla

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND One of the major factors impacting on a couple's relationship is the desire to have children. To many couples having a child is a confirmation of their love and relationship and a means to deepen and develop their intimate relationship. At the same time parental stress can impact on relationship quality. Relationship quality in lesbian couples is, currently, sparsely studied. The aim of the present study was to compare lesbian and heterosexual couples' perceptions of their relationship quality at the commencement of assisted reproduction, and to relate this to background data such as educational level, having previous children and, for lesbian couples, the use of a known versus anonymous donor. METHODS The present study is part of the prospective longitudinal ‘Swedish study on gamete donation’, including all fertility clinics performing donation treatment in Sweden. Of a consecutive cohort of 214 lesbian couples about to receive donor insemination and 212 heterosexual couples starting regular IVF treatment, 166 lesbian couples (78% response) and 151 heterosexual couples (71% response) accepted participation in the study. At commencement of assisted reproduction participants individually completed questionnaires including the instrument ‘ENRICH’, which is a standardized measure concerning relationship quality. RESULTS In general, the couples rated their relationship quality as good, the lesbian couple better than the heterosexuals. In addition, the lesbian women with previous children assessed their relationship quality lower than did the lesbian woman without previous children. For heterosexual couples previous children did not influence their relationship quality. Higher educational levels reduced the satisfaction with the sexual relationship (P = 0.04) for treated lesbian women, and enhanced the rating of conflict resolution for treated lesbian women (P = 0.03) and their partners (P = 0.02). Heterosexual women with high levels of education

  3. Relationships Between Malnutrition, Inflammation, Sleep Quality, and Restless Legs Syndrome in Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Tezcan; Acar, Bilgehan Atılgan; Sipahi, Savaş; Cinemre, Hakan; Acar, Türkan; Varım, Ceyhun; Tamer, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurologic sensorimotor disorder. It is also seen in hemodialysis patients in whom the mechanism is not thoroughly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS), sleep quality, and RLS in chronic hemodialysis patients. This cross-sectional study included 232 adult stable chronic hemodialysis patients (mean age 60.9 ± 14.1 years, 56.5% male). RLS frequency, MIS, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), laboratory data of patients as well as severity of RLS were evaluated. Thirty-seven patients (15.9%) were diagnosed with RLS. Mean MIS of patients with or without RLS were similar. PSQI of patients with RLS was significantly higher than patients without RLS (P = 0.002). There was a significant positive correlation between RLS severity and PSQI (r = 0.445, P = 0.006). A significant positive correlation was also found between PSQI and MIS in patients with RLS (r = 0.419, P = 0.010). RLS severity was positively correlated with some inflammatory parameters such as white blood cell count and C-reactive protein (r = 0.427, P = 0.008 and r = 0.418 P = 0.010). PSQI was found as an independent significant predictor of RLS (odds ratio [OR] = 1.15 (1.06-1.25), P = 0.001) in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Our study revealed that there was no significant relationship between RLS and MIS in chronic hemodialysis patients. However, RLS severity is correlated with inflammatory parameters. Also, sleep quality in chronic hemodialysis patients with RLS is negatively associated with MIS. PMID:26031339

  4. Relationships Between Malnutrition, Inflammation, Sleep Quality, and Restless Legs Syndrome in Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Tezcan; Acar, Bilgehan Atılgan; Sipahi, Savaş; Cinemre, Hakan; Acar, Türkan; Varım, Ceyhun; Tamer, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurologic sensorimotor disorder. It is also seen in hemodialysis patients in whom the mechanism is not thoroughly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS), sleep quality, and RLS in chronic hemodialysis patients. This cross-sectional study included 232 adult stable chronic hemodialysis patients (mean age 60.9 ± 14.1 years, 56.5% male). RLS frequency, MIS, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), laboratory data of patients as well as severity of RLS were evaluated. Thirty-seven patients (15.9%) were diagnosed with RLS. Mean MIS of patients with or without RLS were similar. PSQI of patients with RLS was significantly higher than patients without RLS (P = 0.002). There was a significant positive correlation between RLS severity and PSQI (r = 0.445, P = 0.006). A significant positive correlation was also found between PSQI and MIS in patients with RLS (r = 0.419, P = 0.010). RLS severity was positively correlated with some inflammatory parameters such as white blood cell count and C-reactive protein (r = 0.427, P = 0.008 and r = 0.418 P = 0.010). PSQI was found as an independent significant predictor of RLS (odds ratio [OR] = 1.15 (1.06-1.25), P = 0.001) in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Our study revealed that there was no significant relationship between RLS and MIS in chronic hemodialysis patients. However, RLS severity is correlated with inflammatory parameters. Also, sleep quality in chronic hemodialysis patients with RLS is negatively associated with MIS.

  5. The Shape of the Dose-Response Relationship between Sugars and Caries in Adults.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, E; Vehkalahti, M M; Sheiham, A; Lundqvist, A; Suominen, A L

    2016-02-01

    Dental caries is considered a diet-mediated disease, as sugars are essential in the caries process. However, some gaps in knowledge about the sugars-caries relationship still need addressing. This longitudinal study aimed to explore 1) the shape of the dose-response association between sugars intake and caries in adults, 2) the relative contribution of frequency and amount of sugars intake to caries levels, and 3) whether the association between sugars intake and caries varies by exposure to fluoride toothpaste. We used data from 1,702 dentate adults who participated in at least 2 of 3 surveys in Finland (Health 2000, 2004/05 Follow-up Study of Adults' Oral Health, and Health 2011). Frequency and amount of sugars intake were measured with a validated food frequency questionnaire. The DMFT index was the repeated outcome measure. Data were analyzed with fractional polynomials and linear mixed effects models. None of the 43 fractional polynomials tested provided a better fit to the data than the simpler linear model. In a mutually adjusted linear mixed effects model, the amount of, but not the frequency of, sugars intake was significantly associated with DMFT throughout the follow-up period. Furthermore, the longitudinal association between amount of sugars intake and DMFT was weaker in adults who used fluoride toothpaste daily than in those using it less often than daily. The findings of this longitudinal study among Finnish adults suggest a linear dose-response relationship between sugars and caries, with amount of intake being more important than frequency of ingestion. Also, daily use of fluoride toothpaste reduced but did not eliminate the association between amount of sugars intake and dental caries.

  6. The relationship between change in self-perceptions of aging and physical functioning in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sargent-Cox, Kerry A; Anstey, Kaarin J; Luszcz, Mary A

    2012-09-01

    Negative self-perceptions of aging (SPA) have been linked to poor physical health and functioning outcomes in late life, yet the direction of this relationship remain unclear. Using data from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Aging, we investigated the directionality of the dynamic relationship between self-perceptions of aging and physical functioning in 1,212 adults 65 years and above (mean age = 76.89, SD = 6.12) over 5 waves (up to 16 years). Bivariate Dual Change Score Models (BDCSM) revealed that the best fitting model for the data was that which allowed SPA to predict change in physical functioning over time lags of 1 year. The direction of the relationship remained after controlling for age, gender, partner status, residential care, number of medical conditions, self-rated health, and psychological well-being. Findings suggest that more positive SPA may be protective of decline in physical functioning in late life. PMID:22390161

  7. Adopting Quality Assurance Technology in Customer-Vendor Relationships: A Case Study of How Interorganizational Relationships Influence the Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeager, Lise Tordrup; Tjørnehøj, Gitte

    Quality assurance technology is a formal control mechanism aiming at increasing the quality of the product exchanged between vendors and customers. Studies of the adoption of this technology in the field of system development rarely focus on the role of the relationship between the customer and vendor in the process. We have studied how the process of adopting quality assurance technology by a small Danish IT vendor developing pharmacy software for a customer in the public sector was influenced by the relationship with the customer. The case study showed that the adoption process was shaped to a high degree by the relationship and vice versa. The prior high level of trust and mutual knowledge helped the parties negotiate mutually feasible solutions throughout the adoption process. We thus advise enhancing trust-building processes to strengthen the relationships and to balance formal control and social control to increase the likelihood of a successful outcome of the adoption of quality assurance technology in a customer-vendor relationship.

  8. Passion in sport: on the quality of the coach-athlete relationship.

    PubMed

    Lafrenière, Marc-André K; Jowett, Sophia; Vallerand, Robert J; Gonahue, Eric G; Lorimer, Ross

    2008-10-01

    Vallerand et al. (2003) developed a dualistic model of passion, wherein two types of passion are proposed: harmonious (HP) and obsessive (OP) passion that predict adaptive and less adaptive interpersonal outcomes, respectively. In the present research, we were interested in understanding the role of passion in the quality of coach-athlete relationships. Results of Study 1, conducted with athletes (N=157), revealed that HP positively predicts a high-quality coach-athlete relationship, whereas OP was largely unrelated to such relationships. Study 2 was conducted with coaches (N=106) and showed that only HP positively predicted the quality of the coach-athlete relationship. Furthermore, these effects were fully mediated by positive emotions. Finally, the quality of the coach-athlete relationship positively predicted coaches' subjective well-being. Future research directions are discussed in light of the dualistic model of passion.

  9. Attachment, skin deep? Relationships between adult attachment and skin barrier recovery.

    PubMed

    Robles, Theodore F; Brooks, Kathryn P; Kane, Heidi S; Schetter, Christine Dunkel

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between individual differences in adult attachment and skin barrier recovery. Dating couples (N = 34) completed a self-report measure of attachment anxiety and avoidance, and during two separate laboratory visits, normal skin barrier function was disrupted using a tape-stripping procedure, followed by a 20 min discussion of personal concerns in one visit and relationship problems in the other, counterbalanced randomly across visits. Skin barrier recovery was assessed by measuring transepidermal water loss up to 2 h after skin disruption. Multilevel modeling showed that skin barrier recovery did not differ between the personal concern or relationship problem discussions. Among women, greater attachment anxiety predicted faster skin barrier recovery across the two visits, while greater attachment avoidance predicted slower skin barrier recovery. Among men, greater attachment anxiety predicted slower skin barrier recovery during the personal concern discussion only. The observed effects remained significant after controlling for transepidermal water loss in undisturbed skin, suggesting that the relationship between attachment security and skin barrier recovery was not due to other skin-related factors like sweating. Cortisol changes, self-reported emotions, stress appraisals, and supportiveness ratings were tested as potential mediators, and none explained the relationships between attachment and skin barrier recovery. These findings are the first to demonstrate associations between individual differences in attachment style and restorative biological processes in the skin, even in a sample of young dating couples in satisfied relationships.

  10. Attachment, skin deep? Relationships between adult attachment and skin barrier recovery

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Theodore F.; Brooks, Kathryn P.; Kane, Heidi S.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between individual differences in adult attachment and skin barrier recovery. Dating couples (N = 34) completed a self-report measure of attachment anxiety and avoidance, and during two separate laboratory visits, normal skin barrier function was disrupted using a tape-stripping procedure, followed by a 20 min discussion of personal concerns in one visit and relationship problems in the other, counterbalanced randomly across visits. Skin barrier recovery was assessed by measuring transepidermal water loss up to 2 h after skin disruption. Multilevel modeling showed that skin barrier recovery did not differ between the personal concern or relationship problem discussions. Among women, greater attachment anxiety predicted faster skin barrier recovery across the two visits, while greater attachment avoidance predicted slower skin barrier recovery. Among men, greater attachment anxiety predicted slower skin barrier recovery during the personal concern discussion only. The observed effects remained significant after controlling for transepidermal water loss in undisturbed skin, suggesting that the relationship between attachment security and skin barrier recovery was not due to other skin-related factors like sweating. Cortisol changes, self-reported emotions, stress appraisals, and supportiveness ratings were tested as potential mediators, and none explained the relationships between attachment and skin barrier recovery. These findings are the first to demonstrate associations between individual differences in attachment style and restorative biological processes in the skin, even in a sample of young dating couples in satisfied relationships. PMID:22546664

  11. Relationship Between Body Composition Parameters and Metabolic Syndrome in Young Thai Adults

    PubMed Central

    Namwongprom, Sirianong; Rerkasem, Kittipan; Wongthanee, Antika; Pruenglampoo, Sakda; Mangklabruks, Ampica

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between body composition parameters, i.e. waist circumference, android fat mass (AFM), gynoid fat mass (GFM), android to gynoid fat mass ratio (AG ratio) and metabolic syndrome (MS) risk components in young Thai adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 391 adolescents (174 male, 217 female). The body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and glucose levels were determined. AFM, GFM and AG ratio were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Linear regression analysis was done to assess the relationship of waist circumference, AFM, GFM and AG ratio with MS risk components’ score, separately. Results: Among 391 young adults aged 18.5-21.8 years, MS was found in 5.9%. Participants with MS (n=23) had a significantly higher weight, height and BMI than those without MS. There was no statistically significant difference in bone mineral density between the two groups. At univariable linear regression analysis, waist circumferences, AFM, GFM and AG ratio showed significant relationship with MS risk components’ score. However, after adjusting for gender, birth weight and BMI, AG ratio demonstrated greater relationship with MS risk components’ score (β 1.89, 95%CI 1.096-2.978) than waist circumference (β 0.046, 95%CI 0.033-0.058) and AFM (β 0.979, 95%CI 0.667-1.290). No significant association was observed between GFM and MS risk components’ score (β 0.077, 95%CI -0.089-0.243). Conclusion: The results from this study indicated that AG ratio is a stronger predictor of MS than waist circumference and AFM in young Thai adults. The role of AG ratio for the diagnosis of MS needs to be further investigated. PMID:25541893

  12. Links Among Italian Preschoolers’ Socio-Emotional Competence, Teacher-Child Relationship Quality and Peer Acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Sette, Stefania; Spinrad, Tracy; Baumgartner, Emma

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations of teacher-child relationship quality (close, conflictive, and dependent), children’s social behavior, and peer likability in a sample of Italian preschool-aged children (46 boys; 42 girls). Preschool teachers evaluated the quality of the teacher-child relationship and children’s social behaviors (i.e., social competence, anger-aggression, and anxiety-withdrawal). Peer-rated likability was measured using a sociometric procedure. Results indicated that conflictual teacher-child relationships were related to high aggressive behavior, and dependent teacher-child relationships were positively associated with children’s anxiety-withdrawal. Moreover, we found an indirect association between close teacher-child relationship quality and peer likability through children’s social competence. The findings provide evidence that the teacher-child relationship is critical for children’s social behaviors, and that social competence was uniquely related to peer likability. PMID:24039375

  13. The relationship between behavior acquisition and persistence abilities: Involvement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gradari, Simona; Pérez-Domper, Paloma; Butler, Ray G; Martínez-Cué, Carmen; de Polavieja, Gonzalo G; Trejo, José Luis

    2016-07-01

    The influence of the learning process on the persistence of the newly acquired behavior is relevant both for our knowledge of the learning/memory mechanisms and for the educational policy. However, it is unclear whether during an operant conditioning process with a continuous reinforcement paradigm, individual differences in acquisition are also associated to differences in persistence of the acquired behavior. In parallel, adult neurogenesis has been implicated in spatial learning and memory, but the specific role of the immature neurons born in the adult brain is not well known for this process. We have addressed both questions by analyzing the relationship between water maze task acquisition scores, the persistence of the acquired behavior, and the size of the different subpopulations of immature neurons in the adult murine hippocampus. We have found that task acquisition and persistence rates were negatively correlated: the faster the animals find the water maze platform at the end of acquisition stage, the less they persist in searching for it at the learned position in a subsequent non-reinforced trial; accordingly, the correlation in the number of some new neurons' subpopulations and the acquisition rate is negative while with persistence in acquired behavior is positive. These findings reveal an unexpected relationship between the efficiency to learn a task and the persistence of the new behavior after a non-reinforcement paradigm, and suggest that the immature neurons might be involved in different roles in acquisition and persistence/extinction of a learning task. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26788800

  14. The Relationship between Dietary Patterns and Metabolic Health in a Representative Sample of Adult Australians

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Lucinda K.; Edwards, Suzanne; Grieger, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies assessing dietary intake and its relationship to metabolic phenotype are emerging, but limited. The aims of the study are to identify dietary patterns in Australian adults, and to determine whether these dietary patterns are associated with metabolic phenotype and obesity. Cross-sectional data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011 Australian Health Survey was analysed. Subjects included adults aged 45 years and over (n = 2415). Metabolic phenotype was determined according to criteria used to define metabolic syndrome (0–2 abnormalities vs. 3–7 abnormalities), and additionally categorized for obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 vs. BMI <30 kg/m2). Dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis. Multivariable models were used to assess the relationship between dietary patterns and metabolic phenotype, with adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, socio-economic indexes for areas, physical activity and daily energy intake. Twenty percent of the population was metabolically unhealthy and obese. In the fully adjusted model, for every one standard deviation increase in the Healthy dietary pattern, the odds of having a more metabolically healthy profile increased by 16% (odds ratio (OR) 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.29). Poor metabolic profile and obesity are prevalent in Australian adults and a healthier dietary pattern plays a role in a metabolic and BMI phenotypes. Nutritional strategies addressing metabolic syndrome criteria and targeting obesity are recommended in order to improve metabolic phenotype and potential disease burden. PMID:26251918

  15. The relationship between behavior acquisition and persistence abilities: Involvement of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gradari, Simona; Pérez-Domper, Paloma; Butler, Ray G; Martínez-Cué, Carmen; de Polavieja, Gonzalo G; Trejo, José Luis

    2016-07-01

    The influence of the learning process on the persistence of the newly acquired behavior is relevant both for our knowledge of the learning/memory mechanisms and for the educational policy. However, it is unclear whether during an operant conditioning process with a continuous reinforcement paradigm, individual differences in acquisition are also associated to differences in persistence of the acquired behavior. In parallel, adult neurogenesis has been implicated in spatial learning and memory, but the specific role of the immature neurons born in the adult brain is not well known for this process. We have addressed both questions by analyzing the relationship between water maze task acquisition scores, the persistence of the acquired behavior, and the size of the different subpopulations of immature neurons in the adult murine hippocampus. We have found that task acquisition and persistence rates were negatively correlated: the faster the animals find the water maze platform at the end of acquisition stage, the less they persist in searching for it at the learned position in a subsequent non-reinforced trial; accordingly, the correlation in the number of some new neurons' subpopulations and the acquisition rate is negative while with persistence in acquired behavior is positive. These findings reveal an unexpected relationship between the efficiency to learn a task and the persistence of the new behavior after a non-reinforcement paradigm, and suggest that the immature neurons might be involved in different roles in acquisition and persistence/extinction of a learning task. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Paternal relatedness and age proximity regulate social relationships among adult female rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Widdig, A; Nürnberg, P; Krawczak, M; Streich, W J; Bercovitch, F B

    2001-11-20

    Kin selection promotes the evolution of social behavior that increases the survival and reproductive success of close relatives. Among primates, maternal kinship frequently coincides with a higher frequency of grooming and agonistic aiding, but the extent to which paternal kinship influences adult female social relationships has not yet been investigated. Here, we examine the effect of both maternal and paternal kinship, as well as age proximity, on affiliative interactions among semifree-ranging adult female rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta. Kinship was assessed by using both microsatellites and DNA-fingerprinting. Our study confirms that the closest affiliative relationships characterize maternal half-sisters. We provide evidence that adult females are significantly more affiliative with paternal half-sisters than with nonkin. Furthermore, paternal kin discrimination was more pronounced among peers than among nonpeers, indicating that age proximity has an additional regulatory effect on affiliative interactions. We propose that kin discrimination among cercopithecine primates emerges from ontogenetic processes that involve phenotype matching based on shared behavioral traits, such as inherited personality profiles, rather than physiological or physical characteristics.

  17. Blood cadmium in Chinese adults and its relationships with diabetes and obesity.

    PubMed

    Nie, Xiaomin; Wang, Ningjian; Chen, Yi; Chen, Chi; Han, Bing; Zhu, Chunfang; Chen, Yingchao; Xia, Fangzhen; Cang, Zhen; Lu, Meng; Meng, Ying; Jiang, Boren; D Jensen, Michael; Lu, Yingli

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate blood cadmium levels (BCLs) in Chinese adults and explore whether blood cadmium is associated with diabetes or obesity. This study included 5544 adults from a cross-sectional SPECT-China study. BCL and blood lead level (BLL) was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was used to define prediabetes and diabetes. Overweight and obesity were defined by body mass index (BMI). The associations of BCL with prediabetes, diabetes, overweight, and obesity were analyzed by multinomial logistic regression analyses. Medians (interquartile range) of BCL were 1.97 μg/L (0.60-3.82) in men and 1.59 μg/L (0.54-3.51) in women. Subjects in low-economic-status areas and urban areas had significantly higher BCL. BCL in current smokers was significantly higher than in current non-smokers. In the adjusted model, a mild positive relationship between BCL and FPG was found. Meanwhile, the prevalence of prediabetes was increased according to the increase in BCL tertiles. Surprisingly, BCL had a negative relationship with prevalence of overweight. In conclusion, BCL in Chinese adults was much higher than in other developed countries and was influenced by gender, smoking, and residential area. BCL was positively related to prediabetes while negatively related to overweight. PMID:27312901

  18. Stepfather–Adolescent Relationship Quality During the First Year of Transitioning to a Stepfamily

    PubMed Central

    King, Valarie; Amato, Paul R.; Lindstrom, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This study contributes to the growing literature on factors associated with the formation of close relationships between stepfathers and stepchildren. The authors extend prior research by using nationally representative data from Add Health (N = 179) to examine how factors existing prior to stepfamily formation are associated with the quality of stepfather–adolescent ties within the first year after married stepfathers join the household. Results from structural equation models revealed that both the quality of the mother–adolescent relationship and adolescent adjustment prior to stepfamily formation were significantly associated with the perceived quality of adolescents’ relationships with their stepfathers. PMID:26508804

  19. Willamette Oxygen Supplementation Studies : Scale Analyses, Dexter Water Quality Parameters, and Adult Recoveries: Annual Progress Report, September 30, 1998-September 29, 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, R.D.

    1999-09-01

    This report examines the relationship between scale characteristics of returning adults to determine the fork length at which they entered the ocean. These lengths are then related to the length frequencies of fish in the various experimental groups at the time they left the hatchery. This report summarizes the water quality parameters at Dexter Rearing Ponds and presents the complete returns for all experimental groups.

  20. Depth relationships of Euphausia superba eggs, larvae and adults near the Antarctic Peninsula, 1986 87

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, V. H.; Brinton, E.; Huntley, M.

    Relationships of depths of adult Euphausia superba to depths of its eggs and larval stages were examined during 4 months of the 1986-87 summer at three localities west of the Antarctic Peninsula. Data were obtained relating to spawning depth and to extents to which larval stages co-occur and vary in depth through the season. Reproductive adults occurred at all depths sampled in late December in Bransfield Strait and in all but one stratum in late January to a depth of 2000 m in Drake Passage. Mature males were caught together with gravid females and freely sinking eggs down to at least 1000 m in Drake Passage and to more than 500 m in Bransfield Strait, providing indirect evidence that spawning can take place over extensive ranges of depth. In the 300-400 m deep Gerlache Strait, where larvae were particularly numerous (January to March), only a few reproductive adults were caught, and only in December at 100-200 m. Sampling methods were clearly inappropriate for quantitative estimates of adults.

  1. Gender-Specific Differences in the Relationship between Autobiographical Memory and Intertemporal Choice in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Seinstra, Maayke; Grzymek, Katharina; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    As the population of older adults grows, their economic choices will have increasing impact on society. Research on the effects of aging on intertemporal decisions shows inconsistent, often opposing results, indicating that yet unexplored factors might play an essential role in guiding one's choices. Recent studies suggest that episodic future thinking, which is based on the same neural network involved in episodic memory functions, leads to reductions in discounting of future rewards. As episodic memory functioning declines with normal aging, but to greatly variable degrees, individual differences in delay discounting might be due to individual differences in the vitality of this memory system in older adults. We investigated this hypothesis, using a sample of healthy older adults who completed an intertemporal choice task as well as two episodic memory tasks. We found no clear evidence for a relationship between episodic memory performance and delay discounting in older adults. However, when additionally considering gender differences, we found an interaction effect of gender and autobiographical memory on delay discounting: while men with higher memory scores showed less delay discounting, women with higher memory scores tended to discount the future more. We speculate that this gender effect might stem from the gender-specific use of different modal representation formats (i.e. temporal or visual) during assessment of intertemporal choice options. PMID:26335426

  2. Changes in the relationship between nursing home financial performance and quality of care under public reporting.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeongyoung; Werner, Rachel M

    2011-07-01

    The relationship between financial performance and quality of care in nursing homes is not well defined and prior work has been mixed. The recent focus on improving the quality of nursing homes through market-based incentives such as public reporting may have changed this relationship, as public reporting provides nursing homes with increased incentives to engage in quality-based competition. If quality improvement activities require substantial production costs, nursing home profitability may become a more important predictor of quality under public reporting. This study explores the relationship between financial performance and quality of care and test whether this relationship changes under public reporting. Using a 10-year (fiscal years 1997-2006) panel data set of 9444 skilled nursing facilities in the US, this study employs a facility fixed-effects with and without instrumental variables approach to test the effect of finances on quality improvement and correct for potential endogeneity. The results show that better financial performance, as reflected by the 1-year lagged total profit margin, is modestly associated with higher quality but only after public reporting is initiated. These findings have important policy implications as federal and state governments use market-based incentives to increase demand for high-quality care and induce providers to compete based on quality. PMID:20578255

  3. An Examination of the Relationship between Self-Reported and Measured Reading and Spelling Skills among Incarcerated Adults in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lise Oen; Asbjornsen, Arve; Manger, Terje; Eikeland, Ole-Johan

    2011-01-01

    The present paper investigates the relationship between the revised Adult Dyslexia Check List (ADCL), and the performance on a standardized battery of reading and spelling tests in adults, when used in an incarcerated population in Norway. The paper reports two sub studies. Study 1 examined the psychometric attributes of the ADCL by analysing the…

  4. The Relationship between Ministry Satisfaction and Spiritual Maturity among Adult Church Volunteers in the Korean Presbyterian Church in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nho, Sung Hyun

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the relationship between ministry satisfaction and spiritual maturity among adult church volunteers in the Korean Presbyterian church in South Korea (Kosin). It also sought to investigate factors related to volunteers' job satisfaction and their spiritual maturity. Participants included 531 adult small group…

  5. Do I Really Need Someone in Order to become an Adult?: Romantic Relationships during Emerging Adulthood in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanz, Margherita; Tagliabue, Semira

    2007-01-01

    Italian emerging adults stay at home with their parents until they marry. Being involved in a romantic relationship may be considered one precursor of the success of the transition to adulthood. In this study, 92 dating and 84 nondating emerging adults were compared on when they left the parental home and their future plans. They were also…

  6. An Investigation of the Relationship between Adult Attitudes toward Reading and Reading Skills Before and After a Reading Improvement Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, George Leo

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between attitudes toward reading and the reading skills of a population of adults who are good readers. Two hundred adults enrolled in eight reading classes were involved in this study. Initially a reading test and a form of the Semantic Differential were administered to all subjects.…

  7. Exploring the Relationship of Autonomic and Endocrine Activity with Social Functioning in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeekens, I.; Didden, R.; Verhoeven, E. W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies indicate that autonomic and endocrine activity may be related to social functioning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), although the number of studies in adults is limited. The present study explored the relationship of autonomic and endocrine activity with social functioning in young adult males with ASD compared…

  8. Brief Report: The Relationship between Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sarah R.; Jobson, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and autobiographical memory specificity in older adults. Method: Older adult trauma survivors (N = 23) completed the Autobiographical Memory Test, Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, and Addenbrooke's Cognitive…

  9. The Impact of the Nature of Relationships on Perceived Burdensomeness and Suicide Ideation in a Community Sample of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahn, Danielle R.; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.

    2011-01-01

    Older adults die by suicide at very high rates, and previous research indicates that perceived burdensomeness may contribute to deaths by suicide. In this study, the impact of the nature of relationships on perceived burdensomeness and suicide ideation was examined. Results indicated that older adults' perceptions of burden on younger generations…

  10. The Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Mental Health among Undergraduates: Victim Gender Doesn't Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, M. Scott; Harford, Kelli-Lee; Kinder, Bill; Savell, Jodi K.

    2007-01-01

    A large body of research has documented the harmful effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on adult mental health among females, but less work has examined this issue among males. This study examined whether gender moderated the relationship between CSA and adult mental health among a mixed-gender sample of 406 undergraduates. A Pearson…

  11. Objective and Subjective Quality of Life in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Southern Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saldana, David; Alvarez, Rosa M.; Lobaton, Silvia; Lopez, Ana M.; Moreno, Macarena; Rojano, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Subjective and objective measures of quality of life (QoL) were obtained for adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) living in Andalusia (Spain). Seventy-four families responded to questionnaires about objective QoL indicators such as employment, health, adaptive behaviour and social network, and were asked to act as proxies for subjective…

  12. The Impact of Hearing Loss on Quality of Life in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Dayna S.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Wiley, Terry L.; Nondahl, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigate the impact of hearing loss on quality of life in a large population of older adults. Design and Methods: Data are from the 5-year follow-up Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study, a population-based longitudinal study of age-related hearing impairment conducted in Beaver Dam, WI. Participants (N = 2,688) were 53-97…

  13. Quality of Life of Adolescents and Young Adults Born at High Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahan-Oliel, Noemi; Majnemer, Annette; Mazer, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Research on quality of life (QoL) of adolescents and young adults born preterm and those with congenital heart disease (CHD) was systematically reviewed, and factors associated with QoL were identified. Forty-five studies met the inclusion criteria for review. Although the majority of studies found that self-reported QoL of adolescents and young…

  14. Environmental Quality and the Citizen. A Teaching Guide for Adult Education Courses Related to the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausen, Bernard L.; Iverson, Ross L.

    This guide was written to aid the organization of an adult education course on the environment. Each of the ten sessions in the guide is an independent unit--to be used as such or to be interchanged with other sessions. Topics or units are titled: Environmental Quality--Everyone's Responsibility; Land and Space Resources; Population Stress and Its…

  15. Positive attitudes toward organic, local, and sustainable foods are associated with higher dietary quality among young adults.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Jennifer E; Laska, Melissa N; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Scant evidence is available on the relationship between preferences for organic, local, sustainable, and nonprocessed foods (ie, alternative food production practices) and dietary quality. This cross-sectional study examined the characteristics and dietary behaviors (eg, consumption of fruits, vegetables, fast food) of young adults who reported placing low, moderate, or high importance on alternative food production practices. A diverse sample of 1,201 students at a 2-year community college and a 4-year public university in the Twin Cities, MN, completed the Student Health and Wellness Study survey in spring 2010. χ(2) tests examined differences in attitudes across demographic characteristics. Linear regression adjusted dietary intake across attitudes. About half (49%) of young adults placed moderate to high importance on alternative production practices, and few demographic differences across attitudes were found. Young adults who placed high importance on alternative production practices consumed 1.3 more servings of fruits and vegetables (P<0.001), more dietary fiber (P<0.001), fewer added sugars (P<0.001), fewer sugar-sweetened beverages (P=0.001), and less fat (P=0.025) than those who placed low importance on these practices. Young adults who placed high importance on alternative food production practices also consumed breakfast approximately 1 more day per week and fast food half as often as those who placed low importance on these practices (P<0.001). Study findings suggest that nutrition messaging around social and environmental implications of food production practices may be well received by this age group. Experimental studies are needed to investigate whether attitudes toward alternative production practices can be manipulated to improve dietary quality. PMID:23260729

  16. Positive attitudes toward organic, local, and sustainable foods are associated with higher dietary quality among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Laska, Melissa N.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Scant evidence is available on the relationship between preferences for organic, local, sustainable, and non-processed foods (i.e., alternative food production practices) and dietary quality. This cross-sectional study examined the characteristics and dietary behaviors (e.g., consumption of fruit, vegetables, fast food, etc.) of young adults who reported placing low, moderate, or high importance on alternative food production practices. A diverse sample of 1,201 students at a two-year community college and a four-year public university in the Twin Cities, MN, completed the Student Health and Wellness Study survey in spring 2010. Chi-square tests examined differences in attitudes across demographic characteristics. Linear regression adjusted dietary intake across attitudes. About half (49%) of young adults placed moderate to high importance on alternative production practices, and few demographic differences across attitudes were found. Young adults who placed high importance on alternative production practices consumed 1.3 greater servings of fruits and vegetables (p<0.001), more dietary fiber (p<0.001), fewer added sugars (p<0.001) and less fat (p=0.025) than those who placed low importance on these practices. Young adults who placed high importance on alternative food production practices also consumed breakfast about one more day per week and fast food half as often as those who placed low importance on these practices (p<0.001). Study findings suggest that nutrition messaging around social and environmental implications of food production practices may be well received by this age group. Experimental studies are needed to investigate whether attitudes toward alternative production practices can be manipulated to improve dietary quality. PMID:23260729

  17. Positive attitudes toward organic, local, and sustainable foods are associated with higher dietary quality among young adults.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Jennifer E; Laska, Melissa N; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Scant evidence is available on the relationship between preferences for organic, local, sustainable, and nonprocessed foods (ie, alternative food production practices) and dietary quality. This cross-sectional study examined the characteristics and dietary behaviors (eg, consumption of fruits, vegetables, fast food) of young adults who reported placing low, moderate, or high importance on alternative food production practices. A diverse sample of 1,201 students at a 2-year community college and a 4-year public university in the Twin Cities, MN, completed the Student Health and Wellness Study survey in spring 2010. χ(2) tests examined differences in attitudes across demographic characteristics. Linear regression adjusted dietary intake across attitudes. About half (49%) of young adults placed moderate to high importance on alternative production practices, and few demographic differences across attitudes were found. Young adults who placed high importance on alternative production practices consumed 1.3 more servings of fruits and vegetables (P<0.001), more dietary fiber (P<0.001), fewer added sugars (P<0.001), fewer sugar-sweetened beverages (P=0.001), and less fat (P=0.025) than those who placed low importance on these practices. Young adults who placed high importance on alternative food production practices also consumed breakfast approximately 1 more day per week and fast food half as often as those who placed low importance on these practices (P<0.001). Study findings suggest that nutrition messaging around social and environmental implications of food production practices may be well received by this age group. Experimental studies are needed to investigate whether attitudes toward alternative production practices can be manipulated to improve dietary quality.

  18. New techniques for analyzing relationships between energy and water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, E.; Thode, H.C. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Water quality data for 65 variables were obtained for the period 1955 to 1977 and aggregated on a county basis. Measurements were taken primarily in New England and the Middle Atlantic States. When a subset of 138 counties with complete data was used, it was found that county aggregation statistical procedures resulted in data still able to describe the chemical characteristics of natural waters. Energy and socioeconomic data were merged with water quality data for these 138 counties. The path analytic methodology used by geneticists was adapted for use with these combined data to investigate for potential interactions between energy-related activities and water quality. A path diagram was proposed to provide insight into the possible causal nature of these interrelations. Direct and indirect pathways from energy production and use were traced to three factors describing functional attributes of water: conductivity, hardness, and dissolved metallic ions. This analysis explained 25 to 40% of the variance in three water quality factors and indicated the applicability of this technique to regional assessments of water quality impacts due to many human activities.

  19. Fat Modulates the Relationship between Sarcopenia and Physical Function in Nonobese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Robin L.; Brixner, Diana I.; Ghate, Sameer; LaStayo, Paul

    2012-01-01

    It is intuitive to think that sarcopenia should be associated with declines in physical function though recent evidence questions this assertion. This study investigated the relationship between absolute and relative sarcopenia, with physical performance in 202 nonobese (mean BMI = 26.6 kg/ht2) community-dwelling older (mean age = 73.8 ± 5.9 years) adults. While absolute sarcopenia (appendicular skeletal mass (ASM)/ht2) was either not associated, or weakly associated with physical performance, relative sarcopenia (ASM/kg) demonstrated moderate (r = 0.31 to r = 0.51, P < 0.01) relationships with performance outcomes in both males and females. Knee extension strength (r = 0.27) and leg extension power (r = 0.41) were both related to absolute sarcopenia (P < 0.001) in females and not in males. Strength and power were associated with relative sarcopenia in both sexes (from r = 0.47 to r = 0.67, P < 0.001). The ratio of lean mass to total body mass, that is, relative sarcopenia, is an important consideration relative to physical function in older adults even in the absence of obesity. Stratifying these individuals into equal tertiles of total body fat revealed a trend of diminished regression coefficients across each incrementally higher fat grouping for performance measures, providing further evidence that total body fat modulates the relationship between sarcopenia and physical function. PMID:22312329

  20. Cultural Dynamics and Marital Relationship Quality in Mexican-origin Families

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Rick A.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Corona, Marissa; King, Kevin M.; Cauce, Ana Mari; Robins, Richard W.; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.

    2014-01-01

    Prior research suggests that acculturation may influence relationship outcomes among Mexican-origin married couples, including marital adjustment and distress. Despite much theory and research on parent-child cultural differences and disruptions in the parent-child relationship, no previous research has investigated possible associations between husband-wife cultural differences and marital relationship quality. With a sample of Mexican-origin married couples (N = 398), the current study investigated the relations between husband-wife differences in acculturation (American orientation) and enculturation (Mexican orientation) with husband and wife reports of positive marital qualities (warmth and relationship satisfaction). To clarify and extend previous research, the current study also investigated within-person models of cultural orientation domains as related to positive marital quality. Results provide partial evidence showing that dyadic cultural differences are associated with lower positive marital quality while cultural similarity is associated with higher positive marital quality; however, the relations are complex and suggest that the associations between wife cultural orientation and positive marital quality may depend on husband cultural orientation (and vice versa). Findings also implicate the importance of assessing spouse bidimensional cultural orientation by showing that the relation between spouse acculturation level and relationship quality may depend on his or her enculturation level. Additional nuances in the findings illustrate the importance of assessing multiple domains of cultural orientation, including language use and cultural values. We highlight several future directions for research investigating nuances in spouse cultural dynamics and relationship processes. PMID:25313819

  1. The relationships between lifestyle factors and hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ill-Gwang; So, Wi-Young; Sung, Dong Jun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to determine whether certain lifestyle factors are associated with hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 586 males and 1,135 females > 20 years old who had visited a public health promotion center in Seoul, Republic of Korea to take a survey related to lifestyle factors. Hypertension status was defined according to the criteria of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure VII report. [Results] The relationships between lifestyle factors and hypertension status were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for age and gender. Only mental stress and economic status significantly predicted hypertension status. [Conclusion] We conclude that sleep duration, education level, frequency of drinking and smoking status were not associated with hypertension status. However, economic status and mental stress were significantly associated with hypertension in community-dwelling Korean adults, regardless of age or gender. PMID:26834333

  2. Authority Relationship From a Societal Perspective: Social Representations of Obedience and Disobedience in Austrian Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Fattori, Francesco; Curly, Simone; Jörchel, Amrei C; Pozzi, Maura; Mihalits, Dominik; Alfieri, Sara

    2015-05-01

    Obedience and disobedience have always been salient issues for both civil society and social psychologists. Since Milgram's first studies on destructive obedience there has not been a bottom-up definition of what obedience and disobedience mean. The current study aimed at investigating the social representations young adults use to define and to co-construct knowledge about obedience and disobedience in Austria. One hundred fifty four (106 females, 68.8%) Austrian young adults (Mean age = 22.9; SD = 3.5) completed a mixed-method questionnaire comprising open-ended questions and free word associations. Overall obedience and disobedience are respectively defined as conformity and non-conformity to regulations, ranging from implicit social norms to explicit formal laws. Authority is multi-faceted and has a central role in orienting obedience and disobedience. Further fundamental determinants of the authority relationship and relevant application of the results are discussed in this paper. PMID:27247652

  3. Authority Relationship From a Societal Perspective: Social Representations of Obedience and Disobedience in Austrian Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Fattori, Francesco; Curly, Simone; Jörchel, Amrei C; Pozzi, Maura; Mihalits, Dominik; Alfieri, Sara

    2015-05-01

    Obedience and disobedience have always been salient issues for both civil society and social psychologists. Since Milgram's first studies on destructive obedience there has not been a bottom-up definition of what obedience and disobedience mean. The current study aimed at investigating the social representations young adults use to define and to co-construct knowledge about obedience and disobedience in Austria. One hundred fifty four (106 females, 68.8%) Austrian young adults (Mean age = 22.9; SD = 3.5) completed a mixed-method questionnaire comprising open-ended questions and free word associations. Overall obedience and disobedience are respectively defined as conformity and non-conformity to regulations, ranging from implicit social norms to explicit formal laws. Authority is multi-faceted and has a central role in orienting obedience and disobedience. Further fundamental determinants of the authority relationship and relevant application of the results are discussed in this paper.

  4. The relationship between young adults' beliefs about anonymity and subsequent cyber aggression.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F

    2013-12-01

    Anonymity is considered a key motivator for cyber aggression, but few investigations have focused on the connection between anonymity and the subsequent engagement in aggression through the cyber context. The present longitudinal study utilized structural equation modeling to reveal indirect associations between two types of anonymity (i.e., punishment by authority figures and retaliation from the target) and later cyber aggression among 130 young adults. These relationships were examined through the influence of beliefs about not getting caught and not believing in the permanency of online content. Findings indicated that both forms of anonymity were related to cyber aggression 6 months later through two explanatory mechanisms (i.e., confidence with not getting caught and believing online content is not permanent), after controlling for gender and cyber aggression at Time 1. The implications of these findings are discussed, and an appeal for additional research investigating cyber aggression among young adults is given.

  5. Authority Relationship From a Societal Perspective: Social Representations of Obedience and Disobedience in Austrian Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fattori, Francesco; Curly, Simone; Jörchel, Amrei C.; Pozzi, Maura; Mihalits, Dominik; Alfieri, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Obedience and disobedience have always been salient issues for both civil society and social psychologists. Since Milgram’s first studies on destructive obedience there has not been a bottom-up definition of what obedience and disobedience mean. The current study aimed at investigating the social representations young adults use to define and to co-construct knowledge about obedience and disobedience in Austria. One hundred fifty four (106 females, 68.8%) Austrian young adults (Mean age = 22.9; SD = 3.5) completed a mixed-method questionnaire comprising open-ended questions and free word associations. Overall obedience and disobedience are respectively defined as conformity and non-conformity to regulations, ranging from implicit social norms to explicit formal laws. Authority is multi-faceted and has a central role in orienting obedience and disobedience. Further fundamental determinants of the authority relationship and relevant application of the results are discussed in this paper. PMID:27247652

  6. The relationship between young adults' beliefs about anonymity and subsequent cyber aggression.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle F

    2013-12-01

    Anonymity is considered a key motivator for cyber aggression, but few investigations have focused on the connection between anonymity and the subsequent engagement in aggression through the cyber context. The present longitudinal study utilized structural equation modeling to reveal indirect associations between two types of anonymity (i.e., punishment by authority figures and retaliation from the target) and later cyber aggression among 130 young adults. These relationships were examined through the influence of beliefs about not getting caught and not believing in the permanency of online content. Findings indicated that both forms of anonymity were related to cyber aggression 6 months later through two explanatory mechanisms (i.e., confidence with not getting caught and believing online content is not permanent), after controlling for gender and cyber aggression at Time 1. The implications of these findings are discussed, and an appeal for additional research investigating cyber aggression among young adults is given. PMID:23849002

  7. Quality of Relationship and sexual risk behaviors among HIV couples in Lusaka, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Vamos, Szonja; Cook, Ryan; Chitalu, Ndashi; Mumbi, Miriam; Weiss, Stephen M.; Jones, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Relationship quality and partner dynamics provide important insights into understanding sexual behavior within HIV sero-positive and -discordant couples. Individuals in long-term partnerships may be vulnerable to HIV/STI infection within their relationships due to misperceptions of their partners risk behaviors and potential concurrent (e.g., extramarital, non-primary) sexual partnerships. This study sought to examine relationship quality among HIV sero-positive and – discordant couples in Zambia, and its association with safer sex behavior. This study utilized data drawn from an ongoing translational study, The Partnership II Project – a couples based sexual risk reduction intervention in Lusaka, Zambia. Couples (n = 240) were assessed on demographics, relationship quality, and sexual risk behavior. Overall, couples perceiving their relationships more positively engaged in less risky sexual behavior (i.e., more condom use (b = .011, t = 3.14, p = .002) and fewer partners (χ2 = 11.4, p = .003). Within the dyad, condom use was “actor driven,” indicating that the association between relationship quality and condom use did not depend on the partner’s evaluation of the relationship. Safer sex behavior was positively influenced by communication about condoms. Results support the paradigm shift from prevention strategies with HIV positive and at-risk individuals to concentrated efforts addressing male-female dyads, and suggest that interventions to address the role of couples’ relationship quality, a modifiable target for decreasing sexual risk behavior, are needed. PMID:23336258

  8. Assessing quality of life in adult cancer survivors (QLACS).

    PubMed

    Avis, Nancy E; Smith, Kevin W; McGraw, Sarah; Smith, Roselyn G; Petronis, Vida M; Carver, Charles S

    2005-05-01

    This article describes development of a quality of life measure designed to assess issues relevant to long-term cancer survivors. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 58 long-term cancer survivors to identify domains most relevant to long-term survivors (> or = 5 years post-diagnosis). Self-report items were developed from these interviews and administered to a second sample of 242 long-term survivors. Domains and items were selected from the item pool by a combination of factor analysis and criterion-based item selection. Five cancer-specific domains were identified (appearance concerns, financial problems, distress over recurrence, family-related distress, and benefits of cancer) along with seven generic QOL domains (negative feelings, positive feelings, cognitive problems, sexual problems, physical pain, fatigue, and social avoidance). Cronbach's alpha was 0.72 or greater for each domain. Correlations between domain scores and criterion measures were 0.72 or higher in all but one generic domain (social avoidance), but somewhat lower on cancer-specific domains. The new multidimensional measure has good internal consistency and validity and is appropriate for comparisons between cancer and non-cancer populations, as well as long-term follow-up of cancer patients.

  9. Quality of life among adults with confirmed dengue in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi; Nascimento, Nazareth Elias; Suaya, Jose A; Siqueira, Joao Bosco; Souza, Wayner Vieira; Turchi, Marilia Dalva; Guilarde, Adriana Oliveira; Peres, Joao Borges; Shepard, Donald S

    2011-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to measure the quality of life (QoL) during a dengue episode. We conducted a facility-based survey in central Brazil in 2005 and recruited 372 laboratory-confirmed dengue patients greater than 12 years of age in hospital and ambulatory settings. We administered the World Health Organization QoL instrument approximately 15 days after the onset of symptoms. We used principal component analysis with varimax rotation to identify domains related to QoL. The median age of interviewees was 36 years. Most (85%) reported their general health status as very good or good before the dengue episode. Although ambulatory patients were mainly classified as having dengue fever, 44.8% of hospitalized patients had dengue hemorrhagic fever or intermediate dengue. Principal component analysis identified five principal components related to cognition, sleep and energy, mobility, self-care, pain, and discomfort, which explained 73% of the variability of the data matrix. Hospitalized patients had significantly lower mean scores for dimensions cognition, self-care, and pain than ambulatory patients. This investigation documented the generally poor QoL during a dengue episode caused by the large number of domains affected and significant differences between health care settings.

  10. Comparison of the relationship between bone marrow adipose tissue and volumetric bone mineral density in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Velasquez, Gilbert; Chen, Jun; Jin, Ye; Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Several large-scale studies have reported the presence of an inverse relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) in adults. We aim to determine if there is an inverse relationship between pelvic volumetric BMD (vBMD) and pelvic BMAT in children and to compare this relationship in children and adults. Pelvic BMAT and bone volume (BV) was evaluated in 181 healthy children (5-17yr) and 495 healthy adults (≥18yr) with whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pelvic vBMD was calculated using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure pelvic bone mineral content and MRI-measured BV. An inverse correlation was found between pelvic BMAT and pelvic vBMD in both children (r=-0.374, p<0.001) and adults (r=-0.650, p<0.001). In regression analysis with pelvic vBMD as the dependent variable and BMAT as the independent variable, being a child or adult neither significantly contribute to the pelvic BMD (p=0.995) nor did its interaction with pelvic BMAT (p=0.415). The inverse relationship observed between pelvic vBMD and pelvic BMAT in children extends previous findings that found the inverse relationship to exist in adults and provides further support for a reciprocal relationship between adipocytes and osteoblasts.

  11. Assessing the Validity of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire--Short Form in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mick, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas; Zhang, Huabin F.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed the psychometric properties of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-QSF) in adults with ADHD. Method: One hundred fifty ADHD and 134 non-ADHD adults from a case-control study and 173 adults randomized to placebo or methylphenidate were assessed with the Q-LES-QSF and the…

  12. The association between romantic relationship status and 5-HT1A gene in young adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinting; Gong, Pingyuan; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    What factors determine whether or not a young adult will fall in love? Sociological surveys and psychological studies have shown that non-genetic factors, such as socioeconomic status, external appearance, and personality attributes, are crucial components in romantic relationship formation. Here we demonstrate that genetic variants also contribute to romantic relationship formation. As love-related behaviors are associated with serotonin levels in the brain, this study investigated to what extent a polymorphism (C-1019G, rs6295) of 5-HT1A gene is related to relationship status in 579 Chinese Han people. We found that 50.4% of individuals with the CC genotype and 39.0% with CG/GG genotype were in romantic relationship. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the C-1019G polymorphism was significantly associated with the odds of being single both before and after controlling for socioeconomic status, external appearance, religious beliefs, parenting style, and depressive symptoms. These findings provide, for the first time, direct evidence for the genetic contribution to romantic relationship formation. PMID:25412229

  13. Childhood trauma and adult interpersonal relationship problems in patients with depression and anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although a plethora of studies have delineated the relationship between childhood trauma and onset, symptom severity, and course of depression and anxiety disorders, there has been little evidence that childhood trauma may lead to interpersonal problems among adult patients with depression and anxiety disorders. Given the lack of prior research in this area, we aimed to investigate characteristics of interpersonal problems in adult patients who had suffered various types of abuse and neglect in childhood. Methods A total of 325 outpatients diagnosed with depression and anxiety disorders completed questionnaires on socio-demographic variables, different forms of childhood trauma, and current interpersonal problems. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to measure five different forms of childhood trauma (emotional abuse, emotional neglect, physical abuse, physical neglect, and sexual abuse) and the short form of the Korean-Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex Scale (KIIP-SC) was used to assess current interpersonal problems. We dichotomized patients into two groups (abused and non-abused groups) based on CTQ score and investigated the relationship of five different types of childhood trauma and interpersonal problems in adult patients with depression and anxiety disorders using multiple regression analysis. Result Different types of childhood abuse and neglect appeared to have a significant influence on distinct symptom dimensions such as depression, state-trait anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity. In the final regression model, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse during childhood were significantly associated with general interpersonal distress and several specific areas of interpersonal problems in adulthood. No association was found between childhood physical neglect and current general interpersonal distress. Conclusion Childhood emotional trauma has more influence on interpersonal problems in adult patients with

  14. Relationship Quality in Non-Cognitively Impaired Mother-Daughter Care Dyads: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Diane N; Hansen, Lissi; Baggs, Judith G; Lyons, Karen S

    2015-11-01

    More than 60 million Americans provide care to a family member; roughly two thirds are women providing care to aging mothers. Despite the protective nature of relationship quality, little attention has been given to its role in mother-daughter care dyads, particularly in mothers without cognitive impairment. A systematic appraisal of peer-reviewed, English language research was conducted. Nineteen articles met criteria. When relationship quality is positive, mother-daughter dyads enjoy rewards and mutuality, even when conflict occurs. Daughters grow more emotionally committed to mothers' over the care trajectory, despite increasing demands. Daughters' commitment deepens as mothers physically decline, and mothers remain engaged, emotional partners. When relationship quality is ambivalent or negative, burden, conflict, and blame conspire, creating a destructive cycle. Avenues for continuing study, including utilizing the dyad as the unit of analysis, troubled dyads, longitudinal assessment, and end of life context, are needed before interventions to improve mother-daughter relationship quality may be successfully implemented.

  15. The Relationship between Vocabulary and Writing Quality in Three Genres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Wilson, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of vocabulary in writing across three genres. Fifth graders (N = 105) wrote three compositions: story, persuasive, and informative. Each composition revolved around the topic of outer space to control for background knowledge. Written compositions were scored for holistic writing quality and…

  16. Parent-Child Relationships and Quality of Children's Episodic Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priddis, Lynn E.; Howieson, Noel D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the ability of five- to six-year-old children to remember past experiences. A set of stimuli cards modelled on adaptations of the Separation Anxiety Test was generated. Interview transcripts are scored for the child's ability to recall past experience in episodic form. The quality of episodic recall is compared with attachment…

  17. The Effective Early Learning Project: The Quality of Adult Engagement in Early Childhood Settings in the UK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascal, Christine; Bertram, Tony

    Based on the view that the quality of adult educative interactions with young children is critical in determining the effectiveness of educational provision and in improving early childhood settings, this paper examines the quality of adult engagement experienced by 3- and 4-year-olds in 9 types of early education and care settings from the…

  18. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report versus Maternal Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 25-55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that…

  19. Adaptive behavior among adults with intellectual disabilities and its relationship to community independence.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Steve; Woolf, Christine Merman; Oakland, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    This study examined relationships between general adaptive behavior and the degree of community independence displayed by 272 adults with intellectual disabilities. Specifically, the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System--Second Edition (ABAS-II; Harrison & Oakland, 2003 ) was completed for each participant and compared with actual levels of work and residential independence. The participants' adaptive behavior accounted for 40%-43% of the variance in their work and residence independence. The results from this field-based study indicated that participants who displayed higher levels of adaptive behavior generally worked and lived more independently. Participants with the lowest general adaptive behavior required the highest degree of community supports. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. The Relationship between Stress and Social Functioning in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder and without Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Eack, Shaun M.

    2014-01-01

    Scientific Abstract Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face substantial challenges accomplishing basic tasks associated with daily living, which are exacerbated by their broad and pervasive difficulties with social interactions. These challenges put people with ASD at increased risk for psychophysiological distress, which likely factors heavily into social functioning for adults with ASD, as suggested by a growing literature on stress in children that indicates that children with ASD have differential responses to stress than healthy children. We hypothesized that adults with ASD and without intellectual disability (n=38) would experience more stress than healthy volunteers (n=37) and that there would be an inverse relationship between stress and social functioning in individuals with ASD. Baseline, semi-structured interview data from a randomized-controlled trial of two treatments for adults with ASD were used to assess differences in stress between adults with ASD and healthy volunteers and to assess the relationship between stress response and social functioning in adults with ASD. Findings indicate that adults with ASD experience greater perceived and interviewer-observed stress than did healthy volunteers and that stress is significantly related to social functioning in adults with ASD. These findings highlight the role of stress in adult functioning and outcomes and suggest the need to develop and assess treatments designed to target stress and coping in adults with ASD. PMID:25524571

  1. Sliding versus Deciding in Relationships: Associations with Relationship Quality, Commitment, and Infidelity

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Jesse; Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    From choosing a partner to date to deciding to cohabit or marry, individuals are faced with many relationship choices. Given the costs of failed relationships (e.g., personal distress, problems with work, lower well-being for children, lost opportunities to meet other partners), it is important consider how individuals are approaching these decisions. The current study tested if more thoughtful and clear relationship decision-making processes would relate to individuals’ levels of satisfaction with and dedication to their partners as well as their extra-dyadic involvements. In a sample of 252 men and women, the results showed that regardless of relationship status (i.e., dating, cohabiting, or married), those who reported more thoughtful decision-making processes also reported more dedication to their partners, higher satisfaction with the relationship, and fewer extra-dyadic involvements. PMID:23690736

  2. Quality in Family Child Care Settings: The Relationship between Provider Educational Experiences and Global Quality Scores in a Statewide Quality Rating and Improvement System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Rena A.; Bargreen, Kaitlin N.; Ridgley, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    This study is a secondary analysis of a statewide sample of licensed family child care providers in the Tennessee Child Care Evaluation and Report Card Program ("N"?=?1,145) that describes the general quality of family child care programs in the state and examines the relationships between provider education and global quality. Study…

  3. The relationship between the speech perception and the degree of satisfaction among adult users of cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Granço, Fernanda Soares; Fernandes, Nayara Freitas; Morettin, Marina; Filho, Orozimbo Alves Costa; Bevilacqua, Maria Cecília

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: In recent years, the benefits associated with the use of cochlear implants (CIs), especially with regard to speech perception, have proven to surpass those produced by the use of hearing aids, making CIs a highly efficient resource for patients with severe/profound hearing loss. However, few studies so far have assessed the satisfaction of adult users of CIs. Objective: To analyze the relationship between the level of speech perception and degree of satisfaction of adult users of CI. Method: This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted in the Audiological Research Center (CPA) of the Hospital of Craniofacial Anomalies, University of São Paulo (HRAC/USP), in Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 12 users of CIs with pre-lingual or post-lingual hearing loss participated in this study. The following tools were used in the assessment: a questionnaire, “Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life” (SADL), culturally adapted to Brazilian Portuguese, as well as its relationship with the speech perception results; a speech perception test under quiet conditions; and the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT)Brazil under free field conditions. Results: The participants in the study were on the whole satisfied with their devices, and the degree of satisfaction correlated positively with the ability to perceive monosyllabic words under quiet conditions. The satisfaction did not correlate with the level of speech perception in noisy environments. Conclusion: Assessments of satisfaction may help professionals to predict what other factors, in addition to speech perception, may contribute to the satisfaction of CI users in order to reorganize the intervention process to improve the users' quality of life. PMID:25992014

  4. Adult Sexual Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse Vary According to Relationship Status.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Sabourin, Stéphane; Briere, John; Lussier, Yvan; Runtz, Marsha

    2016-04-01

    This study tested a moderation model in which the association between child sexual abuse severity and negative sexual outcomes (i.e., sexual avoidance and compulsivity) differed as a function of relationships status (i.e., single, cohabiting, and married individuals). A sample of 1,033 adults completed self-report questionnaires online, and 21.5% reported childhood sexual abuse. Path analyses indicated that child sexual abuse severity was associated with higher sexual compulsivity in single individuals, both higher sexual avoidance and compulsivity in cohabiting individuals, and higher sexual avoidance in married individuals. The moderation model was invariant across men and women. These results suggest that the time course of negative sexual outcomes associated with child sexual abuse may follow distinct patterns of expression according to relationship status. PMID:26804731

  5. Unresolved loss in the Adult Attachment Interview: implications for marital and parenting relationships.

    PubMed

    Busch, Amy L; Cowan, Philip A; Cowan, Carolyn P

    2008-01-01

    This study examined links between the unresolved loss of a significant person and current functioning in marital and parenting relationships. Participants were 80 women who had experienced loss, their husbands, and their preschool children. Unresolved loss was assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview, and individual, marital, and parenting adaptation was assessed through videotaped observations and women's self-reports. As predicted, women with unresolved loss displayed less positive emotion and more anxiety and anger with both their husbands and children, compared to women who were not unresolved. They also displayed less authoritative and more authoritarian parenting styles with their children. Yet unresolved women did not report more individual or relationship difficulties, suggesting that direct observations are needed to assess the implications of unresolved loss for family functioning.

  6. Construct Validity of the Relationship Profile Test: Links with measures of psychopathology and adult attachment

    PubMed Central

    Haggerty, Greg; Bornstein, Robert F.; Khalid, Mohammad; Sharma, Vishal; Riaz, Usman; Blanchard, Mark; Siefert, Caleb J; Sinclair, Samuel J.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the construct validity of the Relationship Profile Test (RPT; Bornstein & Languirand, 2003) with a substance abuse sample. One hundred-eight substance abuse patients completed the RPT, Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR-SF; Wei, Russell, Mallinckrodt, & Vogel, 2007), Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991), and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R: Derogatis 1983). Results suggest that the RPT has good construct validity when compared against theoretically related broadband measures of personality, psychopathology and adult attachment. Overall, health hependency was negatively related to measures of psychopathology and insecure attachment, and overdependence was positively related to measures of psychopathology and attachment anxiety. Many of the predictions regarding RPT detachment and the criterion measures were not supported. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26620463

  7. Dental pain related to quality of life and mental health in South Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sung-Eun; Park, Yong-Gyu; Han, Kyungdo; Min, Jung-Ah; Kim, Sin-Young

    2016-12-01

    High levels of stress, anxiety and depression have been reported in patients with orofacial pain. Dental pain has the potential to reduce quality of life (QOL), and pain relief is important aspect of QOL. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships of dental pain with QOL and mental health using a nationally representative, population-based study. This study analyzed data from the 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N = 5469). Oral health status was assessed using the oral health questionnaire, and oral examination was performed by trained dentists. Health-related QOL (HRQOL) was evaluated using EQ-5D and EQ-VAS, and mental health was evaluated by questionnaires. Logistic regression was applied to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Among 5469 adults, 1992 (36.42%) presented self-reported dental pain. Participants with anxiety/depression or pain/discomfort, and participants with stress, melancholy, suicidal thought or depression showed significantly higher prevalence of dental pain. After adjusting for covariates, five aspects of QOL and five aspects of mental health were related with dental pain. The AORs (95% CI) for dental pain were 1.39 (1.06-1.81) for mobility, 1.77 (1.19-2.63) for self-care, 1.38 (1.02-1.85) for usual activities, 1.73 (1.43-2.09) for pain/discomfort and 1.50 (1.13-1.98) for anxiety/depression. For mental health status factors, the AORs (95% CI) for dental pain were 1.29 (1.11-1.51) for stress, 1.37 (1.09-1.74) for melancholy, 1.26 (1.01-1.58) for suicidal thoughts, 1.43 (.93-2.19) for consultation to psychiatrist and 1.53 (1.07-2.19) for depression. This study showed that dental pain has an association with lower HRQOL and worse mental health status in South Korean adults.

  8. Relationships among food label use, motivation, and dietary quality.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lisa M Soederberg; Cassady, Diana L; Applegate, Elizabeth A; Beckett, Laurel A; Wilson, Machelle D; Gibson, Tanja N; Ellwood, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition information on packaged foods supplies information that aids consumers in meeting the recommendations put forth in the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans such as reducing intake of solid fats and added sugars. It is important to understand how food label use is related to dietary intake. However, prior work is based only on self-reported use of food labels, making it unclear if subjective assessments are biased toward motivational influences. We assessed food label use using both self-reported and objective measures, the stage of change, and dietary quality in a sample of 392 stratified by income. Self-reported food label use was assessed using a questionnaire. Objective use was assessed using a mock shopping task in which participants viewed food labels and decided which foods to purchase. Eye movements were monitored to assess attention to nutrition information on the food labels. Individuals paid attention to nutrition information when selecting foods to buy. Self-reported and objective measures of label use showed some overlap with each other (r=0.29, p<0.001), and both predicted dietary quality (p<0.001 for both). The stage of change diminished the predictive power of subjective (p<0.09), but not objective (p<0.01), food label use. These data show both self-reported and objective measures of food label use are positively associated with dietary quality. However, self-reported measures appear to capture a greater motivational component of food label use than do more objective measures.

  9. Perceived and Observed Maternal Relationship Quality Predict Sexual Debut by Age 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Myeshia N.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2011-01-01

    Early sexual behaviors during adolescence have the potential to lead to unhealthy outcomes. This study explored the association between specific dimensions of maternal relationship quality and adolescent sexual debut by age 15. We hypothesized that adolescents who have poor maternal relationships are at greater risk of early sexual debut than…

  10. Affairs of the Heart: Qualities of Adolescent Romantic Relationships and Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2010-01-01

    We know more about parent and peer influences than about the ways in which specific qualities of adolescent romantic relationships may influence sexual decision-making. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, we focus on communication processes and emotional feelings, as well as more basic contours of adolescent romantic…

  11. Parents' Experiences of Discrimination and Family Relationship Qualities: The Role of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riina, Elizabeth M.; McHale, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Mothers and fathers in 156 African American families reported on racial discrimination experiences, gendered traits, and warmth and conflict in family relationships. Discrimination was linked with relationship quality, but links differed for mothers and fathers. More expressive parents and less instrumental fathers had more positive relationships…

  12. Attention-Deficit/Hperactivity Disorder Symptom Levels and Romantic Relationship Quality in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruner, Michael R.; Kuryluk, Amanda D.; Whitton, Sarah W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom levels in college undergraduates are associated with poorer romantic relationship quality, and to test whether emotion regulation difficulties, perceived stress, and hostile relationship conflict mediate this association.…

  13. Disappointment with God and Well-Being: The Mediating Influence of Relationship Quality and Dispositional Forgiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strelan, Peter; Acton, Collin; Patrick, Kent

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which disappointment with God influenced the psychological and spiritual well-being of 160 churchgoers, and the potential mediating influences of relationship quality (spiritual maturity and relationship commitment) and dispositional forgiveness. Disappointment with God was positively related to depression and…

  14. The Role of Peer Group Aggression in Predicting Adolescent Dating Violence and Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Wendy E.; Chung-Hall, Janet; Dumas, Tara M.

    2013-01-01

    Past research has shown that adolescent peer groups make a significant contribution to shaping behavior but less is known about the role of peer groups in adolescent dating relationships. This longitudinal study examined the contribution of aggressive peer group norms on relationship quality and dating violence among dating adolescents. At the…

  15. Perceived Conflict Patterns and Relationship Quality Associated with Verbal Sexual Coercion by Male Dating Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Jennifer; Myhr, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The study of verbal sexual coercion in heterosexual relationships is controversial because nonphysical coercive tactics are often viewed as socially acceptable. It was hypothesized that, within couples, verbal sexual coercion will occur within a larger context of destructive conflict tactics and diminished relationship quality. Female…

  16. Sibling Relationship Quality and Social Functioning of Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Frank J.; Purcell, Susan E.; Richardson, Shana S.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.

    2009-01-01

    We examined sibling relationships for children and adolescents with intellectual disability and assessed implications for their social functioning. Targets (total N = 212) had either intellectual disability, a chronic illness/physical disability, or no disability. Nontarget siblings reported on relationship quality, sibling interactions were…

  17. Internalized Homophobia and Relationship Quality among Lesbians, Gay Men, and Bisexuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, David M.; Meyer, Ilan H.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the associations between internalized homophobia, outness, community connectedness, depressive symptoms, and relationship quality among a diverse community sample of 396 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals. Structural equation models showed that internalized homophobia was associated with greater relationship problems…

  18. The Effects of Childhood Abuse on Relationship Quality: Gender Differences and Clinical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Carly D.; Sandberg, Jonathan G.; Harper, James M.; Bean, Roy

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-reported childhood physical and sexual abuse, romantic relationship quality, possible gender differences, and clinical implications. Three hundred thirty-eight women and 296 men who sought services at a university mental health clinic in the northeast region of the United States completed a…

  19. The Role of Relationships between Adults and Their Canine Companions: The Impact on Personal Growth and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Lorie Renee

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study used narrative analysis to explore the role of relationships between adults and their canine companions and the role of this relationship in personal growth and well-being. The theoretical frameworks to inform the study consisted of attachment theory and a blend of relational theory and connected knowing. The study focused…

  20. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners.

  1. Cardiorespiratory fitness modifies the relationship between myocardial function and cerebral blood flow in older adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nathan F; Gold, Brian T; Bailey, Alison L; Clasey, Jody L; Hakun, Jonathan G; White, Matthew; Long, Doug E; Powell, David K

    2016-05-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that cardiorespiratory fitness attenuates some age-related cerebral declines. However, little is known about the role that myocardial function plays in this relationship. Brain regions with high resting metabolic rates, such as the default mode network (DMN), may be especially vulnerable to age-related declines in myocardial functions affecting cerebral blood flow (CBF). This study explored the relationship between a measure of myocardial mechanics, global longitudinal strain (GLS), and CBF to the DMN. In addition, we explored how cardiorespiratory affects this relationship. Participants were 30 older adults between the ages of 59 and 69 (mean age=63.73years, SD=2.8). Results indicated that superior cardiorespiratory fitness and myocardial mechanics were positively associated with DMN CBF. Moreover, results of a mediation analysis revealed that the relationship between GLS and DMN CBF was accounted for by individual differences in fitness. Findings suggest that benefits of healthy heart function to brain function are modified by fitness.

  2. Cardiorespiratory fitness modifies the relationship between myocardial function and cerebral blood flow in older adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nathan F; Gold, Brian T; Bailey, Alison L; Clasey, Jody L; Hakun, Jonathan G; White, Matthew; Long, Doug E; Powell, David K

    2016-05-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that cardiorespiratory fitness attenuates some age-related cerebral declines. However, little is known about the role that myocardial function plays in this relationship. Brain regions with high resting metabolic rates, such as the default mode network (DMN), may be especially vulnerable to age-related declines in myocardial functions affecting cerebral blood flow (CBF). This study explored the relationship between a measure of myocardial mechanics, global longitudinal strain (GLS), and CBF to the DMN. In addition, we explored how cardiorespiratory affects this relationship. Participants were 30 older adults between the ages of 59 and 69 (mean age=63.73years, SD=2.8). Results indicated that superior cardiorespiratory fitness and myocardial mechanics were positively associated with DMN CBF. Moreover, results of a mediation analysis revealed that the relationship between GLS and DMN CBF was accounted for by individual differences in fitness. Findings suggest that benefits of healthy heart function to brain function are modified by fitness. PMID:26032886

  3. Investigating the Relationship between the Quality of Education and Level of Educational Attainment in Turkish Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumus, Sedat

    2012-01-01

    Research in comparative and international education indicates that the quality of education, as measured by standardized tests, and the level of educational attainment have a significant impact on individual earning and national economic growth. However, the relationship between the quality of education and the level of educational attainment has…

  4. Relationship of Fiber Properties to Vortex Yarn Quality via Partial Least Squares

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) of the USDA-ARS, recently completed a comprehensive study of the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. The five year study, began in 2001, utilized commercial variety cotton grown, harvested and ginned in each of three major ...

  5. Predicting Sibling Relations over Time: Synchrony between Maternal Management Styles and Sibling Relationship Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Nina; Aquan-Assee, Jasmin; Bukowski, William M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether maternal behavior at Time 1 would be associated with sibling interaction at Time 2, and whether the quality of sibling interactions would be associated. Found that both mothers and children influenced the quality of sibling relationships over time. (SD)

  6. On the Relationship between Students' Perceptions of Teaching Quality, Methods of Assessment, and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smimou, Kamal; Dahl, Darren W.

    2012-01-01

    Although the relationship between students' perceptions of quality of teaching and student satisfaction may seem self-evident, the interaction between these concepts and related methods of assessment is rarely examined. The findings reveal that the perceived teaching quality categorization emerges as a concept with multiple facets centered on…

  7. Parenting Behavior, Quality of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship, and Adolescent Functioning in Four Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    The cross-ethnic similarity in the pattern of associations among parenting behavior (support and authoritative and restrictive control), the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship (disclosure and positive and negative quality), and several developmental outcomes (aggressive behavior, delinquent behavior, and global self-esteem) was tested.…

  8. Relationship between Parents and Peer Influences on Qualities of Adolescent Friendship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiunu, Jude J.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between parents and peer influences on the qualities of adolescent friendship. Relevant literature in the field of adolescent friendship qualities and parental interaction were investigated. The problem of the study is the increasing incidences of emotional, imbalance among young people that manifest in…

  9. Analysis of Customer Loyalty through Total Quality Service, Customer Relationship Management and Customer Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binsar Kristian P., Feliks Anggia; Panjaitan, Hotman

    2014-01-01

    This research talks about total quality service and customer relationship management effects toward customer satisfaction and its impact on customer loyalty. Fast food restaurant KFC, always strives to continue to make improvements in total quality service, so that customer satisfaction can be maintained, which in turn will have an impact on…

  10. Quality indicators for family support services and their relationship to organizational social context.

    PubMed

    Olin, S Serene; Williams, Nate; Pollock, Michele; Armusewicz, Kelsey; Kutash, Krista; Glisson, Charles; Hoagwood, Kimberly E

    2014-01-01

    Quality measurement is an important component of healthcare reform. The relationship of quality indicators (QIs) for parent-delivered family support services to organizational social contexts known to improve quality is unexamined. This study employs data collected from 21 child mental health programs that deliver team-based family support services. Performance on two levels of QIs-those targeting the program and staff-were significantly associated with organizational social context profiles and dimensions. High quality program policies are associated with positive organizational cultures and engaging climates. Inappropriate staff practices are associated with resistant cultures. Implications for organizational strategies to improve service quality are discussed. PMID:23709286

  11. Quality indicators for family support services and their relationship to organizational social context.

    PubMed

    Olin, S Serene; Williams, Nate; Pollock, Michele; Armusewicz, Kelsey; Kutash, Krista; Glisson, Charles; Hoagwood, Kimberly E

    2014-01-01

    Quality measurement is an important component of healthcare reform. The relationship of quality indicators (QIs) for parent-delivered family support services to organizational social contexts known to improve quality is unexamined. This study employs data collected from 21 child mental health programs that deliver team-based family support services. Performance on two levels of QIs-those targeting the program and staff-were significantly associated with organizational social context profiles and dimensions. High quality program policies are associated with positive organizational cultures and engaging climates. Inappropriate staff practices are associated with resistant cultures. Implications for organizational strategies to improve service quality are discussed.

  12. Measuring functional service quality using SERVQUAL in a high-dependence health service relationship.

    PubMed

    Clark, W Randy; Clark, Leigh Anne

    2007-01-01

    Although there is a growing concern about health care quality, little research has focused on how to measure quality in long-term care settings. In this article, we make the following observations: (1) most users of the SERVQUAL instrument reassess customers' expectations each time they measure quality perceptions; (2) long-term care relationships are likely to be ongoing, dependent relationships; (3) because of this dependence, customers in the long-term care setting are likely to reduce their expectations when faced with poor service quality; (4) by using this "settled" expectations level, service providers may make biased conclusions of quality improvements. We recommend various methods for overcoming or minimizing this "settling" effect and propose modifications to the SERVQUAL gap 5 measure to assess quality in a long-term care setting. PMID:17992104

  13. Habit as moderator of the intention-physical activity relationship in older adults: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    van Bree, Rob J H; van Stralen, Maartje M; Bolman, Catherine; Mudde, Aart N; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether habit strength moderates the intention-physical activity (PA) relationship in older adults, within the framework of the attitude-social influences-efficacy (ASE) model and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). A total of 1836 older adults (Mage = 62.95 years, SDage = 8.17) completed a questionnaire on social cognitive constructs and PA habit strength at baseline, and six months later a measure of PA. Three PA habit groups (i.e., low, medium and high) were composed, based on tertiles of the mean index score. Multi-group structural equation modelling analyses showed that intention significantly determined PA behaviour only in participants with a low or medium habit strength towards PA. This result suggests that PA is not intentional at high levels of habit strength and demonstrates the usefulness of incorporating habit in the ASE and TPB models. Results also showed that about half of the participants with a strong PA habit did not meet the recommended PA level. As strong habits may prevent intentional behavioural change and may hinder the receptiveness and openness for informational PA change strategies, additional intervention strategies, such as awareness raising and the use of implementation intentions, are needed for strongly habitual, but insufficiently active older adults. PMID:23244776

  14. Functional Impairment, Illness Burden, and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults: Does Type of Social Relationship Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Hatfield, Joshua P.; Hirsch, Jameson K.; Lyness, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The nature of interpersonal relationships, whether supportive or critical, may affect the association between health status and mental health outcomes. We examined the potential moderating effects of social support, as a buffer, and family criticism, as an exacerbating factor, on the association between illness burden, functional impairment and depressive symptoms. Methods Our sample of 735 older adults, aged 65 and older, was recruited from internal and family medicine primary care offices. Trained interviewers administered the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Duke Social Support Inventory, and Family Emotional Involvement and Criticism Scale. Physician-rated assessments of health, including the Karnofsky Performance Status Scale and Cumulative Illness Rating Scale were also completed. Results Linear multivariable hierarchical regression results indicate that social interaction was a significant buffer, weakening the association between illness burden and depressive symptoms, whereas perceived social support buffered the relationship between functional impairment and depressive symptoms. Family criticism and instrumental social support were not significant moderators. Conclusions Type of medical dysfunction, whether illness or impairment, may require different therapeutic and supportive approaches. Enhancement of perceived social support, for those who are impaired, and encouragement of social interactions, for those who are ill, may be important intervention targets for treatment of depressive symptoms in older adult primary care patients. PMID:22495689

  15. Relationships between Gene Expression and Brain Wiring in the Adult Rodent Brain

    PubMed Central

    French, Leon; Pavlidis, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We studied the global relationship between gene expression and neuroanatomical connectivity in the adult rodent brain. We utilized a large data set of the rat brain “connectome” from the Brain Architecture Management System (942 brain regions and over 5000 connections) and used statistical approaches to relate the data to the gene expression signatures of 17,530 genes in 142 anatomical regions from the Allen Brain Atlas. Our analysis shows that adult gene expression signatures have a statistically significant relationship to connectivity. In particular, brain regions that have similar expression profiles tend to have similar connectivity profiles, and this effect is not entirely attributable to spatial correlations. In addition, brain regions which are connected have more similar expression patterns. Using a simple optimization approach, we identified a set of genes most correlated with neuroanatomical connectivity, and find that this set is enriched for genes involved in neuronal development and axon guidance. A number of the genes have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autistic spectrum disorder. Our results have the potential to shed light on the role of gene expression patterns in influencing neuronal activity and connectivity, with potential applications to our understanding of brain disorders. Supplementary data are available at http://www.chibi.ubc.ca/ABAMS. PMID:21253556

  16. Oral health-related quality of life in Swedish young adults

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Gunvi; Östberg, Anna-Lena

    2015-01-01

    The living conditions of young adults in Sweden have changed during the last decades due to the economic and employment situation in society. Although oral health is mainly considered to be good in this age group, their use of dental care has decreased and their priorities and opportunities regarding oral health are little known. The purpose of this study was to describe the views of Swedish young adults on their oral health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). The design of the study was qualitative, using content analysis. Sixteen young adults, aged 21–29 years, were interviewed. The findings from the interviews were summarized under the theme “Young adults reflected on their OHRQoL in a time perspective” consisting of three categories: “Past experiences, Present situation, and Future prospects.” The OHRQoL of young adults is dependent not only on their own experiences of oral health during childhood and their received dental care but also on their present self-perceived oral health, oral health habits, and social life; together with their expectations of future oral health. The findings in this study indicate that the oral health awareness and needs of young adults, as well as their expectations of oral care, merit further follow-up. PMID:26066517

  17. Influence of Occupational Status on the Quality of Life of Chinese Adult Patients with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiang-Min; Ding, Cheng-Yun; Wang, Ning; Xu, Cheng-Feng; Chen, Ze-Jie; Wang, Qin; Yao, Qin; Wang, Fu-Li

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological disorders. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of occupational status on the quality of life of Chinese adult patients with epilepsy. Methods: This study surveyed 819 subjects clinically diagnosed with epilepsy for more than 1 year in 11 hospitals in Beijing; 586 were employed (71.55%). All subjects completed the case report form with inquiries on demographic data, social factors, and illness. The patients’ quality of life was assessed using the quality of life in patients with epilepsy-31 items (QOLIE-31) questionnaire. Results: The QOLIE-31 score in the employed group was significantly higher than that in the unemployed group. Furthermore, the scores in all the sections (overall quality of life, energy/fatigue, emotional well-being, seizure worry, cognition, social function, and medication effects) of the employed group were higher than those of the unemployed group. Both the employed and unemployed groups achieved the highest difference in social function. The QOLIE-31 score of students was higher than those of farmers and workers. Both the students and workers scored higher in the quality of life compared with the adult peasants living with epilepsy. The students and farmers showed significant differences in QOLIE-31 score, cognition, emotional well-being, overall quality of life, energy/fatigue, and social function. In contrast, no significant difference was noted in seizure worry and medication effects across the three different kinds of occupation. Conclusion: Occupational status might affect the quality of life of Chinese adult patients with epilepsy, and social function is the most important contributing factor. PMID:27231164

  18. Relationships among Food Label Use, Motivation, and Dietary Quality

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Lisa M. Soederberg; Cassady, Diana L.; Applegate, Elizabeth A.; Beckett, Laurel A.; Wilson, Machelle D.; Gibson, Tanja N.; Ellwood, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition information on packaged foods supplies information that aids consumers in meeting the recommendations put forth in the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans such as reducing intake of solid fats and added sugars. It is important to understand how food label use is related to dietary intake. However, prior work is based only on self-reported use of food labels, making it unclear if subjective assessments are biased toward motivational influences. We assessed food label use using both self-reported and objective measures, the stage of change, and dietary quality in a sample of 392 stratified by income. Self-reported food label use was assessed using a questionnaire. Objective use was assessed using a mock shopping task in which participants viewed food labels and decided which foods to purchase. Eye movements were monitored to assess attention to nutrition information on the food labels. Individuals paid attention to nutrition information when selecting foods to buy. Self-reported and objective measures of label use showed some overlap with each other (r = 0.29, p < 0.001), and both predicted dietary quality (p < 0.001 for both). The stage of change diminished the predictive power of subjective (p < 0.09), but not objective (p < 0.01), food label use. These data show both self-reported and objective measures of food label use are positively associated with dietary quality. However, self-reported measures appear to capture a greater motivational component of food label use than do more objective measures. PMID:25665157

  19. Relationships among food label use, motivation, and dietary quality.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lisa M Soederberg; Cassady, Diana L; Applegate, Elizabeth A; Beckett, Laurel A; Wilson, Machelle D; Gibson, Tanja N; Ellwood, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition information on packaged foods supplies information that aids consumers in meeting the recommendations put forth in the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans such as reducing intake of solid fats and added sugars. It is important to understand how food label use is related to dietary intake. However, prior work is based only on self-reported use of food labels, making it unclear if subjective assessments are biased toward motivational influences. We assessed food label use using both self-reported and objective measures, the stage of change, and dietary quality in a sample of 392 stratified by income. Self-reported food label use was assessed using a questionnaire. Objective use was assessed using a mock shopping task in which participants viewed food labels and decided which foods to purchase. Eye movements were monitored to assess attention to nutrition information on the food labels. Individuals paid attention to nutrition information when selecting foods to buy. Self-reported and objective measures of label use showed some overlap with each other (r=0.29, p<0.001), and both predicted dietary quality (p<0.001 for both). The stage of change diminished the predictive power of subjective (p<0.09), but not objective (p<0.01), food label use. These data show both self-reported and objective measures of food label use are positively associated with dietary quality. However, self-reported measures appear to capture a greater motivational component of food label use than do more objective measures. PMID:25665157

  20. Abdominal muscle strength is related to the quality of life among older adults with lumbar osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Suenimeire; Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; Brandino, Hugo Evangelista; Ferreira, Vânia Tie Koga; Scheicher, Marcos Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the association between abdominal muscle strength and quality of life among older adults with lumbar osteoarthritis. A blind, cross-sectional study was conducted involving 40 older adults: 20 with lumbar osteoarthritis (12 women and 8 men, mean age of 65.90 ± 4.80 years) and 20 controls (14 women and 6 men, mean age of 67.90 ± 4.60 years). The volunteers were submitted to an abdominal muscle strength test. Quality of life was evaluated using the SF-36 questionnaire. Both abdominal muscle strength and quality of life scores were significantly lower in the group with lumbar osteoarthritis in comparison to the controls (p < 0.05). Moreover, significant and positive associations were found between abdominal muscle strength and the subscales of the SF-36 questionnaire (p < 0.05, 0.421 ≥ rs ≤ 0.694). Based on the present findings, older adults with lumbar osteoarthritis with greater abdominal muscle strength have a better quality of life.

  1. Measuring service quality and its relationship to future consumer behavior.

    PubMed

    Headley, D E; Miller, S J

    1993-01-01

    The authors adapt the SERVQUAL scale for medical care services and examine it for reliability, dimensionality, and validity in a primary care clinic setting. In addition, they explore the possibility of a link between perceived service quality--and its various dimensions--and a patient's future intent to complain, compliment, repeat purchase, and switch providers. Findings from 159 matched-pair responses indicate that the SERVQUAL scale can be adapted reliably to a clinic setting and that the dimensions of reliability, dependability, and empathy are most predictive of a patient's intent to complain, compliment, repeat purchase, and switch providers.

  2. Measuring service quality and its relationship to future consumer behavior.

    PubMed

    Headley, D E; Miller, S J

    1993-01-01

    The authors adapt the SERVQUAL scale for medical care services and examine it for reliability, dimensionality, and validity in a primary care clinic setting. In addition, they explore the possibility of a link between perceived service quality--and its various dimensions--and a patient's future intent to complain, compliment, repeat purchase, and switch providers. Findings from 159 matched-pair responses indicate that the SERVQUAL scale can be adapted reliably to a clinic setting and that the dimensions of reliability, dependability, and empathy are most predictive of a patient's intent to complain, compliment, repeat purchase, and switch providers. PMID:10131732

  3. Restless Legs Syndrome, Sleep, and Quality of Life among Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Graciela E.; Goodwin, James L.; Vana, Kimberly D.; Vasquez, Monica M.; Wilcox, Peter G.; Quan, Stuart F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Clinical reports in children implicate restless legs syndrome (RLS) with sleep and behavior problems. However, population-based studies on this association in adolescents and young adults are limited. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated the association between symptoms consistent with RLS and quality of life (QoL). Study Design: This cross-sectional study included 214 Caucasian and Hispanic adolescents and young adults aged 12-20 years. Symptoms consistent with RLS were based on four essential criteria and if the symptoms occurred ≥ 5 days/ month. Trouble falling asleep was present if reported “yes, still have the problem.” Quality of life (QoL) was assessed using the Pediatric QoL Inventory. Three summary QoL scores ranging from 0-100 were evaluated; higher scores indicated better QoL. Results: Participants were 50% male and 68.1% Caucasian. Prevalence of RLS was 8.4% (n = 18). RLS was associated with trouble falling asleep (OR = 3.1, p = 0.049), and trouble falling asleep was associated with worse Psychosocial Health scores (Coeff. −5.6, p = 0.004) and Total Scale scores for quality of life (Coeff. −4.6, p = 0.007). Conclusions: The prevalence of symptoms consistent with RLS in this community-based sample of adolescents and young adults, aged 12-20, is comparable to rates reported in older cohorts. Symptoms consistent with RLS may be associated with trouble falling asleep and psychosocial distress that may contribute to a lower health-related quality of life. Citation: Silva GE, Goodwin JL, Vana KD, Vasquez MM, Wilcox PG, Quan SF. Restless legs syndrome, sleep, and quality of life among adolescents and young adults. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):779-786. PMID:25024656

  4. Adult Sickle Cell Quality-of-Life Measurement Information System (ASCQ-Me)

    PubMed Central

    Treadwell, Marsha J.; Hassell, Kathryn; Levine, Roger; Keller, San

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research-derived evidence about the impact of sickle cell disease (SCD) on the lives of affected adults is lacking. We conducted formative research to provide the basis for a comprehensive description of how SCD affects the lives of adults, with the goal of developing a SCD-specific quality-of-life measurement system. Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature review of patient-reported outcomes, followed by a series of focus groups and structured individual interviews with adults with SCD (n = 122) and their health care providers (n = 15). Results We reviewed 473 abstracts and included 86 articles in the final review. The literature revealed broad categories of the impact of SCD and its treatment on the lives of adults—pain; emotional distress; social-role functioning; overall quality-of-life; and quality of care. We classified 1213 incidents from the focus groups and interviews into a taxonomy (16 domains) that met the criterion for saturation and was demonstrated to be reliable for the classification of incidents. The final conceptual model was built upon the taxonomy. Discussion Our conceptual model was similar to previous models with the effects of pain predominating, interwoven with emotional distress, quality of care, and stigmatization. We found a broad range of emotions reflected, including positive effects of SCD. Items for the quality-of-life measure were derived from the taxonomy and the conceptual model may be of use in generating hypotheses for clinical research and improving understanding for clinicians of the lived experience of adults with SCD. PMID:24300219

  5. Relationships among Taste Qualities Assessed with Response-Context Effects

    PubMed Central

    Breslin, Paul A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Psychophysical judgments often depend on stimulus context. For example, sugar solutions are judged sweeter when a tasteless fruity aroma has been added. Response context also matters; adding a fruity aroma to sugar increases the rated sweetness when only sweetness is considered but not when fruitiness is judged as well. The interaction between stimulus context and response context has been explored more extensively in taste–odor mixtures than in taste–taste mixtures. To address this issue, subjects in the current study rated the sourness of citric acid mixed with quinine (bitter), sodium chloride (salty), and cyclamate (sweet) (stimulus context). In one condition, subjects rated sourness alone. In another, subjects rated both sourness and the other salient quality (bitterness, saltiness, or sweetness) (response context). Sourness ratings were most sensitive to response context for sour–salty mixtures (i.e., ratings of sourness alone exceeded ratings of sourness made simultaneously with saltiness) and least sensitive to context for the sour–sweet mixtures (sourness ratings made under the 2 conditions were essentially identical). Response-context effects for the sour–bitter mixture were nominally intermediate. The magnitudes of these context effects were related to judgments of qualitative similarity between citric acid and the other stimuli, consistent with prior findings. These types of context effects are relevant to the study of taste–taste mixture interactions and should provide insight into the perceptual similarities among the taste qualities. PMID:21441368

  6. Social capital, socioeconomic status, and health-related quality of life among older adults in Bogotá (Colombia)

    PubMed Central

    Lucumi, Diana; Gomez, Luiz Fernando; Brownson, Ross C.; Parra, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between levels of cognitive social capital and health related quality of life (HRQOL). A multilevel, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2007 in Bogotá Colombia. A total of 1,907 older adults completed the Spanish version of the SF-8 in order to assess HRQOL. Cognitive dimension of social capital was assessed. Hierarchical linear regressions were conducted to determine the associations between social capital variables and HRQOL. Only 20% to 25% of the population reported trust in others and shared values. Ninety three percent reported that people in their neighborhood would try to take advantage of them if given a chance. Higher social capital indicators were positively associated with the mental and physical dimension of HRQOL. Results from this study support evidence on the disintegration of the Colombian society, which may be influenced by high levels of social inequality. PMID:25370712

  7. Quality of Spousal Relationship on Procurement of Abortion in Peri-Urban Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Abimbola; Fatusi, Adesegun O; Akinyemi, Akanni; Bello, Bamidele

    2015-12-01

    The quality of spousal relationship may influence the acceptance of the status of pregnancies and the decision to procure abortion; however, this relationship has largely been unexplored. The objective of this paper is to assess the influence of specific dimensions of relationship quality on abortion procurement. Data from the 2010 Family Health and Wealth Survey site were used to assess the association between relationship quality and induced abortion among 763 ever-pregnant married or cohabiting women in Ipetumodu, South-west Nigeria. Abortion question though not directly related to current time, however, it provides a proxy for the analysis in such context where abortion is highly restrictive with high possibility of underestimation. The association between relationship quality and abortion risk was analyzed using bivariate and multivariate (logistic regression) methods. Only 7.9% of women 15-49 years reported ever having induced abortion. Communication was the only dimension of relationship quality that showed significant association with history of induced abortion (aOR = 0.42; 95% C.I. = 0.24-0.77). The paper concludes that spousal communication is a significant issue that deserves high consideration in efforts to improve maternal health in Nigeria.

  8. Quality of Spousal Relationship on Procurement of Abortion in Peri-Urban Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Abimbola; Fatusi, Adesegun O; Akinyemi, Akanni; Bello, Bamidele

    2015-12-01

    The quality of spousal relationship may influence the acceptance of the status of pregnancies and the decision to procure abortion; however, this relationship has largely been unexplored. The objective of this paper is to assess the influence of specific dimensions of relationship quality on abortion procurement. Data from the 2010 Family Health and Wealth Survey site were used to assess the association between relationship quality and induced abortion among 763 ever-pregnant married or cohabiting women in Ipetumodu, South-west Nigeria. Abortion question though not directly related to current time, however, it provides a proxy for the analysis in such context where abortion is highly restrictive with high possibility of underestimation. The association between relationship quality and abortion risk was analyzed using bivariate and multivariate (logistic regression) methods. Only 7.9% of women 15-49 years reported ever having induced abortion. Communication was the only dimension of relationship quality that showed significant association with history of induced abortion (aOR = 0.42; 95% C.I. = 0.24-0.77). The paper concludes that spousal communication is a significant issue that deserves high consideration in efforts to improve maternal health in Nigeria. PMID:27337849

  9. Brief report: how adolescent personality moderates the effect of love history on the young adulthood romantic relationship quality?

    PubMed

    Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the effect of previous romantic relationship involvement on later romantic relationship quality and tested whether adolescents' personality type (i.e., overcontrollers, undercontrollers, resilients) moderated this link. We answered our research questions in a sample of 320 Dutch participants (213 girls) who had a romantic relationship when they were 21 years old. At 12 years of age, their personality types were identified. At 21 years of age, participants reported their current romantic relationship quality (i.e., commitment, exploration, and reconsideration) and indicated the number of romantic relationships they had before. No main effects of the number of romantic relationships on current romantic relationship quality were found. There were significant interaction effects between personality types and the number of romantic relationships on romantic relationship quality. With more romantic relationship experiences, undercontrollers committed less to and explored less in their current romantic relationship. No such link was found for resilients and overcontrollers.

  10. Perceived relationship quality in adolescents following early social-emotional deprivation.

    PubMed

    Hawk, Brandi N; McCall, Robert B

    2014-07-01

    Children who spend their early life in social-emotionally depriving institutions have limited opportunities to engage in relationships. This early experience has been associated with many problematic behavioral outcomes; however, researchers have not frequently examined relationship quality of post-institutional adoptees, nor have they examined aspects of the adoptive family that might moderate institutionalization effects. The purpose of this study was to examine the self-reported relationship quality of 10-17-year-old children adopted into the USA from Russian institutions and to determine whether sibling characteristics (relative age, gender composition, sibling adoption status) moderate institutionalization effects. Older age at adoption was related to poorer friendship and sibling, but not mother, relationship quality. Older siblings and same-sex siblings buffered children from this negative age-at-adoption association.

  11. Successful Aging Among LGBT Older Adults: Physical and Mental Health-Related Quality of Life by Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Shiu, Chengshi; Goldsen, Jayn; Emlet, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are a health disparate population as identified in Healthy People 2020. Yet, there has been limited attention to how LGBT older adults maintain successful aging despite the adversity they face. Utilizing a Resilience Framework, this study investigates the relationship between physical and mental health-related quality of life (QOL) and covariates by age group. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560) was conducted by Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging, and Sexuality Study via collaborations with 11 sites across the U.S. Linear regression analyses tested specified relationships and moderating effects of age groups (aged 50–64; 65–79; 80 and older). Results: Physical and mental health QOL were negatively associated with discrimination and chronic conditions and positively with social support, social network size, physical and leisure activities, substance nonuse, employment, income, and being male when controlling for age and other covariates. Mental health QOL was also positively associated with positive sense of sexual identity and negatively with sexual identity disclosure. Important differences by age group emerged and for the old–old age group the influence of discrimination was particularly salient. Implications: This is the first study to examine physical and mental health QOL, as an indicator of successful aging, among LGBT older adults. An understanding of the configuration of resources and risks by age group is important for the development of aging and health initiatives tailored for this growing population. PMID:25213483

  12. Nutrition label use partially mediates the relationship between attitude toward healthy eating and overall dietary quality among college students.

    PubMed

    Graham, Dan J; Laska, Melissa N

    2012-03-01

    Individuals who frequently read nutrition labels tend to both value healthy eating and engage in healthy dietary practices more than individuals who read labels infrequently. However, the relationship between label use, attitude toward healthy eating, and dietary quality remains unclear, particularly among young adults, about whom little is known with regard to nutrition label use. Our study investigated whether nutrition label use mediates the relationship between eating-related attitudes and dietary behaviors among young adult college students. Using cross-sectional online survey data collected in 2010 from a convenience sample in Minneapolis/St Paul, MN (598 attending a 2-year community college; 603 attending a public 4-year university; mean age 21.5 years; 53.4% nonwhite; 52.5% women), study findings indicate that students who reported frequently reading nutrition labels were more likely to have healthier dietary intakes (eg, less fast food and added sugar; more fiber, fruits, and vegetables) compared to those who read labels sometimes or rarely (P<0.001). Further, frequent nutrition label use was a significant partial mediator of the relationship between eating-related attitude (ie, feeling that it is important to prepare healthy meals) and dietary quality, indicating that label use may be one means by which individuals who value healthy eating translate their attitude into healthy eating behaviors. Even among those who did not believe it was important to prepare healthy meals, frequent nutrition label use was significantly associated with healthier dietary intake, suggesting that label use may operate independently of nutrition-related attitude in contributing to healthful diet. PMID:22896856

  13. Relationship between Serum Vitamin D Status and Metabolic Risk Factors among Korean Adults with Prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Han Na; Lim, Hyunjung

    2016-01-01

    Serum vitamin D status has been associated with prediabetes and metabolic syndrome. Evidence for the increased risk of metabolic disorders in individuals with prediabetes and a low vitamin D status is limited and uncertain. Furthermore, it has not been confirmed whether this possible relationship occurs in the Korean population. The aim of this study was to assess serum vitamin D status and to examine the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and metabolic risk factors in Korean adults with prediabetes. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 60 subjects aged 20–65 years. Participants had fasting glucose levels of 100 to 125 mg/dl. A questionnaire was used to assess vitamin D synthesis from sun exposure and a dietary intake examined using 3-days dietary records. Clinical and biochemical data were also collected. The 2009 harmonized definition of metabolic syndrome was used. Serum vitamin D levels were classified according to criteria from the 2011 Institute of Medicine report. The majority of subjects (75%) had a serum 25(OH)D level < 20 ng/ml, and among them, 31.1% were vitamin D deficiency (< 12 ng/ml). The proportion (42.9%) of subjects having low HDL-cholesterol was the highest among vitamin D deficiency (< 12 ng/ml) group (12 to < 20 ng/ml: 16.1%, ≥ 20 ng/ml: 6.7%). We observed an inverse relationship between 25(OH)D levels and TG, AI (β = -6.355, SE = 2.463; β = -0.020, SE = 0.008) after adjusted confounders. Korean adults with prediabetes were more likely to have low serum 25(OH)D levels. A sufficient 25(OH)D level may have possible beneficial effects on lipid profiles. PMID:27783655

  14. Intuition in nursing relationships: the result of 'skills' or 'qualities'?

    PubMed

    Turnbull, J

    Maintaining the scientific orientation of health and nursing care systems has resulted in a lack of focus on nurses' intuitive knowledge base. Consequently, confusion exists as to whether intuition in nursing is the result of acquired skills, or is dependent upon the inherent qualities of the individual. In deconstructing the apparently intuitive process of building rapport, neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) can offer insight, suggesting that rapport building depends on learnt skills that have moved into unconscious competence. The examination of nurses' intuitive knowledge, in order to identify underlying skills, needs to be just as rigorous as the acquisition of scientific knowledge. Examining intuitive knowledge can be achieved within a framework of reflective practice to counter the inherent dangers of an increasingly scientific approach operating within a caring profession. PMID:10362932

  15. Acne-Related Quality of Life Among Female Adults of Different Races/Ethnicities

    PubMed Central

    Gorelick, Joe; Daniels, Selena R.; Kawata, Ariane K.; Degboe, Arnold; Wilcox, Teresa K.; Burk, Caroline T.; Douse-Dean, Tracee

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Background Acne impairs quality of life, but its effect on different races/ethnicities is unclear. This study evaluated racial/ethnic differences in acne-related quality of life and psychological symptoms among female adults. Methods A Web-based survey was conducted with U.S. female adults (25–45 years old) with facial acne (≥25 visible lesions). Outcomes included sociodemographics, clinical characteristics, acne-related quality of life (Acne-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire), psychological symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire), and work/school productivity. Racial/ethnic differences were evaluated using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance/chi-square analyses. Results Three-hundred twelve subjects (Black = 30.8%, Hispanic = 17.6%, Asian/other = 17.3%, White = 34.3%) completed the survey (mean age = 35.3 ± 5.9 years). Acne negatively impacted quality of life for all subjects. Black subjects reported significantly less negative impact on self-perception versus Asian/other (Black = 12.6 ± 9.9, Asian/other = 8.4 ± 8.6; p = .05). Social functioning was less negatively impacted in White and Black subjects versus Asian/other (White = 12.7 ± 7.5, Asian/other = 8.4 ± 7.8, p < .05; Black = 12.1 ± 9.2, Asian/other = 8.4 ± 7.8, p = .06). Over one third (total sample = 40.7%, Black = 31.3%, Hispanic = 36.4%, Asian/other = 50.0%, White = 46.7%) reported moderate/severe anxiety/depression symptoms. Acne also impacted ability to concentrate on work/school. Conclusion Racial/ethnic differences were observed in acne-related quality of life and psychological symptoms in female adults; acne negatively impacted self-perceptions and social/emotional functioning. PMID:26097643

  16. Adolescents' Gender Mistrust: Variations and Implications for the Quality of Romantic Relationships.

    PubMed

    Nomaguchi, Kei M; Giordano, Peggy C; Manning, Wendy D; Longmore, Monica A

    2011-10-01

    Recent research demonstrates that perceptions of gender mistrust are implicated in lower marriage rates among low-income populations. Yet few quantitative studies have examined the factors predicting gender mistrust during adolescence and whether it influences the quality of subsequent nonmarital romantic relationships. Analysis of three waves of data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (N = 1,106) indicates that in addition to neighborhood poverty rates, parents' own gender mistrust and parent-child relationship quality are related to adolescents' gender mistrust, suggesting that parents play an important role in influencing adolescents' developing feelings of gender mistrust. Perceptions of gender mistrust are not related to whether adolescents are involved in dating relationships, but are linked to higher levels of jealousy and verbal conflict in adolescents' subsequent romantic relationships, albeit only for male adolescents.

  17. Adolescents’ Gender Mistrust: Variations and Implications for the Quality of Romantic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Nomaguchi, Kei M.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that perceptions of gender mistrust are implicated in lower marriage rates among low-income populations. Yet few quantitative studies have examined the factors predicting gender mistrust during adolescence and whether it influences the quality of subsequent nonmarital romantic relationships. Analysis of three waves of data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (N = 1,106) indicates that in addition to neighborhood poverty rates, parents’ own gender mistrust and parent–child relationship quality are related to adolescents’ gender mistrust, suggesting that parents play an important role in influencing adolescents’ developing feelings of gender mistrust. Perceptions of gender mistrust are not related to whether adolescents are involved in dating relationships, but are linked to higher levels of jealousy and verbal conflict in adolescents’ subsequent romantic relationships, albeit only for male adolescents. PMID:21984845

  18. Longitudinal associations among fathers' perception of coparenting, partner relationship quality, and paternal stress during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Jay; Lee, Yookyong

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the longitudinal and concurrent associations among fathers' perceptions of partner relationship quality (happiness, conflict), coparenting (shared decision making, conflict), and paternal stress. The sample consisted of 6,100 children who lived with both biological parents at 24 and 48 months in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort data set. The results showed that there are significant and concurrent associations between fathers' perceptions of the coparenting relationship and paternal stress, and between partner relationship quality and paternal stress. There was also a positive direct longitudinal association between partner relationship conflict and paternal stress. However, we found only one longitudinal cross-system mediation effect: fathers' perception of coparenting conflict at 48 months mediated the association between partner relationship conflict at 24 months and paternal stress at 48 months. The family practice implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24236848

  19. Quality of parental relationships among persons with a lifetime history of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Lauterbach, Dean; Bak, Christina; Reiland, Sarah; Mason, Shawn; Lute, Michael R; Earls, Lauren

    2007-04-01

    Several studies of combat veterans have examined the relationship between parental satisfaction and PTSD symptoms. These studies found that numbing is associated with substantial decrements in parent-child relationship quality. The current study extends previous work by assessing the effect of PTSD on parent-child relationships in a nationally representative sample of civilian men and women with PTSD resulting from a broad range of trauma. It was hypothesized that PTSD avoidance/numbing symptoms would be predictive of parent-child relationship quality and parent-child conflict. Moreover, these relationships are predicted to hold after controlling for a broad range of support-related variables and work/finance related variables. As hypothesized, after controlling for number of children and respondent-initiated domestic violence, numbing was predictive of increased parent-child aggression.

  20. Affairs of the Heart: Qualities of Adolescent Romantic Relationships and Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.

    2010-01-01

    We know more about parent and peer influences than about the ways in which specific qualities of adolescent romantic relationships may influence sexual decision-making. Using data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, we focus on communication processes and emotional feelings, as well as more basic contours of adolescent romantic relationships, including power and influence dynamics. Controlling for traditional predictors and duration of the relationship, results suggest that subjectively experienced relationship qualities matter for understanding teens’ sexual behavior choices. Further, findings indicate a similar effect of most relationship qualities on male and female reports of sexual behavior. However, influence and power dynamics within the relationship were not related to the likelihood that boys reported sexual intercourse in a focal relationship. In contrast, girls who perceived a more favorable power balance were less likely to report sexual intercourse than their female counterparts who perceived a less favorable power balance. Recognizing that the results capture reciprocal influence processes, longitudinal and qualitative data are used to further explore the complex nature of these associations. PMID:21170165